Infomotions, Inc.A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures. / Various



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Title: A Weekly Journal of Practical Information, Art, Science, Mechanics, Chemistry, and Manufactures.
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December 28, 1867, by Various

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Title: Scientific American, Vol. 17, No. 26 December 28, 1867
       Journal Of Practical Information, Art, Science, Mechanics,
       Chemistry, And Manufactures

Author: Various

Release Date: September, 2005 [EBook #8951]
[Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule]
[This file was first posted on August 29, 2003]

Edition: 10

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII

*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, VOL. 17, NO. 26 ***




Produced by Don Kretz, Juliet Sutherland, and Distributed Proofreaders




[Illustration]




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN




A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS,
CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES.




NEW YORK, DECEMBER 28, 1867.

Vol. XVII.--No. 26. [NEW SERIES.]

$3 per Annum [IN ADVANCE.]


       *       *       *       *       *

Contents: (Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)

  *Improvement in Hulling and Cleansing Hominy

  Nitro Glycerin

  *Hisert's Adjustable Cultivator Tooth

  Remedy for Cold Feet in City Cars

  Getting Your Money Back

  Patent Claims

  Pending Applications for Reissues

  The Last Number of Volume XVII

  Commencement of a New Volume

  A Change at the Patent Office

  Obituary

  How to Make Intelligent Workmen--Go and Do Likewise

  The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN as a Medium of Business

  *Hunt's Improved Steam Packing Piston

  The Iron Clads at Sea

  *Improvement in Hand Drills

  *Improved Method of Securing Cutters on Boring Bars

  Tides and Their Causes

  The Great Hoosac Tunnel

  Horse-hair Snakes--Wonderful Transformation

  Man Proposes, but God Disposes

  Extraordinary Effects of an Earthquake

  Recent American and Foreign Patents

  Answers to Correspondents

  Business and Personal

  Manufacturing, Mining, and Railroad Items

  Patent Office Decision

       *       *       *       *       *




Improvement in Hulling and Cleansing Hominy.


Many of our readers well remember when "hulled corn" was a standing
winter dish. This was corn or maize the kernels of which were denuded
of their "hulls" by the chemical action of alkalies, which, however,
impaired the sweetness of the food. Hominy is corn deprived of the
hulls by mechanical means leaving the corn with all its original flavor
unimpaired. Hominy is a favorite dish throughout the country, but is not
always entirely free from particles of the outer skin of the kernels.
The mill shown in perspective in the engraving is intended to obviate
this objection.

[Illustration: DONALDSON'S PATENT HOMINY MILL.]

The corn is placed in the hopper, A, from which it is fed to the hulling
cylinder contained in the case, B. The hulling machinery is driven by
a belt on the pulley, C, the other end of the shaft of which carries
a pinion which gives motion to the gear wheel, D. This, by means of a
pinion on the shaft of the blower, E, drives the fans of the blower. On
the other, or front end of the shaft which carries the gear, D, is a
bevel gear by which another bevel gear and worm is turned. The worm
rotates the worm gear, F, in two opposite arms of which are slots that
carry pins projecting inwards, which may be moved toward or away from
the center. This gear wheel turns free on the shaft that carries the
pulley, C, and is intended for opening, by means of the pins in the
arms and levers, a cover in the bottom of the hopper and a valve in the
bottom of the hulling cylinder. Coiled or bent springs return these
levers or valves to place when the pin which moves them has passed.

A wrist-pin on the gear, D, forms a crank which is connected to a bar
at the rear end of the sieves, G, pivoted to an arm at H, by which the
sieves have a shaking or reciprocating motion as the machine operates.
The blower drives out the hulls and the motion of the sieves with their
inclined position insure access of the air to every portion of the
hominy.

It will be noticed that the connection of all the parts is absolute. The
motion of the sieves, the speed of the blower, and the action of the
inlet hopper valve and the delivery hulling valve are always exactly
proportioned to the speed of the hulling cylinder, whether fast or slow.
The upper or feed valve opens upward and has a downward projecting lip
that shuts into a recess in its seat which insures security against
leakage from the hopper to the hulling cylinder during the intervals of
its being raised; a great advantage in hominy making, as no grain ought
to get into the batch until that in the cylinder is done.

Patented Oct. 15, 1867, by John Donaldson, who may be addressed for
further information at Rockford, Ill.

       *       *       *       *       *




Nitro-Glycerin.


Professor Doremus of this city was called as a witness at the inquest
upon the bodies of the unfortunate persons killed by the recent
explosion at Bergen, N.J. The Professor having previously analyzed some
of the explosive mixture, testified as follows:--"I have subjected it
to chemical analysis, and find it to correspond to the formula C_{6},
H_{3}, O_{3}, and NO_{5}; it is well made nitro-glycerin; the substance
freezes at about 46; it is made to decompose in a very peculiar way; on
moistening paper with it it burns with rapidity; it does not explode
when red-hot copper is placed in it; we tried it with the most intense
heat--we can produce with a galvanic battery with two hundred cells
holding a gallon and a half each; some nitro-glycerin was placed in a
cup and connected with one of the poles of the battery; through a pencil
of gas carbon the other poles of the battery were connected with the
glycerin, no explosion ensued; but when the point touched the britannia
vessel the nitro-glycerin took fire, a portion burning and the rest
scattering about; this is as severe a test as we can submit it to in the
way of heat under the pressure of the air; we therefore would conclude
that nitro-glycerin carried about exposed cannot explode, even if you
drop a coal of fire into it; if the liquid is confined, or is under
pressure, then an explosion will ensue; if paper be moistened with
it and put on an anvil and a smart blow given with a hammer, a sharp
detonation ensues; if gunpowder or the fulminates of mercury, silver or
gun-cotton be ignited in a vacuum by a galvanic battery, none of them
will explode; if any gas be introduced so as to produce a gentle
pressure during the decomposition, then a rapid evolution of gases will
result; the results of decomposition in a vacuum differ from those under
atmospheric pressure or when they are burnt in a pistol, musket,
a cannon, or in a mine; where we have little or no pressure it is
difficult to get these substances to burn rapidly; nitro-glycerin is
more difficult to explode than powder; in many respects it resembles
gun-cotton which is made in a similar way; if gun-cotton be immersed
in the proto-chloride of iron it turns into common cotton; the
same experiment was tried with nitro-glycerin by mixing it with
proto-chloride of iron, and it reverted into common glycerin; there
are four well known varieties of gun-cotton made by employing acids of
different strengths; they differ in chemical composition and properties,
as well as in their explosive qualities; the late Minister of War in
Austria in 1862 stated to me that he had ordered four hundred cannon for
gun-cotton, and six months after he stated that he had ordered all
the cannon to be changed and adapted to powder, in consequence of
spontaneous combustions; much less is known of nitro-glycerin than of
gun-cotton, and probably several varieties of this article may be formed
as of gun cotton; this would explain cases of spontaneous explosion; if
the nitro-glycerin is not carefully washed to get rid of the acid, a
gradual decomposition will ensue, producing gases, which, if the vessel
be closed, will explode; my opinion is that nitro-glycerin should be
used in the most careful hands; do not think I would put it in the hands
of a common laborer for blasting purposes; it is less dangerous in a
frozen than a liquid state; I think concussion would explode frozen
nitro-glycerin.

       *       *       *       *       *




HISERT'S ADJUSTABLE CULTIVATOR TOOTH.


The object of the device exhibited in the engraving is to allow the
teeth of a cultivator to turn slightly and avoid obstructions, while
they will follow at all times the line of draft, so that in turning the
cultivator there is no risk of breaking the teeth or their shanks, or
of overturning the implement. The cultivator blade, A, may be of any
desired form, and it is secured to the curved shank, B, which is pivoted
by a bolt to the beam, C. On the under or lower side of the beam is an
iron plate, D, having a projecting socket, E, which is the stud or pin
on which the eye of the shank turns. A bolt passing through the socket
and beam holds the shank in place. Farmers will readily perceive the
advantages of this device. It may be applied to any or all of the
different cultivators now in use. Patented Sept 3, 1867, by B.F. Hisert
who may be addressed for rights to make or sell at Norton Hill, Green
Co., N.Y., or address G.W. King, Scoharie, N.Y.

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *




Remedy for Cold Feet in City Cars.


"Riding down town these cold mornings in the horse cars, the unpleasant
sensation of chilled feet reminds us of the plan adopted in France and
other parts of Europe to keep the feet of car passengers warm. This is
accomplished by inserting a flattened iron tube along the bottom of the
car lengthwise in the center, between the rows of seats. This tube is
raised a little above the floor level of the car to afford a rest for
the feet, yet, not enough to make a stumbling block. When the car leaves
the depot this tube is filled with hot water from a boiler kept heated
for the purpose, and this water retains its heat and gives a pleasant
warmth to the feet of the passengers and the car generally, for about
two hours, after which the tube is refilled at a convenient station on
the road. In the case of our city cars this might easily be done, and be
a cheap and exceedingly comfortable improvement."--_Evening Post_.

It should be understood that the French cars are arranged with small
compartments like stage coaches, and the passengers sit face to face,
with the warming tube above described under their feet. One tube
for every six persons. We should be glad, indeed, to see this plan
introduced here. But it is not to be expected that our city railroad
companies will do anything for the comfort of their passsengers, while
without such trouble they continue to reap rich harvests. Very likely
the idea of loading a lot of hot water upon their cars, for passengers
to stand upon, would strike them as a good joke. Their poor, broken
down, spavined horses, could not stand any additional load.

       *       *       *       *       *




Getting Your Money Back.


The French are a curious people and one of the novelties of Parisian
enterprises is a large warehouse, in which are sold, at retail, all
manner of goods, from a diamond necklace to a shoe brush. The purchaser,
having paid the price, receives not only the goods, but a bond for the
whole amount of his purchase money, payable, after thirty years, and
guaranteed by the Credit Foncier and other moneyed corporations. The
prices charged are said to be no greater than in any other retail shops.
This is really eating your cake in order to keep it; the more you
spend the richer you will be; indeed it sets at defiance the whole of
Franklin's code of proverbs, and proves "Poor Richard" a silly fellow.
Imagine Jones lecturing his wife on her economy, and reproaching her for
a spirit of saving, "My dear, if you had bought this camel's hair shawl
thirty years ago, it would now be a source of income to us; if you
had not been so close we should now be wealthy." Smith acquires an
independence by giving his children an expensive education, and sees in
every new dress or costly jewel which his growing daughters wear, a new
mine of wealth for himself. If he can only persuade them to spend money
enough he is sure of a support in his old age.

       *       *       *       *       *

A GIGANTIC BRIDGE.--A suspension bridge is to be erected by M. Oudry,
engineer, over the Straits of Messina, Sicily, from Point Pezzo, on the
Calabrian Coast. It is to consist of four spans of 3,281 feet each,
elevated about 150 feet above high-water level, so that the largest
ships may pass under. The proposed Roebling bridge over the East River,
between New York and Brooklyn, is to have a single span of 1,600 feet.

       *       *       *       *       *

The through mails to the West now go in iron-bound boxes instead of
leathern bags. Each box, tightly packed, contains about eight hundred
letters.

       *       *       *       *       *

The first steam vessel used in Great Britain was called the _Comet_, and
built by Henry Bell in 1812. It was thirty tuns burden.

       *       *       *       *       *




OFFICIAL REPORT OF PATENTS AND CLAIMS

Issued by the United States Patent Office,

FOR THE WEEK ENDING DECEMBER 10, 1867.

_Reported Officially for the Scientific American_


PATENTS ARE GRANTED FOR SEVENTEEN YEARS the following being a schedule
of fees:--

  On filing each Caveat                                         $10
  On filing each application for a Patent, except for a design  $15
  On issuing each original Patent                               $20
  On appeal to Commissioner of Patents                          $20
  On application for Reissue                                    $30
  On application for Extension of Patent                        $50
  On granting the Extension                                     $50
  On filing a Disclaimer                                        $10
  On filing application for Design (three and a half years)     $10
  On filing application for Design (seven years)                $15
  On filing application for Design (fourteen years)             $30

In addition to which there are some small revenue-stamp taxes. Residents
of Canada and Nova Scotia pay $500 on application.

_Pamphlets containing the Patent Laws and full particulars of the mode
of applying for Letters Patent, specifying size of model required,
and much other information useful to Inventors, may be had gratis by
addressing MUNN & CO., Publishers of the Scientific American, New York._

       *       *       *       *       *


71,836.--MACHINE FOR NOTCHING KNITTING NEEDLES.--W. Aiken, Franklin,
N.H.

I claim 1st, The improved machine, substantially as described, for
effecting the several operations of notching, slotting, boring, and
burring a knitting machine needle blank, in the order and manner as
explained.

2d, Also, the combination of one or more vibratory clamps, Y, the cam,
E, and the two burrs or cutters, q r, for forming the notches in the
needle blank such clamp or clamps, cam and cutters being provided with
mechanism for operating them, substantially as described.

3d, Also the combination of one or more vibratory clamps Y, the cam, E,
the two burrs or cutter wheels, q r, and the slotting burr or cutters,
s, provided with mechanism for operating them substantially as
explained,

4th, Also, the combination of one or more rotary clamps, Y, the cam,
E, the burrs or cutter wheels, q r s, and the drill, u, provided with
mechanism for operating them, substantially as set forth.

5th, Also, the combination of one or more vibrating clamps, the burring
cutter, t, the drill, u, and the slotting cutter, s, arranged and
provided with mechanism for operating, substantially as explained.


71,837.--TEA AND COFFEE POT.--Alfred Arnold, Tenafly, N.J.

I claim 1st, In a tea or coffee boiler, the base, D, so constructed and
adapted, relatively to the other parts, that an oscillating motion will
be imparted to the vessel by process of ebullition, substantially as
shown and described.

2d, In combination with the base or heating-surface, D, the chambers, b
b', and diaphragm, E, or their equivalents, substantially as arranged
and described, and for the purposes shown.


71,838.--TOOL FOR SIZING LAMP CHIMNEYS.--Lewis J. Atwood, (assignor to
himself and Holmes, Booth and Haydens), Waterbury, Conn.

I claim the adjustable sizing and shaping-jaws employed, substantially
as specified, in the manufacture of glass lamp chimneys and similar
articles.


71,839.--MODE OF PREVENTING THE UNTWISTING OF THE ENDS OF WIRE ROPE
BANDS.--Arthur Barbarin, New Orleans, La.

I claim a wire rope band, in which the ends of the several wires
composing the same are soldered together, substantially as herein
described and shown in the accompanying drawings, and for the purposes
set forth.


71,840.--SPRING-BED BOTTOM.--Alonzo B. Baty, Binghamton, N.Y.

I claim the construction and application of the bracket, B, in
combination with the bail or pendant, C, the springs, D D, transverse
pieces, F F, and slats, A A, all being constructed substantially as
herein described and represented, for the purpose set forth.


71,841.--HORSE-RAKE.--H.L. Beach, Montrose, Pa., assignor to Beach Wheel
Horse-Rake Manufacturing Company, N.Y.

I claim 1st, The teeth heads, N, constructed and operating substantially
as described.

2d, In combination with the teeth heads, N, the teeth, Q, substantially
as described.

3d, The arms, K, and teeth heads, N, combined and operating
substantially as set forth.

4th, The cleaners, M, teeth heads, N, and teeth, Q, when combined for
the purposes indicated.

5th, The blocks, f, pins, c, sliding bar, E, and lever, G, when combined
for the purposes set forth.

6th, The hooks, i i, and pins, j, secured in the axle for the purpose
shown.

7th, The washers, P, combined with the teeth and teeth heads,
substantially as and for the purpose described.


71,842.--APPARATUS FOR LIGHTING STREET GAS-LAMPS.--J. W. Beard, St.
Johns, New Brunswick.

I claim the combination of the hook, F, and the perforated cap, E, with
the lamp, D', to be affixed on a pole or staff, as set forth.

Also, the combination of the curved or hooked arms, c c, with the key,
k, of the cock of the burner, and their arrangement with respect, to the
opening in the bottom of the lantern, as explained.

Also, the combination of the socket tube, e, with the lamp, D', its
hook, F, and perforated cap, E.

Also the combination of the receiving tube, f, and bayonet connection,
g, with the socket tube, e, the lamp, D', its hook and perforated cap,
as described.


71,843.--CALIPER AND T-SQUARE.--Joseph Bennor, Philadelphia, Pa.

I claim the rule, a, stand, c, slide, m, legs, p and q, marker, u,
cutter, w, with their several described appendages, all combined in the
manner and for the purpose substantially as shown and described.


71,844.--REFRIGERATOR.--Ferdinand Borchard, Detroit, Mich.

I claim 1st, A refrigerator which is provided with movable racks, H,
within cooling chambers which are arranged beneath an ice chamber,
B, constructed with inclined walls, a a a, a drip pan, D, and an
ice-supporting rack, c, substantially as and for the purposes described.

2d, Providing the movable racks, with sliding brackets, I, which are so
applied as to serve as supports for the outer ends of the racks when
drawn partially out of their respective apartments, substantially as
described.


71,845.--CONSTRUCTION OF METAL SALVERS.--George Brabrook, (assignor to
Reed and Barton), Taunton, Mass.

I claim the arrangement and combination of the metallic ring and cap
molding together, and with the waiter or salver, in manner substantially
as and for the purpose specified.

Also, as a new or improved manufacture, a waiter or salver of britannia
metal, having a metallic strengthening-ring and cap molding combined and
arranged with its body in manner as specified.


71,846.--MANUFACTURE OF SHOES, ETC.--M.L. Brett, Warren, Ohio.

I claim the construction of a seamless shoe, etc., by felting, in the
manner set forth, as a new article of manufacture.


71,847.--CONSTRUCTION OF SCOOPS.--Theo. C. Bromley, Fort Howard, Wis.

I claim the cone-shaped back and the circular raised brace.


71,848.--WATER-RESERVOIR FOR EXTENSION-TOP STOVE.--Chas. H. Buck, St
Louis, Mo.

I claim 1st, the boiler, D, constructed with a depression in its rear
side, in combination with a stove made with the extended top, A, and
with a stovepipe, C, which is entirely independent of the boiler, but
still is partly enclosed by the boiler, in the manner and for the
purpose described.

2d, The boiler, D. with its depression in its rear side made wholly
independent of the pipe, C, but capable of enclosing a portion of said
pipe, and of being removed without disturbing the pipe, as herein
described and shown.


71,849.--JOURNAL-BOX.--T.F. Burgess, Lowell, Mass.

I claim the drips, e e, and conducting holes, d d, in combination with
the recesses, b b, when arranged to operate substantially as described
and for the purposes fully set forth.


71,850.--HAY ELEVATOR.--E.H. Carpenter, Dexter, Mich.

I claim 1st, In combination with a cable, A, frame, F, wheels, G,
sheave, E, and rope, C, the disengaging device, consisting of a collar,
M, stop, L, and vertical catch, K, enclosing the cable, A, and rope, C,
and operated substantially as described.

2d, The combination of the frame, F, rope, C, collar, M, stop, L, catch,
K, and valves, H, cams, I, and lever, l', said parts being constructed
and the whole arranged substantially as set forth.


71,831.--STEAM GENERATOR.--C.E. Case, Xenia, Ohio.

I claim the metal cup, G, constructed and arranged substantially upon
the principle and in the manner herein set forth.


71,852.--LOOM FOR WEAVING PALM-LEAF, ETC.--Geo. W. Chandler, (assignor
to himself and Lysander F. Thompson), Fitchburg, Mass.

I claim 1st, The hinged holder, G, substantially as and for the purposes
set forth.

2d, The combination of the hinged fingers, c c, with the ribs, b b b,
substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

3d, The combination of the adjustable weight, G', with the bottom of the
holder, for the purposes set forth.

4th, The combination with the hinged fingers, c c, of the hinged
holding-piece, G", substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

5th, The fingered stop or guard piece, h', with the holder, G
substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

6th, The combination, with the stand or plate, h, of the grooved hinged
flap, i, for supporting the guard or stop piece, h'.

7th, The combination with the ribbed holder, G, of the guide piece, s,
as and for the purposes set forth.

The combination of the feed arm, m, with the slide-piece, n, and lever,
26, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

9th, the combination with lever, 26, of the adjustable ears, 27 27, for
the purposes stated.

10, The combination with slide piece, n, and table, L, of the connecting
piece, 21, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

11th, The combination with the slotted slide piece, M", and connecting
piece, 21, of the double shouldered bolts, 18 18, substantially as and
for the purposes set forth.

12th, The combination with the curved lever, M, and the slide piece, M",
of the bent levers, M' M', substantially as and for the purposes set
forth.

13th, The combination with the arm, 70, and notched bar, w, of the
sping-pawl, t, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

14th, Mechanism for separating the pieces of material to be fed,
constructed and combined for operation substantially as described, and
as shown in fig. 7, of the accompanying drawings.

15th, The combination with a loom for weaving palm-leaf and other cloth,
of a push-finger, 41, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

16th, The combination with the stem of the push finger, 41, of
the catch-piece, 42, lever, 44, and operating springs, 43 and 46,
substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

17th, The combination with the slide, n, of the projection or dog, 47,
for releasing lever, 46, from the catch-piece, 42, as set forth.

18th, The combination with the hinged table, L, of the mechanism for
separating and feeding the material, substantially as set forth.

19th, The combination with the stationary bed, L", and stand, 72, of the
hinged table, L, and catch, o, substantially as set forth.

20th, The combination and relative arrangement with the table, L, bed,
L", and holder, G, of the evener knives, 12 and 14, as shown and set
forth.

21st, The combination with the bridge piece, 50, of the hinged dog, 52,
and bell-spring, 53, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

22d, The combination and relative arrangement of mechanism,
substantially such as is shown and described for communicating the
proper motions to the feed arms, S, from lever, K.

23d, The combination with a loom for weaving palm-leaf of mechanism
substantially such as shown and described for stopping the loom, as set
forth.


71,853.--PITMAN COUPLING.--G. W. Clark, Manchester, Ind.

I claim the arrangement of forked pitman, A G G', bolt, H, screw shanked
hook, D, and nuts, F F', or their equivalents, substantially as and for
the purpose set forth.


71,854.--MACHINE FOR MAKING LEVEES.--Ernest Comeaux, Bayou Goula, La.

I claim 1st, The endless apron in combination with the hinged adjustable
frame, K, operating as described for elevating the earth used in making
levees, in the manner and for the purpose set forth.

2d, The combination of the endless apron, F, chains, H, slats, J, and
adjustable supporting-frame, K, and standards, L, as herein described
for the purpose set forth.

3d, The above in combination with the spur-wheels, C and B, and the
endless chain, D, as herein described for the purpose set forth.


72,855.--CONSTRUCTION OF ROOF.--M. De K. Cutts, Richmond, Va.

I claim 1st, A tobacco drying house which is provided with a sectional
hinged roof in combination with frames, A, which support the tobacco
leaves while being dried and cured substantially as described,

2d, The supporting posts, G, in combination with hinged sections, B B',
elevating devices, and supporting frames, constructed and arranged in
such manner that the leaves of tobacco upon said frames can be exposed
to the action of the sun and air at pleasure substantially as described.


71,856.--CAR BRAKE.--Shadrach Davis, Dartmouth, Mass.

I claim a car brake, consisting of the broad connecting bar, C1, which
rests on pivots, F1, working in slots, and has the brake-shoes movable
fixed to it, the whole combined as described, operated by the bar,
I2, and screw rod, H2, and by contact with the wheels as and for the
purposes set forth.


71,857.--FEEDER FOR GRAIN MILL.--Michael Decamp, South Bend, Ind.

I claim 1st, The combination of the device, D, bridge ring-bearing, a b,
feeder, c, and collar, e, substantially as described,

2d, The toothed eccentric, J, in combination with lever, G, and collar,
e, substantially as described.


71,858.--PAINTER'S EASEL.--Paul Deschause, New York city.

I claim 1st, The extensible legs, consisting of the hinged legs, a, and
their extension sliding parts, b, made and arranged substantially as
described.

2d, Also the combination of the legs with the toggle-brace, c c,
substantially as described.

3d, Also, the extensible rest, composed of the fixed part, e, and the
sliding part, d, in combination with the fixed and movable clamps, f g,
substantially as described.


71,859.--GUIDE FOR SAW IN SAW MILLS.--Hiram P. Dillingham, Norwalk,
Ohio.

I claim the plates, A and A', guides, B B', and C and C', the whole
constructed substantially as described, and operating as and for the
purposes set forth.


71,860.--PRODUCING CALCIUM MAGNESIUM LIGHT.--Chas. A. Dresser, New York
city. George A. Dresser, Trustee;

I claim the preparation of dolomite, native or artificial substantially
as and for the purpose described.


71,861.--CALENDAR ATTACHMENT TO INKSTAND.--Sam'l. R. Dummer, New York
city.

I claim 1st, An inkstand, etc., constructed with a series of shoulders
or rests, B, whether one or more and one above another, in combination
with the rings, C, and plate or frame, D, or their respective
equivalents substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, In combination with the above, the two tubes, H M, and plunger, O,
as herein set forth for the purpose specified.


71,862.--PLANING MACHINE FOR WOOD.--G. B. Durkee and W. H. Murray,
(assignor to themselves and I. T. Safford), Chicago, Ill.

We claim 1st, The employment of two separately adjustable cutter heads
in a single machine, so that the axis of one cutter may be at the angle
of the other at a different angle, and both cutters operating at the
same time upon the same board, substantially as specified.

2d, The crossheads, C, cutter-heads, E, screws, D and G, in combination
with the standards, B, constructed and operating substantially as
specified.


71,863.--SELF-ADJUSTING RELAY MAGNET.--J. M. Fairchild, (assignor to
himself, J. K. Bundy, and J. M. Townsend), New Haven, Ct.

I claim the arrangement of the head, C, combined with the magnet so
as to be self-adjusting in relation to the armature, substantially as
herein set forth.


71,864.--CORN CAKE CUTTER.--Leonard Felker, Tewksbury, Mass.

I claim the rotating cylinder i, with its cutters, i'i', in combination
with the rotating cylinder, f, with the stationary knives, f'f', and
adjustable finishers, g g, when arranged to operate substantially as
described and set

2d, The pressure rotating cylinder, f, with stationary knives, f'f', and
adjustable finishers, g g, substantially as described and set forth.

3d, The clearer, m, in combination with the rotating cutters, i'i', as
described.

4th, The adjustable stands, d d, and lever, p, in combination with the
table, b', and weight, o, when arranged to operate substantially as
described.


71,865.--MEASURING FAUCET.--Elisha Fitzgerald, N. Y. city.

I claim the combination of a four way cock with a receptacle having a
movable partition operated by the water, substantially as described,
for the purpose of limiting and determining the amount of water to be
discharged, as specified.

Also, in combination with the above, the dial and pointer, to indicate
the amount of water discharged, as described.


71,866.--TWEER.--Charles C. Forncrook, Hermitage, N. Y.

I claim the combination of the valve, d, adjustable bridge, g, chamber,
B, and tweer, A, arranged and operating substantially in the manner and
for the purpose set forth.


71,867.--COTTON TIE.--John H. Fraley, New Orleans, La.

I claim the combination of the buckles, A and B, when they are
constructed and united as described, with the ends of hoop iron, when
bent into the form of hooks, as and for the purpose set forth.


71,868.--BRIDGE.--John Glass, George P. Schneider, and William B.
Rezner, Cleveland. Ohio.

We claim, 1st, The tubular flanged sections, A B, as arranged in
combination with the diaphragm, C, for the purpose and in the manner
substantially as set forth.

2d, The tubular arch, as constructed, with sections, A B C, in
combination with the foot block, I, provided with a flange or boss, K,
when arranged in the manner as and for the purpose set forth.


71,869.--OIL CUP.--John H. Gomer, New York city.

I claim the combination of the cap, B, with its screw flange, b, and
case, A, provided with suitable tube, C, in the manner and for the
purpose herein specified.


71,870.--PEAT MACHINE.--George D. Goodrich, Chicago, Ill.

I claim, 1st, The adjustable bearing for the shaft, B, composed of
two or more segments, r, constructed and operating substantially as
described.

2d, The separate troughs, I, located below the tempering mill, when
more than one expelling screw is employed, so as to give each screw a
separate and independent action, substantially as specified.

3d, The cutter or knife, F, for cutting the material into suitable
lengths in a peat machine having a continuous discharge from the
expelling mill, substantially as specified.

4th, Closing the mouth of the die by an adjustable intermittent stop or
knife, when so arranged that the movements can be varied with respect to
the movements of the other operating parts of the machine, substantially
as specified.

5th, The double slotted plate or wheel, K, provided with the sockets, h,
and pins, i, for the purpose of adjusting the movements of the cutter
stop or knife, F, substantially as described.

6th, The combination of the separate troughs, I, expelling screws, H,
and cutter stop, F, with a tempering mill, substantially as specified.


71,871.--RATCHET BED KEY.--William M. Gray, Brooklyn, N. Y.

I claim the bed key constructed and arranged as above described, as a
new article of manufacture.


71,872.--MODE OF PREVENTING THE EXPLOSION OF LAMPS.--Cyrus P. Grosvenor,
McGrawville, N.Y.

I claim the application to lamps or heaters, using coal oils, alcohol,
or other explosive substances, of such a burner as will supply the
vacuum made in the reservoir by the combustion with nitrogen gas, the
burner being constructed as herein described, or in any other form
substantially the same, and which will produce the intended effect.


71,873.--CAR-AXLE BOX.--Joseph Harris, Dorchester, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The roller guides, i, with detached radial joints,
substantially as described.

2d, In combination with the system of rollers and box, g, the
construction of the axle, with its extension, e, and shoulder, d, as and
for the purpose set forth.


71,874.--WASHING MACHINE.--Job H. Haskell (assignor to himself and
Horace Taplin), Lowell, Mass.

I claim the general construction and combination of all the parts,
consisting of the cylinder, G, series of yielding rollers, a, roller
stands, k, spring bars, f, levers or arms, m, spring bar, D, transverse
bar, R, rod, O, and the box, the whole arranged to operate substantially
as and for the purpose set forth.


71,875.--HORSE RAKE.--John V. Hawkey (assignor to himself and Israel T.
Sheffler), Greensburg, Pa.

I claim, 1st, A rake shaft or head, arranged outside of the periphery of
the wheels, projecting laterally beyond them, and so jointed that its
sections can be folded vertically upon the carrying frame without
detaching any of the parts of the rake, substantially as described.

2d, An axially turning rake-shaft, so jointed that its outer sections
can be folded inwards without detaching any of its parts.

3d, The combination of the inner fixed section of the rake shaft with
the outer vertically folding sections, projecting beyond the wheels,
substantially as and for the purpose described.

4th, The combination, substantially as described, with a jointed rake
shaft, of hinges allowing the sections to fold vertically, and a locking
device to hold them rigidly when unfolded.

5th, The arrangement as described, of the top pins, m, on the folding
sections, to secure them in position when folded up.

6th, The combination in a horse rake, of an axially turning folding rake
shaft, with a rock shaft controlled by a handle on the driver's platform
to raise and lower the teeth.

7th, The arrangement, in a horse rake, of an axially turning jointed
rake shaft, mounted on the rear end of the thills, and supported on two
wheels mounted on independent axles.


71,876.--APPARATUS FOR DRAINING SUGAR.--James B. Hill, Allegheny City,
Pa.

I claim the combination and arrangement of the hopper, C, provided with
valve, d, case, B, screen, R, distributing drum, P, distributor, f,
provided with valve, i, scraper, S, chute h, and pipe, t, the whole
being constructed, arranged, and operating substantially in the manner
herein described, and for the purpose set forth.


71,877.--CENTRIFUGAL MACHINE FOR DRAINING SUGAR.--James B. Hill,
Allegheny City, Pa.

I claim the use of a fan when used in combination with the shield,
m, distributor, f, screen, R, case, B, hopper, C, and scraper, S,
constructed, arranged, and operating, substantially in the manner herein
described, and for the purpose set forth.


71,878.--CARD HOLDER.--Samuel L. Hill, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim, in combination with a back or support, the use or employment
of any number of strips when the same shall be constructed and combined
substantially as shown for the purpose specified.


71,879.--FISHING LINE SWIVEL.--Martin Hiltz, Gloucester, Mass.

I claim the improved swivel, as made with the screw bolt, D, and the nut
chamber, e, arranged and combined, as explained, with the parts, A B C,
constructed and applied together as specified.


61,880.--IMPLEMENT FOR LIGHTING GAS.--Thomas W. Houchin, Morrisania,
N.Y.

I claim, 1st, Placing a receiver, A, at the lower end of a tube, B, for
the purposes fully described.

2d, The combination of a receiver, A, tubes, B, and wick chamber, C,
when the same shall be constructed substantially as described, for the
purposes set forth.


71,881.--CORN-POPPER.--J. W. Howe, and J. K. Barton, Worcester, Mass.

We claim, 1st, The combination of the twisted wires, a a a' a', with
the handle, B, and receptacle, A, substantially as and for the purposes
described.

2d, The combination of the wires, a' a', with handle, B, receptacle, A,
and cover of the same, as and for the purposes described.

3d, The combination of the wires, a a a' a', with each other,
receptacle, A, and cover of same, as shown and described.


71,882.--COPY BOOK.--Benj. G. Howes, Worcester, Mass.

I claim the copy book, constructed substantially as described.


71,883.--PETROLEUM GAS BURNER.--G. A. Hyver, New Orleans, La.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the pipe, D, when filled with finely
broken charcoal, with the concentric or annular chamber, F, the latter
being provided with pipes, b, extending upwardly into the cup furnace or
heat retort, H, as and for the purpose substantially as set forth.

2d, The combination of the pipe, D, when filled with finely broken
charcoal, the concentric or annular chamber, F, pipes, b, and pipe, d,
with the gas pipe, c, when the latter is provided with the valve, J, for
regulating the flow of gas, as and for the purpose described.

3d, The gas pipe, c, when constructed and arranged with relation to the
chamber, F, and one of the pipes, b, as described, in combination with
the valve, J, for the purpose set forth.

4th, The combination of the concentric or annular chamber, F, and
pipes, b, with the cup furnace or heat retort, H, when the latter is
constructed as described, and shown upon the drawings, and occupies the
relation to the former herein set forth, for the purpose set forth.

5th, The pipe, d, in combination with one of the pipes, b, for the
purpose of affording a light for illuminating purposes, as herein
described.


71,884.--SHAFT COUPLING.--John Keesey, Chester, Pa.

I claim the combination of the box, hub, or shell, B, reverse
wedge-shaped blocks, C C', and bolts, D D', with their nuts, E E', or
the equivalents of these devices, arranged for operation together,
substantially as and for the purposes herein set forth.


71,885.--CLAMP SCREW.--Charles L Kingsley (assignor to Charles Parker),
Meriden, Conn.

I claim the nut, E, formed with the seats, F, and the lever, G, formed
with the trunnions, I, so as to be combined and operate in the manner
and for the purpose described.


71,886.--MACHINE FOR BENDING WOOD.--Joseph Klahr, Bernville, assignor to
himself, W.R. Weand, C.H. Zink, and James J. Wagenhorst, Philadelphia,
Pa.

I claim, 1st, The formers, F F', with their arms, p p', levers, k k',
and catches, q, or their equivalents, in combination with the clamps, G,
the whole being constructed and operating substantially as and for the
purpose described.

2d, The combination of the above, the weighted levers, D D', and the
links, l.

3d, The adjustable plates, B B', with their shoulders, c, operating in
combination with the formers, and their projections, q, substantially as
and for the purpose described.


71,887.--OIL CAN.--George Alvan Knowlton, Natick, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The stoppers, D and I, retracted from their respective
orifices by a single trigger, H h', and provided with two springs, G J,
to insure the effective closure of both said orifices, substantially as
described.

2d, In a valved oil can, constructed as above specified, the arrangement
of the trigger, H h', obliquely on the upper side of the handle, A', as
and for the purpose set forth.


71,888.--FENCE.--Ira Lackey, Lebanon, Ohio.

I claim the combination of the sills, A, braces, C, and hooks or loops,
i j, with the grooved posts, a c, of the panels, when the parts are
constructed and arranged to form a detachable and portable fence, in the
manner and for the purpose specified.


71,889.--BUTTER DISH.--Nathan Lawrence (assignor to Reed and Barton),
Taunton, Mass.

I claim the arrangement and combination of the friction spring with the
cover and vase, the journal and the bearing to extend entirely around
the said journal, as specified.


71,890.--HARVESTER RAKE.--Edward J. Leyburn, Lexington, Va.

I claim, 1st, Connecting the rake arm, E', to a loose collar, c, on reel
shaft, B, by means of a pivot, d', carrying an arm, f, in combination
with the jointed connecting rod, h, substantially as described.

2d, The arresting plate, G2, in combination with the rake pivot,
d', arm, f, and collar, c, and connecting rod, h, substantially as
described.

3d, The cam plate, G G1, in combination with the rake pivot, d', loose
collar, c, and connecting rod, h, substantially as described.

4th, The anti-friction roller, i, applied to the arm, f, of the rake
pivot, in combination with the arresting plate, G2, substantially as
described.

5th, Connecting the arm, f, which is in the rake pivot, d, to the reel
shaft or reel arm thereof, by means of a rod, h, and universal joint,
h', substantially as described.

6th, The application of a weight, g, to an arm, f, of the rake pivot,
when said arm is upon a loose collar, c, and arranged to operate
substantially as described.


71,891.--WASHING MACHINE.--Reuben Lighthall, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim the detachable holder, A, with the set screw, B, in combination
with the slotted lever, D, and the rollers, F F', and the cam, H, as and
for the purpose set forth.


71,892.--PROCESS FOR RENDERING PAPER, CLOTH, AND THE LIKE, FIRE AND
WATER PROOF.--Robert O. Lowrey, Salem, N.Y.

I claim the process, substantially as herein described, of treating
fibrous and other materials for rendering them fire and water proof.


71,893.--COMPOSITION OF MATTER FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF WATER PROOF PAPER
AND OTHER ARTICLES.--Robert O. Lowrey, Salem, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, The new compound or composition of matter, produced by the
treatment of vegetable fiber, substantially as described.

2d, The process herein described of treating vegetable fiber for
producing a new compound, substantially as set forth.


71,894.--STREET SWEEPER.--Robert Y. McConnell and Geo. Pringle,
Rochester, N.Y.

We claim, 1st, The pinions, a, of the counter shaft, s, combined with
carrier wheels, W, of street sweepers, by suitable sliding clutches, c,
all arranged substantially as shown and described, and for the purpose
of equalizing the strength and efficiency of those portions of the
machine.

2d, The broom shaft, b, and the counter shaft, s, arranged substantially
as shown, being held by means of the adjustable rigid straps, y, for the
purposes set forth.

3d, The spring clutches, c, governed by means of the hand lever, D,
connecting rod, f, lever, k, and the counter inclined planes, m, all
arranged and operating substantially in the manner and for the purposes
set forth.


71,895.--UTERINE SUPPORTER.--Frederick Meriwether, Tamola, Miss.

I claim the combination, as described, of the spring, E, composed of
copper or other soft metal, with the pessary, for the purposes set
forth.

Also, the combination, substantially as described, of the pelvic spring,
the vertically adjustable bar and set screw, the soft metal spring, E,
the pessary pillar, F, and the pessary, for the purposes specified.


71,896.--RAILROAD SIGNAL.--Abraham S. Miller (assignor to himself, J.P.
James, and Charles Folsom), Zanesfield, Ohio.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the trigger, E, and rock shaft, F
f, with a railroad signal and suitable intermediate connections, so
arranged that the contact of the train with said trigger shall throw the
signal into its conspicuous position, substantially as described.

2d, The arrangement of the trigger, E, rock shaft, F f, arm, H, link, I,
lever, G, wire, J, eccentric lever, L, catch, M, and shaft, B, signal,
A, and weight, B', or its equivalent (P P1 P2 Q), substantially as and
for the purpose specified.

3d, The arrangement of the trigger, E', rock shaft, F' f', arm, H',
and rod or other suitable connection, N, all arranged and operating
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

4th, The combination, with the disk or signal, A, of the reflecting
plate, a substantially as and for the object stated.


71,897.--SPINNING WHEEL.--Henry Miller, Ronald Township, Mich.

I claim the arrangement of the adjustable and hinged rods and levers,
constructed as herein described, for connecting the rocking treadle with
the hinged spindle arm, so that the operator, by the foot, may move the
spindle arm out or in at pleasure, as set forth and represented.


71,898.--BOOTS AND SHOES.--Charles Mole, Pembroke Terrace, Regent's
Park, London, England.

I claim the manufacture of a movable boot heel in two parts, to be
adjusted in different positions by means of a single central projection
taking into a single slot hole or countersunk part, and secured in
position by means of a central screw or pin, whether such projection and
hole or countersunk part be square or many sided, and no matter what the
shape of these sides, so that the shape of the projection and that of
the hole which is to receive it be identical, the whole substantially as
hereinbefore described and illustrated on the annexed sheet of drawing.


71,899.--WATER COOLER AND REFRIGERTOR.--Alfred Murden and Henry L.
Cooper (assignors to themselves and Fiancis Warner), New Haven, Conn.

We claim the arrangement of the cylinder, A, and outer cylinder, C, so
as to form a water space, D, and combined with covers, E and G, so as to
form a chamber, F, above the water space, D and ice cylinder, A, so that
the cover, E, forms the bottom of and the cover, G, the top of the said
chamber, in the manner and for the purpose herein set forth.


71,900.--CONSTRUCTION OF STAMPED SHEET METAL KETTLES.--Frederic G.
Niedringhaus and William F. Niedringhaus, St. Louis, Mo.

We claim the spout of a kettle when formed by pressure from the bottom
and top plate of the kettle, when constructed substantially as shown and
specified.


71,901.--BREAST STRAP SLIDE.--O.B. North (assignor to O.B. North & Co.),
New Haven, Conn.

I claim, 1st, The arrangement of the hinged tongue, E, upon the plate,
A, so as to cover the ring, substantially in the manner herein set
forth.

2d, Constructing the hook or projection, D, upon the inside of the
plate, by forming an opening, d, through the plate, substantially as and
for the purpose herein set forth.


71,902.--SNOW PLOW.--Abel Nutting, Quincy, Mass

I claim the rotary plow, arranged to operate substantially as set forth.

Also, in combination with such a plow, inclines, or shares, fixed, with
respect to the frame by which they are supported, substantially as
described.


71,903.--STEAM GENERATOR.--Isaac R. Oakford, Philadelphia. Pa.

I claim a steam generator, composed of a series of cylindrical boilers,
of round ends, provided with openings for steam and water, and arranged
in a vertical and inclined position, in the manner and for the purpose
above set forth and described.


71,904.--CASTER FOR FURNITURE.--P.B. O'Brien and Wm. E. Sparks, New
Haven, Conn., assignors to P.B. O'Brien.

We claim the arrangement of the spring, a, in the spindle, B,
and combined with the socket, C, so as to operate in the manner
substantially as described.


71,905.--RAILWAY FROG.--Staats N. Park, Bloomsbury, N.J.

I claim, 1st, So constructing the frogs of railways that the frog plate
and the rail or track sections, guard rails, and frog point are separate
from each other, and so that the rail sections and guard rails and frog
point can be inserted in or attached to and detached from the frog
plate, for the uses and purposes set forth.

2d, So constructing the frogs of railways or the frog plate, that the
track rails of any railway can be extended upon and combined with such
frog plate to form the track or rail section of the frog, substantially
as and for the purposes set forth.


71,906.--HARVESTER.--Henry W. Pell, Rome, N.Y.

I claim. 1st, The carriage, C, supported at both ends on wheels or
rollers, cc, running on a guide way, S, substantially as and for the
purposes specified.

2d, The rib or groove joint between the friction rollers and guideway,
to sustain the lateral pressure, as set forth.

3d, The clevis pin or whiffletree bolt, B, attached to the center of the
carriage, C.

4th, The independent attachment of the draught clevis to the whiffletree
bolt to permit the independent oscillation of the whiffletree without
affecting the clevis.


71,907.--MEDICAL COMPOUND.--M. Perl, New Orleans, La.

I claim the medical compound herein described, when made by the process
and composed of the ingredients herein specified, in the proportions
stated, for the purpose set forth.


71,908.--MACHINERY FOR SHAVING AND SLOTTING SCREWS.--Elijah S. Pierce,
Hartford, Conn.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the cam, M, the sliding frame, Y, the
spindle, A, the pulley, P, the clamp, C, the spring, S, and the rest, R,
or their equivalents, with a shaving tool, and one or more nicking saws,
substantially as herein specified.

2d, The combination of the sliding frame, Y, the spindle, A, and
the clamping device, C, with a shaving tool and one or more saws,
substantially as described, for the purpose of shaving, nicking, and
turning screw blanks or other similar articles, while held in the same
jaws.


71,909.--DOUBLE SCREW.--Elijah S. Pierce, Hartford, Ct.

I claim the double screw herein described and shown, as a new article of
manufacture.


71,910.--APPARATUS FOR PRESERVING MEATS, FISH, POULTRY, AND OTHER
PERISHABLE ARTICLES.--Charles F. Pike, Piovidence, R.I.

I claim, 1st, Constructing a tubular ice box, with holes or openings in
the tubes or pipes, at or near the bottom, to let the air out into the
chamber, F, and slots or openings into the ice receptacle, reservoir, or
depository, near the top, and so get the combined and double purpose
of radiation, conduction, and internal circulation of the air in
the chamber, F, substantially as and for the purposes set forth and
described in the drawing and specification hereunto annexed, without
confining myself to any particular form, size, or shape of the pipes
or tubes, whether they be vertical or horizontal, round, square, oval,
oblong, or in any other form, neither do I confine myself to any
particular form of ice receptacle, reservoir, or depository.

2d, The perforating or making slots, holes, or openings in the tubes
or pipes, near the bottom, for the purposes set forth and described,
howsoever the same may be made, whether used in connection with the
ice receptacle, reservoir, or depository, as described, or without
the openings in the ice receptacle, reservoir, or depository, for the
purpose of the rotating of the air.

3d, The ice receptacle, reservoir, or depository, with its openings to
let the air into and on to the ice in this ice receptacle, reservoir, or
depository, for the purpose of taking off the moisture in the preserving
room, at or near its top, whether the tubes connected to the bottom of
this ice receptacle, reservoir, or depository, are perforated or not,
or whether the ice receptacle reservoir, or depository, is removed
altogether, and the tops or collars of the tubes or pipes are
perforated.

4th, The ice box, receptacle, reservoir, or depository, A, as described,
pipes or tubes, B C D L, pan, E H, room, F, substantially as described
and set forth, with their appendages.


71,911.--MULTIPLYING REFLECTORS FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA.--D.W.S. Rawson,
Peru, Ill.

I claim, 1st, The reflector box, A, the doors and shade wings, B B, the
bars, C C, the non-reflecting division, D D, surrounding and between
the several mirrors, the base board, F, and the slide board, G, and the
double pivot, H, when used for the purposes herein described.

2d, The use of the lever for the purpose of adjusting the reflectors.

3d, The moving of the reflectors with the slide, G. to produce more than
one set of impressions on the same plate, or an equivalent movement.


71,912.--CAR SPRING.--Wm. F. Ray, Fort Wayne, Ind.

I claim a series of reflexed springs, so constructed that the bows slide
into each other, the whole being adjustable so as to regulate the amount
of elasticity, as described.


71,913.--LAMP BURNER.--Henry Read, Providence, R I.

I claim the skeleton bottom, B, in combination with the perforated
cylinder, C, and cone, D, when constructed and arranged substantially as
described and for the purpose specified.


71,914.--APPARATUS FOR TAMING WILD ANIMALS.--Peter R. Sanderson,
Caledonia, N Y.

I claim the construction and use of a circingle strap, as described,
with the sheaves, A A A A, and their attachments to said circingle, and
the slipping straps, B B B B, and rope, C, when arranged substantially
as described for the purpose specified.

Also, the combination of the above parts, A A, etc., B B, etc, and C,
with any harness, arranged substantially as described for the purpose
designed.


71,915.--JOURNAL BOX.--Wm. Sherburne, Charlestown, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The bolt, E, constructed as and for the purposes above
described.

2d, The bolt, E, in combination with the jaw, m, and oil box, B,
substantially and for the purpose above specified.


71,916.--HORSE AND CATTLE POKE.--Nelson Sylvester, Weymouth, Ohio.

I claim, 1st, The head, B, cross bar, E, in combination with the
springs, F, and spikes, a, for the purpose and in the manner
substantially as set forth.

2d, The cross bar, E, as arranged in relation to the yoke, C, and in
combination with the poke, A, in the manner as and for the purpose
specified.


71,917.--CORN PLANTER.--Frank J. Smiley, Marshall, Mich.

I claim, 1st, In combination with a wheeled machine for planting corn
or other seed at regular intervals, a "perambulator," substantially as
described, when hung concentrically to a revolving seed cylinder, C, and
operated in connection therewith, substantially in the manner and for
the purpose herein in specified.

2d, When operated in connectin with a revolving seed cylinder, the
arrangement and combination of the dropping tubes, t, and their
attachments with the tappet pins, T, and receiving basins, K, for
dropping and conveying the seed to the furrowers, substantially as set
forth.

3d, The pendant gage-bars, h, in combination with the gage plates, g,
substantially as and for the purpose described.


71,918.--WHIP RACK.--Charles A. Smith, Philadelphia, Pa.

I claim a whip rack composed of metal or other inelastic material, and
furnished with a series of divisions or apartments, with a hinged
tongue or flap in each, and suitable openings in each apartment for the
insertion and retention of a whip, substantially as described.


71,919.--METHOD OF HARDENING AND BLEACHING ARTICLES MADE OF SOAPSTONE,
TALC, ETC.--Henry Julius Smith, Boston, Mass., assignor to Joseph C.
Wightman, Newtonville, N. Y.

I claim, 1st, The heating in a closed vessel, and in contact with
carbon, the above described substances, or articles formed therefrom,
for the purpose of hardening and toughening the same, substantially as
above described.

2d, The removal, either before or after the hardening process, of
impurities producing discoloration, by the action of a bath of melted
chloride or sodium, or other chemical compound operating in like manner.


71,920.--HANDLE FOR TEA AND COFFEE POTS.--Enos E. Stow, Plantsville, Ct.

I claim a handle, as made hollow or tubular, and provided with openings
in or through it, that when applied to a pot or vessel, warm or heated
air may be caused to pass into and through and out of such handle,
substantially as and for the purpose specified.


71,921.--AERIAL CARRIAGE AND WAY.--Daniel Towse, Pittsburg, Pa.

I claim the combination of the endless wire rope or ropes, A A, pulleys,
T T T' T", and piers, B B B' B", with the suspended carriages, H H H H,
arranged and operating as specified.


71,922.--AERIAL CARRIAGE AND WAY.--Daniel Towse, Pittsburg, Pa.

I claim the combination of the wire ropes, A A, piers, B B B B, reel, F,
and rope, P, with the carriage, H, arranged and operating in the manner
set forth.


71,923.--AERIAL CARRIAGE AND WAY.--Daniel Towse, Pittsburg. Pa.

I claim the combination of the two aerial ways, A A' A" A'", the drum,
C, with the carriages, H H, and ropes, f f, constructed and operating as
specified.


71,924.--ATTACHMENT TO THE REGULATORS QF WATCHES--Wm. B. Tucker,
Hillsboro, Ohio.

I claim the combination of the screw-arbor, c, and the toothed segment,
e, with the regulating lever, d, and the scale base plate, a b,
substantially in the manner and for the purpose herein set forth.


71,925.--BILLIARD CUE TIP.--Joseph A. Veazie, Boston, Mass.

I claim the new or improved composition, substantially as described, in
which ground leather is an important constituent.

Also, the combination of a layer of such composition and one or more
layers or strata of leather or caoutchouc, or both, such being for the
formation of cue tips, as explained.


71,926.--CAR SPRING.--Richard Vose, New York city.

I claim a volute spring, formed or constructed of a coiled metallic bar,
whose thickness is greater transversely upon one edge thereof than at
any other point therein, substantially as and for the purpose herein set
forth.


71,927.--APPARATUS FOR TURNING ON GAS.--W.P. Wage [assignor to himself
and M. Clarke], Barre Centre, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, The cylinder, E, and the piston, F, in combination with
the lever, D, or their equivalent, operated by the means and in the
manner and for the purpose specified.

2d, Lighting gas by electricity, in combination with the apparatus above
described for turning on gas, as shown and described.


71,928.--HORSE HAY FORK.--George H. Waldo, Prattsburg, N.Y.

I claim the tines, b b, bail, f f, curved holding tine, I, spring, J,
pulley, l, rope, k, all constructed and operated substantially as herein
set forth.


91,929.--MACHINE FOR ROLLING LEATHER.--J.H. Walker, Worcester, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the horizontal way, G, slide, H,
and roll, b, with tables, K and M, and treadle operating device,
substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

2d, The combination, with the pieces, C C, of the truss rods, E E,
bridge, F, way, G, and slide, H, substantially as and for the purposes
set forth.


71,930.--FERTILIZER AND CORN PLANTER COMBINED.--Samuel H. Wallize,
Washingtonville, Pa.

I claim the arrangement of the devices, slide, G, and roller, D, as
connected and operating together, with the crank, F, so as to drop the
guano and corn through a single spout, to prevent choking, as herein
described.


71,931.--WASHING MACHINE.--D.T. Ward, Cardington, O.

I claim, 1st, The segmental or convex washboard, E, actuated by levers,
D, in combination with the reciprocating washboard, F, and connecting
arms, H, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth.

2d, In combination therewith, the spring, j, rod, k, and slots, I,
arranged and operating substantially as described.

3d, The gate, p, in combination with the horizontal reciprocating
washboard, F, and tub, A, arranged and operating substantially as and
for the purpose set forth.


71,932.--CORN PLANTER.--John R. Weber, Bourbon, Ind.

I claim, 1st, The springs, m, on the shaft, e, in combination with the
dropping cylinders, k, as and for the purpose described.

2d, The combination of the foot board, c', forked lever, d" m",
connecting rods, e", and cross piece, h", arranged and operating as
explained.

3d, The combination of the frame, B, elbow levers, m', connecting rods,
n' s', arms, o' t', and shafts, r' u', as and for the purpose set forth.

4th, The combination of the transverse shaft, v, sliding bar, s, hook,
r, pins, o, block, n, and dropping cylinders, k, substantially as
described.

5th, The combination of the crank, w, arm, x a', spring, b, and sliding
bar, s, arranged and operating as set forth.

6th, The combination of the lever, a", shaft, v, pinion, e', and spring,
e"', when used independently, or in connection with the frame, B,
substantially as and for the purpose described.


71,933.--BED BOTTOM.--David S. Williams, Coldwater, Mich.

I claim the combination of the loop, A, rods, B, spring band, C,
rods, D, webbing, E, slats, F, wires or equivalent, G, in the manner
described.


71,934.--INSTRUMENT FOR ADMINISTRATION OF ANAESTHETICS.--Osborn Wilson,
Aurora, Ill.

I claim, 1st, The construction of an instrument with inhaling and
exhaling tubes, provided with valves, working automatically and
alternately in opening and closing the tubes by the respiration of the
patient, substantially in the manner and for the purposes as herein
specified.

2d, Providing the instrument with a spring valve and air tube for
regulating the administration of nitrous oxide and other anaesthetics,
substantially in the manner and for the purposes as herein specified.

3d, The construction and arrangement of stock, A, mouth piece, B,
inhaling and exhaling tubes, C' C, plate, D, air tube, E', valve, E,
spiral spring, b, valves, c c, rods, d d, fulcra, e e, arm, f, and rod,
g, substantially in the manner and for the purposes as herein specified.


71,935.--CIDER MILL AND PRESS.--Martin Winger, Ephrata, Pa.

I claim, 1st, A series of press boxes, D, with perforated sides and
an external cogged flange, d, all connected in the form of a wheel
revolving horizontally, with its cross-arms, N, secured centrally to
a vertical shaft, L, in combination with the bearing, M, and step, O,
sustained on a framework, A B B', all arranged substantially in the
manner and for the purpose specified.

2d, With the revolving press boxes, D, the press block and central
upright, K, E, pulley, G, guides, F, arms, e, in combination with the
inclined planes, H and R, all arranged and operating substantially in
the manner and for the purpose specified.

3d, In combination with the revolving box wheel, D D N N, and pressing
arrangement, the hinged drop bottom, Q, in combination with a series of
rollers or pulleys, P, or their equivalents, for the purpose and in the
manner shown and described.

4th. In combination with my horizontal box wheel, the arrangement of the
gearing and mill hopper, X, and crushers, W V, pinions, Y S, on shaft,
all combined substantially m the manner specified.

5th, In combination with an apple mill, a cider press, with a series of
presses in a horizontal revolving wheel, substantially as and for the
purposes specified.


71,936.--CURB FOR WATER WHEEL.--Albert Winton, Chambersburg, Pa.

I claim, 1st, The serpentine or double curved chute gates, O O, when
formed with surfaces tapering or sloping from their centers towards
their ends, and so arranged, relative to intermediately situated
diaphragms or plates, r r, that one of the tapering ends of said chute
gates, O O, shall project beyond the circumferences of the rims, a a c
e, and extend so as to enter slots, or between the prongs of fork-like
arms, K L K L, to be operated in the manner and for the purpose
substantially as described.

2d, The annular adjustable rim, or ring, i i, provided with the
fork-like arms, K L K L, and with the moving lever or crank, m, and
the fulcrum pin, h, all arranged to operate the chute gates, O O,
substantially as shown and described.


71,937.--HARVESTER.--James Winters and Charles C. Gapen, Lacon, Ill.

We claim the skeleton frame, A, or its equivalent, provided with an
adjustable clevis, and attached to the end of the tongue, or reaping and
mowing machines, substantially in the manner and for the purpose herein
described and represented.


71,938.--SASH TOP.--Orson E. Woodbury, Madison, Wis.

I claim, 1st, The cam, slotted at H D I, forming bearings at either
extremity for the screw or other support, when the cam is operating
against the catch, C, at the points, F or O, all as described and for
the purpose specified.

2d, The catch, C, with the spikes, G G, constructed and used as and for
the purposes hereinbefore named.


71,939.--PEAT AND BRICK MACHINE.--Charles D. Wrightington, Fairhaven,
and Benjamin P. Rider, Boston, Mass.

We claim, 1st, In combination with the mold wheel having the series or
sets of molds in it, a series of plungers revolving with said wheel
and operated in succession by the eccentric journal and frame, Q,
substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, Also in combination with a mold wheel having a series of cogs
interposed by a series of concave stops, blanks or abutments upon
its periphery, a drive wheel having cogs and a blank surface on its
perimeter so that the mold wheel may be moved, stopped and locked by
said drive wheel which has a continuous movement, substantially as and
for the purpose described.

3d, Also the location and arrangement of the cam over and around the
blank on the perimeter of the drive wheel so that while the mold wheel
is stopped and locked by said drive wheel which continues its movement
said drive wheel shall operate the pushers to discharge the pressed
bricks or blocks from the molds, substantially as described.


71,940.--.TOY.--Derrick Adams, Lansingburg, N.Y.

I claim an automatic toy having the legs of the horse and the head
and arm of the driver actuated by mechanical devices, in manner
substantially as herein described and for the purposes as set forth.


71,941.--EAVES TROUGH FASTENING.--Philip Ahn, Brandon Vt.

I claim the bolt, c, combined with the elastic strap, e, substantially
as and for the purpose described.


71,942.--INFLATING RUBBER BALLS.--Henry A. Alden, Fishkill, N.Y.,
assignor to the New York Rubber Company.

I claim the application to rubber balls or other hollow articles
requiring to be distended by inflation of the combined bulb and tube,
substantially in the manner and for the purposes herein shown and set
forth.


71,943.--REAMER.--Charles Allardice, Cohoes, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, A shank, A, formed substantially as described in
combination with the cutters, B, and nut or screw ring, O, the whole
operating as set forth.

2d, In combination with the shank, A, cutters, B, and nut, C, the nut,
e, bolt, g, and washer, g', formed as described and employed for the
purposes specified.


71,944.--BOLT ATTACHMENT TO DOOR LOCK.--William H. Andrews [assignor to
Burton Mallory], New Haven, Conn.

I claim the bolt, E, constructed arranged within the lock case in
combination with the follower, F, constructed with a cam, I, and spring,
H, so as to hold the bolt securely in both its locked and unlocked
position, substantially in the manner herein set forth.


71,945.--MECHANISM FOR PRESENTING PALM LEAF TO LOOMS.--Isaac Angell,
Malden, Mass.

I claim for employment in connection with a loom for weaving with palm
leaf or similar weft a mechanism substantially as set forth which
automatically presents in succession the entering ends of single pieces
of weft in such position with relation to the cross sectional form of
each that each piece will be carried into the shed or web flatwise.

Also the mechanism for effecting the elevation and release of the weft,
substantially as described.

Also the plate, d, with its rectangular perforations and the gate or
slide for clamping a single piece of weft projecting through the plate,
substantially as shown and described.

Also a mechanism substantially as set forth for "knocking off" the weft
raising mechanism when a piece of weft is presented.


71,946.--BLACKBOARD FOR SCHOOLS.--William Arroquuier, Worcester, Mass.

I claim covering the plaster, B, with a coating, C, composed of the
ingredients named and applied in the manner above described whereby the
proper color and roughness are obtained as set forth.


71,947.--MODE OF OPERATING SWELL IN MELODEONS.--C.E. Bacon [assignor to
himself. George A Prince and Calvin F.S. Thomas], Buffalo, N.Y.

I claim the arrangement of the swell pedals side by side with the
bellows pedals and contiguous to and parallel therewith, for the purpose
and substantially as described.


71,948.--MATERIALS FOR TRANSMITTING HEAT.--William C. Baker, New York
city.

I claim the employment of salted water, glycerin, or their equivalents,
to prevent freezing in transmitting and diffusing heat through ordinary
pipes, tubes or radiators for the purpose of warming and ventilating
railroad cars, public vehicles and buildings, substantially as herein
described.


71,949.--LAMP BURNER.--George E. Baldwin (assignor to E. Miller & Co.),
West Meriden, Conn.

I claim the arrangement of the auxiliary or ventilating tube, E, with
the wick tube, B, combined with a solid partition, F, in the base of the
burner so as to form a close chamber around the tubes and wick adjuster,
substantially in the manner and for the purpose herein set forth.


71,950.--AUTOMATIC TOOTH PLUGGER.--Burr Bannister and George F. Green,
Kalamazoo, Mich.

We claim, 1st, The combination of an engine operated by means of
compressed air with a tooth plugger for the purpose set forth and
described.

2d, The lock, F, in connection with spring, 1, operated by cross head of
piston rod, in the manner and for the purpose specified.


71,951.--CAR COUPLING.--William F. Barlow (assignor to himself, James
Bower and W.A. Jackson), Monmouth, Ill.

I claim, 1st, The catch, C, slotted draw head, A, and weight, X,
combined as described and for the purpose set forth.

2d, The rods, M N and H, and elbow, K, combined as described and
operating in combination with the elements of the first claim arranged
substantially as described and for the purpose set forth.

3d, The weight, X, arranged as described for the purpose set forth.


71,952.--HARVESTER RAKE.--John Barnes, Rockford, Ill.

I claim 1st, The inclined serrations, h h h, on the face of the rake
head for the purpose of compacting the gavel.

2d, A compressor or supplementary rake pivoted to the rake handle and
moving parallel to the rake head, substantially as described.

3d, The combination substantially as described of an automatic rake, a
compresser and an interposed spring for the purpose set forth.

4th The combination substantially as described of a reel revolving
continuously on a horizontal shaft a rake mounted on the same shaft [on
trunnions arranged diagonally to the shaft], and a shipping device by
which the rake may be thrown into gear between any two of the beaters of
the reel and by which it may automatically be thrown out of gear at the
end of its stroke.

5th, The combination substantially as described of the inclined rake
handle with the trunnions or pivots revolving on the reel shaft, and
arranged diagonally thereto.

6th, The combination substantially as described of the rake handle
pivoted on trunnions diagonal to the reel shaft and the friction roller
with a guide vertical below the axis of the rake and deflected both
horizontally and laterally above that axis, as and for the purpose set
forth.

7th, The combination substantially as described of the rake handle
and shipping lever whereby the rake throws itself out of gear after
discharging the gavel.

8th, The combination substantially as described of a rake mounted on
trunnions revolving on a horizontal axis in a fixed relation to the
guide which controls the movements of the rake with a revolving reel
having an endwise movement on the same axis whereby the rake can be
thrown out of gear by moving the reel endwise without stopping the reel.


71,953.--TRY SQUARE AND BEVEL.--Samuel N. Batchelder, Prairie du Chien,
Wis.

I claim, 1st, The blade B, pivoted within the stock, A, and provided
with a hooked projection, e, by means of which and the hook slide, D,
the blade, B, may be set and held at any desired angle, substantially as
described and for the purpose specified.

2d, The hook slide, D, with the thumb screw, E, arranged and operating
substantially as shown and described for the purposes set forth.

3d, The spiral spring, F, in combination with a combined try square and
bevel, substantially as described.


71,954.--PLATE LIFTER.--David B Beaty, Aurora, Ind., assignor to himself
and James Lamb.

I claim the curved wires, B B B, having hooks at their lower ends and
connected to a handle, A, said handle being provided with a wire loop
formed into a spring which connects to the wires, B, so that by pressing
upon this spring, C, the wires, B, are caused to separate and release
the plate, all constructed as specified.


71,955.--SUSPENSION BRIDGE.--Charles Bender, N.Y. city.

I claim, 1st, The construction and arrangement of one or more yielding
joints connecting the beams or trusses of stiffened suspension bridges,
substantially as herein described.

2d, The attachment of the ends of the cables or chains at or near the
first or shore piers to the longitudinal beams or trusses of stiffened
suspension bridges, substantially as set forth.

3d The means and method by which the ends of the beams or trusses of
stiffened suspension bridges are secured to the shore piers by vertical
anchorage and the arrangement of suitable joints, v, in said anchors,
substantially for the purpose described.

4th, The means and method employed to reduce the side motion by
attaching the longitudinal beams or trusses of stiffened suspension
bridges to the central piers sidewise said attachment being on one pier
perfectly immovable in any horizontal direction while at the other
piers allowance is made for the variations of the length of the beams
substantially as set forth and described.


71,956.--FOLDING TRUNK.--O.K. Bernbaum, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim the folding ends in combination with the hinged sectional back
and front for the purposes herein fully described.


71,957.--SOFA BEDSTEAD.--Charles H. Berry, East Somerville, Mass.

I claim the combination of the lower position, a, the seat, b, and
head, d, and the hinged or movable panel, e, in a sofa or lounge,
substantially as and for the purpose described.


71,958.--CHURN.--Thomas Bisbing, Buckstown, Pa.

I claim the combination of the removable frame, B, sliding frame, C,
ratchet bar, G, and pinion wheel, H, with each other, with the body,
A, of the churn, and with the dasher shaft, I, substantially as herein
shown and described and for the purpose set forth.


71,959.--HAT-FELTING MACHINE.--Job W. Blackham, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, The duplicate series of rolls, b and bN', and rubbers, C
and CN' or their equivalent, with their water pans, N N', and jets of
hot water or steam, as represented, arranged to operate together in the
manner and for the purpose herein specified.

2d, Mounting the reciprocating rubber over the bed of rolls so as to
allow of its ascent and descent by means of springs, substantially as
and for the purpose herein specified.


71,960.--BUILDERS' SCAFFOLD.--John E Bliss, Oxford, Ind.

I claim the combination of the right angled pivoted frame, A, and
adjustable sliding bars, B and D, with each other, substantially as
herein shown and described and for the purpose set forth.


71,961.--SUBSTITUTE FOR MILK FOR CATTLE.--Rufus K. Blodgett, near
Fulton, Ill.

I claim, 1st The use of white or blue clay, when used for the purpose
above specified.

2d, The combination of flour, catechu and clay, when mixed and used for
the purposes above set forth.


71,962.--FIRE LADDER.--Johan Blomgren, Galesburg, Ill.

I claim, 1st, The stuffing coil, O, inserted into the lower port of
the tube H H', and forced up or down in the tube by the cog wheel, M,
substantially as and for the purpose specified.

2d, The basket, R, in combination with a fire escape having the hinged
side, T, and the adjusting rod, S, substantially as and for the purpose
described.

3d, The construction of the stuffig coil, O, substantially as and for
the purpose specified.


71,963.--SAFETY GUN LOCK.--Charles Bowlen, Milwaukee, Wis.

I claim tumbler, F, with its pin, G, in combination with dog, H, with
its slot, I, substantially as and for the purpose described.


71,964.--VENTILATOR FOR BUILDINGS.--Thomas Boyd, Cambridgeport, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the chamber, A, with or without the
lenses, B, cone, C, and rods, D, constructed and arranged to operate
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

2d, The combination of the oscillating cap, K, and elastic pads, I,
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

3d, The arrangement of the chamber, A, cone, C, pipes E and H, and
cones, G and K, substantially as set forth.


71,965.--DOOR LATCH.--Purmort Bradford (assignor to Sargent & Co.), New
Haven, Conn.

I claim the construction of the latch bolt with the pivot bearings, a
and b, upon opposite sides combined with a single central pivot upon the
plate so as to be adjustable for a right or left-hand door and the said
plate constructed with a slot through which the latch is operated, in
the manner herein set forth.


71,966.--PLOW.--Harvey Briggs, Smithland, Ky.

I claim, 1st, Forming the land side, mold board frame and upper
and lower strengthening floors, b1 and b2, solid in one piece B,
substantially as herein shown and described and for the purpose set
forth.

2d, The combination of the conical rollers, D, and their boxing frame,
H, with the mold board frame, B, substantially as herein shown and
described and for the purpose set forth.

3d, Forming the boxing frame, H, in two parts, substantially as herein
shown and described and for the purpose set forth.

4th, forming an oil trench or channel, J, in the boxing frame, II
substantially as herein shown and described and for the purpose set
forth.

5th, The combination of the elastic washers or packing, I, with the
journals and bearings of the rollers and wheels, substantially as herein
shown and described and for the purpose set forth.

6th, The combination of the adjustable friction wheel, F, and stationary
friction wheel, E, with the solid hand side and mold board frame, B,
substantially as herein shown and described and for the purpose set
forth.

7th, The combination of the vertical flanged friction roller, G, with
the land side of the plow, substantially as herein shown and described
and for the purpose set forth.


71,967.--PIANO STOOL.--Josua Briggs, Peterboro, N.H.

I claim, in combination with the pillar and feet, the socket block, m,
having recesses formed with side lips or flanges, o, to fit into groves,
q, in the feet and bottom seats, p, between which and the shoulder on
the pillar the feet are securely continued, substantially as described.

Also the center piece, w', fitting upon and covering the screw bolt and
nut which confine the pillar to the base, substantially as shown and
described.

Also constructing the socket block, m, with a center socket, t, into
which the tail piece of the pillar fits and is confined, substantially
as described.

Also making the screw spindle removable from the seat, substantially as
set forth.


71,968.--PLOW.--T.E.C. Brinly, Louisville, Ky.

I claim, 1st, The mode of attaching the beam, D, to the plows by a
socket, C, connected with the land side by braces, B B, substantially as
set forth.

2d, The combination of the socket, C, constructed with diagonal flanges,
C', the handles, and the beam, substantially as set forth.


71,969.--COMBINED SHOVEL AND SIFTER.--Stephen P. Brooks (assignor to
himself and Benjamin Woodward), Somerville, Mass.

I claim the within-described combined shovel and sifter, constructed and
operating substantially as set forth.


71,970.--SEAT AND DESK.--A.H. Brown, May's Landing, N.J.

I claim the hinged brace, J, passing through the guides, M, upon the
inside of the ends, B, of the seat and hinged to the outer edge of the
folding desk, H, all arranged as described whereby the gravity of the
brace, J, as the desk is raised causes the L-shaped notch, L, to fit and
catch in the guide, M, to hold the said desk raised, for the purpose
specified.


71,971.--GRAIN FORK.--E G. Bullis, Manchester, Iowa, assignor to Charles
J. Riggs, same place, and said Riggs assignor to D E. Lyon, Dubuque,
Iowa.

I claim, 1st, The combination of a band-cutting device with a pitching
fork, substantially as and for the purposes described.

2d, The combination of the rearwardly-extended parts of the tines, C,
the cross head, B, grooved bars, E, sliding cutter, F, and springs, L,
with each other, substantially as herein shown and described and for the
purpose set forth.

3d, The combination of the pivoted or jointed bars, G H I, with
the sliding cutter, F, shank, J, of the fork head and handle, A,
substantially as herein shown and described and for the purpose set
forth.


71,972.--SEED PLANTER.--Matthew S. Burdick. Milton, Wis., assignor for
himself and John M. May.

I claim, 1st, Thumb screw, I, in combination with part, H, and seed cup
bar, D, when constructed, connected together and used substantially as
and for the purposes described.

3d, Seed-cup bar, E, or its equivalent, when combined with seed-cup bar,
D, in the same planting machine so that corn and pumpkin seed and other
flat seeds, as squash and melon seeds, may be planted at one operation,
substantially as described.

3d, Spring, O, or its equivalent, attached to and combined with seed-cup
bar, E, substantially as and for the purposes described.

4th, Jaws or points, F and G, provided with partitions, h and h, for the
purpose of dividing the seed, when used in combination with parts, A and
A' B and E and N, substantially as described.

5th, A general arrangement and combination of legs or bars, A and A',
hoppers, B and C, seed-cup bars, D and E, covering, N, and jaws, F and
G, when constructed, connected together and used substantially as and
for the purposes described.


71,973.--PULLEY BLOCK.--John A. Burnap, Albany, N. Y.

I claim the arrangement of the frame, E, and pulley, F, through the eye
of which is inserted the frame, A, having a series of rollers, a a, the
whole constructed and used substantially as specified.


71,974.--SADIRON.--Jesse S. Butterfield and Joseph A. Reed,
Philadelphia, Pa.

We claim, 1st, The steadying, pin, d", in combination with the sectors,
d"' d"', on the guard-plate, d', the said parts being constructed and
arranged to operate in connection with the planes, a"' a"', on the
projection, a', substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, The projection, a', on the base, A B, with its two opposite sectors
or inclined planes, a" a", constructed and arranged to receive and
hold down the inward ends, c" c", of the feet of the handle, C D,
substantially as described and set forth.

3d, The projecting ends, c" c", of the handle, C D, constructed and
arranged to operate in combination with the spaces, b' b', and planes,
a" a", substantially as and for the purpose described.


71,975.--PRUNING SHEAR.--Seth P. Carpenter, Milford, Mass.

I claim the new or improved manufacture of pruning shears, as
hereinbefore described, that is, as composed of the blades, a b, the
lever, C, the long shank, B, the lever, D, the open handles, C C', the
arm, f, and the rod, g, arranged and combined in manner, and for the
purpose, and to operate substantially as specified.


71,976.--WASHSTAND AND CLOTHES DRYER.--Frances H. Carrier, Bridgeport,
Conn.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the clothes drying apparatus with the
washbasin, when they are constructed, arranged, and fitted for use
substantially as herein described and set forth.

2d, The combination of the cups, b c d, or their equivalents, with the
wash basin, when they are constructed, arranged, and fitted for use as a
toilet apparatus, substantially as herein described and set forth.


71,977.--SPICE CASE.--John T. Carter and John Park. Lowell Mass.

We claim, 1st, The cups or boxes, c c, when arranged to operate
substantially as described, and for the purposes fully set forth.

2d, The springs, k k, in combination with the cups or boxes, c c, for
the purpose described and set forth.

3d, The combination and arrangement of the case, a, with its feet, d d
d, handle, e, loop, f, and shelves, b b b b, cups or boxes, c c, and
spring, k k, all for the purposes substantially as described and set
forth.


71,978.--APPARATUS FOR PAINTING OR GRAINING PAILS, ETC.--Jonathan
Carter, Winchendon, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the flexible painting or die printing
roll with the supplying roller, for painting, graining, ornamenting
pails, or other tapering articles.

2d, The mechanism for holding and revolving the pail, when mounted on a
bench or table, in combination with the movable printing or die roll,
operating substantially in the manner as and for the purposes set forth.

3d, Casting graining or other ornamental configurations on conical rolls
so as to form a continuous body, for the purposes herein described.

4th, Making die or printing conical rolls in sections, and securing
them to the staves so as to change their position for making a greater
variety of ornamental designs for graining and ornamenting hollow ware,
substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

5th, Applying a smooth coat or body of paint or varnish with a flexible
roller to pails, tubs, or other articles of hollow ware, substantially
in the manner herein set forth.


71,979.--SAWYERS' RULE.--Thos. Carter, Louisville, Ky.

I claim, 1st, A scale so constructed and adjusted that any two of the
three quantities of the thickness of the planks, the diameter of the
log, and the number of the planks cut or to be cut from the log being
given, the third of said quantities is read off from the scale in the
manner substantially as above set forth and described.

2d, A scale exhibiting the number of turns to be given to the screws of
the log carriage for cutting plank or boards of any desired thickness.


71,980.--CAST METAL CASE FOR SPRING BALANCE.--John Chatillon, New York
city.

I claim a cast metal case for spring balances, when provided with a
perforated or slotted upper head for the reception to the pin, b,
and when made substantially as and for the purpose herein shown and
described.


71,981.--VACUUM GRAIN DRYER.--Geo. Clark, Buffalo, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, the three essential features or parts: the air tight
grain chamber, the radiations heating pipes or floors, and the
vacuum-producing apparatus, combined and operating substantially as
herein set forth.

2d, the arrangement of the steam heating pipes within the grain chamber,
substantially as set forth.

3d, The graduated gage vessel, H, arranged as and for the purpose set
forth.


71,982.--DOOH LATCH.--Francis Clymer, Galion, Ohio.

I claim the mode of attaching a combined latch and hasp, B, and staple,
F, to doors, by means of slots, I and H, so as to permit the adjustment
of the same substantially as set forth.


71,983.--CLAMP.--Geo. H. Coo and Geo. H. Snow, New Haven, Conn.

We claim the herein described clamp, consisting of the head, C, upon one
arm of the body, [Transcribers note: illegible letter], the opposite
arm, provided with a corresponding foot, and the said head having
arranged therein levers, D, and combined with a screw, B, so as to
operate to clamp between the screw and the foot, substantially as set
forth.


71,984.--BOAT DETACHING TACKLE.--David L. Cohen, Pensacola. Fla.

I claim the combination of the notched bars, a a, with the grooved
blocks, B B, the sliding blocks, C, pitman, D D', and lever, F,
substantially as and for the purpose described.


71,985.--APPARATUS FOR ELEVATING WATER.--J.R. Cole, Keaton Station,
Tenn.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the chamber, F, provided with the short
pipes, p p', and the pipes, p", with the pumps, G H, and the chambers, C
D E, substantially as and for the purposes described.

2d, The combination and arrangement, for the purpose described, of the
chambers, C D E F, pipes, p p' p", P P' P", and pumps, G H, the latter
working alternately, so as to maintain a constant pressure upon the
water in the chambers, substantially in the manner specified.


71,986.--TACK HAMMER.--Thomas A. Conklin, New Britain. Conn.

I claim, as a new article of manufacture, a tack hammer, constructed
in the manner and With the characteristics herein specified, for the
purposes set forth.


71,987.--FLOOR CLAMP.--Wm. Conner and C. W. Mitchell, Wilmington, Del.

We claim the combination of the frame, a, with the screws, b and d d,
with the wedge blocks, e e, wedges, f f, and plates i i, constructed and
arranged, as herein described, to operate as a clamp for clamping ship
timber, flooring, and other carpenters' work.


71,988.--BUTTON.--Geo. Cooke, Winchester, Mass.

I claim a button or stud, its shank attached by means of a disk formed
concave, and subsequently compressed, substantially as described.


71,989.--HARVESTER.--Francis C. Coppage, Terre Haute, Ind.

I claim 1st, The combination of the double or alternate step wheel, E,
having the inclined steps, e e e, with the two stepping-dogs, D D',
and the springs, x x, when the said parts are constructed and arrange
substantially in the manner and for the purposes described.

2d, The combination and arrangement of the adjusting rod, n o", with the
cylindrical sleeve, O', the sleeve or slide, O"', the post, P, and the
reel, O"', in such a manner that while the post P, supports the reel,
the elevation of the latter is adjusted by the compound rod, n o",
substantially as and for the purposes specified.

3d, The rod, H, having the crank, h, and the worm, h', in combination
with the worm segment, i, the shaft, I, the winding arm or segment, i',
and the chain, K, substantially as and for the purpose specified.


71,990.--MACHINE FOR STRETCHING CLOTH.--A.C. Corpe, Stafford, Conn.

I claim, 1st, The two gear clamps, B B, composed each of two wheels, a
a', one placed above the other, and the upper wheels arranged so as to
be capable of adjustment, both vertically and laterally, substantially
as shown and described.

2d, The arrangement of gearing, as shown, in connection with the gear
clamps, B B, and roller, C, whereby an equal movement of the clamps is
insured, substantially as shown and described.

3d, The supplemental frame, E, provided with the roller, D, upon which
the cloth is wound, in connection with the gearing, k u, clutch, o,
driving pulley, m, and shaft, l, all arranged substantially as shown and
described.


71,991.--ROLLER FOR DRESSING.--Benjamin R. Cotton, Lewiston, Me.

I claim as an improved dresser roll, a stone roll covered with the
surfacing metal, or metal composition, substantially as set forth.

Also, the method of surfacing a roll by placing around or over a central
roll a metal frame as a base upon which to cement the surface metal, and
the surfacing such frame, substantially as set forth.


71,992.--WAGON LOCK.--James A. Counts, Indianapolis, Iowa. I claim the
catch, g, the bands, h h, the spring, the bar, e, lever, k, for the
purposes set forth and described.


71,993.--HAME TUG.--Jas. C. Covert, Townsendville, N. Y.

I claim, 1st, The metallic hames tug, A, provided with the V-shaped
openings, C, having inclined sides, and the tongues, D, adapted to
receive the V-shaped block, O, formed upon the block, N, of the trace
strap and block, O, held in place by means of the pin upon the spring
lever stop, Q, fitting in the groove, P, in the end of tongue, D, of the
hame tug, as herein described for the purpose specified.

2d, The hame clip, fastened by bolts to the hame tug, substantially as
herein described and for the purpose specified.

3d, The block, N, upon the trace strap, when provided with the V-shaped
block, C, and the spring lever, Q, as herein described for the purpose
specified.


71,994.--HARVESTER RAKE.--James. S. Crump, Williamsburg, Mo.

I claim, 1st, The curved eccentric arm, I, applied to the rock shaft, E,
and operated in the manner and for the purpose described.

2d, The swinging lever, M, or its equivalent, in combination with the
curved eccentric arm for operating the platform, as described.

3d, The arrangement of one or more springs in combination with the
curved eccentric arm, I, for the purpose set forth.

4th, The manner of adjusting the hight of the swinging platform upon the
supporting arms and uprights, as described.

5th, The adjustable cant or deflecting boards, C, in combination with
the swinging platform, as described.


71,995.--WASHING MACHINE.--S.W. Curtiss, Sugar Grove, Pa.

I claim an improved washing machine, consisting box, A, provided with
blocks, H, and roller, E, the hinged frame, B, having rollers, C D,
and handle, G, all constructed, arranged and operating as and for the
purpose set forth.


71,998.--MACHINE FOR FORMING HAT BODIES.--Francis Degen, Newark. N.J.

I claim, 1st, A hat body formed partly of common and partly of fine
stock, by first blowing on the cone a belt of fine stock, then over the
whole cone a quantity of common stock, and finally a quantity of fine
stock, substantially as set forth.

2d, The close fitting cap, B, in combination with the perforated cone,
A, of a machine for forming hat bodies, substantially as and for the
purpose described.

3d, The slide, D, in combination with the trunk, C, cap, B, and
perforated cone, A, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.


71,997.--MAIL-BAG FASTENER.--S. Denison, Portlandville, N.Y.

I claim the hooks, C, constructed substantially as herein shown and
described, in combination with the straps, D and F, with the bag, B, and
staples, A, as and for the purpose set forth.


71,998.--SAWBUCK.--Henry J. Dill, Cummington, Mass.

I claim the clamps, D, the treadle, E', the arms, E, springs, F', and
rods, F, constructed, arranged, and operating, in combination with the
stationary part, A, substantially as shown and described for the purpose
set forth.


71,999.--CARRIAGE FOR ROCK DRILL.--Thomas Doane, Boston, Mass. I claim
the arrangement of the round bars, E F G and H, of a rock drill carriage
into a frame, for the reception of rock drilling machines which shall be
able to reach therefrom any point where it is desirable to bore a hole,
substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, The position of the horizontal round bars, E and F, under an acute
(more or less) angle, d, to the side frame of a rock drill carriage, or
to the alignment of the tunnel, substantially as and for the purpose set
forth.

3d, The construction of a rock drill carriage for driving a tunnel or
mine so as to swing in a vertical direction on the forward wheels and
axle, substantially as and for the purpose specified.


72,000.--RAILWAY CHAIR.--John H. Downing, Salem, Mass.

I claim the single-headed chair, A, in combination with a sectional
railroad rail, arranged as and for the purpose shown and described.


72,001.--ROTARY PUMP.--John Doyle, Hoboken, N. J., and Timothy A.
Martin, New York city.

We claim the two drums, A C, placed concentrically one within the other,
the chamber, D, air passages, E E', valves, F G, and tubular journals,
B B', all arranged and combined to operate in connection with water or
other liquid placed in the space or spaces between the two drums, A C,
substantially in the manner as and for the purpose specified.


72,002.--GRINDING MILL.--James F. Drummond, New York city.

I claim the tubular inlet-journal, b, having its interior contracted
around the feed pipe at one point, and thence flaring toward the
cylinder and the blast pipe, substantially as and for the purpose
specified.


72,003.--PIVOT GEARING.--Joseph J. Duchesne, Lacon, Ill.

I claim the circular bed plate, A, in combination with the pinion
plate, B, and coupling plate, C, secured by the set screw, S, the whole
arranged and operating substantially as and for the purposes set forth.


72,004.--CULTIVATOR.--William Duffner, Petersburg, Ind.

I claim the cultivator composed of the elements, A B B' C D E F H I J N,
and the device for regulating the depth of the shovels, composed of the
elements, G K L M P, constructed and arranged as set forth.


72,005.--WOVEN FABRIC.--J. Renshaw, East Greenwhich, R.I.

I claim the fabric, herein described, as a new article of manufacture.


72,006.--HORSE RAKE.--Edward A. Field, Sidney, Me.

I claim, 1st, The application of each tooth, E, to its arm, D, by means
of a round tenon arranged at an obtuse angle with the axis of the tooth,
and going into the arm, the same being substantially as and for the
purpose described.

2d, Also, the combination as well as the arrangement of the adjustable
brace d, and the staple or clasping wire, f, with the arm and the tooth,
when applid by means substantially as specified, viz., a cylindrical
tenon arranged at an obtuse angle with the axis of the tooth, and going
into a corresponding hole made in the arm.

3d, Also, the combination of the damping screw, h, with the arm, and the
tooth applied to such arm by a tenon arranged at an obtuse angle with
the axis of the tooth as specified.

4th, Also, the arrangement of the rope, or its equivalent, with the
several arms and their teeth, and the braces thereof, the said rope
being to operate as and for the purpose specified.


72,007.--PUNCH FOR FORMING CLASP.--Charles D. Flesche, New York city.

I claim the sliding punch, B, in combination with the plates, A A',
cutters, b b, an spring, e, substantially as and for the purpose herein
shown and described.


72,008.--SELF-FASTENING SPRING FOR WEBBING.--John Flinn, Philadelphia,
Pa., assignor to Archer Steel, same place.

I claim a spiral spring, for webbing, having the wire at one end of the
spiral coils, A A, bent in the manner described and shown by B C D E,
for the purpose specified.


72,009.--CARVING KNIFE AND FORK HOLDER.--Alden T. Foster, Albany, N.Y.

I claim, as an article of manufacture, the dish or stand, A, constructed
substantially as described, with notches, a a and c c, as and for the
purpose set forth.


72,010.--LAMP CHIMNEY.--Sam'l W. Fowler, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim the construction of the glass chimney, with its concave and
convex deflectors, J and E, on each side, and collar, B, beneath, with
its projections, C C, as herein described and for the purposes set
forth.


72,011.--CARTRIDGE BOX.--William Freeborn, Tivoli, N.Y.

I claim the square box, A, made of leather or any suitable material,
when constructed with a series of round, fluted, or ruffled holders,
B, on the inside, made of any firm or flexible material, a series of
holders, B, being attached to each flap, C, in front, and the flaps
buttoning to the sides of the box, A, as herein described and for the
purpose set forth.


72,012.--DEVICE FOR HITCHING HORSES.--Samuel Galbraith, New Orleans, La.

I claim the device above described, consisting of the rings, A and B,
and the pivoted curved jaws, C C, meeting at one extremity at e' e',
and connected at the other by means of the rods, r r, and springs, s,
working in the tube, substantially as and for the purpose specified.


72,013.--CAPPING SCREWS.--J. Gardner, New Haven, Conn.

I claim, 1st, Cutting away or depressing the cap at the point where it
meets the nick in the screw head, substantially as described, so that
such cut away or depressed portion, while connected with and forming
part of the cap shall lie within outline the nick in the screw head, as
set forth.

2d, A capped screw in which the slot or depression in the cap
corresponding to the nick in the screw head is forced, substantially in
the manner and for the purposes herein shown and described.


72,014.--TIGHT AND LOOSE PULLEY.--Joseph P. Gates, Lincoln, Ill.

I claim the construction of the pulley, e, in two sections, with the
arrangement and combination of the ram spring, F, the rebound guard, G,
the stop flange, I, the case dog, J, and spring, K, the case dog ram,
L, the shuttle key, P, and stands, Z, and arm, b, with cam, a, when
constructed, arranged, and operated as herein described and for the
purposes set forth.


72,015.--BRICK MACHINE.--Samuel Gissinger, Allegheny City, Pa.

I claim, 1st, The device for moving the mold on to the roller way, G,
consisting of the arm, l, held by a spring, m', lever, m, pin, n, on the
gear wheel, o, and block, j, moving in the slot, h, substantially as
described.

2d, The device for moving the molds under the hopper, consisting of the
gear wheel, p, operated by the gear wheel, c, arm, k', and block, k,
moving the slot, l, substantially as described.

3d, In combination with the above, the gear wheel, o, shaft, B, grinding
knives, C, stationary knives, D, and fillers, F, in the hopper, A,
substantially as and for the purposes described.

4th, The roller way, O, provided with openings and rollers, g and g',
substantially as and for the purposes described.


72,016.--HARVESTER RAKE.--James H. Glass and Albert J Glass, McGregor,
Iowa.

We claim, 1st, The combination of the wheel, L, with the rake wheel, A
and arms, C, substantially as herein shown and described and for the
purpose set forth.

2d, The combination of the cam, O, and bent or crooked lever, M,
with the shaft N, of the gear wheel, L, and with the arm, I, rigidly
connected with the switch, F, substantially as herein shown and
described and for the purpose set forth.


72,017.--METHOD OF MOLDING PLASTIC MATERIAL.--Wm. B, Gleason, Boston,
Mass.

I claim the process substantially as and for the purposes specified.


72,018.--HAND CULTIVATOR.--Wm. C. Goodwin, Hampden, Conn.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the frame, C, with frame, G, and the
set screws, x and y, and binding screw, f, when they are constructed,
arranged, and fitted for adjusting the blades, substantially as herein
described and set, forth.

2d, The combination of the blade with the foot and shank, when the foot
is made with a keel, like v, to guide the blade and strengthen the
shank, substantially as herein described and set forth.

3d, The combination of the handle, D, with the frame, G, when the handle
is made adjustable by means of the tongue, h, and set screw, j, and the
whole is constructed, combined, and fitted for use substantially as
herein described and set forth.


72,019.--APPARATUS FOR MAKING DIPPED CANDLES.--Peter R. Gottstein,
Houghton, Mich.

I claim, 1st, The combination and arrangement, substantially as
described, of the weighted cistern, B, car, A, and straps, C, for the
purpose set forth.

2d, The combination of the cistern, B, car, A, and track, I,
substantially as and for the purpose described.

3d, The combination and arrangement of the slab or board, J, with the
weighted cistern, B, substantially as and for the purpose described.

4th, The new process of producing dipped candles by raising the molten
tallow or other liquid to the wicks, substantially as described.


72,020.--CORN SHELLER.--Joseph Gould, Grinnell, Iowa.

I claim the roller, C, having its teeth placed upon its face in
the manner herein described, and placed within the box between the
stationary board, b, and adjustable board, F, by means of its curved
springs or oblong slot, when used in combination with metallic inclined
plane, E, and hopper, B, with false bottom, as herein set forth.


72,021.--KNIFE CLEANER.--Lewis Goulding, Medfield, assignor to himself
and James E. Carpenter, Foxborough, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The combination in an implement for scouring knives, of
the bar, B, with its adjustable pad, g, arranged for operation as and
for the purposes herein shown and described.

2d, Also in combination with the board or tablet, A, the bar, B,
provided with the scouring pad, g, and pivoted to such board, and
operating with its upper surface, or upon an inclined bed formed
thereon, essentially as herein set forth and explained.

3d, Also the combination with the bar, B, and its pad, of the knife
bed and the enclosure for holding and receiving the scouring material,
arranged relatively to each other and to the bar, B, as herein shown and
set forth.


72,022.--FENCE POST.--David M. Graham, Evansville, Ind.

I claim, 1st, The construction of double portable fence posts, attached
by metallic bevel clasps, with flanges, slots, and tongues, and secured
by keys, substantially in the manner and for the purposes as herein
described and shown.

2d, The adjustable anchors or braces attached by metallic eyes and key,
and the combination of the feet of the posts and base, substantially in
the manner and for the purposes as herein described.


72,023.--STEAM GAGE.--Albert S. Greene (assignor to John F. Olmsted),
Washington, D.C.

I claim, 1st, The construction of a steam gage with two columns
of mercury, A and F, communicating with each other at their lower
extremities by means of the flexible diaphragms, c and d. and the solid
double-headed lifter C, substantially in the manner and for the purpose
as herein set forth.

2d, The solid double headed lifter, C, in combination with the flexible
diaphragms, c and d, and the primary and secondary reservoirs,
substantially in the manner and for the purpose as herein set forth.

3d, The transmission of the pressure of steam from one column to the
other by means of a solid double headed lifter, in combination with the
flexible diaphragms, c and d, substantially in the manner and for the
purpose as herein set forth.

4th, Providing the primary reservoir, I, with the screw plunger, H,
substantially in the manner and for the purpose as herein set forth.


72,024.--MACHINE FOR WALL BUILDING AND STUMP EXTRACTING.--Thomas S.
Greenman, Mystic Bridge, assignor to George W. Packer, Jr., Mystic
River, Conn.

I claim, 1st, The within described novel construction of a truss for a
wall building machine, the same consisting in the pyramidal framing, A B
B, the horizontal timbers, D D, uprights. E F, holding-down bolts G J,
and inclined braces, I H, combined and arranged substantially as and for
the purpose herein set forth.

2d, Also in such truss firmly securing the timbers, D D, to the
pyramidal framing, A B B, by enlarging and bolting, or equivalent
fastenings, at the points of contact, in addition to the truss work
before described, substantially as and for the purpose herein specified.

3d, Also the diagonal arrangement of the holding-down bolts, G, at the
front of my truss, the same being arranged relatively to the timbers, D,
triangular frame, A B B, and their several connections, substantially in
the manner and for the purpose herein set forth.


72,025.--WINDOW SCREEN.--A.W. Griffith, Roxbury, Mass.

I claim the roller cover, E, in combination with the removable screen,
D, spring roller, C, sash, A, and window frame, as herein described for
the purpose specified.


72,026.--FERTILIZER.--Wm.C. Grimes, Ladiesburg, Md.

I claim forming a fertilizer in the manner herein described, of the
ingredients and proportions substantially as specified.


72,027.--CULTIVATOR.--John Gross and John C. Tunison, Decatur, Ill.

We claim, 1st, the arrangement and combined action of the two frames, so
that when any permanent obstruction comes against any of the plows the
frames will disconnect, and the back frame ride or move up on the front
one and thus avoid breakage, substantially as described.

2d, Also a frictional spring hook upon the tongue or tongue frame, for
catching or holding upon a cross bar of the rear frame so that the two
frames will not disconnect until the pressure upon the plow or plows
exceeds that for which the hook has been adjusted, substantially as
described.


72,028.--HOSE SHIELD.--John A. Hasse, Philadelphia, Pa.

I claim the combination of the floor or footway, C, with the side
pieces, b b, of a sectional hose bridge, constructed substantially as
described.


72,029.--SKY ROCKET.--John W. Hadfield, Newtown, N.Y.

I claim the application of detachable wings to a sky rocket, through the
medium of a collar or band, arranged so that the wings may be detached
from the collar or band, or the latter detached from the rocket,
substantially as shown and described.


72,030.--SKY ROCKET.--John W. Hadfield, East Williamsburg, N.Y.

I claim the attachment to a sky rocket of three or more sticks, at equal
distances apart, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set
forth.


72,031.--MACHINE FOR REFITTING CONICAL VALVE.--Chas. F. Hall, Brooklyn,
N.Y.

I claim, last, A milling tool with one or more cutters attached to one
or more arms or longitudinal sections of a cone, whether straight
or oblique, whereby conical valves of different sizes may refitted,
constructed substantially as shown and described.

2d, In combination therewith, the yielding center, C, substantially as
described.


72,032.--COLLECTING OXIDE OF ZINC.--Geo.C. Hall, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, A building, structure, or compartment, A, provided with
openings, a, covered by screens, B, substantially as and for the purpose
set forth,

2d, A screen for separating the oxide of zinc from the fumes and gases
of burning zinc ore, composed of ground cork, hair, wool, sponge, or
other suitable or similar material, confined within a suitable chamber,
substantially as set forth.


72,033.--REGISTER FOR ODOMETERS.--Henry F. Hart, New York City.

I claim the arrangement in an inclined position of the counting wheels,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, upon shafts of equal lengths, in combination with
the notched and perforated lid, B, as herein shown and described.


72,034.--NECKTIE.--Wm.H. Hart, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa.

I claim a bow or tie, A, having an elastic loop or cord, B, arranged
horizontally at its rear, with both of its ends free, for the purpose
substantially as described.


72,035.--ELLIPTIC CARRIAGE SPRING.--Horace R. Hawkins, Akron. Ohio.

I claim an elliptical carriage spring composed of a single piece, F, or
two separate pieces, E E, of steel, united by means of blocks and bolts,
substantially as herein shown and specified.


72,038.--HATCH-LINING DRAWINGS.--E.K. Haynes, Hanover, N.H.

I claim a straight-edge or scale having a mechanism for effecting an
intermittent movement of the same, substantially as described.

Also in combination therewith the tongue, q, tor angular lining,
substantially as described.

Also in combination with the feed mechanism, a mechanism for presenting
the straight edge in positions radiating from a center, substantially as
set forth.


72,037.--PLATFORM SCALE.--D. Hazzard, Milton, Del.

I claim the Hollow stand, A, the spindle, C, the springs, D, the
elastic rod, G, and the graduated plate, H, in combination and arranged
substantially as shown and described tor the purposes set forth.


72,038.--PIANO LOCK.--Adam Helmstaedter, Newark, N.J.

I claim the pin, a, secured in the oscillating hook, C, and catching in
a slot in the hook, C', substantially as and tor the purpose described.


72,039.--TWEER.--John B. Himberg, Frederick City, Md.

I claim a tweer consisting of the box, A, annular cover, C, with a
convex under side, and of the removable ring, E, from which the concave
plate, F, is suspended, all made and operating substantially as herein
shown and described.


72,040.--LAMP FOR BURNING PETROLEUM.--James Hinks and Joseph Hinks,
Birmingham, England.

We claim, 1st, Constructing the burners of the said lamps substantially
in the manner hereinbefore described and illustrated in figs. 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, and 6, of the accompanying drawings, that is to say, the
combination in the same burner, of two or more flat or curved wick cases
or holders, in which two or more flat wicks are placed, so as to produce
thereby two or more flat flames or elliptical of nearly circular flames.

2d, Constructing and arranging the shade holders or galleries of the
said lamps for the purpose of admitting air to the flames, substantially
in the manner hereinbefore described, and illustrated in figs. 7, 11, 12
13 and 14, of the accompanying drawings.

3d, Supporting the shade holders or galleries in a vase, or cup on the
top of the pillar of the lamp, and supplying air to the lamp through
the said pillar or vase, or supporting them in a cup or vase without
a pillar, the air in this case being supplied through the vase,
substantially in the manner hereinbefore described, and illustrated in
fig. 7 of the accompanying drawings.

4th, The improvement described and illustrated in figs. 11, 12, 13, and
14, of the accompanying drawings, for isolating the shade from the shade
holder or gallery.

5th, The arrangement or combination of the parts of punkah-protectors or
wind protectors, substantially in the manner hereinbefore described, and
illustrated in figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, and 16, of the accompanying
drawings.


72,041.--DEVICE FOR LASHING AND BINDING.--John M. Hirlinger, Red Rock,
Pa.

I claim the cord, A, provided with the links, B and C, hooked lever, D,
and slide, E, with its ring, a, arranged and used as and for the purpose
set forth.


72,042.--TOOL FOR OPENING FRUIT CANS.--Horace Holt, New York city.

I claim, 1st, A tool for opening sheet metal cans, composed of a hand
lever, B, carrying a tooth, c, and connected to tongs, A, or other
equivalent means, capable of clamping said tooth-carrying lever to the
can, as set forth.

2d, Placing the tooth, c, in an oblique direction, when the same is
used in combination with the hand lever, B, and clamping device A,
substantially as and for the purpose described.

3d, The raised bearing, d, in combination with the lever, B, and
clamping device, A, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.


72,043.--MOP WRINGER.--Zadok Howe, Lowell, Mich.

I claim the treadle, G, and spring bail, E, in combination with the
rollers, B and C, the same being used as and for the purpose specified.


72,044.--MACHINE FOR MAKING EYELETS.--David K. Hoxsie, Providence, R.I.

I claim the combination of the eyelet forming punch, C, the eyelet
forming die, e, and the punch, G, arranged and operating substantially
as herein described, for the purpose set forth.

Also, in combination with the eyelet forming punch, J, and cutting
punch, H, as described, the spring or snapper, g, arranged and operating
substantially as described, for the purpose specified.


72,045.--RAILWAY SLEEPING CAR.--George W. Hunt, Hopkinton, Mass.

I claim the construction and arrangement of the backs of car seats, by
which the whole of some of the backs, and parts of others, are formed
into berths, in connection with adjacent seats, substantially as
described.

Also, the combination of the leaves, n, p, and q, hinged as shown, and
to fold together, for a day car, or to be extended and made into a berth
for a night car, substantially as described.


72,046.--HARVESTER.--George M. Jackson, North Hector, N.Y.

I claim the arrangement and combination of the toothed wheels, S and
T, crank, U, box, W, of the hinged frame, V, adjustable finger bar, J,
hoisting rope or chain, Y, and lever, Z, when constructed and operated
as herein described and for the purposes set forth.


72,047.--REVERSIBLE SADIRON.--S.M. Johnson, Lockport, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, The combination, with a reversible sadiron, A, of the
hollow handle, C, forming a reservoir, i, the pipe, D, leg, l, and set
screw, H, or equivalent, arrranged and operating substantially in the
manner and for the purpose set forth.

2d, Also, in combination therewith, the pipe, E, provided with burner,
e, cone, G, and stop-cock, F, arranged and operating substantially as
specified.


72,048.--BOOT AND SHOE.--William Keats, and John Keats, Street, England.

We claim the construction of coverings for the feet, substantially
hereinbefore set forth, that is so say, with the sole cut at the edge,
and sewed to the edge of the upper while turned outward, substantially
as described.


72,049.--MUFF.--M.A. King, New York city.

I claim a muff provided with the skeleton spring frame B, made in
sections, for the purpose of sustaining its cylindrical form, and
adapting it for use as a reticule or pocket, substantially as shown and
described.


72,050.--HORSE HAY FORK.--Alfred Knapp, North Fairfield, Ohio.

I claim the hinged chisel, c, in combination with the main piece, A,
rod, B, brace piece, G, and holder, D, constructed substantially as
described, and for the purposes set forth.


72,051.--FIFTH WHEEL FOR CARRIAGES.--Joshua Lawrence, Palmyra, N.Y.

I claim the combination of the housings, a a, inclosing the rollers, b
b, with the bows, G H, the whole conducted and arranged as described,
and operating in the manner and for the purpose set forth.


72,052.--WASHING-MACHINE.--J.Q. Leffingwell, Nevada, Iowa.

I claim the combination of the semi-cylindrical box, D, segment, W,
pinion

P, parts, m m', lever, H, and ribs, r, as herein described, for the
purpose specified.


72,053.--DOOR-FASTENER.--Francis C. Levaliey, Warnerville, N.Y.

I claim the sliding wedge bolt, F, in combination with the sliding
spring catch, K, and cases, E J, as herein described, for the purpose
specified.


72,054.--CONDENSING ENGINE.--William A. Lighthall, New York city.

I claim the arrangement of the ordinary jet condenser, B, air pump, D,
and hot well, E, with the surface condenser, F, and the valves, H K, and
L, as shown and described, so that the change from the use of the jet
condenser can be made at will, and _vice versa_,


73,055.--MACHINE FOR FORMING AND TEMPERING ELLIPTIC SPRINGS.--Geo. S.
Long, Bridgeport, Ct.

I claim, 1st, A steel spring former, substantially as shown and
described, and for the purposes set forth.

2d, The vibrating rod, B, and shoe, f', and any former, F, in
combination with the slotted wheel, W, and roller, W', substantially as
shown and described, and for the purpose set forth.

3d, The hollow shaft, s', and roller, W, in combination with the binder
or presser, D, substantially as shown and described, and for the
purposes set forth.

4th, The sliding crank pin, p, in combination with the slotted wheel, W,
and slotted vibrating rod, B, substantially as shown and described, and
for the purposes set forth.


72,056.--FURNACE FOR HOT AIR BLAST.--Richard Long, Chillicothe, Ohio.

I claim, 1st, Constructing the air pipe of a furnace-blast heater of
fire clay, substantially as described.

2d, Constructing the air pipe of an oval or other equivalent form, and
uniting the sections of which it is composed by socket joints, with
clumps and keys, substantially as shown and described.

3d, Forming the supporting walls, B, of firebrick, with iron plates
between the courses, substantially as shown and described,

4th, Placing an open or a solid plate beneath the air pipe,
substantially as and for the purposes herein described.


72,057.--CLOTHES RACK.--Eugene F. Lyman, Indianapolis, Ind.

I claim the combination and arrangement of the semi-circular racks G and
H, the arms, f and c, the sockets and staples for the arms, and the box,
A B C D, all operating substantially as and for the purpose specified.


72,058.--CENTER BOARD FOR VESSELS.--E. J. McFarlin, San Francisco, Cal.

I claim the location of the center boards, or other equivalent devices
for the same specific purpose, in the extreme bow and stern of vessels,
that is to say, the placing of the said boards forward of the foremast
or aft of the mainmast, in two masted vessels, and forward of
the foremast and aft of the mizzen mast in three masted vessels,
substantially as shown and described, and for the objects and purposes
specified.


72,059.--REGISTER POINTS FOR PRINTING PRESS.--E. W. McGowan, New York
city.

I claim, 1st, The pivoted or jointed pointer, B, having a spring or
equivalent weight attached, and arranged to operate in the manner
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

2d, The tube, A, provided with the slotted cap plate, b, and the nut, C,
when used in connection with the pointer, for the purpose specified.


72,060.--ROOFING.--Orville Manly, Garrettsville, Ohio.

I claim, 1st, a roof composed of tiles, a and b, having spaces, S,
between them for a water tight cement, substantially as shown and
described, and for the purposes set forth.

2d, The saturated tiles, a, and the saturated tiles, b, substantially as
shown and described, and for the purposes set forth.

3d, The lower or outer row of tiles, b, when laid together, forming an
eaves trough, substantially as shown and described, and for the purpose
set forth.


72,061.--REFINING CAST IRON AND CONVERTING IT INTO STEEL.--Emile Martin
and Pierre E. Martin, Paris, France.

We claim the method and means for refining and converting cast iron
into cast steel and other metals, substantially as herein shown and
described.


72,062.--STRAW CUTTER.--John W. Mauzy, Richmond, and James Hughes,
Cambridge, Ind., assignor to James Hughes.

We claim, 1st, The combination of the side pieces, D D, constructed
as described, containing the bearings for the cutting mechanism, the
shearing bar, B, with square faces, and the spirally bladed knife, C,
arranged substantially as described.

2d, The combination of the perforated rollers, E, ratchet wheels, F,
pawls, H1, i add R, adjustable oscillating arm, G1, eccentric rod, L,
and eccentric, M, respectively, constructed and arranged substantially
as set forth.

3d, The arrangement of the cap, G, rollers, E E, covers, Q, sides
pieces, D D, knife, C, and the driving and the feed mechanism,
constructed and combined substantially as set forth.

4th, The feed rollers E, when constructed from sheet metal, and punched
from the inside, forming projections as shown, for feeding the straw to
the knife.

5th, The metallic side pieces, D D, constructed as described, in
combination with the bar, B, knife, C, feed rollers, E E, arranged
substantially as set forth.

6th, The combination of the eccentric, M, on the knife shaft, eccentric
rod, L, and oscillating arm, G1, when the latter are so arranged as to
regulate the cut by adjusting the point of attachment, substantially in
the manner set forth.


72,063.--CONVERTIBLE SHOT GUN AND RIFLE.--Samuel McCulloch, Yellow
Springs, Ohio.

I claim, 1st, The removable barrel, C, constructed with external
collars, c, and secured within a shot gun barrel, A, by a screw, D,
substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

2d, Also the plug, F, for the purposes set forth.


72,064.--DERRICK.--D. J. McDonald, Gold Hill, Nevada.

I claim, 1st, The derrick standard, L, and frame, K, fitted in the
derrick frame, J, and arranged as shown, for the ready adjustment of the
standard, L.

2d, The fitting of the derrick frame, J, on the wagon frame, as shown,
to wit by means of the circular plate, D, frame, F, and circular plate,
G, with the wheel, E, and pinion, Y, to admit of the ready turning of
the derrick, as set forth.

3d, The supports, D, provided with screws, a, and attached to the frame,
B as shown, in connection with the levels, b, in platform, C, for the
purpose of levelling the device, substantially as described.

4th, The angular platform, C, applied to the wagon, A, when used in
combination with a revolving derrick frame, J, substantially as and for
the purpose specified.


72,065.--AUGERS.--John A. McGee (assignor to Theodore Mace), New York
city.

I claim the boring instrument formed with a cutting edge extending
outwardly from the base of the tapering screw, and curved backwards and
downwards until it intersects the periphery of the tool, as and for the
purposes set forth.


72,066.--DRY DOCK.--Israel J. Merritt, New York city.

I claim, 1st, The arrangement and combination with a floating section or
dock, A, of one or more wells, through which a lifting chain or chains
are passed down to the vessel or object to be raised, substantially as
described.

2d, The arrangement and combination of the lever, J, with the floating
dock or section, A, and chain or chains, C, substantially as described.

3d, The shape of the well, B, the same being made flaring from its top
downwards, so as to allow the chains to go or be conducted from the
mouth of the well directly towards the vessel or object to be raised,
substantially as shown.


72,067.--KNIFE AND FORK CLEANER.--John Merritt, New York city.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the circular disks, D, leather or
equivalent rubbers, K, shaft, A, holding plates, E E', adjusting nut,
G, and adjusting screw, I, with each other and with the box, B,
substantially as herein shown and described, and for the purpose set
forth.

2d, The combination of the friction wheel, O, brush, N, and shaft, L,
with each other, and with the disk, D, and box, B, substantially as
herein shown and described, and for the purpose set forth.

3d, The combination of the lever, M, spring, P, and hook, R, with the
brush shaft, L, and box, B, substantially as herein shown and described,
and for the purpose set forth.


72,068.--MANUFACTURE OF LAMP BLACK.--A. Millochan, New York city,
assignor to R.N. Perlee, Jersey City, N.J.

I claim the method herein specified of manufacturing lamp black by
condensing the carbonaceous vapors upon a surface directly over the
flame, that is constantly kept sufficiently cool by artificial means.


72,069.--CAR BRAKE.--James Mitchell, La Porte, Ind.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the lever, A, rod, B, lever, C, pawls,
D and D1, spring, D2, and ratchet wheel, E, substantially as and for the
purpose set forth.

2d, The combination of the shaft, E3, collar, R, arm, R', collar, S, and
shaft, I, substantially as set forth.

3d, The combination of the shaft, I, spiral collar, U, lever, T, and
arm, R, for disengaging the brakes, substantially as set forth.

4th, The combination of the ratchet bar, P, with the inclined face, P1,
and catch lever, G, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

5th, The combination of the ratchet bar, P, with its shoulder, P2, and
the lever, T, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.


72,070.--AUTOMATIC TABLE FOR TEACHING.--Hannah Munson, Rockford, Ill.,
administratrix of the estate of Wm. C. Munson, deceased.

I claim the combination of the frame, A, with its pivoted pointers, C C,
and hooks, e e, and movable bars, B B, with pointers and charts, D, as
constructed, the whole being arranged and used substantially as and for
the purpose specified.


72,071.--HYDRANT.--John G. Murdock, Cincinnati, Ohio.

I claim, 1st, The hollow plunger, E, having the interior valve, I, and
sleeve packing, F, which respectively close and encircle the supply and
waste pipe, B, as and for the purpose set forth.

2d, In combination with the supply and waste pipe, B, and valve, I, the
vertically adjustable hollow plunger, E, for the object stated.

3d, The adjustable shoulder or lock nut, J, in combination and
arrangement with the elements, B, D, I and E.

4th, The arrangement of internally packed plunger, E, which surrounds
and packs a vertical supply pipe, B, having one or more waste ways,
D, and being enclosed within and guided by a cup, C, substantially as
described.


72,072.--CLEANER FOR LAMP CHIMNEYS.--R.B. Musson, Champaign, Ill.

I claim a cleaner for lamp chimneys, bottles, and other articles of a
similar character, consisting of strips of rubber, or other soft elastic
substance, secure to a holder, and arranged in manner and for the
purposes substantially above set forth and described.


72,073.--BOOT AND SHOE HEEL.--Erastus Newhall, Lynn, assignor to himself
and John R. Moffitt, Chelsea, Mass.

I claim a heel made with a circular thread and a corresponding seat,
when one or both of the two parts are made of elastic material, and are
united substantially as described.


72,074.--PORTABLE HOT AIR CONDUCTOR.--John B. Oldershaw, Baltimore, Md.

I claim a portable hot air receiver and conductor, constructed, arranged
and operating in connection with a stove, for the purpose of heating
apartments above it, substantially as described.


72,075.--VINE HOLDER.--Garret J. Olendorf and Albert O. Parshall,
Middlefield, N.Y.

We claim, 1st, The frame, A, constructed as described and set forth, for
the purpose specified.

2d. The cord, B, combined with and supported by frame, A, as described
and set forth, for the purpose specified.


72,076.--BREECH-LOADING FIRE-ARMS.--Henry O. Peabody (assignor to the
Providence Tool Company), Providence, R.I.

I claim combining the breech block, A, hinged at its posterior
extremity, and operating as described, with the hammer, D, by means of
the protuberant inclined plane, C, or its equivalent, substantially as
described for the purposes specified.


72,077.--RAILWAY CROSSINGS.--Stanhope Perkins, Fairfield, England.

I claim forming the points or V-parts of crossings, without splice, by
bending the rail, prepared as above described, back upon itself, and
securing the abutting parts in the manner and for the purpose above set
forth.


72,078.--MANUFACTURE OF LAMP BLACK.--R.N. Perlee, Jersey City, N.J.

I claim the method herein specified of manufacturing lamp black, by
introducing atmospheric air to the flame, by artificial means, for the
purposes set forth.


72,079.--AXLE BOX.--Henry B. Pitner, La Porte, Ind.

I claim, 1st, An axle box, substantially as shown and described, and for
the purpose set forth.

2d, The sleeve or thimble, A, in combination with the end pieces, B,
substantially as shown and described, and for the purposes set forth.

3d, The shoulder, a1, and the shoulder, a2, in combination with the
sleeve A, and end pieces, B, substantially as shown and described, and
for the purposes set forth.


72,080.--RAILWAY CHAIR.--Leander Pollock, (assignor to himself and John
P. Schenck, Jr.), Matteawan, N.Y.

I claim 1st, A railroad-chair which is divided by an inclined line drawn
through the base, into two parts, A and B, each part carrying one of the
cheeks, and all made and operating substantially as herein shown and
described.

2d, Interposing an elastic plate, g, between the edge of the upper base,
d, and the stationary cheek, a, substantially as and for the purpose
herein shown and described.


72,081.--VENTILATING HAY-MOWS.--Geo. Race, Norwich, N.Y.

I claim making vertical perforated pipes, having lateral branches
extending out from the main pipe for the purpose of ventilating
hay-mows, and stacks of hay or grain, substantially as herein set forth.


72,082.--PNEUMATIC CAR.--Louis Ransom, Lansingburg, N.Y.

I claim in combination with a pneumatic car, a series of metal cylinders
for containing compressed air, the said cylinders being connected by
pipes, so as to form one common reservoir substantially as described.

2d, I also claim the combination, with a stove for warming the car, or
other heating apparatus, a conducting pipe, for the compressed air, so
located with reference to the stove or other heating apparatus that the
compressed air in passing through it will become heated, and have its
expansive power increased thereby, substantially as described.

3d, I also claim the compound flexible pipe, constructed substantially
as described.

4th, I also claim the muffler, D, for the purpose of deadening the sound
of the escaping air as described.


72,083.--MACHINE FOR SHARPENING SAWS.--E.B. Rich, (assignor to himself
and Andre Cashing), Boston, Mass.

I claim the sliding holder, B. and adjustable rail, C, in combination
with the grinding wheel, D, constructed and arranged to operate as
herein described, for the purpose specified.

72.084.--AUTOMATIC REGISTER.--J.T. Buckley, Ottawa, Ill. administrator
of the estate of Stephen Rigler, deceased.

I claim 1st, Operating a register slide so as to regulate the
temperature of apartments, by means of a column of mercury within a
tube, which is arranged within the register itself and acts upon said
slide through the means substantially as described.

2d, The combination of an index hand, B, with a register arranged and
operated by a column of mercury within a tube, which is arranged within
the register itself, substantially as described.

3d, The combination with a circular turning register slide, B, of
mercury pipe, G', piston rod, g1, cross head, g, toothed lever, F,
spur wheel, d, and shaft, b, arranged, constructed and operating
substantially as described.


72,085.--SHOVEL PLOW, CULTIVATOR, ETC.--P.A. Ross, Harveys, Pa.

I claim 1st, The combination of the notched rack, E, and removable pin,
F, with the pivoted or rocking cross-bar, C, and slotted standard, B,
substantially as herein shown and described and for the purpose set
forth.

2d, Connecting the forward ends of the handles, D, to the beam, A, by
means of the hook or eye-bolt, G, and pivoted bar or plate, H, when used
in connection with the pivoted or rocking cross bar, C, and pin, F,
substantially as herein shown and described and for the purpose set
forth.


72,086.--FENCE POST.--Robert Ramsey, New Wilmington, Pa.

I claim the fence-post, P P' P", having dove-tail gains at its lower
end, in combination with the parallel slits, A A', and the keys, e e e
e, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth.


72,087.--CHURN.--J.A. Rowley, Vanceburg, Ky.

I claim the arrangement substantially as described of the driving wheel,
C, shafts, c c', spring, D, notched bracket, E e. and friction pulley, F
G, for the purpose of imparting a rotary motion to the dasher shaft, f,
in the manner herein described and set forth.


72,088.--STEAM TRAP.--David Saunders, Brooklyn, N.Y. assignor to Jos.
Nason & Co., New York city.

I claim 1st, The arrangement of the central part, C, of the cover and
main cover, B, substantially as herein set forth.

2d, The arrangement of the stop-joint between the floating part and
the fixed part of the apparatus, whereby to avoid the clogging by
accumulations of dirt as specified.

3d, The arrangement of the tubes E and H, the tube, H, being mounted
upon the floating part, substantially as herein specified.


72,089.--DOOR SPRING.--Rudolph Schrader, Indianapolis, Ind.

I claim 1st, The door-spring, constructed as described, consisting of
the hollow socket, F, placed over the square shank of the door arm: and
provided with the right angular arm, J, sleeve, E, to which the inner
end of the coiled spring, D, is securely fastened, fitting at or
alternating upon the socket, F, and provided with the right angular arm,
I, resting against the post, H, in the case, A, the free end, G, of the
spring resting against the opposite side of said post, all operating as
described for the purpose specified.

2d, The spring, D, operated by means of the right angular arm, J, of the
hollow shank, F, engaging with the outer end, G, of the spring when the
door moves in one direction, and when moving in the opposite direction
engaging with the arm, I, of the sleeve, E, to which the inner end
of the spring is secured substantially as described for the purpose
specified.

3d, The combination and arrangement within the case, A, of the spring,
D, hollow socket, F, having arm, J, sleeve, E, having arm, I, post, H,
and hook, G, operating as described for the purpose specified.


72,090.--POLE COUPLING FOR VEHICLES.--Anson Searls, N.Y. city.

I claim the circular joints, B B, and the arrangement of the ratchet
teeth, K K, springs, D D, and bolts, E E, in combination with the arm,
A, substantially as described and for the purposes set forth.


72,091.--CARRIAGE.--Anson Searls, San Francisco, Cal.

I claim, 1st, The axle composed of the steel bars, d and g, attached, as
herein described.

2d, The clip b, passing around under the axle, with its ends fastened
to the plate a, on the rocker, both before and behind the axle,
substantially as described.


72,092.--STEAM ENGINE.--George Shale, Taunton, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The steam-chest, B, constructed with the chambers, gh,
and partition, p, in combination with the steam and exhaust pipes, and
cylinder, a, substantially as described.

2d, The valve-rods, i i', provided with the recesses or chambers, k k,
in combination with the partition, p, constructed as described, and
operated by the lever, l, as and for the purpose set forth.


72,093.--FERRULE.--Archibald Shaw, Philadelphia, Pa.

I claim a ferrule, provided internally, or at its inner side, with
oblique spurs or projections, substantially as and for the purpose
specified.


72,094.--FENCE POST.--Warren H. Shay, Sylvania, Ohio.

I claim the plank standards, B B, joined by the pins, a a, the braces, A
A, and the cross-piece, C, combined and secured by the dove-tail tenons,
o b, the gib and key, c d, and the keys, g g, substantially as and for
the purpose herein shown and described.


72,095.--TABULAR HEATER.--C.J.Shepard, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the grate, E, ash-pit, D, and
combustion-chamber, C, with the slide-valve, I, for the purposes
indicated.

2d, The slide-valve at the junction of the upper and under front flue,
for the purposes described.

3d, The upper front flue covered externally with a non-conducting lining
as a portion of the combustion-chamber.

4th, The corrugated tubular externally-flanged chamber, provided with an
incombustible termination, constructed and operating substantially as
shown for the purposes pointed out.

5th, A semi-cylindrical reverberating chamber of combustion, when
combined with a flue and a series of tubes, for the purposes specified.

6th, A feeding-chamber in combination with an arched chamber of
combustion and the abutments for properly distributing the fuel upon the
grate.

7th, Constructing the bed-plate or grate-plate in such a manner that the
same shall form a support for the grate and brick-work of the chamber of
combustion, as well as the bed of the front flue.

8th, The division-plate, in combination with a series of tubes, for the
purposes fully described.


72,096.--WINDOW-SASH SUPPORTER.--J.W.Simpson, Newark, N.J.

I claim the lever, d, and wedge, b, constructed, combined, and operated
substantially in the manner and for the purpose hereinabove set forth.

Also, the socket, m, with its ratch, n, and the catch, i, on the lever,
d, in combination with the lever and wedge, in the manner and for the
purpose specified.


72,097.--STAKE-HOLDER FOR RAILROAD CARS.--Thomas A. Slack, Peoria
county, Ill.

I claim the combination of revolving staple, stakes, and divisional
"coal sides." as described and for the purpose set forth.


72,098.--EXCAVATOR.--Benjamin Slusser, Sidney, Ohio, assignor to himself
and Elias M. Gluck, same place.

I claim, 1st, The method of elevating or adjusting the plough of an
excavator by the rotary motion of the forward axle, derived from the
forward wheels by means of the clutches, a' a', substantially as and for
the purposes set forth.

2d, In combination with the above, the plough, P, racks, r r, and
pinion, a, when the latter is fixed to the axle, and operates to raise
the plough by power derived from the axle, substantially as and for the
purpose specified.

3d, The combination of the rocking cart, C, gear, e e'e", apron, B, and
plough, P, when the parts are so constructed and arranged that by the
raising or depressing of the plough, the wheels, e e', shall be
thrown into or out of gear, and the apron put in motion or stopped,
substantially as and for the purpose specified.

4th. The combination of the looped rods, w w w, with the arms, v v v,
doors, m m' m", and lever, 1", substantially as and for the purpose
specified.

5th, The lips or projections, o o, of the doors, m m' m", substantially
as and for the purposes set forth.

6th. The combination of the rod, u, lever, l', spring, s, trigger,
n, doors, m m' m", having the lips, o o o, rod, y', and hook, y,
substantially as and for the purposes specified.


72,099.--AUGER HANDLE.--Daniel Y. Smith, Joliet, Ill.

I claim the combination of the ferrule, a, with the annular nut, e, and
flat spring, c, when constructed and arranged as and for the purposes
set forth.


72,100.--MACHINE FOR SHARPENING SAWS.--J.B.Smith, Milwaukee, Wis.

I claim cutter, B, gauge, E, and adjustable cone-mandrel, D, in
combination, substantially as and for the purpose described.


72,101.--RAISING OILS AND BURNING-FLUIDS BY PNEUMATIC PRESSURE.--John
Henry Smith, Allegheny city, Pa.

I claim raising, by pneumatic pressure, oils or burning-fluids from an
oil or fluid compartment of a ship or other vessel, and mixing with said
oil and fluid the gas generated therefrom, as herein described and set
forth.

Also, the combination and arrangement of the pipes, A B C f and f', when
used in connection with the oil or fluid compartment, R, of a ship or
other vessel, the whole being constructed, arranged, and operating
substantially in the manner hereon described and set forth.

Also, in connection with the above, ejecting fine jets of water into the
flame, caused by the burning of the oil or fluid and other matter mixed
therewith, as herein described and set forth.


72,102.--SHIP FOR TRANSPORTING PETROLEUM.--John H. Smith, Allegheny
city, Pa.

I claim, providing the hulls of ships and other vessels with a
compartment for oils and burning fluids, said compartment being
protected with water, and furnished with supply and discharge pipes,
substantially as herein described and for the purpose set forth.


72,103.--DEVICE FOR SHEARING AND CLIPPING WOOL.--R.T.Smith and
J.K.Priest, Nashua, N.H.

I claim, 1st, The revolving spring cutter or cutters, O, in connection
with a cutter-plate.

2d, The open cutter-plate, P.

3d, The shield, N, in connection with the cylinder, C, covering shaft,
M, and extending into groove, g, substantially in the manner and for the
purpose herein described.


72,104.--CORN PLOUGH.--John Snyder, Williamsfield, Ohio.

I claim the combination of the tongue, H, strap, L, and upright, K, with
the forward end of the central beam, A, substantially as herein shown
and described, and for the purpose set forth.


72,105.--BOOT-HEEL POLISHER.--V.K.Spear, Lynn, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The reciprocating polisher, moving in the line of an arc
of a circle, by means of mechanism substantially as herein described,
and having an elastic bearing, as and for the purpose set forth.

2d, In combination with a reciprocating polisher, substantially as
described, I claim the pivoted sliding frame to support the boot or shoe
constructed, arranged, and operating substantially as set forth.


72,106.--MEANS FOR PROPELLING VESSELS.--Robt.R. Spedden and Daniel F.
Stafford, Astoria, Oregon.

We claim, 1st, The combination of the rack-frame, K, racks, I and J, and
ratchet wheel, H, with each other and with a shaft, D, for the purpose
of applying power to said shaft, substantially as herein shown and
described.

2d, The combination of the stationary post, O, pitman, N, rocking-post,
M, and adjusting slide, L, with each other, with the rack frame, K, and
with the hinged parts of a vessel or other structure, one or both of
said hinged parts floating in the water, so as to be acted upon by the
motion of the waves, substantially as herein shown and described.


72,107.--CULTIVATOR.--C.E.Steller, Chicago, Ill.

I claim, 1st, The hinged runners, J W, substantially as and for the
purpose set forth.

2d, The slotted sides, A A and B B, in combination with the shanks, C D
E, arranged to be set at different angles, and fastened by set-screws, Z
Z, as described.

3d, The combination of the guide-bar, E, arranged to be raised and
lowered, with rear standards, H H, and sides, A A B B, as described.

4th, The combination of standards, G G, hinged runners, J W, and sides,
A A B B, as set forth.

5th, The shanks, U, of shovel, T, arranged to fit in a socket, V, and
bar, S, in combination with standards, G G, and cross-bar, I, as and for
the purpose set forth.

6th, The double evener, L, arranged substantially as set forth.

7th, The double evener, L, in combination with braces, O O and P P, with
or without braces, Y, substantially as set forth.


72,108.--EYE CUP.--Benj. F. Stephens, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim a pair of bowls, united by tubes or necks to an exhaustion-bag
or ball, as and for the purposes set forth.


72,109.--HARVESTER RAKE.--Edward Stewart, Fort Madison, Iowa.

I claim the arrangement of the shafts, D E and G, with their respective
wheels, crank, I, and pitman, J, with its dividing end, J', connecting
the arms, e e, upon the box, K', at the end of shaft, K, the whole
constructed and operating substantially as and for the purposes
specified.


72,110.--STREET PAVEMENT.--H. M. Stow, San Francisco, Cal.

I claim, 1st, A wooden pavement, composed of alternate tiers of
square-ended and wedge-shaped blocks, the wedge-shaped ends of the
latter being driven down into a foundation-bed of sand or earth,
substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, A wooden pavement, composed of blocks with lower ends wedge-formed,
and all driven down into a foundation-bed of sand or earth,
substantially as shown and described.


72,111.--STREET PAVEMENT.--H. M. Stow, San Francisco, Cal.

I claim, 1st, The cast iron plates, with projecting wedge-shaped flanges
to be driven into the sand or earth, substantially as and for the
purpose set forth.

2d, Also, a pavement composed of alternate tiers of cast iron plates,
with projecting wedge-shaped flanges and wedge-shaped wooden blocks,
driven into the sand and earth, substantially as described.


72,112.--WASHING MACHINE.--John D Swartz, Milton, Pa

I claim, 1st, The slotted aims, g, bearing the shaft, D, and rubber, C,
when such arms are connected at their lower ends by the slotted bar, E,
through which the spring, G, passes as herein described for the purpose
specified.

2d, The combination of the semi-circular rubber, C, slotted arms, g,
shaft, D, slotted cross-bar, E, spirally grooved rollers, d, in the
curved frames, B, the spring, G, and rack, H, as herein described for
the purpose specified.


72,113.--PORTABLE FENCE.--G. D. Sweigert, Martic township, Pa., assignor
to himself, John Sweigert and Felix W. Sweigert.

I claim a portable fence, combined of round wrought-iron posts, C,
bed-plate, A, rails, B, scarfed, and applied with intervening ferrules,
D, head and bottom washers, F, all arranged in the manner and for the
purpose specified.


72,114.--VARIABLE CRANK FOR BORING MACHINE.--G. C. Taft, Worcester,
Mass., assignor to Theodore Mace, Sing Sing, N.Y.

I claim the two variable cranks, constructed as specified, and applied
in the manner shown, to the shaft or axis of the boring machine, as and
for the purposes set forth.


72,115.--ROTARY TAKE-UP FOR KNITTING MACHINE.--James Teachout,
Waterford, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, The stationary scroll plate, C, placed over the center of
motion of take-up of knitting machines, for the purpose described.

2d, Also, in combination with the scroll plate, C, the toothed gear, D,
for the purpose herein set forth.

3d, Also, the toothed wheel, D, or its equivalent, either separately, or
combined with the described appendages e i g i K, arranged as shown and
described as operating substantially in the manner and for the purpose
specified.

4th, Also, in combination with the above, the adjustable gear, s, and
concentric gears, s', for the purpose described.


72,116.--KNITTING MACHINE.--James Teachout, Waterford, N.Y.

I claim 1st, Forming the "jacks" or loop-lifters, B, with a projecting
are, f, and depressed arc, g, for the purposes set forth.

2d, n combination with the arc, f, and arch, g, the rounded end, as
shown and described.

3d, In combination with the described knitting jacks, a retaining hub or
device, constructed and arranged as shown and described.

72117,--KNITTING MACHINE--James Teachout, Waterford, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, The vertically adjustable collars or rings, G and H, for
the purposes described.

2d, In combination with the collars, G and H, the partitions or wings,
k, and groove, l, as set forth.

3d, In combination with the adjustable collars, G and H, wings, k, and
groove, l, the "jacks" or lifters, M, formed as shown and described, for
the purpose specified.


72,118.--MANUFACTURING ILLUMINATING GAS.--J. B. Terry, Hartford, Conn.

I claim, 1st, The method herein described of heating air charged with
hydrocarbon vapor, so as to render it non-condensable previous to its
delivery as an illuminating gas, for the purposes set forth.

2d, The employment of a retort or other heating medium interposed
between the carbureter and gas holder or other gas-delivering or
gas-burning device, substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

3d, The employment of one or more burners under the retort or vessel,
for the purpose of heating the same under the arrangement herein shown
and described.

4th, The combination, with the carbureting vessel and intermediate
heater, of a jacket under or around the sand carbureter, and a flue
connecting the jacket with said heater, substantially in the manner and
for the purposes set forth.


72,119.--LOOMS.--S. T. Thomas and J. H. Dolley, Guildford, N.H.

We claim, in combination with the lever, g, arranged to operate as set
forth, the incline, n, or its equivalent, for relieving the picker from
the action of the spring, i, to permit free movement of the shuttle
boxes, substantially as set forth.


72,120.--GATE.--John W. Thompson, Greenfield, Mass.

I claim a gate, made of metallic tubing and connections, substantially
as herein set forth and described.


72,121.--TAIL-PIECE FOR VIOLINS.--James Thoms, South Boston, Mass.

I claim applying a winch to the tail-piece of a violin, substantially as
and for the purpose herein shown and described.


72,122.--FOLDING BEDSTEAD AND CRIB.--R. S. Titcomb, Gloversville, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, A folding bedstead or crib, substantially as shown and
described, and for the purpose set forth.

2d, a rotating bedding-box, A, in combination with the head and
foot-boards of a bedstead or crib, substantially as shown and described,
and for the purpose set forth.

3d, Folding head and foot-boards, composed of the parts, F and C,
substantially as shown and described, and for the purposes set forth.

4th, The swinging sides, A', in combination with the box, A, and the
head and foot-boards, F C, substantially as shown and described, and for
the purposes set forth.


72,123.--STEAM ENGINE.--J. F. Troxel, Bloomsville, Ohio.

I claim, 1st, The construction of the oscillating valve, T, and
arrangement of the openings, S P P', and R, substantially as shown and
described.

2d, Also the arrangement of the piston rods, K and L, operating in one
and the same end of the cylinder, substantially as shown and described.


72,124.--WARDROBE.--Nathan Turner, West Lynn, Mass.

I claim a convertible wardrobe, closet, or bookcase, with swinging
or folding sides, C, and swinging or folding top, A, and bottom, B,
substantially as described and for the purpose set forth.


72,125.--APPARATUS FOR DISTILLING OILS.--Herbert W.C. Tweddle,
Pittsburg, Pa

I claim, 1st, A trough or troughs, having perforations for the passage
of the oil in small quantities and furnished with points near to such
perforations, so as to cause the oil to pass therefrom in drops, or fine
streams, or thin films or layers, over heated pipes or tubes placed
thereunder, when used within a vacuum still, for the purposes
substantially as described.

2d, In a vacuum still for distilling oil, the use of a series or coil
of steam pipe, placed horizontally, one under another, as a series of
evaporating surfaces, substantially as and for the purposes above set
forth.

3d, In a vacuum still for distilling oil, a series or coil of steam jet
pipes, e, in combination with a series or coil of evaporating pipes, a,
substantially as and for the purposes above set forth.

4th, Combining together a series of apparatus, such as hereinbefore
described, for the purpose of procuring a continuous distillation
of petroleum, each member of a series consisting of a vacuum still
containing a coil of steam pipe as evaporating surfaces, and troughs
for the gradual distillation of the oil, in combination with suitable
condensing apparatus, substantially as and and for the purposes
hereinbefore set forth.

5th, A vacuum residnum receiver D, connected to and in combination with
a vacuum still, or a battery of such stills, substantially in the manner
and for the purposes above set forth.


72,126.--DISTILLING HYDROCARBON OILS.--Herbert W. C. Tweddle, Pittsburg,
Pa.

I claim, 1st, In distilling hydrocarbon oils, vaporizing the oil by
causing it to flow in a thin film or layer over the surfaces of a series
of heated pipes in a vacuum still, with or without the application of
superheated steam, substantially as above described.

2d, The application of the process of distillation, hereinbefore
described, to the re-distillation of fire-distilled oils, for the
purpose of producing an oil similar to the refined oil of commerce,
substantially as above set forth.

3d, Securing a continuous and complete distillation of hydrocarbon oils
by causing the oil to flow over the surfaces of a succession of heated
pipes in different vacuum stills, the temperature of such pipes
increasing in each successive still, so as to drive off at first more
volatile ingredients, and then those less so, and so on till only the
residuum remains, substantially as hereinbefore described.


72,127.--GRAIN DRILL.--Joseph G. Yale, Cumberland Co, Pa.

I claim the quarti-elliptical shovel, B, with its base, E E', coming to
a point at E, the rod, C, the rod, H, with thereon the balls, D and D',
together with the funnel, A, all constructed and operating in the manner
and for the purpose described.


72,128.--WINDOW-SASH STOP.--George R. Vanderbilt (assigner to himself,
J. J. Lindstrom, and D. W. Stidolph), Mount Vernon, N.Y.

I claim, 1st, The two clamping plates, and the tightening bolt, combined
and operated substantially as and for the purpose specified.

2d, The springs, arranged in relation to the plates, c d, substantially
as and for the purpose specified.


72,129.--MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.--George W. van Dusen, Williamsburg, N.Y.

I claim the combination and arrangement of lever, V, with finger piece,
Y, at one end and stud, b, at the other valve, G, and air passage, E,
closed by a flexible diaphragm, K, substantially as herein described,
and for the purpose of producing, by means of air, an action upon any
suitable sound-producing mechanism through the movement of a sheet or
strip perforated, or in any other eqivalent manner prepared.


72,130.--WATER INDICATOR FOR BOILERS.--Andreas Vang, Chicago, Ill.

I claim the arrangement of the globe, a, arm, b, cylinder, c, indicator,
f, and whistle, g, substantially as herein set forth.


72,131.--HORSE HAY FORK.--Oliver Vanorman, Ripon, Wis.

I claim the arrangement of the fork heads, B B', in the frame, A, and
with the arms, C C', rollers, e e, and cords, D D, as and for the
purpose set forth.


72,132.--WASHING MACHINE.--Lewis Vaughan, Rapids, O.

I claim the adjustable bottom, B, and spring lever, I, as arranged
in combination with the roller, C, in the manner substantially as
described.


72,133.--HAY RAKER AND LOADER.--Albert Vose, Pittsfield, assignor to
himself and Ambros S. Vose, Randolph, Vt.

I claim, 1st, the fork arm, b, hinged or pivoted to the frame in line
with the axle, and operated by means of friction blocks, as described.

2d, The friction blocks, d, in combination with fork arm, b, and
eccentric levers, e, arranged as described.

3d, The fork arms, b, in combination with the freely-swiveling fork bar,
o, operated as described.

4th, The forks, q, pivoted in swiveling bar, o, and operated by means of
levers, v, and rods, cords, or chains, substantially as described.

5th, The levers, v, mounted on fork bars or arms, b, in combination with
the fork, q, substantially as described.

6th, The combination of forks, q, spring, t, chains, w, and levers, v,
with the fork arm, b, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

7th, The means for opening and closing the lifting forks in combination
with a means for operating the friction blocks, or their equivalent,
whereby they are operated simultaneously, as described.

8th, The lever, e, for closing the forks and applying the friction
blocks, as described, in combition with the arms, g, for releasing the
same as described.

9th, The extension, x, of the pivoted fork bars, b, in combination with
cords or chains, 5, operating as described.

10th, The curved or semicircular rake head, or its equivalent,
arranged in rear of and operated in connection with the lifting fork,
substantially as described.


72,134.--WASHING MACHINE.--George E. Wade, Jefferson City, Mo.

I claim the lever, M, the spiral metal plate, F, the wash boards, A and
B, corrugated as shown, and the springs, c c' c". In combination with a
common wash tub, when constructed, arranged, and operating substantially
as shown and specified.


72,135.--BOLT AND RIVET MACHINE.--John Wakefield, Birmingham, England,
assignor to Isaac Smith and William Fothergill Bartho.

I claim, 1st, the arrangement or combination, substantially as
hereinbefore described, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, of
the vertical dies, b b, for cutting off and carrying the cut-off
length of rod, and for shaping the head of the rivet or bolt, with the
horizontal punch or die, m, for shaping the shank of the rivet or bolt,
and upsetting the end of the rivet or bolt into a head in the vertical
dies.

2d, The arrangement or combination of parts hereinbefore described, and
illustrated in the accompanying drawings, for giving motion to the said
vertical dies, b b, and horizontal punch or die, m.

3d, The arrangement or combination of parts hereinbefore described and
illustrated in the accompanying drawings, for removing the finished
rivet or bolt from the horizontal punch or die.


72,136.--EGG BEATER.--Dudley Webster, Washington, D. C.

I claim as a new article of manufacture an egg-beater spoon, constructed
as described, viz., with its circumference and the edges of an inner
central opening serrated as and for the purpose described.


72,137.--BRICK MACHINE.--P.V.Westfall, Kalamazoo, Mich.

I claim, 1st, the combination of the two molding cylinders, C C, when
the molding recesses, I I, in said cylinders, and their intermediate
followers, J J, are so proportioned with each other that the faces of
the said followers cannot be brought in contact with each other, and
when the said follower pieces have substantially the degree of curvature
herein represented and described.

2d, In connection with the molding cylinders, C C, I also claim the
central shaft, b, and its operating levers, L L, in combination with
the jointed rods, n n, and the crank arms, m m, on the respective cam
shafts, for operating all the cams simultaneously, substantially in the
manner herein set forth.

3d, Also the vibrating spring scraper, i, in combination with the wire
cloth belt, w, when arranged with the molding cylinders, C C, and
operated substantially in the manner and for the purpose herein set
forth.


72,138.--APPARATUS FOR ENAMELING PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--Nathaniel
Weston, San Francisco, Cal.

I claim the rest, A, for the glass, or its equivalent, the use of the
glasses, B B, the weight G, the fastenings, H, the clamps, E E, or their
equivalents, in combination, for the purposes, herein set forth.


72,139.--VALVE GEAR FOR STEAM ENGINES.--Norman W. Wheeler, Brooklyn,
N.Y.

I claim, 1st, Opening the ports, as i' i" so as to suspend the operation
of the moving force upon the valve or valves at the period when the
steam is cut off, and before the exhaust is opened, substantially as and
for the purpose herein set forth.

2d, Also the closure of certain ports, as i' i" and k' k", so as to
cause the valve or valves to resume the movement toward its or their
full throw at the proper period, substantially as and for the purposes
herein set forth.

3d, Also opening the proper ports, as h' h, so as to suspend the moving
force operating upon the valve or valves, when they or it have reached
the proper limit of throw, substantially as and for the purposes herein
set forth.

4th, Also regulating the times of closing passages, so as to induce
the cutting-off movement of the valve or valves, at variable periods,
substantially in the manner and for the purposes herein set forth.

5th, Also changing a continuous reciprocating motion derived from an
eccentric, or equivalent moving part of the engine, to an intermittent
reciprocating motion, by means of a hydraulic apparatus as hereinbefore
described, substantially in the manner and for the purpose herein set
forth.


72,140.--DITCHING MACHINE.--A.H.Whitacre and T.S.Whitacre, Morrow, Ohio.

We claim, 1st, The combination of the sled, A, and the frame, B,
connected by the racks and pinions, c a, at the corners, arranged and
operating substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, The pulleys, D and E, carrying the endles chain, g, with the scoops,
h h, in combination, with the drum, C, the plungers, n n, operating
by the double incline, p, around the wheel, K, and the sweep, F,
constructed and operating substantially as and for the purpose herein
described.


72,141.--FARM FENCE.--Samuel P. Williams, Sheridan, N.Y.

I claim the application and use of the triangular brace posts, B B,
and tie-rod, C, in the construction of farm fences, in the manner
substantially as described.


72,142.--VENTILATING TUNNEL.--Hugh B. Wilson, N.Y. city.

I claim, 1st, The method of applying street lamp posts, and awning
and other useful or ornamental posts, pillars, or structures, to the
purposes of ventilating underground railway tunnels, substantially as
within described.

2d. Also the combination of street lamp posts, and awning and other
posts, pillars, or structures, whether for ornament or use, with the
connecting tubes of such railway tunnels, substantially in manner set
forth.


72,143.--MEDICAL COMPOUND.--J.T. Wilson, Brooklyn, N.Y.

I claim the combination of the above-named ingredients in the manner as
and for the purpose described.


72,144.--SHOE LIFTER.--Wm.H. Winans, Newark, N.J.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the lever plate, A, griping plate, B,
spring, b, and holding level, C, substantially as and for the purpose
specified.

2d, The teeth or studs, a', provided upon the inner surface of the
griping plate B, and arranged in relation with the back of the plate, A,
substantially as and for the purpose specified.


72,145.--STOVE.--T.W.Wisner, Howell, Mich.

I claim the portable hop-drying stove, constructed as described, of
the corrugated side and end plates, A, supported upon the ash pan, B,
extending the entire length of the stove, and mounted upon wheels,
the adjustable grate placed at b, in the center of the stove, and the
boiler, all arranged as described for the purpose specified.


72,146.--PAPER FILE.--John Wolfe, Washington, D. C.

I claim the paper file or holder constructed and operated as herein
recited.


72,147.--LATHE BOX AND JOURNAL.--Aurin Wood, Worcester, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The combination and relative arrangement of the oil box,
B, and grove, a, and inclined oil passage, e, formed in the bottom part,
A, of the journal box, substantially in the manner and for the purpose
herein shown and specified.

The combination of the journal, C, having the peculiarly shaped grooves,
d d, cut in its surface, with the journal box, D, provided in its lower
part with the oil box, inclined oil passage, and groove, a, under the
arrangement substantially as herein shown and set forth.


72,148.--LATHE FOR TURNING SHAFTING.--Aurin Wood, Worcester, Mass.

I claim, 1st, The combination with the bed of the lathe, provided with a
reservoir or receptacle, as described, of the sliding tool carriage and
the pump, attached to and moving with said carriage, substantially as
and for the purposes shown and set forth.

2d, The combination with the sliding tool carriage and pump, mounted
upon said carriage, of the cup, C, and tube connecting said cup with the
pump, substantially in the manner and for the purposes herein shown and
described.

3d, The method of operating the pump by connecting the piston rod of the
same with a friction wheel, actuated by the rotation of the shaft
which is being turned in the machine, in the manner herein shown and
specified.


72,149.--FINGER BAR FOR HARVESTER.--Walter A. Wood, Hoosick Falls, N.Y.

I claim, bevelling off the front upper corner of the finger bar,
to afford a seat for the sickle or scythe bar, to vibrate upon, in
combination with beveling off the lower side of the finger bar, for the
reception of the guard finger.


72,150.--CURTAIN FIXTURE.--William H. Woods, Philadelphia, Pa.

I claim the lever dog, e, with the cross foot, e, engaging and
disengaging the teeth of the rack, b b, in combination with the
swivelled knob, d, having a cross bar, g, and working in the slot, a
a, of the racket case, A, substantially as and for the purpose herein
described.


72,151.--CHIMNEY.--Ebenezer S. Phelps, Jr., Wyanet, Ill.

I claim the device above described, consisting of the iron box, A, and
drawer, B, constructed and arranged as shown, when used in combination
with the chimney, D, substantially in the manner and for the purposes
specified.

       *       *       *       *       *

REISSUES.

62,057.--BRICK MACHINE.--Philip H. Kells, Adrian, Mich. Dated March
19,1867. Reissue 2,810.

I claim, 1st, The combination of the annular mold bed, B, and the
central hub or support, C, substantially as described and represented.

2d, The adjustable wedge-shaped cut off, d, arranged and employed in the
manner and for the purpose explained.

3d, Ihe arrangement upon the mold wheel of the two pug mills on opposite
portions, substantially as described.

4th, An annular mold wheel, provided with cogs or gear teeth upon its
periphery, and mounted upon a central hub or support, substantially as
and for the purpose set forth.

       *       *       *       *       *

DESIGNS.

2,846.--MASONIC BADGE--Virgil Price, New York city.

2,847.--COOK'S STOVE.--Russell Wheeler, Utica, N.Y.

       *       *       *       *       *




PENDING APPLICATIONS FOR REISSUES.


_Application has been made to the Commissioner of Patents for the
Reissue of the following Patents, with new claims as subjoined.
Parties who desire to oppose the grant of any of these reissues should
immediately address MUNN & Co., 37 Park Row, N.Y._

       *       *       *       *       *


40,571.--ROTARY ENGINE.--Metropolitan Rotary Engine Co. (assignees by
mesne assignments of Adolph Mulochan), New York city. Dated Nov. 10,
1863. Application for reissue received and filed Sept. 27, 1867.

1st, The combination with the outer stationary case, d, and its
concentric inner cylinder or flanges, x, of the eccentric wheel, ring or
rim, c, fast to the rotating shaft and carrying radial slides or pistons
for simultaneous action and exposure to the steam or fluid in chambers,
y and z, on opposite sides or peripheries of the ring, c, essentially as
herein set forth.

2d, The pipes, i l n o, and valves or cocks k k' m' and m', in
combination--with the ring c and pistons acting in the steam spaces, y
and z, substantially as specified.


2,821 (whole No. 33,825).--LAMP.--Charles W. Cahoon, Portland Me Dated
Dec. 3, 1861. Application for reissue received and filed Nov 23 1867.

1st, A lever with chimney fastenings having that part of it on which
the chimney rests extended so as to form a deflector substantially as
described.

2d, The deflector board or flat shaped or nearly so when made not
only as a deflector but partly as a chimney holder substantially as
described.

3d, The combination of the said deflector with the conical foraminous
piece of metal and the cylindrical tubular air screen for the purpose of
forming the air chamber, A, protecting the flame and admitting the air
from below the same, substantially as described.

4th, The combination with the lever for raising the chimney of the
deflector air screen and foraminous piece of metal, substantially as and
for the purposes specified.

5th, The ring surrounding the wiek tube a little above the top of the
same with the standards, s s, substantially as and for the purposes
specified.

6th, A chimney holder having a projection for manipulating the same,
chimney fastenings, a deflector and a joint substantially as and for the
purposes set forth.

7th, The combination of the ring, f, supports, s s, and air screen, c,
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

8th, The combination of the glass body of a lamp with a metallic handle,
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.


61,956.--COOKING STOVE.--J.J. Savage Troy, N.Y. Dated Feb. 12, 1867
Application for reissue received and filed Dec. 4, 1867.

1st, I claim constructing a heating stove with its fuel door way or
aperture, B, below, and forward of its flame or combustion chamber and
contiguous to or adjoining its fire box, A, in manner substantially as
and for the purposes herein set forth.

2d, I claim the combination of the fuel door way or aperture, B, and
the firebox, A, extended contiguously thereunder as applied to heating
stoves, in manner substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

3d, I claim in combination with a heating stove having its fuel door
way in the position as herein described, the employment therewith of a
lifting lever, F, substantially in manner as and for the purposes herein
set forth.

4th, I claim, in a heating stove, in combination with a fire box, back
lining plates and its fuel door way or aperture, B, the arrangement of a
front lining plate, E, in position between the flame chamber, C, and the
said fuel aperture in manner substantially as and for the purpose set
forth.

5th, In combination with a lever lifter, F, applied to heating stoves in
manner as herein described, I claim the employment of a holding hook, b,
and catch ridge, e, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

6th, I claim so constructing a heating stove in manner substantially as
described herein that fresh fuel may be cast directly into its fire box
below and between ignited fuel or coke therein, in manner substantially
as herein set forth for the purposes specified.


16,944.--GUN POWDER KEG.--Henry E. Irenee L. and Eugene Du Pont
(assignees of James Wilson and William Wilson, J. and Charles Green
for themselves) Wilmington, Del. Dated March 31, 1857. Application for
reissue received and filed Nov. 30, 1867.

1st, As a new article of manufacture a keg or can with a series of
corrugations representing hoops which give combined strength and finish.

2d, Casting the female screw for the stopper on a tap or mandrel, as set
forth.

3d, The extra ring or boss, D, and head, C, as set forth.


62,693.--MACHINE FOR CUTTING THREADS ON BOLTS.--Schweitzer Patent Bolt
Co. (assignees of Franzis Schweizer), New York city. Dated March 5,
1867. Application for reissue received and filed Nov. 30, 1867.

1st, The sliding or movable heads, N O, in combination with the lever,
P, and cutter or dies, a b, substantially as and for the purpose
described.

2d, The adjustable lever, P, provided with arms, d e, substantially as
and for the purpose set forth.

3d, The elastic rest, g, constructed and operating substantially as and
for the purpose shown and described.


53,169.--MARKING WHEEL.--Horace Holt, New York city. Dated Jan. 23,
1866. Application for reissue received and filed Nov. 30, 1867.

1st, The combination of the type wheel, A, inking roller, C, and handle,
B, substantially as and for the purpose described.

2d, The ink reservoir, e, in combination with the roller, C, type wheel,
A, and handle, B, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

3d, The projecting flanges, b, on the type wheel, A, constructed and
operating substantially as and for the purpose described.

4th, The stop, h, in combination with the type wheel, A, and handle, B,
substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

5th, Ihe spring, g, in combination with the stop, h, type wheel, A, and
handle, B, substantially as and for the purpose described.


18,872.--BORING MACHINE.--A. Wyckoff (assignee by mesne assignments of
La Fayette Stevens), Elmira, N.Y. Dated Dec. 15, 1857. Application for
reissue received and filed Nov. 29, 1867.

1st, Ihe hollow cylindrical stock of an annular auger in combination
with a spiral flange with such a pitch as will remove the cuttings
horizontally as made and deliver them from the opening of the annular
kerf, substantially as set forth.

2d, The combination of a hollow annular bit having their cutting lips
projecting in the direction of the rotation of the bit, a hollow
cylindrical stock and a spiral flange substantially as described.

3d, An annular bit formed in one piece and used in combination with
a hollow cylindrical stock for cutting an annular kerf in a stick of
timber, substantially as set forth.

4th, Ihe loose independent collar, f, provided with knife edges, g g,
to keep it from turning for the purpose of furnishing a bearing for the
head of the auger while in operation.

5th, The sharp annular spur, c, for the purpose of centering and guiding
the auger and at the same time leaving a core of the material bored in
the center of the auger, in the manner specified.

6th, The oblique traversing rests, O O, in combination with the screws,
t t, and dogs, Q, for the purpose of adjusting the timber to the auger
as described and holding it firmly while under the operation of the
auger.


66,608.--DREDGING MACHINE.--James H. McLean, St Louis, Mo. Dated July 9,
1867. Application for reissue received and filed Nov. 8, 1867.

1st, The adjustable dredging frame, C, when such adjustment is produced
by a derrick, i i, and fall, when constructed and operated substantially
as shown and specified,

2d, The scoops, d, of a dredging machine having circular vertical
cutting edges in advance of the usual lateral cutting edge, W, Fig. 1,
when constructed and operating substantially as shown and specified.

3d, In combination with the dredging vessel the pins, L, for the purpose
of moving the same, substantially as described.

4th, The dredger, the receiving and discharging apron and the derrick
of a dredging machine all in combination, when constructed and operated
substantially as shown and specified.


49,992.--SLEEPING CAR.--George M. Pullman, Chicago Ill., assignee of
Ben. Field, Albion, N.Y., and George M. Pullman, Chicago, Ill. Dated
Sept. 19 1865. Application for reissue received and filed Nov. 26, 1867.

1st, The berth, A, permanently connected with the side of the car by
hinges, B, in combination with the recess to receive the same when
turned up, substantially as described.

2d, The employment in combination with the berth, A, as described of
jointed suspenders to support the inner side of the berth that will
fold together to permit the berth to be turned up, substantially as
described.

3d, The employment in combination with the berth, A, as described of the
sliding partition, I, substantially as described.

4th, The employment in combination with the berth, A, as described, of
the movable head board, J, substantially as described.

5th, The employment in combination with the berth, A, as described of
a counterpoise to facilitate the handling of the same substantially as
described.

6th, Constructing a car seat with the back and seat cushions hinged
together and disconnected from the seat frame so that the back cushion
may be placed on the seat frame and the seat cushion extended to meet
the seat cushion of the opposite chair, substantially as described.


48,555.--DOOR BOLT.--The Stanley Works (assignees of William H. Hart),
New Britain, Conn. Dated July 4, 1865. Application for reissue received
and filed Oct 29 1867.

1st, Making the barrel of a door or shutter bolt of sheet metal,
substantially as shown and described.

2d, The bolt catch or keeper with the base plate formed with a flanch
at right angles, substantially as described, that it may be secured by
screws parallel with the axis of the bolt, substantially as described.


29,430.--INDEX DOOR PLATE.--E.M. Montague, Boston, Mass., assignee of
Nathan Ames, Saugus Center, Mass. Dated July 31, 1860. Application for
reissue received and filed Oct. 15, 1866.

1st, In use in a door plate of a tablet or slate and an adjustable plate
or disk having figures or readable signs or characters for the purposes
specified and set forth.

2d, In combination with the above door plate a rotating disk, C, marked
with the hours and parts of an hour, as shown in Fig. 2, said disk being
confined in the center to a spindle, D, which passes through the door,
substantially as and for the purpose described.

3d, The spring, S, arranged, combined and operating substantially as
described.


65,018.--STEAM GENERATOR GAGE LOCK.--Thomas Shaw, Philadelphia, Pa.
Dated May 21, 1867. Application for reissue received and filed Oct. ll,
1867.

The construction and arrangement of whistle with gage valve whereby to
indicate the sound produced by steam or steam and water commingled or
water unmingled with steam, substantially as set foath.


49,847.--STEAM GENERATOR.--John R. Eckman, Green Post office Pa.,
assignee of John D. Beers, Philadelphia, Pa. Dated Sept. 12, 1865.
Application for reissue received and filed Sept. 30, 1867.

1st. Broadly the circular plate or ring, b, as shown and described.

2d, The plate, H, encircling the fire box, substantially as shown and
described.

3d, Forming a water space between the inner surface of the boiler shell,
A, and the plate or ring, b, as shown and described.


9,286.--MACHIHFRY FOR CUTTING LATHS PROM A REVOLVING LOG.--Jonathan C.
Brown, Brooklyn, N.Y., assignee of Henry C. Smith, Cleveland, Ohio.
Dated Sept. 28, 1852. Application for reissue received and filed Dec, 5,
1867.

1st, Turning the log to be cut by driving the mandrels at each end
thereof by gearing them directly with the driving shaft, substantially
as and for the purposes set forth.

2d, The dog, a, and its appurtenances for connecting the log with the
mandrels and disconnecting it therefrom, as specified.

3d, The combination of the cylinder cutter, K, and the stripping knife
moved up simultaneously and automatically, all substantially as and for
the purposes set forth.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTE--_The above claims for Reissue are now pending before the Patent
Office and will not be officially passed upon until the expiration of 30
days from the date of filing the application. All persons who desire
to oppose the grant of any of these claims should make immediate
application.

MUNN & CO., Solicitors of Patents, 37 Park Row, N.Y._

       *       *       *       *       *




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

MUNN & COMPANY, Editors and Proprietors.


PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT NO. 37 PARK ROW (PARK BUILDING), NEW YORK.

O.D. MUNN. S.H. WALES. A.E. BEACH.

       *       *       *       *       *

"The American News Company," Agents, 121 Nassau street, New York

"The New York News Company," 8 Spruce street

Messrs. Sampson Low, Son & Co, Booksellers, 47 Ludgate Hill, London,
England, are the Agents to receive European subscriptions or
advertisements for the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. Orders sent to them will be
promptly attended to.

       *       *       *       *       *

VOL. XVII., No. 26....[NEW SERIES.]...._Twenty-first Year_.

NEW YORK, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 28, 1867.

       *       *       *       *       *




THE LAST NUMBER OF VOLUME XVII.


We give in this number a full index of the volume of which this is
the last issue. No doubt this will be more satisfactory to our
readers--those at least who preserve their numbers for binding, and
probably most do--than publishing the index in a separate sheet. The
list of claims in this number will be found to be unusually full, a
gratifying evidence that dullness of business does not cripple the
resources nor abate the industry of our inventors. With a parting word
of good will to our present subscribers and a welcome to those who begin
with our new volume, we wish for all a HAPPY NEW YEAR.

       *       *       *       *       *




COMMENCEMENT OF A NEW VOLUME.


With the next number the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN enters upon its
twenty-third year. Probably no publication extent will furnish a more
complete and exhaustive exhibit of the progress of science and the arts
in this country for the past twenty-two years than a complete file of
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. It is a curious and interesting pastime to
compare the condition of the mechanic arts as presented in some of our
first volumes with that shown in our more recent ones. During all this
time, nearly a quarter of a century, our journal has endeavored to
represent the actual condition of our scientific and mechanical progress
and to record the discoveries and improvements in these departments
wherever made. The result is a compendium of valuable information
unattainable through any other means.

But the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN has aimed not only to gratify a laudable
curiosity by collecting and presenting such information, but to give
practical knowledge which could be applied to valuable uses.

We labor for the producers--the mechanics, farmers, laborers--those who
build up a country and make the wilderness to blossom like the rose. We
believe that the workers are the power, especially in this country; and
while we do not wish to detract from the value of the products of merely
intellectual speculators, we still think that the world needs specially
the laborer. We use the term "laborer" in this connection in its widest
sense, comprehending he who uses brain as well as he who employs muscle;
scientific investigation and discovery should be followed by and united
to practical application.

The improvement exhibited in our past volumes will be no less noticeable
hereafter. Keeping pace with the "march of mind" we shall endeavor
always to lead rather than to follow. The different departments of our
paper are managed by those who are practically acquainted with the
subjects they profess to elucidate. "To err is human," but we shall
spare no pains nor expense to make the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN as reliable
in its statements as it is interesting in the variety and matter of its
subjects. There are none of our people, from the student or professional
man to the day laborer, but will find something in every number, of
present or future value to him in his business.

       *       *       *       *       *




A CHANGE AT THE PATENT OFFICE.


T.C. Theaker has resigned as Commissioner of Patents. A number of
gentlemen are mentioned as candidates for the succession, prominent
among whom are B. T. James and Charles Mason. Mr. James has acted in the
capacity of primary Examiner in the Engineering Class for a number of
years, and has filled his position acceptably. Judge Mason held the
Commissionership from 1853 to 1857, and his whole administration was
marked with reform and ability. Judge Mason was educated at West Point,
and he is a man of sterling integrity, a sound jurist, experienced in
patent law, and a splendid executive officer. One thing may be relied
upon, if Judge Mason should receive and accept the appointment of
Commissioner, inventors will not have to complain long of delay in the
examination of their cases The Judge is as industrious by nature as he
is stern and systematic by education and he will have no drones about
him. The work of the office under his administration would be brought up
and kept up.

A good day for inventors and all persons having business with the Patent
Office will dawn when Judge Mason takes the Commissioner's chair again,
and we hope the proper influences may be brought to bear to secure his
acceptance.

       *       *       *       *       *




OBITUARY.


Ebenezer Winship, died at his home in this city Dec. 6, 1867, at the age
of 67. A long and eminently useful although unobtrusive life entitles
his memory to respect. He commenced his career as a mechanic in
the steam engine establishment of James P. Allaire, soon after the
application of steam for the propulsion of boats and long before its
application to ships for the purposes of commerce or war. For fifty-two
years, with the exception of one or two brief intervals, he was
connected with the Allaire works in this city, and for more than forty
years he was the master mechanic and general superintendent of the
works. Probably no man now living has had a more intimate connection
with the construction of the marine steam engine in all its remarkable
changes and improvements, or been so long employed at one engine
establishment.

James P. Allaire, the founder of the Allaire Works, died May 20,1858, at
the age of 73. He was an intimate acquaintance of Fulton and from the
engine of Fulton's first boat, the _Clermont_, took drawings which he
used in the construction of his first marine engines. He built the
engines for the _Chancellor Livingston_ which ran between New York and
Albany. He built also the first marine engines ever constructed in this
country, which were put into the steamship _Savannah_, the first steamer
that crossed the Atlantic, and also those for the _Pacific_ and
_Baltic_ of the Collins line, which ships surpassed in speed any before
constructed.

Under such tutelage and with such advantages Mr. Winship rose
successively through the grades of apprentice, journeyman, boss,
and foreman, to the position of master mechanic and superintendent.
Connected intimately with the progress of marine engineering for over
half a century, he was the teacher of a large number of our engineers
who now reflect credit upon their instructor. Mr. Winship's professional
skill was unsurpassed; his ability in directing and managing others and
thorough acquaintance with the minutest details made him invaluable in
the position he so long honorably filled. His personal characteristics
were faithfulness, industry, earnestness, kindness of heart, and
unvarying punctuality and promptness. As master mechanic it was his
invariable rule to be at the works an hour before the time for beginning
labor to lay out the work for the hands, getting his breakfast in winter
by gas light and returning from dinner in time to see the condition
of the work before the men arrived. In short, he made his employers'
business his own and neglected nothing which might contribute to their
success. He was a connecting link between the present generation of
mechanics and that which saw the beginnings of that great power, steam,
which has revolutionized the world. His funeral on the 8th of December
was attended by all the employes of the Allaire Works, by many from
other mechanical establishments, and a large number of citizens.

       *       *       *       *       *




How to Make Intelligent Workmen--Go and Do Likewise.


Mr. H. O. Osborn, of Castleton, Vt., in a letter covering an order for a
club of subscribers, says:--"It may not be uninteresting to you to learn
that the last six names are those of young men in my employ. I have
myself been your subscriber for the past four years, and knowing as
I did the value of your paper, I felt it a duty I owed to my men to
recommend the paper to their notice, and the result is as above. I am
proud to think that I have so many in my mill who can appreciate its
worth. I hope at no remote date to send you another list of names from
among my own men, and I am certain that if every manufacturer would
consult his own best interest he would do all he could to place your
paper in the hands of his workmen, for I feel it to be a valuable
acquisition to all in any way connected with machines."

We believe that employers who wish to improve the condition of their
employes can render them no better service than to make each of them a
Christmas present of a year's subscription to this paper. Send in the
names early, so that we may know how large an edition to print to
supply the demand. We close this Volume with over 30,000--nearly
35,000--subscribers, and we wish to commence the new with at least
50,000. Send in your names.

       *       *       *       *       *




The Iron-Clads at Sea.


In his last annual report to Congress, the Secretary of the Navy thus
refers to the cruise of the _Miantonomah_ to Europe and her return and
of the _Monadnock_ to San Francisco, voyages the most remarkable ever
undertaken by turreted iron-clad vessels. These vessels encountered
every variety of weather, and under all circumstances proved themselves
to be staunch, reliable sea-going ships. The monitor type of vessel
has been constructed primarily for harbor defence, and it was not
contemplated that they would do more than move from port to port on our
own coast. These voyages demonstrate their ability to go to any part of
the world, and it is believed by experienced naval officers that with
slight modifications above the water line, in no way interfering with
their efficiency in action, they will safely make the longest and most
difficult voyages without convoy.

Steam, turreted iron-clads and fifteen-inch guns have revolutionized
naval warfare, and foreign governments, becoming sensible of this great
change, are slowly but surely coming to the conclusion that turreted
vessels and heavy ordnance are essential parts of an efficient fighting
navy.

       *       *       *       *       *




THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN AS A MEDIUM OF BUSINESS.


We seldom publish the favorable opinions expressed by our correspondents
when in their letters they allude to this journal. If we chose we could
fill columns with notices similar to those which follow.

R. S. Miller of Logansport, Ind., under date of Dec. 2d, says:--

I have a club of 10 or 12 engaged, and will send names and money about
the 20th inst. I have been reading the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN for several
years and frequently I find items in it of more value than the year's
subscription. In No. 9, present volume, you illustrated a plan for
setting steam boilers. I was much pleased with it and showed it to a
friend of mine who was about re-setting a 60-horse power boiler in his
machine shop. He adopted the plan. Four week's use of the improved
furnace proves all you claimed for it. My friend will be one of your new
subscribers. I shall, in a few days, re-set my 15-horse power boiler
according to the plan. Every live mechanic should take your valuable
journal.

The Lamb Knitting Machine Manufacturing Co, Chicopee Falls, Mass.,
say:--

In payment of your bill please find inclosed draft, etc. Please insert
our advertisement every other week hereafter. We are compelled to this
being overrun with orders. Unless they hold up we shall be obliged to
withdraw it entirely. So much for the advantages of your medium for
advertising.

C.W. Le Count, Manufacturer of lathe dogs and steam engine governors,
South Norwalk, Conn., writes concerning his advertisement in these
columns:

What business I have I can trace three-quarters of it directly to your
journal.

An agent of the Hinkley Knitting Machine Co., whose invention was
illustrated in these columns some weeks ago, writes:

It is now but ten days since its publication, yet without a single
advertisement in any paper I have been obliged to engage extra
assistance to simply inclose my circulars to parties, who are writing
and even _telegraphing_ for agencies and machines, while many
have traveled long distances to personally engage agencies. The
Superintendent of the Company makes similar _complaints_.

       *       *       *       *       *




HUNT'S IMPROVED STEAM PACKING PISTON.


Engineers are aware that there are more or less objections to the use
of the ordinary spring pistons, owing to the changing tension of the
springs, the necessity of frequent adjustment, and the impossibility of
the packing rings adapting themselves to the varying pressures of the
steam on the piston. A number of attempts have been made to produce a
self packing or steam expanding piston, which will act always with the
pressure of the steam and the velocity of the engine. The advantages
of such a piston will be readily appreciated by practical engineers,
especially drivers of locomotives, working, as they nearly all do, at a
very high pressure of steam. The general complaint against the several
packings in use on our railroads is, that they "pack too tight,"
and rapidly wear out the rings, while the only remedy has been, the
extremely uncertain one of contracting the openings by which steam is
admitted under the ring, or rings, to expand them. The obvious objection
to such an arrangement is, that it allows the steam to act on the rings
with its full force during slow motion, as when a train is starting,
while if effective under any circumstances, it will be so only at
comparatively high piston speed. The efficacy of such a remedy, if it
possesses any, is in fact inversely as the piston speed.

[Illustration: Fig.1]

Fig. 1 is a perspective of the piston itself, or the "spider," with its
follower and its rings removed, which are shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 is a
cross section of another form of the piston, to be presently described,
but which will serve to explain that shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Next to the
core of the spider are two narrow internal rings, A, in Figs. 1 and 3;
surrounding these two outer rings, B, the cross section of which is of
L-form, as seen in Fig. 3. The lips of these outer rings extend to the
whole thickness of the piston. The flange head of the piston, and also
the follower, are turned beveling on their edges to admit the steam
around the annular space thus formed under the rings, B. These spaces
are plainly exhibited at C, in Figs. 2 and 3. Both inner and outer rings
are adjusted to the bore of the cylinder by means of the gibs, D, and
set screws seen in Fig. 1.

[Illustration: Fig.2]

The section, Fig. 3, represents a modification intended for use in
vertical cylinders, if considered necessary. The additional center ring,
E, is intended to prevent leakage through the cut in the expanded ring
and over the face of the unexpanded one, which might occur when the
rings and cylinder should become so worn that the rings, when not
expanded, should collapse and leave the surface of the cylinder. The
rivets, F, shown by the dotted lines, are placed near the cuts in the
L-rings, and are intended to hold the outside and inside rings together
at that point, and prevent any tendency on the part of the latter
to collapse and let steam under that part of the L-rings. Probably,
however, if the packing is properly constructed and adjusted in the
first instance, these devices will be unnecessary. In horizontal
cylinders the weight of the piston, if properly supported on the set
screws and gibs, will accomplish these objects, if the cuts in the
L-rings are placed near the bottom side of the cylinder. The steam
enters the annular space between the beveled edges of the spider flange
and follower and the inner periphery of the overhanging part of the
L-rings, and acts only on that part.

[Illustration: Fig.3]

Patented by Nathan Hunt, Sept. 17, 1867. For further information address
the patentee, or Sharps, Davis & Bonsall, Salem, Ohio, who will furnish
piston heads to order on receipt of size of cylinder and piston rod.

       *       *       *       *       *




Improvement in Hand Drills.


There are frequent occasions in a machine shop where light drilling is
required on work it is inconvenient to bring to the lathe. For this the
Scotch or ratchet drill, if the job is heavy, is employed, and if
light, the breast drill. The placing and working of the former consumes
considerable time, and the labor of drilling with the breast drill is
excessive and exhausting. It is difficult also to hold the instrument so
steady as not to cramp and break the drill. The combination of the drill
with tongs and a pivoted bed piece, as seen in the engraving, obviates
these objections.

[Illustration: NEVERGOLD & STACKHOUSE'S TONGS DRILL.]

To the lower jaw, A, of a pair of tongs is pivoted a platen or bed, B,
having a hole through its center, which is continued through the jaw for
the passage of the drillings. The upper jaw is formed with a circular
flange on which is mounted the circular or disk-like base, C, of the
drill frame, D. This, with the frame, is secured on the jaw of the tongs
by means of two screw bolts--one seen in the engraving--passing through
the jaw and screwing into the base of the drill. These bolts pass
through semi-circular or segmental slots, by which the drill frame can
be swung around at different angles to the tongs, to adapt itself to the
convenience of the workman and the requirements of the work. If desired,
the crank by which the drill is driven may be used on the upright
spindle, E. It will be seen that the pivoted base or bed, B, will allow
the work to adapt itself always to the line of the drill.

In operation, the work being placed between the drill and platen, the
left hand presses the handles of the tongs together, while the right
turns the crank; the feed is thus graduated wholly by the pressure of
the hand. No further description is required for understanding the
construction or operation of this tool. Patented by F. Nevergold and
George Stackhouse, June 19, 1866. Applications for the whole right, or
for territorial rights, should be addressed to the latter at Pittsburgh,
Pa.

       *       *       *       *       *

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.--The Senate on Friday, the 29th ult.,
confirmed the nomination of the Hon. Horace Capron as Commissioner of
Agriculture to fill the position made vacant by the death of Isaac
Newton, the former head of the Department.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is estimated that 10,000,000 feet of sawed lumber is frozen up in
the docks at Bangor, Maine, three fourths of which is sold and waiting
shipment.

       *       *       *       *       *




Correspondence


_The Editors are not responsible for the opinions expressed by their
correspondents._




Improved Method of Securing Cutters on Boring Bars.


MESSRS. EDITORS:--Thinking it may be of use to some of the readers of
your invaluable paper, I have taken the liberty of sending you a sketch
of a new mode of securing the cutter in a boring bar or pin drill. Where
the cutters are secured, as usual, by a key, all mechanics know that it
is very difficult to set a cutter twice alike; and the notch, which
is filed in the cutter, to prevent it from moving endways, is a great
source of weakness, often causing the cutters to crack in hardening, as
well as after they are put to work. The inclosed sketch will explain
itself:

[Illustration]

A is a cutter, and B a collar, screwed upon the cutter bar, C. The edge
of this collar fits into a notch on either end of the cutter, as shown
at D, thus leaving the cutter as strong as possible at the center, and
giving it a solid support at the point where support is needed, and at
the same time insuring its always coming alike.

Brooklyn, N.Y.

THEODORE L. WEBSTER.

[The device seems to be eminently well calculated for the support of the
cutter on a boring bar, and is applicable, with but slight modification,
to a pin or "teat" drill. Machinists will readily perceive its operation
and excellencies.--EDS.

       *       *       *       *       *




Tides and Their Causes.


The phenomenon of the daily tides of our seacoasts and tidal rivers is
attributed to the attraction of the moon upon the earth--that the moon
draws the earth towards it, and that in drawing the earth towards it, it
bulges up the water of the ocean on the side presented towards the moon,
and drawing the earth and water thus on that side, also draws the earth
_away_ from the water on the opposite side of it, and thus leaves the
water bulged up on _that_ side, and in doing all this the effect comes
after the cause some three hours, which is termed "the tide lagging
behind." Now if we knew, _per se_, what attraction of gravitation was,
and that it produced this anomaly of force, there would be nothing to
question in the matter. But as we only know by attraction that it means
_drawing to_, it is impossible to reconcile the theory of the tides as
they run to the attraction of the moon. If the moon is so potent in
drawing up, why does it not draw a bulge on the inland seas--our
great lakes? I will not discuss the question of the moon's Apogee and
Perigee--its different velocities in different parts[1] of its orbit, as
laid down by the law of Kepler, or whether it turns once on its axis in
a month, or not, as either theory will answer for its phases, as well
as for the face of the "Man in the Moon," but I will endeavor to give a
more rational theory for the phenomenon of the daily tides.

[Transcribers note 1: typo fixed, changed from 'pasts' to 'parts']

The earth revolves on its axis and makes a revolution every twenty-four
hours, and this moves its equatorial surface nearly a thousand miles per
hour. Now the water on its surface, covering about three-fourths of it,
and being more mobile than the solid earth, is, by centrifugal force,
made to roll around the earth, the same as the water is made to move
around the grindstone when in motion, a thing familiar to every body
that uses that instrument. In the Southern Ocean this motion of the
water is so well known to mariners who double Cape Horn in sailing from
San Francisco to New York, that they now run considerably lower down in
order to ride this tide eastward, than they did in former times. Here
then we have one fact of water tide more comprehensive, at least, than
the tractive theory of the moon. We have also the fact of two great
promontories in Capes Horn and Good Hope, where this great tidal wave
must strike against, and they produce constant oscillations of the water
to and fro, and produce gurgitation and regurgitation in all the gulfs
and rivers that line the coasts of the Northern, or more properly, the
Land Hemisphere. These gurgitations swell the water highest in the
places where the seas become the narrowest, as the more northern
latitudes. In addition to these daily oscillations of the water, there
are constant eddy currents, denominated "Gulf Streams," all agreeing in
their courses and motion to this theory of the ocean tides.

When our present received tide theory of moon attraction was first laid
down, the fact of the water of the great Southern ocean rolling round
faster than the solid parts of our planets was not known. Smith in his
Physical Geography, says, "The tidal wave flows from east to west, owing
to the earth's daily rotation in a contrary direction." Here he is
unintentionally correct, because the water striking these promontories
of the two great capes, is hurled back, and not, as he assumes, that
the great ocean wave is moving from east to west. The United States
government sailing charts lay down the fact of this great ocean wave
moving from west to east, south of the capes, and the ships coming from
the Pacific to the Atlantic ocean take advantage of this and ride the
sea at the rate of over twenty knots per hour, by following the routes
laid down in Maury's charts.

The old philosophy of the crystalline spheres was not more at variance
with the correct motion of the stars and planets, than the moon theory
of the tides. In their dilemma to account for the retrograde motions of
the planets, they denominated them wanderers, stragglers, because they
would not march with the "music of the spheres." In the moon theory of
the tides the lunar satellite is made to pull and push at one and the
same time, which is entirely at variance with the philosophy of force.

There is nothing in the heavens, nor in the earth, that proves to
us positively that the sun holds the planets, and the planets their
satellites, by attraction, as we are taught that the moon attracts the
water of our world. We see that all terrestrial bodies tend toward the
center of the earth, and we call this gravitation; but we cannot see how
a body moves around the earth without falling on it, by this law. We
say in dynamic philosophy, that bodies move in the direction of least
resistance, and _that_ we can positively understand; but what force _per
se_ is, we do not know. It is always better for us to explain phenomena
by positive known laws and motions, than by any that rest merely upon
conjecture.

Lancaster, Pa. JNO. WISE.

       *       *       *       *       *




The Great Hoosac Tunnel.


Messrs. Editors:--In No. 23, Vol. XVII., of your paper, is an article
upon the Hoosac Tunnel, but made up from data nearly a year old, and
consequently not correctly representing the tunnel as it is at the
present time. Your conclusions of course were based upon the same data;
but during the past year, and especially during the past five months,
much greater progress has been made than ever before upon the work, and
a knowledge of what has been done since the last report was issued will,
I think, give you a different impression of the time required for its
final completion.

Referring to the profile in that number of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, the
following are the distances to the various points where the work is
being prosecuted:

  Distance from east end to central shaft    12,837.294 feet
      "      "  central shaft to west shaft   9,747.072  "
      "      "  west shaft to new shaft         265.000  "
      "      "  new shaft to well No. 4         659.150  "
      "      "  well No. 4 to pier[1]         1,522.825  "
                                             ----------
      "      "  east end to pier[1]          25,031.341  "

[Footnote 1: The instrument pier is 4 feet west of the present west end
of the tunnel.]

The following are the lengths of the headings at the various points of
the work, Dec. 2, 1867:

  Length of east end heading                  4,608.000 feet
     "   "  west shaft, east heading          1,262.000  "
     "   "   "     "    west heading            611.000  "
     "   "  west end heading                    617.000  "
                                             ----------
  Total length of headings                    7,098.000  "
  Leaving                                    17,933.341  "

or 3,396 miles of heading yet to be made, of which 1,218.975 feet are
between the west end and the west shaft, and 16,714.366 feet between the
west shaft and east end of the tunnel.

The central shaft is down 583 feet, and well No. 4 is down 150 feet.

The progress for the month of November, 1867, was as follows:

  East end heading                              126.00 feet
  West shaft, east heading                       33.00  "
   "     "    west heading                        5.00  "
  West end                                       20.00  "
                                              --------
  Total for the month of November               184.00  "

Thirty feet of brick arch were completed during the month at the west
end, making a total of 516 feet of brick arch completed to date.

The progress for the last six months has been as follows:

  East end                                      711.00 feet
  West shaft, east heading                      216.00  "
   "     "    west    "                         288.00  "
  West end                                      180.00  "
                                             ---------
  Total, from June 1, to Dec. 2               1,395.00  "
    "    for the previous six months            632.00  "
                                             ---------
    "      "     year ending Dec. 2, 1867     2,027.00  "

The new shaft has been sunk, and at its foot are the pumps which,
together with those at the west shaft, are now throwing out between 900
and 1,000 gallons of water per minute.

During the last month great quantities of water were struck at both
headings of the west shaft (70 gallons per minute at the east heading in
one day), and the work was stopped in consequence, which accounts for
the small progress at this point. A new pump of 1,000 gallons per minute
capacity will be at work, in addition to the above, in a few days, and
the work can then go forward with increased rapidity.

Well No. 4 is an artesian well, which is now being carried down as a
shaft to afford two more faces to work from. Its depth will be, when
finished, 215 feet, its dimensions 8 by 8 feet.

At the rate of progress for the past year it will require but eight
years and ten months to pierce through the mountain and at the rate for
the past six months it will require but six years and five months. But
when the central shaft and well No. 4 are sunk to grade the number of
faces to work from will be doubled, and the time of completion thereby
greatly diminished. At present drilling machines are employed only at
the east end, but in a few weeks they will be used at the west shaft,
and also at the central shaft as soon as the buildings and machinery are
again in place, and this again will hasten the completion of the work.
At the west shaft buildings are already erected for the manufacture of
nitro-glycerin, and the use of this powerful explosive will be adopted
during the present month. In fine, every means that will hasten the work
will be employed, and ere the present generation passes away, and
even within from four to seven years, trains loaded with freights and
passengers will pass and repass through the great heart of the Hoosac
Mountain as an hourly occurrence.

A. BEARDSLEY, C. E., Asst. Engineer.

North Adams, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *




Horse-hair Snakes--Wonderful Transformation.


Messrs. Editors:--In No. 21, current volume, you referred H. K., of
Wis., who had described the horse-hair snake, to page 280, No. 18
current volume, for a reply, which you considered "sufficient." With
your kind permission I would like to speak a few words about the
"snakes" in question. When I resided in Pennsylvania, I, in company with
many other lads, used to tie a bundle of horse hairs into a hard knot
and then immerse them in the brook, when the water began to get warm,
and in due time we would have just as many animals, with the power of
locomotion and appearance of snakes, as there were hairs in the bundle.
I have raised them one-eighth of an inch in diameter, with perceptible
eyes and mouth on the butt end or root part of the hair. Take such a
snake and dip it in an alkaline solution, and the flesh or mucus that
formed about the hair will dissolve, and the veritable horse hair is
left. They will not generate in limestone water, only in freestone or
salt water.

Covington, Ky.

T.W.B.

       *       *       *       *       *




Man Proposes, but God Disposes.


It may not be generally known that but for one of those accidents which
seem to be almost a direct interposition of Providence, Prof. Morse,
the originator of the magnetic telegraph, might have been now an artist
instead of the inventor of the telegraph, and that agent of civilization
be either unknown or just discovered. We publish from Tuckerman's "Book
of the Artists" just from the press of G. P. Putnam & Son, the following
reminiscence of Prof. Morse:

"A striking evidence of the waywardness of destiny is afforded by the
experience of this artist, if we pass at once from this early and
hopeful moment to a more recent incident. He then aimed at renown
through devotion to the beautiful; but it would seem as if the genius of
his country, in spite of himself, led him to this object, by the less
flowery path of utility. He desired to identify his name with art, but
it has become far more widely associated with science. A series of
bitter disappointments obliged him to "coin his mind for bread", for a
long period, of exclusive attention to portrait painting, although, at
rare intervals, he accomplished something more satisfactory. More than
thirty years since, on a voyage from Europe, in a conversation with
his fellow passengers, the theme of discourse happened to be the
electromagnet; and one gentleman present related some experiments he had
lately witnessed at Paris, which proved the almost incalculable rapidity
of movement with which electricity was disseminated. The idea suggested
itself to the active mind of the artist, that this wonderful and but
partially explored agent might be rendered subservient to that system of
intercommunication which had become so important a principle of modern
civilization. He brooded over the subject as he walked the deck, or lay
wakeful in his berth, and by the time he arrived at New York, had so
far matured his invention as to have decided upon a telegraph of
signs, which is essentially that now in use. After having sufficiently
demonstrated his discovery to the scientific, a long period of toil,
anxiety, and suspense intervened before he obtained the requisite
facilities for the establishment of the magnetic telegraph. It is now
in daily operation in the United States, and its superiority over all
similar inventions abroad was confirmed by the testimony of Arago and
the appropriation made for its erection by the French Government.

"By one of those coincidences which would be thought appropriate for
romance, but which are more common, in fact, than the unobservant are
disposed to confess, these two most brilliant events in the painter's
life--his first successful work of art and the triumph of his scientific
discovery--were brought together, as it were, in a manner singularly
fitted to impress the imagination. Six copies of his "Dying Hercules"
had been made in London, and the mold was then destroyed. Four of these
were distributed by the artist to academies, one he retained, and the
last was given to Mr. Bulfinch, the architect of the Capitol--who was
engaged at the time upon that building. After the lapse of many years,
an accident ruined Morse's own copy, and a similar fate had overtaken
the others, at least in America. After vain endeavors to regain one of
these trophies of his youthful career, he at length despaired of seeing
again what could not fail to be endeared to his memory by the most
interesting associations. One day he was superintending the preparations
for the first establishment of his telegraph in the room assigned at the
Capitol. His perseverence and self-denying labor had at length met
its just reward, and he was taking the first active step to obtain a
substantial benefit from his invention. It became necessary in locating
the wires, to descend into a vault beneath the apartment, which had not
been opened for a long period. A man preceded the artist with a lamp. As
they passed along the subterranean chamber the latter's attention
was excited by something white glimmering through the darkness. In
approaching the object, what was his surprise to find himself gazing
upon his long-lost Hercules, which he had not seen for twenty years. A
little reflection explained the apparent miracle. This was undoubtedly
the copy given to his deceased friend, the architect, and temporarily
deposited in the vault for safety, and undiscovered after his death."

       *       *       *       *       *




Extraordinary Effects of an Earthquake--An American Man-of-War Carried
Over the Tops of Warehouses and Stranded.


[OFFICIAL REPORT.]

UNITED STATES STEAMSHIP "MONONGAHELA," ST. CROIX, Nov. 21, 1867.

Sir:--I have to state, with deep regret, that the United States
steamship _Monongahela_, under my command, is now lying on the beach in
front of the town of Frederickstadt, St. Croix, where she was thrown by
the most fearful earthquake ever known here. The shock occurred at 3
o'clock, P. M., of the 18th inst. Up to that moment the weather was
serene, and no indication of a change showed by the barometer, which
stood at 30 degrees 15 minutes. The first indication we had of the
earthquake was a violent trembling of the ship, resembling the blowing
off of steam. This lasted some 30 seconds, and immediately afterward the
water was observed to be receding rapidly from the beach. In a moment
the current was changed, and bore the ship toward the beach, carrying
out the entire cable and drawing the bolts from the kelson, without
the slightest effect in checking her terrific speed toward the beach.
Another anchor was ordered to be let go, but in a few seconds she was in
too shoal water for this to avail. When within a few yards of the beach,
the reflux of the water checked her speed for a moment, and a light
breeze from the land gave me a momentary hope that the jib and
foretopmost staysail might pay her head off shore, so that in the reflux
of the wave she might reach waters sufficiently deep to float her, and
then be brought up by the other anchor. These sails were immediately
set, and she payed off so as to bring her broadside to the beach. When
the sea returned, in the form of a wall of water 25 or 30 feet high, it
carried us over the warehouses into the first street of the town. This
wave in receding took her back toward the beach, and left her nearly
perpendicular on the edge of a coral reef, where she has now keeled over
to an angle of 15 degrees.

All this was the work of a few moments only, and soon after the waters
of the bay subsided into their naturally tranquil state, leaving us high
and dry upon the beach. During her progress toward the beach she struck
heavily two or three times; the first lurch carried the rifle gun on the
forecastle overboard. Had the ship been carried 10 or 15 feet further
out, she must inevitably have been forced over on her beam ends,
resulting, I fear, in her total destruction, and in the loss of many
lives. Providentially only four men were lost; these were in the boats
at the time the shock commenced. The boats that were down were all
swamped except my gig, which was crushed under the keel, killing my
coxswain, a most valuable man. During this terrific scene the officers
and men behaved with coolness and subordination. It affords me great
pleasure to state, that, after a careful examination of the position and
condition of the ship, I am enabled to report that she has sustained no
irreparable damage to her hull. The sternpost is bent, and some 20 feet
of her keel partially gone; propeller and shaft uninjured. The lower
pintle of the rudder is gone, but no other damage is sustained by it. No
damage is done to her hull more serious than the loss of several sheets
of copper, torn from her starboard bilge and from her keel.

She now lies on the edge of a coral reef, which forms a solid
foundation, on which ways may be laid. She can thus be launched in 10
feet of water at 100 feet from the beach. Gentlemen looking at the ship
from shore declare that the bottom of the bay was visible where there
was before, and is now, 40 fathoms of water.

To extricate the ship from her position I respectfully suggest that
Mr. I. Hanscom be sent down with suitable material for ways, ready for
laying down, and india-rubber camels to buoy her up. I think there is no
insuperable obstacle to her being put afloat, providing a gang of ten or
twelve good ship carpenters be sent down with the Naval Constructor, as
her boilers and engines appear to have sustained no injury. A valuable
ship may thus be saved to the navy, with all her stores and equipments.

S. B. BISSELL, Commodore Commanding. Rear-Admiral J. S. Palmer,
commanding H. A. Squadron, St. Thomas.

       *       *       *       *       *

The survey of another trans-continental railway route, which shall
follow mainly the 35th parallel of latitude, is nearly completed. Its
projectors claim this as the most feasible one across the continent,
and even if the northern and southern roads are constructed, this would
still be the favorite popular thoroughfare, and the easiest and cheapest
built.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Chilian gun now being built at Pittsburgh, is 221/4 feet in length,
being two feet longer than the famous Rodman gun at Fort Hamilton,
this harbor, but of exactly the same bore, twenty inches. Its greatest
diameter is 5 feet 4 inches, its least diameter, 2 feet 9 inches. The
gun is designed for garrison or naval service.

       *       *       *       *       *

From lack of economy, in reduction of ores, it is estimated that the
aggregate loss on the production of bullion in this country for the
present year will reach the sum of $25,000,000.

       *       *       *       *       *




Recent American and foreign Patents.


_Under this heading we shall publish weekly notes of some of the more
prominent home and foreign patents._

       *       *       *       *       *

WARDROBE.--Nathan Turner, West Lynn, Mass.--This invention consists in a
movable or swinging arrangement of the sides and top and bottom, whereby
they are folded upon each other, with grooves or strips in or upon the
sides to support shelves when used as a closet or book case, and which
shelves may be removed when used as a wardrobe.

AXLE BOX.--Henry B. Pitner, La Porte, Ind.--This invention consists of
an iron thimble or slieve provided on each end in the inside with a
screw thread into which are fitted ends of brass or composition, or
other metal softer than iron, in such a way that said metallic ends will
not turn in the box, and so that the axle bears only upon the softer
metal.

SPRING FORMER.--George S. Long, Bridgeport, Conn.--This invention
consists of a vibrating anvil or former, upon which the steel to be
worked is placed, said former vibrating under a roller, said roller
being hollow, and provided with holes or orifices through which water
received in the shaft of said roller is distributed upon the heated
steel.

DOOR-FASTENER.--Francis C. Levalley, Warrenville, N. Y.--The present
invention relates to a fastener for doors more particularly which, in
the construction and arrangement of its parts, is simple, and most
effective, and secure, when fastened.

ROOFING.--Orville Manly, Garrettsville, Ohio.--This invention consists
of tiles saturated with raw coal tar, made in the same way as ordinary
brick, having all the edges bevelled, being thicker at one end, and laid
upon the roof with the thicker end towards the eaves, and the spaces
between the tiles formed by the bevelled sides of the same filled with a
cement made of raw coal and clay.

FOLDING BEDSTEAD OR CRIB.--R. S. Titcomb, Gloversville, N. Y.--This
invention consists of the parts being attached to each other by pivots
and hinges, whereby the same may be folded in upon the bed and clothing,
and upon each other.

CAST METAL CASES FOR SPRING BALANCES.--John Chattillon, New York
city.--This invention relates to a new manner of arranging the cast
metal cases for spring balances, so that they can be made less expensive
and simpler than they are now made, and consists in fitting the iron, to
which the upper end of the spring is secured, directly through the upper
head of the case, instead of using an additional head in the case for
that purpose.

TWEERS.--John B. Himberg, Frederick City, Md.--This invention relates to
a new tweers, which is so arranged that the center part or ring can be
easily taken out, whenever desired, but not accidentally, by a hook or
stirrer, and that it can be easily cleaned and taken apart whenever
desired, and that it may conduct a strong blast of air to the fire.

PUNCH.--C. D. Flesche, New York city.--This invention consists in
arranging a punch in such a manner that it consists of two parts, which
are firmly connected together for cutting the metal, while for bending
the same, an inner sliding punch will be moved out of the stationary
cutting punch, thus making both operations by one instrument, and
avoiding the removal of the article from the cutting to the bonding
punch, which was heretofore necessary.

RAILROAD CHAIR.--Leander Pollock, Matteawan, N.Y.--This invention
consists in making the chair of two pieces, each piece consisting of one
cheek and of a portion of the case. When the two pieces are connected,
the base of one rests upon the base of the other, the line of division
between the two bases being inclined so that as the rail presses upon
the upper base, it, will tend to force the same downward on the incline,
whereby the two cheeks will be brought together.

FIRE LADDER.--Johan Blomgren, Galesburg, Ill.--The main feature in this
invention is a telescopic tube, expanded or closed by a coil fitting
within it, and worked by a toothed wheel.

HARVESTER.--Francis C. Coppage, Terre Haute, Ind.--The object of my
invention is to render more simple and effective the machinery for
operating and adjusting the cutter bar and the reel of harvesters.

BOAT-DETACHING APPARATUS.--David L. Cohen, Pensacola, Fla.--The object
of this invention is to furnish a device by which a ship's boat can
be readily shipped or launched at sea, without danger of capsizing or
fouling.

DEVICE FOR HITHING HORSES.--Samuel Galbraith, New Orleans, La.--This
invention is a neat, cheap, and durable device, designed to be attached
to halters used in hitching horses, mules, etc., to prevent their being
thrown, hung, or injured.

HYDROSTATIC MACHINE.--Dr. J. R. Cole, Kenton Station, Tenn.--The object
of this invention is to construct a machine which, by the application of
but little power, will raise a stream of water to any desired hight, to
furnish motive power for machinery or for other purposes.

FENCE POST.--Robert Ramsay, New Wilmington, Pa.--In this invention the
bottom of the post is supported between two parallel sills a short
distance from the ground, the post being dovetailed and held by keys
passing across the sills, and being adjusted high or low, or at any
inclination, by making the keys larger or smaller, or of different
sizes.

SELF-LOADING EXCAVATOR.--Benj. Slusser, Sidney, Ohio.--In this invention
a pinion, attached to the forward axle is made to elevate the plow, when
desired, and at the same instant to ungear and stop the endless apron
carrier that conveys the dirt from the plow to the cart. A new method of
instantly unloading the cart, and setting it again to receive another
load, is shown.

WASHING MACHINE.--J. Q. Leffingwell, Nevada, Iowa.--This invention
relates to an improvement in washing machines, and consists of a
vibrating semi-cylindrical box operated by a means of a lever handle and
gearing.

SCAFFOLD FOR BUILDERS, ETC.--John E. Bliss, Oxford, Ind.--This invention
has for its object to furnish an improved scaffold for the use
of carpenters, masons, painters, etc., which shall be simple in
construction, strong, durable and easily adjusted to any desired hight.

PLOW.--Harvey Briggs, Smithland, Ky.--This invention has for its object
to furnish an improved plow for breaking up sod or prairie land, which
shall be strong and durable in construction and effective m operation.

CORN PLOW.--John Snyder, Williamsfield, Ohio.--This invention has for
its object to furnish an improved plow for plowing and hoeing corn,
which shall be simple and strong in construction and will do its work
well.

SELF-RAKING ATTACHMENT FOR REAPERS.--James H. Glass and Albert J Glass,
McGregor, Iowa.--This invention has for its object to furnish an
improved attachment for reapers of that class in which the rakes act as
beaters, in the place of a reel, and are made to descend occasionally to
sweep the bundle from the platform, so that the third, fourth, sixth, or
any other desired rake may sweep the platform and deliver the bundle.

SKY ROCKET.--John W. Hadfield, Newtown, N. Y.--This invention relates to
a modification of an improvement in sky rockets for which letters patent
were granted to this inventor bearing date Nov. 28, 1865. The original
improvement consisted in a novel application of wings to the body or
"carcass" of the rocket, whereby the use of the ordinary guide stick was
rendered unnecessary and the rockets rendered capable of being packed
for transportation much more compactly than when provided with sticks.
The present invention also consists in a novel manner of attaching the
wings to the body or "carcass" of the rocket, whereby the same advantage
is obtained as hitherto, at a less cost of manufacture.

TAIL PIECE FOR VIOLINS.--James Thoms, South Boston, Mass.--This
invention relates to a new and improved manner of attaching the E-string
to the tail piece of a violin, whereby a comparatively small portion of
said string is wasted in case of breakage.

HAME TUG.--James E. Covert, Townsendville, N. Y.--This hame tug,
according to the present invention, is made of a strip of malleable iron
or other suitable material, perforated or provided with V-Shaped holes
or slots having a center tongue piece, for the reception of a V-Shaped
block fixed at one end of the trace, by means of which block the trace
is engaged with the hame tug, where through a suitably arranged spring
slot that strikes against the end of the tongue to the said V-slots, the
block is held firmly in place, and consequently the trace fastened to
the hame tug.

CENTER BOARD.--F. J. McFarland, San Francisco, Cal.--This invention
relates to the location of the center boards of boats and sailing craft
of all kinds, but is designed more particularly for freight carrying
vessels. It consists simply in employing two center boards and locating
the same at the extreme ends of the hull.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT.--George W. Van Dusen, Williamsburgh, N.Y.--This
invention consists in a novel connection and arrangement of levers
and valves between the plane of movement of the perforated surface or
surfaces, and an airchest or chests, and the keys or levers for opening
the valves to the reeds or for operating any other mechanism suitable
for producing tones, whereby through such perforated surface or surfaces
the mechanism forming the connection between it and the sounding
mechanism will be operated through the perforations to produce the sound
or note or notes desired, of whatever length such notes or sounds are to
be.

COMBINED SEAT AND DESK.--Rev Allen H. Burn, May's Landing, N. J.--The
present invention relates to the combination of a desk or lid with a
seat or bench, such lid or desk being hinged to the back of the seat in
such a manner as to be raised or lowered at pleasure, and when raised,
supported in position by means of supporting bars properly applied
thereto.

MACHINE FOR REFITTING CONICAL VALVES.--Charles F. Hall, Brooklyn. N.
Y.--This invention relates to a device by which the conical stop valves
of gas, steam, and water works may be refitted or repaired when from any
cause they are rendered leaky and unfit for use.

GRAIN-BAND CUTTER AND FORK.--E. G. Bullis, Manchester, Iowa.--This
invention has for its object to furnish an improved instrument by means
of which the bands of the grain bundles may be cut at the same time that
the bundles are pitched to the person who feeds them to the threshing
machine, and by the same operation.

PROPELLING VESSELS, ETC.--Robert R. Spedden and Daniel F. Stafford,
Astoria, Oregon.--This invention has for its object to furnish an
improved means by which the motion of the waves may be used for
propelling vessels or working pumps or other machinery.

MAILBAG FASTENER.--S. Denison, Portlandville, N.Y.--This invention has
for its object to furnish an improved mailbag fastening by the use of
which the mouth of the bag will be closed securely, and which may be
operated, in closing and opening the bag, in less time and with less
labor, than the fastenings now in use.

KNIFE AND FORK CLEANER.--John Merritt, New York city.--This invention
has for its object to furnish an improved machine by means of which
knives and forks may be quickly and thoroughly cleaned.

CHURN.--Thomas Bisbing, Buckstown, Penn.--This invention has for its
object to furnish an improved churn conveniently and easily operated,
and which will do its work quickly and thoroughly.

SAW BUCK.--Henry J. Dill, Cummington, Mass.--This invention relates to
the manner in which a stick of fire wood, or cord wood, is held fast
or secured in the saw buck for the purpose of sawing it into suitable
lengths, and it consists in arranging adjustable toothed clamps for
holding the stick, which clamps are brought in contact with it by
bearing upon a treddle with the foot.

PLATFORM SCALES.--D. Hazzard, Milton, Del.--This invention relates to a
new and improved method of constructing scales of the platform kind, and
it consists in attaching a spiral spring to a spindle, to the top end of
which spindle the platform is secured, and to the bottom end of which a
rod and index finger is attached so that when an article, to be weighed,
is placed on the platform, the weight of the article will act upon the
spring and be indicated by the finger.

WASHING MACHINE.--S. W. Curtiss, Sugar Grove, Pa.--This invention
relates to a new and improved method of constructing washing machines,
and consists in the arrangement of three fluted revolving rollers in a
suitable washing box or vessel.

COMBINED TRY SQUARE AND BEVEL.--Samuel N. Batchelder, Prairie du Chien,
Wis.--This invention consists in attaching the blade of a try square
to the stock in such a manner that it can be set and fastened at any
desired angle by operating a hook slide and set screws.

STEAM ENGINE.--J. F. Troxel, Bloomsville, Ohio.--This invention relates
to a new and improved method of constructing steam engines, whereby the
same are greatly increased in power and effectiveness, and consists in
operating a number of pistons in one cylinder.

STOVE.--T. W. Wisner, Howell, Mich.--This invention relates to a new and
improved method of constructing those stoves which are used for drying
purposes or for heating water, or steaming vegetables and for all other
purposes of a similar nature, and the invention consists in rendering
the stove portable by providing for supporting the same on truck wheels
which allows of its being transported from place to place, as may be
required.

FURNACE HOT AIR BLAST.--Richard Long, Chillicothe, Ohio.--This invention
relates to a new and improved method of constructing and arranging
the air pipes for heating the air blast for furnaces for smelting
and reducing the ores in the manufacture of iron, having particular
reference to the materials of which the air pipe is formed, the
method of its construction, and also to the materials and method of
construction of the supporting walls.

PRINTING POINTERS.--R. W. Macgowan, New York city.--This invention
relates to a new and improved application of pointers to printing
presses for registering the sheets of paper as they are fed to the
press. Hitherto these pointers have been operated automatically, from
the running parts of the press allowed to remain in an elevated or
nearly upright position, and through the sheet until the fingers or
nippers of the cylinder arrive in proper position to grasp the sheet, at
which time the pointers are drawn down and the sheet released, so that
it may be connected with the cylinder, and related with the same in
order to receive the impression. This improvement consists in applying a
spring or an equivalent weight to the pointers, the latter being pivoted
at their lower ends, or attached to axes and all constructed and
arranged in such a manner that the pointers will hold the sheets
properly in position on the feed board, and the nippers of the cylinder
allowed to draw the sheet off from the points on account of the latter
yielding or being allowed to be drawn down under the slight pull of the
sheet, the springs or weights throwing the points back to their original
position as soon as the sheet is withdrawn.

CLEANER FOR LAMP CHIMNEYS, ETC.--R. B. Musson, Champaign, Ill.--This
invention relates to an improved cleaner for lamp chimneys, bottles, and
other hollow ware.

SAWYER'S RULE.--Thomas Carter, Louisville, Ky.--This invention relates
to an improved sawyer's rule, and consists of a rule on which is a scale
showing at a glance the number of boards or planks, of any desired
thickness, which can be sawn from a log of any given diameter.

WINDOW SCREEN.--A. W. Griffith, Roxbury, Mass.--This invention relates
to an improvement in window screens, and consists in a screen wound
round a spring roller at foot of a window, and attached to the bottom of
the lower sash so that on opening the window the screen opens with it,
admitting the air but excluding insects, and on closing the sash the
screen winds up itself.

SHOVEL PLOW, CULTIVATOR, ETC.--P. Atkinson Ross, Harveys, Pa.--This
invention has for its object to improve the construction of single and
double-shovel plows, cultivators, etc., to enable them to be readily
adjusted for use upon sidehills or level ground, so that the handles may
be secured in nearly a level position, while the plow is held in the
best position for doing the work properly.

SKY ROCKETS.--John W. Hadfield, East Williamsburgh, N. Y.--This
invention consists in dispensing with the long stick or guide which is
now attached to sky rockets in order to insure a straight upward flight
of the same in the air, and using instead a plurality of short guides,
whereby several important advantages are obtained, to wit: the packing
of the rockets in a small space, so as to economise in transportation,
the forming of a stand or support for the rocket, so that no fixture of
any kind will be required when they are to be fired or "set off," and
lastly, the obtaining of an efficient guide to insure the straight
flight of the rockets upward in the air.

CATCHING THE OXYDE OF ZINC.--G. C. Hall, Brooklyn, N. Y.--This invention
relates to an improved means for catching the oxyde of zinc, as it
escapes with the fumes and gases from roasting zinc, or zinc ore.
Hitherto the oxyde of zinc has been caught and retained by forcing the
fumes and gases from the roasting ore into a large bag or receptacle
composed of cotton cloth or other porous material, which will admit
of the gases and air passing it, but not the oxyde, the latter being
retained within the bag, and, by its superior gravity, falling to the
bottom thereof and settling in teats or pendent receptacles at the
bottom of the bag, from which it is removed from time to time. This
invention has for its object the dispensing with the large bag, which
is very expensive--the gases from the ore affecting the same so that it
rots in a very short time, and soon becomes ruptured under the blows
which are given it to cause the oxyde which adheres to the sides of
the bag to drop into the teats or receptacles made to receive it. The
invention consists in having the fumes and gases from the roasting zinc
or zinc ore forced into a close building, provided with openings or
apertures, over which screens are placed, constructed in such a manner
and of such materials as to admit of the air and gases passing through
them, but not the oxyde.

FERRULE.--Archibald Shaw, Philadelphia, Pa.--This invention relates to a
new and improved ferrule for the handles of tools and other implements,
and it consists in providing the interior of the ferrule with oblique
spurs or projections, disposed or arranged in such a manner as to admit
of the ferrule being driven on the handle and at the same time prevent
it from casually slipping off therefrom. The object of the invention is
to obviate the necessity of tacks or screws being used to secure the
ferrule on the handle, as well as the pinching of the same externally to
form a burr to sink into the handle to effect the same end.

SUCTION OF VACUUM PUMP AND BLOWER.--John Doyle and Timothy A. Martin,
New York City.--This invention consists in arranging valves and air
passages with a hollow cylinder or drum having an oscillating movement,
and provided with a chamber or chambers to receive water, mercury or
other fluid, whereby an exceedingly simple and compact pump or blower is
obtained, one not liable to get out of repair or become deranged by use.

MACHINE FOR REGSTERING NUMBERS FOR ODOMETERS.--Henry F. Hart, New York
city.--This invention relates to an improved machine or apparatus
for registering numbers applicable to odometers or measurements of
quantities of all kinds, such as the numbers of barrels of flour,
bushels of grain or any other commodity that requires a tally or record
of the quantity packed, stored, weighed, or handled in any manner.

DITCHING MACHINE.--A. H. and P. S. Whitacre, Morrow, Ohio.--This
invention relates to an improvement in the construction of a machine for
cutting ditches suitable for laying tile for draining lands, or pipe of
any kind, and consists in a sled worked by tackle and supporting a frame
carrying the machinery, in such manner that the frame can be raised and
lowered to cut the ditch to any required depth.

WINDOW SHADE RACK AND PULLEY FASTENING.--Wm. H. Woods, Philadelphia,
Pa.--This invention relates to an improvement in constructing a
fastening for window shades and consists in a metal rack to be attached
vertically as usual to the side of the window frame for holding the
cord connected with the shade by means of a lever dog that works in a
longitudinal slot in the rack and is engaged and disengaged with the
teeth thereof by moving the lever in and out of the slot to be secured
in places when engaged by a swivelknob on which is a pulley that covers
the cord of the shade.

FENCE POST.--Warren H. Shay, Sylvania, Ohio.--This invention relates to
an improved method of constructing fence posts and consists in forming
them of plank uprights supported by braces and held together by cross
ties and keys.

CLOTHES-WASHING MACHINE.--John D. Swartz, Milton, Pa.--This invention
relates to a new and improved clothes-washing machine of that class
which are provided with an oscillating rubber and a concave of rollers.

RAILROAD RAILS AND CHAIRS.--John H. Downing, Salem, Mass.--This
invention relates to an improvement in railroad rails and chairs, and
consists in forming the rails in two parts, to lie side by side, with
lap joints combined with narrow chairs, having single heads placed on
each side of the rail to clamp the two parts together at the joints, and
fasten them to the ties.

MACHINE FOR STRETCHING CLOTH.--A. C. Corpe, Stafford, Conn.--This
invention relates to a new and improved machine for stretching cloth,
with a view of tendering the same smooth and enfolding such portion of
the selvedges which may have been rolled over in the manipulations to
which it was subjected after being taken from the loom.

MACHINE FOR SHARPENING SAWS.--E. B. Rich, South Boston, Mass.--This
invention relates to a machine for the sharpening of saw blades, whether
straight or circular, and consists in the combination of a revolving or
rotating grinding wheel made of any suitable material, and a holder for
the saw blade, so arranged together that as the grinding wheel revolves
the saw will be presented to the same, or the wheel to the saw-blade,
in such a manner as to produce the desired sharpening of the teeth, in
regular order and succession.

DOOR SPRING.--Rudolph Schrader, Indianapolis, Ind.--The present
invention relates to a spring for doors, that being properly connected
with the door will operate to close, whether when opened it swings
inside or outside through the casing to the door, the spring being
especially applicable to doors hung to swing through their casing, or
inside and outside.

PORTABLE DERRICK.--D. J. McDonald, Gold Hill, Nevada.--This invention
relates to a new and improved derrick, and it consists in a novel
construction and arrangement of parts, whereby the device may be readily
drawn from place to place, the crane or derrick frame adjusted in any
desired position within the scope of its movement, friction avoided, and
the whole apparatus manipulated with the greatest facility.

       *       *       *       *       *




Answers to Correspondents.


_Correspondents who expect to receive answers to their letters must,
in all cases, sign their names. We have a right to know those who seek
information from us; besides, as sometimes happens, we may prefer to
address the correspondent by mail.

Special Note.--This column is designed for the general interest and
instruction of our readers, not for gratuitous replies to questions of
a purely business or personal nature. We will publish such inquiries,
however, when paid for as advertisements, at 50 cents a line, under the
head of "Business and Personal"

All reference to back numbers should be by volume and page._

       *       *       *       *       *

J. F. McK., of Md.--"What kind of silk is used for balloons, what is the
varnish which covers them, and what amount of common illuminating gas
will support one pound weight?" Silk for large balloons is now rarely
used, stout cotton cloth being substituted. Ordinary boiled linseed oil
makes a good varnish. Any elastic varnish will do, however. The specific
gravity of ordinary illuminating gas ranges from 0.540 to 0.700, air
being 1.000. Its weight may be called one-thirty-second of a pound to
the cubic foot and atmospheric air about three-fourths of a pound.

R. B. C., of Pa., says: "Here is a proposition in geometry which I would
like to see demonstrated theoretically by one of your correspondents.
The side of a regular heptagon is equal to half the side of an
equilateral triangle inscribed in the same circle. The mechanical
construction is very simple and will be found useful. I discovered it
some years ago and am not aware of its ever having been in print."

F. H., of Mich., asks "if sal-soda will scale a boiler?" H. N. Winans,
11 Wall street, N. Y. replies that in some waters it is partially
effective but at the expense of the boiler, with a certainty of foaming
and corrosion. The most reliable and positively uninjurious remedy for
incrustations is his anti-incrustation powder--in successful use for 12
years past.

T., of R. I., speaks of the famous mechanical horse shown at the Paris
Exposition which is said to have accomplished with its rider a little
over an English mile in fifty seconds, and asks what is the motive
power. As it is said that the French Government took possession of the
machine and preserves its mechanical construction a secret, we know no
more about it than about the much vaunted Napoleon cannon.

S.S., of N. Y.--"Please give the ingredients of the composition used for
tipping matches." Different manufacturers employ different materials and
in varying proportions; the mixture of phosphorus melted and stirred up
with thin glue is sufficient, although some add a quantity of powdered
glass, niter, chlorate of potash, sulphur, etc. The phosphorus, however
is the light-producing material.

R.S.B., of N.Y., alluding to the inquiry of S.W.P., in No. 23, for a
waterproof paste. "Calico printers when they wish to leave white figures
on a dark ground use what they term a 'resist paste' to cover such
places as are designed to be unaffected by the dye. If the ingredients
of this paste were known it might be what S.W.P., desires." This "resist
paste" is 1 lb. of binacetate of copper (distilled verdigris), 3 lbs.
sulphate of copper dissolved in 1 gal. water. This solution to be
thickened with 2 lbs. gum senegal, 1 lb. British gum and 4 lbs. pipe
clay; adding afterward, 2 oz. nitrate of copper as a deliquescent.

M.A.H, of Vt.--"I have a surplus of water power and desire to know the
probable cost of the apparatus for producing the electric light, with
a view of employing my surplus power in that direction." A serviceable
magneto-electrical machine for giving light is quite expensive.

       *       *       *       *       *




Business and Personal.


_The charge for insertion under this head is 50 cents a line_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Parties in want of Fine Tools or Machinists' Supplies send for price
list to Goodnow & Wightman, 23 Cornhill, Boston, Mass.

Pattern Letters and Figures for inventors, etc., to put on patterns for
castings, are made by Knight Brothers, Seneca Falls, N.Y.

Allen & Needles, 41 South Water street, Philadelphia, Manufacturers of
Allen's Patent Anti-Lamina, for removing and preventing Scale in steam
boilers.

All Parties having any article to sell through an agent, address, with
circular, etc., Box 499 Oil City, Pa.

Manufacturers of Tag Holders will please send address to Box 1019, St.
Paul, Minn.

Manufacturers of Presses for making Castor Oil, address or send circular
to F.M. Peck, P.O. Box 190, Montgomery, Ala.

Manufacturers of Cotton-Spinning and Knitting Machinery send circular
and price list to W.L. Jones, Holly Springs, Miss.

Dr. W. Spillman, Marion Station, Miss., wishes to correspond with
manufacturers of buckshot or bullets, either conical or spherical.

Toy Makers--One-half of Patent Right of Toy Wind Wheel given away!
Address Dr. W.H. Benson, Norfolk, Va.

Milton Darling, East Macdonough, Chenango Co., N.Y., wishes the address
of those that want broom handles for the year 1868.

A.B. Woodbury, Winchester, N.H., wants to sell two valuable
patents--Jack-Spinning Improvements.

E.C. Tainter, Worcester, Mass., wants to sell a good set of Sash and
Door Machinery, used only six months.

Parties desiring any of their new ideas put into practical form, or
wanting any new apparatus invented for manufacturing purposes, etc.,
address, with confidence, A.E.W., Inventor and Draftsman, 114 Fulton
street, N.Y. References given.

       *       *       *       *       *




MANUFACTURING, MINING, AND RAILROAD ITEMS.


For the benefit of the Union Pacific railroad, the base of the Rocky
Mountains has been fixed at the base of the Black Hills, a distance of
6.637 miles west of Cheyenne, and, according to the railway surveys
525.078 miles from Omaha.

The Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago railway have just rebuilt in
the most permanent manner an iron bridge over the Alleghany river, to
replace the old wooden Howe truss bridge, which had become inadequate
to the increasing traffic. The new bridge opens like a fan towards the
freight yard at Pittsburg being at the narrowest part, next to the main
span 55 feet wide. The river is crossed with spans averaging 1531/2 feet
in the clear, with a bearing of five feet on each pier. The principle
of the construction is known as the lattice girder plan, with vertical
stiffening. The work was executed under the superintendence of its
designer, the engineer and architect of the company Felician Stataper.

The production of precious metals in the United States from 1849 to 1867
inclusive, has amounted in value to $1,174,000,000.

The president of one of the New Jersey railroads proposes a plan to
avoid the danger to life and limb from the series of trains that run
into and out of Jersey city. The new project is to elevate the present
tracks fifteen feet above the streets, and by safe machinery to lower at
once an entire train in the depot at the river.

A mining company at Newton, Nev., are making preparations to work their
claims by means of a steam engine which will be used to throw a stream
of water instead of the ordinary hydraulic pressure They estimate that
with a ten or twelve horse power engine, then can throw 100 inches of
water with a force equal to at least 150 feet fall. The result of this
experiment is looked upon with a good deal of interest, as there is a
vast amount of good hydraulic ground in the adjoining countries, which,
as in this case, cannot be worked by the ordinary process for want of
water fall, but which, if the expedient in this case proves successful,
will soon be worked by steam engines.

By an oversight in the article on the trans-continental railroad,
published in our last issue, the Western or California section of the
road was styled the Union Pacific, instead of the Central railroad. In
the race to reach Salt Lake the California company have 400 miles more
to build, while the Union company have only 328 miles. But the country
to be traversed by the former is comparatively level, and favorable for
winter work, while that on the other side crosses four distinct mountain
ranges, and winter storms must interrupt work for several months in the
year.

       *       *       *       *       *




PATENT OFFICE DECISIONS ON APPEAL.

USEFUL COMPOUNDS ARE PATENTABLE--THE APPLICANT NOT REQUIRED TO PROVE THE
FUNCTION OF EACH INGREDIENT.


S.H. HODGES for the Board of Examiners-in Chief.

_Application of Rew for a Patent for Preventing and Curing Swine
Cholera_.--The applicant's specific is composed of a number of medical
articles, the nature of which is not important upon the present
occasion, and it is unnecessary to enumerate them. But it is objected
that "a medical prescription" "should contain some recognition of the
medicinal properties of the several ingredients" "and the part they
perform in the compound:" or, as it is elsewhere expressed, such a
mixture should not receive the sanction of this department "unless
perhaps a satisfactory rationale should be given for the use of each of
the ingredients in the proportions named."

If the medical faculty were always satisfied themselves as to the
operation of the various remedies they employ, there might be more
reason in the objection. But it is well known that different schools
disagree widely on this subject, and there are remedies employed with
success the effect of which the most intelligent are unable to account
for. So long as there is a single one of this character to be found, and
while the operations of the vital functions are so concealed from us
that we are unable fully to comprehend the process by which any specific
operates, so long it is impossible to prescribe as a conditon of
patentability, a full explanation of the mode in which any one acts that
is brought forward. It would be still less justifiable to require such
an explanation as would content any particular class of medical men.
Every year new therapeutics are introduced into practice, and not
unfrequently some whose beneficial results are not understood. And as
long as one such may be found, it is not just to make it a condition of
its being protected by a patent, that the discoverer should bring the
scientific world to agree with him in his theory respecting it, nor even
that he should have one.

The man who stumbles upon a new and useful article is just as much
entitled to the exclusive use of it as if he had elaborated it by the
most profound and painful study. It is true that there is danger upon
this principle of countenancing mere nostrums, and giving them undue
prestige This can only be guarded against by the exercise of great
caution and requiring convincing proof of utility. Such his been
furnished in this case, in abundance.

The application cannot be rejected except upon such grounds as would
insure the rejection of nearly all medicines whatever. Nor is the Office
responsible for the false importance which the public may attach to its
proceedings, so long is they are confined to its legitimate province.
Its duties certainly must not be neglected, and meritorious petitions
refused, in order to obviate such misapprehensions.

The decision of the Primary Examiner is reversed.

[Transcribers note: full index of volume XVII. left out]





End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Scientific American, Vol. 17, No. 26
December 28, 1867, by Various

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