Infomotions, Inc.Stories from Thucydides / Havell, H. L. (Herbert Lord), -1913

Author: Havell, H. L. (Herbert Lord), -1913
Title: Stories from Thucydides
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): athenians; athens; athenian; nicias; spartans; sparta; syracuse; syracusans; peloponnesian; spartan; sicily; greece; fleet; harbour; allies
Contributor(s): Frewer, Ellen E. [Translator]
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Size: 66,769 words (short) Grade range: 15-18 (college) Readability score: 42 (average)
Identifier: etext9074
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  _O my poor Kingdom, sick with civil blows!_
                          SHAKESPEARE, _Henry IV_.




In a former volume we have traced the course of events which ended in
the complete overthrow of Xerxes and his great army. Our present task
is to describe the chief incidents in the cruel and devastating war,
commonly known as the Peloponnesian War, which lasted for twenty-seven
years, and finally broke up the Athenian Empire. The cause of that war
was the envy and hatred excited in the other states of Greece by the
power and greatness of Athens; and in order to make our story
intelligible we must indicate briefly the steps by which she rose to
that dangerous eminence, and drew upon herself the armed hostility of
half the Greek world.

We take up our narrative at the point of time when the Athenians
returned to their ruined homes after the defeat of the Persians at
Plataea. Of their ancient city nothing remained but a few houses which
had served as lodgings for the Persian grandees, and some scattered
fragments of the surrounding wall. Their first task was to restore the
outer line of defence, and by the advice of Themistocles the new wall
took in a much wider circuit than the old rampart which had been
destroyed by the Persians. The whole population toiled night and day
to raise the bulwark which was to guard their temples and their homes,
using as materials the walls of the houses which had been sacked and
burnt by the Persians, with whatever remained of public buildings,
sacred or profane, and sparing not even the monumental pillars of
graves in the urgency of their need.

But jealous eyes were watching them, and busy tongues were wagging
against that gallant race of Attica which had been foremost in the
common cause against the barbarian invader. "These Athenians are
dangerous neighbours," was the cry. "Let us stop them from building
their wall, or Athens will become a standing menace to ourselves."
Before long these murmurs reached the ears of the Spartans, and they
sent envoys to dissuade the Athenians from fortifying their city.
Their real purpose was disguised under the mask of anxiety for the
general safety of Greece. "It is not expedient," they urged, "that the
Persians, when next they come against us, should find fenced cities
which they may make their strongholds, as they have lately done in
Athens and in Thebes. Cease, therefore, from building this wall, and
help us to destroy all such defences, outside of Peloponnesus. If we
are attacked again, we will unite our forces within the isthmus, and
meet the invader from there."

But Themistocles was not the man to be hoodwinked by the simple
cunning of the Spartans. By his advice the Athenians dismissed the
envoys, promising to send an embassy to discuss the matter at Sparta.
As soon as they were gone, Themistocles caused himself to be appointed
as head of the embassy, and set out at once for Sparta, instructing
the Athenians to keep his colleagues back until the wall had been
raised to a sufficient height for purposes of defence. Arrived at
Sparta, he kept himself close in his lodging, and declined all
conference with the authorities, alleging that he could do nothing
without his colleagues.

Meanwhile the Athenians were making incredible efforts to carry on the
work which was essential to their liberty and prosperity. Men, women,
and children toiled without intermission, and the wall was rapidly
approaching a defensible height. The clamour of their enemies grew
louder and louder, and angry messages reached the Spartans everyday,
reproaching them with their supineness and procrastination. Being
asked the meaning of these reports, Themistocles professed total
ignorance, and bade the Spartans send men to Athens to see for
themselves. The Spartans did so, and when the men arrived at Athens
the Athenians, who had been privately warned by Themistocles, kept
them in custody, as hostages for their own representatives at Sparta.
Themistocles had meanwhile been joined by his partners in the embassy,
and learning from them that the wall was now of sufficient height, he
spoke out plainly, and let the Spartans understand what his true
purpose was. "Athens," he said, "is once more a fortified city, and we
are able to discuss questions of public or private interest on a
footing of equality. When we forsook all, and took to our ships to
fight for the common weal, it was done without prompting of yours; and
that peril being past, we shall take such measures as concern our
safety, without leave asked of you. And in serving ourselves, we are
serving you also; for if Athens is not free, how can she give an
unbiased vote in questions which concern the general welfare of

It was impossible for the Spartans to express open resentment at a
plea so moderate and so reasonable. But they were secretly annoyed to
find that their malice had been detected and exposed; and by this
incident was sown the first seed of ill-will which was afterwards to
bear such bitter fruit for Athens and for Greece. For the present,
however, the affair was ended, and the first step secured for the
Athenians in their career of glory and power.

Themistocles was the first who clearly saw that the future of Athens
lay on the sea. But if Athens was to hold and extend her position as
the first naval power in Greece, it was above all things necessary
that she should have a strong and fortified station for her fleets,
her arsenals, and her dockyards. Nature had provided her with what she
needed, in the peninsula of Peiraeus, which juts out into the Saronic
Gulf, about five miles south-west of the inland town. As soon as the
city-wall was completed, fortifications of immense strength were
carried round the whole of Peiraeus; and within this vast rampart rose
a second city, equal in size to the old one, with streets laid out in
straight lines, and filled with the stir and bustle of a maritime
population. Three land-locked harbours gave ample room for the fleets
of Athens to lie in shelter and safety; and this great sea-port town
was afterwards united to the original city by two long walls, which
met the sea, one at the north-western corner of Peiraeus, and the
other at the south-eastern point of the Bay of Phalerum. Between
these, at a later period, a third wall was built, running parallel to
the northern wall at a distance of about two hundred feet, and known
as the Southern or Middle Wall.

Many years elapsed before these important works were completed; and in
the meantime great events had been happening in other parts of the
Greek world, tending more and more to realise the dream of
Themistocles, and make his beloved city the undisputed mistress of the
sea. After the defeat of the Persian armies and fleets at Salamis,
Plataea, and Mycale, much hard work remained to be done, in reducing
the outlying cities on the coasts of Thrace and in the eastern corners
of the Aegaean, which held out for the Great King. The Spartans were
still nominal leaders of the allied Greek navy; but after a year of
service they resigned this position, which they owed to their
acknowledged supremacy in land warfare, to the Athenians. They were
induced to take this step, partly by their own aversion to foreign
enterprises, and partly by the misconduct of their general Pausanias,
who had disgusted the allies serving under him in the fleet by his
intolerable arrogance and tyranny. The field was thus left open to the
Athenians, who willingly assumed the command offered them by the
maritime cities of Greece, with the object of prosecuting the war
vigorously against Persia. Each city was assessed to furnish a fixed
contribution of ships or money, and the sacred island of Delos was
appointed as the common treasury and meeting-place of the league. Thus
was formed the famous Delian Confederacy, with the avowed purpose of
making reprisals on the Great King's territory for the havoc which he
had wrought in Greece. For a time all went smoothly, and the various
members of the league fought under Athens as her independent allies.
But by degrees the Greeks from the islands and coast-lands of Asia
began to weary of their arduous duties, and murmured against the
Athenians, who proved hard task-masters, and compelled them by force
to perform their part in the bargain. One by one the cities revolted
from the leadership of Athens, were attacked by her navies, and
reduced to the position of subjects and tributaries. Others
voluntarily withdrew from all active co-operation in the war, agreeing
to pay a fixed annual sum as a substitute for service in the fleet.
And before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War the two powerful
islands of Lesbos and Chios were the only members of the original
league who still retained their independence.

Such were the circumstances which led to the foundation of the
Athenian Empire, which grew up, by the force of necessity, out of the
decay of a confederacy born of a common need, and organised for the
special benefit of the Asiatic Greeks. For the names of the Greek
cities on the coasts of Asia Minor still figured in the Persian
tribute-lists; and the moment that the grasp of Athens relaxed on the
confines of the King's dominions, after the ruinous defeat in Sicily,
Persian tax-gatherers came knocking at the gates of Ephesus and
Miletus, demanding the arrears of tribute. So urgent was the need
supplied by the energy of Athens, and so blind were these Greeks of
Asia Minor to their own interests.

The visible sign of this momentous change, by which the Delian
Confederacy became merged in the Athenian Empire, was the removal of
the treasury from Delos to Athens. The Athenians now undertook the
whole administration of the common fund, using the surplus for the
adornment of Athens by magnificent public buildings. This
appropriation seems reasonable enough, when we consider that the whole
burden of defending the eastern Greeks against Persia, and keeping the
barbarian out of Greek waters, now lay upon Athens. This great public
duty, which had been thrown upon her by the indifference of Sparta,
and the unmanly sloth of her own allies, was faithfully performed; and
she might well ask why she should be called upon to lavish the blood
of her own citizens for nothing. That Athens should be great,
splendid, and powerful, was not only a reward due to her public spirit
and devotion to the common cause, but also a guarantee for the general
dignity and liberty of Greeks. And we, who have still before us the
remnants of her temples and statues, and learn from them what man can
accomplish under the inspiration of great ideals, need not scan too
closely her claim to appropriate the funds which she employed for so
noble a purpose. For this was the great age of Grecian art, the age of
Phidias, Polycletus, Myron, and Polygnotus. The greatest of these was
Phidias; and in the Parthenon, or Temple of the Virgin Goddess,
[Footnote: Athene, the patron goddess of Athens.] built under his
direction on the Acropolis at Athens, he has left the most enduring
monument of his fame. He also designed the Propylaea, a magnificent
columned vestibule, fronting the broad flight of steps which led up to
the western entrance of the Acropolis. But the most renowned of his
works was the gigantic statue of the Olympian Zeus, wrought in gold
and ivory, which was the chief glory of the temple at Olympia. Of this
sublime creation, the highest expression of divinity achieved by the
ancients, only the fame survives. These triumphs of art were not
brought to completion until nearly the close of the period of forty-
eight years which separates the Persian from the Peloponnesian War;
and it is now necessary to glance backward, and touch briefly on the
principal events which occurred after the formation of the Delian
Confederacy. The war was carried on with energy against Persia, and
hostilities continued at intervals for thirty years after the battle
of Plataea. [Footnote: B.C. 479-449.]

The chief leader in these enterprises was the heroic Cimon, leader of
the conservative party at Athens, and the great rival of Pericles; and
his most brilliant exploit was a crushing defeat inflicted on the
Persian army and fleet at the mouth of the river Eurymedon in
Pamphylia. But the victorious career of the Athenians received a
severe check twelve years later in Egypt, where a large force of ships
and men was totally destroyed by the Persian general Megabyzus. The
war dragged on for five years longer, and peace was then concluded on
terms highly advantageous to the Greeks. Shortly before this, Cimon,
who had been the chief promoter of the war, died at Cyprus.

The same years which brought to a successful issue the long struggle
with Persia witnessed a renewal of those internal conflicts by which
the energies of Greece were finally exhausted, leaving her an easy
prey to the arms of Macedon. The guilt of renewing these suicidal
quarrels lies with the Spartans, who had long been nursing their
grudge against Athens, and were waiting for the opportunity to inflict
on her a fatal blow. Fifteen years [Footnote: B.C. 464. ] after the
battle of Plataea they seized the occasion when the Athenians were
engaged with a large part of their forces in carrying on operations
against the revolted island of Thasos to prepare an invasion of
Attica. But at the very moment when they were meditating this act of
perfidy a double disaster fell upon them at home, demanding all their
exertions to save them from ruin. Sparta was levelled to the ground by
a terrible earthquake, in which twenty thousand of her citizens
perished; and in the midst of the panic caused by this awful calamity
the Helots rose in arms against their oppressors, and forming an
alliance with the Messenian subjects of Sparta, entrenched themselves
in a strong position on Mount Ithome. Here they maintained themselves
for two years, defying all the efforts of the Spartans to drive them
from their stronghold. In spite of their recent treachery, the
Spartans were not ashamed to apply to Athens for help: and chiefly
through the influence of Cimon, whose laurels from the Eurymedon were
still fresh, four thousand Athenian hoplites [Footnote: Heavy-armed
foot-soldiers.] were sent under his command to aid in dislodging the
Helots. The Athenians were famous for their skill in attacking
fortified places; but on this occasion they were unsuccessful, and the
Spartans, whose evil conscience made them prone to suspicion, at once
began to doubt the honesty of their intentions, and dismissed them
with scant ceremony. This unfriendly act helped to embitter the
relations between the two leading cities of Greece; and two years
later, when the Messenians were expelled from Ithome, and driven into
exile, the Athenians settled them with their families at Naupactus, an
important strategic position on the north of the Corinthian Gulf,
which has recently fallen into the hands of Athens.

Deeply offended by the affront received at Ithome, the Athenians now
formed an alliance with Argos, the ancient rival and bitter enemy of
Sparta. Thessaly, connected with Athens by old ties of friendship,
joined the league; and Megara, now suffering from the oppressions of
Corinth, made a fourth.

Within sight of the shores of Attica lies the island of Aegina, famous
in legend as the home of Aeacus, grandfather of Achilles, and
distinguished for its school of sculpture, and for its mighty breed of
athletes, whose feats are celebrated in the laureate strains of
Pindar. The Aeginetans had obtained the first prize for valour
displayed in the battle of Salamis, and for many years they had
pressed the Athenians hard in the race for maritime supremacy. They
were now attacked by an overwhelming Athenian force, and after a
stubborn resistance were totally defeated, and compelled to enroll
themselves among the subjects of Athens. A still harder fate was
reserved for the hapless Dorian islanders in the next generation.

In the following nine years [Footnote: B.C. 456-447.] the power of
Athens reached its greatest height, and for a moment it seemed as if
she were destined to extend her empire over the whole mainland of
Greece. By the victory of Oenophyta, gained over the Boeotians just
before the reduction of Aegina, Athens became mistress of all the
central provinces of the Greek peninsula, from the pass of Thermopylae
to the gulf of Corinth. The alliance of Megara, lately united by long
walls to its harbour of Nisaea, secured her from invasion on the side
of Peloponnesus. The great island of Euboea, with its rich pastures
and fruitful corn lands, had, since the Persian War, become an
Athenian estate, and was jealously guarded as one of her most valuable
possessions; and on the sea, from the eastern corner of the Euxine to
the strait of Gibraltar, there was none to dispute her sway.

But this rapid ascent was followed by no less speedy a fall, and one
act of indiscretion stripped the Athenians of all the advantages which
they had acquired on the mainland of Greece. In every city of Greece
there were always two parties, the wealthy and noble, called
oligarchs, and the demos, or commons; and according as Spartan or
Athenian influence was in the ascendant the balance of power in each
city wavered between the nobles and the people, the Athenians
favouring the Many, the Spartans the Few. Accordingly there was always
a party living in exile, and waiting for a turn of affairs which might
enable them to return to their city, and wrest the power from that
faction which had been the last to triumph. In the cities of Boeotia
the leaders of the oligarchs had been driven into banishment after the
battle of Oenophyta, and democracies were established under the
control of Athens. After nine years of banishment these exiles
returned, and the result was an oligarchical reaction in the chief
cities of Boeotia. A hastily equipped and ill-organised force was sent
out from Athens to put down the authors of the revolution, and in the
battle which followed, at Coronea, [Footnote: B.C. 447.] the Athenians
sustained a severe defeat, and a large number of their citizens were
taken prisoners by the Boeotians. To recover these prisoners the
Athenians consented to evacuate Boeotia, and by this surrender they
lost their hold on central Greece, as far as Thermopylae.

This heavy blow was followed two years later by the revolt of Megara
and Euboea; and in the midst of the alarm thus occasioned, the
Athenians heard that a powerful Spartan army was threatening their
borders. It was a terrible moment for Athens; but she was saved by the
prudence and energy of Pericles, whose influence in her councils was
now supreme. By some means or other--as the Spartans asserted, by a
heavy bribe--he induced the Spartan king Pleistoanax to draw off his
forces; and then crossing over into Euboea, he quickly reduced the
whole island to submission, and took severe measures to prevent any
outbreak in the future.

The exertions of the Athenians during the last thirty years had been
prodigious, and their efforts to found an empire in continental Greece
had ended in total failure. Discouraged by their reverses, they
concluded a thirty years' truce with the Spartans and their allies,
resigning the last remnant of their recent conquests, and leaving
Megara in her old position as a member of the Peloponnesian league
under Sparta. The loss of Megara was severely felt, and her conduct in
the late troubles was neither forgotten nor forgiven. The Megarians
had by their own free choice been admitted into the Athenian alliance,
and in an hour of great peril to Athens, without shadow of pretext
they had risen in arms against her. It was not long before they had to
pay a heavy penalty for their treachery and inconstancy.

The last event which we have to record, before entering into the main
current of our narrative, is the secession of Samos, the most
important member of the maritime allies of Athens. This wealthy and
powerful island had hitherto, with Chios and Lesbos, enjoyed the
distinction of serving under Athens as an independent ally. The
Athenians, with a view to their own interests, had recently set up a
democracy in Samos, which had hitherto been governed by an oligarchy.
Incensed by this interference, the Samian nobles, who had been driven
into exile, hired a mercenary force, and making a sudden attack from
the mainland, overthrew the democracy and raised the standard of
revolt. The crisis called for prompt and vigorous action on the part
of Athens; for if Samos had been successful in defying her authority,
the other members of the league would speedily have followed the
example, and the whole fabric of her empire might have been shattered
to pieces. Pericles was again equal to the emergency, and by employing
the whole naval power of Athens he was able, after a siege of nine
months, to reduce the refractory islanders to submission. The Samians
were compelled to surrender their fleet, to pull down their walls, to
pay a heavy war indemnity, and to give hostages as a security for
their good conduct in the future. And henceforward they became
subjects and tributaries of Athens.

We have now completed our review of the chief events which occurred
between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. It was a period of rapid
development for Athens, of ceaseless activity at home and abroad, of
immense progress in all the arts of war and peace. The imperial city
had now risen to her full stature, and stood forth, supreme in
intellect and in action, the wonder and envy of mankind. Her mighty
walls bade defiance to her enemies at home, and she held in her hand
the islands and coast-districts of the Aegaean, where the last murmur
of resistance had been quelled. Her recent reverses on the mainland of
Greece had left the real sources of her power untouched; and taught
her, if she would but take the lesson to heart, the proper limits of
her empire. And she had risen to this height, not by the prevailing
force of any single mind, but by the united efforts of all her
citizens, working together for a whole generation, shunning no
sacrifice, and shrinking from no exertion, in their devotion to the
common mother of them all. Every Athenian, from the wealthiest noble
to the poorest rower in the fleet, felt that he had a stake in the
country, which to a Greek meant the city, where he was born. He gave
his vote in the Parliament [Footnote: Called the Ecclesia.] of Athens,
and served on the juries chosen by lot from the whole body of the
citizens, before whose judgment-seat, unassailable by bribery or
intimidation, the mightiest offenders trembled. He was a statesman, a
judge, a lawgiver, and a warrior, and he might even hope to climb to
the highest place in the State, and rule, like Pericles, as a prince
of democracy. Around him rose the temples and statues of the gods,
fresh from the chisel of the artist, the visible symbols of Athenian
greatness, and of the grand ideals which he served. The masterpieces
of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides opened to him the boundless
realms of the imagination, taught him grave lessons of moral wisdom,
and connected the strenuous present with the heroic past; and the Old
Comedy, the most complete embodiment of the very genius of democracy,
afforded a feast of wit and fancy for his lighter hours. If he had a
taste for higher speculation, he might hear Anaxagoras discoursing on
the mysteries of the spiritual world, or Zeno applying his sharp tests
for the conviction of human error. And when the assembly was summoned
to discuss matters of high imperial policy, he felt all the greatness
and majesty of the Athenian state, as he hung entranced on the lips of

Such was Athens in her prime, and such were the men who raised her to
the lofty eminence which she held among the cities of Greece. But the
years which had lifted her to that unparalleled height had raised up a
host of enemies against her, and it behoved her to temper ambition
with prudence if she would maintain the proud position which the held.
The scattered units which composed the Athenian empire were held
together by no tie of loyalty or affection to their common mistress,
but solely by the dread of her overwhelming naval power. Even in the
noblest spirits of ancient Greece, the feeling of patriotism, as we
understand it, was feeble and uncertain; when we speak of our
_country_, the Greek spoke of his _city_, and his love, his
hopes, his highest aspirations, were bounded by the narrow circuit of
the walls which contained the tombs of his ancestors and the temples
of his gods. This feeling, the most deeply-rooted instinct of Greek
political life, had been grievously offended by Athens, when she
compelled the islanders of the Aegaean, and the Greek cities of Asia,
to serve in her navies, and pay tribute to her exchequer.

Turning now to the mainland of Greece we find, in most of the leading
states, a sentiment of mingled fear and hatred against Athens, which
had been steadily increasing in volume in the course of the last
thirty years. The haughty Thebans had not forgotten their defeat at
Oenophyta, and their nine years of servitude to Athens. Aegina was
groaning under her yoke, and threatened with total political
extinction. Megara complained that her commerce was ruined by a decree
which excluded her merchants from the ports in the Athenian Empire. In
the heart of Peloponnesus the Spartans were hatching mischief against
their hated rival, who had robbed them of half their dignity as the
acknowledged leaders of the Greeks. Corinth, whose commerce was
chiefly in the western sea, outside the sphere of Athenian influence,
was disposed to be friendly, and had done the Athenians good service
during the revolt of Samos.[Footnote: See below, p. 31.] But five
years later [Footnote: B.C. 435.] an event occurred which changed this
feeling into bitter hatred against Athens, and drove the Corinthians
into the ranks of her most inveterate foes. And it is at this point
that we take up the main thread of our story.




It was in a remote corner of the Greek world that the trouble began
which was destined to breed such mischief and havoc for the whole of
Greece. At the beginning of the seventh century before our era the
island of Corcyra had been colonised by the Corinthians. The colony
grew and flourished, and in its turn founded other settlements on the
opposite coasts of Epirus and Illyria. Among these was Epidamnus,
called by the Romans Dyrrachium, and in Roman times the ordinary
landing-place for travellers from Italy to Greece. After many years of
prosperity the resources of Epidamnus were much crippled by internal
faction, and by wars with the neighbouring barbarians. Four years
before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the nobles of Epidamnus,
who had been expelled in the last revolution, made an alliance with
the native tribes of Illyria, and by constant plundering raids reduced
the Epidamnians to such straits that they were compelled to apply to
Corcyra for help. But the Corcyraeans, whose sympathies were on the
side of the banished nobles, refused to interfere.

Epidamnus, as we have seen, was a colony founded by a colony, and
according to Greek custom the original settlers had been led by a
citizen of Corinth, the mother-city of Corcyra. Seeing, therefore,
that they had nothing to hope from the Corcyraeans, the distressed
people of Epidamnus began to turn their thoughts towards their ancient
metropolis, and considered whether they should appeal to her to save
them from ruin. But as this was a step of doubtful propriety, they
first consulted the oracle of Delphi, the great authority on questions
of international law. Receiving a favourable answer, they sent envoys
to Corinth, and offered to surrender their city to the Corinthians, in
return for their countenance and protection.

The Corcyraeans had long been in evil odour at Corinth, for they had
grown insolent in prosperity, and neglected all the observances which
were due from a colony to the mother-city. They were, in fact,
superior to the Corinthians in wealth and power, and their fleet,
numbering a hundred and twenty triremes, was second only to that of
Athens. Corcyra was famous in legend as the seat of the Phaeacians, a
heroic sailor race, whose deeds are sung by Homer in the
_Odyssey_; and the Corcyraeans regarded themselves as the lawful
inheritors of their fame. For all these reasons they despised the
Corinthians, and made no secret of their contempt. Remembering the
many occasions on which they had been publicly insulted by Corcyra,
the Corinthians lent a favourable ear to the petition of Epidamnus,
and determined to appropriate the colony to themselves. Accordingly
they invited all who chose to go and settle at Epidamnus, and sent the
new colonists under a military escort, with instructions to proceed by
land to Apollonia, for fear lest they should be obstructed by the
Corcyraean fleet, if they went by sea.

Great was the indignation at Corcyra when the news arrived that her
colony had been surrendered to Corinth, and a force of forty ships was
sent off in haste, bearing a peremptory demand to the Epidamnians that
they should receive back their exiles and send away the new colonists.
As the citizens refused to obey their mandate, they prepared to lay
siege to the town, which is situated on an isthmus.

When the Corinthians heard of the danger of Epidamnus, they began to
make preparations on a much larger scale, collecting a host of new
colonists, and a fleet of seventy-five ships to convoy them on their
passage to Epidamnus. Apprised of these proceedings, the Corcyraeans
sent envoys to Corinth, with a civil remonstrance against the
arbitrary interference with their own colony. They were willing, they
said, to submit the matter to arbitration, and in the meantime to
suspend all hostilities against the revolted city. But the Corinthians
paid no attention to their overtures, and all being now ready, the
great multitude, drawn from all parts of Greece, set sail for
Epidamnus. When they reached Actium, at the mouth of the Ambracian
Gulf, they were met by a herald, sent out from Corcyra in a skiff, to
forbid their approach. This was a mere manoeuvre, to throw the guilt
of commencing hostilities on the Corinthians; and meanwhile the
Corcyraeans manned their ships, to the number of eighty, and put out
to meet the enemy's fleet. In the sea-fight which followed the
Corcyraeans gained a complete victory, and on the same day Epidamnus
was compelled to capitulate to the besieging force.

By this victory the Corcyraeans gained complete command of the western
or Ionian sea, and for the rest of the summer they sailed from place
to place, plundering the allies of Corinth. The Corinthians, however,
were not at all disposed to acquiesce in their defeat, and during the
whole of the following year they were busy organising a fresh
expedition on a vast scale, being resolved at all costs to put down
the insolence of Corcyra. These preparations caused no small anxiety
to the Corcyraeans. Hitherto they had stood apart, and refused to take
any share in the complicated game of Greek politics. The course of
affairs during the last forty years had tended more and more to divide
the Greek world into two opposite camps, arrayed under the banners of
Athens and Sparta. As Dorians, the Corcyraeans would naturally have
enrolled themselves among the allies of Sparta,--as islanders and
seamen, they might have leaned to the side of Athens: but confident in
their remote situation, and in the power of their fleet, they had
chosen to remain neutral. But finding themselves threatened with
destruction, they now resolved to abandon their policy of selfish
isolation, and sue for admission into the Athenian alliance.
Ambassadors were sent to Athens to urge their plea; and the
Corinthians, hearing of their intention, sent representatives of their
own to oppose the application.

The Athenians were fully alive to the gravity of the question which
they were called upon to decide, and after listening to the arguments
of the Corcyraean and Corinthian orators, they adjourned the debate
until the next day. To Corinth they were bound by old ties of
obligation; for on three distinct occasions the Corinthians had done
them signal service. More than seventy years before the date which we
have reached, the Spartans summoned their allies to consider whether
it was expedient to compel the Athenians to receive back the banished
tyrant Hippias; and it was chiefly by the eloquence of the Corinthian
speaker Sosicles, who drew a vivid picture of the miseries of
despotical government, that they were shamed out of their purpose. A
few years later, when the Athenians were at war with Aegina, they were
aided by twenty Corinthian ships. And quite recently, in the great
peril which menaced Athens at the revolt of Samos, Corinth had once
more shown herself a friend. At a congress of the Peloponnesian
allies, summoned to consider an appeal from the Samians for help, the
Corinthians had spoken strongly against interference with the revolted
allies of another city. Corinth was a place of old renown, the queen
of the Isthmus, a centre of civilisation; whereas Corcyra was a remote
island, and her people, though Greeks by descent, were in manners and
character more than half barbarians.

But there were two arguments put forward by the Corcyraean orator,
which outweighed all other considerations of policy or friendship. The
first was addressed to the fears of the Athenians, the second to their
ambition. War, he argued, was inevitable, and it was of the utmost
importance for Athens to secure the alliance of the Corcyraean fleet,
and prevent it from being added to the naval forces of her enemies.
And his concluding words struck a note which found a response among
the more daring spirits among his hearers, whose thoughts, as it would
seem, were already turning to the western colonies of Greece, as a new
field of enterprise and conquest. "It will not do," he said, "to be
too nice. While you are hesitating, and weighing nice points of
international right, you will be outdistanced in the race for power,
if you tamely give up a great naval station which holds the key to
Italy and Sicily."

Such reasoning, hollow and false as it was, turned the scale in favour
of Corcyra, and a defensive alliance was concluded, pledging the
Athenians and Corcyraeans to aid each other against any attack on the
territory or allies of either state. For the Athenians wished to avoid
breaking the Thirty Years' Truce, and therefore refrained from
entering into any agreement which might oblige them to acts of open
aggression against Corinth.

There can be little doubt that Pericles, who was mainly responsible
for this decision, committed a fatal error in advising the Athenians
to take up the cause of Corcyra. By this act Athens incurred the
implacable hostility of Corinth, and revived the old grudge which that
city had conceived against her when Megara joined the Athenian
alliance. In the constantly shifting currents of Greek politics,
Athens might well, under wise guidance, have steered her way safely
through the perils which surrounded her. The Corinthians had half
forgotten their grievance, as is proved by their conduct at the revolt
of Samos; and the tone of their representative at the Corcyraean
debate is decidedly friendly. The Spartans were sluggish and
procrastinating by nature, and required some powerful impulse to
induce them to act with vigour; and this impulse was now supplied by
Corinth. By accepting, therefore, the alliance of Corcyra, Athens
barred the way to all compromise, and gathered into one head all the
scattered causes of jealousy and hatred which had been accumulating
against her in the last fifty years.

Early in the following year the Corinthian fleet, numbering a hundred
and fifty sail, put to sea from Corinth, to renew the war with
Corcyra, and a battle was fought off the coast of Epirus. The
engagement was long and fierce, and the event was finally decided by a
small squadron of Athenian ships, which had been sent with
instructions to hinder any attempt of the enemy to land on the island
Seeing that the Corcyraeans were being forced back upon their own
coast, the Athenian captains, who had hitherto looked on, and taken no
part in the battle, now assumed the offensive, and lent such effectual
aid that the Corinthians were held in check until the sudden
appearance of twenty additional ships from Athens, which had been sent
off immediately after the others, put an end to the action. This
timely interference saved Corcyra from ruin; for next day the
Corinthians, after a formal remonstrance, set sail for home, taking
with them two hundred and fifty prisoners, belonging to the noblest
families in Corcyra, whom they kept in safe custody, but treated with
great consideration, hoping by means of them at some future time to
recover their influence in the island.


It was not long before the effects of this impolitic breach with
Corinth were sensibly felt by Athens. In the course of the following
summer, Potidaea, a Corinthian colony, situated on the borders of
Macedon, and included in the Athenian alliance, openly raised the
standard of revolt, encouraged by promises from Sparta, and by the
presence of a strong body of hoplites, sent for its support from
Corinth. Potidaea was presently closely invested by an Athenian army
and fleet, and the Corinthians pretended to make this a fresh ground
of complaint, though they had themselves incited the city to throw off
its allegiance to Athens.

Feeling that matters were now approaching a crisis, the Spartans
summoned a congress of their allies, and invited all who had any
grievance against Athens to state their case. Then some spoke of the
wrongs of Aegina, formerly not the least among Greek cities, but now
so crushed under the yoke of Athens that she had not dared to raise
her voice openly against the tyrant-city. The Megarians complained of
the restrictions on their commerce, which threatened them with an
empty exchequer and a starving population; and others followed in the
same strain. When all the rest had spoken, the Corinthian orator, who
had reserved his eloquence till the end, came forward and delivered a
vehement harangue, containing hardly any specific charge against
Athens, but well calculated to inflame the passions and provoke the
pride of the Spartans. Though the acknowledged leader of Greece, and
champion of her liberties, Sparta, he said, had always been the last
to see the dangers which menaced the common country, and the last to
take measures for her defence. Spartan apathy and indolence had
brought the Greeks to the brink of ruin in the Persian War; and when
that danger was passed, the same fatal indifference had enabled Athens
to advance step by step on the path of aggrandisement; until now she
had grown so strong that the united force of the whole Peloponnesian
league would be required to put her down. Why had not the Spartans
listened to the warnings which they had heard, when the Athenians were
rebuilding their walls? Then they might have stopped the evil at its
source, and saved a multitude of cities from slavery and oppression.
"Consider," cried the orator, warming to his subject, "what manner of
men these Athenians are, and how vast is the difference between them
and you. While you are shut up in this inland valley, treading the
dull round of mechanical routine, they are continually pushing forward
the boundaries of their empire, toiling night and day to make their
city great, never satisfied with what they have, always thirsting for
more. Cautious, timid, and conservative as you are, hardly to be
roused from your sloth by the most imminent perils, how can you hope
to curb the flight of Athenian ambition, which knows no limit, and is
checked by no reverse?

"Men of Sparta, I speak as a friend, and you will not take my candour
amiss. New times require new manners, and if you would maintain your
great position you must move with the march of events, and abandon
your old-fashioned ways. Do not mistake stagnation for stability, but
learn a lesson even from these hated Athenians, who have risen to
their present pitch of greatness by adapting themselves to every new
need as it arose.

"You know what you have to do, if you would wipe out the reproach
which rests upon you, and keep the respect of your faithful allies.
Send an army into Attica, and compel the Athenians to withdraw their
forces from Potidaea. And let it be done speedily, for while we are
talking our kinsmen are perishing."

It happened that an Athenian embassy was present in Sparta, having
been sent there on some other business, and not for the purpose of
representing Athens at the debate. But when they heard of the outcry
which had been raised against their city, the envoys asked permission
for one of their number to address the Spartan assembly, wishing to
explain the true character and origin of the Athenian Empire, and to
warn the Spartans against plunging the whole country into the horrors
of civil war. Leave being granted, the Athenian orator entered on his
subject by sketching the course of events for the last sixty years.
Athens, he said, had twice saved Greece, first at Marathon, and
afterwards at Salamis. On the first of these occasions she had stood
almost alone against an overwhelming force of Persians; and ten years
later, though betrayed by her allies, she had borne the brunt against
the navy of Xerxes. Who, then, was worthier than she to hold empire
over Greeks? That empire had been forced upon her by the inertness of
Sparta, and by the cowardice and sloth of her own allies in the Delian
league. The power thus gained had been used with moderation, in marked
contrast to the previous tyranny of Persia exercised over the same
cities, and the arrogance of Spartan officers when engaged on foreign
service. But a light yoke, it would seem, was harder to bear than a
heavy one; if Athens had openly oppressed her subjects, she would
never have heard a murmur.

Having thus tried to combat the prejudice against Athens, the orator
addressed himself directly to the Spartans, and said: "Consider the
awful responsibility which you will incur, if you suffer yourselves to
be carried away by the invectives of your allies, and drive us against
our will to tempt with you the dark uncertainties and perilous issues
of war. There is still time for an amicable settlement of our
differences: Athens is prepared to make all reasonable concessions,
and to submit to arbitration, as the terms of the treaty direct. And
if you decline to accept this offer, the guilt of the aggressor will
lie with you."

It is remarkable that the speaker, in tracing the later course of
Athenian policy, lays no claim to those high motives of patriotism
which had inspired his people with sublime self-devotion two
generations back. He boldly asserts the principle that it is lawful
for the stronger to rule the weaker, and claims merit for Athens in
abstaining from excessive abuse of her power. The Athenians, we may
believe, had been tainted by the baseness of their confederates. In
the early days of the Delian league they had not attempted to educate
the Greeks whom they led up to the standard of their own splendid
zeal,--or, if the attempt had been made, it was unsuccessful. They had
taken upon themselves the whole burden of a great public duty, and
standing alone, without moral support from their countrymen, they had
gradually fallen away from the pure and lofty virtues of their
ancestors. This decay of public morality proceeds with rapid strides
in the years which follow, and we shall presently hear the doctrine
that might is right proclaimed with cynical frankness by the lips of
an Athenian.

Having heard the complaints of their allies against Athens, and the
reply of the Athenian orator, the Spartans ordered all but those of
their own race to withdraw, and continued the debate with closed
doors. A great majority of the speakers were in favour of declaring
immediate war on Athens. But there was one important exception: the
aged Archidamus, who for the last fourteen years had been reigning as
sole king at Sparta, spoke strongly against the imprudence of assuming
the aggressive, before they had made adequate preparations to cope
with the offending city. It was an opinion generally held by the war-
party that the Athenians would be ready to make any concessions, in
order to save the land of Attica from ravage. This, said Archidamus,
was a great error; and the event proved that he was right. The
Athenians, with their great colonial empire, and complete command of
the sea, were quite independent of the products of their own estates
in Attica. And many years must elapse before the states of
Peloponnesus could train a fleet, and attack them on the sea, where
alone they were assailable. It was folly to suppose that such a
contest could be decided by a single summer campaign, as was commonly
believed by the enemies of Athens. "I fear rather," said the king,
with prophetic foresight, "that we shall leave this war as an
inheritance to our children; such is the power, and such the pride, of
the state with which we have to contend." On the other hand, the
Spartans, as champions of the liberties of Greece, must not allow the
common oppressors of their countrymen to continue their career of
tyranny unchecked. Let them first, however, try what could be effected
by negotiation, and in the meantime prepare for war, by building
ships, and above all by collecting money, without which all their
valour would be useless. Then, if Athens still refused to listen to
reason, they might declare war with better hope of success.

The speech of Archidamus shows a true insight into the nature of the
crisis which the Spartans were called upon to face, and his views were
amply justified by subsequent events. His wise words were no doubt
applauded by the older and more sober-minded among his hearers. But
there was another and a much more numerous party at that time in
Sparta, filled with bitter envy and hatred against Athens. Their
passions had been inflamed by the invectives of the Corinthian orator,
and without counting the cost they were resolved to try the issues of
immediate battle. Their blind rancour found expression in the curt and
pithy harangue of Sthenelaidas, one of the five Ephors, a college of
magistrates which in recent years had greatly encroached on the
authority of the kings. Sthenelaidas spoke with true laconic brevity.
"I don't understand," he said, "all the fine talk of these Athenians.
They have told us a great deal about their own merits, but have not
said a word in answer to the charges brought against them. Even if we
accept their own account of themselves, their good conduct in the past
only lends a darker colour to their present crimes. We have one plain
duty to perform, and that is to save our faithful allies from ill-
treatment. The time for words is past--leave them to the transgressor.
Our part is to act, at once, and with all our might, and put down the
overwhelming insolence of Athens."

Then, in his capacity as Ephor, Sthenelaidas, without staying for
further argument, forthwith put the question to the Spartan assembly.
According to their ordinary procedure, the Spartans gave their votes
by cries of "Ay" and "No." But on this occasion Sthenelaidas pretended
to be unable to distinguish whether the "Ays" or "Nos" had it, and
wishing to encourage the war-party by showing how much they were in
the majority, he ordered the house to divide on the question whether
the treaty was broken, and whether the Athenians were in the wrong or
not. The division was made, and a great majority were in favour of the
motion, recording their votes against Athens. The allies were then
called in, and informed to the result of the private debate, and a day
was named for a general synod of the whole Peloponnesian league, to
reconsider the situation and decide whether war was to be declared.

In the interval, before the final assembly of the allies, the Spartans
sent to ask the oracle at Delphi whether it was expedient for them to
make war; and the answer, according to common report, was that if they
fought with all their might they would conquer, and that the god
[Footnote: Apollo.] would be on their side. The Corinthians were at
the same time carrying on an active canvass against Athens, sending
their agents from city to city to blow up the flames of war.

In the autumn of the same year the allies met in full synod at Sparta,
and once more the Corinthian speaker led the cry against Athens, and
called for a unanimous war-vote, flattering his hearers with hopes of
a speedy victory. The Spartans, he said, had at last set a good
example to their allies, and shown themselves convinced that imperial
cities had imperial obligations, by pronouncing in favour of war.
Every member of the league must join heartily in the struggle, whether
he belonged to an inland or to a maritime city; for if the seaports
were closed by the Athenian fleets, the inland towns would be
prevented from exporting their products, and importing what they
wanted from abroad. War, then, was in the interest of the whole body
of allies. And on the moral side their position was equally sound, for
they were only acting on desperate provocation, and the common god of
Greece had promised success to their arms. But to deserve that
success, all must co-operate heartily, contributing freely from their
private purses to raise a fleet which would make them a match for
Athens on her own element. And they must watch the course of events
with a vigilant eye, and be ready to seize any opportunity which might
arise to aim a decisive blow at their common enemy. Let them be warned
by the experience of the Ionians, and put out all their strength to
save themselves from being swallowed up by the devouring ambition of
Athens. Justice, heaven's favour, the good-will of all Greece, were on
their side.

Others spoke to the same effect, and then the representatives of each
city were called up in turn to give their vote; and by far the greater
number voted for war. But many months elapsed before any overt act of
hostility occurred, and the time was occupied in preparations for an
invasion of Attica, and in a series of demands sent by Sparta to try
the temper of the Athenians, and put them in the wrong, if they
refused to comply. The first of these messages was conveyed in
mysterious terms, bidding the Athenians "to drive out the curse of the
goddess." The meaning of this was as follows: nearly two hundred years
before a certain Cylon tried to make himself tyrant of Athens: the
attempt was frustrated, and some of his adherents, who had taken
refuge in the sacred precinct of Athene, were put to death by the
magistrates, after they had surrendered under a solemn promise that
their lives should be spared. The illustrious family of the
Alcmaeonidae was especially concerned in this act of murder and
sacrilege, and the Spartans, in reviving the memory of an ancient
crime, were aiming a blow at Pericles, who was descended on his
mother's side from the Alcmaeonidae. For the Athenians were highly
sensitive in all matters of religion, and it was possible that they
might even banish Pericles, if their consciences were suddenly
alarmed. And though this was not likely, the Spartans hoped at any
rate to lessen his influence, which was adverse to themselves, and
fasten on him the odium of being, in some sense, the cause of the war.
But their manoeuvre was unsuccessful, and the Athenians retorted by
bidding the Spartans drive out the curse of Taenarus, in allusion to
the murder of certain Helots who had taken sanctuary in the temple of
Poseidon at Taenarus. And they further charged the Spartans to rid
themselves of the curse of Athene of the Brazen House. This was a holy
place in Sparta, where Pausanias, when convicted of treasonable
correspondence with Persia, had sought refuge from the vengeance of
the Spartans. He was kept a close prisoner in the temple by the
Ephors, who set a watch on him, to prevent him from being supplied
with food, and when he was reduced to the last extremity, brought him
out to die. But though his death occurred outside the temple, this did
not save them from the sin of sacrilege, and a public reprimand by the
Delphic God.

The game of diplomatic fencing went on for some time, and envoys were
continually passing to and fro between Athens and Sparta. The
Athenians were required to raise the siege of Potidaea--to allow the
Aeginetans to govern themselves--to rescind the decree against Megara;
and when all these demands were met by a firm refusal, the Spartans
sent two ambassadors, bearing their ultimatum, which was worded as
follows: "The Lacedaemonians wish that there should be peace, and war
may be averted if ye will let the Greeks go free." Knowing that the
decisive moment had now arrived, the Athenians met together in full
assembly, to decide on their final answer. There were many speakers on
either side, some arguing for peace, others for war: and then was
heard that majestic voice, which, for more than thirty years, had
guided the counsels of Athens--the voice of the Olympian Pericles. He
had chosen his line of policy a year before, in the fatal affair of
Corcyra, and it was now too late to draw back: peace with honour was
no longer possible for Athens. The furious zeal of Corinth had united
her enemies against her, and they were bent on her ruin. The demands
put forward by Sparta were a mere pretext, and if the Athenians had
yielded the smallest point, new concessions would have been required
of them, until they were stripped of all that had been won by the
strenuous toil and devotion of two generations. "We must listen," said
Pericles, in the course of a long speech, "to no proposal from Sparta
which is not made as from an equal to an equal. Dictation is not
arbitration. If we are to fight at all, the occasion matters little,
be it small or great. What right has Sparta to require of us that we
should rescind the decree against Megara, when her own laws jealously
exclude all strangers from entering her streets? Or why should we
relax our hold upon our allies, or break off the relations with them
which were sanctioned by the Thirty Years' Truce? No, all this is a
mere pretence, and if we are deceived by it, we shall be led on step
by step to deeper and still deeper humiliation. It may seem a hard
thing to give up the fair land of Attica to pillage and devastation.
But think how far greater was the sacrifice made by our grandsires,
who refused the fairest offers from Persia, and gave up all they had,
rather than betray the common cause. Athens and Attica were then all
the country they had, and these lost they had nothing left but their
ships, their strong arms, and their stout hearts. In our case, on the
other hand, all the essential elements of our power--our city, our
fleet, our colonial empire--remain untouched. Shall we, then, sell our
honour to save a few vineyards and olive-grounds from temporary
damage? That would be a short-sighted policy indeed, and in the end
would involve not only dishonour, but the loss of our whole empire.
Let us act, then, in the spirit of our fathers, and send away the
Spartan ambassadors with the only answer which is consistent with our
dignity and our interest."

The reply to the Spartan ultimatum was framed as Pericles had
directed, and from this moment all negotiations ceased. And here we
close our account of the events which led to the Peloponnesian War.



On the northern slope of Cithaeron, the mountain range which divides
Attica from Boeotia, lies the little town of Plataea. By race and by
geographical position the Plataeans were naturally included in the
Boeotian confederacy, under the leadership of Thebes. But nearly a
century before the time of which we are now speaking they had deserted
the Thebans, whose rule was harsh and overbearing, and enrolled
themselves among the allies of Athens. On the eve of the battle of
Marathon, they had joined the Athenians with their whole force, a
thousand strong, and shared the peril and the honour of that glorious
day. Ten years later their city was laid in ruins by the army of
Xerxes, at the instigation of the Thebans; and in the following year
the great battle which ended the long struggle between Greece and
Persia was fought within sight of their shattered walls. In gratitude
for this great victory, the confederate Greeks under Pausanias
declared that the Plataean territory should be hallowed ground, and
swore a solemn oath to maintain the independence of the city. But the
Thebans had never forgotten or forgiven the secession of Plataea from
the confederacy of which they were the leaders; and seizing the
opportunity while the Athenians were occupied with measures for their
own safety, they made a treacherous attempt to gain possession of the

On a dark and moonless night in the early spring three hundred armed
Thebans appeared before the gates of Plataea, which were opened to
them by a party of the citizens who favoured their design. Marching in
a body to the market-place, they made proclamation by a herald,
inviting all who chose to return to their allegiance, and take sides
with their lawful leaders, the Thebans. For they wished, if possible,
to gain over the place without bloodshed, and before the war had
actually broken out; otherwise, they might have to give it up again on
the conclusion of peace.

The Plataeans, being wakened out of their first sleep, and thinking
that the Thebans were in much greater force than was really the case,
at first attempted no resistance, but were disposed to accept the
terms offered them. But perceiving by degrees that their enemies were
far weaker in numbers than themselves, they changed their minds, and
resolved to attack them. For the party which had betrayed the town was
but small, and the general body of the citizens detested the thought
of falling once more under the supremacy of Thebes. Their measures
were taken with great secrecy and despatch: to avoid exciting the
suspicions of the Thebans, they broke down the dividing walls of their
houses, and passed to and fro unobserved, until they had completed
their preparations. To embarrass the movements of the Thebans, they
barricaded the streets with waggons, and then, just before daybreak,
they poured out of their houses, and fell upon the enemy, who were
still stationed in the market-place. Though taken by surprise, the
Thebans defended themselves stoutly, and standing shoulder to shoulder
repulsed the assault of the Plataeans two or three times. But they
were greatly inferior in numbers, wearied by their long vigil, and
soaked with the heavy rain which had fallen in the night; the
Plataeans returned again and again to the attack, assailing them with
furious cries; and the women and slaves who crowded the roofs added to
their discomfiture, pelting them with tiles and stones, and stunning
their ears with a frightful uproar of yells and shrieks; so that at
last their hearts failed them, and breaking their ranks they fled
wildly through the streets. Some succeeded in reaching the gate by
which they had entered, but only to find that their escape was cut off
in this direction; for one of the Plataeans had closed the gate, using
the spike of his javelin to secure the bolt. Others lost their way in
the narrow and muddy streets, and wandered up and down until they were
slain by the Plataeans. A few contrived to escape by an unguarded
postern-gate, having cut through the bolt with an axe given them by a
woman. Others, in despair, flung themselves from the walls, and for
the most part perished. But a good number, who had kept together, were
caught in a trap; for coming to a large building which abutted on the
wall, and finding the doors open, they thought that they had reached
the town-gate, and rushed headlong in. The pursuers, who were close at
their heels, made fast the doors, and then the question arose what
they should do with their captives. Some proposed to set fire to the
building, and to burn it down, with the Thebans in it; but at last
those who were thus taken, and the few who were still straggling in
the town, were allowed to surrender at discretion.

Meanwhile a strong reinforcement of Thebans, who had started after the
three hundred, were on the way to Plataea; but being delayed by the
state of the roads, and the swollen condition of the Asopus, which
they had to cross, they arrived too late. Being informed of what had
happened, they prepared to plunder the property of the Plataeans
outside the walls, and seize any of the citizens who crossed their
path, to serve as hostages for their own men in the town. The
Plataeans, perceiving their intention, sent a herald to remonstrate,
threatening that unless they desisted, all the Theban prisoners should
at once be put to death. And they promised further, under an oath,
that if the Thebans would withdraw their forces, the captives should
be restored--at least this was the account which was afterwards
current at Thebes, though the Plataeans denied that they had made any
such promise unconditionally, and declared that they had sworn no
oath. It seems probable that the Thebans had received some such
explicit assurance as they asserted; for, on receiving the answer from
Plataea, they marched away without doing any harm. No sooner were they
gone than the Plataeans made all haste to get their property within
the walls, and then put all their prisoners to death. The day was not
far distant when they were bitterly to rue this act of passion, which
was not only cruel, but grossly impolitic; for the Thebans thus slain
in cold blood, a hundred and eighty in number, would have been
invaluable as hostages, whereas the Plataeans had now cut themselves
off from all hope of reconciliation with Thebes, and virtually sealed
their own fate.

Two messengers had been despatched from Plataea to Athens, one after
the first entrance of the Thebans, and the second after their defeat
and capture; and the Athenians, on receiving the second message, sent
off a herald bidding the Plataeans to wait for further instructions,
before taking any steps against the prisoners. When the herald
arrived, he found the men already slain, and the Athenians then
proceeded to place the town in a state of defence, removing the women
and children and all those who were unfit for military service, to
Athens, and leaving a small body of their own citizens to direct


The surprise of Plataea was the first open violation of the Thirty
Years' Truce, and from this time forward all Greece was involved for
many years in civil war. Public opinion was strongly on the side of
the Spartans, who stood forward as champions of the liberties of
Greece; but there was great enthusiasm on both sides, and the popular
imagination was much excited by the approaching struggle between the
two imperial cities. Both in Sparta and in Athens there was a younger
generation, who had grown up during a long period of peace, and now
entered gaily into the contest with all the light-hearted ignorance of
youth. Old prophecies current among the people, foretelling a great
war of Greeks against Greeks, passed from mouth to mouth, and the
professional soothsayers, whose business it was to collect and expound
such sayings, found eager hearers. The gods themselves could not be
indifferent on the eve of such mighty events, so deeply affecting the
destiny of the nation which worshipped them in a thousand temples; and
an earthquake, which had recently occurred at Delos, the sacred island
of Apollo, where such a visitation had never been known before, was
interpreted as a portent of great things to come.

While the Peloponnesians were mustering their forces at the Isthmus,
the rural population of Attica were breaking up their homes, and
flocking by thousands into the city. A constant stream of waggons
passed along the roads, loaded with furniture, household utensils, and
even the woodwork of the farm-buildings; and many a little group of
women, children, and servants set out on that sorrowful journey,
leaving their fields, their gardens, and their vineyards, to be
trampled down and laid waste by the ruthless invader. Athens, indeed,
was the common mother of them all, their glory, their strength, and
their pride; for since the days of Theseus the scattered rural
communities of Attica had been united under the Aegis of Athene, and
acknowledged Athens as the head and centre of their civic life. But a
large proportion of the Athenian citizens still continued to reside in
the country, and all their dearest associations were connected with
the little spot of earth where they and their fathers were born. Here
were the graves of their ancestors, and the temples of the heroes who
were the guardian spirits of each little aggregate of families. It was
therefore with bitter and resentful feelings that they left these
happy scenes behind them, and turned their steps towards the gates of
the city, through which many of them were never to pass again. For all
of them it was a grievous change from the free and careless life of
the country-side to the confined space, polluted air, and jostling
multitudes of the town, now crowded to overflowing. Some few found
shelter in the houses of friends or relations; but by far the greater
number were obliged to encamp in the open spaces of the city, in the
precincts of temples, or in the narrow room between the Long Walls.
Even a place beneath the Acropolis, called the Pelasgic Field, was now
covered with the huts of the immigrants, though an ancient oracle had
forbidden its occupation under a curse. From day to day new crowds
kept flocking in, and the later comers were obliged to take up their
dwelling in Peiraeus, which was soon almost as much overcrowded as the
upper city.

And now the younger generation of Athenians, who had entered so
cheerfully into the conflict, were to have their first taste of the
grim realities of war. The Peloponnesian army advanced leisurely, and
proceeded at first to Oenoe, an outlying fort near the borders of
Boeotia; for Archidamus, who held the chief command, still hoped that
the Athenians, when they saw the enemy on the confines of Attica,
would make some concessions, to save their farms from destruction. For
this reason he had long delayed his march from the Isthmus, and now
wasted more time in fruitless operations at Oenoe, until the allies
began to murmur against him, and suspected him of receiving bribes
from the Athenians to spare their lands. At last, being unable to put
off the fatal moment any longer, he turned southwards, and after
ravaging the plain of Eleusis, advanced to Acharnae, one of the most
fertile and prosperous districts of Attica, about seven miles north of
Athens. Here the Peloponnesians encamped, and applied themselves
systematically to the work of pillage and havoc.

Great was the rage of the Acharnians, a hardy race of farmers and
charcoal-burners, when they saw the smoke rising from their ruined
homesteads; and their feelings were shared by the general body of the
citizens, who had watched the advance of Archidamus from Eleusis, and
had now no hope of saving their estates. Little knots of angry
disputants were seen in the streets and public places, for the most
part clamouring against Pericles, and demanding to be led against the
invader, while some few argued for the more prudent course. But
Pericles, who knew the fickle temper of the multitude, turned a deaf
ear to all this uproar, and steadily refused to summon an assembly,
lest some hasty resolution should be passed, which would lead to
useless loss of life. In order, however, to relieve the public
excitement, he sent out a body of horsemen to skirmish with the enemy,
and despatched a fleet of a hundred triremes to ravage the coasts of

When the first invasion of Attica was over, two cities, which had been
foremost in stirring up war against Athens, were made to feel the full
weight of her resentment. The unhappy Aeginetans were expelled from
their island, and the land of Aegina was distributed among Athenian
citizens. And later in the same summer the Athenians marched in full
force into the territory of Megara, which was laid waste from end to
end. This proceeding, which afforded a pleasant summer excursion to
the Athenians, was repeated annually for the next seven years. The
banished Aeginetans found an asylum at Thyrea, a coast district of
eastern Peloponnesus, which was assigned to them by Sparta. And so the
first year of the war came to an end; for, except on extraordinary
occasions, no military operations were undertaken during the winter.



At the beginning of the next summer the Peloponnesians again entered
Attica, and resumed their work of devastation, destroying the young
crops, and wrecking whatever had been spared in the previous year.
Before they had been many days in Attica, a new and far more terrible
visitation came upon the Athenians, threatening them with total
extinction as a people. We have seen how the whole upper city, with
the space between the Long Walls, and the harbour-town of Peiraeus,
was packed with a vast multitude of human beings, penned together,
like sheep in a fold. Into these huddled masses now crept a subtle and
unseen foe, striking down his victims by hundreds and by thousands.
That foe was the Plague, which beginning in Southern Africa, and
descending thence to Egypt, reached the southern shores of the
Mediterranean, and passed on to Peiraeus, having been carried thither
by seamen who trafficked between northern Africa and Greece. From
Peiraeus it spread upwards with rapid strides, and before long the
whole space within the walls presented the appearance of a vast lazar-

From the description of the symptoms we may conclude that this
epidemic was similar to that dreadful scourge of mankind which has
been almost conquered by modern science, the small-pox. The patient
who had taken the infection was first attacked in the head, with
inflammation of the eyes, and violent headache. By degrees the poison
worked its way into the whole system, affecting every organ in the
body, and appearing on the surface in the shape of small ulcers and
boils. One of the most distressing features of the disease was a
raging thirst, which could not be appeased by the most copious
draughts of water; and the internal heat, which produced this effect,
caused also a frightful irritability of the skin, so that the sufferer
could not bear the touch of the lightest and most airy fabrics, but
lay naked on his bed, in all the deformity of his dire affliction. Of
those who recovered, many bore the marks of the sickness to their
graves, by the loss of a hand, a foot, or an eye; while others were
affected in their minds, remaining in blank oblivion, without power to
recognise themselves or their friends. The healing art had made great
progress in Greece in the course of the last generation; and in this,
as in all else, the Greeks remained the sole teachers of Europe for
ages after. But against such a malady as this, the most skilful
physicians could do nothing, and those who attempted to exercise their
skill caught the plague themselves, and for the most part perished.
Still less, as we may well suppose, was the benefit derived from
amulets, incantations, inquiries of oracles, or supplications at
temples; and at last, finding no help in god or man, the Athenians
gave up the struggle, and resigned themselves to despair.

It is recorded as a curious fact, showing the strange and outlandish
character of the pestilence, that the birds and animals which feed on
human flesh generally shunned the bodies of those who died of the
plague, though they might have eaten their fill, for hundreds were
left unburied. The very vultures fled from the infected city, and
hardly one was seen as long as the pestilence continued.

The fearful rapidity with which the infection spread caused a panic
throughout the city, and even the boldest were not proof against the
general terror. If any man felt himself sickening of the plague, he at
once gave up all hope, and made no effort to fight against the
disease. Few were found brave enough to undertake the duty of nursing
the sick, and those who did generally paid for their devotion with
their lives. In most cases the patient was left to languish alone, and
perished by neglect, while his nearest and dearest avoided his
presence, and had grown so callous that they had not a sigh or a tear
left for the death of husband, or child, or friend. The few who
recovered, now free from risk of mortal infection, did what they could
to help their suffering fellow-citizens.

The mischief was aggravated by the overcrowded state of the city,
especially among those who had come in from the country, and were
living in stifling huts through the intense heat of a southern summer.
Here the harvest of death fell thickest, and the corpses lay heaped
together, while dying wretches crawled about the public streets, and
encumbered the fountain-sides, to which they had dragged themselves in
their longing for drink. All sense of public decency, all regard for
laws, human or divine, was lost. The temples in which they had made
their dwellings were choked with dead, and the sacred duty of burial,
to which the conscience of antiquity attached so high an importance,
was performed in wild haste and disorder. Sometimes those who were
carrying out a corpse found a vacant pile prepared by the relatives of
another victim, flung their dead upon it, set fire to the pile, and
departed; and sometimes, when a body was already burning, others who
were seeking to dispose of a corpse forced their way to the fire, and
threw their burden upon it.

In the general relaxation of public morality all the dark passions of
human nature, which at ordinary times lurk in secret places, came
forth to the light of day, and raged without restraint. Some, who had
grown rich in a day by the death of wealthy relatives, resolved to
enjoy their possessions, and indulge every appetite, before they were
overtaken by the same fate. Others, who had hitherto led good lives,
seeing the base and the noble swept away indifferently by the same
ruthless power, began to doubt the justice of heaven itself, and
rushed into debauch, convinced that conscience and honour were but
empty names. For human laws they cared still less, for in the
universal panic there was none to enforce them, and before the voice
of public authority could be heard again, both judge and transgressor,
as they believed, would be involved in a common doom. All shame and
fear were accordingly thrown aside, and those whom the plague had not
yet touched seemed possessed by one sole desire--to drown thought and
care in an orgy of fierce excess, and then to die.


The second invasion of the Peloponnesians was prolonged for forty
days, and the whole Attic territory was laid waste. Pericles again
refused to venture a pitched battle against them, knowing well that
the Athenian army was no match for them in the open field. But a
powerful fleet was sent to cruise round Peloponnesus, which inflicted
much damage on the coast districts. It was a welcome relief to the
Athenians selected for this service to escape for a time from the
plague-stricken city; but unhappily they carried the infection with
them, and the crews were decimated by the same disease. Nor did the
evil stop here: for the same armament being afterwards despatched to
Potidaea, to reinforce the blockading army and fleet, caused a
virulent outbreak of the plague among the forces stationed there,
which up till then had been healthy. After some fruitless operations
against the town this second armament was withdrawn, and returned to
Athens with the loss of more than a thousand men.

After all these disasters the reaction against Pericles, which had
begun with the first invasion of Attica, reached a climax, and on all
sides he was loudly decried by the Athenians, as the author of all
their miseries. Envoys were sent with overtures of peace to Sparta,
and when these returned with no favourable answer, the storm of
popular fury grew more violent than ever. Pericles, who knew the
temper of his people, and had foreseen that some such outbreak would
occur, remained calm and unmoved. But wishing to allay the general
excitement, and bring back the citizens to a more reasonable view of
their prospects, he summoned an assembly, and addressed the multitude
in terms of grave and dignified rebuke. He reminded them that they
themselves had voted for war, and remonstrated against the unfairness
of making him responsible for their own decision. If war could have
been avoided without imperilling the very existence of their city,
then that decision was wrong; but if, as was the fact, peace could
only have been preserved by ruinous concessions, then his advice had
been good, and they had been right in following it. The welfare of the
individual citizen depended on the welfare of the community to which
he belonged; as long as that was secured, private losses could always
be made good, but public disaster meant private ruin. On this
principle they had acted two years before, when they determined to
reject the demands of Sparta. Why, then, were they now indulging in
weak regrets, and turning against him whom they had appointed as their
chosen guide and adviser? Was there anything in his character, any
fact in his whole life, which justified them in suspecting him of
unworthy motives? Was he the man to lead them astray, in order to save
some selfish end--he, the great Pericles, whose loyalty, eloquence,
clear-sightedness, and incorruptibility, had been proved in a public
career of more than thirty years? If any other course had been open to
them, he would have been to blame in counselling war; but the
alternative was between that and degradation. The immediate pressure
of private calamity was blinding them to the magnitude of the
interests at stake--Athens, with all her fond traditions, and all the
lustre of her name. That they were sure of victory he had already
declared to them on many infallible grounds. But seeing them so sunk
in despair, he would speak in a tone of loud assurance, and boldly
assert a fact which they seemed to have overlooked. They were lords of
the sea, absolute masters, that was to say, of half the world! Let
them keep a firm grasp on this empire, and they would soon recover
those pretty ornaments of empire--their gardens and their vineyards--
which they held so dear: but, that once relinquished, they would lose
all. Surely this knowledge should inspire them with a lofty contempt
of their foes, a contempt grounded, not on ignorance or shallow
enthusiasm, but on rational calculation. They could not now descend
from the eminence on which they stood. Athens, who had blazed so long
in unrivalled splendour before the eyes of the world, dared not suffer
her lustre to be abated: for her, obscurity meant extinction. Let them
keep this in mind, and not listen to counsels of seeming prudence and
moderation, which were suicidal in a ruling state. All their
calamities, except the plague, were the foreseen results of their own
decision. Now was the time to display their known courage and
patience. Let them think of the glory of Athens, and her imperial

This memorable speech, the last recorded utterance of Pericles, had
the desired effect. It was resolved to continue the war, and no
further embassies were sent to Sparta. But resentment still smouldered
in the hearts of the Athenians against their great statesman. How
fearful was the contrast between the high hopes with which they had
embarked in this struggle, and the scenes of horror and desolation
which lay around them! From the walls they could see their trampled
fields, their ravaged plantations, and the blackened ruins of their
homes. Within, the pestilence still raged undiminished, and the city
was filled with sounds and sights of woe. Under the pressure of these
calamities the ascendency of Pericles went through a brief period of
eclipse, and he was condemned to pay a fine. Soon, however, he
recovered all his influence, and remained at the head of affairs until
his death, which occurred in the autumn of the following year.

Pericles is the representative figure in the golden age of Athenian
greatness, the most perfect example of that equable and harmonious
development in every faculty of body and mind which was the aim of
Greek civic life at its best. As an orator, he was probably never
equalled, and the effect of his eloquence has found immortal
expression in the lines of his contemporary Eupolis. Persuasion, we
are told, sat enthroned on his lips; like a strong athlete, he
overtook and outran all other orators; his words struck home like the
lightning, while he held his audience enchained, as by a powerful
spell; and among all the masters of eloquence, he was the only one who
left his sting behind him. As a statesman, it was his object to admit
every freeborn Athenian to a share of public duties and privileges;
and for this purpose he introduced the system of payment, which
enabled the poorer citizens to perform their part in the service of
the state. His military talents, though never employed for conquest or
aggression, were of no mean order; and on two occasions of supreme
peril to Athens, the revolt of Euboea, and the revolt of Samos, it was
his energy and promptitude which saved his city from ruin.

But it is as the head of the great intellectual movement which
culminated in this epoch, as the friend of poets, philosophers, and
artists, that Pericles has won his most enduring fame. By his liberal
and enlightened policy the surplus of the Athenian revenues was
devoted to the creation of those wonders of architecture and
sculpture, whose fragments still serve as unapproachable models to the
mind of modern Europe. And under his rule Athens became the school of
Greece, the great centre for every form of intellectual activity, a
position which she maintained until the later period of the Roman

If, however, we would understand the character of Pericles, and the
spirit of the age which he represents, we must never forget that this
aspect of Athenian greatness, to us by far the most important, was not
the aspect which awoke the highest enthusiasm in him and his
contemporaries. Those things which have made the name of Athens
immortal, her art and her literature, were matters of but secondary
importance to the Athenian of that age. He worshipped his city as a
beloved mistress, and, like a lover, he delighted to adorn her with
outward dignity and splendour. But to lavish all his thought and care
on these external embellishments would have been, in his estimation, a
senseless waste of his highest faculties, as if a lover should make
the robes and jewels of his mistress the objects of his highest
adoration. To make Athens the mightiest state in Greece, to build up
the fabric of her material greatness--these were the objects for which
he was ready to devote the best energies of heart and brain, and if
need were, to lay down his life. He might be skilled in every elegant
accomplishment, an acute reasoner, an orator, a musician, a poet; and
to some extent he was all of these. But before all else he was in the
highest sense a practical man, finding in strenuous action his chief
glory and pride. And such a man was the last to melt into ecstasies
over the high notes of a singer, or dream away his life in the
fairyland of poetry.

We have dwelt at some length on the work and character of Pericles, as
his death marks a turning point in Athenian history. From that day
onward the policy of Athens takes a downward direction, denoting a
corresponding decline in Athenian character and aspiration. Pericles
had been able, by his commanding talents and proved integrity, to
exercise a salutary check on the restless energies and soaring
ambition of his countrymen. He had been a true father and ruler of his
people, in evil times and in good, curbing them in the insolence of
prosperity, comforting and exalting them in the dark hour of disaster.
But the government now passed into the hands of weaker men, who, since
they were incapable of leading the people, were compelled to follow
it, and to maintain their position by pandering to the worst vices of
the Athenian character. Rash where they should have been cautious,
yielding where they should have been resolute, they squandered the
immense resources of Athens, and led her on, step by step, to
humiliation and defeat. The course of our narrative will show how
easily the Athenians might have emerged triumphant from the struggle
with their enemies, if they had followed the line of conduct marked
out by Pericles. They might, indeed, have avoided the occasion of
offence which led immediately to the war, and thus have escaped the
necessity of fighting altogether; and this, as we have seen, was the
one fatal mistake made by Pericles. But, once launched in the
conflict, they were sure of an easy victory, if they had only shown a
very moderate degree of prudence and self-restraint. And we need not
blame the great statesmen too harshly for not foreseeing the wild
excesses of folly and extravagance which we shall have to record in
the following pages.


In the third year of the war the usual invasion of Attica was omitted,
and the Peloponnesian army under Archidamus marched against Plataea.
Having pitched their camp before the walls they prepared to lay waste
the territory; but before the work of havoc began, the Plataeans sent
envoys to remonstrate. "Unrighteous are your deeds," said the
spokesman of the embassy, "ye men of Sparta, and unworthy of the men
whose sons ye are. After the victory of Plataea, which ended the
struggle against Persia, Pausanias, the chief captain of the
confederate Greeks, offered sacrifice and thanksgiving at Plataea to
Zeus the Liberator, and swore a solemn oath, both he, and all the
Greeks whom he led, to maintain the independence of our city against
all who should assail it. This they did as a recompense for our valour
and devotion in our country's service. But ye, in direct violation of
that oath, have made common cause with our worst enemies, the Thebans,
and have come hither to enslave us. In the name of the gods who
witnessed that covenant, in the name of every power worshipped alike
at Plataea and at Sparta, we adjure you not to commit this sacrilege,
but to leave us in peaceful possession of the privileges vouchsafed to
us on that memorable day."

Such were the words of the Plataeans, to which Archidamus replied as
follows: "Ye say well, men of Plataea, if ye act in the spirit of the
compact to which ye have appealed. The oath which Pausanias swore was
taken in defence of the common liberties of Greece. Against those
liberties a new enemy has arisen, Athens, who holds half our nation in
bondage, and threatens to lay her yoke upon us all. To put down that
tyranny has this great coalition been called together, and if ye are
true men, ye will enlist in the same cause, and take up arms for the
relief of your distressed countrymen. Or at least, if ye cannot do
this, then stand apart from this conflict, helping neither one side
nor the other; and with this we shall be satisfied."

Having heard the answer of Archidamus, the Plataean envoys went back,
and reported his words to their fellow-townsmen. But the Plataeans
replied that, without the consent of the Athenians, they dare not
accept his proposal, as their wives and children had been removed to
Athens. Moreover, they feared that if they remained neutral the
Thebans would seize the opportunity to make another attempt on their
town. "Well, then," answered Archidamus, "we make you this second
offer: Hand over your town and your dwellings to us, the Spartans;
keep a strict account of all your trees, [Footnote: Vines and olive-
trees] and of all else that can be numbered, and retire yourselves to
some safe retreat, as long as the war continues. When it is over, we
will restore all your property, and meanwhile keep the land in
cultivation, and pay you a fixed rent, such as may suffice you."

The offer was fair, and even generous; but the Plataeans were
powerless to act, without the consent of the Athenians, who held their
families as hostages. Accordingly they asked for a truce, to enable
them to lay the proposal before the authorities at Athens, and this
being granted, they sent envoys to Athens, who speedily returned with
this answer: "We have never left you at the mercy of your enemies in
the past, since ye became our allies, nor will we do so now, but will
help you to the best of our power; and we charge you by the oath which
your fathers swore not to depart from your allegiance to Athens."

It was a cruel alternative which was offered to the hapless Plataeans:
either they must leave their wives and children to the vengeance of
Athens, or face the whole power of the confederates, led by Sparta.
True to their character, they chose the nobler part, and determined to
stand by the Athenian alliance. Henceforth no one was allowed to leave
the town, and their final answer was delivered from the walls. They
were unable, they said, to accept the terms offered by Archidamus.

On hearing their decision, the Spartan king made a last solemn appeal
to the powers who presided over the territory of Plataea, a hallowed
precinct, now about to be given up to plunder and ravage: "Ye gods and
heroes, who keep the land of Plataea, bear witness that we had just
cause from the first for marching hither, since the Plataeans had
forsaken the alliance, and that if we do aught against them, we shall
still be justified. For we have made them the fairest offers, but they
would not be persuaded. Therefore let those with whom the guilt lies
be punished, and prosper ye the cause of righteous vengeance."

The siege of Plataea now began in earnest. First the town was
surrounded with a palisade, to prevent anyone from escaping, the
materials being taken from the plantations in the neighbourhood of the
town. Then they raised a mound against the wall, expecting that with
so large a force as theirs they would easily carry the place by storm.
Timber was brought from Cithaeron, and with this they set up two stout
buttresses of cross-beams, at right angles to the town-wall, to serve
as a support on either side of the mound. Within this framework they
piled up fascines, stones, earth, and whatever else was at hand. The
whole army was employed in this task, which was continued for seventy
days and nights without intermission, the men working in regular

Meanwhile the Plataeans had not been idle. First they built a wall of
bricks and timber opposite to the point where the mound was rising,
and resting on the ramparts, in order to raise the height of their
defences. The new wall was covered with hides, raw and dressed, to
protect the timber and the workmen from being injured by burning
arrows. And while this structure was in progress, they made a breach
in the old wall, and carted away the earth from the bottom of the
mound. To prevent this, the Peloponnesians filled up the space thus
caused with heavy masses of clay, rammed tightly into baskets of
osier, which made a solid structure, much harder to remove than the
loose earth. Then the Plataeans had recourse to another device:
marking carefully the position of the mound, they ran a mine from the
city under it, and as fast as the earth fell in, they carried it away.
This continued for a long time, for the Peloponnesians, who saw their
mound rising no higher, for all their labour, but rather growing less,
did not guess the cause, but went on heaping up materials, which were
swallowed up as fast as they were brought.

Still the Plataeans feared that in spite of these counterworks they
would at length be overpowered by numbers, unless they contrived some
better means of defence. So they left off building the wall of bricks
and timber, and beginning at either end of it, they built a crescent-
shaped wall, curving inwards towards the city. Thus the
Peloponnesians, if they succeeded in carrying the first wall, would
find themselves confronted by a second line of defence, and would have
all their work to do over again, besides being exposed to a cross-

While the Plataeans were thus vigorously defending themselves, and
before the mound was completed, the Peloponnesians brought siege-
engines to bear on the wall, one of which greatly alarmed the besieged
garrison, by severely shaking their wall of timber and bricks. But
this new mode of attack was frustrated, like the rest, by the
ingenuity of the Plataeans, who dropped nooses over the ends of the
battering-rams, and drew them up just before the moment of impact.
Moreover they suspended heavy beams of wood at intervals along the
wall, each beam hanging by long chains from two cranes which rested on
the wall and projected outwards from it; and whenever a ram was being
brought up, they drew up the beam at right angles to it, and then,
letting go the chains, dropped the ponderous timber, which came
crashing down on the ram, and broke off its head.

Thus baffled at every point, the Peloponnesians began to despair of
taking the town by assault, and thought that they would be compelled
to form a blockade. But before being driven to this costly and tedious
operation, they determined to try and set fire to the place, which
seemed possible, as it was but small in extent. So they waited till
the wind was in the right direction, and then brought vast quantities
of faggots, and threw them into the space between the mound and the
wall; and this being soon filled up, they piled up more faggots as far
as they could reach within the city itself, and then throwing in
lighted torches, with brimstone and pitch, they set fire to the whole
mass. Then arose a great sheet of flame, such as had never been raised
by human hands, though not, of course, to be compared to the vast
forest-fires, produced by natural means; yet it was sufficient to
cause a panic among the Plataeans, and bring their town to the verge
of destruction. The heat was so intense that a whole quarter of the
place was cleared of its defenders, and if a wind had arisen to drive
the flame inwards, nothing could have saved the whole town from
destruction. [Footnote: Thucydides seems to imply that there was a
wind, though a slight one.] But fortunately the breeze was but slight,
and it is said also that a heavy fall of rain came on, and quenched
the conflagration.

Having failed in their last attempt, the Peloponnesians sent away part
of their army, and employed those who remained in building a
blockading wall round Plataea. The work was completed towards the end
of September, and they then disbanded their army, leaving a force
sufficient to guard half the wall; for the Thebans, relentless in
their zeal against Plataea, took charge of the other half. The number
of the besieged was four hundred and eighty, of whom eighty were
Athenians, and a hundred and ten women to make bread for the garrison.



During the last half-century the art of naval warfare had made great
progress in Greece. The Greek war-galley, or trireme, a vessel
propelled by three banks of oars, had always been furnished with a
sharp-pointed prow, for the purpose of ramming an opponent's ship; but
many years elapsed before the Greeks attained genuine skill in the use
of this formidable weapon. According to the ordinary method of
fighting, after the first shock of collision the affair was decided by
the hoplites, or heavy-armed infantry, stationed on the decks of the
two contending ships; and in this manner was fought the engagement
between the Corcyraean and Corinthian. fleets which occurred in the
year before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. There the ship was
simply a vehicle, which served to bring the antagonists together, and
the rest was left to the prowess of the hoplites.

The Athenians were the first to abandon this crude and clumsy style of
fighting, and in the course of two generations their seamen had become
renowned throughout Greece for the unrivalled skill which they showed
in working and manoeuvring the trireme. A few hoplites were still
carried, to serve in cases of emergency; but by far the most important
part in the encounter was played by the trireme itself, with its long,
tapering, sharp-pointed prow. To use this deadly but delicate
instrument with effect required great coolness, dexterity, and
judgment, on the part of the steersman, and a crew under perfect
command. The tactics usually employed were as follows: watching his
opportunity, the captain gave the order "full speed ahead!" and
darting rapidly through the enemy's line, wheeled suddenly round, and
drove the beak of his galley with terrible force against the stern or
side of the vessel selected for attack. One blow from the long lance-
like point, propelled by the whole weight and impetus of the trireme,
was sufficient to sink or disable an enemy's ship, and the attacking
galley was then backed away from the wreck, and directed against
another victim.

The incessant practice of nearly half a century had enabled the
Athenians to attain consummate mastery in this new method of naval
warfare; and they were now to give signal proof of their immense
superiority over the other maritime powers of Greece.

In the same summer which witnessed the investment of Plataea, the
Spartans planned an expedition against Acarnania, the westernmost
province of Greece, which they wished to detach from the Athenian
alliance. A Spartan officer, named Cnemus, was sent off in advance,
with a thousand hoplites, to raise the wild mountain tribes, and led
an attack against Stratus, the capital of Acarnania; and in the
meantime orders were sent round to equip a numerous fleet, which was
to support the operations of Stratus by harassing the coast districts.

The attack on Stratus failed altogether, chiefly in consequence of the
impetuosity of the rude mountaineers serving under Cnemus, who
advanced unsupported against the town, and meeting with a severe
repulse embarrassed the movements of their Greek allies. About the
same time the Peloponnesian fleet, consisting of forty-seven ships,
was sailing down the Corinthian Gulf to co-operate with Cnemus. It was
known that Phormio, the Athenian admiral, was stationed at Naupactus
with a squadron of twenty vessels; but the Peloponnesian captains
never dreamed that he would venture to attack them with so small a
force, and they pursued their voyage along the southern shore of the
gulf, without making any preparations for a battle. Phormio, however,
had other intentions: keeping close to the opposite shore, he followed
their movements, and allowed them to pass through the narrow strait
which divides the inner from the outer gulf, wishing to avoid an
engagement until they reached the open water. The Peloponnesians
dropped anchor for the night at Patrae in Achaia, and Phormio took up
his station at Chalcis, a harbour-town of Aetolia, at the mouth of the
Evenus. Being now convinced that Phormio meditated an encounter, for
which they had little inclination, the Peloponnesian admirals made an
attempt [Footnote: I have adopted the reading of Bloomfield, approved
by Classen (4th Edition).] to steal across under cover of darkness.
But this manoeuvre was detected, and they found their way barred by
the Athenian squadron in the middle of the channel. Being thus driven
to bay the Peloponnesians drew up their ships in a circle, with their
prows turned outwards, like a flock of sheep assailed by a dog. Within
the circle were placed the smaller vessels accompanying the fleet, and
five of the swiftest galleys, which were intended to lend assistance
against any attack of the enemy.

To keep a large flotilla in such a position, even in a calm sea, where
no hostile movement was made against them, would have been a task to
try the skill of the most accomplished mariners. But the Peloponnesian
crews were untrained, the decks of their ships were crowded with
soldiers, and they were hampered by the crowd of smaller craft. Worst
of all, they were threatened in every direction by the agile Athenian
galleys, which, moving in single file, swept round and round them,
approaching closer and closer at every circuit, so that they were
penned together in an ever-narrowing space, and in danger of fouling
one another. To complete their confusion, the morning breeze began to
blow from the gulf; and Phormio, who had been waiting for this, now
gave the signal for attack. The Peloponnesians hardly attempted any
defence; for the unskilful crews of the galleys could not manage their
oars in the rising sea, and the steersmen had consequently no control
of their vessels. All their efforts were employed in keeping clear of
one another, warding off a collision with long poles, amid a hubbub of
curses and abuse. Into this huddled, swaying mass of war-galleys and
merchant-craft mingled together now dashed the Athenian triremes,
wrecking every vessel which they met. A wild panic ensued among the
Peloponnesian crews, and as fast as they could extricate themselves
they rowed off and sought shelter in the harbour of Patrae. From here
they afterwards sailed to Cyllene, the dockyard of Elis, where they
were joined by Cnemus with the troops from Acarnania. Twelve ships
fell into the hands of the Athenians, and taking these with them they
sailed first to Rhium, a level headland on the Locrian Coast, on which
stood a temple of Poseidon. Having left one of the captured ships as a
thank-offering to the god of the sea, they made their way back to the
original station at Naupactus.


The authorities at Sparta were highly indignant at the failure of
their expedition in Acarnania, and the defeat of the Peloponnesian
fleet by so inferior a force. For this was their first experience of a
sea-fight since the outbreak of the war, and they made no allowance
for the want of skill in their own crews, attributing the disaster to
mere cowardice. They did not reflect how vast was the difference
between raw sailors, lately transferred from the plough to the oar,
and the veteran seamen of Athens, trained under a system which had
been slowly perfected in the course of half a century. So they sent
three commissioners to Cnemus, with peremptory orders to prepare for
another sea-fight, and not allow himself to be shut up in harbour by
the feeble squadron of Phormio. One of these commissioners was
Brasidas, a brilliant young officer, who had gained distinction two
years before by saving the harbour-town of Methone, on the coast of
Messenia, from being captured by the Athenians. We shall hear much
more of him in the sequel.

On the arrival of Brasidas and his colleagues, the ships lying at
Cyllene were made ready for immediate service, and orders were sent
round to the allied cities for other ships. Phormio also sent an
urgent despatch to Athens announcing his victory, and asking for
reinforcements; and the Athenians sent twenty triremes to his aid.
These vessels, however, arrived too late, for the admiral, acting on
instructions from Athens, sailed first to Crete, where he was delayed
a long time by contrary winds. Phormio, with his twenty triremes, was
therefore compelled to engage the whole Peloponnesian fleet, numbering
seventy-seven ships, which had now sailed round from Cyllene, and
taken up its station just within the strait, close to the Achaean town
of Panormus. A strong force of Peloponnesian soldiers was encamped on
the shore, to co-operate with the fleet. Phormio anchored his ships
just outside the strait, being resolved, if it were in any way
possible, not to fight the Peloponnesians in the narrow waters. As the
Peloponnesians, on their side, were equally determined not to be lured
out into the open sea, the two fleets remained confronting each other
for a whole week, without attempting any aggressive movement. At last
the Peloponnesian leaders decided to give battle with Phormio at once,
fearing that if they delayed any longer he would be reinforced from

It was the universal custom of Greek commanders to wind up the courage
of their men on the eve of a battle by a short and pithy address,
calculated to inspire them with confidence, by giving them a
reasonable hope of victory. Such a practice, strange as it may seem to
us, was natural among a people whose armies and fleets were recruited
from the general body of the citizens, accustomed to free speech in
their public assemblies. They were not men of war by profession,
trained in habits of blind obedience, but sensitive Greeks, who
carried into the camp the noble freedom of civic life, and were not
prepared to shed their blood without sufficient cause, and a fair
prospect of success.

Seldom was there greater need of this sort of military eloquence than
on the present occasion. On both sides there was much discouragement,
and a general reluctance to begin the fight. The Peloponnesians were
cowed by their recent defeat, and dreaded the naval skill of the
Athenians, which seemed to them almost supernatural; and Phormio's men
shrank from an encounter with such enormous odds. Accordingly the
Peloponnesian captains on one side, and Phormio on the other, did what
they could to argue their crews into a more hopeful frame of mind. The
Peloponnesian seamen who had taken part in the first battle were
reminded that they had been caught unprepared, and assured that this
time every precaution would be taken to prevent a second reverse. They
were flattered by the confident assertion that the superior skill of
the Athenians was far outweighed by their own superior courage.
"Look," said one of the admirals, speaking to his own division, "at
this powerful armament, outnumbering the enemy by four to one--look at
the army drawn up on the shore, ready to lend aid to any who are hard
pressed--and you will see that with such advantages defeat is
impossible. Do your duty like men, and expect to be rewarded or
punished according to your deserts." Similar addresses, combining
encouragement with threats, were heard in the other parts of the

Among the Athenian sailors there had been much jesting about the land-
lubbers of Peloponnesus, and in the first flush of their victory they
had been ready to face any odds on the sea. But now, seeing themselves
confronted by such overwhelming numbers, they had lost heart for the
moment, and were seen standing about in little groups, shaking their
heads and whispering fearfully together. It was an anxious moment for
Phormio; he knew the immense importance of maintaining, at any cost,
the naval reputation of Athens, and if his men went into battle in
their present temper, they were certain to suffer a crushing defeat.
Determining, therefore, if possible, to allay the panic which was fast
spreading throughout the fleet, he summoned the crews into his
presence, and harangued them as follows:--

"Comrades, I have called you hither to assure you that you have no
cause for alarm. The numbers of the enemy, which seem to you so
formidable, should, if properly considered, be a ground of confidence;
for this unwieldy armament is a sign that they are thoroughly
terrified, and seek safety in a huge crowd of ships. The firmness and
discipline which they have acquired by long experience of land warfare
will avail them little on the sea For courage is largely a matter of
habit, and the bravest landsman is a mere coward when he is taken away
from his own element, and set down on the heaving deck of a war-galley
where he can hardly keep his feet. The disorganized multitude with
which we shall have to deal is a mere mob, held together by the
authority of Sparta, demoralized by their late defeat, and forced to
fight against their will. Face them boldly, and our very audacity in
assailing such numbers will sink them still deeper into helpless
terror, for they will think that we must be invincible, or we should
never run such risks. It shall be my business to bring on the
engagement in blue water, where we shall have them at our mercy. Now
every man to his station; be prompt, and be silent, and attend to the
word of command. Remember your old spirit, and reflect that the honour
of Athens is in your hands to-day."

The great object of the Peloponnesian leaders was to compel Phormio to
give battle in the confined space of the strait. With this intention
they determined to make a sudden movement towards the northern coast
of the gulf, threatening an attack on Naupactus. At daybreak they drew
up their ships in four lines, with the coast of Peloponnesus behind
them, and with twenty fast-sailing triremes stationed on the right
wing, to cut off Phormio's fleet, if, as they anticipated, he advanced
to the defence of Naupactus. Wheeling then to the right, the ships
sailed some distance, four abreast, towards the inner gulf; and when
they came opposite to Naupactus, they changed their course, and moved
in column, with the right wing leading towards the northern shore.

The manoeuvre, so far as concerned its immediate purpose, was
completely successful. Phormio, much against his will, was obliged to
leave his station outside the strait, and go to the aid of Naupactus,
which had been left undefended. Great was the delight of the
Peloponnesian captains when they saw the little Athenian squadron
creeping close, in single file, along the northern side of the gulf,
for they thought that not one of the twenty would escape them. At a
given signal, the whole fleet formed into line, resuming its original
order, four deep, and bore down upon the Athenians. Eleven of
Phormio's triremes succeeded in clearing the strait, and getting into
the open waters in the direction of Naupactus; but the remaining nine
were overtaken and driven aground, and their crews, except those who
escaped by swimming, were put to the sword. Some of these vessels were
towed off as prizes by the Peloponnesians, and one they captured with
all her crew. The rest were saved by the valour of the Messenian
soldiers, who had followed the movements of Phormio's vessels along
the shore, and now did good service by boarding the stranded triremes,
and hauling them to land, after a sharp tussle with the enemy.

Meanwhile the eleven ships which had eluded the attack were hotly
pursued by the twenty fast-sailing vessels on the Peloponnesian right
wing. All but one got through in safety, and took refuge in the
harbour of Naupactus, and drawing up in line, with their prows
outwards, prepared to defend themselves if the enemy advanced further
against them. But the rearmost vessel was hard pressed by a Leucadian
ship, and the rest of the pursuers followed at a considerable
distance, singing the paean [Footnote: A song of victory.] as they
rowed, and expecting an easy victory. Now, however, occurred one of
those sudden turns of fortune so frequent in the course of a sea-
fight. The Athenian trireme which had been left far behind in the
chase, made a sudden sweep round a merchant-vessel anchored at the
mouth of the harbour, struck her pursuer amidships, and sank her.

This splendid feat of seamanship filled the Peloponnesians, who were
advancing in disorder, with amazement and terror. On every trireme the
cry of "Hold her!" [Footnote: This was done by thrusting the oars, with
the blades held flat, deep into the water] was heard, and some of the
vessels, losing way suddenly, ran aground on the shallows. The others
hung back, waiting until the main body of the fleet should come to
their support. Seeing them drifting thus, stupefied and helpless, the
Athenians took heart again, and raising a shout rowed swiftly from
their station within the harbour, and charged down upon them. The
Peloponnesians, after a feeble attempt at resistance, took to flight,
heading for their original station on the opposite coast. Six of their
vessels were captured, and the Athenians, not content with this, fell
upon the main body of the fleet, and recovered their own ships which
had been taken in the strait. The victorious crews of Phormio then
returned to Naupactus, and set up a trophy at the place where they had
been moored when this splendid rally was made, opposite to the temple
of Apollo. The Peloponnesians also raised a trophy, to commemorate
their first success, and then, fearing the arrival of the fresh ships
from Athens, they sailed off to Lechaeum, the northern harbour of


In strange contrast with the disgraceful exhibition of cowardice and
incompetence which we have just witnessed, we have now to record a
daring attempt, undertaken shortly afterwards, to strike at the very
heart of the Athenian power. While the beaten crews of the
Peloponnesian fleet were waiting to be paid off at Lechaeum, they
suddenly received orders to take their oars and rowing-cushions, and
proceed to Nisaea, the port of Megara. The plan was to embark them on
forty vessels, which were lying in the dockyards, and make a night-
attack on Peiraeus. The suggestion came from the Megarians, but in
carrying it out the Peloponnesians were probably influenced by the
bold and enterprising spirit of Brasidas. And in fact, the meditated
descent on Peiraeus was neither so wild nor so rash as it may at first
sight appear. For the Athenians, never dreaming that they might be
taken by surprise, had not taken the precaution to close the entrance
of their harbour, or to station guard-ships for its defence.

Without delay, the officers in charge of the expedition mustered their
crews at Nisaea, and embarking by night, got their ships under way.
But at the last moment their hearts failed them, and instead of
sailing to Peiraeus, they landed on the island of Salamis, and after
attacking a sea-side fort, and capturing three triremes which were
riding at anchor near it, they spread themselves out, and began
ravaging and plundering the country.

Meanwhile fire-signals had been raised, conveying the alarm to
Peiraeus and Athens. A wild panic ensued, and a rumour ran through the
upper city that the enemy had sailed into Peiraeus, while in the
harbour-town it was generally supposed that Salamis was lost, and
Peiraeus on the point of being invaded. The Peloponnesians employed in
this adventure afterwards pretended that they had been hindered by
contrary winds from carrying out their original design. But this was a
mere excuse, and if they had chosen they might have sailed unopposed
to Peiraeus, and inflicted terrible injury on Athens. But it was now
too late, for the Athenians, as soon as the news was brought, had
marched down with their whole military force to Peiraeus, and occupied
every assailable point in the harbour, while at the same time every
ship in the docks was launched and manned, and sent off in headlong
haste to Salamis.

By this time it was broad daylight, and the Peloponnesians, being
warned that a rescue was on the way from Peiraeus, made off with their
booty, and getting, on board their ships, sailed back to Nisaea. They
had the more reason for hastening their departure, as the Megarian
ships which had carried them to Salamis, having lain a long while in
dry-dock, were leaky and unseaworthy; for the harbour of Megara had
for some time past been kept in close blockade by the Athenians.

This memorable incident, following close on the brilliant victories of
Phormio, taught the Athenians to take better precautions for the
future. Hitherto they would have scoffed at the suggestion that their
own arsenals and dockyards were exposed to attack. But now they
provided for the safety of Peiraeus by closing the harbours and
keeping a vigilant watch. And that terrible night left an impression
on their minds which was not soon forgotten.



We have already traced the steps by which the various cities
composing the Confederacy of Delos gradually became subjects and
tributaries of Athens. After this great change was effected, the only
members of the original league who retained their independence were
the wealthy and powerful communities of Chios and Lesbos. These two
islands were allowed to retain undisturbed control of their own
affairs, with the sole obligation of sending a fixed quota of ships to
serve in the Athenian Navy. It does not appear that the performance of
this duty was felt as a grievance, and no act of oppression had been
committed by Athens, such as might have provoked her allies in Lesbos
or Chios to turn against her. In both islands the general body of the
citizens were on the whole friendly to the Athenians, who afforded
them an effectual means of protection against the tyranny of the
nobles, by summoning high-born offenders to be tried before the
Athenian tribunals. [Footnote: The evidence for this statement will be
found in Thucydides, viii. 48.] It was therefore not among the people
at large, but among the privileged few, that any movement of revolt
against Athens was to be expected.

Some years before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War the Lesbian
malcontents had solicited the Spartans to help them in throwing off
the yoke of Athens. This application, which was probably made at the
time of the revolt of Samos, found no favour with Sparta, and nothing
further was attempted on that occasion. But in the fourth year of the
war alarming rumours were brought to Athens from Tenedos, a small
island included in the Athenian alliance, whose inhabitants were
jealous of the threatened ascendancy of Lesbos in the eastern
districts of the Aegaean. There was a design, it was said, among the
leading citizens of Mytilene, the principal city of Lesbos, to unite
the inhabitants of the island by force under their rule, and renounce
their allegiance to Athens. Help was expected from Sparta, and the
Boeotians, who were of the same race as the Lesbians, were also in the
plot. This statement was confirmed by envoys from Methymna, the second
city of Lesbos, which stood apart from the conspiracy, and by certain
citizens of Mytilene, who had turned informers from motives of private

Among the Athenians at this time there was a general feeling of
despondency and exhaustion. The full hardship of the war pressed
heavily upon them, and their population was thinned by the ravages of
the plague. In such a mood the thought of undertaking a campaign
against a great island like Lesbos, then at the height of her power,
filled them with dismay. Was it possible that a favoured and
privileged ally had taken up arms against them in the hour of their
distress? It was a slander, they could not, they would not believe it.
At any rate, before proceeding to extremities, they would try the
effect of a friendly remonstrance. So they sent envoys with a pacific
message to the Mytilenaeans, hoping by fair words to deter them from
their purpose. In this, however, they were disappointed, and being at
last convinced that the Lesbians were on the brink of revolt, they
sent off forty triremes without delay, in order, if possible, to catch
them unawares. For they had been informed that the Mytilenaeans were
about to celebrate the festival of Apollo, in which the whole
population took part, outside the city walls; and if the triremes
arrived in time, there would be a fine opportunity for a surprise. At
the same time they took possession of ten Mytilenaean triremes, which
had been sent to serve in the Athenian fleet, and imprisoned the

But now was seen one of the weaknesses inherent in the nature of the
Athenian constitution. These measures could not be taken without
public debate in the popular assembly, and such a method of procedure
rendered secrecy impossible. The Mytilenaeans received timely warning
of their danger, and keeping close within their walls, repaired the
weak places in their defences, and set a careful watch. Shortly
afterwards the Athenian fleet hove in sight. As the Mytilenaeans
refused to obey the summons delivered to them in the name of the
imperial people,--that they should raze their walls, and surrender
their ships,--hostilities commenced. But on neither side was much
vigour displayed, for the Athenian officers thought themselves too
weak to undertake any decisive operations with their present force,
and the Mytilenaeans desired to obtain a respite, to enable them to
obtain aid from Sparta. Accordingly they asked for an armistice,
pretending that they wished to plead their cause by their own
representatives before the Athenian assembly; and their request being
granted, they sent envoys to Athens, who made a show of carrying on
negotiations. And in the meantime a trireme was despatched in all
haste to carry their petition to Sparta.

On the return of the Mytilenaean envoys from Athens, where of course
they had accomplished nothing, the siege of Mytilene began in earnest.
The city was situated on a promontory facing the Asiatic coast on the
south-eastern side of the island, and had two harbours, on its
northern and southern side. Both of these harbours were now held in
close blockade by the Athenians, who established two camps, one on
either side of the town, and patrolled the harbour-mouths with their
ships. But on the land side the investment was not yet completed, so
that supplies could still be brought into the town from the island.
Reinforcements, however, came pouring into the Athenian quarters in
answer to a summons sent to the cities of the Athenian alliance, who
were the more willing to lend help, as the Lesbians made no vigorous
effort in their own defence.

While the prospects of Athens were thus brightening, the Mytilenaean
envoys, after a stormy voyage, arrived at Sparta, and laid their
petition before the authorities. It happened that the Olympic festival
was close at hand, where representatives would be present from all the
cities of the Peloponnesian league; so the envoys received orders to
go to Olympia, and state their case in the presence of the Spartan
allies. They went, therefore, to Olympia, and when the festival was
over, the Mytilenaean orator addressed the confederates as follows:--

"Before we urge our claim for assistance we wish to combat a prejudice
which we know to be general in Greece against those who desert their
allies in time of war. For we wish not only to obtain your countenance
and support, but also to preserve your respect. To abandon an ally
without just cause in a time of peril is justly regarded as an act of
treason. But then the alliance must be a fair and equal relation
voluntarily assumed on both sides, based on mutual esteem and parity
of power. Can anyone assert that our connexion with Athens answers to
this description? Have we not seen how the confederacy of maritime
cities formed against Persia was gradually converted into an Athenian
empire? And though we and the Chians enjoyed nominal independence, we
had good reason to fear that this was only a temporary concession,
which would be withdrawn as soon as the Athenians felt themselves
strong enough to attack us. We were allowed to retain our liberty,
partly because they feared our navy, and partly because they wished to
make us accomplices in their own aggressions, and lend an appearance
of equity to the acts of violence in which we were compelled to take
part. Having swallowed up the smaller states, they were ready to
pounce upon us, and were only prevented by the outbreak of the present
war. Who, then, can blame us, if we seized the opportunity when they
were weakened to repudiate this false alliance, and anticipate the
blow which they were preparing for us? Athens, we repeat, has no just
title to our allegiance; the bond which held us together was fear on
our side and interest on theirs. We are natural enemies; and when your
foe is disabled, then is the time to strike.

"Having thus cleared ourselves from the imputation of disloyalty, we
will now make plain to you the advantages which you will gain by
espousing our cause. If you wish to inflict irreparable injury on
Athens, you must promote every hostile movement against her in those
regions which contain the sources of her power, that is to say, the
islands and coast-lands of the Aegaean. For if our revolt is
successful, others will follow our example, and the Athenians will be
stripped of their revenues, the mainstay of their empire. You can lend
us aid most effectually by summoning your allies for a second
[Footnote: Attica had already been invaded earlier in the summer.]
invasion of Attica, and thus preventing the Athenians from sending
reinforcements to Lesbos. You have a rare opportunity, for their city
is wasted by the plague, and their navies are dispersed on foreign
service. Remember, then, your proud position as champions of Greek
liberty, and put away the reproach which you have sometimes incurred
by leaving the revolted subjects of Athens to fight their battles
alone. [Footnote: As in the case of Samos.] For the cause of Lesbos is
the cause of all Greece."

It will be observed that the greater part of this remarkable speech
consists of an elaborate endeavour on the part of the Mytilenaeans to
justify themselves. The arguments employed were entirely sophistical,
for the Lesbians had no real grievance--and the statement that they
were in danger of losing their independence was a pure invention. But
they spoke to a partial audience, and the Spartans had already
prejudged the case in their favour. It was therefore decided to
receive them into the Peloponnesian alliance, and orders were issued
to the allies to assemble at the Isthmus with two-thirds of their
forces for an immediate invasion of Attica. The Spartans, acting with
unusual vigour, were the first to appear at the Isthmus, where they
made preparations for hauling ships overland from the northern harbour
of Corinth, intending to attack Athens by sea and land. But the rest
of the confederates came in but slowly, as they were engaged in
getting in their harvest, and had little inclination for a second

The Spartans soon found out that they were mistaken in supposing the
energies of Athens to be exhausted. Without moving their fleet from
Lesbos, the Athenians manned a hundred triremes, raising the crews
from the whole body of the citizens, with the exception of the knights
and the wealthiest class of the Solonian census, and pressing even
resident foreigners into the service; and with this imposing force
they made an armed demonstration before the eyes of their enemies at
the Isthmus, and then, coasting along Peloponnesus, made descents
wherever they pleased. This spirited conduct produced the desired
effect. For the Spartans, who were still waiting for their allies at
the Isthmus, saw themselves baffled in all their calculations, and
concluded that they had been misinformed by the Lesbians as to the
state of affairs at Athens; and hearing that their own coast-lands
were being ravaged by the Athenian fleet, they hastily decamped, and
the plan of a second invasion came to nothing.

The summer was now drawing to a close, and as yet no progress had been
made with the siege of Mytilene. The town was still blockaded by sea,
but the Mytilenaeans had free egress on the land-side, and marched up
and down the island, confirming the other towns which had joined in
the revolt, and threatening Methymna, which still remained loyal to
the Athenian alliance. When the Athenians were informed of this state
of things, they sent a thousand hoplites under Paches to reinforce the
besieging army; and on their arrival the investment of Mytilene was
completed by a wall drawn from sea to sea, and cutting off the town
from the rest of the island. The Mytilenaeans now began to despair,
for their supplies were failing, and there seemed no hope of relief.
But during the winter a ray of hope reached them from outside, and
encouraged them to persevere in their resistance. There was a weak
point in the Athenian wall, where it closed a ravine; and through this
interval a Spartan named Salaethus, who had sailed to Lesbos in a
trireme, and crossed the island on foot, succeeded in making his way
into the town. Salaethus announced himself as an agent sent from
Sparta, to inform the distressed garrison that, as soon as the season
permitted, forty triremes would be sent to their assistance, and that
Attica would be invaded at the same time, to keep the enemy occupied
at home. At this welcome news the hopes of the Mytilenaeans revived,
and all thoughts of surrender were laid aside.


As soon as spring arrived, the Spartans, true to their promise, sent
off forty triremes, commanded by Alcidas, to raise the siege of
Mytilene, and marched in full force into Attica, thinking thus to
divert the attention of the Athenians, and prevent them from
interfering with the voyage of Alcidas. They remained a long time in
Attica, waiting for news from their fleet, and employing the time in a
systematic ravage of the whole territory. But time passed, and no
message arrived from Alcidas, who seemed to have disappeared with all
his ships; so that at last, as their expectations were disappointed,
and their supplies exhausted, they broke up their army and returned

The position of Mytilene was now growing desperate. Nothing more was
heard of the relieving squadron, and the scanty store of provisions
was rapidly failing; for, owing to the betrayal of their design, the
Mytilenaeans had been hurried into revolt before their preparations
were completed, and had had no time to lay up a sufficient stock of
food. Salaethus, therefore, determined to make a sudden sally, and
break out of the town; and the better to effect this purpose, he
furnished the common people, who had hitherto served as light-armed
soldiers, with the full equipment of heavy infantry. But this
proceeding brought on a catastrophe, for the commons no sooner found
themselves in possession of better weapons than they turned upon their
masters, and accused them of secreting supplies of corn for their own
use. "Bring out your corn," they cried, "and divide it equally, or we
will go out and make terms with the Athenians for ourselves." Alarmed
at this threat, which if carried out would leave them exposed as the
sole objects of Athenian vengeance, the nobles sent a message to
Paches, on behalf of the whole city, offering to surrender, on
condition that their case should be tried by the tribunals at Athens,
and stipulating that, while the decision was pending, no violence
should be offered to any of the inhabitants. The proposal was
accepted, and Paches marched his forces into the town. In spite of the
convention, the leaders of the revolt took sanctuary in the temples,
being in dread of summary execution. Paches reassured them, and sent
them in safe custody to Tenedos.

We must now turn back a little, and follow the movements of Alcidas.
The Spartan admiral, it would seem, had small stomach for the bold
adventure on which he was bound--no less than to rob the Athenians of
one of their most important possessions, and defy the redoubtable
captains of Athens on their own element. After loitering for some time
off the coast of Peloponnesus, he sailed on slowly as far as Delos,
and then, touching at Icarus, he heard that Mytilene was already
taken. Wishing, however, to inform himself with certainty, he pushed
on as far as Erythrae, on the mainland of Asia, which he reached seven
days after the fall of Mytilene. Being now assured that the report was
true, he called a council of war to decide what was to be done. Then a
certain Greek of Elis, named Teutiaplus, made a bold suggestion: "Let
us," he said, "sail straight to Mytilene, and make an attempt to
recapture the town by surprise. Most likely the Athenians, flushed
with success, will be taken unawares, and we shall find the harbour
open, and the land forces dispersed, and if we make a sudden onfall,
under cover of darkness, we shall probably succeed."

The prudent Alcidas found this proposal little to his taste; nor was
he better pleased by another plan, put forward by the Lesbian envoys
who were returning on board the Peloponnesian fleet, and seconded by a
party of exiles from the cities of Ionia. These men tried to persuade
Alcidas to establish himself in some city of Asia Minor, and raise a
revolt among the allies of Athens in these parts. He had, they said,
every prospect of success, for his arrival was welcomed on all sides.
Let him seize the opportunity of attacking the Athenians in their most
mortal part, first by withdrawing the tribute of Ionia, and secondly
by putting them to the expense of a blockade.

This daring scheme might have led to something important, if the fleet
had been commanded by Brasidas. But Alcidas was a man of very
different temper, and having arrived too late to save Mytilene, he had
now but one thought,--to return to Peloponnesus as fast as he could,
and get out of the reach of the terrible Athenian triremes. So he set
his fleet in motion, and sailing along the coast in a southerly
direction put in at Ephesus. On the voyage he showed himself to be as
cruel as he was cowardly, by capturing and putting to death the crews
of the vessels which came in his way. These were not a few, for the
ships which crossed his path approached fearlessly, under the
impression that his fleet was from Athens; for no one dreamed that a
Peloponnesian squadron would dare to enter these waters. For this
senseless barbarity he was severely rebuked by a deputation of Samian
exiles, now living on the mainland, who met him at Ephesus. His was a
strange method, they remarked with bitter irony, of helping the
Ionians to recover their liberty--to butcher defenceless men, who had
done him no harm, but looked to him for rescue from their bondage to
Athens! If he continued to behave thus, he would make the name of
Sparta detested throughout Ionia. Dull as he was, Alcidas could not
but feel the justice of this reprimand, and he let the rest of his
prisoners go.

The presence of a Peloponnesian fleet had caused great alarm among
the inhabitants of Ionia, and urgent messages came in daily to Paches
at Mytilene, summoning him to their aid. For even though Alcidas
had declined to take up a permanent station on the coast, as the
exiles had suggested, it was apprehended that he would pillage the
sea-side towns, which were unfortified, on his homeward voyage. At
last two state triremes, the _Paralus_ and _Salaminia,_ which had
been sent on public business from Athens, came into Mytilene with the
news that they had sighted the fleet of Alcidas lying at anchor off
Clarus. [Footnote: A little town, north-west of Ephesus.] Thereupon
Paches put to sea at once, and gave chase. But Alcidas had got wind of
his danger, and was already on the high seas, making all speed for
Peloponnesus. Paches pursued him as far as Patmos, and then turned
back. He would gladly have caught the Peloponnesians in blue water,
where he could have sent all their ships to the bottom; but as it was
he thought himself fortunate to have escaped the necessity of forming
a blockade, as he must have done if he had come up with them near
land, and driven them ashore. As for Alcidas, he fled in wild haste,
keeping the open sea, being resolved not to touch land, if he could
help it, until he reached the shelter of a Peloponnesian harbour.


On his return to Lesbos, Paches despatched to Athens the prisoners who
had been sent to Tenedos, among whom was the Spartan Salaethus. When
they arrived the Athenians immediately put Salaethus to death, and
then met in full assembly to decide on the fate of the rest. They had
just been delivered from a fearful danger, and in the natural reaction
of vindictive rage which had now set in they came to the horrible
resolution of putting all the adult male population of Mytilene to the
sword, and selling the women and children as slaves. The Mytilenaeans,
they argued, were without excuse: they were not subjects of Athens,
who might wish to escape from their burdens, but free and privileged
allies. They had treacherously plotted against Athens, when she was
sunk deep in calamity, and brought a Peloponnesian fleet within the
sacred circle of her empire. For a long time past they had evidently
been hatching a vile conspiracy against the very existence of Athens.
Having once come to this decision, the Athenians lost no time, but
sent off a trireme on the same day, with orders to Paches to carry the
decree into effect.

But after a night of cool reflection they began to repent of their
haste. It was a cruel and monstrous thing, they now thought, to
butcher the population of a whole city, innocent and guilty alike. The
Mytilenaean envoys, who had been sent to Athens on the surrender of
the city, perceived that there was a change in the public temper, and
acting in concert with influential Athenians who were in their
interest, they induced the magistrates to summon a second assembly,
and re-open the debate.

It is on this occasion that we first catch sight [Footnote: That is,
in the narrative of Thucydides.] of the notorious demagogue Cleon, who
for the next six years will be the most prominent figure in Athenian
public life. This man belongs to a class of politicians who had begun
to exercise great influence on the affairs of Athens after the death
of Pericles. That great statesman had really led the people, checking
their excesses, setting bounds to their ambition, and guiding all the
moods of the stormy democracy. But the demagogues were lowborn
upstarts, who, while seeming to lead the people, really followed it,
and kept their position by pandering to the worst passions of the
multitude. It must, however, be mentioned that the two contemporary
writers from whom we draw our materials for the portrait of Cleon, the
historian Thucydides and the comic poet Aristophanes, were both
violently prejudiced against him. Aristophanes hated him as the
representative of the new democracy, which was an object of abhorrence
to the great comic genius; and Thucydides, a born aristocrat, of
strong oligarchical sympathies, looked with cold scorn and aversion on
the coarse mechanic, [Footnote: Cleon was a tanner by trade.] who
presumed to usurp the place, and ape the style, of a true leader like

In the previous debate Cleon had been the chief promoter of the
murderous sentence passed against Mytilene; and when the question was
brought forward again, he made a vehement harangue, the substance of
which has been preserved by Thucydides. In this speech he appears as a
practised rhetorical bravo, whose one object is to vilify his
opponents, and throw contempt on their arguments, by an unscrupulous
use of the weapons of ridicule, calumny, and invective. He reproaches
the magistrates for convening a second assembly, in a matter which had
already been decided; and this was, in fact, strictly speaking, a
breach of the constitution. He laughs at the Athenians as weak
sentimentalists, always inclined to mercy, even when mercy was
suicidal. Of the subject communities he speaks as if they were mere
slaves and chattels, outside the pale of humanity, to be kept down
with the scourge and the sword. "Let the law prevail," cries this
second Draco. "The law is sacred, and must not be moved. You are so
clever that you will not live, by fixed rule and order, and you deride
the approved principles of political wisdom. Every one of you wants to
be a lawgiver, a statesman, and a reformer, and to manage the public
affairs in his own way. We, who understand your true interests, are
bound to resist this mood of lawless extravagance, and keep you in the
right path, whether you will or no."

Then preserving the same tone, as of one who is exposing an outrageous
paradox, Cleon proceeds to deal with the actual subject of debate. To
massacre a whole population, was, in his view, a commonplace and
ordinary proceeding; and, in the present instance, the only course
consistent with prudence and common sense. Those who maintained the
contrary were either flighty enthusiasts, whose opinion was not worth
considering, or venal orators, who had sold their country for a bribe.
"Will you suffer yourselves," asked the indignant moralist, "to be
blinded by these corrupt advocates, who amuse you with their
eloquence, and then pocket the price? But it is your own fault: you
have no sense of public responsibility--you are like clever children,
playing at a game of politics. While you sit here, listening to your
favourite speakers, and sharpening your wits against theirs, your
empire is going to ruin. Plain fact is too simple a diet for your
pampered appetites; you must have it hashed and served up with a fine
flavouring of fancy and wit. In short, you have lost all hold upon
reality, you live in an intellectual Utopia, and treat grave matters
of public interest as though they were mere themes in a school of

In drawing this remarkable picture of Athenian character, which,
though strangely out of place, really contained a large element of
truth, Cleon overreached himself, and was caught in his own snare. It
was he, and not his opponents, who was diverting attention from facts,
and involving a plain issue in a cloud of wordy rhetoric. He has no
arguments, worthy of the name, but tries to carry his case by playing
on the passions of the people, and blowing up the flames of their
anger, which was beginning to cool. But though the more discerning
among his audience must have seen through his sophistries, to a large
proportion of his hearers his speech no doubt seemed a masterpiece of
eloquence. The Athenians, who, like all people of lively talent, were
fond of laughing at themselves, would be especially amused by his
humorous description of their own besetting weakness, their restless
vanity, and inordinate love of change.

The chief advocate for mitigating the sentence against Mytilene was a
certain Diodotus, who had taken a leading part in the previous debate,
and now stood up again to oppose the blood-thirsty counsels of Cleon.
The speech of Diodotus is calm, sober, and business-like. After a
dignified remonstrance against the vile insinuations of Cleon, by whom
all who differed from him were decried as fools or knaves, Diodotus
proceeded to argue the question from the point of view of expediency.
He was not there, he said, to plead the cause of the Mytilenaeans, or
to discuss abstract questions of law and justice. What they had to
consider was what course would be most conducive to the interests of
Athens. According to Cleon, those interests would be best served by a
wholesale massacre of the inhabitants of Mytilene, which would strike
terror into the other subjects of Athens, and prevent them from
yielding to the same temptation. But, reasoned Diodotus, experience
had shown that intending criminals were not deterred from wrongdoing
by the increased severity of penal statutes. For a long time lawgivers
had framed their codes in this belief, thinking to drive mankind into
the path of rectitude by appealing to their terrors. Yet crime had not
diminished, but rather increased. And what was true of individuals,
was still more true of cities, where each man hoped to be concealed
among the crowd of transgressors. Criminals, whether they acted
singly, or in large numbers, were only rendered desperate, if all
degrees of crime were confounded in one common penalty of death.

Such were the enlightened principles of jurisprudence set forth by an
Athenian of the fifth century before Christ--principles which were
first recognised in modern Europe within the memory of men still
living. Then, bringing his theories to a practical test, he pointed
out the gross impolicy of driving a revolted city to desperation, by
excluding all rebels from the hope of pardon. This, he said, would be
the effect on the subjects of Athens, if they passed the same sentence
on the Mytilenaeans, without distinction between the innocent and the
guilty. At present the commons in every city were loyal to Athens; and
though they might be beguiled or coerced into rebellion, they would,
if assured of fair treatment, take the first opportunity of returning
to their allegiance, as the commoners of Mytilene had done. "Do not,
therefore," concluded Diodotus, "destroy this, the strongest guarantee
of your security, but punish the ringleaders of the revolt, after due
deliberation, and leave the rest in peace."

The arguments of Diodotus were unanswerable, and it might have been
supposed that the Athenians, in their relenting mood, would have
carried the amendment by a large majority. But this was not the case.
The debate was keenly contested, and when the president called for a
show of hands, the more merciful decree was only passed by a few
votes. There was no time to be lost, for the first trireme was already
a day and a night on her voyage, and the fate of Mytilene hung by a
hair. A second trireme was launched with all speed, and the
Mytilenaeans present in Athens promised large rewards to the crew if
they arrived in time. With such inducements the rowers toiled day and
night, taking their meals, which consisted of barley-meal kneaded with
wine and oil, at the oar, and sleeping and rowing by turns. Happily
there was no contrary wind to retard their progress, and the crew of
the first vessel, bearing that savage mandate, made no efforts to
shorten their passage. As it was, they were not an hour too soon: for
when they arrived, Paches had already received the decree, and was
preparing to carry it out. Thus Mytilene escaped destruction by a
hair's-breadth, and Athens was saved from committing a great crime.
But even the modified sentence, which was passed directly afterwards
on the motion of Cleon, condemning more than a thousand Mytilenaean
citizens to death, was sufficiently ferocious, and was remembered
against the tyrant city in the days of her humiliation.



The siege of Plataea had now lasted for more than a year, and the
brave garrison began to be in sore straits, for their supplies were
giving out, and they had no hope of rescue from outside. In this
desperate situation they resolved to make an attempt to break through
the besieging lines, and make their escape to Athens. All were to take
part in the adventure, leaving the Peloponnesians in possession of an
empty town. But when the time came for carrying out this bold design,
half of the garrison drew back, thinking the risk too great. The other
half, numbering about two hundred and twenty, persisted in their
purpose, and forthwith fell to work on their preparations. They began
by making ladders for scaling the enemy's wall; and in order to
ascertain the proper length of the ladders, they counted the courses
of bricks in a part of the wall facing the town, which happened to
have been left unplastered. Many counted the courses together, and by
repeating the process over and over again, and comparing the result,
they at last hit upon the right number. When once this was known, they
could easily calculate the length of their ladders, for the bricks
were all of the same dimensions, and they knew the thickness of a
single brick.

The Peloponnesians had built a double line of wall round Plataea, the
two lines being separated by a distance of sixteen feet. The whole of
the space within this double wall was covered by a flat roof, so as to
present the appearance of a single thick wall, with battlements on
either side; and this covered space, which was divided into rooms by
partition-walls, served as barracks for the besiegers. Along the top
were high towers, with intervals of ten battlements between them, and
built flush with the wall on both sides, so as to leave no passage,
except through the middle of the tower. These served as guard-rooms,
where the soldiers on duty took shelter on wet and stormy nights. For
the distance between the towers was very small, and they could rush
out and man the walls at a moment's notice.

The Plataeans omitted no precaution which might secure success for
their hazardous enterprise. Every man understood exactly the part
which he had to play, and knew that his own life, and the lives of his
comrades, depended on his courage and coolness. They had chosen their
time well, for it was now mid-winter. So they waited for a night of
storm and rain, when there was no moon, and sallying forth from the
town crossed the inner ditch, and came up to the inner wall,
unperceived by the enemy; for the noise of their footsteps was drowned
by the roaring of the wind, and they were careful to advance in open
order, so as not to be discovered by the clashing of their arms. The
whole troop was lightly equipped, and they walked with their right
foot unsandalled, to give them a firmer hold on the muddy ground.
Choosing one of the spaces between two towers, they adjusted their
ladders, and began to ascend the wall. The first to mount were twelve
picked men, armed with breastplates and daggers, who as soon as they
reached the top, rushed to the towers, six men to each, and having
overpowered the guard, stood ready to defend the passage. These were
followed by others, armed with javelins, whose shields were handed up
to them from below as they ascended, to enable them to climb the more
easily. Several of this party had got up in safety, when one of those
who were following dislodged a tile as he grasped the battlements. The
sound of the falling tile alarmed the guards in the towers, and soon
the whole besieging force was in a commotion. But being bewildered by
the darkness, and deafened by the tempest which was blowing, they knew
not which way to turn, and remained at their quarters, waiting for
orders. And at the same time the Plataeans left in the town made a
feigned attack on the Peloponnesian wall at the opposite side to
divert the attention of the enemy. In the general confusion thus
created the besiegers were at a loss what to do, and three hundred of
their men, who were kept together for prompt service on any pressing
occasion, took up their station before the outer wall, thinking that
the Athenians had come to relieve the town. Fire-signals were now
kindled by the Peloponnesians, to summon help from Thebes; but the
Plataeans were prepared for this also, and they kindled other beacons
which had been raised for the purpose on their wall, so as to obscure
the meaning of the enemy's signals, and delay the march of the
Thebans, until their own comrades had had time to escape.

The way was thus left clear for the gallant two hundred. Those who led
the party had secured possession of the passages through the towers,
and stood ready to bar the way against all assailants. Others who
followed brought ladders, and planting them at the foot of the towers,
mounted to the top, and kept off the Peloponnesians, when they
attempted to force an entrance, with a shower of javelins. Over the
intervening space now swarmed the main body of the Plataeans; and each
man, as he got over, halted at the edge of the outer ditch, and kept
up a hot fire of javelins and arrows, to cover the retreat of his
comrades, and repel any attack from below. When all the rest had
crossed the wall, those who held the towers began to descend; and this
was the most perilous part of the adventure, especially for those who
came last. All, however, succeeded in joining their comrades by the
ditch, and just at this moment the picked troop of three hundred, who
carried torches, came upon them. But fortune still favoured the
Plataeans; crouching in the deep shadow thrown by the high banks of
the ditch, they plied the enemy, who with their blazing torches
afforded an easy mark, with darts and arrows. And thus, fighting and
retreating at the same time, they made their way gradually across the
ditch, but not without a severe struggle, for the water was swollen by
the snow which had fallen in the night, and covered with rotten ice.
Their best friend was the tempest, which raged with extraordinary
violence throughout the night.

When their last man had crossed, the Plataeans went off at a run in
the direction of Thebes, being assured that no one would expect them
to take the road which led to their worst enemy. And the prudence of
this course soon appeared, for looking back they saw the
Peloponnesians hurrying with lighted torches along the road to Athens.
Then after marching towards Thebes for about a mile, they doubled
back, and taking to the mountains soon reached the friendly territory
of Attica. They received a kind welcome at Athens, where it was found
that out of the original two hundred and twenty, only eight were
missing. Seven of these had lost heart at the last moment, and
returned to Plataea, where they announced that all the rest of the
party had been slain. One only, an archer, was taken prisoner at the
outer ditch.

On hearing the report of those who had turned back, the Plataeans
applied for a truce to bury their dead; and when their herald came
back from his useless errand, they learned to their delight that this
gallant enterprise, so ably planned, and so boldly executed, had been
crowned with complete success.


Well would it have been for the Plataeans who remained in the town if
they had stood by their first purpose, and shared the fortunes of
their brave comrades. Better far to have died, sword in hand, than to
meet the ignoble fate which was now reserved for them. It was in the
following summer, two years after the beginning of the siege, that the
crisis arrived. The Plataeans had come to the end of their provisions,
and were suffering severely from want of food. In this state of
weakness they were suddenly attacked by the besiegers, who might
easily have carried the town by storm. But the Spartan general wished,
if possible, to avoid this, as all places taken by assault would have
to be given back to their original owners on the conclusion of peace,
whereas those which had voluntarily surrendered might be retained.
Accordingly he sent a herald, and summoned the Plataeans to surrender,
promising that they should have a fair trial by Spartan judges; and
they, being actually on the point of starvation, accepted the terms
offered, and laid down their arms. They were kept in custody and
supplied with food until the judges, five in number, arrived from
Sparta. On the arrival of the judges no express charge was made
against them, but they were called up one by one, and asked this
simple question: "Have you done any service to the Spartans or their
allies in the course of the present war?"

The Plataeans saw the snare which was set for them, and seeking to
evade it they asked permission to plead their cause at length. Leave
being given, the Plataean advocate rose to address the court, and made
a most moving and eloquent appeal, which well deserves to be
reproduced in its main outlines.

"Men of Sparta," began the orator, "we surrendered our city on the
faith of your promise that the innocent should be spared, and only the
guilty condemned. But we fear that our confidence has been misplaced.
That our doom is already pronounced we have but too plain evidence, in
your sinister question, in your cold, condemning looks, in the gloomy
faces of our enemies, who have poisoned your ears against us. We have
but little hope of turning you from your purpose by anything that we
can say. Nevertheless we have resolved to speak, lest in the hour of
death we should be tormented by the thought that a word might have
saved us, and that word remained unspoken.

"In the history of the last fifty years no city in Greece has a fairer
record than ours. Though not trained to the sea, we served in the
fleet at Artemisium; we fought under Pausanias in the great battle
which decided the fate of Greece, and took part beyond our strength in
all the trials and perils of our common country. On the gratitude of
Sparta we have a special claim, for in the day of her direst
extremity, after the earthquake, when the Helots were in arms against
her, we sent a third part of our citizens to her aid. Since then we
have been found in the ranks of your enemies; but this was your fault,
not ours. Who drove us into the arms of Athens, when we were hard
pressed by the tyranny of Thebes? We joined the Athenian alliance at
your bidding; they defended us against our enemies, and admitted us to
the rights of Athenian citizenship. We were bound, therefore, by every
tie of honour and duty to stand by them, whether their cause was just
or unjust.

"What, then, is the meaning of your question, whether we have done you
or your allies any service during this war? If you ask as foes, how
can you claim any service? And if you ask as friends, you have done us
bitter wrong, by attacking us unprovoked.

"The Thebans seized our city in time of peace, and at a holy season,
and we were justified by the laws of nature and of nations in wreaking
vengeance upon them. It may seem to your interest to pay court to them
now; but think how different was our conduct from theirs when the
Persian was at our doors, threatening slavery to us all. We were among
the few who obeyed the call of honour, while Thebes and all the other
towns of Boeotia took sides with the Barbarian.

"Hitherto Sparta has been called the glass of honour in Greece. What,
then, will men say, if Spartan judges are guilty of blotting Plataea
out of the map of Greece, and of the judicial murder of her citizens?
Strange, indeed, and terrible has been the fate of our city, both now
and in the past. Our fathers were brought to the brink of ruin by
their valour and devotion; we, their sons, have just passed through
all the horrors of a siege, and now we are forced to plead for our
lives. Outcasts from our fatherland, spurned and rejected of all, we
are thrown upon your mercy; and much we fear that your hearts are
hardened against us.

"We adjure you, then, by the memory of those times, and of the part
which we took in the salvation of Greece, not to betray us to our
worst enemies, the Thebans. Do not win their gratitude by murder, but
ours by mercy. Forget the cold calculations of policy; think of the
everlasting infamy of such a deed. Your fathers are buried in our
land, and we have been constant in paying all honour and service to
their tombs. Will ye give up the land in which they rest to the men
[Footnote: The Thebans, who fought on the side of the Persians at
Plataea.] who are guilty of their blood? Will ye enslave those fields
which saw the triumph of Greek liberty, and dishonour the gods by
whose favour the victory was won? By your own renown, by the
conscience of Greece, by the memory of your sires, we adjure you, men
of Lacedaemon, not to do this deed.

"But it is time to make an end. If we have spoken in vain, and you are
resolved on our death, we have still one request. Send us back into
our city, and keep us there immured until we have perished of hunger.
Any fate is better than falling into the hands of the Thebans, the
enemies of Plataea, and of all Greece."

The orator had indeed spoken in vain, or if his words had made any
impression on the minds of the judges, it was speedily obliterated by
a fierce and bitter tirade which was delivered by a Theban speaker in
reply. As soon as he had finished his harangue, the prisoners were
called up again in turn, and questioned as before. When each of them
had answered, in the only manner possible, he was led away and put to
death; and not one of them was spared. The number of those slain was
two hundred and twenty-five, and of these twenty-five were Athenians.
The city was then levelled to the ground, and the territory left at
the disposal of the Thebans. Thus was this brave little community
sacrificed to the rancour of Thebes, and the selfish policy of Sparta.



The result of six years of desultory fighting had fully justified the
forebodings of Archidamus, and the sanguine anticipations of Pericles.
In spite of the terrible ravages of the plague, Athens had easily held
her own against the whole power of the Peloponnesian league. As yet,
however, no decisive advantage had been gained on either side. But in
the seventh year of the war an event occurred which would have enabled
the Athenians, but for their own folly, to conclude an honourable

The ablest of the Athenian generals at this time was Demosthenes,
[Footnote: To be carefully distinguished from the great orator, born
about forty years after the date reached in this chapter (425 B.C.).]
who in the previous year had greatly distinguished himself by a
brilliant campaign in Aetolia. In the following summer he obtained
permission to take passage on board a fleet which was bound on a
voyage to Corcyra and Sicily. He sailed in a private capacity, but he
was authorized to use the ships against the coasts of Peloponnesus, if
he saw any opening which might be utilized in the interests of Athens.

On a rocky promontory, at the northern end of the spacious bay of
Navarino, lies the little town of Pylos, generally believed to have
been the home of the Homeric Nestor. Since the conquest of Messenia by
the Spartans, the town had remained in ruins, and the country for some
distance round was a desert. The natural advantages of the adjacent
coast had already caught the keen eye of Demosthenes, and he had
formed the plan of raising a fortified outpost on the spot, to be held
by a picked troop of the banished Messenians, and thus planting a
thorn in the side of Sparta.

Fortune favoured his design. For on rounding the western headland of
Peloponnesus, the fleet encountered a storm, and was compelled to seek
shelter at Pylos. Demosthenes now urged the admirals to employ their
enforced leisure in fortifying the place. But they repulsed him
rudely, and treated his suggestion with contempt. He next tried to
interest the inferior officers in his project, but meeting with no
better success, he began to fear that this grand opportunity would be
thrown away. The discussion, however, had reached the ears of the
soldiers, and having nothing else to do, they agreed among themselves
to pass the time by building a fort. Choosing a place of great natural
strength, where the rocky coast descends abruptly to the open sea,
they went to work with a will. As they had no tools for stone-cutting,
they picked out the stones, and fitted them together according to
their shape; and for want of hods they carried the mortar, wherever it
was required, on their backs, stooping forward and clasping their
hands together behind them, to prevent it from slipping off. They
carried out their self-imposed task with great energy, and after six
days of vigorous labour the fort was completed, for the natural
defences of the site were so strong that in most places there was no
need of a wall. As the weather was now favourable, the fleet proceeded
on its voyage, leaving Demosthenes with five ships to garrison the

The news of the occupation of Pylos soon reached the Spartans, but at
first they paid little heed, thinking that they could expel the
audacious intruders whenever they chose to exert themselves. Moreover,
they were just then engaged in keeping one of those religious
festivals of which the Spartan calendar was so full, and a good part
of their army was absent in Attica. Agis, however, the Spartan king,
and those under him who were commanding in Attica, took a wiser view
of the situation, and cutting short their operations they led their
forces with all speed back to Sparta. They were the more inclined to
do this as the season was yet early, the weather inclement, and, the
corn being still green, they wanted means to nourish their troops.
Thus the inventive genius of Demosthenes had already proved of signal
service to his country; for this was the shortest of all the
Peloponnesian invasions, lasting only fifteen days.

On the return of their troops from Attica the Spartans sent a small
force to commence the attack on Pylos, and ordered the main body of
their army to follow. There was some discontent among those who had
already been serving abroad at this second levy, and the full muster
of the troops was consequently delayed. In the meantime a message was
despatched to a Peloponnesian fleet then sailing to Corcyra, which at
this time was in a state of revolution, with orders to return at once,
and assist in the campaign against Pylos. Demosthenes was now in
imminent danger, being threatened with an immediate assault by sea and
land, which he had no adequate means of repelling. Having sent off two
of his ships to recall the Athenian squadron from its voyage to
Corcyra, he prepared to defend himself, until the arrival of succour,
as best he could.

The Peloponnesian fleet was the first to arrive, and the Spartans, who
were now present in full force with their allies, determined to make
the most of their time. They hoped, by a simultaneous onslaught of
their army and fleet, to carry the fort before the Athenian ships had
time to return. But in case they should fail in this, they intended to
cripple the movements of the relieving squadron, by blocking the
entrances to the bay. For the long, narrow island of Sphacteria forms
a natural break water, converting the harbour of Navarino into a land-
locked basin, with two narrow passages at the northern and southern
end. [Footnote: The description of Thucydides does not correspond to
the picture of the harbour given in our modern maps. But in the course
of twenty centuries great changes may well have occurred.] These
inlets the Spartans proposed to close, by anchoring triremes close
together, with their prows turned seawards, which they could easily
have done, for at the southern entrance there was only room for eight
or nine vessels to sail abreast, and at the northern entrance only
room for two. This precaution, however, was never carried out; and the
Spartans, as if blinded by fate, adopted another measure, which led to
fatal consequences for themselves. Wishing to keep command of every
spot of land in the neighbourhood of Pylos, they landed a body of
their own men, numbering four hundred and twenty, with the usual
proportion of Helots, on the island, and the same time posted troops
at every assailable point on the opposite coast.

Thinking now that the little garrison at Pylos, surrounded on all
sides by enemies, would fall an easy prey, they sent orders to the
fleet to get under way, and prepared to attack the fort on the land
side. Meanwhile Demosthenes had not been idle: having drawn his three
remaining ships under the shelter of the fort, and protected them in
front by a stockade, he armed the crews with such weapons as he had,
including a number of wicker-shields, taken from a thirty-oared
Messenian galley which had recently come to his assistance with a
force of forty hoplites. Then, having posted the greater part of his
troops for the defence of his position against the Peloponnesian army,
he himself descended with a picked body of sixty hoplites, and took up
his station on the rocky shore. For on this side the defences were
weakest, as the Athenians, in building the fort, had never anticipated
an attack from the sea.

Demosthenes had just time to address a few words of caution and
encouragement to his men, assuring them of victory, if they would only
stand fast, when the Peloponnesian fleet was seen bearing down upon
them; and at the same moment a loud shout from the fort announced that
the garrison was already engaged behind them. The assault was fiercest
at the point where Demosthenes and his men were stationed, and the
Peloponnesians made desperate efforts to effect a landing. But they
were embarrassed by the difficult and rocky coast, which only allowed
a few ships to approach at a time. As fast as one division was beaten
back, another came on, with the white foam spouting round the prows,
and the waters roaring and eddying to the strokes of the gigantic
oars, while the cliffs resounded with the shouts of their comrades in
the ships behind, cheering them on to the attack.

Conspicuous among those who fought on the ships was seen the gallant
figure of Brasidas, who exerted himself, by voice and by example, to
infuse his own heroic spirit into the rest of the crews and their
officers. His ringing tones were heard above the tumult, urging on the
captains and steersmen, when they hung back in fear lest their ships
should be shattered on the rocks. "Spare not these timbers," he cried,
"but let every hull among them go to wreck, rather than suffer the
enemy to violate the soil of Lacedaemon. Where is your loyalty to
Sparta? Have you forgotten the debt which you owe to her? Have at
them, I say, and hurl this fort with its defenders into the sea."
Saying this he ordered the master of his own trireme to beach the
vessel, and stood ready on the gangway, that he might be the first to
leap on shore. But as he attempted to land he was hurled back by the
Athenians, and fell fainting, covered with wounds, on the deck. His
shield slipped off his arm, and dropped into the sea, and having been
washed ashore, was picked up by the Athenians, who used it to adorn
the trophy which they afterwards erected.

After the fall of Brasidas the Peloponnesians still continued their
efforts to effect a landing, but they were baffled by the obstinate
defence of the Athenians, and the rugged and inhospitable coast. It
was a strange reversal of affairs which had been brought about by the
fortune of war. On one side were the Spartans, trained to military
service on land, but now compelled to serve on board a fleet, in order
to obtain a footing on their own territory, and on the other side the
Athenians, whose natural element was the sea, drawn up on land to
repel a naval attack.

Next day the assault was repeated, but again without success. The
Spartans sent for a supply of timber, to construct siege engines,
intending to try and batter down the Athenian wall where it overlooked
the harbour, as at this point there was a better landing-place for the
ships. In this task, however, they were interrupted by the sudden
appearance of the Athenian fleet, now numbering fifty vessels, having
been reinforced by four Chian ships, and six from Naupactus. Finding
the harbour occupied by the Peloponnesians, and the whole coast lined
with troops, they retired for the night to the little island of Prote.
Next day they weighed anchor early, and dividing their fleet, sailed
into the harbour of Navarino by both entrances at once. Though taken
by surprise, the Peloponnesians manned their ships, and as fast as
they were ready put out to meet them; but before their array was
complete they were attacked by the Athenians, who disabled many of
their vessels, captured five, and drove the rest ashore. So complete
was the rout that the Athenians pursued the flying ships into the very
interior of the harbour, and rammed some of them after they had been
brought to land. Others they charged while the crews were still
getting on board, and began to tow off the disabled hulls. But in the
heat of victory the Athenians had pushed their advantage somewhat too
far, and they paid for their audacity by the loss of a considerable
number of their men. For the Lacedaemonians, in wild dismay at the
defeat of their ships, by which their comrades on the island would be
cut off from all help, made desperate exertions to save their fleet,
wading into the water in their heavy armour, and hauling back the
vessels as they were being towed off. In the confined space
manoeuvring was impossible, and the sea-fight had now become a furious
hand to hand encounter, as between two armies on land. After a
prolonged struggle, in which both sides suffered severely, the
Spartans succeeded in saving their ships, except those which had been
taken at first, and the Athenians then retired to their station.

The result of this battle was to give the Athenians complete command
of the sea, for the Peloponnesian fleet was in no condition to renew
the engagement. From their camp on the mainland the Spartans could see
the Athenian triremes rowing round and round the island, and keeping
vigilant watch, to prevent those who were confined there from
escaping. News of the disaster was sent without delay to Sparta, and
the magistrates, recognising the gravity of the crisis, proceeded at
once to Pylos, wishing to inform themselves on the spot, and then
decide what was best to be done. Finding on their arrival that there
was no prospect of rescuing their men on the island, they applied to
the Athenian commanders for a truce, to enable them to send envoys to
Athens, and arrange some terms for the recovery of the imprisoned
Spartans. The Athenians consented, and a truce was made on the
following conditions: The Spartans were to surrender all their fleet,
including any ships of war on the coast of Laconia, to the Athenians,
and to refrain from any attack on the fort, until the return of the
envoys. The Athenians, on their part, agreed to allow provisions to be
sent to the Spartans on the island, all such provision being conveyed
thither under their own inspection, and none by stealth. They further
agreed to carry the envoys to Athens in one of their own triremes, and
to suspend all hostilities until the expiration of the truce. When the
envoys returned, the Peloponnesian ships were to be given back.

It was a proud moment for Athens when the Spartan envoys appeared
before the assembly, bearing the humble petition from her great enemy.
The terms offered by the spokesman of the embassy in the name of
Sparta were simple and concise, peace and friendship with Sparta, in
return for the men shut up on the island. The rest of his speech was
made up of grave moral reflections, such as are generally paraded by
those on the losing side. Let the Athenians beware of abusing their
advantage; though they had the upper hand to-day, they might be
brought to their knees to-morrow. War was a game of hazard, in which
the luck was always changing. Now they had an opportunity of
concluding an honourable peace, and establishing a lasting claim to
the gratitude of Sparta. And if the two leading states of Greece were
once united, they could dictate what terms they pleased to the rest.

The notorious selfishness of Spartan policy is glaringly manifested in
this speech. In their anxiety to recover their own citizens, the
Spartans completely ignored the interests of their allies, and held
out the right hand of fellowship to the people whom they had lately
branded as the oppressors and spoilers of Greece. The Athenians might
well distrust the professions of these perfidious statesmen, who
repudiated their sworn obligations with such cynical levity. The
Spartans in Sphacteria were already, they thought, prisoners of
Athens, to be dealt with as they pleased; and were they to resign this
costly prize, in return for a vague promise of friendship from Sparta?
Their answer was framed on the advice of Cleon: they could not, they
said, enter into any discussion, until the men on the island had
surrendered themselves, and been brought to Athens. Then, if the
Spartans agreed to restore to the Athenians Nisaea and Pegae,
[Footnote: The harbour-towns of Megara.] and some other places which
they had held before the Thirty Years' Truce, peace might be made, and
the prisoners restored. The Spartan envoys were somewhat startled by
these demands, which involved a gross breach of faith to their own
allies; so they affected to ignore the proposal, and suggested a
private conference between themselves and select Athenian
commissioners. It is not impossible that the terms offered, infamous
as they were to Sparta, might have been accepted; but the whole
negotiation was frustrated by the violence of Cleon, who, on hearing
the suggestion of the envoys, overwhelmed them with abuse, accusing
them of double-dealing and bad faith. The envoys were confounded by
this specimen of Athenian manners, and seeing that they were wasting
their time to no purpose, they turned their backs on the city of free

On their return to Pylos the truce expired, and the Spartans demanded
back their ships, but the Athenians refused to restore them, on the
ground of some alleged violation of the conditions laid down.
Thereupon hostilities were resumed with vigour on both sides. The
Spartans made repeated attacks on the fort, and watched for an
opportunity of bringing off their men from the island: and the
Athenians kept a vigilant guard to prevent their escape. During the
day two triremes sailed continually round Sphacteria in opposite
directions, and at night their whole fleet, now raised to the number
of seventy by the arrival of twenty fresh ships, was moored about the
island, except on the exposed side in windy weather.

Before long the Athenians began to feel the difficulties of their
position. They were but scantily supplied with food, and had much
trouble in obtaining water. The only spring to which they had access,
and even that by no means abundant, was in the citadel of Pylos, and
most of them were reduced to scraping the shingle, and thus obtaining
a meagre supply of brackish water. On land their quarters were
straitened and uncomfortable, and they had no proper anchorage for
their ships, so that the crews had to go ashore in turns to get their
meals. They were greatly disappointed to find their task thus
prolonged, for they had supposed that a few days' siege would suffice
to starve the imprisoned Spartans into a surrender, as the island was
barren and ill-furnished with water. But day followed day, and still
they waited in vain for any sign of yielding. For the Spartan
magistrates had offered large rewards to anyone who succeeded in
conveying wine, meal, or other portable provisions, to the island, and
many were tempted to run the risk, especially among the Helots, who
were offered their liberty in return for this service. They put out
from various points of the mainland, and landed under cover of night
on the seaward side of the island, choosing their time when the wind
was blowing strong from the sea, which made it impossible for the
Athenian triremes to keep their exposed anchorage. The Spartan
hoplites stood ready on the rocks to help them; and so long as they
could get ashore with their freight, they cared nothing what happened
to their boats, for if they were wrecked, the Spartans had pledged
themselves for the full value. Others, still bolder, swam, across the
harbour, dragging after them leather bags filled with a mixture of
poppy-seed or linseed and honey, [Footnote: Poppy-seed was valued in
ancient medicine as an antidote against hunger, and linseed against
thirst.] and attached to a cord. These were soon detected; but the
other source of supply remained open, and it seemed likely that the
siege would be protracted till winter, when it would have to be given

The Athenians at home were much concerned when they were informed of
this state of affairs, and they began to regret that they had not
accepted the terms offered by Sparta. They were suspicious and uneasy,
and Cleon, on whose advice they had acted, saw himself in danger of
falling a victim to their resentment. But his boundless self-
confidence served him well in this crisis. At first he affected to
disbelieve the report sent from Pylos, and proposed to send
commissioners to inquire into the true state of the case. His motion
was carried, and he himself was nominated as one of the commissioners.
Cleon was now placed in an awkward position: either he would have to
confirm the statement of the messengers from Pylos, and thus make
himself ridiculous, or, if he contradicted them, he would be convicted
of falsehood. So he turned round again, and advised the Athenians, if
they believed the report, to waste no more time, but to order an
immediate attack on the island. "If I were general," [Footnote: The
chief civil and military magistrate at Athens, corresponding to the
Roman consul.] he said, with a meaning glance at Nicias, who was then
holding that office, "it would not be long before these Spartans were
brought in chains to Athens. The Athenians want a _man_ to lead

This Nicias, on whom the demagogue had so scornfully reflected, was a
great noble, and the chief political opponent of Cleon. When he heard
the boastful words of his rival, it struck Nicias that there was a
fine opportunity of bringing him to ruin, by thrusting upon him a
command for which he was totally unqualified. Encouraged by the shouts
of the multitude, who were crying to Cleon, "Why don't you go and do
it?" he rose from his place, and proposed that the tanner should be
sent in charge of an expedition to take the men at Sphacteria. At
first Cleon agreed to go, thinking that Nicias was jesting; but when
he saw that the proposal was made seriously, he began to draw back.
"It is your business, not mine," he said to Nicias. "I am not general
--you are; why should I do your work for you?" "Never mind the title,"
answered Nicias; "I resign my office on this occasion to you." The
dispute grew hotter and hotter, much to the amusement of the
Athenians, who fell readily into the humour of the situation, and
loudly applauded the proposal of Nicias. The more Cleon objected, the
more they shouted that he should go. Finding that he must make good
his words, Cleon at last plucked up a spirit, and accepted the honour
thus contemptuously forced upon him. "I am not afraid of the
Spartans," he declared valiantly. "Give me the contingent of soldiers
from Lemnos and Imbros, the Thracian peltasts, [Footnote: Light-armed
soldiers.] and four hundred archers, and without taking a single
Athenian from the city, within three weeks I will either bring those
Spartans as prisoners to Athens, or kill them where they are."

There was some laughter among the Athenians at Cleon's vain-glorious
promise; but the more sober-minded were not displeased at his
appointment, expecting that, if he failed, they would be rid of a
nuisance; while, if he succeeded, they would gain an immense advantage
over their enemies. Such, at least, is the comment of the historian;
but he makes no remark on the incredible levity of the Athenians, to
whom the gravest interests of state were matter for mirth and pastime;
and he has not a word of censure for Nicias and his "sober-minded"
partisans, who, in their eagerness to ruin a political opponent,
showed a criminal disregard for the welfare of Athens.


When Cleon arrived at Pylos with his forces, he found Demosthenes
engaged in active preparations for an attack on the island. For his
troops were growing impatient, and clamouring to be led into action,
and a happy accident had recently occurred, which greatly increased
the prospect of success. Till quite lately Sphacteria had been covered
with a dense growth of underwood, and Demosthenes knew by his
experience in Aetolia that an attacking force would be at a great
disadvantage in marching against an enemy who fought under cover, and
knew every inch of the ground. But a party of Athenian soldiers, who
had landed on the island to cook their breakfast, accidentally set
fire to the brushwood, and a wind springing up, the flames were
carried over the greater part of the island, leaving it a blackened
waste. Demosthenes now discovered that the besieged Spartans were more
numerous than he had supposed, having hitherto believed that their
number had been purposely exaggerated, to give an excuse for sending
more food; and the main obstacle being now removed, he issued the
welcome order to make ready for an immediate assault.

When he received his commission, Cleon had prudently stipulated that
Demosthenes should be associated with him in the command. The two ill-
assorted colleagues--the turbulent demagogue, and the veteran general
--now took counsel together, and after a last fruitless attempt at
negotiation, they set sail at night with a force of eight hundred
hoplites, and disembarking just before dawn on both sides of the
island at once, led their men at a run against the first guard-station
of the Spartans. They found the enemy posted in three divisions: the
first, consisting of thirty hoplites, formed an advanced guard; some
distance behind these, where the ground forms a shallow basin,
containing the only spring in the island, was stationed the main body,
commanded by Epitadas; and at the extreme north, opposite Pylos, there
was a small reserve force, left to guard a sort of natural citadel,
which would serve as a last retreat, if Epitadas and his men were

The thirty Spartans in the outpost were taken by surprise, and cut
down to a man; for though they had seen the Athenian ships putting
out, they had no suspicion of what was intended, supposing that they
were merely proceeding to their anchorage for the night. At daybreak
the rest of the fleet put in at the island, bringing the whole of the
forces which Demosthenes had at his disposal, except a few, who were
left to garrison the fort at Pylos. They were a motley host, armed for
the most part with slings, javelins, and bows, but admirably suited
for the work which was to be done. Swarming over the island by
hundreds and by thousands they took up their stations on every piece
of rising ground, threatening the enemy in front, in the rear, on the
right flank, and on the left. The Spartans, in their heavy armour,
were helpless against these agile foes, who eluded every attempt to
come to close quarters, and kept up a continual shower of arrows,
javelins, and stones. Such had been the orders of Demosthenes, which
were now carried into effect.

When the Spartans under Epitadas saw their advanced guard cut up, and
the Athenians marching against them, they drew up in order, and tried
to come within spear-thrust of the enemy; but they were unable to
effect their purpose, for the Athenian hoplites kept their ground, and
at the same moment they themselves were assailed on both flanks and in
the rear by a cloud of light infantry. It was a kind of warfare to
which the Spartans were totally unaccustomed: if they attempted to
advance, their nimble assailants drew back, and pursuit was impossible
on the rocky and broken ground. For a time the light-armed troops
approached them with caution, being somewhat cowed in spirit when
brought face to face with the renowned warriors of Sparta, hitherto
supposed to be invincible. But seeing how the Spartans were
embarrassed, they took courage, and came on in a roaring multitude,
surrounding them on all sides, and leaving them not a moment to take
breath. The air was darkened by a tempest of missiles; and a fine
dust, caused by the ashes of the late fire, rose in choking clouds
from the trampling of many feet. Exhausted by their violent exertions,
stunned by the uproar, and blinded by the dust, the Spartans began to
give ground, and closing their ranks fell back on the stronghold where
their reserve was stationed. They were hotly pursued, and some few
were cut off in the retreat, but the greater part succeeded in
reaching the fort, where they turned at bay, and prepared to defend
themselves to the last. Until a late hour in the day the Athenians
made vain attempts to dislodge them from their position, which was
only assailable in front. At last, when both sides were sorely
distressed by the long conflict under a burning sun, an officer who
was in command of the Messenian troops came to the generals, and
offered, if they would place a few light-armed soldiers at his
disposal, to lead them up the precipitous cliffs at the northern end
of Sphacteria, and take the Spartans in the rear. Permission being
readily granted, he chose his men, and taking care that his movements
were not perceived by the enemy, made his way with them along the
perilous and slippery face of the cliffs to the rear of the
beleaguered garrison, scaled the steep ascent, and suddenly appearing
on the heights, struck terror into the Spartans, and gave fresh
courage to their assailants.

The situation of the Spartans was now similar to that of their
ancestors when they made their last stand at Thermopylae. They were
attacked in front and rear, and hemmed in on both sides by the natural
difficulties of the place. In their weak and exhausted condition it
would have been an easy task to make an end of them. But the great
object of Cleon and Demosthenes was to take them alive. They therefore
suspended the attack, and sent a herald, and summoned them to lay down
their arms. When they heard the proclamation, most of them lowered
their shields, and waved their hands in the air, to show that they had
dropped their weapons. The Athenian generals then entered into a
parley with Styphon the third in command of the Spartans; for
Epitadas, the chief officer, was slain, and Hippagretus, the second,
had been left for dead on the field. Styphon requested permission to
communicate with the Spartan authorities on the mainland, and ask what
he and his comrades were to do; and the Athenian commanders sent one
of their own men to carry the message. Having heard his report, the
Spartan magistrates sent a herald to see how matters stood; and after
more than one messenger had passed to and fro between their camp and
the island, they sent their final instructions, conveyed in these
words "The Spartans bid you to decide for yourselves, but to do
nothing dishonourable."

Fifty years before, these wounded and weary men would have needed no
instructions to tell them their duty. According to the ancient
tradition of Sparta they had but one course open to them--to die at
their posts. But the lapse of time had softened the stern fibre of the
Spartan character; and the broken remnant now brought to bay in
Sphacteria interpreted the ambiguous mandate in their own favour, and
surrendered themselves and their arms.

The number of the prisoners was two hundred and ninety-two, of whom
about a hundred and twenty were Spartans of pure descent, several of
them belonging to the highest families in Sparta. They were
distributed among the captains of the fleet for transportation to
Athens. Dating from the first sea-fight, the siege had lasted
altogether seventy-two days; and during seven weeks of this period
they had subsisted on the casual supplies smuggled over by the
blockade-runners from the mainland. Great was the joy at Athens when
that costly freight was brought safely into the harbour of Peiraeus;
and Cleon, whose bustling energy had really helped to precipitate a
crisis, was the hero of the hour. He had promised to settle the
business, one way or the other, within twenty days, and this promise,
which had been laughed at as a piece of crazy vanity, was fulfilled to
the letter. The whole merit of the performance, however, belonged to
Demosthenes, who had planned the attack on Sphacteria with admirable
sagacity, and led the operations from first to last.

The surrender of a picked troop of Spartan warriors caused a
revolution of feeling throughout Greece. Hitherto it had been assumed
as a matter of course that no Spartan soldier, in any circumstances,
would yield to an enemy; but now more than a hundred Spartans had
preferred life to honour. It was generally believed that the survivors
were inferior in valour to those who had fallen; and some time
afterwards one of the captives was asked this insulting question by
one of the Athenian allies: "Your _brave_ comrades were buried on
the field, I suppose?" The Spartan's answer was couched in a riddle:
"It would be a mighty clever spindle, [Footnote: Arrow.] which singled
out the brave." His meaning was that the stones and arrows had dealt
out death among his comrades without distinction.



One advantage which accrued to the Athenians from the possession of
the Spartan captives was the immunity from invasion. For if the
Spartans prepared to make any movement against Attica, they could
bring out their prisoners, and threaten to put them to death. And in
other directions the future looked brighter than it had done for many
years. They held Pylos, which was garrisoned by Messenian troops, and
served as an open door, through which they could carry havoc over the
whole western district of Laconia; and the occupation of Cythera,
which was effected in the following year, gave them increased facility
for harassing the commerce of Sparta, and making descents on her
eastern coast.

Elated by these successes, the Athenians determined on a bolder
flight, and forgetting the lessons of Pericles, thought of recovering
the possessions which they had held on the mainland thirty years
before. With this intention they planned an attack, which was to be
carried out from three different points at once, on Boeotia. But the
whole scheme proved a failure, and led to a severe defeat at Delium;
and about the same time news arrived from Thrace which showed that the
tide was turning, and should have warned them, if they were wise, to
set bounds to their restless ambition.

Brasidas had long since recovered from the wounds received at Pylos.
The deep humiliation of Sparta, now reduced to become a suppliant for
peace, filled him with shame and sorrow, and in the eighth year of the
war he formed the bold design of organizing a campaign against the
coast-towns of Thrace, which were among the most important of the
Athenian tributaries. Having obtained the necessary commission from
Sparta, he collected a force of seventeen hundred heavy-armed
infantry, and in the summer following the disaster at Sphacteria,
turned his steps northward, and arrived without mishap at the borders
of Thessaly. The Thessalians generally were then on friendly terms
with Athens, and, apart from this, the passage of so large a force
through their territory caused suspicion and alarm among the
inhabitants. But Brasidas was a man of rare gifts: endowed with more
than a full share of the typical Spartan virtues, he combined with
these a graciousness of manner, and a winning eloquence, which made
him an equal of the most accomplished Athenian. He had, moreover,
friends among the powerful nobles of Thessaly, who undertook to guide
him in safety to the Macedonian frontier. On reaching the river
Enipeus, he found his passage barred by a Thessalian force, who seemed
resolved to dispute his progress. His courteous demeanour, and fair
words, disarmed their hostility, and he was allowed to pass. Fearing,
however, a general rising of the natives against him, and urged to
despatch by his guides, he pushed on by forced marches, and entering
the passes of Olympus, descended into the southern plain of Macedonia,
whose king Perdiccas, a shifty and treacherous barbarian, though
nominally in alliance with Athens, favoured the enterprise of

Perdiccas had undertaken to provide pay for half the Spartan force, in
return for help to be rendered against a rebel chieftain with whom he
was at war. But Brasidas, whose main object was to raise a revolt
among the Athenian allies, insisted on entering into negotiations with
the rebel, and having patched up a truce, conducted his troops to the
neighbourhood of Acanthus, a town on the eastern side of the
Chalcidian peninsula, where there was a party discontented with the
Athenian rule. In all the cities subject to Athens the general mass of
the people were found loyal towards her, or, at the worst, disinclined
for any change; and Acanthus was no exception. When Brasidas with his
little army appeared before the walls the people at first refused him
admission. But it was just before the vintage, and their grapes were
hanging in ripe clusters, exposed to the hand of the spoiler; and so,
to save their vineyards from ravage, they were at last induced to give
him a hearing.

It was very important for Brasidas to secure the voluntary adherence
of the Acanthians, whose action would have a powerful effect in
determining the attitude of the other Chalcidians towards them.
Accordingly he exerted all his skill as an orator, which was
considerable, to allay their suspicions, and rouse their enthusiasm
for the cause which he represented. That cause, he said, was the
liberation of Greece from the tyranny of Athens. Let none of them
suppose that he had come in the interests of a faction, to enslave the
many to the few, or the few to the many. He had bound the authorities
of Sparta by the most solemn oaths to respect the constitution of any
state which enlisted under their banner. Freedom for Greeks!--that was
the watchword which should find a response in every patriotic heart.
After this fine burst of sentiment, Brasidas descended to a much lower
level, and plainly intimated that if the Acanthians would not join him
from these high motives, he would employ coercion, and proceed to
ravage their estates, This last argument was decisive, and in order to
save their valuable harvest from destruction, they agreed to admit
Brasidas and his army into the town. Shortly afterwards their example
was followed by Stagirus, one day to become famous as the birthplace
of Aristotle.

It is melancholy to find a man of really pure and generous character
like Brasidas lending himself to be the mouthpiece of Spartan
hypocrisy. To him the sounding phrases and lofty professions which he
uttered may have meant something: but in their essence they were mere
hollow cant, intended to divert attention from the true issue, and
drag a peaceful and prosperous community into the private quarrels of
Sparta. So degraded was now the tone of politics in Greece, even among
her best and ablest men.


On the banks of the Strymon, just where the river sweeps round in a
sharp curve, west and east, the Athenians had founded, six years
before the outbreak of the war, the colony of Amphipolis. It was a
site which had long been coveted by the leaders of Greek colonial
enterprise, being the key to the richest district in Thrace, with
unrivalled facilities for commerce, and close to the gold-mines of
Mount Pangeus. A previous attempt which was made by the Athenians to
occupy the position had ended in ruinous disaster; but nearly thirty
years later a second body of emigrants, led by Hagnon from Athens, met
with much better success; Amphipolis now grew and prospered, and at
the time which we have reached was the most important city in the
Athenian empire.

The Amphipolitans had a bitter and jealous enemy in the neighbouring
town of Argilus, situated a few miles to the west, on the road to
Amphipolis; and ever since the appearance of Brasidas in Thrace the
Argilians had been plotting against the tranquillity of their hated
rival. Accordingly, when Brasidas, who had planned a surprise on
Amphipolis, appeared before their gates, they welcomed him eagerly,
and conducted him and his army to the bridge over the Strymon, which
crossed the river just outside the southern end of the city wall. The
defenders of the bridge, few in number, and taken unawares, were
instantly cut to pieces; for Brasidas came upon them before daybreak,
and the weather, which was wintry and inclement, favoured his design.

The farms and country-houses of the Amphipolitans, which occupied an
extensive district on the eastern side of the city, now lay at the
mercy of Brasidas, and after choosing a position for his camp, he
began to overrun the country. For those who were responsible for the
safety of Amphipolis had taken no precautions, though they knew that
this daring and active enemy had been carrying on a campaign for many
weeks in the adjacent parts of Thrace. Consequently, a good number of
the citizens, who were attending to the business of their estates,
fell into his hands, and it is not improbable that, if he had made a
sudden assault on the city, he would have captured it on the same day.

There was a disaffected party in Amphipolis, who had planned the
betrayal of the place, acting in concert with Argilus, through the
agency of certain Argilian citizens residing in the town. The traitors
now proposed that Brasidas and his army should be admitted, but they
were overruled by the general voice of the people, and it was agreed
that the Athenian Eucles, governor of Amphipolis, should send a
message for help to another Athenian officer, who was commissioned to
watch the interests of Athens in Thrace. That officer was Thucydides,
the historian, from whose work the materials for the present narrative
are taken. Thucydides was descended on his mother's side from the
royal family of Thrace, [Footnote: Such, at least, is the highly
probable conjecture of Classen.] and through this connexion he was the
owner of valuable working rights in the gold-mines of Mount Pangaeus,
and a man of great power and, influence in these districts. When the
message arrived from Amphipolis, he was engaged in some business at
Thasos, and postponing all other concerns he collected a small
squadron of seven ships and hastened to the rescue with all speed.
But Brasidas, who had received intelligence of his movements, was too
quick for him. He had valuable hostages in the persons of those
Amphipolitans who had been taken outside the walls. The population of
Amphipolis consisted almost entirely of men of mixed or foreign
descent, who were anxious about their properties, and in fear for
their friends, while the few Athenian residents were alarmed for their
own safety, having little hope of prompt succour. Taking advantage of
this state of public feeling, the politic Spartan issued a
proclamation, pledging him to respect the rights and property of all
who chose to remain; while those who preferred to withdraw were
allowed five days to take away their goods. This tempting offer
produced the desired effect. It was in vain that the Athenian governor
interposed his authority, and strove to uphold the imperial claims of
Athens. The people threatened to rise in mutiny against him, and when
the partisans of Brasidas, now grown bold, openly moved a resolution
to accept his conditions, the proposal was carried, and the Spartan
general marched unopposed into the town.

Late on the same day Thucydides sailed into the harbour of Eion, the
port of Amphipolis, and learning that Brasidas was already in
possession of the inland city, took all necessary precautions to
provide against an immediate attack. He was only just in time; for on
the very next day Brasidas carried his troops down the river on a
flotilla of boats, and tried to establish himself in a strong
position, commanding the mouth of the river, and at the same time sent
a storming party to make an assault on the land side. But the attempt
was frustrated, and Eion at least was saved to Athens.

The fall of Amphipolis, which occurred shortly after the crushing
defeat at Delium, caused great consternation among the Athenians.
Apart from the wound to their pride, they were deprived by this loss
of a large portion of their revenue, and cut off from the principal
source of their timber supply. And there were still further grounds
for alarm. For Amphipolis was now an open door, through which the
Spartans could send troops into eastern Thrace, and carry the war to
the entrance of the Euxine. For a moment it seemed as if all their
fears would be realized. The gentle manners of Brasidas--his fairness,
modesty, and strict regard for the rights of all men--had won the
hearts of the Athenian allies in Thrace, and secret agents were
constantly arriving at his head-quarters on the Strymon, inviting him
to come and help them to recover their liberty. He had skilfully
appealed to the most deeply-rooted instinct of the Greek, the desire
for unfettered action in his own city, free from all interference from
outside. This instinct, long held in abeyance, first by the necessity
for protection from Persia, and when that danger was removed, by the
habits acquired under the mild rule of Athens, was now awakened into
new life by the influence of the great warrior and accomplished
statesman, whose watchword was "Liberty for Greeks!" The recent
reverses of Athens had excited a feeling of contempt among her
subjects, and led them greatly to under-estimate her real power; and
Brasidas himself, by a not over-scrupulous perversion of facts, had
been careful to encourage this belief. All these causes produced a
burst of enthusiasm throughout Thrace, and if the Spartans had
supported Brasidas with vigour, a general insurrection would have
followed among the Athenian allies. But the authorities of Sparta were
jealous of their brilliant officer, and their chief anxiety was to
recover the prisoners taken at Sphacteria.

In the same winter the indefatigable Spartan effected the capture of
Torone, a town situated on the second of the three headlands which
project, like the prongs of a fork, from the peninsula of Chalcidice.
As in the case of Amphipolis, Torone fell into his hands by treachery;
but he had now made good his title as the champion of Greek
independence, and early in the following spring the citizens of
Scione, on the first or westernmost headland, invited him to come over
and take command of their town. On receiving this welcome summons
Brasidas lost no time, and crossed over by night in a skiff, which was
convoyed by a trireme, so that if any hostile vessel appeared in
sight, it might be engaged by the trireme, and leave him free to
escape. He reached Scione in safety, and having convened a general
assembly of the citizens, addressed them in flattering terms, praising
their high courage and patriotic spirit. "You," he said, "have set a
noble example to your oppressed brethren: isolated as you are, and cut
off from all succour from the mainland, you have defied all perils,
and thrown in your lot, for better or for worse, with the friends of
liberty. Your gallantry and self-devotion has given you a just claim
to the gratitude of Sparta and of all Greece." The revolt of Scione
was indeed a daring defiance of the Athenian power, for since the
capitulation of Potidaea, which occurred seven years before, the
inhabitants had been in the position of islanders, exposed to the
whole maritime power of Athens. For the moment, however, the people
were carried away by a transport of enthusiasm, and little dreaming of
the terrible vengeance which was to overtake them two years later,
they greeted Brasidas as a deliverer, and vied with one another who
should honour him most. He was publicly presented with a crown of
gold, as the liberator of Greece; and in private houses he was
wreathed with garlands, and surrounded with worship, like a victorious

But a few days before the defection of Scione all the ambitious
schemes of Brasidas had been checkmated by the action of his own
countrymen at home. For some time past negotiations had been in
progress between Athens and Sparta; and since the battle of Delium,
and the rapid successes of their great enemy in Thrace, the Athenians
had been more disposed to come to terms. In this altered mood they
agreed to make a truce for one year with Sparta, which would give time
to arrange the conditions of a lasting peace, and leave them at
leisure to repair the shattered fabric of their empire. Two
commissioners, an Athenian and a Spartan, were at once despatched to
announce the conclusion of the truce to Brasidas. They found him at
Torone, preparing to set out a second time for the western peninsula,
and continue his intrigues against the subjects of Athens. In the
interview which followed a dispute arose between Brasidas and the
commissioners, as to whether Scione should be admitted into the truce.
Brasidas asserted that the city had joined the Spartan alliance before
the truce was signed; but the Athenian commissioner loudly protested
that the revolt occurred after the conclusion of the truce,--and such,
indeed, was the fact. Brasidas, however, was bound in honour to defend
the hapless community which had been drawn by his fatal influence into
so fearful a peril; and in the existing confusion of the Greek
calendar it was not easy to establish a date with perfect exactitude.
Accordingly Brasidas refused to surrender Scione to the vengeance of
Athens, and placed the town in a state of defence. Not content with
this, he extended the same measures of protection to Mende, which
revolted after the arrival of the commissioners. This was an open
violation of the truce, and the Athenians, in great fury, immediately
prepared to send a fleet against these audacious rebels, and passed a
savage decree, condemning the whole adult male population of Scione to


During the following summer Mende was recovered by Nicias for the
Athenians, Scione was closely invested, and Perdiccas, who had
quarrelled with Brasidas, once more became an ally of Athens, and gave
proof of his sincerity by preventing the passage of Spartan
reinforcements to Thrace. The Athenians were thus left free to turn
their attention to Amphipolis, and at the beginning of the tenth year
of the war, the truce having now expired, Cleon was sent with a fleet
of thirty ships to conduct the siege of this important place. That so
weighty a charge should have been entrusted to hands so incompetent
argues a degree of infatuation in the Athenians which is very hard to
understand. On his voyage Cleon succeeded in retaking Torone by a
sudden assault, and then proceeding northwards dropped anchor at Eion,
where he remained inactive, after despatching messengers to Perdiccas,
and to a friendly Thracian prince, to ask for reinforcements.

Meanwhile Brasidas, who some time before had returned to Amphipolis,
was waiting to strike a blow at his unwarlike enemy. His own troops,
though about equal in numbers to the force under Cleon, were far
inferior in equipment and discipline; but he counted on some
incautious movement on the part of the Athenian general, which would
throw the picked infantry of Athens into disorder, and place them at a
disadvantage. So he left Clearidas, a young Spartan, whom he had
appointed governor of Amphipolis, in charge of the garrison, and
taking with him fifteen hundred men occupied a position on the right
bank of the river, where the ground rises abruptly to a considerable
height, affording a wide view over the city to the country beyond, as
far as Eion. From this point, which is called Cerdylium, he could
watch the proceedings of the enemy, and still have ample time to
rejoin Clearidas in Amphipolis, if, as he expected, Cleon should leave
his defences and advance upon the town.

He had not long to wait. The Athenian soldiers stationed at Eion were
chafing at their inaction, and mutinous speeches were heard on all
sides. What a man was this Cleon, this cowardly braggart, under whom
they were to take the field against the most daring and skilful leader
in Greece! They had known what to expect from such a general, since
the day when they sailed for Thrace. These murmurs reached the ears of
Cleon, and he saw that something must be attempted, or his men would
be totally demoralized. So he gave the order to march, and led his
troops up the ridge of hills which slope down towards Amphipolis on
the eastern side, where the town was defended by a single line of
wall, reaching from the northern to the southern bend of the river. He
was far from supposing that anyone would come out to attack him; he
only wanted, he said, to take a good view of the place, and when his
reinforcements arrived, he would surround the city on all sides, and
carry it by assault. For his wonderful good fortune at Pylos had given
him unbounded confidence in his powers as a strategist, and he thought
that Amphipolis would prove a second Pylos, forgetting that here he
had a Brasidas to deal with, and no Demosthenes to do the work for
him. When he reached the top of the ascent, he called a halt, and took
a leisurely survey of the wide sweep of country spread below him,--to
the north, the broad, marshy waters of Lake Cercynitis, from which the
river issues just above the town,--eastwards, the towering summit of
Mount Pangaeus,--and on the other side, just beneath his feet, the
devoted city, which now seemed cowering, silent and deserted, as if
conscious of Cleon's eagle glance. The gates were closed, and not a
man was to be seen on the battlements. "What a pity," remarked Cleon,
"that we brought no siege-engines with us! We might have battered down
the wall, and marched in at once,--there is none to oppose us."

So readily did this holiday general fall into the trap which Brasidas,
with a just estimate of his capacity, had set for him. As soon as he
saw that Cleon had started from Eion, the Spartan general left his
post in Cerdylium, and led his men back into Amphipolis. Here he made
such a disposition of his forces as to give the place that peaceful
and innocent appearance which deceived Cleon's unpractised eye. Then
he took up his station with a picked troop of a hundred and fifty
hoplites at the southern gate of Amphipolis, leaving Clearidas in
charge of the main body, and awaited a favourable moment to attack.

But these preparations could not be made without exciting some
attention among the more experienced of the Athenian officers. They
had seen Brasidas entering the city, and observed him offering
sacrifice, as for battle, before the temple of Athene; and Cleon, who
was standing, lost in his contemplations, some distance in advance of
his forces, suddenly received the alarming intelligence that the enemy
were on the point of making a sally. "The whole garrison is in
motion," said the messenger, "and we have caught sight of the feet of
many horses and men under the gates: evidently they mean to attack
us." Thus rudely startled from his meditations, Cleon went to look for
himself, and seeing that the messenger had spoken the truth he gave
the order for a retreat in the direction of Eion. This movement should
have begun from the left wing, but there was some delay in executing
the order, and Cleon, who was in a great hurry to reach a place of
safety, led the way with his own division, which, being on the right,
ought to have closed the retreat. The consequence was that the whole
Athenian army was thrown into confusion, and Brasidas, who was
watching from his station at the gate, saw by the irregular motion of
their spears and helmets that all discipline was at an end. "Now is
our time," he cried to his men: "Open the gates! The day is ours."
With these words he rushed out with his troops, and fell upon the
Athenian centre; and at the same moment the main body under Clearidas
poured out from the northern gate, and attacked them in the rear.

The effect of this sudden assault was to cut the Athenian army in
half: the left wing, which was nearest to Eion, fled without striking
a blow, but the right made a vigorous resistance, though abandoned by
their cowardly general, who was cut down by a Thracian spearman as he
tried to make good his escape. A far nobler name was also added to the
death-roll of that fatal day: Brasidas, fighting at the head of his
troop, received a mortal wound, and was carried, unobserved by the
Athenians, into the city. He lived long enough to hear that his men
had gained a decisive victory, and then passed away, the purest and
the most heroic spirit among all those who played their part in this
unhappy war. After his death he received divine honours at Amphipolis,
and was worshipped as the second founder of the city.



The negotiations for peace, begun in the previous year; had been
interrupted by the brilliant successes of Brasidas, and the factious
opposition of Cleon, and after their death the main obstacle to a
pacific understanding was removed. The high hopes conceived by the
Athenians after the capture of the Spartans at Pylos had been damped
by their disastrous defeat at Delium, and by the revolt of their
allies in Thrace; and, above all, they were anxious to recover
Amphipolis. Still more depressed was the temper of the Spartans. They
had entered on the war in a spirit of sanguine confidence, expecting
to make an end of the conflict by a single invasion of Attica; and
now, after ten years of fighting, their great rival remained almost
untouched in the chief sources of her power. Their coasts were exposed
to continual ravage by the Athenian fleets, and Pylos was still
occupied by their bitter enemies, the Messenians, attracting all the
discontented elements in Sparta, and keeping the Helots in a continual
ferment. And finally a hundred and twenty of their noblest citizens
were immured in the dungeons of Athens, and they were ready to make
great sacrifices to procure their release.

Accordingly, in the winter after the battle of Amphipolis,
negotiations were resumed, and early in the following spring a treaty
of peace was concluded between Athens and Sparta, on the understanding
that all places taken by force of arms should be restored, and all
prisoners set at liberty. Such was the Peace of Nicias, named after
its chief promoter, the former rival of Cleon, and now the leading
politician at Athens. It was really a private agreement between Athens
and Sparta, for the most important of the Spartan allies, who thought
that their interests were neglected, refused to sign the treaty.
Alarmed by this, the Spartans immediately concluded a second treaty
with Athens, binding both sides to mutual aid and defence, in case
their territories were attacked. The prisoners taken at Sphacteria
were now restored, but owing to the bungling of Nicias, the Athenians
failed to regain Amphipolis.


Six years elapsed after the conclusion of the Peace of Nicias, before
war was again openly declared; but it was a peace only in name, and
was broken by many acts of hostility on both sides. During this period
the principal states of Greece were involved in a network of political
intrigue, treaty following treaty, and alliance succeeding to
alliance, for the most part with no result. To this statement, there
is, however, one important exception. A year after the signing of the
second treaty between Athens and Sparta, a coalition was formed,
including Athens, Elis, and Mantinea, under the leadership of Argos;
and in mentioning this event we have to usher on to the stage one of
the most extraordinary characters in history. This was Alcibiades, a
young Athenian noble, endowed with every advantage of mind, person,
and fortune, whose fatal gifts, and lawless ambition, made him the
evil genius of his country. His high birth, his wealth, his wit, and
his wonderful beauty, attracted to him a host of flatterers, who fed
his vanity with soft adulation, and led him to believe that nothing
was too great for such powers as his. Like most of the brilliant young
men of his day, he attached himself for a time to the philosopher
Socrates, for whom he seems to have felt a warm admiration. But his
connexion with that great teacher and thinker, though it served to
sharpen his understanding, could not eradicate the effects of evil
habit and example. His wilful, selfish, and despotic temper soon broke
loose from that salutary restraint, and henceforth we find him
pursuing a course of action which brought ruin on his people, and on
himself a traitor's death and a dishonoured name.

Much irritation had been caused among the Athenians by the shifting
and treacherous conduct of the Spartans, who had failed to redeem
their sworn pledges, and had excited great suspicion at Athens by
repeated intrigues with Argos, and with their own offended allies of
the Peloponnesian League. Alcibiades had a private grudge against the
Spartans, to whom he had made overtures of friendship and service at
the time when the treaty was under discussion, only to be set aside as
a profligate and frivolous youth, unfit to meddle with serious matters
of state. He now placed himself at the head of the party hostile to
Sparta, and it was not long before he had an opportunity of revenging
the insult to his pride. He used all his influence to promote an
alliance with Argos, the ancient enemy and rival of Sparta in
Peloponnesus; and when envoys arrived from Sparta to remonstrate
against this proceeding, and reassure the Athenians as to their
intentions, he contrived by a masterpiece of low cunning to cover them
with shame and contempt. When the envoys were introduced to the senate
they declared that they had come with full powers to settle all
differences, and Alcibiades feared that if they made the same
statement to the general assembly of the citizens, they might induce
the Athenians to renounce their alliance with Argos. So, after the
senate had risen, he took the envoys aside, and with an air of great
candour and friendliness warned them that they must conceal the extent
of their powers when they appeared before the popular assembly. "You
do not understand," he said, "how to deal with the mob of Athens; if
you show your hand, they will force you into extravagant concessions.
Leave the matter to me, and everything will turn out as you wish."

The simple Spartans fell into the snare. They were not at all startled
by the proposal that they should eat their own words, for in
dishonesty they were not behind Alcibiades himself, though they were
no match for him in cunning. Being brought before the people, and
asked whether they had come with full powers, they answered bluntly
"No!" Great was the amazement at this flat contradiction of the avowal
which they had made before the senate, and Alcibiades, giving voice to
the general indignation, overwhelmed the astonished envoys with a
torrent of invective and abuse. The Spartans were dumb-foundered by
his perfidy, and looked helplessly at Nicias, the staunch friend and
supporter of Sparta, whom they had forsaken for this shameless young
reprobate. Nicias, who of course knew nothing of the trick, was
utterly confounded by the double-dealing of the envoys, and could do
nothing to relieve their embarrassment. The result was that the envoys
were abruptly dismissed, and after a fruitless mission of Nicias to
Sparta, which only served to lower his own reputation, the Athenians
entered heart and soul into the Argive alliance.


We have seen how much the credit of Sparta had been injured in the
eyes of Greece by the capture of her chosen warriors at Pylos, and by
her subsequent behaviour during the negotiations which led to the
peace of Nicias. Spartan valour was seen to be not above reproach, and
the Peloponnesian allies had still better reason to complain of the
hollowness of Spartan faith. The high reverence which had long been
attached to the name of Sparta had given place to something like
contempt, and the Eleans, who had an old grudge against her, took
advantage of this feeling to exclude her citizens from taking public
part in the Olympic festival, which was celebrated with great pomp and
splendour in the second year of the peace. And the degradation of the
proud Dorian city seemed to be complete, when a Spartan named Lichas,
who had entered for the chariot-race under another name, was driven
with blows from the racecourse. So deep was the abasement to which the
great name of Sparta had now sunk.

The Spartans saw that a vigorous effort must be made, if they would
recover their lost ascendancy; and two years later the opportunity
occurred for which they were waiting. On the northern side of the
Argolic peninsula lies the ancient city of Epidaurus, famous for its
rich vineyards, and its great temple of Asclepius, [Footnote:
Aesculapius.] the god of healing. For some time past, the Epidaurians,
who were in alliance with Sparta, had been involved in a dispute,
arising out of some obscure question of ritual, with Argos; and they
were now in sore straits, being hard pressed by the whole weight of
the Argive power, backed by the new confederacy. This was the pretext
needed by the Spartans, and mustering their whole forces they marched,
under the command of their king Agis, against Argos.

The Argives had received notice of the advance of Agis, and they
immediately marched out to meet him, wishing to engage the Spartans
before they had united with their allies from Corinth, Boeotia, and
elsewhere, who were assembling in great force at Phlius. The two
armies confronted each other for a moment at Methydrium, in Arcadia;
but Agis succeeded in avoiding an engagement, and breaking up his camp
under cover of darkness pushed on to Phlius. Thereupon the Argives,
who were accompanied by their allies from Mantinea and Elis, returned
in haste to Argos, and then, marching northwards, took up their
position at Nemea, which commanded the ordinary route from Phlius to
the Argive territory. But they were again outmanoeuvred by the skilful
dispositions of Agis. Avoiding the road by Nemea, which led through a
narrow and dangerous pass, he led his Spartans over the mountains and
descended into the plain which surrounds the city of Argos. One
contingent of his allies had orders to proceed in the same direction
by another mountain-path, while the Boeotians, who numbered no less
than ten thousand infantry, and five hundred cavalry, were directed to
take the high road by Nemea; for Agis expected that by threatening the
cultivated lands around Argos he would draw the Argives from their
position, and bring them down in haste to the defence of their

The plan was completely successful. As soon as the Argives learnt that
Agis was ravaging their fields they set out with all speed towards
Argos, and finding Agis engaged in the work of pillage, they drew up
their forces, and offered battle. Their situation was in the highest
degree perilous. In front of them, cutting them off from the city of
Argos, was the flower of the Spartan army, reinforced by the troops of
Tegea and Arcadia; on their right flank the mountain slopes swarmed
with the infantry of Corinth and Phlius; and in the rear their retreat
was cut off by the thronging masses of Boeotians, who were now pouring
along the road from Nemea. They were fairly cut off, and seemed
delivered over to destruction; nevertheless, such was the presumptuous
confidence which possessed them, that they awaited eagerly the signal
for battle, crying out that they had caught the Spartans in a trap.

Fortunately for them there were two men among their leaders who took a
wiser view of the position; one of these was Alciphron, an official
who represented the interests of Sparta at Argos, [Footnote: The Greek
word is _Proxenos_,--a sort of consul.] and the other was
Thrasyllus, one of the five generals. These two men entered into a
parley with Agis, and by promising to satisfy the demands of Sparta
induced him to grant a truce. Agis then drew off his forces, and
returned by way of Nemea to Sparta; and the allies, much against their
will, were compelled to follow his example. Loud were the murmurs
among the confederates, and even among the Spartan soldiers, against
Agis, who had thrown away this golden opportunity of humbling the
pride of Argos, and brought dishonour on one of the finest armies that
had ever been led into the field by a Grecian general. Strange to say,
the Argives were not less indignant against the two men who had saved
them from overwhelming disaster; and Thrasyllus, the general, narrowly
escaped being stoned to death.


The Argives thought themselves bound to abide by the conditions of the
truce, though made without their consent; but shortly after the
retreat of Agis, an Athenian force of a thousand hoplites and three
hundred cavalry arrived at Argos, and Alcibiades, who was present in
the character of ambassador, strongly urged the renewal of the
campaign. His proposal was warmly supported by the Mantineans and
Eleans, and they and the Athenians marched forthwith against
Orchomenus in Arcadia, which was in alliance with Sparta; and the
Argives, who had wavered at first, soon afterwards joined them.
Orchomenus was gained over with little trouble, and then the Eleans
were eager to proceed against Lepreum, a town in their alliance which
had gone over to Sparta. But the Argives, Athenians, and Mantineans,
insisted on attacking Tegea, where there was a party opposed to
Sparta, by whose means they hoped to bring this powerful city, the
ancient rival of Mantinea, to their side. Thereupon the Eleans
abandoned the expedition, and went home in a rage, but the rest of the
allies took up their quarters at Mantinea, and prepared to make an
attack on Tegea.

The Spartans were in high anger against Agis for his unsoldier-like
conduct in the recent campaign, and when they heard of the
capitulation of Orchomenus their resentment rose to such a pitch that
it was proposed to inflict on him a heavy fine, and raze his house to
the ground. At his earnest entreaty they consented to reserve the
sentence, and give him an opportunity of wiping out the stain on his
honour; but as a mark of diminished confidence they appointed ten
commissioners, without whose consent he was not allowed to lead an
army out of the city.

They had just come to this decision when an urgent message arrived
from Tegea, bidding them to bring help with all speed, or the town
would be lost. The imminent peril startled the Spartans from their
wonted apathy, and they set out at once in full force to the relief of
Tegea. On reaching the borders of Arcadia they sent back the elder and
younger men, amounting to a sixth part of the army, to serve as a
garrison in Sparta; and at the same time couriers were despatched to
summon their allies in Arcadia and central Greece. The Arcadians
arrived in time to take part in the battle, but the Boeotians,
Corinthians, and others, though they hastened to obey the order, were
delayed by a long and difficult march, through the hostile territory
of Argos.

Passing by Tegea, Agis entered the district of Mantinea, and having
pitched his camp began to lay waste the country. Informed of his
approach, the Argives and their allies marched out to meet him, and
choosing a position on the slope of a hill, defended in front by
rugged and broken ground, they drew up in order of battle. The
Spartans, incited, doubtless, by the example of their king, who was
eager to redeem his reputation, rushed impetuously to the assault; and
they were already within a stone's-throw of the enemy when a Spartan
veteran cried out to Agis: "Heal not ill with ill!" His meaning was
that in Argos Agis had been too cold, and now he was too hot. Agis
heard the warning voice, and his own good sense must have shown him
how rashly he was acting; accordingly, at the very moment of
encounter, he gave the word to retreat, and fell back to the
neighbourhood of Tegea. At this place there was a copious head of
water, which, when properly regulated, served to irrigate the fields
of Tegea and Mantinea. The disposal of the water-supply was a constant
source of dispute between the two rival cities; and Agis now prepared
to turn the whole volume of the fountain towards Mantinea, expecting
that the Mantineans, when they saw their fields threatened with
inundation, would come down into the plain to hinder the mischief.

The Argives and their allies were dumb-foundered by the sudden
disappearance of the Spartans; and when they had recovered from their
astonishment, they waited impatiently for the order to pursue the
runaways. As no such order was given, cries of "Treason!" arose in the
ranks, and the generals were openly accused of having sold themselves
to the enemy. The Spartans, it was asserted, had been allowed to
escape, when they were fairly caught under the walls of Argos; and now
the confederates had been betrayed a second time by their officers.
Amid the general clamour the Argive commanders stood for a moment
confounded and amazed; then recovering themselves they gave the word
to advance, and led their forces down into the plain. Here they passed
the night in the open field, and early next morning they stood to
their arms, and prepared for an immediate attack.

Agis was not aware that the Argive generals had taken up a new
position, and thinking that the confederates were still stationed on
the hill, he gave up his scheme of diverting the water, and directed
his march towards the place where he had first encamped. As they
proceeded thus in marching order, and quite unprepared for any hostile
movement, the Spartans suddenly found themselves face to face with the
whole Argive army, drawn up in order of battle. For one instant it
seemed as if a panic were about to spread through the Spartan ranks;
then their wonderful discipline prevailed, and with all promptitude,
but without flurry or confusion, the necessary orders were passed from
the King to the commanders of divisions, from these again to the
colonels, from the colonels to the captains, and from the captains
down to the sergeants, [Footnote: I have thought it best to give the
English titles, which of course have only a general correspondence
with the Greek Polemarch, Lochagus, etc.] who in their turn had to see
that the required movement was executed by the men under their
command: for such was the regular gradation of authority and
responsibility in the Spartan army. Thanks to this perfect
organization, in a very few minutes every man was in his place and
ready for battle.

On the left wing of the Spartan army were posted the Sciritae, hardy
mountaineers from southern Arcadia; next to them stood the
enfranchised Helots, who had served under Brasidas in Thrace, and
others of the same race who had received the Spartan citizenship in
reward for public service; then came the main body of the Spartans
themselves, and after them the rest of the Arcadian allies; while the
right wing was assigned by immemorial privilege to the Tegeans, with
whom were a few picked Spartans. The cavalry, never a very strong part
of the Spartan army, were posted on either flank.

On the other side the Mantineans held the place of honour on the right
wing, because the engagement was fought in their territory; next in
order were the Arcadian allies of Argos, and after them, more towards
the centre, stood a picked troop of a thousand Argives, trained and
equipped at the public expense; then followed the main body of the
Argive troops, with the rest of their allies, the Athenians occupying
the extreme left. As to the numbers engaged, nothing certain is known.

Some time was lost by the Argive army in delivering the customary
harangues addressed by the generals of the several contingents to
their men, and this enabled the Spartans to steady their ranks before
the fighting began. They, on their side, men of war from their youth,
had no need of set speeches to remind them of their duty; but pithy
words of exhortation passed from man to man, and high and clear rose
their national war-songs, thrilling them with the memories of their
heroic past. Then the signal was given on both sides to charge, and
the Argives and their allies rushed impetuously to the onset, while
the Spartans advanced to meet them with even and deliberate pace,
timed to the music of numerous pipers, who were stationed at regular
intervals in their ranks.

The regular equipment of the Greek infantry soldier consisted, besides
his helmet and body-armour, of shield and lance, and in advancing to
battle he had always a tendency to diverge towards the right, from a
natural wish to keep his shielded side towards the enemy. This
divergence from the forward direction was begun by the man posted on
the extreme right; his comrade on the left followed his example, and
the deflection was continued along the whole line. The consequence was
that when two armies came into action, the left wing on either side
was greatly outflanked by the opponents' right; and the battle of
Mantinea affords no exception to this rule, for not even Spartan
discipline was able to counteract the overpowering instinct of self-
preservation. Seeing that his left wing was on the point of being
outflanked by the Mantineans, Agis signalled to the Sciritae and
Brasideans to draw off in a lateral direction towards the left, in
order to present an equal line to the right wing of the enemy. The
order was executed, and to fill up the gap thus produced on the left
of his own centre, Agis ordered the Spartan officers commanding on his
right wing to bring up their men and occupy the vacant space. They,
however, flatly refused to obey the order, and consequently the
Sciritae and Brasideans were assailed in front and on both flanks by
overwhelming numbers, and driven back with great loss to their camp.

So completely were the Spartans out-manoeuvred and worsted in tactics,
through the blunders of their general, and the cowardice of his
subordinates. But in this terrible crisis they showed what native
valour, aided by life-long discipline, can do. Leaving a victorious
enemy in their rear, they advanced without flinching against the
opposing centre, where the main body of the Argives were posted, with
the troops of Orneae and Cleonaea supporting them on the left. Then it
was seen that neither the courage of the Spartans, nor the terror of
their name, had diminished with the lapse of time; for when the
confederate troops found themselves face to face with the renowned
warrior of the Eurotas, they turned and fled, almost without striking
a blow, and trampling their comrades under foot, in their haste to
avoid the thrust of the Spartan lances. The Athenians on the left wing
were now in great danger; for the charge of the troops of Agis had cut
them off from the centre, and they were attacked on the other flank by
the Tegeans and Spartans. They were saved from immediate destruction
by the exertions of their own cavalry, and presently found themselves
at liberty to retire from the field; for Agis, having completed the
rout of the main body, called off his men, and went to the relief of
his own left. The Mantineans and the Argive Thousand made no effort to
retrieve the fortunes of the day, but gave way before the first onset
of the Spartans, and joined the flight of their comrades. The
Mantineans suffered severely in their retreat, but of the Argives only
a few were slain.

Such was the battle of Mantinea, which completely restored the
military fame of the Spartans, and blotted out the reproach of
cowardice and sloth which for some years past had rested on their


One incident remains to be recorded, before we proceed to the crowning
catastrophe of our great historical drama. The Athenians, it should be
observed, were still nominally at peace with Sparta, and if they had
been wise they would have taken the opportunity of this respite from
hostilities to recover Amphipolis, and consolidate their empire in
Thrace. Instead of this, they looked around for fresh conquests, and
fixed their eyes on the little island of Melos, belonging to the
Cyclad group, which had been colonized in very early times from

The Melians had not joined the Confederacy of Delos, and they might
therefore be reproached for sharing the protection of Athens without
making any return. Beyond this the Athenians had no ground of
complaint against them, for they had taken no part in the
Peloponnesian War, but had remained quietly at home, occupied with
their own affairs. But Athens claimed the haughty title of mistress of
the sea, and pretended to regard the neutrality of one insignificant
island as an open defiance of her power. Ten years before an Athenian
fleet had been sent under Nicias to reduce the refractory Melians to
subjection; but the attempt was unsuccessful, and Nicias withdrew,
after having ravaged the outlying districts. Being now more at
leisure, the Athenians resolved, in the mere wantonness of power, that
Melos should only be suffered to exist as a dependency of Athens, and
thirty triremes sailed from the harbour of Peiraeus to carry out the
arbitrary decree.

On their arrival at Melos the Athenian admirals sent envoys into the
town, to summon the inhabitants to surrender. The envoys were invited
to a private conference with the chief men of the island; and between
the representatives of Athens and the Melian nobles there ensued an
extraordinary dialogue, which is given at great length by the
historian, and is commonly known as the Melian Debate. We cannot
suppose that the arguments here placed by Thucydides in the mouth of
the Athenian speaker were really uttered as set down by that writer.
Such a paradox of iniquity, such a shameless insult to the general
conscience of humanity, might have been employed by Plato, in exposing
the vicious teaching of the Sophists, or by Aristophanes in the full
riot of his satire: but the total abnegation of principle here implied
could never have been openly avowed by a responsible agent, speaking
for the most polished community in Greece. Even the worst criminals
seek to give some specious colour to their villainy; and the condemned
felon, who will face death without a tremor, shudders at the cry of
execration which greets his appearance at the scaffold. So hard it is,
even for the most depraved, to stifle the last embers of the moral
sense. We cannot suppose, then, that an educated Athenian of the fifth
century would publicly have claimed for his state the right of rapine
and murder. For this is the line of argument pursued by the
representative of Athens in the Melian Debate. The substance of what
he says may briefly be stated as follows "You are weak--we are strong;
Melos is a paltry island, Athens is queen of the Aegaean, and the
existence of an independent city in these waters is an insult to her
empire. Let us waste no time in discussions about abstract law and
right. For the mighty there is but one law--to get what they can, and
to keep it; and the weak have no rights, except by the sufferance of
the strong. This rule of conduct we know to be universal among men,
and we believe that the gods themselves are governed by it. [1]
To sum up the whole case in one word: you must yield or perish."

  Desire of power, on earth a vicious weed,
  Yet sprung from high, is of celestial seed;
  In God 'tis glory; and when men aspire,
  'Tis but a spark too much of heavenly fire.--DRYDEN.

It was in vain that the unhappy Melians tried to argue the question
from a higher standpoint; in vain they warned the Athenians that they
themselves might one day stand before the bar of justice, and plead
for their existence. They were brought back relentlessly to the grim
alternative-submission, or extermination. At length this strange
controversy came to an end, and after one final hint, of fearful
significance, the Athenian envoys withdrew, leaving the Melians to
consider their answer. The brave islanders were not long in coming
to their decision: they would not, they said, consent to enslave a city
which had maintained its liberty for seven hundred years; they put
their trust in divine justice, and in their kinsmen the Spartans, and
were resolved to resist to the last.

On receiving this answer the Athenian commanders at once laid siege to
Melos, and the doomed city was soon closely blockaded by sea and land.
The Melians made a gallant defence, and twice succeeded in breaking
through the lines of the besiegers, and conveying supplies into the
town. But presently reinforcements arrived from Athens, and the
Melians were confined within their walls. All hope of succour from
Sparta had vanished, food began to fail, and treason was at work among
the garrison. Thus driven to extremity, the Melians surrendered at
discretion. Then the Athenians showed that their threats had not been
idly uttered. All the men of military age in Melos were put to death,
the women and children were sold into slavery, and the land was
distributed among Athenian settlers.

In the fifth year of the war, after the capitulation of Mytilene, a
thousand of the inhabitants had been butchered in cold blood; and this
sentence, which seems so cruel to us, was regarded by the Athenians as
an act of mercy. Six years later, the decree which had originally been
passed against Mytilene, was actually executed on Scione, which had
revolted at the instigation of Brasidas. In this act of savage
retribution, Athens still remained within the limits of Greek
international law, which placed the inhabitants of a revolted city at
the mercy of their conquerors. But the case of Melos was different,
for that island had never been included in the Athenian alliance, and
the Melians had done nothing to provoke an attack. Thus the three
names, Mytilene, Scione, and Melos, mark an ascending scale of
barbarity, culminating in a massacre which, even in the eyes of
Greeks, was an atrocious crime. Athens had now offended beyond
forgiveness, giving colour to the accusations of her worst enemies,
and heaping up vengeance for the days to come.



The Peloponnesian War may be conveniently divided into four chief
periods. The first of these periods lasted for ten years, down to the
peace of Nicias. The second extends from the peace of Nicias to the
massacre of Melos. In the third, the scene of war was shifted from
Greece to Sicily, and it was there that the Athenian power really
received its death-blow. The fourth and final period begins after the
overthrow of the Athenians at Syracuse, and ends, nine years
afterwards, with their final defeat at Aegospotami, and the downfall
of the Athenian empire.

It is the third of these periods which will occupy our attention for
the remainder of the present volume, and as the momentous events which
we have to relate occurred entirely in Sicily, it is necessary to say
something of the previous history of that great island. The connexion
of the Greeks with Sicily begins in the latter half of the eighth
century before Christ, when settlers from Chalcis in Euboea founded
the city of Naxos on the north-eastern coast, under the shadow of
Aetna. Naxos in its turn sent out colonists, who built the cities of
Leontini and Catana, the former on an inland site, commanding the
great plain which extends southwards from Aetna, the latter on the
coast, in a line with the centre of the same plain. These were Ionic
colonies, and we may close the list with the name of Messene
[Footnote: Originally called Zancle.] founded twenty years later on
the Sicilian side of the strait which bears its name.

We have now to enumerate the principal Dorian cities. First among
these in time, and by far the first in importance, was Syracuse,
founded from Corinth a year after the settlement of Naxos. Between
Syracuse and the mother-city there was a close and intimate tie of
friendship, which remained unbroken throughout the course of Greek
history. The original city was built on the island of Ortygia, but a
new town afterwards arose on the low-lying coast of the mainland, and
spread northwards till it covered the eastern part of the neighbouring
heights. Ortygia was then converted into a peninsula by the
construction of a causeway, connecting the new city with the old.
Under the despotism of Gelo, who made himself master of the city in
the early part of the fifth century, [Footnote: 485 B.C.] Syracuse
rose to great power and splendour, and her territory extended over a
great part of eastern Sicily. Gelo gained immortal renown by defeating
a mighty host of Carthaginians, who invaded Sicily at the time when
the confederate cities of old Greece were fighting for their existence
against Xerxes and his great armada. After his death the power passed
to his brother Hiero, whose victories in the Olympian and Pythian
Games are commemorated in the Odes of Pindar. Hiero reigned for twelve
years, and was succeeded by his brother Thrasybulus; but a year later
the despotism was overthrown, and the government returned to a

A bare mention must suffice for Gela, founded from Rhodes and Crete
nearly half a century after Syracuse, and the more famous Agrigentum,
a colony from Gela, and next to Syracuse the greatest city in Sicily.
These played no part in the struggle with Athens; but Selinus and
Camarina, the two remaining Dorian cities of southern Sicily, will
occupy an important place in the following narrative.

Thus the whole coast districts on southern and eastern Sicily were
held by opulent and flourishing Greek cities. On the north was Himera,
an Ionic colony, and the scene of Gelo's great victory over Carthage;
while the western and north-western district was divided between the
Phoenicians and the Elymi, a people of unknown origin, whose chief
seats were at Eryx and Egesta. The inland parts were held, in the
west, by the Sicans, who are believed to have come from Spain, and in
the east by the Sicels, a people of Latin race, who gave their name to
the island.


Since the fourth year of the Peloponnesian War, Athens had been
meddling in the affairs of Sicily, under pretence of aiding the Ionian
cities, who dreaded the encroaching ambition of Syracuse. That these
fears were not unfounded was proved when, a few years afterwards, the
Syracusans expelled the commons of Leontini, and took possession of
their territory. The Leontine exiles sought refuge at Athens, but
their appeal for help remained for a time unanswered, as the Athenians
were then fully occupied in Greece. But six years after the conclusion
of the Peace of Nicias, an appeal came to Athens from a remote corner
of Sicily, which stimulated the Leontine exiles to fresh efforts, and
led to most important results.

Between the Greeks of Selinus and the Elymians of Egesta there was a
long-standing quarrel, and in a war which had recently broken out the
Egestaeans were reduced to severe straits by the combined forces of
Selinus and Syracuse. In their distress they turned to Athens for
help, and envoys were sent to plead their cause before the Athenian
assembly. In aiding Egesta, argued the envoys, Athens would be serving
her own interests; for if the Syracusans were not speedily checked in
their aggressions, they would soon make themselves masters of the
whole of Sicily, and in that case they could bring such an accession
of strength to the enemies of Athens in Greece as to make them
irresistible. They had good reason, therefore, to take sides against
the enemies of Egesta, and the more so as the Egestaeans promised to
defray all the expenses of the war.

The Athenians generally were inclined to take up the quarrel of
Egesta, but as a measure of precaution it was decided to send agents
of their own to make an inspection on the spot, and see whether the
Egestaeans were as wealthy as they pretended. On their return to
Athens these men reported that Egesta was possessed of fabulous
riches. At every house where they had been entertained, the tables and
the sideboards had been one blaze of gold and silver plate. The fact
was that the Egestaeans had collected all the gold and silver vessels
in the town, and others borrowed from the neighbouring cities, and by
passing them on from house to house, wherever these important guests
were invited, had contrived to make a great display. As an earnest of
all this wealth, the Athenian commissioners brought back with them
sixty talents of silver.

The smallness of this sum ought to have been sufficient to arouse the
suspicions of the Athenians; but they were willing to be deceived, and
they gave ready credence to reports of their commissioners. Voting in
full assembly, they passed a decree that sixty ships should be sent to
Sicily, under the command of Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus. The
fleet was first to be employed in helping Egesta, and when that
contest had been brought to a successful issue the Leontines were to
be restored to their homes; finally, the generals were empowered to
act as might seem best in the interests of Athens. The real purpose of
the enterprise is indicated in the last clause. Vague plans of
conquest were floating before the minds of the Athenians, and at a
time when their whole energies should have been employed to repair the
breaches in their empire, they dreamed of founding a new dominion in
the west.

Five days later the assembly met again to vote supplies and discuss
any further details which remained to be settled. But Nicias
determined to take the opportunity of reopening the whole question,
wishing, if possible, to divert his countrymen from their purpose, and
put an end to the expedition altogether. It was folly, he argued, to
take up the cause of needy foreigners, and drain the resources of
Athens for a distant and hazardous enterprise, when their subjects in
Thrace were still in open revolt, and their enemies in Greece were on
the watch to take them at a disadvantage. If they trusted in the
treaty with Sparta, they would soon find how infirm was the ground of
their confidence. That treaty had been forced upon the Spartans by
their misfortunes, and they would be only too glad to repudiate it,
which they could easily do, as many of the conditions were still under
dispute. Moreover, the most powerful cities of the Peloponnesian
League had refused to sign the treaty, and were ready, at the first
hint from Sparta, to renew the war. Athens was beset with perils,
which were enough to tax her strength to the utmost: and yet they
talked of sailing to Sicily, and raising up a new host of enemies
against her! Even if the expedition succeeded, they could never keep
their hold on that vast and populous island, while, if it failed, they
would be utterly ruined. As to the supposed danger from the ambition
of Syracuse, that was mere idle talk. The schemes of conquest, with
which the Egestaeans had tried to alarm the Athenians, would keep the
Syracusans busy at home, and prevent them from meddling in the affairs
of Greece. "Leave the Greeks of Sicily alone," said Nicias with true
prophetic insight; "and they will not trouble you. Do not disturb the
prestige which belongs to a distant and unfamiliar power. If they once
learn to know you, they may learn to despise you."

Then fixing his eyes on Alcibiades, who was sitting surrounded by his
own partisans, young profligates like himself, Nicias concluded thus:
"There is another danger against which I would warn you, men of
Athens--the danger of being led astray by the wild eloquence of
unscrupulous politicians, who seek to dazzle you with visions of new
empire, that they may rise to high command, and restore their own
shattered fortunes. Yes, Athens is to pour out her blood and treasure,
to provide young spendthrifts with the means of filling their racing-
stables! Against the mad counsels of these desperate men I invoke the
mature prudence of the elder members of this assembly, and call upon
them to show by a unanimous vote that neither flattery nor taunts can
induce them to sacrifice the true interests of Athens."

It must have been a severe ordeal for the young Alcibiades to sit and
listen to this keen and bitter invective, which set in a glaring light
the worst features in his character--his selfish ambition, his
shameless life, his total want of principle, his vulgar ostentation.
The last quality, so alien from the best traditions of Athenian
character, had been conspicuously displayed only a few weeks before at
the Olympic festival, where he had entered seven four-horsed cars for
the chariot-race, and won the first, second, and fourth prizes. Every
word of Nicias went home, galling him in his sorest point--his
outrageous vanity; and hardly had the elder statesman concluded his
speech, when he sprang to his feet, and burst without preface into a
wild harangue, which is a remarkable piece of self-revelation,
disclosing with perfect candour the inner motives of the man on whom,
more than on any other, the future of Athens depended. He began by
defending his barbaric extravagance, recently displayed at Olympia,
which, as he pretended to believe, had covered his native city with
glory, and spread the fame of Athenian wealth and power from one end
of Greece to another. The lavish outlay, and haughty demeanour, which
would be justly blamed in a common man, were right and proper in him,
one of the elect spirits of the time, inspired with great aims, and
treading the summits of public life. He had already shown what he
could do in the highest regions of diplomacy, by raising a great
coalition in Peloponnesus, which had faced the whole might of Sparta
in the field, and struck terror into the enemies of Athens.

After this impudent defence of his own pernicious policy, which had
led to the crushing defeat at Mantinea, and thus enabled the Spartans
to restore their damaged reputation, Alcibiades proceeded to deal with
the question of the day, and exerted all his sophistry to confirm the
Athenians in their design of invading Sicily. That island, he
asserted, was inhabited by a mixed population with no settled homes,
and no common patriotic sentiment; and among these motley elements
they would find plenty of adherents. The Siceliots [Footnote: Greeks
of Sicily.] were poorly armed, ill-furnished with heavy infantry, and
in constant danger from the hostile Sicels. The risk of attack from
the Peloponnesians would not be increased by sending part of the
Athenian fleet to Sicily: for Attica was in any case always exposed to
invasion, and a sufficient force of ships would be left at home to
keep command of the sea.

"We have no excuse, then," said Alcibiades in conclusion, "for
breaking our word to the Egestaeans, and drawing back from this
enterprise. Both honour and policy are pointing the way to Sicily. An
empire like ours is an ever-expanding circle, which lives by growing,
and cannot stand still. It is only by getting more, and always more,
that we can keep what we have. And let not Nicias succeed in his
attempt to set the old against the young, neither let us believe, like
him, that the stability of a state consists in stagnation. It is only
by a hearty co-operation of all ages and classes that any state can
prosper, and a community which finds no outlet for its energies abroad
is soon worn out by discord and faction at home. Above all is this
true of us Athenians, to whom ceaseless toil and endeavour is the very
element in which we live."

The advice of Alcibiades, thus tendered in the garb of political
wisdom, was of fatal and ruinous tendency, and in direct opposition to
the oft-repeated warnings of Pericles. But his speech was exactly
suited to the temper of his audience, and most of those who followed
him spoke to the same effect, and when the Egestaeans and Leontines
renewed their entreaties it became evident that the original motion
would be confirmed by a large majority. Nicias, however, resolved to
make one more effort, and he came forward to speak again, hoping by a
new device to check the torrent of popular enthusiasm. Affecting to
regard the matter as settled, he entered into an estimate of the force
required for the proposed expedition, prefaced by an alarming picture
of the wealth and power of the Sicilian Greeks. To act with effect
against such an enemy, they must send, not only an overwhelming naval
force, but a numerous body of troops, both cavalry and infantry, and a
fleet laden with supplies for many months. They must proceed, in fact,
as if they were founding a great city on a hostile soil. On no other
condition, added Nicias, would he undertake the command. Nicias had
intended, by exaggerating the difficulties of the undertaking, to damp
the ardour of the Athenians; but to his utter dismay, these timid
counsels were greeted with a great shout of applause. It was supposed
that he had changed his opinion, and even the elder men began to think
that so prudent a leader, backed by such an armament, could not fail
of success. A great wave of excitement swept over the assembly, and
the few who still doubted were cowed into silence. When the tumult had
subsided, a certain Demostratus, [Footnote: The name is given by
Plutarch.] who had spoken strongly in favour of the expedition,
addressing Nicias in the name of the assembly, asked him to state
plainly what force he required. Thus driven into a corner, Nicias
answered, with great reluctance, that the number of triremes must be
not less than one hundred, with five thousand heavy-armed infantry,
and slingers and bow-men in proportion. This enormous estimate was
carried without demur, and by the same vote full powers were conferred
on the generals to fix the scale of the armament as they might think
best for the interests of Athens.

Thus, by a strange freak of fortune, the Athenians, at the most
momentous crisis of their history, were urged along the road to ruin
by the most opposite qualities in their leaders, the cold caution of
Nicias, and the wild energy of Alcibiades.


During the whole of the following spring [Footnote: B.C. 415.]
preparations for the invasion of Sicily were actively pushed on, and
the whole city was in a bustle and stir of excitement. Athens had
recently recovered from the ravages of the plague, and six years of
peace had recruited her resources, both in men and money. Since the
first outbreak of the war a new generation had grown up, and these
young and untried spirits joined, with all the fire of youth, in an
enterprise which promised them a boundless field of adventure. Others
were attracted by the baser motive of gain, or by mere curiosity, and
the love of travel. No thought of danger or hardship, no hint of
possible failure, clouded the brilliant prospect; it was a gay holiday
excursion, and at the same time a grand scheme of conquest, offering
fame to the ambitious, wealth to the needy, and pleasant recreation to
all. Thousands flocked eagerly to enter their names for the service,
and the only trouble of the recruiting officers was in choosing the
stoutest and the best.

The great armament was on the eve of departure, and all hearts were
full of joyful anticipation, when an event occurred which suddenly
chilled this happy mood, and cast a shadow of evil augury on the whole
undertaking. The Athenians of that age, like their descendants nearly
five centuries later, [Footnote: See Acts xvii. 22.] were "more god-
fearing than other men." They worshipped a multitude of divinities,
and their city was thronged with the temples and statues of heroes and
gods. Conspicuous among the objects of popular adoration was the god
Hermes, who is exhibited by ancient poets and artists as a gracious
and lovely youth, the special patron of eloquence and wit, the
guardian spirit of travellers and merchants, and the giver of good
luck. A familiar feature in the streets and public places of Athens
was the bust of Hermes, surmounting a quadrangular stone pillar. Many
hundreds of these pillars, which were called Hermae, were scattered
about over the whole city, standing before the doors of houses and
temples, at cross-ways and places of public resort. Wherever he went,
whatever he did, the Athenian felt himself to be in the presence of
this genial and friendly power, who attended him, with more than human
sympathy, in all his ways.

If such were the feelings of the Athenians towards their favourite
deity, what must have been their horror when they awoke one morning to
find that all the busts of Hermes, with one or two exceptions, were
shattered and mutilated beyond all recognition. The whole population
was thunderstruck, and wild rumours ran from mouth to mouth concerning
the perpetrators and the motive of this shocking outrage. It was
evident that many hands must have been employed on the work of
destruction, and those who had so foully insulted the most hallowed
affections of their fellow-citizens were believed to be capable of any
enormity. It was loudly asserted that a black conspiracy was hatching
against the liberties of the people, and that the worst days of the
tyranny were about to be revived. For in those days religion and
politics were associated with a closeness of intimacy unknown in
modern Europe, and sacrilege might well be regarded as a prelude to
treason. Active measures were at once taken to bring the offenders to
justice, and great rewards were offered to anyone, whether citizen,
slave, or resident foreigner, who gave information concerning this or
any similar crime. At first nothing was disclosed as to the mutilation
of the Hermae, but other recent acts of profanation were brought to
light, and among these was mentioned a derisive parody of the great
Eleusinian Mysteries, alleged to have been performed in the house of
Alcibiades, and elsewhere. The enemies of Alcibiades, who were both
numerous and powerful, eagerly seized this handle against him; but
when the matter was debated in the public assembly, it became evident
that, if he were brought to trial at once, his present popularity, as
chief promoter of the Sicilian expedition, would ensure his acquittal.
Seeing, therefore, that their attack had been premature, those who had
led the outcry against him now drew back, reserving themselves for a
more favourable occasion. Being known as the bitter opponents of
Alcibiades, they could not, without exciting grave suspicions, propose
the adjournment of his trial; but other speakers, prompted by them,
urged on grounds of public expediency that the charges against him
should be held in suspense, so as not to delay the departure of the
fleet. Alcibiades saw plainly that this manoeuvre was contrived to get
him out of the way, to remove his adherents from Athens, and leave his
enemies free to pursue their machinations during his absence. But it
was in vain that he exposed the malicious motives of the last
speakers, and pleaded earnestly for an immediate trial. The Athenians
were still possessed by their daring scheme of conquest, and they
decreed that Alcibiades should keep his command, and sail at once to


At last the great day arrived, and in the first light of a mid-summer
dawn, a vast multitude was seen pouring along the broad highway which
led, between the Long Walls, from Athens to Peiraeus. The Upper City
was almost deserted by its inhabitants, for there was hardly one
Athenian who had not some cherished comrade, or some near relation,
enrolled for service in Sicily, and the crowd was swelled by thousands
of strangers, who came as spectators of that memorable scene. Little
now appeared of that sanguine and joyous temper which had prevailed
among the Athenians when they first voted for the expedition. Their
feelings had lately been fearfully harrowed by the mutilation of the
Hermae, and now that the moment of parting was at hand, all the perils
and uncertainties of their grand enterprise rose up vividly before
them. They were restored, however, to some degree of cheerfulness,
when they reached the harbour of Peiraeus, and saw the magnificent
fleet riding at anchor. Nearly all the vessels lying in the bay were
Athenian; for the main body of the allies, and the commissariat ships,
had been ordered to muster at Corcyra. The triremes furnished by
Athens numbered a hundred, of which sixty were fully equipped as war-
galleys, while forty were employed as transports. These numbers had
been equalled more than once before during the war; but in efficiency,
in splendour of appearance, and in the quality of the crews, this was
by far the finest fleet that ever sailed from Peiraeus. Only the bare
hulls of the ships were provided by the state, and each vessel was
assigned to some wealthy citizen, who defrayed all the expense of
fitting her for active service. Sometimes the cost of equipping a ship
was divided between two or more citizens, and at ordinary times this
form of taxation must have been felt by the rich as a heavy burden.
But such was the popularity of the Sicilian expedition that the
wealthy Athenians who were charged with this duty went far beyond what
was required of them, each striving to surpass the others by the
superior beauty and speed of his own ship. The crews were all composed
of picked men, attracted by the double rate of pay which was furnished
from the state exchequer; and in addition to this, the trierarchs
[Footnote: Citizens charged with the duty of equipping a trireme.]
paid special premiums to the petty officers and to the highest class
of rowers. The same spirit of emulation extended to the whole body of
Athenians enrolled in the army and fleet; every man felt that whatever
he spent on his own personal equipment was spent for the honour and
glory of Athens. And the effect produced on the public mind in Greece
was, in fact, prodigious: after all the ravages of the plague, and ten
years of exhausting warfare, Athens, it seemed, was stronger than
ever, and in the mere exuberance of energy was making this imposing
display of wealth and power. As to the ostensible object of the
expedition--the conquest of Sicily--few doubted that it must follow as
a matter of course.

The last farewell had been spoken, the troops were all embarked, and
the rowers sat ready at their oars. The trumpet sounded, commanding
silence, and the voice of the herald was heard, repeating a solemn
prayer, which was taken up by the whole multitude on sea and on shore,
while the captains and soldiers poured libations of wine from goblets
of silver and gold. When this act of worship was ended, the crews
raised the paean, and at a given signal the whole fleet was set in
motion, and passed, in single file, out of the harbour. On reaching
the open water, they quitted this order, and engaged in a friendly
contest of speed as far as Aegina. Then the crews settled down to
their work, and the great armament swept on, high in heart and hope,
to join the allied contingents, and commissariat fleet, now assembled
at Corcyra.

As yet only general rumours of the intended invasion had reached
Syracuse, and few of the citizens were aware of the imminent peril in
which they stood. Among those who were better informed was
Hermocrates, a Syracusan of high rank, who for many years had been the
guiding spirit in Sicilian politics. Speaking at a public assembly,
about the time when the Athenian fleet sailed from Peiraeus, he urged
the necessity of taking prompt measures for placing the city in a
thorough state of defence. He had no fear, he said, of the ultimate
triumph of Syracuse in the approaching struggle: only let them be on
their guard, and not underrate the power of the enemy whom they would
have to face. The words of Hermocrates, who enjoyed a high reputation
for valour, patriotism, and sagacity, were not without their effect,
and it was resolved that the generals should at once set about
organizing the military resources of Syracuse, and providing all
things necessary for the public safety. Some steps in this direction
they had already taken; and tidings soon arrived at Syracuse which
caused them to redouble their exertions.

For in the meantime the Athenians had reached Corcyra, where they held
a final review of all their forces. The total number of the triremes
was a hundred and thirty-four, and with these sailed a vast fleet of
merchant ships, and smaller craft, laden with stores of all kinds, and
carrying a whole army of bakers, masons, and carpenters, with the
tools of their crafts, and all the engines required for a siege.
Besides these, there was a great number of other vessels, small and
great, fitted out by private speculators for purposes of trade. The
military force was on a corresponding scale, comprising five thousand,
one hundred hoplites, of whom fifteen hundred were full Athenian
citizens, four hundred and eighty archers, seven hundred slingers from
Rhodes, and a hundred and twenty exiles from Megara, equipped as
light-armed troops. The force of cavalry was but small, being conveyed
in a single transport.

The whole armament now weighed anchor from Corcyra and sailed in three
divisions, each commanded by one of the generals, to the opposite
coast of Italy. On arriving at Rhegium, an Ionic city on the Italian
side of the strait, they received permission to beach their ships, and
form a camp outside the walls; and here they waited for the return of
three fast-sailing triremes, which had been sent forward from
Corcyrato carry the news of their approach to Egesta, and claim the
promised subsidy, and at the same time to sound the temper of the
Greek cities in Sicily. Before long the ships came back with their
report, and the Athenians now learned to their great chagrin that all
the fabled wealth of Egesta had dwindled to the paltry sum of thirty

The three generals now held a council of war, to decide on a plan of
campaign. It was evident that no help was to be obtained from Egesta,
and the attitude of the Rhegini, who declined to enter their alliance,
boded ill for the success of the expedition. As their prospects were
so discouraging, Nicias proposed to confine their operations within
the narrowest limits, to patch up a peace between Selinus and Egesta,
to aid the Leontines, if it could be done without risk or expense, and
after making a display of the Athenian power, to sail home to Athens.
Alcibiades protested strongly against such a course, as disgraceful to
Athens, and unworthy of the splendid armament entrusted to their
command. Let them try first what could be effected by negotiation with
the Greek cities and native tribes of Sicily, and after gaining as
many allies as possible in the island, let them proceed to the attack
of Selinus and Syracuse. Lamachus, on the other hand, a plain,
downright soldier, was for sailing straight to Syracuse, and striking
immediately at the heart of Sicily. The city, he argued, would be
found unprepared, and if they acted at once, in the first terror of
their presence, they were certain of victory; but if they waited,
their men would lose heart, the efficiency of the fleet would be
impaired, and the Syracusans would gather strength and courage from
the delay.

How true was the forecast of Lamachus was proved by the event; but his
bold plan was distasteful alike to the timid temper of Nicias, and to
the tortuous, intriguing spirit of Alcibiades. Finding, therefore,
that he had no hope of convincing his colleagues, he voted for the
middle course, and accordingly the plan of Alcibiades, unquestionably
the worst of the three, was adopted.

In pursuance of this fatal policy Alcibiades crossed over to Messene,
and tried to win over that city to the side of Athens. Meeting with no
success, he returned to Rhegium, and immediately afterwards he and one
of his colleagues sailed with a force of sixty triremes to Naxos. Here
the Athenians found a hearty welcome, but at Catana, which was then
under the influence of Syracuse, their overtures were rejected, so
they continued their voyage southwards, and made their camp for the
night at the mouth of the river Terias. Starting early next day, they
proceeded along the coast, and, crossing the bay of Thapsus, came in
sight, for the first time, of their great enemy, Syracuse. The main
body of the fleet remained in the offing, but ten triremes were sent
forward to reconnoitre the Great Harbour, and get a nearer view of the
fortifications. When the little squadron came within hearing of the
walls, a herald proclaimed in a loud voice that any of the Leontines
now present in Syracuse should leave the city without fear, and come
over to their faithful kinsmen and allies, the Athenians. After this
futile demonstration, better calculated; to excite laughter than
terror, the reconnoitring triremes withdrew, and the whole fleet
sailed back in the direction of Rhegium. On their return voyage the
Athenians succeeded, by a lucky accident, in gaining the adherence of
Catana, which henceforth became the head-quarters of the whole
armament. Soon after they had effected this important change of
station the Salaminian state trireme arrived with momentous news from
Athens. We have seen what a panic of superstitious fear had been
caused among the Athenians by the mutilation of the Hermae. Arrested
for the moment by the all-absorbing interest of the Sicilian
expedition, the excitement broke out with renewed violence after the
departure of the fleet. The enemies of Alcibiades saw that the time
was now ripe for bringing up against him the charge of violating the
mysteries, and pressing for a judgment. A formal indictment was laid
before the senate, and it was decided that he should come home and
stand his trial. But it was necessary to proceed with caution, for
Alcibiades was popular with the troops serving in Sicily; and it was
possible that, if any violence were attempted against his person, they
might break out into mutiny. Accordingly the captain of the Salaminian
trireme was instructed to treat him with all respect, and allow him to
return to Athens in his own vessel. On receiving the summons
Alcibiades affected to obey, and set sail from Catana, with the state
trireme in attendance. The two ships remained in company as far as
Thurii, a Greek town of southern Italy, but there the great criminal
disappeared, and after searching for him in vain the officers of the
Salaminia were obliged to return to Athens without him. When the news
of his flight was brought to Athens, he was arraigned in his absence,
and condemned to death. But if his enemies supposed that they had
heard the last of Alcibiades, they soon learnt how deeply they were


The conduct of the campaign in Sicily was thus left in the feeble
hands of Nicias; for though Lamachus nominally held an equal command,
his poverty and political insignificance prevented him from holding
the position to which his military talents entitled him. The few
remaining weeks of summer were frittered away in trivial operations on
the western coasts of the island, and then the Athenians withdrew into
winter quarters at Catana. The predictions of Lamachus now began to be
fulfilled: seeing that Nicias, with the vast force at his disposal,
attempted nothing against them, the Syracusans began to despise their
enemy, and thought of taking the offensive. Horsemen from Syracuse
rode repeatedly up to the Athenian outposts at Catana, and tauntingly
inquired if the Athenians had come to found a colony in Sicily. At
last even Nicias felt that some display of activity was necessary to
save himself from contempt. He had learnt from certain Syracusan
exiles that there was a convenient place for landing troops, on the
low-lying shore where the river Anapus flows into the Great Harbour.
Here he determined to make a sudden descent, and in order to avoid
disembarking in the face of an enemy, he contrived a stratagem to
remove the whole Syracusan force out of reach. A citizen of Catana,
who was attached to the Athenian interest, was sent with a message to
the Syracusan generals, which held out a tempting prospect of gaining
an easy and decisive advantage over the Athenian army. Professing to
come from the partisans of Syracuse still remaining in Catana, he
promised on their behalf that if the Syracusans made a sudden assault
on the Athenian camp, their friends in Catana would simultaneously
fall upon the Athenian troops, who were in the habit of deserting
their quarters and straggling about the town, and set fire to their

This plausible story found ready credence with the Syracusan generals,
and they named a day on which they promised to appear in full force
before the walls of Catana. When the time appointed drew near, they
marched out with the whole Syracusan army, leaving the city to be
garrisoned by their allies, and took up a position within easy reach
of Catana. Thereupon Nicias, who was fully informed of their
movements, embarked his troops by night, sailed down the coast past
Syracuse, and entering the Great Harbour, came to land near the
outlying suburb of Polichne, where stood the great temple of the
Olympian Zeus. Here he planted a breastwork of palisades to defend his
ships, and drew up his army on ground which offered many obstacles to
the advance of the Syracusan cavalry. Then, having broken down the
bridge over the Anapus, he waited for the enemy to appear.

Meanwhile the Syracusan generals had marched upon Catana, and finding
that they had been duped, returned with all speed to the defence of
their own city. After a long and fatiguing march, they came in view of
the Athenian position, and drew up their forces for battle. But Nicias
declined the challenge, and the day being now far advanced, they fell
back and encamped for the night in the open field.

Next morning Nicias, acting with unusual vigour, drew up his army in
two equal divisions, and leaving one half to defend the camp, and act
as a reserve, with the other he advanced rapidly upon the enemy. The
Syracusans, who had perhaps reckoned too much on the known indolence
of Nicias, were taken by surprise. Their discipline was lax, and many
of them had left their posts, and gone off into the town.
Nevertheless, they met the attack with firmness: those who were on the
spot hastened to assume their weapons, which they had laid aside,
while the stragglers came running back, and took their stand wherever
they saw a gap in the ranks. After some preliminary skirmishing
between the light-armed troops, the heavy masses of the hoplites came
to close quarters, and a fierce hand to hand struggle ensued. While
the issue was still uncertain, a violent thunderstorm broke over the
contending armies, and struck terror into the Syracusans, who regarded
it as an omen of defeat. But the seasoned soldiers of Nicias saw
nothing unusual in an autumn tempest, and perceiving the enemy to
waver, they pressed their attack, and broke through the opposing
lines. The whole Syracusan army now fell back upon Syracuse, but they
retired without haste or disorder, and their retreat was covered by a
numerous and efficient body of cavalry, so that their total loss
amounted only to two hundred and sixty.

The victory thus remained with the Athenians; but the moral advantage
was entirely on the side of the Syracusans. With an army composed of
raw recruits, they had met the flower of the Athenian forces, trained
by years of warfare, and led by experienced generals, in fair fight,
and though attacked at a disadvantage, they had fought with spirit,
and retreated with coolness and deliberation. They had good reason to
be satisfied with the result of their first encounter with the
invader, and they might well share the high and confident hopes
expressed by their most eminent citizen, Hermocrates. Speaking at a
general assembly, immediately after the battle, the great patriot
congratulated his countrymen on the courage which they had displayed,
and at the same time pointed out the necessity of improving their
discipline and military organization. One important reform should be
made at once; the number of the generals, which had hitherto been
fifteen, should be greatly reduced, and those appointed to the supreme
command should be given absolute power, so that they might act with
secrecy and despatch. Further, let the whole adult male population be
placed under arms, and kept in constant drill all through the winter.
If these measures were vigorously carried out, they might successfully
defy the Athenians to do their worst.

Acting on this advice, the Syracusans deposed the existing generals,
and chose Hermocrates, with three others, to fill their place. The
reform of the army was at once taken in hand, and ambassadors were
sent to Corinth and Sparta to ask for aid. Corinth, as the mother-city
of Syracuse, might well respond to the call, and it was hoped that the
Spartans would be induced to declare open war on Athens, so as to
compel the Athenians to withdraw their forces from Sicily, or at least
prevent them from sending reinforcements.

Various defensive works were undertaken by the Syracusans during the
winter. The most important of these was a new wall, extending from the
northern sea to the Great Harbour, and taking in a wide space of
ground, outside the old line of wall, to the west of the city. By thus
increasing the area of Syracuse, they made it much more difficult for
Nicias to draw his line of blockade, when the siege began in the
following spring. They also constructed a fort, with a permanent
garrison, to guard the temple of Zeus in the suburb of Polichne, and
drove piles into the sea at all the landing-places of the Great

Soon after the battle Nicias shifted his winter quarters to Naxos, and
learning this the Syracusans marched in full force to Catana, laid
waste the territory, and burnt the deserted huts of the Athenians. The
insult was tamely endured, and shortly afterwards the ever-active
Hermocrates had an opportunity of thwarting the Athenian intrigues
among the Greek cities of Sicily. The scene of this diplomatic
encounter was Camarina, a Dorian city which had hitherto wavered
between its hatred of Syracuse and its fear of Athens. Early in the
winter Athenian envoys appeared at Camarina with overtures of
alliance, and Hermocrates was sent to represent the interests of
Syracuse. Speaking first in the debate, Hermocrates set himself to
unmask the designs of the Athenians, who, under the thin pretence of
helping the Ionic cities of Sicily, had come (he said) to make a
conquest of the whole island. The Ionians of Greece had long groaned
under their yoke, and the same fate was in store for the Ionians of
Sicily, if they allowed themselves to be beguiled by specious lies.
The plea of friendship and goodwill might pass with the degenerate
Greeks of Asia and the Aegaean, born to be cajoled and enslaved; but
the Camariaeans were of the stout Dorian race, the hereditary foes of
tyranny, too wise and too brave to lend themselves as tools to a bare-
faced scheme of aggression. If not, let them beware: Syracuse was
fighting in a righteous cause, and must prevail in the end; help was
coming from Peloponnesus, and if the Camariaeans stood aloof, the day
would come when they would regret their disloyalty.

There can be no doubt that Hermocrates was right in his view of the
motive which brought the Athenians to Sicily, and the arguments of
Euphemus, the advocate for Athens, who strove to confute him, will not
bear examination. But the people of Camarina were in a difficult
position; their city had suffered many things in the past at the hands
of Syracuse, and they had reason to fear that her oppressions might be
renewed, if she emerged triumphant from the present struggle. On the
other hand, if the Athenians were victorious, they might forfeit their
independence altogether. In this dilemma they determined to play a
waiting game, and when the time came for action, to throw their weight
on the winning side. For the present they answered that they chose to
remain neutral.

The debate at Camarina, though interesting and instructive from the
light which it throws on the passions and motives of the combatants,
had little influence on the final issue of the war. But about the same
time a scene was being enacted in another part of the Greek world,
which led to most momentous consequences. Early in the winter the
Syracusan envoys arrived at Corinth, and made an earnest appeal for
help. The Corinthians were warmly attached to their famous colony,
which had never wavered in its allegiance to the mother-city, and
moreover they were the implacable enemies of Athens. They therefore
took up the cause of Syracuse with enthusiasm, and they sent the
envoys on to Sparta, accompanied by delegates of their own, to urge
the immediate resumption of hostilities against Athens, and the
sending of prompt aid to Sicily.

At Sparta they found an able and unscrupulous ally, the very last whom
they had expected to meet there. This was the outlaw Alcibiades, who,
after eluding the vigilance of the Athenian officers at Thurii, had
crossed over in a merchant ship to Cyllene, the port of Elis. While
staying there, he received an invitation from the Lacedaemonians to
proceed to Sparta, and made his way thither, having first stipulated
for a safe-conduct; for he dreaded the vengeance of the Spartans, to
whom he had done much mischief by raising the coalition which led to
the battle of Mantinea. So there he was, the guest of his old enemies,
burning with all an exile's hatred, and ready to strike some deadly
blow against the city which had cast him out.

At first the Spartans gave but a cool and qualified response to the
application of the envoys from Corinth. They were prepared to lend
moral support to the Syracusans, by sending an embassy to encourage
them in their resistance, but of more substantial aid they said little
or nothing. Now was the time for Alcibiades to play his part. He knew,
far better than any of his hearers, all the vulnerable points of
Athens, and had no scruple in using his knowledge for her ruin. Having
obtained permission from the magistrates, he rose to address the
Spartan assembly; and his speech is given at full length by the
historian, who was himself an exile at the time, and may possibly have
been present [Footnote: The suggestion is made by Grote.] on this
important occasion.

The Spartans might smile when they heard this accomplished traitor
professing friendship towards themselves, and zeal for their service;
they might be disgusted at the flippant sophistries by which he strove
to defend his unexampled villainy. But far different feelings must
have been awakened, when he went on to unfold the gigantic scheme of
conquest, to which, as he pretended, the invasion of Sicily was no
more than a prelude. According to this statement, the Athenians
intended, after subjugating the Greeks of Sicily, to turn their arms
against the Italian Greeks, and finally to attack Carthage. If all
these designs were successful, they would build a great number of new
ships, taking their materials from the forests of Italy, raise a vast
military force, both of Greeks and barbarians, and then return, backed
by the whole power of the West, and draw a ring of war round
Peloponnesus. With such resources they would be irresistible, and all
Greece must inevitably fall under their sway.

"Such," continued Alcibiades, "is the secret history of the Sicilian
expedition, which you have heard from the mouth of him who knows it
best. Remember, then, that the issue before you concerns not Syracuse
only, but Sparta also: for if Syracuse falls--and fall she must, if
left without support--all Sicily will be under the heel of Athens;
then will come the turn of Italy, and after that you will soon have
the enemy at your own doors. Now learn what you must do, if you would
avert all the evils which I have foretold. You must send a fleet to
Sicily at once, with hoplites who can row the ships themselves, and
serve in the army as soon as they land, and with them a Spartan
commander, to organize the fighting men of Sicily, and compel those
who are hanging back to do their duty. Such a man will be a host in
himself, and will infuse new life and energy into the defence.
Further, you must establish a fortified camp at Decelea, a position
which commands the whole territory of Attica; for by so doing you will
reduce Athens to a state of siege, and compel the whole male
population to serve on garrison duty; you will deprive the Athenians
of their revenues from the silver-mines at Laurium, and you will put
new heart into the cities subject to Athens, and encourage them to
withhold their tribute. Let these measures be carried out with
promptitude and vigour, and you will soon reap your reward, in the
humiliation of Athens, and the honour and gratitude of all Greece."

At these words of Alcibiades the sluggish Spartans took fire, and
recognizing the importance of his advice they determined to follow the
course which he had indicated. Gylippus, a Spartan of high rank,
received orders to proceed at once to Syracuse, and assume the control
of the war, and the Corinthians were directed to provide ships for the
conveyance of troops. But after this brief display of energy the
Spartans relapsed into their wonted torpor. Many months elapsed before
Gylippus was able to embark for Sicily, and meanwhile important events
had been occurring at the seat of war. We return, therefore, to the
head-quarters of Nicias, which had once more been removed from Naxos
to Catana.


For the next year and a half [Footnote: Spring 414--autumn 413 B.C.]
the scene of our narrative lies almost entirely in the immediate
neighbourhood of Syracuse, so that it now becomes necessary to
describe in some detail the site of that city, and the character of
the adjacent country. Mention has already been made of the island of
Ortygia, the site of the original colony, connected with the mainland
of Sicily by a bridge or causeway. At the southern extremity of
Ortygia there is a narrow strip of land, pointing like a finger
towards the rocky peninsula of Plemmyrium; and between these two
points lies the entrance to a spacious bay, already alluded to under
the name of the Great Harbour. At the western end of the bay there is
a long stretch of low, marshy ground, intersected by the little rivers
Cyana and Anapus, and infested with fever during the heats of summer.
On a rising ground, south of the Anapus, stood the suburb of Polichne,
with its great temple, sacred to the Olympian Zeus. A little to the
north of Ortygia the coast rises abruptly in a bold line of cliffs,
facing eastwards, and forming the base of a triangular plateau, which
slopes upwards from the sea, and gradually grows narrower until it
ends in a point, called the hill of Euryelus. This plateau, which bore
the name of Epipolae, is guarded on all its three sides by rocky
precipices, only to be ascended at two or three places. Its eastern
end, called Acheadina, from the wild pear-trees which once flourished
there, was occupied by a new city, now included with Ortygia in the
same wall of defence. Here were situated the famous stone-quarries,
which afterwards acquired so tragic an interest from the sufferings of
the captive Athenians; and southwards from this district the ground
shelves gently to the shores of the Little Harbour, a sheltered inlet
at the northern end of Ortygia.

At the opening of spring the operations against Syracuse began in good
earnest. The first object of Nicias was to obtain possession of the
heights of Epipolae, for since the construction of the new Syracusan
wall it had become impossible for him to draw his line of blockade
from the side of the Great Harbour. His preparations were already far
advanced, when the Syracusan generals resolved to anticipate him, by
occupying all the approaches to Epipolae. With this intention they
issued an order for a full muster of troops in a meadow by the Anapus,
and after a general review and inspection of arms they appointed a
picked body of six hundred hoplites to guard the heights of Epipolae,
and hold themselves ready for any other pressing service. But the
precaution was taken too late. On the night before the review Nicias
set sail with his whole army from Catana, and landed at a place called
Leon, not more than six or seven furlongs from the northern side of
Epipolae. The fleet then took up its station in the sheltered water
behind the peninsula of Thapsus, while the land forces, advancing at a
run, crossed the level ground, and then, breasting the ascent, gained
the summit of Euryelus.

News of their approach presently reached the Syracusans, who were
still mustered by the Anapus, and breaking off the review, they
marched in haste towards Epipolae, hoping still to dislodge the
Athenians from their position. But in their rapid advance over a
distance of nearly three miles their ranks became disordered, and
their attack was so straggling and ineffectual that they were easily
repulsed, and driven back with considerable loss into the town. On the
following day Nicias led his troops down the slope, and offered battle
before the walls of Syracuse; but the challenge was declined, and the
Syracusans remained within their defences, leaving the Athenians in.
undisputed possession of Epipolae.

After this important success the Athenian generals prepared at once to
form the siege of Syracuse. They first constructed a fort at a place
called Labdalum, on the northern verge of Epipolae, and near its
western extremity, to serve as a safe depositary for their baggage and
money. Then, taking up a position near the centre of Epipolae, they
built a circular wall, covering a considerable space of ground, and
defended on the side towards the city by an outer breastwork, a
thousand feet long. This enclosure, which was called the Circle, was
intended as a shelter for the men employed on construction of the
blockading wall, which started from either side of the Circle, and was
to be carried north and south until it reached the sea. The work made
rapid progress, and greatly alarmed the Syracusans, who saw themselves
in danger of being cut off from all hope of succour on the land side.
Dismayed by this prospect, they resolved to make one more effort to
drive the Athenians from their position, and marching out in full
force, offered battle. Advancing in haste and disorder, they would
certainly have suffered a crushing defeat, but for the prudent caution
of their generals, who were so much impressed by the superior
discipline of the Athenians, that they gave the order to retire, and
led their troops back into the city, leaving only a detachment of
horse to skirmish with the besiegers. But the Athenians had now an
efficient force of cavalry, which had been raised by successive
reinforcements to the number of six hundred and fifty men; and these,
backed by a small force of infantry, soon drove the horsemen of
Syracuse from the field.

The Athenians then completed the building of their Circle, and began
to lay the materials for the northern line of wall. By the advice of
Hermocrates the Syracusans made no further attempt to attack them in
full force, but began to build a counterwall, running out from the
city in a direction south of the Athenian Circle, so as to cross the
line to be followed by the wall of blockade, and prevent it from
reaching the Great Harbour. The work proceeded without interruption,
for the Athenians were engaged in their building operations north of
the Circle, and did not choose to divide their forces. When it was
completed, this counterwork consisted of a solid stone wall, crowned
with wooden towers, and defended in front by a palisade. The blockade
of Syracuse was thus rendered impossible, as long as the defenders
could keep possession of their counterwall. But unfortunately the
guards left in charge of the new wail soon began to neglect their
duty, and erected tents in the shade, where they passed the hot hours
of the afternoon, while some even left their posts, and went off to
refresh themselves in the city. The Athenian generals did not fail to
take advantage of this negligence. Watching their opportunity, when
most of the Syracusan guards were reposing under the shelter of the
tents, they sent a chosen troop of some three hundred men to make a
sudden assault on the counterwall. Then, having divided the main body
of the Athenian army between them, they disposed their forces so as to
prevent any rescue from the town. One division was drawn up before the
principal gate in the new Syracusan wall, while the other proceeded to
a postern-gate, at the point where the counterwall started from the
city. The combined movement was completely successful; the three
hundred carried the stockade and cross-wall by storm, and compelled
the defenders to take refuge within the ramparts of Syracuse. The
whole Athenian army then marched up to the counterwall and stockade,
which they speedily demolished, carrying off the materials for their
own use.

Wishing to prevent any second attempt on the part of the Syracusans to
cut them off from the southern slope of Epipolae, the Athenian
generals now fortified that part of the cliff which looks towards the
Great Harbour. By occupying this point they obtained a new centre,
commanding the space between the Circle and the southern edge of the
cliff, and placing them in communication with the level valley of the
Anapus, across which they had to carry their line of blockade. For the
present building operations were suspended on the northern side of the
Circle, as they wished first of all to complete the investment of
Syracuse towards the south.

Perceiving their intention, the Syracusans began a second counterwork,
consisting of a stockade and ditch, which started at the point of
junction between the old city-wall and the new, and ran across the low
swampy ground as far as the Anapus. Thus the Athenians were confronted
by a new obstacle, which had to be removed, before they could make any
further progress. Acting with energy and decision, they sent orders to
the fleet, which was still lying at Thapsus, to sail round into the
Great Harbour; and without waiting for its arrival, before daybreak
Lamachus led his troops down the cliff, and advanced against the
stockade. His men carried hurdles and planks, to secure their footing
in the most treacherous parts of the swamp, and, proceeding thus, in
the first light of dawn they came up to the stockade. They found the
Syracusans assembled in force to resist them, and an engagement
ensued, which speedily ended in favour of the Athenians. The right
wing of the Syracusan army fled back into the city, while the left
wing retreated towards the suburb of Polichne, hotly pursued by the
picked troop [Footnote: P. 203.] of Athenian hoplites, who wished to
cut them off before they reached the river. By this rash movement the
Athenians came near to forfeiting the advantage which they had gained,
and brought upon themselves an irreparable loss. For the Syracusan
cavalry turned on their pursuers, and drove them back in disorder upon
the Athenian right. The sudden reverse created something like a panic
in that part of the line, and Lamachus, who was in command of the left
wing, hastened to their relief, and threw himself, with a handful of
men, between the Syracusan cavalry and the fugitives. This gallant
action turned the tide of battle once more, and gave the Athenians on
the right wing time to rally; but Lamachus and his followers, pushing
forward too hotly, were attacked by the enemy in a place where their
retreat was cut off by a ditch, and slain to a man.

Meanwhile the Syracusans who had fled into the city, observing the
temporary defeat of the Athenians, had taken courage again, and they
returned to the field, having first sent a detachment to attack the
Athenian Circle, where Nicias, who was disabled by sickness, had been
left in charge with a small garrison. Thinking to make an easy
capture, the party sent on this service ran up the slope of Epipolae,
and reached the breastwork of the Circle, which they took and
demolished. With the scanty force at his disposal, Nicias had little
hope of repelling the attack, so he had recourse to a desperate
expedient. He ordered the camp-servants to set fire to a great pile of
timber, which was lying, together with a number of siege engines, in
front of the wall. They did as he directed, and a great flame arose,
which drove back the assailants, and gave warning of his danger to the
Athenians in the plain below, where the whole Syracusan army was now
in full retreat. Almost at the same moment the Athenian fleet was seen
sailing into the Great Harbour, and a strong contingent from the
victorious army came swarming up the hill to the rescue. Thereupon the
storming party from Syracuse turned and fled back to the city, where
they found the streets thronged by their beaten and dispirited

The result of this battle was to leave the Athenian in undisputed
possession of the whole country round Syracuse. Lamachus, indeed, had
fallen, and the loss of that daring and active spirit soon made itself
severely felt. But for the present the fortunes of Athens were in the
ascendant, and everything seemed to promise a speedy triumph. The
Syracusans were thoroughly cowed by their defeat, and looked passively
on, while a double wall of blockade crept steadily forwards from the
southern edge of Epipolae towards the Great Harbour, where the
Athenian fleet had now taken up its permanent station. The native
Sicels, who had hitherto held back through fear of Syracuse, now
joined the Athenians in great numbers. Even the distant Etruscans, the
ancient enemies of Syracuse, sent three war-galleys to take part in
the sack of the great Dorian city.

Day by day the spirits of the Syracusans sank lower and lower. They
now began to feel the actual pressure of a siege. Months had passed
since their envoys had sailed for Greece, and there was still no sign
of help from Corinth or Sparta. They had lost all hope of saving
themselves by their own unaided efforts, and no course seemed left to
them but to make the best terms they could with Nicias. Negotiations
were accordingly opened with the Athenian general, but after much
discussion no definite result was attained. In this hour of weakness
and distress, the Syracusans became divided against themselves, and
every man suspected his neighbour of treason. Then they turned upon
their generals, who, after holding out such high promises, had brought
them to this pass, either by mismanagement, or by deliberate
treachery. Hermocrates and his colleagues were deposed from their
command, and three other generals succeeded to their place.

In the eyes of all those who were watching the struggle, the fate of
Syracuse was sealed; she was destined to fall a prey to the devouring
ambition of Athens. But at this very moment a little cloud was
approaching from the east, which was fraught with disaster and ruin to
the besieging army.


Just at the time when the Syracusans were brought to the brink of
despair, Gylippus, after so many months' delay, was on his voyage to
Sicily. While lying at Leucas, a Corinthian settlement in the Ionian
sea, he received the alarming intelligence that Syracuse was already
completely blockaded, and the report was confirmed by every vessel
that came in from the west. Deceived by these false rumours, he gave
up all hope of saving Sicily, but hoping still to forestall the
Athenians in Italy, he put out from Leucas with four ships, and
steered a straight course for Tarentum. From this city, which was
friendly to Sparta and Syracuse, he started on his mission among the
Italian Greeks, and putting in at Locri he heard for the first time
that the Athenian wall was still unfinished on the northern side of
Epipolae, leaving a wide gap, through which a relieving force might
enter the town.

Two courses now lay open to Gylippus. He might sail southwards, and
make an attempt to run the blockade of Syracuse--or he might land on
the northern coast of Sicily, march across the island, and fight his
way into the city through the unwalled interval. In either case, the
enterprise seemed desperate enough. By a very moderate exertion on the
part of Nicias, employing only a fraction of the immense force at his
disposal, Gylippus might have been destroyed, before he had time to
become dangerous. But Nicias was lulled into a fatal confidence. He
had heard of the mission of Gylippus, but made no attempt to oppose
his voyage to Italy, regarding him as a mere free-booter, unworthy of
serious notice. At last, learning that Gylippus was at Locri, he was
induced to send out four triremes against him. They were instructed to
take station at Rhegium, and cut off the daring intruder as he passed
through the strait. But when they reached Rhegium, the wary Spartan
was already beyond their reach. He had decided to approach Syracuse by
land, and was now far advanced on his voyage to Himera, the only Greek
settlement on the north coast of Sicily. Himera, though an Ionic
colony, was attached to the Dorian interest, and her citizens gave a
hearty welcome to the Spartan deliverer. Before long, a little army of
about three thousand men was assembled at Himera, and ready to follow
the fortunes of Gylippus. Seven hundred of these were the sailors and
marines from his own vessels, armed as hoplites, and the Himeraeans
furnished a thousand infantry, light and heavy-armed, and a hundred
cavalry. Owing to the recent death of a powerful chieftain, who had
been a strong partisan of Athens, the northern Sicels had now changed
sides, and they sent a thousand men to serve under the Spartan leader.
Small contingents also arrived, in answer to the call of Gylippus,
from Gela and Selinus. With this little force, composed of such motley
elements, Gylippus started from Himera, and entered on his march for
the relief of Syracuse. The fate of Syracuse was already wavering in
the balance. As yet no news of approaching succour had reached the
beleaguered city, and the Syracusans had abandoned all hope. To save
themselves from a worse calamity, they resolved to surrender, and an
assembly was summoned to settle the terms of capitulation. But at this
very moment a message came to them by sea, which kindled their courage
afresh, and banished these counsels of despair. When Gylippus left
Leucas, a Corinthian fleet of some fifteen vessels was preparing to
sail from that port for Syracuse. One of the ships, commanded by a
certain Gongylus, was delayed in the harbour, and started after the
rest. But Gongylus, instead of steering the ordinary course, which
would have taken him first to Italy, made a bold dash, straight across
the sea, and just when the momentous decision was pending, his ship
came to anchor in the Little Harbour. Forthwith the joyful tidings
spread like wildfire through the city: Gylippus was coming, armed with
full authority from Sparta--Corinth had taken up their cause--Syracuse
was saved! All thought of surrender was instantly flung away, and news
arriving shortly afterwards that Gylippus was near at hand, the whole
Syracusan force marched out to meet him, and escorted him triumphantly
into the town.

Thus, without a blow being struck, an immense access of strength had
been brought to the besieged, and the grand condition of successful
resistance, on which Alcibiades had laid such weight, was fulfilled. A
Spartan officer of consummate ability was now in Syracuse, and he had
made his way into the city, not alone, not by stealth, but at the head
of an army, and before the very eyes of the enemy. Weeks must have
elapsed between the departure of Gylippus from Leucas, and his arrival
at Syracuse; and during all this time, with one trifling exception,
Nicias made no effort to oppose his progress. Prudent men might well
have regarded the enterprise of Gylippus as a wild and desperate
adventure; and such it must have proved, but for the astounding
blindness and apathy of Nicias.

At the time when Gylippus reached Syracuse the Athenian lines of
circumvallation were all but completed on the side of the Great
Harbour; but a wide interval was still left between the Circle and the
northern sea, and it was here that Gylippus had effected an entrance.
To keep this space open was a matter of supreme importance, and the
scene of action is now shifted again to the northern slope of
Epipolae. On the day after his arrival Gylippus succeeded in capturing
the Athenian fort at Labdalum, and the command of this position gave
increased facilities for the construction of a third counterwall,
which was forthwith taken in hand, and carried in the direction of
Labdalum, until it crossed the blockading line at its northern end.

If the Syracusans succeeded in completing and holding this
counterwork, the blockade of Syracuse would be rendered impossible.
Yet for some time Nicias made no attempt to interrupt its progress. As
if already convinced of his inferiority in the field, he took steps to
keep his communications open by sea, and with this object he employed
a part of his forces in fortifying the headland of Plemmyrium, which
commanded the entrance to the Great Harbour. Here he built three forts
which served as an arsenal for the Athenian stores; and henceforth
Plemmyrium became the chief station for his fleet. This removal had a
disastrous effect on the Athenian crews; for the place being almost a
desert, and the springs distant and scanty, they were compelled to go
far from their quarters in search of forage and water, and while thus
engaged they were cut off in great numbers by the Syracusan horse, who
had been posted at Polichne for this purpose. A rapid demoralization
of the crews was the consequence, and desertions became more frequent
every day.

Meanwhile the counterwall was advancing steadily up the hill, and
every day Gylippus drew up his army, to cover the operations of the
workmen. At last he determined to force on an engagement, and in the
first encounter the Syracusans, fighting in a confined space, which
prevented their cavalry from coming into action, suffered a defeat. In
no wise discouraged by this reverse, on the next day they took up a
position in the more open ground, and offered battle again. By this
time the Syracusan counterwork had almost passed the end of the
Athenian wall, and if it were carried a few yards further, the siege
of Syracuse would be brought to a standstill. Roused by the imminence
of the crisis, Nicias determined to make one more effort to regain his
mastery in the field, and led his troops to the attack. The main body
of the hoplites were soon hotly engaged on both sides, and in the
midst of the action Gylippus directed his cavalry and light-armed
infantry to make a sudden charge on the Athenian left. This movement
was executed with so much skill and resolution that the Athenians in
that part of the line gave way, and drew after them the rest of their
comrades, who broke their ranks, and fled for shelter behind the siege

The Syracusans lost no time in turning their victory to account. On
the very same night their wall was extended some distance beyond the
blockading line, and until this new barrier was overthrown, the
investment of Syracuse had now become impossible.

Whichever way he looked, Nicias saw himself menaced with failure and
defeat. He had sent twenty ships to intercept the Corinthian squadron
on its voyage from Leucas; but the little fleet of rescue succeeded in
avoiding the snare, and made its way into the port of Syracuse, thus
adding twelve fresh vessels to the defending force. Gylippus himself
was marching unhindered up and down the island, passing from city to
city, and raising reinforcements of ships and men; and a second
embassy had been despatched by the Syracusans, to carry the news of
their victory to Corinth and Sparta, and ask for further help. Another
ominous sign of coming events was the bustle and activity now visible
in the dockyards of Syracuse and the waters of the Little Harbour; for
the Syracusans had turned their attention seriously to their fleet,
and thought of nothing less than attacking the Athenians on their own

These symptoms of renewed confidence and energy were observed by
Nicias with growing disquiet. And if he turned his eyes to his own
camp, he saw little to relieve his anxiety. For the predictions of
Lamachus had been fulfilled to the letter. By his fatal policy of
procrastination Nicias had frittered away the resources of the most
splendid armament that ever set sail from Peiraeus. His soldiers were
infected by the despondency of their leader, and many of them were
stricken by the marsh-fever which haunts the unwholesome district of
the Anapus. Above all the condition of the fleet showed the lamentable
effect of long inaction and delay. All the supplies of the Athenians
came to them by sea, and in order to keep their communications open,
it was necessary to keep the whole of the fleet on constant duty. In
consequence of this, the hulls of the triremes had become sodden with
water, which made them leaky, and difficult to row. Moreover the
crews, which were largely composed of foreign seamen, had grown
restive and mutinous under the severe strain of hardships and
privation, so different from the easy and lucrative service in the
hope of which they had enlisted. Some took the first opportunity of
deserting to the enemy, while others ran away to remote parts of
Sicily; and there was no means of filling the places thus left vacant.

Such was the burden of care and apprehension which lay heavy on the
feeble shoulders of the Athenian general. He was naturally a weak man,
haunted by superstitious terrors, irresolute, easily cast down; and
this infirmity of character was aggravated by a painful and incurable
disease. There was no longer any question of laying siege to Syracuse:
he himself was now besieged, and it was all he could do to maintain
his position within his defences, and keep the sea open for the
conveyance of supplies. In this desperate situation he determined to
send a written despatch to Athens. We are led to suppose that this was
an unusual proceeding, and that news from the seat of war was
generally sent by word of mouth. The document is given at full length,
with all its grievous confessions of incompetence and failure. After
setting forth the facts of the case as stated above, Nicias insists
that one of two things must be done: either the army now lying before
Syracuse must be recalled to Athens, or the Athenians must send out a
second army, equal in strength to the first, and a general to relieve
him of his command.

At the conclusion of his despatch Nicias peevishly complains of the
exacting temper of the Athenians, and their readiness to blame anyone
but themselves if anything untoward occurred. Whatever may be the
truth of the general charge, it was most ill-timed and ungrateful in
his own case. Towards him, at least, the conduct of his fellow-
citizens was marked by an excess of generosity, amounting to actual
infatuation. Nothing is more remarkable than the unshaken confidence
of the Athenians in their feeble general, after hearing this terrible
indictment, drawn up by his own hand. They refused to accept his
resignation, and passed a decree that large reinforcements should be
sent to Sicily, with Demosthenes and Eurymedon as generals; and in the
meantime they appointed Menander and Euthydemus, two officers already
serving before Syracuse, to share with Nicias the burden of command.
Before the winter was ended Eurymedon started with ten ships for
Sicily, to announce that effectual help was coming; while Demosthenes
was charged with the duty of enlisting troops and organizing a fleet.

Meanwhile new perils were gathering round the Athenians at home, which
should have warned them to abandon their wild plans of conquest, and
concentrate all their strength for their own defence. The Spartans had
long been restrained by a scruple of conscience from an open
declaration of war, wishing to avoid the guilt which is associated
with the first act of aggression. Eighteen years before they had
refused all offers of arbitration, and deliberately provoked an
encounter with Athens, in direct violation of the Thirty Years' Truce,
which provided for an amicable settlement of differences; and by so
acting they had, as they believed, incurred the anger of heaven, and
brought on themselves a long train of disasters. But now the position
was reversed: for in the previous year the Athenians had made descents
on the coasts of Laconia, and other districts of Peloponnesus; and
they had repeatedly turned a deaf ear to the friendly overtures of the
Spartans, who proposed to submit all disputed matters to a peaceful

Thus relieved of their scruples, the Spartans prepared to renew the
war in good earnest, and early in the following spring [Footnote: B.C.
4I3.] they summoned their allies to the Isthmus, and marched under
Agis their king into Attica. After ravaging the plain, they encamped
at Decelea, fourteen miles north of Athens, and here they established
a fortified post, which was garrisoned by contingents of the
Peloponnesian army, serving in regular order. Once more Alcibiades had
cause to exult in the success of his malignant counsels, which had
sent Gylippus to Syracuse, and had now planted this root of bitter
mischief on the very soil of Attica.

While the allies were thus engaged at Decelea, a considerable body of
troops had embarked at Taenarum and at Corinth, and sailed to take
part in the defence of Syracuse. In Greece, all the old enemies of
Athens were arming against her, and beyond the sea her prospects grew
darker and darker every day. Yet nothing, it seemed, could break the
spell of fatal delusion which rested on the doomed city. While Attica
lay in the grip of the enemy, a fleet of sixty-five triremes, carrying
a great military force, weighed anchor from Peiraeus, and steered its
course, under the command of Demosthenes, for Sicily.


We must now return to Syracuse, where fortune was preparing a new blow
for the ill-fated Athenian army. Gylippus came back from his mission
at the beginning of spring, bringing with him the reinforcements which
he had gathered from various parts of Sicily. At once resuming the
offensive, he planned an attack on the forts recently erected by
Nicias at Plemmyrium, and in order to divide the attention of the
Athenians, he determined to make a simultaneous movement against them
by sea and land. He himself took command of the army, and setting out
at night, made his way round to the rear of the Athenian position at
Plemmyrium. Meanwhile the Syracusan fleet lay ready in two divisions,
one of which, consisting of thirty-five vessels, was moored in the
docks, within the Great Harbour, while the other, to the number of
forty-five, had its station in the Lesser Harbour. At the hour
appointed by Gylippus, just as day was breaking, both squadrons got
under weigh, and bore down upon Plemmyrium, from the opposite sides of
Ortygia. Though taken by surprise, the Athenians put out in haste with
sixty triremes, and a sea-fight ensued, in which the Syracusans for
some time had the advantage. By this time Gylippus was at hand with
his army, and by a sudden assault on the Athenian forts he made an
easy capture of all three; for the greater part of the garrison had
flocked down to the sea, to watch the progress of the action in the
Great Harbour. Fortunately for these men, who had so grossly neglected
their duty, the Athenian fleet had now gained a decisive victory, and
they were thus enabled to make their escape by water, and cross over
to the camp of Nicias, on the other side of the bay.

By the capture of Plemmyrium a great treasure fell into the hands of
the Syracusans. The loss to the Athenians, in money, stores, and men,
was serious enough; but further consequences ensued, which were
nothing less than disastrous. The enemy now commanded both sides of
the entrance to the Great Harbour, and not a ship-load of provisions
could reach the Athenian camp without an encounter with the Syracusan
triremes. Well might despondency and dismay take possession of the
beleaguered army, cramped in their narrow quarters on the swampy flats
of the Anapus.

All Sicily, with one or two exceptions, had now declared for Syracuse,
and reinforcements came pouring in from every side. Gylippus was
resolved, if possible, to destroy the armament of Nicias, before the
fresh succours from Athens had time to arrive; and, as before, the
attack was to be made simultaneously by sea and land. Since the loss
of Plemmyrium, the Athenian fleet had been penned up in the confined
space at the head of the Great Harbour. Outside of these narrow
limits, the whole coast was in the hands of the enemy, and any
Athenian trireme which ventured out into open water ran the risk of
being driven on a hostile shore. Unless they chose to incur this great
peril, the Athenians would have to fight in close order, with the
long, tapering prows of their vessels exposed to collision.

The Syracusans skilfully availed themselves of the advantage thus
offered. The impact of prow with prow, which had hitherto been
regarded as a disgraceful evidence of bad seamanship, had now become
the most effective method of attack; and in order to execute this
simple manoeuvre without damage to their own ships, the Syracusans
shortened the prows of their triremes, and strengthened them with
heavy beams of timber, thus converting them into a broad and solid
mass, which could be driven with crushing force against the slender
beaks of the Athenian galleys.

When all was ready, Gylippus led out his troops, and assailed the
Athenian wall which faced towards Syracuse, and at the same time the
garrison stationed at Polichne left their quarters, and made another
attack on the opposite side. The assault had already commenced, when
the Syracusan fleet, which numbered eighty triremes, was seen
advancing towards the inner shore of the bay, where the ships of
Nicias lay moored; and the Athenian seamen, who had not expected to be
called into action, hastened in some confusion to man their ships,
seventy-five of which were presently engaged with the enemy. After a
day passed in irregular and desultory fighting, the battle ended
slightly in favour of the Syracusans. During the next day the
Syracusans remained inactive, and Nicias employed the interval in
repairing the ships which had suffered damage, and providing for the
defence of his fleet. The Athenian naval station was protected by a
row of piles, rammed into the bottom of the sea, forming a semi-
circular breastwork, with an opening about two hundred feet wide,
where the ships passed in and out. On either side of this entrance
Nicias caused a merchant vessel to be moored, and each vessel was
provided with an engine called a dolphin, a heavy mass of lead,
suspended from the yard-arm, which could be dropped on the deck of any
hostile trireme attempting to pass.

Early on the following morning the Syracusans resumed hostilities both
by sea and land, and after several hours of desultory fighting, they
drew off their fleet, and sailed back to their station under the walls
of the city. The Athenians were well pleased by this sudden relief,
and concluding that their work was done for the day, they disembarked
at leisure, and began to prepare their midday meal. But before they
had time to snatch a mouthful, the whole Syracusan fleet was seen
advancing again from the opposite shore, and the hungry and weary
Athenian crews were summoned on board to repel a second attack. This
crafty manoeuvre was due to a suggestion of Ariston, the most skilful
of the Corinthian seamen, by whose advice provisions had been brought
down to the beach, so that the Syracusan crews were kept together, and
ready to renew the action, after a brief interval for repose and

For a little while the two fleets faced each other, without venturing
to attack; then the Athenians, who were feverish with hunger and
fatigue, could restrain themselves no longer, but with one consent
they dashed their oars into the water, and with shouts of mutual
encouragement charged down upon the enemy. The Syracusans kept a firm
front, and opposing their massive prows to the rash assault, inflicted
great damage on the Athenian triremes, many of which were completely
wrecked by the shock of the collision. On every side the Athenians
were hard beset; the light-armed troops posted on the decks of the
Syracusan vessels, plied them with a shower of javelins, while the
waters swarmed with a multitude of boats, manned by daring
adventurers, who rowed boldly up to the sides of the Athenian
triremes, broke the oars, and hurled darts through the port-holes at
the rowers. After fighting for some time at a great disadvantage, with
exhausted crews, and in a narrow space, where they had no room to
manoeuvre, the Athenians were compelled to fall back, and sought
refuge behind their palisade.

This important success raised the spirits of the Syracusans higher
than ever. They had gained a decisive victory over the greatest naval
power in Greece, sunk seven triremes, disabled many more, and slain or
taken prisoners a large number of men. Flushed with pride and hope,
they immediately began to prepare for a final attack, which was to end
in the complete destruction of their enemies both by sea and land. But
these high expectations received a sudden check; for on the day after
the battle, [Footnote: Or possibly two days.] the watchers on the
walls of Syracuse descried a great fleet on the northern horizon.
Presently the regular beat of ten thousand oars could be distinctly
heard; it grew louder and louder, and as the vanguard came into full
view, the alarmed Syracusans recognized the truth. There was no
mistaking the peculiar build and familiar ensigns of the renowned
Athenian galleys. This could be no other than the fleet of
Demosthenes, arrived just in time to save the shattered armament of
Nicias, and once more turn the tide of war against Syracuse. A great
multitude rushed to the battlements, and gazed with keen pangs of
anxiety as the long line of triremes, seventy-three in number, swept
past the walls of Ortygia, rounded the southern point, and crossing
the Great Harbour, dropped anchor at the naval station of Nicias. If
anyone not concerned in the struggle had been present, he might have
admired the grand exhibition of military pomp and power, the perfect
trim and condition of the triremes, the precision of the rowing, and
the glittering ranks of the hoplites, javelin-men, archers, and
slingers, who thronged the decks. But no such feeling could find room
in the minds of the Syracusans. After their long trials and
sufferings, on the very eve of their crowning triumph, a new host of
enemies had sprung up against them, and all their toils were beginning


When Demosthenes arrived at Syracuse, the position of affairs was as
follows: the blockading wall of the Athenians still extended in an
unbroken line from the circular fort on Epipolae to the camp and naval
station of Nicias at the head of the Great Harbour; but the Athenians
were cut off from access to the northern slope of Epipolae by the
Syracusan counterwall, which had been carried up the whole length of
the plateau as far as the hill of Euryelus. Along the northern edge of
the cliff the Syracusans had established three fortified camps, where
the defenders of the counterwall had their quarters, and on the summit
of Euryelus a fort had been erected, which held the key to the whole
system of defence.

Demosthenes saw at once that, before any progress could be made with
the siege of Syracuse, it was necessary to gain possession of the
counterwall, and confine the Syracusans within the limits of their
city. The sooner he made the attempt, the greater was his chance of
success; for every day wasted would give new confidence to the enemy,
and the condition in which he found the troops of Nicias was a visible
warning against the fatal consequences of delay. An attack made on the
cross-wall from its southern side ended in total failure; his siege-
engines were burnt, and the storming-parties repulsed at every point.
The only course which remained was to march round to the north-western
extremity of the plateau, carry the fort of Euryelus, and assail the
Syracusans within their own lines. After consulting with his
colleagues, Demosthenes determined to try the hazardous method of a
night-attack, hoping thus to take the garrison on Euryelus by
surprise. He himself, with Eurymedon and Menander, took the command,
and the whole Athenian army was engaged in the adventure, except those
who remained behind with Nicias to guard the camp. On a moonlight
night in August, at the hour of the first watch, the march began.
Moving cautiously up the valley of the Anapus, they turned the
northern end of the hill, and reached the path by which Lamachus had
ascended in the spring of the previous year. At first all seemed to
promise success to the Athenians unobserved by the enemy, Demosthenes
ascended the hill, stormed the fort, and, drove the garrison back on
the three fortified camps which flanked the Syracusan counterwall on
its northern side. The fugitives raised the alarm, and the call was
promptly answered by a picked troop of six hundred hoplites, who were
stationed nearest to the point of danger. These men made a gallant
stand, but they were overpowered by superior numbers, and thrust back
on the main body of the Syracusans, who were now advancing under
Gylippus to the rescue. They in their turn were forced to give ground
before the impetuous charge of Demosthenes, and a general panic seemed
about to spread through the whole Syracusan army. Already the
Athenians had begun to throw down the battlements of the counterwall,
and if they were allowed to proceed, Syracuse would once more be
exposed to imminent danger.

But now occurred one of those sudden turns of fortune which were so
common in Greek warfare. As the soldiers of the Athenian van rushed
forward too hotly, wishing to complete the rout of the enemy they fell
into disorder, and in this condition they were confronted by a stout
little troop of Boeotian hoplites, who had found their way to Syracuse
earlier in the summer. This unexpected resistance checked the furious
onset of the Athenians, and the Boeotians, pursuing their advantage,
charged in solid phalanx and put them to flight. Once more the tide of
battle had turned against Athens. Restored to confidence by the steady
valour of their allies, the Syracusans closed their ranks, and
advanced in dense masses up the hill. A scene of indescribable horror
and confusion ensued, so that no one was afterwards able to give a
clear account of what had happened. On the narrow neck of land which
forms the western end of Epipolae two great armies were rushing to the
encounter. On one side was the main body of the Athenians, still
ignorant of the defeat of their comrades, and hurrying forward to
share in the victory. On the other side was the whole host of
Syracuse, advancing with deafening shouts to meet them; and in the
middle were the men of Demosthenes, flying in headlong rout before the
conquering Boeotians. In the uncertain light, the fugitives were at
first mistaken for enemies, and many of them perished miserably by the
spears of their own countrymen. On came the Syracusans, bearing down
all before them; but the Athenians, as they strove to escape, were
flung back upon the enemy by fresh bodies of their own men, who were
still thronging by thousands up the northern path of Euryelus. All
semblance of order was now lost in the Athenian army, which was broken
up into detached parties, some flying, some advancing, and shouting
their watchword to all whom they met, so as to learn whether they had
to do with friend or foe. But the Syracusans soon learnt the
watchword, which thus became a means of betraying the Athenians to
their own destruction. To add to the confusion, the Dorian allies of
Athens raised a paean, or war-song, so similar to that of the
Syracusans, that the Athenians fled at their approach supposing them
to be enemies. The grand army of Demosthenes, which had set out with
such high hopes, was now no better than a mob of wild and desperate
men, friend fighting against friend, and citizen against citizen. At
length the whole multitude turned and fled, each man seeking to save
himself as best he could. Some, hard pressed by the enemy, flung
themselves from the cliffs, and were dashed to pieces on the rocks
below; others succeeded in reaching the plain, and found their way
back to the camp of Nicias; while not a few lost their way, and
wandered about the country until the following day, when they were
hunted down and slain by the Syracusan horseman.

Demosthenes had done all that a man could to recover the ground lost
by Nicias, and resume the aggressive against Syracuse. His well-laid
scheme had ended disastrously, and only one course remained,
consistent with public duty and common sense. To waste the blood and
treasure of Athens in Sicily any longer would be suicidal folly. The
Athenians at home were in a state of siege, and needed every man and
every ship for the defence of their own territory, and the maintenance
of their empire in Greece. Sickness and despondency had already
wrought dire havoc among the troops encamped before Syracuse. To
remain was utter ruin, both to themselves and their fellow-citizens.
The sea was still open, and the new armament, with what remained of
the old, would be strong enough to secure their retreat. Let them
embark without delay, turn their backs on the fatal shores of Sicily,
and hoist sail for home.

These arguments were urged by Demosthenes with unanswerable force at a
private meeting of the generals which was held immediately after the
defeat on Epipolae But unhappily for all those most nearly concerned
in the debate, the influence of Nicias was still supreme in the
Athenian camp; and to spur that gloomy trifler into decisive action
was beyond the power even of Demosthenes. Nicias knew that, if he gave
the word to retreat, in a few weeks he would have to stand before the
bar of his countrymen, and give an account of the great trust which he
had betrayed. It would be better, he thought, to perish under the
walls of Syracuse, than to brave that stern tribunal, and read his
doom on those angry, accusing faces. And apart from these selfish
terrors, he was still in communication with his partisans in Syracuse,
who encouraged him to wait for a favourable turn of affairs. Thus
fettered to the spot both by his hopes and his fears, he obstinately
refused to move.

While Demosthenes argued, and Nicias demurred, Gylippus had not been
idle. A day or two after the battle, he once more left Syracuse, and
traversed the whole length of the island, collecting troops on his
way. At Selinus he was joined by the Peloponnesian and Boeotian
soldiers who had sailed from Taenarum early in the spring, and had
just reached that port, after a long and adventurous voyage. With this
welcome addition to his forces, and thousands more who had answered
his call from all parts of Sicily, he returned to Syracuse, and
prepared to put out all his strength in a general assault on the army
and fleet of Athens.

The Athenians had not yet abandoned their lines on the southern side
of Epipolae, and from this position they watched the arrival of the
new army raised by Gylippus, as it defiled down the slope, and poured
through the gates of Syracuse to swell the ranks of their enemies. In
their own camp the state of things was growing worse every day, and
even Nicias now became convinced that to remain any longer would be
sheer madness. With the hearty concurrence of his colleagues, he gave
his vote for immediate departure, and the order was secretly passed
round the camp that every man should hold himself in readiness to go
on board, as soon as the signal was given. It was necessary to proceed
with caution, for if the enemy were informed of their purpose, they
would have to fight their way through the Syracusan fleet. The
preparations were accordingly made with as little noise as possible
and in a short time all was ready for the voyage. Night sank down on
the Athenian camp, but among all that vast multitude no one thought of
sleep, for the whole host was waiting in breathless eagerness for the
signal to embark. Over the eastern waters the full moon was shining,
making a long path of silver and pointing the way to home. But
suddenly a dark shadow touched the outer rim of that gleaming disk,
and crept stealthily on, until the whole face of the moon was veiled
in darkness. A whisper, a murmur, a shudder went round among those
anxious watchers, and before the shadow had passed away, ten thousand
tongues were eagerly discussing the meaning of that mysterious
portent. Most were agreed that it was a warning from heaven,
forbidding their departure until the angry powers had been appeased by
sacrifice and prayer. In the mind of Nicias, enslaved by the grossest
superstition, there was no room for doubt. He was surrounded by
prophets, whose advice he sought on every occasion, and guided by them
he proclaimed that for thrice nine days, the time required for a
complete circuit of the moon, there could be no talk of departing.

But the Athenians were soon engaged in a sterner task than the vain
rites of propitiation and penitential observance. The news of their
intended retreat, and its untoward interruption, so raised the spirits
of the Syracusans, that they resolved to risk another sea-fight, and
after some days spent in training their crews, they sailed out with
seventy-six ships, and offered battle, and Gylippus at the same time
attacked the Athenian lines by land. The Athenians succeeded in
repulsing the assault on their walls, but in the encounter between the
fleets, though they out-numbered the enemy by ten ships, they suffered
a decisive defeat. Eurymedon was slain, and eighteen vessels fell into
the hands of the Syracusans, who put all the crews to the sword.

The pride and ambition of the Syracusans now knew no bounds. Relieved
from all fear for the safety of their city they began to take a
loftier view of the struggle, and to grasp the full compass and
grandeur of the issues involved. It was no mere feud between two rival
states, but a great national conflict, which was to end in the
downfall of a wide-spread usurpation, and the deliverance of a hundred
cities from bondage. The whole naval and military forces of Athens lay
crippled and helpless within their grasp; they would shatter to pieces
the instrument of tyranny, and win an immortal name as the liberators
of all Greece. Their first care was to prevent the escape of the
Athenians, and for this purpose they began to close the mouth of the
Great Harbour by a line of triremes and vessels of burden, anchored
broadside across the channel.


The Athenians were thus caught in a trap, and their only hope of
saving themselves was to force the barrier of the Great Harbour, and
escape by sea, or, failing that, to make their way by land to some
friendly city. As a last sad confession of defeat, they withdrew the
garrison from their walls on Epipolae, and reduced the dimensions of
their camp, confining it to a narrow space of the coast, where the
fleet lay moored. Every vessel which could be kept afloat was prepared
for action, and when the whole force was mustered, out of two great
armaments only a hundred and ten were found fit for service. A small
body of troops was left to guard the camp, and all the rest, except
such as were totally disabled by sickness, were distributed as
fighting-men among the ships. For the countrymen of Phormio had now
reverted to the primitive conditions of naval warfare, in which the
trireme was a mere vehicle for carrying troops, and not, as in the
days of that great captain, the chief weapon of offence. Every foot of
standing-room on the decks was occupied by a crowd of hoplites,
javelin-men, archers, and slingers, and on their prowess the issue of
the battle depended. To lay their vessels aboard the enemy with as
little delay as possible, and leave the rest to the soldiers, was now
the chief object of the Athenian captains; and the better to effect.
this, men were stationed on the prows, armed with grappling-irons, to
hold the attacking trireme fast, and prevent her from backing away
after the first shock of collision.

With hearts full of sad foreboding, the great multitude mustered on
the beach, and waited for the word to embark. On a rising ground,
fronting the camp, the generals; stood grouped in earnest
consultation; then every voice was hushed, as Nicias came forward, and
beckoned with his hand, commanding silence. The form of the general
was bowed with years, and his face lined with pain and sickness, but
in his eye there was an unwonted fire, and his tones rang clear and
full, as he reminded his hearers of the great cause for which they
were to fight, and the mighty interests which hung in the balance that
day. "Men of Athens," he said, "and you, our faithful allies, your
lives, your liberty, and the future of all who are dear to you, are in
your own hands. If you would ever see home again, you must resolve to
conquer fortune, even against her will, like seasoned veterans, inured
to the perils and vicissitudes of war. Hitherto we have generally got
the better of the enemy on land and we are now going to fight a land
battle on the sea. As soon as you come within reach of a Syracusan
vessel, fling your grappling-irons, and hold her fast, until not a man
is left alive to defend her deck. This will be the task of the
soldiers, whom I need not tell to do their duty. And you, seamen of
the Athenian fleet, be not dismayed because we have forsaken our
former tactics, but trust to the strong arms of the fighting men.
Remember, those of you who are not of Attic descent, how long you have
enjoyed the high privileges of Athenian citizens, and the honour
reflected on you by your connection with Athens.

"My last word shall be spoken to you, fellow-citizens, Athenians born
and bred. You know what you have to expect from the Syracusans, if
this last struggle should end in defeat. But consider further what
will be the fate of your friends at home. Their docks are empty, their
walls are stripped of defenders, and if you fail them, Syracuse will
unite with their old enemies, and bear them down. Here, where we
stand, are the army, the fleet, the city, and the great name of
Athens; go, then, and fight as you never fought before, for never yet
had soldier such a prize to win, and such a cause to defend."

When Nicias had concluded his stirring appeal, the embarkation of the
troops began. As the fatal moment drew nearer and nearer, the anxiety
and distress of the Athenian general became unbearable. Feeling that
he had not said enough, he hurried to and fro, addressing each captain
with an agony of supplication, and imploring him by every sacred
name,--his wife, his children, his country, and his country's gods,--
to play a man's part, forgetting all thoughts of self. Having
exhausted every topic of entreaty, and seen the last man on board, he
turned away, still unsatisfied, and addressed himself to the task of
drawing up the troops left under his command for the defence of the
camp. These were disposed along the shore in as long a line as
possible, that they might encourage those fighting on the sea by their
presence, and lend prompt help in case of need. Behind them, every
point of outlook was held by a throng of anxious spectators,--the
sick, the maimed, and the wounded,--every man who had strength to
crawl from his bed, and watch that last desperate struggle for liberty
and home.

And now the Athenian admirals, Demosthenes, Menander, and Euthydemus,
raised the signal, and the great fight began. The foremost ships
succeeded in reaching the mouth of the Great Harbour, and began to
break through the barrier, when the whole Syracusan fleet closed in
upon them on all sides, and forced them back Then the battle became
general, and soon the two fleets were scattered over the whole surface
of the bay in little groups, and each group engaged in a wild and
furious melee. There was no attempt to manoeuvre, but ship encountered
ship; as accident brought them together, and advanced to the attack,
under a shower of javelins and arrows. Then followed the dull crash of
collision, and the fierce rush of the fighting-men, as they
endeavoured to board. Here and there could be seen knots of three or
four triremes, locked together with shattered hulls and broken oars,
while the soldiers on the decks strove for the mastery. Nearly two
hundred triremes, and some forty thousand men, were engaged in that
tumultuous fight; and the thunder of the oars, the crash of colliding
triremes, and the yells of the assailants, raised an uproar so
tremendous that it was impossible to hear the voice of command. All
order and method was lost, yet still they fought on, the Syracusans
with a savage thirst for vengeance, the Athenians with the fury of
despair; and for a long time the issue remained doubtful.

All this scene of havoc and carnage was witnessed by the whole
population of Syracuse, who thronged the walls, or stood in arms along
the shore, and followed every incident with breathless interest. But
above all among the Athenians left behind in the camp excitement was
strained to the point of anguish. Here the view was more restricted,
and each group of spectators had its attention fixed on some one of
the many encounters which were raging in different parts of the bay.
Some who saw their friends conquering, shouted with joy and triumph;
some shrieked in terror, as an Athenian ship went down; and others,
when the combat long wavered, rocked their bodies to and fro in an
agony of suspense. Thus at the same moment every shifting turn of
battle, victory and defeat, panic and rally, flight and pursuit, was
mirrored on those pale faces, and echoed in a thousand mingled cries.

But at length these discordant voices were united in one general note
of horror, as the whole Athenian fleet, or all that was left of it,
was seen making in headlong rout for the upper end of the bay, with
the victorious Syracusans pressing hard behind. Then most of those who
were watching from the shore were seized with uncontrollable terror,
and sought to hide themselves in holes and corners of the camp; while
a few, who were more stout-hearted, waded into the water, to save the
ships, or rushed to defend the walls on the land side. But for the
present the Syracusans were contented with their victory, and after
chasing the fugitive triremes as far as their defences, they wheeled
and rowed back across the Great Harbour, through floating corpses, and
the wrecks of more than seventy vessels. On their arrival at Syracuse
they were hailed with such a burst of enthusiasm as had rarely been
witnessed in any Greek city. The victory, indeed, had been dearly
bought, but it was well worth the cost, and the power of Athens had
sustained a blow from which it could never recover. But among all the
thronging hosts of Syracuse, who now gave themselves up to revel and
rejoicing, there was one man at least who knew that even now the
danger was not yet past. Forty thousand Athenian soldiers were still
encamped within sight of the walls, and if they were allowed to
escape, they might establish themselves in some friendly city, and
begin the war again. All this was strongly felt by Hermocrates, and he
lost no time in imparting his cares and anxieties to the responsible
leaders. The Athenians, he urged, would be almost certain to decamp
during the night: let a strong force be sent out at once from
Syracuse, to occupy all the roads, and cut off their retreat. The
advice was good, but in the present temper of the army it was felt to
be impracticable. The whole city had become a scene of riot and
wassail, and if the order were given to march, it was but too evident
that not a man would obey. Baffled in this direction, the keen-witted
Syracusan hit upon another plan, which he at once proceeded to carry
into effect.

Hermocrates was not mistaken in his conjecture. The beaten and
dispirited Athenians had now but one thought,--to break up their camp
with all despatch, and make their escape by land. They had still sixty
triremes left, and Demosthenes proposed to make one more attempt to
force the entrance of the Great Harbour; but when his suggestion was
made known to the crews, they broke into open mutiny, and flatly
refused to go on board. The generals were therefore compelled to adopt
the only alternative, and it was resolved to set out on that very
night. But Fortune had not yet exhausted her malice against the
hapless Athenians. The order to strike camp had been issued, and the
soldiers were busy preparing for the march, when a party of horsemen
rode up to the Athenian outposts, and hailing the sentinels, said that
they had a message to Nicias from his friends in Syracuse. "Tell him,"
said the spokesman of the party, "That he must not attempt to stir to-
night, for all the roads are held by strong detachments of the
Syracusans. Let him wait until he has organised his forces, for a
hasty and disordered flight is sure to end in disaster."

The message, of course, came from Hermocrates, who had contrived this
trick to delay the departure of the Athenians, until time had been
gained to occupy the passes on their route. That Nicias should have
fallen into the snare is not surprising, but it is less easy to
explain how Demosthenes and the other generals came to be deceived by
so transparent a fraud. Yet such was in fact the case; the insidious
hint was accepted as a piece of friendly advice, and the march was
postponed. For a whole day and night the Athenians still lingered on
the spot, and thus gave ample time for their enemies to draw the net
round them, and block every avenue to safety.

On the third day after the battle, the order was given to march. As
the great army formed into column, the full horror of their situation
came home to every heart. This, then, was the end of those grand
dreams of conquest with which they had sailed to Sicily two years
before! On the heights of Epipolae their walls and their fort was
still standing, a monument of failure and defeat. Each familiar
landmark reminded them of some fallen comrade, or some disastrous
incident in the siege. If they glanced towards the Great Harbour, they
could see the victorious Syracusans towing off the shattered hull of
an Athenian trireme, the last sad remnant of two great armaments. If
they turned their thoughts towards Athens and home, they found no
comfort there; for their beloved city was beset with enemies, and in
themselves, beaten and broken as they were, lay her chief hope of
salvation. The past was all black with calamity, and the future loomed
terrible before them, threatening captivity and death; and the
present, in that last hour of parting, was full of such sights and
sounds of woe as might have stirred pity even in the breasts of their
enemies. Around them, the camp was strewn with the unburied corpses of
brothers, comrades and sons, and thousands more were tossing on the
waves, or flung up on the shores of the bay. And while the neglect of
that sacred duty pressed heavily on their conscience, still more
harrowing were the cries of the sick and wounded, who clung round
their knees, imploring to be taken with them, and when the army began
to move followed with tottering steps, until they sank down exhausted,
calling down the curse of heaven on the retreating host. Such was the
anguish of that moment, that it seemed as if the whole population of
some great city had been driven into exile, and was seeking a new home
in a distant soil.

In this dire extremity, when the strongest spirits were crushed with
misery, one voice was heard, which still spoke of hope. It was the
voice of Nicias, who, when all others faltered, rose to a pitch of
heroism which he had never shown before. Bowed as he was with care,
and wasted by disease, he braced himself with more than human energy,
and moved with light step from rank to rank, exhorting that stricken
multitude in words of power. "Comrades," he said, "even now there is
no need to despair. Others have been saved before now from calamities
yet deeper than ours. You see in what state I am, cast down from the
summit of human prosperity, and condemned, in my age and weakness, to
share the hardships of the humblest soldier among you,--I, who was
ever constant in the service of the gods, and punctual in the
performance of every social duty. Yet have I not lost faith in the
righteousness of heaven, nor should you give up all for lost, if by
any act of yours you have fallen under the scourge of divine
vengeance. There is mercy, as well as justice, among the gods, and we,
in sinking thus low, have become the proper objects of their
compassion. Think too what firm ground of confidence we have, in the
shields and spears of so many thousand warriors. There is no power in
Sicily which can resist us, either to prevent our coming or to shorten
our stay. A few days march will bring us to the country of the
friendly Sicels, who have already received notice of our approach.
Once there, we can defy all attack, and look forward to the time when
we shall see our homes again, and raise up the fallen power of

These and similar exhortations were repeated by Nicias again and
again, as the army moved slowly forwards up the valley of the Anapus,
keeping a westerly direction, towards the interior of the island. The
troops were formed in a hollow oblong, with the baggage animals and
camp-followers in the middle, and advanced in two divisions, Nicias
leading the van, and Demosthenes bringing up the rear. The vigilance
and activity of Nicias never relaxed for a moment. Careless of his
many infirmities and exalted rank, he passed incessantly up and down
the column, chiding the stragglers, and attending to the even trim of
his lines. On reaching the ford of the Anapus, they put to flight a
detachment of the enemy which was stationed there to oppose their
passage, and crossing the river, continued their march. But now the
real difficulties of the retreat began to appear. The Syracusans had
no intention of hazarding a pitched battle, but their horsemen and
light infantry hung upon the flanks of the Athenian army, making
sudden charges, and keeping up a constant discharge of javelins.

At nightfall the Athenians encamped under the shelter of a hill, some
five miles from their starting-point, and setting out at daybreak on
the following day, they pushed on with pain and difficulty, harassed
at every step by the galling attacks of the Syracusan troops.
[Footnote: Thucydides, with characteristic brevity, leaves this to be
inferred from the slowness of their progress.] A march of two miles
and a half brought them to a village, situated on a level plain, and
here they halted, wishing to supply themselves with food, and
replenish their water-vessels; for the country which they had now to
traverse was a desert, many miles in extent. Directly in their line of
route there is a narrow pass, when the road, on entering the hill
country, drops sheer down on either side into a deep ravine, and if
they could once cross this dangerous point they would be within reach
of their allies, the Sicels. But it was too late to proceed further
that day, and while they lay encamped in the village, the Syracusans
hurried on in advance, and blocked the pass by building a wall across
the road. When the Athenians resumed their march next morning, they
were fiercely assailed by the enemy's light horse and foot, who
disputed every inch of ground, and at last compelled them to fall back
on the village where they had encamped the night before. Provisions
were now growing scanty, and every attempt to leave their lines in
search of plunder and forage was baffled by the Syracusan horse.

On the fourth day they broke up their camp early, and by incessant
fighting succeeded in forcing their way as far as the pass. But all
further advance was prevented by the wall, and the dense masses of
infantry posted behind it. In vain the Athenians flung themselves
again and again upon the barrier. The troops stationed on the cliffs
above assailed them with a shower of missiles, and the solid phalanx
of hoplites repulsed every assault. Convinced at last that they were
wasting their strength to no purpose, they desisted, and retiring from
the wall halted at some distance for a brief interval of repose.
During this pause a storm of rain and thunder broke over their heads;
and to the weary and disheartened Athenians it seemed that the very
elements were in league with the enemy against them. But they had
little time to indulge in these melancholy reflections; for while they
were resting, Gylippus stole round to their rear, and prepared to cut
off their retreat by building a second wall across the pass. The news
of this imminent peril roused the Athenians from their stupor, and
they marched back with all speed along the road by which they had
come. A picked body of troops, sent on in advance, scattered the
soldiers of Gylippus, and the whole army then emerged from that death-
trap, and encamped for the night in the open plain.

The next day was spent in a last desperate effort to reach the hill
country. But being now on level ground, they were exposed on all sides
to the attacks of the Syracusan horse, who charged them incessantly,
and slew their men by hundreds, with hardly any loss to themselves.
The hopeless struggle continued until evening, and when the enemy drew
off, they left the Athenians not a mile from the place where they had
passed the previous night.

The original plan of the Athenian generals had been to penetrate the
highlands of Sicily to the west of Syracuse, and then strike across
country, until they reached the southern coast, in the direction of
Gela or Camarina. [Footnote: I have followed Holm, as cited in
Classen's Appendix (Third Edition, 1908).] But after two days'
fighting they had utterly failed to force an entrance into the
mountains. Many of their soldiers were wounded, the whole army was
weakened by famine, and a third attempt, made in such conditions, must
inevitably end in utter disaster. They resolved therefore to change
their route, and march southwards along the level coast country, until
they could reach the interior by following one of the numerous glens
which pierce the hills on this side of Sicily. Having come to this
decision, they caused a great number of fires to be lighted, and then
gave the order for an immediate start, hoping by this means to steal a
march on the enemy. This sudden flight through the darkness, in a
hostile country, with unknown terrors around them, caused something
like a panic in the Athenian army.

Nicias, however, who was still leading the van, contrived to keep his
men together, and made good progress; but the division under
Demosthenes fell into great disorder, and was left far behind. By
daybreak, both divisions [Footnote: See note, p. 242.] were within
sight of the sea, and entering the road which runs north and south
between Syracuse and Helorus, they continued their march towards the
river Cacyparis. Here they intended to turn off into the interior,
with the assistance of the Sicels, whom they expected to meet at the
river. But when they reached the ford of the Cacyparis, they found,
instead of the Sicels, a contingent of Syracusan troops, who were
raising a wall and palisade to block the passage. This obstruction was
overcome without much difficulty, and the whole Athenian army crossed
the river in safety. But the presence of the enemy on this side of
Syracuse was sufficient to deter them from taking the inland route by
the valley of the Cacyparis, and following the advice of their guides,
they kept the main road, and pressed on towards the south.

We must now return for a moment to the Syracusans under Gylippus, who
remained in their camp all night, not far from the pass which they had
so successfully defended. When they found in the morning that the
Athenians had departed, they were loud in their anger against
Gylippus, thinking that he had purposely suffered them to escape. The
tracks of so many thousands left no room for doubt as to the direction
which the fugitives had taken, and full of rage at the supposed
treachery of their leader, the Syracusans set out at once in hot
pursuit. About noon, on the sixth day of the retreat, they overtook
the division of Demosthenes, which had again lagged behind, and was
marching slowly and in disorder separated from the other half of the
army by a distance of six miles. Deprived of all hope of succour from
his colleague, and hemmed in on all sides by implacable enemies,
Demosthenes called a halt, and prepared to make his last stand. But
his men, who from the first had held the post of honour and danger,
were fearfully reduced in numbers, faint with famine, and exhausted by
their long march. Driven to and fro by the incessant charges of the
Syracusan cavalry, they could make no effective resistance, and at
last they huddled pell-mell into a walled enclosure, planted with
olive-trees, and skirted on either side by a road. They were now at
the mercy of the Syracusans. who surrounded the enclosure, and plied
them with javelins, stones, and arrows. After this butchery had
continued for many hours, and the survivors were brought to extremity
by wounds, hunger, and thirst, Gylippus sent a herald, who was the
bearer of a remarkable message. "Let those of you," he said, "who are
natives of the islands subject to Athens, come over to us, and you
shall be free men." The offer was addressed to the Greeks from the
maritime cities of the Aegaean, who might be supposed to be serving
under compulsion, and it speaks volumes for the loyalty and attachment
of these men to Athens that most of them refused to accept their
freedom from the hands of her enemies. At length, however, the whole
army of Demosthenes, which had now dwindled to six thousand men, was
induced to surrender, on condition that none of them should suffer
death by violence, by bonds, or by starvation. At the command of their
captors they gave up the money which they had with them, and the
amount collected was so considerable that it filled the hollows of
four shields. When the capitulation was concluded, Demosthenes, who
had refused to make any terms for himself, drew his sword, and
attempted to take his own life; [Footnote: This interesting fact is
recorded by Plutarch and Pausanias, who copied it from the
contemporary Syracusan historian, Philistus.] but he was prevented
from effecting his purpose, and compelled to take his place in the
mournful procession which was now conducted by a strong guard along
the road to Syracuse.

Meanwhile the vanguard under Nicias, in total ignorance of the fate
which had befallen their comrades, marched steadily forwards, and
crossing the river Erineus, encamped for the night on a neighbouring
hill. Here they were found next morning by Gylippus and the
Syracusans, who informed them that Demosthenes and his men had
surrendered, and called upon them to do the same. Doubting their good
faith, Nicias obtained a truce, while he sent a horseman to ascertain
the facts; and even when he had learnt the truth from his messenger,
he still tried to parley, offering, in the name of the Athenian state,
to defray the whole cost of the war, and to give hostages for payment,
at the rate of an Athenian citizen for each talent, on condition that
he and his men were allowed to go. But the Syracusans were in no mood
to listen to such proposals, even if Nicias had spoken with full
authority from Athens. Bare life they would grant, but no more, and as
the Athenians refused to yield on these terms, they closed in upon
them, and the cruel, hopeless struggle began again, and continued
until evening. The wretched Athenians lay down supperless to snatch a
few hours of rest, intending, when all was quiet, to steal away under
cover of darkness. But when they rose at dead of night, and prepared
to march, a shout from the Syracusan camp warned them that the enemy
were on the alert, and they were compelled to return to their
comfortless bivouac. Three hundred, however, persisted in their
intention, and forcing their way through the Syracusan lines, gained
for themselves a brief respite from capture.

A whole week had now elapsed since the ill-fated army left its
quarters on the shores of the Great Harbour, and a few thousand
starving and weary men were all that remained of that great host. At
dawn on the eighth day Nicias gave the word to march, and they pressed
on eagerly towards the Assinarus, a stream of some size, with high and
precipitous banks, not more than two miles distant from their last
halting-place. They had still some faint hope of making good their
escape, if they could but cross the river. So they fought their way
onwards, through the swarming ranks of the Syracusans, who closed them
in on all sides, and thrust them together into one solid mass. There
was life, there was freedom a little way beyond,--or, if that hope
proved futile, at any rate there was water; and every fibre in their
bodies ached and burned with intolerable thirst. They reached the
river; both banks were already lined by the Syracusan horse, who had
ridden on before, and stood guarding the ford: but there was no
stopping the wild rush of that maddened, desperate multitude. Down the
steep bank they plunged, trampling on one another, and flung
themselves open-mouthed upon the stream, with one thought, one wish,
overpowering every other impulse,--to drink, and then to die. Some
fell upon the spears of their comrades, and perished, others slipped
on the floating baggage, lost their foothold, and were swept away by
the flood. Yet still they poured on, by hundreds and by thousands,
drawn by the same longing, and thrust downwards by the weight of those
behind, until the whole riverbed was filled with a huddled, surging
mob of furious men, who drank, and still drank, or fought with one
another to reach the water. All this time an iron storm of missiles
rained down upon them from the thronging hosts of their enemies on the
banks above, while some, in the midst of their draught, were pierced
by the spears of the Peloponnesians, who followed them into the river,
and slew them at close quarters. The water grew red with blood, and
foul from the trampling of so many feet, but the thirsty multitude
still came crowding in, and drank with avidity of the polluted stream.

For a long time the slaughter raged unchecked, and the river-bed was
choked with heaps of slain. A few, who escaped from the river, were
pursued and cut down by the Syracusan horse. Nicias had held out until
the last moment; but when he perceived that all was lost, his men
being powerless either to fight or fly, he made his way to Gylippus,
and implored him to stop the useless carnage. "I surrender myself," he
said, "to you and the Spartans. Do with me as you please, but put an
end to this butchery of defenceless men." Gylippus gave the necessary
order, and the word was passed round to kill no more, but take captive
those who survived. The order was obeyed, though slowly and with
reluctance, and the work of capture began. But few of those taken in
the river ever found their way into the public gaol, where Demosthenes
was now lying, with the six thousand who had surrendered on the day
before. For, as there had been no regular capitulation, large numbers
of the prisoners were secretly conveyed away by the Syracusans, who
afterwards sold them into slavery for their own profit. As for the
three hundred who had broken out of camp on the previous night, they
were presently brought in by a party of cavalry despatched in pursuit.

When the first transports of joy and triumph were over, an assembly
was called to decide on the fate of the two Athenian generals, and of
those state prisoners, some seven thousand in number, who were the
sole visible remnant of two great armies. Then arose a strange
conflict of motives. The first who put forward his claims was
Gylippus, to whose genius and energy the victorious issue of the
struggle was mainly due. As a reward for his services, he asked that
Nicias and Demosthenes should be left to his disposal, for he wished
to have the honour of carrying home with him these famous captains,
one the greatest friend, the other the greatest enemy of Sparta. But
the general voice of the assembly was strongly against him. Nothing
but the blood of the two principal offenders could satisfy the
vengeance of the Syracusans, and those who had intrigued with Nicias
were anxious to put him out of the way, in fear lest he should betray
them. Moreover the Corinthian allies of Syracuse, who for some reason
had a special grudge against Nicias, demanded his immediate execution.
In vain Hermocrates pleaded the cause of mercy, [Footnote: Plutarch,
_Nicias_, c. 28.] and urged his fellow-citizens to make a
generous use of their victory. Sentence of death was passed, and these
two eminent Athenians, so different in character and achievement, were
united in their end.

Far worse was the doom pronounced on the six thousand men of
Demosthenes, and the thousand more who were brought to Syracuse after
the massacre at the Assinarus. They were condemned to confinement in
the stone quarries, deep pits surrounded by high walls of cliff, under
the south-eastern edge of Epipolae. Penned together in these roofless
dungeons, they were exposed to the fierce heat of the sun by day, and
to the bitter cold of the autumn nights, and having scarcely room to
move, they were unable to preserve common decency, or common
cleanliness. Many died of their wounds, or of the diseases engendered
by exposure, and their bodies were left unburied, a sight of horror
and a source of infection to the survivors. To these frightful
miseries were added a perpetual burning thirst, and the lingering
torture of slow starvation, for each man received as his daily
allowance a poor half pint of water, and a mere pittance of food, just
enough to avoid breaking the letter of the conditions which
Demosthenes had made for his troops. In this state they were left
without relief for ten long weeks; then all except the Athenians
themselves, and their allies from the Greek cities of Sicily and
Italy, were taken out and sold as slaves.


Such was the end of the Sicilian Expedition, which ultimately decided
the issue of the Peloponnesian War. Forsaking the wise counsels of
their greatest statesman, and carried away by the mad sophistry of
Alcibiades, the Athenians had committed themselves, heart and soul, to
a wild game of hazard, in which they had little to win, and everything
to lose. By this act of desperate folly they brought on themselves an
overwhelming disaster, from which it was impossible for them wholly to
recover. With wonderful vitality they rallied from the blow, and
struggled on for nine years more, against the whole power of
Peloponnesus, and their own revolted allies, backed by the influence
and the gold of Persia. They gained great victories, and under prudent
leaders they might still have been saved from the worst consequences
of their defeat in Sicily. But at every favourable crisis they
wantonly flung away the advantage they had gained, and abandoned
themselves to blind guides, who led them further and further on the
road to ruin.

The history of Thucydides ends abruptly in the twenty-first year of
the war, and for an account of the closing scenes we have to go to the
pages of Xenophon. It will be convenient, therefore, to bring our
narrative to a close at the point which we have reached, for any
attempt even to sketch the events of this confused and troubled period
would carry us far beyond the limits of the present volume. And so for
the present we take leave of the Athenians, in the hour of their
decline. Their light is burning dim, and yet darker days are awaiting
them in the future. But they are still great and illustrious, as the
chief guardians of those spiritual treasures which are our choicest
heritage from the past.


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