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Appendix A: Special characters and entities


The table below, heavily based on Martin Ramsch's "iso8859-1 table", is a list of special characters, their HTML code equivalents, as well as their entity equivalents. See also "Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 - Appendices."

By inserting these codes or the entities into your HTML documents, you can make your documents more expressive and appeal to a wider audience. For example, if you want to put the cents symbol (¢) into your documents, then enter "¢" and it should be rendered correctly in your browser application.

Even though these codes represent a standard encoding scheme, your browser may not display all of them correctly because of the font you are using.

Character Description Code Entity
" quotation mark " "
& ampersand & &
< less-than sign &#60; &lt;
> greater-than sign &#62; &gt;
  non-breaking space &#160; &nbsp;
¡ inverted exclamation mark &#161; &iexcl;
¢ cent sign &#162; &cent;
£ pound sign &#163; &pound;
¤ currency sign &#164; &curren;
¥ yen sign &#165; &yen;
¦ broken vertical bar &#166; &brvbar;
§ section sign &#167; &sect;
¨ spacing diaresis &#168; &uml;
© copyright sign &#169; &copy;
ª feminine ordinal indicator &#170; &ordf;
« angle quotation mark, left &#171; &laquo;
¬ negation sign &#172; &not;
­ soft hyphen &#173; &shy;
® circled R registered sign &#174; &reg;
¯ spacing macron &#175; &hibar;
° degree sign &#176; &deg;
± plus-or-minus sign &#177; &plusmn;
² superscript 2 &#178; &sup2;
³ superscript 3 &#179; &sup3;
´ spacing acute &#180; &acute;
µ micro sign &#181; &micro;
paragraph sign &#182; &para;
· middle dot &#183; &middot;
¸ spacing cedilla &#184; &cedil;
¹ superscript 1 &#185; &sup1;
º masculine ordinal indicator &#186; &ordm;
» angle quotation mark, right &#187; &raquo;
¼ fraction 1/4 &#188; &frac14;
½ fraction 1/2 &#189; &frac12;
¾ fraction 3/4 &#190; &frac34;
¿ inverted question mark &#191; &iquest;
À capital A, grave accent &#192; &Agrave;
Á capital A, acute accent &#193; &Aacute;
 capital A, circumflex accent &#194; &Acirc;
à capital A, tilde &#195; &Atilde;
Ä capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark &#196; &Auml;
Å capital A, ring &#197; &Aring;
Æ capital AE diphthong (ligature) &#198; &AElig;
Ç capital C, cedilla &#199; &Ccedil;
È capital E, grave accent &#200; &Egrave;
É capital E, acute accent &#201; &Eacute;
Ê capital E, circumflex accent &#202; &Ecirc;
Ë capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark &#203; &Euml;
Ì capital I, grave accent &#204; &Igrave;
Í capital I, acute accent &#205; &Iacute;
Î capital I, circumflex accent &#206; &Icirc;
Ï capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark &#207; &Iuml;
Ð capital Eth, Icelandic &#208; &ETH;
Ñ capital N, tilde &#209; &Ntilde;
Ò capital O, grave accent &#210; &Ograve;
Ó capital O, acute accent &#211; &Oacute;
Ô capital O, circumflex accent &#212; &Ocirc;
Õ capital O, tilde &#213; &Otilde;
Ö capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark &#214; &Ouml;
× multiplication sign &#215; &times;
Ø capital O, slash &#216; &Oslash;
Ù capital U, grave accent &#217; &Ugrave;
Ú capital U, acute accent &#218; &Uacute;
Û capital U, circumflex accent &#219; &Ucirc;
Ü capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark &#220; &Uuml;
Ý capital Y, acute accent &#221; &Yacute;
Þ capital THORN, Icelandic &#222; &THORN;
ß small sharp s, German (sz ligature) &#223; &szlig;
à small a, grave accent &#224; &agrave;
á small a, acute accent &#225; &aacute;
â small a, circumflex accent &#226; &acirc;
ã small a, tilde &#227; &atilde;
ä small a, dieresis or umlaut mark &#228; &auml;
å small a, ring &#229; &aring;
æ small ae diphthong (ligature) &#230; &aelig;
ç small c, cedilla &#231; &ccedil;
è small e, grave accent &#232; &egrave;
é small e, acute accent &#233; &eacute;
ê small e, circumflex accent &#234; &ecirc;
ë small e, dieresis or umlaut mark &#235; &euml;
ì small i, grave accent &#236; &igrave;
í small i, acute accent &#237; &iacute;
î small i, circumflex accent &#238; &icirc;
ï small i, dieresis or umlaut mark &#239; &iuml;
ð small eth, Icelandic &#240; &eth;
ñ small n, tilde &#241; &ntilde;
ò small o, grave accent &#242; &ograve;
ó small o, acute accent &#243; &oacute;
ô small o, circumflex accent &#244; &ocirc;
õ small o, tilde &#245; &otilde;
ö small o, dieresis or umlaut mark &#246; &ouml;
÷ division sign &#247; &divide;
ø small o, slash &#248; &oslash;
ù small u, grave accent &#249; &ugrave;
ú small u, acute accent &#250; &uacute;
û small u, circumflex accent &#251; &ucirc;
ü small u, dieresis or umlaut mark &#252; &uuml;
ý small y, acute accent &#253; &yacute;
þ small thorn, Icelandic &#254; &thorn;
ÿ small y, dieresis or umlaut mark &#255; &yuml;


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This page was first published on September 26, 1995. Feel free to send comments.