Lingua::EN::Bigram (version 0.03)

I uploaded version 0.03 of Lingua::EN::Bigram to CPAN today, and it now supports not just bigrams, trigrams, quadgrams, but ngrams — an arbitrary phrase length.

In order to test it out, I quickly gathered together some of my more recent essays, concatonated them together, and applied Lingua::EN::Bigram against the result. Below is a list of the top 10 most common bigrams, trigrams, and quadgrams:

  bigrams                 trigrams                  quadgrams
  52  great ideas         36  the number of         25  the number of times
  43  open source         36  open source software  13  the total number of
  38  source software     32  as well as            10  at the same time
  29  great books         28  number of times       10  number of words in
  24  digital humanities  27  the use of            10  when it comes to
  23  good man            25  the great books       10  total number of documents
  22  full text           23  a set of              10  open source software is
  22  search results      20  eric lease morgan      9  number of times a
  20  lease morgan        20  a number of            9  as well as the
  20  eric lease          19  total number of        9  through the use of

Not surprising since I have been writing about the Great Books, digital humanities, indexing, and open source software. Re-affirming.

Lingu::EN::Bigram is available locally as well as from CPAN.

Lingua::EN::Bigram (version 0.02)

I have written and uploaded to CPAN version 0.02 of my Perl module Lingua::EN::Bigram. From the README file:

This module is designed to: 1) pull out all of the two-, three-, and four-word phrases in a given text, and 2) list these phrases according to their frequency. Using this module is it possible to create lists of the most common phrases in a text as well as order them by their probable occurrence, thus implying significance. This process is useful for the purposes of textual analysis and “distant reading”.

Using this module I wrote a script called Feed it a plain text file, and it will return the top 10 most significant bigrams (as calculated by T-Score) as well as the top 10 most common trigrams and quadgrams. For example, here is the output of when Henry David Thoreau’s Walden is input:

  Bi-grams (T-Score, count, bigram)
  4.54348783312048  22  one day  
  4.35133234596553  19  new england  
  3.705427371426    14  walden pond  
  3.66575742655033  14  one another  
  3.57857056272537  13  many years  
  3.55592136768501  13  every day  
  3.46339791276118  12  fair haven  
  3.46101939872834  12  years ago  
  3.38519781332654  12  every man  
  3.29818626191729  11  let us  
  Tri-grams (count, trigram)
  41  in the woods
  40  i did not
  28  i do not
  28  of the pond
  27  as well as
  27  it is a
  26  part of the
  25  that it was
  25  as if it
  25  out of the
  Quad-grams (count, quadgram)
  20  for the most part
  16  from time to time
  15  as if it were
  14  in the midst of
  11  at the same time
   9  the surface of the
   9  i think that i
   8  in the middle of
   8  worth the while to
   7  as if they were

The whole thing gets more interesting when you compare that output to another of Thoreau’s works — A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers:

  Bi-grams (T-Score, count, bi-gram)
  4.62683939320543  22  one another  
  4.57637831535376  21  new england  
  4.08356124174142  17  let us  
  3.86858364314677  15  new hampshire  
  3.43311180449584  12  one hundred  
  3.31196701774012  11  common sense  
  3.25007069543896  11  can never  
  3.15955504269006  10  years ago  
  3.14821552996352  10  human life  
  3.13793008615654  10  told us  
  Tri-grams (count, tri-gram)
  41  as well as
  38  of the river
  34  it is a
  30  there is a
  30  one of the
  28  it is the
  27  as if it
  26  it is not
  26  if it were
  24  it was a
  Quad-grams (count, quad-gram)
  21  for the most part
  20  as if it were
  17  from time to time
   9  on the bank of
   8  the bank of the
   8  in the midst of
   8  a quarter of a
   8  the middle of the
   8  quarter of a mile
   7  at the same time

Ask yourself, “Are their similarities between the outputs? How about differences? Do you notice any patterns or anomalies? What sorts of new discoveries might be made if where applied to the entire corpus of Thoreau’s works? How might the output be different if a second author’s works were introduced?” Such questions are the core of digital humanities research. With the increasing availability of full text content in library collections, such are the questions the library profession can help answer if the profession were to expand it’s definition of “service”.

Search and retrieve are not the pressing problems to solved. People can find more data and information than they know what to do with. Instead, the pressing problems surround use and understanding. Lingua::EN::Bigram is an example of how these newer and more pressing problems can be addressed. The module is available for downloading (locally as well as from CPAN). Also for your perusal is

Lingua::EN::Bigram (version 0.01)

Below is the POD (Plain O’ Documentation) file describing a Perl module I wrote called Lingua::EN::Bigram.

The purpose of the module is to: 1) extract all of the two-word phrases from a given text, and 2) rank each phrase according to its probability of occurance. Very nice for doing textual analysis. For example, by applying this module to Mark Twain’s Adventures of Tom Sawyer it becomes evident that the signifcant two-word phrases are names of characters in the story. On the other hand, Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Essays: First Series returns action statements — instructions. On the other hand Henry David Thoreau’s Walden returns “walden pond” and descriptions of pine trees. Interesting.

The code is available here or on CPAN.


Lingua::EN::Bigram – Calculate significant two-word phrases based on frequency and/or T-Score


  use Lingua::EN::Bigram;
  $bigram = Lingua::EN::Bigram->new;
  $bigram->text( 'All men by nature desire to know. An indication of this...' );
  $tscore = $bigram->tscore;
  foreach ( sort { $$tscore{ $b } <=> $$tscore{ $a } } keys %$tscore ) {
    print "$$tscore{ $_ }\t" . "$_\n";


This module is designed to: 1) pull out all of the two-word phrases (collocations or “bigrams”) in a given text, and 2) list these phrases according to thier frequency and/or T-Score. Using this module is it possible to create list of the most common two-word phrases in a text as well as order them by their probable occurance, thus implying significance.



Create a new, empty bigram object:

  # initalize
  $bigram = Lingua::EN::Bigram->new;


Set or get the text to be analyzed:

  # set the attribute
  $bigram->text( 'All good things must come to an end...' );
  # get the attribute
  $text = $bigram->text;


Return a list of all the tokens in a text. Each token will be a word or puncutation mark:

  # get words
  @words = $bigram->words;


Return a reference to a hash whose keys are a token and whose values are the number of times the token occurs in the text:

  # get word count
  $word_count = $bigram->word_count;
  # list the words according to frequency
  foreach ( sort { $$word_count{ $b } <=> $$word_count{ $a } } keys %$word_count ) {
    print $$word_count{ $_ }, "\t$_\n";


Return a list of all bigrams in the text. Each item will be a pair of tokens and the tokens may consist of words or puncutation marks:

  # get bigrams
  @bigrams = $bigram->bigrams;


Return a reference to a hash whose keys are a bigram and whose values are the frequency of the bigram in the text:

  # get bigram count
  $bigram_count = $bigram->bigram_count;
  # list the bigrams according to frequency
  foreach ( sort { $$bigram_count{ $b } <=> $$bigram_count{ $a } } keys %$bigram_count ) {
    print $$bigram_count{ $_ }, "\t$_\n";


Return a reference to a hash whose keys are a bigram and whose values are a T-Score — a probabalistic calculation determining the significance of bigram occuring in the text:

  # get t-score
  $tscore = $bigram->tscore;
  # list bigrams according to t-score
  foreach ( sort { $$tscore{ $b } <=> $$tscore{ $a } } keys %$tscore ) {
    print "$$tscore{ $_ }\t" . "$_\n";


Given the increasing availability of full text materials, this module is intended to help “digital humanists” apply mathematical methods to the analysis of texts. For example, the developer can extract the high-frequency words using the word_count method and allow the user to search for those words in a concordance. The bigram_count method simply returns the frequency of a given bigram, but the tscore method can order them in a more finely tuned manner.

Consider using T-Score-weighted bigrams as classification terms to supplement the “aboutness” of texts. Concatonate many texts together and look for common phrases written by the author. Compare these commonly used phrases to the commonly used phrases of other authors.

Each bigram includes punctuation. This is intentional. Developers may need want to remove bigrams containing such values from the output. Similarly, no effort has been made to remove commonly used words — stop words — from the methods. Consider the use of Lingua::StopWords, Lingua::EN::StopWords, or the creation of your own stop word list to make output more meaningful. The distribution came with a script (bin/ demonstrating how to remove puncutation and stop words from the displayed output.

Finally, this is not the only module supporting bigram extraction. See also Text::NSP which supports n-gram extraction.


There are probably a number of ways the module can be improved:

  • the constructor method could take a scalar as input, thus reducing the need for the text method
  • the distribution’s license should probably be changed to the Perl Aristic License
  • the addition of alternative T-Score calculations would be nice
  • it would be nice to support n-grams
  • make sure the module works with character sets beyond ASCII


T-Score is calculated as per Nugues, P. M. (2006). An introduction to language processing with Perl and Prolog: An outline of theories, implementation, and application with special consideration of English, French, and German. Cognitive technologies. Berlin: Springer. Page 109.


Eric Lease Morgan <>