Infomotions, Inc.Suburban Sketches / Howells, William Dean, 1837-1920

Author: Howells, William Dean, 1837-1920
Title: Suburban Sketches
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): aunt melissa; car
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Title: Suburban Sketches

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[Illustration: "She lighted a potent pipe."]



























It was on a morning of the lovely New England May that we left the horse-
car, and, spreading our umbrellas, walked down the street to our new home
in Charlesbridge, through a storm of snow and rain so finely blent by the
influences of this fortunate climate, that no flake knew itself from its
sister drop, or could be better identified by the people against whom they
beat in unison. A vernal gale from the east fanned our cheeks and pierced
our marrow and chilled our blood, while the raw, cold green of the
adventurous grass on the borders of the sopping sidewalks gave, as it
peered through its veil of melting snow and freezing rain, a peculiar
cheerfulness to the landscape. Here and there in the vacant lots abandoned
hoop-skirts defied decay; and near the half-finished wooden houses, empty
mortar-beds, and bits of lath and slate strewn over the scarred and
mutilated ground, added their interest to the scene. A shaggy drift hung
upon the trees before our own house (which had been built some years
earlier), while its swollen eaves wept silently and incessantly upon the
embankments lifting its base several feet above the common level.

This heavenly weather, which the Pilgrim Fathers, with the idea of turning
their thoughts effectually from earthly pleasures, came so far to
discover, continued with slight amelioration throughout the month of May
and far into June; and it was a matter of constant amazement with one who
had known less austere climates, to behold how vegetable life struggled
with the hostile skies, and, in an atmosphere as chill and damp as that of
a cellar, shot forth the buds and blossoms upon the pear-trees, called out
the sour Puritan courage of the currant-bushes, taught a reckless native
grape-vine to wander and wanton over the southern side of the fence, and
decked the banks with violets as fearless and as fragile as New England
girls; so that about the end of June, when the heavens relented and the
sun blazed out at last, there was little for him to do but to redden and
darken the daring fruits that had attained almost their full growth
without his countenance.

Then, indeed, Charlesbridge appeared to us a kind of Paradise. The wind
blew all day from the southwest, and all day in the grove across the way
the orioles sang to their nestlings. The butcher's wagon rattled merrily
up to our gate every morning; and if we had kept no other reckoning, we
should have known it was Thursday by the grocer. We were living in the
country with the conveniences and luxuries of the city about us. The house
was almost new and in perfect repair; and, better than all, the kitchen
had as yet given no signs of unrest in those volcanic agencies which are
constantly at work there, and which, with sudden explosion, make
Herculaneums and Pompeiis of so many smiling households. Breakfast,
dinner, and tea came up with illusive regularity, and were all the most
perfect of their kind; and we laughed and feasted in our vain security. We
had out from the city to banquet with us the friends we loved, and we were
inexpressibly proud before them of the Help, who first wrought miracles of
cookery in our honor, and then appeared in a clean white apron, and the
glossiest black hair, to wait upon the table. She was young, and certainly
very pretty; she was as gay as a lark, and was courted by a young man
whose clothes would have been a credit, if they had not been a reproach,
to our lowly basement. She joyfully assented to the idea of staying with
us till she married.

In fact, there was much that was extremely pleasant about the little place
when the warm weather came, and it was not wonderful to us that Jenny was
willing to remain. It was very quiet; we called one another to the window
if a large dog went by our door; and whole days passed without the
movement of any wheels but the butcher's upon our street, which flourished
in ragweed and butter-cups and daisies, and in the autumn burned, like the
borders of nearly all the streets in Charlesbridge, with the pallid azure
flame of the succory. The neighborhood was in all things a frontier
between city and country. The horse-cars, the type of such civilization--
full of imposture, discomfort, and sublime possibility--as we yet possess,
went by the head of our street, and might, perhaps, be available to one
skilled in calculating the movements of comets; while two minutes' walk
would take us into a wood so wild and thick that no roof was visible
through the trees. We learned, like innocent pastoral people of the golden
age, to know the several voices of the cows pastured in the vacant lots,
and, like engine-drivers of the iron age, to distinguish the different
whistles of the locomotives passing on the neighboring railroad. The
trains shook the house as they thundered along, and at night were a kind
of company, while by day we had the society of the innumerable birds. Now
and then, also, the little ragged boys in charge of the cows--which, tied
by long ropes to trees, forever wound themselves tight up against the
trunks, and had to be unwound with great ado of hooting and hammering--
came and peered lustfully through the gate at our ripening pears. All
round us carpenters were at work building new houses; but so far from
troubling us, the strokes of their hammers fell softly upon the sense,
like one's heart-beats upon one's own consciousness in the lapse from all
fear of pain under the blessed charm of an anaesthetic.

We played a little at gardening, of course, and planted tomatoes, which
the chickens seemed to like, for they ate them up as fast as they ripened;
and we watched with pride the growth of our Lawton blackberries, which,
after attaining the most stalwart proportions, were still as bitter as the
scrubbiest of their savage brethren, and which, when by advice left on the
vines for a week after they turned black, were silently gorged by secret
and gluttonous flocks of robins and orioles. As for our grapes, the frost
cut them off in the hour of their triumph.

So, as I have hinted, we were not surprised that Jenny should be willing
to remain with us, and were as little prepared for her desertion as for
any other change of our moral state. But one day in September she came to
her nominal mistress with tears in her beautiful eyes and protestations of
unexampled devotion upon her tongue, and said that she was afraid she must
leave us. She liked the place, and she never had worked for any one that
was more of a lady, but she had made up her mind to go into the city. All
this, so far, was quite in the manner of domestics who, in ghost stories,
give warning to the occupants of haunted houses; and Jenny's mistress
listened in suspense for the motive of her desertion, expecting to hear no
less than that it was something which walked up and down the stairs and
dragged iron links after it, or something that came and groaned at the
front door, like populace dissatisfied with a political candidate. But it
was in fact nothing of this kind; simply, there were no lamps upon our
street, and Jenny, after spending Sunday evening with friends in East
Charlesbridge, was always alarmed, on her return, in walking from the
horse-car to our door. The case was hopeless, and Jenny and our household
parted with respect and regret.

We had not before this thought it a grave disadvantage that our street was
unlighted. Our street was not drained nor graded; no municipal cart ever
came to carry away our ashes; there was not a water-butt within half a
mile to save us from fire, nor more than the one thousandth part of a
policeman to protect us from theft. Yet, as I paid a heavy tax, I somehow
felt that we enjoyed the benefits of city government, and never looked
upon Charlesbridge as in any way undesirable for residence. But when it
became necessary to find help in Jenny's place, the frosty welcome given
to application at the intelligence offices renewed a painful doubt
awakened by her departure. To be sure, the heads of the offices were
polite enough; but when the young housekeeper had stated her case at the
first to which she applied, and the Intelligencer had called out to the
invisible expectants in the adjoining room, "Anny wan wants to do giner'l
housewark in Charlsbrudge?" there came from the maids invoked so loud, so
fierce, so full a "No!" as shook the lady's heart with an indescribable
shame and dread. The name that, with an innocent pride in its literary and
historical associations, she had written at the heads of her letters, was
suddenly become a matter of reproach to her; and she was almost tempted to
conceal thereafter that she lived in Charlesbridge, and to pretend that
she dwelt upon some wretched little street in Boston. "You see," said the
head of the office, "the gairls doesn't like to live so far away from the
city. Now if it was on'y in the Port...."

This pen is not graphic enough to give the remote reader an idea of the
affront offered to an inhabitant of Old Charlesbridge in these closing
words. Neither am I of sufficiently tragic mood to report here all the
sufferings undergone by an unhappy family in finding servants, or to tell
how the winter was passed with miserable makeshifts. Alas! is it not the
history of a thousand experiences? Any one who looks upon this page could
match it with a tale as full of heartbreak and disaster, while I conceive
that, in hastening to speak of Mrs. Johnson, I approach a subject of
unique interest.

The winter that ensued after Jenny's departure was the true sister of the
bitter and shrewish spring of the same year. But indeed it is always with
a secret shiver that one must think of winter in our regrettable climate.
It is a terrible potency, robbing us of half our lives, and threatening or
desolating the moiety left us with rheumatisms and catarrhs. There is a
much vaster sum of enjoyment possible to man in the more generous
latitudes; and I have sometimes doubted whether even the energy
characteristic of ours is altogether to be praised, seeing that it has its
spring not so much in pure aspiration as in the instinct of self-
preservation. Egyptian, Greek, Roman energy was an inner impulse; but ours
is too often the sting of cold, the spur of famine. We must endure our
winter, but let us not be guilty of the hypocrisy of pretending that we
like it. Let us caress it with no more vain compliments, but use it with
something of its own rude and savage sincerity.

I say, our last Irish girl went with the last snow, and on one of those
midsummer-like days that sometimes fall in early April to our yet bleak
and desolate zone, our hearts sang of Africa and golden joys. A Libyan
longing took us, and we would have chosen, if we could, to bear a strand
of grotesque beads, or a handful of brazen gauds, and traffic them for
some sable maid with crisped locks, whom, uncoffling from the captive
train beside the desert, we should make to do our general housework
forever, through the right of lawful purchase. But we knew that this was
impossible, and that, if we desired colored help, we must seek it at the
intelligence office, which is in one of those streets chiefly inhabited by
the orphaned children and grandchildren of slavery. To tell the truth
these orphans do not seem to grieve much for their bereavement, but lead a
life of joyous and rather indolent oblivion in their quarter of the city.
They are often to be seen sauntering up and down the street by which the
Charlesbridge cars arrive,--the young with a harmless swagger, and the old
with the generic limp which our Autocrat has already noted as attending
advanced years in their race. They seem the natural human interest of a
street so largely devoted to old clothes; and the thoughtful may see a
felicity in their presence where the pawnbrokers' windows display the
forfeited pledges of improvidence, and subtly remind us that we have yet
to redeem a whole race, pawned in our needy and reckless national youth,
and still held against us by the Uncle of Injustice, who is also the
Father of Lies. How gayly are the young ladies of this race attired, as
they trip up and down the side walks, and in and out through the pendent
garments at the shop doors! They are the black pansies and marigolds and
dark-blooded dahlias among womankind. They try to assume something of our
colder race's demeanor, but even the passer on the horse-car can see that
it is not native with them, and is better pleased when they forget us, and
ungenteelly laugh in encountering friends, letting their white teeth
glitter through the generous lips that open to their ears. In the streets
branching upwards from this avenue, very little colored men and maids play
with broken or enfeebled toys, or sport on the wooden pavements of the
entrances to the inner courts. Now and then a colored soldier or sailor--
looking strange in his uniform, even after the custom of several years--
emerges from those passages; or, more rarely, a black gentleman, stricken
in years, and cased in shining broadcloth, walks solidly down the brick
sidewalk, cane in hand,--a vision of serene self-complacency, and so
plainly the expression of virtuous public sentiment that the great colored
louts, innocent enough till then in their idleness, are taken with a
sudden sense of depravity, and loaf guiltily up against the house-walls.
At the same moment, perhaps, a young damsel, amorously scuffling with an
admirer through one of the low open windows, suspends the strife, and bids
him, "Go along now, do!" More rarely yet than the gentleman described, one
may see a white girl among the dark neighbors, whose frowzy head is
uncovered, and whose sleeves are rolled up to her elbows, and who, though
no doubt quite at home, looks as strange there as that pale anomaly which
may sometimes be seen among a crew of blackbirds.

An air not so much of decay as of unthrift, and yet hardly of unthrift,
seems to prevail in the neighborhood, which has none of the aggressive and
impudent squalor of an Irish quarter, and none of the surly wickedness of
a low American street. A gayety not born of the things that bring its
serious joy to the true New England heart--a ragged gayety, which comes of
summer in the blood, and not in the pocket or the conscience, and which
affects the countenance and the whole demeanor, setting the feet to some
inward music, and at times bursting into a line of song or a child-like
and irresponsible laugh--gives tone to the visible life, and wakens a very
friendly spirit in the passer, who somehow thinks there of a milder
climate, and is half persuaded that the orange-peel on the sidewalks came
from fruit grown in the soft atmosphere of those back courts.

It was in this quarter, then, that we heard of Mrs. Johnson; and it was
from a colored boarding-house there that she came out to Charlesbridge to
look at us, bringing her daughter of twelve years with her. She was a
matron of mature age and portly figure, with a complexion like coffee
soothed with the richest cream; and her manners were so full of a certain
tranquillity and grace, that she charmed away all out will to ask for
references. It was only her barbaric laughter and her lawless eye that
betrayed how slightly her New England birth and breeding covered her
ancestral traits, and bridged the gulf of a thousand years of civilization
that lay between her race and ours. But in fact, she was doubly estranged
by descent; for, as we learned later, a sylvan wildness mixed with that of
the desert in her veins: her grandfather was an Indian, and her ancestors
on this side had probably sold their lands for the same value in trinkets
that bought the original African pair on the other side.

The first day that Mrs. Johnson descended into our kitchen, she conjured
from the malicious disorder in which it had been left by the flitting
Irish kobold a dinner that revealed the inspirations of genius, and was
quite different from a dinner of mere routine and laborious talent.
Something original and authentic mingled with the accustomed flavors; and,
though vague reminiscences of canal-boat travel and woodland camps arose
from the relish of certain of the dishes, there was yet the assurance of
such power in the preparation of the whole, that we knew her to be merely
running over the chords of our appetite with preliminary savors, as a
musician acquaints his touch with the keys of an unfamiliar piano before
breaking into brilliant and triumphant execution. Within a week she had
mastered her instrument; and thereafter there was no faltering in her
performances, which she varied constantly, through inspiration or from
suggestion. She was so quick to receive new ideas in her art, that, when
the Roman statuary who stayed a few weeks with us explained the mystery of
various purely Latin dishes, she caught their principle at once; and
visions of the great white cathedral, the Coliseum, and the "dome of
Brunelleschi" floated before us in the exhalations of the Milanese
_risotto_, Roman _stufadino_, and Florentine _stracotto_ that smoked
upon our board. But, after all, it was in puddings that Mrs. Johnson
chiefly excelled. She was one of those cooks--rare as men of genius
in literature--who love their own dishes; and she had, in her personally
child-like simplicity of taste, and the inherited appetites of her
savage forefathers, a dominant passion for sweets. So far as we could
learn, she subsisted principally upon puddings and tea. Through the same
primitive instincts, no doubt, she loved praise. She openly exulted in our
artless flatteries of her skill; she waited jealously at the head of the
kitchen stairs to hear what was said of her work, especially if there were
guests; and she was never too weary to attempt emprises of cookery.

While engaged in these, she wore a species of sightly handkerchief like a
turban upon her head and about her person those mystical swathings in
which old ladies of the African race delight. But she most pleasured our
sense of beauty and moral fitness when, after the last pan was washed and
the last pot was scraped, she lighted a potent pipe, and, taking her stand
at the kitchen door, laded the soft evening air with its pungent odors. If
we surprised her at these supreme moments, she took the pipe from her
lips, and put it behind her, with a low mellow chuckle, and a look of
half-defiant consciousness; never guessing that none of her merits took us
half so much as the cheerful vice which she only feigned to conceal.

Some things she could not do so perfectly as cooking, because of her
failing eyesight; and we persuaded her that spectacles would both become
and befriend a lady of her years, and so bought her a pair of steel-bowed
glasses. She wore them in some great emergencies at first, but had clearly
no pride in them. Before long she laid them aside altogether, and they had
passed from our thoughts, when one day we heard her mellow note of
laughter and her daughter's harsher cackle outside our door, and, opening
it, beheld Mrs. Johnson in gold-bowed spectacles of massive frame. We then
learned that their purchase was in fulfillment of a vow made long ago, in
the life-time of Mr. Johnson, that, if ever she wore glasses, they should
be gold-bowed; and I hope the manes of the dead were half as happy in
these votive spectacles as the simple soul that offered them.

She and her late partner were the parents of eleven children, some of whom
were dead, and some of whom were wanderers in unknown parts. During his
life-time she had kept a little shop in her native town; and it was only
within a few years that she had gone into service. She cherished a natural
haughtiness of spirit, and resented control, although disposed to do all
she could of her own motion. Being told to say when she wanted an
afternoon, she explained that when she wanted an afternoon she always took
it without asking, but always planned so as not to discommode the ladies
with whom she lived. These, she said, had numbered twenty-seven within
three years, which made us doubt the success of her system in all cases,
though she merely held out the fact as an assurance of her faith in the
future, and a proof of the ease with which places were to be found. She
contended, moreover, that a lady who had for thirty years had a house of
her own, was in nowise bound to ask permission to receive visits from
friends where she might be living, but that they ought freely to come and
go like other guests. In this spirit she once invited her son-in-law,
Professor Jones of Providence, to dine with her; and her defied mistress,
on entering the dining-room, found the Professor at pudding and tea
there,--an impressively respectable figure in black clothes, with a black
face rendered yet more effective by a pair of green goggles. It appeared
that this dark professor was a light of phrenology in Rhode Island, and
that he was believed to have uncommon virtue in his science by reason of
being blind as well as black.

I am loath to confess that Mrs. Johnson had not a flattering opinion of
the Caucasian race in all respects. In fact, she had very good
philosophical and Scriptural reasons for looking upon us as an upstart
people of new blood, who had come into their whiteness by no creditable or
pleasant process. The late Mr. Johnson, who had died in the West Indies,
whither he voyaged for his health in quality of cook upon a Down-East
schooner, was a man of letters, and had written a book to show the
superiority of the black over the white branches of the human family. In
this he held that, as all islands have been at their discovery found
peopled by blacks, we must needs believe that humanity was first created
of that color. Mrs. Johnson could not show us her husband's work (a sole
copy in the library of an English gentleman at Port au Prince is not to be
bought for money), but she often developed its arguments to the lady of
the house; and one day, with a great show of reluctance, and many protests
that no personal slight was meant, let fall the fact that Mr. Johnson
believed the white race descended from Gehazi the leper, upon whom the
leprosy of Naaman fell when the latter returned by Divine favor to his
original blackness. "And he went out from his presence a leper as white as
snow," said Mrs. Johnson, quoting irrefutable Scripture. "Leprosy,
leprosy," she added thoughtfully,--"nothing but leprosy bleached you out."

It seems to me much in her praise that she did not exult in our taint and
degradation, as some white philosophers used to do in the opposite idea
that a part of the human family were cursed to lasting blackness and
slavery in Ham and his children, but even told us of a remarkable approach
to whiteness in many of her own offspring. In a kindred spirit of charity,
no doubt, she refused ever to attend church with people of her elder and
wholesomer blood. When she went to church, she said, she always went to a
white church, though while with us I am bound to say she never went to
any. She professed to read her Bible in her bedroom on Sundays; but we
suspected, from certain sounds and odors which used to steal out of this
sanctuary, that her piety more commonly found expression in dozing and

I would not make a wanton jest here of Mrs. Johnson's anxiety to claim
honor for the African color, while denying this color in many of her own
family. It afforded a glimpse of the pain which all her people must
endure, however proudly they hide it or light-heartedly forget it, from
the despite and contumely to which they are guiltlessly born; and when I
thought how irreparable was this disgrace and calamity of a black skin,
and how irreparable it must be for ages yet, in this world where every
other shame and all manner of wilful guilt and wickedness may hope for
covert and pardon, I had little heart to laugh. Indeed, it was so pathetic
to hear this poor old soul talk of her dead and lost ones, and try, in
spite of all Mr. Johnson's theories and her own arrogant generalizations,
to establish their whiteness, that we must have been very cruel and silly
people to turn her sacred fables even into matter of question. I have no
doubt that her Antoinette Anastasia and her Thomas Jefferson Wilberforce--
it is impossible to give a full idea of the splendor and scope of the
baptismal names in Mrs. Johnson's family--have as light skins and as
golden hair in heaven as her reverend maternal fancy painted for them in
our world. There, certainly, they would not be subject to tanning, which
had ruined the delicate complexion, and had knotted into black woolly
tangles the once wavy blonde locks of our little maid-servant Naomi; and I
would fain believe that Toussaint Washington Johnson, who ran away to sea
so many years ago, has found some fortunate zone where his hair and skin
keep the same sunny and rosy tints they wore to his mother's eyes in
infancy. But I have no means of knowing this, or of telling whether he was
the prodigy of intellect that he was declared to be. Naomi could no more
be taken in proof, of the one assertion than of the other. When she came
to us, it was agreed that she should go to school; but she overruled her
mother in this as in everything else, and never went. Except Sunday-school
lessons, she had no other instruction than that her mistress gave her in
the evenings, when a heavy day's play and the natural influences of the
hour conspired with original causes to render her powerless before words
of one syllable.

The first week of her service she was obedient and faithful to her duties;
but, relaxing in the atmosphere of a house which seems to demoralize all
menials, she shortly fell into disorderly ways of lying in wait for
callers out of doors, and, when people rang, of running up the front
steps, and letting them in from the outside. As the season expanded, and
the fine weather became confirmed, she modified even this form of service,
and spent her time in the fields, appearing at the house only when nature
importunately craved molasses. She had a parrot-like quickness, so far as
music was concerned, and learned from the Roman statuary to make the
groves and half-finished houses resound,

  "Camicia rossa,
   Ove t' ascondi?
   T' appella Italia,--
   Tu non respondi!"

She taught the Garibaldi song, moreover, to all the neighboring children,
so that I sometimes wondered if our street were not about to march upon
Rome in a body.

In her untamable disobedience, Naomi alone betrayed her sylvan blood, for
she was in all other respects negro and not Indian. But it was of her
aboriginal ancestry that Mrs. Johnson chiefly boasted,--when not engaged
in argument to maintain the superiority of the African race. She loved to
descant upon it as the cause and explanation of her own arrogant habit of
feeling; and she seemed indeed to have inherited something of the Indian's
hauteur along with the Ethiop's supple cunning and abundant amiability.
She gave many instances in which her pride had met and overcome the
insolence of employers, and the kindly old creature was by no means
singular in her pride of being reputed proud.

She could never have been a woman of strong logical faculties, but she had
in some things a very surprising and awful astuteness. She seldom
introduced any purpose directly, but bore all about it and then suddenly
sprung it upon her unprepared antagonist. At other times she obscurely
hinted a reason, and left a conclusion to be inferred; as when she warded
off reproach for some delinquency by saying in a general way that she had
lived with ladies who used to come scolding into the kitchen after they
had taken their bitters. "Quality ladies took their bitters regular," she
added, to remove any sting of personality from her remark; for, from many
things she had let fall, we knew that she did not regard us as quality. On
the contrary, she often tried to overbear us with the gentility of her
former places; and would tell the lady over whom she reigned, that she had
lived with folks worth their three and four hundred thousand dollars, who
never complained as she did of the ironing. Yet she had a sufficient
regard for the literary occupations of the family, Mr. Johnson having been
an author. She even professed to have herself written a book, which was
still in manuscript, and preserved somewhere among her best clothes.

It was well, on many accounts, to be in contact with a mind so original
and suggestive as Mrs. Johnson's. We loved to trace its intricate yet
often transparent operations, and were perhaps too fond of explaining its
peculiarities by facts of ancestry,--of finding hints of the Powwow or the
Grand Custom in each grotesque development. We were conscious of something
warmer in this old soul than in ourselves, and something wilder, and we
chose to think it the tropic and the untracked forest. She had scarcely
any being apart from her affection; she had no morality, but was good
because she neither hated nor envied; and she might have been a saint far
more easily than far more civilized people.

There was that also in her sinuous yet malleable nature, so full of guile
and so full of goodness, that reminded us pleasantly of lowly folk in
elder lands, where relaxing oppressions have lifted the restraints of fear
between master and servant, without disturbing the familiarity of their
relation. She advised freely with us upon all household matters, and took
a motherly interest in whatever concerned us. She could be flattered or
caressed into almost any service, but no threat or command could move her.
When she erred, she never acknowledged her wrong in words, but handsomely
expressed her regrets in a pudding, or sent up her apologies in a favorite
dish secretly prepared. We grew so well used to this form of exculpation,
that, whenever Mrs. Johnson took an afternoon at an inconvenient season,
we knew that for a week afterwards we should be feasted like princes. She
owned frankly that she loved us, that she never had done half so much for
people before, and that she never had been nearly so well suited in any
other place; and for a brief and happy time we thought that we never
should part.

One day, however, our dividing destiny appeared in the basement, and was
presented to us as Hippolyto Thucydides, the son of Mrs. Johnson, who had
just arrived on a visit to his mother from the State of New Hampshire. He
was a heavy and loutish youth, standing upon the borders of boyhood, and
looking forward to the future with a vacant and listless eye. I mean that
this was his figurative attitude; his actual manner, as he lolled upon a
chair beside the kitchen window, was so eccentric, that we felt a little
uncertain how to regard him, and Mrs. Johnson openly described him as
peculiar. He was so deeply tanned by the fervid suns of the New Hampshire
winter, and his hair had so far suffered from the example of the sheep
lately under his charge, that he could not be classed by any stretch of
compassion with the blonde and straight-haired members of Mrs. Johnson's

He remained with us all the first day until late in the afternoon, when
his mother took him out to get him a boarding-house. Then he departed in
the van of her and Naomi, pausing at the gate to collect his spirits, and,
after he had sufficiently animated himself by clapping his palms together,
starting off down the street at a hand-gallop, to the manifest terror of
the cows in the pastures, and the confusion of the less demonstrative
people of our household. Other characteristic traits appeared in Hippolyto
Thucydides within no very long period of time, and he ran away from his
lodgings so often during the summer that he might be said to board round
among the outlying corn-fields and turnip-patches of Charlesbridge. As a
check upon this habit, Mrs. Johnson seemed to have invited him to spend
his whole time in our basement; for whenever we went below we found him
there, balanced--perhaps in homage to us, and perhaps as a token of
extreme sensibility in himself--upon the low window-sill, the bottoms of
his boots touching the floor inside, and his face buried in the grass

We could formulate no very tenable objection to all this, and yet the
presence of Thucydides in our kitchen unaccountably oppressed our
imaginations. We beheld him all over the house, a monstrous eidolon,
balanced upon every window-sill; and he certainly attracted unpleasant
notice to our place, no less by his furtive and hang-dog manner of arrival
than by the bold displays with which he celebrated his departures. We
hinted this to Mrs. Johnson, but she could not enter into our feeling.
Indeed, all the wild poetry of her maternal and primitive nature seemed to
cast itself about this hapless boy; and if we had listened to her we
should have believed there was no one so agreeable in society, or so
quick-witted in affairs, as Hippolyto, when he chose. She used to rehearse
us long epics concerning his industry, his courage, and his talent; and
she put fine speeches in his mouth with no more regard to the truth than
if she had been a historian, and not a poet. Perhaps she believed that he
really said and did the things she attributed to him: it is the destiny of
those who repeatedly tell great things either of themselves or others; and
I think we may readily forgive the illusion to her zeal and fondness. In
fact, she was not a wise woman, and she spoiled her children as if she had
been a rich one.

At last, when we said positively that Thucydides should come to us no
more, and then qualified the prohibition by allowing him to come every
Sunday, she answered that she never would hurt the child's feelings by
telling him not to come where his mother was; that people who did not love
her children did not love her; and that, if Hippy went, she went. We
thought it a master-stroke of firmness to rejoin that Hippolyto must go in
any event; but I am bound to own that he did not go, and that his mother
stayed, and so fed us with every cunning propitiatory dainty, that we must
have been Pagans to renew our threat. In fact, we begged Mrs. Johnson to
go into the country with us, and she, after long reluctation on Hippy's
account, consented, agreeing to send him away to friends during her

We made every preparation, and on the eve of our departure Mrs. Johnson
went into the city to engage her son's passage to Bangor, while we awaited
her return in untroubled security.

But she did not appear till midnight, and then responded with but a sad
"Well, sah!" to the cheerful "Well, Mrs. Johnson!" that greeted her.

"All right, Mrs. Johnson?"

Mrs. Johnson made a strange noise, half chuckle and half death-rattle, in
her throat. "All wrong, sah. Hippy's off again; and I've been all over the
city after him."

"Then you can't go with us in the morning?"

"How _can_ I, sah?"

Mrs. Johnson went sadly out of the room. Then she came back to the door
again, and, opening it, uttered, for the first time in our service, words
of apology and regret: "I hope I ha'n't put you out any. I _wanted_
to go with you, but I ought to _knowed_ I couldn't. All is, I loved
you too much."


Vagabonds the world would no doubt call many of my doorstep acquaintance,
and I do not attempt to defend them altogether against the world, which
paints but black and white and in general terms. Yet I would fain veil
what is only half-truth under another name, for I know that the service of
their Gay Science is not one of such disgraceful ease as we associate with
ideas of vagrancy, though I must own that they lead the life they do
because they love it. They always protest that nothing but their ignorance
of our tongue prevents them from practicing some mechanical trade. "What
work could be harder," they ask, "than carrying this organ about all day?"
but while I answer with honesty that nothing can be more irksome, I feel
that they only pretend a disgust with it, and that they really like organ-
grinding, if for no other reason than that they are the children of the
summer, and it takes them into the beloved open weather. One of my
friends, at least, who in the warmer months is to all appearance a
blithesome troubadour, living

  "A merry life in sun and shade,"

as a coal-heaver in winter; and though this more honorable and useful
occupation is doubtless open to him the whole year round, yet he does not
devote himself to it, but prefers with the expanding spring to lay aside
his grimy basket, and, shouldering his organ, to quit the dismal wharves
and carts and cellars, and to wander forth into the suburbs, with his
lazy, soft-eyed boy at his heels, who does nothing with his tambourine but
take up a collection, and who, meeting me the other day in a chance
passage of Ferry Street, knew me, and gave me so much of his father's
personal history.

It was winter even there in Ferry Street, in which so many Italians live
that one might think to find it under a softer sky and in a gentler air,
and which I had always figured in a wide unlikeness to all other streets
in Boston,--with houses stuccoed outside, and with gratings at their
ground-floor windows; with mouldering archways between the buildings, and
at the corners feeble lamps glimmering before pictures of the Madonna;
with weather-beaten shutters flapping overhead, and many balconies from
which hung the linen swathings of young infants, and love-making maidens
furtively lured the velvet-jacketed, leisurely youth below: a place
haunted by windy voices of blessing and cursing, with the perpetual clack
of wooden-heeled shoes upon the stones, and what perfume from the blossom
of vines and almond-trees, mingling with less delicate smells, the
travelled reader pleases to imagine. I do not say that I found Ferry
Street actually different from this vision in most respects; but as for
the vines and almond-trees, they were not in bloom at the moment of my
encounter with the little tambourine-boy. As we stood and talked, the snow
fell as heavily and thickly around us as elsewhere in Boston. With a vague
pain,--the envy of a race toward another born to a happier clime,--I heard
from him that his whole family was going back to Italy in a month. The
father had at last got together money enough, and the mother, who had long
been an invalid, must be taken home; and, so far as I know, the population
of Ferry Street exists but in the hope of a return, soon or late, to the
native or the ancestral land.

More than one of my doorstep acquaintance, in fact, seemed to have no
other stock in trade than this fond desire, and to thrive with it in our
sympathetic community. It is scarcely possible but the reader has met the
widow of Giovanni Cascamatto, a Vesuvian lunatic who has long set fire to
their home on the slopes of the volcano, and perished in the flames. She
was our first Italian acquaintance in Charlesbridge, presenting herself
with a little subscription-book which she sent in for inspection, with a
printed certificate to the facts of her history signed with the somewhat
conventionally Saxon names of William Tompkins and John Johnson. These
gentlemen set forth, in terms vaguer than can be reproduced, that her
object in coming to America was to get money to go back to Italy; and the
whole document had so fictitious an air that it made us doubt even the
nationality of the bearer; but we were put to shame by the decent joy she
manifested in an Italian salutation. There was no longer a question of
imposture in anybody's mind; we gladly paid tribute to her poetic fiction,
and she thanked us with a tranquil courtesy that placed the obligation
where it belonged. As she turned to go with many good wishes, we pressed
her to have some dinner, but she answered with a compliment insurpassably
flattering, she had just dined--in another palace. The truth is, there is
not a single palace on Benicia Street, and our little box of pine and
paper would hardly have passed for a palace on the stage, where these
things are often contrived with great simplicity; but as we had made a
little Italy together, she touched it with the exquisite politeness of her
race, and it became for the instant a lordly mansion, standing on the
Chiaja, or the Via Nuovissima, or the Canalazzo.

I say this woman seemed glad to be greeted in Italian, but not, so far as
I could see, surprised; and altogether the most amazing thing about my
doorstep acquaintance of her nation is, that they are never surprised to
be spoken to in their own tongue, or, if they are, never show it. A
chestnut-roaster, who has sold me twice the chestnuts the same money would
have bought of him in English, has not otherwise recognized the fact that
Tuscan is not the dialect of Charlesbridge, and the mortifying nonchalance
with which my advances have always been received has long since persuaded
me that to the grinder at the gate it is not remarkable that a man should
open the door of his wooden house on Benicia Street, and welcome him in
his native language. After the first shock of this indifference is past,
it is not to be questioned but it flatters with an illusion, which a stare
of amazement would forbid, reducing the encounter to a vulgar reality at
once, and I could almost believe it in those wily and amiable folk to
intend the sweeter effect of their unconcern, which tacitly implies that
there is no other tongue in the world but Italian, and which makes all the
earth and air Italian for the time. Nothing else could have been the
purpose of that image-dealer whom I saw on a summer's day lying at the
foot of one of our meeting-houses, and doing his best to make it a
cathedral, and really giving a sentiment of medieval art to the noble
sculptures of the facade which the carpenters had just nailed up, freshly
painted and newly repaired. This poet was stretched upon his back, eating,
in that convenient posture, his dinner out of an earthen pot, plucking the
viand from it, whatever it was, with his thumb and fore-finger, and
dropping it piecemeal into his mouth. When the passer asked him "Where are
you from?" he held a morsel in air long enough to answer "Da Lucca,
signore," and then let it fall into his throat, and sank deeper into a
reverie in which that crude accent even must have sounded like a gossip's
or a kinsman's voice, but never otherwise moved muscle, nor looked to see
who passed or lingered. There could have been little else in his
circumstances to remind him of home, and if he was really in the sort of
day-dream attributed to him, he was wise not to look about him. I have not
myself been in Lucca, but I conceive that its piazza is not like our
square, with a pump and horse-trough in the midst; but that it has
probably a fountain and statuary, though not possibly so magnificent an
elm towering above the bronze or marble groups as spreads its boughs of
benison over our pump and the horse-car switchman, loitering near it to
set the switch for the arriving cars, or lift the brimming buckets to the
smoking nostrils of the horses, while out from the stable comes clanging
and banging with a fresh team that famous African who has turned white,
or, if he is off duty, one of his brethren who has not yet begun to turn.
Figure, besides, an expressman watering his horse at the trough, a
provision-cart backed up against the curb in front of one of the stores,
various people looking from the car-office windows, and a conductor
appearing at the door long enough to call out, "Ready for Boston!"--and
you have a scene of such gayety as Lucca could never have witnessed in her
piazza at high noon on a summer's day. Even our Campo Santo, if the
Lucchese had cared to look round the corner of the meeting-house at its
moss-grown head stones, could have had little to remind him of home,
though it has antiquity and a proper quaintness. But not for him, not for
them of his clime and faith, is the pathos of those simple memorial slates
with their winged skulls, changing upon many later stones, as if by the
softening of creeds and customs, to cherub's heads,--not for him is the
pang I feel because of those who died, in our country's youth exiles or
exiles' children, heirs of the wilderness and toil and hardship. Could
they rise from their restful beds, and look on this wandering Italian with
his plaster statuettes of Apollo, and Canovan dancers and deities, they
would hold his wares little better than Romish saints and idolatries, and
would scarcely have the sentimental interest in him felt by the modern
citizen of Charlesbridge; but I think that even they must have respected
that Lombard scissors-grinder who used to come to us, and put an edge to
all the cutlery in the house.

He has since gone back to Milan, whence he came eighteen years ago, and
whither he has returned,--as he told me one acute day in the fall, when
all the winter hinted itself, and the painted leaves shuddered earthward
in the grove across the way,--to enjoy a little climate before he died
(_per goder un po' di dima prima di morire_). Our climate was the
only thing he had against us; in every other respect he was a New-
Englander, even to the early stages of consumption. He told me the story
of his whole life, and of how in his adventurous youth he had left Milan
and sojourned some years in Naples, vainly seeking his fortune there.
Afterwards he went to Greece, and set up his ancestral business of
greengrocer in Athens, faring there no better, but rather worse than in
Naples, because of the deeper wickedness of the Athenians, who cheated him
right and left, and whose laws gave him no redress. The Neapolitans were
bad enough, he said, making a wry face, but the Greeks!--and he spat the
Greeks out in the grass. At last, after much misfortune in Europe, he
bethought him of coming to America, and he had never regretted it, but for
the climate. You spent a good deal here,--nearly all you earned,--but then
a poor man was a man, and the people were honest. It was wonderful to him
that they all knew how to read and write, and he viewed with inexpressible
scorn those Irish who came to this country, and were so little sensible of
the benefits it conferred upon them. Boston he believed the best city in
America, and "Tell me," said he, "is there such a thing anywhere else in
the world as that Public Library?" He, a poor man, and almost unknown, had
taken books from it to his own room, and was master to do so whenever he
liked. He had thus been enabled to read Botta's history of the United
States, an enormous compliment both to the country and the work which I
doubt ever to have been paid before; and he knew more about Washington
than I did, and desired to know more than I could tell him of the
financial question among us. So we came to national politics, and then to
European affairs. "It appears that Garibaldi will not go to Rome this
year," remarks my scissors-grinder, who is very red in his sympathies.
"The Emperor forbids! Well, patience! And that blessed Pope, what does he
want, that Pope? He will be king find priest both, he will wear two pairs
of shoes at once!" I must confess that no other of my door-step
acquaintance had so clear an idea as this one of the difference between
things here and at home. To the minds of most we seemed divided here as
there into rich and poor,--_signori, persone eivili_, and _povera
gente_,--and their thoughts about us did not go beyond a speculation
as to our individual willingness or ability to pay for organ-grinding.
But this Lombard was worthy of his adopted country, and I forgive him
the frank expression of a doubt that one day occurred to him, when
offered a glass of Italian wine. He held it daintily between him and
the sun for a smiling moment, and then said, as if our wine must needs be
as ungenuine as our Italian,--was perhaps some expression from the
surrounding currant-bushes, harsh as that from the Northern tongues which
could never give his language the true life and tonic charm,--"But I
suppose this wine is not made of grapes, signor?" Yet he was a very
courteous old man, elaborate in greeting and leave-taking, and with a
quicker sense than usual. It was accounted delicacy in him, that, when he
had bidden us a final adieu, he should never come near us again, though
the date of his departure was postponed some weeks, and we heard him
tinkling down the street, and stopping at the neighbors' houses. He was a
keen-faced, thoughtful-looking man; and he wore a blouse of blue cotton,
from the pocket of which always dangled the leaves of some wild salad
culled from our wasteful vacant lots or prodigal waysides.

[Illustration: "But I suppose this wine is not made of grapes, signor?"]

Altogether different in character was that Triestine, who came one evening
to be helped home at the close of a very disastrous career in Mexico. He
Was a person of innumerable bows, and fluttered his bright-colored
compliments about, till it appeared that never before had such amiable
people been asked charity by such a worthy and generous sufferer. In
Trieste he had been a journalist, and it was evident enough from his
speech that he was of a good education. He was vain of his Italian accent,
which was peculiarly good for his heterogeneously peopled native city; and
he made a show of that marvelous facility of the Triestines in languages,
by taking me down French books, Spanish books, German books, and reading
from them all with the properest accent. Yet with this boyish pride and
self-satisfaction there was mixed a tone of bitter and worldly cynicism, a
belief in fortune as the sole providence. As nearly as I could make out,
he was a Johnson man in American politics; upon the Mexican question he
was independent, disdaining French and Mexicans alike. He was with the
former from the first, and had continued in the service of Maximilian
after their withdrawal, till the execution of that prince made Mexico no
place for adventurous merit. He was now going back to his native country,
an ungrateful land enough, which had ill treated him long ago, but to
which he nevertheless returned in a perfect gayety of temper. What a
light-hearted rogue he was,--with such merry eyes, and such a pleasant
smile shaping his neatly trimmed beard and mustache! After he had supped,
and he Stood with us at the door taking leave, something happened to be
said of Italian songs, whereupon this blithe exile, whom the compassion of
strangers was enabling to go home after many years of unprofitable toil
and danger to a country that had loved him not, fell to caroling a
Venetian barcarole, and went sweetly away in its cadence. I bore him
company as far as the gate of another Italian-speaking signor, and was
there bidden adieu with great effusion, so that I forgot till he had left
me to charge him not to be in fear of the house-dog, which barked but did
not bite. In calling this after him, I had the misfortune to blunder in my
verb. A man of another nation--perhaps another man of his own nation--
would have cared rather for what I said than how I said it; but he, as if
too zealous for the honor of his beautiful language to endure a hurt to it
even in that moment of grief, lifting his hat, and bowing for the last
time, responded with a "Morde, non morsica, signore!" and passed in under
the pines, and next day to Italy.

There is a little old Genoese lady comes to sell us pins, needles, thread,
tape, and the like _roba_, whom I regard as leading quite an ideal
life in some respects. Her traffic is limited to a certain number of
families who speak more or less Italian; and her days, so far as they are
concerned, must be passed in an atmosphere of sympathy and kindliness. The
truth is, we Northern and New World folk cannot help but cast a little
romance about whoever comes to us from Italy, whether we have actually
known the beauty and charm of that land or not. Then this old lady is in
herself a very gentle and lovable kind of person, with a tender mother-
face, which is also the face of a child. A smile plays always upon her
wrinkled visage, and her quick and restless eyes are full of friendliness.
There is never much stuff in her basket, however, and it is something of a
mystery how she manages to live from it. None but an Italian could, I am
sure; and her experience must test the full virtue of the national genius
for cheap salads and much-extenuated soup-meat. I do not know whether it
is native in her, or whether it is a grace acquired from long dealing with
those kindly-hearted customers of hers in Charlesbridge, but she is of a
most munificent spirit, and returns every smallest benefit with some
present from her basket. She makes me ashamed of things I have written
about the sordidness of her race, but I shall vainly seek to atone for
them by open-handedness to her. She will give favor for favor; she will
not even count the money she receives; our bargaining is a contest of the
courtliest civilities, ending in many an "Adieu!" "To meet again!" "Remain
well!" and "Finally!" not surpassed if rivaled in any Italian street. In
her ineffectual way, she brings us news of her different customers,
breaking up their stout Saxon names into tinkling polysyllables which
suggest them only to the practiced sense, and is perfectly patient and
contented if we mistake one for another. She loves them all, but she
pities them as living in a terrible climate; and doubtless in her heart
she purposes one day to go back to Italy, there to die. In the mean time
she is very cheerful; she, too, has had her troubles,--what troubles I do
not remember, but those that come by sickness and by death, and that
really seem no sorrows until they come to us,--yet she never complains. It
is hard to make a living, and the house-rent alone is six dollars a month;
but still one lives, and does not fare so ill either. As it does not seem
to be in her to dislike any one, it must be out of a harmless guile, felt
to be comforting to servant-ridden householders, that she always speaks of
"those Irish," her neighbors, with a bated breath, a shaken head, a hand
lifted to the cheek, and an averted countenance.

Swarthiest of the organ-grinding tribe is he who peers up at my window out
of infinitesimal black eyes, perceives me, louts low, and for form's sake
grinds me out a tune before he begins to talk. As we parley together, say
it is eleven o'clock in the forenoon, and a sober tranquillity reigns upon
the dust and nodding weeds of Benicia Street. At that hour the organ-
grinder and I are the only persons of our sex in the whole suburban
population; all other husbands and fathers having eaten their breakfasts
at seven o'clock, and stood up in the early horse-cars to Boston, whence
they will return, with aching backs and quivering calves, half-pendant by
leathern straps from the roofs of the same luxurious conveyances, in the
evening. The Italian might go and grind his organ upon the front stoop of
any one of a hundred French-roof houses around, and there would be no arm
within strong enough to thrust him thence; but he is a gentleman in his
way, and, as he prettily explains, he never stops to play except where the
window smiles on him: a frowning lattice he will pass in silence. I behold
in him a disappointed man,--a man broken in health, and of a liver baked
by long sojourn in a tropical clime. In large and dim outline, made all
the dimmer by his dialect, he sketches me the story of his life; how in
his youth he ran away from the Milanese for love of a girl in France, who,
dying, left him with so little purpose in the world that, after working at
his trade of plasterer for some years in Lyons, he listened to a certain
gentleman going out upon government service to a French colony in South
America. This gentleman wanted a man-servant, and he said to my organ-
grinder, "Go with me and I make your fortune." So he, who cared not
whither he went, went, and found himself in the tropics. It was a hard
life he led there; and of the wages that had seemed so great in France, he
paid nearly half to his laundress alone, being forced to be neat in his
master's house. The service was not so irksome in-doors, but it was the
hunting beasts in the forest all day that broke his patience at last.

"Beasts in the forest?" I ask, forgetful of the familiar sense of
_bestie_, and figuring cougars at least by the word.

"Yes, those little beasts for the naturalists,--flies, bugs, beetles,--
Heaven knows what."

"But this brought you money?"

"It brought my master money, but me aches and pains as many as you will,
and at last the fever. When that was burnt out, I made up my mind to ask
for more pay, and, not getting it, to quit that service. I think the
signor would have given it,--but the signora! So I left, empty as I came,
and was cook on a vessel to New York."

This was the black and white of the man's story. I lose the color and
atmosphere which his manner as well as his words bestowed upon it. He told
it in a cheerful, impersonal kind of way as the romance of a poor devil
which had interested him, and might possibly amuse me, leaving out no
touch of character in his portrait of the fat, selfish master,--yielding
enough, however, but for his grasping wife, who, with all her avarice and
greed, he yet confessed to be very handsome. By the wave of a hand he
housed them in a tropic residence, dim, cool, close shut, kept by servants
in white linen moving with mute slippered feet over stone floors; and by
another gesture he indicated the fierce thorny growths of the forest in
which he hunted those vivid insects,--the luxuriant savannas, the gigantic
ferns and palms, the hush and shining desolation, the presence of the
invisible fever and death. There was a touch, too, of inexpressible
sadness in his half-ignorant mention of the exiles at Cayenne, who were
forbidden the wide ocean of escape about them by those swift gunboats
keeping their coasts and swooping down upon every craft that left the
shore. He himself had seen one such capture, and he made me see it, and
the mortal despair of the fugitives, standing upright in their boat with
the idle oars in their unconscious hands, while the corvette swept toward

For all his misfortunes, he was not cast down. He had that lightness of
temper which seems proper to most northern Italians, whereas those from
the south are usually dark-mooded, sad-faced men. Nothing surpasses for
unstudied misanthropy of expression the visages of different Neapolitan
harpers who have visited us; but they have some right to their dejected
countenances as being of a yet half-civilized stock, and as real artists
and men of genius. Nearly all wandering violinists, as well as harpers,
are of their race, and they are of every age, from that of mere children
to men in their prime. They are very rarely old, as many of the organ-
grinders are; they are not so handsome as the Italians of the north,
though they have invariably fine eyes. They arrive in twos and threes; the
violinist briefly tunes his fiddle, and the harper unslings his
instrument, and, with faces of profound gloom, they go through their
repertory,--pieces from the great composers, airs from the opera, not
unmingled with such efforts of Anglo-Saxon genius as Champagne Charley and
Captain Jenks of the Horse Marines, which, like the language of
Shakespeare and Milton, hold us and our English cousins in tender bonds of
mutual affection. Beyond the fact that they come "dal Basilicat'," or "dal
Principat'," one gets very little out of these Neapolitans, though I dare
say they are not so surly at heart as they look. Money does not brighten
them to the eye, but yet it touches them, and they are good in playing or
leaving off to him that pays. Long time two of them stood between the
gateway firs on a pleasant summer's afternoon and twanged and scraped
their harmonious strings, till all the idle boys of the neighborhood
gathered about them, listening with a grave and still delight. It was a
most serious company: the Neapolitans, with their cloudy brows, rapt in
their music; and the Yankee children, with their impassive faces, warily
guarding against the faintest expression of enjoyment; and when at last
the minstrels played a brisk measure, and the music began to work in the
blood of the boys, and one of them shuffling his reluctant feet upon the
gravel, broke into a sudden and resistless dance, the spectacle became too
sad for contemplation. The boy danced only from the hips down; no
expression of his face gave the levity sanction, nor did any of his
comrades: they beheld him with a silent fascination, but none was infected
by the solemn indecorum; and when the legs and music ceased their play
together, no comment was made, and the dancer turned unheated away. A
chance passer asked for what he called the Gearybaldeye Hymn, but the
Neapolitans apparently did not know what this was.

My doorstep acquaintance were not all of one race; now and then an alien
to the common Italian tribe appeared,--an Irish soldier, on his way to
Salem, and willing to show me more of his mutilation than I cared to buy
the sight of for twenty-five cents; and more rarely yet an American, also
formerly of the army, but with something besides his wretchedness to sell.
On the hottest day of last summer such a one rang the bell, and was
discovered on the threshold wiping with his poor sole hand the sweat that
stood upon his forehead. There was still enough of the independent citizen
in his maimed and emaciated person to inspire him with deliberation and a
show of that indifference with which we Americans like to encounter each
other; but his voice was rather faint when he asked if I supposed we
wanted any starch to-day.

"Yes, certainly," answered what heart there was within, taking note
willfully, but I hope not wantonly, what an absurdly limp figure he was
for a peddler of starch,--"certainly from you, brave fellow;" and the
package being taken from his basket, the man turned to go away, so very
wearily, that a cheap philanthropy protested: "For shame! ask him to sit
down in-doors and drink a glass of water."

"No," answered the poor fellow, when this indignant voice had been obeyed,
and he had been taken at a disadvantage, and as it were surprised into the
confession, "my family hadn't any breakfast this morning, and I've got to
hurry back to them."

"Haven't _you_ had any breakfast?"

"Well, I wa'n't rightly hungry when I left the house."

"Here, now," popped in the virtue before named, "is an opportunity to
discharge the debt we all owe to the brave fellows who gave us back our
country. Make it beer."

So it was made beer and bread and cold meat, and, after a little pressing,
the honest soul consented to the refreshment. He sat down in a cool
doorway and began to eat and to tell of the fight before Vicksburg. And if
you have never seen a one-armed soldier making a meal, I can assure you
the sight is a pathetic one, and is rendered none the cheerfuller by his
memories of the fights that mutilated him. This man had no very
susceptible audience, but before he was carried off the field, shot
through the body, and in the arm and foot, he had sold every package of
starch in his basket. I am ashamed to say this now, for I suspect that a
man with one arm, who indulged himself in going about under that broiling
sun of July, peddling starch, was very probably an impostor. He computed a
good day's profits of seventy-five cents, and when asked if that was not
very little for the support of a sick wife and three children, he answered
with a quaint effort at impressiveness, and with a trick, as I imagined,
from the manner of the regimental chaplain, "You've done your duty, my
friend, and more'n your duty. If every one did their duty like that, we
should get along." So he took leave, and shambled out into the furnace-
heat, the sun beating upon his pale face, and his linen coat hugging him
close, but with his basket lighter, and I hope his heart also. At any
rate, this was the sentiment which cheap philanthropy offered in self-
gratulation, as he passed out of sight: "There! you are quits with those
maimed soldiers at last, and you have a country which you have paid for
with cold victuals as they with blood."

We have been a good deal visited by one disbanded volunteer, not to the
naked eye maimed, nor apparently suffering from any lingering illness, yet
who bears, as he tells me, a secret disabling wound in his side from a
spent shell, and who is certainly a prey to the most acute form of
shiftlessness. I do not recall with exactness the date of our
acquaintance, but it was one of those pleasant August afternoons when a
dinner eaten in peace fills the digester with a millennial tenderness for
the race too rarely felt in the nineteenth century. At such a moment it is
a more natural action to loosen than to tighten the purse-strings, and
when a very neatly dressed young man presented himself at the gate, and,
in a note of indescribable plaintiveness, asked if I had any little job
for him to do that he might pay for a night's lodging, I looked about the
small domain with a vague longing to find some part of it in disrepair,
and experienced a moment's absurd relief when he hinted that he would be
willing to accept fifty cents in pledge of future service. Yet this was
not the right principle: some work, real or apparent, must be done for the
money, and the veteran was told that he might weed the strawberry bed,
though, as matters then stood, it was clean enough for a strawberry bed
that never bore anything. The veteran was neatly dressed, as I have said:
his coat, which was good, was buttoned to the throat for reasons that
shall be sacred against curiosity, and he had on a perfectly clean paper
collar; he was a handsome young fellow, with regular features, and a
solicitously kept imperial and mustache; his hair, when he lifted his hat,
appeared elegantly oiled and brushed. I did not hope from this figure that
the work done would be worth the money paid, and, as nearly as I can
compute, the weeds he took from that bed cost me a cent apiece, to say
nothing of a cup of tea given him in grace at the end of his labors.

My acquaintance was, as the reader will be glad to learn, a native
American, though it is to be regretted, for the sake of facts which his
case went far to establish, that he was not a New-Englander by birth. The
most that could be claimed was, that he came to Boston from Delaware when
very young, and that there on that brine-washed granite he had grown as
perfect a flower of helplessness and indolence, as fine a fruit of
maturing civilization, as ever expanded or ripened in Latin lands. He
lived, not only a protest in flesh and blood against the tendency of
democracy to exclude mere beauty from our system, but a refutation of
those Old World observers, who deny to our vulgar and bustling communities
the refining and elevating grace of Repose. There was something very
curious and original in his character, from which the sentiment of shame
was absent, but which was not lacking in the fine instincts of personal
cleanliness, of dress, of style. There was nothing of the rowdy in him; he
was gentle as an Italian noble in his manners: what other traits they may
have had in common, I do not know; perhaps an amiable habit of illusion.
He was always going to bring me his discharge papers, but he never did,
though he came often and had many a pleasant night's sleep at my cost. If
sometimes he did a little work, he spent great part of the time contracted
to me in the kitchen, where it was understood, quite upon his own agency,
that his wages included board. At other times, he called for money too
late in the evening to work it out that day, and it has happened that a
new second girl, deceived by his genteel appearance in the uncertain
light, has shown him into the parlor, where I have found him to his and my
own great amusement, as the gentleman who wanted to see me. Nothing else
seemed to raise his ordinarily dejected spirits so much. We all know how
pleasant it is to laugh at people behind their backs; but this veteran
afforded me at a very low rate the luxury of a fellow-being whom one might
laugh at to his face as much as one liked.

Yet with all his shamelessness, his pensiveness, his elegance, I felt that
somehow our national triumph was not complete in him,--that there were yet
more finished forms of self-abasement in the Old World, till one day I
looked out of the window and saw at a little distance my veteran digging a
cellar for an Irishman. I own that the spectacle gave me a shock of
pleasure, and that I ran down to have a nearer view of what human eyes
have seldom, if ever, beheld,--an American, pure blood, handling the pick,
the shovel, and the wheelbarrow, while an Irishman directed his labors.
Upon inspection, it appeared that none of the trees grew with their roots
in the air, in recognition of this great reversal of the natural law; all
the French-roof houses stood right side up. The phenomenon may become more
common in future, unless the American race accomplishes its destiny of
dying out before the more populatory foreigner, but as yet it graced the
veteran with an exquisite and signal distinction. He, however, seemed to
feel unpleasantly the anomaly of his case, and opened the conversation by
saying that he should not work at that job to-morrow, it hurt his side;
and went on to complain of the inhumanity of Americans to Americans.
"Why," said he, "they'd rather give out their jobs to a nigger than to one
of their own kind. I was beatin' carpets for a gentleman on the Avenue,
and the first thing I know he give most of 'em to a nigger. I beat seven
of 'em in one day, and got two dollars; and the nigger beat 'em by the
piece, and he got a dollar an' a half apiece. My luck!"

Here the Irishman glanced at his hireling, and the rueful veteran hastened
to pile up another wheelbarrow with earth. If ever we come to reverse
positions generally with our Irish brethren, there is no doubt but they
will get more work out of us than we do from them at present.

It was shortly after this that the veteran offered to do second girl's
work in my house if I would take him. The place was not vacant; and as the
summer was now drawing to a close, and I feared to be left with him on my
hands for the winter, it seemed well to speak to him upon the subject of
economy. The next time he called, I had not about me the exact sum for a
night's lodging,--fifty cents, namely--and asked him if he thought a
dollar would do He smiled sadly, as if he did not like jesting upon such a
very serious subject, but said he allowed to work it out, and took it.

"Now, I hope you won't think I am interfering with your affairs," said his
benefactor, "but I really think you are a very poor financier. According
to your own account, you have been going on from year to year for a long
time, trusting to luck for a night's lodging. Sometimes I suppose you have
to sleep out-of-doors."

"No, never!" answered the veteran, with something like scorn. "I never
sleep out-doors. I wouldn't do it."

"Well, at any rate, some one has to pay for your lodging. Don't you think
you'd come cheaper to your friends, if, instead of going to a hotel every
night, you'd take a room somewhere, and pay for it by the month?"

"I've thought of that. If I could get a good bed, I'd try it awhile
anyhow. You see the hotels have raised. I used to get a lodgin' and a nice
breakfast for a half a dollar, but now it is as much as you can do to get
a lodgin' for the money, and it's just as dear in the Port as it is in the
city. I've tried hotels pretty much everywhere, and one's about as bad as

If he had been a travelled Englishman writing a book, he could not have
spoken of hotels with greater disdain.

"You see, the trouble with me is, I ain't got any relations around here.
Now," he added, with the life and eagerness of an inspiration, "if I had a
mother and sister livin' down at the Port, say, I wouldn't go hunting
about for these mean little jobs everywheres. I'd just lay round home, and
wait till something come up big. What I want is a home."

At the instigation of a malignant spirit I asked the homeless orphan, "Why
don't you get married, then?"

He gave me another smile, sadder, fainter, sweeter than before, and said:
"When would you like to see me again, so I could work out this dollar?"

A sudden and unreasonable disgust for the character which had given me so
much entertainment succeeded to my past delight. I felt, moreover, that I
had bought the right to use some frankness with the veteran, and I said to
him: "Do you know now, I shouldn't care if I _never_ saw you again?"

I can only conjecture that he took the confidence in good part, for he did
not appear again after that.


Walking for walking's sake I do not like. The diversion appears to me one
of the most factitious of modern enjoyments; and I cannot help looking
upon those who pace their five miles in the teeth of a north wind, and
profess to come home all the livelier and better for it, as guilty of a
venial hypocrisy. It is in nature that after such an exercise the bones
should ache and the flesh tremble; and I suspect that these harmless
pretenders are all the while paying a secret penalty for their bravado.
With a pleasant end in view, or with cheerful companionship, walking is
far from being the worst thing in life; though doubtless a truly candid
person must confess that he would rather ride under the same
circumstances. Yet it is certain that some sort of recreation is necessary
after a day spent within doors; and one is really obliged nowadays to take
a little walk instead of medicine; for one's doctor is sure to have a
mania on the subject, and there is no more getting pills or powders out of
him for a slight indigestion than if they had all been shot away at the
rebels during the war. For this reason I sometimes go upon a pedestrian
tour, which is of no great extent in itself, and which I moreover modify
by keeping always within sound of the horse-car bells, or easy reach of
some steam-car station.

I fear that I should find these rambles dull, but that their utter lack of
interest amuses me. I will be honest with the reader, though, and any
Master Pliable is free to forsake me at this point; for I cannot promise
to be really livelier than my walk. There is a Slough of Despond in full
view, and not a Delectable Mountain to be seen, unless you choose so to
call the high lands about Waltham, which we shall behold dark blue against
the western sky presently. As I sally forth upon Benicia Street, the whole
suburb of Charlesbridge stretches about me,--a vast space upon which I can
embroider any fancy I like as I saunter along. I have no associations with
it, or memories of it, and, at some seasons, I might wander for days in
the most frequented parts of it, and meet hardly any one I know. It is
not, however, to these parts that I commonly turn, but northward, up a
street upon which a flight of French-roof houses suddenly settled a year
or two since, with families in them, and many outward signs of permanence,
though their precipitate arrival might cast some doubt upon this. I have
to admire their uniform neatness and prettiness, and I look at their
dormer-windows with the envy of one to whose weak sentimentality dormer-
windows long appeared the supreme architectural happiness. But, for all my
admiration of the houses, I find a variety that is pleasanter in the
landscape, when I reach, beyond them, a little bridge which appears to
span a small stream. It unites banks lined with a growth of trees and
briers nodding their heads above the neighboring levels, and suggesting a
quiet water-course, though in fact it is the Fitchburg Railroad that purls
between them, with rippling freight and passenger trains and ever-gurgling
locomotives. The banks take the earliest green of spring upon their
southward slope, and on a Sunday morning of May, when the bells are
lamenting the Sabbaths of the past, I find their sunny tranquillity
sufficient to give me a slight heart-ache for I know not what. If I
descend them and follow the railroad westward half a mile, I come to vast
brick-yards, which are not in themselves exciting to the imagination, and
which yet, from an irresistible association of ideas, remind me of Egypt,
and are forever newly forsaken of those who made bricks without straw; so
that I have no trouble in erecting temples and dynastic tombs out of the
kilns; while the mills for grinding the clay serve me very well for those
sad-voiced _sakias_ or wheel-pumps which the Howadji Curtis heard
wailing at their work of drawing water from the Nile. A little farther on
I come to the boarding-house built at the railroad side for the French
Canadians who have by this time succeeded the Hebrews in the toil of the
brick-yards, and who, as they loiter in windy-voiced, good-humored groups
about the doors of their lodgings, insist upon bringing before me the town
of St. Michel at the mouth of the great Mont Cenis tunnel, where so many
peasant folk like them are always amiably quarreling before the
_cabarets_ when the diligence comes and goes. Somewhere, there must
be a gendarme with a cocked hat and a sword on, standing with folded arms
to represent the Empire and Peace among that rural population; if I looked
in-doors, I am sure I should see the neatest of landladies and landladies'
daughters and nieces in high black silk caps, bearing hither and thither
smoking bowls of _bouillon_ and _cafe-au-lait_. Well, it takes
as little to make one happy as miserable, thank Heaven! and I derive a
cheerfulness from this scene which quite atones to me for the fleeting
desolation suffered from the sunny verdure on the railroad bank. With
repaired spirits I take my way up through the brick-yards towards the
Irish settlement on the north, passing under the long sheds that shelter
the kilns. The ashes lie cold about the mouths of most, and the bricks are
burnt to the proper complexion; in others these are freshly arranged over
flues in which the fire has not been kindled; but in whatever state I see
them, I am reminded of brick-kilns of boyhood. They were then such palaces
of enchantment as any architect should now vainly attempt to rival with
bricks upon the most desirable corner lot of the Back Bay, and were the
homes of men truly to be envied: men privileged to stay up all night; to
sleep, as it were, out of doors; to hear the wild geese as they flew over
in the darkness; to be waking in time to shoot the early ducks that
visited the neighboring ponds; to roast corn upon the ends of sticks; to
tell and to listen to stories that never ended, save in some sudden
impulse to rise and dance a happy hoe-down in the ruddy light of the kiln-
fires. If by day they were seen to have the redness of eyes of men that
looked upon the whiskey when it was yellow and gave its color in the
flask; if now and then the fragments of a broken bottle strewed the scene
of their vigils, and a head broken to match appeared among those good
comrades, the boyish imagination was not shocked by these things, but
accepted them merely as the symbols of a free virile life. Some such life
no doubt is still to be found in the Dublin to which I am come by the time
my repertory of associations with brick-kilns is exhausted, but, oddly
enough, I no longer care to encounter it.

It is perhaps in a pious recognition of our mortality that Dublin is built
around the Irish grave-yard. Most of its windows look out upon the
sepulchral monuments and the pretty constant arrival of the funeral trains
with their long lines of carriages bringing to the celebration of the sad
ultimate rites those gay companies of Irish mourners. I suppose that the
spectacle of such obsequies is not at all depressing to the inhabitants of
Dublin; but that, on the contrary, it must beget in them a feeling which,
if not resignation to death, is, at least, a sort of sub-acute
cheerfulness in his presence. None but a Dubliner, however, would have
been greatly animated by a scene which I witnessed during a stroll through
this cemetery one afternoon of early spring. The fact that a marble slab
or shaft more or less sculptured, and inscribed with words more or less
helpless, is the utmost that we can give to one whom once we could caress
with every tenderness of speech and touch, and that, after all, the
memorial we raise is rather to our own grief, and is a decency, a mere
conventionality,--this is a dreadful fact on which the heart breaks itself
with such a pang, that it always seems a desolation never recognized, an
anguish never felt before. Whilst I stood revolving this thought in my
mind, and reading the Irish names upon the stones and the black head-
boards,--the latter adorned with pictures of angels, once gilt, but now
weather-worn down to the yellow paint,--a wail of intolerable pathos
filled the air: "O my darling, O my darling! O--O--O!" with sobs and
groans and sighs; and, looking about, I saw two women, one standing
upright beside another that had cast herself upon a grave, and lay
clasping it with her comfortless arms, uttering these cries. The grave was
a year old at least, but the grief seemed of yesterday or of that morning.
At times the friend that stood beside the prostrate woman stooped and
spoke a soothing word to her, while she wailed out her woe; and in the
midst some little ribald Irish boys came scuffling and quarreling up the
pathway, singing snatches of an obscene song; and when both the wailing
and the singing had died away, an old woman, decently clad, and with her
many-wrinkled face softened by the old-fashioned frill running round the
inside of her cap, dropped down upon her knees beside a very old grave,
and clasped her hands in a silent prayer above it.

[Illustration: "Looking about, I saw two women."]

If I had beheld all this in some village _campo santo_ in Italy, I
should have been much more vividly impressed by it, as an aesthetical
observer; whereas I was now merely touched as a human being, and had
little desire to turn the scene to literary account. I could not help
feeling that it wanted the atmosphere of sentimental association, the
whole background was a blank or worse than a blank. Yet I have not been
able to hide from myself so much as I would like certain points of
resemblance between our Irish and the poorer classes of Italians. The
likeness is one of the first things that strikes an American in Italy, and
I am always reminded of it in Dublin. So much of the local life appears
upon the street; there is so much gossip from house to house, and the talk
is always such a resonant clamoring; the women, bareheaded, or with a
shawl folded over the head and caught beneath the chin with the hand, have
such a contented down-at-heel aspect, shuffling from door to door, or
lounging, arms akimbo, among the cats and poultry at their own thresholds,
that one beholding it all might well fancy himself upon some Italian
_calle_ or _vicolo_. Of course the illusion does not hold good
on a Sunday, when the Dubliners are coming home from church in their
best,--their extraordinary best bonnets and their prodigious silk hats. It
does not hold good in any way or at any time, except upon the surface, for
there is beneath all this resemblance the difference that must exist
between a race immemorially civilized and one which has lately emerged
from barbarism "after six centuries of oppression." You are likely to find
a polite pagan under the mask of the modern Italian you feel pretty sure
that any of his race would with a little washing and skillful
manipulation, _restore_, like a neglected painting, into something
genuinely graceful and pleasing; but if one of these Yankeefied Celts were
scraped, it is but too possible that you might find a kern, a Whiteboy, or
a Pikeman. The chance of discovering a scholar or a saint of the period
when Ireland was the centre of learning, and the favorite seat of the
Church, is scarcely one in three.

Among the houses fronting on the main street of Dublin, every other one--I
speak in all moderation--is a grocery, if I may judge by a tin case of
corn-balls, a jar of candy, and a card of shirt-buttons, with an under
layer of primers and ballads, in the windows. You descend from the street
by several steps into these haunts, which are contrived to secure the
greatest possible dampness and darkness; and if you have made an errand
inside, you doubtless find a lady before the counter in the act of putting
down a guilty-looking tumbler with one hand, while she neatly wipes her
mouth on the back of the other. She has that effect, observable in all
tippling women of low degree, of having no upper garment on but a shawl,
which hangs about her in statuesque folds and lines. She slinks out
directly, but the lady behind the counter gives you good evening with

  "The affectation of a bright-eyed ease,"

intended to deceive if you chance to be a State constable in disguise, and
to propitiate if you are a veritable customer: "Who was that woman,
lamenting so, over in the grave-yard?" "O, I don't know, sir," answered
the lady, making change for the price of a ballad. "Some Irish folks. They
ginerally cries that way."

In yet earlier spring walks through Dublin, I found a depth of mud
appalling even to one who had lived three years in Charlesbridge. The
streets were passable only to pedestrians skilled in shifting themselves
along the sides of fences and alert to take advantage of every projecting
doorstep. There were no dry places, except in front of the groceries,
where the ground was beaten hard by the broad feet of loafing geese and
the coming and going of admirably small children making purchases there.
The number of the little ones was quite as remarkable as their size, and
ought to have been even more interesting, if, as sometimes appears
probable, such increase shall--together with the well-known ambition of
Dubliners to rule the land--one day make an end of us poor Yankees as a
dominant plurality.

The town was somewhat tainted with our architectural respectability,
unless the newness of some of the buildings gave illusion of this; and,
though the streets of Dublin were not at all cared for, and though every
house on the main thoroughfare stood upon the brink of a slough, without
yard, or any attempt at garden or shrubbery, there were many cottages in
the less aristocratic quarters inclosed in palings, and embowered in the
usual suburban pear-trees and currant-bushes. These, indeed, were
dwellings of an elder sort, and had clearly been inherited from a
population now as extinct in that region as the Pequots, and they were not
always carefully cherished. On the border of the hamlet is to be seen an
old farm-house of the poorer sort, built about the beginning of this
century, and now thickly peopled by Dubliners. Its gate is thrown down,
and the great wild-grown lilac hedge, no longer protected by a fence,
shows skirts bedabbled by the familiarity of lawless poultry, as little
like the steady-habited poultry of other times, as the people of the house
are like the former inmates, long since dead or gone West. I offer the
poor place a sentiment of regret as I pass, thinking of its better days. I
think of its decorous, hard-working, cleanly, school-going, church-
attending life, which was full of the pleasure of duty done, and was not
without its own quaint beauty and grace. What long Sabbaths were kept in
that old house, what scanty holidays! Yet from this and such as this came
the dominion of the whole wild continent, the freedom of a race, the
greatness of the greatest people. It may be that I regretted a little too
exultantly, and that out of this particular house came only peddling of
innumerable clocks and multitudinous tin-ware. But as yet, it is pretty
certain that the general character of the population has not gained by the
change. What is in the future, let the prophets say; any one can see that
something not quite agreeable is in the present; something that takes the
wrong side, as by instinct, in politics; something that mainly helps to
prop up tottering priestcraft among us; something that one thinks of with
dismay as destined to control so largely the civil and religious interests
of the country. This, however, is only the aggregate aspect. Mrs.
Clannahan's kitchen, as it may be seen by the desperate philosopher when
he goes to engage her for the spring house-cleaning, is a strong argument
against his fears. If Mrs. Clannahan, lately of an Irish cabin, can show a
kitchen so capably appointed and so neatly kept as that, the country may
yet be an inch or two from the brink of ruin, and the race which we trust
as little as we love may turn out no more spendthrift than most heirs. It
is encouraging, moreover, when any people can flatter themselves upon a
superior prosperity and virtue, and we may take heart from the fact that
the French Canadians, many of whom have lodgings in Dublin, are not well
seen by the higher classes of the citizens there. Mrs. Clannahan, whose
house stands over against the main gate of the grave-yard, and who may,
therefore, be considered as moving in the best Dublin society, hints, that
though good Catholics, the French are not thought perfectly honest,--
"things have been missed" since they came to blight with their crimes and
vices the once happy seat of integrity. It is amusing to find Dublin
fearful of the encroachment of the French, as we, in our turn, dread the
advance of the Irish. We must make a jest of our own alarms, and even
smile--since we cannot help ourselves--at the spiritual desolation
occasioned by the settlement of an Irish family in one of our suburban
neighborhoods. The householders view with fear and jealousy the erection
of any dwelling of less than a stated cost, as portending a possible
advent of Irish; and when the calamitous race actually appears, a mortal
pang strikes to the bottom of every pocket. Values tremble throughout that
neighborhood, to which the new-comers communicate a species of moral dry-
rot. None but the Irish will build near the Irish; and the infection of
fear spreads to the elder Yankee homes about, and the owners prepare to
abandon them,--not always, however, let us hope, without turning, at the
expense of the invaders, a Parthian penny in their flight. In my walk from
Dublin to North Charlesbridge, I saw more than one token of the
encroachment of the Celtic army, which had here and there invested a
Yankee house with besieging shanties on every side, and thus given to its
essential and otherwise quite hopeless ugliness a touch of the poetry that
attends failing fortunes, and hallows decayed gentility of however poor a
sort originally. The fortunes of such a house are, of course, not to be
retrieved. Where the Celt sets his foot, there the Yankee (and it is
perhaps wholesome if not agreeable to know that the Irish citizen whom we
do not always honor as our equal in civilization loves to speak of us
scornfully as Yankees) rarely, if ever, returns. The place remains to the
intruder and his heirs forever. We gracefully retire before him even in
politics, as the metropolis--if it is the metropolis--can witness; and we
wait with an anxious curiosity the encounter of the Irish and the Chinese,
now rapidly approaching each other from opposite shores of the continent.
Shall we be crushed in the collision of these superior races? Every
intelligence-office will soon be ringing with the cries of combat, and all
our kitchens strewn with pig-tails and bark chignons. As yet we have gay
hopes of our Buddhistic brethren; but how will it be when they begin to
quarter the Dragon upon the Stars and Stripes, and buy up all the best
sites for temples, and burn their joss-sticks, as it were, under our very
noses? Our grasp upon the great problem grows a little lax, perhaps? Is it
true that, when we look so anxiously for help from others, the virtue has
gone out of ourselves? I should hope not.

As I leave Dublin, the houses grow larger and handsomer; and as I draw
near the Avenue, the Mansard-roofs look down upon me with their dormer-
windows, and welcome me back to the American community. There are fences
about all the houses, inclosing ampler and ampler dooryards; the children,
which had swarmed in the thriftless and unenlightened purlieus of Dublin,
diminish in number and finally disappear; the chickens have vanished; and
I hear--I hear the pensive music of the horse-car bells, which in some
alien land, I am sure, would be as pathetic to me as the Ranz des Vaches
to the Swiss or the bagpipes to the Highlander: in the desert, where the
traveller seems to hear the familiar bells of his far-off church, this
tinkle would haunt the absolute silence, and recall the exile's fancy to
Charlesbridge; and perhaps in the mocking mirage he would behold an airy
horse-car track, and a phantasmagoric horse-car moving slowly along the
edge of the horizon, with spectral passengers closely packed inside and
overflowing either platform.

But before I reach the Avenue, Dublin calls to me yet again, in the figure
of an old, old man, wearing the clothes of other times, and a sort of
ancestral round hat. In the act of striking a match he asks me the time of
day, and, applying the fire to his pipe, he returns me his thanks in a
volume of words and smoke. What a wrinkled and unshorn old man! Can age
and neglect do so much for any of us? This ruinous person was associated
with a hand-cart as decrepit as himself, but not nearly so cheerful; for
though he spoke up briskly with a spirit uttered from far within the
wrinkles and the stubble, the cart had preceded him with a very lugubrious
creak. It groaned, in fact, under a load of tin cans, and I was to learn
from the old man that there was, and had been, in his person, for thirteen
years, such a thing in the world as a peddler of buttermilk, and that
these cans were now filled with that pleasant drink. They did not invite
me to prove their contents, being cans that apparently passed their vacant
moments in stables and even manure-heaps, and that looked somehow emulous
of that old man's stubble and wrinkles. I bought nothing, but I left the
old peddler well content, seated upon a thill of his cart, smoking
tranquilly, and filling the keen spring evening air with fumes which it
dispersed abroad, and made to itself a pleasant incense of.

I left him a whole epoch behind, as I entered the Avenue and lounged
homeward along the stately street. Above the station it is far more
picturesque than it is below, and the magnificent elms that shadow it
might well have looked, in their saplinghood, upon the British straggling
down the country road from the Concord fight; and there are some ancient
houses yet standing that must have been filled with exultation at the same
spectacle. Poor old revolutionaries! they would never have believed that
their descendants would come to love the English as we do.

The season has advanced rapidly during my progress from Dublin to the
Avenue; and by the time I reach the famous old tavern, not far from the
station, it is a Sunday morning of early summer, and the yellow sunlight
falls upon a body of good comrades who are grooming a marvelous number of
piebald steeds about the stable-doors. By token of these beasts--which
always look so much more like works of art than of nature--I know that
there is to be a circus somewhere very soon; and the gay bills pasted all
over the stable-front tell me that there are to be two performances at the
Port on the morrow. The grooms talk nothing and joke nothing but horse at
their labor; and their life seems such a low, ignorant, happy life, that
the secret nomad lurking in every respectable and stationary personality
stirs within me and struggles to strike hands of fellowship with them.
They lead a sort of pastoral existence in our age of railroads; they
wander over the continent with their great caravan, and everywhere pursue
the summer from South to North and from North to South again; in the mild
forenoons they groom their herds, and in the afternoons they doze under
their wagons, indifferent to the tumult of the crowd within and without
the mighty canvas near them,--doze face downwards on the bruised, sweet-
smelling grass; and in the starry midnight rise and strike their tents,
and set forth again over the still country roads, to take the next village
on the morrow with the blaze and splendor of their "Grand Entree." The
triumphal chariot in which the musicians are borne at the head of the
procession is composed, as I perceive by the bills, of four colossal gilt
swans, set tail to tail, with lifted wings and curving necks; but the
chariot, as I behold it beside the stable, is mysteriously draped in white
canvas, through which its gilding glitters only here and there. And does
it move thus shrouded in the company's wanderings from place to place, and
is the precious spottiness of the piebalds then hidden under envious
drapery? O happy grooms,--not clean as to shirts, nor especially neat in
your conversation, but displaying a Wealth of art in India-ink upon your
manly chests and the swelling muscles of your arms, and speaking in every
movement your freedom from all conventional gyves and shackles, _"seid
umschlungen!"_--in spirit; for the rest, you are rather too damp, and
seem to have applied your sudsy sponges too impartially to your own
trousers and the horses' legs to receive an actual embrace from a
_dilettante_ vagabond.

The old tavern is old only comparatively; but in our new and changeful
life it is already quaint. It is very long, and low-studded in either
story, with a row of windows in the roof, and a great porch, furnished
with benches, running the whole length of the ground-floor. Perhaps
because they take the dust of the street too freely, or because the guests
find it more social and comfortable to gather in-doors in the wide, low-
ceiled office, the benches are not worn, nor particularly whittled. The
room has the desolate air characteristic of offices which have once been
bar-rooms; but no doubt, on a winter's night, there is talk worth
listening to there, of flocks, and herds and horse-trades, from the
drovers and cattle-market men who patronize the tavern; and the artistic
temperament, at least, could feel no regret if that sepulchrally penitent
bar-room then developed a secret capacity for the wickedness that once
boldly glittered behind the counter in rows of decanters.

The house was formerly renowned for its suppers, of which all that was
learned or gifted in the old college town of Charlesbridge used to
partake; and I have heard lips which breathe the loftiest song and the
sweetest humor--let alone being "dewy with the Greek of Plato"--smacked
regretfully over the memory of those suppers' roast and broiled. No such
suppers, they say, are cooked in the world any more; and I am somehow made
to feel that their passing away is connected with the decay of good

I hope it may be very long before the predestined French-roof villa
occupies the tavern's site, and turns into lawns and gardens its wide-
spreading cattle-pens, and removes the great barn that now shows its
broad, low gable to the street. This is yet older and quainter-looking
than the tavern itself; it is mighty capacious, and gives a still
profounder impression of vastness with its shed, of which the roof slopes
southward down almost to a man's height from the ground, and shelters a
row of mangers, running back half the length of the stable, and serving in
former times for the baiting of such beasts as could not be provided for
within. But the halcyon days of the cattle-market are past (though you may
still see the white horns tossing above the fences of the pens, when a
newly arrived herd lands from the train to be driven afoot to Brighton),
and the place looks now so empty and forsaken, spite of the circus
baggage-wagons, that it were hard to believe these mangers could ever have
been in request, but for the fact that they are all gnawed, down to the
quick as it were, by generations of horses--vanished forever on the
deserted highways of the past--impatient for their oats or hungering for

The day must come, of course, when the mangers will all be taken from the
stable-shed, and exposed for sale at that wonderful second-hand shop which
stands over against the tavern. I am no more surprised than one in a
dream, to find it a week-day afternoon by the time I have crossed thither
from the circus-men grooming their piebalds. It is an enchanted place to
me, and I am a frequent and unprofitable customer there, buying only just
enough to make good my footing with the custodian of its marvels, who is,
of course, too true an American to show any desire to sell. Without, on
either side of the doorway, I am pretty sure to find, among other articles
of furniture, a mahogany and hair-cloth sofa, a family portrait, a
landscape painting, a bath-tub, and a flower-stand, with now and then the
variety of a boat and a dog-house; while under an adjoining shed is heaped
a mass of miscellaneous movables, of a heavier sort, and fearlessly left
there night and day, being on all accounts undesirable to steal. The door
of the shop rings a bell in opening, and ushers the customer into a room
which Chaos herself might have planned in one of her happier moments.
Carpets, blankets, shawls, pictures, mirrors, rocking-chairs, and blue
overalls hang from the ceiling, and devious pathways wind amidst piles of
ready-made clothing, show-cases filled with every sort of knick-knack and
half hidden under heaps of hats and boots and shoes, bookcases,
secretaries, chests of drawers, mattresses, lounges, and bedsteads, to the
stairway of a loft similarly appointed, and to a back room overflowing
with glassware and crockery. These things are not all second-hand, but
they are all old and equally pathetic. The melancholy of ruinous auction
sales, of changing tastes or changing fashions, clings to them, whether
they are things that have never had a home and have been on sale ever
since they were made, or things that have been associated with every phase
of human life.

Among other objects, certain large glass vases, ornamented by the polite
art of potichomanie, have long appealed to my fancy, wherein they
capriciously allied themselves to the history of aging single women in
lonely New England village houses,--pathetic sisters lingering upon the
neutral ground between the faded hopes of marriage and the yet unrisen
prospects of consumption. The work implies an imperfect yet real love of
beauty, the leisure for it a degree of pecuniary ease: the thoughts of the
sisters rise above the pickling and preserving that occupied their
heartier and happier mother; they are in fact in that aesthetic, social,
and intellectual mean, in which single women are thought soonest to wither
and decline. With a little more power, and in our later era, they would be
writing stories full of ambitious, unintelligible, self-devoted and sudden
collapsing young girls and amazing doctors; but as they are, and in their
time, they must do what they can. A sentimentalist may discern on these
vases not only the gay designs with which they ornamented them, but their
own dim faces looking wan from the windows of some huge old homestead, a
world too wide for the shrunken family. All April long the door-yard trees
crouch and shudder in the sour east, all June they rain canker-worms upon
the roof, and then in autumn choke the eaves with a fall of tattered and
hectic foliage. From the window the fading sisters gaze upon the unnatural
liveliness of the summer streets through which the summer boarders are
driving, or upon the death-white drifts of the intolerable winter. Their
father, the captain, is dead; he died with the Calcutta trade, having
survived their mother, and left them a hopeless competency and yonder
bamboo chairs; their only brother is in California; one, though she loved,
had never a lover; her sister's betrothed married West, whither he went to
make a home for her,--and ah! is it vases for the desolate parlor mantel
they decorate, or funeral urns? And when in time, they being gone, the
Californian brother sends to sell out at auction the old place with the
household and kitchen furniture, is it withered rose-leaves or ashes that
the purchaser finds in these jars?

They are empty now; and I wonder how came they here? How came the show-
case of Dr. Merrifield, Surgeon-Chiropodist here? How came here yon
Italian painting?--a poor, silly, little affected Madonna, simpering at me
from her dingy gilt frame till I buy her, a great bargain, at a dollar.
From what country church or family oratory, in what revolution, or stress
of private fortunes,--then from what various cabinets of antiquities, in
what dear Vicenza, or Ferrara, or Mantua, earnest thou, O Madonna? Whose
likeness are you, poor girl, with your everyday prettiness of brows and
chin, and your Raphaelesque crick in the neck? I think I know a part of
your story. You were once the property of that ruined advocate, whose
sensibilities would sometimes consent that a _valet de place_ of
uncommon delicacy should bring to his ancestral palace some singularly
meritorious foreigner desirous of purchasing from his rare collection,--a
collection of rubbish scarcely to be equaled elsewhere in Italy. You hung
in that family-room, reached after passage through stately vestibules and
grand stairways; and O, I would be cheated to the bone, if only I might
look out again from some such windows as were there, upon some such damp,
mouldy, broken-statued, ruinous, enchanted garden as lay below! In that
room sat the advocate's mother and hunchback sister, with their smoky
_scaldini_ and their snuffy priest; and there the wife of the
foreigner, self-elected the taste of his party, inflicted the pang courted
by the advocate, and asked if you were for sale. And then the ruined
advocate clasped his hands, rubbed them, set his head heart-brokenly on
one side, took you down, heaved a sigh, shrugged his shoulders, and sold
you--you! a family heirloom! Well, at least you are old, and you represent
to me acres of dim, religious canvas in that beloved land; and here is the
dollar now asked for you: I could not have bought you for so little at

The Madonna is neighbored by several paintings, if the kind called Grecian
for a reason never revealed by the inventor of an art as old as
potichomanie itself. It was an art by which ordinary lithographs were
given a ghastly transparency, and a tone as disagreeable as chromos; and I
doubt if it could have been known to the Greeks in their best age. But I
remember very well when it passed over whole neighborhoods in some parts
of this country, wasting the time of many young women, and disfiguring
parlor walls with the fruit of their accomplishment. It was always taught
by Professors, a class of learned young men who acquired their title by
abandoning the plough and anvil, and, in a suit of ready-made clothing,
travelling about the country with portfolios under their arms. It was an
experience to make loafers for life of them: and I fancy the girls who
learnt their art never afterwards made so good butter and cheese.

  "Non-ragioniam di lor, ma guarda e passa."

Besides the Grecian paintings there are some mezzotints; full length
pictures of presidents and statesmen, chiefly General Jackson, Henry Clay,
and Daniel Webster, which have hung their day in the offices or parlors of
country politicians. They are all statesmanlike and presidential in
attitude; and I know that if the mighty Webster's lips had language, he
would take his hand out of his waistcoat front, and say to his fellow
mezzotints: "Venerable men! you have come down to us from a former
generation, bringing your household furniture and miscellaneous trumpery
of all kinds with you."

Some old-fashioned entry lanterns divide my interest with certain old
willow chairs of an hour-glass pattern, which never stood upright,
probably, and have now all a confirmed droop to one side, as from having
been fallen heavily asleep in, upon breezy porches, of hot summer
afternoons. In the windows are small vases of alabaster, fly-specked
Parian and plaster figures, and dolls with stiff wooden limbs and papier-
mache heads, a sort of dolls no longer to be bought in these days of
modish, blue-eyed blondes of biscuit and sturdy india-rubber brunettes.
The show-case is full of an incredible variety, as photograph albums,
fishing-hooks, socks, suspenders, steel pens, cutlery of all sorts, and
curious old colored prints of Adelaide, and Kate, and Ellen. A rocking-
horse is stabled near amid pendent lengths of second-hand carpeting, hat-
racks, and mirrors; and standing cheek-by-jowl with painted washstands and
bureaus are some plaster statues, aptly colored and varnished to represent

There is nothing here but has a marked character of its own, some distinct
yet intangible trait acquired from former circumstances; and doubtless all
these things have that lurking likeness to former owners which clothes and
furniture are apt to take on from long association, and which we should
instantly recognize could they be confronted with their late proprietors.
It seems, in very imaginative moments, as if the strange assemblage of
incongruities must have a consciousness of these latent resemblances,
which the individual pieces betray when their present keeper turns the key
upon them, and abandons them to themselves at night; and I have sometimes
fancied such an effect in the late twilight, when I have wandered into
their resting-place, and have beheld them in the unnatural glare of a
kerosene lamp burning before a brightly polished reflector, and casting
every manner of grotesque shadow upon the floor and walls. But this may
have been an illusion; at any rate I am satisfied that the bargain-driving
capacity of the storekeeper is not in the least affected by a weird
quality in his wares; though they have not failed to impart to him
something of their own desultory character. He sometimes leaves a neighbor
in charge when he goes to meals, and then, if I enter, I am watchfully
followed about from corner to corner, and from room to room, lest I pocket
a mattress or slip a book-case under my coat. The storekeeper himself
never watches me; perhaps he knows that it is a purely professional
interest I take in the collection; that I am in the trade and have a
secondhand shop of my own, full of poetical rubbish, and every sort of
literary odds and ends, picked up at random, and all cast higgledy-
piggledy into the same chaotic receptacle. His customers are as little
like ordinary shoppers as he is like common tradesmen. They are in part
the Canadians who work in the brickyards, and it is surprising to find how
much business can be transacted, and how many sharp bargains struck
without the help of a common language. I am in the belief, which may be
erroneous, that nobody is wronged in these trades. The taciturn
storekeeper, who regards his customers with a stare of solemn amusement as
Critturs born by some extraordinary vicissitude of nature to the use of a
language that practically amounts to deafness and dumbness, never suffers
his philosophical interest in them to affect his commercial efficiency; he
drops them now and then a curt English phrase, or expressive Yankee idiom;
he knows very well when they mean to buy and when they do not; and they
equally wary and equally silent, unswayed by the glib allurements of a
salesman, judge of price and quality for themselves, make their solitary
offer, and stand or fall by it.

I am seldom able to conclude a pedestrian tour without a glance at the
wonderful interior of this cheap store, and I know all its contents
familiarly. I recognize wares that have now been on sale there for years;
I miss at first glance such accustomed objects as have been parted with
between my frequent visits, and hail with pleasure the additions to that
extraordinary variety. I can hardly, I suppose, expect the reader to
sympathize with the joy I felt the other night, in discovering among the
latter an adventurous and universally applicable sign-board advertising
This House and Lot for Sale, and, intertwined with the cast-off suspenders
which long garlanded a coffee-mill pendent from the roof, a newly added
second-hand india-rubber ear-trumpet. Here and there, however, I hope a
finer soul will relish, as I do, the poetry of thus buying and offering
for sale the very most recondite, as well as the commonest articles of
commerce, in the faith that one day the predestined purchaser will appear
and carry off the article appointed him from the beginning of time. This
faith is all the more touching, because the collector cannot expect to
live until the whole stock is disposed of, and because, in the order of
nature, much must at last fall to rein unbought, unless the reporter's
Devouring Element appears and gives a sudden tragical turn to the poem.

It is the whistle of a train drawing up at the neighboring station that
calls me away from the second-hand store; for I never find myself able to
resist the hackneyed prodigy of such an arrival. It cannot cease to be
impressive. I stand beside the track while the familiar monster writhes up
to the station and disgorges its passengers,--suburbanly packaged, and
bundled, and bagged, and even when empty-handed somehow proclaiming the
jaded character of men that hurry their work all day to catch the evening
train out, and their dreams all night to catch the morning train in,--and
then I climb the station-stairs, and "hang with grooms and porters on the
bridge," that I may not lose my ever-repeated sensation of having the
train pass under my feet, and of seeing it rush away westward to the
pretty blue hills beyond,--hills not too big for a man born in a plain-
country to love. Twisting and trembling along the track, it dwindles
rapidly in the perspective, and is presently out of sight. It has left the
city and the suburbs behind, and has sought the woods and meadows; but
Nature never in the least accepts it, and rarely makes its path a part of
her landscape's loveliness. The train passes alien through all her moods
and aspects; the wounds made in her face by the road's sharp cuts and
excavations are slowest of all wounds to heal, and the iron rails remain
to the last as shackles upon her. Yet when the rails are removed, as has
happened with a non-paying track in Charlesbridge, the road inspires a
real tenderness in her. Then she bids it take or the grace that belongs to
all ruin; the grass creeps stealthily over the scarified sides of the
embankments; the golden-rod, and the purple-topped iron-weed, and the
lady's-slipper, spring up in the hollows on either side, and--I am still
thinking of that deserted railroad which runs through Charlesbridge--hide
with their leafage the empty tomato-cans and broken bottles and old boots
on the ash-heaps dumped there; Nature sets her velvety willows a waving
near, and lower than their airy tops plans a vista of trees arching above
the track, which is as wild and pretty and illusive a vista as the sunset
ever cared to look through and gild a board fence beyond.

Most of our people come from Boston on the horse-cars, and it is only the
dwellers on the Avenue and the neighboring streets whom hurrying homeward
I follow away from the steam-car station. The Avenue is our handsomest
street; and if it were in the cosmopolitan citizen of Charlesbridge to
feel any local interest, I should be proud of it. As matters are, I
perceive its beauty, and I often reflect, with a pardonable satisfaction,
that it is not only handsome, but probably the very dullest street in the
world. It is magnificently long and broad, and is flanked nearly the whole
way from the station to the colleges by pine palaces rising from spacious
lawns, or from the green of trees or the brightness of gardens. The
splendor is all very new, but newness is not a fault that much affects
architectural beauty, while it is the only one that time is certain to
repair: and I find an honest and unceasing pleasure in the graceful lines
of those palaces, which is not surpassed even by my appreciation of the
vast quiet and monotony of the street itself. Commonly, when I emerge upon
it from the grassy-bordered, succory-blossomed walks of Benicia Street, I
behold, looking northward, a monumental horse-car standing--it appears for
ages, if I wish to take it for Boston--at the head of Pliny Street; and
looking southward I see that other emblem of suburban life, an express-
wagon, fading rapidly in the distance. Haply the top of a buggy nods round
the bend under the elms near the station; and, if fortune is so lavish, a
lady appears from a side street, and, while tarrying for the car, thrusts
the point of her sun-umbrella into the sandy sidewalk. This is the mid-
afternoon effect of the Avenue; but later in the day, and well into the
dusk, it remembers its former gayety as a trotting-course,--with here and
there a spider-wagon, a twinkling-footed mare, and a guttural driver. On
market-days its superb breadth is taken up by flocks of bleating sheep,
and a pastoral tone is thus given to its tranquillity; anon a herd of
beef-cattle appears under the elms; or a drove of pigs, many pausing,
inquisitive of the gutters, and quarrelsome as if they were the heirs of
prosperity instead of doom, is slowly urged on toward the shambles. In the
spring or the autumn, the Avenue is exceptionally enlivened by the
progress of a brace or so of students who, in training for one of the
University Courses of base-ball or boating, trot slowly and earnestly
along the sidewalk, fists up, elbows down, mouths shut, and a sense of
immense responsibility visible in their faces.

The summer is waning with the day as I turn from the Avenue into Benicia
Street. This is the hour when the fly cedes to the mosquito, as the Tuscan
poet says, and, as one may add, the frying grasshopper yields to the
shrilly cricket in noisiness. The embrowning air rings with the sad music
made by these innumerable little violinists, hid in all the gardens round,
and the pedestrian feels a sinking of the spirits not to be accounted for
upon the theory that the street is duller than the Avenue, for it really
is not so.

Quick now, the cheerful lamps of kerosene!--without their light, the cry
of those crickets, dominated for an instant, but not stilled, by the
bellowing of a near-passing locomotive, and the baying of a distant dog,
were too much. If it were the last autumn that ever was to be, it could
not be heralded with notes of dismaller effect. This is in fact the hour
of supreme trial everywhere, and doubtless no one but a newly-accepted
lover can be happy at twilight. In the city, even, it is oppressive; in
the country it is desolate; in the suburbs it is a miracle that it is ever
lived through. The night-winds have not risen yet to stir the languid
foliage of the sidewalk maples; the lamps are not yet lighted, to take
away the gloom from the blank, staring windows of the houses near; it is
too late for letters, too early for a book. In town your fancy would turn
to the theatres; in the country you would occupy yourself with cares of
poultry or of stock: in the suburbs you can but sit upon your threshold,
and fight the predatory mosquito.


At a former period the writer of this had the fortune to serve his country
in an Italian city whose great claim upon the world's sentimental interest
is the fact that--

  "The sea is in her broad, her narrow streets
   Ebbing and flowing,"

and that she has no ways whatever for hoofs or wheels. In his quality of
United States official, he was naturally called upon for information
concerning the estates of Italians believed to have emigrated early in the
century to Buenos Ayres, and was commissioned to learn why certain persons
in Mexico and Brazil, and the parts of Peru, had not, if they were still
living, written home to their friends. On the other hand, he was intrusted
with business nearly as pertinent and hopeful by some of his own
countrymen, and it was not quite with surprise that he one day received a
neatly lithographed circular with his name and address written in it,
signed by a famous projector of such enterprises, asking him to cooperate
for the introduction of horse-railroads in Venice. The obstacles to the
scheme were of such a nature that it seemed hardly worth while even to
reply to the circular; but the proposal was one of those bold flights of
imagination which forever lift objects out of vulgar association. It has
cast an enduring, poetic charm even about the horse-car in my mind, and I
naturally look for many unprosaic aspects of humanity there. I have an
acquaintance who insists that it is the place above all others suited to
see life in every striking phase. He pretends to have witnessed there the
reunion of friends who had not met in many years, the embrace, figurative
of course, of long lost brothers, the reconciliation of lovers; I do not
know but also some scenes of love-making, and acceptance or rejection. But
my friend is an imaginative man, and may make himself romances. I myself
profess to have beheld for the most part only mysteries; and I think it
not the least of these that, riding on the same cars day after day, one
finds so many strange faces with so little variety. Whether or not that
dull, jarring motion shakes inward and settles about the centres of mental
life the sprightliness that should inform the visage, I do not know; but
it is certain that the emptiness of the average passenger's countenance is
something wonderful, considered with reference to Nature's abhorrence of a
vacuum, and the intellectual repute which Boston enjoys among envious New-
Yorkers. It is seldom that a journey out of our cold metropolis is
enlivened by a mystery so positive in character as the young lady in
black, who alighted at a most ordinary little street in Old Charlesbridge,
and heightened her effect by going into a French-roof house there that had
no more right than a dry goods box to receive a mystery. She was tall,
and her lovely arms showed through the black gauze of her dress with
an exquisite roundness and _morbidezza_. Upon her beautiful wrists
she had heavy bracelets of dead gold, fashioned after some Etruscan
device; and from her dainty ears hung great hoops of the same metal
and design, which had the singular privilege of touching, now and then,
her white columnar neck. A massive chain or necklace, also Etruscan,
and also gold, rose and fell at her throat, and on one little ungloved
hand glittered a multitude of rings. This hand was very expressive,
and took a principal part in the talk which the lady held with her
companion, and was as alert and quick as if trained in the gesticulation
of Southern or Latin life somewhere. Her features, on the contrary,
were rather insipid, being too small and fine; but they were redeemed
by the liquid splendor of her beautiful eyes, and the mortal pallor
of her complexion. She was altogether so startling an apparition, that
all of us jaded, commonplace spectres turned and fastened our weary,
lack-lustre eyes upon her looks, with an utter inability to remove them.
There was one fat, unctuous person seated opposite, to whom his interest
was a torture, for he would have gone to sleep except for her remarkable
presence: as it was, his heavy eyelids fell half-way shut, and drooped
there at an agonizing angle, while his eyes remained immovably fixed upon
that strange, death-white face. How it could have come of that
colorlessness,--whether through long sickness or long residence in a
tropical climate,--was a question that perplexed another of the
passengers, who would have expected to hear the lady speak any language in
the world rather than English; and to whom her companion or attendant was
hardly less than herself a mystery,--being a dragon-like, elderish female,
clearly a Yankee by birth, but apparently of many years' absence from
home. The propriety of extracting these people from the horse-cars and
transferring them bodily to the first chapter of a romance was a thing
about which there could be no manner of doubt, and nothing prevented the
abduction but the unexpected voluntary exit of the pale lady. As she
passed out everybody else awoke as from a dream, or as if freed from a
potent fascination. It is part of the mystery that this lady should never
have reappeared in that theatre of life, the horse-car; but I cannot
regret having never seen her more; she was so inestimably precious to
wonder that it would have been a kind of loss to learn anything about her.

[Illustration: "The young lady in black, who alighted at a most ordinary
little street."]

On the other hand, I should be glad if two young men who once presented
themselves as mysteries upon the same stage could be so distinctly and
sharply identified that all mankind should recognize them at the day of
judgment. They were not so remarkable in the nature as in the degree of
their offense; for the mystery that any man should keep his seat in a
horse-car and let a woman stand is but too sadly common. They say that
this, public unkindness to the sex has come about through the ingratitude
of women, who have failed to return thanks for places offered them, and
that it is a just and noble revenge we take upon them. There might be
something advanced in favor of the idea that we law-making men, who do not
oblige the companies to provide seats for every one, deserve no thanks
from voteless, helpless women when we offer them places; nay, that we
ought to be glad if they do not reproach us for making that a personal
favor which ought to be a common right. I would prefer, on the whole, to
believe that this selfishness is not a concerted act on our part, but a
flower of advanced civilization; it is a ripe fruit in European countries,
and it is more noticeable in Boston than anywhere else in America. It is,
in fact, one of the points of our high polish which people from the
interior say first strikes them on coming among us; for they declare--no
doubt too modestly--that in their Boeotian wilds our Athenian habit is
almost unknown. Yet it would not be fair to credit our whole population
with it. I have seen a laborer or artisan rise from his place, and offer
it to a lady, while a dozen well-dressed men kept theirs; and I know
several conservative young gentlemen, who are still so old-fashioned as
always to respect the weakness and weariness of women. One of them, I
hear, has settled it in his own mind that if the family cook appears in a
car where he is seated, he must rise and give her his place. This,
perhaps, is a trifle idealistic; but it is magnificent, it is princely.
From his difficult height, we decline--through ranks that sacrifice
themselves for women with bundles or children in arms, for old ladies, or
for very young and pretty ones--to the men who give no odds to the most
helpless creature alive. These are the men who do not act upon the
promptings of human nature like the laborer, and who do not refine upon
their duty like my young gentlemen, and make it their privilege to
befriend the idea of womanhood; they are men who have paid for their seats
and are going to keep them. They have been at work, very probably, all
day, and no doubt they are tired; they look so, and try hard not to look
ashamed of publicly considering themselves before a sex which is born
tired, and from which our climate and customs have drained so much health
that society sometimes seems little better than a hospital for invalid
woman, where every courtesy is likely to be a mercy done to a sufferer.
Yet the two young men of whom I began to speak were not apparently of this
class, and let us hope they were foreigners,--say Englishmen, since we
hate Englishmen the most. They were the only men seated, in a car full of
people; and when four or five ladies came in and occupied the aisle before
them, they might have been puzzled which to offer their places to, if one
of the ladies had not plainly been infirm. They settled the question--if
there was any in their minds--by remaining seated, while the lady in front
of them swung uneasily to and fro with the car, and appeared ready to sink
at their feet. In another moment she had actually done so; and, too weary
to rise, she continued to crouch upon the floor of the car for the course
of a mile, the young men resolutely keeping their places, and not rising
till they were ready to leave the car. It was a horrible scene, and
incredible,--that well-dressed woman sitting on the floor, and those two
well-dressed men keeping their places; it was as much out of keeping with
our smug respectabilities as a hanging, and was a spectacle so paralyzing
that public opinion took no action concerning it. A shabby person,
standing upon the platform outside, swore about it, between
expectorations: even the conductor's heart was touched; and he said he had
seen a good many hard things aboard horse-cars, but that was a little the
hardest; he had never expected to come to that. These were simple people
enough, and could not interest me a great deal, but I should have liked to
have a glimpse of the complex minds of those young men, and I should still
like to know something of the previous life that could have made their
behavior possible to them. They ought to make public the philosophic
methods by which they reached that pass of unshamable selfishness. The
information would be useful to a race which knows the sweetness of self-
indulgence, and would fain know the art of so drugging or besotting the
sensibilities that it shall no feel disgraced by any sort of meanness.
They might really have much to say for themselves; as, that the lady,
being conscious she could no longer keep her feet, had no right to crouch
at theirs, and put them to so severe a test; or that, having suffered her
to sink there, they fell no further in the ignorant public opinion by
suffering her to continue there.

But I doubt if that other young man could say anything for himself, who,
when a pale, trembling woman was about to drop into the vacant place at
his side, stretched his arm across it with, "This seat's engaged," till a
robust young fellow, his friend, appeared, and took it and kept it all the
way out from Boston. The commission of such a tragical wrong, involving a
violation of common usage as well as the infliction of a positive cruelty,
would embitter the life of an ordinary man, if any ordinary man were
capable of it; but let us trust that nature has provided fortitude of
every kind for the offender, and that he is not wrung by keener remorse
than most would feel for a petty larceny. I dare say he would be eager at
the first opportunity to rebuke the ingratitude of women who do not thank
their benefactors for giving them seats. It seems a little odd, by the
way, and perhaps it is through the peculiar blessing of Providence, that,
since men have determined by a savage egotism to teach the offending sex
manners, their own comfort should be in the infliction of the penalty, and
that it should be as much a pleasure as a duty to keep one's place.

Perhaps when the ladies come to vote, they will abate, with other
nuisances, the whole business of overloaded public conveyances. In the
mean time the kindness of women to each other is a notable feature of all
horse-car journeys. It is touching to see the smiling eagerness with which
the poor things gather close their volumed skirts and make room for a
weary sister, the tender looks of compassion which they bend upon the
sufferers obliged to stand, the sweetness with which they rise, if they
are young and strong, to offer their place to any infirm or heavily
burdened person of their sex.

But a journey to Boston is not entirely an experience of bitterness. On
the contrary, there are many things besides the mutual amiability of these
beautiful martyrs which relieve its tedium and horrors. A whole car-full
of people, brought into the closest contact with one another, yet in the
absence of introductions never exchanging a word, each being so sufficient
to himself as to need no social stimulus whatever, is certainly an
impressive and stately spectacle. It is a beautiful day, say; but far be
it from me to intimate as much to my neighbor, who plainly would rather
die than thus commit himself with me, and who, in fact, would well-nigh
strike me speechless with surprise if he did so. If there is any necessity
for communication, as with the conductor, we essay first to express
ourselves by gesture, and then utter our desires with a certain hollow and
remote effect, which is not otherwise to be described. I have sometimes
tried to speak above my breath, when, being about to leave the car, I have
made a virtue of offering my place to the prettiest young woman standing,
but I have found it impossible; the _genius loci_, whatever it was,
suppressed me, and I have gasped out my sham politeness as in a courteous
nightmare. The silencing influence is quite successfully resisted by none
but the tipsy people who occasionally ride out with us, and call up a
smile, sad as a gleam of winter sunshine, to our faces by their artless
prattle. I remember one eventful afternoon that we were all but moved to
laughter by the gayeties of such a one, who, even after he had ceased to
talk, continued to amuse us by falling asleep, and reposing himself
against the shoulder of the lady next him. Perhaps it is in acknowledgment
of the agreeable variety they contribute to horse-car life, that the
conductor treats his inebriate passengers with such unfailing tenderness
and forbearance. I have never seen them molested, though I have noticed
them in the indulgence of many eccentricities, and happened once even to
see one of them sit down in a lady's lap. But that was on the night of
Saint Patrick's day. Generally all avoidable indecorums are rare in the
horse-cars, though during the late forenoon and early afternoon, in the
period of lighter travel, I have found curious figures there:--among
others, two old women, in the old-clothes business, one of whom was
dressed, not very fortunately, in a gown with short sleeves, and
inferentially a low neck; a mender of umbrellas, with many unwholesome
whity-brown wrecks of umbrellas about him; a peddler of soap, who offered
cakes of it to his fellow-passengers at a discount, apparently for
friendship's sake; and a certain gentleman with a pock-marked face, and a
beard dyed an unscrupulous purple, who sang himself a hymn all the way to
Boston, and who gave me no sufficient reason for thinking him a sea-
captain. Not far from the end of the Long Bridge, there is apt to be a
number of colored ladies waiting to get into the car, or to get out of
it,--usually one solemn mother in Ethiopia, and two or three mirthful
daughters, who find it hard to suppress a sense of adventure, and to keep
in the laughter that struggles out through their glittering teeth and
eyes, and who place each other at a disadvantage by divers accidental and
intentional bumps and blows. If they are to get out, the old lady is not
certain of the place where, and, after making the car stop, and parleying
with the conductor, returns to her seat, and is mutely held up to public
scorn by one taciturn wink of the conductor's eye.

Among horse-car types, I am almost ashamed to note one so common and
observable as that middle-aged lady who gets aboard and will not see the
one vacant seat left, but stands tottering at the door, blind and deaf to
all the modest beckonings and benevolent gasps of her fellow-passengers.
An air as of better days clings about her; she seems a person who has
known sickness and sorrow; but so far from pitying her, you view her with
inexpressible rancor, for it is plain that she ought to sit down, and that
she will not. But for a point of honor the conductor would show her the
vacant place; this forbidding, however, how can he? There she stands and
sniffs drearily when you glance at her, as you must from time to time, and
no wild turkey caught in a trap was ever more incapable of looking down
than this middle-aged (shall I say also unmarried?) lady.

Of course every one knows the ladies and gentlemen who sit cater-
cornered, and who will not move up; and equally familiar is that large and
ponderous person, who, feigning to sit down beside you, practically sits
down upon you, and is not incommoded by having your knee under him. He
implies by this brutal conduct that you are taking up more space than
belongs to you, and that you are justly made an example of.

I had the pleasure one day to meet on the horse-car an advocate of one of
the great reforms of the day. He held a green bag upon his knees, and
without any notice passed from a question of crops to a discussion of
suffrage for the negro, and so to womanhood suffrage. "Let the women
vote," said he,--"let 'em vote if they want to. _I_ don't care. Fact
is, I should like to see 'em do it the first time. They're excitable, you
know; they're excitable;" and he enforced his analysis of female character
by thrusting his elbow sharply into my side. "Now, there's my wife; I'd
like to see her vote. Be fun, I tell you. And the girls,--Lord, the girls!
Circus wouldn't be anywhere." Enchanted with the picture which he appeared
to have conjured up for himself, he laughed with the utmost relish, and
then patting the green bag in his lap, which plainly contained a violin,
"You see," he went on, "I go out playing for dancing-parties. Work all day
at my trade,--I'm a carpenter,--and play in the evening. Take my little
old ten dollars a night. And _I_ notice the women a good deal; and
_I_ tell you they're _all_ excitable, and _I sh'd_ like to see 'em vote.
Vote right and vote often,--that's the ticket, eh?" This friend of
womanhood suffrage--whose attitude of curiosity and expectation seemed
to me representative of that of a great many thinkers on the subject--no
doubt was otherwise a reformer, and held that the coming man would
not drink wine--if he could find whiskey. At least I should have said
so, guessing from the odors he breathed along with his liberal sentiments.

Something of the character of a college-town is observable nearly always
in the presence of the students, who confound certain traditional ideas of
students by their quietude of costume and manner, and whom Padua or
Heidelberg would hardly know, but who nevertheless betray that they are
banded to--

  "Scorn delights and live laborious days,"

by a uniformity in the cut of their trousers, or a clannishness of cane or
scarf, or a talk of boats and base-ball held among themselves. One cannot
see them without pleasure and kindness; and it is no wonder that their
young-lady acquaintances brighten so to recognize them on the horse-cars.
There is much good fortune in the world, but none better than being an
undergraduate twenty years old, hale, handsome, fashionably dressed, with
the whole promise of life before: it's a state of things to disarm even
envy. With so much youth forever in her heart, it must be hard for our
Charlesbridge to grow old: the generations arise and pass away but in her
veins is still this tide of warm blood, century in and century out, so
much the same from one age to another that it would be hardy to say it was
not still one youthfulness. There is a print of the village as it was a
cycle since, showing the oldest of the college buildings and upon the
street in front a scholar in his scholar's-cap and gown, giving his arm to
a very stylish girl of that period, who is dressed wonderfully like the
girl of ours, so that but for the student's antique formality of costume,
one might believe that he was handing her out to take the horse-car. There
is no horse-car in the picture,--that is the only real difference between
then and now in our Charlesbridge, perennially young and gay. Have there
not ever been here the same grand ambitions, the same high hopes,--and is
not the unbroken succession of youth in these?

As for other life on the horse-car, it shows to little or no effect, as I
have said. You can, of course, detect certain classes; as, in the morning
the business-men going in, to their counters or their desks, and in the
afternoon the shoppers coming out, laden with paper parcels. But I think
no one can truly claim to know the regular from the occasional passengers
by any greater cheerfulness in the faces of the latter. The horse-car will
suffer no such inequality as this, but reduces us all to the same level of
melancholy. It would be but a very unworthy kind of art which should seek
to describe people by such merely external traits as a habit of carrying
baskets or large travelling-bags in the car; and the present muse scorns
it, but is not above speaking of the frequent presence of those lovely
young girls in which Boston and the suburban towns abound, and who,
whether they appear with rolls of music in their hands, or books from the
circulating-libraries, or pretty parcels or hand-bags, would brighten even
the horse-car if fresh young looks and gay and brilliant costumes could do
so much. But they only add perplexity to the anomaly, which was already
sufficiently trying with its contrasts of splendor and shabbiness, and
such intimate association of velvets and patches as you see in the
churches of Catholic countries, but nowhere else in the world except in
our "coaches of the sovereign people."

In winter, the journey to or from Boston cannot appear otherwise than very
dreary to the fondest imagination. Coming out, nothing can look more
arctic and forlorn than the river, double-shrouded in ice and snow, or
sadder than the contrast offered to the same prospect in summer. Then all
is laughing, and it is a joy in every nerve to ride out over the Long
Bridge at high tide, and, looking southward, to see the wide crinkle and
glitter of that beautiful expanse of water, which laps on one hand the
granite quays of the city, and on the other washes among the reeds and
wild grasses of the salt-meadows. A ship coming slowly up the channel, or
a dingy tug violently darting athwart it, gives an additional pleasure to
the eye, and adds something dreamy or vivid to the beauty of the scene. It
is hard to say at what hour of the summer's-day the prospect is loveliest;
and I am certainly not going to speak of the sunset as the least of its
delights. When this exquisite spectacle is presented, the horse-car
passenger, happy to cling with one foot to the rear platform-steps, looks
out over the shoulder next him into fairy-land. Crimson and purple the bay
stretches westward till its waves darken into the grassy levels, where,
here and there, a hay-rick shows perfectly black against the light. Afar
off, southeastward and westward, the uplands wear a tinge of tenderest
blue; and in the nearer distance, on the low shores of the river, hover
the white plumes of arriving and departing trains. The windows of the
stately houses that overlook the water take the sunset from it
evanescently, and begin to chill and darken before the crimson burns out
of the sky. The windows are, in fact, best after nightfall, when they are
brilliantly lighted from within; and when, if it is a dark, warm night,
and the briny fragrance comes up strong from the falling tide, the lights
reflected far down in the still water, bring a dream, as I have heard
travelled Bostonians say, of Venice and her magical effects in the same
kind. But for me the beauty of the scene needs the help of no such
association; I am content with it for what it is. I enjoy also the hints
of spring which one gets in riding over the Long Bridge at low tide in the
first open days. Then there is not only a vernal beating of carpets on the
piers of the drawbridge, but the piles and walls left bare by the receding
water show green patches of sea-weeds and mosses, and flatter the willing
eye with a dim hint of summer. This reeking and saturated herbage--which
always seems to me, in contrast with dry land growths, what the water-
logged life of seafaring folk is to that which we happier men lead on
shore,--taking so kindly the deceitful warmth and brightness of the sun,
has then a charm which it loses when summer really comes; nor does one,
later, have so keen an interest in the men wading about in the shallows
below the bridge, who, as in the distance they stoop over to gather
whatever shell-fish they seek, make a very fair show of being some
ungainlier sort of storks, and are as near as we can hope to come to the
spring-prophesying storks of song and story. A sentiment of the drowsiness
that goes before the awakening of the year, and is so different from the
drowsiness that precedes the great autumnal slumber, is in the air, but is
gone when we leave the river behind, and strike into the straggling
village beyond.

I maintain that Boston, as one approaches it and passingly takes in the
line of Bunker Hill Monument, soaring preeminent among the emulous
foundry-chimneys of the sister city, is fine enough to need no comparison
with other fine sights. Thanks to the mansard curves and dormer-windows of
the newer houses, there is a singularly picturesque variety among the
roofs that stretch along the bay, and rise one above another on the city's
three hills, grouping themselves about the State House, and surmounted by
its India-rubber dome. But, after all, does human weakness crave some
legendary charm, some grace of uncertain antiquity, in the picturesqueness
it sees? I own that the future, to which we are often referred for the
"stuff that dreams are made of," is more difficult for the fancy than the
past, that the airy amplitude of its possibilities is somewhat chilly, and
that we naturally long for the snug quarters of old, made warm by many
generations of life. Besides, Europe spoils us ingenuous Americans, and
flatters our sentimentality into ruinous extravagances. Looking at her
many-storied former times, we forget our own past, neat, compact, and
convenient for the poorest memory to dwell in. Yet an American not
infected with the discontent of travel could hardly approach this superb
city without feeling something of the coveted pleasure in her, without a
reverie of her Puritan and Revolutionary times, and the great names and
deeds of her heroic annals. I think, however, we were well to be rid of
this yearning for a native American antiquity; for in its indulgence one
cannot but regard himself and his contemporaries as cumberers of the
ground, delaying the consummation of that hoary past which will be so
fascinating to a semi-Chinese posterity, and will be, ages hence, the
inspiration of Pigeon-English poetry and romance. Let us make much of our
two hundred and fifty years, and cherish the present as our golden age. We
healthy-minded people in the horse-cars are loath to lose a moment of it,
and are aggrieved that the draw of the bridge should be up, naturally
looking on what is constantly liable to happen as an especial malice of
the fates. All the drivers of the vehicles that clog the draw on either
side have a like sense of personal injury; and apparently it would go hard
with the captain of that leisurely vessel below if he were delivered into
our hands. But this impatience and anger are entirely illusive.

We are really the most patient people in the world, especially as regards
any incorporated, non-political oppressions. A lively Gaul, who travelled
among us some thirty years ago, found that, in the absence of political
control, we gratified the human instinct of obedience by submitting to
small tyrannies unknown abroad, and were subject to the steamboat-captain,
the hotel-clerk, the stage-driver, and the waiter, who all bullied us
fearlessly; but though some vestiges of this bondage remain, it is
probably passing away. The abusive Frenchman's assertion would not at
least hold good concerning the horse-car conductors, who, in spite of a
lingering preference for touching or punching passengers for their fare
instead of asking for it, are commonly mild-mannered and good-tempered,
and disposed to molest us as little as possible. I have even received from
one of them a mark of such kindly familiarity as the offer of a check
which he held between his lips, and thrust out his face to give me, both
his hands being otherwise occupied; and their lives are in nowise such
luxurious careers as we should expect in public despots. The oppression of
the horse-car passenger is not from them, and the passenger himself is
finally to blame for it. When the draw closes at last, and we rumble
forward into the city street, a certain stir of expectation is felt among
us. The long and eventful journey is nearly ended, and now we who are to
get out of the cars can philosophically amuse ourselves with the passions
and sufferings of those who are to return in our places. You must choose
the time between five and six o'clock in the afternoon, if you would make
this grand study of the national character in its perfection. Then the
spectacle offered in any arriving horse-car will serve your purpose. At
nearly every corner of the street up which it climbs stands an experienced
suburban, who darts out upon the car, and seizes a vacant place in it.
Presently all the places are taken, and before we reach Temple Street,
where helpless groups of women are gathered to avail themselves of the
first seats vacated, an alert citizen is stationed before each passenger
who is to retire at the summons, "Please pass out forrad." When this is
heard in Bowdoin Square, we rise and push forward, knuckling one another's
backs in our eagerness, and perhaps glancing behind us at the tumult
within. Not only are all our places occupied, but the aisle is left full
of passengers precariously supporting themselves by the straps in the
roof. The rear platform is stormed and carried by a party with bundles;
the driver is instantly surrounded by another detachment; and as the car
moves away from the office, the platform steps are filled.

"Is it possible," I asked myself, when I had written as far as this in the
present noble history, "that I am not exaggerating? It can't be that this
and the other enormities I have been describing are of daily occurrence in
Boston. Let me go verify, at least, my picture of the evening horse-car."
So I take my way to Bowdoin Square, and in the conscientious spirit of
modern inquiry, I get aboard the first car that comes up. Like every other
car, it is meant to seat twenty passengers. It does this, and besides it
carries in the aisle and on the platform forty passengers standing. The
air is what you may imagine, if you know that not only is the place so
indecently crowded, but that in the centre of the car are two adopted
citizens, far gone in drink, who have the aspect and the smell of having
passed the day in an ash-heap. These citizens being quite helpless
themselves, are supported by the public, and repose in singular comfort
upon all the passengers near them; I, myself, contribute an aching back to
the common charity, and a genteelly dressed young lady takes one of them
from time to time on her knee. But they are comparatively an ornament to
society till the conductor objects to the amount they offer him for fare;
for after that they wish to fight him during the journey, and invite him
at short intervals to step out and be shown what manner of men they are.
The conductor passes it off for a joke, and so it is, and a very good one.

In that unhappy mass it would be an audacious spirit who should say of any
particular arm or leg, "It is mine," and all the breath is in common.
Nothing, it would seem, could add to our misery; but we discover our error
when the conductor squeezes a tortuous path through us, and collects the
money for our transportation. I never can tell, during the performance of
this feat, whether he or the passengers are more to be pitied.

The people who are thus indecorously huddled and jammed together, without
regard to age or sex, otherwise lead lives of at least comfort, and a good
half of them cherish themselves in every physical way with unparalleled
zeal. They are handsomely clothed; they are delicately neat in linen; they
eat well, or, if not well, as well as their cooks will let them, and at
all events expensively; they house in dwellings appointed in a manner
undreamt of elsewhere in the world,--dwellings wherein furnaces make a
summer-heat, where fountains of hot and cold water flow at a touch, where
light is created or quenched by the turning of a key, where all is
luxurious upholstery, and magical ministry to real or fancied needs. They
carry the same tastes with them to their places of business; and when they
"attend divine service," it is with the understanding that God is to
receive them in a richly carpeted house, deliciously warmed and perfectly
ventilated, where they may adore Him at their ease upon cushioned seats,--
secured seats. Yet these spoiled children of comfort, when they ride to or
from business or church, fail to assert rights that the benighted Cockney,
who never heard of our plumbing and registers, or even the oppressed
Parisian, who is believed not to change his linen from one revolution to
another, having paid for, enjoys. When they enter the "full" horse-car,
they find themselves in a place inexorable as the grave to their
greenbacks, where not only is their adventitious consequence stripped from
them, but the courtesies of life are impossible, the inherent dignity of
the person is denied, and they are reduced below the level of the most
uncomfortable nations of the Old World. The philosopher accustomed to draw
consolation from the sufferings of his richer fellow-men, and to infer an
overruling Providence from their disgraces, might well bless Heaven for
the spectacle of such degradation, if his thanksgiving were not prevented
by his knowledge that this is quite voluntary. And now consider that on
every car leaving the city at this time the scene is much the same;
reflect that the horror is enacting, not only in Boston, but in New York,
Philadelphia, Baltimore, St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati,--wherever the
horse-car, that tinkles well-nigh round the Continent, is known; remember
that the same victims are thus daily sacrificed, without an effort to
right themselves: and then you will begin to realize--dimly and
imperfectly, of course--the unfathomable meekness of the American
character. The "full" horse-car is a prodigy whose likeness is absolutely
unknown elsewhere, since the Neapolitan gig went out; and I suppose it
will be incredible to the future in our own country. When I see such a
horse-car as I have sketched move away from its station, I feel that it is
something not only emblematic and interpretative, but monumental; and I
know that when art becomes truly national, the overloaded horse-car will
be celebrated in painting and sculpture. And in after ages, when the
oblique-eyed, swarthy American of that time, pausing before some
commemorative bronze or historical picture of our epoch, contemplates this
stupendous spectacle of human endurance, I hope he will be able to
philosophize more satisfactorily than we can now, concerning the mystery
of our strength as a nation and our weakness as a public.



They were not a large family, and their pursuits and habits were very
simple; yet the summer was lapsing toward the first pathos of autumn
before they found themselves all in such case as to be able to take the
day's pleasure they had planned so long. They had agreed often and often
that nothing could be more charming than an excursion down the Harbor,
either to Gloucester, or to Nahant, or to Nantasket Beach, or to Hull and
Hingham, or to any point within the fatal bound beyond which is
seasickness. They had studied the steamboat advertisements, day after day,
for a long time, without making up their minds which of these charming
excursions would be the most delightful; and when they had at last fixed
upon one and chosen some day for it, that day was sure to be heralded by a
long train of obstacles, or it dawned upon weather that was simply
impossible. Besides, in the suburbs, you are apt to sleep late, unless the
solitary ice-wagon of the neighborhood makes a very uncommon rumbling in
going by; and I believe that the excursion was several times postponed by
the tardy return of the pleasurers from dreamland, which, after all, is
not the worst resort, or the least interesting--or profitable, for the
matter of that. But at last the great day came,--a blameless Thursday
alike removed from the cares of washing and ironing days, and from the
fatigues with which every week closes. One of the family chose
deliberately to stay at home; but the severest scrutiny could not detect a
hindrance in the health or circumstances of any of the rest, and the
weather was delicious. Everything, in fact, was so fair and so full of
promise, that they could almost fancy a calamity of some sort hanging over
its perfection, and possibly bred of it; for I suppose that we never have
anything made perfectly easy for us without a certain reluctance and
foreboding. That morning they all got up so early that they had time to
waste over breakfast before taking the 7.30 train for Boston; and they
naturally wasted so much of it that they reached the station only in
season for the 8.00. But there is a difference between reaching the
station and quietly taking the cars, especially if one of your company has
been left at home, hoping to cut across and take the cars at a station
which they reach some minutes later, and you, the head of the party, are
obliged, at a loss of breath and personal comfort and dignity, to run down
to that station and see that the belated member has arrived there, and
then hurry back to your own, and embody the rest, with their accompanying
hand-bags and wraps and sun-umbrellas, into some compact shape for removal
into the cars, during the very scant minute that the train stops at
Charlesbridge. Then when you are all aboard, and the tardy member has been
duly taken up at the next station, and you would be glad to spend the time
in looking about on the familiar variety of life which every car presents
in every train on every road in this vast American world, you are
oppressed and distracted by the cares which must attend the pleasure-
seeker, and which the more thickly beset him the more deeply he plunges
into enjoyment.

I can learn very little from the note-book of the friend whose adventures
I am relating in regard to the scenery of Somerville, and the region
generally through which the railroad passes between Charlesbridge and
Boston; but so much knowledge of it may be safely assumed on the part of
the reader as to relieve me of the grave responsibility of describing it.
Still, I may say that it is not unpicturesque, and that I have a pleasure,
which I hope the reader shares, in anything like salt meadows and all
spaces subject to the tide, whether flooded by it or left bare with their
saturated grasses by its going down. I think, also, there is something
fine in the many-roofed, many-chimneyed highlands of Chelsea (if it is
Chelsea), as you draw near the railroad bridge, and there is a pretty
stone church on a hill-side there which has the good fortune, so rare with
modern architecture and so common with the old, of seeming a natural
outgrowth of the spot where it stands, and which is as purely an object of
aesthetic interest to me, who know nothing of its sect or doctrine, as any
church in a picture could be; and there is, also, the Marine Hospital on
the heights (if it is the Marine Hospital), from which I hope the inmates
can behold the ocean, and exult in whatever misery keeps them ashore.

But let me not so hasten over this part of my friend's journey as to omit
all mention of the amphibious Irish houses which stand about on the low
lands along the railroad-sides, and which you half expect to see plunge
into the tidal mud of the neighborhood, with a series of hoarse croaks, as
the train approaches. Perhaps twenty-four trains pass those houses every
twenty-four hours, and it is a wonder that the inhabitants keep their
interest in them, or have leisure to bestow upon any of them. Yet, as you
dash along so bravely, you can see that you arrest the occupations of all
these villagers as by a kind of enchantment; the children pause and turn
their heads toward you from their mud-pies (to the production of which
there is literally no limit in that region); the matron rests one
parboiled hand on her hip, letting the other still linger listlessly upon
the wash-board, while she lifts her eyes from the suds to look at you; the
boys, who all summer long are forever just going into the water or just
coming out of it, cease their buttoning or unbuttoning; the baby, which
has been run after and caught and suitably posed, turns its anguished eyes
upon you, where also falls the mother's gaze, while her descending palm is
arrested in mid air. I forbear to comment upon the surprising populousness
of these villages, where, in obedience to all the laws of health, the
inhabitants ought to be wasting miserably away, but where they flourish
in spite of them. Even Accident here seems to be robbed of half her
malevolence; and that baby (who will presently be chastised with terrific
uproar) passes an infancy of intrepid enjoyment amidst the local perils,
and is no more affected by the engines and the cars than by so many
fretful hens with their attendant broods of chickens.

[Illustration: "That sweet young blonde, who arrives by most trains."]

When sometimes I long for the excitement and variety of travel, which, for
no merit of mine, I knew in other days, I reproach myself, and silence all
my repinings with some such question as, Where could you find more variety
or greater excitement than abounds in and near the Fitchburg Depot when a
train arrives? And to tell the truth, there is something very inspiring in
the fine eagerness with which all the passengers rise as soon as the
locomotive begins to slow, and huddle forward to the door, in their
impatience to get out; while the suppressed vehemence of the hackmen is
also thrilling in its way, not to mention the instant clamor of the
baggage-men as they read and repeat the numbers of the checks in strident
tones. It would be ever so interesting to depict all these people, but it
would require volumes for the work, and I reluctantly let them all pass
out without a word,--all but that sweet young blonde who arrives by most
trains, and who, putting up her eye-glass with a ravishing air,
bewitchingly peers round among the bearded faces, with little tender looks
of hope and trepidation, for the face which she wants, and which presently
bursts through the circle of strange visages. The owner of the face then
hurries forward to meet that sweet blonde, who gives him a little drooping
hand as if it were a delicate flower she laid in his; there is a brief
mutual hesitation long enough merely for an electrical thrill to run from
heart to heart through the clasping hands, and then he stoops toward her,
and distractingly kisses her. And I say that there is no law of conscience
or propriety worthy the name of law--barbarity, absurdity, call it rather--
to prevent any one from availing himself of that providential near-
sightedness, and beatifying himself upon those lips,--nothing to prevent
it but that young fellow, whom one might not, of course, care to provoke.

Among the people who now rush forward and heap themselves into the two
horse-cars and one omnibus, placed before the depot by a wise forethought
for the public comfort to accommodate the train-load of two hundred
passengers, I always note a type that is both pleasing and interesting to
me. It is a lady just passing middle life; from her kindly eyes the
envious crow, whose footprints are just traceable at their corners, has
not yet drunk the brightness, but she looks just a thought sadly, if very
serenely, from them. I know nothing in the world of her; I may have seen
her twice or a hundred times, but I must always be making bits of romances
about her. That is she in faultless gray, with the neat leather bag in her
lap, and a bouquet of the first autumnal blooms perched in her shapely
hands which are prettily yet substantially gloved in some sort of
gauntlets. She can be easy and dignified, my dear middle-aged heroine,
even in one of our horse-cars, where people are for the most part packed
like cattle in a pen. She shows no trace of dust or fatigue from the
thirty or forty miles which I choose to fancy she has ridden from the
handsome elm-shaded New England town of five or ten thousand people, where
I choose to think she lives. From a vague horticultural association with
those gauntlets, as well as from the autumnal blooms, I take it she loves
flowers, and gardens a good deal with her own hands, and keeps house-
plants in the winter, and of course a canary. Her dress, neither rich nor
vulgar, makes me believe her fortunes modest and not recent; her gentle
face has just so much intellectual character as it is good to see in a
woman's face; I suspect that she reads pretty regularly the new poems and
histories, and I know that she is the life and soul of the local book-
club. Is she married, or widowed, or one of the superfluous forty
thousand? That is what I never can tell. But I think that most probably
she is married, and that her husband is very much in business, and does
not share so much as he respects her tastes. I have no particular reason
for thinking that she has no children now, and that the sorrow for the one
she lost so long ago has become only a pensive silence, which, however, a
long summer twilight can yet deepen to tears.... Upon my word! Am I then
one to give way to this sort of thing? Madam, I ask pardon. I have no
right to be sentimentalizing you. Yet your face is one to make people
dream kind things of you, and I cannot keep my reveries away from it.

But in the mean time I neglect the momentous history which I have proposed
to write, and leave my day's pleasurers to fade into the background of a
fantastic portrait. The truth is, I cannot look without pain upon the
discomforts which they suffer at this stage of their joyous enterprise. At
the best, the portables of such a party are apt to be grievous
embarrassments: a package of shawls and parasols and umbrellas and India-
rubbers, however neatly made up at first, quickly degenerates into a
shapeless mass, which has finally to be carried with as great tenderness
as an ailing child; and the lunch is pretty sure to overflow the hand-bags
and to eddy about you in paper parcels; while the bottle of claret, that
bulges the side of one of the bags, and

  "That will show itself without,"

defying your attempts to look as it were cold tea, gives a crushing touch
of disreputability to the whole affair. Add to this the fact that but half
the party have seats, and that the others have to sway and totter about
the car in that sudden contact with all varieties of fellow-men, to which
we are accustomed in the cars, and you must allow that these poor
merrymakers have reasons enough to rejoice when this part of their day's
pleasure is over. They are so plainly bent upon a sail down the Harbor,
that before they leave the car they become objects of public interest, and
are at last made to give some account of themselves.

"Going for a sail, I presume?" says a person hitherto in conversation with
the conductor. "Well, I wouldn't mind a sail myself to-day."

"Yes," answers the head of the party, "going to Gloucester."

"Guess not," says, very coldly and decidedly, one of the passengers, who
is reading that morning's "Advertiser;" and when the subject of this
surmise looks at him for explanations, he adds, "The City Council has
chartered the boat for to-day."

Upon this the excursionists fall into great dismay and bitterness, and
upbraid the City Council, and wonder why last night's "Transcript" said
nothing about its oppressive action, and generally bewail their fate. But
at last they resolve to go somewhere, and, being set down, they make up
their warring minds upon Nahant, for the Nahant boat leaves the wharf
nearest them; and so they hurry away to India Wharf, amidst barrels and
bales and boxes and hacks and trucks, with interminable string-teams
passing before them at every crossing.

"At any rate," says the leader of the expedition, "we shall see the
Gardens of Maolis,--those enchanted gardens which have fairly been
advertised into my dreams, and where I've been told," he continues, with
an effort to make the prospect an attractive one, yet not without a sense
of the meagreness of the materials, "they have a grotto and a wooden

Of course, there is no reason in nature why a wooden bull should be more
pleasing than a flesh-and-blood bull, but it seems to encourage the
company, and they set off again with renewed speed, and at last reach
India Wharf in time to see the Nahant steamer packed full of
excursionists, with a crowd of people still waiting to go aboard. It does
not look inviting, and they hesitate. In a minute or two their spirits
sink so low, that if they should see the wooden bull step out of a grotto
on the deck of the steamer the spectacle could not revive them. At that
instant they think, with a surprising singleness, of Nantasket Beach, and
the bright colors in which the Gardens of Maolis but now appeared fade
away, and they seem to see themselves sauntering along the beautiful
shore, while the white-crested breakers crash upon the sand, and run up

  "In tender-curving lines of creamy spray,"

quite to the feet of that lotus-eating party.

"Nahant is all rocks," says the leader to Aunt Melissa, who hears him with
a sweet and tranquil patience, and who would enjoy or suffer anything with
the same expression; "and as you've never yet seen the open sea, it's
fortunate that we go to Nantasket, for, of course, a beach is more
characteristic. But now the object is to get there. The boat will be
starting in a few moments, and I doubt whether we can walk it. How far is
it," he asks, turning toward a respectable-looking man, "to Liverpool

"Well, it's consid'able ways," says the man, smiling.

"Then we must take a hack," says the pleasurer to his party. "Come on."

"I've got a hack," observes the man, in a casual way, as if the fact might
possibly interest.

"O, you have, have you? Well, then, put us into it, and drive to Liverpool
Wharf; and hurry."

Either the distance was less than the hackman fancied, or else he drove
thither with unheard-of speed, for two minutes later he set them down on
Liverpool Wharf. But swiftly as they had come the steamer had been even
more prompt, and she now turned toward them a beautiful wake, as she
pushed farther and farther out into the harbor.

The hackman took his two dollars for his four passengers, and was rapidly
mounting his box,--probably to avoid idle reproaches. "Wait!" said the
chief pleasurer. Then, "When does the next boat leave?" he asked of the
agent, who had emerged with a compassionate face from the waiting-rooms on
the wharf.

"At half past two."

"And it's now five minutes past nine," moaned the merrymakers.

"Why, I'll tell you what you can do," said the agent; "you can go to
Hingham by the Old Colony cars, and so come back by the Hull and Hingham

"That's it!" chorused his listeners, "we'll go;" and "Now," said their
spokesman to the driver, "I dare say you didn't know that Liverpool Wharf
was so near; but I don't think you've earned your money, and you ought to
take us on to the Old Colony Depot for half-fares at the most."

The driver looked pained, as if some small tatters and shreds of
conscience were flapping uncomfortably about his otherwise dismantled
spirit. Then he seemed to think of his wife and family, for he put on the
air of a man who had already made great sacrifices, and "I couldn't,
really, I couldn't afford it," said he; and as the victims turned from him
in disgust, he chirruped to his horses and drove off.

"Well," said the pleasurers, "we won't give it up. We will have our day's
pleasure after all. But what _can_ we do to kill five hours and a
half? It's miles away from everything, and, besides, there's nothing even
if we were there." At this image of their remoteness and the inherent
desolation of Boston they could not suppress some sighs, and in the mean
time Aunt Melissa stepped into the waiting-room, which opened on the
farther side upon the water, and sat contentedly down on one of the
benches; the rest, from sheer vacuity and irresolution, followed, and
thus, without debate, it was settled that they should wait there till the
boat left. The agent, who was a kind man, did what he could to alleviate
the situation: he gave them each the advertisement of his line of boats,
neatly printed upon a card, and then he went away.

All this prospect of waiting would do well enough for the ladies of the
party, but there is an impatience in the masculine fibre which does not
brook the notion of such prolonged repose; and the leader of the excursion
presently pretended an important errand up town,--nothing less, in fact,
than to buy a tumbler out of which to drink their claret on the beach. A
holiday is never like any other day to the man who takes it, and a festive
halo seemed to enwrap the excursionist as he pushed on through the busy
streets in the cool shadow of the vast granite palaces wherein the genius
of business loves to house itself in this money-making land, and inhaled
the odors of great heaps of leather and spices and dry goods as he passed
the open doorways,--odors that mixed pleasantly with the smell of the
freshly watered streets. When he stepped into a crockery store to make his
purchase a sense of pleasure-taking did not fail him, and he fell
naturally into talk with the clerk about the weather and such pastoral
topics. Even when he reached the establishment where his own business days
were passed some glamour seemed to be cast upon familiar objects. To the
disenchanted eye all things were as they were on all other dullish days of
summer, even to the accustomed bore leaning up against his favorite desk
and transfixing his habitual victim with his usual theme. Yet to the gaze
of this pleasure-taker all was subtly changed, and he shook hands right
and left as he entered, to the marked surprise of the objects of his
effusion. He had merely come to get some newspapers to help pass away the
long moments on the wharf, and when he had found these, he hurried back
thither to hear what had happened during his absence.

It seemed that there had hardly ever been such an eventful period in the
lives of the family before, and he listened to a minute account of it from
Cousin Lucy. "You know, Frank," says she, "that Sallie's one idea in life
is to keep the baby from getting the whooping-cough, and I declare that
these premises have done nothing but reecho with the most dolorous whoops
ever since you've been gone, so that at times, in my fear that Sallie
would think I'd been careless about the boy, I've been ready to throw
myself into the water, and nothing's prevented me but the doubt whether it
wouldn't be better to throw in the whoopers instead."

At this moment a pale little girl, with a face wan and sad through all its
dirt, came and stood in the doorway nearest the baby, and in another
instant she had burst into a whoop so terrific that, if she had meant to
have his scalp next it could not have been more dreadful. Then she
subsided into a deep and pathetic quiet, with that air peculiar to the
victims of her disorder of having done nothing noticeable. But her
outburst had set at work the mysterious machinery of half a dozen other
whooping-coughers lurking about the building, and all unseen they wound
themselves up with appalling rapidity, and in the utter silence which
followed left one to think they had died at the climax.

"Why, it's a perfect whooping-cough factory, this place," cries Cousin
Lucy in a desperation. "Go away, do, please, from the baby, you poor
little dreadful object you," she continues, turning upon the only visible
operative in the establishment. "Here, take this," and she bribes her with
a bit of sponge-cake, on which the child runs lightly off along the edge
of the wharf. "That's been another of their projects for driving me wild,"
says Cousin Lucy,--"trying to take their own lives in a hundred ways
before my face and eyes. Why _will_ their mothers let them come here
to play?"

Really, they were very melancholy little figures, and might have gone near
to make one sad, even if they had not been constantly imperilling their
lives. Thanks to its being summer-time, it did not much matter about the
scantiness of their clothing, but their squalor was depressing, it seemed,
even to themselves, for they were a mournful-looking set of children, and
in their dangerous sports trifled silently and almost gloomily with death.
There were none of them above eight or nine years of age, and most of them
had the care of smaller brothers, or even babes in arms, whom they were
thus early inuring to the perils of the situation. The boys were dressed
in pantaloons and shirts which no excess of rolling up in the legs and
arms could make small enough, and the incorrigible too-bigness of which
rendered the favorite amusements still more hazardous from their liability
to trip and entangle the wearers. The little girls had on each a solitary
garment, which hung about her gaunt person with antique severity of
outline; while the babies were multitudinously swathed in whatever
fragments of dress could be tied or pinned or plastered on. Their faces
were strikingly and almost ingeniously dirty, and their distractions among
the coal-heaps and cord-wood constantly added to the variety and advantage
of these effects.

"Why do their mothers let them come here?" muses Frank aloud. "Why,
because it's so safe, Cousin Lucy. At home, you know, they'd have to be
playing upon the sills of fourth-floor windows, and here they're out of
the way and can't hurt themselves. Why, Cousin Lucy, this is their park,--
their Public Garden, their Bois de Boulogne, their Cascine. And look at
their gloomy little faces! Aren't they taking their pleasure in the spirit
of the very highest fashion? I was at Newport last summer, and saw the
famous driving on the Avenue in those pony phaetons, dog-carts, and tubs,
and three-story carriages with a pair of footmen perching like storks upon
each gable, and I assure you that all those ornate and costly phantasms
(it seems to me now like a sad, sweet vision) had just the expression of
these poor children. We're taking a day's pleasure ourselves, cousin, but
nobody would know it from our looks. And has nothing but whooping-cough
happened since I've been gone?"

"Yes, we seem to be so cut off from every-day associations that I've
imagined myself a sort of tourist, and I've been to that Catholic church
over yonder, in hopes of seeing the Murillos and Raphaels--but I found it
locked up, and so I trudged back without a sight of the masterpieces. But
what's the reason that all the shops hereabouts have nothing but luxuries
for sale? The windows are perfect tropics of oranges, and lemons, and
belated bananas, and tobacco, and peanuts."

"Well, the poor really seem to use more of those luxuries than anybody
else. I don't blame them. I shouldn't care for the necessaries of life
myself, if I found them so hard to get."

"When I came back here," says Cousin Lucy, without heeding these flippant
and heartless words, "I found an old gentleman who has something to do
with the boats, and he sat down, as if it were a part of his business, and
told me nearly the whole history of his life. Isn't it nice of them,
keeping an Autobiographer? It makes the time pass so swiftly when you're
waiting. This old gentleman was born--who'd ever think it?--up there in
Pearl Street, where those pitiless big granite stores are now; and, I
don't know why, but the idea of any human baby being born in Pearl Street
seemed to me one of the saddest things I'd ever heard of."

Here Cousin Lucy went to the rescue of the nurse and the baby, who had got
into one of their periodical difficulties, and her interlocutor turned to
Aunt Melissa.

"I think, Franklin," says Aunt Melissa, "that it was wrong to let that
nurse come and bring the baby."

"Yes, I know, Aunty, you have those old-established ideas, and they're
very right," answers her nephew; "but just consider how much she enjoys
it, and how vastly the baby adds to the pleasure of this charming

Aunt Melissa made no reply, but sat thoughtfully out upon the bay. "I
presume you think the excursion is a failure," she said, after a while;
"but I've been enjoying every minute of the time here. Of course, I've
never seen the open sea, and I don't know about it, but I feel here just
as if I were spending a day at the seaside."

"Well," said her nephew, "I shouldn't call this exactly a watering-place.
It lacks the splendor and gayety of Newport, in a certain degree, and it
hasn't the illustrious seclusion of Nahant. The surf isn't very fine, nor
the beach particularly adapted to bathing; and yet, I must confess, the
outlook from here is as lovely as anything one need have."

And to tell the truth, it was very pretty and interesting. The landward
environment was as commonplace and mean as it could be: a yardful of
dismal sheds for coal and lumber, and shanties for offices, with each
office its safe and its desk, its whittled arm-chair and its spittoon, its
fly that shooed not, but buzzed desperately against the grimy pane, which,
if it had really had that boasted microscopic eye, it never would have
mistaken for the unblemished daylight. Outside of this yard was the usual
wharfish neighborhood, with its turmoil of trucks and carts and fleet
express-wagons, its building up and pulling down, its discomfort and
clamor of every sort, and its shops for the sale, not only of those
luxuries which Lucy had mentioned, but of such domestic refreshments as
lemon-pie and hulled-corn.

When, however, you turned your thoughts and eyes away from this aspect of
it, and looked out upon the water, the neighborhood gloriously retrieved
itself. There its poverty and vulgarity ceased; there its beauty and grace
abounded. A light breeze ruffled the face of the bay, and the innumerable
little sail-boats that dotted it took the sun and wind upon their wings,
which they dipped almost into the sparkle of the water, and flew lightly
hither and thither like gulls that loved the brine too well to rise wholly
from it; larger ships, farther or nearer, puffed or shrank their sails as
they came and went on the errands of commerce, but always moved as if bent
upon some dreamy affair of pleasure; the steamboats that shot vehemently
across their tranquil courses seemed only gayer and vivider visions, but
not more substantial; yonder, a black sea-going steamer passed out between
the far-off islands, and at last left in the sky above those reveries of
fortification, a whiff of sombre smoke, dark and unreal as a memory of
battle; to the right, on some line of railroad, long-plumed trains arrived
and departed like pictures passed through the slide of a magic-lantern;
even a pile-driver, at work in the same direction, seemed to have no
malice in the blows which, after a loud clucking, it dealt the pile, and
one understood that it was mere conventional violence like that of a Punch
to his baby.

"Why, what a lotus-eating life this is!" said Frank, at last. "Aunt
Melissa, I don't wonder you think it's like the seaside. It's a great deal
better than the seaside. And now, just as we've entered into the spirit of
it, the time's up for the 'Rose Standish' to come and bear us from its
delights. When will the boat be in?" he asked of the Autobiographer, whom
Lucy had pointed out to him.

"Well, she's _ben_ in half an hour, now. There she lays, just outside
the 'John Romer.'"

There, to be sure, she lay, and those pleasure-takers had been so lost in
the rapture of waiting and the beauty of the scene as never to have
noticed her arrival.


It is noticeable how many people there are in the world that seem bent
always upon the same purpose of amusement or business as one's self. If
you keep quietly about your accustomed affairs, there are all your
neighbors and acquaintance hard at it too; if you go on a journey, choose
what train you will, the cars are filled with travellers in your
direction. You take a day's pleasure, and everybody abandons his usual
occupation to crowd upon your boat, whether it is to Gloucester, or
Nahant, or to Nantasket Beach you go. It is very hard to believe that,
from whatever channel of life you abstract yourself, still the great sum
of it presses forward as before: that business is carried on though you
are idle, that men amuse themselves though you toil, that every train is
as crowded as that you travel on, that the theatre or the church fills its
boxes or pews without you perfectly well. I suppose it would not be quite
agreeable to believe all this; the opposite illusion is far more
flattering; for if each one of us did not take the world with him now at
every turn, should he not have to leave it behind him when he died? And
that, it must be owned, would not be agreeable, nor is the fact quite
conceivable, though ever so many myriads in so many million years have
proved it.

When our friends first went aboard the "Rose Standish" that day they were
almost the sole passengers, and they had a feeling of ownership and
privacy which was pleasant enough in its way, but which they lost
afterwards; though to lose it was also pleasant, for enjoyment no more
likes to be solitary than sin does, which is notoriously gregarious, and I
dare say would hardly exist if it could not be committed in company. The
preacher, indeed, little knows the comfortable sensation we have in being
called fellow-sinners, and what an effective shield for his guilt each
makes of his neighbor's hard-heartedness.

Cousin Frank never felt how strange was a lonely transgression till that
day, when in the silence of the little cabin he took the bottle of claret
from the handbag, and prepared to moisten the family lunch with it. "I
think, Aunt Melissa," he said, "we had better lunch now, for it's a
quarter past two, and we shall not get to the beach before four. Let's
improvise a beach of these chairs, and that water-urn yonder can stand for
the breakers. Now, this is truly like Newport and Nahant," he added, after
the little arrangement was complete; and he was about to strip away the
bottle's jacket of brown paper, when a lady much wrapped up came in, and,
reclining upon one of the opposite seats, began to take them all in with a
severe serenity of gaze that made them feel for a moment like a party of
low foreigners,--like a set of German atheists, say. Frank kept on the
bottle's paper jacket, and as the single tumbler of the party circled from
mouth to mouth, each of them tried to give the honest drink the false air
of a medicinal potion of some sort; and to see Aunt Melissa sipping it, no
one could have put his hand on his heart and sworn it was not elderberry
wine, at the worst. In spite of these efforts, they all knew that they had
suffered a hopeless loss of repute; yet after the loss was confessed, I am
not sure that they were not the gayer and happier through this "freedom of
a broken law." At any rate, the lunch passed off very merrily, and when
they had put back the fragments of the feast into the bags, they went
forward to the bow of the boat, to get good places for seeing the various
people as they came aboard, and for an outlook upon the bay when the boat
should start.

I suppose that these were not very remarkable people, and that nothing but
the indomitable interest our friends took in the human race could have
enabled them to feel any concern in their companions. It was, no doubt,
just such a company as goes down to Nantasket Beach every pleasant day in
summer. Certain ones among them were distinguishable as sojourners at the
beach, by an air of familiarity with the business of getting there, an
indifference to the prospect, and an indefinable touch of superiority.
These read their newspapers in quiet corners, or, if they were not of the
newspaper sex, made themselves comfortable in the cabins, and looked about
them at the other passengers with looks of lazy surprise, and just a hint
of scorn for their interest in the boat's departure. Our day's pleasurers
took it that the lady whose steady gaze had reduced them, when at lunch,
to such a low ebb of shabbiness, was a regular boarder, at the least, in
one of the beach hotels. A few other passengers were, like themselves,
mere idlers for a day, and were eager to see all that the boat or the
voyage offered of novelty. There were clerks and men who had book-keeping
written in a neat mercantile hand upon their faces, and who had evidently
been given that afternoon for a breathing-time; and there were strangers
who were going down to the beach for the sake of the charming view of the
harbor which the trip afforded. Here and there were people who were not to
be classed with any certainty,--as a pale young man, handsome in his
undesirable way, who looked like a steamboat pantry boy not yet risen to
be bar-tender, but rapidly rising, and who sat carefully balanced upon the
railing of the boat, chatting with two young girls, who heard his broad
sallies with continual snickers, and interchanged saucy comments with that
prompt up-and-coming manner which is so large a part of non-humorous
humor, as Mr. Lowell calls it, and now and then pulled and pushed each
other. It was a scene worth study, for in no other country could anything
so bad have been without being vastly worse; but here it was evident that
there was nothing worse than you saw; and, indeed, these persons formed a
sort of relief to the other passengers, who were nearly all monotonously
well-behaved. Amongst a few there seemed to be acquaintance, but the far
greater part were unknown to one another, and there were no words wasted
by any one. I believe the English traveller who has taxed our nation with
inquisitiveness for half a century is at last beginning to find out that
we do not ask questions because we have the still more vicious custom of
not opening our mouths at all when with strangers.

It was a good hour after our friends got aboard before the boat left her
moorings, and then it was not without some secret dreads of sea-sickness
that Aunt Melissa saw the seething brine widen between her and the
familiar wharf-house, where she now seemed to have spent so large a part
of her life. But the multitude of really charming and interesting objects
that presently fell under her eye soon distracted her from those gloomy

There is always a shabbiness about the wharves of seaports; but I must own
that as soon as you get a reasonable distance from them in Boston, they
turn wholly beautiful. They no longer present that imposing array of
mighty ships which they could show in the days of Consul Plancus, when the
commerce of the world sought chiefly our port, yet the docks are still
filled with the modester kinds of shipping, and if there is not that
wilderness of spars and rigging which you see at New York, let us believe
that there is an aspect of selection and refinement in the scene, so that
one should describe it, not as a forest, but, less conventionally, as a
gentleman's park of masts. The steamships of many coastwise freight lines
gloom, with their black, capacious hulks, among the lighter sailing-craft,
and among the white, green-shuttered passenger-boats; and behind them
those desperate and grimy sheds assume a picturesqueness, their sagging
roofs and crooked gables harmonizing agreeably with the shipping; and then
growing up from all, rises the mellow-tinted brick-built city, roof, and
spire, and dome,--a fair and noble sight, indeed, and one not surpassed
for a certain quiet and cleanly beauty by any that I know.

Our friends lingered long upon this pretty prospect, and, as inland people
of light heart and easy fancy will, the ladies made imagined voyages in
each of the more notable vessels they passed,--all cheap and safe trips,
occupying half a second apiece. Then they came forward to the bow, that
they might not lose any part of the harbor's beauty and variety, and
informed themselves of the names of each of the fortressed islands as they
passed, and forgot them, being passed, so that to this day Aunt Melissa
has the Fort Warren rebel prisoners languishing in Fort Independence. But
they made sure of the air of soft repose that hung about each, of that
exquisite military neatness which distinguishes them, and which went to
Aunt Melissa's housekeeping heart, of the green, thick turf covering the
escarpments, of the great guns loafing on the crests of the ramparts and
looking out over the water sleepily, of the sentries pacing slowly up and
down with their gleaming muskets.

"I never see one of those fellows," says Cousin Frank, "without setting
him to the music of that saddest and subtlest of Heine's poems. You know
it, Lucy;" and he repeats:--

  "Mein Herz, mein Herz is traurig,
     Doch lustig leuchtet der Mai;
   Ich stehe gelehnt an der Linde,
     Hoch auf der alten Bastei.

       *       *       *       *       *

  "Am alten grauen Thurme
     Ein Schilderhauschen steht;
   Ein rothgerockter Bursche
     Dort auf und nieder geht.

  "Er spielt mit seiner Flinte,
     Sie funkelt im Sonnenroth,
   Er prasentirt, und schultert,--
     Ich wollt', er schosse mich todt."

"O!" says Cousin Lucy, either because the poignant melancholy of the
sentiment has suddenly pierced her, or because she does not quite
understand the German,--you never can tell about women. While Frank smiles
down upon her in this amiable doubt, their party is approached by the
tipsy man who has been making the excursion so merry for the other
passengers, in spite of the fact that there is very much to make one sad
in him. He is an old man, sweltering in rusty black, a two days' gray
beard, and a narrow-brimmed, livid silk hat, set well back upon the nape
of his neck. He explains to our friends, as he does to every one whose
acquaintance he makes, that he was in former days a seafaring man, and
that he has brought his two little grandsons here to show them something
about a ship; and the poor old soul helplessly saturates his phrase with
the rankest profanity. The boys are somewhat amused by their grandsire's
state, being no doubt familiar with it, but a very grim-looking old lady
who sits against the pilot-house, and keeps a sharp eye upon all three,
and who is also doubtless familiar with the unhappy spectacle, seems not
to find it a joke. Her stout matronly umbrella trembles in her hand when
her husband draws near, and her eye flashes; but he gives her as wide a
berth as he can, returning her glare with a propitiatory drunken smile and
a wink to the passengers to let them into the fun. In fact, he is full of
humor in his tipsy way, and one after another falls the prey of his free
sarcasm, which does not spare the boat or any feature of the excursion. He
holds for a long time, by swiftly successive stories of his seafaring
days, a very quiet gentleman, who dares neither laugh too loudly nor show
indifference for fear of rousing that terrible wit at his expense, and
finds his account in looking down at his boots.

"Well, sir," says the deplorable old sinner, "we was forty days out from
Liverpool, with a cargo of salt and iron, and we got caught on the Banks
in a calm. 'Cap'n,' says I,--I 'us sec'n' mate,--''s they any man aboard
this ship knows how to pray?' 'No,' says the cap'n; 'blast yer prayers!'
'Well,' says I, 'cap'n, I'm no hand at all to pray, but I'm goin' to see
if prayin' won't git us out 'n this.' And I down on my knees, and I made a
first-class prayer; and a breeze sprung up in a minute and carried us
smack into Boston."

At this bit of truculent burlesque the quiet man made a bold push, and
walked away with a somewhat sickened face, and as no one now intervened
between them, the inebriate laid a familiar hand upon Cousin Frank's
collar, and said with a wink at his late listener: "Looks like a lerigious
man, don't he? I guess I give him a good dose, if he _does_ think
himself the head-deacon of this boat." And he went on to state his ideas
of religion, from which it seemed that he was a person of the most
advanced thinking, and believed in nothing worth mentioning.

It is perhaps no worse for an Infidel to be drunk than a Christian, but my
friend found this tipsy blasphemer's case so revolting, that he went to
the hand-bag, took out the empty claret-bottle, and seeking a solitary
corner of the boat, cast the bottle into the water, and felt a thrill of
uncommon self-approval as this scapegoat of all the wine at his grocer's
bobbed off upon the little waves. "Besides, it saves carrying the bottle
home," he thought, not without a half-conscious reserve, that if his
penitence were ever too much for him, he could easily abandon it. And
without the reflection that the gate is always open behind him, who could
consent to enter upon any course of perfect behavior? If good resolutions
could not be broken, who would ever have the courage to form them? Would
it not be intolerable to be made as good as we ought to be? Then,
admirable reader, thank Heaven even for your lapses, since it is so
wholesome and saving to be well ashamed of yourself, from time to time.

"What an outrage," said Cousin Frank, in the glow of virtue, as he
rejoined the ladies, "that that tipsy rascal should be allowed to go on
with his ribaldry. He seems to pervade the whole boat, and to subject
everybody to his sway. He's a perfect despot to us helpless sober people,--
I wouldn't openly disagree with him on any account. We ought to send a
Round Robin to the captain, and ask him to put that religious liberal in
irons during the rest of the voyage."

In the mean time, however, the object of his indignation had used up all
the conversible material in that part of the boat, and had deviously
started for the other end. The elderly woman with the umbrella rose and
followed him, somewhat wearily, and with a sadness that appeared more in
her movement than in her face; and as the two went down the cabin, did the
comical affair look, after all, something like tragedy? My reader, who
expects a little novelty in tragedy, and not these stale and common
effects, will never think so.

"You'll not pretend, Frank," says Lucy, "that in such an intellectual
place as Boston a crowd as large as this can be got together, and no
distinguished literary people in it. I know there are some notables
aboard: do point them out to me. Pretty near everybody has a literary

"Why, that's what we call our Boston look, Cousin Lucy. You needn't have
written anything to have it,--it's as general as tubercular consumption,
and is the effect of our universal culture and habits of reading. I heard
a New-Yorker say once that if you went into a corner grocery in Boston to
buy a codfish, the man would ask you how you liked 'Lucille,' whilst he
was tying it up. No, no; you mustn't be taken in by that literary look;
I'm afraid the real literary men don't always have it. But I _do_ see
a literary man aboard yonder," he added, craning his neck to one side, and
then furtively pointing,--"the most literary man I ever knew, one of the
most literary men that ever lived. His whole existence is really bound up
in books; he never talks of anything else, and never thinks of anything
else, I believe. Look at him,--what kind and pleasant eyes he's got!
There, he sees me!" cries Cousin Frank, with a pleasurable excitement.
"How d'ye do?" he calls out.

"O Cousin Frank, introduce us," sighs Lucy.

"Not I! He wouldn't thank me. He doesn't care for pretty girls outside of
books; he'd be afraid of 'em; he's the bashfullest man alive, and all his
heroines are fifty years old, at the least. But before I go any further,
tell me solemnly, Lucy, you're not interviewing me? You're not going to
write it to a New York newspaper? No? Well, I think it's best to ask,
always. Our friend there--he's everybody's friend, if you mean nobody's
enemy, by that, not even his own--is really what I say,--the most literary
man I ever knew. He loves all epochs and phases of literature, but his
passion is the Charles Lamb period and all Lamb's friends. He loves them
as if they were living men; and Lamb would have loved him if he could have
known him. He speaks rapidly, and rather indistinctly, and when you meet
him and say Good day, and you suppose he answers with something about the
weather, ten to one he's asking you what you think of Hazlitt's essays on
Shakespeare, or Leigh Hunt's Italian Poets, or Lamb's roast pig, or Barry
Cornwall's songs. He couldn't get by a bookstall without stopping--for
half an hour, at any rate. He knows just when all the new books in town
are to be published, and when each bookseller is to get his invoice of old
English books. He has no particular address, but if you leave your card
for him at any bookstore in Boston, he's sure to get it within two days;
and in the summer-time you're apt to meet him on these excursions. Of
course, he writes about books, and very tastefully and modestly; there's
hardly any of the brand-new immortal English poets, who die off so
rapidly, but has had a good word from him; but his heart is with the older
fellows, from Chaucer down; and, after the Charles Lamb epoch, I don't
know whether he loves better the Elizabethan age or that of Queen Anne.
Think of him making me stop the other day at a bookstall, and read through
an essay out of the "Spectator!" I did it all for love of him, though
money couldn't have persuaded me that I had time; and I'm always telling
him lies, and pretending to be as well acquainted as he is with authors I
hardly know by name,--he seems so fondly to expect it. He's really almost
a disembodied spirit as concerns most mundane interests--his soul is in
literature, as a lover's in his mistress's beauty; and in the next world,
where, as the Swedenborgians believe, spirits seen at a distance appear
like the things they most resemble in disposition, as doves, hawks, goats,
lambs, swine, and so on, I'm sure that I shall see his true and kindly
soul in the guise of a noble old Folio, quaintly lettered across his back
in old English text, _Tom. I._"

While our friends talked and looked about them, a sudden change had come
over the brightness and warmth of the day; the blue heaven had turned a
chilly gray, and the water looked harsh and cold. Now, too, they noted
that they were drawing near a wooden pier built into the water, and that
they had been winding about in a crooked channel between muddy shallows,
and that their course was overrun with long, disheveled sea-weed. The
shawls had been unstrapped, and the ladies made comfortable in them.

"Ho for the beach!" cried Cousin Frank, with a vehement show of
enthusiasm. "Now, then, Aunt Melissa, prepare for the great enjoyment of
the day. In a few moments we shall be of the elves

      'That on the sand with printless foot
  Do chase the ebbing Neptune, and do fly him
  When he comes back.'

Come! we shall have three hours on the beach, and that will bring us well
into the cool of the evening, and we can return by the last boat."

"As to the cool of the evening," said Aunt Melissa, "I don't know. It's
quite cool enough for comfort at present, and I'm sure that anything more
wouldn't be wholesome. What's become of our beautiful weather?" she asked,
deeply plotting to gain time.

"It's one of our Boston peculiarities, not to say merits," answered Frank,
"which you must have noticed already, that we can get rid of a fine day
sooner than any other region. While you're saying how lovely it is, a
subtle change is wrought, and under skies still blue and a sun still warm
the keen spirit of the east wind pierces every nerve, and all the fine
weather within you is chilled and extinguished. The gray atmosphere
follows, but the day first languishes in yourself. But for this, life in
Boston would be insupportably perfect, if this is indeed a drawback. You'd
find Bostonians to defend it, I dare say. But this isn't a regular east
wind to-day; it's merely our nearness to the sea."

"I think, Franklin," said Aunt Melissa, "that we won't go down to the
beach this afternoon," as if she had been there yesterday, and would go
to-morrow. "It's too late in the day; and it wouldn't be good for the
child, I'm sure."

"Well, aunty, it was you determined us to wait for the boat, and it's your
right to say whether we shall leave it or not. I'm very willing not to go
ashore. I always find that, after working up to an object with great
effort, it's surpassingly sweet to leave it unaccomplished at last. Then
it remains forever in the region of the ideal, amongst the songs that
never were sung, the pictures that never were painted. Why, in fact,
should we force this pleasure? We've eaten our lunch, we've lost the warm
heart of the day; why should we poorly drag over to that damp and sullen
beach, where we should find three hours very long, when by going back now
we can keep intact that glorious image of a day by the sea which we've
been cherishing all summer? You're right, Aunt Melissa; we won't go
ashore; we will stay here, and respect our illusions."

At heart, perhaps, Lucy did not quite like this retreat; it was not in
harmony with the youthful spirit of her sex, but she reflected that she
could come again,--O beneficent cheat of Another Time, how much thou
sparest us in our over-worked, over-enjoyed world!--she was very
comfortable where she was, in a seat commanding a perfect view for the
return trip; and she submitted without a murmur. Besides, now that the
boat had drawn up to the pier, and discharged part of her passengers, and
was waiting to take on others, Lucy was interested in a mass of fluttering
dresses and wide-rimmed straw hats that drew down toward the "Rose
Standish," and gracefully thronged the pier, and prettily hesitated about,
and finally came aboard with laughter and little false cries of terror,
attended through all by the New England disproportion of that sex which is
so foolish when it is silly. It was a large picnic party which had been
spending the day upon the beach, as each of the ladies showed in her face,
where, if the roses upon her cheeks were somewhat obscured by the
imbrowning seaside sun, a bright pink had been compensatingly bestowed
upon the point of her nose. A mysterious quiet fell upon them all when
they were got aboard and had taken conspicuous places, which was accounted
for presently when a loud shout was heard from the shore, and a man beside
an ambulant photographic machine was seen wildly waving his hat. It is
impossible to resist a temptation of this kind, and our party all yielded,
and posed themselves in striking and characteristic attitudes,--even Aunt
Melissa sharing the ambition to appear in a picture which she should never
see, and the nurse coming out strong from the abeyance in which she had
been held, and lifting the baby high into the air for a good likeness. The
frantic gesticulator on the shore gave an impressive wave with both hands,
took the cap from the instrument, turned his back, as photographers always
do, with that air of hiding their tears, for the brief space that seems so
long, and then clapped on the cap again, while a great sigh of relief went
up from the whole boat-load of passengers. They were taken.

But the interval had been a luckless one for the "Rose Standish," and when
she stirred her wheels, clouds of mud rose to the top of the water, and
there was no responsive movement of the boat. She was aground in the
falling tide.

"There seems a pretty fair prospect of our spending some time here, after
all," said Frank, while the ladies, who had reluctantly given up the idea
of staying, were now in a quiver of impatience to be off. The picnic was
shifted from side to side; the engine groaned and tugged, Captain Miles
Standish and his crew bestirred themselves vigorously, and at last the
boat swung loose, and strode down the sea-weedy channels; while our
friends, who had already done the great sights of the harbor, now settled
themselves to the enjoyment of its minor traits and beauties. Here and
there they passed small parties on the shore, which, with their yachts
anchored near, or their boats drawn up from the water, were cooking an
out-door meal by a fire that burned bright red upon the sands in the late
afternoon air. In such cases, people willingly indulge themselves in
saluting whatever craft goes by, and the ladies of these small picnics, as
they sat round the fires, kept up a great waving of handkerchiefs, and
sometimes cheered the "Rose Standish," though I believe the Bostonians are
ordinarily not a demonstrative race. Of course the large picnic on board
fluttered multitudinous handkerchiefs in response, both to these people
ashore and to those who hailed them from vessels which they met. They did
not refuse the politeness even to the passengers on a rival boat when she
passed them, though at heart they must have felt some natural pangs at
being passed. The water was peopled everywhere by all sorts of sail
lagging slowly homeward in the light evening breeze; and on some of the
larger vessels there were family groups to be seen, and a graceful smoke,
suggestive of supper, curled from the cook's galley. I suppose these ships
were chiefly coasting craft, of one kind or another, come from the
Provinces at farthest; but to the ignorance and the fancy of our friends,
they arrived from all remote and romantic parts of the world,--from India,
from China, and from the South Seas, with cargoes of spices and gums and
tropical fruits; and I see no reason why one should ever deny himself the
easy pleasure they felt in painting the unknown in such lively hues. The
truth is, a strange ship, if you will let her, always brings you precious
freight, always arrives from Wonderland under the command of Captain
Sinbad. How like a beautiful sprite she looks afar off, as if she came
from some finer and fairer world than ours! Nay, we will not go out to
meet her; we will not go on board; Captain Sinbad shall bring us the
invoice of gold-dust, slaves, and rocs' eggs to-night, and we will have
some of the eggs for breakfast; or if he never comes, are we not just as
rich? But I think these friends of ours got a yet keener pleasure out of
the spectacle of a large and stately ship, that with all sails spread
moved silently and steadily out toward the open sea. It is yet grander and
sweeter to sail toward the unknown than to come from it; and every vessel
that leaves port has this destination, and will bear you thither if you

  "It may be that the gulf shall wash us down;
   It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,
   And see the great Achilles, whom we knew,"

absently murmured Lucy, looking on this beautiful apparition.

"But I can't help thinking of Ulysses' cabin-boy, yonder," said Cousin
Frank, after a pause; "can you, Aunt Melissa?"

"I don't understand what you're talking about Franklin," answered Aunt
Melissa, somewhat severely.

"Why, I mean that there is a poor wretch of a boy on board there, who's
run away, and whose heart must be aching just now at the thought of the
home he has left. I hope Ulysses will be good to him, and not swear at him
for a day or two, or knock him about with a belaying-pin. Just about this
time his mother, up in the country, is getting ready his supper, and
wondering what's become of him, and torturing herself with hopes that
break one by one; and to-night when she goes up to his empty room, having
tried to persuade herself that the truant's come back and climbed in at
the window"--

"Why, Franklin, this isn't true, is it?" asks Aunt Melissa.

"Well, no, let's pray Heaven it isn't, in this case. It's been true often
enough to be false for once."

"What a great, ugly, black object a ship is!" said Cousin Lucy.

Slowly the city rose up against the distance, sharpening all its outlines,
and filling in all its familiar details,--like a fact which one dreams is
a dream, and which, as the mists of sleep break away, shows itself for

The air grows closer and warmer,--it is the breath of the hot and toil-
worn land.

The boat makes her way up through the shipping, seeks her landing, and
presently rubs herself affectionately against the wharf. The passengers
quickly disperse themselves upon shore, dismissed each with an appropriate
sarcasm by the tipsy man, who has had the means of keeping himself drunk
throughout, and who now looks to the discharge of the boat's cargo.

As our friends leave the wharf-house behind them, and straggle uneasily,
and very conscious of sunburn, up the now silent length of Pearl Street to
seek the nearest horse-cars, they are aware of a curious fidgeting of the
nurse, who flies from one side of the pavement to the other and violently
shifts the baby from one arm to the other.

"What's the matter?" asks Frank; but before the nurse can answer, "Thim
little divils," he perceives that the whooping-coughers of the morning
have taken the occasion to renew a pleasant acquaintance, and are
surrounding the baby and nurse with an atmosphere of whooping-cough.

"I say, friends! we can't stand this, you know," says the anxious father.
"We must part some time, and this is a favorable moment. Now I'll give you
all this, if you don't come another step!" and he empties out to them,
from the hand-bags he carries, the fragments of lunch which the frugal
mind of Aunt Melissa had caused her to store there. Upon these the
whooping-coughers hurl themselves in a body, and are soon left round the
corner. Yet they would have been no disgrace to our party, whose
appearance was now most disreputable: Frank and Lucy stalked ahead, with
shawls dragging from their arms, the former loaded down with hand-bags and
the latter with India-rubbers; Aunt Melissa came next under a burden of
bloated umbrellas; the nurse last, with her hat awry, and the baby a
caricature of its morning trimness, in her embrace. A day's pleasure is so
demoralizing, that no party can stand it, and come out neat and orderly.

[Illustration: "Frank and Lucy stalked ahead, with shawls dragging from
their arms."]

"Cousin Frank," asked Lucy, awfully, "what if we should meet the
Mayflowers now?"--the Mayflowers being a very ancient and noble Boston
family whose acquaintance was the great pride and terror of our friends'

"I should cut them dead," said Frank, and scarcely spoke again till his
party dragged slowly up the steps of their minute suburban villa.

At the door his wife met them with a troubled and anxious face.

"Calamities?" asked Frank, desperately.

"O, calamities upon calamities! We've got a lost child in the kitchen,"
answered Mrs. Sallie.

"O good heavens!" cried her husband. "Adieu, my dreams of repose, so
desirable after the quantity of active enjoyment I've had! Well, where is
the lost child?"


"Where is the lost child?" repeats Frank, desperately. "Where have you got

"In the kitchen."

"Why in the kitchen?"

"How's baby?" demands Mrs. Sallie, with the incoherent suddenness of her
sex, and running halfway down the steps to meet the nurse. "Um, um, um-m-
m-m," sounds, which may stand for smothered kisses of rapture and
thanksgiving that baby is not a lost child. "Has he been good, Lucy? Take
him off and give him some cocoa, Mrs. O'Gonegal," she adds in her
business-like way, and with a little push to the combined nurse and baby,
while Lucy answers, "O beautiful!" and from that moment, being warned
through all her being by something in the other's tone, casts aside the
matronly manner which she has worn during the day, and lapses into the
comfortable irresponsibility of young-ladyhood.

"What kind of a time did you have?"

"Splendid!" answers Lucy. "Delightful, _I_ think," she adds, as if
she thought others might not think so.

"I suppose you found Gloucester a quaint old place."

"O," says Frank, "we didn't go to Gloucester; we found that the City
Fathers had chartered the boat for the day, so we thought we'd go to

"Then you've seen your favorite Gardens of Maolis! What in the world
_are_ they like?"

"Well; we didn't see the Gardens of Maolis; the Nahant boat was so crowded
that we couldn't think of going on her, and so we decided we'd drive over
to the Liverpool Wharf and go down to Nantasket Beach."

"That was nice. I'm so glad on Aunt Melissa's account. It's much better to
see the ocean from a long beach than from those Nahant rocks."

"That's what _I_ said. But, you know, when we got to the wharf the
boat had just left."

"You _don't_ mean it! Well, then, what under the canopy _did_
you do?"

"Why, we sat down in the wharf-house, and waited from nine o'clock till
half-past two for the next boat."

"Well, I'm glad you didn't back out, at any rate. You did show pluck, you
poor things! I hope you enjoyed the beach after you _did_ get there."

"Why," says Frank, looking down, "we never got there."

"Never got there!" gasps Mrs. Sallie. "Didn't you go down on the afternoon


"Why didn't you get to the beach, then?"

"We didn't go ashore."

"Well, that's _like_ you, Frank."

"It's a great deal more like Aunt Melissa," answers Frank. "The air felt
so raw and chilly by the time we reached the pier, that she declared the
baby would perish if it was taken to the beach. Besides, nothing would
persuade her that Nantasket Beach was at all different from Liverpool

"Never mind, never mind!" says Mrs. Sallie. "I don't wish to hear anything
more. That's your idea of a day's pleasure, is it? I call it a day's
disgrace, a day's miserable giving-up. There, go in, go in; I'm ashamed of
you all. Don't let the neighbors see you, for pity's sake.--We keep him in
the kitchen," she continues, recurring to Frank's long-unanswered question
concerning the lost child, "because he prefers it as being the room
nearest to the closet where the cookies are. He's taken advantage of our
sympathies to refuse everything but cookies."

"I suppose that's one of the rights of lost childhood," comments Frank,
languidly; "there's no law that can compel him to touch even cracker."

"Well, you'd better go down and see what _you_ can make of him. He's
driven _us_ all wild."

So Frank descends to the region now redolent of the preparing tea, and
finds upon a chair, in the middle of the kitchen floor, a very forlorn
little figure of a boy, mutely munching a sweet-cake, while now and then a
tear steals down his cheeks and moistens the grimy traces of former tears.
He and baby are, in the mean time regarding each other with a steadfast
glare, the cook and the nurse supporting baby in this rite of hospitality.

"Well, my little man," says his host, "how did you get here?"

The little man, perhaps because he is heartily sick of the question, is
somewhat slow to answer that there was a fire; and that he ran after the
steamer; and a girl found him and brought him up here.

"And that's all the blessed thing you can get out of him," says cook; and
the lost boy looks as if he felt cook to be perfectly right.

In spite of the well-meant endeavors of the household to wash him and
brush him, he is still a dreadfully travel-stained little boy, and he is
powdered in every secret crease and wrinkle by that dust of old
Charlesbridge, of which we always speak with an air of affected disgust,
and a feeling of ill-concealed pride in an abomination so strikingly and
peculiarly our own. He looks very much as if he had been following fire-
engines about the streets of our learned and pulverous suburb ever since
he could walk, and he certainly seems to feel himself in trouble to a
certain degree; but there is easily imaginable in his bearing a conviction
that after all the chief care is with others, and that, though unhappy, he
is not responsible. The principal victim of his sorrows is also penetrated
by this opinion, and after gazing forlornly upon him for a while, asks
mechanically, "What's your name?"

"Freddy," is the laconic answer.

"Freddy--?" trying with an artful inflection to lead him on to his

"Freddy," decidedly and conclusively.

"O, bless me! What's the name of the street your papa lives on?"

This problem is far too deep for Freddy, and he takes a bite of sweet-cake
in sign that he does not think of solving it. Frank looks at him gloomily
for a moment, and then determines that he can grapple with the difficulty
more successfully after he has had tea. "Send up the supper, Bridget. I
think, my dear," he says, after they have sat down, "we'd better all
question our lost child when we've finished."

So, when they have finished, they have him up in the sitting-room, and the
inquisition begins.

"Now, Freddy," his host says, with a cheerful air of lifelong friendship
and confidence, "you know that everybody has got two names. Of course your
first name is Freddy, and it's a very pretty name. Well, I want you to
think real hard, and then tell me what your other name is, so I can take
you back to your mamma."

At this allusion the child looks round on the circle of eager and
compassionate faces, and begins to shed tears and to wring all hearts.

"What's your name?" asks Frank, cheerfully,--"your _other_ name, you

"Freddy," sobbed the forlorn creature.

"O good heaven! this'll never do," groaned the chief inquisitor. "Now,
Freddy, try not to cry. What is your papa's name,--Mr.--?" with the
leading inflection as before.

"Papa," says Freddy.

[Illustration: "They skirmish about him with every sort of query."]

"O, that'll never do! Not Mr. Papa?"

"Yes," persists Freddy.

"But, Freddy," interposes Mrs. Sallie, as her husband falls back baffled,
"when ladies come to see your mamma, what do they call her? Mrs.--?"
adopting Frank's alluring inflection.

"Mrs. Mamma," answers Freddy, confirmed in his error by this course; and a
secret dismay possesses his questioners. They skirmish about him with
every sort of query; they try to entrap him into some kind of revelation
by apparently irrelevant remarks; they plan ambuscades and surprises; but
Freddy looks vigilantly round upon them, and guards his personal history
from every approach, and seems in every way so to have the best of it,
that it is almost exasperating.

"Kindness has proved futile," observes Frank, "and I think we ought as a
last resort, before yielding ourselves to despair, to use intimidation.
Now, Fred," he says, with sudden and terrible severity, "what's your
father's name?"

The hapless little soul is really moved to an effort of memory by this,
and blubbers out something that proves in the end to resemble the family
name, though for the present it is merely a puzzle of unintelligible

"Blackman?" cries Aunt Melissa, catching desperately at these sounds.

On this, all the man and brother is roused in Freddy's bosom, and he roars
fiercely, "No! he ain't a black man! He's white!"

"I give it up," says Frank, who has been looking for his hat. "I'm afraid
we can't make anything out of him; and I'll have to go and report the case
to the police. But, put him to bed, do, Sallie; he's dropping with sleep."

So he went out, of course supported morally by a sense of duty, but I am
afraid also by a sense of adventure in some degree. It is not every day
that, in so quiet a place as Charlesbridge, you can have a lost child cast
upon your sympathies; and I believe that when an appeal is not really
agonizing, we like so well to have our sympathies touched, we favorites of
the prosperous commonplace, that most of us would enter eagerly into a
pathetic case of this kind, even after a day's pleasure. Such was
certainly the mood of my friend, and he unconsciously prepared himself for
an equal interest on the part of the police; but this was an error. The
police heard his statement with all proper attention, and wrote it in full
upon the station-slate, but they showed no feeling whatever, and behaved
as if they valued a lost child no more than a child snug at home in his
own crib. They said that no doubt his parents would be asking at the
police-stations for him during the night, and, as if my friend would
otherwise have thought of putting him into the street, they suggested that
he should just keep the lost child till he was sent for. Modestly enough
Frank proposed that they should make some inquiry for his parents, and was
answered by the question whether they could take a man off his beat for
that purpose; and remembering that beats in Charlesbridge were of such
vastness that during his whole residence there he had never yet seen a
policeman on his street, he was obliged to own to himself that his
proposal was absurd. He felt the need of reinstating himself by something
more sensible, and so he said he thought he would go down to the Port and
leave word at the station there; and the police tacitly assenting to this
he went.

I who have sometimes hinted that the Square is not a centre of gayety, or
a scene of the greatest activity by day, feel it right to say that it has
some modest charms of its own on a summer's night, about the hour when
Frank passed through it, when the post-office has just been shut, and when
the different groups that haunt the place in front of the closing shops
have dwindled to the loungers fit though few who will keep it well into
the night, and may there be found, by the passenger on the last horse-car
out from Boston, wrapt in a kind of social silence, and honorably attended
by the policeman whose favored beat is in that neighborhood. They seem a
feature of the bygone village life of Charlesbridge, and accord pleasantly
with the town-pump and the public horse-trough, and the noble elm that by
night droops its boughs so pensively, and probably dreams of its happy
younger days when there were no canker-worms in the world. Sometimes this
choice company sits on the curbing that goes round the terrace at the elm-
tree's foot, and then I envy every soul in it,--so tranquil it seems, so
cool, so careless, so morrowless. I cannot see the faces of that luxurious
society, but there I imagine is the local albino, and a certain blind man,
who resorts thither much by day, and makes a strange kind of jest of his
own, with a flicker of humor upon his sightless face, and a faith that
others less unkindly treated by nature will be able to see the point
apparently not always discernible to himself. Late at night I have a fancy
that the darkness puts him on an equality with other wits, and that he
enjoys his own brilliancy as well as any one.

At the Port station Frank was pleased and soothed by the tranquil air of
the policeman, who sat in his shirt-sleeves outside the door, and seemed
to announce, by his attitude of final disoccupation, that crimes and
misdemeanors were no more. This officer at once showed a desirable
interest in the case. He put on his blue coat that he might listen to the
whole story in a proper figure, and then he took down the main points on
the slate, and said that they would send word round to the other stations
in the city, and the boy's parents could hardly help hearing of him that

Returned home, Frank gave his news, and then he and Mrs. Sallie went up to
look at the lost child as he slept. The sumptuous diet to which he had
confined himself from the first seemed to agree with him perfectly, for he
slept unbrokenly, and apparently without a consciousness of his woes. On a
chair lay his clothes, in a dusty little pathetic heap; they were well-
kept clothes, except for the wrong his wanderings had done them, and they
showed a motherly care here and there, which it was not easy to look at
with composure. The spectators of his sleep both thought of the curious
chance that had thrown this little one into their charge, and considered
that he was almost as completely a gift of the Unknown as if he had been
following a steamer in another planet, and had thence dropped into their
yard. His helplessness in accounting for himself was as affecting as that
of the sublimest metaphysician; and no learned man, no superior intellect,
no subtle inquirer among us lost children of the divine, forgotten home,
could have been less able to say how or whence he came to be just where he
found himself. We wander away and away; the dust of the road-side gathers
upon us; and when some strange shelter receives us, we lie down to our
sleep, inarticulate, and haunted with dreams of memory, or the memory of
dreams, knowing scarcely more of the past than of the future.

"What a strange world!" sighed Mrs. Sallie; and then, as this was a mood
far too speculative for her, she recalled herself to practical life
suddenly. "If we should have to adopt this child, Frank"--

"Why, bless my soul, we're not obliged to adopt him! Even a lost child
can't demand that."

"We shall adopt him, if they don't come for him. And now, I want to know"
(Mrs. Sallie spoke as if the adoption had been effected) "whether we shall
give him our name, or some other?"

"Well, I don't know. It's the first child I've ever adopted," said Frank
"and upon my word, I can't say whether you have to give him a new name or
not. In fact, if I'd thought of this affair of a name, I'd never have
adopted him. It's the greatest part of the burden, and if his father will
only come for him, I'll give him up without a murmur."

In the interval that followed the proposal of this alarming difficulty,
and while he sat and waited vaguely for whatever should be going to happen
next, Frank was not able to repress a sense of personal resentment towards
the little vagrant sleeping so carelessly there, though at the bottom of
his heart there was all imaginable tenderness for him. In the fantastic
character which, to his weariness, the day's pleasure took on, it seemed
an extraordinary unkindness of fate that this lost child should have been
kept in reserve for him after all the rest; and he had so small
consciousness of bestowing shelter and charity, and so profound a feeling
of having himself been turned out of house and home by some surprising and
potent agency, that if the lost child had been a regiment of Fenians
billeted upon him, it could not have oppressed him more. While he remained
perplexed in this perverse sentiment of invasion and dispossession,
"Hark!" said Mrs. Sallie, "what's that?"

It was a noise of dragging and shuffling on the walk in front of the
house, and a low, hoarse whispering.

"I don't know," said Frank, "but from the kind of pleasure I've got out of
it so far, I should say that this holiday was capable of an earthquake
before midnight."


They listened, as they must, and heard the outer darkness rehearse a
raucous dialogue between an unseen Bill and Jim, who were the more
terrible to the imagination from being so realistically named, and who
seemed to have in charge some nameless third person, a mute actor in the
invisible scene. There was doubt, which he uttered, in the mind of Jim,
whether they could get this silent comrade along much farther without
carrying him; and there was a growling assent from Bill that he _was_
pretty far gone, that was a fact, and that maybe Jim _had_ better go
for the wagon; then there were quick, retreating steps; and then there was
a profound silence, in which the audience of this strange drama sat
thrilled and speechless. The effect was not less dreadful when there rose
a dull sound, as of a helpless body rubbing against the fence, and at last
lowered heavily to the ground.

"O!" cried Mrs. Sallie. "Do go out and help. He's dying!"

But even as she spoke the noise of wheels was heard. A wagon stopped
before the door; there came a tugging and lifting, with a sound as of
crunching gravel, and then a "There!" of great relief.

"Frank!" said Mrs. Sallie very solemnly, "if you don't go out and help
those men, I'll never forgive you."

Really, the drama had grown very impressive; it was a mystery, to say the
least; and so it must remain forever, for when Frank, infected at last by
Mrs. Sallie's faith in tragedy, opened the door and offered his tardy
services, the wagon was driven rapidly away without reply. They never
learned what it had all been; and I think that if one actually honors
mysteries, it is best not to look into them. How much finer, after all, if
you have such a thing as this happen before your door at midnight, not to
throw any light upon it! Then your probable tipsy man cannot be proved
other than a tragical presence, which you can match with any inscrutable
creation of fiction; and if you should ever come to write a romance, as
one is very liable to do in this age, there is your unknown, a figure of
strange and fearful interest, made to your hand, and capable of being
used, in or out of the body, with a very gloomy effect.

While our friends yet trembled with this sensation, quick steps ascended
to their door, and then followed a sharp, anxious tug at the bell.

"Ah!" cried Frank, prophetically, "here's the father of our adopted son;"
and he opened the door.

The gentleman who appeared there could scarcely frame the question to
which Frank replied so cheerfully: "O yes; he's here, and snug in bed, and
fast asleep. Come up-stairs and look at him. Better let him be till
morning, and then come after him," he added, as they looked down a moment
on the little sleeper.

"O no, I couldn't," said the father, _con expressione_; and then he
told how he had heard of this child's whereabouts at the Port station, and
had hurried to get him, and how his mother did not know he was found yet,
and was almost wild about him. They had no idea how he had got lost, and
his own blind story was the only tale of his adventure that ever became

By this time his father had got the child partly awake, and the two men
were dressing him in men's clumsy fashion; and finally they gave it up,
and rolled him in a shawl. The father lifted the slight burden, and two
small arms fell about his neck. The weary child slept again.

"How has he behaved?" asked the father.

"Like a little hero," said Frank, "but he's been a cormorant for cookies.
I think it right to tell you, in case he shouldn't be very brilliant to-
morrow, that he wouldn't eat a bit of anything else."

The father said he was the life of their house; and Frank said he knew how
that was,--that he had a life of the house of his own; and then the father
thanked him very simply and touchingly, and with the decent New England
self-restraint, which is doubtless so much better than any sort of
effusion. "Say good-night to the gentleman, Freddy," he said at the door;
and Freddy with closed eyes murmured a good-night from far within the land
of dreams, and then was borne away to the house out of which the life had
wandered with his little feet.

"I don't know, Sallie," said Frank, when he had given all the eagerly
demanded particulars about the child's father,--"I don't know whether I
should want many such holidays as this, in the course of the summer. On
the whole, I think I'd better overwork myself and not take any relaxation,
if I mean to live long. And yet I'm not sure that the day's been
altogether a failure, though all our purposes of enjoyment have
miscarried. I didn't plan to find a lost child here, when I got home, and
I'm afraid I haven't had always the most Christian feeling towards him;
but he's really the saving grace of the affair; and if this were a little
comedy I had been playing, I should turn him to account with the jaded
audience, and advancing to the foot-lights, should say, with my hand on my
waistcoat, and a neat bow, that although every hope of the day had been
disappointed, and nothing I had meant to do had been done, yet the man who
had ended at midnight by restoring a lost child to the arms of its father,
must own that, in spite of adverse fortune, he had enjoyed A Day's

[Illustration: "A gaunt figure of forlorn and curious


It was long past the twilight hour, which has been already mentioned as so
oppressive in suburban places, and it was even too late for visitors, when
a resident, whom I shall briefly describe as a Contributor to the
magazines, was startled by a ring at his door. As any thoughtful person
would have done upon the like occasion, he ran over his acquaintance in
his mind, speculating whether it were such or such a one, and dismissing
the whole list of improbabilities, before he laid down the book he was
reading, and answered the bell. When at last he did this, he was rewarded
by the apparition of an utter stranger on his threshold,--a gaunt figure
of forlorn and curious smartness towering far above him, that jerked him a
nod of the head, and asked if Mr. Hapford lived there. The face which the
lamp-light revealed was remarkable for a harsh two days' growth of beard,
and a single bloodshot eye; yet it was not otherwise a sinister
countenance, and there was something in the strange presence that appealed
and touched. The contributor, revolving the facts vaguely in his mind, was
not sure, after all, that it was not the man's clothes rather than his
expression that softened him toward the rugged visage: they were so
tragically cheap, and the misery of helpless needlewomen, and the
poverty and ignorance of the purchaser, were so apparent in their shabby
newness, of which they appeared still conscious enough to have led the way
to the very window, in the Semitic quarter of the city, where they had
lain ticketed, "This nobby suit for $15."

But the stranger's manner put both his face and his clothes out of mind,
and claimed a deeper interest when, being answered that the person for
whom he asked did not live there, he set his bristling lips hard together,
and sighed heavily.

"They told me," he said, in a hopeless way, "that he lived on this street,
and I've been to every other house. I'm very anxious to find him, Cap'n,"--
the contributor, of course, had no claim to the title with which he was
thus decorated,--"for I've a daughter living with him, and I want to see
her; I've just got home from a two years' voyage, and"--there was a
struggle of the Adam's-apple in the man's gaunt throat--"I find she's
about all there is left of my family."

How complex is every human motive! This contributor had been lately
thinking, whenever he turned the pages of some foolish traveller,--some
empty prattler of Southern or Eastern lands, where all sensation was long
ago exhausted, and the oxygen has perished from every sentiment, so has it
been breathed and breathed again,--that nowadays the wise adventurer sat
down beside his own register and waited for incidents to seek him out. It
seemed to him that the cultivation of a patient and receptive spirit was
the sole condition needed to insure the occurrence of all manner of
surprising facts within the range of one's own personal knowledge; that
not only the Greeks were at our doors, but the fairies and the genii, and
all the people of romance, who had but to be hospitably treated in order
to develop the deepest interest of fiction, and to become the characters
of plots so ingenious that the most cunning invention were poor beside
them. I myself am not so confident of this, and would rather trust Mr.
Charles Reade, say, for my amusement than any chance combination of
events. But I should be afraid to say how much his pride in the character
of the stranger's sorrows, as proof of the correctness of his theory,
prevailed with the contributor to ask him to come in and sit down; though
I hope that some abstract impulse of humanity, some compassionate and
unselfish care for the man's misfortunes as misfortunes, was not wholly
wanting. Indeed, the helpless simplicity with which he had confided his
case might have touched a harder heart. "Thank you," said the poor fellow,
after a moment's hesitation. "I believe I will come in. I've been on foot
all day, and after such a long voyage it makes a man dreadfully sore to
walk about so much. Perhaps you can think of a Mr. Hapford living
somewhere in the neighborhood."

He sat down, and, after a pondering silence, in which he had remained with
his head fallen upon his breast, "My name is Jonathan Tinker," he said,
with the unaffected air which had already impressed the contributor, and
as if he felt that some form of introduction was necessary, "and the girl
that I want to find is Julia Tinker." Then he added, resuming the eventful
personal history which the listener exulted, while he regretted, to hear:
"You see, I shipped first to Liverpool, and there I heard from my family;
and then I shipped again for Hong-Kong, and after that I never heard a
word: I seemed to miss the letters everywhere. This morning, at four
o'clock, I left my ship as soon as she had hauled into the dock, and
hurried up home. The house was shut, and not a soul in it; and I didn't
know what to do, and I sat down on the doorstep to wait till the neighbors
woke up, to ask them what had become of my family. And the first one come
out he told me my wife had been dead a year and a half, and the baby I'd
never seen, with her; and one of my boys was dead; and he didn't know
where the rest of the children was, but he'd heard two of the little ones
was with a family in the city."

The man mentioned these things with the half-apologetic air observable in
a certain kind of Americans when some accident obliges them to confess the
infirmity of the natural feelings. They do not ask your sympathy, and you
offer it quite at your own risk, with a chance of having it thrown back
upon your hands. The contributor assumed the risk so far as to say,
"Pretty rough!" when the stranger caused; and perhaps these homely words
were best suited to reach the homely heart. The man's quavering lips
closed hard again, a kind of spasm passed over his dark face, and then two
very small drops of brine shone upon his weather-worn cheeks. This
demonstration, into which he had been surprised, seemed to stand for the
passion of tears into which the emotional races fall at such times. He
opened his lips with a kind of dry click, and went on:--

"I hunted about the whole forenoon in the city, and at last I found the
children. I'd been gone so long they didn't know me, and somehow I thought
the people they were with weren't over-glad I'd turned up. Finally the
oldest child told me that Julia was living with a Mr. Hapford on this
street, and I started out here to-night to look her up. If I can find her,
I'm all right. I can get the family together, then, and start new."

"It seems rather odd," mused the listener aloud, "that the neighbors let
them break up so, and that they should all scatter as they did."

"Well, it ain't so curious as it seems, Cap'n. There was money for them at
the owners', all the time; I'd left part of my wages when I sailed; but
they didn't know how to get at it, and what could a parcel of children do?
Julia's a good girl, and when I find her I'm all right."

The writer could only repeat that there was no Mr. Hapford living on that
street, and never had been, so far as he knew. Yet there might be such a
person in the neighborhood; and they would go out together, and ask at
some of the houses about. But the stranger must first take a glass of
wine; for he looked used up.

The sailor awkwardly but civilly enough protested that he did not want to
give so much trouble, but took the glass, and, as he put it to his lips,
said formally, as if it were a toast or a kind of grace, "I hope I may
have the opportunity of returning the compliment." The contributor thanked
him; though, as he thought of all the circumstances of the case, and
considered the cost at which the stranger had come to enjoy his
politeness, he felt little eagerness to secure the return of the
compliment at the same price, and added, with the consequence of another
set phrase, "Not at all." But the thought had made him the more anxious to
befriend the luckless soul fortune had cast in his way; and so the two
sallied out together, and rang door-bells wherever lights were still seen
burning in the windows, and asked the astonished people who answered their
summons whether any Mr. Hapford were known to live in the neighborhood.

And although the search for this gentleman proved vain, the contributor
could not feel that an expedition which set familiar objects in such novel
light? was altogether a failure. He entered so intimately into the cares
and anxieties of his _protege,_ that at times he felt himself in some
inexplicable sort a shipmate of Jonathan Tinker, and almost personally a
partner of his calamities. The estrangement of all things which takes
place, within doors and without, about midnight may have helped to cast
this doubt upon his identity;--he seemed to be visiting now for the first
time the streets and neighborhoods nearest his own, and his feet stumbled
over the accustomed walks. In his quality of houseless wanderer, and--so
far as appeared to others--possibly worthless vagabond, he also got a new
and instructive effect upon the faces which, in his real character, he
knew so well by their looks of neighborly greeting; and it is his belief
that the first hospitable prompting of the human heart is to shut the door
in the eyes of homeless strangers who present themselves after eleven
o'clock. By that time the servants are all abed, and the gentleman of the
house answers the bell, and looks out with a loath and bewildered face,
which gradually changes to one of suspicion, and of wonder as to what
those fellows can possibly want of _him,_ till at last the prevailing
expression is one of contrite desire to atone for the first reluctance by
any sort of service. The contributor professes to have observed these
changing phases in the visages of those whom he that night called from
their dreams, or arrested in the act of going to bed; and he drew the
conclusion--very proper for his imaginable connection with the garroting
and other adventurous brotherhoods--that the most flattering moment for
knocking on the head people who answer a late ring at night is either in
their first selfish bewilderment, or their final self-abandonment to their
better impulses. It does not seem to have occurred to him that he would
himself have been a much more favorable subject for the predatory arts
that any of his neighbors, if his shipmate, the unknown companion of his
researches for Mr. Hapford, had been at all so minded. But the faith of
the gaunt giant upon which he reposed was good, and the contributor
continued to wander about with him in perfect safety. Not a soul among
those they asked had ever heard of a Mr. Hapford,--far less of a Julia
Tinker living with him. But they all listened to the contributor's
explanation with interest and eventual sympathy; and in truth,--briefly
told, with a word now and then thrown in by Jonathan Tinker, who kept at
the bottom of the steps, showing like a gloomy spectre in the night, or,
in his grotesque length and gauntness, like the other's shadow cast there
by the lamplight,--it was a story which could hardly fail to awaken pity.

At last, after ringing several bells where there were no lights, in the
mere wantonness of good-will, and going away before they could be answered
(it would be entertaining to know what dreams they caused the sleepers
within), there seemed to be nothing for it but to give up the search till
morning, and go to the main street and wait for the last horse-car to the

There, seated upon the curbstone, Jonathan Tinker, being plied with a few
leading questions, told in hints and scraps the story of his hard life,
which was at present that of a second mate, and had been that of a cabin-
boy and of a seaman before the mast. The second mate's place he held to be
the hardest aboard ship. You got only a few dollars more than the men, and
you did not rank with the officers; you took your meals alone, and in
every thing you belonged by yourself. The men did not respect you, and
sometimes the captain abused you awfully before the passengers. The
hardest captain that Jonathan Tinker ever sailed with was Captain Gooding
of the Cape. It had got to be so that no man would ship second mate under
Captain Gooding; and Jonathan Tinker was with him only one voyage. When he
had been home awhile, he saw an advertisement for a second mate, and he
went round to the owners'. They had kept it secret who the captain was;
but there was Captain Gooding in the owners' office. "Why, here's the man,
now, that I want for a second mate," said he, when Jonathan Tinker
entered; "he knows me."--"Captain Gooding, I know you 'most too well to
want to sail under you," answered Jonathan. "I might go if I hadn't been
with you one voyage too many already."

"And then the men!" said Jonathan, "the men coming aboard drunk, and
having to be pounded sober! And the hardest of the fight falls on the
second mate! Why, there isn't an inch of me that hasn't been cut over or
smashed into a jell. I've had three ribs broken; I've got a scar from a
knife on my cheek; and I've been stabbed bad enough, half a dozen times,
to lay me up."

Here he gave a sort of desperate laugh, as if the notion of so much misery
and such various mutilation were too grotesque not to be amusing. "Well,
what can you do?" he went on. "If you don't strike, the men think you're
afraid of them; and so you have to begin hard and go on hard. I always
tell a man, 'Now, my man, I always begin with a man the way I mean to keep
on. You do your duty and you're all right. But if you don't'--Well, the
men ain't Americans any more,--Dutch, Spaniards, Chinese, Portuguee,--and
it ain't like abusing a white man."

Jonathan Tinker was plainly part of the horrible tyranny which we all know
exists on shipboard; and his listener respected him the more that, though
he had heart enough to be ashamed of it, he was too honest not to own it.

Why did he still follow the sea? Because he did not know what else to do.
When he was younger, he used to love it, but now he hated it. Yet there
was not a prettier life in the world if you got to be captain. He used to
hope for that once, but not now; though he _thought_ he could
navigate a ship. Only let him get his family together again, and he would--
yes, he would--try to do something ashore.

No car had yet come in sight, and so the contributor suggested that they
should walk to the car-office, and look in the "Directory," which is kept
there, for the name of Hapford, in search of whom it had already been
arranged that they should renew their acquaintance on the morrow. Jonathan
Tinker, when they had reached the office, heard with constitutional phlegm
that the name of the Hapford, for whom he inquired was not in the
"Directory." "Never mind," said the other; "come round to my house in the
morning. We'll find him yet." So they parted with a shake of the hand, the
second mate saying that he believed he should go down to the vessel and
sleep aboard,--if he could sleep,--and murmuring at the last moment the
hope of returning the compliment, while the other walked homeward, weary
as to the flesh, but, in spite of his sympathy for Jonathan Tinker, very
elate in spirit. The truth is,--and however disgraceful to human nature,
let the truth still be told,--he had recurred to his primal satisfaction
in the man as calamity capable of being used for such and such literary
ends, and, while he pitied him, rejoiced in him as an episode of real life
quite as striking and complete as anything in fiction. It was literature
made to his hand. Nothing could be better, he mused; and once more he
passed the details of the story in review, and beheld all those pictures
which the poor fellow's artless words had so vividly conjured up: he saw
him leaping ashore in the gray summer dawn as soon as the ship hauled into
the dock, and making his way, with his vague sea-legs unaccustomed to the
pavements, up through the silent and empty city streets; he imagined the
tumult of fear and hope which the sight of the man's home must have caused
in him, and the benumbing shock of finding it blind and deaf to all his
appeals; he saw him sitting down upon what had been his own threshold, and
waiting in a sort of bewildered patience till the neighbors should be
awake, while the noises of the streets gradually arose, and the wheels
began to rattle over the stones, and the milk-man and the ice-man came and
went, and the waiting figure began to be stared at, and to challenge the
curiosity of the passing policeman; he fancied the opening of the
neighbor's door, and the slow, cold understanding of the case; the manner,
whatever it was, in which the sailor was told that one year before his
wife had died, with her babe, and that his children were scattered, none
knew where. As the contributor dwelt pityingly upon these things, but at
the same time estimated their aesthetic value one by one, he drew near the
head of his street, and found himself a few paces behind a boy slouching
onward through the night, to whom he called out, adventurously, and with
no real hope of information,--

"Do you happen to know anybody on this street by the name of Hapford?"

"Why no, not in this town," said the boy; but he added that there was a
street of the same name in a neighboring suburb, and that there was a
Hapford living on it.

"By Jove!" thought the contributor, "this is more like literature than
ever;" and he hardly knew whether to be more provoked at his own stupidity
in not thinking of a street of the same name in the next village, or
delighted at the element of fatality which the fact introduced into the
story; for Tinker, according to his own account, must have landed from the
cars a few rods from the very door he was seeking, and so walked farther
and farther from it every moment. He thought the case so curious, that he
laid it briefly before the boy, who, however he might have been inwardly
affected, was sufficiently true to the national traditions not to make the
smallest conceivable outward sign of concern in it.

At home, however, the contributor related his adventures and the story of
Tinker's life, adding the fact that he had just found out where Mr.
Hapford lived. "It was the only touch wanting," said he; "the whole thing
is now perfect."

"It's _too_ perfect," was answered from a sad enthusiasm. "Don't
speak of it! I can't take it in."

"But the question is," said the contributor, penitently taking himself to
task for forgetting the hero of these excellent misfortunes in his delight
at their perfection, "how am I to sleep to-night, thinking of that poor
soul's suspense and uncertainty? Never mind,--I'll be up early, and run
over and make sure that it is Tinker's Hapford, before he gets out here,
and have a pleasant surprise for him. Would it not be a justifiable
_coup de theatre_ to fetch his daughter here, and let her answer his
ring at the door when he comes in the morning?"

This plan was discouraged. "No, no; let them meet in their own way. Just
take him to Hapford's house and leave him."

"Very well. But he's too good a character to lose sight of. He's got to
come back here and tell us what he intends to do."

The birds, next morning, not having had the second mate on their minds
either as an unhappy man or a most fortunate episode, but having slept
long and soundly, were singing in a very sprightly way in the way-side
trees; and the sweetness of their notes made the contributor's heart light
as he climbed the hill and rang at Mr. Hapford's door.

The door was opened by a young girl of fifteen or sixteen, whom he knew at
a glance for the second mate's daughter, but of whom, for form's sake, he
asked if there were a girl named Julia Tinker living there.

"My name's Julia Tinker," answered the maid, who had rather a
disappointing face.

"Well," said the contributor, "your father's got back from his Hong-Kong

"Hong-Kong voyage?" echoed the girl, with a stare of helpless inquiry, but
no other visible emotion.

"Yes. He had never heard of your mother's death. He came home yesterday
morning, and was looking for you all day."

Julia Tinker remained open-mouthed but mute; and the other was puzzled at
the want of feeling shown, which he could not account for even as a
national trait. "Perhaps there's some mistake," he said.

"There must be," answered Julia: "my father hasn't been to sea for a good
many years. _My_ father," she added, with a diffidence indescribably
mingled with a sense of distinction,--"_my_ father's in State's
Prison. What kind of looking man was this?"

The contributor mechanically described him.

Julia Tinker broke into a loud, hoarse laugh. "Yes, it's him, sure
enough." And then, as if the joke were too good to keep: "Miss Hapford,
Miss Hapford, father's got out. Do come here!" she called into a back

When Mrs. Hapford appeared, Julia fell back, and, having deftly caught a
fly on the door-post, occupied herself in plucking it to pieces, while she
listened to the conversation of the others.

"It's all true enough," said Mrs. Hapford, when the writer had recounted
the moving story of Jonathan Tinker, "so far as the death of his wife and
baby goes. But he hasn't been to sea for a good many years, and he must
have just come out of State's Prison, where he was put for bigamy. There's
always two sides to a story, you know; but they say it broke his first
wife's heart, and she died. His friends don't want him to find his
children, and this girl especially."

"He's found his children in the city," said the contributor, gloomily,
being at a loss what to do or say, in view of the wreck of his romance.

"O, he's found 'em has he?" cried Julia, with heightened amusement. "Then
he'll have me next, if I don't pack and go."

"I'm very, very sorry," said the contributor, secretly resolved never to
do another good deed, no matter how temptingly the opportunity presented
itself. "But you may depend he won't find out from _me_ where you
are. Of course I had no earthly reason for supposing his story was not

"Of course," said kind-hearted Mrs. Hapford, mingling a drop of honey with
the gall in the contributor's soul, "you only did your duty."

And indeed, as he turned away he did not feel altogether without
compensation. However Jonathan Tinker had fallen in his esteem as a man,
he had even risen as literature. The episode which had appeared so perfect
in its pathetic phases did not seem less finished as a farce; and this
person, to whom all things of every-day life presented themselves in
periods more or less rounded, and capable of use as facts or
illustrations, could not but rejoice in these new incidents, as
dramatically fashioned as the rest. It occurred to him that, wrought into
a story, even better use might be made of the facts now than before, for
they had developed questions of character and of human nature which could
not fail to interest. The more he pondered upon his acquaintance with
Jonathan Tinker, the more fascinating the erring mariner became, in his
complex truth and falsehood, his delicately blending shades of artifice
and _naivete._ He must, it was felt, have believed to a certain point
in his own inventions: nay, starting with that groundwork of truth,--the
fact that his wife was really dead, and that he had not seen his family
for two years,--why should he not place implicit faith in all the fictions
reared upon it? It was probable that he felt a real sorrow for her loss,
and that he found a fantastic consolation in depicting the circumstances
of her death so that they should look like his inevitable misfortunes
rather than his faults. He might well have repented his offense during
those two years of prison; and why should he not now cast their dreariness
and shame out of his memory, and replace them with the freedom and
adventure of a two years' voyage to China,--so probable, in all respects,
that the fact should appear an impossible nightmare? In the experiences of
his life he had abundant material to furnish forth the facts of such a
voyage, and in the weariness and lassitude that should follow a day's
walking equally after a two years' voyage and two years' imprisonment, he
had as much physical proof in favor of one hypothesis as the other. It was
doubtless true, also, as he said, that he had gone to his house at dawn,
and sat down on the threshold of his ruined home; and perhaps he felt the
desire he had expressed to see his daughter, with a purpose of beginning
life anew; and it may have cost him a veritable pang when he found that
his little ones did not know him. All the sentiments of the situation were
such as might persuade a lively fancy of the truth of its own inventions;
and as he heard these continually repeated by the contributor in their
search for Mr. Hapford, they must have acquired an objective force and
repute scarcely to be resisted. At the same time, there were touches of
nature throughout Jonathan Tinker's narrative which could not fail to take
the faith of another. The contributor, in reviewing it, thought it
particularly charming that his mariner had not overdrawn himself, or
attempted to paint his character otherwise than as it probably was; that
he had shown his ideas and practices of life to be those of a second mate,
nor more nor less, without the gloss of regret or the pretenses to
refinement that might be pleasing to the supposed philanthropist with whom
he had fallen in. Captain Gooding was of course a true portrait; and there
was nothing in Jonathan Tinker's statement of the relations of a second
mate to his superiors and his inferiors which did not agree perfectly with
what the contributor had just read in "Two Years before the Mast,"--a book
which had possibly cast its glamour upon the adventure. He admired also
the just and perfectly characteristic air of grief in the bereaved husband
and father,--those occasional escapes from the sense of loss into a brief
hilarity and forgetfulness, and those relapses into the hovering gloom,
which every one has observed in this poor, crazy human nature when
oppressed by sorrow, and which it would have been hard to simulate. But,
above all, he exulted in that supreme stroke of the imagination given by
the second mate when, at parting, he said he believed he would go down and
sleep on board the vessel. In view of this, the State's Prison theory
almost appeared a malign and foolish scandal.

Yet even if this theory were correct, was the second mate wholly
answerable for beginning his life again with the imposture he had
practiced? The contributor had either so fallen in love with the literary
advantages of his forlorn deceiver that he would see no moral obliquity in
him, or he had touched a subtler verity at last in pondering the affair.
It seemed now no longer a farce, but had a pathos which, though very
different from that of its first aspect, was hardly less tragical. Knowing
with what coldness, or, at the best, uncandor, he (representing Society in
its attitude toward convicted Error) would have met the fact had it been
owned to him at first, he had not virtue enough to condemn the illusory
stranger, who must have been helpless to make at once evident any
repentance he felt or good purpose he cherished. Was it not one of the
saddest consequences of the man's past,--a dark necessity of misdoing,--
that, even with the best will in the world to retrieve himself, his first
endeavor must involve a wrong? Might he not, indeed, be considered a
martyr, in some sort, to his own admirable impulses? I can see clearly
enough where the contributor was astray in this reasoning, but I can also
understand how one accustomed to value realities only as they resembled
fables should be won with such pensive sophistry; and I can certainly
sympathize with his feeling that the mariner's failure to reappear
according to appointment added its final and most agreeable charm to the
whole affair, and completed the mystery from which the man emerged and
which swallowed him up again.


On that loveliest autumn morning, the swollen tide had spread over all the
russet levels, and gleamed in the sunlight a mile away. As the contributor
moved onward down the street, luminous on either hand with crimsoning and
yellowing maples, he was so filled with the tender serenity of the scene,
as not to be troubled by the spectacle of small Irish houses standing
miserably about on the flats ankle deep, as it were, in little pools of
the tide, or to be aware at first, of a strange stir of people upon the
streets: a fluttering to and fro and lively encounter and separation of
groups of bareheaded women, a flying of children through the broken fences
of the neighborhood, and across the vacant lots on which the insulted
sign-boards forbade them to trespass; a sluggish movement of men through
all, and a pause of different vehicles along the sidewalks. When a sense
of these facts had penetrated his enjoyment, he asked a matron whose snowy
arms, freshly taken from the wash-tub, were folded across a mighty chest,
"What is the matter?"

"A girl drowned herself, sir-r-r, over there on the flats, last Saturday,
and they're looking for her."

"It was the best thing she could do," said another matron grimly.

Upon this answer that literary soul fell at once to patching himself up a
romantic story for the suicide, after the pitiful fashion of this fiction-
ridden age, when we must relate everything we see to something we have
read. He was the less to blame for it, because he could not help it; but
certainly he is not to be praised for his associations with the tragic
fact brought to his notice. Nothing could have been more trite or obvious,
and he felt his intellectual poverty so keenly that he might almost have
believed his discomfort a sympathy for the girl who had drowned herself
last Saturday. But of course, this could not be, for he had but lately
been thinking what a very tiresome figure to the imagination the Fallen
Woman had become. As a fact of Christian civilization, she was a spectacle
to wring one's heart, he owned; but he wished she were well out of the
romances, and it really seemed a fatality that she should be the principal
personage of this little scene. The preparation for it, whatever it was to
be, was so deliberate, and the reality had so slight relation to the
French roofs and modern improvements of the comfortable Charlesbridge
which he knew, that he could not consider himself other than as a
spectator awaiting some entertainment, with a faint inclination to be

In the mean time there passed through the motley crowd, not so much a cry
as a sensation of "They've found her, they've found her!" and then the one
terrible picturesque fact, "She was standing upright!"

Upon this there was wilder and wilder clamor among the people, dropping by
degrees and almost dying away, before a flight of boys came down the
street with the tidings, "They are bringing her--bringing her in a wagon."

The contributor knew that she whom they were bringing in the wagon, had
had the poetry of love to her dismal and otherwise squalid death; but the
history was of fancy, not of fact in his mind. Of course, he reflected,
her lot must have been obscure and hard; the aspect of those concerned
about her death implied that. But of her hopes and her fears, who could
tell him anything? To be sure he could imagine the lovers, and how they
first met, and where, and who he was that was doomed to work her shame and
death; but here his fancy came upon something coarse and common: a man of
her own race and grade, handsome after that manner of beauty which is so
much more hateful than ugliness is; or, worse still, another kind of man
whose deceit must have been subtler and wickeder; but whatever the person,
a presence defiant of sympathy or even interest, and simply horrible. Then
there were the details of the affair, in great degree common to all love
affairs, and not varying so widely in any condition of life; for the
passion which is so rich and infinite to those within its charm, is apt to
seem a little tedious and monotonous in its character, and poor in
resources to the cold looker-on.

Then, finally, there was the crazy purpose and its fulfillment: the
headlong plunge from bank or bridge; the eddy, and the bubbles on the
current that calmed itself above the suicide; the tide that rose and
stretched itself abroad in the sunshine, carrying hither and thither the
burden with which it knew not what to do; the arrest, as by some ghastly
caprice of fate, of the dead girl, in that upright posture, in which she
should meet the quest for her, as it were defiantly.

And now they were bringing her in a wagon.

Involuntarily all stood aside, and waited till the funeral car, which they
saw, should come up toward them through the long vista of the maple-shaded
street, a noiseless riot stirring the legs and arms of the boys into
frantic demonstration, while the women remained quiet with arms folded or
akimbo. Before and behind the wagon, driven slowly, went a guard of ragged
urchins, while on the raised seat above sat two Americans, unperturbed by
anything, and concerned merely with the business of the affair.

The vehicle was a grocer's cart which had perhaps been pressed into the
service; and inevitably the contributor thought of Zenobia, and of Miles
Coverdale's belief that if she could have foreboded all the _post-
mortem_ ugliness and grotesqueness of suicide, she never would have
drowned herself. This girl, too, had doubtless had her own ideas of the
effect that her death was to make, her conviction that it was to wring one
heart, at least, and to strike awe and pity to every other; and her
woman's soul must have been shocked from death could she have known in
what a ghastly comedy the body she put off was to play a part.

In the bottom of the cart lay something long and straight and terrible,
covered with a red shawl that drooped over the end of the wagon; and on
this thing were piled the baskets in which the grocers had delivered their
orders for sugar and flour, and coffee and tea. As the cart jolted through
their lines, the boys could no longer be restrained; they broke out with
wild yells, and danced madly about it, while the red shawl hanging from
the rigid feet nodded to their frantic mirth; and the sun dropped its
light through the maples and shone bright upon the flooded date.


I believe I have no good reason for including among these suburban
sketches my recollections of the Peace Jubilee, celebrated by a monster
musical entertainment at Boston, in June, 1869; and I do not know if it
will serve as excuse for their intrusion to say that the exhibition was
not urban in character, and that I attended it in a feeling of curiosity
and amusement which the Bostonians did not seem to feel, and which I
suspect was a strictly suburban if not rural sentiment.

I thought, on that Tuesday morning, as our horse-car drew near the Long
Bridge, and we saw the Coliseum spectral through the rain, that Boston was
going to show people representing other parts of the country her Notion of
weather. I looked forward to a forenoon of clammy warmth, and an afternoon
of clammy cold and of east wind, with a misty nightfall soaking men to the
bones. But the day really turned out well enough; it was showery, but not
shrewish, and it smiled pleasantly at sunset, as if content with the
opening ceremonies of the Great Peace Jubilee.

The city, as we entered it, gave due token of excitement, and we felt the
celebration even in the air, which had a holiday quality very different
from that of ordinary workday air. The crowds filled the decorous streets,
and the trim pathways of the Common and the Public Garden, and flowed in
an orderly course towards the vast edifice on the Back Bay, presenting the
interesting points which always distinguish a crowd come to town from a
city crowd. You get so used to the Boston face and the Boston dress, that
a coat from New York or a visage from Chicago is at once conspicuous to
you; and in these people there was not only this strangeness, but the
different oddities that lurk in out-of-way corners of society everywhere
had started suddenly into notice. Long-haired men, popularly supposed to
have perished with the institution of slavery, appeared before me, and men
with various causes and manias looking from their wild eyes confronted
each other, let alone such charlatans as had clothed themselves quaintly
or grotesquely to add a charm to the virtue of whatever nostrum they
peddled. It was, however, for the most part, a remarkably well-dressed
crowd; and therein it probably differed more than in any other respect
from the crowd which a holiday would have assembled in former times. There
was little rusticity to be noted anywhere, and the uncouthness which has
already disappeared from the national face seemed to be passing from the
national wardrobe. Nearly all the visitors seemed to be Americans, but
neither the Yankee type nor the Hoosier was to be found. They were
apparently very happy, too; the ancestral solemnity of the race that
amuses itself sadly was not to be seen in them, and, if they were not
making it a duty to be gay, they were really taking their pleasure in a
cheerful spirit.

There was, in fact, something in the sight of the Coliseum, as we
approached it, which was a sufficient cause of elation to whoever is
buoyed up by the flutter of bright flags, and the movement in and about
holiday booths, as I think we all are apt to be. One may not have the
stomach of happier days for the swing or the whirligig; he may not drink
soda-water intemperately; pop-corn may not tempt him, nor tropical fruits
allure; but he beholds them without gloom,--nay, a grin inevitably lights
up his countenance at the sight of a great show of these amusements and
refreshments. And any Bostonian might have felt proud that morning that
his city did not hide the light of her mercantile merit under a bushel,
but blazoned it about on the booths and walls in every variety of printed
and painted advertisement. To the mere aesthetic observer, these vast
placards gave the delight of brilliant color, and blended prettily enough
in effect with the flags; and at first glance I received quite as much
pleasure from the frescoes that advised me where to buy my summer
clothing, as from any bunting I saw.

I had the good fortune on the morning of this first Jubilee day to view
the interior of the Coliseum when there was scarcely anybody there,--a
trifle of ten thousand singers at one end, and a few thousand other people
scattered about over the wide expanses of parquet and galleries. The
decorations within, as without, were a pleasure to the eyes that love
gayety of color; and the interior was certainly magnificent, with those
long lines of white and blue drapery roofing the balconies, the slim,
lofty columns festooned with flags and drooping banners, the arms of the
States decking the fronts of the galleries, and the arabesques of painted
muslin everywhere. I do not know that my taste concerned itself with the
decorations, or that I have any taste in such things; but I testify that
these tints and draperies gave no small part of the comfort of being where
all things conspired for one's pleasure. The airy amplitude of the
building, the perfect order and the perfect freedom of movement, the ease
of access and exit, the completeness of the arrangements that in the
afternoon gave all of us thirty thousand spectators a chance to behold the
great spectacle as well as to hear the music, were felt, I am sure, as
personal favors by every one. These minor particulars, in fact, served
greatly to assist you in identifying yourself, when the vast hive swarmed
with humanity, and you became a mere sentient atom of the mass.

It was rumored in the morning that the ceremonies were to begin with
prayer by a hundred ministers, but I missed this striking feature of the
exhibition, for I did not arrive in the afternoon till the last speech was
being made by a gentleman whom I saw gesticulating effectively, and whom I
suppose to have been intelligible to a matter of twenty thousand people in
his vicinity, but who was to me, of the remote, outlying thirty thousand,
a voice merely. One word only I caught, and I report it here that posterity
may know as much as we thirty thousand contemporaries did of


. . . . . . . (_sensation_.) . . . . . . .
. . . (_cheers_.). . . . refinement . . . .
. . . . . . (_great applause_.)

I do not know if I shall be able to give an idea of the immensity of this
scene; but if such a reader as has the dimensions of the Coliseum
accurately fixed in his mind will, in imagination, densely hide all that
interminable array of benching in the parquet and the galleries and the
slopes at either end of the edifice with human heads, showing here crowns,
there occiputs, and yonder faces, he will perhaps have some notion of the
spectacle as we beheld it from the northern hill-side. Some thousands of
heads nearest were recognizable as attached by the usual neck to the
customary human body, but for the rest, we seemed to have entered a world
of cherubim. Especially did the multitudinous singers seated far opposite
encourage this illusion; and their fluttering fans and handkerchiefs
wonderfully mocked the movement of those cravat-like pinions which the
fancy attributed to them. They rose or sank at the wave of the director's
baton; and still looked like an innumerable flock of cherubs drifting over
some slope of Paradise, or settling upon it,--if cherubs _can_

[Illustration: "The spectacle as we beheld it."]

The immensity was quite as striking to the mind as to the eye, and an
absolute democracy was appreciable in it. Not only did all artificial
distinctions cease, but those of nature were practically obliterated, and
you felt for once the full meaning of unanimity. No one was at a
disadvantage; one was as wise, as good, as handsome as another. In most
public assemblages, the foolish eye roves in search of the vanity of
female beauty, and rests upon some lovely visage, or pretty figure; but
here it seemed to matter nothing whether ladies were well or ill-looking;
and one might have been perfectly ascetic without self-denial. A blue eye
or a black,--what of it? A mass of blonde or chestnut hair, this sort of
walking-dress or that,--you might note the difference casually in a few
hundred around you; but a sense of those myriads of other eyes and
chignons and walking-dresses absorbed the impression in an instant, and
left a dim, strange sense of loss, as if all women had suddenly become
Woman. For the time, one would have been preposterously conceited to have
felt his littleness in that crowd; you never thought of yourself in an
individual capacity at all. It was as if you were a private in an army, or
a very ordinary billow of the sea, feeling the battle or the storm, in a
collective sort of way, but unable to distinguish your sensations from
those of the mass. If a rafter had fallen and crushed you and your
unimportant row of people, you could scarcely have regarded it as a
personal calamity, but might have found it disagreeable as a shock to that
great body of humanity. Recall, then, how astonished you were to be
recognized by some one, and to have your hand shaken in your individual
character of Smith. "Smith? My dear What's-your-name, I am for the present
the fifty-thousandth part of an enormous emotion!"

It was as difficult to distribute the various facts of the whole effect,
as to identify one's self. I had only a public and general consciousness
of the delight given by the harmony of hues in the parquet below; and
concerning the orchestra I had at first no distinct impression save of the
three hundred and thirty violin-bows held erect like standing wheat at one
motion of the director's wand, and then falling as if with the next he
swept them down. Afterwards files of men with horns, and other files of
men with drums and cymbals, discovered themselves; while far above all,
certain laborious figures pumped or ground with incessant obeisance at the
apparatus supplying the organ with wind.

What helped, more than anything else, to restore you your dispersed and
wandering individuality was the singing of Parepa-Rosa, as she triumphed
over the harmonious rivalry of the orchestra. There was something in the
generous amplitude and robust cheerfulness of this great artist that
accorded well with the ideal of the occasion; she was in herself a great
musical festival; and one felt, as she floated down the stage with her
far-spreading white draperies, and swept the audience a colossal courtesy,
that here was the embodied genius of the Jubilee. I do not trust myself to
speak particularly of her singing, for I have the natural modesty of
people who know nothing about music, and I have not at command the
phraseology of those who pretend to understand it; but I say that her
voice filled the whole edifice with delicious melody, that it soothed and
composed and utterly enchanted, that, though two hundred violins
accompanied her, the greater sweetness of her note prevailed over all,
like a mighty will commanding many. What a sublime ovation for her when a
hundred thousand hands thundered their acclaim! A victorious general, an
accepted lover, a successful young author,--these know a measure of bliss,
I dare say; but in one throb, the singer's heart, as it leaps in
exultation at the loud delight of her applausive thousands, must out-enjoy
them all. Let me lay these poor little artificial flowers of rhetoric at
the feet of the divine singer, as a faint token of gratitude and eloquent

When Parepa (or Prepper, as I have heard her name popularly pronounced)
had sung, the revived consciousness of an individual life rose in
rebellion against the oppression of that dominant vastness. In fact, human
nature can stand only so much of any one thing. To a certain degree you
accept and conceive of facts truthfully, but beyond this a mere
fantasticality rules; and having got enough of grandeur, the senses played
themselves false. That array of fluttering and tuning people on the
southern slope began to look minute, like the myriad heads assembled in
the infinitesimal photograph which you view through one of those little
half-inch lorgnettes; and you had the satisfaction of knowing that to any
lovely infinitesimality yonder you showed no bigger than a carpet-tack.
The whole performance now seemed to be worked by those tireless figures
pumping at the organ, in obedience to signals from a very alert figure on
the platform below. The choral and orchestral thousands sang and piped and
played; and at a given point in the _scena_ from Verdi, a hundred
fairies in red shirts marched down through the sombre mass of puppets and
beat upon as many invisible anvils.

This was the stroke of anti-climax; and the droll sound of those anvils,
so far above all the voices and instruments in its pitch, thoroughly
disillusioned you and restored you finally to your proper entity and
proportions. It was the great error of the great Jubilee, and where almost
everything else was noble and impressive,--where the direction was
faultless, and the singing and instrumentation as perfectly controlled as
if they were the result of one volition,--this anvil-beating was alone
ignoble and discordant,--trivial and huge merely. Not even the artillery
accompaniment, in which the cannon were made to pronounce words of two
syllables, was so bad.

The dimensions of this sketch bear so little proportion to those of the
Jubilee, that I must perforce leave most of its features unnoticed; but I
wish to express the sense of enjoyment which prevailed (whenever the
anvils were not beaten) over every other feeling, even over wonder. To the
ear as to the eye it was a delight, and it was an assured success in the
popular affections from the performance of the first piece. For my own
part, if one pleasurable sensation, besides that received from Parepa's
singing, distinguished itself from the rest, it was that given by the
performance of the exquisite Coronation March from Meyerbeer's "Prophet;"
but I say this under protest of the pleasure taken in the choral rendering
of the "Star-Spangled Banner." Closely allying themselves to these great
raptures were the minor joys of wandering freely about from point to
point, of receiving fresh sensations from the varying lights and aspects
in which the novel scene presented itself with its strange fascinations,
and of noting, half consciously, the incessant movement of the crowd as it
revealed itself in changing effects of color. Then the gay tumult of the
fifteen minutes of intermission between the parts, when all rose with a
_susurrus_ of innumerable silks, and the thousands of pretty singers
fluttered about, and gossiped tremulously and delightedly over the glory
of the performance, revealing themselves as charming feminine
personalities, each with her share in the difficulty and the achievement,
each with her pique or pride, and each her something to tell her friend of
the conduct, agreeable or displeasing, of some particular him! Even the
quick dispersion of the mass at the close was a marvel of orderliness and
grace, as the melting and separating parts, falling asunder, radiated from
the centre, and flowed and rippled rapidly away, and left the great hall
empty and bare at last.

And as you emerged from the building, what bizarre and perverse feeling
was that you knew? Something as if all-out-doors were cramped and small,
and it were better to return to the freedom and amplitude of the interior?

On the second day, much that was wonderful in a first experience of the
festival was gone; but though the novelty had passed away, the cause for
wonder was even greater. If on the first day the crowd was immense, it was
now something which the imperfect state of the language will not permit me
to describe; perhaps _awful_ will serve the purpose as well as any
other word now in use. As you looked round, from the centre of the
building, on that restless, fanning, fluttering multitude, to right and
left and north and south, all comparisons and similitudes abandoned you.
If you were to write of the scene, you felt that your effort, at the best,
must be a meagre sketch, suggesting something to those who had seen the
fact, but conveying no intelligible impression of it to any one else. The
galleries swarmed, the vast slopes were packed, in the pampa-like parquet
even the aisles were half filled with chairs, while a cloud of placeless
wanderers moved ceaselessly on the borders of the mass under the

When that common-looking, uncommon little man whom we have called to rule
over us entered the house, and walked quietly down to his seat in the
centre of it, a wild, inarticulate clamor, like no other noise in the
world, swelled from every side, till General Grant rose and showed
himself, when it grew louder than ever, and then gradully subsided into
silence. Then a voice, which might be uttering some mortal alarm, broke
repeatedly across the stillness from one of the balconies, and a thousand
glasses were leveled in that direction, while everywhere else the mass
hushed itself with a mute sense of peril. The capacity of such an
assemblage for self-destruction was, in fact, but too evident. From fire,
in an edifice of which the sides could be knocked out in a moment, there
could have been little danger; the fabric's strength had been perfectly
tested the day before, and its fall was not to be apprehended; but we had
ourselves greatly to dread. A panic could have been caused by any mad or
wanton person, in which thousands might have been instantly trampled to
death; and it seemed long till that foolish voice was stilled, and the
house lapsed back into tranquillity, and the enjoyment of the music. In
the performance I recall nothing disagreeable, nothing that to my
ignorance seemed imperfect, though I leave it to the wise in music to say
how far the great concert was a success. I saw a flourish of the
director's wand, and I heard the voices or the instruments, or both,
respond, and I knew by my programme that I was enjoying an unprecedented
quantity of Haydn or Handel or Meyerbeer or Rossini or Mozart, afforded
with an unquestionable precision and promptness; but I own that I liked
better to stroll about the three-acre house, and that for me the music
was, at best, only one of the joys of the festival.

There was good hearing outside for those that desired to listen to the
music, with seats to let in the surrounding tents and booths; and there
was unlimited seeing for the mere looker-on. At least fifty thousand
people seemed to have come to the Jubilee with no other purpose than to
gaze upon the outside of the building. The crowd was incomparably greater
than that of the day before; all the main thoroughfares of the city roared
with a tide of feet that swept through the side streets, and swelled
aimlessly up the places, and eddied there, and poured out again over the
pavements. The carriage-ways were packed with every sort of vehicle, with
foot-passengers crowded from the sidewalks, and with the fragments of the
military parade in honor of the President, with infantry, with straggling
cavalrymen, with artillery. All the paths of the Common and the Garden
were filled, and near the Coliseum the throngs densified on every side
into an almost impenetrable mass, that made the doors of the building
difficult to approach and at times inaccessible.

The crowd differed from that of the first day chiefly in size. There were
more country faces and country garbs to be seen, though it was still, on
the whole, a regular-featured and well-dressed crowd, with still very few
but American visages. It seemed to be also a very frugal-minded crowd, and
to spend little upon the refreshments and amusements provided for it. In
these, oddly enough, there was nothing of the march of mind to be
observed; they Were the refreshments and amusements of a former
generation. I think it would not be extravagant to say that there were
tons of pie for sale in a multitude of booths, with lemonade, soda-water,
and ice-cream in proportion; but I doubt if there was a ton of pie sold,
and towards the last the venerable pastry was quite covered with dust.
Neither did people seem to care much for oranges or bananas or peanuts, or
even pop-corn,--five cents a package and a prize in each package. Many
booths stood unlet, and in others the pulverous ladies and gentlemen,
their proprietors, were in the enjoyment of a leisure which would have
been elegant if it had not been forced. There was one shanty, not
otherwise distinguished from the rest, in which French soups were declared
to be for sale; but these alien pottages seemed to be no more favored than
the most poisonous of our national viands. But perhaps they were not
French soups, or perhaps the vicinage of the shanty was not such as to
impress a belief in their genuineness upon people who like French soups.
Let us not be too easily disheartened by the popular neglect of them. If
the daring reformer who inscribed French soups upon his sign will reappear
ten years hence, we shall all flock to his standard. Slavery is abolished;
pie must follow. Doubtless in the year 1900, the managers of a Jubilee
would even let the refreshment-rooms within their Coliseum to a cook who
would offer the public something not so much worse than the worst that
could be found in the vilest shanty restaurant on the ground. At the
Jubilee, of which I am writing, the unhappy person who went into the
Coliseum rooms to refresh himself was offered for coffee a salty and
unctuous wash, in one of those thick cups which are supposed to be proof
against the hard usage of "guests" and scullions in humble eating-houses,
and which are always so indescribably nicked and cracked, and had pushed
towards him a bowl of veteran sugar, and a tin spoon that had never been
cleaned in the world, while a young person stood by, and watched him,
asking, "Have you paid for that coffee?"

The side-shows and the other amusements seemed to have addressed
themselves to the crowd with the same mistaken notion of its character and
requirements; though I confess that I witnessed their neglect with regret,
whether from a feeling that they were at least harmless, or an unconscious
sympathy with any quite idle and unprofitable thing. Those rotary, legless
horses, on which children love to ride in a perpetual sickening circle,--
the type of all our effort,--were nearly always mounted; but those other
whirligigs, or whatever the dreadful circles with their swinging seats are
called, were often so empty that they must have been distressing, from
their want of balance, to the muscles as well as the spirits of their
proprietors. The society of monsters was also generally shunned, and a cow
with five legs gave milk from the top of her back to an audience of not
more than six persons. The public apathy had visibly wrought upon the
temper of the gentleman who lectured upon this gifted animal, and he took
inquiries in an ironical manner that contrasted disadvantageously with the
philosophical serenity of the person who had a weighing-machine outside,
and whom I saw sitting in the chair and weighing himself by the hour, with
an expression of profound enjoyment. Perhaps a man of less bulk could not
have entered so keenly into that simple pleasure.

There was a large tent on the grounds for dramatical entertainments, with
six performances a day, into which I was lured by a profusion of high-
colored posters, and some such announcement, as that the beautiful serio-
comic danseuse and world-renowned cloggist, Mile. Brown, would appear.
About a dozen people were assembled within, and we waited a half-hour
beyond the time announced for the curtain to rise, during which the
spectacle of a young man in black broadcloth, eating a cocoa-nut with his
pen-knife, had a strange and painful fascination. At the end of this half-
hour, our number was increased to eighteen, when the orchestra appeared,--
a snare-drummer and two buglers. These took their place at the back of the
tent; the buglers, who were Germans, blew seriously and industriously at
their horns; but the native-born citizen, who played the drum, beat it
very much at random, and in the mean time smoked a cigar, while his
humorous friend kept time upon his shoulders by striking him there with a
cane. How long this might have lasted, I cannot tell; but, after another
delay, I suddenly bethought me whether it were not better not to see Mile.
Brown, after all? I rose, and stole softly out behind the rhythmic back of
the drummer; and the world-renowned cloggist is to me at this moment only
a beautiful dream,--an airy shape fashioned upon a hint supplied by the
engraver of the posters.

What, then, did the public desire, if it would not smile upon the swings,
or monsters, or dramatic amusements that had pleased so long? Was the
music, as it floated out from the Coliseum, a sufficient delight? Or did
the crowd, averse to the shows provided for it, crave something higher and
more intellectual,--like, for example, a course of the Lowell Lectures?
Its general expression had changed: it had no longer that entire gayety of
the first day, but had taken on something of the sarcastic pathos with
which we Americans bear most oppressive and fatiguing things as a good
joke. The dust was blown about in clouds; and here and there, sitting upon
the vacant steps that led up and down among the booths, were dejected and
motionless men and women, passively gathering dust, and apparently
awaiting burial under the accumulating sand,--the mute, melancholy
sphinxes of the Jubilee, with their unsolved riddle, "Why did we come?" At
intervals, the heavens shook out fierce, sudden showers of rain, that
scattered the surging masses, and sent them flying impotently hither and
thither for shelter where no shelter was, only to gather again, and move
aimlessly and comfortlessly to and fro, like a lost child.

So the multitude roared within and without the Coliseum as I turned
homeward; and yet I found it wandering with weary feet through the Garden,
and the Common, and all the streets, and it dragged its innumerable aching
legs with me to the railroad station, and, entering the train, stood up on
them,--having paid for the tickets with which the companies professed to
sell seats.

How still and cool and fresh it was at our suburban station, when the
train, speeding away with a sardonic yell over the misery of the
passengers yet standing up in it, left us to walk across the quiet fields
and pleasant lanes to Benicia Street, through groups of little idyllic
Irish boys playing base-ball, with milch-goats here and there pastorally
cropping the herbage!

In this pleasant seclusion I let all Bunker Hill Day thunder by, with its
cannons, and processions, and speeches, and patriotic musical uproar,
hearing only through my open window the note of the birds singing in a
leafy coliseum across the street, and making very fair music without an
anvil among them. "Ah, signer!" said one of my doorstep acquaintance, who
came next morning and played me Captain Jenks,--the new air he has had
added to his instrument,--"never in my life, neither at Torino, nor at
Milano, nor even at Genoa, never did I see such a crowd or hear such a
noise, as at that Colosseo yesterday. The carriages, the horses, the feet!
And the dust, O Dio mio! All those millions of people were as white as so
many millers!"

On the afternoon of the fourth day the city looked quite like the mill in
which these millers had been grinding; and even those unpromisingly
elegant streets of the Back Bay showed mansions powdered with dust enough
for sentiment to strike root in, and so soften them with its tender green
against the time when they shall be ruinous and sentiment shall swallow
them up. The crowd had perceptibly diminished, but it was still great, and
on the Common it was allured by a greater variety of recreations and
bargains than I had yet seen there. There were, of course, all sorts of
useful and instructive amusements,--at least a half-dozen telescopes, and
as many galvanic batteries, with numerous patented inventions; and I
fancied that most of the peddlers and charlatans addressed themselves to a
utilitarian spirit supposed to exist in us. A man that sold whistles
capable of reproducing exactly the notes of the mocking-bird and the
guinea-pig set forth the durability of the invention. "Now, you see this
whistle, gentlemen. It is rubber, all rubber; and rubber, you know, enters
into the composition of a great many valuable articles. This whistle,
then, is entirely of rubber,--no worthless or flimsy material that drops
to pieces the moment you put it to your lips,"--as if it were not utterly
desirable that it should. "Now, I'll give you the mocking-bird, gentlemen,
and then I'll give you the guinea-pig, upon this pure _India_-rubber
whistle." And he did so with a great animation,--this young man with a
perfectly intelligent and very handsome face. "Try your strength, and
renovate your system!" cried the proprietor of a piston padded at one end
and working into a cylinder when you struck it a blow with your fist; and
the owners of lung-testing machines called upon you from every side to try
their consumption cure; while the galvanic-battery men sat still and
mutely appealed with inscriptions attached to their cap-visors declaring
that electricity taken from their batteries would rid you of every ache
and pain known to suffering humanity. Yet they were themselves as a class
in a state of sad physical disrepair, and one of them was the visible prey
of rheumatism which he might have sent flying from his joints with a
single shock. The only person whom I saw improving his health with the
battery was a rosy-faced school-boy, who was taking ten cents' worth of
electricity; and I hope it did not disagree with his pop-corn and soda-

Farther on was a picturesque group of street-musicians,--violinists and
harpers; a brother and four sisters, by their looks,--who afforded almost
the only unpractical amusement to be enjoyed on the Common, though not far
from them was a blind old negro, playing upon an accordion, and singing to
it in the faintest and thinnest of black voices, who could hardly have
profited any listener. No one appeared to mind him, till a jolly Jack-tar
with both arms cut off, but dressed in full sailor's togs, lurched heavily
towards him. This mariner had got quite a good effect of sea-legs by some
means, and looked rather drunker than a man with both arms ought to be;
but he was very affectionate, and, putting his face close to the other's,
at once entered into talk with the blind man, forming with him a picture
curiously pathetic and grotesque. He was the only tipsy person I saw
during the Jubilee days,--if he was tipsy, for after all they may have
been real sea-legs he had on.

If the throng upon the streets was thinner, it was greater in the Coliseum
than on the second day; and matters had settled there into regular working
order. The limits of individual liberty had been better ascertained; there
was no longer any movement in the aisles, but a constant passing to and
fro, between the pieces, in the promenades. The house presented, as
before, that appearance in which reality forsook it, and it became merely
an amazing picture. The audience supported the notion of its unreality by
having exactly the character of the former audiences, and impressed you,
despite its restlessness and incessant agitation, with the feeling that it
had remained there from the first day, and would always continue there;
and it was only in wandering upon its borders through the promenades, that
you regained possession of facts concerning it. In no other way was its
vastness more observable than in the perfect indifference of persons one
to another. Each found himself, as it were, in a solitude; and,
sequestered in that wilderness of strangers, each was freed of his
bashfulness and trepidation. Young people lounged at ease upon the floors,
about the windows, on the upper promenades; and in this seclusion I saw
such betrayals of tenderness as melt the heart of the traveller on our
desolate railway trains,--Fellows moving to and fro or standing, careless
of other eyes, with their arms around the waists of their Girls. These
were, of course, people who had only attained a certain grade of
civilization, and were not characteristic of the crowd, or, indeed, worthy
of notice except as expressions of its unconsciousness. I fancied that I
saw a number of their class outside listening to the address of the agent
of a patent liniment, proclaimed to be an unfailing specific for neuralgia
and headache,--if used in the right spirit. "For," said the orator, "we
like to cure people who treat us and our medicine with respect. Folks say,
'What is there about that man?--some magnetism or electricity.' And the
other day at New Britain, Connecticut, a young man he come up to the
carriage, sneering like, and he tried the cure, and it didn't have the
least effect upon him." There seemed reason in this, and it produced a
visible sensation in the Fellows and Girls, who grinned sheepishly at each

Why will the young man with long hair force himself at this point into a
history, which is striving to devote itself to graver interests? There he
stood with the other people, gazing up at the gay line of streamers on the
summit of the Coliseum, and taking in the Anvil Chorus with the rest,--a
young man well-enough dressed, and of a pretty sensible face, with his
long black locks falling from under his cylinder hat, and covering his
shoulders. What awful spell was on him, obliging him to make that figure
before his fellow-creatures? He had nothing to sell; he was not,
apparently, an advertisement of any kind. Was he in the performance of a
vow? Was he in his right mind? For shame! a person may wear his hair long
if he will. But why not, then, in a top-knot? This young man's long hair
was not in keeping with his frock-coat and his cylinder hat, and he had
not at all the excuse of the old gentleman who sold salve in the costume
of Washington's time; one could not take pleasure in him as in the negro
advertiser, who paraded the grounds in a costume compounded of a consular
_chapeau bras_ and a fox-hunter's top-boots--the American diplomatic
uniform of the future--and offered every one a printed billet; he had not
even the attraction of the cabalistic herald of Hunkidori. Who was he?
what was he? why was he? The mind played forever around these questions in
a maze of hopeless conjecture.

Had all those quacks and peddlers been bawling ever since Tuesday to the
same listeners? Had all those swings and whirligigs incessantly performed
their rounds? The cow that gave milk from the top of her back, had she
never changed her small circle of admirers, or ceased her flow? And the
gentleman who sat in the chair of his own balance, how much did he weigh
by this time? One could scarcely rid one's self of the illusion of
perpetuity concerning these things, and I could not believe that, if I
went back to the Coliseum grounds at any future time, I should not behold
all that vast machinery in motion.

It was curious to see, amid this holiday turmoil men pursuing the ordinary
business of their lives, and one was strangely rescued and consoled by the
spectacle of the Irish hod-carriers, and the bricklayers at work on a
first-class swell-front residence in the very heart of the city of tents
and booths. Even the locomotive, being associated with quieter days and
scenes, appealed, as it whistled to and fro upon the Providence Railroad,
to some soft bucolic sentiment in the listener, and sending its note,
ordinarily so discordant, across that human uproar, seemed to "babble of
green fields." And at last it wooed us away, and the Jubilee was again
swallowed up by night.

There was yet another Jubilee Day, on the morning of which the thousands
of public-school children clustered in gauzy pink and white in the place
of the mighty chorus, while the Coliseum swarmed once more with people who
listened to those shrill, sweet pipes blending in unison; but I leave the
reader to imagine what he will about it. A week later, after all was over,
I was minded to walk down towards the Coliseum, and behold it in its
desertion. The city streets were restored to their wonted summer-afternoon
tranquillity; the Public Garden presented its customary phases of two
people sitting under a tree and talking intimately together on some theme
of common interest,--

  "Bees, bees, was it your hydromel?"--

of the swans sailing in full view upon the little lake of half a dozen
idlers hanging upon the bridge to look at them; of children gayly dotting
the paths here and there; and, to heighten the peacefulness of the effect,
a pretty, pale invalid lady sat, half in shade and half in sun, reading in
an easy-chair. Far down the broad avenue a single horse-car tinkled
slowly; on the steps of one of the mansions charming little girls stood in
a picturesque group full of the bright color which abounds in the lovely
dresses of this time. As I drew near the Coliseum, I could perceive the
desolation which had fallen upon the festival scene; the white tents were
gone; the place where the world-renowned cloggist gave her serio-comic
dances was as lonely and silent as the site of Carthage; in the middle
distance two men were dismantling a motionless whirligig; the hut for the
sale of French soups was closed; farther away, a solitary policeman moved
gloomily across the deserted spaces, showing his dark-blue figure against
the sky. The vast fabric of the Coliseum reared itself, hushed and
deserted within and without; and a boy in his shirt-sleeves pressed his
nose against one of the painted window-panes in the vain effort to behold
the nothing inside. But sadder than this loneliness surrounding the
Coliseum, sadder than the festooned and knotted banners that drooped
funereally upon its facade, was the fact that some of those luckless
refreshment-saloons were still open, displaying viands as little edible
now as carnival _confetti_. It was as if the proprietors, in an
unavailing remorse, had condemned themselves to spend the rest of their
days there, and, slowly consuming their own cake and pop-corn, washed down
with their own soda-water and lemonade, to perish of dyspepsia and


Any study of suburban life would be very imperfect without some glance at
that larger part of it which is spent in the painful pursuit of pleasures
such as are offered at the ordinary places of public amusement; and for
this reason I excuse myself for rehearsing certain impressions here which
are not more directly suburban, to say the least, than those recounted in
the foregoing chapter.

It became, shortly after life in Charlesbridge began, a question whether
any entertainment that Boston could offer were worth the trouble of going
to it, or, still worse, coming from it; for if it was misery to hurry from
tea to catch the inward horse-car at the head of the street, what sullen
lexicon will afford a name for the experience of getting home again by the
last car out from the city? You have watched the clock much more closely
than the stage during the last act, and have left your play incomplete by
its final marriage or death, and have rushed up to Bowdoin Square, where
you achieve a standing place in the car, and, utterly spent as you are
with the enjoyment of the evening, you endure for the next hour all that
is horrible in riding or walking. At the end of this time you declare that
you will never go to the theatre again; and after years of suffering you
come at last to keep your word.

While yet, however, in the state of formation as regards this resolution,
I went frequently to the theatre--or school of morals, as its friends have
humorously called it. I will not say whether any desired amelioration took
place or not in my own morals through the agency of the stage; but if not
enlightened and refined by everything I saw there, I sometimes was
certainly very much surprised. Now that I go no more, or very, very
rarely, I avail myself of the resulting leisure to set down, for the
instruction of posterity, some account of performances I witnessed in the
years 1868-69, which I am persuaded will grow all the more curious, if not
incredible, with the lapse of time.

There is this satisfaction in living, namely, that whatever we do will one
day wear an air of picturesqueness and romance, and will win the fancy of
people coming after us. This stupid and commonplace present shall yet
appear the fascinating past; and is it not a pleasure to think how our
rogues of descendants--who are to enjoy us aesthetically--will be taken in
with us, when they read, in the files of old newspapers, of the quantity
of entertainment offered us at the theatres during the years mentioned,
and judge us by it? I imagine them two hundred years hence looking back at
us, and sighing, "Ah! there was a touch of the old Greek life in those
Athenians! How they loved the drama in the jolly Boston of that day! That
was the golden age of the theatre: in the winter of 1868-69, they had
dramatic performances in seven places, of every degree of excellence, and
the managers coined money." As we always figure our ancestors going to and
from church, they will probably figure us thronging the doors of theatres,
and no doubt there will be some historical gossiper among them to sketch a
Boston audience in 1869, with all our famous poets and politicians grouped
together in the orchestra seats, and several now dead introduced with the
pleasant inaccuracy and uncertainty of historical gossipers. "On this
night, when the beautiful Tostee reappeared, the whole house rose to greet
her. If Mr. Alcott was on one of his winter visits to Boston, no doubt he
stepped in from the Marlborough House,--it was a famous temperance hotel,
then in the height of its repute,--not only to welcome back the great
actress, but to enjoy a chat between the acts with his many friends. Here,
doubtless, was seen the broad forehead of Webster; there the courtly
Everett, conversing in studied tones with the gifted So-and-so. Did not
the lovely Such-a-one grace the evening with her presence? The brilliant
and versatile Edmund Kirke was dead; but the humorous Artemas Ward and his
friend Nasby may have attracted many eyes, having come hither at the close
of their lectures, to testify their love of the beautiful in nature and
art; while, perhaps, Mr. Sumner, in the intervals of state cares, relaxed
into the enjoyment," etc. "Vous voyez bien le tableau!"

That far-off posterity, learning that all our theatres are filled every
night, will never understand but we were a theatre-going people in the
sense that it is the highest fashion to be seen at the play; and yet we
are sensible that it is not so, and that the Boston which makes itself
known in civilization--in letters, politics, reform--goes as little to the
theatre as fashionable Boston.

The stage is not an Institution with us, I should say; yet it affords
recreation to a very large and increasing number of persons, and while it
would be easy to over-estimate its influence for good or evil even with
these, there is no doubt that the stage, if not the drama, is popular.
Fortunately an inquiry like this into a now waning taste in theatricals
concerns the fact rather than the effect of the taste otherwise the task
might become indefinitely hard alike for writer and for reader. No one can
lay his hand on his heart, and declare that he is the worse for having
seen "La Belle Helene," for example, or say more than that it is a thing
which ought not to be seen by any one else; yet I suppose there is no one
ready to deny that "La Belle Helene" was the motive of those performances
that have most pleased the most people during recent years. There was
something fascinating in the circumstances and auspices under which the
united Irma and Tostee troupes appeared in Boston--_opera bouffe_ led
gayly forward by _finance bouffe_, and suggesting Erie shares by its
watered music and morals; but there is no doubt that Tostee's grand
reception was owing mainly to the personal favor which she enjoyed here
and which we do not vouchsafe to every one. Ristori did not win it; we did
our duty by her, following her carefully with the libretto, and in her
most intense effects turning the leaves of a thousand pamphlets with a
rustle that must have shattered every delicate nerve in her; but we were
always cold to her greatness. It was not for Tostees singing, which was
but a little thing in itself; it was not for her beauty, for that was no
more than a reminiscence, if it was not always an illusion; was it because
she rendered the spirit of M. Offenbach's operas so perfectly, that we
liked her so much? "Ah, that movement!" cried an enthusiast, "that swing,
that--that--wriggle!" She was undoubtedly a great actress, full of subtle
surprises, and with an audacious appearance of unconsciousness in those
exigencies where consciousness would summon the police--or should; she was
so near, yet so far from, the worst that could be intended; in tones, in
gestures, in attitudes, she was to the libretto just as the music was, now
making it appear insolently and unjustly coarse, now feebly inadequate in
its explicit immodesty.

To see this famous lady in "La Grande Duchesse" or "La Belle Helene" was
an experience never to be forgotten, and certainly not to be described.
The former opera has undoubtedly its proper and blameless charm. There is
something pretty and arch in the notion of the Duchess's falling in love
with the impregnably faithful and innocent Fritz; and the extravagance of
the whole, with the satire upon the typical little German court, is
delightful. But "La Belle Helene" is a wittier play than "La Grande
Duchesse," and it is the vividest expression of the spirit of _opera
bouffe_. It is full of such lively mockeries as that of Helen when she
gazes upon the picture of Leda and the Swan: "J'aime a me recueiller
devant ce tableau de famille! Mon pere, ma mere, les voici tous les deux!
O mon pere, tourne vers ton enfant un bec favorable!"--or of Paris when he
represses the zeal of Calchas, who desires to present him at once to
Helen: "Soit! mais sans lui dire qui je suis;--je desire garder le plus
strict incognito, jusq'au moment ou la situation sera favorable a un coup
de theatre." But it must be owned that our audiences seemed not to take
much pleasure in these and other witticisms, though they obliged
Mademoiselle Tostee to sing "Un Mari sage" three times, with all those
actions and postures which seem incredible the moment they have ceased.
They possibly understood this song no better than the strokes of wit, and
encored it merely for the music's sake. The effect was, nevertheless,
unfortunate, and calculated to give those French ladies but a bad opinion
of our morals. How could they comprehend that the taste was, like
themselves, imported, and that its indulgence here did not characterize
us? It was only in appearance that, while we did not enjoy the wit we
delighted in the coarseness. And how coarse this travesty of the old fable
mainly is! That priest Calchas, with his unspeakable snicker his avarice,
his infidelity, his hypocrisy, is alone infamy enough to provoke the
destruction of a city. Then that scene interrupted by Menelaus! It is
indisputably witty, and since all those people are so purely creatures of
fable, and dwell so entirely in an unmoral atmosphere, it appears as
absurd to blame it as the murders in a pantomime. To be sure there is
something about murder, some inherent grace or refinement perhaps, that
makes its actual representation upon the stage more tolerable than the
most diffident suggestion of adultery. Not that "La Belle Helene" is open
to the reproach of over-delicacy in this scene, or any other, for the
matter of that, though there is a strain of real poetry in the conception
of this whole episode of Helen's intention to pass all Paris's love-making
off upon herself for a dream,--poetry such as might have been inspired by
a muse that had taken too much nectar. There is excellent character, also,
as well as caricature in the drama; not only Calchas is admirably done,
but Agamemnon, and Achilles, and Helen, and Menelaus, "pas un mari
ordinaire ... un mari epique,"--and the burlesque is good of its kind. It
is artistic, as it seems French dramatic effort must almost necessarily
be. It could scarcely be called the fault of the _opera bouffe_ that
the English burlesque should have come of its success; nor could the
public blame it for the great favor the burlesque won in those far-off
winters, if indeed the public wishes to bestow blame for this. No one,
however, could see one of these curious travesties without being reminded,
in an awkward way, of the _morale_ of the _opera bouffe_, and of
the _personnel_--as I may say--of "The Black Crook," "The White
Fawn," and the "Devil's Auction." There was the same intention of
merriment at the cost of what may be called the marital prejudices, though
it cannot be claimed that the wit was the same as in "La Belle Helene;"
there was the same physical unreserve as in the ballets of a former
season; while in its dramatic form the burlesque discovered very marked
parental traits.

This English burlesque, this child of M. Offenbach's genius, and the now
somewhat faded spectacular muse, flourished at the time of which I write
in three of our seven theatres for months,--five, from the highest to the
lowest being in turn open to it,--and had begun, in a tentative way, to
invade the deserted stage even so long ago as the previous summer; and I
have sometimes flattered myself that it was my fortune to witness the
first exhibition of its most characteristic feature in a theatre into
which I wandered one sultry night because it was the nearest theatre. They
were giving a play called "The Three Fast Men," which had a moral of such
powerful virtue that it ought to have reformed everybody in the
neighborhood. Three ladies being in love with the three fast men, and
resolved to win them back to regular hours and the paths of sobriety by
every device of the female heart, dress themselves in men's clothes,--such
is the subtlety of the female heart in the bosoms of modern young ladies
of fashion,--and follow their lovers about from one haunt of dissipation
to another and become themselves exemplarily vicious,--drunkards,
gamblers, and the like. The first lady, who was a star in her lowly orbit,
was very great in all her different _roles_, appearing now as a
sailor with the hornpipe of his calling, now as an organ-grinder, and now
as a dissolute young gentleman,--whatever was the exigency of good morals.
The dramatist seemed to have had an eye to her peculiar capabilities, and
to have expressly invented edifying characters and situations that her
talents might enforce them. The second young lady had also a personal
didactic gift, rivaling, and even surpassing in some respects, that of the
star; and was very rowdy indeed. In due time the devoted conduct of the
young ladies has its just effect: the three fast men begin to reflect upon
the folly of their wild courses; and at this point the dramatist delivers
his great stroke. The first lady gives a _soiree dansante et
chantante_, and the three fast men have invitations. The guests seat
themselves, as at a fashionable party, in a semicircle, and the gayety of
the evening begins with conundrums and playing upon the banjo; the
gentlemen are in their morning-coats, and the ladies in a display of
hosiery which is now no longer surprising, and which need not have been
mentioned at all except for the fact that, in the case of the first lady,
it seemed not to have been freshly put on for that party. In this instance
an element comical beyond intention was present, in three young gentlemen,
an amateur musical trio, who had kindly consented to sing their favorite
song of "The Rolling Zuyder Zee," as they now kindly did, with flushed
faces, unmanageable hands, and much repetition of

  The ro-o-o-o-
  The ro-o-o-o-
  The ro-o-o-o-ll-
  Ing Zuyder Zee,
  Zuyder Zee,
  Zuyder Zee-e-e!

Then the turn of the three guardian angels of the fast men being come
again they get up and dance each one a breakdown which seems to establish
their lovers (now at last in the secret of the generous ruse played upon
them) firmly in their resolution to lead a better life. They are in nowise
shaken from it by the displeasure which soon shows itself in the manner of
the first and second ladies. The former is greatest in the so-called
Protean parts of the play, and is obscured somewhat by the dancing of the
latter; but she has a daughter who now comes on and sings a song. The
pensive occasion, the favorable mood of the audience, the sympathetic
attitude of the players, invite her to sing "The Maiden's Prayer," and so
we have "The Maiden's Prayer." We may be a low set, and the song may be
affected and insipid enough, but the purity of its intention touches, and
the little girl is vehemently applauded. She is such a pretty child with
her innocent face, and her artless white dress, and blue ribbons to her
waist and hair, that we will have her back again; whereupon she runs out
upon the stage, strikes up a rowdy, rowdy air, dances a shocking little
dance, and vanishes from the dismayed vision, leaving us a considerably
lower set than we were at first, and glad of our lowness. This is the
second lady's own ground, however, and now she comes out--in a way that
banishes far from our fickle minds all thoughts of the first lady and her
mistaken child--with a medley of singing and dancing, a bit of breakdown,
of cancan, of jig, a bit of "Le Sabre de mon Pere," and of all memorable
slang songs, given with the most grotesque and clownish spirit that ever
inspired a woman. Each member of the company follows in his or her _pas
seul_, and then they all dance together to the plain confusion of the
amateur trio, whose eyes roll like so many Zuyder Zees, as they sit lonely
and motionless in the midst. All stiffness and formality are overcome. The
evening party in fact disappears entirely, and we are suffered to see the
artists in their moments of social relaxation sitting as it were around
the theatrical fireside. They appear to forget us altogether; they
exchange winks, and nods, and jests of quite personal application; they
call each other by name, by their Christian names, their nicknames. It is
not an evening party, it is a family party, and the suggestion of home
enjoyment completes the reformation of the three fast men. We see them
marry the three fast women before we leave the house.

On another occasion, two suburban friends of the drama beheld a more
explicit precursor of the coming burlesque at one of the minor theatres
last summer. The great actress whom they had come to see on another scene
was ill, and in their disappointment they embraced the hope of
entertainment offered them at the smaller playhouse. The drama itself was
neither here nor there as to intent, but the public appetite or the
manager's conception of it--for I am by no means sure that this whole
business was not a misunderstanding--had exacted that the actresses should
appear in so much stocking, and so little else, that it was a horror to
look upon them. There was no such exigency of dialogue, situation, or
character as asked the indecorum, and the effect upon the unprepared
spectator was all the more stupefying from the fact that most of the
ladies were not dancers, and had not countenances that consorted with
impropriety. Their faces had merely the conventional Yankee sharpness and
wanness of feature, and such difference of air and character as should say
for one and another, shop-girl, shoe-binder, seamstress; and it seemed an
absurdity and an injustice to refer to them in any way the disclosures of
the ruthlessly scant drapery. A grotesque fancy would sport with their
identity: "Did not this or that one write poetry for her local newspaper?"
so much she looked the average culture and crudeness, and when such a one,
coldly yielding to the manager's ideas of the public taste, stretched
herself on a green baize bank with her feet towards us, or did a similar
grossness, it was hard to keep from crying aloud in protest, that she need
not do it; that nobody really expected or wanted it of her. Nobody? Alas!
there were people there--poor souls who had the appearance of coming every
night--who plainly did expect it, and who were loud in their applauses of
the chief actress. This was a young person of a powerful physical
expression, quite unlike the rest,--who were dyspeptic and consumptive in
the range of their charms,--and she triumphed and wantoned through the
scenes with a fierce excess of animal vigor. She was all stocking, as one
may say, being habited to represent a prince; she had a raucous voice, an
insolent twist of the mouth, and a terrible trick of defying her enemies
by standing erect, chin up, hand on hip, and right foot advanced, patting
the floor. It was impossible, even in the orchestra seats, to look at her
in this attitude and not shrink before her; and on the stage she visibly
tyrannized over the invalid sisterhood with her full-blown fascinations.
These unhappy girls personated, with a pathetic effect not to be
described, such arch and fantastic creations of the poet's mind as
Bewitchingcreature and Exquisitelittlepet, and the play was a kind of
fairy burlesque in rhyme, of the most melancholy stupidity that ever was.
Yet there was something very comical in the conditions of its performance,
and in the possibility that public and manager were playing at cross-
purposes. There we were in the pit, an assemblage of hard-working Yankees
of decently moral lives and simple traditions, country-bred many of us and
of plebeian stock and training, vulgar enough perhaps, but probably not
depraved, and, excepting the first lady's friends, certainly not educated
to the critical enjoyment of such spectacles; and there on the stage were
those mistaken women, in such sad variety of boniness and flabbiness as I
have tried to hint, addressing their pitiable exposure to a supposed
vileness in us, and wrenching from all original intent the innocent
dullness of the drama, which for the most part could have been as well
played in walking-dresses, to say the least.

The scene was not less amusing, as regarded the audiences, the ensuing
winter, when the English burlesque troupes which London sent us, arrived;
but it was not quite so pathetic as regarded the performers. Of their
beauty and their abandon, the historical gossiper, whom I descry far down
the future, waiting to refer to me as "A scandalous writer of the period,"
shall learn very little to his purpose of warming his sketch with a color
from mine. But I hope I may describe these ladies as very pretty, very
blonde, and very unscrupulously clever, and still disappoint the
historical gossiper. They seemed in all cases to be English; no Yankee
faces, voices, or accents were to be detected among them. Where they were
associated with people of another race, as happened with one troupe, the
advantage of beauty was upon the Anglo-Saxon side, while that of some
small shreds of propriety was with the Latins. These appeared at times
almost modest, perhaps because they were the conventional
_ballerine_, and wore the old-fashioned ballet-skirt with its volumed
gauze,--a coyness which the Englishry had greatly modified, through an
exigency of the burlesque,--perhaps because indecorum seems, like
blasphemy and untruth, somehow more graceful and becoming in southern than
in northern races.

As for the burlesques themselves, they were nothing, the performers
personally everything. M. Offenbach had opened Lempriere's Dictionary to
the authors with "La Belle Helene," and there, was commonly a flimsy
raveling of parodied myth, that held together the different dances and
songs, though sometimes it was a novel or an opera burlesqued; but there
was always a song and always a dance for each lady, song and dance being
equally slangy, and depending for their effect mainly upon the natural or
simulated personal charms of the performer.

It was also an indispensable condition of the burlesque's success, that
the characters should be reversed in their representation,--that the men's
_roles_ should be played by women, and that at least one female part
should be done by a man. It must be owned that the fun all came from this
character, the ladies being too much occupied with the more serious
business of bewitching us with their pretty figures to be very amusing;
whereas this wholesome man and brother, with his blonde wig, his
_panier_, his dainty feminine simperings and languishings, his
falsetto tones, and his general air of extreme fashion, was always
exceedingly droll. He was the saving grace of these stupid plays; and I
cannot help thinking that the _cancan_, as danced, in "Ivanhoe," by
Isaac of York and the masculine Rebecca, was a moral spectacle; it was the
_cancan_ made forever absurd and harmless. But otherwise, the
burlesques were as little cheerful as profitable. The playwrights who had
adapted them to the American stage--for they were all of English
authorship--had been good enough to throw in some political allusions
which were supposed to be effective with us, but which it was sad to see
received with apathy. It was conceivable from a certain air with which the
actors delivered these, that they were in the habit of stirring London
audiences greatly with like strokes of satire; but except where Rebecca
offered a bottle of Medford rum to Cedric the Saxon, who appeared in the
figure of ex-President Johnson, they had no effect upon us. We were cold,
very cold, to suggestions of Mr. Reverdy Johnson's now historical speech-
making and dining; General Butler's spoons moved us just a little; at the
name of Grant we roared and stamped, of course, though in a perfectly
mechanical fashion, and without thought of any meaning offered us; those
lovely women might have coupled the hero's name with whatever insult they
chose, and still his name would have made us cheer them. We seemed not to
care for points that were intended to flatter us nationally. I am not
aware that anybody signified consciousness when the burlesque supported
our side of the Alabama controversy, or acknowledged the self-devotion
with which a threat that England should be made to pay was delivered by
these English performers. With an equal impassiveness we greeted allusions
to Erie shares and to the late Mr. Fiske.

The burlesque chiefly betrayed its descent from the spectacular ballet in
its undressing; but that ballet, while it demanded personal exposure, had
something very observable in its scenic splendors, and all that marching
and processioning in it was rather pretty; while in the burlesque there
seemed nothing of innocent intent. No matter what the plot, it led always
to a final great scene of breakdown,--which was doubtless most impressive
in that particular burlesque where this scene represented the infernal
world, and the ladies gave the dances of the country with a happy
conception of the deportment of lost souls. There, after some vague and
inconsequent dialogue, the wit springing from a perennial source of humor
(not to specify the violation of the seventh commandment), the dancing
commenced, each performer beginning with the Walk-round of the negro
minstrels, rendering its grotesqueness with a wonderful frankness of
movement, and then plunging into the mysteries of her dance with a kind of
infuriate grace and a fierce delight very curious to look upon. I am aware
of the historical gossiper still on the alert for me, and I dare not say
how sketchily these ladies were dressed or indeed, more than that they
were dressed to resemble circus-riders of the other sex, but as to their
own deceived nobody,--possibly did not intend deceit. One of them was so
good a player that it seemed needless for her to go so far as she did in
the dance; but she spared herself nothing, and it remained for her merely
stalwart friends to surpass her, if possible. This inspired each who
succeeded her to wantoner excesses, to wilder insolences of hose, to
fiercer bravadoes of corsage; while those not dancing responded to the
sentiment of the music by singing shrill glees in tune with it, clapping
their hands, and patting Juba, as the act is called,--a peculiarly
graceful and modest thing in woman. The frenzy grew with every moment,
and, as in another Vision of Sin,--

  "Then they started from their places,
     Moved with violence, changed in hue,
   Caught each other with wild grimaces,
     Half-invisible to the view,
   Wheeling with precipitate paces
     To the melody, till they flew,
   Hair, and eyes, and limbs, and faces
   Twisted hard in fierce embraces,
   Like to Furies, like to Graces,"--

with an occasional exchange of cuffs and kicks perfectly human. The
spectator found now himself and now the scene incredible, and indeed they
were hardly conceivable in relation to each other. A melancholy sense of
the absurdity, of the incongruity, of the whole absorbed at last even a
sense of the indecency. The audience was much the same in appearance as
other audiences, witnessing like displays at the other theatres, and did
not differ greatly from the usual theatrical house. Not so much fashion
smiled upon the efforts of these young ladies, as upon the _cancan_
of the Signorina Morlacchi a winter earlier; but there was a most fair
appearance of honest-looking, handsomely dressed men and women; and you
could pick out, all over the parquet, faces of one descent from the
deaconship, which you wondered were not afraid to behold one another
there. The truth is, we spectators, like the performers themselves, lacked
that tradition of error, of transgression, which casts its romance about
the people of a lighter race. We had not yet set off one corner of the
Common for a Jardin Mabille; we had not even the concert-cellars of the
gay and elegant New Yorker; and nothing, really, had happened in Boston to
educate us to this new taste in theatricals, since the fair Quakers felt
moved to testify in the streets and churches against our spiritual
nakedness. Yet it was to be noted with regret that our innocence, our
respectability, had no restraining influence upon the performance; and the
fatuity of the hope cherished by some courageous people, that the presence
of virtuous persons would reform the stage, was but too painfully evident.
The doubt whether they were not nearer right who have denounced the
theatre as essentially and incorrigibly bad would force itself upon the
mind, though there was a little comfort in the thought that, if virtue had
been actually allowed to frown upon these burlesques, the burlesques might
have been abashed into propriety. The caressing arm of the law was cast
very tenderly about the performers, and in the only case where a spectator
presumed to hiss,--it was at a _pas seul_ of the indescribable,--a
policeman descended upon him, and with the succor of two friends of the
free ballet, rent him from his place, and triumphed forth with him. Here
was an end of ungenial criticism; we all applauded zealously after that.

The peculiar character of the drama to which they devoted themselves had
produced, in these ladies, some effects doubtless more interesting than
profitable to observe. One of them, whose unhappiness it was to take the
part of _soubrette_ in the Laughable Commedietta preceding the
burlesque, was so ill at ease in drapery, so full of awkward jerks and
twitches, that she seemed quite another being when she came on later as a
radiant young gentleman in pink silk hose, and nothing of feminine modesty
in her dress excepting the very low corsage. A strange and compassionable
satisfaction beamed from her face; it was evident that this sad business
was the poor thing's _forte_. In another company was a lady who had
conquered all the easy attitudes of young men of the second or third
fashion, and who must have been at something of a loss to identify herself
when personating a woman off the stage. But Nature asserted herself in a
way that gave a curious and scarcely explicable shock in the case of that
dancer whose impudent song required the action of fondling a child, and
who rendered the passage with an instinctive tenderness and grace, all the
more pathetic for the profaning boldness of her super masculine dress or
undress. Commonly, however, the members of these burlesque troupes, though
they were not like men, were in most things as unlike women, and seemed
creatures of a kind of alien sex, parodying both. It was certainly a
shocking thing to look at them with their horrible prettiness, their
archness in which was no charm, their grace which put to shame. Yet
whoever beheld these burlesque sisters, must have fallen into perplexing
question in his own mind as to whose was the wrong involved. It was not
the fault of the public--all of us felt that: was it the fault of the
hard-working sisterhood, bred to this as to any other business, and not
necessarily conscious of the indecorum which pains my reader,--obliged to
please somehow, and aiming, doubtless, at nothing but applause? "La Belle
Helene" suggests the only reasonable explanation: _"C'est la


I would not willingly repose upon the friendship of a man whose local
attachments are weak. I should not demand of my intimate that he have a
yearning for the homes of his ancestors, or even the scenes of his own
boyhood; that is not in American nature; on the contrary, he is but a poor
creature who does not hate the village where he was born; yet a sentiment
for the place where one has lived two or three years, the hotel where one
has spent a week, the sleeping car in which one has ridden from Albany to
Buffalo,--so much I should think it well to exact from my friend in proof
of that sensibility and constancy without which true friendship does not
exist. So much I am ready to yield on my own part to a friend's demand,
and I profess to have all the possible regrets for Benicia Street, now I
have left it. Over its deficiencies I cast a veil of decent oblivion, and
shall always try to look upon its worthy and consoling aspects, which were
far the more numerous. It was never otherwise, I imagine, than an ideal
region in very great measure; and if the reader whom I have sometimes
seemed to direct thither, should seek it out, he would hardly find my
Benicia Street by the city sign-board. Yet this is not wholly because it
was an ideal locality, but because much of its reality has now become
merely historical, a portion of the tragical poetry of the past. Many of
the vacant lots abutting upon Benicia and the intersecting streets
flourished up, during the four years we knew it, into fresh-painted wooden
houses, and the time came to be when one might have looked in vain for the
abandoned hoop-skirts which used to decorate the desirable building-sites.
The lessening pasturage also reduced the herds which formerly fed in the
vicinity, and at last we caught the tinkle of the cow-bells only as the
cattle were driven past to remoter meadows. And one autumn afternoon two
laborers, hired by the city, came and threw up an earthwork on the
opposite side of the street, which they said was a sidewalk, and would add
to the value of property in the neighborhood. Not being dressed with coal-
ashes, however, during the winter, the sidewalk vanished next summer under
a growth of rag-weed, and hid the increased values with it, and it is now
an even question whether this monument of municipal grandeur will finally
be held by Art or resumed by Nature,--who indeed has a perpetual motherly
longing for her own, and may be seen in all outlying and suburban places,
pathetically striving to steal back any neglected bits of ground and
conceal them under her skirts of tattered and shabby verdure. But whatever
is the event of this contest, and whatever the other changes wrought in
the locality, it has not yet been quite stripped of the characteristic
charms which first took our hearts, and which have been duly celebrated in
these pages.

When the new house was chosen, we made preparations to leave the old one,
but preparations so gradual, that, if we had cared much more than we did,
we might have suffered greatly by the prolongation of the agony. We
proposed to ourselves to escape the miseries of moving by transferring the
contents of one room at a time, and if we did not laugh incredulously at
people who said we had better have it over at once and be done with it, it
was because we respected their feelings, and not because we believed them.
We took up one carpet after another; one wall after another we stripped of
its pictures; we sent away all the books to begin with; and by this subtle
and ingenious process, we reduced ourselves to the discomfort of living in
no house at all, as it were, and of being at home in neither one place nor
the other. Yet the logic of our scheme remained perfect; and I do not
regret its failure in practice, for if we had been ever so loath to quit
the old house, its inhospitable barrenness would finally have hurried us
forth. In fact, does not life itself in some such fashion dismantle its
tenement until it is at last forced out of the uninhabitable place? Are
not the poor little comforts and pleasures and ornaments removed one by
one, till life, if it would be saved, must go too? We took a lesson from
the teachings of mortality, which are so rarely heeded, and we lingered
over our moving. We made the process so gradual, indeed, that I do not
feel myself all gone yet from the familiar work-room, and for aught I can
say, I still write there; and as to the guest-chamber, it is so densely
peopled by those it has lodged that it will never quite be emptied of
them. Friends also are yet in the habit of calling in the parlor, and
talking with us; and will the children never come off the stairs? Does
life, our high exemplar, leave so much behind as we did? Is this what
fills the world with ghosts?

In the getting ready to go, nothing hurt half so much as the sight of the
little girl packing her doll's things for removal. The trousseaux of all
those elegant creatures, the wooden, the waxen, the biscuit, the india-
rubber, were carefully assorted, and arranged in various small drawers and
boxes; their house was thoughtfully put in order and locked for
transportation; their innumerable broken sets of dishes were packed in
paper and set out upon the floor, a heart-breaking little basketful.
Nothing real in this world is so affecting as some image of reality, and
this travesty of our own flitting was almost intolerable. I will not
pretend to sentiment about anything else, for everything else had in it
the element of self-support belonging to all actual afflictions. When the
day of moving finally came, and the furniture wagon, which ought to have
been only a shade less dreadful to us than a hearse, drew up at our door,
our hearts were of a Neronian hardness.

"Were I Diogenes," says wrathful Charles Lamb in one of his letters, "I
would not move out of a kilderkin into a hogshead, though the first had
nothing but small beer in it, and the second reeked claret." I fancy this
loathing of the transitionary state came in great part from the rude and
elemental nature of the means of moving in Lamb's day. In our own time, in
Charlesbridge at least, everything is so perfectly contrived, that it is
in some ways a pleasant excitement to move; though I do not commend the
diversion to any but people of entire leisure, for it cannot be denied
that it is, at any rate, an interruption to work. But little is broken,
little is defaced, nothing is heedlessly outraged or put to shame. Of
course there are in every house certain objects of comfort and even
ornament which in a state of repose derive a sort of dignity from being
cracked, or scratched, or organically debilitated, and give an idea of
ancestral possession and of long descent to the actual owner; and you must
not hope that this venerable quality will survive their public exposure
upon the furniture wagon. There it instantly perishes, like the
consequence of some country notable huddled and hustled about in the
graceless and ignorant tumult of a great city. To tell the truth, the
number of things that turn shabby under the ordeal of moving strikes a
pang of unaccustomed poverty to the heart which, loving all manner of
makeshifts, is rich even in its dilapidations. For the time you feel
degraded by the spectacle of that forlornness, and if you are a man of
spirit, you try to sneak out of association with it in the mind of the
passer-by; you keep scrupulously in-doors, or if a fancied exigency
obliges you to go back and forth between the old house and the new, you
seek obscure by-ways remote from the great street down which the wagon
flaunts your ruin and decay, and time your arrivals and departures so as
to have the air of merely dropping in at either place. This consoles you;
but it deceives no one; for the man who is moving is unmistakably stamped
with transition.

Yet the momentary eclipse of these things is not the worst. It _is_
momentary; for if you will but plant them in kindly corners and favorable
exposures of the new house, a mould of respectability will gradually
overspread them again, and they will once more account for their presence
by the air of having been a long time in the family; but there is danger
that in the first moments of mortification you will be tempted to replace
them with new and costly articles. Even the best of the old things are
nothing to boast of in the hard, unpitying light to which they are
exposed, and a difficult and indocile spirit of extravagance is evoked in
the least profuse. Because of this fact alone I should not commend the
diversion of moving save to people of very ample means as well as perfect
leisure; there are more reasons than the misery of flitting why the
dweller in the kilderkin should not covet the hogshead reeking of claret.

But the grosser misery of moving is, as I have hinted, vastly mitigated by
modern science, and what remains of it one may use himself to with no
tremendous effort. I have found that in the dentist's chair,--that
ironically luxurious seat, cushioned in satirical suggestion of impossible
repose,--after a certain initial period of clawing, filing, scraping, and
punching, one's nerves accommodate themselves to the torment, and one
takes almost an objective interest in the operation of tooth-filling; and
in like manner after two or three wagon-loads of your household stuff have
passed down the public street, and all your morbid associations with them
have been desecrated, you begin almost to like it. Yet I cannot regard
this abandon as a perfectly healthy emotion, and I do not counsel my
reader to mount himself upon the wagon and ride to and fro even once, for
afterwards the remembrance of such an excess will grieve him.

Of course, I meant to imply by this that moving sometimes comes to an end,
though it is not easy to believe so while moving. The time really arrives
when you sit down in your new house, and amid whatever disorder take your
first meal there. This meal is pretty sure to be that gloomy tea, that
loathly repast of butter and toast, and some kind of cake, with which the
soul of the early-dining American is daily cast down between the hours of
six and seven in the evening; and instinctively you compare it with the
last meal you took in your old house, seeking in vain to decide whether
this is more dispiriting than that. At any rate that was not at all the
meal which the last meal in any house which has been a home ought to be in
fact, and is in books. It was hurriedly cooked; it was served upon
fugitive and irregular crockery; and it was eaten in deplorable disorder,
with the professional movers waiting for the table outside the dining-
room. It ought to have been an act of serious devotion; it was nothing but
an expiation. It should have been a solemn commemoration of all past
dinners in the place, an invocation to their pleasant apparitions. But I,
for my part, could not recall these at all, though now I think of them
with the requisite pathos, and I know they were perfectly worthy of
remembrance. I salute mournfully the companies that have sat down at
dinner there, for they are sadly scattered now; some beyond seas, some
beyond the narrow gulf, so impassably deeper to our longing and tenderness
than the seas. But more sadly still I hail the host himself, and desire to
know of him if literature was not somehow a gayer science in those days,
and if his peculiar kind of drolling had not rather more heart in it then.
In an odd, not quite expressible fashion, something of him seems dispersed
abroad and perished in the guests he loved. I trust, of course, that all
will be restored to him when he turns--as every man past thirty feels he
may when he likes, and has the time--and resumes his youth. Or if this
feeling is only a part of the great tacit promise of eternity, I am all
the more certain of his getting back his losses.

I say that now these apposite reflections occur to me with a sufficient
ease, but that upon the true occasion for them they were absent. So, too,
at the first meal in the new house, there was none of that desirable sense
of setting up a family altar, but a calamitous impression of irretrievable
upheaval, in honor of which sackcloth and ashes seemed the only wear. Yet
even the next day the Lares and Penates had regained something of their
wonted cheerfulness, and life had begun again with the first breakfast. In
fact, I found myself already so firmly established that, meeting the
furniture cart which had moved me the day before, I had the face to ask
the driver whom they were turning out of house and home, as if my own
flitting were a memory of the far-off past.

Not that I think the professional mover expects to be addressed in a
joking mood. I have a fancy that he cultivates a serious spirit himself,
in which he finds it easy to sympathize with any melancholy on the part of
the moving family. There is a slight flavor of undertaking in his manner,
which is nevertheless full of a subdued firmness very consoling and
supporting; though the life that he leads must be a troubled and
uncheerful one, trying alike to the muscles and the nerves. How often must
he have been charged by anxious and fluttered ladies to be very careful of
that basket of china, and those vases! How often must he have been vexed
by the ignorant terrors of gentlemen asking if he thinks that the library-
table, poised upon the top of his load, will hold! His planning is not
infallible, and when he breaks something uncommonly precious, what does a
man of his sensibility do? Is the demolition of old homes really
distressing to him, or is he inwardly buoyed up by hopes of other and
better homes for the people he moves? Can there be any ideal of moving?
Does he, perhaps, feel a pride in an artfully constructed load, and has he
something like an artist's pang in unloading it? Is there a choice in
families to be moved, and are some worse or better than others? Next to
the lawyer and the doctor, it appears to me that the professional mover
holds the most confidential relations towards his fellow-men. He is let
into all manner of little domestic secrets and subterfuges; I dare say he
knows where half the people in town keep their skeleton, and what manner
of skeleton it is. As for me, when I saw him making towards a certain
closet door, I planted myself firmly against it. He smiled intelligence;
he knew the skeleton was there, and that it would be carried to the new
house after dark.

I began by saying that I should wish my friend to have some sort of local
attachment; but I suppose it must be owned that this sentiment, like pity,
and the modern love-passion, is a thing so largely produced by culture
that nature seems to have little or nothing to do with it. The first men
were homeless wanderers; the patriarchs dwelt in tents, and shifted their
place to follow the pasturage, without a sigh; and for children--the pre-
historic, the antique people, of our day--moving is a rapture. The last
dinner in the old house, the first tea in the new, so doleful to their
elders, are partaken of by them with joyous riot. Their shrill trebles
echo gleefully from the naked walls and floors; they race up and down the
carpetless stairs; they menace the dislocated mirrors and crockery;
through all the chambers of desolation they frolic with a gayety
indomitable save by bodily exhaustion. If the reader is of a moving
family,--and so he is as he is an American,--he can recall the zest he
found during childhood in the moving which had for his elders--poor
victims of a factitious and conventional sentiment!--only the salt and
bitterness of tears. His spirits never fell till the carpets were down; no
sorrow touched him till order returned; if Heaven so blessed him that his
bed was made upon the floor for one night, the angels visited his dreams.
Why, then, is the mature soul, however sincere and humble, not only
grieved but mortified by flitting? Why cannot one move without feeling the
great public eye fixed in pitying contempt upon him? This sense of
abasement seems to be something quite inseparable from the act, which is
often laudable, and in every way wise and desirable; and he whom it has
afflicted is the first to turn, after his own establishment, and look with
scornful compassion upon the overflowing furniture wagon as it passes. But
I imagine that Abraham's neighbors, when he struck his tent, and packed
his parlor and kitchen furniture upon his camels, and started off with
Mrs. Sarah to seek a new camping-ground, did not smile at the procession,
or find it worthy of ridicule or lament. Nor did Abraham, once settled,
and reposing in the cool of the evening at the door of his tent, gaze
sarcastically upon the moving of any of his brother patriarchs.

To some such philosophical serenity we shall also return, I suppose, when
we have wisely theorized life in our climate, and shall all have become
nomads once more, following June and October up and down and across the
continent, and not suffering the full malice of the winter and summer
anywhere. But as yet, the derision that attaches to moving attends even
the goer-out of town, and the man of many trunks and a retinue of linen-
suited womankind is a pitiable and despicable object to all the other
passengers at the railroad station and on the steamboat wharf.

This is but one of many ways in which mere tradition oppresses us. I
protest that as moving is now managed in Charlesbridge, there is hardly
any reason why the master or mistress of the household should put hand to
anything; but it is a tradition that they shall dress themselves in their
worst, as for heavy work, and shall go about very shabby for at least a
day before and a day after the transition. It is a kind of sacrifice, I
suppose, to a venerable ideal; and I would never be the first to omit it.
In others I observe that this vacant and ceremonious zeal is in proportion
to an incapacity to do anything that happens really to be required; and I
believe that the truly sage person would devote moving-day to paying
visits of ceremony in his finest clothes.

[Illustration: "Vacant and ceremonious zeal."]

As to the house which one has left, I think it would be preferable to have
it occupied as soon as possible after one's flitting. Pilgrimages to the
dismantled shrine are certainly to be avoided by the friend of
cheerfulness. A day's absence and emptiness wholly change its character,
though the familiarity continues, with a ghastly difference, as in the
beloved face that the life has left. It is not at all the vacant house it
was when you came first to look at it: for then hopes peopled it, and now
memories. In that golden prime you had long been boarding, and any place in
which you could keep house seemed utterly desirable. How distinctly you
recall that wet day, or that fair day, on which you went through it and
decided that this should be the guest chamber and that the family room, and
what could be done with the little back attic in a pinch! The children
could play in the dining-room; and to be sure the parlor was rather small
if you wanted to have company; but then, who would ever want to give a
party? and besides, the pump in the kitchen was a compensation for
anything. How lightly the dumb waiter ran up and down,--

  "Qual piuma al vento!"

you sang, in very glad-heartedness. Then estimates of the number of yards
of carpeting; and how you could easily save the cost from the difference
between boarding and house-keeping. Adieu, Mrs. Brown! henceforth let your
"desirable apartments, _en suite_ or single, furnished or
unfurnished, to gentlemen only!"--this married pair is about to escape
forever from your extortions.

Well, if the years passed without making us sadder, should we be much the
wiser for their going? Now you know, little couple, that there are
extortions in this wicked world beside Mrs. Brown's; and some other
things. But if you go into the empty house that was lately your home, you
will not, I believe, be haunted by these sordid disappointments, for the
place should evoke other regrets and meditations. Truly, though the great
fear has not come upon you here, in this room you may have known moments
when it seemed very near, and when the quick, fevered breathings of the
little one timed your own heart-beats. To that door, with many other
missives of joy and pain, came haply the dispatch which hurried you off to
face your greatest sorrow--came by night, like a voice of God, speaking
and warning, and making all your work idle and your aims foolish. These
walls have answered, how many times, to your laughter; they have had
friendly ears for the trouble that seemed to grow by utterance. You have
sat upon the threshold so many summer days; so many winter mornings you
have seen the snows drifted high about it; so often your step has been
light and heavy upon it. There is the study, where your magnificent
performances were planned, and your exceeding small performances were
achieved; hither you hurried with the first criticism of your first book,
and read it with the rapture that nothing but a love-letter and a
favorable review can awaken. Out there is the well-known humble prospect,
that was commonly but a vista into dreamland; on the other hand is the
pretty grove,--its leaves now a little painted with the autumn, and
faltering to their fall.

Yes, the place must always be sacred, but painfully sacred; and I say
again one should not go near it unless as a penance. If the reader will
suffer me the confidence, I will own that there is always a pang in the
past which is more than any pleasure it can give, and I believe that he,
if he were perfectly honest,--as Heaven forbid I or any one should be,--
would also confess as much. There is no house to which one would return,
having left it, though it were the hogshead out of which one had moved
into a kilderkin; for those associations whose perishing leaves us free,
and preserves to us what little youth we have, were otherwise perpetuated
to our burden and bondage. Let some one else, who has also escaped from
his past, have your old house; he will find it new and untroubled by
memories, while you, under another roof, enjoy a present that borders only
upon the future.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Suburban Sketches, by W.D. Howells


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