Infomotions, Inc.History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science / Draper, John William, 1811-1882



Author: Draper, John William, 1811-1882
Title: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science
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Title: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science

Author: John William Draper

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History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science

By John William Draper


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OCR software







HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT
BETWEEN
RELIGION AND SCIENCE

BY
JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER, M. D., LL. D.
PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK,
AUTHOR OF
A TREATISE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY, HISTORY OF THE INTELLECTUAL
DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPE, HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR,
AND OF MANY EXPERIMENTAL MEMOIRS ON CHEMICAL
AND OTHER SCIENTIFIC SUBJECTS




PREFACE.

WHOEVER has had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with the
mental condition of the intelligent classes in Europe and
America, must have perceived that there is a great and
rapidly-increasing departure from the public religious faith, and
that, while among the more frank this divergence is not
concealed, there is a far more extensive and far more dangerous
secession, private and unacknowledged.

So wide-spread and so powerful is this secession, that it can
neither be treated with contempt nor with punishment. It cannot
be extinguished by derision, by vituperation, or by force. The
time is rapidly approaching when it will give rise to serious
political results.

Ecclesiastical spirit no longer inspires the policy of the world.
Military fervor in behalf of faith has disappeared. Its only
souvenirs are the marble effigies of crusading knights, reposing
in the silent crypts of churches on their tombs.

That a crisis is impending is shown by the attitude of the great
powers toward the papacy. The papacy represents the ideas and
aspirations of two-thirds of the population of Europe. It insists
on a political supremacy in accordance with its claims to a
divine origin and mission, and a restoration of the mediaeval
order of things, loudly declaring that it will accept no
reconciliation with modern civilization.

The antagonism we thus witness between Religion and Science is
the continuation of a struggle that commenced when Christianity
began to attain political power. A divine revelation must
necessarily be intolerant of contradiction; it must repudiate all
improvement in itself, and view with disdain that arising from
the progressive intellectual development of man. But our opinions
on every subject are continually liable to modification, from the
irresistible advance of human knowledge.

Can we exaggerate the importance of a contention in which every
thoughtful person must take part whether he will or not? In a
matter so solemn as that of religion, all men, whose temporal
interests are not involved in existing institutions, earnestly
desire to find the truth. They seek information as to the
subjects in dispute, and as to the conduct of the disputants.

The history of Science is not a mere record of isolated
discoveries; it is a narrative of the conflict of two contending
powers, the expansive force of the human intellect on one side,
and the compression arising from traditionary faith and human
interests on the other.

No one has hitherto treated the subject from this point of view.
Yet from this point it presents itself to us as a living
issue--in fact, as the most important of all living issues.

A few years ago, it was the politic and therefore the proper
course to abstain from all allusion to this controversy, and to
keep it as far as possible in the background. The tranquillity of
society depends so much on the stability of its religious
convictions, that no one can be justified in wantonly disturbing
them. But faith is in its nature unchangeable, stationary;
Science is in its nature progressive; and eventually a divergence
between them, impossible to conceal, must take place. It then
becomes the duty of those whose lives have made them familiar
with both modes of thought, to present modestly, but firmly,
their views; to compare the antagonistic pretensions calmly,
impartially, philosophically. History shows that, if this be not
done, social misfortunes, disastrous and enduring, will ensue.
When the old mythological religion of Europe broke down under the
weight of its own inconsistencies, neither the Roman emperors nor
the philosophers of those times did any thing adequate for the
guidance of public opinion. They left religious affairs to take
their chance, and accordingly those affairs fell into the hands
of ignorant and infuriated ecclesiastics, parasites, eunuchs, and
slaves.

The intellectual night which settled on Europe, in consequence of
that great neglect of duty, is passing away; we live in the
daybreak of better things. Society is anxiously expecting light,
to see in what direction it is drifting. It plainly discerns that
the track along which the voyage of civilization has thus far
been made, has been left; and that a new departure, on all
unknown sea, has been taken.

Though deeply impressed with such thoughts, I should not have
presumed to write this book, or to intrude on the public the
ideas it presents, had I not made the facts with which it deals a
subject of long and earnest meditation. And I have gathered a
strong incentive to undertake this duty from the circumstance
that a "History of the Intellectual Development of Europe,"
published by me several years ago, which has passed through many
editions in America, and has been reprinted in numerous European
languages, English, French, German, Russian, Polish, Servian,
etc., is everywhere received with favor.

In collecting and arranging the materials for the volumes I
published under the title of "A History of the American Civil
War," a work of very great labor, I had become accustomed to the
comparison of conflicting statements, the adjustment of
conflicting claims. The approval with which that book has been
received by the American public, a critical judge of the events
considered, has inspired me with additional confidence. I had
also devoted much attention to the experimental investigation of
natural phenomena, and had published many well-known memoirs on
such subjects. And perhaps no one can give himself to these
pursuits, and spend a large part of his life in the public
teaching of science, without partaking of that love of
impartiality and truth which Philosophy incites. She inspires us
with a desire to dedicate our days to the good of our race, so
that in the fading light of life's evening we may not, on looking
back, be forced to acknowledge how unsubstantial and useless are
the objects that we have pursued.

Though I have spared no pains in the composition of this book, I
am very sensible how unequal it is to the subject, to do justice
to which a knowledge of science, history, theology, politics, is
required; every page should be alive with intelligence and
glistening with facts. But then I have remembered that this is
only as it were the preface, or forerunner, of a body of
literature, which the events and wants of our times will call
forth. We have come to the brink of a great intellectual change.
Much of the frivolous reading of the present will be supplanted
by a thoughtful and austere literature, vivified by endangered
interests, and made fervid by ecclesiastical passion.

What I have sought to do is, to present a clear and impartial
statement of the views and acts of the two contending parties. In
one sense I have tried to identify myself with each, so as to
comprehend thoroughly their motives; but in another and higher
sense I have endeavored to stand aloof, and relate with
impartiality their actions.

I therefore trust that those, who may be disposed to criticise
this book, will bear in mind that its object is not to advocate
the views and pretensions of either party, but to explain
clearly, and without shrinking those of both. In the management
of each chapter I have usually set forth the orthodox view first,
and then followed it with that of its opponents.

In thus treating the subject it has not been necessary to pay
much regard to more moderate or intermediate opinions, for,
though they may be intrinsically of great value, in conflicts of
this kind it is not with the moderates but with the extremists
that the impartial reader is mainly concerned. Their movements
determine the issue.

For this reason I have had little to say respecting the two great
Christian confessions, the Protestant and Greek Churches. As to
the latter, it has never, since the restoration of science,
arrayed itself in opposition to the advancement of knowledge. On
the contrary, it has always met it with welcome. It has observed
a reverential attitude to truth, from whatever quarter it might
come. Recognizing the apparent discrepancies between its
interpretations of revealed truth and the discoveries of science,
it has always expected that satisfactory explanations and
reconciliations would ensue, and in this it has not been
disappointed. It would have been well for modern civilization if
the Roman Church had done the same.

In speaking of Christianity, reference is generally made to the
Roman Church, partly because its adherents compose the majority
of Christendom, partly because its demands are the most
pretentious, and partly because it has commonly sought to enforce
those demands by the civil power. None of the Protestant Churches
has ever occupied a position so imperious--none has ever had such
wide-spread political influence. For the most part they have been
averse to constraint, and except in very few instances their
opposition has not passed beyond the exciting of theological
odium.

As to Science, she has never sought to ally herself to civil
power. She has never attempted to throw odium or inflict social
ruin on any human being. She has never subjected any one to
mental torment, physical torture, least of all to death, for the
purpose of upholding or promoting her ideas. She presents herself
unstained by cruelties and crimes. But in the Vatican-- we have
only to recall the Inquisition--the hands that are now raised in
appeals to the Most Merciful are crimsoned. They have been
steeped in blood!

There are two modes of historical composition, the artistic and
the scientific. The former implies that men give origin to
events; it therefore selects some prominent individual, pictures
him under a fanciful form, and makes him the hero of a romance.
The latter, insisting that human affairs present an unbroken
chain, in which each fact is the offspring of some preceding
fact, and the parent of some subsequent fact, declares that men
do not control events, but that events control men. The former
gives origin to compositions, which, however much they may
interest or delight us, are but a grade above novels; the latter
is austere, perhaps even repulsive, for it sternly impresses us
with a conviction of the irresistible dominion of law, and the
insignificance of human exertions. In a subject so solemn as that
to which this book is devoted, the romantic and the popular are
altogether out of place. He who presumes to treat of it must fix
his eyes steadfastly on that chain of destiny which universal
history displays; he must turn with disdain from the phantom
impostures of pontiffs and statesmen and kings.

If any thing were needed to show us the untrustworthiness of
artistic historical compositions, our personal experience would
furnish it. How often do our most intimate friends fail to
perceive the real motives of our every-day actions; how
frequently they misinterpret our intentions! If this be the case
in what is passing before our eyes, may we not be satisfied that
it is impossible to comprehend justly the doings of persons who
lived many years ago, and whom we have never seen.

In selecting and arranging the topics now to be presented, I have
been guided in part by "the Confession" of the late Vatican
Council, and in part by the order of events in history. Not
without interest will the reader remark that the subjects offer
themselves to us now as they did to the old philosophers of
Greece. We still deal with the same questions about which they
disputed. What is God? What is the soul? What is the world? How
is it governed? Have we any standard or criterion of truth? And
the thoughtful reader will earnestly ask, "Are our solutions of
these problems any better than theirs?"

The general argument of this book, then, is as follows:

I first direct attention to the origin of modern science as
distinguished from ancient, by depending on observation,
experiment, and mathematical discussion, instead of mere
speculation, and shall show that it was a consequence of the
Macedonian campaigns, which brought Asia and Europe into contact.
A brief sketch of those campaigns, and of the Museum of
Alexandria, illustrates its character.

Then with brevity I recall the well-known origin of Christianity,
and show its advance to the attainment of imperial power, the
transformation it underwent by its incorporation with paganism,
the existing religion of the Roman Empire. A clear conception of
its incompatibility with science caused it to suppress forcibly
the Schools of Alexandria. It was constrained to this by the
political necessities of its position.

The parties to the conflict thus placed, I next relate the story
of their first open struggle; it is the first or Southern
Reformation. The point in dispute had respect to the nature of
God. It involved the rise of Mohammedanism. Its result was, that
much of Asia and Africa, with the historic cities Jerusalem,
Alexandria, and Carthage, were wrenched from Christendom, and the
doctrine of the Unity of God established in the larger portion of
what had been the Roman Empire.

This political event was followed by the restoration of science,
the establishment of colleges, schools, libraries, throughout the
dominions of the Arabians. Those conquerors, pressing forward
rapidly in their intellectual development, rejected the
anthropomorphic ideas of the nature of God remaining in their
popular belief, and accepted other more philosophical ones, akin
to those that had long previously been attained to in India. The
result of this was a second conflict, that respecting the nature
of the soul. Under the designation of Averroism, there came into
prominence the theories of Emanation and Absorption. At the close
of the middle ages the Inquisition succeeded in excluding those
doctrines from Europe, and now the Vatican Council has formally
and solemnly anathematized them.

Meantime, through the cultivation of astronomy, geography, and
other sciences, correct views had been gained as to the position
and relations of the earth, and as to the structure of the world;
and since Religion, resting itself on what was assumed to be the
proper interpretation of the Scriptures, insisted that the earth
is the central and most important part of the universe, a third
conflict broke out. In this Galileo led the way on the part of
Science. Its issue was the overthrow of the Church on the
question in dispute. Subsequently a subordinate controversy arose
respecting the age of the world, the Church insisting that it is
only about six thousand years old. In this she was again
overthrown The light of history and of science had been gradually
spreading over Europe. In the sixteenth century the prestige of
Roman Christianity was greatly diminished by the intellectual
reverses it had experienced, and also by its political and moral
condition. It was clearly seen by many pious men that Religion
was not accountable for the false position in which she was
found, but that the misfortune was directly traceable to the
alliance she had of old contracted with Roman paganism. The
obvious remedy, therefore, was a return to primitive purity. Thus
arose the fourth conflict, known to us as the Reformation--the
second or Northern Reformation. The special form it assumed was a
contest respecting the standard or criterion of truth, whether it
is to be found in the Church or in the Bible. The determination
of this involved a settlement of the rights of reason, or
intellectual freedom. Luther, who is the conspicuous man of the
epoch, carried into effect his intention with no inconsiderable
success; and at the close of the struggle it was found that
Northern Europe was lost to Roman Christianity.

We are now in the midst of a controversy respecting the mode of
government of the world, whether it be by incessant divine
intervention, or by the operation of primordial and unchangeable
law. The intellectual movement of Christendom has reached that
point which Arabism had attained to in the tenth and eleventh
centuries; and doctrines which were then discussed are presenting
themselves again for review; such are those of Evolution,
Creation, Development.

Offered under these general titles, I think it will be found that
all the essential points of this great controversy are included.
By grouping under these comprehensive heads the facts to be
considered, and dealing with each group separately, we shall
doubtless acquire clear views of their inter-connection and their
historical succession.

I have treated of these conflicts as nearly as I conveniently
could in their proper chronological order, and, for the sake of
completeness, have added chapters on--

An examination of what Latin Christianity has done for modern
civilization.

A corresponding examination of what Science has done.

The attitude of Roman Christianity in the impending conflict, as
defined by the Vatican Council.

The attention of many truth-seeking persons has been so
exclusively given to the details of sectarian dissensions, that
the long strife, to the history of which these pages are devoted,
is popularly but little known. Having tried to keep steadfastly
in view the determination to write this work in an impartial
spirit, to speak with respect of the contending parties, but
never to conceal the truth, I commit it to the considerate
judgment of the thoughtful reader.

                              JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER

UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK,
December, 1878.



HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN RELIGION AND SCIENCE.



CHAPTER I.

THE ORIGIN OF SCIENCE.

Religious condition of the Greeks in the fourth century before
Christ.-- Their invasion of the Persian Empire brings them in
contact with new aspects of Nature, and familiarizes them with
new religious systems.-- The military, engineering, and
scientific activity, stimulated by the Macedonian campaigns,
leads to the establishment in Alexandria of an institute, the
Museum, for the cultivation of knowledge by experiment,
observation, and mathematical discussion.--It is the origin of
Science.

GREEK MYTHOLOGY. No spectacle can be presented to the thoughtful
mind more solemn, more mournful, than that of the dying of an
ancient religion, which in its day has given consolation to many
generations of men.

Four centuries before the birth of Christ, Greece was fast
outgrowing her ancient faith. Her philosophers, in their studies
of the world, had been profoundly impressed with the contrast
between the majesty of the operations of Nature and the
worthlessness of the divinities of Olympus. Her historians,
considering the orderly course of political affairs, the manifest
uniformity in the acts of men, and that there was no event
occurring before their eyes for which they could not find an
obvious cause in some preceding event, began to suspect that the
miracles and celestial interventions, with which the old annals
were filled, were only fictions. They demanded, when the age of
the supernatural had ceased, why oracles had become mute, and why
there were now no more prodigies in the world.

Traditions, descending from immemorial antiquity, and formerly
accepted by pious men as unquestionable truths, had filled the
islands of the Mediterranean and the conterminous countries with
supernatural wonders-- enchantresses, sorcerers, giants, ogres,
harpies, gorgons, centaurs, cyclops. The azure vault was the
floor of heaven; there Zeus, surrounded by the gods with their
wives and mistresses, held his court, engaged in pursuits like
those of men, and not refraining from acts of human passion and
crime.

A sea-coast broken by numerous indentations, an archipelago with
some of the most lovely islands in the world, inspired the Greeks
with a taste for maritime life, for geographical discovery, and
colonization. Their ships wandered all over the Black and
Mediterranean Seas. The time-honored wonders that had been
glorified in the "Odyssey," and sacred in public faith, were
found to have no existence. As a better knowledge of Nature was
obtained, the sky was shown to be an illusion; it was discovered
that there is no Olympus, nothing above but space and stars. With
the vanishing of their habitation, the gods disappeared, both
those of the Ionian type of Homer and those of the Doric of
Hesiod.

EFFECTS OF DISCOVERY AND CRITICISM. But this did not take place
without resistance. At first, the public, and particularly its
religious portion, denounced the rising doubts as atheism. They
despoiled some of the offenders of their goods, exiled others;
some they put to death. They asserted that what had been believed
by pious men in the old times, and had stood the test of ages,
must necessarily be true. Then, as the opposing evidence became
irresistible, they were content to admit that these marvels were
allegories under which the wisdom of the ancients had concealed
many sacred and mysterious things. They tried to reconcile, what
now in their misgivings they feared might be myths, with their
advancing intellectual state. But their efforts were in vain, for
there are predestined phases through which on such an occasion
public opinion must pass. What it has received with veneration it
begins to doubt, then it offers new interpretations, then
subsides into dissent, and ends with a rejection of the whole as
a mere fable.

In their secession the philosophers and historians were followed
by the poets. Euripides incurred the odium of heresy. Aeschylus
narrowly escaped being stoned to death for blasphemy. But the
frantic efforts of those who are interested in supporting
delusions must always end in defeat. The demoralization
resistlessly extended through every branch of literature, until
at length it reached the common people.

THE PERSIAN EMPIRE. Greek philosophical criticism had lent its
aid to Greek philosophical discovery in this destruction of the
national faith. It sustained by many arguments the wide-spreading
unbelief. It compared the doctrines of the different schools with
each other, and showed from their contradictions that man has no
criterion of truth; that, since his ideas of what is good and
what is evil differ according to the country in which he lives,
they can have no foundation in Nature, but must be altogether the
result of education; that right and wrong are nothing more than
fictions created by society for its own purposes. In Athens, some
of the more advanced classes had reached such a pass that they
not only denied the unseen, the supernatural, they even affirmed
that the world is only a day-dream, a phantasm, and that nothing
at all exists.

The topographical configuration of Greece gave an impress to her
political condition. It divided her people into distinct
communities having conflicting interests, and made them incapable
of centralization. Incessant domestic wars between the rival
states checked her advancement. She was poor, her leading men had
become corrupt. They were ever ready to barter patriotic
considerations for foreign gold, to sell themselves for Persian
bribes. Possessing a perception of the beautiful as manifested in
sculpture and architecture to a degree never attained elsewhere
either before or since, Greece had lost a practical appreciation
of the Good and the True.

While European Greece, full of ideas of liberty and independence,
rejected the sovereignty of Persia, Asiatic Greece acknowledged
it without reluctance. At that time the Persian Empire in
territorial extent was equal to half of modern Europe. It touched
the waters of the Mediterranean, the Aegean, the Black, the
Caspian, the Indian, the Persian, the Red Seas. Through its
territories there flowed six of the grandest rivers in the
world--the Euphrates, the Tigris, the Indus, the Jaxartes, the
Oxus, the Nile, each more than a thousand miles in length. Its
surface reached from thirteen hundred feet below the sea-level to
twenty thousand feet above. It yielded, therefore, every
agricultural product. Its mineral wealth was boundless. It
inherited the prestige of the Median, the Babylonian, the
Assyrian, the Chaldean Empires, whose annals reached back through
more than twenty centuries.

THE PERSIAN EMPIRE. Persia had always looked upon European Greece
as politically insignificant, for it had scarcely half the
territorial extent of one of her satrapies. Her expeditions for
compelling its obedience had, however, taught her the military
qualities of its people. In her forces were incorporated Greek
mercenaries, esteemed the very best of her troops. She did not
hesitate sometimes to give the command of her armies to Greek
generals, of her fleets to Greek captains. In the political
convulsions through which she had passed, Greek soldiers had
often been used by her contending chiefs. These military
operations were attended by a momentous result.  They revealed,
to the quick eye of these warlike mercenaries, the political
weakness of the empire and the possibility of reaching its
centre. After the death of Cyrus on the battle-field of Cunaxa,
it was demonstrated, by the immortal retreat of the ten thousand
under Xenophon, that a Greek army could force its way to and from
the heart of Persia.

That reverence for the military abilities of Asiatic generals, so
profoundly impressed on the Greeks by such engineering exploits
as the bridging of the Hellespont, and the cutting of the isthmus
at Mount Athos by Xerxes, had been obliterated at Salamis,
Platea, Mycale. To plunder rich Persian provinces had become an
irresistible temptation. Such was the expedition of Agesilaus,
the Spartan king, whose brilliant successes were, however,
checked by the Persian government resorting to its time-proved
policy of bribing the neighbors of Sparta to attack her. "I have
been conquered by thirty thousand Persian archers," bitterly
exclaimed Agesilaus, as he re-embarked, alluding to the Persian
coin, the Daric, which was stamped with the image of an archer.

THE INVASION OF PERSIA BY GREECE. At length Philip, the King of
Macedon, projected a renewal of these attempts, under a far more
formidable organization, and with a grander object. He managed to
have himself appointed captain-general of all Greece not for the
purpose of a mere foray into the Asiatic satrapies, but for the
overthrow of the Persian dynasty in the very centre of its power.
Assassinated while his preparations were incomplete, he was
succeeded by his son Alexander, then a youth. A general assembly
of Greeks at Corinth had unanimously elected him in his father's
stead. There were some disturbances in Illyria; Alexander had to
march his army as far north as the Danube to quell them. During
his absence the Thebans with some others conspired against him.
On his return he took Thebes by assault. He massacred six
thousand of its inhabitants, sold thirty thousand for slaves, and
utterly demolished the city. The military wisdom of this severity
was apparent in his Asiatic campaign. He was not troubled by any
revolt in his rear.

THE MACEDONIAN CAMPAIGN. In the spring B.C. 334 Alexander crossed
the Hellespont into Asia. His army consisted of thirty-four
thousand foot and four thousand horse. He had with him only
seventy talents in money. He marched directly on the Persian
army, which, vastly exceeding him in strength, was holding the
line of the Granicus. He forced the passage of the river, routed
the enemy, and the possession of all Asia Minor, with its
treasures, was the fruit of the victory. The remainder of that
year he spent in the military organization of the conquered
provinces. Meantime Darius, the Persian king, had advanced an
army of six hundred thousand men to prevent the passage of the
Macedonians into Syria. In a battle that ensued among the
mountain-defiles at Issus, the Persians were again overthrown. So
great was the slaughter that Alexander, and Ptolemy, one of his
generals, crossed over a ravine choked with dead bodies. It was
estimated that the Persian loss was not less than ninety thousand
foot and ten thousand horse. The royal pavilion fell into the
conqueror's hands, and with it the wife and several of the
children of Darius. Syria was thus added to the Greek conquests.
In Damascus were found many of the concubines of Darius and his
chief officers, together with a vast treasure.

Before venturing into the plains of Mesopotamia for the final
struggle, Alexander, to secure his rear and preserve his
communications with the sea, marched southward down the
Mediterranean coast, reducing the cities in his way. In his
speech before the council of war after Issus, he told his
generals that they must not pursue Darius with Tyre unsubdued,
and Persia in possession of Egypt and Cyprus, for, if Persia
should regain her seaports, she would transfer the war into
Greece, and that it was absolutely necessary for him to be
sovereign at sea. With Cyprus and Egypt in his possession he felt
no solicitude about Greece. The siege of Tyre cost him more than
half a year. In revenge for this delay, he crucified, it is said,
two thousand of his prisoners. Jerusalem voluntarily surrendered,
and therefore was treated leniently: but the passage of the
Macedonian army into Egypt being obstructed at Gaza, the Persian
governor of which, Betis, made a most obstinate defense, that
place, after a siege of two months, was carried by assault, ten
thousand of its men were massacred, and the rest, with their
wives and children, sold into slavery. Betis himself was dragged
alive round the city at the chariot-wheels of the conqueror.
There was now no further obstacle. The Egyptians, who detested
the Persian rule, received their invader with open arms. He
organized the country in his own interest, intrusting all its
military commands to Macedonian officers, and leaving the civil
government in the hands of native Egyptians.

CONQUEST OF EGYPT. While preparations for the final campaign were
being made, he undertook a journey to the temple of Jupiter
Ammon, which was situated in an oasis of the Libyan Desert, at a
distance of two hundred miles. The oracle declared him to be a
son of that god who, under the form of a serpent, had beguiled
Olympias, his mother. Immaculate conceptions and celestial
descents were so currently received in those days, that whoever
had greatly distinguished himself in the affairs of men was
thought to be of supernatural lineage. Even in Rome, centuries
later, no one could with safety have denied that the city owed
its founder, Romulus, to an accidental meeting of the god Mars
with the virgin Rhea Sylvia, as she went with her pitcher for
water to the spring. The Egyptian disciples of Plato would have
looked with anger on those who rejected the legend that
Perictione, the mother of that great philosopher, a pure virgin,
had suffered an immaculate conception through the influences of
Apollo, and that the god had declared to Ariston, to whom she was
betrothed, the parentage of the child. When Alexander issued his
letters, orders, and decrees, styling himself "King Alexander,
the son of Jupiter Ammon," they came to the inhabitants of Egypt
and Syria with an authority that now can hardly be realized. The
free- thinking Greeks, however, put on such a supernatural
pedigree its proper value. Olympias, who, of course, better than
all others knew the facts of the case, used jestingly to say,
that "she wished Alexander would cease from incessantly
embroiling her with Jupiter's wife." Arrian, the historian of the
Macedonian expedition, observes, "I cannot condemn him for
endeavoring to draw his subjects into the belief of his divine
origin, nor can I be induced to think it any great crime, for it
is very reasonable to imagine that he intended no more by it than
merely to procure the greater authority among his soldiers."

GREEK CONQUEST OF PERSIA. All things being thus secured in his
rear, Alexander, having returned into Syria, directed the march
of his army, now consisting of fifty thousand veterans, eastward.
After crossing the Euphrates, he kept close to the Masian hills,
to avoid the intense heat of the more southerly Mesopotamian
plains; more abundant forage could also thus be procured for the
cavalry. On the left bank of the Tigris, near Arbela, he
encountered the great army of eleven hundred thousand men brought
up by Darius from Babylon. The death of the Persian monarch,
which soon followed the defeat he suffered, left the Macedonian
general master of all the countries from the Danube to the Indus.
Eventually he extended his conquest to the Ganges. The treasures
he seized are almost beyond belief. At Susa alone he found--so
Arrian says--fifty thousand talents in money.

EVENTS OF THE CAMPAIGNS. The modern military student cannot look
upon these wonderful campaigns without admiration. The passage of
the Hellespont; the forcing of the Granicus; the winter spent in
a political organization of conquered Asia Minor; the march of
the right wing and centre of the army along the Syrian
Mediterranean coast; the engineering difficulties overcome at the
siege of Tyre; the storming of Gaza; the isolation of Persia from
Greece; the absolute exclusion of her navy from the
Mediterranean; the check on all her attempts at intriguing with
or bribing Athenians or Spartans, heretofore so often resorted to
with success; the submission of Egypt; another winter spent in
the political organization of that venerable country; the
convergence of the whole army from the Black and Red Seas toward
the nitre- covered plains of Mesopotamia in the ensuing spring;
the passage of the Euphrates fringed with its weeping- willows at
the broken bridge of Thapsacus; the crossing of the Tigris; the
nocturnal reconnaissance before the great and memorable battle of
Arbela; the oblique movement on the field; the piercing of the
enemy's centre--a manoeuvre destined to be repeated many
centuries subsequently at Austerlitz; the energetic pursuit of
the Persian monarch; these are exploits not surpassed by any
soldier of later times.

A prodigious stimulus was thus given to Greek intellectual
activity. There were men who had marched with the Macedonian army
from the Danube to the Nile, from the Nile to the Ganges. They
had felt the hyperborean blasts of the countries beyond the Black
Sea, the simooms and sand-tempests of the Egyptian deserts. They
had seen the Pyramids which had already stood for twenty
centuries, the hieroglyph-covered obelisks of Luxor, avenues of
silent and mysterious sphinxes, colossi of monarchs who reigned
in the morning of the world. In the halls of Esar-haddon they had
stood before the thrones of grim old Assyrian kings, guarded by
winged bulls. In Babylon there still remained its walls, once
more than sixty miles in compass, and, after the ravages of three
centuries and three conquerors, still more than eighty feet in
height; there were still the ruins of the temple of cloud
encompassed Bel, on its top was planted the observatory wherein
the weird Chaldean astronomers had held nocturnal communion with
the stars; still there were vestiges of the two palaces with
their hanging gardens in which were great trees growing in
mid-air, and the wreck of the hydraulic machinery that had
supplied them with water from the river. Into the artificial lake
with its vast apparatus of aqueducts and sluices the melted snows
of the Armenian mountains found their way, and were confined in
their course through the city by the embankments of the
Euphrates. Most wonderful of all, perhaps, was the tunnel under
the river-bed.

EFFECT ON THE GREEK ARMY. If Chaldea, Assyria, Babylon, presented
stupendous and venerable antiquities reaching far back into the
night of time, Persia was not without her wonders of a later
date. The pillared halls of Persepolis were filled with miracles
of art--carvings, sculptures, enamels, alabaster libraries,
obelisks, sphinxes, colossal bulls. Ecbatana, the cool summer
retreat of the Persian kings, was defended by seven encircling
walls of hewn and polished blocks, the interior ones in
succession of increasing height, and of different colors, in
astrological accordance with the seven planets. The palace was
roofed with silver tiles, its beams were plated with gold. At
midnight, in its halls the sunlight was rivaled by many a row of
naphtha cressets. A paradise--that luxury of the monarchs of the
East--was planted in the midst of the city. The Persian Empire,
from the Hellespont to the Indus, was truly the garden of the
world.

EFFECTS ON THE GREEK ARMY. I have devoted a few pages to the
story of these marvelous campaigns, for the military talent they
fostered led to the establishment of the mathematical and
practical schools of Alexandria, the true origin of science. We
trace back all our exact knowledge to the Macedonian campaigns.
Humboldt has well observed that an introduction to new and grand
objects of Nature enlarges the human mind. The soldiers of
Alexander and the hosts of his camp-followers encountered at
every march unexpected and picturesque scenery. Of all men, the
Greeks were the most observant, the most readily and profoundly
impressed. Here there were interminable sandy plains, there
mountains whose peaks were lost above the clouds. In the deserts
were mirages, on the hill-sides shadows of fleeting clouds
sweeping over the forests. They were in a land of amber-colored
date-palms and cypresses, of tamarisks, green myrtles, and
oleanders. At Arbela they had fought against Indian elephants; in
the thickets of the Caspian they had roused from his lair the
lurking royal tiger. They had seen animals which, compared with
those of Europe, were not only strange, but colossal--the
rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, the camel, the crocodiles of the
Nile and the Ganges. They had encountered men of many complexions
and many costumes: the swarthy Syrian, the olive-colored Persian.
the black African. Even of Alexander himself it is related that
on his death-bed he caused his admiral, Nearchus, to sit by his
side, and found consolation in listening to the adventures of
that sailor--the story of his voyage from the Indus up the
Persian Gulf. The conqueror had seen with astonishment the ebbing
and flowing of the tides. He had built ships for the exploration
of the Caspian, supposing that it and the Black Sea might be
gulfs of a great ocean, such as Nearchus had discovered the
Persian and Red Seas to be. He had formed a resolution that his
fleet should attempt the circumnavigation of Africa, and come
into the Mediterranean through the Pillars of Hercules--a feat
which, it was affirmed, had once been accomplished by the
Pharaohs.

INTELLECTUAL CONDITION OF PERSIA. Not only her greatest soldiers,
but also her greatest philosophers, found in the conquered empire
much that might excite the admiration of Greece. Callisthenes
obtained in Babylon a series of Chaldean astronomical
observations ranging back through 1,903 years; these he sent to
Aristotle. Perhaps, since they were on burnt bricks, duplicates
of them may be recovered by modern research in the clay libraries
of the Assyrian kings. Ptolemy, the Egyptian astronomer,
possessed a Babylonian record of eclipses, going back 747 years
before our era. Long-continued and close observations were
necessary, before some of these astronomical results that have
reached our times could have been ascertained. Thus the
Babylonians had fixed the length of a tropical year within
twenty-five seconds of the truth; their estimate of the sidereal
year was barely two minutes in excess. They had detected the
precession of the equinoxes. They knew the causes of eclipses,
and, by the aid of their cycle called Saros, could predict them.
Their estimate of the value of that cycle, which is more than
6,585 days, was within nineteen and a half minutes of the truth.

INTELLECTUAL CONDITION OF PERSIA. Such facts furnish
incontrovertible proof of the patience and skill with which
astronomy had been cultivated in Mesopotamia, and that, with very
inadequate instrumental means, it had reached no inconsiderable
perfection. These old observers had made a catalogue of the
stars, had divided the zodiac into twelve signs; they had parted
the day into twelve hours, the night into twelve. They had, as
Alistotle says, for a long time devoted themselves to
observations of star-occultations by the moon. They had correct
views of the structure of the solar system, and knew the order of
the emplacement of the planets. They constructed sundials,
clepsydras, astrolabes, gnomons.

Not without interest do we still look on specimens of their
method of printing. Upon a revolving roller they engraved, in
cuneiform letters, their records, and, running this over plastic
clay formed into blocks, produced ineffaceable proofs. From their
tile-libraries we are still to reap a literary and historical
harvest. They were not without some knowledge of optics. The
convex lens found at Nimroud shows that they were not
unacquainted with magnifying instruments. In arithmetic they had
detected the value of position in the digits, though they missed
the grand Indian invention of the cipher.

What a spectacle for the conquering Greeks, who, up to this time,
had neither experimented nor observed! They had contented
themselves with mere meditation and useless speculation.

ITS RELIGIOUS CONDITION. But Greek intellectual development, due
thus in part to a more extended view of Nature, was powerfully
aided by the knowledge then acquired of the religion of the
conquered country. The idolatry of Greece had always been a
horror to Persia, who, in her invasions, had never failed to
destroy the temples and insult the fanes of the bestial gods. The
impunity with which these sacrileges had been perpetrated had
made a profound impression, and did no little to undermine
Hellenic faith. But now the worshiper of the vile Olympian
divinities, whose obscene lives must have been shocking to every
pious man, was brought in contact with a grand, a solemn, a
consistent religious system having its foundation on a
philosophical basis. Persia, as is the case with all empires of
long duration, had passed through many changes of religion. She
had followed the Monotheism of Zoroaster; had then accepted
Dualism, and exchanged that for Magianism. At the time of the
Macedonian expedition, she recognized one universal Intelligence,
the Creator, Preserver, and Governor of all things, the most holy
essence of truth, the giver of all good. He was not to be
represented by any image, or any graven form. And, since, in
every thing here below, we see the resultant of two opposing
forces, under him were two coequal and coeternal principles,
represented by the imagery of Light and Darkness. These
principles are in never-ending conflict. The world is their
battle-ground, man is their prize.

In the old legends of Dualism, the Evil Spirit was said to have
sent a serpent to ruin the paradise which the Good Spirit had
made. These legends became known to the Jews during their
Babylonian captivity.

The existence of a principle of evil is the necessary incident of
the existence of a principle of good, as a shadow is the
necessary incident of the presence of light. In this manner could
be explained the occurrence of evil in a world, the maker and
ruler of which is supremely good. Each of the personified
principles of light and darkness, Ormuzd and Ahriman, had his
subordinate angels, his counselors, his armies. It is the duty of
a good man to cultivate truth, purity, and industry. He may look
forward, when this life is over, to a life in another world, and
trust to a resurrection of the body, the immortality of the soul,
and a conscious future existence.

In the later years of the empire, the principles of Magianism had
gradually prevailed more and more over those of Zoroaster.
Magianism was essentially a worship of the elements. Of these,
fire was considered as the most worthy representative of the
Supreme Being. On altars erected, not in temples, but under the
blue canopy of the sky, perpetual fires were kept burning, and
the rising sun was regarded as the noblest object of human
adoration. In the society of Asia, nothing is visible but the
monarch; in the expanse of heaven, all objects vanish in presence
of the sun.

DEATH OF ALEXANDER. Prematurely cut off in the midst of many
great projects Alexander died at Babylon before he had completed
his thirty-third year (B.C. 323). There was a suspicion that he
had been poisoned. His temper had become so unbridled, his
passion so ferocious, that his generals and even his intimate
friends lived in continual dread. Clitus, one of the latter, he
in a moment of fury had stabbed to the heart. Callisthenes, the
intermedium between himself and Aristotle, he had caused to be
hanged, or, as was positively asserted by some who knew the
facts, had had him put upon the rack and then crucified. It may
have been in self-defense that the conspirators resolved on his
assassination. But surely it was a calumny to associate the name
of Aristotle with this transaction. He would have rather borne
the worst that Alexander could inflict, than have joined in the
perpetration of so great a crime.

A scene of confusion and bloodshed lasting many years ensued, nor
did it cease even after the Macedonian generals had divided the
empire. Among its vicissitudes one incident mainly claims our
attention. Ptolemy, who was a son of King Philip by Arsinoe, a
beautiful concubine, and who in his boyhood had been driven into
exile with Alexander, when they incurred their father's
displeasure, who had been Alexander's comrade in many of his
battles and all his campaigns, became governor and eventually
king of Egypt.

FOUNDATION OF ALEXANDER. At the siege of Rhodes, Ptolemy had been
of such signal service to its citizens that in gratitude they
paid divine honors to him, and saluted him with the title of
Soter (the Savior). By that designation--Ptolemy Soter--he is
distinguished from succeeding kings of the Macedonian dynasty in
Egypt.

He established his seat of government not in any of the old
capitals of the country, but in Alexandria. At the time of the
expedition to the temple of Jupiter Ammon, the Macedonian
conqueror had caused the foundations of that city to be laid,
foreseeing that it might be made the commercial entrepot between
Asia and Europe. It is to be particularly remarked that not only
did Alexander himself deport many Jews from Palestine to people
the city, and not only did Ptolemy Soter bring one hundred
thousand more after his siege of Jerusalem, but Philadelphus, his
successor, redeemed from slavery one hundred and ninety-eight
thousand of that people, paying their Egyptian owners a just
money equivalent for each. To all these Jews the same privileges
were accorded as to the Macedonians. In consequence of this
considerate treatment, vast numbers of their compatriots and many
Syrians voluntarily came into Egypt. To them the designation of
Hellenistical Jews was given. In like manner, tempted by the
benign government of Soter, multitudes of Greeks sought refuge in
the country, and the invasions of Perdiccas and Antigonus showed
that Greek soldiers would desert from other Macedonian generals
to join is armies.

The population of Alexandria was therefore of three distinct
nationalities: 1. Native Egyptians 2. Greeks; 3. Jews--a fact
that has left an impress on the religious faith of modern Europe.

Greek architects and Greek engineers had made Alexandria the most
beautiful city of the ancient world. They had filled it with
magnificent palaces, temples, theatres. In its centre, at the
intersection of its two grand avenues, which crossed each other
at right angles, and in the midst of gardens, fountains,
obelisks, stood the mausoleum, in which, embalmed after the
manner of the Egyptians, rested the body of Alexander. In a
funereal journey of two years it had been brought with great pomp
from Babylon. At first the coffin was of pure gold, but this
having led to a violation of the tomb, it was replaced by one of
alabaster. But not these, not even the great light-house, Pharos,
built of blocks of white marble and so high that the fire
continually burning on its top could be seen many miles off at
sea--the Pharos counted as one of the seven wonders of the
world--it is not these magnificent achievements of architecture
that arrest our attention; the true, the most glorious monument
of the Macedonian kings of Egypt is the Museum. Its influences
will last when even the Pyramids have passed away.

THE ALEXANDRIAN MUSEUM. The Alexandrian Museum was commenced by
Ptolemy Soter, and was completed by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus.
It was situated in the Bruchion, the aristocratic quarter of the
city, adjoining the king's palace. Built of marble, it was
surrounded with a piazza, in which the residents might walk and
converse together. Its sculptured apartments contained the
Philadelphian library, and were crowded with the choicest statues
and pictures. This library eventually comprised four hundred
thousand volumes. In the course of time, probably on account of
inadequate accommodation for so many books, an additional library
was established in the adjacent quarter Rhacotis, and placed in
the Serapion or temple of Serapis. The number of volumes in this
library, which was called the Daughter of that in the Museum, was
eventually three hundred thousand. There were, therefore, seven
hundred thousand volumes in these royal collections.

Alexandria was not merely the capital of Egypt, it was the
intellectual metropolis of the world. Here it was truly said the
Genius of the East met the Genius of the West, and this Paris of
antiquity became a focus of fashionable dissipation and universal
skepticism. In the allurements of its bewitching society even the
Jews forgot their patriotism. They abandoned the language of
their forefathers, and adopted Greek.

In the establishment of the Museum, Ptolemy Soter and his son
Philadelphus had three objects in view: 1. The perpetuation of
such knowledge as was then in the world; 2. Its increase; 3. Its
diffusion.

1. For the perpetuation of knowledge. Orders were given to the
chief librarian to buy at the king's expense whatever books he
could. A body of transcribers was maintained in the Museum, whose
duty it was to make correct copies of such works as their owners
were not disposed to sell. Any books brought by foreigners into
Egypt were taken at once to the Museum, and, when correct copies
had been made, the transcript was given to the owner, and the
original placed in the library. Often a very large pecuniary
indemnity was paid. Thus it is said of Ptolemy Euergetes that,
having obtained from Athens the works of Euripides, Sophocles,
and Aeschylus, he sent to their owners transcripts, together with
about fifteen thousand dollars, as an indemnity. On his return
from the Syrian expedition he carried back in triumph all the
Egyptian monuments from Ecbatana and Susa, which Cambyses and
other invaders had removed from Egypt. These he replaced in their
original seats, or added as adornments to his museums. When works
were translated as well as transcribed, sums which we should
consider as almost incredible were paid, as was the case with the
Septuagint translation of the Bible, ordered by Ptolemy
Philadelphus.

2. For the increase of knowledge. One of the chief objects of the
Museum was that of serving as the home of a body of men who
devoted themselves to study, and were lodged and maintained at
the king's expense. Occasionally he himself sat at their table.
Anecdotes connected with those festive occasions have descended
to our times. In the original organization of the Museum the
residents were divided into four faculties--literature;
mathematics, astronomy, medicine. Minor branches were
appropriately classified under one of these general heads; thus
natural history was considered to be a branch of medicine. An
officer of very great distinction presided over the
establishment, and had general charge of its interests. Demetrius
Phalareus, perhaps the most learned man of his age, who had been
governor of Athens for many years, was the first so appointed.
Under him was the librarian, an office sometimes held by men
whose names have descended to our times, as Eratosthenes, and
Apollonius Rhodius.

ORGANIZATION OF THE MUSEUM. In connection with the Museum were a
botanical and a zoological garden. These gardens, as their names
import, were for the purpose of facilitating the study of plants
and animals. There was also an astronomical observatory
containing armillary spheres, globes, solstitial and equatorial
armils, astrolabes, parallactic rules, and other apparatus then
in use, the graduation on the divided instruments being into
degrees and sixths. On the floor of this observatory a meridian
line was drawn. The want of correct means of measuring time and
temperature was severely felt; the clepsydra of Ctesibius
answered very imperfectly for the former, the hydrometer floating
in a cup of water for the latter; it measured variations of
temperature by variations of density. Philadelphus, who toward
the close of his life was haunted with an intolerable dread of
death, devoted much of his time to the discovery of an elixir.
For such pursuits the Museum was provided with a chemical
laboratory. In spite of the prejudices of the age, and especially
in spite of Egyptian prejudices, there was in connection with the
medical department an anatomical room for the dissection, not
only of the dead, but actually of the living, who for crimes had
been condemned.

3. For the diffusion of knowledge. In the Museum was given, by
lectures, conversation, or other appropriate methods instruction
in all the various departments of human knowledge. There flocked
to this great intellectual centre, students from all countries.
It is said that at one time not fewer than fourteen thousand were
in attendance. Subsequently even the Christian church received
from it some of the most eminent of its Fathers, as Clemens
Alexandrinus, Origen, Athanasius.

The library in the Museum was burnt during the siege of
Alexandria by Julius Caesar. To make amends for this great loss,
that collected by Eumenes, King of Pergamus, was presented by
Mark Antony to Queen Cleopatra. Originally it was founded as a
rival to that of the Ptolemies. It was added to the collection in
the Serapion.

SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM. It remains now to describe
briefly the philosophical basis of the Museum, and some of its
contributions to the stock of human knowledge.

In memory of the illustrious founder of this most noble
institution--an institution which antiquity delighted to call
"The divine school of Alexandria"--we must mention in the first
rank his "History of the Campaigns of Alexander." Great as a
soldier and as a sovereign, Ptolemy Soter added to his glory by
being an author. Time, which has not been able to destroy the
memory of our obligations to him, has dealt unjustly by his work.
It is not now extant.

As might be expected from the friendship that existed between
Alexander, Ptolemy, and Aristotle, the Aristotelian philosophy
was the intellectual corner-stone on which the Museum rested.
King Philip had committed the education of Alexander to
Aristotle, and during the Persian campaigns the conqueror
contributed materially, not only in money, but otherwise, toward
the "Natural History" then in preparation.

The essential principle of the Aristotelian philosophy was, to
rise from the study of particulars to a knowledge of general
principles or universals, advancing to them by induction. The
induction is the more certain as the facts on which it is based
are more numerous; its correctness is established if it should
enable us to predict other facts until then unknown. This system
implies endless toil in the collection of facts, both by
experiment and observation; it implies also a close meditation on
them. It is, therefore, essentially a method of labor and of
reason, not a method of imagination. The failures that Aristotle
himself so often exhibits are no proof of its unreliability, but
rather of its trustworthiness. They are failures arising from
want of a sufficiency of facts.

ETHICAL SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM. Some of the general results at
which Aristotle arrived are very grand. Thus, he concluded that
every thing is ready to burst into life, and that the various
organic forms presented to us by Nature are those which existing
conditions permit. Should the conditions change, the forms will
also change. Hence there is an unbroken chain from the simple
element through plants and animals up to man, the different
groups merging by insensible shades into each other.

The inductive philosophy thus established by Aristotle is a
method of great power. To it all the modern advances in science
are due. In its most improved form it rises by inductions from
phenomena to their causes, and then, imitating the method of the
Academy, it descends by deductions from those causes to the
detail of phenomena.

While thus the Scientific School of Alexandria was founded on the
maxims of one great Athenian philosopher, the Ethical School was
founded on the maxims of another, for Zeno, though a Cypriote or
Phoenician, had for many years been established at Athens. His
disciples took the name of Stoics. His doctrines long survived
him, and, in times when there was no other consolation for man,
offered a support in the hour of trial, and an unwavering guide
in the vicissitudes of life, not only to illustrious Greeks, but
also to many of the great philosophers, statesmen, generals, and
emperors of Rome.

THE PRINCIPLES OF STOICISM. The aim of Zeno was, to furnish a
guide for the daily practice of life, to make men virtuous. He
insisted that education is the true foundation of virtue, for, if
we know what is good, we shall incline to do it. We must trust to
sense, to furnish the data of knowledge, and reason will suitably
combine them. In this the affinity of Zeno to Aristotle is
plainly seen. Every  appetite, lust, desire, springs from
imperfect knowledge. Our nature is imposed upon us by Fate, but
we must learn to control our passions, and live free,
intelligent, virtuous, in all things in accordance with reason.
Our existence should be intellectual, we should survey with
equanimity all pleasures and all pains. We should never forget
that we are freemen, not the slaves of society. "I possess," said
the Stoic, "a treasure which not all the world can rob me of--no
one can deprive me of death." We should remember that Nature in
her operations aims at the universal, and never spares
individuals, but uses them as means for the accomplishment of her
ends. It is, therefore, for us to submit to Destiny, cultivating,
as the things necessary to virtue, knowledge, temperance,
fortitude, justice. We must remember that every thing around us
is in mutation; decay follows reproduction, and reproduction
decay, and that it is useless to repine at death in a world where
every thing is dying. As a cataract shows from year to year an
invariable shape, though the water composing it is perpetually
changing, so the aspect of Nature is nothing more than a flow of
matter presenting an impermanent form. The universe, considered
as a whole, is unchangeable. Nothing is eternal but space, atoms,
force. The forms of Nature that we see are essentially
transitory, they must all pass away.

STOICISM IN THE MUSEUM. We must bear in mind that the majority of
men are imperfectly educated, and hence we must not needlessly
offend the religious ideas of our age. It is enough for us
ourselves to know that, though there is a Supreme Power, there is
no Supreme Being. There is an invisible principle, but not a
personal God, to whom it would be not so much blasphemy as
absurdity to impute the form, the sentiments, the passions of
man. All revelation is, necessarily, a mere fiction. That which
men call chance is only the effect of an unknown cause. Even of
chances there is a law. There is no such thing as Providence, for
Nature proceeds under irresistible laws, and in this respect the
universe is only a vast automatic engine. The vital force which
pervades the world is what the illiterate call God. The
modifications through which all things are running take place in
an irresistible way, and hence it may be said that the progress
of the world is, under Destiny, like a seed, it can evolve only
in a predetermined mode.

The soul of man is a spark of the vital flame, the general vital
principle. Like heat, it passes from one to another, and is
finally reabsorbed or reunited in the universal principle from
which it came. Hence we must not expect annihilation, but
reunion; and, as the tired man looks forward to the insensibility
of sleep, so the philosopher, weary of the world, should look
forward to the tranquillity of extinction. Of these things,
however, we should think doubtingly, since the mind can produce
no certain knowledge from its internal resources alone. It is
unphilosophical to inquire into first causes; we must deal only
with phenomena. Above all, we must never forget that man cannot
ascertain absolute truth, and that the final result of human
inquiry into the matter is, that we are incapable of perfect
knowledge; that, even if the truth be in our possession, we
cannot be sure of it.

What, then, remains for us? Is it not this--the acquisition of
knowledge, the cultivation of virtue and of friendship, the
observance of faith and truth, an unrepining submission to
whatever befalls us, a life led in accordance with reason?

PLATONISM IN THE MUSEUM. But, though the Alexandrian Museum was
especially intended for the cultivation of the Aristotelian
philosophy, it must not be supposed that other systems were
excluded. Platonism was not only carried to its full development,
but in the end it supplanted Peripateticism, and through the New
Academy left a permanent impress on Christianity. The
philosophical method of Plato was the inverse of that of
Aristotle. Its starting- point was universals, the very existence
of which was a matter of faith, and from these it descended to
particulars, or details. Aristotle, on the contrary, rose from
particulars to universals, advancing to them by inductions.

Plato, therefore, trusted to the imagination, Aristotle to
reason. The former descended from the decomposition of a
primitive idea into particulars, the latter united particulars
into a general conception. Hence the method of Plato was capable
of quickly producing what seemed to be splendid, though in
reality unsubstantial results; that of Aristotle was more tardy
in its operation, but much more solid. It implied endless labor
in the collection of facts, a tedious resort to experiment and
observation, the application of demonstration. The philosophy of
Plato is a gorgeous castle in the air; that of Aristotle a solid
structure, laboriously, and with many failures, founded on the
solid rock.

An appeal to the imagination is much more alluring than the
employment of reason. In the intellectual decline of Alexandria,
indolent methods were preferred to laborious observation and
severe mental exercise. The schools of Neo-Platonism were crowded
with speculative mystics, such as Ammonius Saccas and Plotinus.
These took the place of the severe geometers of the old Museum.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE IN THE MUSEUM. The Alexandrian school offers the
first example of that system which, in the hands of modern
physicists, has led to such wonderful results. It rejected
imagination, and made its theories the expression of facts
obtained by experiment and observation, aided by mathematical
discussion. It enforced the principle that the true method of
studying Nature is by experimental interrogation. The researches
of Archimedes in specific gravity, and the works of Ptolemy on
optics, resemble our present investigations in experimental
philosophy, and stand in striking contrast with the speculative
vagaries of the older writers. Laplace says that the only
observation which the history of astronomy offers us, made by the
Greeks before the school of Alexandria, is that of the summer
solstice of the year B.C. 432. by Meton and Euctemon. We have,
for the first time, in that school, a combined system of
observations made with instruments for the measurement of angles,
and calculated by trigonometrical methods. Astronomy then took a
form which subsequent ages could only perfect.


It does not accord with the compass or the intention of this work
to give a detailed account of the contributions of the
Alexandrian Museum to the stock of human knowledge. It is
sufficient that the reader should obtain a general impression of
their character. For particulars, I may refer him to the sixth
chapter of my "History of the Intellectual Development of
Europe."

EUCLID--ARCHIMEDES. It has just been remarked that the Stoical
philosophy doubted whether the mind can ascertain absolute truth.
While Zeno was indulging in such doubts, Euclid was preparing his
great work, destined to challenge contradiction from the whole
human race. After more than twenty-two centuries it still
survives, a model of accuracy, perspicuity, and a standard of
exact demonstration. This great geometer not only wrote on other
mathematical topics, such as Conic Sections and Porisms, but
there are imputed to him treatises on Harmonics and Optics, the
latter subject being discussed on the hypothesis of rays issuing
from the eye to the object.

With the Alexandrian mathematicians and physicists must be
classed Archimedes, though he eventually resided in Sicily. Among
his mathematical works were two books on the Sphere and Cylinder,
in which he gave the demonstration that the solid content of a
sphere is two-thirds that of its circumscribing cylinder. So
highly did he esteem this, that he directed the diagram to be
engraved on his tombstone. He also treated of the quadrature of
the circle and of the parabola; he wrote on Conoids and
Spheroids, and on the spiral that bears his name, the genesis of
which was suggested to him by his friend Conon the Alexandrian.
As a mathematician, Europe produced no equal to him for nearly
two thousand years. In physical science he laid the foundation of
hydrostatics; invented a method for the determination of specific
gravities; discussed the equilibrium of floating bodies;
discovered the true theory of the lever, and invented a screw,
which still bears his name, for raising the water of the Nile. To
him also are to be attributed the endless screw, and a peculiar
form of burning-mirror, by which, at the siege of Syracuse, it is
said that he set the Roman fleet on fire.

ERATOSTHENES--APOLLONIUS--HIPPARCHUS. Eratosthenes, who at one
time had charge of the library, was the author of many important
works. Among them may be mentioned his determination of the
interval between the tropics, and an attempt to ascertain the
size of the earth. He considered the articulation and expansion
of continents, the position of mountain-chains, the action of
clouds, the geological submersion of lands, the elevation of
ancient sea-beds, the opening of the Dardanelles and the straits
of Gibraltar, and the relations of the Euxine Sea. He composed a
complete system of the earth, in three books--physical,
mathematical, historical--accompanied by a map of all the parts
then known. It is only of late years that the fragments remaining
of his "Chronicles of the Theban Kings" have been justly
appreciated. For many centuries they were thrown into discredit
by the authority of our existing absurd theological chronology.

It is unnecessary to adduce the arguments relied upon by the
Alexandrians to prove the globular form of the earth. They had
correct ideas respecting the doctrine of the sphere, its poles,
axis, equator, arctic and antarctic circles, equinoctial points,
solstices, the distribution of climates, etc. I cannot do more
than merely allude to the treatises on Conic Sections and on
Maxima and Minima by Apollonius, who is said to have been the
first to introduce the words ellipse and hyperbola. In like
manner I must pass the astronomical observations of Alistyllus
and Timocharis. It was to those of the latter on Spica Virginis
that Hipparchus was indebted for his great discovery of the
precession of the eqninoxes. Hipparchus also determined the first
inequality of the moon, the equation of the centre. He adopted
the theory of epicycles and eccentrics, a geometrical conception
for the purpose of resolving the apparent motions of the heavenly
bodies on the principle of circular movement. He also undertook
to make a catalogue of the stars by the method of alineations--
that is, by indicating those that are in the same apparent
straight line. The number of stars so catalogued was 1,080. If he
thus attempted to depict the aspect of the sky, he endeavored to
do the same for the surface of the earth, by marking the position
of towns and other places by lines of latitude and longitude. He
was the first to construct tables of the sun and moon.

THE SYNTAXIS OF PTOLEMY. In the midst of such a brilliant
constellation of geometers, astronomers, physicists,
conspicuously shines forth Ptolemy, the author of the great work,
"Syntaxis," "a Treatise on the Mathematical Construction of the
Heavens." It maintained its ground for nearly fifteen hundred
years, and indeed was only displaced by the immortal "Principia"
of Newton. It commences with the doctrine that the earth is
globular and fixed in space, it describes the construction of a
table of chords, and instruments for observing the solstices, it
deduces the obliquity of the ecliptic, it finds terrestrial
latitudes by the gnomon, describes climates, shows how ordinary
may be converted into sidereal time, gives reasons for preferring
the tropical to the sidereal year, furnishes the solar theory on
the principle of the sun's orbit being a simple eccentric,
explains the equation of time, advances to the discussion of the
motions of the moon, treats of the first inequality, of her
eclipses, and the motion of her nodes. It then gives Ptolemy's
own great discovery--that which has made his name immortal-- the
discovery of the moon's evection or second inequality, reducing
it to the epicyclic theory. It attempts the determination of the
distances of the sun and moon from the earth--with, however, only
partial success. It considers the precession of the equinoxes,
the discovery of Hipparchus, the full period of which is
twenty-five thousand years. It gives a catalogue of 1,022 stars,
treats of the nature of the milky-way, and discusses in the most
masterly manner the motions of the planets. This point
constitutes another of Ptolemy's claims to scientific fame. His
determination of the planetary orbits was accomplished by
comparing his own observations with those of former astronomers,
among them the observations of Timocharis on the planet Venus.

INVENTION OF THE STEAM-ENGINE. In the Museum of Alexandria,
Ctesibius invented the fire-engine. His pupil, Hero, improved it
by giving it two cylinders. There, too, the first steam-engine
worked. This also was the invention of Hero, and was a reaction
engine, on the principle of the eolipile. The silence of the
halls of Serapis was broken by the water-clocks of Ctesibius and
Apollonius, which drop by drop measured time. When the Roman
calendar had fallen into such confusion that it had become
absolutely necessary to rectify it, Julius Caesar brought
Sosigenes the astronomer from Alexandria. By his advice the lunar
year was abolished, the civil year regulated entirely by the sun,
and the Julian calendar introduced.

The Macedonian rulers of Egypt have been blamed for the manner in
which they dealt with the religious sentiment of their time. They
prostituted it to the purpose of state-craft, finding in it a
means of governing their lower classes. To the intelligent they
gave philosophy.

POLICY OF THE PTOLEMIES. But doubtless they defended this policy
by the experience gathered in those great campaigns which had
made the Greeks the foremost nation of the world. They had seen
the mythological conceptions of their ancestral country dwindle
into fables; the wonders with which the old poets adorned the
Mediterranean had been discovered to be baseless illusions. From
Olympus its divinities had disappeared; indeed, Olympus itself
had proved to be a phantom of the imagination. Hades had lost its
terrors; no place could be found for it.

From the woods and grottoes and rivers of Asia Minor the local
gods and goddesses had departed; even their devotees began to
doubt whether they had ever been there. If still the Syrian
damsels lamented, in their amorous ditties, the fate of Adonis,
it was only as a recollection, not as a reality. Again and again
had Persia changed her national faith. For the revelation of
Zoroaster she had substituted Dualism; then under new political
influences she had adopted Magianism. She had worshiped fire, and
kept her altars burning on mountain-tops. She had adored the sun.
When Alexander came, she was fast falling into pantheism.

On a country to which in its political extremity the indigenous
gods have been found unable to give any protection, a change of
faith is impending. The venerable divinities of Egypt, to whose
glory obelisks had been raised and temples dedicated, had again
and again submitted to the sword of a foreign conqueror. In the
land of the Pyramids, the Colossi, the Sphinx, the images of the
gods had ceased to represent living realities. They had ceased to
be objects of faith. Others of more recent birth were needful,
and Serapis confronted Osiris. In the shops and streets of
Alexandria there were thousands of Jews who had forgotten the God
that had made his habitation behind the veil of the temple.

Tradition, revelation, time, all had lost their influence. The
traditions of European mythology, the revelations of Asia, the
time-consecrated dogmas of Egypt, all had passed or were fast
passing away. And the Ptolemies recognized how ephemeral are
forms of faith.

But the Ptolemies also recognized that there is something more
durable than forms of faith, which, like the organic forms of
geological ages, once gone, are clean gone forever, and have no
restoration, no return. They recognized that within this world of
transient delusions and unrealities there is a world of eternal
truth.

That world is not to be discovered through the vain traditions
that have brought down to us the opinions of men who lived in the
morning of civilization, nor in the dreams of mystics who thought
that they were inspired. It is to be discovered by the
investigations of geometry, and by the practical interrogation of
Nature. These confer on humanity solid, and innumerable, and
inestimable blessings.

The day will never come when any one of the propositions of
Euclid will be denied; no one henceforth will call in question
the globular shape of the earth, as recognized by Eratosthenes;
the world will not permit the great physical inventions and
discoveries made in Alexandria and Syracuse to be forgotten. The
names of Hipparchus, of Apollonius, of Ptolemy, of Archimedes,
will be mentioned with reverence by men of every religious
profession, as long as there are men to speak.

THE MUSEUM AND MODERN SCIENCE. The Museum of Alexandria was thus
the birthplace of modern science. It is true that, long before
its establishment, astronomical observations had been made in
China and Mesopotamia; the mathematics also had been cultivated
with a certain degree of success in India. But in none of these
countries had investigation assumed a connected and consistent
form; in none was physical experimentation resorted to. The
characteristic feature of Alexandrian, as of modern science, is,
that it did not restrict itself to observation, but relied on a
practical interrogation of Nature.



CHAPTER II.

THE ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY.--ITS TRANSFORMATION ON ATTAINING
IMPERIAL POWER.--ITS RELATIONS TO SCIENCE.

Religious condition of the Roman Republic.--The adoption of
imperialism leads to monotheism.--Christianity spreads over the
Roman Empire.-- The circumstances under which it attained
imperial power make its union with Paganism a political
necessity.--Tertullian's description of its doctrines and
practices.--Debasing effect of the policy of Constantine on
it.--Its alliance with the civil power.--Its incompatibility with
science.--Destruction of the Alexandrian Library and prohibition
of philosophy.--Exposition of the Augustinian philosophy and
Patristic science generally.--The Scriptures made the standard of
science.


IN a political sense, Christianity is the bequest of the Roman
Empire to the world.

At the epoch of the transition of Rome from the republican to the
imperial form of government, all the independent nationalities
around the Mediterranean Sea had been brought under the control
of that central power. The conquest that had befallen them in
succession had been by no means a disaster. The perpetual wars
they had maintained with each other came to an end; the miseries
their conflicts had engendered were exchanged for universal
peace.

Not only as a token of the conquest she had made but also as a
gratification to her pride, the conquering republic brought the
gods of the vanquished peoples to Rome. With disdainful
toleration, she permitted the worship of them all. That paramount
authority exercised by each divinity in his original seat
disappeared at once in the crowd of gods and goddesses among whom
he had been brought. Already, as we have seen, through
geographical discoveries and philosophical criticism, faith in
the religion of the old days had been profoundly shaken. It was,
by this policy of Rome, brought to an end.

MONOTHEISM IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE. The kings of all the conquered
provinces had vanished; in their stead one emperor had come. The
gods also had disappeared. Considering the connection which in
all ages has existed between political and religious ideas, it
was then not at all strange that polytheism should manifest a
tendency to pass into monotheism. Accordingly, divine honors were
paid at first to the deceased and at length to the living
emperor.

The facility with which gods were thus called into existence had
a powerful moral effect. The manufacture of a new one cast
ridicule on the origin of the old Incarnation in the East and
apotheosis in the West were fast filling Olympus with divinities.
In the East, gods descended from heaven, and were made incarnate
in men; in the West, men ascended from earth, and took their seat
among the gods. It was not the importation of Greek skepticism
that made Rome skeptical. The excesses of religion itself sapped
the foundations of faith.

Not with equal rapidity did all classes of the population adopt
monotheistic views. The merchants and lawyers and soldiers, who
by the nature of their pursuits are more familiar with the
vicissitudes of life, and have larger intellectual views, were
the first to be affected, the land laborers and farmers the last.

THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY When the empire in a military and
political sense had reached its culmination, in a religious and
social aspect it had attained its height of immorality. It had
become thoroughly epicurean; its maxim was, that life should be
made a feast, that virtue is only the seasoning of pleasure, and
temperance the means of prolonging it. Dining-rooms glittering
with gold and incrusted with gems, slaves in superb apparel, the
fascinations of female society where all the women were
dissolute, magnificent baths, theatres, gladiators, such were the
objects of Roman desire. The conquerors of the world had
discovered that the only thing worth worshiping is Force. By it
all things might be secured, all that toil and trade had
laboriously obtained. The confiscation of goods and lands, the
taxation of provinces, were the reward of successful warfare; and
the emperor was the symbol of force. There was a social splendor,
but it was the phosphorescent corruption of the ancient
Mediterranean world.

In one of the Eastern provinces, Syria, some persons in very
humble life had associated themselves together for benevolent and
religious purposes. The doctrines they held were in harmony with
that sentiment of universal brotherhood arising from the
coalescence of the conquered kingdoms. They were doctrines
inculcated by Jesus.

The Jewish people at that time entertained a belief, founded on
old traditions, that a deliverer would arise among them, who
would restore them to their ancient splendor. The disciples of
Jesus regarded him as this long-expected Messiah. But the
priesthood, believing that the doctrines he taught were
prejudicial to their interests, denounced him to the Roman
governor, who, to satisfy their clamors, reluctantly delivered
him over to death.

His doctrines of benevolence and human brotherhood outlasted that
event. The disciples, instead of scattering, organized. They
associated themselves on a principle of communism, each throwing
into the common stock whatever property he possessed, and all his
gains. The widows and orphans of the community were thus
supported, the poor and the sick sustained. From this germ was
developed a new, and as the events proved, all-powerful
society--the Church; new, for nothing of the kind had existed in
antiquity; powerful, for the local churches, at first isolated,
soon began to confederate for their common interest. Through this
organization Christianity achieved all her political triumphs.

As we have said, the military domination of Rome had brought
about universal peace, and had generated a sentiment of
brotherhood among the vanquished nations. Things were, therefore,
propitious for the rapid diffusion of the newly-established--the
Christian-- principle throughout the empire. It spread from Syria
through all Asia Minor, and successively reached Cyprus, Greece,
Italy, eventually extending westward as far as Gaul and Britain.

Its propagation was hastened by missionaries who made it known in
all directions. None of the ancient classical philosophies had
ever taken advantage of such a means.

Political conditions determined the boundaries of the new
religion. Its limits were eventually those of the Roman Empire;
Rome, doubtfully the place of death of Peter, not Jerusalem,
indisputably the place of the death of our Savior, became the
religious capital. It was better to have possession of the
imperial seven hilled city, than of Gethsemane and Calvary with
all their holy souvenirs.

IT GATHERS POLITICAL POWER. For many years Christianity
manifested itself as a system enjoining three things--toward God
veneration, in personal life purity, in social life benevolence.
In its early days of feebleness it made proselytes only by
persuasion, but, as it increased in numbers and influence, it
began to exhibit political tendencies, a disposition to form a
government within the government, an empire within the empire.
These tendencies it has never since lost. They are, in truth, the
logical result of its development. The Roman emperors,
discovering that it was absolutely incompatible with the imperial
system, tried to put it down by force. This was in accordance
with the spirit of their military maxims, which had no other
means but force for the establishment of conformity.

In the winter A.D. 302-'3, the Christian soldiers in some of the
legions refused to join in the time-honored solemnities for
propitiating the gods. The mutiny spread so quickly, the
emergency became so pressing, that the Emperor Diocletian was
compelled to hold a council for the purpose of determining what
should be done. The difficulty of the position may perhaps be
appreciated when it is understood that the wife and the daughter
of Diocletian himself were Christians. He was a man of great
capacity and large political views; he recognized in the
opposition that must be made to the new party a political
necessity, yet he expressly enjoined that there should be no
bloodshed. But who can control an infuriated civil commotion? The
church of Nicomedia was razed to the ground; in retaliation the
imperial palace was set on fire, an edict was openly insulted and
torn down. The Christian officers in the army were cashiered; in
all directions, martyrdoms and massacres were taking place. So
resistless was the march of events, that not even the emperor
himself could stop the persecution.

THE FIRST CHRISTIAN EMPEROR. It had now become evident that the
Christians constituted a powerful party in the state, animated
with indignation at the atrocities they had suffered, and
determined to endure them no longer. After the abdication of
Diocletian (A.D. 305), Constantine, one of the competitors for
the purple, perceiving the advantages that would accrue to him
from such a policy, put himself forth as the head of the
Christian party. This gave him, in every part of the empire, men
and women ready to encounter fire and sword in his behalf; it
gave him unwavering adherents in every legion of the armies. In a
decisive battle, near the Milvian bridge, victory crowned his
schemes. The death of Maximin, and subsequently that of Licinius,
removed all obstacles. He ascended the throne of the Caesars--the
first Christian emperor.

Place, profit, power--these were in view of whoever now joined
the conquering sect. Crowds of worldly persons, who cared nothing
about its religious ideas, became its warmest supporters. Pagans
at heart, their influence was soon manifested in the paganization
of Christianity that forthwith ensued. The emperor, no better
than they, did nothing to check their proceedings. But he did not
personally conform to the ceremonial requirements of the Church
until the close of his evil life, A.D. 337.

TERTULLIAN'S EXPOSITION OF CHRISTIANITY. That we may clearly
appreciate the modifications now impressed on
Christianity--modifications which eventually brought it in
conflict with science--we must have, as a means of comparison, a
statement of what it was in its purer days. Such, fortunately, we
find in the "Apology or Defense of the Christians against the
Accusations of the Gentiles," written by Tertullian, at Rome,
during the persecution of Severus. He addressed it, not to the
emperor, but to the magistrates who sat in judgment on the
accused. It is a solemn and most earnest expostulation, setting
forth all that could be said in explanation of the subject, a
representation of the belief and cause of the Christians made in
the imperial city in the face of the whole world, not a querulous
or passionate ecclesiastical appeal, but a grave historical
document. It has ever been looked upon as one of the ablest of
the early Christian works. Its date is about A.D. 200.

With no inconsiderable skill Tertullian opens his argument. He
tells the magistrates that Christianity is a stranger upon earth,
and that she expects to meet with enemies in a country which is
not her own. She only asks that she may not be condemned unheard,
and that Roman magistrates will permit her to defend herself;
that the laws of the empire will gather lustre, if judgment be
passed upon her after she has been tried but not if she is
sentenced without a hearing of her cause; that it is unjust to
hate a thing of which we are ignorant, even though it may be a
thing worthy of hate; that the laws of Rome deal with actions,
not with mere names; but that, notwithstanding this, persons have
been punished because they were called Christians, and that
without any accusation of crime.

He then advances to an exposition of the origin, the nature, and
the effects of Christianity, stating that it is founded on the
Hebrew Scriptures, which are the most venerable of all books. He
says to the magistrates: "The books of Moses, in which God has
inclosed, as in a treasure, all the religion of the Jews, and
consequently all the Christian religion, reach far beyond the
oldest you have, even beyond all your public monuments, the
establishment of your state, the foundation of many great
cities--all that is most advanced by you in all ages of history,
and memory of times; the invention of letters, which are the
interpreters of sciences and the guardians of all excellent
things. I think I may say more--beyond your gods, your temples,
your oracles and sacrifices. The author of those books lived a
thousand years before the siege of Troy, and more than fifteen
hundred before Homer." Time is the ally of truth, and wise men
believe nothing but what is certain, and what has been verified
by time. The principal authority of these Scriptures is derived
from their venerable antiquity. The most learned of the
Ptolemies, who was surnamed Philadelphus, an accomplished prince,
by the advice of Demetrius Phalareus, obtained a copy of these
holy books. It may be found at this day in his library. The
divinity of these Scriptures is proved by this, that all that is
done in our days may be found predicted in them; they contain all
that has since passed in the view of men.

Is not the accomplishment of a prophecy a testimony to its truth?
Seeing that events which are past have vindicated these
prophecies, shall we be blamed for trusting them in events that
are to come? Now, as we believe things that have been prophesied
and have come to pass, so we believe things that have been told
us, but not yet come to pass, because they have all been foretold
by the same Scriptures, as well those that are verified every day
as those that still remain to be fulfilled.

These Holy Scriptures teach us that there is one God, who made
the world out of nothing, who, though daily seen, is invisible;
his infiniteness is known only to himself; his immensity
conceals, but at the same time discovers him. He has ordained for
men, according to their lives, rewards and punishments; he will
raise all the dead that have ever lived from the creation of the
world, will command them to reassume their bodies, and thereupon
adjudge them to felicity that has so end, or to eternal flames.
The fires of hell are those hidden flames which the earth shuts
up in her bosom. He has in past times sent into the world
preachers or prophets. The prophets of those old times were Jews;
they addressed their oracles, for such they were, to the Jews,
who have stored them up in the Scriptures. On them, as has been
said, Christianity is founded, though the Christian differs in
his ceremonies from the Jew. We are accused of worshiping a man,
and not the God of the Jews. Not so. The honor we bear to Christ
does not derogate from the honor we bear to God.

On account of the merit of these ancient patriarchs, the Jews
were the only beloved people of God; he delighted to be in
communication with them by his own mouth. By him they were raised
to admirable greatness. But with perversity they wickedly ceased
to regard him; they changed his laws into a profane worship. He
warned them that he would take to himself servants more faithful
than they, and, for their crime, punished them by driving them
forth from their country. They are now spread all over the world;
they wander in all parts; they cannot enjoy the air they breathed
at their birth; they have neither man nor God for their king. As
he threatened them, so he has done. He has taken, in all nations
and countries of the earth, people more faithful than they.
Through his prophets he had declared that these should have
greater favors, and that a Messiah should come, to publish a new
law among them. This Messiah was Jesus, who is also God. For God
may be derived from God, as the light of a candle may be derived
from the light of another candle. God and his Son are the
self-same God--a light is the same light as that from which it
was taken.

The Scriptures make known two comings of the Son of God; the
first in humility, the second at the day of judgment, in power.
The Jews might have known all this from the prophets, but their
sins have so blinded them that they did not recognize him at his
first coming, and are still vainly expecting him. They believed
that all the miracles wrought by him were the work of magic. The
doctors of the law and the chief priests were envious of him;
they denounced him to Pilate. He was crucified, died, was buried,
and after three days rose again. For forty days he remained among
his disciples. Then he was environed in a cloud, and rose up to
heaven--a truth far more certain than any human testimonies
touching the ascension of Romulus or of any other Roman prince
mounting up to the same place.

Tertullian then describes the origin and nature of devils, who,
under Satan, their prince, produce diseases, irregularities of
the air, plagues, and the blighting of the blossoms of the earth,
who seduce men to offer sacrifices, that they may have the blood
of the victims, which is their food. They are as nimble as the
birds, and hence know every thing that is passing upon earth;
they live in the air, and hence can spy what is going on in
heaven; for this reason they can impose on men reigned
prophecies, and deliver oracles. Thus they announced in Rome that
a victory would be obtained over King Perseus, when in truth they
knew that the battle was already won. They falsely cure diseases;
for, taking possession of the body of a man, they produce in him
a distemper, and then ordaining some remedy to he used, they
cease to afflict him, and men think that a cure has taken place.

Though Christians deny that the emperor is a god, they
nevertheless pray for his prosperity, because the general
dissolution that threatens the universe, the conflagration of the
world, is retarded so long as the glorious majesty of the
triumphant Roman Empire shall last. They desire not to be present
at the subversion of all Nature. They acknowledge only one
republic, but it is the whole world; they constitute one body,
worship one God, and all look forward to eternal happiness. Not
only do they pray for the emperor and the magistrates, but also
for peace. They read the Scriptures to nourish their faith, lift
up their hope, and strengthen the confidence they have in God.
They assemble to exhort one another; they remove sinners from
their societies; they have bishops who preside over them,
approved by the suffrages of those whom they are to conduct. At
the end of each month every one contributes if he will, but no
one is constrained to give; the money gathered in this manner is
the pledge of piety; it is not consumed in eating and drinking,
but in feeding the poor, and burying them, in comforting children
that are destitute of parents and goods, in helping old men who
have spent the best of their days in the service of the faithful,
in assisting those who have lost by shipwreck what they had, and
those who are condemned to the mines, or have been banished to
islands, or shut up in prisons, because they professed the
religion of the true God. There is but one thing that Christians
have not in common, and that one thing is their wives. They do
not feast as if they should die to-morrow, nor build as if they
should never die. The objects of their life are innocence,
justice, patience, temperance, chastity.

To this noble exposition of Christian belief and life in his day,
Tertullian does not hesitate to add an ominous warning to the
magistrates he is addressing-- ominous, for it was a forecast of
a great event soon to come to pass: "Our origin is but recent,
yet already we fill all that your power acknowledges--cities,
fortresses, islands, provinces, the assemblies of the people, the
wards of Rome, the palace, the senate, the public places, and
especially the armies. We have left you nothing but your temples.
Reflect what wars we are able to undertake! With what promptitude
might we not arm ourselves were we not restrained by our
religion, which teaches us that it is better to be killed than to
kill!"

Before he closes his defense, Tertullian renews an assertion
which, carried into practice, as it subsequently was, affected
the intellectual development of all Europe. He declares that the
Holy Scriptures are a treasure from which all the true wisdom in
the world has been drawn; that every philosopher and every poet
is indebted to them. He labors to show that they are the standard
and measure of all truth, and that whatever is inconsistent with
them must necessarily be false.

From Tertullian's able work we see what Christianity was while it
was suffering persecution and struggling for existence. We have
now to see what it became when in possession of imperial power.
Great is the difference between Christianity under Severus and
Christianity after Constantine. Many of the doctrines which at
the latter period were preeminent, in the former were unknown.

PAGANIZATION OF CHRISTIANITY. Two causes led to the amalgamation
of Christianity with paganism: 1. The political necessities of
the new dynasty; 2. The policy adopted by the new religion to
insure its spread.

1. Though the Christian party had proved itself sufficiently
strong to give a master to the empire, it was never sufficiently
strong to destroy its antagonist, paganism. The issue of the
struggle between them was an amalgamation of the principles of
both. In this, Christianity differed from Mohammedanism, which
absolutely annihilated its antagonist, and spread its own
doctrines without adulteration.

Constantine continually showed by his acts that he felt he must
be the impartial sovereign of all his people, not merely the
representative of a successful faction. Hence, if he built
Christian churches, he also restored pagan temples; if he
listened to the clergy, he also consulted the haruspices; if he
summoned the Council of Nicea, he also honored the statue of
Fortune; if he accepted the rite of baptism, he also struck a
medal bearing his title of "God." His statue, on the top of the
great porphyry pillar at Constantinople, consisted of an ancient
image of Apollo, whose features were replaced by those of the
emperor, and its head surrounded by the nails feigned to have
been used at the crucifixion of Christ, arranged so as to form a
crown of glory.

Feeling that there must be concessions to the defeated pagan
party, in accordance with its ideas, he looked with favor on the
idolatrous movements of his court. In fact, the leaders of these
movements were persons of his own family.

CHRISTIANITY UNDER CONSTANTINE. 2. To the emperor--a mere
worldling--a man without any religious convictions, doubtless it
appeared best for himself, best for the empire, and best for the
contending parties, Christian and pagan, to promote their union
or amalgamation as much as possible. Even sincere Christians do
not seem to have been averse to this; perhaps they believed that
the new doctrines would diffuse most thoroughly by incorporating
in themselves ideas borrowed from the old, that Truth would
assert her self in the end, and the impurity be cast off. In
accomplishing this amalgamation, Helena, the empress-mother,
aided by the court ladies, led the way. For her gratification
there were discovered, in a cavern at Jerusalem, wherein they had
lain buried for more than three centuries, the Savior's cross,
and those of the two thieves, the inscription, and the nails that
had been used. They were identified by miracle. A true
relic-worship set in. The superstition of the old Greek times
reappeared; the times when the tools with which the Trojan horse
was made might still be seen at Metapontum, the sceptre of Pelops
at Chaeroneia, the spear of Achilles at Phaselis, the sword of
Memnon at Nicomedia, when the Tegeates could show the hide of the
Calydonian boar and very many cities boasted their possession of
the true palladium of Troy; when there were statues of Minerva
that could brandish spears, paintings that could blush, images
that could sweat, and endless shrines and sanctuaries at which
miracle-cures could be performed.

As years passed on, the faith described by Tertullian was
transmuted into one more fashionable and more debased. It was
incorporated with the old Greek mythology. Olympus was restored,
but the divinities passed under other names. The more powerful
provinces insisted on the adoption of their time-honored
conceptions. Views of the Trinity, in accordance with Egyptian
traditions, were established. Not only was the adoration of Isis
under a new name restored, but even her image, standing on the
crescent moon, reappeared. The well-known effigy of that goddess,
with the infant Horus in her arms, has descended to our days in
the beautiful, artistic creations of the Madonna and Child. Such
restorations of old conceptions under novel forms were everywhere
received with delight. When it was announced to the Ephesians
that the Council of that place, headed by Cyril, had decreed that
the Virgin should be called "the Mother of God," with tears of
joy they embraced the knees of their bishop; it was the old
instinct peeping out; their ancestors would have done the same
for Diana.

This attempt to conciliate worldly converts, by adopting their
ideas and practices, did not pass without remonstrance from those
whose intelligence discerned the motive. "You have," says Faustus
to Augustine, "substituted your agapae for the sacrifices of the
pagans; for their idols your martyrs, whom you serve with the
very same honors. You appease the shades of the dead with wine
and feasts; you celebrate the solemn festivities of the Gentiles,
their calends, and their solstices; and, as to their manners,
those you have retained without any alteration. Nothing
distinguishes you from the pagans, except that you hold your
assemblies apart from them." Pagan observances were everywhere
introduced. At weddings it was the custom to sing hymns to Venus.

INTRODUCTION OF ROMAN RITES. Let us pause here a moment, and see,
in anticipation, to what a depth of intellectual degradation this
policy of paganization eventually led. Heathen rites were
adopted, a pompous and splendid ritual, gorgeous robes, mitres,
tiaras, wax-tapers, processional services, lustrations, gold and
silver vases, were introduced. The Roman lituus, the chief ensign
of the augurs, became the crozier. Churches were built over the
tombs of martyrs, and consecrated with rites borrowed from the
ancient laws of the Roman pontiffs. Festivals and commemorations
of martyrs multiplied with the numberless fictitious discoveries
of their remains. Fasting became the grand means of repelling the
devil and appeasing God; celibacy the greatest of the virtues.
Pilgrimages. were made to Palestine and the tombs of the martyrs.
Quantities of dust and earth were brought from the Holy Land and
sold at enormous prices, as antidotes against devils. The virtues
of consecrated water were upheld. Images and relics were
introduced into the churches, and worshiped after the fashion of
the heathen gods. It was given out that prodigies and miracles
were to be seen in certain places, as in the heathen times. The
happy souls of departed Christians were invoked; it was believed
that they were wandering about the world, or haunting their
graves. There was a multiplication of temples, altars, and
penitential garments. The festival of the purification of the
Virgin was invented to remove the uneasiness of heathen converts
on account of the loss of their Lupercalia, or feasts of Pan. The
worship of images, of fragments of the cross, or bones, nails,
and other relics, a true fetich worship, was cultivated. Two
arguments were relied on for the authenticity of these
objects--the authority of the Church, and the working of
miracles. Even the worn-out clothing of the saints and the earth
of their graves were venerated. From Palestine were brought what
were affirmed to be the skeletons of St. Mark and St. James, and
other ancient worthies. The apotheosis of the old Roman times was
replaced by canonization; tutelary saints succeed to local
mythological divinities. Then came the mystery of
transubstantiation, or the conversion of bread and wine by the
priest into the flesh and blood of Christ. As centuries passed,
the paganization became more and more complete. Festivals sacred
to the memory of the lance with which the Savior's side was
pierced, the nails that fastened him to the cross, and the crown
of thorns, were instituted. Though there were several abbeys that
possessed this last peerless relic, no one dared to say that it
was impossible they could all be authentic.

We may read with advantage the remarks made by Bishop Newton on
this paganization of Christianity. He asks: "Is not the worship
of saints and angels now in all respects the same that the
worship of demons was in former times? The name only is
different, the thing is identically the same, . . . the deified
men of the Christians are substituted for the deified men of the
heathens. The promoters of this worship were sensible that it was
the same, and that the one succeeded to the other; and, as the
worship is the same, so likewise it is performed with the same
ceremonies. The burning of incense or perfumes on several altars
at one and the same time; the sprinkling of holy water, or a
mixture of salt and common water, at going into and coming out of
places of public worship; the lighting up of a great number of
lamps and wax-candles in broad daylight before altars and statues
of these deities; the hanging up of votive offerings and rich
presents as attestations of so many miraculous cures and
deliverances from diseases and dangers; the canonization or
deification of deceased worthies; the assigning of distinct
provinces or prefectures to departed heroes and saints; the
worshiping and adoring of the dead in their sepulchres, shrines,
and relics; the consecrating and bowing down to images; the
attributing of miraculous powers and virtues to idols; the
setting up of little oratories, altars, and statues in the
streets and highways, and on the tops of mountains; the carrying
of images and relics in pompous procession, with numerous lights
and with music and singing; flagellations at solemn seasons under
the notion of penance; a great variety of religious orders and
fraternities of priests; the shaving of priests, or the tonsure
as it is called, on the crown of their heads; the imposing of
celibacy and vows of chastity on the religious of both sexes--all
these and many more rites and ceremonies are equally parts of
pagan and popish superstition. Nay, the very same temples, the
very same images, which were once consecrated to Jupiter and the
other demons, are now consecrated to the Virgin Mary and the
other saints. The very same rites and inscriptions are ascribed
to both, the very same prodigies and miracles are related of
these as of those. In short, almost the whole of paganism is
converted and applied to popery; the one is manifestly formed
upon the same plan and principles as the other; so that there is
not only a conformity, but even a uniformity, in the worship of
ancient and modern, of heathen and Christian Rome."

DEBASEMENT OF CHRISTIANITY. Thus far Bishop Newton; but to return
to the times of Constantine: though these concessions to old and
popular ideas were permitted and even encouraged, the dominant
religious party never for a moment hesitated to enforce its
decisions by the aid of the civil power-- an aid which was freely
given. Constantine thus carried into effect the acts of the
Council of Nicea. In the affair of Arius, he even ordered that
whoever should find a book of that heretic, and not burn it,
should be put to death. In like manner Nestor was by Theodosius
the Younger banished to an Egyptian oasis.

The pagan party included many of the old aristocratic families of
the empire; it counted among its adherents all the disciples of
the old philosophical schools. It looked down on its antagonist
with contempt. It asserted that knowledge is to be obtained only
by the laborious exercise of human observation and human reason.

The Christian party asserted that all knowledge is to be found in
the Scriptures and in the traditions of the Church; that, in the
written revelation, God had not only given a criterion of truth,
but had furnished us all that he intended us to know. The
Scriptures, therefore, contain the sum, the end of all knowledge.
The clergy, with the emperor at their back, would endure no
intellectual competition.

Thus came into prominence what were termed sacred and profane
knowledge; thus came into presence of each other two opposing
parties, one relying on human reason as its guide, the other on
revelation. Paganism leaned for support on the learning of its
philosophers, Christianity on the inspiration of its Fathers

The Church thus set herself forth as the depository and arbiter
of knowledge; she was ever ready to resort to the civil power to
compel obedience to her decisions. She thus took a course which
determined her whole future career: she became a stumbling-block
in the intellectual advancement of Europe for more than a
thousand years.

The reign of Constantine marks the epoch of the transformation of
Christianity from a religion into a political system; and though,
in one sense, that system was degraded into an idolatry, in
another it had risen into a development of the old Greek
mythology. The maxim holds good in the social as well as in the
mechanical world, that, when two bodies strike, the form of both
is changed. Paganism was modified by Christianity; Christianity
by Paganism.

THE TRINITARIAN DISPUTE. In the Trinitarian controversy, which
first broke out in Egypt--Egypt, the land of Trinities--the chief
point in discussion was to define the position of "the Son."
There lived in Alexandria a presbyter of the name of Arius, a
disappointed candidate for the office of bishop. He took the
ground that there was a time when, from the very nature of
sonship, the Son did not exist, and a time at which he commenced
to be, asserting that it is the necessary condition of the filial
relation that a father must be older than his son. But this
assertion evidently denied the coeternity of the three persons of
the Trinity; it suggested a subordination or inequality among
them, and indeed implied a time when the Trinity did not exist.
Hereupon, the bishop, who had been the successful competitor
against Arius, displayed his rhetorical powers in public debates
on the question, and, the strife spreading, the Jews and pagans,
who formed a very large portion of the population of Alexandria,
amused themselves with theatrical representations of the contest
on the stage--the point of their burlesques being the equality of
age of the Father and his Son.

Such was the violence the controversy at length assumed, that the
matter had to be referred to the emperor. At first he looked upon
the dispute as altogether frivolous, and perhaps in truth
inclined to the assertion of Arius, that in the very nature of
the thing a father must be older than his son. So great, however,
was the pressure laid upon him, that he was eventually compelled
to summon the Council of Nicea, which, to dispose of the
conflict, set forth a formulary or creed, and attached to it this
anathema: "The Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes
those who say that there was a time when the Son of God was not,
and that, before he was begotten, he was not, and that he was
made out of nothing, or out of another substance or essence, and
is created, or changeable, or alterable." Constantine at once
enforced the decision of the council by the civil power.

A few years subsequently the Emperor Theodosius prohibited
sacrifices, made the inspection of the entrails of animals a
capital offense, and forbade any one entering a temple. He
instituted Inquisitors of Faith, and ordained that all who did
not accord with the belief of Damasus, the Bishop of Rome, and
Peter, the Bishop of Alexandria, should be driven into exile, and
deprived of civil rights. Those who presumed to celebrate Easter
on the same day as the Jews, he condemned to death. The Greek
language was now ceasing to be known in the West, and true
learning was becoming extinct.

At this time the bishopric of Alexandria was held by one
Theophilus. An ancient temple of Osiris having been given to the
Christians of the city for the site of a church, it happened
that, in digging the foundation for the new edifice, the obscene
symbols of the former worship chanced to be found. These, with
more zeal than modesty, Theophilus exhibited in the market-place
to public derision. With less forbearance than the Christian
party showed when it was insulted in the theatre during the
Trinitarian dispute, the pagans resorted to violence, and a riot
ensued. They held the Serapion as their headquarters. Such were
the disorder and bloodshed that the emperor had to interfere. He
dispatched a rescript to Alexandria, enjoining the bishop,
Theophilus, to destroy the Serapion; and the great library, which
had been collected by the Ptolemies, and had escaped the fire of
Julius Caesar, was by that fanatic dispersed.

THE MURDER OF HYPATIA. The bishopric thus held by Theophilus was
in due time occupied by his nephew St. Cyril, who had commended
himself to the approval of the Alexandrian congregations as a
successful and fashionable preacher. It was he who had so much to
do with the introduction of the worship of the Virgin Mary. His
hold upon the audiences of the giddy city was, however, much
weakened by Hypatia, the daughter of Theon, the mathematician,
who not only distinguished herself by her expositions of the
doctrines of Plato and Aristotle, but also by her comments on the
writings of Apollonius and other geometers. Each day before her
academy stood a long train of chariots; her lecture-room was
crowded with the wealth and fashion of Alexandria. They came to
listen to her discourses on those questions which man in all ages
has asked, but which never yet have been answered: "What am I?
Where am I? What can I know?"

Hypatia and Cyril! Philosophy and bigotry. They cannot exist
together. So Cyril felt, and on that feeling he acted. As Hypatia
repaired to her academy, she was assaulted by Cyril's mob--a mob
of many monks. Stripped naked in the street, she was dragged into
a church, and there killed by the club of Peter the Reader. The
corpse was cut to pieces, the flesh was scraped from the bones
with shells, and the remnants cast into a fire. For this
frightful crime Cyril was never called to account. It seemed to
be admitted that the end sanctified the means.

So ended Greek philosophy in Alexandria, so came to an untimely
close the learning that the Ptolemies had done so much to
promote. The "Daughter Library," that of the Serapion, had been
dispersed. The fate of Hypatia was a warning to all who would
cultivate profane knowledge. Henceforth there was to be no
freedom for human thought. Every one must think as the
ecclesiastical authority ordered him, A.D. 414. In Athens itself
philosophy awaited its doom. Justinian at length prohibited its
teaching, and caused all its schools in that city to be closed.

PELAGIUS. While these events were transpiring in the Eastern
provinces of the Roman Empire, the spirit that had produced them
was displaying itself in the West. A British monk, who had
assumed the name of Pelagius, passed through Western Europe and
Northern Africa, teaching that death was not introduced into the
world by the sin of Adam; that on the contrary he was necessarily
and by nature mortal, and had he not sinned he would nevertheless
have died; that the consequences of his sins were confined to
himself, and did not affect his posterity. From these premises
Pelagius drew certain important theological conclusions.

At Rome, Pelagius had been received with favor; at Carthage, at
the instigation of St. Augustine, he was denounced. By a synod,
held at Diospolis, he was acquitted of heresy, but, on referring
the matter to the Bishop of Rome, Innocent I., he was, on the
contrary, condemned. It happened that at this moment Innocent
died, and his successor, Zosimus, annulled his judgment and
declared the opinions of Pelagius to be orthodox. These
contradictory decisions are still often referred to by the
opponents of papal infallibility. Things were in this state of
confusion, when the wily African bishops, through the influence
of Count Valerius, procured from the emperor an edict denouncing
Pelagins as a heretic; he and his accomplices were condemned to
exile and the forfeiture of their goods. To affirm that death was
in the world before the fall of Adam, was a state crime.

CONDEMNATION OF PELAGIUS. It is very instructive to consider the
principles on which this strange decision was founded. Since the
question was purely philosophical, one might suppose that it
would have been discussed on natural principles; instead of that,
theological considerations alone were adduced. The attentive
reader will have remarked, in Tertullian's statement of the
principles of Christianity, a complete absence of the doctrines
of original sin, total depravity, predestination, grace, and
atonement. The intention of Christianity, as set forth by him,
has nothing in common with the plan of salvation upheld two
centuries subsequently. It is to St. Augustine, a Carthaginian,
that we are indebted for the precision of our views on these
important points.

In deciding whether death had been in the world before the fall
of Adam, or whether it was the penalty inflicted on the world for
his sin, the course taken was to ascertain whether the views of
Pelagius were accordant or discordant not with Nature but with
the theological doctrines of St. Augustine. And the result has
been such as might be expected. The doctrine declared to be
orthodox by ecclesiastical authority is overthrown by the
unquestionable discoveries of modern science. Long before a human
being had appeared upon earth, millions of individuals--nay,
more, thousands of species and even genera--had died; those which
remain with us are an insignificant fraction of the vast hosts
that have passed away.

A consequence of great importance issued from the decision of the
Pelagian controversy. The book of Genesis had been made the basis
of Christianity. If, in a theological point of view, to its
account of the sin in the garden of Eden, and the transgression
and punishment of Adam, so much weight had been attached, it also
in a philosophical point of view became the grand authority of
Patristic science. Astronomy, geology, geography, anthropology,
chronology, and indeed all the various departments of human
knowledge, were made to conform to it.

ST. AUGUSTINE. As the doctrines of St. Augustine have had the
effect of thus placing theology in antagonism with science, it
may be interesting to examine briefly some of the more purely
philosophical views of that great man. For this purpose, we may
appropriately select portions of his study of the first chapter
of Genesis, as contained in the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth
books of his "Confessions."

These consist of philosophical discussions, largely interspersed
with rhapsodies. He prays that God will give him to understand
the Scriptures, and will open their meaning to him; he declares
that in them there is nothing superfluous, but that the words
have a manifold meaning.

The face of creation testifies that there has been a Creator; but
at once arises the question, "How and when did he make heaven and
earth? They could not have been made IN heaven and earth, the
world could not have been made IN the world, nor could they have
been made when there was nothing to make them of." The solution
of this fundamental inquiry St. Augustine finds in saying, "Thou
spakest, and they were made."

But the difficulty does not end here. St. Augustine goes on to
remark that the syllables thus uttered by God came forth in
succession, and there must have been some created thing to
express the words. This created thing must, therefore, have
existed before heaven and earth, and yet there could have been no
corporeal thing before heaven and earth. It must have been a
creature, because the words passed away and came to an end but we
know that "the word of the Lord endureth forever."

Moreover, it is plain that the words thus spoken could not have
been spoken successively, but simultaneously, else there would
have been time and change-- succession in its nature implying
time; whereas there was then nothing but eternity and
immortality. God knows and says eternally what takes place in
time.

CRITICISM OF ST. AUGUSTINE. St. Augustine then defines, not
without much mysticism, what is meant by the opening words of
Genesis: "In the beginning." He is guided to his conclusion by
another scriptural passage: "How wonderful are thy works, O Lord!
in wisdom hast thou made them all." This "wisdom" is "the
beginning," and in that beginning the Lord created the heaven and
the earth.

"But," he adds, "some one may ask, 'What was God doing before he
made the heaven and the earth? for, if at any particular moment
he began to employ himself, that means time, not eternity. In
eternity nothing transpires--the whole is present.' " In
answering this question, he cannot forbear one of those touches
of rhetoric for which he was so celebrated: "I will not answer
this question by saying that he was preparing hell for priers
into his mysteries. I say that, before God made heaven and earth,
he did not make any thing, for no creature could be made before
any creature was made. Time itself is a creature, and hence it
could not possibly exist before creation.

"What, then, is time? The past is not, the future is not, the
present--who can tell what it is, unless it be that which has no
duration between two nonentities? There is no such thing as 'a
long time,' or 'a short time,' for there are no such things as
the past and the future. They have no existence, except in the
soul."

The style in which St. Augustine conveyed his ideas is that of a
rhapsodical conversation with God. His works are an incoherent
dream. That the reader may appreciate this remark, I might copy
almost at random any of his paragraphs. The following is from the
twelfth book:

"This then, is what I conceive, O my God, when I hear thy
Scripture saying, In the beginning God made heaven and earth: and
the earth was invisible and without form, and darkness was upon
the deep, and not mentioning what day thou createdst them; this
is what I conceive, that because of the heaven of heavens--that
intellectual heaven, whose intelligences know all at once, not in
part, not darkly, not through a glass, but as a whole, in
manifestation, face to face; not this thing now, and that thing
anon; but (as I said) know all at once, without any succession of
times; and because of the earth, invisible and without form,
without any succession of times, which succession presents 'this
thing now, that thing anon;' because, where there is no form,
there is no distinction of things; it is, then, on account of
these two, a primitive formed, and a primitive formless; the one,
heaven, but the heaven of heavens; the other, earth, but the
earth movable and without form; because of these two do I
conceive, did thy Scripture say without mention of days, In the
beginning God created the heaven and the earth. For, forthwith it
subjoined what earth it spake of; and also in that the firmament
is recorded to be created the second day, and called heaven, it
conveys to us of which heaven he before spake, without mention of
days.

"Wondrous depth of thy words! whose surface behold! is before us,
inviting to little ones; yet are they a wondrous depth, O my God,
a wondrous depth! It is awful to look therein; an awfulness of
honor, and a trembling of love. The enemies thereof I hate
vehemently; O that thou wouldst slay them with thy two-edged
sword, that they might no longer be enemies to it: for so do I
love to have them slain unto themselves, that they may live unto
thee."

As an example of the hermeneutical manner in which St. Augustine
unfolded the concealed facts of the Scriptures, I may cite the
following from the thirteenth book of the "Confessions;" his
object is to show that the doctrine of the Trinity is contained
in the Mosaic narrative of the creation:

"Lo, now the Trinity appears unto me in a glass darkly, which is
thou my God, because thou, O Father, in him who is the beginning
of our wisdom, which is thy wisdom, born of thyself, equal unto
thee and coeternal, that is, in thy Son, createdst heaven and
earth. Much now have we said of the heaven of heavens, and of the
earth invisible and without form, and of the darksome deep, in
reference to the wandering instability of its spiritual
deformity, unless it had been converted unto him, from whom it
had its then degree of life, and by his enlightening became a
beauteous life, and the heaven of that heaven, which was
afterward set between water and water. And under the name of God,
I now held the Father, who made these things; and under the name
of the beginning, the Son, in whom he made these things; and
believing, as I did, my God as the Trinity, I searched further in
his holy words, and lo! thy Spirit moved upon the waters. Behold
the Trinity, my God!--Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost Creator of
all creation."

That I might convey to my reader a just impression of the
character of St. Augustine's philosophical writings, I have, in
the two quotations here given, substituted for my own translation
that of the Rev. Dr. Pusey, as contained in Vol. I. of the
"Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church," published at
Oxford, 1840.

Considering the eminent authority which has been attributed to
the writings of St. Augustine by the religious world for nearly
fifteen centuries, it is proper to speak of them with respect.
And indeed it is not necessary to do otherwise. The paragraphs
here quoted criticise themselves. No one did more than this
Father to bring science and religion into antagonism; it was
mainly he who diverted the Bible from its true office-- a guide
to purity of life--and placed it in the perilous position of
being the arbiter of human knowledge, an audacious tyranny over
the mind of man. The example once set, there was no want of
followers; the works of the great Greek philosophers were
stigmatized as profane; the transcendently glorious achievements
of the Museum of Alexandria were hidden from sight by a cloud of
ignorance, mysticism, and unintelligible jargon, out of which
there too often flashed the destroying lightnings of
ecclesiastical vengeance.


A divine revelation of science admits of no improvement, no
change, no advance. It discourages as needless, and indeed as
presumptuous, all new discovery, considering it as an unlawful
prying into things which it was the intention of God to conceal.

What, then, is that sacred, that revealed science, declared by
the Fathers to be the sum of all knowledge?

It likened all phenomena, natural and spiritual, to human acts.
It saw in the Almighty, the Eternal, only a gigantic man.

THE PATRISTIC PHILOSOPHY. As to the earth, it affirmed that it is
a flat surface, over which the sky is spread like a dome, or, as
St. Augustine tells us, is stretched like a skin. In this the sun
and moon and stars move, so that they may give light by day and
by night to man. The earth was made of matter created by God out
of nothing, and, with all the tribes of animals and plants
inhabiting it, was finished in six days. Above the sky or
firmament is heaven; in the dark and fiery space beneath the
earth is hell. The earth is the central and most important body
of the universe, all other things being intended for and
subservient to it.

As to man, he was made out of the dust of the earth. At first he
was alone, but subsequently woman was formed from one of his
ribs. He is the greatest and choicest of the works of God. He was
placed in a paradise near the banks of the Euphrates, and was
very wise and very pure; but, having tasted of the forbidden
fruit, and thereby broken the commandment given to him, he was
condemned to labor and to death.

The descendants of the first man, undeterred by his punishment,
pursued such a career of wickedness that it became necessary to
destroy them. A deluge, therefore, flooded the face of the earth,
and rose over the tops of the mountains. Having accomplished its
purpose, the water was dried up by a wind.

From this catastrophe Noah and his three sons, with their wives,
were saved in an ark. Of these sons, Shem remained in Asia and
repeopled it. Ham peopled Africa; Japhet, Europe. As the Fathers
were not acquainted with the existence of America, they did not
provide an ancestor for its people.

Let us listen to what some of these authorities say in support of
their assertions. Thus Lactantius, referring to the heretical
doctrine of the globular form of the earth, remarks: "Is it
possible that men can be so absurd as to believe that the crops
and the trees on the other side of the earth hang downward, and
that men have their feet higher than their heads? If you ask them
how they defend these monstrosities, how things do not fall away
from the earth on that side, they reply that the nature of things
is such that heavy bodies tend toward the centre, like the spokes
of a wheel, while light bodies, as clouds, smoke, fire, tend from
the centre to the heavens on all sides. Now, I am really at a
loss what to say of those who, when they have once gone wrong,
steadily persevere in their folly, and defend one absurd opinion
by another." On the question of the antipodes, St. Augustine
asserts that "it is impossible there should be inhabitants on the
opposite side of the earth, since no such race is recorded by
Scripture among the descendants of Adam." Perhaps, however, the
most unanswerable argument against the sphericity of the earth
was this, that "in the day of judgment, men on the other side of
a globe could not see the Lord descending through the air."

It is unnecessary for me to say any thing respecting the
introduction of death into the world, the continual interventions
of spiritual agencies in the course of events, the offices of
angels and devils, the expected conflagration of the earth, the
tower of Babel, the confusion of tongues, the dispersion of
mankind, the interpretation of natural phenomena, as eclipses,
the rainbow, etc. Above all, I abstain from commenting on the
Patristic conceptions of the Almighty; they are too
anthropomorphic, and wanting in sublimity.

Perhaps, however, I may quote from Cosmas Indicopleustes the
views that were entertained in the sixth century. He wrote a work
entitled "Christian Topography," the chief intent of which was to
confute the heretical opinion of the globular form of the earth,
and the pagan assertion that there is a temperate zone on the
southern side of the torrid. He affirms that, according to the
true orthodox system of geography, the earth is a quadrangular
plane, extending four hundred days' journey east and west, and
exactly half as much north and south; that it is inclosed by
mountains, on which the sky rests; that one on the north side,
huger than the others, by intercepting the rays of the sun,
produces night; and that the plane of the earth is not set
exactly horizontally, but with a little inclination from the
north: hence the Euphrates, Tigris, and other rivers, running
southward, are rapid; but the Nile, having to run up-hill, has
necessarily a very slow current.

The Venerable Bede, writing in the seventh century, tells us that
"the creation was accomplished in six days, and that the earth is
its centre and its primary object. The heaven is of a fiery and
subtile nature, round, and equidistant in every part, as a canopy
from the centre of the earth. It turns round every day with
ineffable rapidity, only moderated by the resistance of the seven
planets, three above the sun--Saturn, Jupiter, Mars-- then the
sun; three below--Venus, Mercury, the moon. The stars go round in
their fixed courses, the northern perform the shortest circle.
The highest heaven has its proper limit; it contains the angelic
virtues who descend upon earth, assume ethereal bodies, perform
human functions, and return. The heaven is tempered with glacial
waters, lest it should be set on fire. The inferior heaven is
called the firmament, because it separates the superincumbent
waters from the waters below. The firmamental waters are lower
than the spiritual heaven, higher than all corporeal beings,
reserved, some say, for a second deluge; others, more truly, to
temper the fire of the fixed stars."

Was it for this preposterous scheme--this product of ignorance
and audacity--that the works of the Greek philosophers were to be
given up? It was none too soon that the great critics who
appeared at the Reformation, by comparing the works of these
writers with one another, brought them to their proper level, and
taught us to look upon them all with contempt.

Of this presumptuous system, the strangest part was its logic,
the nature of its proofs. It relied upon miracle-evidence. A fact
was supposed to he demonstrated by an astounding illustration of
something else! An Arabian writer, referring to this, says: "If a
conjurer should say to me, 'Three are more than ten, and in proof
of it I will change this stick into a serpent,' I might be
surprised at his legerdemain, but I certainly should not admit
his assertion." Yet, for more than a thousand years, such was the
accepted logic, and all over Europe propositions equally absurd
were accepted on equally ridiculous proof.

Since the party that had become dominant in the empire could not
furnish works capable of intellectual competition with those of
the great pagan authors, and since it was impossible for it to
accept a position of inferiority, there arose a political
necessity for the discouragement, and even persecution, of
profane learning. The persecution of the Platonists under
Valentinian was due to that necessity. They were accused of
magic, and many of them were put to death. The profession of
philosophy had become dangerous--it was a state crime. In its
stead there arose a passion for the marvelous, a spirit of
superstition. Egypt exchanged the great men, who had made her
Museum immortal, for bands of solitary monks and sequestered
virgins, with which she was overrun.



CHAPTER III.

CONFLICT RESPECTING THE DOCTRINE OF THE UNITY OF GOD.--THE FIRST
OR SOUTHERN REFORMATION.

The Egyptians insist on the introduction of the worship of the
Virgin Mary--They are resisted by Nestor, the Patriarch of
Constantinople, but eventually, through their influence with the
emperor, cause Nestor's exile and the dispersion of his
followers.

Prelude to the Southern Reformation--The Persian attack; its
moral effects.

The Arabian Reformation.--Mohammed is brought in contact with the
Nestorians--He adopts and extends their principles, rejecting the
worship of the Virgin, the doctrine of the Trinity, and every
thing in opposition to the unity of God.--He extinguishes
idolatry in Arabia, by force, and prepares to make war on the
Roman Empire.--His successors conquer Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor,
North Africa, Spain, and invade France.

As the result of this conflict, the doctrine of the unity of God
was established in the greater part of the Roman Empire--The
cultivation of science was restored, and Christendom lost many of
her most illustrious capitals, as Alexandria, Carthage, and,
above all, Jerusalem.


THE policy of the Byzantine court had given to primitive
Christianity a paganized form, which it had spread over all the
idolatrous populations constituting the empire. There had been an
amalgamation of the two parties. Christianity had modified
paganism, paganism had modified Christianity. The limits of this
adulterated religion were the confines of the Roman Empire. With
this great extension there had come to the Christian party
political influence and wealth. No insignificant portion of the
vast public revenues found their way into the treasuries of the
Church. As under such circumstances must ever be the case, there
were many competitors for the spoils--men who, under the mask of
zeal for the predominant faith, sought only the enjoyment of its
emoluments.

ECCLESIASTICAL DISPUTES. Under the early emperors, conquest had
reached its culmination; the empire was completed; there remained
no adequate objects for military life; the days of
war-peculation, and the plundering of provinces, were over. For
the ambitious, however, another path was open; other objects
presented. A successful career in the Church led to results not
unworthy of comparison with those that in former days had been
attained by a successful career in the army.

The ecclesiastical, and indeed, it may be said, much of the
political history of that time, turns on the struggles of the
bishops of the three great metropolitan cities--Constantinople,
Alexandria, Rome--for supremacy: Constantinople based her claims
on the fact that she was the existing imperial city; Alexandria
pointed to her commercial and literary position; Rome, to her
souvenirs. But the Patriarch of Constantinople labored under the
disadvantage that he was too closely under the eye, and, as he
found to his cost, too often under the hand, of the emperor.
Distance gave security to the episcopates of Alexandria and Rome.

ECCLESIASTICAL DISPUTES. Religious disputations in the East have
generally turned on diversities of opinion respecting the nature
and attributes of God; in the West, on the relations and life of
man. This peculiarity has been strikingly manifested in the
transformations that Christianity has undergone in Asia and
Europe respectively. Accordingly,  at the time of which we are
speaking, all the Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire exhibited
an intellectual anarchy. There were fierce quarrels respecting
the Trinity, the essence of God, the position of the Son, the
nature of the Holy Spirit, the influences of the Virgin Mary. The
triumphant clamor first of one then of another sect was
confirmed, sometimes by miracle-proof, sometimes by bloodshed. No
attempt was ever made to submit the rival opinions to logical
examination. All parties, however, agreed in this, that the
imposture of the old classical pagan forms of faith was
demonstrated by the facility with which they had been overthrown.
The triumphant ecclesiastics proclaimed that the images of the
gods had failed to defend themselves when the time of trial came.

Polytheistic ideas have always been held in repute by the
southern European races, the Semitic have maintained the unity of
God. Perhaps this is due to the fact, as a recent author has
suggested, that a diversified landscape of mountains and valleys,
islands, and rivers, and gulfs, predisposes man to a belief in a
multitude of divinities. A vast sandy desert, the illimitable
ocean, impresses him with an idea of the oneness of God.

Political reasons had led the emperors to look with favor on the
admixture of Christianity and paganism, and doubtless by this
means the bitterness of the rivalry between those antagonists was
somewhat abated. The heaven of the popular, the fashionable
Christianity was the old Olympus, from which the venerable Greek
divinities had been removed. There, on a great white throne, sat
God the Father, on his right the Son, and then the blessed
Virgin, clad in a golden robe, and "covered with various female
adornments;" on the left sat God the Holy Ghost. Surrounding
these thrones were hosts of angels with their harps. The vast
expanse beyond was filled with tables, seated at which the happy
spirits of the just enjoyed a perpetual banquet.

If, satisfied with this picture of happiness, illiterate persons
never inquired how the details of such a heaven were carried out,
or how much pleasure there could be in the ennui of such an
eternally unchanging, unmoving scene, it was not so with the
intelligent. As we are soon to see, there were among the higher
ecclesiastics those who rejected with sentiments of horror these
carnal, these materialistic conceptions, and raised their
protesting voices in vindication of the attributes of the
Omnipresent, the Almighty God.

EGYPTIAN DOCTRINES. In the paganization of religion, now in all
directions taking place, it became the interest of every bishop
to procure an adoption of the ideas which, time out of mind, had
been current in the community under his charge. The Egyptians had
already thus forced on the Church their peculiar Trinitarian
views; and now they were resolved that, under the form of the
adoration of the Virgin Mary, the worship of Isis should be
restored.

THE NESTORIANS. It so happened that Nestor, the Bishop of
Antioch, who entertained the philosophical views of Theodore of
Mopsuestia, had been called by the Emperor Theodosius the Younger
to the Episcopate of Constantinople (A.D. 427). Nestor rejected
the base popular anthropomorphism, looking upon it as little
better than blasphemous, and pictured to himself an awful eternal
Divinity, who pervaded the universe, and had none of the aspects
or attributes of man. Nestor was deeply imbued with the doctrines
of Aristotle, and attempted to coordinate them with what he
considered to be orthodox Christian tenets. Between him and
Cyril, the Bishop or Patriarch of Alexandria, a quarrel
accordingly arose. Cyril represented the paganizing, Nestor the
philosophizing party of the Church. This was that Cyril who had
murdered Hypatia. Cyril was determined that the worship of the
Virgin as the Mother of God should be recognized, Nestor was
determined that it should not. In a sermon delivered in the
metropolitan church at Constantinople, he vindicated the
attributes of the Eternal, the Almighty God. "And can this God
have a mother?" he exclaimed. In other sermons and writings, he
set forth with more precision his ideas that the Virgin should be
considered not as the Mother of God, but as the mother of the
human portion of Christ, that portion being as essentially
distinct from the divine as is a temple from its contained deity.

PERSECUTION AND DEATH OF NESTOR. Instigated by the monks of
Alexandria, the monks of Constantinople took up arms in behalf of
"the Mother of God." The quarrel rose to such a pitch that the
emperor was constrained to summon a council to meet at Ephesus.
In the mean time Cyril had given a bribe of many pounds of gold
to the chief eunuch of the imperial court, and had thereby
obtained the influence of the emperor's sister. "The holy virgin
of the court of heaven thus found an ally of her own sex in the
holy virgin of the emperor's court." Cyril hastened to the
council, attended by a mob of men and women of the baser sort. He
at once assumed the presidency, and in the midst of a tumult had
the emperor's rescript read before the Syrian bishops could
arrive. A single day served to complete his triumph. All offers
of accommodation on the part of Nestor were refused, his
explanations were not read, he was condemned unheard. On the
arrival of the Syrian ecclesiastics, a meeting of protest was
held by them. A riot, with much bloodshed, ensued in the
cathedral of St. John. Nestor was abandoned by the court, and
eventually exiled to an Egyptian oasis. His persecutors tormented
him as long as he lived, by every means in their power, and at
his death gave out that "his blasphemous tongue had been devoured
by worms, and that from the heats of an Egyptian desert he had
escaped only into the hotter torments of hell!"

The overthrow and punishment of Nestor, however, by no means
destroyed his opinions. He and his followers, insisting on the
plain inference of the last verse of the first chapter of St.
Matthew, together with the fifty-fifth and fifty-sixth verses of
the thirteenth of the same gospel, could never be brought to an
acknowledgment of the perpetual virginity of the new queen of
heaven. Their philosophical tendencies were soon indicated by
their actions. While their leader was tormented in an African
oasis, many of them emigrated to the Euphrates, and established
the Chaldean Church. Under their auspices the college of Edessa
was founded. From the college of Nisibis issued those doctors who
spread Nestor's tenets through Syria, Arabia, India, Tartary,
China, Egypt. The Nestorians, of course, adopted the philosophy
of Aristotle, and translated the works of that great writer into
Syriac and Persian. They also made similar translations of later
works, such as those of Pliny. In connection with the Jews they
founded the medical college of Djondesabour. Their missionaries
disseminated the Nestorian form of Christianity to such an extent
over Asia, that its worshipers eventually outnumbered all the
European Christians of the Greek and Roman Churches combined. It
may be particularly remarked that in Arabia they had a bishop.

THE PERSIAN CAMPAIGN. The dissensions between Constantinople and
Alexandria had thus filled all Western Asia with sectaries,
ferocious in their contests with each other, and many of them
burning with hatred against the imperial power for the
persecutions it had inflicted on them. A religious revolution,
the consequences of which are felt in our own times, was the
result. It affected the whole world.

We shall gain a clear view of this great event, if we consider
separately the two acts into which it may be decomposed: 1. The
temporary overthrow of Asiatic Christianity by the Persians; 2.
The decisive and final reformation under the Arabians.

1. It happened (A.D. 590) that, by one of those revolutions so
frequent in Oriental courts, Chosroes, the lawful heir to the
Persian throne, was compelled to seek refuge in the Byzantine
Empire, and implore the aid of the Emperor Maurice. That aid was
cheerfully given. A brief and successful campaign restored
Chosroes to the throne of his ancestors.

But the glories of this generous campaign could not preserve
Maurice himself. A mutiny broke out in the Roman army, headed by
Phocas, a centurion. The statues of the emperor were overthrown.
The Patriarch of Constantinople, having declared that he had
assured himself of the orthodoxy of Phocas, consecrated him
emperor. The unfortunate Maurice was dragged from a sanctuary, in
which he had sought refuge; his five sons were beheaded before
his eyes, and then he was put to death. His empress was inveigled
from the church of St. Sophia, tortured, and with her three young
daughters beheaded. The adherents of the massacred family were
pursued with ferocious vindictiveness; of some the eyes were
blinded, of others the tongues were torn out, or the feet and
hands cut off, some were whipped to death, others were burnt.

When the news reached Rome, Pope Gregory received it with
exultation, praying that the hands of Phocas might be
strengthened against all his enemies. As an equivalent for this
subserviency, he was greeted with the title of "Universal
Bishop." The cause of his action, as well as of that of the
Patriarch of Constantinople, was doubtless the fact that Maurice
was suspected of Magrian tendencies, into which he had been lured
by the Persians. The mob of Constantinople had hooted after him
in the streets, branding him as a Marcionite, a sect which
believed in the Magian doctrine of two conflicting principles.

With very different sentiments Chosroes heard of the murder of
his friend. Phocas had sent him the heads of Maurice and his
sons. The Persian king turned from the ghastly spectacle with
horror, and at once made ready to avenge the wrongs of his
benefactor by war.

THE EXPEDITION OF HERACLIUS. The Exarch of Africa, Heraclius, one
of the chief officers of the state, also received the shocking
tidings with indignation. He was determined that the imperial
purple should not be usurped by an obscure centurion of
disgusting aspect. "The person of this Phocas was diminutive and
deformed; the closeness of his shaggy eyebrows, his red hair, his
beardless chin, were in keeping with his cheek, disfigured and
discolored by a formidable scar. Ignorant of letters, of laws,
and even of arms, he indulged in an ample privilege of lust and
drunkenness." At first Heraclius refused tribute and obedience to
him; then, admonished by age and infirmities, he committed the
dangerous enterprise of resistance to his son of the same name. A
prosperous voyage from Carthage soon brought the younger
Heraclius in front of Constantinople. The inconstant clergy,
senate, and people of the city joined him, the usurper was seized
in his palace and beheaded.

INVASION OF CHOSROES. But the revolution that had taken place in
Constantinople did not arrest the movements of the Persian king.
His Magian priests had warned him to act independently of the
Greeks, whose superstition, they declared, was devoid of all
truth and justice. Chosroes, therefore, crossed the Euphrates;
his army was received with transport by the Syrian sectaries,
insurrections in his favor everywhere breaking out. In
succession, Antioch, Caesarea, Damascus fell; Jerusalem itself
was taken by storm; the sepulchre of Christ, the churches of
Constantine and of Helena were given to the flames; the Savior's
cross was sent as a trophy to Persia; the churches were rifled of
their riches; the sacred relics, collected by superstition, were
dispersed. Egypt was invaded, conquered, and annexed to the
Persian Empire; the Patriarch of Alexandria escaped by flight to
Cyprus; the African coast to Tripoli was seized. On the north,
Asia Minor was subdued, and for ten years the Persian forces
encamped on the shores of the Bosporus, in front of
Constantinople.

In his extremity Heraclius begged for peace. "I will never give
peace to the Emperor of Rome," replied the proud Persian, "till
he has abjured his crucified God, and embraced the worship of the
sun." After a long delay terms were, however, secured, and the
Roman Empire was ransomed at the price of "a thousand talents of
gold, a thousand talents of silver, a thousand silk robes, a
thousand horses, and a thousand virgins."

But Heraclius submitted only for a moment. He found means not
only to restore his affairs but to retaliate on the Persian
Empire. The operations by which he achieved this result were
worthy of the most brilliant days of Rome.

INVASION OF CHOSROES Though her military renown was thus
recovered, though her territory was regained, there was something
that the Roman Empire had irrecoverably lost. Religious faith
could never be restored. In face of the world Magianism had
insulted Christianity, by profaning her most sacred
places--Bethlehem, Gethsemane, Calvary--by burning the sepulchre
of Christ, by rifling and destroying the churches, by scattering
to the winds priceless relics, by carrying off, with shouts of
laughter, the cross.

Miracles had once abounded in Syria, in Egypt, in Asia Minor;
there was not a church which had not its long catalogue of them.
Very often they were displayed on unimportant occasions and in
insignificant cases. In this supreme moment, when such aid was
most urgently demanded, not a miracle was worked.

Amazement filled the Christian populations of the East when they
witnessed these Persian sacrileges perpetrated with impunity. The
heavens should have rolled asunder, the earth should have opened
her abysses, the sword of the Almighty should have flashed in the
sky, the fate of Sennacherib should have been repeated. But it
was not so. In the land of miracles, amazement was followed by
consternation--consternation died out in disbelief.

2. But, dreadful as it was, the Persian conquest was but a
prelude to the great event, the story of which we have now to
relate--the Southern revolt against Christianity. Its issue was
the loss of nine-tenths of her geographical possessions--Asia,
Africa, and part of Europe.

MOHAMMED. In the summer of 581 of the Christian era, there came
to Bozrah, a town on the confines of Syria, south of Damascus, a
caravan of camels. It was from Mecca, and was laden with the
costly products of South Arabia--Arabia the Happy. The conductor
of the caravan, one Abou Taleb, and his nephew, a lad of twelve
years, were hospitably received and entertained at the Nestorian
convent of the town.

The monks of this convent soon found that their young visitor,
Halibi or Mohammed, was the nephew of the guardian of the Caaba,
the sacred temple of the Arabs. One of them, by name Bahira,
spared no pains to secure his conversion from the idolatry in
which he had been brought up. He found the boy not only
precociously intelligent, but eagerly desirous of information,
especially on matters relating to religion.

In Mohammed's own country the chief object of Meccan worship was
a black meteoric stone, kept in the Caaba, with three hundred and
sixty subordinate idols, representing the days of the year, as
the year was then counted.

At this time, as we have seen, the Christian Church, through the
ambition and wickedness of its clergy, had been brought into a
condition of anarchy. Councils had been held on various
pretenses, while the real motives were concealed. Too often they
were scenes of violence, bribery, corruption. In the West, such
were the temptations of riches, luxury, and power, presented by
the episcopates, that the election of a bishop was often
disgraced by frightful murders. In the East, in consequence of
the policy of the court of Constantinople, the Church had been
torn in pieces by contentions and schisms. Among a countless host
of disputants may be mentioned Arians, Basilidians,
Carpocratians, Collyridians, Eutychians, Gnostics, Jacobites,
Marcionites, Marionites, Nestorians, Sabellians, Valentinians. Of
these, the Marionites regarded the Trinity as consisting of God
the Father, God the Son, and God the Virgin Mary; the
Collyridians worshiped the Virgin as a divinity, offering her
sacrifices of cakes; the Nestorians, as we have seen, denied that
God had "a mother." They prided themselves on being the
inheritors, the possessors of the science of old Greece.

But, though they were irreconcilable in matters of faith, there
was one point in which all these sects agreed --ferocious hatred
and persecution of each other. Arabia, an unconquered land of
liberty, stretching from the Indian Ocean to the Desert of Syria,
gave them all, as the tide of fortune successively turned, a
refuge. It had been so from the old times. Thither, after the
Roman conquest of Palestine, vast numbers of Jews escaped;
thither, immediately after his conversion, St. Paul tells the
Galatians that he retired. The deserts were now filled with
Christian anchorites, and among the chief tribes of the Arabs
many proselytes had been made. Here and there churches had been
built. The Christian princes of Abyssinia, who were Nestorians,
held the southern province of Arabia--Yemen--in possession.

By the monk Bahira, in the convent at Bozrah, Mohammed was taught
the tenets of the Nestorians; from them the young Arab learned
the story of their persecutions. It was these interviews which
engendered in him a hatred of the idolatrous practices of the
Eastern Church, and indeed of all idolatry; that taught him, in
his wonderful career, never to speak of Jesus as the Son of God,
but always as "Jesus, the son of Mary." His untutored but active
mind could not fail to be profoundly impressed not only with the
religious but also with the philosophical ideas of his
instructors, who gloried in being the living representatives of
Aristotelian science. His subsequent career shows how completely
their religious thoughts had taken possession of him, and
repeated acts manifest his affectionate regard for them. His own
life was devoted to the expansion and extension of their
theological doctrine, and, that once effectually established, his
successors energetically adopted and diffused their scientific,
their Aristotelian opinions.

As Mohammed grew to manhood, he made other expeditions to Syria.
Perhaps, we may suppose, that on these occasions the convent and
its hospitable in mates were not forgotten. He had a mysterious
reverence for that country. A wealthy Meccan widow Chadizah, had
intrusted him with the care of her Syrian trade. She was charmed
with his capacity and fidelity, and (since he is said to have
been characterized by the possession of singular manly beauty and
a most courteous demeanor) charmed with his person. The female
heart in all ages and countries is the same. She caused a slave
to intimate to him what was passing in her mind, and, for the
remaining twenty-four years of her life, Mohammed was her
faithful husband. In a land of polygamy, he never insulted her by
the presence of a rival. Many years subsequently, in the height
of his power, Ayesha, who was one of the most beautiful women in
Arabia, said to him: "Was she not old? Did not God give you in me
a better wife in her place?" "No, by God!" exclaimed Mohammed,
and with a burst of honest gratitude, "there never can be a
better. She believed in me when men despised me, she relieved me
when I was poor and persecuted by the world."

His marriage with Chadizah placed him in circumstances of ease,
and gave him an opportunity of indulging his inclination to
religious meditation. It so happened that her cousin Waraka, who
was a Jew, had turned Christian. He was the first to translate
the Bible into Arabic. By his conversation Mohammed's detestation
of idolatry was confirmed.

After the example of the Christian anchorites in their hermitages
in the desert, Mohammed retired to a grotto in Mount Hera, a few
miles from Mecca, giving himself up to meditation and prayer. In
this seclusion, contemplating the awful attributes of the
Omnipotent and Eternal God, he addressed to his conscience the
solemn inquiry, whether he could adopt the dogmas then held in
Asiatic Christendom respecting the Trinity, the sonship of Jesus
as begotten by the Almighty, the character of Mary as at once a
virgin, a mother, and the queen of heaven, without incurring the
guilt and the peril of blasphemy.

By his solitary meditations in the grotto Mohammed was drawn to
the conclusion that, through the cloud of dogmas and disputations
around him, one great truth might be discerned--the unity of God.
Leaning against the stem of a palm-tree, he unfolded his views on
this subject to his neighbors and friends, and announced to them
that he should dedicate his life to the preaching of that truth.
Again and again, in his sermons and in the Koran, he declared: "I
am nothing but a public preacher.... I preach the oneness of
God." Such was his own conception of his so-called apostleship.
Henceforth, to the day of his death, he wore on his finger a
seal-ring on which was engraved, "Mohammed, the messenger of
God."

VICTORIES OF MOHAMMED. It is well known among physicians that
prolonged fasting and mental anxiety inevitably give rise to
hallucination. Perhaps there never has been any religious system
introduced by self-denying, earnest men that did not offer
examples of supernatural temptations and supernatural commands.
Mysterious voices encouraged the Arabian preacher to persist in
his determination; shadows of strange forms passed before him. He
heard sounds in the air like those of a distant bell. In a
nocturnal dream he was carried by Gabriel from Mecca to
Jerusalem, and thence in succession through the six heavens. Into
the seventh the angel feared to intrude and Mohammed alone passed
into the dread cloud that forever enshrouds the Almighty. "A
shiver thrilled his heart as he felt upon his shoulder the touch
of the cold hand of God."

His public ministrations met with much resistance and little
success at first. Expelled from Mecca by the upholders of the
prevalent idolatry, he sought refuge in Medina, a town in which
there were many Jews and Nestorians; the latter at once became
proselytes to his faith. He had already been compelled to send
his daughter and others of his disciples to Abyssinia, the king
of which was a Nestorian Christian. At the end of six years he
had made only fifteen hundred converts. But in three little
skirmishes, magnified in subsequent times by the designation of
the battles of Beder, of Ohud, and of the Nations, Mohammed
discovered that his most convincing argument was his sword.
Afterward, with Oriental eloquence, he said, "Paradise will be
found in the shadow of the crossing of swords." By a series of
well-conducted military operations, his enemies were completely
overthrown. Arabian idolatry was absolutely exterminated; the
doctrine he proclaimed, that "there is but one God," was
universally adopted by his countrymen, and his own apostleship
accepted

DEATH OF MOHAMMED. Let us pass over his stormy life, and hear
what he says when, on the pinnacle of earthly power and glory, he
was approaching its close.

Steadfast in his declaration of the unity of God, he departed
from Medina on his last pilgrimage to Mecca, at the head of one
hundred and fourteen thousand devotees, with camels decorated
with garlands of flowers and fluttering streamers. When he
approached the holy city, he uttered the solemn invocation: "Here
am I in thy service, O God! Thou hast no companion. To thee alone
belongeth worship. Thine alone is the kingdom. There is none to
share it with thee."

With his own hand he offered up the camels in sacrifice. He
considered that primeval institution to be equally sacred as
prayer, and that no reason can be alleged in support of the one
which is not equally strong in support of the other.

From the pulpit of the Caaba he reiterated, "O my hearers, I am
only a man like yourselves." They remembered that he had once
said to one who approached him with timid steps: "Of what dost
thou stand in awe? I am no king. I am nothing but the son of an
Arab woman, who ate flesh dried in the sun."

He returned to Medina to die. In his farewell to his
congregation, he said: "Every thing happens according to the will
of God, and has its appointed time, which can neither be hastened
nor avoided. I return to him who sent me, and my last command to
you is, that ye love, honor, and uphold each other, that ye
exhort each other to faith and constancy in belief, and to the
performance of pious deeds. My life has been for your good, and
so will be my death."

In his dying agony, his head was reclined on the lap of Ayesha.
From time to time he had dipped his hand in a vase of water, and
moistened his face. At last he ceased, and, gazing steadfastly
upward, said, in broken accents: "O God--forgive my sins--be it
so. I come."

Shall we speak of this man with disrespect? His precepts are, at
this day, the religious guide of one- third of the human race.

DOCTRINES OF MOHAMMED. In Mohammed, who had already broken away
from the ancient idolatrous worship of his native country,
preparation had been made for the rejection of those tenets which
his Nestorian teachers had communicated to him, inconsistent with
reason and conscience. And, though, in the first pages of the
Koran, he declares his belief in what was delivered to Moses and
Jesus, and his reverence for them personally, his veneration for
the Almighty is perpetually displayed. He is horror-stricken at
the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus, the Worship of Mary as the
mother of God, the adoration of images and paintings, in his eyes
a base idolatry. He absolutely rejects the Trinity, of which he
seems to have entertained the idea that it could not be
interpreted otherwise than as presenting three distinct Gods.

His first and ruling idea was simply religious reform--to
overthrow Arabian idolatry, and put an end to the wild
sectarianism of Christianity. That he proposed to set up a new
religion was a calumny invented against him in Constantinople,
where he was looked upon with detestation, like that with which
in after ages Luther was regarded in Rome.

But, though he rejected with indignation whatever might seem to
disparage the doctrine of the unity of God, he was not able to
emancipate himself from anthropomorphic conceptions. The God of
the Koran is altogether human, both corporeally and mentally, if
such expressions may with propriety be used. Very soon, however,
the followers of Mohammed divested themselves of these base ideas
and rose to nobler ones.

The view here presented of the primitive character of
Mohammedanism has long been adopted by many competent
authorities. Sir William Jones, following Locke, regards the main
point in the divergence of Mohammedanism from Christianity to
consist "in denying vehemently the character of our Savior as the
Son, and his equality as God with the Father, of whose unity and
attributes the Mohammedans entertain and express the most awful
ideas." This opinion has been largely entertained in Italy. Dante
regarded Mohammed only as the author of a schism, and saw in
Islamism only an Arian sect. In England, Whately views it as a
corruption of Christianity. It was an offshoot of Nestorianism,
and not until it had overthrown Greek Christianity in many great
battles, was spreading rapidly over Asia and Africa, and had
become intoxicated with its wonderful successes, did it repudiate
its primitive limited intentions, and assert itself to be founded
on a separate and distinct revelation.

THE FIRST KHALIF. Mohammed's life had been almost entirely
consumed in the conversion or conquest of his native country.
Toward its close, however, he felt himself strong enough to
threaten the invasion of Syria and Persia. He had made no
provision for the perpetuation of his own dominion, and hence it
was not without a struggle that a successor was appointed. At
length Abubeker, the father of Ayesha, was selected. He was
proclaimed the first khalif, or successor of the Prophet.

There is a very important difference between the spread of
Mohammedanism and the spread of Christianity. The latter was
never sufficiently strong to over throw and extirpate idolatry in
the Roman Empire. As it advanced, there was an amalgamation, a
union. The old forms of the one were vivified by the new spirit
of the other, and that paganization to which reference has
already been made was the result.

THE MOHAMMEDAN HEAVEN. But, in Arabia, Mohammed overthrew and
absolutely annihilated the old idolatry. No trace of it is found
in the doctrines preached by him and his successors. The black
stone that had fallen from heaven--the meteorite of the
Caaba--and its encircling idols, passed totally out of view. The
essential dogma of the new faith--"There is but one God"--spread
without any adulteration. Military successes had, in a worldly
sense made the religion of the Koran profitable; and, no matter
what dogmas may be, when that is the case, there will be plenty
of converts.

As to the popular doctrines of Mohammedanism, I shall here have
nothing to say. The reader who is interested in that matter will
find an account of them in a review of the Koran in the eleventh
chapter of my "History of the Intellectual Development of
Europe." It is enough now to remark that their heaven was
arranged in seven stories, and was only a palace of Oriental
carnal delight. It was filled with black-eyed concubines and
servants. The form of God was, perhaps, more awful than that of
paganized Christianity. Anthropomorphism will, however, never be
obliterated from the ideas of the unintellectual. Their God, at
the best, will never be any thing more than the gigantic shadow
of a man--a vast phantom of humanity-- like one of those Alpine
spectres seen in the midst of the clouds by him who turns his
back on the sun.

Abubeker had scarcely seated himself in the khalifate, when he
put forth the following proclamation:

In the name of the most merciful God! Abubeker to the rest of the
true believers, health and happiness. The mercy and blessing of
God be upon you. I praise the most high God. I pray for his
prophet Mohammed.

INVASION OF SYRIA. "This is to inform you that I intend to send
the true believers into Syria, to take it out of the hands of the
infidels. And I would have you know that the fighting for
religion is an act of obedience to God."

On the first encounter, Khaled, the Saracen general, hard
pressed, lifted up his hands in the midst of his army and said:
"O God! these vile wretches pray with idolatrous expressions and
take to themselves another God besides thee, but we acknowledge
thy unity and affirm that there is no other God but thee alone.
Help us, we beseech thee, for the sake of thy prophet Mohammed,
against these idolaters." On the part of the Saracens the
conquest of Syria was conducted with ferocious piety. The belief
of the Syrian Christians aroused in their antagonists sentiments
of horror and indignation. "I will cleave the skull of any
blaspheming idolater who says that the Most Holy God, the
Almighty and Eternal, has begotten a son." The Khalif Omar, who
took Jerusalem, commences a letter to Heraclius, the Roman
emperor: "In the name of the most merciful God! Praise be to God,
the Lord of this and of the other world, who has neither female
consort nor son." The Saracens nicknamed the Christians
"Associators," because they joined Mary and Jesus as partners
with the Almighty and Most Holy God.

It was not the intention of the khalif to command his army; that
duty was devolved on Abou Obeidah nominally, on Khaled in
reality. In a parting review the khalif enjoined on his troops
justice, mercy, and the observance of fidelity in their
engagements he commanded them to abstain from all frivolous
conversation and from wine, and rigorously to observe the hours
of prayer; to be kind to the common people among whom they
passed, but to show no mercy to their priests.

FALL OF BOZRAH. Eastward of the river Jordan is Bozrah, a strong
town where Mohammed had first met his Nestorian Christian
instructors. It was one of the Roman forts with which the country
was dotted over. Before this place the Saracen army encamped. The
garrison was strong, the ramparts were covered with holy crosses
and consecrated banners. It might have made a long defense. But
its governor, Romanus, betrayed his trust, and stealthily opened
its gates to the besiegers. His conduct shows to what a
deplorable condition the population of Syria had come. After the
surrender, in a speech he made to the people he had betrayed, he
said: "I renounce your society, both in this world and that to
come. And I deny him that was crucified, and whosoever worships
him. And I choose God for my Lord, Islam for my faith, Mecca for
my temple, the Moslems for my brethren, Mohammed for my prophet,
who was sent to lead us in the right way, and to exalt the true
religion in spite of those who join partners with God." Since the
Persian invasion, Asia Minor, Syria, and even Palestine, were
full of traitors and apostates, ready to join the Saracens.
Romanus was but one of many thousands who had fallen into
disbelief through the victories of the Persians.

FALL OF DAMASCUS. From Bozrah it was only seventy miles northward
to Damascus, the capital of Syria. Thither, without delay, the
Saracen army marched. The city was at once summoned to take its
option--conversion, tribute, or the sword. In his palace at
Antioch, barely one hundred and fifty miles still farther north,
the Emperor Heraclius received tidings of the alarming advance of
his assailants. He at once dispatched an army of seventy thousand
men. The Saracens were compelled to raise the siege. A battle
took place in the plains of Aiznadin, the Roman army was
overthrown and dispersed. Khaled reappeared before Damascus with
his standard of the black eagle, and after a renewed investment
of seventy days Damascus surrendered.

From the Arabian historians of these events we may gather that
thus far the Saracen armies were little better than a fanatic
mob. Many of the men fought naked. It was not unusual for a
warrior to stand forth in front and challenge an antagonist to
mortal duel. Nay, more, even the women engaged in the combats.
Picturesque narratives have been handed down to us relating the
gallant manner in which they acquitted themselves.

FALL OF JERUSALEM. From Damascus the Saracen army advanced
northward, guided by the snow-clad peaks of Libanus and the
beautiful river Orontes. It captured on its way Baalbec, the
capital of the Syrian valley, and Emesa, the chief city of the
eastern plain. To resist its further progress, Heraclius
collected an army of one hundred and forty thousand men. A battle
took place at Yermuck; the right wing of the Saracens was broken,
but the soldiers were driven back to the field by the fanatic
expostulations of their women. The conflict ended in the complete
overthrow of the Roman army. Forty thousand were taken prisoners,
and a vast number killed. The whole country now lay open to the
victors. The advance of their army had been east of the Jordan.
It was clear that, before Asia Minor could be touched, the strong
and important cities of Palestine, which was now in their rear,
must be secured. There was a difference of opinion among the
generals in the field as to whether Caesarea or Jerusalem should
be assailed first. The matter was referred to the khalif, who,
rightly preferring the moral advantages of the capture of
Jerusalem to the military advantages of the capture of Caesarea,
ordered the Holy City to be taken, and that at any cost. Close
siege was therefore laid to it. The inhabitants, remembering the
atrocities inflicted by the Persians, and the indignities that
had been offered to the Savior's sepulchre, prepared now for a
vigorous defense. But, after an investment of four months, the
Patriarch Sophronius appeared on the wall, asking terms of
capitulation. There had been misunderstandings among the generals
at the capture of Damascus, followed by a massacre of the fleeing
inhabitants. Sophronius, therefore, stipulated that the surrender
of Jerusalem should take place in presence of the khalif himself
Accordingly, Omar, the khalif, came from Medina for that purpose.
He journeyed on a red camel, carrying a bag of corn and one of
dates, a wooden dish, and a leathern water-bottle. The Arab
conqueror entered the Holy City riding by the side of the
Christian patriarch and the transference of the capital of
Christianity to the representative of Mohammedanism was effected
without tumult or outrage. Having ordered that a mosque should be
built on the site of the temple of Solomon, the khalif returned
to the tomb of the Prophet at Medina.

Heraclius saw plainly that the disasters which were fast settling
on Christianity were due to the dissensions of its conflicting
sects; and hence, while he endeavored to defend the empire with
his armies, he sedulously tried to compose those differences.
With this view he pressed for acceptance the Monothelite doctrine
of the nature of Christ. But it was now too late. Aleppo and
Antioch were taken. Nothing could prevent the Saracens from
overrunning Asia Minor. Heraclius himself had to seek safety in
flight. Syria, which had been added by Pompey the Great, the
rival of Caesar, to the provinces of Rome, seven hundred years
previously-- Syria, the birthplace of Christianity, the scene of
its most sacred and precious souvenirs, the land from which
Heraclius himself had once expelled the Persian intruder--was
irretrievably lost. Apostates and traitors had wrought this
calamity. We are told that, as the ship which bore him to
Constantinople parted from the shore, Heraclius gazed intently on
the receding hills, and in the bitterness of anguish exclaimed,
"Farewell, Syria, forever farewell!"

It is needless to dwell on the remaining details of the Saracen
conquest: how Tripoli and Tyre were betrayed; how Caesarea was
captured; how with the trees of Libanus and the sailors of
Phoenicia a Saraeen fleet was equipped, which drove the Roman
navy into the Hellespont; how Cyprus, Rhodes, and the Cyclades,
were ravaged, and the Colossus, which was counted as one of the
wonders of the world, sold to a Jew, who loaded nine hundred
camels with its brass; how the armies of the khalif advanced to
the Black Sea, and even lay in front of Constantinople--all this
was as nothing after the fall of Jerusalem.

OVERTHROW OF THE PERSIANS. The fall of Jerusalem! the loss of the
metropolis of Christianity! In the ideas of that age the two
antagonistic forms of faith had submitted themselves to the
ordeal of the judgment of God. Victory had awarded the prize of
battle, Jerusalem, to the Mohammedan; and, notwithstanding the
temporary successes of the Crusaders, after much more than a
thousand years in his hands it remains to this day. The Byzantine
historians are not without excuse for the course they are
condemned for taking: "They have wholly neglected the great topic
of the ruin of the Eastern Church." And as for the Western
Church, even the debased popes of the middle ages--the ages of
the Crusades--could not see without indignation that they were
compelled to rest the claims of Rome as the metropolis of
Christendom on a false legendary story of a visit of St. Peter to
that city; while the true metropolis, the grand, the sacred place
of the birth, the life, the death of Christ himself, was in the
hands of the infidels! It has not been the Byzantine historians
alone who have tried to conceal this great catastrophe. The
Christian writers of Europe on all manner of subjects, whether of
history, religion, or science, have followed a similar course
against their conquering antagonists. It has been their constant
practice to hide what they could not depreciate, and depreciate
what they could not hide.

INVASION OF EGYPT. I have not space, nor indeed does it comport
with the intention of this work, to relate, in such detail as I
have given to the fall of Jerusalem, other conquests of the
Saracens--conquests which eventually established a Mohammedan
empire far exceeding in geographical extent that of Alexander,
and even that of Rome. But, devoting a few words to this subject,
it may be said that Magianism received a worse blow than that
which had been inflicted on Christianity; The fate of Persia was
settled at the battle of Cadesia. At the sack of Ctesiphon, the
treasury, the royal arms, and an unlimited spoil, fell into the
hands of the Saracens. Not without reason do they call the battle
of Nehavend the victory of victories." In one direction they
advanced to the Caspian, in the other southward along the Tigris
to Persepolis. The Persian king fled for his life over the great
Salt Desert, from the columns and statues of that city which had
lain in ruins since the night of the riotous banquet of
Alexander. One division of the Arabian army forced the Persian
monarch over the Oxus. He was assassinated by the Turks. His son
was driven into China, and became a captain in the Chinese
emperor's guards. The country beyond the Oxus was reduced. It
paid a tribute of two million pieces of gold. While the emperor
at Peking was demanding the friendship of the khalif at Medina,
the standard of the Prophet was displayed on the banks of the
Indus.

Among the generals who had greatly distinguished themselves in
the Syrian wars was Amrou, destined to be the conqueror of Egypt;
for the khalifs, not content with their victories on the North
and East, now turned their eyes to the West, and prepared for the
annexation of Africa. As in the former cases, so in this,
sectarian treason assisted them. The Saracen army was hailed as
the deliverer of the Jacobite Church; the Monophysite Christians
of Egypt, that is, they who, in the language of the Athanasian
Creed, confounded the substance of the Son, proclaimed, through
their leader, Mokaukas, that they desired no communion with the
Greeks, either in this world or the next, that they abjured
forever the Byzantine tyrant and his synod of Chalcedon. They
hastened to pay tribute to the khalif, to repair the roads and
bridges, and to supply provisions and intelligence to the
invading army.

FALL OF ALEXANDRIA. Memphis, one of the old Pharaonic capitals,
soon fell, and Alexandria was invested. The open sea behind gave
opportunity to Heraclius to reenforce the garrison continually.
On his part, Omar, who was now khalif sent to the succor of the
besieging army the veteran troops of Syria. There were many
assaults and many sallies. In one Amrou himself was taken
prisoner by the besieged, but, through the dexterity of a slave,
made his escape. After a siege of fourteen months, and a loss of
twenty-three thousand men, the Saracens captured the city. In his
dispatch to the Khalif, Amrou enumerated the splendors of the
great city of the West "its four thousand palaces, four thousand
baths, four hundred theatres, twelve thousand shops for the sale
of vegetable food, and forty thousand tributary Jews."

So fell the second great city of Christendom--the fate of
Jerusalem had fallen on Alexandria, the city of Athanasius, and
Arius, and Cyril; the city that had imposed Trinitarian ideas and
Mariolatry on the Church. In his palace at Constantinople
Heraclius received the fatal tidings. He was overwhelmed with
grief. It seemed as if his reign was to be disgraced by the
downfall of Christianity. He lived scarcely a month after the
loss of the town.

But if Alexandria had been essential to Constantinople in the
supply of orthodox faith, she was also essential in the supply of
daily food. Egypt was the granary of the Byzantines. For this
reason two attempts were made by powerful fleets and armies for
the recovery of the place, and twice had Amrou to renew his
conquest. He saw with what facility these attacks could be made,
the place being open to the sea; he saw that there was but one
and that a fatal remedy. "By the living God, if this thing be
repeated a third time I will make Alexandria as open to anybody
as is the house of a prostitute!" He was better than his word,
for he forthwith dismantled its fortifications, and made it an
untenable place.

FALL OF CARTHAGE. It was not the intention of the khalifs to
limit their conquest to Egypt. Othman contemplated the annexation
of the entire North-African coast. His general, Abdallah, set out
from Memphis with forty thousand men, passed through the desert
of Barca, and besieged Tripoli. But, the plague breaking out in
his army, he was compelled to retreat to Egypt.

All attempts were now suspended for more than twenty years. Then
Akbah forced his way from the Nile to the Atlantic Ocean. In
front of the Canary Islands he rode his horse into the sea,
exclaiming: "Great God! if my course were not stopped by this
sea, I would still go on to the unknown kingdoms of the West,
preaching the unity of thy holy name, and putting to the sword
the rebellious nations who worship any other gods than thee."

These Saracen expeditions had been through the interior of the
country, for the Byzantine emperors, controlling for the time the
Mediterranean, had retained possession of the cities on the
coast. The Khalif Abdalmalek at length resolved on the reduction
of Carthage, the most important of those cities, and indeed the
capital of North Africa. His general, Hassan, carried it by
escalade; but reenforcements from Constantinople, aided by some
Sicilian and Gothic troops, compelled him to retreat. The relief
was, however, only temporary. Hassan, in the course of a few
months renewed his attack. It proved successful, and he delivered
Carthage to the flames.

Jerusalem, Alexandria, Carthage, three out of the five great
Christian capitals, were lost. The fall of Constantinople was
only a question of time. After its fall, Rome alone remained.

In the development of Christianity, Carthage had played no
insignificant part. It had given to Europe its Latin form of
faith, and some of its greatest theologians. It was the home of
St. Augustine.

Never in the history of the world had there been so rapid and
extensive a propagation of any religion as Mohammedanism. It was
now dominating from the Altai Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean,
from the centre of Asia to the western verge of Africa.

CONQUEST OF SPAIN. The Khalif Alwalid next authorized the
invasion of Europe, the conquest of Andalusia, or the Region of
the Evening. Musa, his general, found, as had so often been the
case elsewhere, two effective allies sectarianism and
treason--the Archbishop of Toledo and Count Julian the Gothic
general. Under their lead, in the very crisis of the battle of
Xeres, a large portion of the army went over to the invaders; the
Spanish king was compelled to flee from the field, and in the
pursuit he was drowned in the waters of the Guadalquivir.

With great rapidity Tarik, the lieutenant of Musa, pushed forward
from the battle-field to Toledo, and thence northward. On the
arrival of Musa the reduction of the Spanish peninsula was
completed, and the wreck of the Gothic army driven beyond the
Pyrenees into France. Considering the conquest of Spain as only
the first step in his victories, he announced his intention of
forcing his way into Italy, and preaching the unity of God in the
Vatican. Thence he would march to Constantinople, and, having put
all end to the Roman Empire and Christianity, would pass into
Asia and lay his victorious sword on the footstool of the khalif
at Damascus.

But this was not to be. Musa, envious of his lieutenant, Tarik,
had treated him with great indignity. The friends of Tarik at the
court of the khalif found means of retaliation. An envoy from
Damascus arrested Musa in his camp; he was carried before his
sovereign, disgraced by a public whipping, and died of a broken
heart.

INVASION OF FRANCE. Under other leaders, however, the Saracen
conquest of France was attempted. In a preliminary campaign the
country from the mouth of the Garonne to that of the Loire was
secured. Then Abderahman, the Saracen commander, dividing his
forces into two columns, with one on the east passed the Rhone,
and laid siege to Arles. A Christian army, attempting the relief
of the place, was defeated with heavy loss. His western column,
equally successful, passed the Dordogne, defeated another
Christian army, inflicting on it such dreadful loss that,
according to its own fugitives, "God alone could number the
slain." All Central France was now overrun; the banks of the
Loire were reached; the churches and monasteries were despoiled
of their treasures; and the tutelar saints, who had worked so
many miracles when there was no necessity, were found to want the
requisite power when it was so greatly needed.

The progress of the invaders was at length stopped by Charles
Martel (A.D. 732). Between Tours and Poictiers, a great battle,
which lasted seven days, was fought. Abderahman was killed, the
Saracens retreated, and soon afterward were compelled to recross
the Pyrenees.

The banks of the Loire, therefore, mark the boundary of the
Mohammedan advance in Western Europe. Gibbon, in his narrative of
these great events, makes this remark: "A victorious line of
march had been prolonged above a thousand miles from the rock of
Gibraltar to the banks of the Loire--a repetition of an equal
space would have carried the Saracens to the confines of Poland
and the Highlands of Scotland."

INSULT TO ROME. It is not necessary for me to add to this sketch
of the military diffusion of Mohammedanism, the operations of the
Saracens on the Mediterranean Sea, their conquest of Crete and
Sicily, their insult to Rome. It will be found, however, that
their presence in Sicily and the south of Italy exerted a marked
influence on the intellectual development of Europe.

Their insult to Rome! What could be more humiliating than the
circumstances under which it took place (A.D. 846)? An
insignificant Saracen expedition entered the Tiber and appeared
before the walls of the city. Too weak to force an entrance, it
insulted and plundered the precincts, sacrilegiously violating
the tombs of St. Peter and St. Paul. Had the city itself been
sacked, the moral effect could not have been greater. From the
church of St. Peter its altar of silver was torn away and sent to
Africa--St. Peter's altar, the very emblem of Roman Christianity!

Constantinople had already been besieged by the Saracens more
than once; its fall was predestined, and only postponed. Rome had
received the direst insult, the greatest loss that could be
inflicted upon it; the venerable churches of Asia Minor had
passed out of existence; no Christian could set his foot in
Jerusalem without permission; the Mosque of Omar stood on the
site of the Temple of Solomon. Among the ruins of Alexandria the
Mosque of Mercy marked the spot where a Saracen general, satiated
with massacre, had, in contemptuous compassion, spared the
fugitive relics of the enemies of Mohammed; nothing remained of
Carthage but her blackened ruins. The most powerful religious
empire that the world had ever seen had suddenly come into
existence. It stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Chinese
Wall, from the shores of the Caspian to those of the Indian
Ocean, and yet, in one sense, it had not reached its culmination.
The day was to come when it was to expel the successors of the
Caesars from their capital, and hold the peninsula of Greece in
subjection, to dispute with Christianity the empire of Europe in
the very centre of that continent, and in Africa to extend its
dogmas and faith across burning deserts and through pestilential
forests from the Mediterranean to regions southward far beyond
the equinoetial line.

DISSENSIONS OF THE ARABS. But, though Mohammedanism had not
reached its culmination, the dominion of the khalifs had. Not the
sword of Charles Martel, but the internal dissension of the vast
Arabian Empire, was the salvation of Europe. Though the Ommiade
Khalifs were popular in Syria, elsewhere they were looked upon as
intruders or usurpers; the kindred of the apostle was considered
to be the rightful representative of his faith. Three parties,
distinguished by their colors, tore the khalifate asunder with
their disputes, and disgraced it by their atrocities. The color
of the Ommiades was white, that of the Fatimites green, that of
the Abassides black; the last represented the party of Abbas, the
uncle of Mohammed. The result of these discords was a tripartite
division of the Mohammedan Empire in the tenth century into the
khalifates of Bagdad, of Cairoan, and of Cordova. Unity in
Mohammedan political action was at an end, and Christendom found
its safeguard, not in supernatural help, but in the quarrels of
the rival potentates. To internal animosities foreign pressures
were eventually added and Arabism, which had done so much for the
intellectual advancement of the world, came to an end when the
Turks and the Berbers attained to power.

The Saracens had become totally regardless of European
opposition--they were wholly taken up with their domestic
quarrels. Ockley says with truth, in his history: "The Saracens
had scarce a deputy lieutenant or general that would not have
thought it the greatest affront, and such as ought to stigmatize
him with indelible disgrace, if he should have suffered himself
to have been insulted by the united forces of all Europe. And if
any one asks why the Greeks did not exert themselves more, in
order to the extirpation of these insolent invaders, it is a
sufficient answer to any person that is acquainted with the
characters of those men to say that Amrou kept his residence at
Alexandria, and Moawyah at Damascus."

As to their contempt, this instance may suffice: Nicephorus, the
Roman emperor, had sent to the Khalif Haroun-al-Raschid a
threatening letter, and this was the reply: "In the name of the
most merciful God, Haroun-al-Raschid, commander of the faithful,
to Nicephorus, the Roman dog! I have read thy letter, O thou son
of an unbelieving mother. Thou shalt not hear, thou shalt behold
my reply!" It was written in letters of blood and fire on the
plains of Phrygia.

POLITICAL EFFECT OF POLYGAMY. A nation may recover the
confiscation of its provinces, the confiscation of its wealth; it
may survive the imposition of enormous war-fines; but it never
can recover from that most frightful of all war-acts, the
confiscation of its women. When Abou Obeidah sent to Omar news of
his capture of Antioch, Omar gently upbraided him that he had not
let the troops have the women. "If they want to marry in Syria,
let them; and let them have as many female slaves as they have
occasion for." It was the institution of polygamy, based upon the
confiscation of the women in the vanquished countries, that
secured forever the Mohammedan rule. the children of these unions
gloried in their descent from their conquering fathers. No better
proof can be given of the efficacy of this policy than that which
is furnished by North Africa. The irresistible effect of polygamy
in consolidating the new order of things was very striking. In
little more than a single generation, the Khalif was informed by
his officers that the tribute must cease, for all the children
born in that region were Mohammedans, and all spoke Arabic.

MOHAMMEDANISM. Mohammedanism, as left by its founder, was an
anthropomorphic religion. Its God was only a gigantic man, its
heaven a mansion of carnal pleasures. From these imperfect ideas
its more intelligent classes very soon freed themselves,
substituting for them others more philosophical, more correct.
Eventually they attained to an accordance with those that have
been pronounced in our own times by the Vatican Council as
orthodox. Thus Al-Gazzali says: "A knowledge of God cannot be
obtained by means of the knowledge a man has of himself, or of
his own soul. The attributes of God cannot be determined from the
attributes of man. His sovereignty and government can neither be
compared nor measured."



CHAPTER IV.

THE RESTORATION OF SCIENCE IN THE SOUTH.

By the influence of the Nestorians and Jews, the Arabians are
turned to the cultivation of Science. --They modify their views
as to the destiny of man, and obtain true conceptions respecting
the structure of the world.--They ascertain the size of the
earth, and determine its shape. --Their khalifs collect great
libraries, patronize every department of science and literature,
establish astronomical observatories.--They develop the
mathematical sciences, invent algebra, and improve geometry and
trigonometry.--They collect and translate the old Greek
mathematical and astronomical works, and adopt the inductive
method of Aristotle.--They establish many colleges, and, with the
aid of the Nestorians, organize a public-school system.--They
introduce the Arabic numerals and arithmetic, and catalogue and
give names to the stars.--They lay the foundation of modern
astronomy, chemistry, and physics, and introduce great
improvements in agriculture and manufactures.


"IN the course of my long life," said the Khalif Ali, "I have
often observed that men are more like the times they live in than
they are like their fathers." This profoundly philosophical
remark of the son-in-law of Mohammed is strictly true; for,
though the personal, the bodily lineaments of a man may indicate
his parentage, the constitution of his mind, and therefore the
direction of his thoughts, is determined by the environment in
which he lives.

When Amrou, the lieutenant of the Khalif Omar, conquered Egypt,
and annexed it to the Saracenic Empire, he found in Alexandria a
Greek grammarian, John surnamed Philoponus, or the Labor-lover.
Presuming on the friendship which had arisen between them, the
Greek solicited as a gift the remnant of the great library-- a
remnant which war and time and bigotry had spared. Amrou,
therefore, sent to the khalif to ascertain his pleasure. "If,"
replied the khalif, "the books agree with the Koran, the Word of
God, they are useless, and need not be preserved; if they
disagree with it, they are pernicious. Let them be destroyed."
Accordingly, they were distributed among the baths of Alexandria,
and it is said that six months were barely sufficient to consume
them.

Although the fact has been denied, there can be little doubt that
Omar gave this order. The khalif was an illiterate man; his
environment was an environment of fanaticism and ignorance.
Omar's act was an illustration of Ali's remark.

THE ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY BURNT. But it must not be supposed that
the books which John the Labor-lover coveted were those which
constituted the great library of the Ptolemies, and that of
Eumenes, King of Pergamus. Nearly a thousand years had elapsed
since Philadelphus began his collection. Julius Caesar had burnt
more than half; the Patriarchs of Alexandria had not only
permitted but superintended the dispersion of almost all the
rest. Orosius expressly states that he saw the empty cases or
shelves of the library twenty years after Theophilus, the uncle
of St. Cyril, had procured from the Emperor Theodosius a rescript
for its destruction. Even had this once noble collection never
endured such acts of violence, the mere wear and tear, and
perhaps, I may add, the pilfering of a thousand years, would have
diminished it sadly. Though John, as the surname he received
indicates, might rejoice in a superfluity of occupation, we may
be certain that the care of a library of half a million books
would transcend even his well-tried powers; and the cost of
preserving and supporting it, that had demanded the ample
resources of the Ptolemies and the Caesars, was beyond the means
of a grammarian. Nor is the time required for its combustion or
destruction any indication of the extent of the collection. Of
all articles of fuel, parchment is, perhaps, the most wretched.
Paper and papyrus do excellently well as kindling-materials, but
we may be sure that the bath-men of Alexandria did not resort to
parchment so long as they could find any thing else, and of
parchment a very large portion of these books was composed.

There can, then, be no more doubt that Omar did order the
destruction of this library, under an impression of its
uselessness or its irreligious tendency, than that the Crusaders
burnt the library of Tripoli, fancifully said to have consisted
of three million volumes. The first apartment entered being found
to contain nothing but the Koran, all the other books were
supposed to be the works of the Arabian impostor, and were
consequently committed to the flames. In both cases the story
contains some truth and much exaggeration. Bigotry, however, has
often distinguished itself by such exploits. The Spaniards burnt
in Mexico vast piles of American picture-writings, an
irretrievable loss; and Cardinal Ximenes delivered to the flames,
in the squares of Granada, eighty thousand Arabic manuscripts,
many of them translations of classical authors.

We have seen how engineering talent, stimulated by Alexander's
Persian campaign, led to a wonderful development of pure science
under the Ptolemies; a similar effect may be noted as the result
of the Saracenic military operations.

The friendship contracted by Amrou, the conqueror of Egypt, with
John the Grammarian, indicates how much the Arabian mind was
predisposed to liberal ideas. Its step from the idolatry of the
Caaba to the monotheism of Mohammed prepared it to expatiate in
the wide and pleasing fields of literature and philosophy. There
were two influences to which it was continually exposed. They
conspired in determining its path. These were--1. That of the
Nestorians in Syria; 2. That of the Jews in Egypt.

INFLUENCE OF THE NESTORIANS AND JEWS. In the last chapter I have
briefly related the persecution of Nestor and his disciples. They
bore testimony to the oneness of God, through many sufferings and
martyrdoms. They utterly repudiated an Olympus filled with gods
and goddesses. "Away from us a queen of heaven!"

Such being their special views, the Nestorians found no
difficulty in affiliating with their Saracen conquerors, by whom
they were treated not only with the highest respect, but
intrusted with some of the most important offices of the state.
Mohammed, in the strongest manner, prohibited his followers from
committing any injuries against them. Jesuiabbas, their pontiff,
concluded treaties both with the Prophet and with Omar, and
subsequently the Khalif Haroun-al-Raschid placed all his public
schools under the superintendence of John Masue, a Nestorian.

To the influence of the Nestorians that of the Jews was added.
When Christianity displayed a tendency to unite itself with
paganism, the conversion of the Jews was arrested; it totally
ceased when Trinitarian ideas were introduced. The cities of
Syria and Egypt were full of Jews. In Alexandria alone, at the
time of its capture by Amrou, there were forty thousand who paid
tribute. Centuries of misfortune and persecution had served only
to confirm them in their monotheism, and to strengthen that
implacable hatred of idolatry which they had cherished ever since
the Babylonian captivity. Associated with the Nestorians, they
translated into Syriac many Greek and Latin philosophical works,
which were retranslated into Arabic. While the Nestorian was
occupied with the education of the children of the great
Mohammedan families, the Jew found his way into them in the
character of a physician.

FATALISM OF THE ARABIANS. Under these influences the ferocious
fanaticism of the Saracens abated, their manners were polished,
their thoughts elevated. They overran the realms of Philosophy
and Science as quickly as they had overrun the provinces of the
Roman Empire. They abandoned the fallacies of vulgar
Mohammedanism, accepting in their stead scientific truth.

In a world devoted to idolatry, the sword of the Saracen had
vindicated the majesty of God. The doctrine of fatalism,
inculcated by the Koran, had powerfully contributed to that
result. "No man can anticipate or postpone his predetermined end.
Death will overtake us even in lofty towers. From the beginning
God hath settled the place in which each man shall die." In his
figurative language the Arab said: "No man can by flight escape
his fate. The Destinies ride their horses by night. . . . Whether
asleep in bed or in the storm of battle, the angel of death will
find thee." "I am convinced," said Ali, to whose wisdom we have
already referred--"I am convinced that the affairs of men go by
divine decree, and not by our administration." The Mussulmen are
those who submissively resign themselves to the will of God. They
reconciled fate and free-will by saying, "The outline is given
us, we color the picture of life as we will." They said that, if
we would overcome the laws of Nature, we must not resist, we must
balance them against each other.

This dark doctrine prepared its devotees for the accomplishment
of great things--things such as the Saracens did accomplish. It
converted despair into resignation, and taught men to disdain
hope. There was a proverb among them that "Despair is a freeman,
Hope is a slave."

But many of the incidents of war showed plainly that medicines
may assuage pain, that skill may close wounds, that those who are
incontestably dying may be snatched from the grave. The Jewish
physician became a living, an accepted protest against the
fatalism of the Koran. By degrees the sternness of predestination
was mitigated, and it was admitted that in individual life there
is an effect due to free-will; that by his voluntary acts man may
within certain limits determine his own course. But, so far as
nations are concerned, since they can yield no personal
accountability to God, they are placed under the control of
immutable law.

In this respect the contrast between the Christian and the
Mohammedan nations was very striking: The Christian was convinced
of incessant providential interventions; he believed that there
was no such thing as law in the government of the world. By
prayers and entreaties he might prevail with God to change the
current of affairs, or, if that failed, he might succeed with
Christ, or perhaps with the Virgin Mary, or through the
intercession of the saints, or by the influence of their relics
or bones. If his own supplications were unavailing, he might
obtain his desire through the intervention of his priest, or
through that of the holy men of the Church, and especially if
oblations or gifts of money were added. Christendom believed that
she could change the course of affairs by influencing the conduct
of superior beings. Islam rested in a pious resignation to the
unchangeable will of God. The prayer of the Christian was mainly
an earnest intercession for benefits hoped for, that of the
Saracen a devout expression of gratitude for the past. Both
substituted prayer for the ecstatic meditation of India. To the
Christian the progress of the world was an exhibition of
disconnected impulses, of sudden surprises. To the Mohammedan
that progress presented a very different aspect. Every corporeal
motion was due to some preceding motion; every thought to some
preceding thought; every historical event was the offspring of
some preceding event; every human action was the result of some
foregone and accomplished action. In the long annals of our race,
nothing has ever been abruptly introduced. There has been an
orderly, an inevitable sequence from event to event. There is an
iron chain of destiny, of which the links are facts; each stands
in its preordained place--not one has ever been disturbed, not
one has ever been removed. Every man came into the world without
his own knowledge, he is to depart from it perhaps against his
own wishes. Then let him calmly fold his hands, and expect the
issues of fate.

Coincidently with this change of opinion as to the government of
individual life, there came a change as respects the mechanical
construction of the world. According to the Koran, the earth is a
square plane, edged with vast mountains, which serve the double
purpose of balancing it in its seat, and of sustaining the dome
of the sky. Our devout admiration of the power and wisdom of God
should be excited by the spectacle of this vast crystalline
brittle expanse, which has been safely set in its position
without so much as a crack or any other injury. Above the sky,
and resting on it, is heaven, built in seven stories, the
uppermost being the habitation of God, who, under the form of a
gigantic man, sits on a throne, having on either side winged
bulls, like those in the palaces of old Assyrian kings.

THEY MEASURE THE EARTH. These ideas, which indeed are not
peculiar to Mohammedanism, but are entertained by all men in a
certain stage of their intellectual development as religious
revelations, were very quickly exchanged by the more advanced
Mohammedans for others scientifically correct. Yet, as has been
the case in Christian countries, the advance was not made without
resistance on the part of the defenders of revealed truth. Thus
when Al-Mamun, having become acquainted with the globular form of
the earth, gave orders to his mathematicians and astronomers to
measure a degree of a great circle upon it, Takyuddin, one of the
most celebrated doctors of divinity of that time, denounced the
wicked khalif, declaring that God would assuredly punish him for
presumptuously interrupting the devotions of the faithful by
encouraging and diffusing a false and atheistical philosophy
among them. Al-Mamun, however, persisted. On the shores of the
Red Sea, in the plains of Shinar, by the aid of an astrolabe, the
elevation of the pole above the horizon was determined at two
stations on the same meridian, exactly one degree apart. The
distance between the two stations was then measured, and found to
be two hundred thousand Hashemite cubits; this gave for the
entire circumference of the earth about twenty-four thousand of
our miles, a determination not far from the truth. But, since the
spherical form could not be positively asserted from one such
measurement, the khalif caused another to be made near Cufa in
Mesopotamia. His astronomers divided themselves into two parties,
and, starting from a given point, each party measured an arc of
one degree, the one northward, the other southward. Their result
is given in cubits. If the cubit employed was that known as the
royal cubit, the length of a degree was ascertained within
one-third of a mile of its true value. From these measures the
khalif concluded that the globular form was established.

THEIR PASSION FOR SCIENCE. It is remarkable how quickly the
ferocious fanaticism of the Saracens was transformed into a
passion for intellectual pursuits. At first the Koran was an
obstacle to literature and science. Mohammed had extolled it as
the grandest of all compositions, and had adduced its
unapproachable excellence as a proof of his divine mission. But,
in little more than twenty years after his death, the experience
that had been acquired in Syria, Persia, Asia Minor, Egypt, had
produced a striking effect, and Ali the khalif reigning at that
time, avowedly encouraged all kinds of literary pursuits.
Moawyah, the founder of the Ommiade dynasty, who followed in 661,
revolutionized the government. It had been elective, he made it
hereditary. He removed its seat from Medina to a more central
position at Damascus, and entered on a career of luxury and
magnificence. He broke the bonds of a stern fanaticism, and put
himself forth as a cultivator and patron of letters. Thirty years
had wrought a wonderful change. A Persian satrap who had occasion
to pay homage to Omar, the second khalif, found him asleep among
the beggars on the steps of the Mosque of Medina; but foreign
envoys who had occasion to seek Moawyah, the sixth khalif, were
presented to him in a magnificent palace, decorated with
exquisite arabesques, and adorned with flower-gardens and
fountains.

THEIR LITERATURE. In less than a century after the death of
Mohammed, translations of the chief Greek philosophical authors
had been made into Arabic; poems such as the "Iliad" and the
"Odyssey," being considered to have an irreligious tendency from
their mythological allusions, were rendered into Syriac, to
gratify the curiosity of the learned. Almansor, during his
khalifate (A.D. 753-775), transferred the seat of government to
Bagdad, which he converted into a splendid metropolis; he gave
much of his time to the study and promotion of astronomy, and
established schools of medicine and law. His grandson,
Haroun-al-Raschid (A.D. 786), followed his example, and ordered
that to every mosque in his dominions a school should be
attached. But the Augustan age of Asiatic learning was during the
khalifate of Al-Mamun (A.D. 813-832). He made Bagdad the centre
of science, collected great libraries, and surrounded himself
with learned men.

The elevated taste thus cultivated continued after the division
of the Saracen Empire by internal dissensions into three parts.
The Abasside dynasty in Asia, the Fatimite in Egypt, and the
Ommiade in Spain, became rivals not merely in politics, but also
in letters and science.

THEY ORIGINATE CHEMISTRY. In letters the Saracens embraced every
topic that can amuse or edify the mind. In later times, it was
their boast that they had produced more poets than all other
nations combined. In science their great merit consists in this,
that they cultivated it after the manner of the Alexandrian
Greeks, not after the manner of the European Greeks. They
perceived that it can never be advanced by mere speculation; its
only sure progress is by the practical interrogation of Nature.
The essential characteristics of their method are experiment and
observation. Geometry and the mathematical sciences they looked
upon as instruments of reasoning. In their numerous writings on
mechanics, hydrostatics, optics, it is interesting to remark that
the solution of a problem is always obtained by performing an
experiment, or by an instrumental observation. It was this that
made them the originators of chemistry, that led them to the
invention of all kinds of apparatus for distillation,
sublimation, fusion, filtration, etc.; that in astronomy caused
them to appeal to divided instruments, as quadrants and
astrolabes; in chemistry, to employ the balance, the theory of
which they were perfectly familiar with; to construct tables of
specific gravities and astronomical tables, as those of Bagdad,
Spain, Samarcand; that produced their great improvements in
geometry, trigonometry, the invention of algebra, and the
adoption of the Indian numeration in arithmetic. Such were the
results of their preference of the inductive method of Aristotle,
their declining the reveries of Plato.

THEIR GREAT LIBRARIES. For the establishment and extension of the
public libraries, books were sedulously collected. Thus the
khalif Al-Mamun is reported to have brought into Bagdad hundreds
of camel-loads of manuscripts. In a treaty he made with the Greek
emperor, Michael III., he stipulated that one of the
Constantinople libraries should be given up to him. Among the
treasures he thus acquired was the treatise of Ptolemy on the
mathematical construction of the heavens. He had it forthwith
translated into Arabic, under the title of "Al-magest." The
collections thus acquired sometimes became very large; thus the
Fatimite Library at Cairo contained one hundred thousand volumes,
elegantly transcribed and bound. Among these, there were six
thousand five hundred manuscripts on astronomy and medicine
alone. The rules of this library permitted the lending out of
books to students resident at Cairo. It also contained two
globes, one of massive silver and one of brass; the latter was
said to have been constructed by Ptolemy, the former cost three
thousand golden crowns. The great library of the Spanish khalifs
eventually numbered six hundred thousand volumes; its catalogue
alone occupied forty-four. Besides this, there were seventy
public libraries in Andalusia. The collections in the possession
of individuals were sometimes very extensive. A private doctor
refused the invitation of a Sultan of Bokhara because the
carriage of his books would have required four hundred camels.

There was in every great library a department for the copying or
manufacture of translations. Such manufactures were also often an
affair of private enterprise. Honian, a Nestorian physician, had
an establishment of the kind at Bagdad (A.D. 850). He issued
versions of Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates, Galen, etc. As to
original works, it was the custom of the authorities of colleges
to require their professors to prepare treatises on prescribed
topics. Every khalif had his own historian. Books of romances and
tales, such as "The Thousand and One Arabian Nights'
Entertainments," bear testimony to the creative fancy of the
Saracens. Besides these, there were works on all kinds of
subjects--history, jurisprudence, politics, philosophy,
biographies not only of illustrious men, but also of celebrated
horses and camels. These were issued without any censorship or
restraint, though, in later times, works on theology required a
license for publication. Books of reference abounded,
geographical, statistical, medical, historical dictionaries, and
even abridgments or condensations of them, as the "Encyclopedic
Dictionary of all the Sciences, by Mohammed Abu Abdallah. Much
pride was taken in the purity and whiteness of the paper, in the
skillful intermixture of variously-colored inks, and in the
illumination of titles by gilding and other adornments.

The Saracen Empire was dotted all over with colleges. They were
established in Mongolia, Tartary, Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria,
Egypt, North Africa, Morocco, Fez, Spain. At one extremity of
this vast region, which far exceeded the Roman Empire in
geographical extent, were the college and astronomical
observatory of Samarcand, at the other the Giralda in Spain.
Gibbon, referring to this patronage of learning, says: "The same
royal prerogative was claimed by the independent emirs of the
provinces, and their emulation diffused the taste and the rewards
of science from Samarcand and Bokhara to Fez and Cordova. The
vizier of a sultan consecrated a sum of two hundred thousand
pieces of gold to the foundation of a college at Bagdad, which he
endowed with an annual revenue of fifteen thousand dinars. The
fruits of instruction were communicated, perhaps, at different
times, to six thousand disciples of every degree, from the son of
the noble to that of the mechanic; a sufficient allowance was
provided for the indigent scholars, and the merit or industry of
the professors was repaid with adequate stipends. In every city
the productions of Arabic literature were copied and collected,
by the curiosity of the studious and the vanity of the rich." The
superintendence of these schools was committed with noble
liberality sometimes to Nestorians, sometimes to Jews. It
mattered not in what country a man was born, nor what were his
religious opinions; his attainment in learning was the only thing
to be considered. The great Khalif Al-Mamun had declared that
"they are the elect of God, his best and most useful servants,
whose lives are devoted to the improvement of their rational
faculties; that the teachers of wisdom are the true luminaries
and legislators of this world, which, without their aid, would
again sink into ignorance and barbarism."

After the example of the medical college of Cairo, other medical
colleges required their students to pass a rigid examination. The
candidate then received authority to enter on the practice of his
profession. The first medical college established in Europe was
that founded by the Saracens at Salerno, in Italy. The first
astronomical observatory was that erected by them at Seville, in
Spain.

THE ARABIAN SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT. It would far transcend the
limits of this book to give an adequate statement of the results
of this imposing scientific movement. The ancient sciences were
greatly extended--new ones were brought into existence. The
Indian method of arithmetic was introduced, a beautiful
invention, which expresses all numbers by ten characters, giving
them an absolute value, and a value by position, and furnishing
simple rules for the easy performance of all kinds of
calculations. Algebra, or universal arithmetic--the method of
calculating indeterminate quantities, or investigating the
relations that subsist among quantities of all kinds, whether
arithmetical or geometrical--was developed from the germ that
Diophantus had left. Mohammed Ben Musa furnished the solution of
quadratic equations, Omar Ben Ibra him that of cubic equations.
The Saracens also gave to trigonometry its modern form,
substituting sines for chords, which had been previously used;
they elevated it into a separate science. Musa, above mentioned,
was the author of a "Treatise on Spherical Trigonometry."
Al-Baghadadi left one on land-surveying, so excellent, that by
some it has been declared to be a copy of Euclid's lost work on
that subject.

ARABIAN ASTRONOMY. In astronomy, they not only made catalogues,
but maps of the stars visible in their skies, giving to those of
the larger magnitudes the Arabic names they still bear on our
celestial globes. They ascertained, as we have seen, the size of
the earth by the measurement of a degree on her surface,
determined the obliquity of the ecliptic, published corrected
tables of the sun and moon fixed the length of the year, verified
the precession of the equinoxes. The treatise of Albategnius on
"The Science of the Stars" is spoken of by Laplace with respect;
he also draws attention to an important fragment of Ibn-Junis,
the astronomer of Hakem, the Khalif of Egypt, A.D. 1000, as
containing a long series of observations from the time of
Almansor, of eclipses, equinoxes, solstices, conjunctions of
planets, occultations of stars--observations which have cast much
light on the great variations of the system of the world. The
Arabian astronomers also devoted themselves to the construction
and perfection of astronomical instruments, to the measurement of
time by clocks of various kinds, by clepsydras and sun-dials.
They were the first to introduce, for this purpose, the use of
the pendulum.

In the experimental sciences, they originated chemistry; they
discovered some of its most important reagents-- sulphuric acid,
nitric acid, alcohol. They applied that science in the practice
of medicine, being the first to publish pharmacopoeias or
dispensatories, and to include in them mineral preparations. In
mechanics, they had determined the laws of falling bodies, had
ideas, by no means indistinct, of the nature of gravity; they
were familiar with the theory of the mechanical powers. In
hydrostatics they constructed the first tables of the specific
gravities of bodies, and wrote treatises on the flotation and
sinking of bodies in water. In optics, they corrected the Greek
misconception, that a ray proceeds from the eye, and touches the
object seen, introducing the hypothesis that the ray passes from
the object to the eye. They understood the phenomena of the
reflection and refraction of light. Alhazen made the great
discovery of the curvilinear path of a ray of light through the
atmosphere, and proved that we see the sun and moon before they
have risen, and after they have set.

AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURE. The effects of this scientific
activity are plainly perceived in the great improvements that
took place in many of the industrial arts. Agriculture shows it
in better methods of irrigation, the skillful employment of
manures, the raising of improved breeds of cattle, the enactment
of wise codes of rural laws, the introduction of the culture of
rice, and that of sugar and coffee. The manufactures show it in
the great extension of the industries of silk, cotton, wool; in
the fabrication of cordova and morocco leather, and paper; in
mining, casting, and various metallurgic operations; in the
making of Toledo blades.

Passionate lovers of poetry and music, they dedicated much of
their leisure time to those elegant pursuits. They taught Europe
the game of chess; they gave it its taste for works of
fiction--romances and novels. In the graver domains of literature
they took delight: they had many admirable compositions on such
subjects as the instability of human greatness; the consequences
of irreligion; the reverses of fortune; the origin, duration, and
end of the world. Sometimes, not without surprise, we meet with
ideas which we flatter ourselves have originated in our own
times. Thus our modern doctrines of evolution and development
were taught in their schools. In fact, they carried them much
farther than we are disposed to do, extending them even to
inorganic or mineral things. The fundamental principle of alchemy
was the natural process of development of metalline bodies. "When
common people," says Al- Khazini, writing in the twelfth century,
"hear from natural philosophers that gold is a body which has
attained to perfection of maturity, to the goal of completeness,
they firmly believe that it is something which has gradually come
to that perfection by passing through the forms of all other
metallic bodies, so that its gold nature was originally lead,
afterward it became tin, then brass, then silver, and finally
reached the development of gold; not knowing that the natural
philosophers mean, in saying this, only something like what they
mean when they speak of man, and attribute to him a completeness
and equilibrium in nature and constitution--not that man was once
a bull, and was changed into an ass, and afterward into a horse,
and after that into an ape, and finally became a man."



CHAPTER V.

CONFLICT RESPECTING THE NATURE OF THE SOUL.-- DOCTRINE OF
EMANATION AND ABSORPTION.

European ideas respecting the soul.--It resembles the form of the
body.

Philosophical views of the Orientals.--The Vedic theology and
Buddhism assert the doctrine of emanation and absorption.--It is
advocated by Aristotle, who is followed by the Alexandrian
school, and subsequently by the Jews and Arabians.--It is found
in the writings of Erigena.

Connection of this doctrine with the theory of conservation and
correlation of force.--Parallel between the origin and destiny of
the body and the soul.--The necessity of founding human on
comparative psychology.

Averroism, which is based on these facts, is brought into
Christendom through Spain and Sicily.

History of the repression of Averroism.--Revolt of Islam against
it.--Antagonism of the Jewish synagogues.--Its destruction
undertaken by the papacy.--Institution of the Inquisition in
Spain.--Frightful persecutions and their results.--Expulsion of
the Jews and Moors.--Overthrow of Averroism in Europe.--Decisive
action of the late Vatican Council.


THE pagan Greeks and Romans believed that the spirit of man
resembles his bodily form, varying its appearance with his
variations, and growing with his growth. Heroes, to whom it had
been permitted to descend into Hades, had therefore without
difficulty recognized their former friends. Not only had the
corporeal aspect been retained, but even the customary raiment.

THE SOUL. The primitive Christians, whose conceptions of a future
life and of heaven and hell, the abodes of the blessed and the
sinful, were far more vivid than those of their pagan
predecessors, accepted and intensified these ancient ideas. They
did not doubt that in the world to come they should meet their
friends, and hold converse with them, as they had done here upon
earth --an expectation that gives consolation to the human heart,
reconciling it to the most sorrowful bereavements, and restoring
to it its dead.

In the uncertainty as to what becomes of the soul in the interval
between its separation from the body and the judgment-day, many
different opinions were held. Some thought that it hovered over
the grave, some that it wandered disconsolate through the air. In
the popular belief, St. Peter sat as a door-keeper at the gate of
heaven. To him it had been given to bind or to loose. He admitted
or excluded the Spirits of men at his pleasure. Many persons,
however, were disposed to deny him this power, since his
decisions would be anticipatory of the judgment-day, which would
thus be rendered needless. After the time of Gregory the Great,
the doctrine of purgatory met with general acceptance. A
resting-place was provided for departed spirits.

That the spirits of the dead occasionally revisit the living, or
haunt their former abodes, has been in all ages, in all European
countries, a fixed belief, not confined to rustics, but
participated in by the intelligent. A pleasing terror gathers
round the winter's-evening fireside at the stories of
apparitions, goblins, ghosts. In the old times the Romans had
their lares, or spirits of those who had led virtuous lives;
their larvae or lemures, the spirits of the wicked; their manes,
the spirits of those of whom the merits were doubtful. If human
testimony on such subjects can be of any value, there is a body
of evidence reaching from the remotest ages to the present time,
as extensive and unimpeachable as is to be found in support of
any thing whatever, that these shades of the dead congregate near
tombstones, or take up their secret abode in the gloomy chambers
of dilapidated castles, or walk by moonlight in moody solitude.

ASIATIC PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWS. While these opinions have
universally found popular acceptance in Europe, others of a very
different nature have prevailed extensively in Asia, and indeed
very generally in the higher regions of thought. Ecclesiastical
authority succeeded in repressing them in the sixteenth century,
but they never altogether disappeared. In our own times so
silently and extensively have they been diffused in Europe, that
it was found expedient in the papal Syllabus to draw them in a
very conspicuous manner into the open light; and the Vatican
Council, agreeing in that view of their obnoxious tendency and
secret spread, has in an equally prominent and signal manner
among its first canons anathematized all persons who hold them.
"Let him be anathema who says that spiritual things are
emanations of the divine substance, or that the divine essence by
manifestation or development becomes all things." In view of this
authoritative action, it is necessary now to consider the
character and history of these opinions.

Ideas respecting the nature of God necessarily influence ideas
respecting the nature of the soul. The eastern Asiatics had
adopted the conception of an impersonal God, and, as regards the
soul, its necessary consequence, the doctrine of emanation and
absorption.

EMANATION AND ABSORPTION. Thus the Vedic theology is based on the
acknowledgment of a universal spirit pervading all things. "There
is in truth but one Deity, the supreme Spirit; he is of the same
nature as the soul of man." Both the Vedas and the Institutes of
Menu affirm that the soul is an emanation of the all-pervading
Intellect, and that it is necessarily destined to be reabsorbed.
They consider it to be without form, and that visible Nature,
with all its beauties and harmonies, is only the shadow of God.

Vedaism developed itself into Buddhism, which has become the
faith of a majority of the human race. This system acknowledges
that there is a supreme Power, but denies that there is a supreme
Being. It contemplates the existence of Force, giving rise as its
manifestation to matter. It adopts the theory of emanation and
absorption. In a burning taper it sees an effigy of man--an
embodiment of matter, and an evolution of force. If we
interrogate it respecting the destiny of the soul, it demands of
us what has become of the flame when it is blown out, and in what
condition it was before the taper was lighted. Was it a
nonentity? Has it been annihilated? It admits that the idea of
personality which has deluded us through life may not be
instantaneously extinguished at death, but may be lost by slow
degrees. On this is founded the doctrine of transmigration. But
at length reunion with the universal Intellect takes place,
Nirwana is reached, oblivion is attained, a state that has no
relation to matter, space, or time, the state into which the
departed flame of the extinguished taper has gone, the state in
which we were before we were born. This is the end that we ought
to hope for; it is reabsorption in the universal Force-- supreme
bliss, eternal rest.

Through Aristotle these doctrines were first introduced into
Eastern Europe; indeed, eventually, as we shall see, he was
regarded as the author of them. They exerted a dominating
influence in the later period of the Alexandrian school. Philo,
the Jew, who lived in the time of Caligula, based his philosophy
on the theory of emanation. Plotinus not only accepted that
theory as applicable to the soul of man, but as affording an
illustration of the nature of the Trinity. For, as a beam of
light emanates from the sun, and as warmth emanates from the beam
when it touches material bodies, so from the Father the Son
emanates, and thence the Holy Ghost. From these views Plotinus
derived a practical religious system, teaching the devout how to
pass into a condition of ecstasy, a foretaste of absorption into
the universal mundane soul. In that condition the soul loses its
individual consciousness. In like manner Porphyry sought
absorption in or union with God. He was a Tyrian by birth,
established a school at Rome, and wrote against Christianity; his
treatise on that subject was answered by Eusebius and St. Jerome,
but the Emperor Theodosius silenced it more effectually by
causing all the copies to be burnt. Porphyry bewails his own
unworthiness, saying that he had been united to God in ecstasy
but once in eighty-six years, whereas his master Plotinus had
been so united six times in sixty years. A complete system of
theology, based on the theory of emanation, was constructed by
Proclus, who speculated on the manner in which absorption takes
place: whether the soul is instantly reabsorbed and reunited in
the moment of death, or whether it retains the sentiment of
personality for a time, and subsides into complete reunion by
successive steps.

ARABIC PSYCHOLOGY. From the Alexandrian Greeks these ideas passed
to the Saracen philosophers, who very soon after the capture of
the great Egyptian city abandoned to the lower orders their
anthropomorphic notions of the nature of God and the simulachral
form of the spirit of man. As Arabism developed itself into a
distinct scientific system, the theories of emanation and
absorption were among its characteristic features. In this
abandonment of vulgar Mohammedanism, the example of the Jews
greatly assisted. They, too, had given up the anthropomorphism of
their ancestors; they had exchanged the God who of old lived
behind the veil of the temple for an infinite Intelligence
pervading the universe, and, avowing their inability to conceive
that any thing which had on a sudden been called into existence
should be capable of immortality, they affirmed that the soul of
man is connected with a past of which there was no beginning,,
and with a future to which there is no end.

In the intellectual history of Arabism the Jew and the Saracen
are continually seen together. It was the same in their political
history, whether we consider it in Syria, in Egypt, or in Spain.
From them conjointly Western Europe derived its philosophical
ideas, which in the course of time culminated in Averroism;
Averroism is philosophical Islamism. Europeans generally regarded
Averroes as the author of these heresies, and the orthodox
branded him accordingly, but he was nothing more than their
collector and commentator. His works invaded Christendom by two
routes: from Spain through Southern France they reached Upper
Italy, engendering numerous heresies on their way; from Sicily
they passed to Naples and South Italy, under the auspices of
Frederick II.

But, long before Europe suffered this great intellectual
invasion, there were what might, perhaps, be termed sporadic
instances of Orientalism. As an example I may quote the views of
John Erigena (A.D. 800) He had adopted and taught the philosophy
of Aristotle had made a pilgrimage to the birthplace of that
philosopher, and indulged a hope of uniting philosophy and
religion in the manner proposed by the Christian ecclesiastics
who were then studying in the Mohammedan universities of Spain.
He was a native of Britain.

In a letter to Charles the Bald, Anastasius expresses his
astonishment "how such a barbarian man, coming from the very ends
of the earth, and remote from human conversation, could
comprehend things so clearly, and transfer them into another
language so well." The general intention of his writings was, as
we have said, to unite philosophy with religion, but his
treatment of these subjects brought him under ecclesiastical
censure, and some of his works were adjudged to the flames. His
most important book is entitled "De Divisione Nature."

Erigena's philosophy rests upon the observed and admitted fact
that every living thing comes from something that had previously
lived. The visible world, being a world of life, has therefore
emanated necessarily from some primordial existence, and that
existence is God, who is thus the originator and conservator of
all. Whatever we see maintains itself as a visible thing through
force derived from him, and, were that force withdrawn, it must
necessarily disappear. Erigena thus conceives of the Deity as an
unceasing participator in Nature, being its preserver,
maintainer, upholder, and in that respect answering to the soul
of the world of the Greeks. The particular life of individuals is
therefore a part of general existence, that is, of the mundane
soul.

If ever there were a withdrawal of the maintaining power, all
things must return to the source from which they issued--that is,
they must return to God, and be absorbed in him. All visible
Nature must thus pass back into "the Intellect" at last. "The
death of the flesh is the auspices of the restitution of things,
and of a return to their ancient conservation. So sounds revert
back to the air in which they were born, and by which they were
maintained, and they are heard no more; no man knows what has
become of them. In that final absorption which, after a lapse of
time, must necessarily come, God will be all in all, and nothing
exist but him alone." "I contemplate him as the beginning and
cause of all things; all things that are and those that have
been, but now are not, were created from him, and by him, and in
him. I also view him as the end and intransgressible term of all
things. . . . There is a fourfold conception of universal
Nature--two views of divine Nature, as origin and end; two also
of framed Nature, causes and effects. There is nothing eternal
but God."

The return of the soul to the universal Intellect is designated
by Erigena as Theosis, or Deification. In that final absorption
all remembrance of its past experiences is lost. The soul reverts
to the condition in which it was before it animated the body.
Necessarily, therefore, Erigena fell under the displeasure of the
Church.

It was in India that men first recognized the fact that force is
indestructible and eternal. This implies ideas more or less
distinct of that which we now term its "correlation and
conservation." Considerations connected with the stability of the
universe give strength to this view, since it is clear that, were
there either an increase or a diminution, the order of the world
must cease. The definite and invariable amount of energy in the
universe must therefore be accepted as a scientific fact. The
changes we witness are in its distribution.

But, since the soul must be regarded as an active principle, to
call a new one into existence out of nothing is necessarily to
add to the force previously in the world. And, if this has been
done in the case of every individual who has been born, and is to
be repeated for every individual hereafter, the totality of force
must be continually increasing.

Moreover, to many devout persons there is something very
revolting in the suggestion that the Almighty is a servitor to
the caprices and lusts of man, and that, at a certain term after
its origin, it is necessary for him to create for the embryo a
soul.

Considering man as composed of two portions, a soul and a body,
the obvious relations of the latter may cast much light on the
mysterious, the obscure relations of the former. Now, the
substance of which the body consists is obtained from the general
mass of matter around us, and after death to that general mass it
is restored. Has Nature, then, displayed before our eyes in the
origin, mutations, and destiny of the material part, the body, a
revelation that may guide us to a knowledge of the origin and
destiny of the companion, the spiritual part, the soul?

Let us listen for a moment to one of the most powerful of
Mohammedan writers:

"God has created the spirit of man out of a drop of his own
light; its destiny is to return to him. Do not deceive yourself
with the vain imagination that it will die when the body dies.
The form you had on your entrance into this world, and your
present form, are not the same; hence there is no necessity of
your perishing, on account of the perishing of your body. Your
spirit came into this world a stranger, it is only sojourning, in
a temporary home. From the trials and tempests of this
troublesome life, our refuge is in God. In reunion with him we
shall find eternal rest--a rest without sorrow, a joy without
pain, a strength without infirmity, a knowledge without doubt, a
tranquil and yet an ecstatic vision of the source of life and
light and glory, the source from which we came." So says the
Saracen philosopher, Al-Gazzali (A.D. 1010).

In a stone the material particles are in a state of stable
equilibrium; it may, therefore, endure forever. An animal is in
reality only a form through which a stream of matter is
incessantly flowing. It receives its supplies, and dismisses its
wastes. In this it resembles a cataract, a river, a flame. The
particles that compose it at one instant have departed from it
the next. It depends for its continuance on exterior supplies. It
has a definite duration in time, and an inevitable moment comes
in which it must die.

In the great problem of psychology we cannot expect to reach a
scientific result, if we persist in restricting ourselves to the
contemplation of one fact. We must avail ourselves of all
accessible facts. Human psychology can never be completely
resolved except through comparative psychology. With Descartes,
we must inquire whether the souls of animals be relations of the
human soul, less perfect members in the same series of
development. We must take account of what we discover in the
intelligent principle of the ant, as well as what we discern in
the intelligent principle of man. Where would human physiology
be, if it were not illuminated by the bright irradiations of
comparative physiology?

Brodie, after an exhaustive consideration of the facts, affirms
that the mind of animals is essentially the same as that of man.
Every one familiar with the dog will admit that that creature
knows right from wrong, and is conscious when he has committed a
fault. Many domestic animals have reasoning powers, and employ
proper means for the attainment of ends. How numerous are the
anecdotes related of the intentional actions of the elephant and
the ape! Nor is this apparent intelligence due to imitation, to
their association with man, for wild animals that have no such
relation exhibit similar properties. In different species, the
capacity and character greatly vary. Thus the dog is not only
more intelligent, but has social and moral qualities that the cat
does not possess; the former loves his master, the latter her
home.

Du Bois-Reymond makes this striking remark: "With awe and wonder
must the student of Nature regard that microscopic molecule of
nervous substance which is the seat of the laborious,
constructive, orderly, loyal, dauntless soul of the ant. It has
developed itself to its present state through a countless series
of generations." What an impressive inference we may draw from
the statement of Huber, who has written so well on this subject:
"If you will watch a single ant at work, you can tell what he
will next do!" He is considering the matter, and reasoning as you
are doing. Listen to one of the many anecdotes which Huber, at
once truthful and artless, relates: "On the visit of an overseer
ant to the works, when the laborers had begun the roof too soon,
he examined it and had it taken down, the wall raised to the
proper height, and a new ceiling constructed with the fragments
of the old one." Surely these insects are not automata, they show
intention. They recognize their old companions, who have been
shut up from them for many months, and exhibit sentiments of joy
at their return. Their antennal language is capable of manifold
expression; it suits the interior of the nest, where all is dark.

While solitary insects do not live to raise their young, social
insects have a longer term, they exhibit moral affections and
educate their offspring. Patterns of patience and industry, some
of these insignificant creatures will work sixteen or eighteen
hours a day. Few men are capable of sustained mental application
more than four or five hours.

Similarity of effects indicates similarity of causes; similarity
of actions demands similarity of organs. I would ask the reader
of these paragraphs, who is familiar with the habits of animals,
and especially with the social relations of that wonderful insect
to which reference has been made, to turn to the nineteenth
chapter of my work on the "Intellectual Development of Europe,"
in which he will find a description of the social system of the
Incas of Peru. Perhaps, then, in view of the similarity of the
social institutions and personal conduct of the insect, and the
social institutions and personal conduct of the civilized
Indian--the one an insignificant speck, the other a man--he will
not be disposed to disagree with me in the opinion that "from
bees, and wasps, and ants, and birds, from all that low animal
life on which he looks with supercilious contempt, man is
destined one day to learn what in truth he really is."

The views of Descartes, who regarded all insects as automata, can
scarcely be accepted without modification. Insects are automata
only so far as the action of their ventral cord, and that portion
of their cephalic ganglia which deals with contemporaneous
impressions, is concerned.

It is one of the functions of vesicular-nervous material to
retain traces or relics of impressions brought to it by the
organs of sense; hence, nervous ganglia, being composed of that
material, may be considered as registering apparatus. They also
introduce the element of time into the action of the nervous
mechanism. An impression, which without them might have forthwith
ended in reflex action, is delayed, and with this duration come
all those important effects arising through the interaction of
many impressions, old and new, upon each other.

There is no such thing as a spontaneous, or self- originated,
thought. Every intellectual act is the consequence of some
preceding act. It comes into existence in virtue of something
that has gone before. Two minds constituted precisely alike, and
placed under the influence of precisely the same environment,
must give rise to precisely the same thought. To such sameness of
action we allude in the popular expression "common- sense"--a
term full of meaning. In the origination of a thought there are
two distinct conditions: the state of the organism as dependent
on antecedent impressions, and on the existing physical
circumstances.

In the cephalic ganglia of insects are stored up the relics of
impressions that have been made upon the common peripheral
nerves, and in them are kept those which are brought in by the
organs of special sense-- the visual, olfactive, auditory. The
interaction of these raises insects above mere mechanical
automata, in which the reaction instantly follows the impression.

In all cases the action of every nerve-centre, no matter what its
stage of development may be, high or low, depends upon an
essential chemical condition--oxidation. Even in man, if the
supply of arterial blood be stopped but for a moment, the
nerve-mechanism loses its power; if diminished, it
correspondingly declines; if, on the contrary, it be
increased--as when nitrogen monoxide is breathed--there is more
energetic action. Hence there arises a need of repair, a
necessity for rest and sleep.

Two fundamental ideas are essentially attached to all our
perceptions of external things: they are SPACE and TIME, and for
these provision is made in the nervous mechanism while it is yet
in an almost rudimentary state. The eye is the organ of space,
the ear of time; the perceptions of which by the elaborate
mechanism of these structures become infinitely more precise than
would be possible if the sense of touch alone were resorted to.

There are some simple experiments which illustrate the vestiges
of ganglionic impressions. If on a cold, polished metal, as a new
razor, any object, such as a wafer, be laid, and the metal be
then breathed upon, and, when the moisture has had time to
disappear, the wafer be thrown off, though now the most critical
inspection of the polished surface can discover no trace of any
form, if we breathe once more upon it, a spectral image of the
wafer comes plainly into view; and this may be done again and
again. Nay, more, if the polished metal be carefully put aside
where nothing can deteriorate its surface, and be so kept for
many months, on breathing again upon it the shadowy form emerges.

Such an illustration shows how trivial an impression may be thus
registered and preserved. But, if, on such an inorganic surface,
an impression may thus be indelibly marked, how much more likely
in the purposely- constructed ganglion! A shadow never falls upon
a wall without leaving thereupon a permanent trace, a trace which
might be made visible by resorting to proper processes.
Photographic operations are cases in point. The portraits of our
friends, or landscape views, may be hidden on the sensitive.
surface from the eye, but they are ready to make their appearance
as soon as proper developers are resorted to. A spectre is
concealed on a silver or glassy surface until, by our necromancy,
we make it come forth into the visible world. Upon the walls of
our most private apartments, where we think the eye of intrusion
is altogether shut out and our retirement can never be profaned,
there exist the vestiges of all our acts, silhouettes of whatever
we have done.

If, after the eyelids have been closed for some time, as when we
first awake in the morning, we suddenly and steadfastly gaze at a
brightly-illuminated object and then quickly close the lids
again, a phantom image is perceived in the indefinite darkness
beyond us. We may satisfy ourselves that this is not a fiction,
but a reality, for many details that we had not time to identify
in the momentary glance may be contemplated at our leisure in the
phantom. We may thus make out the pattern of such an object as a
lace curtain hanging in the window, or the branches of a tree
beyond. By degrees the image becomes less and less distinct; in a
minute or two it has disappeared. It seems to have a tendency to
float away in the vacancy before us. If we attempt to follow it
by moving the eyeball, it suddenly vanishes.

Such a duration of impressions on the retina proves that the
effect of external influences on nerve-vesicles is not
necessarily transitory. In this there is a correspondence to the
duration, the emergence, the extinction, of impressions on
photographic preparations. Thus, I have seen landscapes and
architectural views taken in Mexico developed, as artists say,
months subsequently in New York--the images coming out, after the
long voyage, in all their proper forms and in all their proper
contrast of light and shade. The photograph had forgotten
nothing. It had equally preserved the contour of the everlasting
mountains and the passing smoke of a bandit-fire.

Are there, then, contained in the brain more permanently, as in
the retina more transiently, the vestiges of impressions that
have been gathered by the sensory organs? Is this the explanation
of memory--the Mind contemplating such pictures of past things
and events as have been committed to her custody. In her silent
galleries are there hung micrographs of the living and the dead,
of scenes that we have visited, of incidents in which we have
borne a part? Are these abiding impressions mere signal-marks,
like the letters of a book, which impart ideas to the mind? or
are they actual picture-images, inconceivably smaller than those
made for us by artists, in which, by the aid of a microscope, we
can see, in a space not bigger than a pinhole, a whole family
group at a glance?

The phantom images of the retina are not perceptible in the light
of the day. Those that exist in the sensorium in like manner do
not attract our attention so long as the sensory organs are in
vigorous operation, and occupied in bringing new impressions in.
But, when those organs become weary or dull, or when we
experience hours of great anxiety, or are in twilight reveries,
or are asleep, the latent apparitions have their vividness
increased by the contrast, and obtrude themselves on the mind.
For the same reason they occupy us in the delirium of fevers, and
doubtless also in the solemn moments of death. During a third
part of our life, in sleep, we are withdrawn from external
influences; hearing and sight and the other senses are
inactive,but the never-sleeping Mind, that pensive, that veiled
enchantress, in her mysterious retirement, looks over the
ambrotypes she has collected--ambrotypes, for they are truly
unfading impressions--and, combining them together, as they
chance to occur, constructs from them the panorama of a dream.

Nature has thus implanted in the organization of every man means
which impressively suggest to him the immortality of the soul and
a future life. Even the benighted savage thus sees in his visions
the fading forms of landscapes, which are, perhaps, connected
with some of his most pleasant recollections; and what other
conclusion can be possibly extract from those unreal pictures
than that they are the foreshadowings of another land beyond that
in which his lot is cast? At intervals he is visited in his
dreams by the resemblances of those whom he has loved or hated
while they were alive; and these manifestations are to him
incontrovertible proofs of the existence and immortality of the
soul. In our most refined social conditions we are never able to
shake off the impressions of these occurrences, and are
perpetually drawing from them the same conclusions that our
uncivilized ancestors did. Our more elevated condition of life in
no respect relieves us from the inevitable operation of our own
organization, any more than it relieves us from infirmities and
disease. In these respects, all over the globe men are on an
equality. Savage or civilized, we carry within us a mechanism
which presents us with mementoes of the most solemn facts with
which we can be concerned. It wants only moments of repose or
sickness, when the influence of external things is diminished, to
come into full play, and these are precisely the moments when we
are best prepared for the truths it is going to suggest. That
mechanism is no respecter of persons. It neither permits the
haughtiest to be free from the monitions, nor leaves the humblest
without the consolation of a knowledge of another life. Open to
no opportunities of being tampered with by the designing or
interested, requiring no extraneous human agency for its effect,
out always present with every man wherever he may go, it
marvelously extracts from vestiges of the impressions of the past
overwhelming proofs of the realities of the future, and,
gathering its power from what would seem to be a most unlikely
source, it insensibly leads us, no matter who or where we may be,
to a profound belief in the immortal and imperishable, from
phantoms which have scarcely made their appearance before they
are ready to vanish away.

The insect differs from a mere automaton in this, that it is
influenced by old, by registered impressions. In the higher forms
of animated life that registration becomes more and more
complete, memory becomes more perfect. There is not any necessary
resemblance between an external form and its ganglionic
impression, any more than there is between the words of a message
delivered in a telegraphic office and the signals which the
telegraph may give to the distant station; any more than there is
between the letters of a printed page and the acts or scenes they
describe, but the letters call up with clearness to the mind of
the reader the events and scenes.

An animal without any apparatus for the retention of impressions
must be a pure automaton--it cannot have memory. From
insignificant and uncertain beginnings, such an apparatus is
gradually evolved, and, as its development advances, the
intellectual capacity increases. In man, this retention or
registration reaches perfection; he guides, himself by past as
well as by present impressions; be is influenced by experience;
his conduct is determined by reason.

A most important advance is made when the capability is acquired
by any animal of imparting a knowledge of the impressions stored
up in its own nerve-centres to another of the same kind. This
marks the extension of individual into social life, and indeed is
essential thereto. In the higher insects it is accomplished by
antennal contacts, in man by speech. Humanity, in its earlier,
its savage stages, was limited to this: the knowledge of one
person could be transmitted to another by conversation. The acts
and thoughts of one generation could be imparted to another, and
influence its acts and thoughts.

But tradition has its limit. The faculty of speech makes society
possible--nothing more.

Not without interest do we remark the progress of development of
this function. The invention of the art of writing gave extension
and durability to the registration or record of impressions.
These, which had hitherto been stored up in the brain of one man,
might now be imparted to the whole human race, and be made to
endure forever. Civilization became possible--for civilization
cannot exist without writing, or the means of record in some
shape.

From this psychological point of view we perceive the real
significance of the invention of printing--a development of
writing which, by increasing the rapidity of the diffusion of
ideas, and insuring their permanence, tends to promote
civilization and to unify the human race.

In the foregoing paragraphs, relating to nervous impressions,
their registry, and the consequences, that spring from them, I
have given an abstract of views presented in my work on "Human
Physiology," published in 1856, and may, therefore, refer the
reader to the chapter on "Inverse Vision, or Cerebral Sight;" to
Chapter XIV., Book I.; and to Chapter VIII., Book II.; of that
work, for other particulars.


The only path to scientific human psychology is through
comparative psychology. It is a long and wearisome path, but it
leads to truth.

Is there, then, a vast spiritual existence pervading the
universe, even as there is a vast existence of matter pervading
it--a spirit which, as a great German author tells us, "sleeps in
the stone, dreams in the animal, awakes in man?" Does the soul
arise from the one as the body arises from the other? Do they in
like manner return, each to the source from which it has come? If
so, we can interpret human existence, and our ideas may still be
in unison with scientific truth, and in accord with our
conception of the stability, the unchangeability of the universe.

To this spiritual existence the Saracens, following Eastern
nations, gave the designation "the Active Intellect." They
believed that the soul of man emanated from it, as a rain-drop
comes from the sea, and, after a season, returns. So arose among
them the imposing doctrines of emanation and absorption. The
active intellect is God.

In one of its forms, as we have seen, this idea was developed by
Chakia Mouni, in India, in a most masterly manner, and embodied
in the vast practical system of Buddhism; in another, it was with
less power presented among the Saracens by Averroes.

But, perhaps we ought rather to say that Europeans hold Averroes
as the author of this doctrine, because they saw him isolated
from his antecedents. But Mohammedans gave him little credit for
originality. He stood to them in the light of a commentator on
Aristotle, and as presenting the opinions of the Alexandrian and
other philosophical schools up to his time. The following
excerpts from the "Historical Essay on Averroism," by M. Renan,
will show how closely the Sarscenic ideas approached those
presented above:

This system supposes that, at the death of an individual, his
intelligent principle or soul no longer possesses a separate
existence, but returns to or is absorbed in the universal mind,
the active intelligence, the mundane soul, which is God; from
whom, indeed, it had originally emanated or issued forth.

The universal, or active, or objective intellect, is uncreated,
impassible, incorruptible, has neither beginning nor end; nor
does it increase as the number of individual souls increases. It
is altogether separate from matter. It is, as it were, a cosmic
principle. This oneness of the active intellect, or reason, is
the essential principle of the Averroistic theory, and is in
harmony with the cardinal doctrine of Mohammedanism--the unity of
God.

The individual, or passive, or subjective intellect, is an
emanation from the universal, and constitutes what is termed the
soul of man. In one sense it is perishable and ends with the
body, but in a higher sense it endures; for, after death, it
returns to or is absorbed in the universal soul, and thus of all
human souls there remains at last but one--the aggregate of them
all, life is not the property of the individual, it belongs to
Nature. The end of, man is to enter into union more and more
complete with the active intellect--reason. In that the happiness
of the soul consists. Our destiny is quietude. It was the opinion
of Averroes that the transition from the individual to the
universal is instantaneous at death, but the Buddhists maintain
that human personality continues in a declining manner for a
certain term before nonentity, or Nirwana, is attained.

Philosophy has never proposed but two hypotheses to explain the
system of the world: first, a personal God existing apart, and a
human soul called into existence or created, and thenceforth
immortal; second, an impersonal intelligence, or indeterminate
God, and a soul emerging from and returning to him. As to the
origin of beings, there are two opposite opinions: first, that
they are created from nothing; second, that they come by
development from pre-existing forms. The theory of creation
belongs to the first of the above hypotheses, that of evolution
to the last.

Philosophy among the Arabs thus took the same direction that it
had taken in China, in India, and indeed throughout the East. Its
whole spirit depended on the admission of the indestructibility
of matter and force. It saw an analogy between the gathering of
the material of which the body of man consists from the vast
store of matter in Nature, and its final restoration to that
store, and the emanation of the spirit of man from the universal
Intellect, the Divinity, and its final reabsorption.


Having thus indicated in sufficient detail the philosophical
characteristics of the doctrine of emanation and absorption, I
have in the next place to relate its history. It was introduced
into Europe by the Spanish Arabs. Spain was the focal point from
which, issuing forth, it affected the ranks of intelligence and
fashion all over Europe, and in Spain it had a melancholy end.

The Spanish khalifs had surrounded themselves with all the
luxuries of Oriental life. They had magnificent palaces,
enchanting gardens, seraglios filled with beautiful women. Europe
at the present day does not offer more taste, more refinement,
more elegance, than might have been seen, at the epoch of which
we are speaking, in the capitals of the Spanish Arabs. Their
streets were lighted and solidly paved. The houses were frescoed
and carpeted; they were warmed in winter by furnaces, and cooled
in summer with perfumed air brought by underground pipes from
flower-beds. They had baths, and libraries, and dining-halls,
fountains of quicksilver and water. City and country were full of
conviviality, and of dancing to the lute and mandolin. Instead of
the drunken and gluttonous wassail orgies of their Northern
neighbors, the feasts of the Saracens were marked by sobriety.
Wine was prohibited. The enchanting moonlight evenings of
Andalusia were spent by the Moors in sequestered, fairy-like
gardens or in orange-groves, listening to the romances of the
story-teller, or engaged in philosophical discourse; consoling
themselves for the disappointments of this life by such
reflections as that, if virtue were rewarded in this world, we
should be without expectations in the life to come; and
reconciling themselves to their daily toil by the expectation
that rest will be found after death--a rest never to be succeeded
by labor.

In the tenth century the Khalif Hakein II. had made beautiful
Andalusia the paradise of the world. Christians, Mussulmen, Jews,
mixed together without restraint. There, among many celebrated
names that have descended to our times, was Gerbert, destined
subsequently to become pope. There, too, was Peter the Venerable,
and many Christian ecclesiastics. Peter says that he found
learned men even from Britain pursuing astronomy. All learned
men, no matter from what country they came, or what their
religious views, were welcomed. The khalif had in his palace a
manufactory of books, and copyists, binders, illuminators. He
kept book-buyers in all the great cities of Asia and Africa. His
library contained four hundred thousand volumes, superbly bound
and illuminated.

Throughout the Mohammedan dominions in Asia, in Africa, and in
Spain, the lower order of Mussulmen entertained a fanatical
hatred against learning. Among the more devout--those who claimed
to be orthodox-- there were painful doubts as to the salvation of
the great Khalif Al-Mamun--the wicked khalif, as they called
him--for he had not only disturbed the people by introducing the
writings of Aristotle and other Greek heathens, but had even
struck at the existence of heaven and hell by saying that the
earth is a globe, and pretending that he could measure its size.
These persons, from their numbers, constituted a political power.

Almansor, who usurped the khalifate to the prejudice of Hakem's
son, thought that his usurpation would be sustained if he put
himself at the head of the orthodox party. He therefore had the
library of Hakem searched, and all works of a scientific or
philosophical nature carried into the public places and burnt, or
thrown into the cisterns of the palace. By a similar court
revolution Averroes, in his old age--he died A.D. 1193--was
expelled from Spain; the religious party had triumphed over the
philosophical. He was denounced as a traitor to religion. An
opposition to philosophy had been organized all over the
Mussulman world. There was hardly a philosopher who was not
punished. Some were put to death, and the consequence was, that
Islam was full of hypocrites.

Into Italy, Germany, England, Averroism had silently made its
way. It found favor in the eyes of the Franciscans, and a focus
in the University of Paris. By very many of the leading minds it
had been accepted. But at length the Dominicans, the rivals of
the Franciscans, sounded an alarm. They said it destroys all
personality, conducts to fatalism, and renders inexplicable the
difference and progress of individual intelligences. The
declaration that there is but one intellect is an error
subversive of the merits of the saints, it is an assertion that
there is no difference among men. What! is there no difference
between the holy soul of Peter and the damned soul of Judas? are
they identical? Averroes in this his blasphemous doctrine denies
creation, providence, revelation, the Trinity, the efficacy of
prayers, of alms, and of litanies; he disbelieves in the
resurrection and immortality; he places the summum bonum in mere
pleasure.

So, too, among the Jews who were then the leading intellects of
the world, Averroism had been largely propagated. Their great
writer Maimonides had thoroughly accepted it; his school was
spreading it in all directions. A furious persecution arose on
the part of the orthodox Jews. Of Maimonides it had been formerly
their delight to declare that he was "the Eagle of the Doctors,
the Great Sage, the Glory of the West, the Light of the East,
second only to Moses." Now, they proclaimed that he had abandoned
the faith of Abraham; had denied the possibility of creation,
believed in the eternity of the world; had given himself up to
the manufacture of atheists; had deprived God of his attributes;
made a vacuum of him; had declared him inaccessible to prayer,
and a stranger to the government of the world. The works of
Maimonides were committed to the flames by the synagogues of
Montpellier, Barcelona, and Toledo.

Scarcely had the conquering arms of Ferdinand and Isabella
overthrown the Arabian dominion in Spain, when measures were
taken by the papacy to extinguish these opinions, which, it was
believed, were undermining European Christianity.

Until Innocent IV. (1243), there was no special tribunal against
heretics, distinct from those of the bishops. The Inquisition,
then introduced, in accordance with the centralization of the
times, was a general and papal tribunal, which displaced the old
local ones. The bishops, therefore, viewed the innovation with
great dislike, considering it as an intrusion on their rights. It
was established in Italy, Spain, Germany, and the southern
provinces of France.

The temporal sovereigns were only too desirous to make use of
this powerful engine for their own political purposes. Against
this the popes strongly protested. They were not willing that its
use should pass out of the ecclesiastical hand.

The Inquisition, having already been tried in the south of
France, had there proved to be very effective for the suppression
of heresy. It had been introduced into Aragon. Now was assigned
to it the duty of dealing with the Jews.

In the old times under Visigothic rule these people had greatly
prospered, but the leniency that had been shown to them was
succeeded by atrocious persecution, when the Visigoths abandoned
their Arianism and became orthodox. The most inhuman ordinances
were issued against them--a law was enacted condemning them all
to be slaves. It was not to be wondered at that, when the Saracen
invasion took place, the Jews did whatever they could to promote
its success. They, like the Arabs, were an Oriental people, both
traced their lineage to Abraham, their common ancestor; both were
believers in the unity of God. It was their defense of that
doctrine that had brought upon them the hatred of their
Visigothic masters.

Under the Saracen rule they were treated with the highest
consideration. They became distinguished for their wealth and
their learning. For the most part they were Aristotelians. They
founded many schools and colleges. Their mercantile interests led
them to travel all over the world. They particularly studied the
science of medicine. Throughout the middle ages they were the
physicians and bankers of Europe. Of all men they saw the course
of human affairs from the most elevated point of view. Among the
special sciences they became proficient in mathematics and
astronomy; they composed the tables of Alfonso, and were the
cause of the voyage of De Gama. They distinguished themselves
greatly in light literature. From the tenth to the fourteenth
century their literature was the first in Europe. They were to be
found in the courts of princes as physicians, or as treasurers
managing the public finances.

The orthodox clergy in Navarre had excited popular prejudices
against them. To escape the persecutions that arose, many of them
feigned to turn Christians, and of these many apostatized to
their former faith. The papal nuncio at the court of Castile
raised a cry for the establishment of the Inquisition. The poorer
Jews were accused of sacrificing Christian children at the
Passover, in mockery of the crucifixion; the richer were
denounced as Averroists. Under the influence of Torquemada, a

Dominican monk, the confessor of Queen Isabella, that princess
solicited a bull from the pope for the establishment of the Holy
Office. A bull was accordingly issued in November, 1478, for the
detection and suppression of heresy. In the first year of the
operation of the Inquisition, 1481, two thousand victims were
burnt in Andalusia; besides these, many thousands were dug up
from their graves and burnt; seventeen thousand were fined or
imprisoned for life. Whoever of the persecuted race could flee,
escaped for his life. Torquemada, now appointed
inquisitor-general for Castile and Leon, illustrated his office
by his ferocity. Anonymous accusations were received, the accused
was not confronted by witnesses, torture was relied upon for
conviction; it was inflicted in vaults where no one could hear
the cries of the tormented. As, in pretended mercy, it was
forbidden to inflict torture a second time, with horrible
duplicity it was affirmed that the torment had not been completed
at first, but had only been suspended out of charity until the
following day! The families of the convicted were plunged into
irretrievable ruin. Llorente, the historian of the Inquisition,
computes that Torquemada and his collaborators, in the course of
eighteen years, burnt at the stake ten thousand two hundred and
twenty persons, six thousand eight hundred and sixty in effigy,
and otherwise punished ninety-seven thousand three hundred and
twenty-one. This frantic priest destroyed Hebrew Bibles wherever
be could find them, And burnt six thousand volumes of Oriental
literature at Salamanca, under an imputation that they inculcated
Judaism. With unutterable disgust and indignation, we learn that
the papal government realized much money by selling to the rich
dispensations to secure them from the Inquisition.

But all these frightful atrocities proved failures. The
conversions were few. Torquemada, therefore, insisted on the
immediate banishment of every unbaptized Jew. On March 30, 1492,
the edict of expulsion was signed. All unbaptized Jews, of
whatever age, sex, or condition, were ordered to leave the realm
by the end of the following July. If they revisited it, they
should suffer death. They might sell their effects and take the
proceeds in merchandise or bills of exchange, but not in gold or
silver. Exiled thus suddenly from the land of their birth, the
land of their ancestors for hundreds of years, they could not in
the glutted market that arose sell what they possessed. Nobody
would purchase what could be got for nothing after July. The
Spanish clergy occupied themselves by preaching in the public
squares sermons filled with denunciations against their victims,
who, when the time for expatriation came, swarmed in the roads
and filled the air with their cries of despair. Even the Spanish
onlookers wept at the scene of agony. Torquemada, however,
enforced the ordinance that no one should afford them any help.

Of the banished persons some made their way into Africa, some
into Italy; the latter carried with them to Naples ship-fever,
which destroyed not fewer than twenty thousand in that city, and
devastated that peninsula; some reached Turkey, a few England.
Thousands, especially mothers with nursing children, infants, and
old people, died by the way; many of them in the agonies of
thirst.

This action against the Jews was soon followed by one against the
Moors. A pragmatica was issued at Seville, February, 1502,
setting forth the obligations of the Castilians to drive the
enemies of God from the land, and ordering that all unbaptized
Moors in the kingdoms of Castile and Leon above the age of
infancy should leave the country by the end of April. They might
sell their property, but not take away any gold or silver; they
were forbidden to emigrate to the Mohammedan dominions; the
penalty of disobedience was death. Their condition was thus worse
than that of the Jews, who had been permitted to go where they
chose. Such was the fiendish intolerance of the Spaniards, that
they asserted the government would be justified in taking the
lives of all the Moors for their shameless infidelity.

What an ungrateful return for the toleration that the Moors in
their day of power had given to the Christians! No faith was kept
with the victims. Granada had surrendered under the solemn
guarantee of the full enjoyment of civil and religious liberty.
At the instigation of Cardinal Ximenes that pledge was broken,
and, after a residence of eight centuries, the Mohammedans were
driven out of the land.


The coexistence of three religions in Andalusia--the Christian,
the Mohammedan, the Mosaic--had given opportunity for the
development of Averroism or philosophical Arabism. This was a
repetition of what had occurred at Rome, when the gods of all the
conquered countries were confronted in that capital, and
universal disbelief in them all ensued. Averroes himself was
accused of having been first a Mussulman, then a Christian, then
a Jew, and finally a misbeliever. It was affirmed that he was the
author of the mysterious book "De Tribus Impostoribus."

In the middle ages there were two celebrated heretical  books,
"The Everlasting Gospel," and the "De Tribus Impostoribus." The
latter was variously imputed to Pope Gerbert, to Frederick II.,
and to Averroes. In their unrelenting hatred the Dominicans
fastened all the blasphemies current in those times on Averroes;
they never tired of recalling the celebrated and outrageous one
respecting the eucharist. His writings had first been generally
made known to Christian Europe by the translation of Michael Scot
in the beginning of the thirteenth century, but long before his
time the literature of the West, like that of Asia, was full of
these ideas. We have seen how broadly they were set forth by
Erigena. The Arabians, from their first cultivation of
philosophy, had been infected by them; they were current in all
the colleges of the three khalifates. Considered not as a mode of
thought, that will spontaneously occur to all men at a certain
stage of intellectual development, but as having originated with
Aristotle, they continually found favor with men of the highest
culture. We see them in Robert Grostete, in Roger Bacon, and
eventually in Spinoza. Averroes was not their inventor, be merely
gave them clearness and expression. Among the Jews of the
thirteenth century, he had completely supplanted his imputed
master. Aristotle had passed away from their eyes; his great
commentator, Averroes, stood in his place. So numerous were the
converts to the doctrine of emanation in Christendom, that Pope
Alexander IV. (1255) found it necessary to interfere. By his
order, Albertus Magnus composed a work against the "Unity of the
Intellect." Treating of the origin and nature of the soul, he
attempted to prove that the theory of "a separate intellect,
enlightening man by irradiation anterior to the individual and
surviving the individual, is a detestable error." But the most
illustrious antagonist of the great com- mentator was St. Thomas
Aquinas, the destroyer of all such heresies as the unity of the
intellect, the denial of Providence, the impossibility of
creation; the victories of "the Angelic Doctor" were celebrated
not only in the disputations of the Dominicans, but also in the
works of art of the painters of Florence and Pisa. The
indignation of that saint knew no bounds when Christians became
the disciples of an infidel, who was worse than a Mohammedan. The
wrath of the Dominicans, the order to which St. Thomas belonged,
was sharpened by the fact that their rivals, the Franciscans,
inclined to Averroistic views; and Dante, who leaned to the
Dominicans, denounced Averroes as the author of a most dangerous
system. The theological odium of all three dominant religions was
put upon him; he was pointed out as the originator of the
atrocious maxim that "all religions are false, although all are
probably useful." An attempt was made at the Council of Vienne to
have his writings absolutely suppressed, and to forbid all
Christians reading them. The Dominicans, armed with the weapons
of the Inquisition, terrified Christian Europe with their
unrelenting persecutions. They imputed all the infidelity of the
times to the Arabian philosopher. But he was not without support.
In Paris and in the cities of Northern Italy the Franciscans
sustained his views, and all Christendom was agitated with these
disputes.

Under the inspiration of the Dominicans, Averroes oceanic to the
Italian painters the emblem of unbelief. Many of the Italian
towns had pictures or frescoes of the Day of Judgment and of
Hell. In these Averroes not unfrequently appears. Thus, in one at
Pisa, he figures with Arius, Mohammed, and Antichrist. In another
he is represented as overthrown by St. Thomas. He had become an
essential element in the triumphs of the great Dominican doctor.
He continued thus to be familiar to the Italian painters until
the sixteenth century. His doctrines were maintained in the
University of Padua until the seventeenth.

Such is, in brief, the history of Averroism as it invaded Europe
from Spain. Under the auspices of Frederick II., it, in a less
imposing manner, issued from Sicily. That sovereign bad adopted
it fully. In his "Sicilian Questions" he had demanded light on
the eternity of the world, and on the nature of the soul, and
supposed he had found it in the replies of Ibn Sabin, an upholder
of these doctrines. But in his conflict with the papacy be was
overthrown, and with him these heresies were destroyed.

In Upper Italy, Averroism long maintained its ground. It was so
fashionable in high Venetian society that every gentleman felt
constrained to profess it. At length the Church took decisive
action against it. The Lateran Council, A.D. 1512, condemned the
abettors of these detestable doctrines to be held as heretics and
infidels. As we have seen, the late Vatican Council has
anathematized them. Notwithstanding that stigma, it is to be
borne in mind that these opinions are held to be true by a
majority of the human race.



CHAPTER VI.

CONFLICT RESPECTING THE NATURE OF THE WORLD.

Scriptural view of the world: the earth a flat surface; location
of heaven and hell.

Scientific view: the earth a globe; its size determined; its
position in and relations to the solar system.--The three great
voyages.--Columbus, De Gama, Magellan.--Circumnavigation of the
earth.--Determination of its curvature by the measurement of a
degree and by the pendulum.

The discoveries of Copernicus.--Invention of the
telescope.--Galileo brought before the Inquisition.--His
punishment.--Victory over the Church.

Attempts to ascertain the dimensions of the solar
system.--Determination of the sun's parallax by the transits of
Venus.--Insignificance, of the earth and man.

Ideas respecting the dimensions of the universe.--Parallax of the
stars.-- The plurality of worlds asserted by Bruno.--He is seized
and murdered by the Inquisition.


I HAVE now to present the discussions that arose respecting the
third great philosophical problem--the nature of the world.

An uncritical observation of the aspect of Nature persuades us
that the earth is an extended level surface which sustains the
dome of the sky, a firmament dividing the waters above from the
waters beneath; that the heavenly bodies--the sun, the moon, the
stars--pursue their way, moving from east to west, their
insignificant size and motion round the motionless earth
proclaiming their inferiority. Of the various organic forms
surrounding man none rival him in dignity, and hence he seems
justified in concluding that every thing has been created for his
use--the sun for the purpose of giving him light by day, the moon
and stars by night.

Comparative theology shows us that this is the conception of
Nature universally adopted in the early phase of intellectual
life. It is the belief of all nations in all parts of the world
in the beginning of their civilization: geocentric, for it makes
the earth the centre of the universe; anthropocentric, for it
makes man the central object of the earth. And not only is this
the conclusion spontaneously come to from inconsiderate glimpses
of the world, it is also the philosophical basis of various
religious revelations, vouchsafed to man from time to time. These
revelations, moreover, declare to him that above the crystalline
dome of the sky is a region of eternal light and
happiness--heaven--the abode of God and the angelic hosts,
perhaps also his own abode after death; and beneath the earth a
region of eternal darkness and misery, the habitation of those
that are evil. In the visible world is thus seen a picture of the
invisible.

On the basis of this view of the structure of the world great
religious systems have been founded, and hence powerful material
interests have been engaged in its support. These have resisted,
sometimes by resorting to bloodshed, attempts that have been made
to correct its incontestable errors--a resistance grounded on the
suspicion that the localization of heaven and hell and the
supreme value of man in the universe might be affected.

That such attempts would be made was inevitable. As soon as men
began to reason on the subject at all, they could not fail to
discredit the assertion that the earth is an indefinite plane. No
one can doubt that the sun we see to-day is the self-same sun
that we saw yesterday. His reappearance each morning irresistibly
suggests that he has passed on the underside of the earth. But
this is incompatible with the reign of night in those regions. It
presents more or less distinctly the idea of the globular form of
the earth.

The earth cannot extend indefinitely downward; for the sun cannot
go through it, nor through any crevice or passage in it, Since he
rises and sets in different positions at different seasons of the
year. The stars also move under it in countless courses. There
must, therefore, be a clear way beneath.

To reconcile revelation with these innovating facts, schemes,
such as that of Cosmas Indicopleustes in his Christian
Topography, were doubtless often adopted. To this in particular
we have had occasion on a former page to refer. It asserted that
in the northern parts of the flat earth there is an immense
mountain, behind which the sun passes, and thus produces night.

At a very remote historical period the mechanism of eclipses had
been discovered. Those of the moon demonstrated that the shadow
of the earth is always circular. The form of the earth must
therefore be globular. A body which in all positions casts a
circular shadow must itself be spherical. Other considerations,
with which every one is now familiar, could not fail to establish
that such is her figure.

But the determination of the shape of the earth by no means
deposed her from her position of superiority. Apparently vastly
larger than all other things, it was fitting that she should be
considered not merely as the centre of the world, but, in truth,
as--the world. All other objects in their aggregate seemed
utterly unimportant in comparison with her.

Though the consequences flowing from an admission of the globular
figure of the earth affected very profoundly existing theological
ideas, they were of much less moment than those depending on a
determination of her size. It needed but an elementary knowledge
of geometry to perceive that correct ideas on this point could be
readily obtained by measuring a degree on her surface. Probably
there were early attempts to accomplish this object, the results
of which have been lost. But Eratosthenes executed one between
Syene and Alexandria, in Egypt, Syene being supposed to be
exactly under the tropic of Cancer. The two places are, however,
not on the same meridian, and the distance between them was
estimated, not measured. Two centuries later, Posidonius made
another attempt between Alexandria and Rhodes; the bright star
Canopus just grazed the horizon at the latter place, at
Alexandria it rose 7 1/2 degrees. In this instance, also, since
the direction lay across the sea, the distance was estimated, not
measured. Finally, as we have already related, the Khalif
Al-Mamun made two sets of measures, one on the shore of the Red
Sea, the other near Cufa, in Mesopotamia. The general result of
these various observations gave for the earth's diameter between
seven and eight thousand miles.

This approximate determination of the size of the earth tended to
depose her from her dominating position, and gave rise to very
serious theological results. In this the ancient investigations
of Aristarchus of Samos, one of the Alexandrian school, 280 B.C.,
powerfully aided. In his treatise on the magnitudes and distances
of the sun and moon, he explains the ingenious though imperfect
method to which he had resorted for the solution of that problem.
Many ages previously a speculation had been brought from India to
Europe by Pythagoras. It presented the sun as the centre of the
system. Around him the planets revolved in circular orbits, their
order of position being Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter,
Saturn, each of them being supposed to rotate on its axis as it
revolved round the sun. According to Cicero, Nicetas suggested
that, if it were admitted that the earth revolves on her axis,
the difficulty presented by the inconceivable velocity of the
heavens would be avoided.

There is reason to believe that the works of Aristarchus, in the
Alexandrian Library, were burnt at the time of the fire of
Caesar. The only treatise of his that has come down to us is that
above mentioned, on the size and distance of the sun and moon.

Aristarchus adopted the Pythagorean system as representing the
actual facts. This was the result of a recognition of the sun's
amazing distance, and therefore of his enormous size. The
heliocentric system, thus regarding the sun as the central orb,
degraded the earth to a very subordinate rank, making her only
one of a company of six revolving bodies.

But this is not the only contribution conferred on astronomy by
Aristarchus, for, considering that the movement of the earth does
not sensibly affect the apparent position of the stars, he
inferred that they are incomparably more distant from us than the
sun. He, therefore, of all the ancients, as Laplace remarks, had
the most correct ideas of the grandeur of the universe. He saw
that the earth is of absolutely insignificant size, when compared
with the stellar distances. He saw, too, that there is nothing
above us but space and stars.

But the views of Aristarchus, as respects the emplacement of the
planetary bodies, were not accepted by antiquity; the system
proposed by Ptolemy, and incorporated in his "Syntaxis," was
universally preferred. The physical philosophy of those times was
very imperfect--one of Ptolemy's objections to the Pythagorean
system being that, if the earth were in motion, it would leave
the air and other light bodies behind it. He therefore placed the
earth in the central position, and in succession revolved round
her the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn;
beyond the orbit of Saturn came the firmament of the fixed stars.
As to the solid crystalline spheres, one moving from east to
west, the other from north to south, these were a fancy of
Eudoxus, to which Ptolemy does not allude.

The Ptolemaic system is, therefore, essentially a geocentric
system. It left the earth in her position of superiority, and
hence gave no cause of umbrage to religious opinions, Christian
or Mohammedan. The immense reputation of its author, the signal
ability of his great work on the mechanism of the heavens,
sustained it for almost fourteen hundred years--that is, from the
second to the sixteenth century.

In Christendom, the greater part of this long period was consumed
in disputes respecting the nature of God, and in struggles for
ecclesiastical power. The authority of the Fathers, and the
prevailing belief that the Scriptures contain the sum, of all
knowledge, discouraged any investigation of Nature. If by chance
a passing interest was taken in some astronomical question, it
was at once settled by a reference to such authorities as the
writings of Augustine or Lactantius, not by an appeal to the
phenomena of the heavens. So great was the preference given to
sacred over profane learning that Christianity had been in
existence fifteen hundred years, and had not produced a single
astronomer.

The Mohammedan nations did much better. Their cultivation of
science dates from the capture of Alexandria, A.D. 638. This was
only six years after the death of the Prophet. In less than two
centuries they had not only become acquainted with, but correctly
appreciated, the Greek scientific writers. As we have already
mentioned, by his treaty with Michael III., the khalif Al-Mamun
had obtained a copy of the "Syntaxis" of Ptolemy. He had it
forthwith translated into Arabic. It became at once the great
authority of Saracen astronomy. From this basis the Saracens had
advanced to the solution of some of the most important scientific
problems. They had ascertained the dimensions of the earth; they
had registered or catalogued all the stars visible in their
heavens, giving to those of the larger magnitudes the names they
still bear on our maps and globes; they determined the true
length of the year, discovered astronomical refraction, invented
the pendulum-clock, improved the photometry of the stars,
ascertained the curvilinear path of a ray of light through the
air, explained the phenomena of the horizontal sun and moon, and
why we see those bodies before they have risen and after they
have set; measured the height of the atmosphere, determining it
to be fifty-eight miles; given the true theory of the twilight,
and of the twinkling of the stars. They had built the first
observatory in Europe. So accurate were they in their
observations, that the ablest modern mathematicians have made use
of their results. Thus Laplace, in his "Systeme du Monde,"
adduces the observations of Al-Batagni as affording incontestable
proof of the diminution of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit.
He uses those of Ibn-Junis in his discussion of the obliquity of
the ecliptic, and also in the case of the problems of the greater
inequalities of Jupiter and Saturn.

These represent but a part, and indeed but a small part, of the
services rendered by the Arabian astronomers, in the solution of
the problem of the nature of the world. Meanwhile, such was the
benighted condition of Christendom, such its deplorable
ignorance, that it cared nothing about the matter. Its attention
was engrossed by image-worship, transubstantiation, the merits of
the saints, miracles, shrine-cures.

This indifference continued until the close of the fifteenth
century. Even then there was no scientific inducement. The
inciting motives were altogether of a different kind. They
originated in commercial rivalries, and the question of the shape
of the earth was finally settled by three sailors, Columbus, De
Gama, and, above all, by Ferdinand Magellan.

The trade of Eastern Asia has always been a source of immense
wealth to the Western nations who in succession have obtained it.
In the middle ages it had centred in Upper Italy. It was
conducted along two lines--a northern, by way of the Black and
Caspian Seas, and camel-caravans beyond--the headquarters of this
were at Genoa; and a southern, through the Syrian and Egyptian
ports, and by the Arabian Sea, the headquarters of this being at
Venice. The merchants engaged in the latter traffic had also made
great gains in the transport service of the Crusade-wars.

The Venetians had managed to maintain amicable relations with the
Mohammedan powers of Syria and Egypt; they were permitted to have
consulates at Alexandria and Damascus, and, notwithstanding the
military commotions of which those countries had been the scene,
the trade was still maintained in a comparatively flourishing
condition. But the northern or Genoese line had been completely
broken up by the irruptions of the Tartars and the Turks, and the
military and political disturbances of the countries through
which it passed. The Eastern trade of Genoa was not merely in a
precarious condition--it was on the brink of destruction.

The circular visible horizon and its dip at sea, the gradual
appearance and disappearance of ships in the offing, cannot fail
to incline intelligent sailors to a belief in the globular figure
of the earth. The writings of the Mohammedan astronomers and
philosophers had given currency to that doctrine throughout
Western Europe, but, as might be expected, it was received with
disfavor by theologians. When Genoa was thus on the very brink of
ruin, it occurred to some of her mariners that, if this view were
correct, her affairs might be re- established. A ship sailing
through the straits of Gibraltar westward, across the Atlantic,
would not fail to reach the East Indies. There were apparently
other great advantages. Heavy cargoes might be transported
without tedious and expensive land-carriage, and without breaking
bulk.

Among the Genoese sailors who entertained these views was
Christopher Columbus.

He tells us that his attention was drawn to this subject by the
writings of Averroes, but among his friends he numbered
Toscanelli, a Florentine, who had turned his attention to
astronomy, and had become a strong advocate of the globular form.
In Genoa itself Columbus met with but little encouragement. He
then spent many years in trying to interest different princes in
his proposed attempt. Its irreligious tendency was pointed out by
the Spanish ecclesiastics, and condemned by the Council of
Salamanca; its orthodoxy was confuted from the Pentateuch, the
Psalms, the Prophecies, the Gospels, the Epistles, and the
writings of the Fathers--St. Chrysostom, St. Augustine, St.
Jerome, St. Gregory, St. Basil, St Ambrose.

At length, however, encouraged by the Spanish Queen Isabella, and
substantially aided by a wealthy seafaring family, the Pinzons of
Palos, some of whom joined him personally, he sailed on August 3,
1492, with three small ships, from Palos, carrying with him a
letter from King Ferdinand to the Grand-Khan of Tartary, and also
a chart, or map, constructed on the basis of that of Toscanelli.
A little before midnight, October 11, 1492, he saw from the
forecastle of his ship a moving light at a distance. Two hours
subsequently a signal- gun from another of the ships announced
that they had descried land. At sunrise Columbus landed in the
New World.

On his return to Europe it was universally supposed that he had
reached the eastern parts of Asia, and that therefore his voyage
bad been theoretically successful. Columbus himself died in that
belief. But numerous voyages which were soon undertaken made
known the general contour of the American coast-line, and the
discovery of the Great South Sea by Balboa revealed at length the
true facts of the case, and the mistake into which both
Toscanelli and Columbus had fallen, that in a voyage to the West
the distance from Europe to Asia could not exceed the distance
passed over in a voyage from Italy to the Gulf of Guinea--a
voyage that Columbus had repeatedly made.

In his first voyage, at nightfall on September 13, 1492, being
then two and a half degrees east of Corvo, one of the Azores,
Columbus observed that the compass needles of the ships no longer
pointed a little to the east of north, but were varying to the
west. The deviation became more and more marked as the expedition
advanced. He was not the first to detect the fact of variation,
but he was incontestably the first to discover the line of no
variation. On the return-voyage the reverse was observed; the
variation westward diminished until the meridian in question was
reached, when the needles again pointed due north. Thence, as the
coast of Europe was approached, the variation was to the east.
Columbus, therefore, came to the conclusion that the line of no
variation was a fixed geographical line, or boundary, between the
Eastern and Western Hemispheres. In the bull of May, 1493, Pope
Alexander VI. accordingly adopted this line as the perpetual
boundary between the possessions of Spain and Portugal, in his
settlement of the disputes of those nations. Subsequently,
however, it was discovered that the line was moving eastward. It
coincided with the meridian of London in 1662.

By the papal bull the Portuguese possessions were limited to the
east of the line of no variation. Information derived from
certain Egyptian Jews had reached that government, that it was
possible to sail round the continent of Africa, there being at
its extreme south a cape which could be easily doubled. An
expedition of three ships under Vasco de Gama set sail, July 9,
1497; it doubled the cape on November 20th, and reached Calicut,
on the coast of India, May 19, 1498. Under the bull, this voyage
to the East gave to the Portuguese the right to the India trade.

Until the cape was doubled, the course of De Gama's ships was in
a general manner southward. Very soon, it was noticed that the
elevation of the pole-star above the horizon was diminishing,
and, soon after the equator was reached, that star had ceased to
be visible. Meantime other stars, some of them forming
magnificent constellations, had come into view--the stars of the
Southern Hemisphere. All this was in conformity to theoretical
expectations founded on the admission of the globular form of the
earth.

The political consequences that at once ensued placed the Papal
Government in a position of great embarrassment. Its traditions
and policy forbade it to admit any other than the flat figure of
the earth, as revealed in the Scriptures. Concealment of the
facts was impossible, sophistry was unavailing. Commercial
prosperity now left Venice as well as Genoa. The front of Europe
was changed. Maritime power had departed from the Mediterranean
countries, and passed to those upon the Atlantic coast.

But the Spanish Government did not submit to the advantage thus
gained by its commercial rival without an effort. It listened to
the representations of one Ferdinand Magellan, that India and the
Spice Islands could be reached by sailing to the west, if only a
strait or passage through what had now been recognized as "the
American Continent" could be discovered; and, if this should be
accomplished, Spain, under the papal bull, would have as good a
right to the India trade as Portugal. Under the command of
Magellan, an expedition of five ships, carrying two hundred and
thirty- seven men, was dispatched from Seville, August 10, 1519.

Magellan at once struck boldly for the South American coast,
hoping to find some cleft or passage through the continent by
which he might reach the great South Sea. For seventy days he was
becalmed on the line; his sailors were appalled by the
apprehension that they had drifted into a region where the winds
never blew, and that it was impossible for them to escape. Calms,
tempests, mutiny, desertion, could not shake his resolution.
After more than a year he discovered the strait which now bears
his name, and, as Pigafetti, an Italian, who was with him,
relates, he shed fears of joy when he found that it had pleased
God at length to bring him where he might grapple with the
unknown dangers of the South Sea, "the Great and Pacific Ocean."

Driven by famine to eat scraps of skin and leather with which his
rigging was here and there bound, to drink water that had gone
putrid, his crew dying of hunger and scurvy, this man, firm in
his belief of the globular figure of the earth, steered steadily
to the northwest, and for nearly four months never saw inhabited
land. He estimated that he had sailed over the Pacific not less
than twelve thousand miles. He crossed the equator, saw once more
the pole-star, and at length made land--the Ladrones. Here he met
with adventurers from Sumatra. Among these islands he was killed,
either by the savages or by his own men. His lieutenant,
Sebastian d'Elcano, now took command of the ship, directing her
course for the Cape of Good Hope, and encountering frightful
hardships. He doubled the cape at last, and then for the fourth
time crossed the equator. On September 7, 1522, after a voyage of
more than three years, he brought his ship, the San Vittoria, to
anchor in the port of St. Lucar, near Seville. She had
accomplished the greatest achievement in the history of the human
race. She had circumnavigated the earth.

The San Vittoria, sailing westward, had come back to her
starting-point. Henceforth the theological doctrine of the
flatness of the earth was irretrievably overthrown.

Five years after the completion of the voyage of Magellan, was
made the first attempt in Christendom to ascertain the size of
the earth. This was by Fernel, a French physician, who, having
observed the height of the pole at Paris, went thence northward
until be came to a place where the height of the pole was exactly
one degree more than at that city. He measured the distance
between the two stations by the number of revolutions of one of
the wheels of his carriage, to which a proper indicator bad been
attached, and came to the conclusion that the earth's
circumference is about twenty-four thousand four hundred and
eighty Italian miles.

Measures executed more and more carefully were made in many
countries: by Snell in Holland; by Norwood between London and
York in England; by Picard, under the auspices of the French
Academy of Sciences, in France. Picard's plan was to connect two
points by a series of triangles, and, thus ascertaining the
length of the arc of a meridian intercepted between them, to
compare it with the difference of latitudes found from celestial
observations. The stations were Malvoisine in the vicinity of
Paris, and Sourdon near Amiens. The difference of latitudes was
determined by observing the zenith-distances, of delta
Cassiopeia. There are two points of interest connected with
Picard's operation: it was the first in which instruments
furnished with telescopes were employed; and its result, as we
shall shortly see, was to Newton the first confirmation of the
theory of universal gravitation.

At this time it had become clear from mechanical considerations,
more especially such as had been deduced by Newton, that, since
the earth is a rotating body, her form cannot be that of a
perfect sphere, but must be that of a spheroid, oblate or
flattened at the poles. It would follow, from this, that the
length of a degree must be greater near the poles than at the
equator.

The French Academy resolved to extend Picard's operation, by
prolonging the measures in each direction, and making the result
the basis of a more accurate map of France. Delays, however, took
place, and it was not until 1718 that the measures, from Dunkirk
on the north to the southern extremity of France, were completed.
A discussion arose as to the interpretation of these measures,
some affirming that they indicated a prolate, others an oblate
spheroid; the former figure may be popularly represented by a
lemon, the latter by an orange. To settle this, the French
Government, aided by the Academy, sent out two expeditions to
measure degrees of the meridian--one under the equator, the other
as far north as possible; the former went to Peru, the latter to
Swedish Lapland. Very great difficulties were encountered by both
parties. The Lapland commission, however, completed its
observations long before the Peruvian, which consumed not less
than nine years. The results of the measures thus obtained
confirmed the theoretical expectation of the oblate form. Since
that time many extensive and exact repetitions of the observation
have been made, among which may be mentioned those of the English
in England and in India, and particularly that of the French on
the occasion of the introduction of the metric system of weights
and measures. It was begun by Delambre and Mechain, from Dunkirk
to Barcelona, and thence extended, by Biot and Arago, to the
island of Formentera near Minorea. Its length was nearly twelve
and a half degrees.

Besides this method of direct measurement, the figure of the
earth may be determined from the observed number of oscillations
made by a pendulum of invariable length in different latitudes.
These, though they confirm the foregoing results, give a somewhat
greater ellipticity to the earth than that found by the
measurement of degrees. Pendulums vibrate more slowly the nearer
they are to the equator. It follows, therefore, that they are
there farther from the centre of the earth.

From the most reliable measures that have been made, the
dimensions of the earth may be thus stated:


Greater or equatorial diameter ............. 7,925 miles.
Less or polar diameter ......................7,899  "
Difference or polar compression .............   26  "


Such was the result of the discussion respecting the figure and
size of the earth. While it was yet undetermined, another
controversy arose, fraught with even more serious consequences.
This was the conflict respecting the earth's position with regard
to the sun and the planetary bodies.

Copernicus, a Prussian, about the year 1507, had completed a book
"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies." He had journeyed to
Italy in his youth, had devoted his attention to astronomy, and
had taught mathematics at Rome. From a profound study of the
Ptolemaic and Pythagorean systems, he had come to a conclusion in
favor of the latter, the object of his book being to sustain it.
Aware that his doctrines were totally opposed to revealed truth,
and foreseeing that they would bring upon him the punishments of
the Church, be expressed himself in a cautious and apologetic
manner, saying that he had only taken the liberty of trying
whether, on the supposition of the earth's motion, it was
possible to find better explanations than the ancient ones of the
revolutions of the celestial orbs; that in doing this he had only
taken the privilege that had been allowed to others, of feigning
what hypothesis they chose. The preface was addressed to Pope
Paul III.

Full of misgivings as to what might be the result, he refrained
from publishing his book for thirty-six years, thinking that
"perhaps it might be better to follow the examples of the
Pythagoreans and others, who delivered their doctrine only by
tradition and to friends." At the entreaty of Cardinal Schomberg
he at length published it in 1543. A copy of it was brought to
him on his death-bed. Its fate was such as he had anticipated.
The Inquisition condemned it as heretical. In their decree,
prohibiting it, the Congregation of the Index denounced his
system as "that false Pythagorean doctrine utterly contrary to
the Holy Scriptures."

Astronomers justly affirm that the book of Copernicus, "De
Revolutionibus," changed the face of their science. It
incontestably established the heliocentric theory. It showed that
the distance of the fixed stars is infinitely great, and that the
earth is a mere point in the heavens. Anticipating Newton,
Copernicus imputed gravity to the sun, the moon, and heavenly
bodies, but he was led astray by assuming that the celestial
motions must be circular. Observations on the orbit of Mars, and
his different diameters at different times, had led Copernicus to
his theory.

In thus denouncing the Copernican system as being in
contradiction to revelation, the ecclesiastical authorities were
doubtless deeply moved by inferential considerations. To dethrone
the earth from her central dominating position, to give her many
equals and not a few superiors, seemed to diminish her claims
upon the Divine regard. If each of the countless myriads of stars
was a sun, surrounded by revolving globes, peopled with
responsible beings like ourselves, if we had fallen so easily and
had been redeemed at so stupendous a price as the death of the
Son of God, how was it with them? Of them were there none who had
fallen or might fall like us? Where, then, for them could a
Savior be found?

During the year 1608 one Lippershey, a Hollander, discovered
that, by looking through two glass lenses, combined in a certain
manner together, distant objects were magnified and rendered very
plain. He had invented the telescope. In the following year
Galileo, a Florentine, greatly distinguished by his mathematical
and scientific writings, hearing of the circumstance, but without
knowing the particulars of the construction, invented a form of
the instrument for himself. Improving it gradually, he succeeded
in making one that. could magnify thirty times. Examining the
moon, he found that she had valleys like those of the earth, and
mountains casting shadows. It had been said in the old times that
in the Pleiades there were formerly seven stars, but a legend
related that one of them had mysteriously disappeared. On turning
his telescope toward them, Galileo found that he could easily
count not fewer than forty. In whatever direction he looked, be
discovered stars that were totally invisible to the naked eye.

On the night of January 7, 1610, he perceived three small stars
in a straight line, adjacent to the planet Jupiter, and, a few
evenings later, a fourth. He found that these were revolving in
orbits round the body of the planet, and, with transport,
recognized that they presented a miniature representation of the
Copernican system.

The announcement of these wonders at once attracted universal
attention. The spiritual authorities were not slow to detect
their tendency, as endangering the doctrine that the universe was
made for man. In the creation of myriads of stars, hitherto
invisible, there must surely have been some other motive than
that of illuminating the nights for him.

It had been objected to the Copernican theory that, if the
planets Mercury and Venus move round the sun in orbits interior
to that of the earth, they ought to show phases like those of the
moon; and that in the case of Venus, which is so brilliant and
conspicuous, these phases should be very obvious. Copernicus
himself had admitted the force of the objection, and had vainly
tried to find an explanation. Galileo, on turning his telescope
to the planet, discovered that the expected phases actually
exist; now she was a crescent, then half-moon, then gibbous, then
full. Previously to Copernicus, it was supposed that the planets
shine by their own light, but the phases of Venus and Mars proved
that their light is reflected. The Aristotelian notion, that
celestial differ from terrestrial bodies in being incorruptible,
received a rude shock from the discoveries of Galileo, that there
are mountains and valleys in the moon like those of the earth,
that the sun is not perfect, but has spots on his face, and that
he turns on his axis instead of being in a state of majestic
rest. The apparition of new stars had already thrown serious
doubts on this theory of incorruptibility.

These and many other beautiful telescopic discoveries tended to
the establishment of the truth of the Copernican theory and gave
unbounded alarm to the Church. By the low and ignorant
ecclesiastics they were denounced as deceptions or frauds. Some
affirmed that the telescope might be relied on well enough for
terrestrial objects, but with the heavenly bodies it was
altogether a different affair. Others declared that its invention
was a mere application of Aristotle's remark that stars could be
seen in the daytime from the bottom of a deep well. Galileo was
accused of imposture, heresy, blasphemy, atheism. With a view of
defending himself, he addressed a letter to the Abbe Castelli,
suggesting that the Scriptures were never intended to be a
scientific authority, but only a moral guide. This made matters
worse. He was summoned before the Holy Inquisition, under an
accusation of having taught that the earth moves round the sun, a
doctrine "utterly contrary to the Scriptures." He was ordered to
renounce that heresy, on pain of being imprisoned. He was
directed to desist from teaching and advocating the Copernican
theory, and pledge himself that he would neither publish nor
defend it for the future. Knowing well that Truth has no need of
martyrs, be assented to the required recantation, and gave the
promise demanded.

For sixteen years the Church had rest. But in 1632 Galileo
ventured on the publication of his work entitled "The System of
the World," its object being the vindication of the Copernican
doctrine. He was again summoned before the Inquisition at Rome,
accused of having asserted that the earth moves round the sun. He
was declared to have brought upon himself the penalties of
heresy. On his knees, with his hand on the Bible, he was
compelled to abjure and curse the doctrine of the movement of the
earth. What a spectacle! This venerable man, the most illustrious
of his age, forced by the threat of death to deny facts which his
judges as well as himself knew to be true! He was then committed
to prison, treated with remorseless severity during the remaining
ten years of his life, and was denied burial in consecrated
ground. Must not that be false which requires for its support so
much imposture, so much barbarity? The opinions thus defended by
the Inquisition are now objects of derision to the whole
civilized world.

One of the greatest of modern mathematicians, referring to this
subject, says that the point here contested was one which is for
mankind of the highest interest, because of the rank it assigns
to the globe that we inhabit. If the earth be immovable in the
midst of the universe, man has a right to regard himself as the
principal object of the care of Nature. But if the earth be only
one of the planets revolving round the sun, an insignificant body
in the solar system, she will disappear entirely in the immensity
of the heavens, in which this system, vast as it may appear to
us, is nothing but an insensible point.

The triumphant establishment of the Copernican doctrine dates
from the invention of the telescope. Soon there was not to be
found in all Europe an astronomer who had not accepted the
heliocentric theory with its essential postulate, the double
motion of the earth-- movement of rotation on her axis, and a
movement of revolution round the sun. If additional proof of the
latter were needed, it was furnished by Bradley's great discovery
of the aberration of the fixed stars, an aberration depending
partly on the progressive motion of light, and partly on the
revolution of the earth. Bradley's discovery ranked in importance
with that of the precession of the equinoxes. Roemer's discovery
of the progressive motion of light, though denounced by
Fontenelle as a seductive error, and not admitted by Cassini, at
length forced its way to universal acceptance.


Next it was necessary to obtain correct ideas of the dimensions
of the solar system, or, putting the problem under a more limited
form, to determine the distance of the earth from the sun.

In the time of Copernicus it was supposed that the sun's distance
could not exceed five million miles, and indeed there were many
who thought that estimate very extravagant. From a review of the
observations of Tycho Brahe, Kepler, however, concluded that the
error was actually in the opposite direction, and that the
estimate must be raised to at least thirteen million. In 1670
Cassini showed that these numbers were altogether inconsistent
with the facts, and gave as his conclusion eighty-five million.

The transit of Venus over the face of the sun, June 3, 1769, had
been foreseen, and its great value in the solution of this
fundamental problem in astronomy appreciated. With commendable
alacrity various governments contributed their assistance in
making observations, so that in Europe there were fifty stations,
in Asia six, in America seventeen. It was for this purpose that
the English Government dispatched Captain Cook on his celebrated
first voyage. He went to Otaheite. His voyage was crowned with
success. The sun rose without a cloud, and the sky continued
equally clear throughout the day. The transit at Cook's station
lasted from about half-past nine in the morning until about
half-past three in the afternoon, and all the observations were
made in a satisfactory manner.

But, on the discussion of the observations made at the different
stations, it was found that there was not the accordance that
could have been desired--the result varying from eighty-eight to
one hundred and nine million. The celebrated mathematician,
Encke, therefore reviewed them in 1822-'24, and came to the
conclusion that the sun's horizontal parallax, that is, the angle
under which the semi-diameter of the earth is seen from the sun,
is 8 576/1000 seconds; this gave as the distance 95,274,000
miles. Subsequently the observations were reconsidered by Hansen,
who gave as their result 91,659,000 miles. Still later, Leverrier
made it 91,759,000. Airy and Stone, by another method, made it
91,400,000; Stone alone, by a revision of the old observations,
91,730,000; and finally, Foucault and Fizeau, from physical
experiments, determining the velocity of light, and therefore in
their nature altogether differing from transit observations,
91,400,000. Until the results of the transit of next year (1874)
are ascertained, it must therefore be admitted that the distance
of the earth from the sun is somewhat less than ninety-two
million miles.

This distance once determined, the dimensions of the solar system
may be ascertained with ease and precision. It is enough to
mention that the distance of Neptune from the sun, the most
remote of the planets at present known, is about thirty times
that of the earth.

By the aid of these numbers we may begin to gain a just
appreciation of the doctrine of the human destiny of the
universe--the doctrine that all things were made for man. Seen
from the sun, the earth dwindles away to a mere speck, a mere
dust-mote glistening in his beams. If the reader wishes a more
precise valuation, let him hold a page of this book a couple of
feet from his eye; then let him consider one of its dots or full
stops; that dot is several hundred times larger in surface than
is the earth as seen from the sun!

Of what consequence, then, can such an almost imperceptible
particle be? One might think that it could be removed or even
annihilated, and yet never be missed. Of what consequence is one
of those human monads, of whom more than a thousand millions
swarm on the surface of this all but invisible speck, and of a
million of whom scarcely one will leave a trace that he has ever
existed? Of what consequence is man, his pleasures or his pains?

Among the arguments brought forward against the Copernican system
at the time of its promulgation, was one by the great Danish
astronomer, Tycho Brahe, originally urged by Aristarchus against
the Pythagorean system, to the effect that, if, as was alleged,
the earth moves round the sun, there ought to be a change of the
direction in which the fixed stars appear. At one time we are
nearer to a particular region of the heavens by a distance equal
to the whole diameter of the earth's orbit than we were six
months previously, and hence there ought to be a change in the
relative position of the stars; they should seem to separate as
we approach them, and to close together as we recede from them;
or, to use the astronomical expression, these stars should have a
yearly parallax.

The parallax of a star is the angle contained between two lines
drawn from it--one to the sun, the other to the earth.

At that time, the earth's distance from the sun was greatly
under-estimated. Had it been known, as it is now, that that
distance exceeds ninety million miles, or that the diameter of
the orbit is more than one hundred and eighty million, that
argument would doubtless have had very great weight.

In reply to Tycho, it was said that, since the  parallax of a
body diminishes as its distance increases, a star may be so far
off that its parallax may be imperceptible. This answer proved to
be correct. The detection of the parallax of the stars depended
on the improvement of instruments for the measurement of angles.

The parallax of alpha Centauri, a fine double star of the
Southern Hemisphere, at present considered to be the nearest of
the fixed stars, was first determined by Henderson and Maclear at
the Cape of Good Hope in 1832-'33. It is about nine-tenths of a
second. Hence this star is almost two hundred and thirty thousand
times as far from us as the sun. Seen from it, if the sun were
even large enough to fill the whole orbit of the earth, or one
hundred and eighty million miles in diameter, he would be a mere
point. With its companion, it revolves round their common centre
of gravity in eighty-one years, and hence it would seem that
their conjoint mass is less than that of the sun.

The star 61 Cygni is of the sixth magnitude. Its parallax was
first found by Bessel in 1838, and is about one-third of a
second. The distance from us is, therefore, much more than five
hundred thousand times that of the sun. With its companion, it
revolves round their common centre of gravity in five hundred and
twenty years. Their conjoint weight is about one-third that of
the sun.

There is reason to believe that the great star Sirius, the
brightest in the heavens, is about six times as far off as alpha
Centauri. His probable diameter is twelve million miles, and the
light he emits two hundred times more brilliant than that of the
sun. Yet, even through the telescope, he has no measurable
diameter; be looks merely like a very bright spark.

The stars, then, differ not merely in visible magnitude, but also
in actual size. As the spectroscope shows, they differ greatly in
chemical and physical constitution. That instrument is also
revealing to us the duration of the life of a star, through
changes in the refrangibility of the emitted light. Though, as we
have seen, the nearest to us is at an enormous and all but
immeasurable distance, this is but the first step--there are
others the rays of which have taken thousands, perhaps millions,
of years to reach us! The limits of our own system are far beyond
the range of our greatest telescopes; what, then, shall we say of
other systems beyond? Worlds are scattered like dust in the
abysses in space.

Have these gigantic bodies--myriads of which are placed at so
vast a distance that our unassisted eyes cannot perceive
them--have these no other purpose than that assigned by
theologians, to give light to us? Does not their enormous size
demonstrate that, as they are centres of force, so they must be
centres of motion-- suns for other systems of worlds?

While yet these facts were very imperfectly known--indeed, were
rather speculations than facts--Giordano Bruno, an Italian, born
seven years after the death of Copernicus, published a work on
the "Infinity of the Universe and of Worlds;" he was also the
author of "Evening Conversations on Ash-Wednesday," an apology
for the Copernican system, and of "The One Sole Cause of Things."
To these may be added an allegory published in 1584, "The
Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast." He had also collected, for
the use of future astronomers, all the observations he could find
respecting the new star that suddenly appeared in Cassiopeia,
A.D. 1572, and increased in brilliancy, until it surpassed all
the other stars. It could be plainly seen in the daytime. On a
sudden, November 11th, it was as bright as Venus at her
brightest. In the following March it was of the first magnitude.
It exhibited various hues of color in a few months, and
disappeared in March, 1574.

The star that suddenly appeared in Serpentarius, in Kepler's time
(1604), was at first brighter than Venus. It lasted more than a
year, and, passing through various tints of purple, yellow, red,
became extinguished.

Originally, Bruno was intended for the Church. He had become a
Dominican, but was led into doubt by his meditations on the
subjects of transubstantiation and the immaculate conception. Not
caring to conceal his opinions, he soon fell under the censure of
the spiritual authorities, and found it necessary to seek refuge
successively in Switzerland, France, England, Germany. The
cold-scented sleuth-hounds of the Inquisition followed his track
remorselessly, and eventually hunted him back to Italy. He was
arrested in Venice, and confined in the Piombi for six years,
without books, or paper, or friends.

In England he had given lectures on the plurality of worlds, and
in that country had written, in Italian, his most important
works. It added not a little to the exasperation against him,
that he was perpetually declaiming against the insincerity; the
impostures, of his persecutors--that wherever he went he found
skepticism varnished over and concealed by hypocrisy; and that it
was not against the belief of men, but against their pretended
belief, that he was fighting; that he was struggling with an
orthodoxy that had neither morality nor faith.

In his "Evening Conversations" he had insisted that the
Scriptures were never intended to teach science, but morals only;
and that they cannot be received as of any authority on
astronomical and physical subjects. Especially must we reject the
view they reveal to us of the constitution of the world, that the
earth is a flat surface, supported on pillars; that the sky is a
firmament--the floor of heaven. On the contrary, we must believe
that the universe is infinite, and that it is filled with
self-luminous and opaque worlds, many of them inhabited; that
there is nothing above and around us but space and stars. His
meditations on these subjects had brought him to the conclusion
that the views of Averroes are not far from the truth--that there
is an Intellect which animates the universe, and of this
Intellect the visible world is only an emanation or
manifestation, originated and sustained by force derived from it,
and, were that force withdrawn, all things would disappear. This
ever-present, all-pervading Intellect is God, who lives in all
things, even such as seem not to live; that every thing is ready
to become organized, to burst into life. God is, therefore, "the
One Sole Cause of Things," "the All in All."

Bruno may hence be considered among philosophical writers as
intermediate between Averroes and Spinoza. The latter held that
God and the Universe are the same, that all events happen by an
immutable law of Nature, by an unconquerable necessity; that God
is the Universe, producing a series of necessary movements or
acts, in consequence of intrinsic, unchangeable, and irresistible
energy.

On the demand of the spiritual authorities, Bruno was removed
from Venice to Rome, and confined in the prison of the
Inquisition, accused not only of being a heretic, but also a
heresiarch, who had written things unseemly concerning religion;
the special charge against him being that he had taught the
plurality of worlds, a doctrine repugnant to the whole tenor of
Scripture and inimical to revealed religion, especially as
regards the plan of salvation. After an imprisonment of two years
he was brought before his judges, declared guilty of the acts
alleged, excommunicated, and, on his nobly refusing to recant,
was delivered over to the secular authorities to be punished "as
mercifully as possible, and without the shedding of his blood,"
the horrible formula for burning a prisoner at the stake. Knowing
well that though his tormentors might destroy his body, his
thoughts would still live among men, he said to his judges,
"Perhaps it is with greater fear that you pass the sentence upon
me than I receive it." The sentence was carried into effect, and
he was burnt at Rome, February 16th, A.D. 1600.

No one can recall without sentiments of pity the sufferings of
those countless martyrs, who first by one party, and then by
another, have been brought for their religious opinions to the
stake. But each of these had in his supreme moment a powerful and
unfailing support. The passage from this life to the next, though
through a hard trial, was the passage from a transient trouble to
eternal happiness, an escape from the cruelty of earth to the
charity of heaven. On his way through the dark valley the martyr
believed that there was an invisible hand that would lead him, a
friend that would guide him all the more gently and firmly
because of the terrors of the flames. For Bruno there was no such
support. The philosophical opinions, for the sake of which he
surrendered his life, could give him no consolation. He must
fight the last fight alone. Is there not something very grand in
the attitude of this solitary man, something which human nature
cannot help admiring, as he stands in the gloomy hall before his
inexorable judges? No accuser, no witness, no advocate is
present, but the familiars of the Holy Office, clad in black, are
stealthily moving about. The tormentors and the rack are in the
vaults below. He is simply told that he has brought upon himself
strong suspicions of heresy, since he has said that there are
other worlds than ours. He is asked if he will recant and abjure
his error. He cannot and will not deny what he knows to be true,
and perhaps--for he had often done so before--he tells his judges
that they, too, in their hearts are of the same belief. What a
contrast between this scene of manly honor, of unshaken firmness,
of inflexible adherence to the truth, and that other scene which
took place more than fifteen centuries previously by the fireside
in the hall of Caiaphas the high-priest, when the cock crew, and
"the Lord turned and looked upon Peter" (Luke xxii. 61)! And yet
it is upon Peter that the Church has grounded her right to act as
she did to Bruno. But perhaps the day approaches when posterity
will offer an expiation for this great ecclesiastical crime, and
a statue of Bruno be unveiled under the dome of St. Peter's at
Rome.



CHAPTER VII.

CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE AGE OF THE EARTH.

Scriptural view that the Earth is only six thousand years old,
and that it was made in a week.--Patristic chronology founded on
the ages of the patriarchs.--Difficulties arising from different
estimates in different versions of the Bible.

Legend of the Deluge.--The repeopling.--The Tower of Babel; the
confusion of tongues.--The primitive language.

Discovery by Cassini of the oblateness of the planet
Jupiter.--Discovery by Newton of the oblateness of the
Earth.--Deduction that she has been modeled by mechanical
causes.--Confirmation of this by geological discoveries
respecting aqueous rocks; corroboration by organic remains.-- The
necessity of admitting enormously long periods of time.
--Displacement of the doctrine of Creation by that of Evolution--
Discoveries respecting the Antiquity of Man.

The time-scale and space-scale of the world are
infinite.--Moderation with which the discussion of the Age of the
World has been conducted.


THE true position of the earth in the universe was established
only after a long and severe conflict. The Church used whatever
power she had, even to the infliction of death, for sustaining
her ideas. But it was in vain. The evidence in behalf of the
Copernican theory became irresistible. It was at length
universally admitted that the sun is the central, the ruling body
of our system; the earth only one, and by no means the largest,
of a family of encircling planets. Taught by the issue of that
dispute, when the question of the age of the world presented
itself for consideration, the Church did not exhibit the active
resistance she had displayed on the former occasion. For, though
her traditions were again put in jeopardy, they were not, in her
judgment, so vitally assailed. To dethrone the Earth from her
dominating position was, so the spiritual authorities declared,
to undermine the very foundation of revealed truth; but
discussions respecting the date of creation might within certain
limits be permitted. Those limits were, however, very quickly
overpassed, and thus the controversy became as dangerous as the
former one had been.

It was not possible to adopt the advice given by Plato in his
"Timaeus," when treating of this subject-- the origin of the
universe: "It is proper that both I who speak and you who judge
should remember that we are but men, and therefore, receiving the
probable mythological tradition, it is meet that we inquire no
further into it." Since the time of St. Augustine the Scriptures
had been made the great and final authority in all matters of
science, and theologians had deduced from them schemes of
chronology and cosmogony which had proved to be stumbling-blocks
to the advance of real knowledge.

It is not necessary for us to do more than to allude to some of
the leading features of these schemes; their peculiarities will
be easily discerned with sufficient clearness. Thus, from the six
days of creation and the Sabbath-day of rest, since we are told
that a day is with the Lord as a thousand years, it was inferred
that the duration of the world will be through six thousand years
of suffering, and an additional thousand, a millennium of rest.
It was generally admitted that the earth was about four thousand
years old at the birth of Christ, but, so careless had Europe
been in the study of its annals, that not Until A.D. 627 had it a
proper chronology of its own. A Roman abbot, Dionysius Exiguus,
or Dennis the Less, then fixed the vulgar era, and gave Europe
its present Christian chronology.

The method followed in obtaining the earliest chronological dates
was by computations, mainly founded on the lives of the
patriarchs. Much difficulty was encountered in reconciling
numerical discrepancies. Even if, as was taken for granted in
those uncritical ages, Moses was the author of the books imputed
to him, due weight was not given to the fact that he related
events, many of which took place more than two thousand years
before he was born. It scarcely seemed necessary to regard the
Pentateuch as of plenary inspiration, since no means had been
provided to perpetuate its correctness. The different copies
which had escaped the chances of time varied very much; thus the
Samaritan made thirteen hundred and seven years from the Creation
to the Deluge, the Hebrew sixteen hundred and fifty-six, the
Septuagint twenty-two hundred and sixty-three. The Septuagint
counted fifteen hundred years more from the Creation to Abraham
than the Hebrew. In general, however, there was an inclination to
the supposition that the Deluge took place about two thousand
years after the Creation, and, after another interval of two
thousand years, Christ was born. Persons who had given much
attention to the subject affirmed that there were not less than
one hundred and thirty-two different opinions as to the year in
which the Messiah appeared, and hence they declared that it was
inexpedient to press for acceptance the Scriptural numbers too
closely, since it was plain, from the great differences in
different copies, that there had been no providential
intervention to perpetuate a correct reading, nor was there any
mark by which men could be guided to the only authentic version.
Even those held in the highest esteem contained undeniable
errors. Thus the Septuagint made Methuselah live until after the
Deluge.

It was thought that, in the antediluvian world, the year
consisted of three hundred and sixty days. Some even affirmed
that this was the origin of the division of the circle into three
hundred and sixty degrees. At the time of the Deluge, so many
theologians declared, the motion of the sun was altered, and the
year became five days and six hours longer. There was a prevalent
opinion that that stupendous event occurred on November 2d, in
the year of the world 1656. Dr. Whiston, however, disposed to
greater precision, inclined to postpone it to November 28th. Some
thought that the rainbow was not seen until after the flood;
others, apparently with better reason, inferred that it was then
first established as a sign. On coming forth from the ark, men
received permission to use flesh as food, the antediluvians
having been herbivorous! It would seem that the Deluge had not
occasioned any great geographical changes, for Noah, relying on
his antediluvian knowledge, proceeded to divide the earth among
his three sons, giving to Japhet Europe, to Shem Asia, to Ham
Africa. No provision was made for America, as he did not know of
its existence. These patriarchs, undeterred by the terrible
solitudes to which they were going, by the undrained swamps and
untracked forests, journeyed to their allotted possessions, and
commenced the settlement of the continents.

In seventy years the Asiatic family had increased to several
hundred. They had found their way to the plains of Mesopotamia,
and there, for some motive that we cannot divine, began building
a tower "whose top might reach to heaven." Eusebius informs us
that the work continued for forty years. They did not abandon it
until a miraculous confusion of their language took place and
dispersed them all over the earth. St. Ambrose shows that this
confusion could not have been brought about by men. Origen
believes that not even the angels accomplished it.

The confusion of tongues has given rise to many curious
speculations among divines as to the primitive speech of man.
Some have thought that the language of Adam consisted altogether
of nouns, that they were monosyllables, and that the confusion
was occasioned by the introduction of polysyllables. But these
learned men must surely have overlooked the numerous
conversations reported in Genesis, such as those between the
Almighty and Adam, the serpent and Eve, etc. In these all the
various parts of speech occur. There was, however, a coincidence
of opinion that the primitive language was Hebrew. On the general
principles of patristicism, it was fitting that this should be
the case.

The Greek Fathers computed that, at the time of the dispersion,
seventy-two nations were formed, and in this conclusion St.
Augustine coincides. But difficulties seem to have been
recognized in these computations; thus the learned Dr. Shuckford,
who has treated very elaborately on all the foregoing points in
his excellent work "On the Sacred and Profane History of the
World connected," demonstrates that there could not have been
more than twenty-one or twenty-two men, women, and children, in
each of those kingdoms.

A very vital point in this system of chronological computation,
based upon the ages of the patriarchs, was the great length of
life to which those worthies attained. It was generally supposed
that before the Flood "there was a perpetual equinox," and no
vicissitudes in Nature. After that event the standard of life
diminished one- half, and in the time of the Psalmist it had sunk
to seventy years, at which it still remains. Austerities of
climate were affirmed to have arisen through the shifting of the
earth's axis at the Flood, and to this ill effect were added the
noxious influences of that universal catastrophe, which,
"converting the surface of the earth into a vast swamp, gave rise
to fermentations of the blood and a weakening of the fibres."

With a view of avoiding difficulties arising from the
extraordinary length of the patriarchal lives, certain divines
suggested that the years spoken of by the sacred penman were not
ordinary but lunar years. This, though it might bring the age of
those venerable men within the recent term of life, introduced,
however, another insuperable difficulty, since it made them have
children when only five or six years old.

Sacred science, as interpreted by the Fathers of the Church,
demonstrated these facts: 1. That the date of Creation was
comparatively recent, not more than four or five thousand years
before Christ; 2. That the act of Creation occupied the space of
six ordinary days; 3. That the Deluge was universal, and that the
animals which survived it were preserved in an ark; 4. That Adam
was created perfect in morality and intelligence, that he fell,
and that his descendants have shared in his sin and his fall.

Of these points and others that might be mentioned there were two
on which ecclesiastical authority felt that it must insist. These
were: 1. The recent date of Creation; for, the remoter that
event, the more urgent the necessity of vindicating the justice
of God, who apparently had left the majority of our race to its
fate, and had reserved salvation for the few who were living in
the closing ages of the world; 2. The perfect condition of Adam
at his creation, since this was necessary to the theory of the
fall, and the plan of salvation.

Theological authorities were therefore constrained to look with
disfavor on any attempt to carry back the origin of the earth, to
an epoch indefinitely remote, and on the Mohammedan theory of the
evolution of man from lower forms, or his gradual development to
his present condition in the long lapse of time.


From the puerilities, absurdities, and contradictions of the
foregoing statement, we may gather how very unsatisfactory this
so-called sacred science was. And perhaps we may be brought to
the conclusion to which Dr. Shuckford, above quoted, was
constrained to come, after his wearisome and unavailing attempt
to coordinate its various parts: "As to the Fathers of the first
ages of the Church, they were good men, but not men of universal
learning."

Sacred cosmogony regards the formation and modeling of the earth
as the direct act of God; it rejects the intervention of
secondary causes in those events.

Scientific cosmogony dates from the telescopic discovery made by
Cassini--an Italian astronomer, under whose care Louis XIV.
placed the Observatory of Paris--that the planet Jupiter is not a
sphere, but an oblate spheroid, flattened at the poles.
Mechanical philosophy demonstrated that such a figure is the
necessary result of the rotation of a yielding mass, and that the
more rapid the rotation the greater the flattening, or, what
comes to the same thing, the greater the equatorial bulging must
be.

From considerations--purely of a mechanical kind-- Newton had
foreseen that such likewise, though to a less striking extent,
must be the figure of the earth. To the protuberant mass is due
the precession of the equinoxes, which requires twenty-five
thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight years for its completion,
and also the nutation of the earth's axis, discovered by Bradley.
We have already had occasion to remark that the earth's
equatorial diameter exceeds the polar by about twenty-six miles.

Two facts are revealed by the oblateness of the earth: 1. That
she has formerly been in a yielding or plastic condition; 2. That
she has been modeled by a mechanical and therefore a secondary
cause.

But this influence of mechanical causes is manifested not only in
the exterior configuration of the globe of the earth as a
spheroid of revolution, it also plainly appears on an examination
of the arrangement of her substance.

If we consider the aqueous rocks, their aggregate is many miles
in thickness; yet they undeniably have been of slow deposit. The
material of which they consist has been obtained by the
disintegration of ancient lands; it has found its way into the
water-courses, and by them been distributed anew. Effects of this
kind, taking place before our eyes, require a very considerable
lapse of time to produce a well-marked result-- a water deposit
may in this manner measure in thickness a few inches in a
century--what, then, shall we say as to the time consumed in the
formation of deposits of many thousand yards?

The position of the coast-line of Egypt has been known for much
more than two thousand years. In that time it has made, by reason
of the detritus brought down by the Nile, a distinctly-marked
encroachment on the Mediterranean. But all Lower Egypt has had a
similar origin. The coast-line near the mouth of the Mississippi
has been well known for three hundred years, and during that time
has scarcely made a perceptible advance on the Gulf of Mexico;
but there was a time when the delta of that river was at St.
Louis, more than seven hundred miles from its present position.
In Egypt and in America--in fact, in all countries--the rivers
have been inch by inch prolonging the land into the sea; the
slowness of their work and the vastness of its extent satisfy us
that we must concede for the operation enormous periods of time.

To the same conclusion we are brought if we consider the filling
of lakes, the deposit of travertines, the denudation of hills,
the cutting action of the sea on its shores, the undermining of
cliffs, the weathering of rocks by atmospheric water and carbonic
acid.

Sedimentary strata must have been originally deposited in planes
nearly horizontal. Vast numbers of them have been forced, either
by paroxysms at intervals or by gradual movement, into all manner
of angular inclinations. Whatever explanations we may offer of
these innumerable and immense tilts and fractures, they would
seem to demand for their completion an inconceivable length of
time.

The coal-bearing strata in Wales, by their gradual submergence,
have attained a thickness of 12,000 feet; in Nova Scotia of
14,570 feet. So slow and so steady was this submergence, that
erect trees stand one above another on successive levels;
seventeen such repetitions may be counted in a thickness of 4,515
feet. The age of the trees is proved by their size, some being
four feet in diameter. Round them, as they gradually went down
with the subsiding soil, calamites grew, at one level after
another. In the Sydney coal-field fifty-nine fossil forests occur
in superposition.

Marine shells, found on mountain-tops far in the interior of
continents, were regarded by theological writers as an
indisputable illustration of the Deluge. But when, as geological
studies became more exact, it was proved that in the crust of the
earth vast fresh-water formations are repeatedly intercalated
with vast marine ones, like the leaves of a book, it became
evident that no single cataclysm was sufficient to account for
such results; that the same region, through gradual variations of
its level and changes in its topographical surroundings, had
sometimes been dry land, sometimes covered with fresh and
sometimes with sea water. It became evident also that, for the
completion of these changes, tens of thousands of years were
required.

To this evidence of a remote origin of the earth, derived from
the vast superficial extent, the enormous thickness, and the
varied characters of its strata, was added an imposing body of
proof depending on its fossil remains. The relative ages of
formations having been ascertained, it was shown that there has
been an advancing physiological progression of organic forms,
both vegetable and animal, from the oldest to the most recent;
that those which inhabit the surface in our times are but an
insignificant fraction of the prodigious multitude that have
inhabited it heretofore; that for each species now living there
are thousands that have become extinct. Though special formations
are so strikingly characterized by some predominating type of
life as to justify such expressions as the age of mollusks, the
age of reptiles, the age of mammals, the introduction of the
new-comers did not take place abruptly. as by sudden creation.
They gradually emerged in an antecedent age, reached their
culmination in the one which they characterize, and then
gradually died out in a succeeding. There is no such thing as a
sudden creation, a sudden strange appearance--but there is a slow
metamorphosis, a slow development from a preexisting form. Here
again we encounter the necessity of admitting for such results
long periods of time. Within the range of history no well-marked
instance of such development has been witnessed, and we speak
with hesitation of doubtful instances of extinction. Yet in
geological times myriads of evolutions and extinctions have
occurred.

Since thus, within the experience of man, no case of
metamorphosis or development has been observed, some have been
disposed to deny its possibility altogether, affirming that all
the different species have come into existence by separate
creative acts. But surely it is less unphilosophical to suppose
that each species has been evolved from a predecessor by a
modification of its parts, than that it has suddenly started into
existence out of nothing. Nor is there much weight in the remark
that no man has ever witnessed such a transformation taking
place. Let it be remembered that no man has ever witnessed an act
of creation, the sudden appearance of an organic form, without
any progenitor.

Abrupt, arbitrary, disconnected creative acts may serve to
illustrate the Divine power; but that continuous unbroken chain
of organisms which extends from palaeozoic formations to the
formations of recent times, a chain in which each link hangs on a
preceding and sustains a succeeding one, demonstrates to us not
only that the production of animated beings is governed by law,
but that it is by law that has undergone no change. In its
operation, through myriads of ages, there has been no variation,
no suspension.

The foregoing paragraphs may serve to indicate the character of a
portion of the evidence with which we must deal in considering
the problem of the age of the earth. Through the unintermitting
labors of geologists, so immense a mass has been accumulated,
that many volumes would be required to contain the details. It is
drawn from the phenomena presented by all kinds of rocks,
aqueous, igneous, metamorphic. Of aqueous rocks it investigates
the thickness, the inclined positions, and how they rest
unconformably on one another; how those that are of fresh-water
origin are intercalated with those that are marine; how vast
masses of material have been removed by slow-acting causes of
denudation, and extensive geographical surfaces have been
remodeled; how continents have undergone movements of elevation
and depression, their shores sunk under the ocean, or sea-beaches
and sea-cliffs carried far into the interior. It considers the
zoological and botanical facts, the fauna and flora of the
successive ages, and how in an orderly manner the chain of
organic forms, plants, and animals, has been extended, from its
dim and doubtful beginnings to our own times. From facts
presented by the deposits of coal-coal which, in all its
varieties, has originated from the decay of plants--it not only
demon strates the changes that have taken place in the earth's
atmosphere, but also universal changes of climate. From other
facts it proves that there have been oscillations of
temperature,. periods in which the mean heat has risen, and
periods in which the polar ices and snows have covered large
portions of the existing continents --glacial periods, as they
are termed.

One school of geologists, resting its argument on very imposing
evidence, teaches that the whole mass of the earth, from being in
a molten, or perhaps a vaporous condition, has cooled by
radiation in the lapse of millions of ages, until it has reached
its present equilibrium of temperature. Astronomical observations
give great weight to this interpretation, especially so far as
the planetary bodies of the solar system are concerned. It is
also supported by such facts as the small mean density of the
earth, the increasing temperature at increasing depths, the
phenomena of volcanoes and injected veins, and those of igneous
and metamorphic rocks. To satisfy the physical changes which this
school of geologists contemplates, myriads of centuries are
required.

But, with the views that the adoption of the Copernican system
has given us, it is plain that we cannot consider the origin and
biography of the earth in an isolated way; we must include with
her all the other members of the system or family to which she
belongs. Nay, more, we cannot restrict ourselves to the solar
system; we must embrace in our discussions the starry worlds.
And, since we have become familiarized with their almost
immeasurable distances from one another, we are prepared to
accept for their origin an immeasurably remote time. There are
stars so far off that their light, fast as it travels, has taken
thousands of years to reach us, and hence they must have been in
existence many thousands of years ago.

Geologists having unanimously agreed--for perhaps there is not a
single dissenting voice--that the chronology of the earth must be
greatly extended, attempts have been made to give precision to
it. Some of these have been based on astronomical, some on
physical principles. Thus calculations founded on the known
changes of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, with a view of
determining the lapse of time since the beginning of the last
glacial period, have given two hundred and forty thousand years.
Though the general postulate of the immensity of geological times
may be conceded, such calculations are on too uncertain a
theoretical basis to furnish incontestable results.

But, considering the whole subject from the present scientific
stand-point, it is very clear that the views presented by
theological writers, as derived from the Mosaic record, cannot be
admitted. Attempts have been repeatedly made to reconcile the
revealed with the discovered facts, but they have proved to be
unsatisfactory. The Mosaic time is too short, the order of
creation incorrect, the divine interventions too anthropomorphic;
and, though the presentment of the subject is in harmony with the
ideas that men have entertained, when first their minds were
turned to the acquisition of natural knowledge, it is not in
accordance with their present conceptions of the insignificance
of the earth and the grandeur of the universe.


Among late geological discoveries is one of special interest; it
is the detection of human remains and human works in formations
which, though geologically recent, are historically very remote.

The fossil remains of men, with rude implements of rough or
chipped flint, of polished stone, of bone, of bronze, are found
in Europe in caves, in drifts, in peat- beds. They indicate a
savage life, spent in hunting and fishing. Recent researches give
reason to believe that, under low and base grades, the existence
of man can be traced back into the tertiary times. He was
contemporary with the southern elephant, the rhinoceros
leptorhinus, the great hippopotamus, perhaps even in the miocene
contemporary with the mastodon.

At the close of the Tertiary period, from causes not yet
determined, the Northern Hemisphere underwent a great depression
of temperature. From a torrid it passed to a glacial condition.
After a period of prodigious length, the temperature again rose,
and the glaciers that had so extensively covered the surface
receded. Once more there was a decline in the heat, and the
glaciers again advanced, but this time not so far as formerly.
This ushered in the Quaternary period, during which very slowly
the temperature came to its present degree. The water deposits
that were being made required thousands of centuries for their
completion. At the beginning of the Quaternary period there were
alive the cave-bear, the cave-lion, the amphibious hippopotamus,
the rhinoceros with chambered nostrils, the mammoth. In fact, the
mammoth swarmed. He delighted in a boreal climate. By degrees the
reindeer, the horse, the ox, the bison, multiplied, and disputed
with him his food. Partly for this reason, and partly because of
the increasing heat, he became extinct. From middle Europe, also,
the reindeer retired. His departure marks the end of the
Quaternary period.

Since the advent of man on the earth, we have, therefore, to deal
with periods of incalculable length. Vast changes in the climate
and fauna were produced by the slow operation of causes such as
are in action at the present day. Figures cannot enable us to
appreciate these enormous lapses of time.

It seems to be satisfactorily established, that a race allied to
the Basques may be traced back to the Neolithic age. At that time
the British Islands were undergoing a change of level, like that
at present occurring in the Scandinavian Peninsula. Scotland was
rising, England was sinking. In the Pleistocene age there existed
in Central Europe a rude race of hunters and fishers closely
allied to the Esquimaux.

In the old glacial drift of Scotland the relics of man are found
along with those of the fossil elephant. This carries us back to
that time above referred to, when a large portion of Europe was
covered with ice, which had edged down from the polar regions to
southerly latitudes, and, as glaciers, descended from the summits
of the mountain-chains into the plains. Countless species of
animals perished in this cataclysm of ice and snow, but man
survived.

In his primitive savage condition, living for the most part on
fruits, roots, shell-fish, man was in possession of a fact which
was certain eventually to insure his civilization. He knew how to
make a fire. In peat- beds, under the remains of trees that in
those localities have long ago become extinct, his relics are
still found, the implements that accompany him indicating a
distinct chronological order. Near the surface are those of
bronze, lower down those of bone or horn, still lower those of
polished stone, and beneath all those of chipped or rough stone.
The date of the origin of some of these beds cannot be estimated
at less than forty or fifty thousand years.

The caves that have been examined in France and elsewhere have
furnished for the Stone age axes, knives, lance and arrow points,
scrapers, hammers. The change from what may be termed the chipped
to the polished stone period is very gradual. It coincides with
the domestication of the dog, an epoch in hunting-life. It
embraces thousands of centuries. The appearance of arrow-heads
indicates the invention of the bow, and the rise of man from a
defensive to an offensive mode of life. The introduction of
barbed arrows shows how inventive talent was displaying itself;
bone and horn tips, that the huntsman was including smaller
animals, and perhaps birds, in his chase; bone whistles, his
companionship with other huntsmen or with his dog. The
scraping-knives of flint indicate the use of skin for clothing,
and rude bodkins and needles its manufacture. Shells perforated
for bracelets and necklaces prove how soon a taste for personal
adornment was acquired; the implements necessary for the
preparation of pigments suggest the painting of the body, and
perhaps tattooing; and batons of rank bear witness to the
beginning of a social organization.

With the utmost interest we look upon the first germs of art
among these primitive men. They have left its rude sketches on
pieces of ivory and flakes of bone, and carvings, of the animals
contemporary with them. In these prehistoric delineations,
sometimes not without spirit, we have mammoths, combats of
reindeer. One presents us with a man harpooning a fish, another a
hunting-scene of naked men armed with the dart. Man is the only
animal who has the propensity of depicting external forms, and of
availing himself of the use of fire.

Shell-mounds, consisting of bones and shells, some of which may
be justly described as of vast extent, and of a date anterior to
the Bronze age, and full of stone implements, bear in all their
parts indications of the use of fire. These are often adjacent to
the existing coasts sometimes, however, they are far inland, in
certain instances as far as fifty miles. Their contents and
position indicate for them a date posterior to that of the great
extinct mammals, but prior to the domesticated. Some of these, it
is said, cannot be less than one hundred thousand years old.

The lake-dwellings in Switzerland--huts built on piles or logs,
wattled with boughs--were, as may be inferred from the
accompanying implements, begun in the Stone age, and continued
into that of Bronze. In the latter period the evidences become
numerous of the adoption of an agricultural life.

It must not be supposed that the periods into which geologists
have found it convenient to divide the progress of man in
civilization are abrupt epochs, which hold good simultaneously
for the whole human race. Thus the wandering Indians of America
are only at the present moment emerging from the Stone age. They
are still to be seen in many places armed with arrows, tipped
with flakes of flint. It is but as yesterday that some have
obtained, from the white man, iron, fire-arms, and the horse.

So far as investigations have gone, they indisputably refer the
existence of man to a date remote from us by many hundreds of
thousands of years. It must be borne in mind that these
investigations are quite recent, and confined to a very limited
geographical space. No researches have yet been made in those
regions which might reasonably be regarded as the primitive
habitat of man.

We are thus carried back immeasurably beyond the six thousand
years of Patristic chronology. It is difficult to assign a
shorter date for the last glaciation of Europe than a quarter of
a million of years, and human existence antedates that. But not
only is it this grand fact that confronts us, we have to admit
also a primitive animalized state, and a slow, a gradual
development. But this forlorn, this savage condition of humanity
is in strong contrast to the paradisiacal happiness of the garden
of Eden, and, what is far in ore serious, it is inconsistent with
the theory of the Fall.


I have been induced to place the subject of this chapter out of
its proper chronological order, for the sake of presenting what I
had to say respecting the nature of the world more completely by
itself. The discussions that arose as to the age of the earth
were long after the conflict as to the criterion of truth--that
is, after the Reformation; indeed, they were substantially
included in the present century. They have been conducted with so
much moderation as to justify the term I have used in the title
of this chapter, "Controversy," rather than "Conflict." Geology
has not had to encounter the vindictive opposition with which
astronomy was assailed, and, though, on her part, she has
insisted on a concession of great antiquity for the earth, she
has herself pointed out the unreliability of all numerical
estimates thus far offered. The attentive reader of this chapter
cannot have failed to observe inconsistencies in the numbers
quoted. Though wanting the merit of exactness, those numbers,
however, justify the claim of vast antiquity, and draw us to the
conclusion that the time-scale of the world answers to the
space-scale in magnitude.



CHAPTER VIII.

CONFLICT RESPECTING THE CRITERION OF TRUTH.

Ancient philosophy declares that man has no means of ascertaining
the truth.

Differences of belief arise among the early Christians--An
ineffectual attempt is made to remedy them by Councils.--Miracle
and ordeal proof introduced.

The papacy resorts to auricular confession and the
Inquisition.--It perpetrates frightful atrocities for the
suppression of differences of opinion.

Effect of the discovery of the Pandects of Justinian and
development of the canon law on the nature of evidence.--It
becomes more scientific.

The Reformation establishes the rights of individual
reason.--Catholicism asserts that the criterion of truth is in
the Church. It restrains the reading of books by the Index
Expurgatorius, and combats dissent by such means as the massacre
of St. Bartholomew's Eve.

Examination of the authenticity of the Pentateuch as the
Protestant criterion.--Spurious character of those books.

For Science the criterion of truth is to be found in the
revelations of Nature: for the Protestant, it is in the
Scriptures; for the Catholic, in an infallible Pope.


"WHAT is truth?" was the passionate demand of a Roman procurator
on one of the most momentous occasions in history. And the Divine
Person who stood before him, to whom the interrogation was
addressed, made no reply--unless, indeed, silence contained the
reply.

Often and vainly had that demand been made before--often and
vainly has it been made since. No one has yet given a
satisfactory answer.

When, at the dawn of science in Greece, the ancient religion was
disappearing like a mist at sunrise, the pious and thoughtful men
of that country were thrown into a condition of intellectual
despair. Anaxagoras plaintively exclaims, "Nothing can be known,
nothing can be learned, nothing can be certain, sense is limited,
intellect is weak, life is short." Xenophanes tells us that it is
impossible for us to be certain even when we utter the truth.
Parmenides declares that the very constitution of man prevents
him from ascertaining absolute truth. Empedocles affirms that all
philosophical and religious systems must be unreliable, because
we have no criterion by which to test them. Democritus asserts
that even things that are true cannot impart certainty to us;
that the final result of human inquiry is the discovery that man
is incapable of absolute knowledge; that, even if the truth be in
his possession, he cannot be certain of it. Pyrrho bids us
reflect on the necessity of suspending our judgment of things,
since we have no criterion of truth; so deep a distrust did he
impart to his followers, that they were in the habit of saying,
"We assert nothing; no, not even that we assert nothing."
Epicurus taught his disciples that truth can never be determined
by reason. Arcesilaus, denying both intellectual and sensuous
knowledge, publicly avowed that he knew nothing, not even his own
ignorance! The general conclusion to which Greek philosophy came
was this--that, in view of the contradiction of the evidence of
the senses, we cannot distinguish the true from the false; and
such is the imperfection of reason, that we cannot affirm the
correctness of any philosophical deduction.

It might be supposed that a revelation from God to man would come
with such force and clearness as to settle all uncertainties and
overwhelm all opposition. A Greek philosopher, less despairing
than others, had ventured to affirm that the coexistence of two
forms of faith, both claiming to be revealed by the omnipotent
God, proves that neither of them is true. But let us remember
that it is difficult for men to come to the, same conclusion as
regards even material and visible things, unless they stand at
the same point of view. If discord and distrust were the
condition of philosophy three hundred years before the birth of
Christ, discord and distrust were the condition of religion three
hundred years after his death. This is what Hilary, the Bishop of
Poictiers, in his well-known passage written about the time of
the Nicene Council, says:

"It is a thing equally deplorable and dangerous that there are,
as many creeds as opinions among men, as many doctrines as
inclinations, and as many sources of blasphemy as there are
faults among us, because we make creeds arbitrarily and explain
them as arbitrarily. Every year, nay, every moon, we make new
creeds to describe invisible mysteries; we repent of what we have
done; we defend those who repent; we anathematize those whom we
defend; we condemn either the doctrines of others in ourselves,
or our own in that of others; and, reciprocally tearing each
other to pieces, we have been the cause of each other's ruin."

These are not mere words; but the import of this self-accusation
can be realized fully only by such as are familiar with the
ecclesiastical history of those times. As soon as the first
fervor of Christianity as a system of benevolence had declined,
dissensions appeared. Ecclesiastical historians assert that "as
early as the second century began the contest between faith and
reason, religion and philosophy, piety and genius." To compose
these dissensions, to obtain some authoritative expression, some
criterion of truth, assemblies for consultation were resorted to,
which eventually took the form of councils. For a long time they
had nothing more than an advisory authority; but, when, in the
fourth century, Christianity had attained to imperial rule, their
dictates became compulsory, being enforced by the civil power. By
this the whole face of the Church was changed. Oecumenical
councils--parliaments of Christianity--consisting of delegates
from all the churches in the world, were summoned by the
authority of the emperor; he presided either personally or
nominally in them--composed all differences, and was, in fact,
the Pope of Christendom. Mosheim, the historian, to whom I have
more particularly referred above, speaking of these times,
remarks that "there was nothing to exclude the ignorant from
ecclesiastical preferment; the savage and illiterate party, who
looked on all kinds of learning, particularly philosophy, as
pernicious to piety, was increasing; " and, accordingly, "the
disputes carried on in the Council of Nicea offered a remarkable
example of the greatest ignorance and utter confusion of ideas,
particularly in the language and explanations of those who
approved of the decisions of that council." Vast as its influence
has been, "the ancient critics are neither agreed concerning the
time nor place in which it was assembled, the number of those who
sat in it, nor the bishop who presided. No authentic acts of its
famous sentence have been committed to writing, or, at least,
none have been transmitted to our times." The Church had now
become what, in the language of modern politicians, would be
called "a confederated republic." The will of the council was
determined by a majority vote, and, to secure that, all manner of
intrigues and impositions were resorted to; the influence of
court females, bribery, and violence, were not spared. The
Council of Nicea had scarcely adjourned,--when it was plain to
all impartial men that, as a method of establishing a criterion
of truth in religious matters, such councils were a total
failure. The minority had no rights which the majority need
respect. The protest of many good men, that a mere majority vote
given by delegates, whose right to vote had never been examined
and authorized, could not be received as ascertaining absolute
truth, was passed over with contempt, and the consequence was,
that council was assembled against council, and their jarring and
contradictory decrees spread perplexity and confusion throughout
the Christian world. In the fourth century alone there were
thirteen councils adverse to Arius, fifteen in his favor, and
seventeen for the semi-Arians--in all, forty-five. Minorities
were perpetually attempting to use the weapon which majorities
had abused.

The impartial ecclesiastical historian above quoted, moreover,
says that "two monstrous and calamitous errors were adopted in
this fourth century: 1. That it was an act of virtue to deceive
and lie when, by that means, the interests of the Church might be
promoted. 2. That errors in religion, when maintained and adhered
to after proper admonition, were punishable with civil penalties
and corporal tortures."

Not without astonishment can we look back at what, in those
times, were popularly regarded as criteria of truth. Doctrines
were considered as established by the number of martyrs who had
professed them, by miracles, by the confession of demons, of
lunatics, or of persons possessed of evil spirits: thus, St.
Ambrose, in his disputes with the Arians, produced men possessed
by devils, who, on the approach of the relics of certain martyrs,
acknowledged, with loud cries, that the Nicean doctrine of the
three persons of the Godhead was true. But the Arians charged him
with suborning these infernal witnesses with a weighty bribe.
Already, ordeal tribunals were making their appearance. During
the following six centuries they were held as a final resort for
establishing guilt or innocence, under the forms of trial by cold
water, by duel, by the fire, by the cross.

What an utter ignorance of the nature of evidence and its laws
have we here! An accused man sinks or swims when thrown into a
pond of water; he is burnt or escapes unharmed when he holds a
piece of red-hot iron in his hand; a champion whom he has hired
is vanquished or vanquishes in single fight; he can keep his arms
outstretched like a cross, or fails to do so longer than his
accuser, and his innocence or guilt of some imputed crime is
established! Are these criteria of truth?

Is it surprising that all Europe was filled with imposture
miracles during those ages?--miracles that are a disgrace to the
common-sense of man!

But the inevitable day came at length. Assertions and doctrines
based upon such preposterous evidence were involved in the
discredit that fell upon the evidence itself. As the thirteenth
century is approached, we find unbelief in all directions setting
in. First, it is plainly seen among the monastic orders, then it
spreads rapidly among the common people. Books, such as "The
Everlasting Gospel," appear among the former; sects, such as the
Catharists, Waldenses, Petrobrussians, arise among the latter.
They agreed in this, "that the public and established religion
was a motley system of errors and superstitions, and that the
dominion which the pope had usurped over Christians was unlawful
and tyrannical; that the claim put forth by Rome, that the Bishop
of Rome is the supreme lord of the universe, and that neither
princes nor bishops, civil governors nor ecclesiastical rulers,
have any lawful power in church or state but what they receive
from him, is utterly without foundation, and a usurpation of the
rights of man."

To withstand this flood of impiety, the papal government
established two institutions: 1. The Inquisition; 2. Auricular
confession--the latter as a means of detection, the former as a
tribunal for punishment.

In general terms, the commission of the Inquisition was, to
extirpate religious dissent by terrorism, and surround heresy
with the most horrible associations; this necessarily implied the
power of determining what constitutes heresy. The criterion of
truth was thus in possession of this tribunal, which was charged
"to discover and bring to judgment heretics lurking in towns,
houses, cellars, woods, caves, and fields." With such savage
alacrity did it carry out its object of protecting the interests
of religion, that between 1481 and 1808 it had punished three
hundred and forty thousand persons, and of these nearly
thirty-two thousand had been burnt! In its earlier days, when
public opinion could find no means of protesting against its
atrocities, "it often put to death, without appeal, on the very
day that they were accused, nobles, clerks, monks, hermits, and
lay persons of every rank." In whatever direction thoughtful men
looked, the air was full of fearful shadows. No one could indulge
in freedom of thought without expecting punishment. So dreadful
were the proceedings of the Inquisition, that the exclamation of
Pagliarici was the exclamation of thousands: "It is hardly
possible for a man to be a Christian, and die in his bed."

The Inquisition destroyed the sectaries of Southern France in the
thirteenth century. Its unscrupulous atrocities extirpated
Protestantism in Italy and Spain. Nor did it confine itself to
religious affairs; it engaged in the suppression of political
discontent. Nicolas Eymeric, who was inquisitor-general of the
kingdom of Aragon for nearly fifty years, and who died in 1399,
has left a frightful statement of its conduct and appalling
cruelties in his "Directorium Inquisitorum."

This disgrace of Christianity, and indeed of the human race, had
different constitutions in different countries. The papal
Inquisition continued the tyranny, and eventually superseded the
old episcopal inquisitions. The authority of the bishops was
unceremoniously put aside by the officers of the pope.

By the action of the fourth Lateran Council, A.D. 1215, the power
of the Inquisition was frightfully increased, the necessity of
private confession to a priest--auricular confession--being at
that time formally established. This, so far as domestic life was
concerned, gave omnipresence and omniscience to the Inquisition.
Not a man was safe. In the hands of the priest, who, at the
confessional, could extract or extort from them their most secret
thoughts, his wife and his servants were turned into spies.
Summoned before the dread tribunal, he was simply informed that
he lay under strong suspicions of heresy. No accuser was named;
but the thumb-screw, the stretching-rope, the boot and wedge, or
other enginery of torture, soon supplied that defect, and,
innocent or guilty, he accused himself!

Notwithstanding all this power, the Inquisition failed of its
purpose. When the heretic could no longer confront it, he evaded
it. A dismal disbelief stealthily pervaded all Europe,--a denial
of Providence, of the immortality of the soul, of human
free-will, and that man can possibly resist the absolute
necessity, the destiny which envelops him. Ideas such as these
were cherished in silence by multitudes of persons driven to them
by the tyrannical acts of ecclesiasticism. In spite of
persecution, the Waldenses still survived to propagate their
declaration that the Roman Church, since Constantine, had
degenerated from its purity and sanctity; to protest against the
sale of indulgences, which they said had nearly abolished prayer,
fasting, alms; to affirm that it was utterly useless to pray for
the souls of the dead, since they must already have gone either
to heaven or hell. Though it was generally believed that
philosophy or science was pernicious to the interests of
Christianity or true piety, the Mohammedan literature then
prevailing in Spain was making converts among all classes of
society. We see very plainly its influence in many of the sects
that then arose; thus, "the Brethren and Sisters of the Free.
Spirit" held that "the universe came by emanation from God, and
would finally return to him by absorption; that rational souls
are so many portions of the Supreme Deity; and that the universe,
considered as one great whole, is God." These are ideas that can
only be entertained in an advanced intellectual condition. Of
this sect it is said that many suffered burning with unclouded
serenity, with triumphant feelings of cheerfulness and joy. Their
orthodox enemies accused them of gratifying their passions at
midnight assemblages in darkened rooms, to which both sexes in a
condition of nudity repaired. A similar accusation, as is well
known, was brought against the primitive Christians by the
fashionable society of Rome.

The influences of the Averroistic philosophy were apparent in
many of these sects. That Mohammedan system, considered from a
Christian point of view, led to the heretical belief that the end
of the precepts of Christianity is the union of the soul with the
Supreme Being; that God and Nature have the same relations to
each other as the soul and the body; that there is but one
individual intelligence; and that one soul performs all the
spiritual and rational functions in all the human race. When,
subsequently, toward the time of the Reformation, the Italian
Averroists were required by the Inquisition to give an account of
themselves, they attempted to show that there is a wide
distinction between philosophical and religious truth; that
things may be philosophically true, and yet theologically false--
an exculpatory device condemned at length by the Lateran Council
in the time of Leo X.

But, in spite of auricular confession, and the Inquisition, these
heretical tendencies survived. It has been truly said that, at
the epoch of the Reformation, there lay concealed, in many parts
of Europe, persons who entertained the most virulent enmity
against Christianity. In this pernicious class were many
Aristotelians, such as Pomponatius; many philosophers and wits,
such as Bodin, Rabelais, Montaigne; many Italians, as Leo X.,
Bembo, Bruno.

Miracle-evidence began to fall into discredit during the eleventh
and twelfth centuries. The sarcasms of the Hispano-Moorish
philosophers had forcibly drawn the attention of many of the more
enlightened ecclesiastics to its illusory nature. The discovery
of the Pandects of Justinian, at Amalfi, in 1130, doubtless
exerted a very powerful influence in promoting the study of Roman
jurisprudence, and disseminating better notions as to the
character of legal or philosophical evidence. Hallam has cast
some doubt on the well-known story of this discovery, but he
admits that the celebrated copy in the Laurentian library, at
Florence, is the only one containing the entire fifty books.
Twenty years subsequently, the monk Gratian collected together
the various papal edicts, the canons of councils, the
declarations of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church, in a
volume called "The Decretum," considered as the earliest
authority in canon law. In the next century Gregory IX. published
five books of Decretals, and Boniface VIII. subsequently added a
sixth. To these followed the Clementine Constitutions, a seventh
book of Decretals, and "A Book of Institutes," published
together, by Gregory XIII., in 1580, under the title of "Corpus
Juris Canonici." The canon law had gradually gained enormous
power through the control it had obtained over wills, the
guardianship of orphans, marriages, and divorces.

The rejection of miracle-evidence, and the substitution of legal
evidence in its stead, accelerated the approach of the
Reformation. No longer was it possible to admit the requirement
which, in former days, Anselm, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in
his treatise, "Cur Deus Homo," had enforced, that we must first
believe without examination, and may afterward endeavor to
understand what we have thus believed. When Cajetan said to
Luther, "Thou must believe that one single drop of Christ's blood
is sufficient to redeem the whole human race, and the remaining
quantity that was shed in the garden and on the cross was left as
a legacy to the pope, to be a treasure from which indulgences
were to be drawn," the soul of the sturdy German monk revolted
against such a monstrous assertion, nor would he have believed it
though a thousand miracles had been worked in its support. This
shameful practice of selling indulgences for the commission of
sin originated among the bishops, who, when they had need of
money for their private pleasures, obtained it in that way.
Abbots and monks, to whom this gainful commerce was denied,
raised funds by carrying about relics in solemn procession, and
charging a fee for touching them. The popes, in their pecuniary
straits, perceiving how lucrative the practice might become,
deprived the bishops of the right of making such sales, and
appropriated it to themselves, establishing agencies, chiefly
among the mendicant orders, for the traffic. Among these orders
there was a sharp competition, each boasting of the superior
value of its indulgences through its greater influence at the
court of heaven, its familiar connection with the Virgin Mary and
the saints in glory. Even against Luther himself, who had been an
Augustinian monk, a calumny was circulated that he was first
alienated from the Church by a traffic of this kind having been
conferred on the Dominicans, instead of on his own order, at the
time when Leo X. was raising funds by this means for building St.
Peter's, at Rome, A.D. 1517. and there is reason to think that
Leo himself, in the earlier stages of the Reformation, attached
weight to that allegation.

Indulgences were thus the immediate inciting cause of the
Reformation, but very soon there came into light the real
principle that was animating the controversy. It lay in the
question, Does the Bible owe its authenticity to the Church? or
does the Church owe her authenticity to the Bible? Where is the
criterion of truth?

It is not necessary for me here to relate the well known
particulars of that controversy, the desolating wars and scenes
of blood to which it gave rise: how Luther posted on the door of
the cathedral of Wittemberg ninety-five theses, and was summoned
to Rome to answer for his offense; how he appealed from the pope,
ill-informed at the time, to the pope when he should have been
better instructed; how he was condemned as a heretic, and
thereupon appealed to a general council; how, through the
disputes about purgatory, transubstantiation, auricular
confession, absolution, the fundamental idea which lay at the
bottom of the whole movement came into relief, the right of
individual judgment; how Luther was now excommunicated, A.D.
1520, and in defiance burnt the bull of excommunication and the
volumes of the canon law, which he denounced as aiming at the
subversion of all civil government, and the exaltation of the
papacy; how by this skillful manoeuvre he brought over many of
the German princes to his views; how, summoned before the
Imperial Diet at Worms, he refused to retract, and, while he was
bidden in the castle of Wartburg, his doctrines were spreading,
and a reformation under Zwingli broke out in Switzerland; how the
principle of sectarian decomposition embedded in the movement
gave rise to rivalries and dissensions between the Germans and
the Swiss, and even divided the latter among themselves under the
leadership of Zwingli and of Calvin; how the Conference of
Marburg, the Diet of Spires, and that at Augsburg, failed to
compose the troubles, and eventually the German Reformation
assumed a political organization at Smalcalde. The quarrels
between the Lutherans and the Calvinists gave hopes to Rome that
she might recover her losses.

Leo was not slow to discern that the Lutheran Reformation was
something more serious than a squabble among some monks about the
profits of indulgence-sales, and the papacy set itself seriously
at work to overcome the revolters. It instigated the frightful
wars that for so many years desolated Europe, and left
animosities which neither the Treaty of Westphalia, nor the
Council of Trent after eighteen years of debate, could compose.
No one can read without a shudder the attempts that were made to
extend the Inquisition in foreign countries. All Europe, Catholic
and Protestant, was horror- stricken at the Huguenot massacre of
St. Bartholomew's Eve (A.D. 1572). For perfidy and atrocity it
has no equal in the annals of the world.

The desperate attempt in which the papacy had been engaged to put
down its opponents by instigating civil wars, massacres, and
assassinations, proved to be altogether abortive. Nor had the
Council of Trent any better result. Ostensibly summoned to
correct, illustrate, and fix with perspicacity the doctrine of
the Church, to restore the vigor of its discipline, and to reform
the lives of its ministers, it was so manipulated that a large
majority of its members were Italians, and under the influence of
the pope. Hence the Protestants could not possibly accept its
decisions.

The issue of the Reformation was the acceptance by all the
Protestant Churches of the dogma that the Bible is a sufficient
guide for every Christian man. Tradition was rejected, and the
right of private interpretation assured. It was thought that the
criterion of truth had at length been obtained.

The authority thus imputed to the Scriptures was not restricted
to matters of a purely religious or moral kind; it extended over
philosophical facts and to the interpretation of Nature. Many
went as far as in the old times Epiphanius had done: he believed
that the Bible contained a complete system of mineralogy! The
Reformers would tolerate no science that was not in accordance
with Genesis. Among them there were many who maintained that
religion and piety could never flourish unless separated from
learning and science. The fatal maxim that the Bible contained
the sum and substance of all knowledge, useful or possible to
man--a maxim employed with such pernicious effect of old by
Tertullian and by St. Augustine, and which had so often been
enforced by papal authority--was still strictly insisted upon.
The leaders of the Reformation, Luther and Melanchthon, were
determined to banish philosophy from the Church. Luther declared
that the study of Aristotle is wholly useless; his vilification
of that Greek philosopher knew no bounds. He is, says Luther,
"truly a devil, a horrid calumniator, a wicked sycophant, a
prince of darkness, a real Apollyon, a beast, a most horrid
impostor on mankind, one in whom there is scarcely any
philosophy, a public and professed liar, a goat, a complete
epicure, this twice execrable Aristotle." The schoolmen were, so
Luther said, "locusts, caterpillars, frogs, lice." He entertained
an abhorrence for them. These opinions, though not so
emphatically expressed, were entertained by Calvin. So far as
science is concerned, nothing is owed to the Reformation. The
Procrustean bed of the Pentateuch was still before her.

In the annals of Christianity the most ill-omened day is that in
which she separated herself from science. She compelled Origen,
at that time (A.D. 231) its chief representative and supporter in
the Church, to abandon his charge in Alexandria, and retire to
Caesarea. In vain through many subsequent centuries did her
leading men spend themselves in--as the phrase then
went--"drawing forth the internal juice and marrow of the
Scriptures for the explaining of things." Universal history from
the third to the sixteenth century shows with what result. The
dark ages owe their darkness to this fatal policy. Here and
there, it is true, there were great men, such as Frederick II.
and Alphonso X., who, standing at a very elevated and general
point of view, had detected the value of learning to
civilization, and, in the midst of the dreary prospect that
ecclesiasticism had created around them, had recognized that
science alone can improve the social condition of man.

The infliction of the death-punishment for difference of opinion
was still resorted to. When Calvin caused Servetus to be burnt at
Geneva, it was obvious to every one that the spirit of
persecution was unimpaired. The offense of that philosopher lay
in his belief. This was, that the genuine doctrines of
Christianity had been lost even before the time of the Council of
Nicea; that the Holy Ghost animates the whole system of Nature,
like a soul of the world, and that, with the Christ, it will be
absorbed, at the end of all things, into the substance of the
Deity, from which they had emanated. For this he was roasted to
death over a slow fire. Was there any distinction between this
Protestant auto-da-fe and the Catholic one of Vanini, who was
burnt at Toulouse, by the Inquisition, in 1629, for his
"Dialogues concerning Nature?"

The invention of printing, the dissemination of books, had
introduced a class of dangers which the persecution of the
Inquisition could not reach. In 1559, Pope Paul IV. instituted
the Congregation of the Index Expurgatorius. "Its duty is to
examine books and manuscripts intended for publication, and to
decide whether the people may be permitted to read them; to
correct those books of which the errors are not numerous, and
which contain certain useful and salutary truths, so as to bring
them into harmony with the doctrines of the Church; to condemn
those of which the principles are heretical and pernicious; and
to grant the peculiar privilege of perusing heretical books to
certain persons. This congregation, which is sometimes held in
presence of the pope, but generally in the palace of the
Cardinal-president, has a more extensive jurisdiction than that
of the Inquisition, as it not only takes cognizance of those
books that contain doctrines contrary to the Roman Catholic
faith, but of those that concern the duties of morality, the
discipline of the Church, the interests of society. Its name is
derived from the alphabetical tables or indexes of heretical
books and authors composed by its appointment."

The Index Expurgatorius of prohibited books at first indicated
those works which it was unlawful to read; but, on this being
found insufficient, whatever was not permitted was prohibited--an
audacious attempt to prevent all knowledge, except such as suited
the purposes of the Church, from reaching the people.

The two rival divisions of the Christian Church-- Protestant and
Catholic--were thus in accord on one point: to tolerate no
science except such as they considered to be agreeable to the
Scriptures. The Catholic, being in possession of centralized
power, could make its decisions respected wherever its sway was
acknowledged, and enforce the monitions of the Index
Expurgatorius; the Protestant, whose influence was diffused among
many foci in different nations, could not act in such a direct
and resolute manner. Its mode of procedure was, by raising a
theological odium against an offender, to put him under a social
ban--a course perhaps not less effectual than the other.

As we have seen in former chapters, an antagonism between
religion and science had existed from the earliest days of
Christianity. On every occasion permitting its display it may be
detected through successive centuries. We witness it in the
downfall of the Alexandrian Museum, in the cases of Erigena and
Wiclif, in the contemptuous rejection by the heretics of the
thirteenth century of the Scriptural account of the Creation; but
it was not until the epoch of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo,
that the efforts of Science to burst from the thraldom in which
she was fettered became uncontrollable. In all countries the
political power of the Church had greatly declined; her leading
men perceived that the cloudy foundation on which she had stood
was dissolving away. Repressive measures against her antagonists,
in old times resorted to with effect, could be no longer
advantageously employed. To her interests the burning of a
philosopher here and there did more harm than good. In her great
conflict with astronomy, a conflict in which Galileo stands as
the central figure, she received an utter overthrow; and, as we
have seen, when the immortal work of Newton was printed, she
could offer no resistance, though Leibnitz affirmed, in the face
of Europe, that "Newton had robbed the Deity of some of his most
excellent attributes, and had sapped the foundation of natural
religion."

From the time of Newton to our own time, the divergence of
science from the dogmas of the Church has continually increased.
The Church declared that the earth is the central and most
important body in the universe; that the sun and moon and stars
are tributary to it. On these points she was worsted by
astronomy. She affirmed that a universal deluge had covered the
earth; that the only surviving animals were such as had been
saved in an ark. In this her error was established by geology.
She taught that there was a first man, who, some six or eight
thousand years ago, was suddenly created or called into existence
in a condition of physical and moral perfection, and from that
condition he fell. But anthropology has shown that human beings
existed far back in geological time, and in a savage state but
little better than that of the brute.

Many good and well-meaning men have attempted to reconcile the
statements of Genesis with the discoveries of science, but it is
in vain. The divergence has increased so much, that it has become
an absolute opposition. One of the antagonists must give way.

May we not, then, be permitted to examine the authenticity of
this book, which, since the second century, has been put forth as
the criterion of scientific truth? To maintain itself in a
position so exalted, it must challenge human criticism.

In the early Christian ages, many of the most eminent Fathers of
the Church had serious doubts respecting the authorship of the
entire Pentateuch. I have not space, in the limited compass of
these pages, to present in detail the facts and arguments that
were then and have since been adduced. The literature of the
subject is now very extensive. I may, however, refer the reader
to the work of the pious and learned Dean Prideaux, on "The Old
and New Testament connected," a work which is one of the literary
ornaments of the last century. He will also find the subject more
recently and exhaustively discussed by Bishop Colenso. The
following paragraphs will convey a sufficiently distinct
impression of the present state of the controversy:

The Pentateuch is affirmed to have been written by Moses, under
the influence of divine inspiration. Considered thus, as a record
vouchsafed and dictated by the Almighty, it commands not only
scientific but universal consent.

But here, in the first place, it may be demanded, Who or what is
it that has put forth this great claim in its behalf?

Not the work itself. It nowhere claims the authorship of one man,
or makes the impious declaration that it is the writing of
Almighty God.

Not until after the second century was there any such extravagant
demand on human credulity. It originated, not among the higher
ranks of Christian philosophers, but among the more fervid
Fathers of the Church, whose own writings prove them to have been
unlearned and uncritical persons.

Every age, from the second century to our times, has offered men
of great ability, both Christian and Jewish, who have altogether
repudiated these claims. Their decision has been founded upon the
intrinsic evidence of the books themselves. These furnish plain
indications of at least two distinct authors, who have been
respectively termed Elohistic and Jehovistic. Hupfeld maintains
that the Jehovistic narrative bears marks of having been a second
original record, wholly independent of the Elohistic. The two
sources from which the narratives have been derived are, in many
respects, contradictory of each other. Moreover, it is asserted
that the books of the Pentateuch are never ascribed to Moses in
the inscriptions of Hebrew manuscripts, or in printed copies of
the Hebrew Bible, nor are they styled "Books of Moses" in the
Septuagint or Vulgate, but only in modern translations.

It is clear that they cannot be imputed to the sole authorship of
Moses, since they record his death. It is clear that they were
not written until many hundred years after that event, since they
contain references to facts which did not occur until after the
establishment of the government of kings among the Jews.

No man may dare to impute them to the inspiration of Almighty
God--their inconsistencies, incongruities, contradictions, and
impossibilities, as exposed by many learned and pious moderns,
both German and English, are so great. It is the decision of
these critics that Genesis is a narrative based upon legends;
that Exodus is not historically true; that the whole Pentateuch
is unhistoric and non-Mosaic; it contains the most extraordinary
contradictions and impossibilities, sufficient to involve the
credibility of the whole--imperfections so many and so
conspicuous that they would destroy the authenticity of any
modern historical work.

Hengstenberg, in his "Dissertations on the Genuineness of the
Pentateuch," says: "It is the unavoidable fate of a spurious
historical work of any length to be involved in contradictions.
This must be the case to a very great extent with the Pentateuch,
if it be not genuine. If the Pentateuch is spurious, its
histories and laws have been fabricated in successive portions,
and were committed to writing in the course of many centuries by
different individuals. From such a mode of origination, a mass of
contradictions is inseparable, and the improving hand of a later
editor could never be capable of entirely obliterating them."

To the above conclusions I may add that we are expressly told by
Ezra (Esdras ii. 14) that he himself, aided by five other
persons, wrote these books in the space of forty days. He says
that at the time of the Babylonian captivity the ancient sacred
writings of the Jews were burnt, and gives a particular detail of
the circumstances under which these were composed. He sets forth
that he undertook to write all that had been done in the world
since the beginning. It may be said that the books of Esdras are
apocryphal, but in return it may be demanded, Has that conclusion
been reached on evidence that will withstand modern criticism? In
the early ages of Christianity, when the story of the fall of man
was not considered as essential to the Christian system, and the
doctrine of the atonement had not attained that precision which
Anselm eventually gave it, it was very generally admitted by the
Fathers of the Church that Ezra probably did so compose the
Pentateuch. Thus St. Jerome says, "Sive Mosem dicere volueris
auctorem Pentateuchi, sive Esdram ejusdem instauratorem operis,
non recuso." Clemens Alexandrinus says that when these books had
been destroyed in the captivity of Nebuchadnezzar, Esdras, having
become inspired prophetically, reproduced them. Irenaeus says the
same.

The incidents contained in Genesis, from the first to the tenth
chapters inclusive (chapters which, in their bearing upon
science, are of more importance than other portions of the
Pentateuch), have been obviously compiled from short, fragmentary
legends of various authorship. To the critical eye they all,
however, present peculiarities which demonstrate that they were
written on the banks of the Euphrates, and not in the Desert of
Arabia. They contain many Chaldaisms. An Egyptian would not speak
of the Mediterranean Sea as being west of him, an Assyrian would.
Their scenery and machinery, if such expressions may with
propriety be used, are altogether Assyrian, not Egyptian. They
were such records as one might expect to meet with in the
cuneiform impressions of the tile libraries of the Mesopotamian
kings. It is affirmed that one such legend, that of the Deluge,
has already been exhumed, and it is not beyond the bounds of
probability that the remainder may in like manner be obtained.

From such Assyrian sources, the legends of the creation of the
earth and heaven, the garden of Eden, the making of man from
clay, and of woman from one of his ribs, the temptation by the
serpent, the naming of animals, the cherubim and flaming sword,
the Deluge and the ark, the drying up of the waters by the wind,
the building of the Tower of Babel, and the confusion of tongues,
were obtained by Ezra. He commences abruptly the proper history
of the Jews in the eleventh chapter. At that point his universal
history ceases; he occupies himself with the story of one family,
the descendants of Shem.

It is of this restriction that the Duke of Argyll, in his book on
"Primeval Man," very graphically says:

In the genealogy of the family of Shem we have a list of names
which are names, and nothing more to us. It is a genealogy which
neither does, nor pretends to do, more than to trace the order of
succession among a few families only, out of the millions then
already existing in the world. Nothing but this order of
succession is given, nor is it at all certain that this order is
consecutive or complete. Nothing is told us of all that lay
behind that curtain of thick darkness, in front of which these
names are made to pass; and yet there are, as it were, momentary
liftings, through which we have glimpses of great movements which
were going on, and had been long going on beyond. No shapes are
distinctly seen. Even the direction of those movements can only
be guessed. But voices are heard which are as the voices of many
waters." I agree in the opinion of Hupfeld, that "the discovery
that the Pentateuch is put together out of various sources, or
original documents, is beyond all doubt not only one of the most
important and most pregnant with consequences for the
interpretation of the historical books of the Old Testament, or
rather for the whole of theology and history, but it is also one
of the most certain discoveries which have been made in the
domain of criticism and the history of literature. Whatever the
anticritical party may bring forward to the contrary, it will
maintain itself, and not retrograde again through any thing, so
long as there exists such a thing as criticism; and it will not
be easy for a reader upon the stage of culture on which we stand
in the present day, if he goes to the examination unprejudiced,
and with an uncorrupted power of appreciating the truth, to be
able to ward off its influence."

What then? shall we give up these books? Does not the admission
that the narrative of the fall in Eden is legendary carry with it
the surrender of that most solemn and sacred of Christian
doctrines, the atonement?

Let us reflect on this! Christianity, in its earliest days, when
it was converting and conquering the world, knew little or
nothing about that doctrine. We have seen that, in his "Apology,"
Tertullian did not think it worth his while to mention it. It
originated among the Gnostic heretics. It was not admitted by the
Alexandrian theological school. It was never prominently advanced
by the Fathers. It was not brought into its present commanding
position until the time of Anselm Philo Judaeus speaks of the
story of the fall as symbolical; Origen regarded it as an
allegory. Perhaps some of the Protestant churches may, with
reason, be accused of inconsistency, since in part they consider
it as mythical, in part real. But, if, with them, we admit that
the serpent is symbolical of Satan, does not that cast an air of
allegory over the whole narrative?

It is to be regretted that the Christian Church has burdened
itself with the defense of these books, and voluntarily made
itself answerable for their manifest contradictions and errors.
Their vindication, if it were possible, should have been resigned
to the Jews, among whom they originated, and by whom they have
been transmitted to us. Still more, it is to be deeply regretted
that the Pentateuch, a production so imperfect as to be unable to
stand the touch of modern criticism, should be put forth as the
arbiter of science. Let it be remembered that the exposure of the
true character of these books has been made, not by captious
enemies, but by pious and learned churchmen, some of them of the
highest dignity.

While thus the Protestant churches have insisted on the
acknowledgment of the Scriptures as the criterion of truth, the
Catholic has, in our own times, declared the infallibility of the
pope. It may be said that this infallibility applies only to
moral or religious things; but where shall the line of separation
be drawn? Onmiscience cannot be limited to a restricted group of
questions; in its very nature it implies the knowledge of all,
and infallibility means omniscience.

Doubtless, if the fundamental principles of Italian Christianity
be admitted, their logical issue is an infallible pope. There is
no need to dwell on the unphilosophical nature of this
conception; it is destroyed by an examination of the political
history of the papacy, and the biography of the popes. The former
exhibits all the errors and mistakes to which institutions of a
confessedly human character have been found liable; the latter is
only ton frequently a story of sin and shame.

It was not possible that the authoritative promulgation of the
dogma of papal infallibility should meet among enlightened
Catholics universal acceptance. Serious and wide-spread dissent
has been produced. A doctrine so revolting to common-sense could
not find any other result. There are many who affirm that, if
infallibility exists anywhere, it is in oecumenical councils, and
yet such councils have not always agreed with each other. There
are also many who remember that councils have deposed popes, and
have passed judgment on their clamors and contentions. Not
without reason do Protestants demand, What proof can be given
that infallibility exists in the Church at all? what proof is
there that the Church has ever been fairly or justly represented
in any council? and why should the truth be ascertained by the
vote of a majority rather than by that of a minority? How often
it has happened that one man, standing at the right point of
view, has descried the truth, and, after having been denounced
and persecuted by all others, they have eventually been
constrained to adopt his declarations! Of many great discoveries,
has not this been the history?

It is not for Science to compose these contesting claims; it is
not for her to determine whether the criterion of truth for the
religious man shall be found in the Bible, or in the oecumenical
council, or in the pope. She only asks the right, which she so
willingly accords to others, of adopting a criterion of her own.
If she regards unhistorical legends with disdain; if she
considers the vote of a majority in the ascertainment of truth
with supreme indifference; if she leaves the claim of
infallibility in any human being to be vindicated by the stern
logic of coming events--the cold impassiveness which in these
matters she maintains is what she displays toward her own
doctrines. Without hesitation she would give up the theories of
gravitation or undulations, if she found that they were
irreconcilable with facts. For her the volume of inspiration is
the book of Nature, of which the open scroll is ever spread forth
before the eyes of every man. Confronting all, it needs no
societies for its dissemination. Infinite in extent, eternal in
duration, human ambition and human fanaticism have never been
able to tamper with it. On the earth it is illustrated by all
that is magnificent and beautiful, on the heavens its letters are
suns and worlds.



CHAPTER IX.

CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSE.

There are two conceptions of the government of the world: 1. By
Providence; 2. By Law.--The former maintained by the
priesthood.--Sketch of the introduction of the latter.

Kepler discovers the laws that preside over the solar
system.--His works are denounced by papal authority.--The
foundations of mechanical philosophy are laid by Da
Vinci.--Galileo discovers the fundamental laws of
Dynamics.--Newton applies them to the movements of the celestial
bodies, and shows that the solar system is governed by
mathematical necessity.--Herschel extends that conclusion to the
universe.--The nebular hypothesis.--Theological exceptions to it.

Evidences of the control of law in the construction of the earth,
and in the development of the animal and plant series.--They
arose by Evolution, not by Creation.

The reign of law is exhibited by the historic career of human
societies, and in the case of individual man.

Partial adoption of this view by some of the Reformed Churches.


Two interpretations may be given of the mode of government of the
world. It may be by incessant divine interventions, or by the
operation of unvarying law.

To the adoption of the former a priesthood will always incline,
since it must desire to be considered as standing between the
prayer of the votary and the providential act. Its importance is
magnified by the power it claims of determining what that act
shall be. In the pre Christian (Roman) religion, the grand office
of the priesthood was the discovery of future events by oracles,
omens, or an inspection of the entrails of animals, and by the
offering of sacrifices to propitiate the gods. In the later, the
Christian times, a higher power was claimed; the clergy asserting
that, by their intercessions, they could regulate the course of
affairs, avert dangers, secure benefits, work miracles, and even
change the order of Nature.

Not without reason, therefore, did they look upon the doctrine of
government by unvarying law with disfavor. It seemed to
depreciate their dignity, to lessen their importance. To them
there was something shocking in a God who cannot be swayed by
human entreaty, a cold, passionless divinity--something frightful
in fatalism, destiny.

But the orderly movement of the heavens could not fail in all
ages to make a deep impression on thoughtful observers--the
rising and setting of the sun; the increasing or diminishing
light of the day; the waxing and waning of the moon; the return
of the seasons in their proper courses; the measured march of the
wandering planets in the sky--what are all these, and a thousand
such, but manifestations of an orderly and unchanging procession
of events? The faith of early observers in this interpretation
may perhaps have been shaken by the occurrence of such a
phenomenon as an eclipse, a sudden and mysterious breach of the
ordinary course of natural events; but it would be resumed in
tenfold strength as soon as the discovery was made that eclipses
themselves recur, and may be predicted.

Astronomical predictions of all kinds depend upon the admission
of this fact--that there never has been and never will be any
intervention in the operation of natural laws. The scientific
philosopher affirms that the condition of the world at any given
moment is the direct result of its condition in the preceding
moment, and the direct cause of its condition in the subsequent
moment. Law and chance are only different names for mechanical
necessity.

About fifty years after the death of Copernicus, John Kepler, a
native of Wurtemberg, who had adopted the heliocentric theory,
and who was deeply impressed with the belief that relationships
exist in the revolutions of the planetary bodies round the sun,
and that these if correctly examined would reveal the laws under
which those movements take place, devoted himself to the study of
the distances, times, and velocities of the planets, and the form
of their orbits. His method was, to submit the observations to
which he had access, such as those of Tycho Brahe, to
computations based first on one and then on another hypothesis,
rejecting the hypothesis if he found that the calculations did
not accord with the observations. The incredible labor he had
undergone (he says, "I considered, and I computed, until I almost
went mad") was at length rewarded, and in 1609 he published his
book, "On the Motions of the Planet Mars." In this he had
attempted to reconcile the movements of that planet to the
hypothesis of eccentrics and epicycles, but eventually discovered
that the orbit of a planet is not a circle but an ellipse, the
sun being in one of the foci, and that the areas swept over by a
line drawn from the planet to the sun are proportional to the
times. These constitute what are now known as the first and
second laws of Kepler. Eight years subsequently, he was rewarded
by the discovery of a third law, defining the relation between
the mean distances of the planets from the sun and the times of
their revolutions; "the squares of the periodic times are
proportional to the cubes of the distances." In "An Epitome of
the Copernican System," published in 1618, he announced this law,
and showed that it holds good for the satellites of Jupiter as
regards their primary. Hence it was inferred that the laws which
preside over the grand movements of the solar system preside also
over the less movements of its constituent parts.

The conception of law which is unmistakably conveyed by Kepler's
discoveries, and the evidence they gave in support of the
heliocentric as against the geocentric theory, could not fail to
incur the reprehension of the Roman authorities. The congregation
of the Index, therefore, when they denounced the Copernican
system as utterly contrary to the Holy Scriptures, prohibited
Kepler's "Epitome" of that system. It was on this occasion that
Kepler submitted his celebrated remonstrance: "Eighty years have
elapsed during which the doctrines of Copernicus regarding the
movement of the earth and the immobility of the sun have been
promulgated without hinderance, because it was deemed allowable
to dispute concerning natural things, and to elucidate the works
of God, and now that new testimony is discovered in proof of the
truth of those doctrines--testimony which was not known to the
spiritual judges--ye would prohibit the promulgation of the true
system of the structure of the universe."

None of Kepler's contemporaries believed the law of the areas,
nor was it accepted until the publication of the "Principia" of
Newton. In fact, no one in those times understood the
philosophical meaning of Kepler's laws. He himself did not
foresee what they must inevitably lead to. His mistakes showed
how far he was from perceiving their result. Thus he thought that
each planet is the seat of an intelligent principle, and that
there is a relation between the magnitudes of the orbits of the
five principal planets and the five regular solids of geometry.
At first he inclined to believe that the orbit of Mars is oval,
nor was it until after a wearisome study that he detected the
grand truth, its elliptical form. An idea of the incorruptibility
of the celestial objects had led to the adoption of the
Aristotelian doctrine of the perfection of circular motions, and
to the belief that there were none but circular motions in the
heavens. He bitterly complains of this as having been a fatal
"thief of his time." His philosophical daring is illustrated in
his breaking through this time-honored tradition.

In some most important particulars Kepler anticipated Newton. He
was the first to give clear ideas respecting gravity. He says
every particle of matter will rest until it is disturbed by some
other particle--that the earth attracts a stone more than the
stone attracts the earth, and that bodies move to each other in
proportion to their masses; that the earth would ascend to the
moon one-fifty-fourth of the distance, and the moon would move
toward the earth the other fifty-three. He affirms that the
moon's attraction causes the tides, and that the planets must
impress irregularities on the moon's motions.

The progress of astronomy is obviously divisible into three
periods:

1. The period of observation of the apparent motions of the
heavenly bodies.

2. The period of discovery of their real motions, and
particularly of the laws of the planetary revolutions; this was
signally illustrated by Copernicus and Kepler.

3. The period of the ascertainment of the causes of those laws.
It was the epoch of Newton.

The passage of the second into the third period depended on the
development of the Dynamical branch of mechanics, which had been
in a stagnant condition from the time of Archimedes or the
Alexandrian School.

In Christian Europe there had not been a cultivator of mechanical
philosophy until Leonardo da Vinci, who was born A.D. 1452. To
him, and not to Lord Bacon, must be attributed the renaissance of
science. Bacon was not only ignorant of mathematics, but
depreciated its application to physical inquiries. He
contemptuously rejected the Copernican system, alleging absurd
objections to it. While Galileo was on the brink of his great
telescopic discoveries, Bacon was publishing doubts as to the
utility of instruments in scientific investigations. To ascribe
the inductive method to him is to ignore history. His fanciful
philosophical suggestions have never been of the slightest
practical use. No one has ever thought of employing them. Except
among English readers, his name is almost unknown.

To Da Vinci I shall have occasion to allude more particularly on
a subsequent page. Of his works still remaining in manuscript,
two volumes are at Milan, and one in Paris, carried there by
Napoleon. After an interval of about seventy years, Da Vinci was
followed by the Dutch engineer, Stevinus, whose work on the
principles of equilibrium was published in 1586. Six years
afterward appeared Galileo's treatise on mechanics.

To this great Italian is due the establishment of the three
fundamental laws of dynamics, known as the Laws of Motion.

The consequences of the establishment of these laws were very
important.

It had been supposed that continuous movements, such, for
instance, as those of the celestial bodies, could only be
maintained by a perpetual consumption and perpetual application
of force, but the first of Galileo's laws declared that every
body will persevere in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in
a right line, until it is compelled to change that state by
disturbing forces. A clear perception of this fundamental
principle is essential to a comprehension of the elementary facts
of physical astronomy. Since all the motions that we witness
taking place on the surface of the earth soon come to an end, we
are led to infer that rest is the natural condition of things. We
have made, then, a very great advance when we have become
satisfied that a body is equally indifferent to rest as to
motion, and that it equally perseveres in either state until
disturbing forces are applied. Such disturbing forces in the case
of common movements are friction and the resistance of the air.
When no such resistances exist, movement must be perpetual, as is
the case with the heavenly bodies, which are moving in a void.

Forces, no matter what their difference of magnitude may be, will
exert their full influence conjointly, each as though the other
did not exist. Thus, when a ball is suffered to drop from the
mouth of a cannon, it falls to the ground in a certain interval
of time through the influence of gravity upon it. If, then, it be
fired from the cannon, though now it may be projected some
thousands of feet in a second, the effect of gravity upon it will
be precisely the same as before. In the intermingling of forces
there is no deterioration; each produces its own specific effect.

In the latter half of the seventeenth century, through the works
of Borelli, Hooke, and Huyghens, it had become plain that
circular motions could be accounted for by the laws of Galileo.
Borelli, treating of the motions of Jupiter's satellites, shows
how a circular movement may arise under the influence of a
central force. Hooke exhibited the inflection of a direct motion
into a circular by a supervening central attraction.

The year 1687 presents, not only an epoch in European science,
but also in the intellectual development of man. It is marked by
the publication of the "Principia" of Newton, an incomparable, an
immortal work.

On the principle that all bodies attract each other with forces
directly as their masses, and inversely as the squares of their
distances, Newton showed that all the movements of the celestial
bodies may be accounted for, and that Kepler's laws might all
have been predicted-- the elliptic motions--the described areas
the relation of the times and distances. As we have seen,
Newton's contemporaries had perceived how circular motions could
be explained; that was a special case, but Newton furnished the
solution of the general problem, containing all special cases of
motion in circles, ellipses, parabolas, hyperbolas--that is, in
all the conic sections.

The Alexandrian mathematicians had shown that the direction of
movement of falling bodies is toward the centre of the earth.
Newton proved that this must necessarily be the case, the general
effect of the attraction of all the particles of a sphere being
the same as if they were all concentrated in its centre. To this
central force, thus determining the fall of bodies, the
designation of gravity was given. Up to this time, no one, except
Kepler, had considered how far its influence reached. It seemed
to Newton possible that it might extend as far as the moon, and
be the force that deflects her from a rectilinear path, and makes
her revolve in her orbit round the earth. It was easy to compute,
on the principle of the law of inverse squares, whether the
earth's attraction was sufficient to produce the observed effect.
Employing the measures of the size of the earth accessible at the
time, Newton found that the moon's deflection was only thirteen
feet in a minute; whereas, if his hypothesis of gravitation were
true, it should be fifteen feet. But in 1669 Picard, as we have
seen, executed the measurement of a degree more carefully than
had previously been done; this changed the estimate of the
magnitude of the earth, and, therefore, of the distance of the
moon; and, Newton's attention having been directed to it by some
discussions that took place at the Royal Society in 1679, he
obtained Picard's results, went home, took out his old papers,
and resumed his calculations. As they drew to a close, he became
so much agitated that he was obliged to desire a friend to finish
them. The expected coincidence was established. It was proved
that the moon is retained in her orbit and made to revolve round
the earth by the force of terrestrial gravity. The genii of
Kepler had given place to the vortices of Descartes, and these in
their turn to the central force of Newton.

In like manner the earth, and each of the planets, are made to
move in an elliptic orbit round the sun by his attractive force,
and perturbations arise by reason of the disturbing action of the
planetary masses on one another. Knowing the masses and the
distances, these disturbances may be computed. Later astronomers
have even succeeded with the inverse problem, that is, knowing
the perturbations or disturbances, to find the place and the mass
of the disturbing body. Thus, from the deviations of Uranus from
his theoretical position, the discovery of Neptune was
accomplished.

Newton's merit consisted in this, that he applied the laws of
dynamics to the movements of the celestial bodies, and insisted
that scientific theories must be substantiated by the agreement
of observations with calculations.

When Kepler announced his three laws, they were received with
condemnation by the spiritual authorities, not because of any
error they were supposed to present or to contain, but partly
because they gave support to the Copernican system, and partly
because it was judged inexpedient to admit the prevalence of law
of any kind as opposed to providential intervention. The world
was regarded as the theatre in which the divine will was daily
displayed; it was considered derogatory to the majesty of God
that that will should be fettered in any way. The power of the
clergy was chiefly manifested in the influence the were alleged
to possess in changing his arbitrary determinations. It was thus
that they could abate the baleful action of comets, secure fine
weather or rain, prevent eclipses, and, arresting the course of
Nature, work all manner of miracles; it was thus that the shadow
had been made to go back on the dial, and the sun and the moon
stopped in mid-career.

In the century preceding the epoch of Newton, a great religious
and political revolution had taken place --the Reformation.
Though its effect had not been the securing of complete liberty
for thought, it bad weakened many of the old ecclesiastical
bonds. In the reformed countries there was no power to express a
condemnation of Newton's works, and among the clergy there was no
disposition to give themselves any concern about the matter. At
first the attention of the Protestant was engrossed by the
movements of his great enemy the Catholic, and when that source
of disquietude ceased, and the inevitable partitions of the
Reformation arose, that attention was fastened upon the rival and
antagonistic Churches. The Lutheran, the Calvinist, the
Episcopalian, the Presbyterian, had something more urgent on hand
than Newton's mathematical demonstrations.

So, uncondemned, and indeed unobserved, in this clamor of
fighting sects, Newton's grand theory solidly established itself.
Its philosophical significance was infinitely more momentous than
the dogmas that these persons were quarreling about. It not only
accepted the heliocentric theory and the laws discovered by
Kepler, but it proved that, no matter what might be the weight of
opposing ecclesiastical authority, the sun MUST be the centre of
our system, and that Kepler's laws are the result of a
mathematical necessity. It is impossible that they should be
other than they are.

But what is the meaning of all this? Plainly that the solar
system is not interrupted by providential interventions, but is
under the government of irreversible law--law that is itself the
issue of mathematical necessity.

The telescopic observations of Herschel I. satisfied him that
there are very many double stars--double not merely because they
are accidentally in the same line of view, but because they are
connected physically, revolving round each other. These
observations were continued and greatly extended by Herschel II.
The elements of the elliptic orbit of the double star zeta of the
Great Bear were determined by Savary, its period being
fifty-eight and one-quarter years; those of another, sigma
Coronae, were determined by Hind, its period being more than
seven hundred and thirty-six years. The orbital movement of these
double suns in ellipses compels us to admit that the law of
gravitation holds good far beyond the boundaries of the solar
system; indeed, as far as the telescope can reach, it
demonstrates the reign of law. D'Alembert, in the Introduction to
the Encyclopaedia, says: "The universe is but a single fact; it
is only one great truth."

Shall we, then, conclude that the solar and the starry systems
have been called into existence by God, and that he has then
imposed upon them by his arbitrary will laws under the control of
which it was his pleasure that their movements should be made?

Or are there reasons for believing that these several systems
came into existence not by such an arbitrary fiat, but through
the operation of law?

The following are some peculiarities displayed by the solar
system as enumerated by Laplace. All the planets and their
satellites move in ellipses of such small eccentricity that they
are nearly circles. All the planets move in the same direction
and nearly in the same plane. The movements of the satellites are
in the same direction as those of the planets. The movements of
rotation of the sun, of the planets, and the satellites, are in
the same direction as their orbital motions, and in planes little
different.

It is impossible that so many coincidences could be the result of
chance! Is it not plain that there must have been a common tie
among all these bodies, that they are only parts of what must
once have been a single mass?

But if we admit that the substance of which the solar system
consists once existed in a nebulous condition, and was in
rotation, all the above peculiarities follow as necessary
mechanical consequences. Nay, more, the formation of planets, the
formation of satellites and of asteroids, is accounted for. We
see why the outer planets and satellites are larger than the
interior ones; why the larger planets rotate rapidly, and the
small ones slowly; why of the satellites the outer planets have
more, the inner fewer. We are furnished with indications of the
time of revolution of the planets in their orbits, and of the
satellites in theirs; we perceive the mode of formation of
Saturn's rings. We find an explanation of the physical condition
of the sun, and the transitions of condition through which the
earth and moon have passed, as indicated by their geology.

But two exceptions to the above peculiarities have been noted;
they are in the cases of Uranus and Neptune.

The existence of such a nebulous mass once admitted, all the rest
follows as a matter of necessity. Is there not, however, a most
serious objection in the way? Is not this to exclude Almighty God
from the worlds he has made?

First, we must be satisfied whether there is any solid evidence
for admitting the existence of such a nebulous mass.

The nebular hypothesis rests primarily on the telescopic
discovery made by Herschel I., that there are scattered here and
there in the heavens pale, gleaming patches of light, a few of
which are large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Of these,
many may be resolved by a sufficient telescopic power into a
congeries of stars, but some, such as the great nebula in Orion,
have resisted the best instruments hitherto made.

It was asserted by those who were indisposed to accept the
nebular hypothesis, that the non-resolution was due to
imperfection in the telescopes used. In these instruments two
distinct functions may be observed: their light-gathering power
depends on the diameter of their object mirror or lens, their
defining power depends on the exquisite correctness of their
optical surfaces. Grand instruments may possess the former
quality in perfection by reason of their size, but the latter
very imperfectly, either through want of original configuration,
or distortion arising from flexure through their own weight. But,
unless an instrument be perfect in this respect, as well as
adequate in the other, it may fail to decompose a nebula into
discrete points.

Fortunately, however, other means for the settlement of this
question are available. In 1846, it was discovered by the author
of this book that the spectrum of an ignited solid is
continuous--that is, has neither dark nor bright lines.
Fraunhofer had previously made known that the spectrum of ignited
gases is discontinuous. Here, then, is the means of determining
whether the light emitted by a given nebula comes from an
incandescent gas, or from a congeries of ignited solids, stars,
or suns. If its spectrum be discontinuous, it is a true nebula or
gas; if continuous, a congeries of stars.

In 1864, Mr. Huggins made this examination in the case of a
nebula in the constellation Draco. It proved to be gaseous.

Subsequent observations have shown that, of sixty nebulae
examined, nineteen give discontinuous or gaseous spectra--the
remainder continuous ones.

It may, therefore, be admitted that physical evidence has at
length been obtained, demonstrating the existence of vast masses
of matter in a gaseous condition, and at a temperature of
incandescence. The hypothesis of Laplace has thus a firm basis.
In such a nebular mass, cooling by radiation is a necessary
incident, and condensation and rotation the inevitable results.
There must be a separation of rings all lying in one plane, a
generation of planets and satellites all rotating alike, a
central sun and engirdling globes. From a chaotic mass, through
the operation of natural laws, an organized system has been
produced. An integration of matter into worlds has taken place
through a decline of heat.

If such be the cosmogony of the solar system, such the genesis of
the planetary worlds, we are constrained to extend our views of
the dominion of law, and to recognize its agency in the creation
as well as in the conservation of the innumerable orbs that
throng the universe.

But, again, it may be asked: "Is there not something profoundly
impious in this? Are we not excluding Almighty God from the world
he has made?

We have often witnessed the formation of a cloud in a serene sky.
A hazy point, barely perceptible--a little wreath of
mist--increases in volume, and becomes darker and denser, until
it obscures a large portion of the heavens. It throws itself into
fantastic shapes, it gathers a glory from the sun, is borne
onward by the wind, and, perhaps, as it gradually came, so it
gradually disappears, melting away in the untroubled air.

Now, we say that the little vesicles of which this cloud was
composed arose from the condensation of water-vapor preexisting
in the atmosphere, through reduction of temperature; we show how
they assumed the form they present. We assign optical reasons for
the brightness or blackness of the cloud; we explain, on
mechanical principles, its drifting before the wind; for its
disappearance we account on the principles of chemistry. It never
occurs to us to invoke the interposition of the Almighty in the
production and fashioning of this fugitive form. We explain all
the facts connected with it by physical laws, and perhaps should
reverentially hesitate to call into operation the finger of God.

But the universe is nothing more than such a cloud--a cloud of
suns and worlds. Supremely grand though it may seem to us, to the
Infinite and Eternal Intellect it is no more than a fleeting
mist. If there be a multiplicity of worlds in infinite space,
there is also a succession of worlds in infinite time. As one
after another cloud replaces cloud in the skies, so this starry
system, the universe, is the successor of countless others that
have preceded it--the predecessor of countless others that will
follow. There is an unceasing metamorphosis, a sequence of
events, without beginning or end.

If, on physical principles, we account for minor meteorological
incidents, mists and clouds, is it not permissible for us to
appeal to the same principle in the origin of world-systems and
universes, which are only clouds on a space-scale somewhat
larger, mists on a time-scale somewhat less transient? Can any
man place the line which bounds the physical on one side, the
supernatural on the other? Do not our estimates of the extent and
the duration of things depend altogether on our point of view?
Were we set in the midst of the great nebula of Orion, how
transcendently magnificent the scene! The vast transformations,
the condensations of a fiery mist into worlds, might seem worthy
of the immediate presence, the supervision of God; here, at our
distant station, where millions of miles are inappreciable to our
eyes, and suns seem no bigger than motes in the air, that nebula
is more insignificant than the faintest cloud. Galileo, in his
description of the constellation of Orion, did not think it worth
while so much as to mention it. The most rigorous theologian of
those days would have seen nothing to blame in imputing its
origin to secondary causes, nothing irreligious in failing to
invoke the arbitrary interference of God in its metamorphoses. If
such be the conclusion to which we come respecting it, what would
be the conclusion to which an Intelligence seated in it might
come respecting us? It occupies an extent of space millions of
times greater than that of our solar system; we are invisible
from it, and therefore absolutely insignificant. Would such an
Intelligence think it necessary to require for our origin and
maintenance the immediate intervention of God?


From the solar system let us descend to what is still more
insignificant--a little portion of it; let us descend to our own
earth. In the lapse of time it has experienced great changes.
Have these been due to incessant divine interventions, or to the
continuous operation of unfailing law? The aspect of Nature
perpetually varies under our eyes, still more grandly and
strikingly has it altered in geological times. But the laws
guiding those changes never exhibit the slightest variation. In
the midst of immense vicissitudes they are immutable. The present
order of things is only a link in a vast connected chain reaching
back to an incalculable past, and forward to an infinite future.

There is evidence, geological and astronomical, that the
temperature of the earth and her satellite was in the remote past
very much higher than it is now. A decline so slow as to be
imperceptible at short intervals, but manifest enough in the
course of many ages, has occurred. The heat has been lost by
radiation into space.

The cooling of a mass of any kind, no matter whether large or
small, is not discontinuous; it does not go on by fits and
starts; it takes place under the operation of a mathematical law,
though for such mighty changes as are here contemplated neither
the formula of Newton, nor that of Dulong and Petit, may apply.
It signifies nothing that periods of partial decline, glacial
periods, or others of temporary elevation, have been
intercalated; it signifies nothing whether these variations may
have arisen from topographical variations, as those of level, or
from periodicities in the radiation of the sun. A periodical sun
would act as a mere perturbation in the gradual decline of heat.
The perturbations of the planetary motions are a confirmation,
not a disproof, of gravity.

Now, such a decline of temperature must have been attended by
innumerable changes of a physical character in our globe. Her
dimensions must have diminished through contraction, the length
of her day must have lessened, her surface must have collapsed,
and fractures taken place along the lines of least resistance;
the density of the sea must have increased, its volume must have
become less; the constitution of the atmosphere must have varied,
especially in the amount of water-vapor and carbonic acid that it
contained; the barometric pressure must have declined.

These changes, and very many more that might be mentioned, must
have taken place not in a discontinuous but in an orderly manner,
since the master-fact, the decline of heat, that was causing
them, was itself following a mathematical law.

But not alone did lifeless Nature submit to these inevitable
mutations; living Nature was also simultaneously affected.

An organic form of any kind, vegetable or animal, will remain
unchanged only so long as the environment in which it is placed
remains unchanged. Should an alteration in the environment occur,
the organism will either be modified or destroyed.

Destruction is more likely to happen as the change in the
environment is more sudden; modification or transformation is
more possible as that change is more gradual.

Since it is demonstrably certain that lifeless Nature has in the
lapse of ages undergone vast modifications; since the crust of
the earth, and the sea, and the atmosphere, are no longer such as
they once were; since the distribution of the land and the ocean
and all manner of physical conditions have varied; since there
have been such grand changes in the environment of living things
on the surface of our planet--it necessarily follows that organic
Nature must have passed through destructions and transformations
in correspondence thereto.

That such extinctions, such modifications, have taken place, how
copious, how convincing, is the evidence!

Here, again, we must observe that, since the disturbing agency
was itself following a mathematical law, these its results must
be considered as following that law too.

Such considerations, then, plainly force upon us the conclusion
that the organic progress of the world has been guided by the
operation of immutable law--not determined by discontinuous,
disconnected, arbitrary interventions of God. They incline us to
view favorably the idea of transmutations of one form into
another, rather than that of sudden creations.

Creation implies an abrupt appearance, transformation a gradual
change.

In this manner is presented to our contemplation the great theory
of Evolution. Every organic being has a place in a chain of
events. It is not an isolated, a capricious fact, but an
unavoidable phenomenon. It has its place in that vast, orderly
concourse which has successively risen in the past, has
introduced the present, and is preparing the way for a
predestined future. From point to point in this vast progression
there has been a gradual, a definite, a continuous unfolding, a
resistless order of evolution. But in the midst of these mighty
changes stand forth immutable the laws that are dominating over
all.

If we examine the introduction of any type of life in the animal
series, we find that it is in accordance with transformation, not
with creation. Its beginning is under an imperfect form in the
midst of other forms, of which the time is nearly complete, and
which are passing into extinction. By degrees, one species after
another in succession more and more perfect arises, until, after
many ages, a culmination is reached. From that there is, in like
manner, a long, a gradual decline.

Thus, though the mammal type of life is the characteristic of the
Tertiary and post-Tertiary periods, it does not suddenly make its
appearance without premonition in those periods. Far back, in the
Secondary, we find it under imperfect forms, struggling, as it
were, to make good a foothold. At length it gains a predominance
under higher and better models.

So, too, of reptiles, the characteristic type of life of the
Secondary period. As we see in a dissolving view, out of the
fading outlines of a scene that is passing away, the dim form of
a new one emerging, which gradually gains strength, reaches its
culmination, and then melts away in some other that is displacing
it, so reptile-life doubtfully, appears, reaches its culmination,
and gradually declines. In all this there is nothing abrupt; the
changes shade into each other by insensible degrees.

How could it be otherwise? The hot-blooded animals could not
exist in an atmosphere so laden with carbonic acid as was that of
the primitive times. But the removal of that noxious ingredient
from the air by the leaves of plants under the influence of
sunlight, the enveloping of its carbon in the earth under the
form of coal, the disengagement of its oxygen, permitted their
life. As the atmosphere was thus modified, the sea was involved
in the change; it surrendered a large part of its carbonic acid,
and the limestone hitherto held in solution by it was deposited
in the solid form. For every equivalent of carbon buried in the
earth, there was an equivalent of carbonate of lime separated
from the sea --not necessarily in an amorphous condition, most
frequently under an organic form. The sunshine kept up its work
day by day, but there were demanded myriads of days for the work
to be completed. It was a slow passage from a noxious to a
purified atmosphere, and an equally slow passage from a
cold-blooded to a hot- blooded type of life. But the physical
changes were taking place under the control of law, and the
organic transformations were not sudden or arbitrary providential
acts. They were the immediate, the inevitable consequences of the
physical changes, and therefore, like them, the necessary issue
of law.

For a more detailed consideration of this subject, I may refer
the reader to Chapters I, II., VII, of the second book of my
"Treatise on Human Physiology," published in 1856.


Is the world, then, governed by law or by providential
interventions, abruptly breaking the proper sequence of events?

To complete our view of this question, we turn finally to what,
in one sense, is the most insignificant, in another the most
important, case that can be considered. Do human societies, in
their historic career, exhibit the marks of a predetermined
progress in an unavoidable track? Is there any evidence that the
life of nations is under the control of immutable law?

May we conclude that, in society, as in the individual man, parts
never spring from nothing, but are evolved or developed from
parts that are already in existence?

If any one should object to or deride the doctrine of the
evolution or successive development of the animated forms which
constitute that unbroken organic chain reaching from the
beginning of life on the globe to the present times, let him
reflect that he has himself passed through modifications the
counterpart of those he disputes. For nine months his type of
life was aquatic, and during that time he assumed, in succession,
many distinct but correlated forms. At birth his type of life
became aerial; he began respiring the atmospheric air; new
elements of food were supplied to him; the mode of his nutrition
changed; but as yet he could see nothing, hear nothing, notice
nothing. By degrees conscious existence was assumed; he became
aware that there is an external world. In due time organs adapted
to another change of food, the teeth, appeared, and a change of
food ensued. He then passed through the stages of childhood and
youth, his bodily form developing, and with it his intellectual
powers. At about fifteen years, in consequence of the evolution
which special parts of his system had attained, his moral
character changed. New ideas, new passions, influenced him. And
that that was the cause, and this the effect, is demonstrated
when, by the skill of the surgeon, those parts have been
interfered with. Nor does the development, the metamorphosis, end
here; it requires many years for the body to reach its full
perfection, many years for the mind. A culmination is at length
reached, and then there is a decline. I need not picture its
mournful incidents-- the corporeal, the intellectual
enfeeblement. Perhaps there is little exaggeration in saying that
in less than a century every human being on the face of the
globe, if not cut off in an untimely manner, has passed through
all these changes.

Is there for each of us a providential intervention as we thus
pass from stage to stage of life? or shall we not rather believe
that the countless myriads of human beings who have peopled the
earth have been under the guidance of an unchanging, a universal
law?

But individuals are the elementary constituents of
communities--nations. They maintain therein a relation like that
which the particles of the body maintain to the body itself.
These, introduced into it, commence and complete their function;
they die, and are dismissed.

Like the individual, the nation comes into existence without its
own knowledge, and dies without its own consent, often against
its own will. National life differs in no particular from
individual, except in this, that it is spread over a longer span,
but no nation can escape its inevitable term. Each, if its
history be well considered, shows its time of infancy, its time
of youth, its time of maturity, its time of decline, if its
phases of life be completed.

In the phases of existence of all, so far as those phases are
completed, there are common characteristics, and, as like
accordances in individuals point out that all are living under a
reign of law, we are justified in inferring that the course of
nations, and indeed the progress of humanity, does not take place
in a chance or random way, that supernatural interventions never
break the chain of historic acts, that every historic event has
its warrant in some preceding event, and gives warrant to others
that are to follow..

But this conclusion is the essential principle of Stoicism--that
Grecian philosophical system which, as I have already said,
offered a support in their hour of trial and an unwavering guide
in the vicissitudes of life, not only to many illustrious Greeks,
but also to some of the great philosophers, statesmen, generals,
and emperors of Rome; a system which excluded chance from every
thing, and asserted the direction of all events by irresistible
necessity, to the promotion of perfect good; a system of
earnestness, sternness, austerity, virtue--a protest in favor of
the common-sense of mankind. And perhaps we shall not dissent
from the remark of Montesquieu, who affirms that the destruction
of the Stoics was a great calamity to the human race; for they
alone made great citizens, great men.

To the principle of government by law, Latin Christianity, in its
papal form, is in absolute contradiction. The history of this
branch of the Christian Church is almost a diary of miracles and
supernatural interventions. These show that the supplications of
holy men have often arrested the course of Nature--if, indeed,
there be any such course; that images and pictures have worked
wonders; that bones, hairs, and other sacred relics, have wrought
miracles. The criterion or proof of the authenticity of many of
these objects is, not an unchallengeable record of their origin
and history, but an exhibition of their miracle-working powers.

Is not that a strange logic which finds proof of an asserted fact
in an inexplicable illustration of something else?

Even in the darkest ages intelligent Christian men must have had
misgivings as to these alleged providential or miraculous
interventions. There is a solemn grandeur in the orderly progress
of Nature which profoundly impresses us; and such is the
character of continuity in the events of our individual life that
we instinctively doubt the occurrence of the supernatural in that
of our neighbor. The intelligent man knows well that, for his
personal behoof, the course of Nature has never been checked; for
him no miracle has ever been worked; he attributes justly every
event of his life to some antecedent event; this he looks upon as
the cause, that as the consequence. When it is affirmed that, in
his neighbor's behalf, such grand interventions have been
vouchsafed, he cannot do otherwise than believe that his neighbor
is either deceived, or practising deception.

As might, then, have been anticipated, the Catholic doctrine of
miraculous intervention received a rude shock at the time of the
Reformation, when predestination and election were upheld by some
of the greatest theologians, and accepted by some of the greatest
Protestant Churches. With stoical austerity Calvin declares: "We
were elected from eternity, before the foundation of the world,
from no merit of our own, but according to the purpose of the
divine pleasure." In affirming this, Calvin was resting on the
belief that God has from all eternity decreed whatever comes to
pass. Thus, after the lapse of many ages, were again emerging
into prominence the ideas of the Basilidians wad Valentinians,
Christian sects of the second century, whose Gnostical views led
to the engraftment of the great doctrine of the Trinity upon
Christianity. They asserted that all the actions of men are
necessary, that even faith is a natural gift, to which men are
forcibly determined, and must therefore be saved, though their
lives be ever so irregular. From the Supreme God all things
proceeded. Thus, also, came into prominence the views which were
developed by Augustine in his work, "De dono perseverantiae."
These were: that God, by his arbitrary will, has selected certain
persons without respect to foreseen faith or good works, and has
infallibly ordained to bestow upon them eternal happiness; other
persons, in like manner, he has condemned to eternal reprobation.
The Sublapsarians believed that "God permitted the fall of Adam;"
the Supralapsarians that "he predestinated it, with all its
pernicious consequences, from all eternity, and that our first
parents had no liberty from the beginning." In this, these
sectarians disregarded the remark of St. Augustine: "Nefas est
dicere Deum aliquid nisi bonum predestinare."

Is it true, then, that "predestination to eternal happiness is
the everlasting purpose of God, whereby, before the foundations
of the world were laid, he hath constantly decreed by his
council, secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation those
whom he hath chosen out of mankind?" Is it true that of the human
family there are some who, in view of no fault of their own,
Almighty God has condemned to unending torture, eternal misery?

In 1595 the Lambeth Articles asserted that "God from eternity
hath predestinated certain men unto life; certain he hath
reprobated." In 1618 the Synod of Dort decided in favor of this
view. It condemned the remonstrants against it, and treated them
with such severity, that many of them had to flee to foreign
countries. Even in the Church of England, as is manifested by its
seventeenth Article of Faith, these doctrines have found favor.

Probably there was no point which brought down from the Catholics
on the Protestants severer condemnation than this, their partial
acceptance of the government of the world by law. In all Reformed
Europe miracles ceased. But, with the cessation of shrine-cure,
relic-cure, great pecuniary profits ended. Indeed, as is well
known, it was the sale of indulgences that provoked the
Reformation--indulgences which are essentially a permit from God
for the practice of sin, conditioned on the payment of a certain
sum of money to the priest.

Philosophically, the Reformation implied a protest against the
Catholic doctrine of incessant divine intervention in human
affairs, invoked by sacerdotal agency; but this protest was far
from being fully made by all the Reforming Churches. The evidence
in behalf of government by law, which has of late years been
offered by science, is received by many of them with suspicion,
perhaps with dislike; sentiments which, however, must eventually
give way before the hourly-increasing weight of evidence.

Shall we not, then, conclude with Cicero, who, quoted by
Lactantius, says: "One eternal and immutable law embraces all
things and all times?"



CHAPTER X.

LATIN CHRISTIANITY IN RELATION TO MODERN CIVILIZATION.

For more than a thousand years Latin Christianity controlled the
intelligence of Europe, and is responsible for the result.

That result is manifested by the condition of the city of Rome at
the Reformation, and by the condition of the Continent of Europe
in domestic and social life.--European nations suffered under the
coexistence of a dual government, a spiritual and a
temporal.--They were immersed in ignorance, superstition,
discomfort.--Explanation of the failure of Catholicism--Political
history of the papacy: it was transmuted from a spiritual
confederacy into an absolute monarchy.--Action of the College of
Cardinals and the Curia-Demoralization that ensued from the
necessity of raising large revenues.

The advantages accruing to Europe during the Catholic rule arose
not from direct intention, but were incidental.

The general result is, that the political influence of
Catholicism was prejudicial to modern civilization.


LATIN Christianity is responsible for the condition and progress
of Europe from the fourth to the sixteenth century. We have now
to examine how it discharged its trust.

It will be convenient to limit to the case of Europe what has
here to be presented, though, from the claim of the papacy to
superhuman origin, and its demand for universal obedience, it
should strictly be held to account for the condition of all
mankind. Its inefficacy against the great and venerable religions
of Southern and Eastern Asia would furnish an important and
instructive theme for consideration, and lead us to the
conclusion that it has impressed itself only where Roman imperial
influences have prevailed; a political conclusion which, however,
it contemptuously rejects.

Doubtless at the inception of the Reformation there were many
persons who compared the existing social condition with what it
had been in ancient times. Morals had not changed, intelligence
had not advanced, society had little improved. From the Eternal
City itself its splendors had vanished. The marble streets, of
which Augustus had once boasted, had disappeared. Temples, broken
columns, and the long, arcaded vistas of gigantic aqueducts
bestriding the desolate Campagna, presented a mournful scene.
From the uses to which they had been respectively put, the
Capitol had been known as Goats' Hill, and the site of the Roman
Forum, whence laws had been issued to the world, as Cows' Field.
The palace of the Caesars was hidden by mounds of earth, crested
with flowering shrubs. The baths of Caracalla, with their
porticoes, gardens, reservoirs, had long ago become useless
through the destruction of their supplying aqueducts. On the
ruins of that grand edifice, "flowery glades and thickets of
odoriferous trees extended in ever-winding labyrinths upon
immense platforms, and dizzy arches suspended in the air." Of the
Coliseum, the most colossal of Roman ruins, only about one-third
remained. Once capable of accommodating nearly ninety thousand
spectators, it had, in succession, been turned into a fortress in
the middle ages, and then into a stone-quarry to furnish material
for the palaces of degenerate Roman princes. Some of the popes
had occupied it as a woollen-mill, some as a saltpetre factory;
some had planned the conversion of its magnificent arcades into
shops for tradesmen. The iron clamps which bound its stones
together had been stolen. The walls were fissured and falling.
Even in our own times botanical works have been composed on the
plants which have made this noble wreck their home. "The Flora of
the Coliseum" contains four hundred and twenty species. Among the
ruins of classical buildings might be seen broken columns,
cypresses, and mouldy frescoes, dropping from the walls. Even the
vegetable world participated in the melancholy change: the
myrtle, which once flourished on the Aventine, had nearly become
extinct; the laurel, which once gave its leaves to encircle the
brows of emperors, had been replaced by ivy--the companion of
death.

But perhaps it may be said the popes were not responsible for all
this. Let it be remembered that in less than one hundred and
forty years the city had been successively taken by Alaric,
Genseric, Rieimer, Vitiges, Totila ; that many of its great
edifices had been converted into defensive works. The aqueducts
were destroyed by Vitiges, who ruined the Campagna; the palace of
the Caesars was ravaged by Totila; then there had been the
Lombard sieges; then Robert Guiscard and his Normans had burnt
the city from the Antonine Column to the Flaminian Gate, from the
Lateran to the Capitol; then it was sacked and mutilated by the
Constable Bourbon; again and again it was flooded by inundations
of the Tiber and shattered by earthquakes. We must, however, bear
in mind the accusation of Machiavelli, who says, in his "History
of Florence," that nearly all the barbarian invasions of Italy
were by the invitations of the pontiffs, who called in those
hordes! It was not the Goth, nor the Vandal, nor the Norman, nor
the Saracen, but the popes and their nephews, who produced the
dilapidation of Rome! Lime-kilns had been fed from the ruins,
classical buildings had become stone-quarries for the palaces of
Italian princes, and churches were decorated from the old
temples.

Churches decorated from the temples! It is for this and such as
this that the popes must be held responsible. Superb Corinthian
columns bad been chiseled into images of the saints. Magnificent
Egyptian obelisks had been dishonored by papal inscriptions. The
Septizonium of Severus had been demolished to furnish materials
for the building of St. Peter's; the bronze roof of the Pantheon
had been melted into columns to ornament the apostle's tomb.

The great bell of Viterbo, in the tower of the Capitol, had
announced the death of many a pope, and still desecration of the
buildings and demoralization of the people went on. Papal Rome
manifested no consideration, but rather hatred, for classical
Rome, The pontiffs had been subordinates of the Byzantine
sovereigns, then lieutenants of the Frankish kings, then arbiters
of Europe; their government had changed as much as those of any
of the surrounding nations; there had been complete metamorphoses
in its maxims, objects, claims. In one point only it had never
changed--intolerance. Claiming to be the centre of the religious
life of Europe, it steadfastly refused to recognize any religious
existence outside of itself, yet both in a political and
theological sense it was rotten to the core. Erasmus and Luther
heard with amazement the blasphemies and witnessed with a shudder
the atheism of the city.

The historian Ranke, to whom I am indebted for many of these
facts, has depicted in a very graphic manner the demoralization
of the great metropolis. The popes were, for the most part, at
their election, aged men. Power was, therefore, incessantly
passing into new hands. Every election was a revolution in
prospects and expectations. In a community where all might rise,
where all might aspire to all, it necessarily followed that every
man was occupied in thrusting some other into the background.
Though the population of the city at the inception of the
Reformation had sunk to eighty thousand, there were vast crowds
of placemen, and still greater ones of aspirants for place. The
successful occupant of the pontificate had thousands of offices
to give away--offices from many of which the incumbents had been
remorselessly ejected; many had been created for the purpose of
sale. The integrity and capacity of an applicant were never
inquired into; the points considered were, what services has he
rendered or can he render to the party? how much can he pay for
the preferment? An American reader can thoroughly realize this
state of things. At every presidential election he witnesses
similar acts. The election of a pope by the Conclave is not
unlike the nomination of an American president by a convention.
In both cases there are many offices to give away.

William of Malmesbury says that in his day the Romans made a sale
of whatever was righteous and sacred for gold. After his time
there was no improvement; the Church degenerated into an
instrument for the exploitation of money. Vast sums were
collected in Italy; vast sums were drawn under all manner of
pretenses from surrounding and reluctant countries. Of these the
most nefarious was the sale of indulgences for the perpetration
of sin. Italian religion had become the art of plundering the
people.

For more than a thousand years the sovereign pontiffs had been
rulers of the city. True, it had witnessed many scenes of
devastation for which they were not responsible; but they were
responsible for this, that they had never made any vigorous, any
persistent effort for its material, its moral improvement.
Instead of being in these respects an exemplar for the imitation
of the world, it became an exemplar of a condition that ought to
be shunned. Things steadily went on from bad to worse, until at
the epoch of the Reformation no pious stranger could visit it
without being shocked.

The papacy, repudiating science as absolutely incompatible with
its pretensions, had in later years addressed itself to the
encouragement of art. But music and painting, though they may be
exquisite adornments of life, contain no living force that can
develop a weak nation into a strong one; nothing that can
permanently assure the material well-being or happiness of
communities; and hence at the time of the Reformation, to one who
thoughtfully considered her condition, Rome had lost all living
energy. She was no longer the arbiter of the physical or the
religious progress of the world. For the progressive maxims of
the republic and the empire, she had substituted the stationary
maxims of the papacy. She had the appearance of piety and the
possession of art. In this she resembled one of those
friar-corpses which we still see in their brown cowls in the
vaults of the Cappuccini, with a breviary or some withered
flowers in its hands.

From this view of the Eternal City, this survey of what Latin
Christianity had done for Rome itself, let us turn to the whole
European Continent. Let us try to determine the true value of the
system that was guiding society; let us judge it by its fruits.

The condition of nations as to their well-being is most precisely
represented by the variations of their population. Forms of
government have very little influence on population, but policy
may control it completely.

It has been very satisfactorily shown by authors who have given
attention to the subject, that the variations of population
depend upon the interbalancing of the generative force of society
and the resistances to life.

By the generative force of society is meant that instinct which
manifests itself in the multiplication of the race. To some
extent it depends on climate; but, since the climate of Europe
did not sensibly change between the fourth and the sixteenth
centuries, we may regard this force as having been, on that
continent, during the period under consideration, invariable.

By the resistances to life is meant whatever tends to make
individual existence more difficult of support. Among such may be
enumerated insufficient food, inadequate  clothing, imperfect
shelter.

It is also known that, if the resistances become inappreciable,
the generative force will double a population in twenty-five
years.

The resistances operate in two modes: 1. Physically; since they
diminish the number of births, and shorten the term of the life
of all. 2. Intellectually; since, in a moral, and particularly in
a religious community, they postpone marriage, by causing
individuals to decline its responsibilities until they feel that
they are competent to meet the charges and cares of a family.
Hence the explanation of a long-recognized fact, that the number
of marriages during a given period has a connection with the
price of food.

The increase of population keeps pace with the increase of food;
and, indeed, such being the power of the generative force, it
overpasses the means of subsistence, establishing a constant
pressure upon them. Under these circumstances, it necessarily
happens that a certain amount of destitution must occur.
Individuals have come into existence who must be starved.

As illustrations of the variations that have occurred in the
population of different countries, may be mentioned the immense
diminution of that of Italy in consequence of the wars of
Justinian; the depopulation of North Africa in consequence of
theological quarrels; its restoration through the establishment
of Mohammedanism; the increase of that of all Europe through the
feudal system, when estates became more valuable in proportion to
the number of retainers they could supply. The crusades caused a
sensible diminution, not only through the enormous army losses,
but also by reason of the withdrawal of so many able-bodied men
from marriage-life. Similar variations have occurred on the
American Continent. The population of Mexico was very quickly
diminished by two million through the rapacity and atrocious
cruelty of the Spaniards, who drove the civilized Indians to
despair. The same happened in Peru.

The population of England at the Norman conquest was about two
million. In five hundred years it had scarcely doubled. It may be
supposed that this stationary condition was to some extent
induced by the papal policy of the enforcement of celibacy in the
clergy. The "legal generative force" was doubtless affected by
that policy, the "actual generative force" was not. For those who
have made this subject their study have long ago been satisfied
that public celibacy is private wickedness. This mainly
determined the laity, as well as the government in England, to
suppress the monasteries. It was openly asserted that there were
one hundred thousand women in England made dissolute by the
clergy.

In my history of the "American Civil War," I have presented some
reflections on this point, which I will take the liberty of
quoting here: "What, then, does this stationary condition of the
population mean? It means, food obtained with hardship,
insufficient clothing, personal uncleanness, cabins that could
not keep out the weather, the destructive effects of cold and
heat, miasm, want of sanitary provisions, absence of physicians,
uselessness of shrine-cure, the deceptiveness of miracles, in
which society was putting its trust; or, to sum up a long
catalogue of sorrows, wants, and sufferings, in one term--it
means a high death-rate.

"But more; it means deficient births. And what does that point
out? Marriage postponed, licentious life, private wickedness,
demoralized society.

"To an American, who lives in a country that was yesterday an
interminable and impenetrable desert, but which to-day is filling
with a population doubling itself every twenty-five years at the
prescribed rate, this awful waste of actual and contingent life
cannot but be a most surprising fact. His curiosity will lead him
to inquire what kind of system that could have been which was
pretending to guide and develop society, but which must be held
responsible for this prodigious destruction, excelling, in its
insidious result, war, pestilence, and famine combined;
insidious, for men were actually believing that it secured their
highest temporal interests. How different now! In England, the,
same geographical surface is sustaining ten times the population
of that day, and sending forth its emigrating swarms. Let him,
who looks back, with veneration on the past, settle in his own
mind what such a system could have been worth."

These variations in the population of Europe have been attended
with changes in distribution. The centre of population has passed
northward since the establishment of Christianity in the Roman
Empire. It has since passed westward, in consequence of the
development of manufacturing industry.


We may now examine somewhat more minutely the character of the
resistances which thus, for a thousand years, kept the population
of Europe stationary. The surface of the Continent was for the
most part covered with pathless forests; here and there it was
dotted with monasteries and towns. In the lowlands and along the
river-courses were fens, sometimes hundreds of miles in extent,
exhaling their pestiferous miasms, and spreading agues far and
wide. In Paris and London, the houses were of wood daubed with
clay, and thatched with straw or reeds. They had no windows, and,
until the invention of the saw-mill, very few had wooden floors.
The luxury of a carpet was unknown; some straw, scattered in the
room, supplied its place. There were no chimneys; the smoke of
the ill-fed, cheerless fire escaped through a hole in the roof.
In such habitations there was scarcely any protection from the
weather. No attempt was made at drainage, but the putrefying
garbage and rubbish were simply thrown out of the door. Men,
women, and children, slept in the same apartment; not
unfrequently, domestic animals were their companions; in such a
confusion of the family, it was impossible that modesty or
morality could be maintained. The bed was usually a bag of straw,
a wooden log served as a pillow. Personal cleanliness was utterly
unknown; great officers of state, even dignitaries so high as the
Archbishop of Canterbury, swarmed with vermin; such, it is
related, was the condition of Thomas a Becket, the antagonist of
an English king. To conceal personal impurity, perfumes were
necessarily and profusely used. The citizen clothed himself in
leather, a garment which, with its ever-accumulating impurity,
might last for many years. He was considered to be in
circumstances of ease, if he could procure fresh meat once a week
for his dinner. The streets had no sewers; they were without
pavement or lamps. After nightfall, the chamber-shatters were
thrown open, and slops unceremoniously emptied down, to the
discomfiture of the wayfarer tracking his path through the narrow
streets, with his dismal lantern in his hand.

Aeneas Sylvius, who afterward became Pope Pius II., and was
therefore a very competent and impartial writer, has left us a
graphic account of a journey he made to the British Islands,
about 1430. He describes the houses of the peasantry as
constructed of stones put together without mortar; the roofs were
of turf, a stiffened bull's-hide served for a door. The food
consisted of coarse vegetable products, such as peas, and even
the bark of trees. In some places they were unacquainted with
bread.

Cabins of reeds plastered with mud, houses of wattled stakes,
chimneyless peat-fires from which there was scarcely an escape
for the smoke, dens of physical and moral pollution swarming with
vermin, wisps of straw twisted round the limbs to keep off the
cold, the ague-stricken peasant, with no help except shrine-cure!
How was it possible that the population could increase? Shall we,
then, wonder that, in the famine of 1030, human flesh was cooked
and sold; or that, in that of 1258, fifteen thousand persons died
of hunger in London? Shall we wonder that, in some of the
invasions of the plague, the deaths were so frightfully numerous
that the living could hardly bury the dead? By that of 1348,
which came from the East along the lines of commercial travel,
and spread all over Europe, one-third of the population of France
was destroyed.

Such was the condition of the peasantry, and of the common
inhabitants of cities. Not much better was that of the nobles.
William of Malmesbury, speaking of the degraded manners of the
Anglo-Saxons, says: "Their nobles, devoted to gluttony and
voluptuousness, never visited the church, but the matins and the
mass were read over to them by a hurrying priest in their
bedchambers, before they rose, themselves not listening. The
common people were a prey to the more powerful; their property
was seized, their bodies dragged away to distant countries; their
maidens were either thrown into a brothel, or sold for slaves.
Drinking day and night was the general pursuit; vices, the
companions of inebriety, followed, effeminating the manly mind."
The baronial castles were dens of robbers. The Saxon chronicler
records how men and women were caught and dragged into those
strongholds, hung up by their thumbs or feet, fire applied to
them, knotted strings twisted round their heads, and many other
torments inflicted to extort ransom.

All over Europe, the great and profitable political offices were
filled by ecclesiastics. In every country there was a dual
government: 1. That of a local kind, represented by a temporal
sovereign; 2. That of a foreign kind, acknowledging the authority
of the pope, This Roman influence was, in the nature of things,
superior to the local; it expressed the sovereign will of one man
over all the nations of the continent conjointly, and gathered
overwhelming power from its compactness and unity. The local
influence was necessarily of a feeble nature, since it was
commonly weakened by the rivalries of conterminous states, and
the dissensions dexterously provoked by its competitor. On not a
single occasion could the various European states form a
coalition against their common antagonist. Whenever a question
arose, they were skillfully taken in detail, and commonly
mastered. The ostensible object of papal intrusion was to secure
for the different peoples moral well-being; the real object was
to obtain large revenues, and give support to vast bodies of
ecclesiastics. The revenues thus abstracted were not infrequently
many times greater than those passing into the treasury of the
local power. Thus, on the occasion of Innocent IV. demanding
provision to be made for three hundred additional Italian clergy
by the Church of England, and that one of his nephews--a mere
boy-- should have a stall in Lincoln Cathedral, it was found that
the sum already annually abstracted by foreign ecclesiastics from
England was thrice that which went into the coffers of the king.

While thus the higher clergy secured every political appointment
worth having, and abbots vied with counts in the herds of slaves
they possessed--some, it is said, owned not fewer than twenty
thousand--begging friars pervaded society in all directions,
picking up a share of what still remained to the poor. There was
a vast body of non-producers, living in idleness and owning a
foreign allegiance, who were subsisting on the fruits of the toil
of the laborers. It could not be otherwise than that small farms
should be unceasingly merged into the larger estates; that the
poor should steadily become poorer; that society, far from
improving, should exhibit a continually increasing
demoralization. Outside the monastic institutions no attempt at
intellectual advancement was made; indeed, so far as the laity
were concerned, the influence of the Church was directed to an
opposite result, for the maxim universally received was, that
"ignorance is the mother of devotion."

The settled practice of republican and imperial Rome was to have
swift communication with all her outlying provinces, by means of
substantial bridges and roads. One of the prime duties of the
legions was to construct them and keep them in repair. By this,
her military authority was assured. But the dominion of papal
Rome, depending upon a different principle, had no exigencies of
that kind, and this duty accordingly was left for the local
powers to neglect. And so, in all directions, the roads were
almost impassable for a large part of the year. A common means of
transportation was in clumsy carts drawn by oxen, going at the
most but three or four miles an hour. Where boat-conveyance along
rivers could not be had, pack-horses and mules were resorted to
for the transportation of merchandise, an adequate means for the
slender commerce of the times. When large bodies of men had to be
moved, the difficulties became almost insuperable. Of this,
perhaps, one of the best illustrations may be found in the story
of the march of the first Crusaders. These restraints upon
intercommunication tended powerfully to promote the general
benighted condition. Journeys by individuals could not be
undertaken without much risk, for there was scarcely a moor or a
forest that had not its highwaymen.

An illiterate condition everywhere prevailing, gave opportunity
for the development of superstition. Europe was full of
disgraceful miracles. On all the roads pilgrims were wending
their way to the shrines of saints, renowned for the cures they
had wrought. It had always been the policy of the Church to
discourage the physician and his art; he interfered too much with
the gifts and profits of the shrines. Time has brought this once
lucrative imposture to its proper value. How many shrines are
there now in successful operation in Europe?

For patients too sick to move or be moved, there were no remedies
except those of a ghostly kind--the Pater-noster or the Ave. For
the prevention of diseases, prayers were put up in the churches,
but no sanitary measures were resorted to. From cities reeking
with putrefying filth it was thought that the plague might be
stayed by the prayers of the priests, by them rain and dry
weather might be secured, and deliverance obtained from the
baleful influences of eclipses and comets. But when Halley's
comet came, in 1456, so tremendous was its apparition that it was
necessary for the pope himself to interfere. He exorcised and
expelled it from the skies. It slunk away into the abysses of
space, terror-stricken by the maledictions of Calixtus III., and
did not venture back for seventy-five years!

The physical value of shrine-cures and ghostly remedies is
measured by the death-rate. In those days it was, probably, about
one in twenty-three, under the present more material practice it
is about one in forty.

The moral condition of Europe was signally illustrated when
syphilis was introduced from the West Indies by the companions of
Columbus. It spread with wonderful rapidity; all ranks of
persons, from the Holy Father Leo X. to the beggar by the
wayside, contracting the shameful disease. Many excused their
misfortune by declaring that it was an epidemic proceeding from a
certain malignity in the constitution of the air, but in truth
its spread was due to a certain infirmity in the constitution of
man--an infirmity which had not been removed by the spiritual
guidance under which he had been living.

To the medical efficacy of shrines must be added that of special
relics. These were sometimes of the most extraordinary kind.
There were several abbeys that possessed our Savior's crown of
thorns. Eleven had the lance that had pierced his side. If any
person was adventurous enough to suggest that these could not all
be authentic, he would have been denounced as an atheist. During
the holy wars the Templar-Knights had driven a profitable
commerce by bringing from Jerusalem to the Crusading armies
bottles of the milk of the Blessed Virgin, which they sold for
enormous sums; these bottles were preserved with pious care in
many of the great religious establishments. But perhaps none of
these impostures surpassed in audacity that offered by a
monastery in Jerusalem, which presented to the beholder one of
the fingers of the Holy Ghost! Modern society has silently
rendered its verdict on these scandalous objects. Though they
once nourished the piety of thousands of earnest people, they are
now considered too vile to have a place in any public museum.

How shall we account for the great failure we thus detect in the
guardianship of the Church over Europe? This is not the result
that must have occurred had there been in Rome an unremitting
care for the spiritual and material prosperity of the continent,
had the universal pastor, the successor of Peter, occupied
himself with singleness of purpose for the holiness and happiness
of his flock.

The explanation is not difficult to find. It is contained in a
story of sin and shame. I prefer, therefore, in the following
paragraphs, to offer explanatory facts derived from Catholic
authors, and, indeed, to present them as nearly as I can in the
words of those writers.


The story I am about to relate is a narrative of the
transformation of a confederacy into an absolute monarchy.

In the early times every church, without prejudice to its
agreement with the Church universal in all essential points,
managed its own affairs with perfect freedom and independence,
maintaining its own traditional usages and discipline, all
questions not concerning the whole Church, or of primary
importance, being settled on the spot.

Until the beginning of the ninth century, there was no change in
the constitution of the Roman Church. But about 845 the Isidorian
Decretals were fabricated in the west of Gaul--a forgery
containing about one hundred pretended decrees of the early
popes, together with certain spurious writings of other church
dignitaries and acts of synods. This forgery produced an immense
extension of the papal power, it displaced the old system of
church government, divesting it of the republican attributes it
had possessed, and transforming it into an absolute monarchy. It
brought the bishops into subjection to Rome, and made the pontiff
the supreme judge of the clergy of the whole Christian world. It
prepared the way for the great attempt, subsequently made by
Hildebrand, to convert the states of Europe into a theocratic
priest-kingdom, with the pope at its head.

Gregory VII., the author of this great attempt, saw that his
plans would be best carried out through the agency of synods. He,
therefore, restricted the right of holding them to the popes and
their legates. To aid in the matter, a new system of church law
was devised by Anselm of Lucca, partly from the old Isidorian
forgeries, and partly from new inventions. To establish the
supremacy of Rome, not only had a new civil and a new canon law
to be produced, a new history had also to be invented. This
furnished needful instances of the deposition and excommunication
of kings, and proved that they had always been subordinate to the
popes. The decretal letters of the popes were put on a par with
Scripture. At length it came to be received, throughout the West,
that the popes had been, from the beginning of Christianity,
legislators for the whole Church. As absolute sovereigns in later
times cannot endure representative assemblies, so the papacy,
when it wished to become absolute, found that the synods of
particular national churches must be put an end to, and those
only under the immediate control of the pontiff permitted. This,
in itself, constituted a great revolution.

Another fiction concocted in Rome in the eighth century led to
important consequences. It feigned that the Emperor Constantine,
in gratitude for his cure from leprosy, and baptism by Pope
Sylvester, had bestowed Italy and the Western provinces on the
pope, and that, in token of his subordination, he had served the
pope as his groom, and led his horse some distance. This forgery
was intended to work on the Frankish kings, to impress them with
a correct idea of their inferiority, and to show that, in the
territorial concessions they made to the Church, they were not
giving but only restoring what rightfully belonged to it.

The most potent instrument of the new papal system was Gratian's
Decretum, which was issued about the middle of the twelfth
century. It was a mass of fabrications. It made the whole
Christian world, through the papacy, the domain of the Italian
clergy. It inculcated that it is lawful to constrain men to
goodness, to torture and execute heretics, and to confiscate
their property; that to kill an excommunicated person is not
murder; that the pope, in his unlimited superiority to all law,
stands on an equality with the Son of God!

As the new system of centralization developed, maxims, that in
the olden times would have been held to be shocking, were boldly
avowed--the whole Church is the property of the pope to do with
as he will; what is simony in others is not simony in him; he is
above all law, and can be called to account by none; whoever
disobeys him must be put to death; every baptized man is his
subject, and must for life remain so, whether he will or not. Up
to the end of the twelfth century, the popes were the vicars of
Peter; after Innocent III. they were the vicars of Christ.

But an absolute sovereign has need of revenues, and to this the
popes were no exception. The institution of legates was brought
in from Hildebrand's time. Sometimes their duty was to visit
churches, sometimes they were sent on special business, but
always invested with unlimited powers to bring back money over
the Alps. And since the pope could not only make laws, but could
suspend their operation, a legislation was introduced in view to
the purchase of dispensations. Monasteries were exempted from
episcopal jurisdiction on payment of a tribute to Rome. The pope
had now become "the universal bishop;" he had a concurrent
jurisdiction in all the dioceses, and could bring any cases
before his own courts. His relation to the bishops was that of an
absolute sovereign to his officials. A bishop could resign only
by his permission, and sees vacated by resignation lapsed to him.
Appeals to him were encouraged in every way for the sake of the
dispensations; thousands of processes came before the Curia,
bringing a rich harvest to Rome. Often when there were disputing
claimants to benefices, the pope would oust them all, and appoint
a creature of his own. Often the candidates had to waste years in
Rome, and either died there, or carried back a vivid impression
of the dominant corruption. Germany suffered more than other
countries from these appeals and processes, and hence of all
countries was best prepared for the Reformation. During the
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the popes made gigantic
strides in the acquisition of power. Instead of recommending
their favorites for benefices, now they issued mandates. Their
Italian partisans must be rewarded; nothing could be done to
satisfy their clamors,. but to provide for them in foreign
countries. Shoals of contesting claimants died in Rome; and, when
death took place in that city, the Pope claimed the right of
giving away the benefices. At length it was affirmed that he had
the right of disposing of all church-offices without distinction,
and that the oath of obedience of a bishop to him implied
political as well as ecclesiastical subjection. In countries
having a dual government this increased the power of the
spiritual element prodigiously.

Rights of every kind were remorselessly overthrown to complete
this centralization. In this the mendicant orders were most
efficient aids. It was the pope and those orders on one side, the
bishops and the parochial clergy on the other. The Roman court
had seized the rights of synods, metropolitans, bishops, national
churches. Incessantly interfered with by the legates, the bishops
lost all desire to discipline their dioceses; incessantly
interfered with by the begging monks, tho parish priest had
become powerless in his own village; his pastoral influence was
utterly destroyed by the papal indulgences and absolutions they
sold. The money was carried off to Rome.

Pecuniary necessities urged many of the popes to resort to such
petty expedients as to require from a prince, a bishop, or a
grand-master, who bad a cause pending in the court, a present of
a golden cup filled with ducats. Such necessities also gave
origin to jubilees. Sixtus IV. established whole colleges, and
sold the places at three or four hundred ducats. Innocent VIII.
pawned the papal tiara. Of Leo X. it was said that he squandered
the revenues of three popes, he wasted the savings of his
predecessor, he spent his own income, he anticipated that of his
successor, he created twenty-one hundred and fifty new offices
and sold them; they were considered to be a good investment, as
they produced twelve per cent. The interest was extorted from
Catholic countries. Nowhere in Europe could capital be so well
invested as at Rome. Large sums were raised by the foreclosing of
mortgages, and not only by the sale but the resale of offices.
Men were promoted, for the purpose of selling their offices
again.

Though against the papal theory, which denounced usurious
practices, an immense papal banking system had sprung up, in
connection with the Curia, and sums at usurious interest were
advanced to prelates, place. hunters, and litigants. The papal
bankers were privileged; all others were under the ban. The Curia
had discovered that it was for their interest to have
ecelesiastics all over Europe in their debt. They could make them
pliant, and excommunicate them for non-payment of interest. In
1327 it was reckoned that half the Christian world was under
excommunication: bishops were excommunicated because they could
not meet the extortions of legates; and persons were
excommunicated, under various pretenses, to compel them to
purchase absolution at an exorbitant price. The ecclesiastical
revenues of all Europe were flowing into Rome, a sink of
corruption, simony, usury, bribery, extortion. The popes, since
1066, when the great centralizing movement began, had no time to
pay attention to the internal affairs of their own special flock
in the city of Rome. There were thousands of foreign cases, each
bringing in money. "Whenever," says the Bishop Alvaro Pelayo, "I
entered the apartments of the Roman court clergy, I found them
occupied in counting up the gold-coin, which lay about the rooms
in heaps." Every opportunity of extending the jurisdiction of the
Curia was welcome. Exemptions were so managed that fresh grants
were constantly necessary. Bishops were privileged against
cathedral chapters, chapters against their bishops; bishops,
convents, and individuals, against the extortions of legates.

The two pillars on which the papal system now rested were the
College of Cardinals and the Curia. The cardinals, in 1059, had
become electors of the popes. Up to that time elections were made
by the whole body of the Roman clergy, and the concurrence of the
magistrates and citizens was necessary. But Nicolas II.
restricted elections to the College of Cardinals by a two- thirds
vote, and gave to the German emperor the right of confirmation.
For almost two centuries there was a struggle for mastery between
the cardinal oligarchy and papal absolutism. The cardinals were
willing enough that the pope should be absolute in his foreign
rule, but the never failed to attempt, before giving him their
votes, to bind him to accord to them a recognized share in the
government. After his election, and before his consecration, he
swore to observe certain capitulations, such as a participation
of revenues between himself and the cardinals; an obligation that
lie would not remove them, but would permit them to assemble
twice a year to discuss whether he had kept his oath. Repeatedly
the popes broke their oath. On one side, the cardinals wanted a
larger share in the church government and emoluments; on the
other, the popes refused to surrender revenues or power. The
cardinals wanted to be conspicuous in pomp and extravagance, and
for this vast sums were requisite. In one instance, not fewer
than five hundred benefices were held by one of them; their
friends and retainers must be supplied, their families enriched.
It was affirmed that the whole revenues of France were
insufficient to meet their expenditures. In their rivalries it
sometimes happened that no pope was elected for several years. It
seemed as if they wanted to show how easily the Church could get
on without the Vicar of Christ.

Toward the close of the eleventh century the Roman Church became
the Roman court. In place of the Christian sheep gently following
their shepherd in the holy precincts of the city, there had
arisen a chancery of writers, notaries, tax-gatherers, where
transactions about privileges, dispensations, exemptions, were
carried on; and suitors went with petitions from door to door.
Rome was a rallying-point for place-hunters of every nation. In
presence of the enormous mass of business-processes, graces,
indulgences, absolutions, commands,  and decisions, addressed to
all parts of Europe and Asia, the functions of the local church
sank into insignificance. Several hundred persons, whose home was
the Curia, were required. Their aim was to rise in it by
enlarging the profits of the papal treasury. The whole Christian
world had become tributary to it. Here every vestige of religion
had disappeared; its members were busy with politics,
litigations, and processes; not a word could be heard about
spiritual concerns. Every stroke of the pen had its price.
Benefices, dispensations, licenses, absolutions, indulgences,
privileges, were bought and sold like merchandise. The suitor had
to bribe every one, from the doorkeeper to the pope, or his case
was lost. Poor men could neither attain preferment, nor hope for
it; and the result was, that every cleric felt he had a right to
follow the example he had seen at Rome, and that he might make
profits out of his spiritual ministries and sacraments, having
bought the right to do so at Rome, and having no other way to pay
off his debt. The transference of power from Italians to
Frenchmen, through the removal of the Curia to Avignon, produced
no change--only the Italians felt that the enrichment of Italian
families had slipped out of their grasp. They had learned to
consider the papacy as their appanage, and that they, under the
Christian dispensation, were God's chosen people, as the Jews had
been under the Mosaic.

At the end of the thirteenth century a new kingdom was
discovered, capable of yielding immense revenues. This was
Purgatory. It was shown that the pope could empty it by his
indulgences. In this there was no need of hypocrisy. Things were
done openly. The original germ of the apostolic primacy had now
expanded into a colossal monarchy.

NEED OF A GENERAL COUNCIL. The Inquisition had made the papal
system irresistible. All opposition must be punished with death
by fire. A mere thought, without having betrayed itself by
outward sign, was considered as guilt. As time went on, this
practice of the Inquisition became more and more atrocious.
Torture was resorted to on mere suspicion. The accused was not
allowed to know the name of his accuser. He was not permitted to
have any legal adviser. There was no appeal. The Inquisition was
ordered not to lean to pity. No recantation was of avail. The
innocent family of the accused was deprived of its property by
confiscation; half went to the papal treasury, half to the
inquisitors. Life only, said Innocent III., was to be left to the
sons of misbelievers, and that merely as an act of mercy. The
consequence was, that popes, such as Nicolas III., enriched their
families through plunder acquired by this tribunal. Inquisitors
did the same habitually.

The struggle between the French and Italians for the possession
of the papacy inevitably led to the schism of the fourteenth
century. For more than forty years two rival popes were now
anathematizing each other, two rival Curias were squeezing the
nations for money. Eventually, there were three obediences, and
triple revenues to be extorted. Nobody, now, could guarantee the
validity of the sacraments, for nobody could be sure which was
the true pope. Men were thus compelled to think for themselves.
They could not find who was the legitimate thinker for them. They
began to see that the Church must rid herself of the curialistic
chains, and resort to a General Council. That attempt was again
and again made, the intention being to raise the Council into a
Parliament of Christendom, and make the pope its chief executive
officer. But the vast interests that had grown out of the
corruption of ages could not so easily be overcome; the Curia
again recovered its ascendency, and ecclesiastical trading was
resumed. The Germans, who had never been permitted to share in
the Curia, took the leading part in these attempts at reform. As
things went on from bad to worse, even they at last found out
that all hope of reforming the Church by means of councils was
delusive. Erasmus exclaimed, "If Christ does not deliver his
people from this multiform ecclesiastical tyranny, the tyranny of
the Turk will become less intolerable." Cardinals' hats were now
sold, and under Leo X. ecclesiastical and religious offices were
actually put up to auction. The maxim of life had become,
interest first, honor afterward. Among the officials, there was
not one who could be honest in the dark, and virtuous without a
witness. The violet-colored velvet cloaks and white ermine capes
of the cardinals were truly a cover for wickedness.

The unity of the Church, and therefore its power, required the
use of Latin as a sacred language. Through this, Rome had stood
in an attitude strictly European, and was enabled to maintain a
general international relation. It gave her far more power than
her asserted celestial authority, and, much as she claims to have
done, she is open to condemnation that, with such a signal
advantage in her hands, never again to be enjoyed by any
successor, she did not accomplish much more. Had not the
sovereign pontiffs been so completely occupied with maintaining
their emoluments and temporalities in Italy, they might have made
the whole continent advance like one man. Their officials could
pass without difficulty into every nation, and communicate
without embarrassment with each other, from Ireland to Bohemia,
from Italy to Scotland. The possession of a common tongue gave
them the administration of international affairs with intelligent
allies everywhere, speaking the same language.

Not without cause was the hatred manifested by Rome to the
restoration of Greek and introduction of Hebrew, and the alarm
with which she perceived the modern languages forming out of the
vulgar dialects. Not without reason did the Faculty of Theology
in Paris re-echo the sentiment that, was prevalent in the time of
Ximenes, "What will become of religion if the study of Greek and
Hebrew be permitted?" The prevalence of Latin was the condition
of her power; its deterioration, the measure of her decay; its
disuse, the signal of her limitation to a little principality in
Italy. In fact, the development of European languages was the
instrument of her overthrow. They formed an effectual
communication between the mendicant friars and the illiterate
populace, and there was not one of them that did not display in
its earliest productions a sovereign contempt for her.

The rise of the many-tongued European literature was therefore
coincident with the decline of papal Christianity; European
literature was impossible under Catholic rule. A grand, a solemn,
an imposing religious unity enforced the literary unity which is
implied in the use of a single tongue.

While thus the possession of a universal language so signally
secured her power, the real secret of much of the influence of
the Church lay in the control she had so skillfully obtained over
domestic life. Her influence diminished as that declined.
Coincident with this was her displacement in the guidance of
international relations by diplomacy.

CATHOLICITY AND CIVILIZATION. In the old times of Roman
domination the encampments of the legions in the provinces had
always proved to be foci of civilization. The industry and order
exhibited in them presented an example not lost on the
surrounding barbarians of Britain, Gaul, and Germany. And, though
it was no part of their duty to occupy themselves actively in the
betterment of the conquered tribes, but rather to keep them in a
depressed condition that aided in maintaining subjection, a
steady improvement both in the individual and social condition
took place.

Under the ecclesiastical domination of Rome similar effects
occurred. In the open country the monastery replaced the
legionary encampment; in the village or town, the church was a
centre of light. A powerful effect was produced by the elegant
luxury of the former, and by the sacred and solemn monitions of
the latter.

In extolling the papal system for what it did in the organization
of the family, the definition of civil policy, the construction
of the states of Europe, our praise must be limited by the
recollection that the chief object of ecclesiastical policy was
the aggrandizement of the Church, not the promotion of
civilization. The benefit obtained by the laity was not through
any special intention, but incidental or collateral.

There was no far-reaching, no persistent plan to ameliorate the
physical condition of the nations. Nothing was done to favor
their intellectual development; indeed, on the contrary, it was
the settled policy to keep them not merely illiterate, but
ignorant. Century after century passed away, and left the
peasantry but little better than the cattle in the fields.
Intercommunication and locomotion, which tend so powerfully to
expand the ideas, received no encouragement; the majority of men
died without ever having ventured out of the neighborhood in
which they were born. For them there was no hope of personal
improvement, none of the bettering of their lot; there were no
comprehensive schemes for the avoidance of individual want, none
for the resistance of famines. Pestilences were permitted to
stalk forth unchecked, or at best opposed only by mummeries. Bad
food, wretched clothing, inadequate shelter, were suffered to
produce their result, and at the end of a thousand years the
population of Europe had not doubled.

If policy may be held accountable as much for the births it
prevents as for the deaths it occasions, what a great
responsibility there is here!

In this investigation of the influence of Catholicism, we must
carefully keep separate what it did for the people and what it
did for itself. When we think of the stately monastery, an
embodiment of luxury, with its closely-mown lawns, its gardens
and bowers, its fountains and many murmuring streams, we must
connect it not with the ague-stricken peasant dying without help
in the fens, but with the abbot, his ambling palfrey, his hawk
and hounds, his well-stocked cellar and larder. He is part of a
system that has its centre of authority in Italy.. To that his
allegiance is due. For its behoof are all his acts. When we
survey, as still we may, the magnificent churches and cathedrals
of those times, miracles of architectural skill--the only real
miracles of Catholicism--when in imagination we restore the
transcendently imposing, the noble services of which they were
once the scene, the dim, religious-light streaming in through the
many-colored windows, the sounds of voices not inferior in their
melody to those of heaven, the priests in their sacred vestments,
and above all the prostrate worshipers listening to litanies and
prayers in a foreign and unknown tongue, shall we not ask
ourselves, Was all this for the sake of those worshipers, or for
the glory of the great, the overshadowing authority at Rome?

But perhaps some one may say, Are there not limits to human
exertion--things which no political system, no human power, no
matter how excellent its intention, can accomplish? Men cannot be
raised from barbarism, a continent cannot be civilized, in a day!

The Catholic power is not, however, to be tried by any such
standard. It scornfully rejected and still rejects a human
origin. It claims to be accredited supernaturally. The sovereign
pontiff is the Vicar of God upon earth. Infallible in judgment,
it is given to him to accomplish all things by miracle if need
be. He had exercised an autocratic tyranny over the intellect of
Europe for more than a thousand years; and, though on some
occasions he had encountered the resistances of disobedient
princes, these, in the aggregate, were of so little moment, that
the physical, the political power of the continent may be
affirmed to have been at his disposal.

Such facts as have been presented in this chapter were,
doubtless, well weighed by the Protestant Reformers of the
sixteenth century, and brought them to the conclusion that
Catholicism had altogether failed in its mission; that it had
become a vast system of delusion and imposture, and that a
restoration of true Christianity could only be accomplished by
returning to the faith and practices of the primitive times. This
was no decision suddenly arrived at; it had long been the opinion
of many religious and learned men. The pious Fratricelli in the
middle ages had loudly expressed their belief that the fatal gift
of a Roman emperor had been the doom of true religion. It wanted
nothing more than the voice of Luther to bring men throughout the
north of Europe to the, determination that the worship of the
Virgin Mary, the invocation of saints, the working of miracles,
supernatural cures of the sick, the purchase of indulgences for
the perpetration of sin, and all other evil practices, lucrative
to their abettors, which had been fastened on Christianity, but
which were no part of it, should come to an end. Catholicism, as
a system for promoting the well-being of man, had plainly failed
in justifying its alleged origin; its performance had not
corresponded to its great pretensions; and, after an opportunity
of more than a thousand years' duration, it had left the masses
of men submitted to its influences, both as regards physical
well-being and intellectual culture, in a condition far lower
than what it ought to have been.



CHAPTER XI.

SCIENCE IN RELATION TO MODERN CIVILIZATION.

Illustration of the general influences of Science from the
history of America.

THE INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE INTO EUROPE.--It passed from Moorish
Spain to Upper Italy, and was favored by the absence of the popes
at Avignon.--The effects of printing, of maritime adventure, and
of the Reformation--Establishment of the Italian scientific
societies.

THE INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE.--It changed the mode and
the direction of thought in Europe.--The transactions of the
Royal Society of London, and other scientific societies, furnish
an illustration of this.

THE ECONOMICAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE is illustrated by the
numerous mechanical and physical inventions, made since the
fourteenth century.--Their influence on health and domestic life,
on the arts of peace and of war.

Answer to the question, What has Science done for humanity?


EUROPE, at the epoch of the Reformation, furnishes us with the
result of the influences of Roman Christianity in the promotion
of civilization. America, examined in like manner at the present
time, furnishes us with an illustration of the influences of
science.

SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION. In the course of the seventeenth
century a sparse European population bad settled along the
western Atlantic coast. Attracted by the cod-fishery of
Newfoundland, the French had a little colony north of the St.
Lawrence; the English, Dutch, and Swedes, occupied the shore of
New England and the Middle States; some Huguenots were living in
the Carolinas. Rumors of a spring that could confer perpetual
youth--a fountain of life--had brought a few Spaniards into
Florida. Behind the fringe of villages which these adventurers
had built, lay a vast and unknown country, inhabited by wandering
Indians, whose numbers from the Gulf of Mexico to the St.
Lawrence did not exceed one hundred and eighty thousand. From
them the European strangers had learned that in those solitary
regions there were fresh-water seas, and a great river which they
called the Mississippi. Some said that it flowed through Virginia
into the Atlantic, some that it passed through Florida, some that
it emptied into the Pacific, and some that it reached the Gulf of
Mexico. Parted from their native countries by the stormy
Atlantic, to cross which implied a voyage of many months, these
refugees seemed lost to the world.

But before the close of the nineteenth century the descendants of
this feeble people had become one of the great powers of the
earth. They had established a republic whose sway extended from
the Atlantic to the Pacific. With an army of more than a million
men, not on paper, but actually in the field, they had overthrown
a domestic assailant. They had maintained at sea a war-fleet of
nearly seven hundred ships, carrying five thousand guns, some of
them the heaviest in the world. The tonnage of this navy amounted
to half a million. In the defense of their national life they had
expended in less than five years more than four thousand million
dollars. Their census, periodically taken, showed that the
population was doubling itself every twenty-five years; it
justified the expectation that at the close of that century it
would number nearly one hundred million souls.

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER. A silent continent had been changed into a
scene of industry; it was full of the din of machinery and the
restless moving of men. Where there had been an unbroken forest,
there were hundreds of cities and towns. To commerce were
furnished in profusion some of the most important staples, as
cotton, tobacco, breadstuffs. The mines yielded incredible
quantities of gold, iron, coal. Countless churches, colleges, and
public schools, testified that a moral influence vivified this
material activity. Locomotion was effectually provided for. The
railways exceeded in aggregate length those of all Europe
combined. In 1873 the aggregate length of the European railways
was sixty-three thousand three hundred and sixty miles, that of
the American was seventy thousand six hundred and fifty miles.
One of them, built across the continent, connected the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans.

But not alone are these material results worthy of notice. Others
of a moral and social kind force themselves on our attention.
Four million negro slaves had been set free. Legislation, if it
inclined to the advantage of any class, inclined to that of the
poor. Its intention was to raise them from poverty, and better
their lot. A career was open to talent, and that without any
restraint. Every thing was possible to intelligence and industry.
Many of the most important public offices were filled by men who
had risen from the humblest walks of life. If there was not
social equality, as there never can be in rich and prosperous
communities, there was civil equality, rigorously maintained.

It may perhaps be said that much of this material prosperity
arose from special conditions, such as had never occurred in the
case of any people before, There was a vast, an open theatre of
action, a whole continent ready for any who chose to take
possession of it. Nothing more than courage and industry was
needed to overcome Nature, and to seize the abounding advantages
she offered.

ILLUSTRATIONS FROM AMERICAN HISTORY. But must not men be animated
by a great principle who successfully transform the primeval
solitudes into an abode of civilization, who are not dismayed by
gloomy forests, or rivers, mountains, or frightful deserts, who
push their conquering way in the course of a century across a
continent, and hold it in subjection? Let us contrast with this
the results of the invasion of Mexico and Peru by the Spaniards,
who in those countries overthrew a wonderful civilization, in
many respects superior to their own--a civilization that had been
accomplished without iron and gunpowder--a civilization resting
on an agriculture that had neither horse, nor ox, nor plough. The
Spaniards had a clear base to start from, and no obstruction
whatever in their advance. They ruined all that the aboriginal
children of America had accomplished. Millions of those
unfortunates were destroyed by their cruelty. Nations that for
many centuries had been living in contentment and prosperity,
under institutions shown by their history to be suitable to them,
were plunged into anarchy; the people fell into a baneful
superstition, and a greater part of their landed and other
property found its way into the possession of the Roman Church.

I have selected the foregoing illustration, drawn from American
history, in preference to many others that might have been taken
from European, because it furnishes an instance of the operation
of the acting principle least interfered with by extraneous
conditions. European political progress is less simple than
American.

QUARREL BETWEEN FRANCE AND THE PAPACY. Before considering its
manner of action, and its results, I will briefly relate how the
scientific principle found an introduction into Europe.

INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE INTO EUROPE. Not only had the Crusades,
for many years, brought vast sums to Rome, extorted from the
fears or the piety of every Christian nation; they had also
increased the papal power to a most dangerous extent. In the dual
governments everywhere prevailing in Europe, the spiritual had
obtained the mastery; the temporal was little better than its
servant.

From all quarters, and under all kinds of pretenses, streams of
money were steadily flowing into Italy. The temporal princes
found that there were left for them inadequate and impoverished
revenues. Philip the Fair, King of France (A.D. 1300), not only
determined to check this drain from his dominions, by prohibiting
the export of gold and silver without his license; he also
resolved that the clergy and the ecclesiastical estates should
pay their share of taxes to him. This brought on a mortal contest
with the papacy. The king was excommunicated, and, in
retaliation, he accused the pope, Boniface VIII., of atheism;
demanding that he should be tried by a general council. He sent
some trusty persons into Italy, who seized Boniface in his palace
at Anagni, and treated him with so much severity, that in a few
days he died. The succeeding pontiff, Benedict XI., was poisoned.

The French king was determined that the papacy should be purified
and reformed; that it should no longer be the appanage of a few
Italian families, who were dexterously transmuting the credulity
of Europe into coin--that French influence should prevail in it.
He Therefore came to an understanding with the cardinals; a
French archbishop was elevated to the pontificate; he took the
name of Clement V. The papal court was removed to Avignon, in
France, and Rome was abandoned as the metropolis of Christianity.

MOORISH SCIENCE INTRODUCED THROUGH FRANCE. Seventy years elapsed
before the papacy was restored to the Eternal City (A.D. 1376).
The diminution of its influence in the peninsula, that had thus
occurred, gave opportunity for the memorable intellectual
movement which soon manifested itself in the great commercial
cities of Upper Italy. Contemporaneously, also, there were other
propitious events. The result of the Crusades had shaken the
faith of all Christendom. In an age when the test of the ordeal
of battle was universally accepted, those wars had ended in
leaving the Holy Land in the hands of the Saracens; the many
thousand Christian warriors who had returned from them did not
hesitate to declare that they had found their antagonists not
such as had been pictured by the Church, but valiant, courteous,
just. Through the gay cities of the South of France a love of
romantic literature had been spreading; the wandering troubadours
had been singing their songs--songs far from being restricted to
ladye- love and feats of war; often their burden was the awful
atrocities that had been perpetrated by papal authority-- the
religious massacres of Languedoc; often their burden was the
illicit amours of the clergy. From Moorish Spain the gentle and
gallant idea of chivalry had been brought, and with it the noble
sentiment of "personal honor," destined in the course of time to
give a code of its own to Europe.

EFFECT OF THE GREAT SCHISM. The return of the papacy to Rome was
far from restoring the influence of the popes over the Italian
Peninsula. More than two generations had passed away since their
departure, and, had they come back even in their original
strength, they could not have resisted the intellectual progress
that had been made during their absence. The papacy, however,
came back not to rule, but to be divided against itself, to
encounter the Great Schism. Out of its dissensions emerged two
rival popes; eventually there were three, each pressing his
claims upon the religious, each cursing his rival. A sentiment of
indignation soon spread all over Europe, a determination that the
shameful scenes which were then enacting should be ended. How
could the dogma of a Vicar of God upon earth, the dogma of an
infallible pope, be sustained in presence of such scandals?
Herein lay the cause of that resolution of the ablest
ecclesiastics of those times (which, alas for Europe! could not
be carried into effect), that a general council should be made
the permanent religious parliament of the whole continent, with
the pope as its chief executive officer. Had that intention been
accomplished, there would have been at this day no conflict
between science and religion; the convulsion of the Reformation
would have been avoided; there would have been no jarring
Protestant sects. But the Councils of Constance and Basle failed
to shake off the Italian yoke, failed to attain that noble
result.

Catholicism was thus weakening; as its leaden pressure lifted,
the intellect of man expanded. The Saracens had invented the
method of making paper from linen rags and from cotton. The
Venetians had brought from China to Europe the art of printing.
The former of these inventions was essential to the latter. Hence
forth, without the possibility of a check, there was intellectual
intercommunication among all men.

INVENTION OF PRINTING. The invention of printing was a severe
blow to Catholicism, which had, previously, enjoyed the
inappreciable advantage of a monopoly of intercommunication. From
its central seat, orders could be disseminated through all the
ecclesiastical ranks, and fulminated through the pulpits. This
monopoly and the amazing power it conferred were destroyed by the
press. In modern times, the influence of the pulpit has become
insignificant. The pulpit has been thoroughly supplanted by the
newspaper.

Yet, Catholicism did not yield its ancient advantage without a
struggle. As soon as the inevitable tendency of the new art was
detected, a restraint upon it, under the form of a censorship,
was attempted. It was made necessary to have a permit, in order
to print a book. For this, it was needful that the work should
have been read, examined, and approved by the clergy. There must
be a certificate that it was a godly and orthodox book. A bull of
excommunication was issued in 1501, by Alexander VI., against
printers who should publish pernicious doctrines. In 1515 the
Lateran Council ordered that no books should be printed but such
as had been inspected by the ecclesiastical censors, under pain
of excommunication and fine; the censors being directed "to take
the utmost care that nothing should be printed contrary to the
orthodox faith." There was thus a dread of religious discussion;
a terror lest truth should emerge.

But these frantic struggles of the powers of ignorance were
unavailing. Intellectual intercommunication among men was
secured. It culminated in the modern newspaper, which daily gives
its contemporaneous intelligence from all parts of the world.
Reading became a common occupation. In ancient society that art
was possessed by comparatively few persons. Modern society owes
some of its most striking characteristics to this change.

EFFECTS OF MARITIME ENTERPRISE. Such was the result of bringing
into Europe the manufacture of paper and the printing-press. In
like manner the introduction of the mariner's compass was
followed by imposing material and moral effects. These were--the
discovery of America in consequence of the rivalry of the
Venetians and Genoese about the India trade; the doubling of
Africa by De Gama; and the circumnavigation of the earth by
Magellan. With respect to the last, the grandest of all human
undertakings, it is to be remembered that Catholicism had
irrevocably committed itself to the dogma of a flat earth, with
the sky as the floor of heaven, and hell in the under-world. Some
of the Fathers, whose authority was held to be paramount, had, as
we have previously said, furnished philosophical and religious
arguments against the globular form. The controversy had now
suddenly come to an end--the Church was found to be in error.

The correction of that geographical error was by no means the
only important result that followed the three great voyages. The
spirit of Columbus, De Gama, Magellan, diffused itself among all
the enterprising men of Western Europe. Society had been hitherto
living under the dogma of "loyalty to the king, obedience to the
Church." It had therefore been living for others, not for itself.
The political effect of that dogma had culminated in the
Crusades. Countless thousands had perished in wars that could
bring them no reward, and of which the result had been
conspicuous failure. Experience had revealed the fact that the
only gainers were the pontiffs, cardinals, and other
ecclesiastics in Rome, and the shipmasters of Venice. But, when
it became known that the wealth of Mexico, Peru, and India, might
be shared by any one who had enterprise and courage, the motives
that had animated the restless populations of Europe suddenly
changed. The story of Cortez and Pizarro found enthusiastic
listeners everywhere. Maritime adventure supplanted religious
enthusiasm.

If we attempt to isolate the principle that lay at the basis of
the wonderful social changes that now took place, we may
recognize it without difficulty. Heretofore each man had
dedicated his services to his superior--feudal or ecclesiastical;
now he had resolved to gather the fruits of his exertions
himself. Individualism was becoming predominant, loyalty was
declining into a sentiment. We shall now see how it was with the
Church.

INDIVIDUALISM. Individualism rests on the principle that a man
shall be his own master, that he shall have liberty to form his
own opinions, freedom to carry into effect his resolves. He is,
therefore, ever brought into competition with his fellow-men. His
life is a display of energy.

To remove the stagnation of centuries front European life, to
vivify suddenly what had hitherto been an inert mass, to impart
to it individualism, was to bring it into conflict with the
influences that had been oppressing it. All through the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries uneasy strugglings gave a
premonition of what was coming. In the early part of the
sixteenth (1517), the battle was joined. Individualism found its
embodiment in a sturdy German monk, and therefore, perhaps
necessarily, asserted its rights under theological forms. There
were some preliminary skirmishes about indulgences and other
minor matters, but very soon the real cause of dispute came
plainly into view. Martin Luther refused to think as he was
ordered to do by his ecclesiastical superiors at Rome; he
asserted that he had an inalienable right to interpret the Bible
for himself.

At her first glance, Rome saw nothing in Martin Luther but a
vulgar, insubordinate, quarrelsome monk. Could the Inquisition
have laid hold of him, it would have speedily disposed of his
affair; but, as the conflict went on, it was discovered that
Martin was not standing alone. Many thousands of men, as resolute
as himself, were coming up to his support; and, while he carried
on the combat with writings and words, they made good his
propositions with the sword.

THE REFORMATION. The vilification which was poured on Luther and
his doings was so bitter as to be ludicrous. It was declared that
his father was not his mother's husband, but an impish incubus,
who had deluded her; that, after ten years' struggling with his
conscience, he had become an atheist; that he denied the
immortality of the soul; that he had composed hymns in honor of
drunkenness, a vice to which he was unceasingly addicted; that he
blasphemed the Holy Scriptures, and particularly Moses; that he
did not believe a word of what he preached; that he had called
the Epistle of St. James a thing of straw; and, above all, that
the Reformation was no work of his, but, in reality, was due to a
certain astrological position of the stars. It was, however, a
vulgar saying among the Roman ecclesiastics that Erasmus laid the
egg of the Reformation, and Luther hatched it.

Rome at first made the mistake of supposing that this was nothing
more than a casual outbreak; she failed to discern that it was,
in fact, the culmination of an internal movement which for two
centuries had been going on in Europe, and which had been hourly
gathering force; that, had there been nothing else, the existence
of three popes--three obediences--would have compelled men to
think, to deliberate, to conclude for themselves. The Councils of
Constance and Basle taught them that there was a higher power
than the popes. The long and bloody wars that ensued were closed
by the Peace of Westphalia; and then it was found that Central
and Northern Europe had cast off the intellectual tyranny of
Rome, that individualism had carried its point, and had
established the right of every man to think for himself.

DECOMPOSITION OF PROTESTANTISM. But it was impossible that the
establishment of this right of private judgment should end with
the rejection of Catholicism. Early in the movement some of the
most distinguished men, such as Erasmus, who had been among its
first promoters, abandoned it. They perceived that many of the
Reformers entertained a bitter dislike of learning, and they were
afraid of being brought under bigoted caprice. The Protestant
party, having thus established its existence by dissent and
separation, must, in its turn, submit to the operation of the
same principles. A decomposition into many subordinate sects was
inevitable. And these, now that they had no longer any thing to
fear from their great Italian adversary, commenced partisan
warfares on each other. As, in different countries, first one and
then another sect rose to power, it stained itself with cruelties
perpetrated upon its competitors. The mortal retaliations that
had ensued, when, in the chances of the times, the oppressed got
the better of their oppressors, convinced the contending
sectarians that they must concede to their competitors what they
claimed for themselves; and thus, from their broils and their
crimes, the great principle of toleration extricated itself. But
toleration is only an intermediate stage; and, as the
intellectual decomposition of Protestantism keeps going on, that
transitional condition will lead to a higher and nobler state
--the hope of philosophy in all past ages of the world--a social
state in which there shall be unfettered freedom for thought.
Toleration, except when extorted by fear, can only come from
those who are capable of entertaining and respecting other
opinions than their own. It can therefore only come from
philosophy. History teaches us only too plainly that fanaticism
is stimulated by religion, and neutralized or eradicated by
philosophy.

TOLERATION. The avowed object of the Reformation was, to remove
from Christianity the pagan ideas and pagan rites engrafted upon
it by Constantine and his successors, in their attempt to
reconcile the Roman Empire to it. The Protestants designed to
bring it back to its primitive purity; and hence, while restoring
the ancient doctrines, they cast out of it all such practices as
the adoration of the Virgin Mary and the invocation of saints.
The Virgin Mary, we are assured by the Evangelists, had accepted
the duties of married life, and borne to her husband several
children. In the prevailing idolatry, she had ceased to be
regarded as the carpenter's wife; she had become the queen of
heaven, and the mother of God.

DA VINCI. The science of the Arabians followed the invading track
of their literature, which had come into Christendom by two
routes--the south of France, and Sicily. Favored by the exile of
the popes to Avignon, and by the Great Schism, it made good its
foothold in Upper Italy. The Aristotelian or Inductive
philosophy, clad in the Saracenic costume that Averroes had given
it, made many secret and not a few open friends. It found many
minds eager to receive and able to appreciate it. Among these
were Leonardo da Vinci, who proclaimed the fundamental principle
that experiment and observation are the only reliable foundations
of reasoning in science, that experiment is the only trustworthy
interpreter of Nature, and is essential to the ascertainment of
laws. He showed that the action of two perpendicular forces upon
a point is the same as that denoted by the diagonal of a
rectangle, of which they represent the sides. From this the
passage to the proposition of oblique forces was very easy. This
proposition was rediscovered by Stevinus, a century later, and
applied by him to the explanation of the mechanical powers. Da
Vinci gave a clear exposition of the theory of forces applied
obliquely on a lever, discovered the laws of friction
subsequently demonstrated by Amontons, and understood the
principle of virtual velocities. He treated of the conditions of
descent of bodies along inclined planes and circular arcs,
invented the camera-obscura, discussed correctly several
physiological problems, and foreshadowed some of the great
conclusions of modern geology, such as the nature of fossil
remains, and the elevation of continents. He explained the
earth-light reflected by the moon. With surprising versatility of
genius he excelled as a sculptor, architect, engineer; was
thoroughly versed in the astronomy, anatomy, and chemistry of his
times. In painting, he was the rival of Michel Angelo; in a
competition between them, he was considered to have established
his superiority. His "Last Supper," on the wall of the refectory
of the Dominican convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, is well
known, from the numerous engravings and copies that have been
made of it.

ITALIAN SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. Once firmly established in the
north of Italy, Science soon extended her sway over the entire
peninsula. The increasing number of her devotees is indicated by
the rise and rapid multiplication of learned societies. These
were reproductions of the Moorish ones that had formerly existed
in Granada and Cordova. As if to mark by a monument the track
through which civilizing influences had come, the Academy of
Toulouse, founded in 1345, has survived to our own times. It
represented, however, the gay literature of the south of France,
and was known under the fanciful title of "the Academy of Floral
Games." The first society for the promotion of physical science,
the Academia Secretorum Naturae, was founded at Naples, by
Baptista Porta. It was, as Tiraboschi relates, dissolved by the
ecclesiastical authorities. The Lyncean was founded by Prince
Frederic Cesi at Rome; its device plainly indicated its
intention: a lynx, with its eyes turned upward toward heaven,
tearing a triple-headed Cerberus with its claws. The Accademia
del Cimento, established at Florence, 1657, held its meetings in
the ducal palace. It lasted ten years, and was then suppressed at
the instance of the papal government; as an equivalent, the
brother of the grand-duke was made a cardinal. It numbered many
great men, such as Torricelli and Castelli, among its members.
The condition of admission into it was an abjuration of all
faith, and a resolution to inquire into the truth. These
societies extricated the cultivators of science from the
isolation in which they had hitherto lived, and, by promoting
their intercommunication and union, imparted activity and
strength to them all.

Returning now from this digression, this historical sketch of the
circumstances under which science was introduced into Europe, I
pass to the consideration of its manner of action and its
results.

INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE. The influence of science on
modern civilization has been twofold: 1. Intellectual; 2.
Economical. Under these titles we may conveniently consider it.

Intellectually it overthrew the authority of tradition. It
refused to accept, unless accompanied by proof, the dicta of any
master, no matter how eminent or honored his name. The conditions
of admission into the Italian Accademia del Cimento, and the
motto adopted by the Royal Society of London, illustrate the
position it took in this respect.

It rejected the supernatural and miraculous as evidence in
physical discussions. It abandoned sign-proof such as the Jews in
old days required, and denied that a demonstration can be given
through an illustration of something else, thus casting aside the
logic that had been in vogue for many centuries.

In physical inquiries, its mode of procedure was, to test the
value of any proposed hypothesis, by executing computations in
any special case on the basis or principle of that hypothesis,
and then, by performing an experiment or making an observation,
to ascertain whether the result of these agreed with the result
of the computation. If it did not, the hypothesis was to be
rejected.

We may here introduce an illustration or two of this mode of
procedure:

THEORIES OF GRAVITATION AND PHLOGISTON. Newton, suspecting that
the influence of the earth's attraction, gravity, may extend as
far as the moon, and be the force that causes her to revolve in
her orbit round the earth, calculated that, by her motion in her
orbit, she was deflected from the tangent thirteen feet every
minute; but, by ascertaining the space through which bodies would
fall in one minute at the earth's surface, and supposing it to be
diminished in the ratio of the inverse square, it appeared that
the attraction at the moon's orbit would draw a body through more
than fifteen feet. He, therefore, for the time, considered his
hypothesis as unsustained. But it so happened that Picard shortly
afterward executed more correctly a new measurement of a degree;
this changed the estimated magnitude of the earth, and the
distance of the moon, which was measured in earth-semidiameters.
Newton now renewed his computation, and, as I have related on a
previous page, as it drew to a close, foreseeing that a
coincidence was about to be established, was so much agitated
that he was obliged to ask a friend to complete it. The
hypothesis was sustained.

A second instance will sufficiently illustrate the method under
consideration. It is presented by the chemical theory of
phlogiston. Stahl, the author of this theory, asserted that there
is a principle of inflammability, to which he gave the name
phlogiston, having the quality of uniting with substances. Thus,
when what we now term a metallic oxide was united to it, a metal
was produced; and, if the phlogiston were withdrawn, the metal
passed back into its earthy or oxidized state. On this principle,
then, the metals were compound bodies, earths combined with
phlogiston.

SCIENCE AND ECCLESIASTICISM. But during the eighteenth century
the balance was introduced as an instrument of chemical research.
Now, if the phlogistic hypothesis be true, it would follow that a
metal should be the heavier, its oxide the lighter body, for the
former contains something--phlogiston--that has been added to the
latter. But, on weighing a portion of any metal, and also the
oxide producible from it, the latter proves to be the heavier,
and here the phlogistic hypothesis fails. Still further, on
continuing the investigation, it may be shown that the oxide or
calx, as it used to be called, has become heavier by combining
with one of the ingredients of the air.

To Lavoisier is usually attributed this test experiment; but the
fact that the weight of a metal increases by calcination was
established by earlier European experimenters, and, indeed, was
well known to the Arabian chemists. Lavoisier, however, was the
first to recognize its great importance. In his hands it produced
a revolution in chemistry.

The abandonment of the phlogistic theory is an illustration of
the readiness with which scientific hypotheses are surrendered,
when found to be wanting in accordance with facts. Authority and
tradition pass for nothing. Every thing is settled by an appeal
to Nature. It is assumed that the answers she gives to a
practical interrogation will ever be true.

Comparing now the philosophical principles on which science was
proceeding, with the principles on which ecclesiasticism rested,
we see that, while the former repudiated tradition, to the latter
it was the main support while the former insisted on the
agreement of calculation and observation, or the correspondence
of reasoning and fact, the latter leaned upon mysteries; while
the former summarily rejected its own theories, if it saw that
they could not be coordinated with Nature, the latter found merit
in a faith that blindly accepted the inexplicable, a satisfied
contemplation of "things above reason." The alienation between
the two continually increased. On one side there was a sentiment
of disdain, on the other a sentiment of hatred. Impartial
witnesses on all hands perceived that science was rapidly
undermining ecclesiasticism.

MATHEMATICS. Mathematics had thus become the great instrument of
scientific research, it had become the instrument of scientific
reasoning. In one respect it may be said that it reduced the
operations of the mind to a mechanical process, for its symbols
often saved the labor of thinking. The habit of mental exactness
it encouraged extended to other branches of thought, and produced
an intellectual revolution. No longer was it possible to be
satisfied with miracle-proof, or the logic that had been relied
upon throughout the middle ages. Not only did it thus influence
the manner of thinking, it also changed the direction of thought.
Of this we may be satisfied by comparing the subjects considered
in the transactions of the various learned societies with the
discussions that had occupied the attention of the middle ages.

But the use of mathematics was not limited to the verification of
theories; as above indicated, it also furnished a means of
predicting what had hitherto been unobserved. In this it offered
a counterpart to the prophecies of ecclesiasticism. The discovery
of Neptune is an instance of the kind furnished by astronomy, and
that of conical refraction by the optical theory of undulations.

But, while this great instrument led to such a wonderful
development in natural science, it was itself undergoing
development--improvement. Let us in a few lines recall its
progress.

The germ of algebra may be discerned in the works of Diophantus
of Alexandria, who is supposed to have lived in the second
century of our era. In that Egyptian school Euclid had formerly
collected the great truths of geometry, and arranged them in
logical sequence. Archimedes, in Syracuse, had attempted the
solution of the higher problems by the method of exhaustions.
Such was the tendency of things that, had the patronage of
science been continued, algebra would inevitably have been
invented.

To the Arabians we owe our knowledge of the rudiments of algebra;
we owe to them the very name under which this branch of
mathematics passes. They had carefully added, to the remains of
the Alexandrian School, improvements obtained in India, and had
communicated to the subject a certain consistency and form. The
knowledge of algebra, as they possessed it, was first brought
into Italy about the beginning of the thirteenth century. It
attracted so little attention, that nearly three hundred years
elapsed before any European work on the subject appeared. In 1496
Paccioli published his book entitled "Arte Maggiore," or
"Alghebra." In 1501, Cardan, of Milan, gave a method for the
solution of cubic equations; other improvements were contributed
by Scipio Ferreo, 1508, by Tartalea, by Vieta. The Germans now
took up the subject. At this time the notation was in an
imperfect state.

The publication of the Geometry of Descartes, which contains the
application of algebra to the definition and investigation of
curve lines (1637), constitutes an epoch in the history of the
mathematical sciences. Two years previously, Cavalieri's work on
Indivisibles had appeared. This method was improved by Torricelli
and others. The way was now open, for the development of the
Infinitesimal Calculus, the method of Fluxions of Newton, and the
Differential and Integral Calculus of Leibnitz. Though in his
possession many years previously, Newton published nothing on
Fluxions until 1704; the imperfect notation he employed retarded
very much the application of his method. Meantime, on the
Continent, very largely through the brilliant solutions of some
of the higher problems, accomplished by the Bernouillis, the
Calculus of Leibnitz was universally accepted, and improved by
many mathematicians. An extraordinary development of the science
now took place, and continued throughout the century. To the
Binomial theorem, previously discovered by Newton, Taylor now
added, in his "Method of Increments," the celebrated theorem that
bears his name. This was in 1715. The Calculus of Partial
Differences was introduced by Euler in 1734. It was extended by
D'Alembert, and was followed by that of Variations, by Euler and
Lagrange, and by the method of Derivative Functions, by Lagrange,
in 1772.

But it was not only in Italy, in Germany, in England, in France,
that this great movement in mathematics was witnessed; Scotland
had added a new gem to the intellectual diadem with which her
brow is encircled, by the grand invention of Logarithms, by
Napier of Merchiston. It is impossible to give any adequate
conception of the scientific importance of this incomparable
invention. The modern physicist and astronomer will most
cordially agree with Briggs, the Professor of Mathematics in
Gresham College, in his exclamation: "I never saw a book that
pleased me better, and that made I me more wonder!" Not without
reason did the immortal Kepler regard Napier "to be the greatest
man of his age, in the department to which he had applied his
abilities." Napier died in 1617. It is no exaggeration to say
that this invention, by shortening the labors, doubled the life
of the astronomer.

But here I must check myself. I must remember that my present
purpose is not to give the history of mathematics, but to
consider what science has done for the advancement of human
civilization. And now, at once, recurs the question, How is it
that the Church produced no geometer in her autocratic reign of
twelve hundred years?

With respect to pure mathematics this remark may be made: Its
cultivation does not demand appliances that are beyond the reach
of most individuals. Astronomy must have its observatory,
chemistry its laboratory; but mathematics asks only personal
disposition and a few books. No great expenditures are called
for, nor the services of assistants. One would think that nothing
could be more congenial, nothing more delightful, even in the
retirement of monastic life.

Shall we answer with Eusebius, "It is through contempt of such
useless labor that we think so little of these matters; we turn
our souls to the exercise of better things?" Better things! What
can be better than absolute truth? Are mysteries, miracles, lying
impostures, better? It was these that stood in the way!

The ecclesiastical authorities had recognized, from the outset of
this scientific invasion, that the principles it was
disseminating were absolutely irreconcilable with the current
theology. Directly and indirectly, they struggled against it. So
great was their detestation of experimental science, that they
thought they had gained a great advantage when the Accademia del
Cimento was suppressed. Nor was the sentiment restricted to
Catholicism. When the Royal Society of London was founded,
theological odium was directed against it with so much rancor
that, doubtless, it would have been extinguished, had not King
Charles II. given it his open and avowed support. It was accused
of an intention of "destroying the established religion, of
injuring the universities, and of upsetting ancient and solid
learning."

THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. We have only to turn over the pages
of its Transactions to discern how much this society has done for
the progress of humanity. It was incorporated in 1662, and has
interested itself in all the great scientific movements and
discoveries that have since been made. It published Newton's
"Principia;" it promoted Halley's voyage, the first scientific
expedition undertaken by any government; it made experiments on
the transfusion of blood, and accepted Harvey's discovery of the
circulation. The encouragement it gave to inoculation led Queen
Caroline to beg six condemned criminals for experiment, and then
to submit her own children to that operation. Through its
encouragement Bradley accomplished his great discovery, the
aberration of the fixed stars, and that of the nutation of the
earth's axis; to these two discoveries, Delambre says, we owe the
exactness of modern astronomy. It promoted the improvement of the
thermometer, the measure of temperature, and in Harrison's watch,
the chronometer, the measure of time. Through it the Gregorian
Calendar was introduced into England, in 1752, against a violent
religious opposition. Some of its Fellows were pursued through
the streets by an ignorant and infuriated mob, who believed it
had robbed them of eleven days of their lives; it was found
necessary to conceal the name of Father Walmesley, a learned
Jesuit, who had taken deep interest in the matter; and, Bradley
happening to die during the commotion, it was declared that he
had suffered a judgment from Heaven for his crime!

THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. If I were to attempt to do justice
to the merits of this great society, I should have to devote many
pages, to such subjects as the achromatic telescope of Dollond;
the dividing engine of Ramsden, which first gave precision to
astronomical observations, the measurement of a degree on the
earth's surface by Mason and Dixon; the expeditions of Cook in
connection with the transit of Venus; his circumnavigation of the
earth; his proof that scurvy, the curse of long sea-voyages, may
be avoided by the use of vegetable substances; the polar
expeditions; the determination of the density of the earth by
Maskelyne's experiments at Scheliallion, and by those of
Cavendish; the discovery of the planet Uranus by Herschel; the
composition of water by Cavendish and Watt; the determination of
the difference of longitude between London and Paris; the
invention of the voltaic pile; the surveys of the heavens by the
Herschels; the development of the principle of interference by
Young, and his establishment of the undulatory theory of light;
the ventilation of jails and other buildings; the introduction of
gas for city illumination; the ascertainment of the length of the
seconds-pendulum; the measurement of the variations of gravity in
different latitudes; the operations to ascertain the curvature of
the earth; the polar expedition of Ross; the invention of the
safety-lamp by Davy, and his decomposition of the alkalies and
earths; the electro-magnetic discoveries of Oersted and Faraday;
the calculating- engines of Babbage; the measures taken at the
instance of Humboldt for the establishment of many magnetic
observatories; the verification of contemporaneous magnetic
disturbances over the earth's surface. But it is impossible, in
the limited space at my disposal, to give even so little as a
catalogue of its Transactions. Its spirit was identical with that
which animated the Accademia del Cimento, and its motto
accordingly was "Nullius in Verba." It proscribed superstition,
and permitted only calculation, observation, and experiment.

INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE. Not for a moment must it be supposed that
in these great attempts, these great Successes, the Royal Society
stood alone. In all the capitals of Europe there were Academies,
Institutes, or Societies, equal in distinction, and equally
successful in promoting human knowledge and modern civilization.


THE ECONOMICAL INFLUENCES OF SCIENCE.

The scientific study of Nature tends not only to correct and
ennoble the intellectual conceptions of man; it serves also to
ameliorate his physical condition. It perpetually suggests to him
the inquiry, how he may make, by their economical application,
ascertained facts subservient to his use.

The investigation of principles is quickly followed by practical
inventions. This, indeed, is the characteristic feature of our
times. It has produced a great revolution in national policy.

In former ages wars were made for the procuring of slaves. A
conqueror transported entire populations, and extorted from them
forced labor, for it was only by human labor that human labor
could be relieved. But when it was discovered that physical
agents and mechanical combinations could be employed to
incomparably greater advantage, public policy underwent a change;
when it was recognized that the application of a new principle,
or the invention of a new machine, was better than the
acquisition of an additional slave, peace became preferable to
war. And not only so, but nations possessing great slave or serf
populations, as was the care in America and Russia, found that
considerations of humanity were supported by considerations of
interest, and set their bondmen free.

SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS. Thus we live in a period of which a
characteristic is the supplanting of human and animal labor by
machines. Its mechanical inventions have wrought a social
revolution. We appeal to the natural, not to the supernatural,
for the accomplishment of our ends. It is with the "modern
civilization" thus arising that Catholicism refuses to be
reconciled. The papacy loudly proclaims its inflexible
repudiation of this state of affairs, and insists on a
restoration of the medieval condition of things.

That a piece of amber, when rubbed, will attract and then repel
light bodies, was a fact known six hundred years before Christ.
It remained an isolated, uncultivated fact, a mere trifle, until
sixteen hundred years after Christ. Then dealt with by the
scientific methods of mathematical discussion and experiment, and
practical application made of the result, it has permitted men to
communicate instantaneously with each other across continents and
under oceans. It has centralized the world. By enabling the
sovereign authority to transmit its mandates without regard to
distance or to time, it has revolutionized statesmanship and
condensed political power.

In the Museum of Alexandria there was a machine invented by Hero,
the mathematician, a little more than one hundred years before
Christ. It revolved by the agency of steam, and was of the form
that we should now call a reaction-engine. This, the germ of one
of the most important inventions ever made, was remembered as a
mere curiosity for seventeen hundred years.

Chance had nothing to do with the invention of the modern
steam-engine. It was the product of meditation and experiment. Ia
the middle of the seventeenth century several mechanical
engineers attempted to utilize the properties of steam; their
labors were brought to perfection by Watt in the middle of the
eighteenth.

The steam-engine quickly became the drudge of civilization. It
performed the work of many millions of men. It gave, to those who
would have been condemned to a life of brutal toil, the
opportunity of better pursuits. He who formerly labored might now
think.

Its earliest application was in such operations as pumping,
wherein mere force is required. Soon, however, it vindicated its
delicacy of touch in the industrial arts of spinning and weaving.
It created vast manufacturing establishments, and supplied
clothing for the world. It changed the industry of nations.

In its application, first to the navigation of rivers, and then
to the navigation of the ocean, it more than quadrupled the speed
that had heretofore been attained. Instead of forty days being
requisite for the passage, the Atlantic might now be crossed in
eight. But, in land transportation, its power was most strikingly
displayed. The admirable invention of the locomotive enabled men
to travel farther in less than an hour than they formerly could
have done in more than a day.

The locomotive has not only enlarged the field of human activity,
but, by diminishing space, it has increased the capabilities of
human life. In the swift transportation of manufactured goods and
agricultural products, it has become a most efficient incentive
to human industry

The perfection of ocean steam-navigation was greatly promoted by
the invention of the chronometer, which rendered it possible to
find with accuracy the place of a ship at sea. The great drawback
on the advancement of science in the Alexandrian School was the
want of an instrument for the measurement of time, and one for
the measurement of temperature--the chronometer and the
thermometer; indeed, the invention of the latter is essential to
that of the former. Clepsydras, or water-clocks, had been tried,
but they were deficient in accuracy. Of one of them, ornamented
with the signs of the zodiac, and destroyed by certain primitive
Christians, St. Polycarp significantly remarked, "In all these
monstrous demons is seen an art hostile to God." Not until about
1680 did the chronometer begin to approach accuracy. Hooke, the
contemporary of Newton, gave it the balance-wheel, with the
spiral spring, and various escapements in succession were
devised, such as the anchor, the dead-beat, the duplex, the
remontoir. Provisions for the variation of temperature were
introduced. It was brought to perfection eventually by Harrison
and Arnold, in their hands becoming an accurate measure of the
flight of time. To the invention of the chronometer must be added
that of the reflecting sextant by Godfrey. This permitted
astronomical observations to be made, notwithstanding the motion
of a ship.

Improvements in ocean navigation are exercising a powerful
influence on the distribution of mankind. They are increasing the
amount and altering the character of colonization.

DOMESTIC IMPROVEMENT. But not alone have these great discoveries
and inventions, the offspring of scientific investigation,
changed the lot of the human race; very many minor ones, perhaps
individually insignificant, have in their aggregate accomplished
surprising effects. The commencing cultivation of science in the
fourteenth century gave a wonderful stimulus to inventive talent,
directed mainly to useful practical results; and this,
subsequently, was greatly encouraged by the system of patents,
which secure to the originator a reasonable portion of the
benefits of his skill. It is sufficient to refer in the most
cursory manner to a few of these improvements; we appreciate at
once how much they have done. The introduction of the saw-mill
gave wooden floors to houses, banishing those of gypsum, tile, or
stone; improvements cheapening the manufacture of glass gave
windows, making possible the warming of apartments. However, it
was not until the sixteenth century that glazing could be well
done. The cutting of glass by the diamond was then introduced.
The addition of chimneys purified the atmosphere of dwellings,
smoky and sooty as the huts of savages; it gave that
indescribable blessing of northern homes--a cheerful fireside.
Hitherto a hole in the roof for the escape of the smoke, a pit in
the midst of the floor to contain the fuel, and to be covered
with a lid when the curfew-bell sounded or night came, such had
been the cheerless and inadequate means of warming.

MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS. Though not without a bitter resistance on
the part of the clergy, men began to think that pestilences are
not punishments inflicted by God on society for its religious
shortcomings, but the physical consequences of filth and
wretchedness; that the proper mode of avoiding them is not by
praying to the saints, but by insuring personal and municipal
cleanliness. In the twelfth century it was found necessary to
pave the streets of Paris, the stench in them was so dreadful At
once dysenteries and spotted fever diminished; a sanitary
condition approaching that of the Moorish cities of Spain, which
had been paved for centuries, was attained. In that now beautiful
metropolis it was forbidden to keep swine, an ordinance resented
by the monks of the abbey of St. Anthony, who demanded that the
pigs of that saint should go where they chose; the government was
obliged to compromise the matter by requiring that bells should
be fastened to the animals' necks. King Philip, the son of Louis
the Fat, had been killed by his horse stumbling over a sow.
Prohibitions were published against throwing slops out of the
windows. In 1870 an eye-witness, the author of this book, at the
close of the pontifical rule in Rome, found that, in walking the
ordure-defiled streets of that city, it was more necessary to
inspect the earth than to contemplate the heavens, in order to
preserve personal purity. Until the beginning of the seventeenth
century, the streets of Berlin were never swept. There was a law
that every countryman, who came to market with a cart, should
carry back a load of dirt!

Paving was followed by attempts, often of an imperfect kind, at
the construction of drains and sewers. It had become obvious to
all reflecting men that these were necessary to the preservation
of health, not only in towns, but in isolated houses. Then
followed the lighting of the public thoroughfares. At first
houses facing the streets were compelled to have candles or lamps
in their windows; next the system that had been followed with so
much advantage in Cordova and Granada--of having public
lamps--was tried, but this was not brought to perfection until
the present century, when lighting by gas was invented.
Contemporaneously with public lamps were improved organizations
for night-watchmen and police.

By the sixteenth century, mechanical inventions and manufacturing
improvements were exercising a conspicuous influence on domestic
and social life. There were looking-glasses and clocks on the
walls, mantels over the fireplaces. Though in many districts the
kitchen-fire was still supplied with turf, the use of coal began
to prevail. The table in the dining-room offered new delicacies;
commerce was bringing to it foreign products; the coarse drinks
of the North were supplanted by the delicate wines of the South.
Ice-houses were constructed. The bolting of flour, introduced at
the windmills, had given whiter and finer bread. By degrees
things that had been rarities became common--Indian-corn, the
potato, the turkey, and, conspicuous in the long list, tobacco.
Forks, an Italian invention, displaced the filthy use of the
fingers. It may be said that the diet of civilized men now
underwent a radical change. Tea came from China, coffee from
Arabia, the use of sugar from India, and these to no
insignificant degree supplanted fermented liquors. Carpets
replaced on the floors the layer of straw; in the chambers there
appeared better beds, in the wardrobes cleaner and more
frequently-changed clothing. In many towns the aqueduct was
substituted for the public fountain and the street-pump. Ceilings
which in the old days would have been dingy with soot and dirt,
were now decorated with ornamental frescoes. Baths were more
commonly resorted to; there was less need to use perfumery for
the concealment of personal odors. An increasing taste for the
innocent pleasures of horticulture was manifested, by the
introduction of many foreign flowers in the gardens--the
tuberose, the auricula, the crown imperial, the Persian lily, the
ranunculus, and African marigolds. In the streets there appeared
sedans, then close carriages, and at length hackney-coaches.

Among the dull rustics mechanical improvements forced their way,
and gradually attained, in the implements for ploughing, sowing,
mowing, reaping, thrashing, the perfection of our own times.

MERCANTILE INVENTIONS. It began to be recognized, in spite of the
preaching of the mendicant orders, that poverty is the source of
crime, the obstruction to knowledge; that the pursuit of riches
by commerce is far better than the acquisition of power by war.
For, though it may be true, as Montesquieu says, that, while
commerce unites nations, it antagonizes individuals, and makes a
traffic of morality, it alone can give unity to the world; its
dream, its hope, is universal peace.

MEDICAL IMPROVEMENTS. Though, instead of a few pages, it would
require volumes to record adequately the ameliorations that took
place in domestic and social life after science began to exert
its beneficent influences, and inventive talent came to the aid
of industry, there are some things which cannot be passed in
silence. From the port of Barcelona the Spanish khalifs had
carried on an enormous commerce, and they with their
coadjutors--Jewish merchants --had adopted or originated many
commercial inventions, which, with matters of pure science, they
had transmitted to the trading communities of Europe. The art of
book-keeping by double entry was thus brought into Upper Italy.
The different kinds of insurance were adopted, though strenuously
resisted by the clergy. They opposed fire and marine insurance,
on the ground that it is a tempting of Providence. Life insurance
was regarded as an act of interference with the consequences of
God's will. Houses for lending money on interest and on pledges,
that is, banking and pawnbroking establishments, were bitterly
denounced, and especially was indignation excited against the
taking of high rates of interest, which was stigmatized as
usury--a feeling existing in some backward communities up to the
present day. Bills of exchange in the present form and terms were
adopted, the office of the public notary established, and
protests for dishonored obligations resorted to. Indeed, it may
be said, with but little exaggeration, that the commercial
machinery now used was thus introduced. I have already remarked
that, in consequence of the discovery of America, the front of
Europe had been changed. Many rich Italian merchants and many
enterprising Jews, had settled in Holland England, France, and
brought into those countries various mercantile devices. The
Jews, who cared nothing about papal maledictions, were enriched
by the pontifical action in relation to the lending of money at
high interest; but Pius II., perceiving the mistake that had been
made, withdrew his opposition. Pawnbroking establishments were
finally authorized by Leo X., who threatened excommunication of
those who wrote against them. In their turn the Protestants now
exhibited a dislike against establishments thus authorized by
Rome. As the theological dogma, that the plague, like the
earthquake, is an unavoidable visitation from God for the sins of
men, began to be doubted, attempts were made to resist its
progress by the establishment of quarantines. When the Mohammedan
discovery of inoculation was brought from Constantinople in 1721,
by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, it was so strenuously resisted by
the clergy, that nothing short of its adoption by the royal
family of England brought it into use. A similar resistance was
exhibited when Jenner introduced his great improvement,
vaccination; yet a century ago it was the exception to see a face
unpitted by smallpox-- now it is the exception to see one so
disfigured. In like manner, when the great American discovery of
anaesthetics was applied in obstetrical cases, it was
discouraged, not so much for physiological reasons, as under the
pretense that it was an impious attempt to escape from the curse
denounced against all women in Genesis iii. 16.

MAGIC AND MIRACLES. Inventive ingenuity did not restrict itself
to the production of useful contrivances, it added amusing ones.
Soon after the introduction of science into Italy, the houses of
the virtuosi began to abound in all kinds of curious mechanical
surprises, and, as they were termed, magical effects. In the
latter the invention of the magic-lantern greatly assisted. Not
without reason did the ecclesiastics detest experimental
philosophy, for a result of no little importance ensued--the
juggler became a successful rival to the miracle-worker. The
pious frauds enacted in the churches lost their wonder when
brought into competition with the tricks of the conjurer in the
market-place: he breathed flame, walked on burning coals, held
red-hot iron in his teeth, drew basketfuls of eggs out of his
mouth, worked miracles by marionettes. Yet the old idea of the
supernatural was with difficulty destroyed. A horse, whose master
had taught him many tricks, was tried at Lisbon in 1601, found
guilty of being, possessed by the devil, and was burnt. Still
later than that many witches were brought to the stake.

DISCOVERIES IN ASTRONOMY AND CHEMISTRY. Once fairly introduced,
discovery and invention have unceasingly advanced at an
accelerated pace. Each continually reacted on the other,
continually they sapped supernaturalism. De Dominis commenced,
and Newton completed, the explanation of the rainbow; they showed
that it was not the weapon of warfare of God, but the accident of
rays of light in drops of water. De Dominis was decoyed to Rome
through the promise of an archbishopric, and the hope of a
cardinal's hat. He was lodged in a fine residence, but carefully
watched. Accused of having suggested a concord between Rome and
England, he was imprisoned in the castle of St Angelo, and there
died. He was brought in his coffin before an ecclesiastical
tribunal, adjudged guilty of heresy, and his body, with a heap of
heretical books, was cast into the flames. Franklin, by
demonstrating the identity of lightning and electricity, deprived
Jupiter of his thunder-bolt. The marvels of superstition were
displaced by the wonders of truth. The two telescopes, the
reflector and the achromatic, inventions of the last century,
permitted man to penetrate into the infinite grandeurs of the
universe, to recognize, as far as such a thing is possible, its
illimitable spaces, its measureless times; and a little later the
achromatic microscope placed before his eyes the world of the
infinitely small. The air-balloon carried him above the clouds,
the diving- bell to the bottom of the sea. The thermometer gave
him true measures of the variations of heat; the barometer, of
the pressure of the air. The introduction of the balance imparted
exactness to chemistry, it proved the indestructibility of
matter. The discovery of oxygen, hydrogen, and many other gases,
the isolation of aluminum, calcium, and other metals, showed that
earth and air and water are not elements. With an enterprise that
can never be too much commended, advantage was taken of the
transits of Venus, and, by sending expeditions to different
regions, the distance of the earth from the sun was determined.
The step that European intellect had made between 1456 and 1759
was illustrated by Halley's comet. When it appeared in the former
year, it was considered as the harbinger of the vengeance of God,
the dispenser of the most dreadful of his retributions, war,
pestilence, famine. By order of the pope, all the church-bells in
Europe were rung to scare it away, the faithful were commanded to
add each day another prayer; and, as their prayers had often in
so marked a manner been answered in eclipses and droughts and
rains, so on this occasion it was declared that a victory over
the comet had been vouchsafed to the pope. But, in the mean time,
Halley, guided by the revelations of Kepler and Newton, had
discovered that its motions, so far from being controlled by the
supplications of Christendom, were guided in an elliptic orbit by
destiny. Knowing that Nature bad denied to him an opportunity of
witnessing the fulfillment of his daring prophecy, he besought
the astronomers of the succeeding generation to watch for its
return in 1759, and in that year it came.

INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES. Whoever will in a spirit of
impartiality examine what had been done by Catholicism for the
intellectual and material advancement of Europe, during her long
reign, and what has been done by science in its brief period of
action, can, I am persuaded, come to no other conclusion than
this, that, in instituting a comparison, he has established a
contrast. And yet, how imperfect, how inadequate is the catalogue
of facts I have furnished in the foregoing pages! I have said
nothing of the spread of instruction by the diffusion of the arts
of reading and writing, through public schools, and the
consequent creation of a reading community; the modes of
manufacturing public opinion by newspapers and reviews, the power
of journalism, the diffusion of information public and private by
the post-office and cheap mails, the individual and social
advantages of newspaper advertisements. I have said nothing of
the establishment of hospitals, the first exemplar of which was
the Invalides of Paris; nothing of the improved prisons,
reformatories, penitentiaries, asylums, the treatment of
lunatics, paupers, criminals; nothing of the construction of
canals, of sanitary engineering, or of census reports; nothing of
the invention of stereotyping, bleaching by chlorine, the
cotton-gin, or of the marvelous contrivances with which
cotton-mills are filled--contrivances which have given us cheap
clothing, and therefore added to cleanliness, comfort, health;
nothing of the grand advancement of medicine and surgery, or of
the discoveries in physiology, the cultivation of the fine arts,
the improvement of agriculture and rural economy, the
introduction of chemical manures and farm-machinery. I have not
referred to the manufacture of iron and its vast affiliated
industries; to those of textile fabrics; to the collection of
museums of natural history, antiquities, curiosities. I have
passed unnoticed the great subject of the manufacture of
machinery by itself--the invention of the slide-rest, the
planing-machine, and many other contrivances by which engines can
be constructed with almost mathematical correctness. I have said
nothing adequate about the railway system, or the electric
telegraph, nor about the calculus, or lithography, the airpump,
or the voltaic battery; the discovery of Uranus or Neptune, and
more than a hundred asteroids; the relation of meteoric streams
to comets; nothing of the expeditions by land and sea that have
been sent forth by various governments for the determination of
important astronomical or geographical questions; nothing of the
costly and accurate experiments they have caused to be made for
the ascertainment of fundamental physical data. I have been so
unjust to our own century that I have made no allusion to some of
its greatest scientific triumphs: its grand conceptions in
natural history; its discoveries in magnetism and electricity;
its invention of the beautiful art of photography; its
applications of spectrum analysis; its attempts to bring
chemistry under the three laws of Avogadro, of Boyle and
Mariotte, and of Charles; its artificial production of organic
substances from inorganic material, of which the philosophical
consequences are of the utmost importance; its reconstruction of
physiology by laying the foundation of that science on chemistry;
its improvements and advances in topographical surveying and in
the correct representation of the surface of the globe. I have
said nothing about rifled-guns and armored ships, nor of the
revolution that has been made in the art of war; nothing of that
gift to women, the sewing-machine; nothing of the noble
contentions and triumphs of the arts of peace--the industrial
exhibitions and world's fairs.

What a catalogue have we here, and yet how imperfect! It gives
merely a random glimpse at an ever-increasing intellectual
commotion--a mention of things as they casually present
themselves to view. How striking the contrast between this
literary, this scientific activity, and the stagnation of the
middle ages!

The intellectual enlightenment that surrounds this activity has
imparted unnumbered blessings to the human race. In Russia it has
emancipated a vast serf- population; in America it has given
freedom to four million negro slaves. In place of the sparse dole
of the monastery-gate, it has organized charity and directed
legislation to the poor. It has shown medicine its true function,
to prevent rather than to cure disease. In statesmanship it has
introduced scientific methods, displacing random and empirical
legislation by a laborious ascertainment of social facts previous
to the application of legal remedies. So conspicuous, so
impressive is the manner in which it is elevating men, that the
hoary nations of Asia seek to participate in the boon. Let us not
forget that our action on them must be attended by their reaction
on us. If the destruction of paganism was completed when all the
gods were brought to Rome and confronted there, now, when by our
wonderful facilities of locomotion strange nations and
conflicting religions are brought into common presence--the
Mohammedan, the Buddhist, the Brahman-modifications of them all
must ensue. In that conflict science alone will stand secure; for
it has given us grander views of the universe, more awful views
of God.

AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS. The spirit that has imparted
life to this movement, that has animated these discoveries and
inventions, is Individualism; in some minds the hope of gain, in
other and nobler ones the expectation of honor. It is, then, not
to be wondered at that this principle found a political
embodiment, and that, during the last century, on two occasions,
it gave rise to social convulsions--the American and the French
Revolutions. The former has ended in the dedication of a
continent to Individualism--there, under republican forms, before
the close of the present century, one hundred million people,
with no more restraint than their common security requires, will
be pursuing an unfettered career. The latter, though it has
modified the political aspect of all Europe, and though
illustrated by surprising military successes, has, thus far, not
consummated its intentions; again and again it has brought upon
France fearful disasters. Her dual form of government--her
allegiance to her two sovereigns, the political and the
spiritual--has made her at once the leader and the antagonist of
modern progress. With one hand she has enthroned Reason, with the
other she has re-established and sustained the pope. Nor will
this anomaly in her conduct cease until she bestows a true
education on all her children, even on those of the humblest
rustic.

SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION. The intellectual attack made on
existing opinions by the French Revolution was not of a
scientific, but of a literary character; it was critical and
aggressive. But Science has never been an aggressor. She has
always acted on the defensive, and left to her antagonist the
making of wanton attacks. Nevertheless, literary dissent is not
of such ominous import as scientific; for literature is, in its
nature, local--science is cosmopolitan.

If, now, we demand, What has science done for the promotion of
modern civilization; what has it done for the happiness, the
well-being of society? we shall find our answer in the same
manner that we reached a just estimate of what Latin Christianity
had done. The reader of the foregoing paragraphs would
undoubtedly infer that there must have been an amelioration in
the lot of our race; but, when we apply the touchstone of
statistics, that inference gathers precision. Systems of
philosophy and forms of religion find a measure of their
influence on humanity in census-returns. Latin Christianity, in a
thousand years, could not double the population of Europe; it did
not add perceptibly to the term of individual life. But, as Dr.
Jarvis, in his report to the Massachusetts Board of Health, has
stated, at the epoch of the Reformation "the average longevity in
Geneva was 21.21 years, between 1814 and 1833 it was 40.68; as
large a number of persons now live to seventy years as lived to
forty, three hundred years ago. In 1693 the British Government
borrowed money by selling annuities on lives from infancy upward,
on the basis of the average longevity. The contract was
profitable. Ninety-seven years later another tontine, or scale of
annuities, on the basis of the same expectation of life as in the
previous century, was issued. These latter annuitants, however,
lived so much longer than their predecessors, that it proved to
be a very costly loan for the government. It was found that,
while ten thousand of each sex in the first tontine died under
the age of twenty-eight, only five thousand seven hundred and
seventy-two males and six thousand four hundred and sixteen
females in the second tontine died at the same age, one hundred
years later."

We have been comparing the spiritual with the practical, the
imaginary with the real. The maxims that have been followed in
the earlier and the later period produced their inevitable
result. In the former that maxim was, "Ignorance is the mother of
Devotion in the latter, "Knowledge is Power."



CHAPTER XII.

THE IMPENDING CRISIS. Indications of the approach of a religious
crisis.--The predominating Christian Church, the Roman, perceives
this, and makes preparation for it.--Pius IX convokes an
Oecumenical Council--Relations of the different European
governments to the papacy.--Relations of the Church to Science,
as indicated by the Encyclical Letter and the Syllabus.

Acts of the Vatican Council in relation to the infallibility of
the pope, and to Science.--Abstract of decisions arrived at.

Controversy between the Prussian Government and the papacy.--It
is a contest between the State and the Church for
supremacy--Effect of dual government in Europe--Declaration by
the Vatican Council of its position as to Science--The dogmatic
constitution of the Catholic faith.--Its definitions respecting
God, Revelation, Faith, Reason.--The anathemas it
pronounces.--Its denunciation of modern civilization.

The Protestant Evangelical Alliance and its acts.

General review of the foregoing definitions, and acts.--Present
condition of the controversy, and its future prospects.


PREDOMINANCE OF CATHOLICITY. No one who is acquainted with the
present tone of thought in Christendom can hide from himself the
fact that an intellectual, a religious crisis is impending.

In all directions we see the lowering skies, we hear the
mutterings of the coming storm. In Germany, the national party is
arraying itself against the ultramontane; in France, the men of
progress are struggling against the unprogressive, and in their
contest the political supremacy of that great country is wellnigh
neutralized or lost. In Italy, Rome has passed into the hands of
an excommunicated king. The sovereign pontiff, feigning that he
is a prisoner, is fulminating from the Vatican his anathemas,
and, in the midst of the most convincing proofs of his manifold
errors, asserting his own infallibility. A Catholic archbishop
with truth declares that the whole civil society of Europe seems
to be withdrawing itself in its public life from Christianity. In
England and America, religious persons perceive with dismay that
the intellectual basis of faith has been undermined by the spirit
of the age. They prepare for the approaching disaster in the best
manner they can.

The most serious trial through which society can pass is
encountered in the exuviation of its religious restraints. The
history of Greece and the history of Rome exhibit to us in an
impressive manner how great are the perils. But it is not given
to religions to endure forever. They necessarily undergo
transformation with the intellectual development of man. How many
countries are there professing the same religion now that they
did at the birth of Christ?

It is estimated that the entire population of Europe is about
three hundred and one million. Of these, one hundred and
eighty-five million are Roman Catholics, thirty-three million are
Greek Catholics. Of Protestants there are seventy-one million,
separated into many sects. Of Jews, five million; of Mohammedans,
seven million.

Of the religious subdivisions of America an accurate numerical
statement cannot be given. The whole of Christian South America
is Roman Catholic, the same may be said of Central America and of
Mexico, as also of the Spanish and French West India possessions.
In the United States and Canada the Protestant population
predominates. To Australia the same remark applies. In India the
sparse Christian population sinks into insignificance in presence
of two hundred million Mohammedans and other Oriental
denominations. The Roman Catholic Church is the most widely
diffused and the most powerfully organized of all modern
societies. It is far more a political than a religious
combination. Its principle is that all power is in the clergy,
and that for laymen there is only the privilege of obedience. The
republican forms under which the Churches existed in primitive
Christianity have gradually merged into an absolute
centralization, with a man as vice-God at its head. This Church
asserts that the divine commission under which it acts comprises
civil government; that it has a right to use the state for its
own purposes, but that the state has no right to intermeddle with
it; that even in Protestant countries it is not merely a
coordinate government, but the sovereign power. It insists that
the state has no rights over any thing which it declares to be in
its domain, and that Protestantism, being a mere rebellion, has
no rights at all; that even in Protestant communities the
Catholic bishop is the only lawful spiritual pastor.

It is plain, therefore, that of professing Christians the vast
majority are Catholic; and such is the authoritative demand of
the papacy for supremacy, that, in any survey of the present
religious condition of Christendom, regard must be mainly had to
its acts. Its movements are guided by the highest intelligence
and skill. Catholicism obeys the orders of one man, and has
therefore a unity, a compactness, a power, which Protestant
denominations do not possess. Moreover, it derives inestimable
strength from the souvenirs of the great name of Rome.

Unembarrassed by any hesitating sentiment, the papacy has
contemplated the coming intellectual crisis. It has pronounced
its decision, and occupied what seems to it to be the most
advantageous ground.

This definition of position we find in the acts of the late
Vatican Council.

THE OECUMENICAL COUNCIL. Pius IX., by a bull dated June 29, 1868,
convoked an Oecumenical Council, to meet in Rome, on December 8,
1869. Its sessions ended in July, 1870. Among other matters
submitted to its consideration, two stand forth in conspicuous
prominence--they are the assertion of the infallibility of the
Roman pontiff, and the definition of the relations of religion to
science.

But the convocation of the Council was far from meeting with
general approval.

The views of the Oriental Churches were, for the most part,
unfavorable. They affirmed that they saw a desire in the Roman
pontiff to set himself up as the head of Christianity, whereas
they recognized the Lord Jesus Christ alone as the head of the
Church. They believed that the Council would only lead to new
quarrels and scandals. The sentiment of these venerable Churches
is well shown by the incident that, when, in 1867, the Nestorian
Patriarch Simeon had been invited by the Chaldean Patriarch to
return to Roman Catholic unity, he, in his reply, showed that
there was no prospect for harmonious action between the East and
the West: "You invite me to kiss humbly the slipper of the Bishop
of Rome; but is he not, in every respect, a man like yourself--is
his dignity superior to yours? We will never permit to be
introduced into our holy temples of worship images and statues,
which are nothing but abominable and impure idols. What! shall we
attribute to Almighty God a mother, as you dare to do? Away from
us, such blasphemy!"

EXPECTATIONS OF THE PAPACY. Eventually, the patriarchs,
archbishops, and bishops, from all regions of the world, who took
part in this Council, were seven hundred and four.

Rome had seen very plainly that Science was not only rapidly
undermining the dogmas of the papacy, but was gathering great
political power. She recognized that all over Europe there was a
fast-spreading secession among persons of education, and that its
true focus was North Germany.

She looked, therefore, with deep interest on the Prusso-Austrian
War, giving to Austria whatever encouragement she could. The
battle of Sadowa was a bitter disappointment to her.

With satisfaction again she looked upon the breaking out of the
Franco-Prussian War, not doubting that its issue would be
favorable to France, and therefore favorable to her. Here, again,
she was doomed to disappointment at Sedan.

Having now no further hope, for many years to come, from external
war, she resolved to see what could be done by internal
insurrection, and the present movement in the German Empire is
the result of her machinations.

Had Austria or had France succeeded, Protestantism would have
been overthrown along with Prussia.

But, while these military movements were being carried on, a
movement of a different, an intellectual kind, was engaged in.
Its principle was, to restore the worn-out mediaeval doctrines
and practices, carrying them to an extreme, no matter what the
consequences might be.

ENCYCLICAL LETTER AND SYLLABUS. Not only was it asserted that the
papacy has a divine right to participate in the government of all
countries, coordinately with their temporal authorities, but that
the supremacy of Rome in this matter must be recognized; and that
in any question between them the temporal authority must conform
itself to her order.

And, since the endangering of her position had been mainly
brought about by the progress of science, she presumed to define
its boundaries, and prescribe limits to its authority. Still
more, she undertook to denounce modern civilization.

These measures were contemplated soon after the return of his
Holiness from Gaeta in 1848, and were undertaken by the advice of
the Jesuits, who, lingering in the hope that God would work the
impossible, supposed that the papacy, in its old age, might be
reinvigorated. The organ of the Curia proclaimed the absolute
independence of the Church as regards the state; the dependence
of the bishops on the pope; of the diocesan clergy on the
bishops; the obligation of the Protestants to abandon their
atheism, and return to the fold; the absolute condemnation of all
kinds of toleration. In December, 1854, in an assembly of
bishops, the pope had proclaimed the dogma of the immaculate
conception. Ten years subsequently he put forth the celebrated
Encyclical Letter and the Syllabus.

The Encyclical Letter is dated December 8, 1864. It was drawn up
by learned ecclesiastics, and subsequently debated at the
Congregation of the Holy Office, then forwarded to prelates, and
finally gone over by the pope and cardinals.

ENCYCLICAL LETTER AND SYLLABUS. Many of the clergy objected to
its condemnation of modern civilization. Some of the cardinals
were reluctant to concur in it. The Catholic press accepted it,
not, however, without misgivings and regrets. The Protestant
governments put no obstacle in its way; the Catholic were
embarrassed by it. France allowed the publication only of that
portion proclaiming the jubilee; Austria and Italy permitted its
introduction, but withheld their approval. The political press
and legislatures of Catholic countries gave it an unfavorable
reception. Many deplored it as likely to widen the breach between
the Church and modern society. The Italian press regarded it as
determining a war, without truce or armistice, between the papacy
and modern civilization. Even in Spain there were journals that
regretted "the obstinacy and blindness of the court of Rome, in
branding and condemning modern civilization."

It denounces that "most pernicious and insane opinion, that
liberty of conscience and of worship is the right of every man,
and that this right ought, in every well-governed state, to be
proclaimed and asserted by law; and that the will of the people,
manifested by public opinion (as it is called), or by other
means, constitutes a supreme law, independent of all divine and
human rights." It denies the right of parents to educate their
children outside the Catholic Church. It denounces "the
impudence" of those who presume to subordinate the authority of
the Church and of the Apostolic See, "conferred upon it by Christ
our Lord, to the judgment of the civil authority." His Holiness
commends, to the venerable brothers to whom the Encyclical is
addressed, incessant prayer, and, "in order that God may accede
the more easily to our and your prayers, let us employ in all
confidence, as our mediatrix with him, the Virgin Mary, mother of
God, who sits as a queen upon the right hand of her only-begotten
Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, in a golden vestment, clothed around
with various adornments. There is nothing she cannot obtain from
him."

CONVOCATION OF THE COUNCIL. Plainly, the principle now avowed by
the papacy must bring it into collision even with governments
which had heretofore maintained amicable relations with it. Great
dissatisfaction was manifested by Russia, and the incidents that
ensued drew forth from his Holiness an allocution (November,
1866) condemnatory of the course of that government. To this,
Russia replied, by declaring the Concordat of 1867 abrogated.

Undeterred by the result of the battle of Sadowa (July, 1866),
though it was plain that the political condition of Europe was
now profoundly affected, and especially the relations of the
papacy, the pope delivered an allocution (June 27, 1867),
confirming the Encyclical and Syllabus. He announced his
intention of convoking an Oecumenical Council.

Accordingly, as we have already mentioned, in the following year
(June 29, 1868), a bull was issued convoking that Council.
Misunderstandings, however, had now sprung up with Austria. The
Austrian Reichsrath had adopted laws introducing equality of
civil rights for all the inhabitants of the empire, and
restricting the influence of the Church. This produced on the
part of the papal government an expostulation. Acting as Russia
had done, the Austrian Government found it necessary to abrogate
the Concordat of 1855.

In France, as above stated, the publication of the entire
Syllabus was not permitted; but Prussia, desirous of keeping on
good terms with the papacy, did not disallow it. The exacting
disposition of the papacy increased. It was openly declared that
the faithful must now sacrifice to the Church, property, life,
and even their intellectual convictions. The Protestants and the
Greeks were invited to tender their submission.

THE VATICAN COUNCIL. On the appointed day, the Council opened.
Its objects were, to translate the Syllabus into practice, to
establish the dogma of papal infallibility, and define the
relations of religion to science. Every preparation had been made
that the points determined on should be carried. The bishops were
informed that they were coming to Rome not to deliberate, but to
sanction decrees previously made by an infallible pope. No idea
was entertained of any such thing as free discussion. The minutes
of the meetings were not permitted to be inspected; the prelates
of the opposition were hardly allowed to speak. On January 22,
1870, a petition, requesting that the infallibility of the pope
should be defined, was presented; an opposition petition of the
minority was offered. Hereupon, the deliberations of the minority
were forbidden, and their publications prohibited. And, though
the Curia had provided a compact majority, it was found expedient
to issue an order that to carry any proposition it was not
necessary that the vote should be near unanimity, a simple
majority sufficed. The remonstrances of the minority were
altogether unheeded.

As the Council pressed forward to its object, foreign authorities
became alarmed at its reckless determination. A petition drawn up
by the Archbishop of Vienna, and signed by several cardinals and
archbishops, entreated his Holiness not to submit the dogma of
infallibility for consideration, "because the Church has to
sustain at present a struggle unknown in former times, against
men who oppose religion itself as an institution baneful to human
nature, and that it is inopportune to impose upon Catholic
nations, led into temptation by so many machinations, more dogmas
than the Council of Trent proclaimed." It added that "the
definition demanded would furnish fresh arms to the enemies of
religion, to excite against the Catholic Church the resentment of
men avowedly the best." The Austrian prime-minister addressed a
protest to the papal government, warning it against any steps
that might lead to encroachments on the rights of Austria. The
French Government also addressed a note, suggesting that a French
bishop should explain to the Council the condition and the rights
of France. To this the papal government replied that a bishop
could not reconcile the double duties of an ambassador and a
Father of the Council. Hereupon, the French Government, in a very
respectful note, remarked that, to prevent ultra opinions from
becoming dogmas, it reckoned on the moderation of the bishops,
and the prudence of the Holy Father; and, to defend its civil and
political laws against the encroachments of the theocracy, it had
counted on public reason and the patriotism of French Catholics.
In these remonstrances the North-German Confederation joined,
seriously pressing them on the consideration of the papal
government.

On April 23d, Von Arnim, the Prussian embassador, united with
Daru, the French minister, in suggesting to the Curia the
inexpediency of reviving mediaeval ideas. The minority bishops,
thus encouraged, demanded now that the relations of the spiritual
to the secular power should be determined before the pope's
infallibility was discussed, and that it should be settled
whether Christ had conferred on St. Peter and his successors a
power over kings and emperors.

INFALLIBILITY OF THE POPE. No regard was paid to this, not even
delay was consented to. The Jesuits, who were at the bottom of
the movement, carried their measures through the packed assembly
with a high hand. The Council omitted no device to screen itself
from popular criticism. Its proceedings were conducted with the
utmost secrecy; all who took part in them were bound by a solemn
oath to observe silence.

On July 13th, the votes were taken. Of 601 votes, 451 were
affirmative. Under the majority rule, the measure was pronounced
carried, and, five days subsequently, the pope proclaimed the
dogma of his infallibility. It has often been remarked that this
was the day on which the French declared war against Prussia.
Eight days afterward the French troops were withdrawn from Rome.
Perhaps both the statesman and the philosopher will admit that an
infallible pope would be a great harmonizing element, if only
common-sense could acknowledge him.

Hereupon, the King of Italy addressed an autograph letter to the
pope, setting forth in very respectful terms the necessity that
his troops should advance and occupy positions "indispensable to
the security of his Holiness, and the maintenance of order;"
that, while satisfying the national aspirations, the chief of
Catholicity, surrounded by the devotion of the Italian
populations, "might preserve on the banks of the Tiber a glorious
seat, independent of all human sovereignty."

To this his Holiness replied in a brief and caustic letter: "I
give thanks to God, who has permitted your majesty to fill the
last days of my life with bitterness. For the rest, I cannot
grant certain requests, nor conform with certain principles
contained in your letter. Again, I call upon God, and into his
hands commit my cause, which is his cause. I pray God to grant
your majesty many graces, to free you from dangers, and to
dispense to you his mercy which you so much need."

THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT. The Italian troops met with but little
resistance. They occupied Rome on September 20, 1870. A manifesto
was issued, setting forth the details of a plebiscitum, the vote
to be by ballot, the question, "the unification of Italy." Its
result showed how completely the popular mind in Italy is
emancipated from theology. In the Roman provinces the number of
votes on the lists was 167,548; the number who voted, 135,291;
the number who voted for annexation, 133,681; the number who
voted against it, 1,507; votes annulled, 103. The Parliament of
Italy ratified the vote of the Roman people for annexation by a
vote of 239 to 20. A royal decree now announced the annexation of
the Papal States to the kingdom of Italy, and a manifesto was
issued indicating the details of the arrangement. It declared
that "by these concessions the Italian Government seeks to prove
to Europe that Italy respects the sovereignty of the pope in
conformity with the principle of a free Church in a free state."

AFFAIRS IN PRUSSIA. In the Prusso-Austrian War it had been the
hope of the papacy, to restore the German Empire under Austria,
and make Germany a Catholic nation. In the Franco- German War the
French expected ultramontane sympathies in Germany. No means were
spared to excite Catholic sentiment against the Protestants. No
vilification was spared. They were spoken of as atheists; they
were declared incapable of being honest men; their sects were
pointed out as indicating that their secession was in a state of
dissolution. "The followers of Luther are the most abandoned men
in all Europe." Even the pope himself, presuming that the whole
world had forgotten all history, did not hesitate to say, "Let
the German people understand that no other Church but that of
Rome is the Church of freedom and progress."

Meantime, among the clergy of Germany a party was organized to
remonstrate against, and even resist, the papal usurpation. It
protested against "a man being placed on the throne of God,"
against a vice-God of any kind, nor would it yield its scientific
convictions to ecclesiastical authority. Some did not hesitate to
accuse the pope himself of being a heretic. Against these
insubordinates excommunications began to be fulminated, and at
length it was demanded that certain professors and teachers
should be removed from their offices, and infallibilists
substituted. With this demand the Prussian Government declined to
comply.

The Prussian Government had earnestly desired to remain on
amicable terms with the papacy; it had no wish to enter on a
theological quarrel; but gradually the conviction was forced upon
it that the question was not a religious but a political
one--whether the power of the state should be used against the
state. A teacher in a gymnasium had been excommunicated; the
government, on being required to dismiss him, refused. The Church
authorities denounced this as an attack upon faith. The emperor
sustained his minister. The organ of the infallible party
threatened the emperor with the opposition of all good Catholics,
and told him that, in a contention with the pope, systems of
government can and must change. It was now plain to every one
that the question had become, "Who is to be master in the state,
the government or the Roman Church? It is plainly impossible for
men to live under two governments, one of which declares to be
wrong what the other commands. If the government will not submit
to the Roman Church, the two are enemies." A conflict was thus
forced upon Prussia by Rome--a conflict in which the latter,
impelled by her antagonism to modern civilization, is clearly the
aggressor.

ACTION OF THE PRUSSIAN GOVERNMENT. The government, now
recognizing its antagonist, defended itself by abolishing the
Catholic department in the ministry of Public Worship. This was
about midsummer, 1871. In the following November the Imperial
Parliament passed a law that ecclesiastics abusing their office,
to the disturbance of the public peace, should be criminally
punished. And, guided by the principle that the future belongs to
him to whom the school belongs, a movement arose for the purpose
of separating the schools from the Church.

THE CHURCH A POLITICAL POWER. The Jesuit party was extending and
strengthening an organization all over Germany, based on the
principle that state legislation in ecclesiastical matters is not
binding. Here was an act of open insurrection. Could the
government allow itself to be intimidated? The Bishop of Ermeland
declared that he would not obey the laws of the state if they
touched the Church. The government stopped the payment of his
salary; and, perceiving that there could be no peace so long as
the Jesuits were permitted to remain in the country, their
expulsion was resolved on, and carried into effect. At the close
of 1872 his Holiness delivered an allocution, in which he touched
on the "persecution of the Church in the German Empire," and
asserted that the Church alone has a right to fix the limits
between its domain and that of the state--a dangerous and
inadmissible principle, since under the term morals the Church
comprises all the relations of men to each other, and asserts
that whatever does not assist her oppresses her. Hereupon, a few
days subsequently (January 9, 1873), four laws were brought
forward by the government: 1. Regulating the means by which a
person might sever his connection with the Church; 2. Restricting
the Church in the exercise of ecclesiastical punishments; 3.
Regulating the ecclesiastical power of discipline, forbidding
bodily chastisement, regulating fines and banishments granting
the privilege of an appeal to the Royal Court of Justice for
Ecclesiastical Affairs, the decision of which is final; 4.
Ordaining the preliminary education and appointment of priests.
They must have had a satisfactory education, passed a public
examination conducted by the state, and have a knowledge of
philosophy, history, and German literature. Institutions refusing
to be superintended by the state are to be closed.

These laws demonstrate that Germany is resolved that she will no
longer be dictated to nor embarrassed by a few Italian noble
families; that she will be master of her own house. She sees in
the conflict, not an affair of religion or of conscience, but a
struggle between the sovereignty of state legislation and the
sovereignty of the Church. She treats the papacy not in the
aspect of a religious, but of a political power, and is resolved
that the declaration of the Prussian Constitution shall be
maintained, that "the exercise of religious freedom must not
interfere with the duties of a citizen toward the community and
the state."

DUAL GOVERNMENT IN EUROPE. With truth it is affirmed that the
papacy is administered not oecumenically, not as a universal
Church, for all the nations, but for the benefit of some Italian
families. Look at its composition! It consists of pope, cardinal
bishops, cardinal deacons, who at the present moment are all
Italians; cardinal priests, nearly all Italians; ministers and
secretaries of the Sacred Congregation in Rome, all Italians.
France has not given a pope since the middle ages. It is the same
with Austria, Portugal, Spain. In spite of all attempts to change
this system of exclusion, to open the dignities of the Church to
all Catholicism, no foreigner can reach the holy chair. It is
recognized that the Church is a domain given by God to the
princely Italian families. Of fifty-five members of the present
College of Cardinals, forty are Italians--that is, thirty-two
beyond their proper share.

The stumbling-block to the progress of Europe has been its dual
system of government. So long as every nation had two sovereigns,
a temporal one at home and a spiritual one in a foreign
land--there being different temporal masters in different
nations, but only one foreign master for all, the pontiff at
Rome--how was it possible that history should present us with any
thing more than a narrative of the strifes of these rival powers?
Whoever will reflect on this state of things will see how it is
that those nations which have shaken off the dual form of
government are those which have made the greatest advance. He
will discern what is the cause of the paralysis which has
befallen France. On one hand she wishes to be the leader of
Europe, on the other she clings to a dead past. For the sake of
propitiating her ignorant classes, she enters upon lines of
policy which her intelligence must condemn. So evenly balanced
are the two sovereignties under which she lives, that sometimes
one, sometimes the other, prevails; and not unfrequently the one
uses the other as an engine for the accomplishment of its ends.

INTENTIONS OF THE POPE. But this dual system approaches its
close. To the northern nations, less imaginative and less
superstitious, it had long ago become intolerable; they rejected
it summarily at the epoch of the Reformation, notwithstanding the
protestations and pretensions of Rome, Russia, happier than the
rest, has never acknowledged the influence of any foreign
spiritual power. She gloried in her attachment to the ancient
Greek rite, and saw in the papacy nothing more than a troublesome
dissenter from the primitive faith. In America the temporal and
the spiritual have been absolutely divorced--the latter is not
permitted to have any thing to do with affairs of state, though
in all other respects liberty is conceded to it. The condition of
the New World also satisfies us that both forms of Christianity,
Catholic and Protestant, have lost their expansive power; neither
can pass beyond its long-established boundary-line--the Catholic
republics remain Catholic, the Protestant Protestant. And among
the latter the disposition to sectarian isolation is
disappearing; persons of different denominations consort without
hesitation together. They gather their current opinions from
newspapers, not from the Church.

Pius IX., in the movements we have been considering, has had two
objects in view: 1. The more thorough centralization of the
papacy, with a spiritual autocrat assuming the prerogatives of
God at its head; 2. Control over the intellectual development of
the nations professing Christianity.

The logical consequence of the former of these is political
intervention. He insists that in all cases the temporal must
subordinate itself to the spiritual power; all laws inconsistent
with the interests of the Church must be repealed. They are not
binding on the faithful. In the preceding pages I have briefly
related some of the complications that have already occurred in
the attempt to maintain this policy.

THE SYLLABUS. I now come to the consideration of the manner in
which the papacy proposes to establish its intellectual control;
how it defines its relation to its antagonist, Science, and,
seeking a restoration of the mediaeval condition, opposes modern
civilization, and denounces modern society.

The Encyclical and Syllabus present the principles which it was
the object of the Vatican Council to carry into practical effect.
The Syllabus stigmatizes pantheism, naturalism, and absolute
rationalism, denouncing such opinions as that God is the world;
that there is no God other than Nature; that theological matters
must be treated in the same manner as philosophical ones, that
the methods and principles by which the old scholastic doctors
cultivated theology are no longer suitable to the demands of the
age and the progress of science; that every man is free to
embrace and profess the religion he may believe to be true,
guided by the light of his reason; that it appertains to the
civil power to define what are the rights and limits in which the
Church may exercise authority; that the Church has not the right
of availing herself of force or any direct or indirect temporal
power; that the Church ought to be separated from the state and
the state from the Church; that it is no longer expedient that
the Catholic religion shall be held as the only religion of the
state, to the exclusion of all other modes of worship; that
persons coming to reside in Catholic countries have a right to
the public exercise of their own worship; that the Roman pontiff
can and ought to reconcile himself to, and agree with, the
progress of modern civilization. The Syllabus claims the right of
the Church to control public schools, and denies the right of the
state in that respect; it claims the control over marriage and
divorce.

Such of these principles as the Council found expedient at
present to formularize, were set forth by it in "The Dogmatic
Constitution of the Catholic Faith." The essential points of this
constitution, more especially as regards the relations of
religion to science, we have now to examine. It will be
understood that the following does not present the entire
document, but only an abstract of what appear to be its more
important parts.

CONSTITUTION OF CATHOLIC FAITH. This definition opens with a
severe review of the principles and consequences of the
Protestant Reformation:

"The rejection of the divine authority of the Church to teach,
and the subjection of all things belonging to religion to the
judgment of each individual, have led to the production of many
sects, and, as these differed and disputed with each other, all
belief in Christ was overthrown in the minds of not a few, and
the Holy Scriptures began to be counted as myths and fables.
Christianity has been rejected, and the reign of mere Reason as
they call it, or Nature, substituted; many falling into the abyss
of pantheism, materialism, and atheism, and, repudiating the
reasoning nature of man, and every rule of right and wrong, they
are laboring to overthrow the very foundations of human society.
As this impious heresy is spreading everywhere, not a few
Catholics have been inveigled by it. They have confounded human
science and divine faith.

"But the Church, the Mother and Mistress of nations, is ever
ready to strengthen the weak, to take to her bosom those that
return, and carry them on to better things. And, now the bishops
of the whole world being gathered together in this Oecumenical
Council, and the Holy Ghost sitting therein, and judging with us,
we have determined to declare from this chair of St. Peter the
saving doctrine of Christ, and proscribe and condemn the opposing
errors.

"OF GOD, THE CREATOR OF ALL THINGS.--The Holy Catholic Apostolic
Roman Church believes that there is one true and living God,
Creator and Lord of Heaven and Earth, Almighty, Eternal, Immense,
Incomprehensible, Infinite in understanding and will, and in all
perfection. He is distinct from the world. Of his own most free
counsel he made alike out of nothing two created creatures, a
spiritual and a temporal, angelic and earthly. Afterward be made
the human nature, composed of both. Moreover, God by his
providence protects and governs all things, reaching from end to
end mightily, and ordering all things harmoniously. Every thing
is open to his eyes, even things that come to pass by the free
action of his creatures."

"OF REVELATION.--The Holy Mother Church holds that God can be
known with certainty by the natural light of human reason, but
that it has also pleased him to reveal himself and the eternal
decrees of his will in a supernatural way. This supernatural
revelation, as declared by the Holy Council of Trent, is
contained in the books of the Old and New Testament, as
enumerated in the decrees of that Council, and as are to be had
in the old Vulgate Latin edition. These are sacred because they
were written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. They have
God for their author, and as such have been delivered to the
Church.

"And, in order to restrain restless spirits, who may give
erroneous explanations, it is decreed--renewing the decision of
the Council of Trent--that no one may interpret the sacred
Scriptures contrary to the sense in which they are interpreted by
Holy Mother Church, to whom such interpretation belongs."

"OF FAITH.--Inasmuch as man depends on God as his Lord, and
created reason is wholly subject to uncreated truth, he is bound
when God makes a revelation to obey it by faith. This faith is a
supernatural virtue, and the beginning of man's salvation who
believes revealed things to be true, not for their intrinsic
truth as seen by the natural light of reason, but for the
authority of God in revealing them. But, nevertheless that faith
might be agreeable to reason, God willed to join miracles and
prophecies, which, showing forth his omnipotence and knowledge,
are proofs suited to the understanding of all. Such we have in
Moses and the prophets, and above all in Christ. Now, all those
things are to be believed which are written in the word of God,
or handed down by tradition, which the Church by her teaching has
proposed for belief.

"No one can be justified without this faith, nor shall any one,
unless he persevere therein to the end, attain everlasting life.
Hence God, through his only-begotten Son, has established the
Church as the guardian and teacher of his revealed word. For only
to the Catholic Church do all those signs belong which make
evident the credibility of the Christian faith. Nay, more, the
very Church herself, in view of her wonderful propagation, her
eminent holiness, her exhaustless fruitfulness in all that is
good, her Catholic unity, her unshaken stability, offers a great
and evident claim to belief, and an undeniable proof of her
divine mission. Thus the Church shows to her children that the
faith they hold rests on a most solid foundation. Wherefore,
totally unlike is the condition of those who, by the heavenly
gift of faith, have embraced the Catholic truth, and of those
who, led by human opinions, are following, a false religion."

"OF FAITH AND REASON.--Moreover, the Catholic Church has ever
held and now holds that there exists a twofold order of
knowledge, each of which is distinct from the other, both as to
its principle and its object. As to its principle, because in the
one we know by natural reason, in the other by divine faith; as
to the object, because, besides those things which our natural
reason can attain, there are proposed to our belief mysteries
hidden in God, which, unless by him revealed, cannot come to our
knowledge.

"Reason, indeed, enlightened by faith, and seeking, with
diligence and godly sobriety, may, by God's gift, come to some
understanding, limited in degree, but most wholesome in its
effects, of mysteries, both from the analogy of things which are
naturally known and from the connection of the mysteries
themselves with one another and with man's last end. But never
can reason be rendered capable of thoroughly understanding
mysteries as it does those truths which form its proper object.
For God's mysteries, in their very nature, so far surpass the
reach of created intellect, that, even when taught by revelation
and received by faith, they remain covered by faith itself, as by
a veil, and shrouded, as it were, in darkness as long as in this
mortal life.

"But, although faith be above reason, there never can be a real
disagreement between them, since the same God who reveals
mysteries and infuses faith has given man's soul the light of
reason, and God cannot deny himself, nor can one truth ever
contradict another. Wherefore the empty shadow of such
contradiction arises chiefly from this, that either the doctrines
of faith are not understood and set forth as the Church really
holds them, or that the vain devices and opinions of men are
mistaken for the dictates of reason. We therefore pronounce false
every assertion which is contrary to the enlightened truth of
faith. Moreover, the Church, which, together with her apostolic
office of teaching, is charged also with the guardianship of the
deposits of faith, holds likewise from God the right and the duty
to condemn 'knowledge, falsely so called,' 'lest any man be
cheated by philosophy and vain deceit.' Hence all the Christian
faithful are not only forbidden to defend, as legitimate
conclusions of science, those opinions which are known to be
contrary to the doctrine of faith, especially when condemned by
the Church, but are rather absolutely bound to hold them for
errors wearing the deceitful appearance of truth.

THE VATICAN ANATHEMAS. "Not only is it impossible for faith and
reason ever to contradict each other, but they rather afford each
other mutual assistance. For right reason establishes the
foundation of faith, and, by the aid of its light, cultivates the
science of divine things; and faith, on the other hand, frees and
preserves reason from errors, and enriches it with knowledge of
many kinds. So far, then, is the Church from opposing the culture
of human arts and sciences, that she rather aids and promotes it
in many ways. For she is not ignorant of nor does she despise the
advantages which flow from them to the life of man; on the
contrary, she acknowledges that, as they sprang from God, the
Lord of knowledge, so, if they be rightly pursued, they will,
through the aid of his grace, lead to God. Nor does she forbid
any of those sciences the use of its own principles and its own
method within its own proper sphere; but, recognizing this
reasonable freedom, she takes care that they may not, by
contradicting God's teaching, fall into errors, or, overstepping
the due limits, invade or throw into confusion the domain of
faith.

"For the doctrine of faith revealed by God has not been proposed,
like some philosophical discovery, to be made perfect by human
ingenuity, but it has been delivered to the spouse of Christ as a
divine deposit, to be faithfully guarded and unerringly set
forth. Hence, all tenets of holy faith are to be explained always
according to the sense and meaning of the Church; nor is it ever
lawful to depart therefrom under pretense or color of a more
enlightened explanation. Therefore, as generations and centuries
roll on, let the understanding, knowledge, and wisdom of each and
every one, of individuals and of the whole Church, grow apace and
increase exceedingly, yet only in its kind; that is to say
retaining pure and inviolate the sense and meaning and belief of
the same doctrine."

Among other canons the following were promulgated.

"Let him be anathema--

"Who denies the one true God, Creator and Lord of all things,
visible and invisible.

"Who unblushingly affirms that, besides matter, nothing else
exists.

"Who says that the substance or essence of God, and of all
things, is one and the same.

"Who says that finite things, both corporeal and spiritual, or at
least spiritual things, are emanations of the divine substance;
or that the divine essence, by manifestation or development of
itself, becomes all things.

"Who does not acknowledge that the world and all things which it
contains were produced by God out of nothing.

"Who shall say that man can and ought to, of his own efforts, by
means of, constant progress, arrive, at last, at the possession
of all truth and goodness.

"Who shall refuse to receive, for sacred and canonical, the books
of Holy Scripture in their integrity, with all their parts,
according as they were enumerated by the holy Council of Trent,
or shall deny that they are Inspired by God.

"Who shall say that human reason is in such wise independent,
that faith cannot be demanded of it by God.

"Who shall say that divine revelation cannot be rendered credible
by external evidences.

"Who shall say that no miracles can be wrought, or that they can
never be known with certainty, and that the divine origin of
Christianity cannot be proved by them.

"Who shall say that divine revelation includes no mysteries, but
that all the dogmas of faith may be understood and demonstrated
by reason duly cultivated.

"Who shall say that human sciences ought to be pursued in such a
spirit of freedom that one may be allowed to hold as true their
assertions, even when opposed to revealed doctrine.

"Who shall say that it may at any time come to pass, in the
progress of science, that the doctrines set forth by the Church
must be taken in another sense than that in which the Church has
ever received and yet receives them."

THE EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE. The extraordinary and, indeed, it may
be said, arrogant assumptions contained in these decisions were
far from being received with satisfaction by educated Catholics.
On the part of the German universities there was resistance; and,
when, at the close of the year, the decrees of the Vatican
Council were generally acquiesced in, it was not through
conviction of their truth, but through a disciplinary sense of
obedience.

By many of the most pious Catholics the entire movement and the
results to which it had led were looked upon with the sincerest
sorrow. Pere Hyacinthe, in a letter to the superior of his order,
says : "I protest against the divorce, as impious as it is
insensate, sought to be effected between the Church, which is our
eternal mother, and the society of the nineteenth century, of
which we are the temporal children, and toward which we have also
duties and regards. It is my most profound conviction that, if
France in particular, and the Latin race in general, are given up
to social, moral, and religious anarchy, the principal cause
undoubtedly is not Catholicism itself, but the manner in which
Catholicism has for a long time been understood and practised."

Notwithstanding his infallibility, which implies omniscience, his
Holiness did not foresee the issue of the Franco-Prussian War.
Had the prophetical talent been vouchsafed to him, he would have
detected the inopportuneness of the acts of his Council. His
request to the King of Prussia for military aid to support his
temporal power was denied. The excommunicated King of Italy, as
we have seen, took possession of Rome. A bitter papal encyclical,
strangely contrasting with the courteous politeness of modern
state-papers, was issued, November 1, 1870, denouncing the acts
of the Piedmontese court, "which had followed the counsel of the
sects of perdition." In this his Holiness declares that he is in
captivity, and that he will have no agreement with Belial. He
pronounces the greater excommunication, with censures and
penalties, against his antagonists, and prays for "the
intercession of the immaculate Virgin Mary, mother of God, and
that of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul."

Of the various Protestant denominations, several had associated
themselves, for the purposes of consultation, under the
designation of the Evangelical Alliance. Their last meeting was
held in New York, in the autumn of 1873. Though, in this meeting,
were gathered together many pious representatives of the Reformed
Churches, European and American, it had not the prestige nor the
authority of the Great Council that had just previously closed
its sessions in St. Peters, at Rome. It could not appeal to an
unbroken ancestry of far more than a thousand years; it could not
speak with the authority of an equal and, indeed, of a superior
to emperors and kings. While profound intelligence and a
statesmanlike, worldly wisdom gleamed in every thing that the
Vatican Council had done, the Evangelical Alliance met without a
clear and precise view of its objects, without any
definitely-marked intentions. Its wish was to draw into closer
union the various Protestant Churches, but it had no
well-grounded hope of accomplishing that desirable result. It
illustrated the necessary working, of the principle on which
those Churches originated. They were founded on dissent and exist
by separation.

Yet in the action of the Evangelical Alliance may be discerned
certain very impressive facts. It averted its eyes from its
ancient antagonist--that antagonist which had so recently loaded
the Reformation with contumely and denunciation--it fastened
them, as the Vatican Council had done, on Science. Under that
dreaded name there stood before it what seemed to be a spectre of
uncertain form, of hourly-dilating proportions, of threatening
aspect. Sometimes the Alliance addressed this stupendous
apparition in words of courtesy, sometimes in tones of
denunciation.

THE VATICAN CONSTITUTION CRITICISED. The Alliance failed to
perceive that modern Science is the legitimate sister--indeed, it
is the twin-sister-- of the Reformation. They were begotten
together and were born together. It failed to perceive that,
though there is an impossibility of bringing into coalition the
many conflicting sects, they may all find in science a point of
connection; and that, not a distrustful attitude toward it, but a
cordial union with it, is their true policy.

It remains now to offer some reflections on this "Constitution of
the Catholic Faith," as defined by the Vatican Council.

For objects to present themselves under identical relations to
different persons, they must be seen from the same point of view.
In the instance we are now considering, the religious man has his
own especial station; the scientific man another, a very
different one. It is not for either to demand that his
co-observer shall admit that the panorama of facts spread before
them is actually such as it appears to him to be.

The Dogmatic Constitution insists on the admission of this
postulate, that the Roman Church acts under a divine commission,
specially and exclusively delivered to it. In virtue of that
great authority, it requires of all men the surrender of their
intellectual convictions, and of all nations the subordination of
their civil power.

But a claim so imposing must be substantiated by the most
decisive and unimpeachable credentials; proofs, not only of an
implied and indirect kind, but clear, emphatic, and to the point;
proofs that it would be impossible to call in question.

The Church, however, declares, that she will not submit her claim
to the arbitrament of human reason; she demands that it shall be
at once conceded as an article of faith.

If this be admitted, all bar requirements must necessarily be
assented to, no matter how exorbitant they may be.

With strange inconsistency the Dogmatic Constitution deprecates
reason, affirming that it cannot determine the points under
consideration, and yet submits to it arguments for adjudication.
In truth, it might be said that the whole composition is a
passionate plea to Reason to stultify itself in favor of Roman
Christianity.

With points of view so widely asunder, it is impossible that
Religion and Science should accord in their representation of
things. Nor can any conclusion in common be reached, except by an
appeal to Reason as a supreme and final judge.

There are many religions in the world, some of them of more
venerable antiquity, some having far more numerous adherents,
than the Roman. How can a selection be made among them, except by
such an appeal to Reason? Religion and Science must both submit
their claims and their dissensions to its arbitrament.

Against this the Vatican Council protests. It exalts faith to a
superiority over reason; it says that they constitute two
separate orders of knowledge, having respectively for their
objects mysteries and facts. Faith deals with mysteries, reason
with facts. Asserting the dominating superiority of faith, it
tries to satisfy the reluctant mind with miracles and prophecies.

On the other hand, Science turns away from the incomprehensible,
and rests herself on the maxim of Wiclif: "God forceth not a man
to believe that which he cannot understand." In the absence of an
exhibition of satisfactory credentials on the part of her
opponent, she considers whether there be in the history of the
papacy, and in the biography of the popes, any thing that can
adequately sustain a divine commission, any thing that can
justify pontifical infallibility, or extort that unhesitating
obedience which is due to the vice-God.

One of the most striking and vet contradictory features of the
Dogmatic Constitution is, the reluctant homage it pays to the
intelligence of man. It presents a definition of the
philosophical basis of Catholicism, but it veils from view the
repulsive features of the vulgar faith. It sets forth the
attributes of God, the Creator of all things, in words fitly
designating its sublime conception, but it abstains from
affirming that this most awful and eternal Being was born of an
earthly mother, the wife of a Jewish carpenter, who has since
become the queen of heaven. The God it depicts is not the God of
the middle ages, seated on his golden throne, surrounded by
choirs of angels, but the God of Philosophy. The Constitution has
nothing to say about the Trinity, nothing of the worship due to
the Virgin--on the contrary, that is by implication sternly
condemned; nothing about transubstantiation, or the making of the
flesh and blood of God by the priest; nothing of the invocation
of the saints. It bears on its face subordination to the thought
of the age, the impress of the intellectual progress of man.

THE PASSAGE OF EUROPE TO LLAMAISM. Such being the exposition
rendered to us respecting the attributes of God, it next
instructs us as to his mode of government of the world. The
Church asserts that she possesses a supernatural control over all
material and moral events. The priesthood, in its various grades,
can determine issues of the future, either by the exercise of its
inherent attributes, or by its influential invocation of the
celestial powers. To the sovereign pontiff it has been given to
bind or loose at his pleasure. It is unlawful to appeal from his
judgments to an Oecumenical Council, as if to an earthly arbiter
superior to him. Powers such as these are consistent with
arbitrary rule, but they are inconsistent with the government of
the world by immutable law. Hence the Dogmatic Constitution
plants itself firmly in behalf of incessant providential
interventions; it will not for a moment admit that in natural
things there is an irresistible sequence of events, or in the
affairs of men an unavoidable course of acts.

But has not the order of civilization in all parts of the world
been the same? Does not the growth of society resemble individual
growth? Do not both exhibit to us phases of youth, of maturity,
of decrepitude? To a person who has carefully considered the
progressive civilization of groups of men in regions of the earth
far apart, who has observed the identical forms under which that
advancing civilization has manifested itself, is it not clear
that the procedure is determined by law? The religious ideas of
the Incas of Peru and the emperors of Mexico, and the ceremonials
of their court-life, were the same as those in Europe--the same
as those in Asia. The current of thought had been the same. A
swarm of bees carried to some distant land will build its combs
and regulate its social institutions as other unknown swarms
would do, and so with separated and disconnected swarms of men.
So invariable is this sequence of thought and act, that there are
philosophers who, transferring the past example offered by
Asiatic history to the case of Europe, would not hesitate to
sustain the proposition--given a bishop of Rome and some
centuries, and you will have an infallible pope: given an
infallible pope and a little more time, and you will have
Llamaism--Llamaism to which Asia has long, ago attained.

As to the origin of corporeal and spiritual things, the Dogmatic
Constitution adds a solemn emphasis to its declarations, by
anathematizing all those who bold the doctrine of emanation, or
who believe that visible Nature is only a manifestation of the
Divine Essence. In this its authors had a task of no ordinary
difficulty before them. They must encounter those formidable
ideas, whether old or new, which in our times are so strongly
forcing themselves on thoughtful men. The doctrine of the
conservation and correlation of Force yields as its logical issue
the time-worn Oriental emanation theory; the doctrines of
Evolution and Development strike at that of successive creative
acts. The former rests on the fundamental principle that the
quantity of force in the universe is invariable. Though that
quantity can neither be increased nor diminished, the forms under
which Force expresses itself may be transmuted into each other.
As yet this doctrine has not received complete scientific
demonstration, but so numerous and so cogent are the arguments
adduced in its behalf, that it stands in an imposing, almost in
an authoritative attitude. Now, the Asiatic theory of emanation
and absorption is seen to be in harmony with this grand idea. It
does not hold that, at the conception of a human being, a soul is
created by God out of nothing and given to it, but that a portion
of the already existing, the divine, the universal intelligence,
is imparted, and, when life is over, this returns to and is
absorbed in the general source from which it originally came. The
authors of the Constitution forbid these ideas to be held, under
pain of eternal punishment.

In like manner they dispose of the doctrines of Evolution and
Development, bluntly insisting that the Church believes in
distinct creative acts. The doctrine that every living form is
derived from some preceding form is scientifically in a much more
advanced position than that concerning Force, and probably may he
considered as established, whatever may become of the additions
with which it has recently been overlaid.

In her condemnation of the Reformation, the Church carries into
effect her ideas of the subordination of reason to faith. In her
eyes the Reformation is an impious heresy, leading to the abyss
of pantheism, materialism, and atheism, and tending to overthrow
the very foundations of human society. She therefore would
restrain those "restless spirits" who, following Luther, have
upheld the "right of every man to interpret the Scriptures for
himself." She asserts that it is a wicked error to admit
Protestants to equal political privileges with Catholics, and
that to coerce them and suppress them is a sacred duty; that it
is abominable to permit them to establish educational
institutions. Gregory XVI. denounced freedom of conscience as an
insane folly, and the freedom of the press a pestilent error,
which cannot be sufficiently detested.

But how is it possible to recognize an inspired and infallible
oracle on the Tiber, when it is remembered that again and again
successive popes have contradicted each other; that popes have
denounced councils, and councils have denounced popes; that the
Bible of Sixtus V. had so many admitted errors--nearly two
thousand--that its own authors had to recall it? How is it
possible for the children of the Church to regard as "delusive
errors" the globular form of the earth, her position as a planet
in the solar system, her rotation on her axis, her movement round
the sun? How can they deny that there are antipodes, and other
worlds than ours? How can they believe that the world was made
out of nothing, completed in a week, finished just as we see it
now; that it has undergone no change, but that its parts have
worked so indifferently as to require incessant interventions?

THE ERRORS OF ECCLESIASTICISM. When Science is thus commanded to
surrender her intellectual convictions, may she not ask the
ecclesiastic to remember the past? The contest respecting the
figure of the earth, and the location of heaven and hell, ended
adversely to him. He affirmed that the earth is an extended
plane, and that the sky is a firmament, the floor of heaven,
through which again and again persons have been seen to ascend.
The globular form demonstrated beyond any possibility of
contradiction by astronomical facts, and by the voyage of
Magellan's ship, he then maintained that it is the central body
of the universe, all others being in subordination to it, and it
the grand object of God's regard. Forced from this position, he
next affirmed that it is motionless, the sun and the stars
actually revolving, as they apparently do, around it. The
invention of the telescope proved that here again he was in
error. Then he maintained that all the motions of the solar
system are regulated by providential intervention; the
"Principia" of Newton demonstrated that they are due to
irresistible law. He then affirmed that the earth and all the
celestial bodies were created about six thousand years ago, and
that in six days the order of Nature was settled, and plants and
animals in their various tribes introduced. Constrained by the
accumulating mass of adverse evidence, he enlarged his days into
periods of indefinite length--only, however, to find that even
this device was inadequate. The six ages, with their six special
creations, could no longer be maintained, when it was discovered
that species, slowly emerged in one age, reached a culmination in
a second, and gradually died out in a third: this overlapping
from age to age would not only have demanded creations, but
re-creations also. He affirmed that there had been a deluge,
which covered the whole earth above the tops of the highest
mountains, and that the waters of this flood were removed by a
wind. Correct ideas respecting the dimensions of the atmosphere,
and of the sea, and of the operation of evaporation, proved how
untenable these statements are. Of the progenitors of the human
race, he declared that they had come from their Maker's hand
perfect, both in body and mind, and had subsequently experienced
a fall. He is now considering how best to dispose of the evidence
continually accumulating respecting the savage condition of
prehistoric man.

Is it at all surprising that the number of those who hold the
opinions of the Church in light esteem should so rapidly
increase? How can that be received as a trustworthy guide in the
invisible, which falls into so many errors in the visible? How
can that give confidence in the moral, the spiritual, which has
so signally failed in the physical? It is not possible to dispose
of these conflicting facts as "empty shadows," "vain devices,"
"fictions coming from knowledge falsely so called," "errors
wearing the deceitful appearance of truth," as the Church
stigmatizes them. On the contrary, they are stern witnesses,
bearing emphatic and unimpeachable testimony against the
ecclesiastical claim to infallibility, and fastening a conviction
of ignorance and blindness upon her.

Convicted of so many errors, the papacy makes no attempt at
explanation. It ignores the whole matter Nay, more, relying on
the efficacy of audacity, though confronted by these facts, it
lays claim to infallibility.

SEPARATION OF CATHOLICISM AND CIVILIZATION. But, to the pontiff,
no other rights can be conceded than those he can establish at
the bar of Reason. He cannot claim infallibility in religious
affairs, and decline it in scientific. Infallibility embraces all
things. It implies omniscience. If it holds good for theology, it
necessarily holds good for science. How is it possible to
coordinate the infallibility of the papacy with the well-known
errors into which it has fallen?

Does it not, then, become needful to reject the claim of the
papacy to the employment of coercion in the maintenance of its
opinions; to repudiate utterly the declaration that "the
Inquisition is an urgent necessity in view of the unbelief of the
present age," and in the name of human nature to protest loudly
against the ferocity and terrorism of that institution? Has not
conscience inalienable rights?

An impassable and hourly-widening gulf intervenes between
Catholicism and the spirit of the age. Catholicism insists that
blind faith is superior to reason; that mysteries are of more
importance than facts. She claims to be the sole interpreter of
Nature and revelation, the supreme arbiter of knowledge; she
summarily rejects all modern criticism of the Scriptures, and
orders the Bible to be accepted in accordance with the views of
the theologians of Trent; she openly avows her hatred of free
institutions and constitutional systems, and declares that those
are in damnable error who regard the reconciliation of the pope
with modern civilization as either possible or desirable.

SCIENCE AND PROTESTANTISM. But the spirit of the age demands--is
the human intellect to be subordinated to the Tridentine Fathers,
or to the fancy of illiterate and uncritical persons who wrote in
the earlier ages of the Church? It sees no merit in blind faith,
but rather distrusts it. It looks forward to an improvement in
the popular canon of credibility for a decision between fact and
fiction. It does not consider itself bound to believe fables and
falsehoods that have been invented for ecclesiastical ends. It
finds no argument in behalf of their truth, that traditions and
legends have been long-lived; in this respect, those of the
Church are greatly inferior to the fables of paganism. The
longevity of the Church itself is not due to divine protection or
intervention, but to the skill with which it has adapted its
policy to existing circumstances. If antiquity be the criterion
of authenticity, the claims of Buddhism must be respected; it has
the superior warrant of many centuries. There can be no defense
of those deliberate falsifications of history, that concealment
of historical facts, of which the Church has so often taken
advantage. In these things the end does not justify the means.

Then has it in truth come to this, that Roman Christianity and
Science are recognized by their respective adherents as being
absolutely incompatible; they cannot exist together; one must
yield to the other; mankind must make its choice--it cannot have
both.

SCIENCE AND FAITH. While such is, perhaps, the issue as regards
Catholicism, a reconciliation of the Reformation with Science is
not only possible, but would easily take place, if the Protestant
Churches would only live up to the maxim taught by Luther, and
established by so many years of war. That maxim is, the right of
private interpretation of the Scriptures. It was the foundation
of intellectual liberty. But, if a personal interpretation of the
book of Revelation is permissible, how can it be denied in the
case of the book of Nature? In the misunderstandings that have
taken place, we must ever bear in mind the infirmities of men.
The generations that immediately followed the Reformation may
perhaps be excused for not comprehending the full significance of
their cardinal principle, and for not on all occasions carrying
it into effect. When Calvin caused Servetus, to be burnt, he was
animated, not by the principles of the Reformation, but by those
of Catholicism, from which he had not been able to emancipate
himself completely. And when the clergy of influential Protestant
confessions have stigmatized the investigators of Nature as
infidels and atheists, the same may be said. For Catholicism to
reconcile itself to Science, there are formidable, perhaps
insuperable obstacles in the way. For Protestantism to achieve
that great result there are not. In the one case there is a
bitter, a mortal animosity to be overcome; in the other, a
friendship, that misunderstandings have alienated, to be
restored.

CIVILIZATION AND RELIGION. But, whatever may be the preparatory
incidents of that great impending intellectual crisis which
Christendom must soon inevitably witness, of this we may rest
assured, that the silent secession from the public faith, which
in so ominous a manner characterizes the present generation, will
find at length political expression. It is not without
significance that France reenforces the ultramontane tendencies
of her lower population, by the promotion of pilgrimages, the
perpetration of miracles, the exhibition of celestial
apparitions. Constrained to do this by her destiny, she does it
with a blush. It is not without significance that Germany
resolves to rid herself of the incubus of a dual government, by
the exclusion of the Italian element, and to carry to its
completion that Reformation which three centuries ago she left
unfinished. The time approaches when men must take their choice
between quiescent, immobile faith and ever-advancing
Science--faith, with its mediaeval consolations, Science, which
is incessantly scattering its material blessings in the pathway
of life, elevating the lot of man in this world, and unifying the
human race. Its triumphs are solid and enduring. But the glory
which Catholicism might gain from a conflict with material ideas
is at the best only like that of other celestial meteors when
they touch the atmosphere of the earth--transitory and useless.

Though Guizot's affirmation that the Church has always sided with
despotism is only too true, it must be remembered that in the
policy she follows there is much of political necessity. She is
urged on by the pressure of nineteen centuries. But, if the
irresistible indicates itself in her action, the inevitable
manifests itself in her life. For it is with the papacy as with a
man. It has passed through the struggles of infancy, it has
displayed the energies of maturity, and, its work completed, it
must sink into the feebleness and querulousness of old age. Its
youth can never be renewed. The influence of its souvenirs alone
will remain. As pagan Rome threw her departing shadow over the
empire and tinctured all its thoughts, so Christian Rome casts
her parting shadow over Europe.

INADMISSIBLE CLAIMS OF CATHOLICISM. Will modern civilization
consent to abandon the career of advancement which has given it
so much power and happiness? Will it consent to retrace its steps
to the semi-barbarian ignorance and superstition of the middle
ages? Will it submit to the dictation of a power, which, claiming
divine authority, can present no adequate credentials of its
office; a power which kept Europe in a stagnant condition for
many centuries, ferociously suppressing by the stake and the
sword every attempt at progress; a power that is founded in a
cloud of mysteries; that sets itself above reason and
common-sense; that loudly proclaims the hatred it entertains
against liberty of thought and freedom in civil institutions;
that professes its intention of repressing the one and destroying
the other whenever it can find the opportunity; that denounces as
most pernicious and insane the opinion that liberty of conscience
and of worship is the right of every man; that protests against
that right being proclaimed and asserted by law in every
well-governed state; that contemptuously repudiates the principle
that the will of the people, manifested by public opinion (as it
is called) or by other means, shall constitute law; that refuses
to every man any title to opinion in matters of religion, but
holds that it is simply his duty to believe what he is told by
the Church, and to obey her commands; that will not permit any
temporal government to define the rights and prescribe limits to
the authority of the Church; that declares it not only may but
will resort to force to discipline disobedient individuals; that
invades the sanctify of private life, by making, at the
confessional, the wife and daughters and servants of one
suspected, spies and informers against him; that tries him
without an accuser, and by torture makes him bear witness against
himself; that denies the right of parents to educate their
children outside of its own Church, and insists that to it alone
belongs the supervision of domestic life and the control of
marriages and divorces; that denounces "the impudence" of those
who presume to subordinate the authority of the Church to the
civil authority, or who advocate the separation of the Church
from the state; that absolutely repudiates all toleration, and
affirms that the Catholic religion is entitled to be held as the
only religion in every country, to the exclusion of all other
modes of worship; that requires all laws standing in the way of
its interests to be repealed, and, if that be refused, orders all
its followers to disobey them?

ISSUE OF THE CONFLICT. This power, conscious that it can work no
miracle to serve itself, does not hesitate to disturb society by
its intrigues against governments, and seeks to accomplish its
ends by alliances with despotism.

Claims such as these mean a revolt against modern civilization,
an intention of destroying it, no matter at what social cost. To
submit to them without resistance, men must be slaves indeed!

As to the issue of the coming conflict, can any one doubt?
Whatever is resting on fiction and fraud will be overthrown.
Institutions that organize impostures and spread delusions must
show what right they have to exist. Faith must render an account
of herself to Reason. Mysteries must give place to facts.
Religion must relinquish that imperious, that domineering
position which she has so long maintained against Science. There
must be absolute freedom for thought. The ecclesiastic must learn
to keep himself within the domain he has chosen, and cease to
tyrannize over the philosopher, who, conscious of his own
strength and the purity of his motives, will bear such
interference no longer. What was written by Esdras near the
willow-fringed rivers of Babylon, more than twenty-three
centuries ago, still holds good: "As for Truth it endureth and is
always strong; it liveth and conquereth for evermore."




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