Infomotions, Inc.Books Fatal to Their Authors / Ditchfield, P. H. (Peter Hampson), 1854-1930



Author: Ditchfield, P. H. (Peter Hampson), 1854-1930
Title: Books Fatal to Their Authors
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Title: Books Fatal to Their Authors

Author: P. H. Ditchfield

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BOOKS FATAL TO THEIR AUTHORS

BY
P. H. DITCHFIELD




TO THE MEMORY OF
JOHN WALTER, ESQ., M.A., J.P.,
OF BEARWOOD, BERKS,
THIS VOLUME
IS
RESPECTFULLY AND AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED.




PREFACE.

TO THE BOOK-LOVER.


_To record the woes of authors and to discourse_ de libris fatalibus
_seems deliberately to court the displeasure of that fickle mistress who
presides over the destinies of writers and their works. Fortune awaits the
aspiring scribe with many wiles, and oft treats him sorely. If she enrich
any, it is but to make them subject of her sport. If she raise others, it
is but to pleasure herself with their ruins. What she adorned but
yesterday is to-day her pastime, and if we now permit her to adorn and
crown us, we must to-morrow suffer her to crush and tear us to pieces.
To-day her sovereign power is limited: she can but let loose a host of
angry critics upon us; she can but scoff at us, take away our literary
reputation, and turn away the eyes of a public as fickle as herself from
our pages. Surely that were hard enough! Can Fortune pluck a more galling
dart from her quiver, and dip the point in more envenomed bitterness? Yes,
those whose hard lot is here recorded have suffered more terrible wounds
than these. They have lost liberty, and even life, on account of their
works. The cherished offspring of their brains have, like unnatural
children, turned against their parents, causing them to be put to death._

_Fools many of them--nay, it is surprising how many of this illustrious
family have peopled the world, and they can boast of many authors' names
which figure on their genealogical tree--men who might have lived happy,
contented, and useful lives were it not for their insane _cacoethes
scribendi_. And hereby they show their folly. If only they had been
content to write plain and ordinary commonplaces which every one believed,
and which caused every honest fellow who had a grain of sense in his head
to exclaim, "How true that is!" all would have been well. But they must
needs write something original, something different from other men's
thoughts; and immediately the censors and critics began to spy out heresy,
or laxity of morals, and the fools were dealt with according to their
folly. There used to be special houses of correction in those days, mad-
houses built upon an approved system, for the special treatment of cases
of this kind; mediaeval dungeons, an occasional application of the rack,
and other gentle instruments of torture of an inventive age, were
wonderfully efficacious in curing a man of his folly. Nor was there any
special limit to the time during which the treatment lasted. And in case
of a dangerous fit of folly, there were always a few faggots ready, or a
sharpened axe, to put a finishing stroke to other and more gentle
remedies._

_One species of folly was especially effective in procuring the attention
of the critics of the day, and that was satirical writing. They could not
tolerate that style--no, not for a moment; and many an author has had his
cap and bells, aye, and the lining too, severed from the rest of his
motley, simply because he would go and play with Satyrs instead of keeping
company with plain and simple folk._

_Far separated from the crowd of fools, save only in their fate, were
those who amid the mists of error saw the light of Truth, and strove to
tell men of her graces and perfections. The vulgar crowd heeded not the
message, and despised the messengers. They could see no difference between
the philosopher's robe and the fool's motley, the Saint's glory and
Satan's hoof. But with eager eyes and beating hearts the toilers after
Truth worked on._

  _"How many with sad faith have sought her?
  How many with crossed hands have sighed for her?
  How many with brave hearts fought for her,
    At life's dear peril wrought for her,
    So loved her that they died for her,
    Tasting the raptured fleetness
    Of her Divine completeness?"_

_In honour of these scholars of an elder age, little understood by their
fellows, who caused them to suffer for the sake of the Truth they loved,
we doff our caps, whether they jingle or not, as you please; and if thou
thinkest, good reader, that 'twere folly to lose a life for such a cause,
the bells will match the rest of thy garb. The learning, too, of the
censors and critics was often indeed remarkable. They condemned a
recondite treatise on Trigonometry, because they imagined it contained
heretical opinions concerning the doctrine of the Trinity; and another
work which was devoted to the study of Insects was prohibited, because
they concluded that it was a secret attack upon the Jesuits. Well might
poor Galileo exclaim, "And are these then my judges?" Stossius, who wrote
a goodly book with the title "Concordia rationis et fidei," which was duly
honoured by being burnt at Berlin, thus addresses his slaughtered
offspring, and speculates on the reason of its condemnation: "Ad librum a
ministerio damnatum._

_"Q. Parve liber, quid enim peccasti, dente sinistro.
     Quod te discerptum turba sacrata velit?
  R. Invisum dixi verum, propter quod et olim,
     Vel dominum letho turba sacrata dedit."_

_But think not, O Book-lover, that I am about to record all the race of
fools who have made themselves uncomfortable through their insane love of
writing, nor count all the books which have become instruments of
accusation against their authors. That library would be a large one which
contained all such volumes. I may only write to thee of some of them now,
and if thou shouldest require more, some other time I may tell thee of
them. Perhaps in a corner of thy book-shelves thou wilt collect a store of
Fatal Books, many of which are rare and hard to find. Know, too, that I
have derived some of the titles of works herein recorded from a singular
and rare work of M. John Christianus Klotz, published in Latin at Leipsic,
in the year 1751. To these I have added many others. The Biographical
Dictionary of Bayle is a mine from which I have often quarried, and
discovered there many rare treasures. Our own learned literary historian,
Mr. Isaac Disraeli, has recorded the woes of many of our English writers
in his book entitled "The Calamities of Authors" and also in his
"Curiosities of Literature." From these works I have derived some
information. There is a work by Menkenius, "Analecta de Calamitate
Literatorum"; another by Pierius Valerianus, "De Infelicitate
Literatorum"; another by Spizelius, "Infelix Literatus"; and last but not
least Peignot's "Dictionnaire Critique, Litteraire et Bibliographique, des
Livres condamnes au Feu" which will furnish thee with further information
concerning the woes of authors, if thine appetite be not already sated._

_And if there be any of Folly's crowd who read this book--of those, I
mean, who work and toil by light of midnight lamp, weaving from their
brains page upon page of lore and learning, wearing their lives out, all
for the sake of an ungrateful public, which cares little for their labour
and scarcely stops to thank the toiler for his pains--if there be any of
you who read these pages, it will be as pleasant to you to feel safe and
free from the stern critics' modes of former days, as it is to watch the
storms and tempests of the sea from the secure retreat of your study
chair._

_And if at any time a cross-grained reviewer should treat thy cherished
book with scorn, and presume to ridicule thy sentiment and scoff at thy
style (which Heaven forfend!), console thyself that thou livest in
peaceable and enlightened times, and needest fear that no greater evil can
befall thee on account of thy folly in writing than the lash of his satire
and the bitterness of his caustic pen. After the manner of thy race thou
wilt tempt Fortune again. May'st thou proceed and prosper!_ Vale.

_I desire to express my many thanks to the Rev. Arthur Carr, M.A., late
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, for his kind assistance in revising the
proofs of this work. It was my intention to dedicate this book to Mr. John
Walter, but alas! his death has deprived it of that distinction. It is
only possible now to inscribe to the memory of him whom England mourns the
results of some literary labour in which he was pleased to take a kindly
interest._

P. H. D.

BARKHAM RECTORY,
_November_, 1894.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

THEOLOGY.

Michael Molinos--Bartholomew Carranza--Jerome Wecchiettus--Samuel Clarke--
Francis David--Antonio de Dominis--Noel Bede--William Tyndale--Arias
Montanus--John Huss--Antonio Bruccioli--Enzinas--Louis Le Maistre--Caspar
Peucer--Grotius--Vorstius--Pasquier Quesnel--Le Courayer--Savonarola--
Michael Servetus--Sebastian Edzardt--William of Ockham--Abelard.

CHAPTER II.

FANATICS AND FREE-THINKERS.

Quirinus Kuhlmann--John Tennhart--Jeremiah Felbinger--Simon Morin--
Liszinski--John Toland--Thomas Woolston--John Biddle--Johann Lyser--
Bernardino Ochino--Samuel Friedrich Willenberg.

CHAPTER III.

ASTROLOGY, ALCHEMY, AND MAGIC.

Henry Cornelius Agrippa--Joseph Francis Borri--Urban Grandier--Dr. Dee--
Edward Kelly--John Darrell.

CHAPTER IV.

SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY.

Bishop Virgil--Roger Bacon--Galileo--Jordano Bruno--Thomas Campanella--De
Lisle de Sales--Denis Diderot--Balthazar Bekker--Isaac de la Peyrere--Abbe
de Marolles--Lucilio Vanini--Jean Rousseau.

CHAPTER V.

HISTORY.

Antonius Palearius--Caesar Baronius--John Michael Bruto--Isaac Berruyer--
Louis Elias Dupin--Noel Alexandre--Peter Giannone--Joseph Sanfelicius
(Eusebius Philopater)--Arlotto--Bonfadio--De Thou--Gilbert Genebrard--
Joseph Audra--Beaumelle--John Mariana--John B. Primi--John Christopher
Ruediger--Rudbeck--Francois Haudicquer--Francois de Rosieres--Anthony
Urseus.

CHAPTER VI.

POLITICS AND STATESMANSHIP.

John Fisher--Reginald Pole--"Martin Marprelate"--Udal--Penry--Hacket--
Coppinger--Arthington--Cartwright--Cowell--Leighton--John Stubbs--Peter
Wentworth--R. Doleman--J. Hales--Reboul--William Prynne--Burton--Bastwick
--John Selden--John Tutchin--Delaune--Samuel Johnson--Algernon Sidney--
Edmund Richer--John de Falkemberg--Jean Lenoir--Simon Linguet--Abbe
Caveirac--Darigrand--Pietro Sarpi--Jerome Maggi--Theodore Reinking.

CHAPTER VII.

SATIRE.

Roger Rabutin de Bussy--M. Dassy--Trajan Boccalini--Pierre Billard--Pietro
Aretino--Felix Hemmerlin--John Giovanni Cinelli--Nicholas Francus--Lorenzo
Valla--Ferrante Pallavicino--Francois Gacon--Daniel Defoe--Du Rosoi--
Caspar Scioppius.

CHAPTER VIII.

POETRY.

Adrian Beverland--Cecco d'Ascoli--George Buchanan--Nicodemus Frischlin--
Clement Marot--Gaspar Weiser--John Williams--Deforges--Theophile--Helot--
Matteo Palmieri--La Grange--Pierre Petit--Voltaire--Montgomery--Keats--
Joseph Ritson.

CHAPTER IX.

DRAMA AND ROMANCE.

Sir John Yorke and Catholic Plays--Abraham Cowley--Antoine Danchet--Claude
Crebillon--Nogaret--Francois de Salignac Fenelon.

CHAPTER X.

BOOKSELLERS AND PUBLISHERS.

The Printers of Nicholas de Lyra and Caesar Baronius--John Fust--Richard
Grafton--Jacob van Liesvelt--John Lufftius--Robert Stephens (Estienne)--
Henry Stephens--Simon Ockley--Floyer Sydenham--Edmund Castell--Page--John
Lilburne--Etienne Dolet--John Morin--Christian Wechel--Andrew Wechel--
Jacques Froulle--Godonesche--William Anderton.

CHAPTER XI.

SOME LITERARY MARTYRS.

Leland--Strutt--Cotgrave--Henry Wharton--Robert Heron--Collins--William
Cole--Homeric victims--Joshua Barnes--An example of unrequited toil--
Borgarutius--Pays.

INDEX




BOOKS FATAL TO THEIR AUTHORS.




CHAPTER I.

THEOLOGY.

Michael Molinos--Bartholomew Carranza--Jerome Wecchiettus--Samuel Clarke--
Francis David--Antonio de Dominis--Noel Bede--William Tyndale--Arias
Montanus--John Huss--Antonio Bruccioli--Enzinas--Louis Le Maistre--Gaspar
Peucer--Grotius--Vorstius--Pasquier Quesnel--Le Courayer--Savonarola--
Michael Servetus--Sebastian Edzardt--William of Ockham--Abelard.


Since the knowledge of Truth is the sovereign good of human nature, it is
natural that in every age she should have many seekers, and those who
ventured in quest of her in the dark days of ignorance and superstition
amidst the mists and tempests of the sixteenth century often ran counter
to the opinions of dominant parties, and fell into the hands of foes who
knew no pity. Inasmuch as Theology and Religion are the highest of all
studies--the _aroma scientiarum_--they have attracted the most powerful
minds and the subtlest intellects to their elucidation; no other subjects
have excited men's minds and aroused their passions as these have done; on
account of their unspeakable importance, no other subjects have kindled
such heat and strife, or proved themselves more fatal to many of the
authors who wrote concerning them. In an evil hour persecutions were
resorted to to force consciences, Roman Catholics burning and torturing
Protestants, and the latter retaliating and using the same weapons; surely
this was, as Bacon wrote, "to bring down the Holy Ghost, instead of the
likeness of a dove, in the shape of a vulture or raven; and to set, out of
the bark of a Christian Church, a flag of a bark of pirates and
assassins."

The historian then will not be surprised to find that by far the larger
number of Fatal Books deal with these subjects of Theology and Religion,
and many of them belong to the stormy period of the Reformation. They met
with severe critics in the merciless Inquisition, and sad was the fate of
a luckless author who found himself opposed to the opinions of that dread
tribunal. There was no appeal from its decisions, and if a taint of
heresy, or of what it was pleased to call heresy, was detected in any
book, the doom of its author was sealed, and the ingenuity of the age was
well-nigh exhausted in devising methods for administering the largest
amount of torture before death ended his woes.

 _Tantum religio potuit suadere malorum._

Liberty of conscience was a thing unknown in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries; and while we prize that liberty as a priceless possession, we
can but admire the constancy and courage of those who lived in less happy
days. We are not concerned now in condemning or defending their opinions
or their beliefs, but we may at least praise their boldness and mourn
their fate.

The first author we record whose works proved fatal to him was Michael
Molinos, a Spanish theologian born in 1627, a pious and devout man who
resided at Rome and acted as confessor. He published in 1675 _The
Spiritual Manual_, which was translated from Italian into Latin, and
together with a treatise on _The Daily Communion_ was printed with this
title: _A Spiritual Manual, releasing the soul and leading it along the
interior way to the acquiring the perfection of contemplation and the rich
treasure of internal peace_. In the preface Molinos writes: "Mystical
theology is not a science of the imagination, but of feelings; we do not
understand it by study, but we receive it from heaven. Therefore in this
little work I have received far greater assistance from the infinite
goodness of God, who has deigned to inspire me, than from the thoughts
which the reading of books has suggested to me." The object of the work is
to teach that the pious mind must possess quietude in order to attain to
any spiritual progress, and that for this purpose it must be abstracted
from visible objects and thus rendered susceptible of heavenly influence.
This work received the approval of the Archbishop of the kingdom of
Calabria, and many other theologians of the Church. It won for its author
the favour of Cardinal Estraeus and also of Pope Innocent XI. It was
examined by the Inquisition at the instigation of the Jesuits, and passed
that trying ordeal unscathed. But the book raised up many powerful
adversaries against its author, who did not scruple to charge Molinos with
Judaism, Mohammedanism, and many other "isms," but without any avail,
until at length they approached the confessor of the King of Naples, and
obtained an order addressed to Cardinal Estraeus for the further
examination of the book. The Cardinal preferred the favour of the king to
his private friendship. Molinos was tried in 1685, and two years later was
conducted in his priestly robes to the temple of Minerva, where he was
bound, and holding in his hand a wax taper was compelled to renounce
sixty-eight articles which the Inquisition decreed were deduced from his
book. He was afterwards doomed to perpetual imprisonment. On his way to
the prison he encountered one of his opponents and exclaimed, "Farewell,
my father; we shall meet again on the day of judgment, and then it will be
manifest on which side, on yours or mine, the Truth shall stand." For
eleven long years Molinos languished in the dungeons of the Inquisition,
where he died in 1696. His work was translated into French and appeared in
a _Recueil de pieces sur le Quietisme_, published in Amsterdam 1688.
Molinos has been considered the leader and founder of the Quietism of the
seventeenth century. The monks of Mount Athos in the fourteenth, the
Molinosists, Madame Guyon, Fenelon, and others in the seventeenth century,
all belonged to that contemplative company of Christians who thought that
the highest state of perfection consisted in the repose and complete
inaction of the soul, that life ought to be one of entire passive
contemplation, and that good works and active industry were only fitting
for those who were toiling in a lower sphere and had not attained to the
higher regions of spiritual mysticism. Thus the '[Greek: Aesuchastai]' on
Mount Athos contemplated their nose or their navel, and called the effect
of their meditations "the divine light," and Molinos pined in his dungeon,
and left his works to be castigated by the renowned Bossuet. The pious,
devout, and learned Spanish divine was worthy of a better fate, and
perhaps a little more quietism and a little less restlessness would not be
amiss in our busy nineteenth century.

The noblest prey ever captured by those keen hunters, the Inquisitors, was
Bartholomew Carranza, Archbishop of Toledo, in 1558, one of the richest
and most powerful prelates in Christendom. He enjoyed the favour of his
sovereign Philip II. of Spain, whom he accompanied to England, and helped
to burn our English Protestants. Unfortunately in an evil hour he turned
to authorship, and published a catechism under this title: _Commentarios
sobre el Catequismo Cristiano divididos en quatro partes las quales
contienen fodo loque professamor en el sancto baptismo, como se vera en la
plana seguiente dirigidos al serenissimo Roy de Espana_ (Antwerp). On
account of this work he was accused of Lutheranism, and his capture
arranged by his enemies. At midnight, after the Archbishop had retired to
rest, a knock was heard at the door of the chamber. "Who calls?" asked the
attendant friar. "Open to the Holy Office," was the answer. Immediately
the door flew open, for none dared resist that terrible summons, and
Ramirez, the Inquisitor-General of Toledo, entered. The Archbishop raised
himself in his bed, and demanded the reason of the intrusion. An order for
his arrest was produced, and he was speedily conveyed to the dungeons of
the Inquisition at Valladolid. For seven long years he lingered there, and
was then summoned to Rome in 1566 by Pius V. and imprisoned for six years
in the Castle of St. Angelo. The successor of Pope Pius V., Gregory XIII.,
at length pronounced him guilty of false doctrine. His catechism was
condemned; he was compelled to abjure sixteen propositions, and besides
other penances he was confined for five years in a monastery. Broken down
by his eighteen years' imprisonment and by the hardships he had undergone,
he died sixteen days after his cruel sentence had been pronounced.
[Footnote: Cf. _The Church of Spain_, by Canon Meyrick. (National Churches
Series.)] On his deathbed he solemnly declared that he had never seriously
offended with regard to the Faith. The people were very indignant against
his persecutors, and on the day of his funeral all the shops were closed
as on a great festival. His body was honoured as that of a saint. His
captors doubtless regretted his death, inasmuch as the Pope is said to
have received a thousand gold pieces each month for sparing his life, and
Philip appropriated the revenues of his see for his own charitable
purposes, which happened at that time to be suppression of heresy in the
Netherlands by the usual means of rack and fire and burying alive helpless
victims.

A very fatal book was one entitled _Opus de anno primitivo ab exordia
mundi, ad annum Julianum accommodato, et de sacrorum temporum ratione.
Augustae-Vindelicorum_, 1621, _in folio magno_. It is a work of Jerome
Wecchiettus, a Florentine doctor of theology. The Inquisition attacked and
condemned the book to the flames, and its author to perpetual
imprisonment. Being absent from Rome he was comparatively safe, but
surprised the whole world by voluntarily submitting himself to his
persecutors, and surrendering himself to prison. This extraordinary
humility disarmed his foes, but it did not soften much the hearts of the
Inquisitors, who permitted him to end his days in the cell. The causes of
the condemnation of the work are not very evident. One idea is that in his
work the author pretended to prove that Christ did not eat the passover
during the last year of His life; and another states that he did not
sufficiently honour the memory of Louis of Bavaria, and thus aroused the
anger of the strong supporters of that ancient house.

The first English author whose woes we record is Samuel Clarke, who was
born at Norwich in 1675, and was for some time chaplain to the bishop of
that see. He was very intimate with the scientific men of his time, and
especially with Newton. In 1704 he published his Boyle Lectures, _A
Treatise on the Being and Attributes of God, and on Natural and Revealed
Religion_, which found its way into other lands, a translation being
published in Amsterdam in 1721. Our author became chaplain to Queen Anne
and Rector of St. James's. He was a profoundly learned and devout student,
and obtained a European renown as a true Christian philosopher. In
controversy he encountered foemen worthy of his steel, such as Spinosa,
Hobbes, Dodwell, Collins, Leibnitz, and others. But in 1712 he published
_The Scriptural Doctrine of the Trinity_, which was declared to be opposed
to the Christian belief and tainted with Arianism. The attention of
Parliament was called to the book; the arguments were disputed by Edward
Wells, John Edwards, and William Sommer; and Clarke was deprived of his
offices. The charge of heterodoxy was certainly never proved against him;
he did good service in trying to stem the flood of rationalism prevalent
in his time, and his work was carried on by Bishop Butler. His
correspondence with Leibnitz on Time, Space, Necessity, and Liberty was
published in 1717, and his editions of Caesar and Homer were no mean
contributions to the study of classical literature.

In the sixteenth century there lived in Hungary one Francis David, a man
learned in the arts and languages, but his inconstancy and fickleness of
mind led him into diverse errors, and brought about his destruction. He
left the Church, and first embraced Calvinism; then he fled into the camp
of the Semi-Judaising party, publishing a book _De Christo non invocando_,
which was answered by Faustus Socinus, the founder of Socinianism. The
Prince of Transylvania, Christopher Bathori, condemned David as an impious
innovator and preacher of strange doctrines, and cast him into prison,
where he died in 1579. There is extant a letter of David to the Churches
of Poland concerning the millennium of Christ.

Our next author was a victim to the same inconstancy of mind which proved
so fatal to Francis David, but sordid reasons and the love of gain without
doubt influenced his conduct and produced his fickleness of faith. Antonio
de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalatro, was a shining light of the Roman
Church at the end of the sixteenth century. He was born in 1566, and
educated by the Jesuits. He was learned in history and in science, and was
the first to discover the cause of the rainbow, his explanation being
adopted and perfected by Descartes. The Jesuits obtained for him the
Professorship of Mathematics at Padua, and of Logic and Rhetoric at
Brescia. After his ordination he became a popular preacher and was
consecrated Bishop of Segni, and afterwards Archbishop of Spalatro in
Dalmatia. He took a leading part in the controversy between the Republic
of Venice and the Pope, and after the reconciliation between the two
parties was obliged by the Pope to pay an annual pension of five hundred
crowns out of the revenues of his see to the Bishop of Segni. This highly
incensed the avaricious prelate, who immediately began to look out for
himself a more lucrative piece of preferment. He applied to Sir Dudley
Carleton, the English Ambassador at Venice, to know whether he would be
received into the Church of England, as the abuses and corruptions of the
Church of Rome prevented him from remaining any longer in her communion.

King James I. heartily approved of his proposal, and gave him a most
honourable reception, both in the Universities and at Court. All the
English bishops agreed to contribute towards his maintenance. Fuller says:
"It is incredible what flocking of people there was to behold this old
archbishop now a new convert; prelates and peers presented him with gifts
of high valuation." Other writers of the period describe him as "old and
corpulent," but of a "comely presence"; irascible and pretentious, gifted
with an unlimited assurance and plenty of ready wit in writing and
speaking; of a "jeering temper," and of a most grasping avarice. He was
ridiculed on the stage in Middleton's play, _The Game of Chess_, as the
"Fat Bishop." "He was well named De Dominis in the plural," says
Crakanthorp, "for he could serve two masters, or twenty, if they paid him
wages."

Our author now proceeded to finish his great work, which he published in
1617 in three large folios--_De Republica Ecclesiastica_, of which the
original still exists among the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian Library at
Oxford. "He exclaims," says Fuller, "'in reading, meditation, and writing,
I am almost pined away,' but his fat cheeks did confute his false tongue
in that expression." In this book he shows that the authority of the
Bishop of Rome can easily be disproved from Holy Scripture, that it
receives no support from the judgment of history and antiquity, that the
early bishops of that see had no precedence over other bishops, nor were
in the least able to control those of other countries. He declares that
the inequality in power amongst the Apostles is a human invention, not
founded on the Gospels; that in the Holy Eucharist the priest does not
offer the sacrifice of Christ, but only the commemoration of that
sacrifice; that the Church has no coercive power, that John Huss was
wrongfully condemned at the Council of Constance; that the Holy Spirit was
promised to the whole Church, and not only to bishops and priests; that
the papacy is a fiction invented by men; and he states many other
propositions which must have been somewhat distasteful to the Pope and his
followers.

James rewarded De Dominis by conferring on him the Mastership of the Savoy
and the Deanery of Windsor, and he further increased his wealth by
presenting himself to the rich living of West Ilsley, in Berkshire.

In an unfortunate moment he insulted Count Gondomar, the Spanish
Ambassador, who determined to be revenged, and persuaded the Pope to send
the most flattering offers if he would return to his former faith. Pope
Gregory XV., a relative of De Dominis, had just ascended the Papal throne.
The bait took. De Dominis, discontented with the _non multum supra
quadringentas libras annuas_ which he received in England, and pining
after the _duodecim millia Coronatorum_ promised by the Pope, resolved to
leave our shores. James was indignant. Bishop Hall tried to dissuade him
from his purpose. "Tell me, by the Immortal God, what it is that can
snatch you from us so suddenly, after a delay of so many years, and drive
you to Rome? Has our race appeared to you inhospitable, or have we shown
favour to your virtues less than you hoped? You cannot plead that this is
the cause of your departure, upon whom a most kind sovereign has bestowed
such ample gifts and conferred such rich offices." The Archbishop was
questioned by the Bishops of London and Durham, by order of the king, with
regard to his intentions, and commanded to leave the country within twenty
days. He was known to have amassed a large sum of money during his sojourn
in England, and his trunks were seized, and found to contain over L1,600.
De Dominis fled to Brussels, and there wrote his _Consilium Reditus_,
giving his reasons for rejoining the Roman Church, and expecting daily his
promised reward--a cardinal's hat and a rich bishopric. His hopes were
doomed to be disappointed. For a short time he received a pension from
Gregory XV., but this was discontinued by Urban VIII., and our author
became dissatisfied and imprudently talked of again changing his faith. He
was heard to exclaim at supper on one occasion, "That no Catholic had
answered his book, _De Republica Ecclesiastica_, but that he himself was
able to deal with them." The Inquisition seized him, and he was conveyed
to the Castle of St. Angelo, where he soon died, as some writers assert,
by poison. His body and his books were burned by the executioner, and the
ashes thrown into the Tiber. Dr. Fitzgerald, Rector of the English College
at Rome, thus describes him: "He was a malcontent knave when he fled from
us, a railing knave when he lived with you, and a motley particoloured
knave now he is come again." He had undoubtedly great learning and skill
in controversy, [Footnote: His opinion with regard to the jurisdiction of
the Metropolitan over suffragan bishops was referred to in the recent
trial of the Bishop of Lincoln.] but avarice was his master, and he was
rewarded according to his deserts. [Footnote: Cf. article by the Rev. C.
W. Penny in the _Journal of the Berks Archaeological Society_, on Antonio
de Dominis.]

The lonely fortress of Mont-Saint-Michel saw the end of a bitter
controversialist, Noel Bede, who died there in 1587. He wrote _Natalis
Bedoe, doctoris Theol. Parisiensis annotationum in Erasmi paraphrases Novi
Testamenti, et Jacobi Fabri Stapulensis commentarios in Evangelistas,
Paulique Epistolas, Libri III., Parisiis_, 1526, _in-fol_. This work
abounds in vehement criticisms and violent declamations. Erasmus did not
fail to reply to his calumniator, and detected no less than eighty-one
falsehoods, two hundred and six calumnies, and forty-seven blasphemies.
Bede continued to denounce Erasmus as a heretic, and in a sermon before
the court reproached the king for not punishing such unbelievers with
sufficient rigour. The author was twice banished, and finally was
compelled to make a public retractation in the Church of Notre Dame, for
having spoken against the king and the truth, and to be exiled to Mont-
Saint-Michel.

Translators of the Bible fared not well at the hands of those who were
unwilling that the Scriptures should be studied in the vulgar tongue by
the lay-folk, and foremost among that brave band of self-sacrificing
scholars stands William Tyndale. His life is well known, and needs no
recapitulation; but it may be noted that his books, rather than his work
of translating the Scriptures, brought about his destruction. His
important work called _The Practice of Prelates_, which was mainly
directed against the corruptions of the hierarchy, unfortunately contained
a vehement condemnation of the divorce of Catherine of Arragon by Henry
VIII. This deeply offended the monarch at the very time that negotiations
were in progress for the return of Tyndale to his native shores from
Antwerp, and he declared that he was "very joyous to have his realm
destitute of such a person." The _Practice of Prelates_ was partly written
in answer to the _Dialogue_ of Sir Thomas More, who was commissioned to
combat the "pernicious and heretical" works of the "impious enemies of the
Church." Tyndale wrote also a bitter _Answer_ to the _Dialogue_, and this
drew forth from More his abusive and scurrilous _Confutation_, which did
little credit to the writer or to the cause for which he contended
Tyndale's longest controversial work, entitled _The Obedience of a
Christian Man, and how Christian Rulers ought to govern_, although it
stirred up much hostility against its author, very favourably impressed
King Henry, who delighted in it, and declared that "the book was for him
and for all kings to read." The story of the burning of the translation of
the New Testament at St. Paul's Cross by Bishop Tunstall, of the same
bishop's purchase of a "heap of the books" for the same charitable
purpose, thereby furnishing Tyndale with means for providing another
edition and for printing his translation of the Pentateuch, all this is a
thrice-told tale. Nor need we record the account of the conspiracy which
sealed his doom. For sixteen months he was imprisoned in the Castle of
Vilvoord, and we find him petitioning for some warm clothing and "for a
candle in the evening, for it is wearisome to sit alone in the dark," and
above all for his Hebrew Bible, Grammar, and Dictionary, that he might
spend his time in that study. After a long dreary mockery of a trial on
October 16th, 1536, he was chained to a stake with faggots piled around
him. "As he stood firmly among the wood, with the executioner ready to
strangle him, he lifted up his eyes to heaven and cried with a fervent
zeal and loud voice, 'Lord, open the King of England's eyes!' and then,
yielding himself to the executioner, he was strangled, and his body
immediately consumed." That same year, by the King's command, the first
edition of the Bible was published in London. If Tyndale had confined
himself to the great work of translating the Scriptures, and had abandoned
controversy and his _Practice of Prelates_, his fate might have been
different; but, as Mr. Froude says, "he was a man whose history has been
lost in his work, and whose epitaph is the Reformation."

Another translator, whose fate was not so tragic, was the learned Arias
Montanus, a Spaniard, who produced at the command of King Philip II. the
famous Polyglot Bible printed at Antwerp in nine tomes. He possessed a
wonderful knowledge of several languages, and devoted immense labour to
his great work. But in spite of the royal approval of his work his book
met with much opposition on the part of the extreme Roman party, who
accused him to the Pope and made many false charges against him. The Pope
was enraged against Montanus, and he was obliged to go to Rome to plead
his cause. He at length obtained pardon from the Pope, and escaped the
"chariots of fire" which bore the souls of so many martyred saints to
heaven. It is a curious irony of fate that Montanus, who was one of the
chief compilers of the _Index Expurgatorius_, should live to see his own
work placed on the condemned list.

The story of the martyrdom of John Huss is well known, and need not be
here related, but perhaps the books which caused his death are not so
frequently studied or their titles remembered. His most important work was
his _De Ecclesia_, in which he maintained the rigid doctrine of
predestination, denied to the Pope the title of Head of the Church,
declaring that the Pope is the vicar of St. Peter, if he walk in his
steps; but if he give in to covetousness, he is the vicar of Judas
Iscariot. He reprobates the flattery which was commonly used towards the
Pope, and denounces the luxury and other corruptions of the cardinals.
Besides this treatise we have many others--_Adv. Indulgentias, De
Erectione Crucis_, etc. He wrote in Latin, Bohemian, and German, and
recently his Bohemian writings have been edited by K. J. Erben, Prague
(1865). His plain speaking aroused the fury of his adversaries, and he
knew his danger. On one occasion he made a strange challenge, offering to
maintain his opinions in disputation, and consenting to be burnt if his
conclusions were proved to be wrong, on condition that his opponents
should submit to the same fate in case of defeat. But as they would only
sacrifice one out of the company of his foes, he declared that the
conditions were unequal, and the challenge was abandoned. When at last he
was granted a safe conduct by the Emperor Sigismund, and trusted himself
to the Council of Constance, his fate was sealed. Even in his noisome
prison his pen (when he could procure one) was not idle, and Huss composed
during his confinement several tracts on religious subjects. At length his
degradation was completed; a tall paper cap painted with hideous figures
of devils was placed upon his head, and a bishop said to him, "We commit
thy body to the secular arm, and thy soul to the devil." "And I," replied
the martyr, "commit it to my most merciful Lord, Jesus Christ." When on
his way to execution he saw his Fatal Books being burnt amidst an excited
crowd, he smiled and remarked on the folly of people burning what they
could not read.

Another translator of the Bible was Antonio Bruccioli, who published in
Venice, in 1546, the following edition of the Holy Scriptures: _Biblia en
lengua toscana, cioe, i tutti i santi libri del vecchio y Novo Testamento,
in lengua toscana, dalla hebraica verita, e fonte greco, con commento da
Antonio Bruccioli_. Although a Roman Catholic, he favoured Protestant
views, and did not show much love for either the monks or priests. His
bold comments attracted the attention of the Inquisition, who condemned
his work and placed it on the Index. The author was condemned to death by
hanging, but happily for him powerful friends interceded, and his
punishment was modified to a two years' banishment. He died in 1555, when
Protestant burnings were in vogue in England.

Enzinas, the author of a Spanish translation of the New Testament entitled
_El Nuevo Testamento de N. Redemptor y Salvador J. C. traduzido en lengua
castellana (En Amberes, 1543, in-8)_, dedicated his work to Charles V. But
it caused him to be imprisoned fifteen months. Happily he discovered a
means of escape from his dungeon, and retired to safe quarters at Geneva.
In France he adopted the _nom-de-plume_ of Dryander, and his _History of
the Netherlands and of Religion in Spain_ forms part of the Protestant
martyrology published in Germany. The author's brother, John Dryander, was
burnt at Rome in 1545.

The Jansenist Louis Le Maistre, better known under the name of de Sacy,
was imprisoned in the Bastille on account of his opinions and also for his
French translation of the New Testament, published at Mons, in 1667, and
entitled _Le Nouveau Testament de N.S.J.C., traduit en francais selon
l'edition Vulgate, avec les differences du grec_ (2 vols., in-12). This
famous work, known by the name of the New Testament of Mons, has been
condemned by many popes, bishops, and other authorities. Louis Le Maistre
was assisted in the work by his brother, and the translation was improved
by Arnaud and Nicole. Pope Clement IX. described the work as "rash,
pernicious, different from the Vulgate, and containing many stumbling-
blocks for the unlearned." When confined in the Bastille, Le Maistre and
his friend Nicolas Fontaine wrote _Les Figures de la Bible_, which work is
usually attributed to the latter author. According to the Jesuits, the
Port-Royalists are represented under the figure of David, their
antagonists as Saul. Louis XIV. appears as Rehoboam, Jezebel, Ahasuerus,
and Darius. But these fanciful interpretations are probably due to the
imagination of the critics.

The fate of Gaspar Peucer enforces the truth of the old adage that "a
shoemaker ought to stick to his last," and shows that those men court
adversity who meddle with matters outside their profession. Peucer was a
doctor of medicine of the academy of Wuertemberg, and wrote several works
on astronomy, medicine, and history. He was a friend of Melanchthon, and
became imbued with Calvinistic notions, which he manifested in his
publication of the works of the Reformer. On account of this he was
imprisoned eleven years. By the favour of the Elector he was at length
released, and wrote a _History of his Captivity_ (Zurich, 1605). A curious
work, entitled _A Treatise on Divination_, was published by Peucer at
Wuertemberg, written in Latin, in 1552. He ranks among the most learned men
of Germany of the sixteenth century.

There were many Fatal Books in Holland during the famous controversy
between the Arminians and the Gomarists, which ended in the famous Synod
of Dort, and for vehemence, bigotry, and intolerance is as remarkable as
any which can be found in ecclesiastical history. The learned historian
Grotius was imprisoned, but he wrote no book which caused his misfortune.
Indeed his books were instrumental in his escape, which was effected by
means of his large box containing books brought into the prison by his
wife. When removed from the prison it contained, not the books, but the
author. Vorstius, the successor of Arminius as Professor of Theology at
Leyden, was not so happy. His book, _Tractatus de Deo, seu de natura et
attributis Dei_ (Steinfurti, 1610, in-4), aroused the vengeance of the
Gomarists, and brought about the loss of his professorship and his
banishment from Holland; but any injustice might have been expected from
that extraordinary Synod, where theology was mystified, religion
disgraced, and Christianity outraged. [Footnote: Cf. _Church in the
Netherlands_, by P.H. Ditchfield, chap. xvii.]

Few books have created such a sensation in the world or aroused so
prolonged a controversy as _Les Reflexions Morales_ of Pasquier Quesnel,
published in 1671. The full title of the work is _Le Nouveau Testament en
Francais, avec des reflexions morales sur chaque verset_ (Paris, 1671, i
vol., in-12), _pour les quatre Evangiles seulement_. Praslard was the
publisher. In 1693 and 1694 appeared another edition, containing his
_reflexions morales_, not only on the Gospels, but also on the Acts and
the Epistles. Many subsequent editions have appeared. Not only France, but
the whole of the Western Church was agitated by it, and its far-reaching
effects have hardly yet passed away. It caused its author a long period of
incarceration; it became a weapon in the hands of the Jesuits to hurl at
the Jansenists, and the Papal Bull pronounced against it was the cause of
the separation of a large body of the faithful from the communion of the
Roman Church. Its author was born at Paris in 1634, and was educated in
the congregation of the Oratory. Appointed director of its school in
Paris, he wrote _Pensees Chretiennes sur les quatre Evangiles_, which was
the germ of his later work. In 1684 he fled to Brussels, because he felt
himself unable to sign a formulary decreed by the Oratorians on account of
its acceptance of some of the principles of Descartes to which Arnauld and
the famous writers of the school of Port-Royal always offered vehement
opposition.

A second edition of _Reflexions Morales_ appeared in 1694 with the
approval of De Noailles, then Bishop of Chalons, afterwards Archbishop of
Paris. But a few years later, by the intrigues of the Jesuits, and by the
order of Philip V., Quesnel was imprisoned at Mechlin. In 1703 he escaped
and retired to Amsterdam, where he died in 1719. But the history of the
book did not close with the author's death. It was condemned by Pope
Clement XI. in 1708 as infected with Jansenism. Four years later an
assembly of five cardinals and eleven theologians sat in judgment upon it;
their deliberations lasted eighteen months, and the result of their
labours was the famous Bull _Unigenitus_, which condemned one hundred and
one propositions taken from the writings of Quesnel.

The unreasonableness and injustice of this condemnation may be understood
from the following extracts:--

Proposition 50.--"It is in vain that we cry to God, My _Father_, if it is
not the Spirit of love that cries."

This is described as "pernicious in practice, and offensive to pious
ears."

Proposition 54.--"It is love alone that speaks to God; it is love alone
that God hears."

This, according to the cardinals, "is scandalous, temerarious, impious,
and erroneous."

The acceptance of the Bull was a great stumbling-block to many churchmen.
Louis XIV. forced it upon the French bishops, who were entertained at a
sumptuous banquet given by the Archbishop of Strasbourg and by a large
majority decided against the Quesnelites. It is unnecessary to follow the
history of this controversy further. France was long agitated by it, and
the Church of Holland was and is excommunicate from Rome mainly on account
of its refusal to accept the Bull _Unigenitus_, which was called forth by
and so unjustly condemned Quesnel's famous book.

In connection with the history of this Bull we may mention the work of one
of its most vehement opponents, Pierre Francois le Courayer, of the order
of the canons regular of St. Augustine, who wrote a book of great interest
to English churchmen, entitled _Dissertation sur la validite des
Ordinations Anglicanes_ (Bruxelles, 1723, 2 vols., in-12). This book was
condemned and its author excommunicated. He retired to the shelter of the
Church whose right of succession he so ably defended, and died in London
in 1776.

Few authors have received greater honour for their works, or endured
severer calamities on account of them, than the famous Florentine preacher
Savonarola. Endowed with a marvellous eloquence, imbued with a spirit of
enthusiastic patriotism and intense devotion, he inveighed against the
vices of the age, the worldliness of the clergy, the selfish ease of the
wealthy while the poor were crying for bread in want and sickness. The
good citizens of Florence believed that he was an angel from heaven, that
he had miraculous powers, could speak with God and foretell the future;
and while the women of Florence cast their jewels and finery into the
flames of the "bonfire of vanities," the men, inspired by the preacher's
dreams of freedom, were preparing to throw off the yoke of the Medicis and
proclaim a grand Florentine Republic. The revolution was accomplished, and
for three years Savonarola was practically the ruler of the new state. His
works were: _Commentatiuncula de Mahumetanorum secta; Triumphus crucis,
sive de fidei Christianae veritate_ in four books (1497), de _Simplicitate
vitae Christianae_ in five books, and _Compendium Revelationis_ (1495),
and many volumes of his discourses, some of which are the rarest treasures
of incunabula.

[Footnote: At Venice in the library of Leo S. Olschki I have met
with some of these volumes, the rarest of which is entitled:--

  PREDICHE DEL REVERENDO
  PADRE FRATE HIERONYMO

  _Da Ferrara facie lanno del_. 1496
  _negiorni delle feste, finito che
  hebbe la quaresima: & prima
  riposatosi circa uno mese
  ricomincio eldi di Sco
  Michele Adi. viii di
  Maggio. MCCCC
  LXXXXVI._

The text commences "CREDITE IN Dno Deo uestro & securi eritis." In the
cell of Savonarola at the Monastery of St. Mark is preserved a MS. volume
of the famous preacher. The writing is very small, and must have taxed the
skill of the printers in deciphering it.]

The austerity of his teaching excited some hostility against him,
especially on the part of the monks who did not belong to his order--that
of the Dominicans. He had poured such bitter invective both in his books
and in his sermons upon the vices of the Popes and the Cardinals, that
they too formed a powerful party in league against him. In addition the
friends of the Medicis resented the overthrow of their power, and the
populace, ever fickle in their affections, required fresh wonders and
signs to keep them faithful to their leader. The opportunity of his
enemies came when Charles VIII. of France retired from Florence. They
accused Savonarola of all kinds of wickedness. He was cast into prison,
tortured, and condemned to death as a heretic. In what his heresy
consisted it were hard to discover. It was true that when his poor,
shattered, sensitive frame was being torn and rent by the cruel engines of
torture, he assented to many things which his persecutors strove to wring
from him. The real cause of his destruction was not so much the charges of
heresy which were brought against his books and sermons, as the fact that
he was a person inconvenient to Pope Alexander VI. On the 23rd of May,
1498, he met his doom in the great piazza at Florence where in happier
days he had held the multitude spell-bound by his burning eloquence. There
sentence was passed upon him. Stripped of his black Dominican robe and
long white tunic, he was bound to a gibbet, strangled by a halter, and his
dead body consumed by fire, his ashes being thrown into the river Arno.
Such was the miserable end of the great Florentine preacher, whose strange
and complex character has been so often discussed, and whose remarkable
career has furnished a theme for poets and romance-writers, and forms the
basis of one of the most powerful novels of modern times.

Not only were the Inquisitors and the Cardinals guilty of intolerance and
the stern rigour of persecution, but the Reformers themselves, when they
had the power, refrained not from torturing and burning those who did not
accept their own particular belief. This they did not merely out of a
spirit of revenge conceived against those who had formerly condemned their
fathers and brethren to the stake, but sometimes we see instances of
Reformers slaughtering Reformers, because the victims did not hold quite
the same tenets as those who were in power. Poor Michael Servetus shared
as hard a fate at the hands of Calvin, as ever "heretic" did at the hands
of the Catholics; and this fate was entirely caused by his writings. This
author was born in Spain, at Villaneuva in Arragon, in 1509. At an early
age he went to Africa to learn Arabic, and on his return settled in
France, studying law at Toulouse, and medicine at Lyons and Paris.

But the principles of the Reformed religion attracted him; he studied the
Scriptures in their original languages, and the writings of the fathers
and schoolmen. Unhappily his perverse and self-reliant spirit led him into
grievous errors with regard to the doctrine of the Trinity. In vain the
gentle Reformer Oecolampadius at Basle reasoned with him. He must needs
disseminate his opinions in a book entitled _De Trinitatis Erroribus_,
which has handed the name of Servetus down to posterity as the author of
errors opposed to the tenets of the Christian Faith. Bucer declared that
he deserved the most shameful death on account of the ideas set forth in
this work. In his next work, _Dialogues on the Trinity_ and _A Treatise on
the Kingdom of Christ_, Servetus somewhat modified his views, and declared
that his former reasonings were merely "those of a boy speaking to boys";
but he blamed rather the arrangement of his book, than retracted the
opinions he had expressed.

He also annotated Pagnini's Latin version of the Sacred Scriptures,
entitled _Biblia sacra latina ex hebraeo, per Sanctum Pagninum, cum
praefatione et scholiis Michaelis Villanovani (Michel Servet). Lugduni, a
Porta_, 1542, _in-folio_. This edition was vigorously suppressed on
account of the notes of Servetus.

After sojourning some time in Italy, he returned to France in 1534, and
settled at Lyons, where he published a new and highly esteemed edition of
the Geography of Ptolemy, inscribing himself as Michael Villanovanus, from
the name of his birthplace. His former works had been published under the
name of Reves, formed by the transposition of the letters of his family
name. In Paris he studied medicine, and began to set forth novel opinions
which led him into conflict with other members of the faculty. In one of
his treatises he is said to have suggested the theory of the circulation
of the blood. In 1540 he went to Vienne and published anonymously his
well-known work _De Restitutione Christianismi_. This book, when its
authorship became known, brought upon him the charge of heresy, and he was
cast into prison. Powerful friends enabled him to escape, and his enemies
were obliged to content themselves with burning his effigy and several
copies of his books in the market-place at Vienne. Servetus determined to
fly to Naples, but was obliged to pass through Geneva, where at the
instigation of the great Reformer Calvin he was seized and cast into
prison. It is unnecessary to follow the course of Servetus' ill-fated
history, the bitter hostility of Calvin, the delays, the trials and
colloquies. At length he was condemned, and the religious world shuddered
at the thought of seeing the pile lighted by a champion of the Reformation
and religious freedom. Loud and awful shrieks were heard in the prison
when the tidings of his sentence were conveyed to Servetus. Soon the fatal
staff was broken over his head as a sign of his condemnation, and on the
Champel Hill, outside the gates of Geneva, the last tragic scene took
place. With his brow adorned with a crown of straw sprinkled with
brimstone, his Fatal Books at his side, chained to a low seat, and
surrounded by piles of blazing faggots, the newness and moisture of which
added greatly to his torture, in piteous agony Servetus breathed his last,
a sad spectacle of crime wrought in religion's name, a fearful example of
how great woes an author may bring upon himself by his arrogance and self-
sufficiency. The errors of Servetus were deplorable, but the vindictive
cruelty of his foes creates sympathy for the victim of their rage, and
Calvin's memory is ever stained by his base conduct to his former friend.

The name of Sebastian Edzardt is not so well known. He was educated at
Wuertemberg, and when Frederick I. of Prussia conceived the desire of
uniting the various reformed bodies with the Lutherans, he published a
work _De causis et natura unionis_, and a treatise _Ad Calvanianorum
Pelagianisinum_. In this book he charged the Calvinists with the Pelagian
heresy--a charge which they were accustomed to bring against the
Lutherans. It was written partly against a book of John Winckler, _Arcanum
Regium de conciliandis religionibus subditorum diffidentibus_, published
in 1703 in support of the King's designs. In the same year he published
_Impietas cohortis fanatica, expropriis Speneri, Rechenbergii, Petersenii,
Thomasii, Arnoldi, Schutzii, Boehmeri, aliorumque fanaticorum scriptis,
plusquam apodictis argumentis, ostensa. Hamburgi, Koenig, 1703, in-4_.
This work was suppressed by order of the senate of Hamburg. Frederick was
enraged at Edzardt's opposition to his plans, ordered his first book to be
burnt, and forbade any one to reply to it. Nor was our author more
successful in his other work, _Kurtzer Entwurff der Einigkeit der
Evangelisch-Lutherischen und Reformirten im Grunde des Glaubens: von
dieser Vereinigung eigentlicher Natur und Beschaffenheit_, wherein he
treated of various systems of theology. This too was publicly burnt, but
of the fate of its author I have no further particulars.

The last of the great schoolmen, William of Ockham, called the "Invincible
Doctor," suffered imprisonment and exile on account of his works. He was
born at Ockham in Surrey in 1280, and, after studying at Oxford, went to
the University of Paris. He lived in stirring times, and took a prominent
part in the great controversies which agitated the fourteenth century.
Pope John XXII. ruled at Avignon, a shameless truckster in ecclesiastical
merchandise, a violent oppressor of his subjects, yet obliged by force of
circumstances to be a mere subject of the King of France. The Emperor
Ludwig IV. ruled in Germany in spite of the excommunication pronounced
against him by the Pope. Many voices were raised in support of Louis
denouncing the assumptions of the occupant of the Papal See. Marcilius of
Padua wrote his famous _Defensor Pacis_ against Papal pretensions, and our
author, William of Ockham, issued his still more famous _Defence of
Poverty_, which startled the whole of Christendom by its vigorous
onslaught on the vices of the Papacy and the assumptions of Pope John. The
latter ordered two bishops to examine the work, and the "Invincible
Doctor" was cast into prison at Avignon. He would certainly have been
slain, had he not contrived to effect his escape, and taken refuge at the
court of the German emperor, to whom he addressed the words, "_Tu me
defendas gladio, ego te defendam calamo_." There he lived and wrote,
condemned by the Pope, disowned by his order, the Franciscans, threatened
daily with sentences of heresy, deprivation, and imprisonment; but for
them he cared not, and fearlessly pursued his course, becoming the
acknowledged leader of the reforming tendencies of the age, and preparing
the material for that blaze of light which astonished the world in the
sixteenth century. His works have never been collected, and are very
scarce, being preserved with great care in some of the chief libraries of
Europe. The scholastic philosophy of the fourteenth century, the disputes
between the Nominalists and the Realists, in which he took the part of the
former, the principle that "entities are not to be multiplied except by
necessity," or the "hypostatic existence of abstractions," have ceased to
create any very keen interest in the minds of readers. But how bitterly
the war of words was waged in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries! And
it was not only a war of words; one who witnessed the contests wrote that
"when the contending parties had exhausted their stock of verbal abuse,
they often came to blows; and it was not uncommon in their quarrels about
_universals_, to see the combatants engaged not only with their fists, but
with clubs and swords, so that many have been wounded and some killed."
These controversies have passed away, upon which, says John of Salisbury,
more time had been wasted than the Caesars had employed in making
themselves masters of the world; and it is unnecessary here to revive
them. Ockham's principal works are: _Quaestiones et decisiones in quatuor
libros sententiarum cum centilogio theologico_ (Lyons, 1495), [Footnote: I
have met with a copy of this work amongst the incunabula in the possession
of M. Olschki, of Venice. The printer's name is John Trechsel, who is
described as _vir hujus artis solertissimus_.] _Summa logicae_ (Paris,
1483), _Quodlibeta_ (Paris, 1487), _Super potestate summi pontifia_
(1496). He died at Munich in 1343.

The _Introductio ad Theologiam_ of the famous Abelard, another schoolman,
was fatal to him. Abelard's name is more generally known on account of the
golden haze of romance which surrounded him and the fair Heloise; and
their loving letters have been often read and mourned over by thousands
who have never heard of his theological writings. At one time the famous
Canon of Notre Dame at Paris had an enthusiastic following; thousands
flocked to his lectures from every country; his popularity was enormous.
He combated the abuses of the age and the degeneracy of some of the
clergy, and astonished and enraged many by the boldness of his speech and
the novelty of his opinions. His views with regard to the doctrine of the
Trinity expressed in his _Introductio_ (Traite de la Trinite) were made
the subject of a charge against him, and certainly they cannot be easily
distinguished from Sabellianism. The qualities or attributes of the
Godhead, power, wisdom, goodness, were stated to be the three Persons. The
Son of God was not incarnate to deliver us, but only to instruct us by His
discourses and example. Jesus Christ, God and Man, is not one of the
Persons in the Trinity, and a man is not properly called God. He did not
descend into hell. Such were some of the errors with which Abelard was
reproached. Whether they were actually contained in his writings, it is
not so evident. We have only fragments of Abelard's writings to judge
from, which have been collected by M. Cousin--_Ouvrages inedits
d'Abelard_--and therefore cannot speak with certain knowledge of his
opinions. At least they were judged to be blasphemous and heretical by the
Council of Soissons, when he was condemned to commit his books to the
flames and to retire to the Convent of St. Denys. Some years later, when
he had recovered from the horrible mutilation to which he had been
subjected by the uncle of Heloise, and his mind had acquired its usual
strength, we find him at Paris, again attracting crowds by his brilliant
lectures, and pouring forth books, and alas! another fatal one, _Sic et
Non_, [Footnote: Petri Abelardi _Sic et Non_ (Marburgi, Sumptibus
Librariae; Academy Elwertianae, 1851). The best edition of Abelard's
letters is _P. Abaelardi et Heloisae conjugis ejus Epistolae, ab erroribus
purgatae et cum codd. MSS. collatae cura Richardi Rawlinson, Londini,
1718, in-8_. There is also an edition published in Paris in 1616, 4to,
_Petri Abelardi et Heloisae conjugis ejus, opera cum praefatione
apologetica Franc. Antboesii, et Censura doctorum parisiensium; ex
editione Andreae Quercetani (Andre Duchesne)_.] which asked one hundred
and fifty-eight questions on all kinds of subjects. The famous champion of
orthodoxy, St. Bernard, examined the book, and at the Council of Sens in
1140 obtained a verdict against its author. He said that poor Abelard was
an infernal dragon who persecuted the Church, that Arius, Pelagius, and
Nestorius were not more dangerous, as Abelard united all these monsters in
his own person, and that he was a persecutor of the faith and the
precursor of Antichrist. These words of the celebrated Abbot of Clairvaux
are more creditable to his zeal than to his charity. Abelard's disciple
Arnold of Brescia attended him at the Council, and shared in the
condemnations which St. Bernard so freely bestowed. Arnold's stormy and
eventful life as a religious and political reformer was ended at Rome in
1155, where he was strangled and burnt by order of the Emperor Frederick,
his ashes being cast into the Tiber lest they should be venerated as
relics by his followers. St. Bernard described him as a man having the
head of a dove and the tail of a scorpion. Abelard was condemned to
perpetual silence, and found a last refuge in the monastery of Cluny. Side
by side in the graveyard of the Paraclete Convent the bodies of Abelard
and Heloise lie, whose earthly lives, though lighted by love and cheered
by religion, were clouded with overmuch sorrow, and await the time when
all theological questions will be solved and doubts and difficulties
raised by earthly mists and human frailties will be swept away, and we
shall "know even as also we are known."




CHAPTER II.

FANATICS AND FREE-THINKERS.

Quirinus Kuhlmann--John Tennhart--Jeremiah Felbinger--Simon Morin--
Liszinski--John Toland--Thomas Woolston--John Biddle--Johann Lyser--
Bernardino Ochino--Samuel Friedrich Willenberg.


The nympholepts of old were curious and unhappy beings who, while
carelessly strolling amidst sylvan shades, caught a hasty glimpse of some
spirit of the woods, and were doomed ever afterwards to spend their lives
in fruitlessly searching after it. The race of Fanatics are somewhat akin
to these restless seekers. There is a wildness and excessive extravagance
in their notions and actions which separates them from the calm followers
of Truth, and leads them into strange courses and curious beliefs. How far
the sacred fire of enthusiasm may be separated from the fierce heat of
fanaticism we need not now inquire, nor whether a spark of the latter has
not shone brilliantly in many a noble soul and produced brave deeds and
acts of piety and self-sacrifice. Those whose fate is here recorded were
far removed from such noble characters; their fanaticism was akin to
madness, and many of them were fitter for an asylum rather than a gaol,
which was usually their destination.

Foremost among them was Quirinus Kulmanus (Kuhlmann), who has been called
the Prince of Fanatics, and wandered through many lands making many
disciples. He was born at Breslau in Silesia in 1651, and at an early age
saw strange visions, at one time the devils in hell, at another the
Beatific Glory of God. His native country did not appreciate him, and he
left it to wander on from university to university, publishing his
ravings. At Leyden he met with the works of Boehme, another fanatic, who
wrote a strange book, entitled _Aurora_, which was suppressed by the
magistrates. The reading of this author was like casting oil into the
fire. Poor Kuhlmann became wilder still in his strange fanaticism, and
joined himself to a pretended prophet, John Rothe, whom the authorities at
Amsterdam incarcerated, in order that he might be able to foretell with
greater certainty than he had done other things when and after what manner
he should be released. Kuhlmann then wrote a book, entitled _Prodromus
Quinquennii Mirabilis_, and published at Leyden in 1674, in which he set
forth his peculiar views. He stated that in that same year the Fifth
Monarchy or the Christian Kingdom was about to commence, that he himself
would bring forth a son from his own wife, that this son by many miracles
would found the kingdom, and that he himself was the Son of God. On
account of these mad ravings he was exiled by the Chief of the United
Provinces of the Netherlands, and expelled with infamy from the University
of Leyden. But his strange mission did not cease. He wandered for some
time in France and England, where he printed at his own expense several
small books in 1681 and 1682, amongst others one piece addressed to
Mahomet IV., _De Conversione Turcarum_. The following passage occurs in
this fantastic production: "You saw, some months ago, O great Eastern
Leader, a comet of unusual magnitude, a true prognostic of the Kingdom of
the Jesuelites, that is, of the restoration of all people to the one-three
God. O well is thee, that thou hast turned thy mind before God, and by
proclaiming a general fast throughout thy empire, hast begun to fulfil the
words of the Lord to the prophet Drabicius." He declares that if the
Christians refuse to perform his will in destroying the kingdom of
Antichrist, the Turks and Tartars shall do it, to the disgrace of the
Christians, which will be a horror to angels and to men.

He then proceeded to Turkey on his mission, and presented himself to the
Sultan. Although ignorant of the language of the country, he persuaded
himself that he could speak in any tongue; but when they led him into the
presence of the Sultan he waited in vain for the burning words of
eloquence to flow. The Turks dealt with him according to his folly, and
bestowed on him a sound thrashing. Thence he proceeded to Russia, and when
he was about to marry a second wife, his former spouse being left in
England, the Patriarch of the Russian Church condemned him to be burnt at
Moscow in 1689. A follower of Kuhlmann's, named Nordermann, who also wrote
a book on the Second Advent of Christ, shared his fate. Kuhlmann also
wrote a volume of verses, entitled _The Berlin and Amsterdam "Kuhl-
festival" at the Gathering of Lutherans and Calvinists_, which
sufficiently attests his insanity. The following is a specimen of the
lucidity of his works: "The more I continued my doctrines, the more
opposition I received, so that also the higher world of light with which I
am illuminated, in their light I was enlightened, or shadowed, when I
proceeded, and in their light lit I up brighter lights."

A fitting companion to Kuhlmann was John Tennhart, a barber of Nuremberg,
born in 1662, who used to speak continually of the visions, dreams, and
colloquies which he had with God, and boasted that the office of a scribe
was entrusted to him by the Divine Will. He endeavoured to persuade all
men that the words he wrote were verily and indeed the words of God. The
world was not disposed to interfere with the poor barber who imagined
himself inspired, but in an evil hour he published a book against the
priests, entitled _Worte Gottes, oder Tractaetlein an den so genannten
geistlichen Stand_, which caused its author great calamities. He was cast
into prison by order of the senate of the Nuremberg State. On his release
he again published his former work, with others which he also believed to
be inspired, and again in 1714 was imprisoned at Nuremberg. His
incarceration did not, however, last long, and Tennhart died while he was
journeying from the city which so little appreciated his ravings to find
in Cassel a more secure resting-place.

Amongst the fanatics of the seventeenth century may be classed Jeremiah
Felbinger, a native of Brega, a town in the Prussian State of Silesia, who
was an early advocate of the heresy of the Unitarians. For some years he
was a soldier, and then became a schoolmaster. He wrote _Prodromus
demonstrationis_, published in 1654, in which he attempted to prove his
Unitarian ideas. Shortly before this, in 1653, he wrote _Demonstrationes
Christianae_, and finally his _Epistola ad Christianos_, published at
Amsterdam in 1672. His strange views and perverted opinions first caused
his dismissal from the army, and his works upon the Unitarian doctrines
necessitated his removal from the office of teacher. He then journeyed to
Helmstadt, but there the wanderer found no rest; for when he tried to
circulate his obnoxious books, he was ordered to leave the city before
sunset. Finally he settled in Amsterdam, the home of free-thinkers, where
men were allowed a large amount of religious liberty; there printers
produced without let or hindrance books which were condemned elsewhere and
could only be printed in secret presses and obscure corners of cities
governed by more orthodox rulers. Here Felbinger passed the rest of his
miserable life in great poverty, earning a scanty pittance by instructing
youths and correcting typographical errors. He died in 1689, aged seventy-
three years.

The seventeenth century was fruitful in fanatics, and not the least mad
was Simon Morin, who was burnt at Paris in 1663. His fatal book was his
_Pensees de Simon Morin_ (Paris, 1647, in-8), which contains a curious
mixture of visions and nonsense, including the principal errors of the
Quietists and adding many of his own. Amongst other mad ravings, he
declared that there would be very shortly a general reformation of the
Church, and that all nations should be converted to the true faith, and
that this reformation was to be accomplished by the Second Advent of our
Lord in His state of glory, incorporated in Morin himself; and that for
the execution of the things to which he was destined, he was to be
attended by a great number of perfect souls, and such as participated in
the glorious state of Jesus Christ, whom he therefore called the champions
of God. He was condemned by the Parliament of Paris, and after having done
penance, dressed in his shirt, with a rope round his neck and a torch in
his hand, before the entrance of Notre Dame, he was burnt with his book
and writings, his ashes being subsequently cast into the air. Morin had
several followers who shared his fantastic views, and these poor
"champions of God" were condemned to witness the execution of their
leader, to be publicly whipped and branded with the mark of fleur-de-lys,
and to spend the rest of their lives as galley-slaves.

Poland witnessed the burning of Cazimir Liszinski in 1689, whose ashes
were placed in a cannon and shot into the air. This Polish gentleman was
accused of atheism by the Bishop of Potsdam. His condemnation was based
upon certain atheistical manuscripts found in his possession, containing
several novel doctrines, such as "God is not the creator of man; but man
is the creator of a God gathered together from nothing." His writings
contain many other extravagant notions of the same kind.

A few years later the religious world of both England and Ireland was
excited and disturbed by the famous book of John Toland, a sceptical
Irishman, entitled _Christianity not Mysterious_ (London, 1696). Its
author was born in Londonderry in 1670, and was endowed with much natural
ability, but this did not avail to avert the calamities which pursue
indiscreet and reckless writers. He wrote his book at the early age of
twenty-five years, for the purpose of defending Holy Scripture from the
attacks of infidels and atheists; he essayed to prove that there was
nothing in religion contrary to sound reason, and to show that the
mysteries of religion were not opposed to reason. But his work aroused
much opposition both in England and Ireland, as there were many statements
in the book which were capable of a rationalistic interpretation. A second
edition was published in London with an apology by Toland in 1702. In
Dublin he raised against himself a storm of opposition, not only on
account of his book, but also by his vain and foolish manner of
propagating his views. He began openly to deride Christianity, to scoff at
the clergy, to despise the worship of God, and so passed his life that
whoever associated with him was judged to be an impious and infamous
person. He proposed to form a society which he called Socratia; the hymns
to be sung by the members were the Odes of Horace, and the prayers were
blasphemous productions, composed by Toland, in derision of those used in
the Roman Church. The Council of Religion of the Irish House of Parliament
condemned his book to be burnt, and some of the members wished to imprison
its author, who after enduring many privations wisely sought safety in
flight. A host of writers arrayed themselves in opposition to Toland and
refuted his book, amongst whom were John Norris, Stillingfleet, Payne,
Beverley, Clarke, Leibnitz, and others. Toland wrote also _The Life of
Milton_ (London, 1698), which was directed against the authenticity of the
New Testament; _The Nazarene, or Christianity, Judaic, Pagan, and
Mahometan_ (1718); and _Pantheisticon_ (1720). The outcry raised by the
orthodox party against the "poor gentleman" who had "to beg for half-
crowns," and "ran into debt for his wigs, clothes, and lodging," together
with his own vanity and conceit, changed him from being a somewhat free-
thinking Christian into an infidel and atheist or Pantheist. He died in
extreme poverty at Putney in 1722.

A fitting companion to Toland was Thomas Woolston, who lived about the
same time; he was born at Northampton in 1669, and died at London in 1733.
He was a free-thinker, and a man of many attainments, whose works became
widely known and furnished weapons for the use of Voltaire and other
atheistical writers. In 1705 he wrote a book entitled _The Old Apology_,
in which he endeavoured to show that in the interpretation of the Holy
Scriptures the literal meaning ought to be abandoned, and that the events
recorded therein were merely allegories. In his book _Free Gifts to the
Clergy_ he denounced all who favoured the literal interpretation as
apostates and ministers of Antichrist. Finally, in his _Discourses on the
Miracles_ (1726) he denied entirely the authenticity of miracles, and
stated that they were merely stories and allegories. He thought that the
literal account of the miracles is improbable and untrustworthy, that they
were parables and prophetical recitations. These and many other such-like
doctrines are found in his works. Woolston held at that time the post of
tutor at Sidney Sussex College at Cambridge; but on account of his works
he was expelled from the College and cast into prison. According to one
account of his life, he died in prison in 1731. Another record states that
he was released on paying a fine of L100 after enduring one year's
incarceration, and that he bore his troubles bravely, passing an honest
life and enduring reproaches with an equal mind. Not a few able
theologians set themselves the task of refuting the errors of Woolston,
amongst whom were John Ray, Stebbins, Bishop of St. Davids, and Sherlock,
whose book was translated into French. A _Life of Woolston_ has been
written anonymously by some one who somewhat favoured his views and
supported his tenets. He may certainly be classed among the leaders of
Free Thought in the eighteenth century.

John Biddle was a vehement advocate of Socinian and Unitarian opinions,
attacking the belief in the Trinity and in the Divinity of our Lord. The
Holy Spirit was accounted by him as the first of the angels. His fatal
book was entitled _The Faith of one God, who is only the Father, and of
one Mediator between God and man, who is only the man Christ Jesus; and of
one Holy Spirit, the gift, and sent of God, asserted and defended in
several tracts contained in this volume_ (London, 1691, in-4). This work
was publicly burnt and its author imprisoned. Biddle was born at Wotton-
under-Edge in 1615; he went to Oxford, and became a teacher at a grammar-
school at Gloucester. He underwent several terms of imprisonment on
account of the opinions expressed in his writings, and died in gaol in
1662.

Amongst the fanatics whose works were fatal to them must be enrolled the
famous advocates of polygamy, Johann Lyser, Bernardino Ochino, and Samuel
Friedrich Willenberg. Lyser was born at Leipsic in 1631, and although he
ever remained a bachelor and abhorred womankind, nevertheless tried to
demonstrate that not only was polygamy lawful, but that it was a blessed
estate commanded by God. He first brought out a dialogue written in the
vernacular entitled _Sinceri Wahrenbergs kurzes Gespraech von der
Polygamie_; and this little work was followed by a second book, _Das
Koenigliche Marck aller Laender_ (Freyburg, 1676, in-4). Then he produced
another work, entitled _Theophili Aletaei discursus politicus de
Polygamia_. A second edition of this work followed, which bore the title
_Polygamia triumphatrix, id est, discursus politicus de Polygamia, auctore
Theoph. Aletoeo, cum notis Athanasii Vincentii, omnibus Anti-polygamis,
ubique locorum, terrarum, insularum, pagorum, urbium modeste et pie
opposita (Londini Scanorum_, 1682, in-4). On account of the strange views
expressed in this work he was deprived of his office of Inspector, and was
obliged to seek protection from a powerful Count, by whose advice it is
said that Lyser first undertook the advocacy of polygamy. On the death of
his friend Lyser was compelled frequently to change his abode, and
wandered through most of the provinces of Germany. He was imprisoned by
the Count of Hanover, and then expelled. In Denmark his book was burned by
the public executioner. At another place he was imprisoned and beaten and
his books burned. At length, travelling from Italy to Holland, he endured
every kind of calamity, and after all his misfortunes he died miserably in
a garret at Amsterdam, in 1684. It is curious that Lyser, who never
married nor desired wedlock, should have advocated polygamy; but it is
said that he was led on by a desire for providing for the public safety by
increasing the population of the country, though probably the love of
notoriety, which has added many authors' names to the category of fools,
contributed much to his madness.

Infected with the same notions was Bernardino Ochino, a Franciscan, and
afterwards a Capuchin, whose dialogue _De Polygamia_ was fatal to him.
Although he was an old man, the authorities at Basle ordered him to leave
the city in the depth of a severe winter. He wandered into Poland, but
through the opposition of the Papal Nuncio, Commendone, he was again
obliged to fly. He had to mourn over the death of two sons and a daughter,
who died of the plague in Poland, and finally Ochino ended his woes in
Moravia. Such was the miserable fate of Ochino, who was at one time the
most famous preacher in the whole of Italy. He had a wonderful eloquence,
which seized upon the minds of his hearers and carried them whither he
would. No church was large enough to contain the multitudes which flocked
to hear him. Ochino was a skilled linguist, and, after leaving the Roman
Church, he wrote a book against the Papacy in English, which was printed
in London, and also a sermon on predestination. He visited England in
company with Peter Martyr, but on the death of Edward VI., on account of
the changes introduced in Mary's reign these two doctors again crossed the
seas, and retired to a safer retreat. His brilliant career was entirely
ruined by his fatal frenzy and foolish fanaticism for polygamy.

The third of this strange triumvirate was Samuel Friedrich Willenberg, a
doctor of law of the famous University of Cracow, who wrote a book _De
finibus polygamiae licitae_ and aroused the hatred of the Poles. In 1715,
by command of the High Court of the King of Poland, his book was condemned
to be burnt, and its author nearly shared the same fate. He escaped,
however, this terrible penalty, and was fined one hundred thousand gold
pieces.

With these unhappy advocates of a system which violates the sacredness of
marriage, we must close our list of fanatics whose works have proved fatal
to them. Many of them deserve our pity rather than our scorn; for they
suffered from that species of insanity which, according to Holmes, is
often the logic of an accurate mind overtasked. At any rate, they furnish
an example of that

  "Faith, fanatic faith, which, wedded fast
  To some dear falsehood, hugs it to the last."




CHAPTER III.

ASTROLOGY, ALCHEMY, AND MAGIC.

Henry Cornelius Agrippa--Joseph Francis Borri--Urban Grandier--Dr. Dee--
Edward Kelly--John Darrell.


Superstition is a deformed monster who dies hard; and like Loki of the
Sagas when the snake dropped poison on his forehead, his writhings shook
the world and caused earthquakes. Now its power is well-nigh dead.
"Superstition! that horrible incubus which dwelt in darkness, shunning the
light, with all its racks and poison-chalices, and foul sleeping-draughts,
is passing away without return." [Footnote: Carlyle.] But society was once
leavened with it. Alchemy, astrology, and magic were a fashionable cult,
and so long as its professors pleased their patrons, proclaimed "smooth
things and prophesied deceits," all went well with them; but it is an easy
thing to offend fickle-minded folk, and when the philosopher's stone and
the secret of perpetual youth after much research were not producible, the
cry of "impostor" was readily raised, and the trade of magic had its
uncertainties, as well as its charms.

Our first author who suffered as an astrologer, though it is extremely
doubtful whether he was ever guilty of the charges brought against him,
was Henry Cornelius Agrippa, who was born at Cologne in 1486, a man of
noble birth and learned in Medicine, Law, and Theology. His supposed
devotion to necromancy and his adventurous career have made his story a
favourite one for romance-writers. We find him in early life fighting in
the Italian war under the Emperor Maximilian, whose private secretary he
was. The honour of knighthood conferred upon him did not satisfy his
ambition, and he betook himself to the fields of learning. At the request
of Margaret of Austria, he wrote a treatise on the Excellence of Wisdom,
which he had not the courage to publish, fearing to arouse the hostility
of the theologians of the day, as his views were strongly opposed to the
scholasticism of the monks. He lived the roving life of a mediaeval
scholar, now in London illustrating the Epistles of St. Paul, now at
Cologne or Pavia or Turin lecturing on Divinity, and at another time at
Metz, where he resided some time and took part in the government of the
city. There, in 1521, he was bereaved of his beautiful and noble wife.
There too we read of his charitable act of saving from death a poor woman
who was accused of witchcraft. Then he became involved in controversy,
combating the idea that St. Anne, the mother of the Blessed Virgin, had
three husbands, and in consequence of the hostility raised by his opinions
he was compelled to leave the city. The people used to avoid him, as if he
carried about with him some dread infection, and fled from him whenever he
appeared in the streets. At length we see him established at Lyons as
physician to the Queen Mother, the Princess Louise of Savoy, and enjoying
a pension from Francis I. This lady seems to have been of a superstitious
turn of mind, and requested the learned Agrippa, whose fame for astrology
had doubtless reached her, to consult the stars concerning the destinies
of France. This Agrippa refused, and complained of being employed in such
follies. His refusal aroused the ire of the Queen; her courtiers eagerly
took up the cry, and "conjurer," "necromancer," etc., were the
complimentary terms which were freely applied to the former favourite.
Agrippa fled to the court of Margaret of Austria, the governor of the
Netherlands under Charles V., and was appointed the Emperor's
historiographer. He wrote a history of the reign of that monarch, and
during the life of Margaret he continued his prosperous career, and at her
death he delivered an eloquent funeral oration.

But troubles were in store for the illustrious author. In 1530 he
published a work, _De Incertitudine et Vanitate Scientiarum et Artium,
atque Excellentia Verbi Dei Dedamatio_ (Antwerp). His severe satire upon
scholasticism and its professors roused the anger of those whom with
scathing words he castigated. The Professors of the University of Louvain
declared that they detected forty-three errors in the book; and Agrippa
was forced to defend himself against their attacks in a little book
published at Leyden, entitled _Apologia pro defencione Declamationis de
Vanitate Scientiarum contra Theologistes Lovanienses_. In spite of such
powerful friends as the Papal Legate, Cardinal Campeggio, and Cardinal de
la Marck, Prince Bishop of Liege, Agrippa was vilified by his opponents,
and imprisoned at Brussels in 1531. The fury against his book continued to
rage, and its author declares in his Epistles: "When I brought out my book
for the purpose of exciting sluggish minds to the study of sound learning,
and to provide some new arguments for these monks to discuss in their
assemblies, they repaid this kindness by rousing common hostility against
me; and now by suggestions, from their pulpits, in public meetings, before
mixed multitudes, with great clamourings they declaim against me; they
rage with passion, and there is no impiety, no heresy, no disgrace which
they do not charge me with, with wonderful gesticulations--namely, with
clapping of fingers, with hands outstretched and then suddenly drawn back,
with gnashing of teeth, by raging, by spitting, by scratching their heads,
by gnawing their nails, by stamping with their feet, they rage like
madmen, and omit no kind of lunatic behaviour by means of which they may
arouse the hatred and anger of both prince and people against me."

The book was examined by the Inquisition and placed by the Council of
Trent on the list of prohibited works, amongst the heretical books of the
first class. Erasmus, however, spoke very highly of it, and declared it to
be "the work of a man of sparkling intellect, of varied reading and good
memory, who always blames bad things, and praises the good." Schelhorn
declares that the book is remarkable for the brilliant learning displayed
in it, and for the very weighty testimony which it bears against the
errors and faults of the time.

Our author was released from his prison at Brussels, and wrote another
book, _De occulta Philosophia_ (3 vols., Antwerp, 1533), which enabled his
enemies to bring against him the charge of magic. Stories were told of the
money which Agrippa paid at inns turning into pieces of horn and shell,
and of the mysterious dog which ate and slept with him, which was indeed a
demon in disguise and vanished at his death. They declared he had a
wonderful wand, and a mirror which reflected the images of persons absent
or dead.

The reputed wizard at length returned to France, where he was imprisoned
on a charge of speaking evil of the Queen Mother, who had evidently not
forgotten his refusal to consult the stars for her benefit. He was,
however, soon released, and after his strange wandering life our author
ended his labours in a hospital at Grenoble, where he died in 1535. In
addition to the works we have mentioned, he wrote _De Nobilitate et
Proecellentia Faeminei Sexus_ (Antwerp, 1529), in order to flatter his
patroness Margaret of Austria, and an early work, _De Triplici Ratione
Cognoscendi Deum_ (1515). The monkish epigram, unjust though it be, is
perhaps worth recording:--

"Among the gods there is Momus who reviles all men; among the heroes there
is Hercules who slays monsters; among the demons there is Pluto, the king
of Erebus, who is in a rage with all the shades; among the philosophers
there is Democritus who laughs at all things, Heraclitus who bewails all
things, Pyrrhon who is ignorant of all things, Aristotle who thinks that
he knows all things, Diogenes who despises all things. But this Agrippa
spares none, despises all things, knows all things, is ignorant of all
things, bewails all things, laughs at all things, rages against all
things, reviles all things, being himself a philosopher, a demon, a hero,
a god, everything."

The impostor Joseph Francis Borri was a very different character. He was a
famous chemist and charlatan, born at Milan in 1627, and educated by the
Jesuits at Rome, being a student of medicine and chemistry. He lived a
wild and depraved life, and was compelled to retire into a seminary. Then
he suddenly changed his conduct, and pretended to be inspired by God,
advocating in a book which he published certain strange notions with
regard to the existence of the Trinity, and expressing certain ridiculous
opinions, such as that the mother of God was a certain goddess, that the
Holy Spirit became incarnate in the womb of Anna, and that not only Christ
but the Virgin also are adored and contained in the Holy Eucharist. In
spite of the folly of his teaching he attracted many followers, and also
the attention of the Inquisition. Perceiving his danger, he fled to Milan,
and thence to a more safe retreat in Amsterdam and Hamburg. In his absence
the Inquisition examined his book and passed its dread sentence upon its
author, declaring that "Borri ought to be punished as a heretic for his
errors, that he had incurred both the 'general' and 'particular' censures,
that he was deprived of all honour and prerogative in the Church, of whose
mercy he had proved himself unworthy, that he was expelled from her
communion, and that his effigy should be handed over to the Cardinal
Legate for the execution of the punishment he had deserved." All his
heretical writings were condemned to the flames, and all his goods
confiscated. On the 3rd of January, 1661, Borri's effigy and his books
were burned by the public executioner, and Borri declared that he never
felt so cold, when he knew that he was being burned by proxy. He then fled
to a more secure asylum in Denmark. He imposed upon Frederick III., saying
that he had found the philosopher's stone. After the death of this
credulous monarch Borri journeyed to Vienna, where he was delivered up to
the representative of the Pope, and cast into prison. He was then sent to
Rome, and condemned to perpetual imprisonment in the Castle of St. Angelo,
where he died in 1685. His principal work was entitled _La Chiave del
gabineito del cavagliere G. F. Borri_ (The key of the cabinet of Borri).
Certainly the Church showed him no mercy, but perhaps his hard fate was
not entirely undeserved.

The tragic death of Urban Grandier shows how dangerous it was in the days
of superstition to incur the displeasure of powerful men, and how easily
the charge of necromancy could be used for the purpose of "removing" an
obnoxious person. Grandier was cure of the Church of St. Peter at Loudun
and canon of the Church of the Holy Cross. He was a pleasant companion,
agreeable in conversation, and much admired by the fair sex. Indeed he
wrote a book, _Contra Caelibatum Clericorum_, in which he strongly
advocated the marriage of the clergy, and showed that he was not himself
indifferent to the charms of the ladies. In an evil hour he wrote a little
book entitled _La cordonniere de Loudun_, in which he attacked Richelieu,
and aroused the undying hatred of the great Cardinal. Richelieu was at
that time in the zenith of his power, and when offended he was not very
scrupulous as to the means he employed to carry out his vengeance, as the
fate of our author abundantly testifies.

In the town of Loudun was a famous convent of Ursuline nuns, and Grandier
solicited the office of director of the nunnery, but happily he was
prevented by circumstances from undertaking that duty. A short time
afterwards the nuns were attacked with a curious and contagious frenzy,
imagining themselves tormented by evil spirits, of whom the chief was
Asmodeus. [Footnote: This was the demon mentioned in Tobit iii. 8, 17, who
attacked Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, and killed her seven husbands.
Rabbinical writers consider him as the chief of evil spirits, and recount
his marvellous deeds. He is regarded as the fire of impure love.] They
pretended that they were possessed by the demon, and accused the unhappy
Grandier of casting the spells of witchcraft upon them. He indignantly
refuted the calumny, and appealed to the Archbishop of Bordeaux, Charles
de Sourdis. This wise prelate succeeded in calming the troubled minds of
the nuns, and settled the affair.

In the meantime the vengeful eye of Richelieu was watching for an
opportunity. He sent his emissary, Councillor Laubardemont, to Loudun, who
renewed the accusation against Grandier. The amiable cleric, who had led a
pious and regular life, was declared guilty of adultery, sacrilege, magic,
witchcraft, demoniacal possession, and condemned to be burned alive after
receiving an application of the torture. In the market-place of Loudun in
1643 this terrible sentence was carried into execution, and together with
his book, _Contra Caelibatum Clericorum_, poor Grandier was committed to
the flames. When he ascended his funeral pile, a fly was observed to buzz
around his head. A monk who was standing near declared that, as Beelzebub
was the god of flies, the devil was present with Grandier in his dying hour
and wished to bear away his soul to the infernal regions. An account of
this strange and tragic history was published by Aubin in his _Histoire
des diables de Loudun, ou cruels effets de la vengeance de Richelieu_
(Amsterdam, 1693).

Our own country has produced a noted alchemist and astrologer, Dr. Dee,
whose fame extended to many lands. He was a very learned man and prolific
writer, and obtained the office of warden of the collegiate church of
Manchester through the favour of Queen Elizabeth, who was a firm believer
in his astrological powers. His age was the age of witchcraft, and in no
county was the belief in the magic power of the "evil eye" more prevalent
than in Lancashire. Dr. Dee, however, disclaimed all dealings with "the
black art" in his petition to the great "Solomon of the North," James I.,
which was couched in these words: "It has been affirmed that your
majesty's suppliant was the conjurer belonging to the most honourable
privy council of your majesty's predecessor, of famous memory, Queen
Elizabeth; and that he is, or hath been, a caller or invocater of devils,
or damned spirits; these slanders, which have tended to his utter undoing,
can no longer be endured; and if on trial he is found guilty of the
offence imputed to him, he offers himself willingly to the punishment of
death; yea, either to be stoned to death, or to be buried quick, or to be
burned unmercifully." In spite of his assertions to the contrary, the
learned doctor must have had an intimate acquaintance with "the black
art," and was the companion and friend of Edward Kelly, a notorious
necromancer, who for his follies had his ears cut off at Lancaster. This
Kelly used to exhume and consult the dead; in the darkness of night he and
his companions entered churchyards, dug up the bodies of men recently
buried, and caused them to utter predictions concerning the fate of the
living. Dr. Dee's friendship with Kelly was certainly suspicious. On the
coronation of Queen Elizabeth, he foretold the future by consulting the
stars. When a waxen image of the queen was found in Lincoln's-Inn-Fields,
which was a sure sign that some one was endeavouring to cast spells upon
her majesty, Dr. Dee pretended that he was able to defeat the designs of
such evil-disposed persons, and prevent his royal mistress feeling any of
the pains which might be inflicted on her effigy. In addition his books,
of which there were many, witness against him. These were collected by
Casaubon, who published in London in 1659 a _resume_ of the learned
doctor's works.

Manchester was made too hot, even for the alchemist, through the
opposition of his clerical brethren, and he was compelled to resign his
office of warden of the college. Then, accompanied by Kelly, he wandered
abroad, and was received as an honoured guest at the courts of many
sovereigns. The Emperor Rodolphe, Stephen, King of Poland, and other royal
personages welcomed the renowned astrologers, who could read the stars,
had discovered the elixir of life, which rendered men immortal, the
philosopher's stone in the form of a powder which changed the bottom of a
warming-pan into pure silver, simply by warming it at the fire, and made
the precious metals so plentiful that children played at quoits with
golden rings. No wonder they were so welcome! They were acquainted with
the Rosicrucian philosophy, could hold correspondence with the spirits of
the elements, imprison a spirit in a mirror, ring, or stone, and compel it
to answer questions. Dr. Dee's mirror, which worked such wonders, and was
found in his study at his death in 1608, is now in the British Museum. In
spite of all these marvels, the favour which the great man for a time
enjoyed was fleet and transient. He fell into poverty and died in great
misery, his downfall being brought about partly by his works but mainly by
his practices.

Associated with Lancashire demonology is the name of John Darrell, a
cleric, afterwards preacher at St. Mary's, Nottingham, who published a
narrative of the strange and grievous vexation of the devil of seven
persons in Lancashire. This remarkable case occurred at Clayworth in the
parish of Leigh, in the family of one Nicholas Starkie, whose house was
turned into a perfect bedlam. It is vain to follow the account of the
vagaries of the possessed, the howlings and barkings, the scratchings of
holes for the familiars to get to them, the charms and magic circles of
the impostor and exorcist Hartley, and the godly ministrations of the
accomplished author, who with two other preachers overcame the evil
spirits.

Unfortunately for him, Harsnett, Bishop of Chichester, and afterwards
Archbishop of York, doubted the marvellous powers of the pious author, Dr.
Darrell, and had the audacity to suggest that he made a trade of casting
out devils, and even went so far as to declare that Darrell and the
possessed had arranged the matter between them, and that Darrell had
instructed them how they were to act in order to appear possessed. The
author was subsequently condemned as an impostor by the Queen's
commissioners, deposed from his ministry, and condemned to a long term of
imprisonment with further punishment to follow. The base conduct and
pretences of Darrell and others obliged the clergy to enact the following
canon (No. 73): "That no minister or ministers, without license and
direction of the bishop, under his hand and seal obtained, attempt, upon
any pretence whatsoever, either of possession or obsession, by fasting and
prayer, to cast 'out any devil or devils, under pain of the imputation of
imposture, or cozenage, and deposition from the ministry." This penalty at
the present day not many of the clergy are in danger of incurring.




CHAPTER IV.

SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY.

Bishop Virgil--Roger Bacon--Galileo--Jordano Bruno--Thomas Campanella--De
Lisle de Sales--Denis Diderot--Balthazar Bekker--Isaac de la Peyrere--Abbe
de Marolles--Lucilio Vanini--Jean Rousseau.


Science in its infancy found many powerful opponents, who, not
understanding the nature of the newly-born babe, strove to strangle it.
But the infant grew into a healthy child in spite of its cruel stepmother,
and cried so loudly and talked so strangely that the world was forced to
listen to its utterances. These were regarded with distrust and aversion
by the theologians of the day, for they were supposed to be in opposition
to Revelation, and contrary to the received opinions of all learned and
pious people. Therefore Science met with very severe treatment; its
followers were persecuted with relentless vehemence, and "blasphemous
fables" and "dangerous deceits" were the only epithets which could
characterise its doctrines.

The controversy between Religion and Science still rages, in spite of the
declaration of Professor Huxley that in his opinion the conflict between
the two is entirely factitious. But theologians are wiser now than they
were in the days of Galileo; they are waiting to see what the scientists
can prove, and then, when the various hypotheses are shown to be true, it
will be time enough to reconcile the verities of the Faith with the facts
of Science.

To those who believed that the earth was flat it was somewhat startling to
be told that there were antipodes. This elementary truth of cosmology
Bishop Virgil of Salzbourg was courageous enough to assert as early as
A.D. 764. He wrote a book in which he stated that men of another race, not
sprung from Adam, lived in the world beneath our feet. This work aroused
the anger of Pope Zacharias II, who wrote to the King of Bavaria that
Virgil should be expelled from the temple of God and the Church, and
deprived of God and the Church, and deprived of his office, unless he
confessed his perverse errors. In spite of the censure and sentence of
excommunication pronounced upon him, Bishop Virgil was canonised by Pope
Gregory XI.; thus, in spite of his misfortunes brought about by his book,
his memory was revered and honoured by the Western Church.

If the account of his imprisonment be true (of which there is no
contemporary evidence) our own celebrated English philosopher, Roger
Bacon, is one of the earliest scientific authors whose works proved fatal
to them. In 1267 he sent his book, _Opus Majus_, together with his _Opus
Minus_, an abridgement of his former work, to Pope Clement IV. After the
death of that Pope Bacon was cited by the General of the Franciscan order,
to which he belonged, to appear before his judges at Paris, where he was
condemned to imprisonment. He is said to have languished in the dungeon
fourteen years, and, worn out by his sufferings, to have died in his
beloved Oxford during the year of his release, 1292. The charge of magic
was freely brought against him. His great work, which has been termed "the
_Encyclopaedia_ and the _Novum Organum_ of the thirteenth century,"
discloses an unfettered mind and judgment far in advance of the spirit of
the age in which he lived. In addition to this he wrote _Compendium
Philosophiae_, _De mirabili Potestate artis et naturae, Specula
mathematica, Speculum alchemicum_, and other works.

The treatment which Galileo received at the hands of the ecclesiastics of
his day is well known. This father of experimental philosophy was born at
Pisa in 1564, and at the age of twenty-four years, through the favour of
the Medicis, was elected Professor of Mathematics at the University of the
same town. Resigning his chair in 1592, he became professor at Padua, and
then at Florence. He startled the world by the publication of his first
book, _Sidereus Nuntius_, in which he disclosed his important astronomical
discoveries, amongst others the satellites of Jupiter and the spots on the
sun. This directed the attention of the Inquisition to his labours, but in
1632 he published his immortal work _Dialogo sopra i due Massimi Sistemi
del monda, Tolemaico et Copernicano_ (Florence), which was the cause of
his undoing. In this book he defended the opinion of Copernicus concerning
the motion of the earth round the sun, which was supposed by the
theologians of the day to be an opinion opposed to the teaching of Holy
Scripture and subversive of all truth. The work was brought before the
Inquisition at Rome, and condemned by the order of Pope Urban VIII.
Galileo was commanded to renounce his theory, but this he refused to do,
and was cast into prison. "Are these then my judges?" he exclaimed when he
was returning from the presence of the Inquisitors, whose ignorance
astonished him. There he remained for five long years; until at length,
wearied by his confinement, the squalor of the prison, and by his
increasing years, he consented to recant his "heresy," and regained his
liberty. The old man lost his sight at seventy-four years of age, and died
four years later in 1642. In addition to the work which caused him so
great misfortunes he published _Discorso e Demonstr. interna alle due
nuove Scienze, Delia Scienza Meccanica (1649), Tractato della Sfera
(1655)_; and the telescope, the isochronism of the vibrations of the
pendulum, the hydrostatic balance, the thermometer, were all invented by
this great leader of astronomical and scientific discoverers. Many other
discoveries might have been added to these, had not his widow submitted
the sage's MSS. to her confessor, who ruthlessly destroyed all that he
considered unfit for publication. Possibly he was not the best judge of
such matters!

Italy also produced another unhappy philosophic writer, Jordano Bruno, who
lived about the same time as Galileo, and was born at Nole in 1550, being
fourteen years his senior. At an early age he acquired a great love of
study and a thirst for knowledge. The Renaissance and the revival of
learning had opened wide the gates of knowledge, and there were many eager
faces crowding around the doors, many longing to enter the fair Paradise
and explore the far-extending vistas which met their gaze. It was an age
of anxious and eager inquiry; the torpor of the last centuries had passed
away; and a new world of discovery, with spring-like freshness, dawned
upon the sight. Jordano Bruno was one of these zealous students of the
sixteenth century. We see him first in a Dominican convent, but the old-
world scholasticism had no charms for him. The narrow groove of the
cloister was irksome to his freedom-loving soul. He cast off his monkish
garb, and wandered through Europe as a knight-errant of philosophy,
_multum ille et terris jactatus et alto_, teaching letters. In 1580 we
find him at Geneva conferring with Calvin and Beza, but Calvinism did not
commend itself to his philosophic mind. Thence he journeyed to Paris,
where in 1582 he produced one of his more important works, _De umbris
idearum_. Soon afterwards he came to London, where he became the intimate
friend of Sir Philip Sidney. Here he wrote the work which proved fatal to
him, entitled _Spaccio della bestia triomphante_ (The expulsion of the
triumphing beast) (London, 1584). [Footnote: The full title of the work
is: _Spaccio della bestia triomphante da giove, effetuato dal conseglo,
revelato da Mercurio, recitato da sofia, udito da saulino, registrato dal
nolano, divisa in tre dialogi, subdivisi in tre parti. In Parigi, 1584,
in-8_.] This was an allegory in which he combated superstition and
satirised the errors of Rome. But in this work Bruno fell into grievous
errors and dangerous atheistic deceits. He scoffed at the worship of God,
declared that the books of the sacred canon were merely dreams, that Moses
worked his wonders by magical art, and blasphemed the Saviour. Bruno
furnished another example of those whose faith, having been at one time
forced to accept dogmas bred of superstition, has been weakened and
altogether destroyed when they have perceived the falseness and
fallibility of that which before they deemed infallible.

But in spite of these errors Bruno's learning was remarkable. He had an
extensive knowledge of all sciences. From England he went to Germany, and
lectured at Wittenberg, Prague, and Frankfort. His philosophy resembled
that of Spinosa. He taught that God is the substance and life of all
things, and that the universe is an immense animal, of which God is the
soul.

At length he had the imprudence to return to Italy, and became a teacher
at Padua. At Venice he was arrested by order of the Inquisition in 1595,
and conducted to Rome, where, after an imprisonment of two years, in order
that he might be punished as gently as possible without the shedding of
blood, he was sentenced to be burned alive. With a courage worthy of a
philosopher, he exclaimed to his merciless judges, "You pronounce sentence
upon me with greater fear than I receive it." Bruno's other great works
were _Della causa, principio e uno_ (1584), _De infinito universo et
mundis_ (1584), _De monade numero et figura_ (Francfort, 1591).

The Inquisition at Rome at this period was particularly active in its
endeavours to reform errant philosophers, and Bruno was by no means the
only victim who felt its power. Thomas Campanella, born in Calabria, in
Italy, A.D. 1568, conceived the design of reforming philosophy about the
same time as our more celebrated Bacon. This was a task too great for his
strength, nor did he receive much encouragement from the existing powers.
He attacked scholasticism with much vigour, and censured the philosophy of
Aristotle, the admired of the schoolmen. He wrote a work entitled
_Philosophia sensibus demonstrata_, in which he defended the ideas of
Telesio, who explained the laws of nature as founded upon two principles,
the heat of the sun and the coldness of the earth. He declared that all
our knowledge was derived from sensation, and that all parts of the earth
were endowed with feeling. Campanella also wrote _Prodromus philosophiae
instaurandae_ (1617); _Philosophia rationalis_, embracing grammar,
dialectics, rhetoric, poetry, and history; _Universalis Philosophatus_, a
treatise on metaphysics; _Civitas solis_, a description of a kind of
Utopia, after the fashion of Plato's _Republic_. But the fatal book which
caused his woes was his _Atheismus triumphatus_. On account of this work
he was cast into prison, and endured so much misery that we can scarcely
bear to think of his tortures and sufferings. For twenty-five years he
endured all the squalor and horrors of a mediaeval dungeon; through
thirty-five hours he was "questioned" with such exceeding cruelty that all
his veins and arteries were so drawn and stretched by the rack that the
blood could not flow. Yet he bore all this terrible agony with a brave
spirit, and did not utter a cry. Various causes have been assigned for the
severity of this torture inflicted on poor Campanella. Some attribute it
to the malice of the scholastic philosophers, whom he had offended by his
works. Others say that he was engaged in some treasonable conspiracy to
betray the kingdom of Naples to the Spaniards; but it is probable that his
_Atheismus triumphatus_ was the chief cause of his woes. Sorbiere has thus
passed judgment upon this fatal book: "Though nothing is dearer to me than
time, the loss of which grieves me sorely, I confess that I have lost both
oil and labour in reading the empty book of an empty monk, Thomas
Campanella. It is a farrago of vanities, has no order, many obscurities,
and perpetual barbarisms. One thing I have learned in wandering through
this book, that I will never read another book of this author, even if I
could spare the time."

Authorities differ with regard to the ultimate fate of this author. Some
say that he was killed in prison in 1599; others declare that he was
released and fled to France, where he enjoyed a pension granted to him by
Richelieu. However, during his incarceration he continued his studies, and
wrote a work concerning the Spanish monarchy which was translated from
Italian into German and Latin. In spite of his learning he made many
enemies by his arrogance; and his restless and ambitious spirit carried
him into enterprises which were outside the proper sphere of his
philosophy. In this he followed the example of many other luckless
authors, to whom the advice of the homely proverb would have been valuable
which states that "a shoemaker should stick to his last."

The book entitled _De la Philosophie de la Nature, ou Traite de morale
pour l'espece humaine, tire de la philosophie et fonde sur la nature_
(Paris, _Saillant et Nyon_, 1769, 6 vols., in-12), has a curious history.
It inflicted punishment not only on its author, De Lisle de Sales, but
also on two learned censors of books who approved its contents, the Abbe
Chretien and M. Lebas, the bookseller Saillant, and two of its printers.
De Lisle was sent to prison, but the severity of the punishment aroused
popular indignation, and his journey to gaol resembled a triumph. All the
learned *men of Paris visited the imprisoned philosopher. All the
sentences were reversed by the Parliament of Paris in 1777. This book has
often been reproduced and translated in other languages. De Lisle was
exposed to the persecutions of the Reign of Terror, and another work of
his, entitled _Eponine_, caused him a second term of imprisonment, from
which he was released when the terrible reign of anarchy, lasting eighteen
months, ended.

The industrious philosopher Denis Diderot wrote _Lettres sur les Aveugles
a l'usage de ceux qui voient_ (1749, in-12). There were "those who saw"
and were not blind to its defects, and proceeded to incarcerate Diderot in
the Castle of Vincennes, where he remained six months, and where he
perceived that this little correction was necessary to cure him of his
philosophical folly. He was a very prolific writer, and subsequently with
D'Alembert edited the first French Encyclopaedia (1751-1772, 17 vols.).
This was supposed to contain statements antagonistic to the Government and
to Religion, and its authors and booksellers and their assistants were all
sent to the Bastille. _Chambers' Cyclopaedia_ had existed in England some
years before a similar work was attempted in France, and the idea was
first started by an Englishman, John Mills. This man was ingeniously
defrauded of the work, which owed its conception and execution entirely to
him. Perhaps on the whole he might have been congratulated, as he escaped
the Bastille, to which the appropriators of his work were consigned.

An author who dares to combat the popular superstitious beliefs current in
his time often suffers in consequence of his courage, as Balthazar Bekker
discovered to his cost. This writer was born in West Friezland in 1634,
and died at Amsterdam in 1698. He was a pastor of the Reformed Church of
Holland, and resided during the greater part of his life at Amsterdam,
where he produced his earlier work _Recherches sur les Cometes_ (1683), in
which he combated the popular belief in the malign influence of comets.
This work was followed a few years later by his more famous book _De
Betoverde Weereld_, or _The Enchanted World_, [Footnote: _Le Monde
enchante, ou Examen des sentimens touchant les esprits, traduit du flamand
en francais_ (Amsterdam, 1694, 4 vols., in-l2). One Benjamin Binet wrote a
refutation, entitled _Traite historique des Dieux et des Demons du
paganisme, avec des remarques sur le systeme de Balthazar Bekker_ (Delft,
1696, in-l2).] in which he refuted the vulgar notions with regard to
demoniacal possession. This work created a great excitement amongst the
Hollanders, and in two months no less than four thousand copies were sold.
But, unfortunately for the author, it aroused the indignation of the
theologians of the Reformed Church, who condemned it, deprived Bekker of
his office, and expelled him from their communion. Bekker died shortly
after his sentence had been pronounced. A great variety of opinions have
been expressed concerning this book. Bekker was a follower of Descartes,
and this was sufficient to condemn him in the eyes of many of the
theologians of the day. The Jansenists of Port-Royal and the divines of
the old National Church of Holland were vehement opponents of
Cartesianism; consequently we find M.S. de Vries of Utrecht declaring that
this fatal book caused more evil in the space of two months than all the
priests could prevent in twenty years. Another writer states that it is an
illustrious work, and full of wisdom and learning. When Bekker was deposed
from his office, his adversaries caused a medal to be struck representing
the devil clad in a priestly robe, riding on an ass, and carrying a trophy
in his right hand; which was intended to signify that Bekker had been
overcome in his attempt to disprove demoniacal possession, and that the
devil had conquered in the assembly of divines who pronounced sentence on
Bekker's book. The author was supposed to resemble Satan in the ugliness
of his appearance. Another coin was struck in honour of our author: on one
side is shown the figure of Bekker clad in his priestly robe; and on the
other is seen Hercules with his club, with this inscription, _Opus
virtutis veritatisque triumphat_. Bekker also wrote a catechism, entitled
_La Nourriture des Parfaits_ (1670), which so offended the authorities of
the Reformed Church that its use was publicly prohibited by the sound of
bells.

The science of ethnology has also had its victims, and one Isaac de la
Peyrere suffered for its sake. His fatal book was one entitled
_Praeadamitae, sive exercitatio super versibus xii., xiii., xiv., capitis
v., epistolae divi Pauli ad romanos. Quibus inducuntur primi homines ante
Adamum conditi_ (1655, in-12), in which he advocated a theory that the
earth had been peopled by a race which existed before Adam. The author was
born at Bordeaux in 1592, and served with the Prince of Conde; but, in
spite of his protector, he was imprisoned at Brussels, and his book was
burnt at Paris, in 1655. This work had a salutary effect on the
indefatigable translator Abbe de Marolles, who with extraordinary energy,
but with little skill, was in the habit of translating the classical
works, and almost anything that he could lay his hands upon. He published
no less than seventy volumes, and at last turned his attention to the
sacred Scriptures, translating them with notes. In the latter he inserted
extracts and reflections from the above-mentioned book by Peyrere, which
caused a sudden cessation of his labours. By the authority of the Pope the
printing of his works was suddenly stopped, but probably the loss which
the world incurred was not very great. Peyrere seems to have foretold the
fate of his book and his own escape in the following line:--

  _Parve, nec invideo, sine me, liber, ibis in ignem_.

Lucilio Vanini, born in 1585, was an Italian philosopher, learned in
medicine, astronomy, theology, and philosophy, who, after the fashion of
the scholars of the age, roamed from country to country, like the knight-
errants of the days of chivalry, seeking for glory and honours, not by the
sword, but by learning. This Vanini was a somewhat vain and ridiculous
person. Not content with his Christian name Lucilio, he assumed the
grandiloquent and high-sounding cognomen of Julius Caesar, wishing to
attach to himself some of the glory of the illustrious founder of the
Roman empire. As the proud Roman declared _Veni, Vidi, Vici_, so would he
carry on the same victorious career, subduing all rival philosophers by
the power of his eloquence and learning. He visited Naples, wandered
through France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and England, and
finally stationed himself in France, first at Lyons, and then in a convent
at Toulouse. At Lyons he produced his famous and fatal book,
_Amphitheatrum aeternae providentiae divino-magicum Christiano-Physicum,
nec non Astrologo-Catholicum_ (Lugduni, 1616). It was published with the
royal assent, but afterwards brought upon its author the charge of
Atheism. He concealed the poison most carefully; for apparently he
defended the belief in the Divine Providence and in the immortality of the
soul, but with consummate skill and subtilty he taught that which he
pretended to refute, and led his readers to see the force of the arguments
against the Faith of which he posed as a champion. By a weak and feeble
defence, by foolish arguments and ridiculous reasoning, he secretly
exposed the whole Christian religion to ridicule. But if any doubts were
left whether this was done designedly or unintentionally, they were
dispelled by his second work, _De admirandis naturae reginae deaeque
mortalium arcanis_ (Paris, 1616), which, published in the form of sixty
dialogues, contained many profane statements. In this work also he adopted
his previous plan of pretending to demolish the arguments against the
Faith, while he secretly sought to establish them. He says that he had
wandered through Europe fighting against the Atheists wherever he met with
them. He describes his disputations with them, carefully recording all
their arguments; he concludes each dialogue by saying that he reduced the
Atheists to silence, but with strange modesty he does not inform his
readers what reasonings he used, and practically leaves the carefully
drawn up atheistical arguments unanswered. The Inquisition did not approve
of this subtle method of teaching Atheism, and ordered him to be confined
in prison, and then to be burned alive. This sentence was carried out at
Toulouse in 1619, in spite of his protestations of innocence, and the
arguments which he brought forward before his judges to prove the
existence of God. Some have tried to free Vanini from the charge of
Atheism, but there is abundant evidence of his guilt apart from his books.
The tender mercies of the Inquisition were cruel, and could not allow so
notable a victim to escape their vengeance. Whether to burn a man is the
surest way to convert him, is a question open to argument. Vanini
disguised his insidious teaching carefully, but it required a thick veil
to deceive the eyes of Inquisitors, who were wonderfully clever in spying
out heresy, and sometimes thought they had discovered it even when it was
not there. Vanini and many other authors would have been wiser if they had
not committed their ideas to writing, and contented themselves with words
only. _Litera scripta manet_; and disguise it, twist it, explain it, as
you will, there it stands, a witness for your acquittal or your
condemnation. This thought stays the course of the most restless pen,
though the racks and fires of the Inquisition no longer threaten the
incautious scribe.

We must not omit a French philosopher who died just before the outbreak of
the First French Revolution, Jean Jacques Rousseau. It is well known that
his work _Emile, ou de l'Education, par J.J. Rousseau, Citoyen de Geneve_
(_a Amsterdam_, 1762, 4 vols., in-12), obliged him to fly from France and
Switzerland, in both of which countries he was adjudged to prison. For
many years he passed a wandering, anxious life, ever imagining that his
best friends wished to betray him. Of his virtues and failings as an
author, or of the vast influence he exercised over the minds of his
countrymen, it is needless to write. This has already been done by many
authors in many works.




CHAPTER V.

HISTORY.

Antonius Palearius--Caesar Baronius--John Michael Bruto--Isaac Berruyer--
Louis Elias Dupin--Noel Alexandre--Peter Giannone--Joseph Sanfelicius
(Eusebius Philopater)--Arlotto--Bonfadio--De Thou--Gilbert Genebrard--
Joseph Audra--Beaumelle--John Mariana--John B. Primi--John Christopher
Ruediger--Rudbeck--Francois Haudicquer--Francois de Rosieres--Anthony
Urseus.


Braver far than the heroes of Horace was he who first dared to attack the
terrible Inquisition, and voluntarily to incur the wrath of that dread
tribunal. Such did Antonius Palearius, who was styled _Inquisitionis
Detractator_, and in consequence was either beheaded (as some say) in
1570, or hanged, strangled, and burnt at Rome in 1566. This author was
Professor of Greek and Latin at Sienna and Milan, where he was arrested by
order of Pope Pius V. and conducted to Rome. He stated the truth very
plainly when he said that the Inquisition was a dagger pointed at the
throats of literary men. As an instance of the foolishness of the method
of discovering the guilt of the accused, we may observe that Palearius was
adjudged a heretic because he preferred to sign his name _Aonius_, instead
of _Antonius_, his accuser alleging that he abhorred the sign of the cross
in the letter T, and therefore abridged his name. By such absurd arguments
were men doomed to death.

The _Annales Ecclesiastici_ of Caesar Baronius, published in twelve folio
volumes at Rome (1588-93), is a stupendous work, which testifies to the
marvellous industry and varied learning of its author, although it
contains several chronological errors, and perverts history in order to
establish the claims of the Papacy to temporal power. The author of this
work was born of noble family at Sora, in the kingdom of Naples, A.D.
1538, and was a pupil of St. Philip de Neri, the founder of the
Congregation of the Oratory, whom he succeeded as General of that order.
In 1596 Pope Clement VIII. chose him as his confessor, made him a cardinal
and librarian of the Vatican. On the death of Clement, Baronius was
nominated for election to the Papal throne, and was on the point of
attaining that high dignity when the crown was snatched from him by reason
of his immortal work. In Tome IX. our author had written a long history of
the monarchy of Sicily, and endeavoured to prove that the island
rightfully belonged to the Pope, and not to the King of Spain, who was
then its ruler. This so enraged Philip III. of Spain that he published an
edict forbidding the tome to be bought or read by any of his subjects. Two
booksellers who were rash enough to have some copies of the book on their
shelves were condemned to row in the galleys. When the election for the
Papal throne took place, thirty-three cardinals voted for Baronius, and he
would have been made Pope had not the Spanish ambassador, by order of the
King, who was practically master of Italy at that time, excluded the
author of the _Annals_ from the election. This disappointment and his ill-
health, brought on by hard study, terminated his life, and he died A.D.
1607. The _Annales Ecclesiastici_ occupied Baronius thirty years, and
contain the history of the Church from the earliest times to A.D. 1198.
Various editions were printed at Venice, Cologne, Antwerp, Metz,
Amsterdam, and Lucca. It was continued by Rainaldi and Laderchi, and the
whole work was published in forty-two volumes at Lucca 1738-57. It is a
monument of the industry and patience of its authors.

Another luckless Italian historian flourished in the sixteenth century,
John Michael Bruto, who was born A.D. 1515, and was the author of a very
illustrious work, _Historia Florentina_ (Lyons, 1562). The full title of
the work is: _Joh. Michaelis Bruti Historiae Florentinae, Libri VIII.,
priores ad obitum Laurentii de Medicis_ (Lugduni, 1561, in-4). He wrote
with considerable elegance, judgment, and force, contradicting the
assertions of the historian Paolo Giovio, who was a strong partisan of the
Medicis, and displaying much animosity towards them.

This book aroused the ire of the powerful family of the Medicis, and was
suppressed by public authority. Bruto encouraged the brave citizens of
Florence to preserve inviolate the liberties of their republic, and to
withstand all the attempts of the Medicis to deprive them of their rights.
On account of its prohibition the work is very rare, for the chiefs of the
Florentines took care to buy all the copies which they could procure. In
order to avoid the snares which the Medicis and other powerful Italian
factions knew so well how to weave around those who were obnoxious to
them--an assassin's dagger or a poisoned cup was not then difficult to
procure--Bruto was compelled to seek safety in flight, and wandered
through various European countries, enduring great poverty and privations.
His exile continued until his death, which took place in Transylvania,
A.D. 1593.

The Jesuit Isaac Joseph Berruyer was condemned by the Parliament of Paris
in 1756 to be deposed from his office and to publicly retract his opinions
expressed in his _Histoire du Peuple de Dieu_. The first part, consisting
of seven volumes, 4to, appeared in Paris in 1728, the second in 1755, and
the third in 1758. The work was censured by two Popes, Benedict XIV. and
Clement XIII., as well as by the Sorbonne and the Parliament of Paris.
Berruyer seems to have had few admirers. He delighted to revel in the
details of the loves of the patriarchs, the unbridled passion of
Potiphar's wife, the costume of Judith, her intercourse with Holophernes,
and other subjects, the accounts of which his prurient fancy did not
improve. His imaginative productions caused him many troubles. The Jesuits
disavowed the work, and, as we have said, its author was deposed from his
office.

The French ecclesiastical historian Louis Elias Dupin, born in 1657 and
descended from a noble family in Normandy, was the author of the
illustrious work _La Bibliotheque Universelle des auteurs
ecclesiastiques_. Dupin was a learned doctor of the Sorbonne, and
professor of the College of France; and he devoted most of his life to his
immense work, which is a proof of his marvellous energy and industry. He
gives an account of the lives of the writers, a catalogue of their works,
with the dates when they were issued, and a criticism of their style and
of the doctrines set forth therein. But the learned historian involved
himself in controversy with the advocates of Papal supremacy by publishing
a book, _De Antiqua Ecclesiae disciplina_, in which he defended with much
zeal the liberty of the Gallican Church. He lived at the time when that
Church was much agitated by the assumptions of Pope Clement XI., aided by
the worthless Louis XIV., and by the resistance of the brave-hearted
Jansenists to the famous Bull _Unigenitus_. For three years France was
torn by these disputes. A large number of the bishops were opposed to the
enforcing of this bull, and the first theological school in Europe, the
Sorbonne, joined with them in resisting the tyranny of the Pope and the
machinations of Madame de Maintenon.

Dupin took an active part with the other theologians of his school in
opposing this _Unigenitus_, and wrote his book _De Antiqua Ecclesiae
disciplina_ in order to defend the Gallican Church from the tyranny of the
Bishop of Rome. In this work he carefully distinguishes the universal
Catholic Church from the Roman Church, and shows that the power of the
Papacy was not founded on any warrant of Holy Scripture, nor on the
judgments of the Fathers. He allows that the power of keys was given to
St. Peter, but not to one man individually, but to the whole Church
represented by him. The authority of the Pope extends not beyond certain
fixed boundaries, and the temporal and civil power claimed by the Papacy
is not conjoined to the spiritual power, and ought to be separated from
it. This plain speaking did not commend itself to the occupier of the
Papal throne, nor to his tool Louis XIV., who deprived Dupin of his
professorship and banished him to Chatelleraut. Dupin's last years were
occupied with a correspondence with Archbishop Wake of Canterbury, who was
endeavouring to devise a plan for the reunion of the Churches of France
and England. Unhappily the supporters of the National Church of France
were overpowered by the Ultramontane party; otherwise it might have been
possible to carry out this project dear to the hearts of all who long for
the unity of Christendom. Dupin died A.D. 1719.

A companion in misfortune was Noel Alexandre, a French ecclesiastical
historian who lived at the same period and shared Dupin's views with
regard to the supremacy of the Pope. His work is entitled _Natalis
Alexandri Historia Ecclesiastica Veteris et Novi Testamenti, cum
Dissertationibus historico-chronologicis et criticis (Parisiis, Dezallier,
1669, seu 1714, 8 tom en 7 vol. in-fol.)_. The results of his researches
were not very favourable to the Court of Rome. The Inquisition examined
and condemned the work. Its author was excommunicated by Innocent XI. in
1684. This sentence was subsequently removed, as we find our author
Provincial of the Dominican Order in 1706; but having subscribed his name
to the celebrated _Cas de Conscience_, together with forty other doctors
of the Sorbonne, he was banished to Chatelleraut and deprived of his
pension. He died in 1724.

Italian historians seem to have fared ill, and our next author, Peter
Giannone, was no exception to the rule. He was born in 1676, and resided
some time at Naples, following the profession of a lawyer. There he
published in 1723 four volumes of his illustrious work entitled _Dell'
Historia civile del Regno di Napoli, dopo l'origine sino ad re Carlo VI.,
da Messer P. Giannone (Napoli, Nicolo Naro_, 1723, in-4), which, on
account of certain strictures upon the temporal authority of the Pope,
involved him in many troubles.

This remarkable work occupied the writer twenty years, and contains the
result of much study and research, exposing with great boldness the
usurpations of the Pope and his cardinals, and other ecclesiastical
enormities, and revealing many obscure points with regard to the
constitution, laws, and customs of the kingdom of Naples. He was aware of
the great dangers which would threaten him, if he dared to publish this
immortal work; but he bravely faced the cruel fate which awaited him, and
verified the prophetic utterance of a friend, "You have placed on your
head a crown of thorns, and of very sharp ones."

This book created many difficulties between the King of Naples and the
occupant of the Papal See, and its author was excommunicated and compelled
to leave Naples, while his work was placed on the index of prohibited
books. Giannone then led a wandering life for some time, and at length
imagined that he had found a safe asylum at Venice. But his powerful
enemies contrived that he should be expelled from the territory of the
Venetian republic. Milan, Padua, Modena afforded him only temporary
resting-places, and at last he betook himself to Geneva. There he began to
write Vol. V. of his history. He was accosted one day by a certain
nobleman, who professed great admiration of his writings, and was much
interested in all that Giannone told him. His new friend invited him to
dinner at a farmstead which was situated not far from Geneva, but just
within the borders of the kingdom of Savoy. Fearing no treachery, Giannone
accepted the invitation of his new friend, but the repast was not
concluded before he was arrested by order of the King of Sardinia,
conveyed to a prison, and then transferred to Rome. The fates of the poor
captives in St. Angelo were very similar. In spite of a useless
retractation of his "errors," he was never released, and died in prison in
1758. His history was translated into French, and published in four
volumes in 1742 at the Hague. Giannone's work has furnished with weapons
many of the adversaries of Papal dominion, and one Vernet collected all
the passages in this book, so fatal to its author, which were hostile to
the Pope, and many of his scathing criticisms and denunciations of abuses,
and published the extracts under the title _Anecdotes ecclesiastiques_
(The Hague, 1738).

The work of Giannone on the civil history of the kingdom of Naples excited
Joseph Sanfelicius, of the order of the Jesuits, to reply to the arguments
of the former relating to the temporal power of the Pope. This man,
assuming the name of Eusebius Philopater, wrote in A.D. 1728 a fatal book
upon the civil history of the kingdom of Naples, in which he attacked
Giannone with the utmost vehemence, and heaped upon him every kind of
disgraceful accusation and calumny. This work was first published
secretly, and then sold openly by two booksellers, by whom it was
disseminated into every part of Italy. It fell into the hands of the
Regent, who summoned his council and inquired what action should be taken
with regard to it. With one voice they decided against the book; its sale
was prohibited, and its author banished.

A book entitled _Histoire de la tyrannie et des exces dont se rendirent
coupables les Habitans de Padoue dans la guerre qu'ils eurent avec ceux de
Vicence, par Arlotto, notaire a Vicence_, carries us back to the stormy
period of the fourteenth century, when Italy was distracted by war, the
great republics ever striving for the supremacy. Arlotto wrote an account
of the cruelties of the people of Padua when they conquered Vicenza, who,
in revenge, banished the author, confiscated his goods, and pronounced
sentence of death on any one who presumed to read his work. Happily
Vicenza succeeded in throwing off the yoke of Padua, and Arlotto recovered
his possessions. This book was so severely suppressed that its author
searched in vain for a copy in order that he might republish it, and only
the title of his work is known.

Genoa too has its literary martyrs, amongst whom was Jacopo Bonfadio, a
professor of philosophy at that city in 1545. He wrote _Annales Genuendis,
ab anno_ 1528 _recuperatae libertatis usque ad annum_ 1550, _libri quinque
(Papiae_, 1585, in-4). His truthful records aroused the animosity of the
powerful Genoese families. The Dorias and the Adornos, the Spinolas and
Fieschi, were not inclined to treat tenderly so daring a scribe, who
presumed to censure their misdeeds. They proceeded to accuse the author of
a crime which merited the punishment of death by burning. His friends
procured for him the special favour that he should be beheaded before his
body was burnt. The execution took place in 1561. The annals have been
translated into Italian by Paschetti, and a new Latin edition was
published at Brescia in 1747.

Books have sometimes been fatal, not only to authors, but to their
posterity also; so it happened to the famous French historian De Thou, who
wrote a valuable history of his own times (1553--1601), _Historia sui
temporis_. [Footnote: The title of the edition of 1604 is _Jacobi Augusti
Thuani in suprema regni Gallici curia praesidis insulati, historiarum sui
temporis (Parisiis Sonnius, Patisson, Drouart, in-fol._).] This great work
was written in Latin in one hundred and thirty-eight books, and afterwards
translated into French and published in sixteen volumes. The important
offices which De Thou held, his intimate acquaintance with the purposes of
the King and the intrigues of the French Court, the special embassies on
which he was engaged, as well as his judicial mind and historical
aptitude, his love of truth, his tolerance and respect for justice, his
keen penetration and critical faculty, render his memoirs extremely
valuable. In 1572 he accompanied the Italian ambassador to Italy; then he
was engaged on a special mission to the Netherlands; for twenty-four years
he was a member of the Parliament of Paris. Henry III. employed him on
various missions to Germany, Italy, and to different provinces of his own
country, and on the accession of Henry IV. he followed the fortunes of
that monarch, and was one of the signatories of the Edict of Nantes. But
his writings created enemies, and amongst them the most formidable was the
mighty Richelieu, who disliked him because our author had not praised one
of the ancestors of the powerful minister, and had been guilty of the
unpardonable offence of not bestowing sufficient honour upon Richelieu
himself. Such a slight was not to be forgiven, and when De Thou applied
for the post of President of the Parliament of Paris from Louis XIII., the
favourite took care that the post should be given to some one else,
although it had been promised to our author by the late monarch. This
disappointment and the continued opposition of Richelieu killed De Thou,
who died in 1617. But the revenge of the minister was unsated. Frederick
Augustus de Thou, the son of the historian, and formerly a _protege_ of
Richelieu, was condemned to death and executed. Enraged by the treatment
which his father had received from the minister, he had turned against his
former patron, and some imprudent letters to the Countess of Chevreuse,
which fell into Richelieu's hands, caused the undying animosity of the
minister, and furnished a pretext for the punishment of his former friend,
and the completion of his vengeance upon the author of _Historia sui
temporis_. Casaubon declares that this history is the greatest work of its
kind which had been published since the Annals of Livy. Chancellor
Hardwicke is said to have been so fond of it as to have resigned his
office and seals on purpose to read it. The book contains some matter
which was written by Camden, and destined for his _Elizabeth_, but erased
by order of the royal censor. Sir Robert Filmer, Camden's friend, states
that the English historian sent all that he was not suffered to print to
his correspondent Thuanus, who printed it all faithfully in his annals
without altering a word.

On the tomb of our next author stands the epitaph _Urna capit cineres,
nomen non orbe tenetur_. This writer was Gilbert Genebrard, a French
author of considerable learning, who maintained that the bishops should be
elected by the clergy and people and not nominated by the king. His book,
written at Avignon, is entitled _De sacrarum electionum jure et
necessitate ad Ecclesiae Gallicanae, redintegrationem, auctore G.
Genebrardo_ (_Parisiis, Nivellius_, 1593, in-8). The Parliament of Aix
ordered the book to be burned, and its author banished from the kingdom
and to suffer death if he attempted to return. He survived his sentence
only one year, and died in the Burgundian monastery of Semur. He loved to
declaim against princes and great men, and obscured his literary glory by
his bitter invectives. One of his works is entitled _Excommunication des
Ecclesiastiques qui ont assiste au service divin avec Henri de Valois
apres l'assassinat du Cardinal de Guise_ (1589, in-8). Certainly the
judgment of posterity has not fulfilled the proud boast of his epitaph.

Joseph Audra, Professor of History at the College of Toulouse, composed a
work for the benefit of his pupils entitled _Abrege d'Histoire generale,
par l'Abbe Audra_ (Toulouse, 1770), which was condemned, and deprived
Audra of his professorship, and also of his life. He died from the chagrin
and disappointment which his misfortunes caused.

The author of _Memoires et Lettres de Madame de Maintenon_ (Amsterdam,
1755, 15 vols., in-12) found his subject a dangerous one, inasmuch as it
conducted him to the Bastille, a very excellent reformatory for audacious
scribes. Laurence Anglivielle de la Beaumelle, born in 1727, had
previously visited that same house of correction on account of his
political views expressed in _Mes Pensees_, published at Copenhagen in
1751. In his _Memoires_ he attributed to the mistress-queen of Louis XIV.
sayings which she never uttered, and his style lacks the dignity and
decency of true historical writings. Voltaire advised that La Beaumelle
should be fettered together with a band of other literary opponents and
sent to the galleys.

Among Spanish historians the name of John Mariana is illustrious. He was
born at Talavera in 1537, and, in spite of certain misfortunes which
befell him on account of his works, lived to the age of eighty-seven
years. He was of the order of the Jesuits, studied at Rome and Paris, and
then retired to the house of the Jesuits at Toledo, where he devoted
himself to his writings. His most important work was his _Historiae de
rebus Hispaniae libri xxx_., published at Toledo 1592-95. But the work
which brought him into trouble was one entitled _De Mutatione Monetae_,
which exposed the frauds of the ministers of the King of Spain with regard
to the adulteration of the public money, and censured the negligence and
laziness of Philip III., declaring that Spain had incurred great loss by
the depreciation in the value of the current coin of the realm. This book
aroused the indignation of the King, who ordered Mariana to be cast into
prison. The Spanish historian certainly deserved this fate, not on account
of the book which brought this punishment upon him, but on account of
another work, entitled _De Rege ac Regis institutione Libri iii. ad
Philippum III., Hispaniae regem catholicum_. Toleti, apud Petrum
Rodericum, 1599, in-4. In this book Mariana propounded the hateful
doctrine, generally ascribed to the Jesuits, that a king who was a tyrant
and a heretic ought to be slain either by open violence or by secret
plots. It is said that the reading of this book caused Ravaillac to commit
his crime of assassinating Henry IV. of France, and that in consequence of
this the book was burned at Paris in 1610 by order of the Parliament.

The historian of the Dutch war of 1672 endured much distress by reason of
his truthfulness. This was John Baptist Primi, Count of Saint-Majole. His
book was first published in Italian, and entitled _Historia della guerra
d'Olanda nell' anno 1672_ (_In Parigi, 1682_), and in the same year a
French translation was issued. The author alludes to the discreditable
Treaty of Dover, whereby Charles II., the Sovereign of England, became a
pensioner of France, and basely agreed to desert his Dutch allies, whom he
had promised to aid with all his resources. The exposure of this base
business was not pleasing to the royal ears. Lord Preston, the English
ambassador, applied to the Court for the censure of the author, who was
immediately sent to the Bastille. His book was very vigorously suppressed,
so that few copies exist of either the Italian or French versions.

Amongst historians we include one writer of biography, John Christopher
Ruediger, who, under the name of Clarmundus, wrote a book _De Vitis
Clarissimorum in re Litteraria Vivorum_. He discoursed pleasantly upon the
fates of authors and their works, but unhappily incurred the displeasure
of the powerful German family of Carpzov, which produced many learned
theologians, lawyers, and philologists. The chief of this family was one
Samuel Benedict Carpzov, who lived at Wittenberg, wrote several
dissertations, and was accounted the Chrysostom of his age (1565-1624).
Ruediger in Part IX. of his work wrote the biography of this learned man,
suppressing his good qualities and ascribing to him many bad ones, and did
scant justice to the memory of so able a theologian. This so enraged the
sons and other relations of the great man that they accused Ruediger of
slander before the ecclesiastical court, and the luckless author was
ordered to be beaten with rods, and to withdraw all the calumnies he had
uttered against the renowned Carpzov. On account of his books Ruediger was
imprisoned at Dresden, where he died.

Haudicquer, the unfortunate compiler of genealogies, was doomed to the
galleys on account of the complaints of certain noble families who felt
themselves aggrieved by his writings. His work was entitled _La Nobiliaire
de Picardie, contenant les Generalites d'Amiens, de Soissons, des pays
reconquis, et partie de l'Election de Beauvais, le tout justifie
conformement aux Jugemens rendus en faveur de la Province. Par Francois
Haudicquer de Blancourt_ (Paris, 1693, in-4). Bearing ill-will to several
illustrious families, he took the opportunity of vilifying and
dishonouring them in his work by many false statements and patents, which
so enraged them that they accomplished the destruction of the calumniating
compiler. The book, in spite of his untrustworthiness, is sought after by
curious book-lovers, as the copies of it are extremely rare, and few
perfect.

It is usually hazardous to endeavour to alter one's facts in order to
support historical theories. This M. Francois de Rosieres, Archdeacon of
Toul, discovered, who endeavoured to show in his history of Lorraine that
the crown of France rightly belonged to that house. His book is entitled
_Stemmatum Lotharingiae et Barri ducum, Tomi VII., ab Antenore Trojano, ad
Caroli III., ducis tempora_, etc. (_Parisiis_, 1580, in-folio). The heroes
of the Trojan war had a vast number of descendants all over Western
Europe, if early genealogies are to be credited. But De Rosieres altered
and transposed many ancient charters and royal patents, in order to
support his theory with regard to the sovereignty of the House of
Lorraine. His false documents were proved to have been forged by the
author. The anger of the French was aroused. He was compelled to sue for
pardon before Henry III.; his book was proscribed and burnt; but for the
protection of the House of Guise, he would have shared the fate of his
book, and was condemned to imprisonment in the Bastille.

The learned Swedish historian Rudbeck may perhaps be included in our list
of ill-fated authors, although his death was not brought about by the
machinations of his foes. He wrote a great work on the origin,
antiquities, and history of Sweden, but soon after its completion he
witnessed the destruction of his book in the great fire of Upsal in 1702.
The disappointment caused by the loss of his work was so great that he
died the same year.

Rudbeck is not the only author who so loved his work that he died broken-
hearted when deprived of his treasure. A great scholar of the fifteenth
century, one Anthony Urseus, who lived at Forli, had just finished a great
work, when unhappily he left a lighted lamp in his study during his
absence. The fatal flame soon enveloped his books and papers, and the poor
author on his return went mad, beating his head against the door of his
palace, and raving blasphemous words. In vain his friends tried to comfort
him, and the poor man wandered away into the woods, his mind utterly
distraught by the enormity of his loss.

Few authors have the bravery, the energy, and amazing perseverance of
Carlyle, who, when his _French Revolution_ had been burned by the
thoughtlessness of his friend's servant, could calmly return to fight his
battle over again, and reproduce the MS. of that immortal work of which
hard fate had cruelly deprived him.




CHAPTER VI.

POLITICS AND STATESMANSHIP.

John Fisher--Reginald Pole--"Martin Marprelate"--Udal--Penry--Hacket--
Coppinger--Arthington--Cartwright--Cowell--Leighton--John Stubbs--Peter
Wentworth--R. Doleman--J. Hales--Reboul--William Prynne--Burton--Bastwick
--John Selden--John Tutchin--Delaune--Samuel Johnson--Algernon Sidney--
Edmund Richer--John de Falkemberg--Jean Lenoir--Simon Linguet--Abbe
Caveirac--Darigrand--Pietro Sarpi--Jerome Maggi--Theodore Reinking.


The thorny subject of Politics has had many victims, and not a few English
authors who have dealt in State-craft have suffered on account of their
works. The stormy period of the Reformation, with its ebbs and flows, its
action and reaction, was not a very safe time for writers of pronounced
views. The way to the block was worn hard by the feet of many pilgrims,
and the fires of Smithfield shed a lurid glare over this melancholy page
of English history.

One of the earliest victims was John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, a
prelate renowned for his learning, his pious life, and for the royal
favour which he enjoyed both from Henry VII. and Henry VIII. The Margaret
Professorship at Cambridge and the Colleges of St. John's and Christ's owe
their origin to Fisher, who induced Margaret, the Countess of Richmond and
mother of Henry VII., to found them. Fisher became Chancellor of the
University, and acted as tutor to Henry VIII. High dignities and royal
favours were bestowed upon the man whom kings delighted to honour. But
Bishop Fisher was no time-serving prelate nor respecter of persons, and
did not hesitate to declare his convictions, whatever consequences might
result. When the much-married monarch wearied of his first wife, the ill-
fated Catherine, and desired to wed Anne Boleyn, the bishops were
consulted, and Fisher alone declared that in his opinion the divorce would
be unlawful. He wrote a fatal book against the divorce, and thus roused
the hatred of the headstrong monarch. He was cast into prison on account
of his refusing the oath with regard to the succession, and his supposed
connection with the treason of Elizabeth Barton, whose mad ravings caused
many troubles; he was deprived, not only of his revenues, but also of his
clothes, in spite of his extreme age and the severity of a hard winter,
and for twelve long dreary months languished in the Tower. The Pope added
to the resentment which Henry bore to his old tutor by making him a
Cardinal; and the Red Hat sealed his doom. "The Pope may send him a hat,"
said the ferocious monarch; "but, Mother of God, he shall wear it on his
shoulders, for I will leave him never a head to set it on." He was charged
with having "falsely, maliciously, and traitorously wished, willed, and
desired, and by craft imagined, invented, practised, and attempted, to
deprive the King of the dignity, title, and name of his royal estate, that
is, of his title and name of supreme head of the Church of England, in the
Tower, on the seventh day of May last, when, contrary to his allegiance,
he said and pronounced in the presence of different true subjects,
falsely, maliciously, and traitorously, these words: the King oure
soveraign lord is not supreme hedd yn erthe of the Cherche of Englande."
These words, drawn from him by Rich, were found sufficient to effect the
King's pleasure.

The aged prelate was pronounced guilty, and beheaded on July 22nd, 1535.
On his way to the scaffold he exclaimed, "Feet, do your duty; you have
only a short journey," and then, singing the _Te Deum laudamus_, he placed
his head upon the block, and the executioner's axe fell. Although Bishop
Fisher was condemned for denying the King's supremacy, he incurred the
wrath of Henry by his book against the divorce, and that practically
sealed his fate. His head was placed on a spike on London Bridge as a
warning to others who might be rash enough to incur the displeasure of the
ruthless King.

Another fatal book which belongs to this period is _Pro unitate ecclesiae
ad Henricum VIII_., written by Reginald Pole in the secure retreat of
Padua, in which the author compares Henry to Nebuchadnezzar, and prays the
Emperor of Germany to direct his arms against so heretical a Christian,
rather than against the Turks. Secure in his retreat at the Papal Court,
Pole did not himself suffer on account of his book, but the vengeance of
Henry fell heavily upon his relations in England, in whose veins ran the
royal blood of the Plantagenets who had swayed the English sceptre through
so many generations. Sir Geoffrey Pole, a brother of the cardinal, was
seized; this arrest was followed by that of Lord Montague, another
brother, and the Countess of Salisbury, their mother, who was the daughter
of the Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV. They were accused of having
devised to maintain, promote, and advance one Reginald Pole, late Dean of
Exeter, the King's enemy beyond seas, and to deprive the King of his royal
state and dignity. Sir Geoffrey Pole contrived to escape the vengeance of
Henry by betraying his companions, but the rest were executed. For some
time Pole's mother was kept a prisoner in the Tower, as a hostage for her
son's conduct. She was more than seventy years of age, and after two
years' imprisonment was condemned to be beheaded. When ordered to lay her
head upon the block she replied, "No, my head never committed treason; if
you will have it, you must take it as you can." She was held down by
force, and died exclaiming, "Blessed are they who suffer persecution for
righteousness' sake." Henry endeavoured to tempt the cardinal to England,
but "in vain was the net spread in sight of any bird." In his absence he
was condemned for treason. The King of France and the Emperor were asked
to deliver him up to justice. Spies and emissaries of Henry were sent to
watch him, and he believed that ruffians were hired to assassinate him.
But he survived all these perils, being employed by the Pope on various
missions and passing his leisure in literary labours. He presided at the
Council of Trent, and lived to return to England during the reign of Mary,
became Archbishop of Canterbury, and strived to appease the sanguinary
rage of that dreadful persecution which is a lasting disgrace to humanity
and to the unhappy Queen, its chief instigator.

The rise of the Puritan faction and all the troubles of the Rebellion
caused many woes to reckless authors. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the
Puritan party opened a vehement attack upon the Episcopalians, and
published books reviling the whole body, as well as the individual
members. The most noted of these works were put forth under the fictitious
name of Martin Marprelate. They were base, scurrilous productions, very
coarse, breathing forth terrible hate against "bouncing priests and
bishops." Here is an example: _A Dialogue wherein is laid open the
tyrannical dealing of L. Bishopps against God's children_. It is full of
scandalous stories of the prelates, who lived irreproachable lives, and
were quite innocent of the gross charges which "Martin Senior" and "Martin
Junior" brought against them. The Bishop of Lincoln, named Cooper, was a
favourite object of attack, and the pamphleteers were always striving to
make "the Cooper's hoops to flye off and his tubs to leake out." In the
_Pistle to the Terrible Priests_ they tell us of "a parson, well-known,
who, being in the pulpit, and hearing his dog cry, he out with the text,
'Why, how now, hoe! can you not let my dog alone there? Come, Springe!
come, Springe!' and whistled the dog to the pulpit." Martin Marprelate was
treated by some according to his folly, and was scoffed in many pamphlets
by the wits of the age in language similar to that which he was so fond of
using. Thus we have _Pasquill of England to Martin Junior, in a
countercuffe given to Martin Junior; A sound boxe on the eare for the
father and sonnes, Huffe, Ruffe, and Snuffe, the three tame ruffians of
the Church, who take pepper in their nose because they cannot marre
Prelates grating_; and similar publications.

Archbishop Whitgift proceeded against these authors with much severity. In
1589 a proclamation was issued against them; several were taken and
punished. Udal and Penry, who were the chief authors of these outrageous
works, were executed. Hacket, Coppinger, and Arthington, who seem to have
been a trio of insane libellers, and Greenwood and Barrow, whose seditious
books and pamphlets were leading the way to all the horrors of anarchy
introduced by the Anabaptists into Germany and the Netherlands, all felt
the vengeance of the Star Chamber, and were severely punished for their
revilings. The innocent often suffer with the guilty, and Cartwright was
imprisoned for eighteen months, although he denied all connection with the
"Marprelate" books, and declared that he had never written or published
anything which could be offensive to her Majesty or detrimental to the
state.

The Solomon of the North and the Parliament of England dealt hard justice
to the _Interpreter_ (1607), which nearly caused its author's death. He
published also _Institutiones Juris Anglicani ad seriem Institutionum
imperialium_ (Cambridge, 1605, 8vo), which involved him in a charge of
wishing to confound the English with the Roman law. Dr. Cowell, in the
former work, sounded the battle-cry which was heard a few years later on
many a field when the strength of the Crown and Parliament met in deadly
combat. He contended for the absolute monarchy of the King of England. His
writings are especially valuable as illustrating our national customs. The
author says: "My true end is the advancement of knowledge, and therefore I
have published this poor work, not only to impart the good thereof to
those young ones who want it, but also to draw from the learned the supply
of my defects.... What a man saith well is not however to be rejected
because he hath many errors; reprehend who will, in God's name, that is
with sweetness and without reproach. So shall he reap hearty thanks at my
hands, and thus more soundly help in a few months, than I, by tossing and
tumbling my books at home, could possibly have done in many years." The
Attorney-General, Sir Edward Coke, was the determined foe of the unhappy
doctor, endeavouring to ridicule him by calling him Dr. Cowheel; then,
telling the King that the book limited the supreme power of the royal
prerogative; and when that failed, he accused our author to the Parliament
of the opposite charge of betraying the liberties of the people. At length
Cowell was condemned by the House to imprisonment; James issued a
proclamation against the book, but saved its author from the hangman.
However, Fuller states that Dr. Cowell's death, which occurred soon after
the condemnation of his book, was hastened by the troubles in which it
involved him.

A Scottish divine, Dr. Leighton, the father of the illustrious Archbishop,
incurred the vengeance of the Star Chamber in 1630 on account of his
treatise entitled _Syon's Plea against Prelacy_ (1628), and received the
following punishment: "To be committed to the Fleet Prison for life, and
to pay a fine of ten thousand pounds to the king's use; to be degraded
from the ministry; to be brought to the pillory at Westminster, while the
court was sitting, and be whipped, and after the whipping to have one of
his ears cut, one side of his nose slit, and be branded in the face with
the letters S.S., signifying Sower of Sedition: after a few days to be
carried to the pillory in Cheapside on a market-day, and be there likewise
whipped, and have the other ear cut off, and the other side of his nose
slit, and then to be shut up in prison for the remainder of his life,
unless his Majesty be graciously pleased to enlarge him." A sentence quite
sufficiently severe to deter any rash scribe from venturing upon
authorship! Maiming an author, cutting off his hands, or ears, or nose,
seems to have been a favourite method of criticism in the sixteenth
century. One John Stubbs had his right hand cut off for protesting against
the proposed marriage of Queen Elizabeth with the Duke of Anjou, which
bold act he committed in his work entitled _Discoverie of a Gaping Gulf
whereinto England is like to be swallowed by another French marriage, if
the Lord forbid not the banes by letting her Majestie see the sin and
punishment thereof_ (1579). Hallam states that the book was far from being
a libel on the Virgin Queen, but that it was written with great affection.
However, it was pronounced to be "a fardell of false reports, suggestions,
and manifest lies." Its author and Page, the bookseller, were brought into
the open market at Westminster, and their right hands were cut off with a
butcher's knife and mallet. With amazing loyalty, Stubbs took off his cap
with his left hand and shouted, "Long live Queen Elizabeth!"

The autocratic Queen had a ready method of dealing with obnoxious authors,
as poor Peter Wentworth discovered, who wrote _A Pithy Exhortation to Her
Majesty for establishing her Successor to the Crown_, and for his pains
was committed to the Tower, where he pined and died. This work advocated
the claims of James VI. of Scotland, and was written in answer to a
pamphlet entitled _A Conference about the Next Succession to the Crown of
England_, published by R. Doleman (1594). The Jesuit R. Parsons, Cardinal
Allen, and Sir Francis Englefield were the authors, who advocated the
claims of Lord Hertford's second son, or the children of the Countess of
Derby, or the Infanta of Spain. The authors were safe beyond seas, but the
printer was hung, drawn, and quartered.

John Hales wrote _A Declaration of Succession of the Crown of England_, in
support of Lord Hertford's children by Lady Catherine Grey, and was sent
to the Tower.

James I., by his craft and guile, accomplished several notable and
surprising matters, and nothing more remarkable than actually to persuade
the Pope to punish an Italian writer, named Reboul, for publishing an
apology for the English Roman Catholics who refused to take the oath of
allegiance required by the English monarch in 1606, after the discovery of
the gunpowder plot. This certainly was a singular and remarkable
performance, and must have required much tact and diplomacy. It is
conjectured that the artful King so flattered the Pope as to induce him to
protect the English sovereign from the attacks of his foes. Reboul's
production was very virulent, exhorting all Catholics to go constantly to
England to excite a rising against the King, and to strangle the tyrant
with their hands. The Pope ordered the furious writer to be hanged, and an
account of his execution, written by a Venetian senator, is found among
Casaubon's collection of letters.

The most famous victim of the Star Chamber was William Prynne, whose work
_Histriomastix, or the Player's Scourge_, directed against the sinfulness
of play-acting, masques, and revels, aroused the indignation of the Court.
This volume of more than a thousand closely printed quarto pages contains
almost all that was ever written against plays and players; not even the
Queen was spared, who specially delighted in such pastimes, and
occasionally took part in the performances at Court.

Prynne was ejected from his profession, condemned to stand in the pillory
at Westminster and Cheapside, to lose both his ears, one in each place, to
pay a fine of L5,000, and to be kept in perpetual imprisonment. A few
years later, on account of his _News from Ipswich_, he was again fined
L5,000, deprived of the rest of his ears, which a merciful executioner had
partially spared, branded on both cheeks with S.L. (Schismatical
Libeller), and condemned to imprisonment for life in Carnarvon Castle. He
was subsequently removed to the Castle of Mont Orgueil, in Jersey, where
he received kind treatment from his jailor, Sir Philip de Carteret. Prynne
was conducted in triumph to London after the victory of the
Parliamentarian party, and became a member of the Commons. His pen was
ever active, and he left behind him forty volumes of his works, a grand
monument of literary activity.

Associated with Prynne was Burton, the author of two sermons _For God and
King_, who wrote against Laud and his party, and endeavoured to uphold the
authority of Charles, upon which he imagined the bishops were encroaching.
Burton suffered the same punishment as Prynne; and Bastwick, a physician,
incurred a like sentence on account of his _Letany_, and another work
entitled _Apologeticus ad Praesules Anglicanos_, which were written while
the author was a prisoner in the Gatehouse of Westminster, and contained a
severe attack upon the Laudian party, the High Commission, and the Church
of England. He had previously been imprisoned and fined 1,000 pounds for
his former works _Elenchus Papisticae Religionis_ and _Flagellum
Pontificis_.

During this period of severe literary criticism lived John Selden, an
author of much industry and varied learning. He was a just, upright, and
fearless man, who spoke his mind, upheld what he deemed to be right in the
conduct of either King or Parliament, and was one of the best characters
in that strange drama of the Great Rebellion. He was the friend and
companion of Littleton, the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, and together
they studied the Records, and were expert in the Books of Law, being the
greatest antiquaries in the profession. Selden had a great affection for
Charles; but the latter was exceedingly enraged because Selden in an able
speech in the House of Commons declared the unlawfulness of the Commission
of Array, for calling out the Militia in the King's name, founded upon an
ancient Act of Parliament in the reign of Henry IV., which Selden said had
been repealed. When Lord Falkland wrote a friendly letter to remonstrate
with him, he replied courteously and frankly, recapitulating his
arguments, and expressing himself equally opposed to the ordinance of the
Parliamentarians, who wished to summon the Militia without the authority
of the King. With equal impartiality and vigour Selden declared the
illegality of this measure, and expected that the Commons would have
rejected it, but he found that "they who suffered themselves to be
entirely governed by his Reason when those conclusions resulted from it
which contributed to their own designs, would not be at all guided by it,
or submit to it, when it persuaded that which contradicted and would
disappoint those designs." [Footnote: Clarendon's _History of the
Rebellion_, vol. i., p. 667.] His work _De Decimis_, in which he tried to
prove that the giving of tithes was not ordered by any Divine command,
excited much contention, and aroused the animosity of the clergy. In
consequence of this in 1621 he was imprisoned, and remained in custody for
five years. On the dissolution of Parliament in 1629, being obnoxious to
the royal party, he was sent to the Tower, and then confined in a house of
correction for pirates. But as a compensation for his injuries in 1647 he
received L5,000 from the public purse and became a member of the Long
Parliament. He was by no means a strong partisan of the Puritan party, and
when asked by Cromwell to reply to the published works in favour of the
martyred King he refused. He lived until 1654 and wrote several works,
amongst which are _Mare clausum_, which was opposed to the _Mare liberum_
of the learned Dutch historian Grotius, _Commentaries on the Arundel
Marbles_ (1629), and _Researches into the History of the Legislation of
the Hebrews_.

John Tutchin, afterwards editor of the _Observator_, was punished by the
merciless Jeffreys in his Bloody Assize for writing seditious verses, and
sentenced to seven years' imprisonment and to be flogged every year
through a town in Dorsetshire. The court was filled with indignation at
this cruel sentence, and Tutchin prayed rather to be hanged at once. This
privilege was refused, but as the poor prisoner, a mere youth, was taken
ill with smallpox, his sentence was remitted. Tutchin became one of the
most pertinacious and vehement enemies of the House of Stuart.

Delaune's _Plea for the Nonconformists_ was very fatal to its author, and
landed him in Newgate, where the poor man died. Some account of this book
and its author is given in a previous volume of the Book-Lover's Library
(_Books Condemned to be Burnt_), and the writer founds upon it an attack
upon the Church of England, whereas the Church had about as much to do
with the persecution of poor Delaune as the writer of _Condemned Books_!
There are other conclusions and statements also propounded by the writer
of that book, which to one less intolerant than himself would appear
entirely unwarrantable. But this is not the place for controversy.

A book entitled _Julian the Apostate_ was very fatal to that turbulent
divine Samuel Johnson, who in the reign of Charles II. made himself famous
for his advocacy of the cause of civil liberty and "no popery." He lived
in very turbulent times, when the question of the rights of the Duke of
York, an avowed Roman Catholic, to the English throne was vehemently
disputed, and allied himself with the party headed by the Earl of Essex
and Lord William Russell. He preached with great force against the
advocates of popery, and (in his own words) threw away his liberty with
both hands, and with his eyes open, for his country's service. Then he
wrote his book in reply to a sermon by Dr. Hickes, who was in favour of
passive obedience, and compared the future King to the Roman Emperor
surnamed the Apostate. This made a great sensation, which was not lessened
by the report that he had indited a pamphlet entitled _Julian's Arts to
undermine and extirpate Christianity_. Johnson was subsequently condemned
to a fine of one hundred marks, and imprisoned. On his release his efforts
did not flag. He wrote _An Humble and Hearty Address to all the
Protestants in the Present Army_ at the time when the Stuart monarch had
assembled a large number of troops at Hounslow Heath in order to overawe
London. This was the cause of further misfortunes; he was condemned to
stand in the pillory, to pay another five hundred marks, to be degraded
from the ministry, and publicly whipped from Newgate to Tyburn. When the
Revolution came he expected a bishopric as the reward of his sufferings;
but he was scarcely the man for the episcopal bench. He refused the
Deanery of Durham, and had to content himself with a pension and a gift of
L1,000.

All men mourn the fate of Algernon Sidney, who perished on account of his
political opinions; and his _Discourse on the Government_, a manuscript
which was discovered by the authorities at his house, furnished his
enemies with a good pretext. A corrupt jury, presided over by the
notorious Jeffreys, soon condemned poor headstrong Sidney to death. He was
beheaded in 1683. His early life, his hatred of all in authority, whether
Charles I. or Cromwell, his revolutionary instincts, are well known. A few
extracts from his fatal MS. will show the author's ideas:--"The supreme
authority of kings is that of the laws, and the people are in a state of
dependence upon the laws." "Liberty is the mother of virtues, and slavery
the mother of vices." "All free peoples have the right to assemble
whenever and wherever they please." "A general rising of a nation does not
deserve the name of a revolt. It is the people for whom and by whom the
Sovereign is established, who have the sole power of judging whether he
does, or does not, fulfil his duties." In the days of "the Divine Right of
Kings" such sentiments could easily be charged with treason.

Political authors in other lands have often shared the fate of our own
countrymen, and foremost among these was Edmund Richer, a learned doctor
of the Sorbonne, Grand Master of the College of Cardinal Le Moine, and
Syndic of the University of Paris. He ranks among unfortunate authors on
account of his work entitled _De Ecclesiastica et Politica, potestate_
(1611), which aroused the anger of the Pope and his Cardinals, and
involved him in many difficulties. This remarkable work, extracted chiefly
from the writings of Gerson, was directed against the universal temporal
power of the Pope, advocated the liberties of the Gallican Church, and
furnished Protestant theologians with weapons in order to defend
themselves against the champions of the Ultramontane party. He argues that
ecclesiastical authority belongs essentially to the whole Church. The Pope
and the bishops are its ministers, and form the executive power instituted
by God. The Pope is the ministerial head of the Church; our Lord Jesus
Christ is the Absolute Chief and Supreme Pastor. The Pope has no power of
making canons; that authority belongs to the universal Church, and to
general councils. Richer was seized by certain emissaries of a Catholic
leader as he entered the college of the Cardinal, and carried off to
prison, from which he was ultimately released on the intercession of his
friends and of the University. But Richer's troubles did not end when he
regained his freedom. Having been invited to supper by Father Joseph, a
Capuchin monk, he went to the house, not suspecting any evil intentions on
the part of his host. But when he entered the room where the feast was
prepared he found a large company of his enemies. The door was closed
behind him, daggers were drawn by the assembled guests, and they demanded
from him an immediate retractation of all the opinions he had advanced in
his work. The drawn daggers were arguments which our unhappy author was
unable to resist. As a reward for all his labour and hard study he was
obliged to live as an exile, as he mournfully complained, in the midst of
a kingdom whose laws he strenuously obeyed, nor dared to set foot in the
college of which he had been so great an ornament. In his latter days
Richer's studies were his only comfort. His mind was not fretted by any
ambition, but he died in the year 1633, overcome by his grief on account
of his unjust fate, and fearful of the powerful enemies his book had
raised. The age of Richelieu was not a very safe period for any one who
had unhappily excited the displeasure of powerful foes.

A strange work of a wild fanatic, John de Falkemberg, entitled _Diatribe
contre Ladislas, Roi de Pologne_, was produced at the beginning of the
fifteenth century, and condemned by the Council of Constance in 1414.
Falkemberg addressed himself to all kings, princes, prelates, and all
Christian people, promising them eternal life, if they would unite for the
purpose of exterminating the Poles and slaying their king. The author was
condemned to imprisonment at Constance on account of his insane book. As
there were no asylums for lunatics in those days, perhaps that was the
wisest course his judges could adopt.

The hostility of the Pope to authors who did not agree with his political
views has been excited by many others, amongst whom we may mention the
learned Pietro Sarpi, born at Venice in 1552. He joined the order of the
Servites, who paid particular veneration to the Blessed Virgin, and of
that order Sarpi and a satirical writer named Doni were the most
distinguished members. Sarpi adopted the name of Paul, and is better known
by his title _Fra Paolo_. He studied history, and wrote several works in
defence of the rights and liberties of the Venetian Republic against the
arrogant assumptions of Pope Paul V. The Venetians were proud of their
defender, and made him their consultant theologian and a member of the
famous Council of Ten. But the spiritual weapons of the Pope were levied
against the bold upholder of Venetian liberties, and he was
excommunicated. His _Histoire de l'Interdit_ (Venice, 1606) exasperated
the Papal party. One evening in the following year, as Sarpi was returning
to his monastery, he was attacked by five assassins, and, pierced with
many wounds, fell dead at their feet. The authorship of this crime it was
not hard to discover, as the murderers betook themselves to the house of
the Papal Nuncio, and thence fled to Rome. In this book Sarpi vigorously
exposed the unlawfulness and injustice of the power of excommunication
claimed by the Pope, and showed he had no right or authority to proscribe
others for the sake of his own advantage. Sarpi wrote also a history of
the Council of Trent, published in London, 1619. His complete works were
published in Naples in 1790, in twenty-four volumes.

Another Venetian statesman, Jerome Maggi, very learned in archaeology,
history, mathematics, and other sciences, hastened his death by his
writings. He was appointed by the Venetians a judge of the town of
Famagousta, in the island of Cyprus, which was held by the powerful
Republic from the year 1489 to 1571. After one of the most bloody sieges
recorded in history, the Turks captured the stronghold, losing 50,000 men.
Maggi was taken captive and conducted in chains to Constantinople.
Unfortunately he whiled away the tedious hours of his captivity by writing
two books, _De equuleo_ and _De tintinnabulis_, remarkable for their
learning, composed entirely without any reference to other works in the
squalor of a Turkish prison. He dedicated the books to the Italian and
French ambassadors to the Sublime Porte, who were much pleased with them
and endeavoured to obtain the release of the captive. Their efforts
unhappily brought about the fate which they were trying to avert. For when
the affair became known, as Maggi was being conducted to the Italian
ambassador, the captain of the prison ordered him to be brought back and
immediately strangled in the prison.

The unhappy Jean Lenoir, Canon of Seez, was doomed in 1684 to a life-long
servitude in the galleys, after making a public retractation of his errors
in the Church of Notre-Dame, at Paris. His impetuous and impassioned
eloquence is displayed in all his writings, which were collected and
published under the title _Recueil de Requetes et de Factums_. The titles
of some of his treatises will show how obnoxious they were to the ruling
powers--e.g., _Heresie de la domination episcopale que l'on etablit en
France, Protestation contre les assemblees du clerge de 1681_, etc. These
were the causes of the severe persecutions of which he was the unhappy
victim. He was fortunate enough to obtain a slight alleviation of his
terrible punishment by writing a _Complainte latine_, in which he showed
that the author, although _black_ in name (_le noir_), was _white_ in his
virtues and his character. He was released from the galleys, and sent to
prison instead, being confined at Saint Malo, Brest, and Nantes, where he
died in 1692.

In times less remote, Simon Linguet, a French political writer (born in
1736), found himself immured in the Bastille on account of his works,
which gave great offence to the ruling powers. His chief books were his
_Histoire Impartiale des Jesuites_ (1768, 2 vols., in-l2) and his _Annales
Politiques_. After his release he wrote an account of his imprisonment,
which created a great sensation, and aroused the popular indignation
against the Bastille which was only appeased with its destruction.
Linguet's _Annales Politiques_ was subsequently published in Brussels in
1787, for which he was rewarded by the Emperor Joseph II. with a present
of 1,000 ducats. Linguet's experiences in the Bastille rendered him a
_persona grata_ to the revolutionary party, in which he was an active
agent; but, alas for the fickleness of the mob! he himself perished at the
hands of the wretches whose madness he had inspired, and was guillotined
at Paris in 1794. The pretext of his condemnation was that he had incensed
by his writings the despots of Vienna and London.

The Jesuit controversy involved many authors in ruin, amongst others Abbe
Caveirac, who wrote _Appel a la Raison des Ecrits et Libelles publies
contre les Jesuites, par Jean Novi de Caveirac_ (_Bruxelles_, 1762, 2
vols., in-12). This book was at once suppressed, and its author was
condemned to imprisonment in 1764, and then sent to the pillory, and
afterwards doomed to perpetual exile. He was accused of having written an
apology for the slaughter of the Protestants on the eve of St.
Bartholomew's Day, but our last mentioned author, Linguet, endeavours to
clear his memory from that charge.

A friend of Linguet, Darigrand, wrote a book entitled _L'Antifinancier, ou
Releve de quelques-unes des malversations dont se rendent journellement
les Fermiers-Generaux, et des vexations qu'ils commettent dans les
provinces_ (_Paris, Lambert_, 1764, 2 vols., in-12). It was directed
against the abominable system of taxation in vogue in France, which was
mainly instrumental in producing the Revolution. Darigrand was a lawyer,
and had been employed in _la ferme generale_. He knew all the iniquities
of that curious institution; he knew the crushing taxes which were levied,
and the tender mercies of the "cellar-rats," the gnawing bailiffs, who
knew no pity. Indignant and disgusted by the whole business, he wrote his
vehement exposure _L'Antifinancier_. The government wished to close his
mouth by giving him a lucrative post under the same profitable system.
This our author indignantly refused; and that method of enforcing silence
having failed, another more forcible one was immediately adopted.
Darigrand was sent to the Bastille in January 1763. His book is a most
forcible and complete exposure of that horrible system of extortion,
torture, and ruination which made a reformation or a revolution
inevitable.

Authors have often been compelled to eat their words, but the operation
has seldom been performed literally. In the seventeenth century, owing to
the disastrous part which Christian IV. of Denmark took in the Thirty
Years' War, his kingdom was shorn of its ancient power and was
overshadowed by the might of Sweden. One Theodore Reinking, lamenting the
diminished glory of his race, wrote a book entitled _Dania ad exteros de
perfidia Suecorum_ (1644). It was not a very excellent work, neither was
its author a learned or accurate historian, but it aroused the anger of
the Swedes, who cast Reinking into prison. There he remained many years,
when at length he was offered his freedom on the condition that he should
either lose his head or eat his book. Our author preferred the latter
alternative, and with admirable cleverness devoured his book when he had
converted it into a sauce. For his own sake we trust his work was not a
ponderous or bulky volume.




CHAPTER VII.

SATIRE.


Roger Rabutin de Bussy--M. Dassy--Trajan Boccalini--Pierre Billard--Pietro
Aretino--Felix Hemmerlin--John Giovanni Cinelli--Nicholas Francus--Lorenzo
Valla--Ferrante Pallavicino--Francois Gacon--Daniel Defoe--Du Rosoi--
Caspar Scioppius.


To "sit in the seat of the scorner" has often proved a dangerous position,
as the writers of satires and lampoons have found to their cost, although
their sharp weapons have often done good service in checking the onward
progress of Vice and Folly. All authors have not shown the poet's wisdom
who declared:--

  "Satire's my weapon, but I'm too discreet
  To run amuck, and tilt at all I meet."

Nor have all the victims of satire the calmness and self-possession of the
philosopher who said: "If evil be said of thee, and it be true, correct
thyself; if it be a lie, laugh at it." It would have been well for those
who indulged in this style of writing, if all the victims of their pens
had been of the same mind as Frederick the Great, who said that time and
experience had taught him to be a good post-horse, going through his
appointed daily stage, and caring nothing for the curs that barked at him
along the road.

Foremost among the writers of satire stands Count Roger Rabutin de Bussy,
whose mind was jocose, his wit keen, and his sarcasm severe. He was born
in 1618, and educated at a college of Jesuits, where he manifested an
extraordinary avidity for letters and precocious talents. The glory of war
fired his early zeal, and for sixteen years he followed the pursuit of
arms. Then literature claimed him as her slave. His first book, _Les
amours du Palais Royal_, excited the displeasure of King Louis XIV., and
prepared the way for his downfall. In his _Histoire amoureuse des Gaules_
(Paris, 1665, 1 vol., in-12) he satirised the lax manners of the French
Court during the minority of the King, and had the courage to narrate the
intrigue which Louis carried on with La Valliere. He spares few of the
ladies of the Court, and lashes them all with his satire, amongst others
Mesdames d'Olonne and de Chatillon. Unhappily for the Count, he showed the
book, when it was yet in MS., to the Marchioness de Beaume, his intimate
friend. But the best of friends sometimes quarrel, and unfortunately the
Count and the good lady quarrelled while yet the MS. was in her
possession. A grand opportunity for revenge thus presented itself. She
showed to the ladies of the Court the severe verses which the Count had
written; and his victims were so enraged that they carried their
complaints to the King, who had already felt the weight of the author's
blows in some verses beginning:--

  "Que Deodatus est heureux
  De baiser ce bec amoureux,
  Qui, d'une oreille a l'autre va.
      Alleluia," etc.

This aroused the anger of the self-willed monarch, who ordered the author
to be sent to the Bastille, and then to be banished from the kingdom for
ever. Bussy passed sixteen years in exile, and occupied his enforced
leisure by writing his memoirs, _Les memoires de Roger de Rabutin, Comte
de Bussi_ (Paris, 1697), in which he lauded himself amazingly, and a
history of the reign of Louis XIV., which abounded in base flattery of the
"Great Monarch." Bussy earned the title of the French Petronius, by
lashing with his satirical pen the debaucheries of Louis and his Court
after the same manner in which the Roman philosopher ridiculed the
depravity of Nero and his satellites. His style was always elegant, and
his satire, seemingly so playful and facetious, stung his victims and cut
them to the quick. This was a somewhat dangerous gift to the man who
wielded the whip when the Grand Monarch felt the lash twisting around his
royal person. Therefore poor Bussy was compelled to end his days in exile.

A book fatal to its author, M. Dassy, a Parisian lawyer, was one which
bore the title _Consultation pour le Baron et la Baronne de Bagge_ (Paris,
1777, in-4). It attacked M. Titon de Villotran, counsellor of the Grand
Chamber, who caused its author to be arrested. The book created some
excitement, and contained some severe criticisms on the magistrates and
the ecclesiastical authorities as well as on the aggrieved Villotran.
Parliament confirmed the order for Dassy's arrest, but he contrived to
effect his escape to Holland. He was a rich man, who did much to relieve
and assist the poor, while he delighted to attack and satirise the
prosperous and the great.

The Italian satirist Trajan Boccalini, born at Loretto in 1556, was also
one upon whom Court favour shone. He was surrounded by a host of friends
and admirers, and was appointed Governor of the States of the Church. He
was one of the wittiest and most versatile of authors, and would have
risen to positions of greater dignity, if only his pen had been a little
less active and his satire less severe. He wrote a book entitled
_Ragguagli di Parnasso_ (1612), which was most successful. In this work he
represents Apollo as judge of Parnassus, who cites before him kings,
authors, warriors, statesmen, and other mighty personages, minutely
examines their faults and crimes, and passes judgment upon them. Inasmuch
as these people whom Apollo condemned were his contemporaries, it may be
imagined that the book created no small stir, and aroused the wrath of the
victims of his satire. Boccalini was compelled to leave Rome and seek
safety in Venice. He also wrote a bitter satire upon the Spanish misrule
in Italy, entitled _Pietra del paragone politico_ (1615). In this book he
showed that the power of the King of Spain in Italy was not so great as
men imagined, and that it would be easy to remove the Spanish yoke from
their necks. In Venice he imagined himself safe; but his powerful foes
hired assassins to "remove" the obnoxious author. He was seized one day by
four strong men, cast upon a couch, and beaten to death with bags filled
with sand. The elegance of his style, his witticisms and fine Satire, have
earned for Boccalini the title of the Italian Lucian.

To scoff at the powerful Jesuits was not always a safe pastime, as Pierre
Billard discovered, who, on account of his work entitled _La Bete a sept
tetes_, was sent to the Bastille, and subsequently to the prisons of
Saint-Lazare and Saint-Victor. The Society objected to be compared to the
Seven-headed Beast, and were powerful enough to ruin their bold assailant,
who died at Charenton in 1726.

Another Italian satirist, Pietro Aretino, acquired great fame, but not of
a creditable kind. Born at Arezzo in 1492, he followed the trade of a
bookbinder; but not confining his labour to the external adornment of
books, he acquired some knowledge of letters. He began his career by
writing a satirical sonnet against indulgences, and was compelled to fly
from his native place and wander through Italy. At Rome he found a
temporary resting-place, where he was employed by Popes Leo X. and Clement
VII. Then he wrote sixteen gross sonnets on the sixteen obscene pictures
of Giulio Romano [Footnote: These were published under the title of _La
corona de i cazzi, cioe, sonetti lussuriosi del Pietro Aretino. Stamp.
senza Luogo ne anno, in-16_. The engravings in this edition, the work of
Marc Antonio of Bolgna, were no less scandalous than the sonnets, and the
engraver was ordered to be arrested by Pope Clement VII., and only escaped
punishment by flight.], which were so intolerable that he was again forced
to fly and seek an asylum at Milan under the protection of the "black
band" led by the famous Captain Giovanni de Medici. On the death of this
leader he repaired to Venice, where he lived by his pen. He began a series
of satires on princes and leading men, and earned the title of _flagellum
principum_. Aretino adopted the iniquitous plan of demanding gifts from
those he proposed to attack, in order that by these bribes they might
appease the libeller and avert his onslaught. Others employed him to libel
their enemies. Thus the satirist throve and waxed rich and prosperous. His
book entitled _Capricium_ was a rude and obscene collection of satires on
great men. His prolific pen poured forth _Dialogues, Sonnets, Comedies_,
and mingled with a mass of discreditable and licentious works we find
several books on morality and theology. These he wrote, not from any sense
of piety and devotion, but simply for gain, while his immoral life was a
strange contrast to his teaching. He published a Paraphrase on the seven
Penitential Psalms (Venice, 1534), and a work entitled _De humanitate sive
incarnatione Christi_ (Venice, 1535), calling himself Aretino the divine,
and by favour of Pope Julius III. he nearly obtained a Cardinal's hat.
Concerning his Paraphrase a French poet wrote:--

  "Si ce livre unit le destin
  De David et de l'Aretin,
  Dans leur merveilleuse science,
  Lecteur n'en sois pas empeche
  Qui paraphrase le peche
  Paraphrase la penitence."

Utterly venal and unscrupulous, we find him at one time enjoying the
patronage of Francis I. of France, and then abusing that monarch and
basking in the favour of the Emperor Charles V., who paid him more
lavishly. His death took place at Venice in 1557. Some say that he, the
_flagellum_ of princes, was beaten to death by command of the princes of
Italy; others narrate that he who laughed at others all his life died
through laughter. His risible faculties being on one occasion so violently
excited by certain obscene jests, he fell from his seat, and struck his
head with such violence against the ground that he died.

The town of Zuerich was startled in the fifteenth century by finding itself
the object of the keen satire of one of its canons, Felix Hemmerlin, who
wrote a book entitled _Clarissimi viri jurumque Doctoris Felicis Malleoli
Hemmerlini variae oblectationis Opuscula et Tractatus (Basileae_, 1494,
folio). The clergy, both regular and secular, were also subjected to his
criticism. The book is divided into two parts; the first is a dialogue _de
Nobilitate et Rusticitate_, and the second is a treatise against the
mendicant friars, monks, Beghards, and Beguines. The town of Zuerich was
very indignant at this bold attack, and deprived the poor author of his
benefices and of his liberty.

Italian air seems to have favoured satire, but Italian susceptibility was
somewhat fatal to the satirists. Giovanni Cinelli, born in 1625, taught
medicine at Florence and was illustrious for his literary productions. He
allied himself with Antonio Magliabecchi, who afforded him opportunities
of research in the library of the Grand Duke. He began the great work
entitled _Bibliotheca volans_, the fourth section of which brought
grievous trouble upon its author. It was all caused by an unfortunate note
which attacked the doctor of the Grand Duke. This doctor was highly
indignant, and reported Cinelli to the Tribunal. The book was publicly
burnt by the hangman, and Cinelli was confined in prison ninety-*three
days and then driven into exile. His misfortunes roused his anger, and he
published at his retreat at Venice a bitter satire on men of all ranks
entitled _Giusticazione di Giovanni Cinelli_ (1683), exciting much
hostility against him. He died at the age of seventy years in the Castle
of San Lorenzo, A.D. 1705, and his _Bibliotheca volans_ was continued and
completed by Sancassani under the fictitious name of Philoponis.

Nicholas Francus, an Italian poet of the sixteenth century, was a graceful
writer and very skilled in the Latin, Greek, and Etruscan languages, but
incurred a grievous fate on account of his severe satire on Pope Pius IV.
The stern persecutor of Carranza, the powerful Archbishop of Toledo, was
not a person to be attacked with impunity. The cause of the poet's
resentment against the Pope was the prohibition of a certain work,
entitled _Priapeia_, which Francus had commenced, describing the feasts of
Priapus. Pius IV. refused to allow the poet to complete his book, and
ordered that which he had already written to be burned. This was too much
for the equanimity of the poet, whose eye was with fine frenzy rolling,
and he began to assail the Pope with all manner of abuse. For some time
the punishment for his rash writing was postponed, on account of the
protection of a powerful Cardinal; but on the death of Pius IV. Francus
sharpened his pen afresh, and sorely wounded the memory of his deceased
foe. In one of his satires the words of St. John's Gospel, _verbum caro
factum est_, were inserted; and the charge of profanity was brought
against him. At length Pius V. condemned him to death. Some historians
narrate that the poor poet was hung on a beam attached to the famous
statue of the Gladiator in front of the Palace of the Orsini, called the
Pasquin, to which the deriders and enemies of the Pope were accustomed to
affix their epigrams and pamphlets. These were called _Pasquinades_, from
the curious method adopted for their publication. Others declare that he
suffered punishment in a funereal chamber draped with black; while another
authority declares that the poet, the victim of his own satires, was hung
on a fork-shaped gibbet, not on account of his abuse of Pius IV., but
through the hatred of Pius V., which some personal quarrel had excited.
This conjecture is, however, probably false.

Francus was a true poet, endowed with a vivid imagination and with a
delicate and subtle wit. He scorned the coarse invective in which the
satirists of his day used to delight. He had many enemies on account of
his plain-spoken words and keen criticisms. The problem which perplexed
the Patriarch Job--the happiness of prosperous vice, the misery of
persecuted virtue--tormented his mind and called forth his embittered
words. He inveighed against the reprobates and fools, the crowds of
monsignors who were as vain of their effeminacy as the Scipios of their
deeds of valour; he combated abuses, and with indignant pen heaped scorn
upon the fashionable vices of the age. The Pope and his Cardinals, stung
by his shafts of satire, cruelly avenged themselves upon the unhappy poet,
and, as we have said, doomed him to death in the year 1569. His Dialogues
were printed in Venice by Zuliani in 1593, under the title _Dialoghi
piacevolissimi di Nicolo Franco da Benevento_; and there is a French
translation, made by Gabriel Chapins, published at Lyons in 1579, entitled
_Dix plaisans Dialogues du sieur Nicolo Franco_.

Lorenzo Valla, born at Rome in 1406, was one of the greatest scholars of
his age, and contributed more than any other man to the revival of the
love of Latin literature in the fifteenth century. His works are
voluminous. He translated into Latin _Herodotus_ (Paris, 1510),
_Thucydides_ (Lyons, 1543), _The Iliad_ (Venice, 1502), _Fables of Aesop_
(Venice, 1519); and wrote _Elegantiae Sermonis Latini_, a history of
Ferdinand Aragon (Paris, 1521), and many other works, which are the
monuments of his learning and industry. But Valla raised against him many
enemies by the severity of his satire on almost all the learned men of his
time. He spared no one, and least of all the clerics, who sought his
destruction. A friend advised him that, unless he was weary of life, he
ought to avoid heaping his satirical abuse on the Roman priests and
bishops. He published a work on the pretended Donation of Constantine to
the Papal See, and for this and other writings pronounced heretical by the
Inquisition he was cast into prison, and would have suffered death by fire
had not his powerful friend Alphonso V., King of Aragon, rescued him from
the merciless Holy Office. Valla was compelled publicly to renounce his
heretical opinions, and then, within the walls of a monastery, his hands
having been bound, he was beaten with rods. It is unnecessary to follow
the fortunes of Valla further. He was engaged in a long controversy with
the learned men of his time, especially with the facetious Poggio, whose
wit was keener though his language was not so forcible. Erasmus in his
Second Epistle defends Valla in his attacks upon the clergy, and asks,
"Did he speak falsely, because he spoke the truth too severely?" Valla
died at Naples in 1465. The following epigram testifies to the correctness
of his Latinity and the severity of his criticisms:--

  _Nunc postquam manes defunctus Valla petivit,
    Non audet Pluto verba latina loqui.
  Jupiter hunc coeli dignatus honore fuisset,
    Censorem lingua sed timet esse suae._

Raphael Maffei, surnamed Volaterranus, the compiler of the _Commentarii
urbani_ (1506), a huge encyclopaedia published in thirty-eight books,
composed the following witty stanza on the death of Valla:--

  _Tandem Valla silet solitus qui parcere nulli est
  Si quaeris quid agat? nunc quoque mordet humum._

Our list of Italian satirists closes with Ferrante Pallavicino, a witty
Canon, born at Plaisance in 1618, who ventured to write satirical poems on
the famous nepotist, Pope Urban VIII., and all his family, the Barberini.
Some of his poems were entitled _Il corriero sualigiato, Il divortio
celeste, La baccinata_, which were published in a collection of his
complete works at Venice in 1655. His selected works were published at
Geneva in 1660. He made a playful allusion to the Barberini on the title-
page of his work, where there appeared a crucifix surrounded by burning
thorns and bees, with the verse of the Psalmist _Circumdederunt me sicut
apes, et exarserunt sicut ignis in spinis_, alluding to the bees which
that family bear on their arms. Pallavicino lived in safety for some time
at Venice, braving the anger of his enemies. Unfortunately he wished to
retire to France, and during his journey passed through the territory of
the Pope. He was accompanied by a Frenchman, one Charles Morfu, who
pretended great friendship for him, admired his works, and scoffed at the
Barberini with jests as keen as the Canon's own satires. But the Frenchman
betrayed him to his foes, and poor Pallavicino paid the penalty of his
rashness by a cruel death in the Papal Palace at Avignon at the early age
of twenty-nine years. His strictures on Urban and his family were well
deserved. The Pope heaped riches and favours on his relations. He made
three of his nephews cardinals, and the fourth was appointed General of
the Papal troops. So odious did the family make themselves by their
exactions that on the death of Urban they were forced to leave Rome and
take refuge in France. Pallavicino had certainly fitting subjects for his
satirical verses.

Francois Gacon, a French poet and satirist of the eighteenth century,
suffered imprisonment on account of his poems, entitled _Le Poete sans
fard, ou Discours satyriques sur toutes sortes de sujets_ (Paris, 2 vols.,
in-12). His satire was very biting and not a little scurrilous, and was
famous for the quantity rather than the quality of his poetical effusions.
We give the following example of his skill, in which he discourses upon
the different effects which age produces on wine and women:--

  "Une beaute, quand elle avance en age,
  A ses amans inspire du degout;
  Mais, pour le vin, il a cet avantage,
  Plus il vieillit, plus il flatte le gout."

The literary world of Paris in 1708 was very much disturbed by certain
satirical verses which seemed to come from an unknown hand and empty cafes
as if with the magic of a bomb. The Cafe de la Laurent was the famous
resort of the writers of the time, where Rousseau and Lamothe reigned as
chiefs of the literary Parnassus amid a throng of poets, politicians, and
wits. Some malcontent poet thought fit to disturb the harmony of this
brilliant company by publishing some very satirical couplets directed
against the frequenters of the cafe. This so enraged the company that they
deserted the unfortunate cafe, and selected another for their rendezvous.
But other verses, still more severe, followed them. Jean Baptist Rousseau
was suspected as their author; he denied the supposition and accused
Saurin; but Rousseau was found to be guilty and was banished from the
kingdom for ever, as the author and distributer of "certain impure and
satirical verses."

Amongst satirical writers who have suffered hard fates we must mention the
illustrious author of _Robinson Crusoe_, Daniel Defoe. A strong partisan
of the Nonconformist cause during the controversial struggle between
Church and Dissent in the reign of Queen Anne, he published a pamphlet
entitled _The Shortest Way with the Dissenters_ (1702), in which he
ironically advised their entire extermination. This pleased certain of the
Church Party who had not learned the duty of charity towards the opinions
of others, nor the advantages of Religious Liberty. Nor were they singular
in this respect, as the Dissenting Party had plainly shown when the power
was in their hands. Happily wiser counsels prevail now. When Defoe's jest
was discovered, and his opponents found that the book was "writ
sarcastic," they caused the unhappy author to be severely punished.
Parliament condemned his book to the flames, and its author to the pillory
and to prison. On his release he wrote other political pamphlets, which
involved him in new troubles; and, disgusted with politics, he turned his
versatile talents to other literary work, and produced his immortal book
_Robinson Crusoe_, which has been translated into all languages, and is
known and read by every one.

Young's _Night Thoughts_ might not be considered a suitable form of poem
for parody, but this M. Durosoi, or Du Rosoi, accomplished in his _Les
Jours d'Ariste_ (1770), and was sent to the Bastille for his pains. The
cause of his condemnation was that he had published this work without
permission, and also perhaps on account of certain political allusions
contained in his second work, _Le Nouvel Ami des Hommes_, published in the
same year. But a worse fate awaited Du Rosoi on account of his writings.
In the dangerous years of 1791 and 1792 he edited _La Gazette de Paris_,
which procured greater celebrity for him, and brought about his death.
When the fatal tenth of August came, the Editor was not to be found in
Paris. However, ultimately he was secured and condemned to death by the
tribunal extraordinary appointed by the Legislative Assembly to judge the
enemies of the new government. He died with great bravery at the hands of
the revolutionary assassins, after telling his judges that as a friend of
the King he was accounted worthy to die on that day, the Feast of Saint
Louis.

All the venom of satirical writers seems to have been collected by that
strange author Gaspar Scioppius, who had such a singular lust for powerful
invective that he cared not whom he attacked, and made himself abhorred by
all. This Attila of authors was born in Germany in 1576, went to Rome,
abjured Protestantism, and was raised to high honours by Pope Clement
VIII. In return for these favours he wrote several treatises in support of
the Papal claims, amongst others _Ecclesiasticus_, which was directed
against James I. of England. Concerning this book Casaubon wrote in his
Epistle CLV.: "Know concerning Scioppius that some of his works have been
burned not only here at London by the command of our most wise King, but
also at Paris by the hand of the hangsman. I have written a letter, which
I will send to you, if I am able, against that beast." He poured the vials
of his wrath upon the Jesuits, declaring in his _Relatio ad reges et
principes de stratagematibus Societatis Jesu_ (1635) that there was no
truth to be found in Italy, and that this was owing entirely to the
Jesuits, who "keep back the truth in injustice, who, rejecting the cup of
Christ, drink the cup of devils full of all abominations." This roused
their wrath, and by their designs our author was imprisoned at Venice.
There he would have been slain, if he had not enjoyed the protection of a
powerful Venetian. He boasted that his writings had had such an effect on
two of his literary opponents, Casaubon and Scaliger, as to cause them to
die from vexation and disappointment. He made himself so many powerful
enemies that towards the end of his life he knew not where to find a
secure retreat. This "public pest of letters and society," as the Jesuits
delighted to call him, died at Padua in 1649 hated by all, both Catholics
and Protestants. He wrote one hundred and four works, of which the most
admired is his _Elementa philosophiae moralis stoicae_ (Mayence, 1606).




CHAPTER VIII.

POETRY.

Adrian Beverland--Cecco d'Ascoli--George Buchanan--Nicodemus Frischlin--
Clement Marot--Caspar Weiser--John Williams--Deforges--Theophile--Helot--
Matteo Palmieri--La Grange--Pierre Petit--Voltaire--Montgomery--Keats--
Joseph Ritson.


The haunters of Parnassus and the wearers of the laurel crown have usually
been loved by their fellows, save only when satire has mingled with their
song and filled their victims' minds with thoughts of vengeance. In the
last chapter we have noticed some examples of satirical writers who have
clothed their libellous thoughts in verse, and suffered in consequence.
But the woes of poets, caused by those who listened to their song, have
not been numerous. Shakespeare classes together "the lunatic, the lover,
and the poet" as being "of imagination all compact"; and perchance the
poet has shared with the madman the reverence which in some countries is
bestowed on the latter.

However, all have not so escaped the destinies of fate. Some think that
Ovid incurred the wrath of Augustus Caesar through his verses on the art
of loving, and was on that account driven into exile, which he mourned so
melodiously and complained of so querulously. In a period less remote we
find Adrian Beverland wandering away from the true realm of poetry and
taking up his abode in the pesthouse of immorality. He was born at
Middlebourg in 1653, and studied letters at the University of Leyden. He
began his career by publishing indecent poems. He wrote a very iniquitous
book, _De Peccato originali_, in which he gave a very base explanation of
the sin of our first parents; and although considerable licence was
allowed to authors in the Netherlands at that time, nevertheless the
magistrates and professors of Leyden condemned the book to be burned and
its author to banishment. The full title of the work is _Hadriani
Beverlandi peccatum originale philogice elucubratum, a Themidis alumno.
Eleutheropoli, in horto Hesperidum, typis Adami, Evae, Terrae filii_
(1678, in-8). He seems to have followed Henri Cornelius Agrippa in his
idea that the sin of our first parents arose from sexual desire. Leonard
Ryssenius refuted the work in his _Justa detestatio libelli sceleratissimi
Hadriani Beverlandi, de Peccato originali_ (1680). He would doubtless have
incurred a harder fate on account of another immoral work, entitled _De
prostibulis veterum_, if one of his relations had not charitably committed
it to the flames. Before the sentence of banishment had been pronounced he
wrote an apology, professed penitence, and was allowed to remain at
Utrecht, where he composed several pamphlets. Being exiled on account of
the indecency of his writings, he came to England, where he affected
decorum, and his friend and countryman Isaac Vossius, who enjoyed the
patronage of Charles II. and was Canon of Windsor, obtained for him a
pension charged upon some ecclesiastical fund. Never were ecclesiastical
funds applied to a baser use; for although Beverland wrote another book
[Footnote: _De fornicatione cavenda admonitio (Londini, Bateman_, 1697,
in-8).] with the apparent intention of warning against vice, the argument
seemed to inculcate the lusts which he condemned. Having become insane he
died, in extreme poverty, in 1712. He imagined that he was pursued by a
hundred men who had sworn to kill him.

An early poet who suffered death on account of his writings was Cecco
d'Ascoli, Professor of Astrology at the famous University of Bologna in
1322. His poems have been collected and published under the title _Opere
Poetiche del' illustro poeta Cecco d'Ascoli, cioe, l'acerba. In Venetia,
per Philippum Petri et Socios, anno 1478_, in-4. The printer of this work,
Philippus Condam Petri (Philippo de Piero Veneto) is one of the earliest
and most famous of Venetian printers, and produced several of the
incunabula which we now prize so highly. The absurdities of Cecco
contained in his poems merited for their author a place in a lunatic
asylum, rather than on a funeral pile. He was, however, burnt alive at
Bologna in 1327. He believed in the influence of evil spirits, who, under
certain constellations, had power over the affairs of men; that our
Saviour, Jesus Christ, was born under a certain constellation which
obliged Him to poverty; whereas Antichrist would come into the world under
a certain planet which would make him enormously wealthy. He continued to
proclaim these amazing delusions at Bologna, and was condemned by the
Inquisition. The poet escaped punishment by submission and repentance. But
two years later he announced to the Duke of Calabria, who asked him to
cast the horoscope of his wife and daughter, that they would betake
themselves to an infamous course of life. This prophecy was too much for
the Duke. Cecco was again summoned to appear before the Inquisitors, who
condemned him to the stake. At his execution a large crowd assembled to
see whether his familiar genii would arrest the progress of the flames.
The poet's real name was Francois de Stabili, Cecco being a diminutive
form of Francesco. There are many editions of his work. The "lunatic" and
the "poet" were certainly in his case not far removed.

A very different man was the illustrious author and historian of Scotland,
George Buchanan, who was born in 1506. After studying in Paris, he
returned to Scotland, and became tutor of the Earl of Murray, the natural
son of James V. The Franciscan monks were not very popular at this period,
and at the suggestion of the King Buchanan wrote a satirical poem entitled
_Silva Franciscanorum_, in which he censured the degenerate followers of
St. Francis, and harassed them in many ways. This poem so enraged the
monks that they seized him and imprisoned him in one of their monasteries.
One night, while his guards slept, he contrived to escape by a window, and
underwent great perils. He published two other severe satirical poems on
the Franciscans, entitled _Fratres Fraterrimi_ and _Franciscanus_. It is
scarcely necessary to follow his fortunes further, as Buchanan's history
is well known. After teaching at Paris, Bordeaux, and at Coimbre in
Portugal, he returned to Scotland, and was entrusted by Mary, Queen of
Scots, with the education of her son. Buchanan then embraced
Protestantism, opposed the Queen in the troubles which followed, and
received from Parliament the charge of the future Solomon of the North,
James VI. of Scotland and I. of England. He devoted his later life to
historical studies, and produced his famous _History of Scotland_ in
twelve books, _De Maria Regina ejusque conspiratione_, in which he
attacked the reputation of the Queen, and _De jure regni apud Scotos_, a
book remarkable for the liberalism of the ideas which were therein
expressed. His royal pupil did not treat Buchanan's History with due
respect; he caused it to be proclaimed at the Merkat Cross, and ordered
every one to bring his copy "to be perused and purged of the offensive and
extraordinary matters." In the reign of Charles II. the University of
Oxford ordered Buchanan's _De jure regni_, together with certain other
works, to be publicly burnt on account of certain obnoxious propositions
deducible from them; such as "Wicked kings and tyrants ought to be put to
death." He published a paraphrase of the Psalms of David in verse, which
has been much praised. The Jesuits were not very friendly critics of our
author, for they asserted that Buchanan showed in his life little of the
piety of David, and stated that during thirty years he did not deliver a
single sermon, even on Sundays. "But who is ignorant," observes M. Klotz,
"of the lust of these men for calumny?"

Another poet had occasion to adopt the same mode of escape which Buchanan
successfully accomplished, but with less happy results. This was Nicodemus
Frischlin, a German poet and philosopher, born in the duchy of Wuertemberg
in 1547. At an early age he showed great talents; honours clustered
thickly on his brow. At the age of twenty years he was made Professor of
Belles-Lettres at Tubingen; he received from the Emperor Rudolph the
poetic crown with the title of _chevalier_, and was made Count Palatin as
a reward for his three panegyrics composed in honour of the emperors of
the House of Austria. Certainly Fortune smiled upon her favourite, but
Envy raised up many enemies, who were eager to find occasion against the
successful poet. He afforded them a pretext in his work _De laudibus vitae
rusticae_, which, in spite of its innocent title, grievously offended the
nobles, who were already embittered against him on account of his
arrogance and turbulence, and his keen and unsparing satire. So bitter was
their hostility that the poet was compelled to leave Tubingen, and became
a wandering philosopher, sometimes teaching in schools, always pouring
forth poems, elegies, satires, tragedies, comedies, and epics. Being eager
to publish some of his works and not having sufficient means, he applied
to the Duke of Wuertemberg for a subsidy, at the same time furiously
attacking his old opponents. This so exasperated the chief men of the
Court, that they persuaded the Duke to recall Frischlin; but instead of
finding a welcome from his old patron, he was cast into prison, in order
that he might unlearn his presumption, and acquire the useful knowledge
that modesty is the chief ornament of a learned man. But Frischlin did not
agree with another poet's assertion:--

  "Stone walls do not a prison make,
   Nor iron bars a cage."

Having raged and stormed, and tried in vain to obtain release, he resolved
to escape. From his prison window he let himself down by a rope made out
of his bed-clothes, but unfortunately the rope broke and the poor poet
fell upon the hard rocks beneath his chamber window and was injured
fatally. Frischlin was considered one of the best Latin poets of post-
classical times; but his genius was marred by his immoderate and bitter
temper, which caused him to imagine that the gentle banter and jocular
remarks of his acquaintances were insults to be repaid by angry invective
and bitter sarcasm, with which his writings abound.

Clement Marot was one of the most famous of early French poets, and the
creator of the school of naive poetry in which La Fontaine afterwards so
remarkably excelled. His poetical version of the Psalms was read and sung
in many lands; and in spite of prohibition copies could not be printed so
fast as they were eagerly bought. They were at one time as popular in the
Court of Henry II. of France as they were amongst the Calvinists of Geneva
and Holland. In 1521 we find him fighting in the Duke of Alencon's army,
when he was wounded at the battle of Pavia. Then his verses caused their
author suffering, and he was imprisoned on the charge of holding heretical
opinions. His epistles in poetry written to the King contain a record of
his life, his fear of imprisonment, his flight, his arrest by his enemies
of the Sorbonne, his release by order of the King, and his protestations
of orthodoxy. But he seems to have adopted the principles of the
Reformation, and France was no safe place for him. In Geneva and Piedmont
he found resting-places, and died in 1544. His translation of the Psalms
into harmonious verse, which was sung both by the peasants and the
learned, was the cause of his persecution by the doctors of the Sorbonne.
He complains bitterly to the Lyons printer, Dolet, that many obscene and
unworthy poems were ascribed to him and printed amongst his works of which
he was not the author. As an example of his verse I quote the beginning of
Psalm cxli.:--

  "Vers l'Eternel des oppressez le pere
  Je m'en iray, luy monstrant l'impropere
  Que l'on me faict, luy ferai ma priere
  A haulte voix, qu'il ne jette en arriere
  Mes piteux cris, car en lui seul j'espere."

It is not often that a poet loses his head for a single couplet, but this
seems to have been the fate of Caspar Weiser, Professor of Lund in Sweden.
At first he showed great loyalty to his country, and wrote a panegyric on
the coronation of Charles XI., King of Sweden. But a short time afterwards
he appears to have changed his political opinions, for when the city was
captured by the Danes in 1676, Weiser met the conqueror, and greeted him
with the words:--

  _Perge Triumphator reliquas submittere terras,
  Sic redit ad Dominum, quod fuit ante, suum_.

This verse was fatal to him. The Swedish monarch recovered his lost
territory; the Danes were expelled, and the poor poet was accused of
treason and beheaded.

The same hard fate befell John Williams in 1619, who was hanged, drawn,
and quartered, on account of two poems, _Balaam's Ass_ and _Speculum
Regis_, the MSS. of which he foolishly sent secretly in a box to King
James. The monarch was always fearful of assassination, and as one of the
poems foretold his speedy decease, the prophet incurred the King's wrath
and suffered death for his pains.

A single poem was fatal to Deforges, entitled _Vers sur l'arrestation du
Pretendant d'Angleterre, en 1749_. It commences with the following
lines:--

  "Peuple, jadis si fier, aujourd'hui si servile,
  Des princes malheureux, tu n'es donc plus l'asyle?"

He happened to be present at the Opera House in Paris when the young
Pretender was arrested, and being indignant at this breach of hospitality,
and believing that the honour of the nation had been compromised, he wrote
these bitter verses. His punishment was severe. He was arrested and
conducted to the gloomy fortress of Mont-Saint-Michel, where he remained
for three long years shut up in the cage. The floor of this terrible
prison, which was enveloped in perpetual darkness, was only eight square
feet. The poor poet bore his sufferings patiently, and was befriended by
M. de Broglie, Abbe of Saint-Michel, who obtained permission for him to
leave his cage and be imprisoned in the Abbey; nor did he fail to take
precautions lest the poor poet should lose his eyesight on passing from
the darkness of the dungeon to the light of day. The good Abbe finally
procured liberty for his captive, who became secretary to M. de Broglie's
brother, and subsequently, on the death of Madame de Pompadour,
commissioner of war. Terrible were the sufferings which the unhappy
Deforges endured on account of his luckless poem.

Theophile was condemned to be burned at Paris on account of his book _Le
Parnasse des Poetes Satyriques, ou Recueil de vers piquans et gaillards de
notre temps_ (1625, in-8), but he contrived to effect his escape. He was
ultimately captured in Picardy, and put in a dungeon. He was banished from
the kingdom by order of the Parliament. In his old age he found an asylum
in the house of the Duke of Montmorency. The poet's real surname was
Viaud. The following impromptu is attributed to Theophile, who was asked
by a foolish person whether all poets were fools:--

  "Oui, je l'avoue avec vous,
  Que tous les poetes sont fous;
  Mais sachant ce que vous etes,
  Tous les fous ne sont pas poetes."

His poems are a mere collection of impieties and obscenities, published
with the greatest impudence, and well deserved their destruction. On one
occasion he travelled to Holland with Balzac, and used this opportunity
for bringing out an infamous charge against him, which he had most
probably invented. His book, the cause of all his woes, was burnt with the
poet's effigy in 1623.

Many authors have ruined themselves by writing scandalous works, offensive
to the moral feelings of not very scrupulous ages. Several chapters might
be written on this not very savoury subject. We may mention Helot's
_L'Escole des Filles, par dialogues_ (Paris, 1672, in-12). Helot was the
son of a lieutenant in the King's Swiss Guard. As he succeeded in making
his escape from prison, he was hung in effigy, and his books were burnt.
Chauveau, the celebrated engraver, who designed a beautiful engraving for
Helot, not knowing for what purpose it was intended, also incurred great
risks, but fortunately he escaped with no greater penalty than the
breaking of the plate on which he had engraved the design. The printer
suffered with the author. Some think that Helot was burnt at Paris with
his books.

The Muses have often lured men from other and safer delights, and tempted
them to wander in dangerous paths. Matteo Palmieri was a celebrated
Italian historian, born at Florence in 1405; he was a man of much
learning, endowed with great powers of energy and perseverance; he was
entrusted with several important embassies, and achieved fame as an
historian by his vast work _Chronicon Generale_, in which he set himself
the appalling task of writing the history of the world from the creation
to his own time. The first part of this work, consisting of extracts from
the writings of Eusebius and Prosper, remains unpublished. The rest first
saw the light in 1475, and subsequent editions appeared at Venice in 1483,
and at Basle in 1529 and 1536. He wrote also four books on the Pisan War.
Would that he had confined himself to his histories! Unfortunately he
wrote a poem, which was never published, entitled _Citta Divina_,
representing the soul released from the chains of the body, and freed from
earthly stain, wandering through various places, and at last resting amid
the company of the blessed in heaven. Our souls are angels who in the
revolt of Lucifer were unwilling to attach themselves either to God or to
the rebel hosts of heaven. So, as a punishment, God made them dwell in
mortal bodies in a state of probation. This work was considered tainted
with the Manichaean heresy, and was condemned to the flames, and some
assert that Palmieri shared the fate of his book. This, however, is
doubtful.

Very fatal to himself were the odes and philippics of M. La Grange,
written in 1720, and published in Paris in 1795, in-12, with the title
_Les Philippiques, Odes, par M. de la Grange-Chancel, Seigneur d'Antoniat
en Perigord, avec notes historiques, critiques, et litteraires_. In these
poems he attacked with malignant fury the Duke of Orleans, Regent of
France, and was obliged to fly for safety to Avignon. There he was
betrayed by a false friend, who persuaded him to walk into French
territory, and delivered him into the hands of a band of soldiers prepared
for his capture. The poet was conducted to the Isle of Ste. Marguerite,
and confined in a dungeon. The governor of the castle was enchanted by his
talents and gaiety, and gave him great liberty. But Le Grange's pen was
still restless. He must needs make a bitter epigram upon his kind
benefactor, which so aroused the governor's ire that the poet was sent
back to his dungeon cell. A piteous ode addressed to the Regent imploring
pardon secured for him a less rigorous confinement. He succeeded in
effecting his escape; then wandered through many lands; and at last, on
the death of the Regent in 1723, ventured to return to France, where he
lived many years and wrote much poetry and several plays, dying in 1758.
It has never been ascertained what was the cause of his animosity to the
Regent; certainly his verses glow with fiery invective and abuse. He
speaks of him as _un monstre farouche_. The following example will perhaps
be sufficient to be quoted:--

  "Il ouvrit a peine les paupieres,
  Que, tel qu'il se montre aujourd'hui,
  Il fut indigne des barrieres
  Qu'il vit entre le trone et lui.
  Dans ses detestables idees
  De l'art des Circes, des Medees,
  Il fit ses uniques plaisirs;
  Il crut cette voie infernale
  Digne de remplir l'intervalle
  Qui s'opposait a ses desirs."

Voltaire suffered one year's imprisonment in the Bastille on account of a
satirical poem on Louis XIV., and in confinement wrote an epic poem, _La
Henriade_. Some other storms raised by his works, such as his _Lettres
Philosophiques_ and his _Epitre a Uranie_, he weathered by flight, or by
unscrupulously denying their authorship. The rest of his works, contained
in seventy volumes, do not concern our present purpose.

Our English poet James Montgomery began life as a poor shop-boy. At an
early age he began to write verses, and became editor of a Sheffield
newspaper. The troubles of the French Revolution then broke out, and fired
the extreme Radical spirit of the poetical editor. His writings attracted
the attention of the Government, and he was sent to prison, where he wrote
several poems--_Ode to the Evening Star, Pleasures of Imprisonment_, and
_Verses to a Robin Redbreast_.

As late as the middle of the seventeenth century a young unfortunate poet,
in spite of the interest of powerful friends, was hung and burnt at Paris.
This was young Pierre Petit, the author of _La B---- celeste, chansons et
autres Poesies libres_. His productions were certainly infamous and
scandalous, but that was no reason why the poet should have been hanged.
Moreover the poems existed only in MS.; subsequently they were published
in a _Recueil de Poesies_. The manner of the discovery of the poems is
curious, and serves as a warning to incautious bards. Leaving his chamber
one day, he opened the window, and unfortunately a strong gust of wind
carried several pages of MS. which were lying on his table into the
street. A priest who happened to be passing the house examined one or two
of the drifting poems, and, discovering that they were impious, denounced
Petit to the authorities. His rooms furnished a large supply of similar
work, and, as we have said, the poet paid the penalty for his rashness at
the gallows.

Although the methods of later critics are less severe than their
inquisitorial predecessors, they have not been without their victims, and
books maltreated by them have sometimes "done to death" their authors.

A century ago furious invective was the fashion, and the tender mercies of
the reviewers were cruel. Poor Keats died of criticism, if Shelley's story
be true. On the appearance of _Endymion_ the review in _Blackwood_ told
the young poet "to go back to his gallipots," and that it was a wiser and
better thing to be a starved apothecary than a starved poet. Such vulgar
abuse was certainly not criticism. Shelley wrote that "the savage
criticism on Keats' _Endymion_ which appeared in the _Quarterly Review_
produced the most violent effects on his susceptible mind; the agitation
thus originated ended in the rupture of a blood-vessel in the lungs; a
rapid consumption ensued, and the succeeding acknowledgments from more
candid critics of the true greatness of his powers were ineffectual to
heal the wound thus wantonly inflicted. It may be well said, that these
wretched men know not what they do. They scatter their insults and their
slanders without heed as to whether the poisonous shafts light on a heart
made callous by many blows, or one like Keats', composed of more
penetrable stuff." And then addressing the reviewer he says: "Miserable
man! you, one of the meanest, have wantonly defaced one of the noblest
specimens of the workmanship of God. Nor shall it be your excuse that,
murderer as you are, you have spoken daggers, but used none."

Joseph Ritson, the antiquary, who, though not a poet, was a great writer
on poetry and our early English songs and ballads, complained bitterly of
the ignorant reviewers, and described himself as brought to an end in ill-
health and low spirits--certain to be insulted by a base and prostitute
gang of lurking assassins who stab in the dark, and whose poisoned daggers
he had already experienced. Ritson himself was a fairly venomous critic,
and the "Ritsonian" style has become proverbial. Nowadays authors do not
usually die of criticism, not even susceptible poets. Critics can still be
severe enough, but they are just and generous, and never descend to that
scurrilous personal abuse of authors which inflicted such severe wounds a
century ago, and sometimes caused to flow the very heart's blood of their
victims.




CHAPTER IX.

DRAMA AND ROMANCE.

Sir John Yorke and Catholic Plays--Abraham Cowley--Antoine Danchet--Claude
Crebillon--Nogaret--Francois de Salignac Fenelon.


Of the misfortunes of dramatists and romance-writers I have little to
record, but it would not be safe to conclude that this subject always
furnished a secure field for literary activity. However, the successes of
the writers of fiction and plays in our own times might console the Muse
for any indignities which her followers have suffered in the past.

In our own country the early inventors of dramatic performances--
Mysteries, Moralities, and Interludes--lived securely, their names being
unknown. When penal laws were in force against Roman Catholics, plays
inculcating their doctrines and worship were often secretly performed in
the houses of Catholic gentry. The anonymous author was indeed safe, but
Sir John Yorke and his lady were fined one thousand pounds apiece and
imprisoned in the Tower on account of a play performed in their house at
Christmas, 1614, containing "many foul passages to the vilifying of our
religion and exacting of popery."

Abraham Cowley was driven into retirement by his unfortunate play _Cutter
of Coleman Street_, which was an improved edition of his unfinished comedy
entitled _The Guardian_, acted at Cambridge before the Court at the
beginning of the Civil War. After the Restoration he produced the revised
version under the name of _Cutter of Coleman Street_, the principal
character being a merry person who bore that cognomen. Some of the
aspirants to royal favour persuaded the King that the play was a satire
directed against him and his Court, and the poor poet, condemned by the
enemies of the Muses, calumniated and deprived of all hopes of preferment,
retired in disgust to a country retreat among the hills of Surrey. The
disfavour of the Court was also increased by his _Ode to Brutus_, wherein
he had extolled the genius of his hero, and praised liberty in language
too enthusiastic for the Court of Charles II. The spirit of melancholy
claimed Cowley for her own. Disappointment and disgust clouded his heart;
ill-health followed, and soon the poor poet breathed his last. As is not
unusual, the learned and the great mourned over and praised the dead poet
whom when alive they had so cruelly neglected.

Antoine Danchet was one of the most famous of French dramatic writers,
although his poetry was not of a very high order and lacked energy and
colour. He was born at Riom, in Auvergne, in 1671; he distinguished
himself at the college of the Oratorian fathers, and soon came to Paris to
become a teacher of youths and to finish his studies at the Jesuit
College. At a very early age he manifested a great love of poetry, and
when he used to recite the whole of Horace he was rewarded by a wealthy
patron with a present of thirty _louis d'ors_. He bore so noble a
character and had such a reputation for learning that a certain noble lady
on her death-bed entrusted him with the charge of her two sons, giving him
a pension of two hundred livres, on the condition that he should never
leave them. Soon after her death he was ordered to write some verses for a
ballet produced at Court; this led him to acquire a taste for the theatre,
and he produced in 1700 an opera entitled _Hesione_, which met with a
great success. The relations of his pupils were aroused. It was scandalous
that a teacher of youths should write plays. All the arguments that
superstition could suggest were used against him. He must relinquish his
charge; he must refund the pension which he had received from the mistaken
mother. But Danchet saw no reason why he should conform to their demands,
and refused to relinquish his charge. They urged him still more
vehemently, but met with the same response. They at length refused to pay
him the pension, and withdrew his pupils from his care. A troublesome law-
suit followed, but at length the poet emerged triumphant from the troubles
in which his love of the drama had involved him. He produced also the
tragedies of _Cyrus, Tyndarides, Heraclides_, and _Nitetis_, but these did
not meet with the success of his earlier work. He was a devoted son to his
mother, depriving himself of even the necessaries of life in order to
support her. He showed himself a kind and generous friend to all, and
always took a keen interest in young men. One of these brought him an
elegy written to his mistress and bewailing her misfortunes. The verses
began with _Maison qui renfermes l'objet de mon amour_. "Is not that word
_maison_ rather feeble?" observed Danchet; "would not _palais, beau
lieu_ ... be better?" "Yes," replied the poet, "but it is a _maison de
force_, a prison!" A complete edition of his works was published after his
death in 1751.

The younger Crebillon (Claude Prosper Jolyot) was confined in the Bastille
on account of his satirical romance _Tanzai et Neadarne_ (1734, 2 vols.,
in-12). His father, Prosper Crebillon, was a very famous French dramatic
poet, and discarded the profession of the law for the sake of the Muses.
_Idomeneus, Atreus Electra, Rhadamistus_, and the _Triumvirate_ were some
of his works. The son possessed much of his father's genius, and his wit
and gaiety rendered him a pleasant companion. At one time he was a great
favourite amongst the _elite_ of Parisian society. But his satirical and
licentious romances brought him into trouble, and the above-mentioned work
conducted him to the Bastille, wherein so many authors have been
incarcerated. He died in 1777.

The name is not known of a young man who came to Paris with a marvellous
play which he felt sure would electrify the world and cover its author
with glory. Unhappily, he met with a cold reception by a stern critic,
who, with merciless severity, pointed out the glaring errors in his
beloved work. The poor author, overcome with vexation, returned home with
a broken heart, burnt his tragedy, and died of grief.

M. Nogaret is not the only author who has been unfortunate in the
selection of a subject for a romance. He wrote a book entitled _La
Capucinade_ (1765), and the heroes of his story are the Capuchin monks,
whom he treated somewhat severely. This work and his _Memoires de
Bachaumont_ conducted the author to the Bastille.

Few are ignorant of that most charming, graceful, and immortal work
_Telemache_. Not only has it been studied and admired by every Frenchman,
but it has been translated into German, English, Spanish, Flemish, and
Italian. But in spite of the great popularity which the work has enjoyed,
perhaps few are acquainted with the troubles which this poetic drama and
romance brought upon its honoured author. Francois de Salignac de la Mothe
Fenelon, born in the castle of his ancestors at Fenelon in 1651, was a man
of rare piety, virtue, and learning, who deservedly attained to the
highest ecclesiastical honours, and was consecrated Archbishop of Cambray.
He had previously been appointed by Louis XIV. tutor to the Dauphin, and
his wit and grace made him a great favourite at the Court, and even Madame
de Maintenon for a time smiled upon the noble churchman, whose face was
so remarkable for its expressiveness that, according to the Court
chronicler Saint Simon, "it required an effort to cease looking at him."
His _Fables_ and _Dialogues of the Dead_ were written for his royal pupil.
It is well known that the Archbishop sympathised strongly with Madame
Guyon and the French mystics, that he did not approve of some of the
extravagant expressions of that ardent enthusiast, but vindicated the pure
mysticism in his famous work _Maximes des Saints_. This work involved
him in controversy with Bossuet, and through the influence of Louis XIV. a
bull was wrung from Pope Innocent XII. condemning the book, and declaring
that twenty-three propositions extracted from it were "rash, scandalous,
and offensive to pious ears, pernicious and erroneous." The Pope was very
reluctant to pass this sentence of condemnation, and was induced to do so
through fear of Louis, and not because he considered the book to be false.
With his usual gentleness, Fenelon accepted the sentence without a word
of protest; he read the brief in his own cathedral, declaring that the
decision of his superiors was to him an echo of the Divine Will. Fenelon
had aroused the hatred of Madame de Maintenon by opposing her marriage
with the King, which took place privately in 1685, and she did not allow
any opportunity to escape of injuring and persecuting the Archbishop. At
this juncture, through the treachery of a servant, _Telemache_ was
published. At first it was received with high favour at Court. It
inculcated the truth that virtue is the glory of princes and the happiness
of nations, and while describing the adventures of the son of Ulysses its
author strove to establish the true system of state-craft, and his work is
imbued with a sense of beauty and refinement which renders it a most
pleasurable book to read. But Madame de Maintenon was grievously
offended by its success, and by the praise which even Louis bestowed
upon it. She easily persuaded him that the work was a carefully executed
satire directed against the ministers of the Court, and that even the King
himself was not spared. Malignant tongues asserted that Madame de
Montespan, the King's former mistress, might be recognised under the
guise of Calypso, Mademoiselle de Fontanges in Eucharis, the Duchess
of Bourgogne in Antiope, Louvois in Prothesilas, King James in Idomenee,
and Louis himself in Sesostris. This aroused that monarch's indignation.
Fenelon was banished from Court, and retired to Cambray, where he spent
the remaining years of his life, honoured by all, and beloved by his many
friends. Strangers came to listen to his words of piety and wisdom. He
performed his episcopal duties with a care and diligence worthy of the
earliest and purest ages of the Church, and in this quiet seclusion
contented himself in doing good to his fellow-creatures, in spite of the
opposition of the King, the censures of the Pope, and the vehement
attacks of his controversial foes Bossuet and the Jansenists. In addition
to his fatal book he wrote _Demonstration de l'existence de Dieu,
Refutation du Systeme de Malebranche_, and several other works.

The Jansenist Abbe Barral, in his _Dictionnaire Historique, Litteraire, et
Critique, des Hommes Celebres_, thus speaks of our author and his work:
"He composed for the instruction of the Dukes of Burgundy, Anjou, and
Berri several works; amongst others, the Telemachus--a singular book,
which partakes at once of the character of a romance and of a poem, and
which substitutes a prosaic cadence for versification. But several
luscious pictures would not lead us to suspect that this book issued from
the pen of a sacred minister for the education of a prince; and what we
are told by a famous poet is not improbable, that Fenelon did not compose
it at Court, but that it is the fruits of his retreat in his diocese. And
indeed the amours of Calypso and Eucharis should not be the first lessons
that a minister ought to give to his scholars; and, besides, the fine
moral maxims which the author attributes to the Pagan divinities are not
well placed in their mouth. Is not this rendering homage to the demons of
the great truths which we receive from the Gospel, and to despoil Jesus
Christ to render respectable the annihilated gods of paganism? This
prelate was a wretched divine, more familiar with the light of profane
authors, than with that of the fathers of the Church." The Jansenists were
most worthy men, but in their opinion of their adversary Fenelon they were
doubtless mistaken.




CHAPTER X.

BOOKSELLERS AND PUBLISHERS.

The Printers of Nicholas de Lyra and Caesar Baronius--John Fust--Richard
Grafton--Jacob van Liesvelt--John Lufftius--Robert Stephens (Estienne)--
Henry Stephens--Simon Ockley--Floyer Sydenham--Edmund Castell--Page--John
Lilburne--Etienne Dolet--John Morin--Christian Wechel--Andrew Wechel--
Jacques Froulle--Godonesche--William Anderton.


Authors have not been the only beings who have suffered by their writings,
but frequently they have involved the printers and sellers of their works
in their unfortunate ruin. The risks which adventurous publishers run in
our own enlightened age are not so great as those incurred a few centuries
ago. Indeed Mr. Walter Besant assures us that now our publishers have no
risks, not even financial! They are not required to produce the huge
folios and heavy quartos which our ancestors delighted in, and poured
forth with such amazing rapidity, unless there is a good subscribers' list
and all the copies are taken.

The misfortunes of booksellers caused by voluminous authors might form a
special subject of inquiry, and we commend it to the attentions of some
other Book-lover. We should hear the groans of two eminent printers who
were ruined by the amazing industry of one author, Nicholas de Lyra. He
himself died long before printing was invented, in the year 1340, but he
left behind him his great work, _Biblia sacra cum interpretationibus et
postillis_, which became the source of trouble to the printers,
Schweynheym and Pannartz, of Subiaco and Rome. They were persuaded or
ordered by the Pope or his cardinals to print his prodigious commentary on
the Bible; when a few volumes had been printed they desired most earnestly
to be relieved of their burden, and petitioned the Pope to be saved from
the bankruptcy which this mighty undertaking entailed. They possessed a
lasting memento of this author in the shape of eleven hundred ponderous
tomes, which were destined to remain upon their shelves till fire or moths
or other enemies of books had done their work. These volumes began to be
printed in 1471, and contain the earliest specimens of Greek type.

The printers of the works of Prynne, Barthius, Reynaud, and other
voluminous writers must have had a sorry experience with their authors;
but "once bitten twice shy." Hence some of these worthies found it rather
difficult to publish their works, and there were no authors' agents or
Societies of Authors to aid their negotiations. Indeed we are told that a
printer who was saddled with a large number of unsaleable copies of a
heavy piece of literary production adopted the novel expedient of bringing
out several editions of the work! This he accomplished by merely adding a
new title-page to his old copies, whereby he readily deceived the unwary.

Catherino, in his book entitled _L'Art d'Imprimer_, quotes the saying of
De Fourcey, a Jesuit of Paris, that "one might make a pretty large volume
of the catalogue of those who have entirely ruined their booksellers by
their books."

But the booksellers and printers whose hard fate I wish principally to
record are those who shared with the authors the penalties inflicted on
account of their condemned books. Unhappily there have been many such
whose fate has been recorded, and probably there are many more who have
suffered in obscurity the terrible punishments which the stern censors of
former days knew so well how to inflict.

One of the reputed discoverers of the art of printing, John Fust, is said
to have been persecuted; he was accused at Paris of multiplying the
Scriptures by the aid of the Devil, and was compelled to seek safety in
flight.

The booksellers of the historian Caesar Baronius, [Footnote: Cf. page 97.]
whose account of the Spanish rule in Sicily so enraged Philip III. of
Spain, were condemned to perpetual servitude, and were forced to endure
the terrible tortures inflicted on galley slaves.

The early printers of the Bible incurred great risks. Richard Grafton and
Edward Whitchurch, together with Miles Coverdale, were entrusted to
arrange for the printing of Thomas Mathew's translation. The work was
given to the printers in Paris, as the English printers were not very
highly esteemed. The book was nearly completed when the Inquisition
effectually stopped the further progress of the work by seizing the
sheets, and Grafton with his companions were forced to fly. Then Francis
Regnault, whose brother's colophon is the admiration of all bibliophiles,
undertook the printing of the New Testament, made by Miles Coverdale,
which was finished at Paris in 1538. Richard Grafton and Whitchurch
contrived to obtain their types from Paris, and the Bible was completed in
1539. Thus they became printers themselves, and as a reward for his
labour, when the Roman Catholics again became rulers in high places,
Richard Grafton was imprisoned. His printer's mark was a _graft_, or young
tree, growing out of a _tun_.

The title of the Bible which was begun in Paris and finished in London is
as follows:--

    _The Byble in Englyshe. 1539. Folio_.

    "The Byble in Englyshe, that is to saye the content of all the Holy
    Scrypture, bothe of the Olde, and Newe Testament, truly translated
    after the veryte of the Hebrue and Greke textes, by the dylygent
    studye of dyuerse excellent learned men, expert in the forsayde
    tongues. Printed by Rychard Grafton and Edward Whitchurche. Cum
    priuilegio--solum. 1539."

This Grafton was also a voluminous author, and wrote part of Hall's
Chronicles, an abridgment of the Chronicles of England, and a manual of
the same.

Whether by accident or intention, a printer of the Bible in the reign of
Charles I. omitted the important negative in the Seventh Commandment. He
was summoned to appear before the High Commission Court, and fined three
thousand pounds. The story is also told of the widow of a German printer
who strongly objected to the supremacy of husbands, and desired to revise
the text of the passage in the Sacred Scriptures which speaks of the
subjection of wives (Genesis iii. 16). The original text is "He shall be
thy _lord_." For _Herr_ (lord) in the German version she substituted
_Narr_, and made the reading, "He shall be thy _fool_." It is said that
she paid the penalty of death for this strange assertion of "woman's
rights."

We must not omit the name of another martyr amongst the honourable rank of
printers of the Scriptures, Jacob van Liesvelt, who was beheaded on
account of his edition of the Bible, entitled _Bible en langue
hollandaise_ (_Antwerpen_, 1542, in-fol.).

John Lufftius, a bookseller and printer of Wuertemburg, incurred many
perils when he printed Luther's German edition of the Sacred Scriptures.
It is said that the Pope used to write Lufftius' name on paper once every
year, and cast it into the fire, uttering terrible imprecations and dire
threatenings. But the thunders of Roman pontiffs did not trouble the
worthy bookseller, who laughed at their threats, and exclaimed, "I
perspired so freely at Rome in the flame, that I must take a larger
draught, as it is necessary to extinguish that flame."

The same fatality befell Robert Stephanus, the Parisian printer. His
family name was Estienne, but, according to the fashion of the time, he
used the Latin form of the word. He edited and published a version of the
Sacred Scriptures, showing the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin texts, and adding
certain notes which were founded upon the writings of Francois Vatable,
Abbot of Bellozane, but also contained some of the scholarly reflections
of the learned bookseller. On the title-page the name of the Abbot appears
first, before that of Stephanus. But considerable hostility was raised
against him by this and other works on the part of the doctors of the
Sorbonne. He was compelled to seek safety in flight, and found a secure
resting-place in Geneva. His enemies were obliged to content themselves
with burning his effigy. This troubled Stephanus quite as little as the
Papal censures distressed Lufftius. At the time when his effigy was being
burnt, the Parisian printer was in the snowy mountains of the Auvergne,
and declared that he never felt so cold in his life.

The printers seem ever to have been on the side of the Protestants. In
Germany they produced all the works of the Reformation authors with great
accuracy and skill, and often at their own expense; whereas the Roman
Catholics could only get their books printed at great cost, and even then
the printing was done carelessly and in a slovenly manner, so as to seem
the production of illiterate men. And if any printer, more conscientious
than the rest, did them more justice, he was jeered at in the market-
places and at the fairs of Frankfort for a Papist and a slave of the
priests.

This Robert Stephanus (Estienne or Stephens, as the name is usually
called) was a member of one of the most illustrious families of learned
printers the world has ever seen. The founder of the family was Henry
Stephens, born at Paris in 1470, and the last of the race died there in
1674. Thus for nearly two centuries did they confer the greatest
advantages on literature, which they enriched quite as much by their
learning as by their skill. Their biographies have frequently been
written; so there is no occasion to record them. This Robert Stephens, who
was exiled on account of his books, was one of the most illustrious
scholars of his age. He printed, edited, and published an immense number
of works in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, amongst others the _Biblia Latina_
(1528), _Latinae linguae Thesaurus_ (1531), _Dictionarium latino-gallicum_
(1543), _Ecclesiastica Historia Eusebii, Socrates, Theodoreti_ (1544),
_Biblia Hebraica_ (1544 and 1546), and many others. In the Bible of 1555
he introduced the divisions of chapter and verse, which are still used.
With regard to the accuracy of his proofs we are told that he was so
careful as to hang them up in some place of public resort, and to invite
the corrections of the learned scholars who collected there. At Geneva his
printing-press continued to pour forth a large number of learned works,
and after his death, one of his sons, named Charles, carried on the
business.

Another son of Robert Stephens, named Henry, was one of those scholars who
have ruined themselves by their love of literature, devoting their lives
and their fortunes to the production of volumes on some special branch of
study in which only a few learned readers are interested. Hence, while
they earn the gratitude of scholars and enrich the world of literature by
their knowledge, the sale of their books is limited, and they fail to
enrich themselves. The _Thesaurus Linguae Graecae_ cost poor Henry
Stephens ten years of labour and nearly all his fortune. This is a very
valuable work, and has proved of immense service to subsequent generations
of scholars. A second edition was published in London in 1815 in seven
folio volumes, and recently another edition has appeared in Paris.

One of his works aroused the indignation of the Parisian authorities. It
was entitled _Introduction au Traite des Merveilles anciennes avec les
modernes, ou Traite preparatif a l'Apologie pour Herodote, par Henri
Estienne_ (1566, in-8). This work was supposed to contain insidious
attacks upon the monks and priests and Roman Catholic faith, comparing the
fables of Herodotus with the teaching of Catholicism, and holding up the
latter to ridicule. At any rate, the book was condemned and its author
burnt in effigy. M. Peignot asserts in his _Dictionnaire Critique,
Litteraire, et Bibliographique_ that it was this Henry Stephens who
uttered the _bon mot_ with regard to his never feeling so cold as when his
effigy was being burnt and he himself was in the snowy mountains of the
Auvergne. Other authorities attribute the saying to his father, as we have
already narrated.

Noble martyrs Literature has had, men who have sacrificed ease, comfort,
and every earthly advantage for her sake, and who have shared with Henry
Stephens the direst straits of poverty brought about by the ardour of
their love. Such an one was a learned divine, Simon Ockley, Vicar of
Swavesey in 1705, and Professor of Arabic at Cambridge in 1711, who
devoted his life to Asiatic researches. This study did not prove
remunerative; having been seized for debt, he was confined in Cambridge
Castle, and there finished his great work, _The History of the Saracens_.
His martyrdom was lifelong, as he died in destitution, having always (to
use his own words) given the possession of wisdom the preference to that
of riches. Floyer Sydenham, who died in a debtors' prison in 1788, and
incurred his hard fate through devoting his life to a translation of the
_Dialogues_ of Plato, was another martyr; from whose ashes arose the
Royal Literary Fund, which has prevented many struggling authors from
sharing his fate. Seventeen long years of labour, besides a handsome
fortune, did Edmund Castell spend on his _Lexicon Heptaglotton_; but a
thankless and ungrateful public refused to relieve him of the copies of
this learned work, which ruined his health while it dissipated his
fortune. These are only a few names which might be mentioned out of the
many. What a noble army of martyrs Literature could boast, if a roll-call
were sounded!

Amongst our booksellers we must not omit the name of Page, who suffered
with John Stubbs in the market-place at Westminster on account of the
latter's work entitled _The Discoverie of a Gaping Gulf whereinto England
is like to be swallowed by another French marriage, if the Lord forbid not
the banes by letting her Majestie see the sin and punishment thereof_
(1579). Both author and publisher were condemned to the barbarous penalty
of having their right hands cut off, as we have already recorded.
[Footnote: Cf. page 129.]

"Sturdy John," as the people called John Lilburne of Commonwealth fame,
was another purveyor of books who suffered severely at the hands of both
Royalists and Roundheads. At the early age of eighteen he began the
circulation of the books of Prynne and Bastwick, and for this enormity he
was whipped from the Fleet to Westminster, set in the pillory, gagged,
fined, and imprisoned. At a later stage in his career we find him
imprisoned in the Tower by Cromwell, for his _Just Reproof to
Haberdashers' Hall_, and fined L1,000; and his bitter attack on the
Protector, entitled _England's New Chains Discovered_, caused him to pay
another visit to the Tower and to be tried for high treason, of which he
was subsequently acquitted. To assail the "powers that be" seemed ever to
be the constant occupation of "Sturdy John" Lilburne. From the above
example, and from many others which might be mentioned, it is quite
evident that Roundheads, when they held the power, could be quite as
severe critics of publications obnoxious to them as the Royalists, and
troublesome authors fared little better under Puritan regime than they did
under the Stuart monarchs.

Another learned French printer was Etienne Dolet, who was burned to death
at Paris on account of his books in 1546. He lived and worked at Lyons,
and, after the manner of the Stephens, published many of his own writings
as well as those of other learned men. He applied his energies to reform
the Latin style, and in addition to his theological and linguistical works
cultivated the art of poetry. Bayle says that his Latin and French verses
"are not amiss." In the opinion of Gruterus they are worthy of a place in
the _Deliciae Poetarum Gallorum_; but the impassioned and scurrilous
Scaliger, who hated Dolet, declares that "Dolet may be called the Muse's
Canker, or Imposthume; he wildly affects to be absolute in Poetry without
the least pretence to wit, and endeavours to make his own base copper pass
by mixing with it Virgil's gold. A driveller, who with some scraps of
Cicero has tagged together something, which he calls Orations, but which
men of learning rather judge to be Latrations. Whilst he sung the fate of
that great and good King Francis, his name found its own evil fate, and
the Atheist suffered the punishment of the flames, which both he and his
verses so richly merited. But the flames could not purify him, but were by
him rather made impure. Why should I mention his Epigrams, which are but a
common sink or shore of dull, cold, unmeaning trash, full of that
thoughtless arrogance that braves the Almighty, and that denies His
Being?" The conclusion of this scathing criticism is hardly meet for
polite ears. A private wrong had made the censorious Scaliger more bitter
than usual. In spite of the protection of Castellan, a learned prelate,
Dolet at length suffered in the flames, but whether the charge of Atheism
was well grounded has never been clearly ascertained.

Certainly the pious prayer which he uttered, when the faggots were piled
around him, would seem to exonerate him from such a charge: "My God, whom
I have so often offended, be merciful to me; and I beseech you, O Virgin
Mother, and you, divine Stephen, to intercede with God for me a sinner."
The Parliament of Paris condemned his works as containing "damnable,
pernicious, and heretical doctrines." The Faculty of Theology censured
very severely Dolet's translation of one of the _Dialogues_ of Plato,
entitled _Axiochus_, and especially the passage "Apres la mort, tu ne
seras rien," which Dolet rendered, "Apres la mort, tu ne seras _plus_ rien
_du tout_." The additional words were supposed to convict Dolet of heresy.
He certainly disliked the monks, as the following epigram plainly
declares:--

_Ad Nicolaum Fabricium Valesium
  De cucullatis._

  "Incurvicervicum cucullatorum habet
  Grex id subinde in ore, se esse mortuum
  Mundo: tamen edit eximie pecus, bibit
  Non pessime, stertit sepultum crapula,
  Operam veneri dat, et voluptatum assecla
  Est omnium. Idne est mortuum esse mundo?
  Aliter interpretare. Mortui sunt Hercule
  Mundo cucullati, quod inors tense sunt onus,
  Ad rem utiles nullam, nisi ad scelus et vitium."

Amongst the works published and written by Dolet may be mentioned:--

    _Summaire des faits et gestes de Francois I., tant contre l'Empereur
    que ses sujets, et autres nations etrangeres, composes d'abord en
    latin par Dolet, puis translates en francais par lui-meme. Lyon,
    Etienne Dolet, 1540, in-4_.

    _Stephani Doleti Carminum, Libri IV. Lugduni, 1538, in-4_.

    _Brief Discours de la republique francoyse, desirant la lecture des
    livres de l'Ecriture saincte luy estre loisable en sa langue vulgaire.
    Etienne Dolet, 1544, in-16_.

    _La fontaine de vie, in-16_.

Several translations into French of the writings of Erasmus and
Melanchthon may also be remembered, and the Geneva Bible, which was
printed by Dolet.

One of the few remaining copies of _Cymbalum mundi, en francais, contenant
quatre Dialogues poetiques, antiques, joyeux, et facetieux, par Thomas
Duclevier (Bonaventure Desperiers, Valet de chambre de la Reyne de
Navarre_) (Paris, Jehan Morin, 1537, in-8) reveals the fact that the
printer, Jean Morin, was imprisoned on account of this work. Therein it is
recorded that he presented the copy to the Chancellor with the request
that he might be released from prison, where he had been placed on account
of this work. The reasons given for its condemnation are various. Some
state that the author, a friend of Clement Marot, intended to preach by
the use of allegories the Reformed religion. Others say that it was
directed against the manners and conduct of some members of the Court.
Whether Morin's request was granted I know not, nor whether Desperiers
shared his imprisonment. At any rate, the author died in 1544 from an
attack of frenzy.

Another famous printer at Paris in the sixteenth century was Christian
Wechel, who published a large number of works. He was persecuted for
publishing a book of Erasmus entitled _De esu interdicto carnium_, and
some declare that he fell into grievous poverty, being cursed by God for
printing an impious book. Thus one writer says that "in the year 1530
arose this abortive child of hell, who wrote a book against the Divine
Justice in favour of infants dying without baptism, and several have
wisely observed that the ruin of Christian Wechel and his labours fell out
as a punishment for his presses and characters being employed in such an
infamous work." However, there is reason to believe that the book was not
so "impious," expressing only the pious hope that the souls of such
infants might not be lost, and also that no great "curse" fell upon the
printer, and that his poverty was apocryphal. At any rate, his son Andrew
was a very flourishing printer; but he too was persecuted for his
religious opinions, and narrowly escaped destruction in the Massacre of
St. Bartholomew. He ran in great danger on that eventful night, and states
that he would have been slaughtered but for the kindness of Hubert
Languet, who lodged in his house. Andrew Wechel fled to Frankfort, where
he continued to ply his trade in safety; and when more favourable times
came re-established his presses at Paris. He had the reputation of being
one of the most able printers and booksellers of his time.

The Revolutionary period in France was not a safe time for either authors
or booksellers. Jacques Froulle was condemned to death in 1793 for
publishing the lists of names of those who passed sentence on their King,
Louis XVI., and doomed him to death. This work was entitled _Liste
comparative des cinq appels nominaux sur le proces et jugement de Louis
XVI., avec les declarations que les Deputes ont faites a chacune des
seances_ (Paris, Froulle, 1793, in-8). He gives the names of the deputies
who voted on each of the five appeals, until at length the terrible
sentence was pronounced, 310 voting for the reprieve and 380 for the
execution of their monarch. The deputies were so ashamed of their work
that they doomed the recorder of their infamous deed to share the
punishment of their sovereign.

We have few instances of the illustrators of books sharing the misfortunes
of authors and publishers, but we have met with one such example. Nicolas
Godonesche made the engravings for a work by Jean Laurent Boursier, a
doctor of the Sorbonne, entitled _Explication abregee des principales
questions qui ont rapport aux affaires presentes_ (1731, in-12), and found
that work fatal to him. This book was one of many published by Boursier
concerning the unhappy contentions which for a long time agitated the
Church of France. Godonesche, who engraved pictures for the work, was sent
to the Bastille, and the author banished.

In all ages complaints are heard of the prolific writers who have been
seized by the scribbling demon, and made to pour forth page after page
which the public decline to read, and bring grief to the publishers.
Pasquier's _Letters_ contains the following passage, which applies perhaps
quite as forcibly to the present age as to his own time: "I cannot forbear
complaining at this time of the calamity of this age which has produced
such a plenty of reputed or untimely authors. Any pitiful scribbler will
have his first thoughts to come to light; lest, being too long shut up,
they should grow musty. Good God! how apposite are these verses of
Jodelle:--

  "'Et tant ceux d'aujourd'huy me fashent,
  Qui des lors que leurs plumes laschent
  Quelque-trait soit mauvais ou bon,
  En lumiere le vont produire,
  Pour souvent avec leur renom,
  Les pauvres Imprimeurs destruire.'"

This has been translated as follows:--

  "The scribbling crew would make one's vitals bleed,
   They write such trash, no mortal e'er will read;
   Yet they will publish, they must have a name;
   So Printers starve, to get their authors fame."

One would be curious to see the form of agreement between such prolific
authors and their deluded publishers, and to learn by what arts, other
than magical, the former ever induced the latter to undertake the
publication of such fatal books.

The story of the establishment of the liberty of the Press in England is
full of interest, and tells the history of several books which involved
their authors and publishers in many difficulties. The censors of books
did not always occupy an enviable post, and were the objects of many
attacks. "Catalogue" Fraser lost his office for daring to license Walker's
book on the _Eikon Basilike_, which asserted that Gauden and not Charles
I. was the author. His successor Bohun was deprived of his orffice as
licenser and sent to prison for allowing a pamphlet to be printed entitled
_King William and Queen Mary, Conquerors_. The Jacobite printers suffered
severely when they were caught, which was not very frequent. In obscure
lanes and garrets they plied their secret trade, and deluged the land with
seditious books and papers. One William Anderton was tracked to a house
near St. James's Street, where he was known as a jeweller. Behind the bed
in his room was discovered a door which led to a dark closet, and there
were the types and a press, and heaps of Jacobite literature. Anderton was
found guilty of treason, and paid the penalty of death for his crime. In
1695 the Press was emancipated from its thraldom, and the office of
licenser ceased to exist. Henceforward popular judgment and the general
good sense and right feeling of the community constituted the only
licensing authority of the Press of England. Occasionally, when a
publisher or author makes too free with the good name of an English
citizen, the restraint of a prison cell is imposed upon the audacious
libeller. Sometimes when a book offends against the public morals, and
contains the outpourings of a voluptuous imagination, its author is
condemned to lament in confinement over his indecorous pages. The world
knows that Vizetelly, the publisher, was imprisoned for translating and
publishing some of Zola's novels. _Nana_ and _L'Assommoir_ were indeed
fatal books to him, as his imprisonment and the anxiety caused by the
prosecution are said to have hastened his death. The right feeling and
sound sense of the nation has guided the Press of this country into safe
channels, and few books are fatal now on account of their unseemly
contents or immoral tendencies.




CHAPTER XI.

SOME LITERARY MARTYRS.

Leland--Strutt--Cotgrave--Henry Wharton--Robert Heron--Collins--William
Cole--Homeric victims--Joshua Barnes--An example of unrequited toil--
Borgarutius--Pays.


We have still a list far too long of literary martyrs whose works have
proved fatal to them, and yet whose names have not appeared in the
foregoing chapters. These are they who have sacrificed their lives, their
health and fortunes, for the sake of their works, and who had no sympathy
with the saying of a professional hack writer, "Till fame appears to be
worth more than money, I shall always prefer money to fame." For the
labours of their lives they have received no compensation at all. Health,
eyesight, and even life itself have been devoted to the service of
mankind, who have shown themselves somewhat ungrateful recipients of their
bounty.

Some of the more illustrious scholars indeed enjoy a posthumous fame,--
their names are still honoured; their works are still read and studied by
the learned,--but what countless multitudes are those who have sacrificed
their all, and yet slumber in nameless graves, the ocean of oblivion
having long since washed out the footprints they hoped to leave upon the
shifting sands of Time! Of these we have no record; let us enumerate a few
of the scholars of an elder age whose books proved fatal to them, and
whose sorrows and early deaths were brought on by their devotion to
literature.

What antiquary has not been grateful to Leland, the father of English
archaeology! He possessed that ardent love for the records of the past
which must inspire the heart and the pen of every true antiquary; that
accurate learning and indefatigable spirit of research without which the
historian, however zealous, must inevitably err; and that sturdy
patriotism which led him to prefer the study of the past glories of his
own to those of any other people or land. His _Cygnea Cantio_ will live as
long as the silvery Thames, whose glories he loved to sing, pursues its
beauteous way through the loveliest vales of England. While his royal
patron, Henry VIII., lived, all went well; after the death of that monarch
his anxieties and troubles began. His pension became smaller, and at
length ceased. No one seemed to appreciate his toil. He became melancholy
and morose, and the effect of nightly vigils and years of toil began to
tell upon his constitution. At length his mind gave way, ere yet the
middle stage of life was passed; and although many other famous
antiquaries have followed his steps and profited by his writings and his
example, English scholars will ever mourn the sad and painful end of
unhappy Leland.

Another antiquary was scarcely more fortunate. Strutt, the author of
_English Sports and Pastimes_, whose works every student of the manners
and customs of our forefathers has read and delighted in, passed his days
in poverty and obscurity, and often received no recompense for the works
which are now so valuable. At least he had his early wish gratified,--"I
will strive to leave my name behind me in the world, if not in the
splendour that some have, at least with some marks of assiduity and study
which shall never be wanting in me."

Randle Cotgrave, the compiler of one of the most valuable dictionaries of
early English words, lost his eyesight through laboriously studying
ancient MSS. in his pursuit of knowledge. The sixteen volumes of MS.
preserved in the Lambeth Library of English literature killed their
author, Henry Wharton, before he reached his thirtieth year. By the
indiscreet exertion of his mind, in protracted and incessant literary
labours, poor Robert Heron destroyed his health, and after years of toil
spent in producing volumes so numerous and so varied as to stagger one to
contemplate, ended his days in Newgate. In his pathetic appeal for help to
the Literary Fund, wherein he enumerates the labours of his life, he
wrote, "I shudder at the thought of perishing in gaol." And yet that was
the fate of Heron, a man of amazing industry and vast learning and
ability, a martyr to literature.

He has unhappily many companions, whose names appear upon that mournful
roll of luckless authors. There is the unfortunate poet Collins, who was
driven insane by the disappointment attending his unremunerative toil, and
the want of public appreciation of his verses. William Cole, the writer of
fifty volumes in MS. of the _Athenae Cantabrigienses_, founded upon the
same principle as the _Athenae Oxonienses_ of Anthony Wood, lived to see
his hopes of fame die, and yet to feel that he could not abandon his self-
imposed task, as that would be death to him. Homer, too, has had some
victims; and if he has suffered from translation, he has revenged himself
on his translators. A learned writer, Joshua Barnes, Professor of Greek at
Cambridge, devoted his whole energy to the task, and ended his days in
abject poverty, disgusted with the scanty rewards his great industry and
scholarship had attained. A more humble translator, a chemist of Reading,
published an English version of the _Iliad_. The fascination of the work
drew him away from his business, and caused his ruin. A clergyman died a
few years ago who had devoted many years to a learned Biblical Commentary;
it was the work of his life, and contained the results of much original
research. After his death his effects were sold, and with them the
precious MS., the result of so many hours of patient labour; this MS.
realised three shillings and sixpence!

Fatal indeed have their works and love of literature proved to be to many
a luckless author. No wonder that many of them have vowed, like
Borgarutius, that they would write no more nor spend their life-blood for
the sake of so fickle a mistress, or so thankless a public. This author
was so troubled by the difficulties he encountered in printing his book on
Anatomy, that he made the rash vow that he would never publish anything
more; but, like many other authors, he broke his word. Poets are
especially liable to this change of intention, as La Fontaine observes:--

  "O! combien l'homme est inconstant, divers,
  Foible, leger, tenant mal sa parole,
  J'avois jure, meme en assez beaux vers,
  De renouncer a tout Conte frivole.
  Depuis deux jours j'ai fait cette promesse
  Puis fiez-vous a Rimeur qui repond
  D'un seul moment. Dieu ne fit la sagesse
  Pour les cerveaux qui hantent les neuf Soeurs."

In these days of omnivorous readers, the position of authors has decidedly
improved. We no longer see the half-starved poets bartering their sonnets
for a meal; learned scholars pining in Newgate; nor is "half the pay of a
scavenger" [Footnote: A remark of Granger--vide _Calamities of Authors_,
p. 85.] considered sufficient remuneration for recondite treatises. It has
been the fashion of authors of all ages to complain bitterly of their own
times. Bayle calls it an epidemical disease in the republic of letters,
and poets seem especially liable to this complaint. Usually those who are
most favoured by fortune bewail their fate with vehemence; while poor and
unfortunate authors write cheerfully. To judge from his writings one would
imagine that Balzac pined in poverty; whereas he was living in the
greatest luxury, surrounded by friends who enjoyed his hospitality.
Oftentimes this language of complaint is a sign of the ingratitude of
authors towards their age, rather than a testimony of the ingratitude of
the age towards authors. Thus did the French poet Pays abuse his fate: "I
was born under a certain star, whose malignity cannot be overcome; and I
am so persuaded of the power of this malevolent star, that I accuse it of
all misfortunes, and I never lay the fault upon anybody." He has courted
Fortune in vain. She will have nought to do with his addresses, and it
would be just as foolish to afflict oneself because of an eclipse of the
sun or moon, as to be grieved on account of the changes which Fortune is
pleased to cause. Many other writers speak in the same fretful strain.
There is now work in the vast field of literature for all who have the
taste, ability, and requisite knowledge; and few authors now find their
books fatal to them--except perhaps to their reputation, when they deserve
the critics' censures. The writers of novels certainly have no cause to
complain of the unkindness of the public and their lack of appreciation,
and the vast numbers of novels which are produced every year would have
certainly astonished the readers of thirty or forty years ago.

For the production of learned works which appeal only to a few scholars,
modern authors have the aid of the Clarendon Press and other institutions
which are subsidised by the Universities for the purpose of publishing
such works. But in spite of all the advantages which modern authors enjoy,
the great demand for literature of all kinds, the justice and fair dealing
of publishers, the adequate remuneration which is usually received for
their works, the favourable laws of copyright--in spite of all these and
other advantages, the lamentable woes of authors have not yet ceased. The
leaders of literature can hold their own, and prosper well; but the men
who stand in the second, third, or fourth rank in the great literary army,
have still cause to bewail the unkindness of the blind goddess who
contrives to see sufficiently to avoid all their approaches to her.

For these brave, but often disheartened, toilers that noble institution,
the Royal Literary Fund, has accomplished great things. During a period of
more than a century it has carried on its beneficent work, relieving poor
struggling authors when poverty and sickness have laid them low; and it
has proved itself to be a "nursing mother" to the wives and children of
literary martyrs who have been quite unable to provide for the wants of
their distressed families. We have already alluded to the foundation of
the Royal Literary Fund, which arose from the feelings of pity and regret
excited by the death of Floyer Sydenham in a debtors' prison. It is
unnecessary to record its history, its noble career of unobtrusive
usefulness in saving from ruin and ministering consolation to those
unhappy authors who have been wounded in the world's warfare, and who, but
for the Literary Fund, would have been left to perish on the hard
battlefield of life. Since its foundation L115,677 has been spent in 4,332
grants to distressed authors. All book-lovers will, we doubt not, seek to
help forward this noble work, and will endeavour to prevent, as far as
possible, any more distressing cases of literary martyrdom, which have so
often stained the sad pages of our literary history.

In order to diminish the woes of authors and to help the maimed and
wounded warriors in the service of Literature, we should like to rear a
large Literary College, where those who have borne the burden and heat of
the day may rest secure from all anxieties and worldly worries when the
evening shadows of life fall around. Possibly the authorities of the Royal
Literary Fund might be able to accomplish this grand enterprise. In
imagination we seem to see a noble building like an Oxford College, or the
Charterhouse, wherein the veterans of Literature can live and work and end
their days, free from the perplexities and difficulties to which poverty
and distress have so long accustomed them. There is a Library, rich with
the choicest works. The Historian, the Poet, the Divine, the Scientist,
can here pursue their studies, and breathe forth inspired thoughts which
the _res angusta domi_ have so long stifled. In society congenial to their
tastes, far from "the madding crowd's ignoble strife," they may succeed in
accomplishing their life's work, and their happiness would be the
happiness of the community.

If this be but a dream, it is a pleasant one. But if all book-lovers would
unite for the purpose of founding such a Literary College, it might be
possible for the dream to be realised. Then the woes of future generations
of authors might be effectually diminished, and Fatal Books have less
unhappy victims.




INDEX.


Abelard, Canon of Notre Dame.
Agrippa, Henry Cornelius, astrologer.
Alexandre, Noel, Church historian.
Anderton, William, Jacobite printer.
Aretino, Pietro, satirist.
Arlotto of Padua, historian.
Arnold of Brescia, disciple of Abelard.
Arthington, pamphleteer.
Ascoli, Cecco d', poet.
Athos, Monks of Mount, Quietists.
Audra, Joseph, historian.

Bacon, Roger, philosopher.
Balzac, pretended poverty of.
Barnes, Joshua, translator.
Baronius, Caesar, Church historian.
Barrai, L'Abbe, his opinion of Fenelon.
Barrow, pamphleteer.
Bastwick, pamphleteer, attacked Laud.
Bede, Noel, controversialist.
Bekker, Balthazar, opponent of demoniacal possession.
Berruyer, Isaac Joseph, Jesuit historian.
Beverland, Adrian, poet.
Biddle, John, Socinian and Unitarian.
Billard, Pierre, satirised Jesuits.
Boccalini, Trajan, Italian satirist.
Bogarutius, anatomist.
Bohun, censor.
Bonfadio, Jacopo, Genoese historian.
Borri, Joseph Francis, charlatan.
Boursier, Jean Laurent, controversialist.
Bruccioli, Antonio, translator.
Bruno, Jordano, philosopher and atheist.
Bruto, John Michael, Florentine historian.
Buchanan, George, poet.
Burton, attacked Laud.
Bussy, Roger Rabutin de, satirist.

Campanella, Thomas, philosopher and atheist.
Carlyle, Thomas, an example of energy.
Carpzov, Samuel Benedict, libelled Ruediger.
Carranza, Bartholomew, Archbishop of Toledo.
Cartwright, pamphleteer.
Castell, Edmund, polyglot.
Caveirac, L'Abbe, Jesuit defender.
Cinelli, John Giovanni, satirist.
Clarke, Samuel, philosopher and theologian.
Cole, William, author of _Athenae Cantabrigienses_.
Collins, poet.
Coppinger, pamphleteer.
Cotgrave, Randle, lexicographer.
Cowell, Dr., supporter of absolute monarchy.
Cowley, Abraham, dramatist.
Crebillon, the younger, dramatist.

Danchet, Antoine, dramatist.
Darigrand, author of _L'Anti-Financier_.
Darrell, John, cleric and demonologist.
Dassy, satirist.
David, Francis, theologian.
Dee, Dr., alchemist.
Defoe, Daniel, satirical writer.
Deforges, poet.
Delaune, author of _A Plea for the Nonconformists_.
Diderot, Denis, collaborateur of D'Alembert.
Doleman, printer.
Dolet, Etienne, printer and author.
Dominis, Antonio de, Archbishop of Spalatro.
Dort, Synod of, some of its proceedings.
Dryander, _nom-de-plume_ of Enzinas.
Dryander, John, brother of Enzinas.
Dupin, Louis Elias, Church historian.
Durosoi, editor.

Edzardt, Sebastian, theologian.
Enzinas, Spanish translator, 23.
Estienne, _see_ Stephanus.

Falkemberg, John de, fanatic.
Felbinger, Jeremiah, Unitarian.
Fenelon, Francois de la Mothe, Archbishop of Cambrai.
Fisher, John, Bishop of Rochester, opponent of royal divorce.
Fontaine, Nicolas, collaborateur of Le Maistre.
Francus, Nicholas, poet.
Fraser, "Catalogue," censor.
Frischlin, Nicodemus, poet.
Froulle, Jacques, bookseller.
Fust, John, printer.

Gacon, Francois, poet and satirist.
Galileo, "father of experimental philosophy."
Genebrard, Gilbert, controversialist.
Giannone, Peter, Italian historian.
Godonesche, Nicolas, engraver.
Grafton, Richard, printer of Coverdale's Bible.
Grandier, Urban, cure of London, opponent of celibacy of clergy.
Greenwood, pamphleteer.
Grotius, historian.

Hacket, pamphleteer.
Hales, John, pamphleteer.
Harsnett, Bishop, the exposer of Darrell.
Hartley, exorcist, friend of Darrell.
Haudicquer, genealogist.
Helot, poet.
Hemmerlin, Felix, satirist.
Heron, Robert, voluminous author.
_Histriomastix_.
Homeric victims.
Huss, John, reformer and martyr, his writings.

Johnson, Samuel, divine, author of _Julian the Apostate_.

Keats, poet, _Endymion_ cruelly reviewed.
Kelly, Edward, necromancer, friend of Dr. Dee.
Kuhlmann, Quirinus, "Prince of Fanatics".

La Beaumelle, Laurence de, _Memoirs of Madame de Maintenon_.
La Grange, poet.
La Peyrere, Isaac de, ethnologist.
Le Courayer, Pierre Francois Canon of St. Augustine.
Leighton, Dr., author of _Syon's Plea against Prelacy_.
Leland, archaeologist.
Le Maistre, Louis, Jansenist and translator.
Lenoir, Jean, Canon of Seez, political writer.
Liesvelt, Jacob van, Dutch printer.
Lilburne, "Honest John," bookseller and author.
Linguet, Simon, political writer, de Lisle de Sales, philosopher.
Liszinski Cazimir, Polish atheist.
Literary College, ideal.
Literary Fund, Royal.
Lufftius, John, printer of Wuertemburg.
Lyra, Nicholas de, commentator, ruins his printers.
Lyser, John, advocate of polygamy.

Maffei, Raphael, his epigram on Valla.
Maggi, Jerome, Venetian statesman.
Maintenon, Madame de, Memoirs.
Mariana, John, Spanish historian.
Marolles, L'Abbe de, translator.
Marot, Clement, poet, versifier of Psalms.
Marprelate, Martin, _nom-de-plume_ of various Puritan authors.
Melanchthon, reformer, works published by Peucer.
Molinos, Michael, Spanish theologian.
Montague, Lord, victim of Reginald Pole's book.
Montanus, Arius, translator of Polyglot Bible.
Montgomery, James, poet.
Morin, Jean, printer.
Morin, Simon, fanatic.

Nogaret, novelist.
Nordemann, follower of Kuhlmann.

Ochino, Bernardino, a Franciscan, advocate of polygamy.
Ockham, William of, "The Invincible Doctor".
Ockley, Simon, Vicar of Swavesey.
Ovid, poet, exiled by Caesar.

Page, printer of Stubbs' pamphlet.
Palearius, Antonius, "Inquisitionis Detractator."
Pallavicino, Ferrante, Italian satirist.
Palmieri, Matteo, Italian historian.
Pannartz, printer.
Paolo, Fra, _see_ Sarpi.
Pasquier, his Letters quoted.
Pasquinades, origin of term.
Pays, French poet, quoted.
Penry, pamphleteer.
Petit, Pierre, poet.
Peucer, Caspar, doctor of medicine and Calvinist.
Pole, Sir Geoffrey, arrested by Henry VIII., escapes.
Pole, Reginald, denounced Henry VIII.
Primi, John Baptist, Count of St. Majole, historian.
Prynne, William, author of _Histriomastix_.

Quesnal, Pasquier, translator and theologian.
Quietism.

Reboul, Italian pamphleteer.
Reinking, Theodore, historian, condemned to eat his book.
Richer, Edmund, political essayist.
Ritson, Joseph, antiquary.
Rosieres, Francois de, Archdeacon of Toul, historian.
Rothe, John, pretended prophet.
Rousseau, Jean Baptiste, satirist.
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, philosopher.
Rudbeck, Swedish historian.
Rudiger. John Christopher, biographer.

Sacy, de, _see_ Le Maistre.
Salisbury, Countess of, victim of Pole's book.
Sarpi, Pietro, Venetian historian.
Savonarola, Florentine preacher.
Scaliger, his criticism of Dolet.
Schweynheym, printer.
Scioppius, Caspar, satirist.
Selden, John, author of _De Decimis_.
Servetus, Michael, scientist and theologian, persecuted by Calvin.
Sidney, Algernon, his manuscript a witness against him.
Starkie, Nicholas, household possessed by devils, _see_ Darrell.
Stephanus or Stephens, Robert, Parisian printer.
Stephens, Henry, son of above, printer.
Strutt, author of _English Sports and Pastimes_.
Stubbs, John, opponent of Elizabeth's marriage.
Sydenham, Floyer, translator.

Theophile, poet.
Thou, de, French historian.
Thou, Frederick Augustus de, son of above.
Toland, John, freethinker.
Tutchin, John, editor of _Observator_, persecuted by Jeffreys.
Tyndale, William, translator of Bible and controversialist.

Udal, Nicholas, part author of Marprelate pamphlets.
_Unigenitus_, Papal Bull.
Urseus, Anthony, becomes insane through loss of book.

Valla, Lorenzo, Roman satirist.
Vanini, Lucilio, philosopher and atheist.
Villanovanus, _nom-de-plume_ of Servetus.
Virgil, Bishop of Salisbury, cosmologist.
Vizetelly, publisher.
Volaterranus, _see_ Maffei.
Voltaire, Francois Arouet de, satirical poem.

Wecchiettus, Jerome, theologian.
Wechel, Christian, Parisian printer.
Wechel, Andrew, son of above.
Weiser, Caspar, Swedish poet.
Wentworth, Peter, pamphleteer.
Wharton, Henry, died of overwork.
Whitchurch, Edward, printer.
Willenberg, Samuel Friedrich, advocate of polygamy.
Williams, John, poet.
Woolston, Thomas, freethinker.

Yorke, Sir John, imprisoned for Roman Catholic play performed in his
house.





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