Infomotions, Inc.Miscellanies Upon Various Subjects / Aubrey, John, 1626-1697



Author: Aubrey, John, 1626-1697
Title: Miscellanies Upon Various Subjects
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Title: Miscellanies upon Various Subjects

Author: John Aubrey

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This etext was produced by Michael Coker.

      MISCELLANIES

      UPON VARIOUS SUBJECTS.

      BY

      JOHN AUBREY, F.RS.

      THE FIFTH EDITION.

      {TO WHICH IS ADDED,

      HYDRIOTAPHIA; OR, URN BURIAL.

      BY SIR THOMAS BROWNE.}*

      LONDON;

      REEVES AND TURNER

      196, STRAND.

      1890.

* Urn-Burial has not been scanned into this text.


      CONTENTS.


LIFE of Aubrey
Dedication to the First Edition
Day-Fatality; or, Some Observations of Days Lucky and Unlucky
Day-Fatality of Rome
Of Fatalities of Families and Places
Ostenta; or, Portents
Omens
Dreams
Apparitions
Voices
Impulses
Knockings
Blows invisible
Prophesies
Miranda
Magick
Transportation by an invisible Power
Visions in a Beryl or Crystal
Visions without a Glass or Crystal
Converse with Angels and Spirits
Corps-candles in Wales
Oracles
Ecstacy
Glances of Love and Malice
An accurate account of Second-Sighted men in Scotland
Additaments of Second-Sight
Farther Additaments
Appendix

{HYDRIOTAPHIA; OR, URN-BURIAL}


      THE LIFE OF JOHN AUBREY.


JOHN AUBREY, the subject of this brief notice, was born at Easton
Pierse, (Parish of Kington,) in Wiltshire, on the 12th of March, 1626;
and not on the 3rd of November in that year, as stated by some of his
biographers. He was the eldest son of Richard Aubrey, Esq. of
Burleton, Herefordshire, and Broad Chalk, Wiltshire. Being, according
to his own statement, "very weak, and like to dye," he was baptized
on the day of his birth, as appears by the Register of Kington. At an
early age (1633) he was sent to the Grammar School at Yatton Keynel,
and in the following year he was placed under the tuition of Mr.
Robert Latimer, the preceptor of Hobbes, a man then far advanced in
years.

On the 2nd of May, 1642, being then sixteen years of age, Aubrey was
entered a gentleman commoner of Trinity College, Oxford, where he
appears to have applied himself closely to study. He however cherished
a strong predilection for English History and Antiquities, which was
fostered and encouraged at this time by the appearance of the
"Monasticon Anglicanum", to which he contributed a plate of Osney
Abbey, an ancient ruin near Oxford, entirely destroyed in the Civil
Wars.

On the 16th of April, 1646, Aubrey was admitted a student of the
Middle Temple, but the death of his father shortly after, leaving him
heir to estates in Wiltshire, Surrey, Herefordshire, Brecknockshire
and Monmouthshire, obliged him to relinquish his studies and look to
his inheritance, which was involved in several law suits.

Though separated from his associates in the University, he appears to
have kept up a correspondence with several of them, and among others,
Anthony Wood, whom he furnished with much valuable information. Wood
made an ungrateful return for this assistance, and in his
Autobiography thus speaks of him:-"An. 1667, John Aubrey of Easton
Piers in the parish of Kingston, Saint Michael in Wiltshire, was in
Oxon. with Edward Forest, a Bookseller, living against Alls. Coll. to
buy books. He then saw lying on the stall Notitiae Academiae
Oxoniensis, and asking who the author of that book was?  He [Edw.
Forest] answered, the report was that one Mr. Anth. Wood, of Merton
College was the author, but was not. Whereupon Mr. Aubrey, a pretender
to Antiquities, having been contemporary to A. Wood's elder brother in
Trin. Coll. and well acquainted with him, he thought, that he might be
as well acquainted with A. W. himself, Whereupon repairing to his
lodgings, and telling him who he was, he got into his acquaintance,
talked to him about his studies, and offered him what assistance he
could make, in order to the completion of the work that he was in hand
with. Mr. Aubrey was then in sparkish garb, came to town with his man
and two horses, spent high, and flung out A. W. in all his recknings.
But his estate of 7001i per an. being afterwards sold and he reserving
nothing of it to himself, liv'd afterwards in very sorry condition,
and at length made shift to rub out by hanging on Edm. Wyld, Esq.,
living in Blomesbury near London, on James Carle of Abendon, whose
first wife was related to him, and on Sr Joh. Aubrey his kinsman,
living sometimes in Glamorganshire and sometimes at Borstall near
Brill in Bucks. He was a shiftless person, roving and magotie-headed,
and sometimes little better than crased. And being exceedingly
credulous, would stuff his many letters sent to A. W. with folliries
and misinformations, which would sometimes guid him into the paths of
errour." This example of bad English, and worse taste, was written
after twenty-five years acquaintance! In singular contrast to it, is a
letter of Aubrey to Wood, charging him, it is true, with an abuse of
confidence and detraction, but urging his complaint in terms which
sufficiently evince the kindly and affectionate nature of the writer.

Malone, in his " Historical Account of the English Stage," has done
Aubrey justice; and his remarks may properly find a place here. " That
the greater part of his (Aubrey's) life was devoted to literary
pursuits, is ascertained by the works which he has published, the
correspondence which he held with many eminent men, and the
collections which he left in manuscript and which are now reposited in
the Ashmolean Museum. Among these collections is a curious account of
our English Poets, and many other writers. While Wood was preparing
his Athenae Oxonienses, this manuscript was lent to him, as appears
from many queries in his handwriting in the margin; and his account of
Milton, with whom Aubrey was intimately acquainted, is (as has been
observed by Mr. Warton) literally transcribed from thence." After
alluding to the quarrel between Wood and Aubrey, he continues, "But
whatever Wood in a peevish humour may have said or thought of Mr.
Aubrey, by whose labours he has highly profited, or however
fantastical Aubrey may have been on the subject of chemistry and
ghosts, his character for veracity has never been impeached, and as a
very diligent Antiquary, his testimony is worthy of attention. Mr.
Toland, who was well acquainted with him, and certainly a better judge
of men than Wood, gives this character of him: 'Though he was
extremely superstitious, or seemed to be so, yet he was a very honest
man, and most accurate in his account of matter of fact. But the facts
he knew, not the reflections he made, were what I wanted.'"

Aubrey preserved, amidst all his troubles, an intimacy with the men of
Science and Letters of his day, and with them formed the nucleus of
the Royal Society. Some of the principal incidents of his life are
briefly detailed in the following autobiographical memoranda, entitled

      ACCIDENTS OF JOHN AUBREY.

Born at Easton-Piers, March 1625,6, about sun-rising; very weak and
like to Dye, & therefore christned that morning before Prayer. I think
I have heard my mother say I had an Ague shortly after I was born.

1629. About three or four years old I had a grievous ague, I can
remember it. I got not health till eleven or twelve, but had sickness
of Vomiting for 12 hours every fortnight for years, then it came
monthly for then quarterly & then half yearly, the last was in June
1642. This sickness nipt my strength in the bud.

1633. At eight years old I had an issue (naturall) in the coronall
sutor of my head, which continued running till 21.

1634. October, I had a violent fevor, it was like to have carried me
off 'twas the most dangerous sickness that ever I had,

1639.  About 1639 or 1643 I had the measills, but that was nothing, I
was hardly sick. Monday after Easter week my Uncle's Nag ranne away
with me & gave me a very dangerous fall.

1642 May 3. Entered at Trinity College.

1643 April and May, the Small Pox at Oxon; after left that ingeniouse
place & for three years led a sad life in the Country.

1646.  April - Admitted of the M. Temple, but my fathers sickness and
business never permitted me to make any settlement to my study.

1651.  About the 16 or 18 of April I saw that incomparable good
conditioned gentlewoman Mrs M. Wiseman, with whom at first sight I was
in love.

1652. October the 21. my father died.

1655.  (I think) June 14. I had a fall at Epsam & brake one of my
ribbes, and was afraid it might cause an apostumation.

1656.  Sept. 1655 or rather I think 1656 I began my chargeable &
tedious lawe Suite on the Entaile in Brecknockshire and Monmouthshire.
This yeare and the last was a strange yeare to me. Several love and
lawe suites.

1656 - Decemb {Astrological sign for conjunction} morb.

1657.  Novemb 27. obiit Dna Kasker Ryves with whom I was to marry, to
my great losse.

1659.  March or April like to break my neck in Ely Minster; and the
next day, riding a gallop there my horse tumbled over and over, and
yet I thank God no hurt.

1660.  July. Aug. I accompanied A. Ettrick into Ireland for a month &
returning were like to be shipwrecked at Holyhead but no hurt done.

1661, 1662, 1663. About these yeares I sold my Estate in
Herefordshire. Janu. I had the honour to be elected Fellow of the
R. S.

1664.  June 11 landed at Calais, in August following had a terrible fit
of the spleen and piles at Orleans. I returned in October.

1664 or 1665. Munday after Christmas was in danger to be spoiled by my
horse; and the same day received laesio in testiculo, which was like to
have been fatal. 0. R. Wiseman quod - I believe 1664.

1665.  November 1. I made my first address (in an ill hour) to
Joane Sumner.

1666.  This yeare all my business and affairs ran kim kam, nothing
tooke effect, as if I had been under an ill tongue. Treacheries and
enmities in abundance against me.

1667. December --- Arrested in Chancery Lane at Mrs Sumner's suite.

Feb. 24 A.M. about 8 or 9 Triall with her at Sarum; Victory and L600
damaged; through devilish opposition against me.

1668.  July 6. was arrested by Peter Gale's malicious contrivance the
day before I was to go to Winton for my second triall; but it did not
retard me above two hours, but did not then go to triall.

1669.  March 5 was my triall at Winton from eight to nine. The Judge
being exceedingly made against me by my Lady Hungerford but four of
the {     } appearing and much adoe got the moiety of Sarum: Verdict
in L300.

1669 and 1670 I sold all my Estate in Wilts. From 1670 to this very
day (I thank God) I have enjoyed a happy delitescency.

1671. Danger of Arrests.

1677.  Latter end of June an impostume brake in my head.
Mdm. St John's night 1673 in danger of being run through with a sword
by a young templer at M. Burges' chamber in the M. Temple.


I was in danger of being killed by William Earl of Pembroke then Lord
Herbert at the election of Sir William Salkeld for New Sarum. I have
been in danger of being drowned twice.

The year that I lay at M. Neve's (for a short time) I was in great
danger of being killed by a drunkard in the Street of Grays Inn Gate
by a Gentleman whom I never saw before but (Deo gratias) one of his
companions hindred his thrust.

[1754 June 11. transcribed from a MS. in M. Aubrey's own handwriting
in the possession of Dr. R. Rawlinson.]

These incidents are so curiously narrated, and afford such interesting
glimpses of the times to which they refer, that it is to be regretted
they exist in so brief a form.

Several of Aubrey's biographers have given a very loose and
unsatisfactory account of him, and it was left for Mr. Britton to
prepare a more authentic Life of one who had laboured long and
zealously to preserve the records of the past. To that gentleman we
owe many particulars regarding the close of Aubrey's career; among
others, the entry of his burial at Oxford, in the church of St. Mary
Magdalene- "1697. John Aubery a stranger was Buryed Jun. 7th."

To Mr. Britton we are also indebted for the fact that Aubrey was never
married; the statement that he had been united to Joan Sumner, resting
on no surer foundation than the allusion to that lady in the
"Accidents" above quoted. He died intestate, and Letters of
Administration were granted on the 18th December, 1697, to his
surviving brother William. In that license he is described as "late
of Broad Chalk in the County of Wilts, Batchelor."

      [DEDICATION TO THE FIRST EDITION.]


      TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE,

      JAMES EARL OF ABINGDON,

      LORD CHIEF-JUSTICE IN EYRE OF ALL HIS MAJESTY'S
      FORESTS AND CHACES ON THIS SIDE TRENT.

MY LORD,

WHEN I enjoyed the contentment of Solitude in your pleasant walks and
gardens at Lavington the last summer, I reviewed several scattered
papers which had lain by me for several years; and then presumed to
think, that if they were put together, they might be somewhat
entertaining: I therefore digested them there in this order, in which
I now present them to your Lordship.

The matter of this collection is beyond human reach: we being
miserably in the dark, as to the oeconomy of the invisible world, which
knows what we do, or incline to, and works upon our passions and
sometimes is so kind as to afford us a glimpse of its praescience.

      MY LORD,

It was my intention to have finished my Description of Wiltshire*
(half finished already) and to have dedicated it to your Lordship: but
my age is now too far spent for such undertakings: I have therefore
devolved that task on my country man, Mr. Thomas Tanner, + who hath
youth to go through with it, and a genius proper for such an
undertaking.

* In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford,
+ Afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph.

Wherefore, I humbly beseech your Lordship to accept of this small
offering, as a grateful memorial of the profound respect which I have
for you, who have for many years taken me into your favour and
protection.

      MY LORD,

May the blessed Angels be your careful guardians:
such are the prayers of

Your Lordship's Most obliged
And humble Servant,

JOHN AUBREY. 1696.



      DAY FATALITY


      OR, SOME OBSERVATIONS OF DAYS
            LUCKY AND UNLUCKY

      LUC. xix. 43.
      "In hoc die tuo": In this thy day.

That there be good and evil times, not only the sacred scriptures, but
prophane authors mention: see 1 Sam. 25, 8. Esther 8, 17. and 9, 19,
22. Ecclus. 14. 14.

The fourteenth day of the first month was a memorable and blessed day
amongst the children of Israel: see Exod. 12, 18, 40, 41, 42, 51.
Levit. 23, 5. Numb. 28, 16. Four hundred and thirty years being
expired of their dwelling in Egypt, even in the self same day departed
they thence.

A thing something parallel to this we read in the Roman histories:
that, that very day four years, that the civil wars were begun by
Pompey the father, Caesar made an end of them with his sons; Cneius
Pompeius being then slain, and it being also the last battle Caesar was
ever in. (Heylin in the kingdom of Corduba.) The calendar to Ovid's
Fastorum, says, "Aprilis erat mensis Grcecis auspicatisimus", a most
auspicious month among the Graecians.

As to evil days and times; see Amos 5, 13. and 6, 3. Eccles. 9, 12.
Psal. 37, 19. Obad. 12. Jer. 46, 21. And Job hints it, in cursing his
birthday. Cap. 3, v. 1,10, 11. See Weever, p.458.

      Early in a morning
      In an evil tyming,
      Went they from Dunbar.

Horace, lib. 2. Ode 13. Cursing the tree that had like to have fallen
upon him, says, 'Ille nefasto te posuit die'; intimating that it was
planted in an unlucky day.

The Romans counted Feb. 13, an unlucky day, and therefore then never
attempted any business of importance; for on that day they were
overthrown at Allia by the Gauls; and the Fabii attacking the city of
the Veii, were all slain, save one. (Heylin, speaking of St. Peter's
patrimony.) And see the calendar annext to Ovid's "Fastorum", as to
the last circumstance.

The Jews accounted August 10, an unfortunate day; for on that day the
Temple was destroyed by Titus, the son of Vespasian; on which day also
the first Temple was consumed with fire by Nebuchadnezzar. (Heylin.)
The treasury of the times says the eighth of Loyon (August) the very
same day 679 years one after another.

And not only among the Romans and Jews, but also among Christians,
a like custom of observing such days is used, especially Childermas
or Innocent's day. Comines tells us,that Lewis XI. used not to debate
any matter, but accounted it a sign of great misfortune towards him,
if any man communed with him of his affairs; and would be very angry
with those about him, if they troubled him with any matter whatsoever
upon that day.

But I will descend to more particular instances of lucky and
unlucky days.

Upon the sixth of April, Alexander the Great was born. Upon the same
day he conquered Darius, won a great victory at sea, and died the
same day.

Neither was this day less fortunate to his father Philip; for on the
same day he took Potidea; Parmenio, his General, gave a great
overthrow to the Illyrians; and his horse was victor at the Olympic
Games. Therefore, his prophets foretold to him, "Filium cujus
natalis", &c. That a son whose birth-day was accompanied with three
victories, should prove invincible. "Pezelius in melificio historico".

Upon the thirtieth of September, Pompey the Great was born: upon that
day he triumphed for his Asian conquest, and on that day he died.

The nineteenth of August was the day of Augustus his adoption: on the
same day he began his consulship: he conquered the Triumviri, and on
the same day he died. Hitherto out of the memories of King Charles
I's. heroes.

If Solomon counts the day of one's death better than the day of one's
birth, there can be no objection why that also may not be reckoned
amongst one's remarkable and happy days. And therefore I will insert
here, that the eleventh of February was the noted day of Elizabeth,
wife to Henry VII. who was born and died that day. Weever, p. 476.
Brooke, in Henry VII. marriage. Stow, in Anno 1466, 1503.

As also that the twenty-third of November was the observable day of
Francis, Duke of Lunenburgh, who was born on that day, and died upon
the same, 1549, as says the French author of the Journal History, who
adds upon particular remark and observable curiosity.

      "Ipsa dies vitam contulit, ipsa necem".

      The same day life did give,
      And made him cease to live.

Sir Kenelm Digby, that renowned knight, great linguist, and magazine
of arts, was born and died on the eleventh of June, and also fought
fortunately at Scanderoon the same day. Here his epitaph, composed
by Mr. Ferrar, and recited in the aforesaid Memoirs:

      Under this stone the matchless Digby lies,
      Digby the great, the valiant and the wise:
      This age's wonder for his noble parts;
      Skill'd in six tongues, and learn'd in all the arts.
      Born on the day he died, th' eleventh of June,
      On which he bravely fought at Scanderoon.
      'Tis rare that one and self-same day should be
      His day of birth, of death, of victory.

I had a maternal uncle, that died the third of March,1678, which was
the anniversary day of his birth; and (which is a truth exceeding
strange)many years ago he foretold the day of his death to be that of
his birth; and he also averred the same but about the week before his
departure.

The third of March is the day of St. Eutropius; and as to my uncle it
was significative; it turned well to him, according to that of
Rev. 14, 13. Blessed are the dead, &e. and that of Ovid Metam. lib. 3.

      "---Dicique beatus",
      "Ante obitum nemo supremaque funera debet.-----"

      --None happy call
      Before their death, and final funeral.

The sixth of January was five times auspicious to Charles, Duke of
Anjou. Ibid. in the life of the Earl of Sunderland.

The twenty-fourth of February was happy to Charles V. four times.
(Ibid.) Heylin, speaking of the Temple of Jerusalem, hints three of
these four; his birth, taking of Francis, King of France, prisoner;
his receiving the Imperial crown at Bononia. And so doth also the
Journal History before mentioned.

Of the family of the Trevors, six successive principal branches have
been born the sixth of July. Same memoirs.

Sir Humphrey Davenport was born the 7th of July; and on that day
anniversary, his father and mother died, within a quarter of an hour
one of another. Same memoirs.

I have seen an old Romish MSS. prayer-book, (and shewed the same to
that general scholar, and great astrologer, Elias Ashmole, Esq.;) at
the beginning whereof was a Calendar wherein were inserted the unlucky
days of each month, set out in verse. I will recite them just as they
are, sometimes infringing the rule of grammar, sometimes of Prosodia;
a matter of which the old monkish rhymers were no way scrupulous.
It was as ancient as Henry the sixth, or Edward the fourth's time.

January    "Prima dies mensis, & septima truncat ut ensis".
February   "Quarta subit mortem, prostemit tertia fortem."
March.     "Primus mandentem, disrumpit quarto, bibentem".
April      "Denus & undenus est mortis vulnere plenus".
May        "Tertius occidit, & Septimus ora relidit".*
June       "Denus pallescit, quindenus feeders nescit".
July.      "Ter-decimus mactat, Julij denus labefactat."
August.    "Prima necat fortem, prostemit secunda cohortem".
September  "Tertia Septembris & denus fert mala membris".
October.   "Tertius & denus est, sicut, mors alienus".
November.  "Scorpius est quintus, & tertius e nece cinctus".
December.  "Septimus exanguis, virosus denus & anguis".
* Ex re & ledo.

The tenth verse is intolerable, and might be mended thus.

"Tertia cum dena sit sicut mors aliena".

If any object and say, "Deni" is only the plural; I excuse my self by
that admirable chronogram upon King Charles the martyr.

      "Ter deno, Jani, Lunae, Rex (Sole cadente)"
      "Carolus euxtus Solio, Sceptroque, secure".

Neither will I have recourse for refuge to that old tetrastich,

      "Intrat Avaloniam duodena Caterva virorum
      "Flos Arimathioe Joseph, &c."

because I have even now blamed the liberty of the ancient rhymers. He
means by "Mors aliena", some strange kind of death; though "aliena",
signifies in quite another sense than there used.

I shall take particular notice here of the third of November, both
because 'tis my own birth day, and also for that I have observed some
remarkable accidents to have happened thereupon.

Constantius, the Emperor, son of Constantine the Great,little inferior
to his father, a worthy warrior, and good man, died the third of
November: "Ex veteri Calendario penes me".

Thomas Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, that great man, and famous
commander under Henry IV. V. and VI. Died this day, by a wound of a
cannon-shot he received at Orleans, E MSS. quodam, & Glovero.

So, also Cardinal Borromeo, famous for his sanctity of life, and
therefore canonized, (Heylin in his "Praecognita", says, he made Milan
memorable, by his residence there) died 1584, this day, as Possevinus
in his life.

Sir John Perrot, (Stow corruptly calls him Parrat) a man very
remarkable in his time, Lord Deputy of Ireland, son to Henry VIII. And
extremely like him, died in the tower, the third of November, 1592 (as
Stow says). Grief,and the fatality of. this day, killed him. See
Naunton's "Fragmenta Regalia", concerning this man.

Stow, in his Annals, says, Anno 1099, November 3, as well in Scotland
as England, the sea broke in, over the banks of many rivers, drowning
divers towns, and much people; with an innumerable number of oxen and
sheep, at which time the lands in Kent, sometimes belonging to Earl
Godwin, were covered with sands, and drowned, and to this day are
called Godwin's Sands.

I had an estate left me in Kent, of which between thirty and forty
acres was marsh-land, very conveniently flanking its up-land; and in
those days this marsh-land was usually let for four nobles an acre. My
father died, 1643. Within a year and half after his decease, such
charges and water-schots came upon this marsh-land, by the influence
of the sea, that it was never worth one farthing to me, but very often
eat into the rents of the up-land: so that I often think, this day
being my birth-day, hath the same influence upon me, that it had 580
years since upon Earl Godwin, and others concerned in low-lands.

The Parliament, so fatal to Rome's concerns here, in Henry VIII's.
time, began the third of November (26 of his reign;) in which the
Pope, with all his authority, was clean banished the realm; he no more
to be called otherwise than Bishop of Rome; the King to be taken and
reputed as supreme head of the church of England, having full
authority to reform all errors, heresies and abuses of the same: also
the first-fruits and tenths of all spiritual promotions and dignities
were granted to the King. See Stow's Annals, and Weever, page 80.

Not long after which, followed the visitation of abbies, priories, and
nunneries; and after that, their final suppression: this Parliament
being the door, or entrance thereto.

The third of November 1640, began that Parliament so direfully fatal
to England, in its peace, its wealth, its religion, its gentry, its
nobility; nay, its King. So verifying the former verse of the calendar.

      "Scorpius est quintus, & tertius e nece cinctus, "

      A killing day to some or other.

On the third of November 1703, was the remarkable storm.
The third of September was a remarkable day to the English Attila,
Oliver, 1650. He obtained a memorable victory at Dunbar; another at
Worcester, 1651, and that day he died, 1658.

The first two occurrences wonderfully accord to the preceding verses.

      "Tertia Septembris, & denus fert mala membris."

Being fatal to the two members of great Britain, Scotland and England.
The third, as happy to them both, as the same day, 1666, was dismal
and unhappy to the city of London, and consequently to the whole
kingdom, with its immediate preceding and two succeeding days, viz.
the second, fourth, and fifth of September.

I come now to the days of the week.

Tuesday ("Dies Martis") was a most remarkable day with Thomas Becket,
Arch Bishop of Canterbury, as Weever, 201, observes from Mat. Paris:
"Mars Secundum Poetas, Deus Belli nuncupatur. Vita Sancti Thomae
(secundum illud Job, Vita hominis militia est super terram) tota fuit
contra hostem bellicosa, &c". The life of St. Thomas (according to
that of Job, the life of a man is a warfare upon earth) was a
continual conflict against the enemy. Upon a Tuesday he suffered; upon
Tuesday he was translated; upon Tuesday the Peers of the land sat
against him at Northampton; upon Tuesday he was banished; upon Tuesday
the Lord appeared to him at Pontiniac, saying, Thomas, Thomas, my
church shall be glorified in thy blood; upon Tuesday he returned from
exile, upon Tuesday he got the palm or reward of martyrdom; upon
Tuesday 1220, his venerable body received the glory and renown of
translation, fifty years after his passion. Thus my author.

One thing I make bold to gloss upon. His translation is here mentioned
twice.

Note, this is no tautology of the historian; but the latter paragraph
is a mere recitation of the first, viz. reference to the time when he
was translated into the number of Saints and Martyrs: "quando in
divorum numerum relatus", as Camden.

Wednesday is said to have been the fortunate day of Sixtus Quintus,
that Pope of renowned merit, that did so great and excellent things in
the time of his government. See the just weight of the scarlet robe,
(page 101, his desired praises.) On a Wednesday he was born; on that
day he was made Monk; on the same he was made General of his order;
on that also, was he successively created Cardinal, elected Pope, and
also inaugurated. See Heylin, speaking of the Temple of Jerusalem.

Friday was observed to be very fortunate to the great renowned Captain
Gonsalvo, he having on that day given the French many memorable
defeats. Saturday was a lucky day to Henry VII. upon that day he
atchieved the victory upon Richard III. being August 22, 1485. On that
day he entered the city, being August 29 (correct Stow, who mistakes
the day) and he himself always acknowledged, he had experienced it
fortunate. See Bacon in his Life.

Thursday was a fatal day to Henry VIII. (as Stow, 812); and so also to
his posterity. He died on Thursday, Jan. 28. King Edward VI. on
Thursday, July 6. Queen Mary on Thursday, November 17. Queen Elizabeth
on Thursday, March 24.

Saturday(or the Jewish Sabbath) was fatal to Jerusalem Temple; for on
that day it was taken by Pompey, Herod and Titus, successively.
Heylin.

Hitherto by way of prologue. And be pleased to take notice, as to the
days of the month, I have taken such care, that all are according to
the Julian or old account, used by us here in England. (See
Partridge's almanack, preface to the reader) Pope Gregory XIII.
brought in his new stile (generally used beyond sea) anno 1585, in
October, as asserts the Journal History before recited.

An old proverb.

      When Easter falls in our lady's lap,
      Then let England beware a rap.

Easter falls on March 25, when the Sunday letter is G, and the golden
number 5, 13, or 16. As in the late years, 1459,1638,1649.

1459, King Henry VI. was deposed and murdered.
1638, The Scottish troubles began, on which ensued the great
rebellion.
1648-9, King Charles I. murdered.

I think it will not happen so again till the year 1991.

Now for epilogue and remarkable reflection.

Turning over our annals, I chanced upon a two-fold circumstance: I
will not say, that none else hath observed the same; but I protest,
("Ita, me Deus amet, ut verum loquor") I do not know of any that have;
and therefore must justly claim to be acquitted from the least
suspicion of plagiarism, or plowing with others heifers.

The first is, of William the Conqueror. The second, of Edward III.
(I need not say any thing of the eminency of these two; every one
knows what great things they did.) And making reflection upon the
auspicious birth-day of His Royal Highness the Duke of York, I
adventured upon the following composure. (I cannot be proud of my
poetry; but I cannot but be glad of my Bon Heur, "d'avoir (en lisant)
tombe si fortuement sur les evenements d'un si Bon Jour".)

Ad Illustrissimum & Celsissimum Principem, Jacobum Ducem Eboracensem,
de Natali suo Auspicatissimo Octobris XIV. Anno 1633.

      "--Deus
      Anna nefasto te posuit die?" Hor. lib. 2. ode 13.

      Oct. "Decimo quarto Normannus Haraldum
      Dux superavit, & Hinc Regia sceptra tulit.
      Tertius Edwardus, capto pernice Caleto,
      (Gallica quo Regna sunt resarata sibi)
      Ire domum tentans, diris turbinibus actus
      In pelago, Vitae magna pericla subit."
      Oct. Decimo quarto, tamen appulit Oras
      Nativas. (His quam prosperus ille dies !)
      Natali laetare tuo, guam Maxime Princeps;
      Fausta velut sunt haec, Omnia semper habe."

      October's fourteenth gave the Norman Duke
      That victory, whence he Englands sceptre took.*
      Third Edward, after he had Calais won,
      (The mean whereby he France did over-run)
      Returning home, by raging tempests tost,
      (And near his life (so fortunes) to have lost)+
      Arrived safe on shore the self-same date.
      (This day to them afforded so fair fate.)
      Great Duke, rejoice in this your day of birth;
      And may such omens still encrease your mirth.

* Stow, in anno 1066.
+ Stow, in anno 1347.

The Verses I presented in anno 1672, to a most honourable Peer of the
land, and of great place near his Royal Highness.

Since which time, old Fabian's chronicle coming into my hands, from
him I got knowledge, that that advantagious peace, mentioned by Stow,
anno 1360, (concluded between the forementioned King Edward III. And
the French King) was acted upon the fourteenth of October, with grand
solemnity.

The two former circumstances must needs fall out providentially:
whether this last of anno 1360, was designed by Edward III. or no, (as
remembering his former good hap) may be some question: I am of
opinion not. Where things are under a man's peculiar concern, he may
fix a time; but here was the French King concerned equally with the
English, and many other great personages interested. To have tied them
up to his own auspicious conceit of the day, had been an unkind
oppression, and would have brought the judgment of so wise a Prince
into question; we may conclude then, it was meerly fortuitous.
And therefore to the former observation concerning this famous Edward,
give me leave to add,

      "Insuper hoc ipso die (sibi commoda) Grandis
      Rex cum Galligenis, foedera fecit idem",

      An advantageous peace, on day self-same,
      This mighty Prince did with the Frenchmen frame.

A memorable peace (foretold by Nostradamus) much conducing to the
saving of Christian blood, was made upon the fourteenth of October
1557, between Pope Paul IV. Henry II. of France, and Philip II. of
Spain. Nostradamus says, these great Princes were "frappez du ciel",
moved from Heaven to make this peace. See Garencier's Comment on
Nostradamus, p. 76.

A lucky day this, not only to the Princes of England, but auspicious
to the welfare of Europe. John Gibbon, 1678.

Thus far Mr. John Gibbon. The Latin verses of the twelve months quoted
by him out of an old manuscript, I have seen in several mass-books;
and they are printed in the calendar to the works of the Venerable
Bede. 'Tis to be presumed, that they were grounded upon experience;
but we have no instances left us of the memorables of those days. As
for the third and tenth of September, I have here set down some
extractions from a little book called The Historian's Guide: or,
Britain's Remembrancer; which was carefully collected by a club. It
begins at the year 1600, and is continued to 1690. There cannot be
found in all the time aforesaid, the like instances.

      "Tertia Septembris, & denus fere mala membris".

September 3,1641. The Parliament adjourned to the 20th of October
next, and the Irish rebellion broke out, where were 20,000 persons
barbarously murdered.

September 3, 1643. Biddeford, Appleford, and Barnstable surrendered to
the King.

September 3, 1650. Dunbar fight.

September 3, 1651. Worcester fight.

September 3, 1651. Earl of Derby defeated at Preston.

September 3,1654. A third Parliament at Westminster.

September 3, 1658. Oliver, Protector died.

September 3, 1675. The town of Northampton near burnt down to the
ground by accidental fire.

September 3, 1662. William Lenthal, Speaker of the House of Commons,
died.

September 3, 4, 1665. Four Dutch men of war, two East-India ships, and
several merchant-men taken by the Earl of Sandwich, with the loss only
of the Hector.

September 2, 1644. The Earl of Essex fled to Plymouth, and the army
submitted to the King.

September 2, 1645. The Scots raised the siege from before Hereford.

September 2, 1653. The Londoners petition the Parliament to continue
tythes.

September 2, 1685. The Lady Lisle beheaded at Winchester, for
harbouring Hicks, a rebel..

September 4, 1643. Exeter taken by Prince Maurice.

September 4, 1653. General Blake buried at Westminster.

September 5, 1652. The French fleet beaten by the English.

      **Memorables on September the tenth.

September 10, 1643. The siege of Gloucester raised. I remember over
that gate which leads to Nymphs-field was this following inscription
in free-stone: the walls are now pulled down.

      Always remember,
      The tenth of September,
      One thousand six hundred forty three,
      And give God the glory.

September 10, 1645. Bristol surrendered to the Parliament.

September 10, 1649. Drogheda taken, as appears by Cromwell's letter to
the Speaker Lenthal.

September 10, 1660. Peace with Spain proclaimed.

September 10, 1670. Peace concluded between England and Spain in
America, was this day ratified at Madrid.

19 September 10, 1673. This day his majesty commanded the Earl of
Ossory to take the command of the fleet at the Buoy in the Nore, in
the absence of Prince Rupert.

September 12, 1679. The King takes from the Duke of Monmouth his
commission of General.

September 12, 1680. Mrs. Cellier tried at the Old Bailey, for
publishing a book called Malice Defeated, &c. and found guilty.

September 12, 1683. The siege of Vienna raised (after the besieged had
lost 10,000 men, and the besiegers 70,000) by the King of Poland, and
the Duke of Lorrain.

May 29, 1630. King Charles II. born.

May 29, 1660. Restored.

May 29, 1672. The fleet beaten by the Dutch.

May 29, 1679. A rebellion broke out in the west of Scotland, where
they proclaimed the covenant, and put forth a declaration.

The Emperor Charles V. was born on February 24, 1500.

He won the battle of Pavia, February 24, 1525.

Clement VII. crowned him Emperor, February 24, 1530.

Raphael d'Urbino (the famous painter) was born on Good-Friday, and
died on Good-Friday. At Feltwell in Norfolk (which lies east and west)
a fire happened to break out at the west end, which the west wind blew
and burned all the street: on that day twenty years, another fire
happened there, which began at the east end, and burned it to the
ground again. This I had from a reverend divine. Quaere de hoc.

Colonel Hugh Grove of Wiltshire, was beheaded at Exeter (together with
Colonel John Penruddock) on the ninth day of May 1655. On that very
day three years, his son and heir died at London of a malignant fever,
and about the same hour of the day.

A very good friend of mine and old acquaintance was born on the 15th
of November: his eldest son was born on the 15th of November, and his
second son's first son on the 15th of November.

At thee hour of prime, April 6, 1327, Petrarch first saw his mistress
Laura in the Church of Saint Clara in Avignon. In the same city, same
month, same hour, 1348, she died. 'Tis his own remark. Petrarcha
Redivivus, 242.


      DAY-FATALITY OF ROME ,
      **Written by Mr. JOHN PELL, D.D. from whom I had it.


THEY that called the city of Rome, "Urbs AEterna", seemed to believe
that Rome could never be destroyed. But there have been great numbers
of men, that did verily believe, that it shall have an irrecoverable
over-throw. Writers have proceeded so far, as to foretell the time of
Rome's final ruin. Some said that Rome's perdition should happen in
the year of Christ 1670, they have now been decried nine whole years:
so that few take care to know what reasons moved them to pitch upon
that number.

A Lutheran historian, anno 1656, wrote thus, "Finem Jubileorum
Ecclesiasticorum omniumque temporum in Scriptura revelatorum, desinere
in Annum Christi Millesimum sexcentesimum & septuagesimum, antehac
observavit Beatus Gerhardus cum Philippo Nicolao". But all men are not
of Dr. Gerhard's opinion. Many men believe, that some of the
prophecies in the Revelations do reach far beyond our times, and that
the events of future times will unclasp and unseal a considerable
portion of the Apocalypse. One of the reasons, that recommended the
number of 1670, was because it is the sum of 410, and 1260.

Historians agree, that in the year of Christ 410, in the month of
August, Rome was trampled under foot, and her heathen inhabitants were
miserably slaughtered by the victorious army of Alaric, a Christian
King of the Goths. Paulus Diaconus saith, August the 24th was the day
of King Alaric's taking Rome. Kedrenus saith, it was August the 26th,
perhaps the army first entered the 24th, and the King followed not
till two days after.

As for the other number 1260. It is twice found
in the Revelations of St. John, ch. 11, 3. "My two witnesses shall
prophesy a thousand two hundred and sixty days." And chap. 12, 6. "
Should feed the woman in the Wilderness, a thousand two hundred and
threescore days."And it is there expressed in another form, (42 times
30) chap. 11, 2. "The Gentiles shall tread the holy city under foot
forty and two months." Chap. 13, 5. "Power was given to the
blasphemous beast to continue forty and two months." Chap. 12, 14.
"The woman is nourished in the Wilderness for ({Greek text: Kairon kai
kaironos kai hemisu kairon}) a season and seasons, and half a season."
See Act. 1, 7. 360 and 720, and 180 are equal to 1260. So it seems
every {Greek text: kaipo} hath 360 days, or twelve months at thirty
days to a month. No doubt Daniel had given occasion to this
expression, chap. 7, 25. " A time, and times, and the dividing of
time." No man can ground any distinct reasoning upon such general
words. But yet it is not tied to a just number of days, (as 360) but
is capable of various interpretations in several prophecies. Daniel
useth a plural in both places, and not a dual, (two times and two
seasons) nor doth John say, two seasons: but by his Numeral
Illustration, he teaches us to understand him, as if he had said,
(chap. 12, 14). " For three seasons and half a season:" I say Numeral
Illustration. For I take it to be no other than an easy example (12
and 24 and 6 are 42) to direct the sons of the prophets not yet
arrived to the skill of dealing with difficult supputations of numbers
not then discoverable. As Revel. 13, 18. "Here is wisdom, let him that
hath understanding count the number of the beast."

By 1260 days, almost all the interpreters understand so many years,
but not a year of 360 days; because they find no nation that hath so
short a year. The Egyptians had a year of just 365 days; but before
St. John was born, the Romans had forced them to allow 365 1/4 as
we use now in England.

In an enquiry concerning Rome, it is fit to consider the
length of a Roman year. (I may justly say a Roman-Moyed; for no city
ever had their year's length and form of a calendar determined,
settled, and commanded with so much absolute authority as Rome had)
Julius Caesar by an edict commanded that number of 365 1/4
to be observed, and therefore it is called a Julian year. Three
Julians and an half have days 1278 3/8, but Julian years 1378 3/8
are 1278 Julian years, and days 136 31/32; or almost 137 days.

Almost 100 years ago, Pope Gregory the XIII by a papal bull introduced
a calendar wherein the year's length is supposed to have days 365
97/500 Then three Gregorian years and an half have days 1278 279/800
But Gregorian years 1278 279/800 are 1278 Julian years, and days
almost 118. Wherefore instead of adding 1260, add 1278, add 137 days
to the year of our Lord 410, August 26. The sum shews the year of our
Lord 1688, August 163, that is, ten days after the end of December
1688 old stile. This is the utmost, or farthest day, beyond which no
Apocalypse account (reckoning from Alaric) can point out a time for
the final destruction of the city of Rome.

Again (instead of adding 1260) add 1278 years, and days 118 to the
year of our Lord 410, August 24. The sum shews the year of our Lord
1688, August 142, that is, eleven days before the end of December 1688
old stile. This (December 20) is the nearest or soonest day that can
be gathered by Apocalyptic account (reckoning from Alaric) to point
out the time of Rome's final ruin. But if it happens not before the
eleventh of January, men will make no more reckoning of Alaric; but
begin a new account from Attila, in the year of Christ, 453.

Calculation to a day (when we can do it) may be defended by a great
example. Exod. 12, 41. "At the end of 430 years, even the self-same
day, &c." John Pell.

Dr. Pell told me, that St. Augustin writes
somewhere, to this purpose, viz. "That it were to be wished, that
some skilful mathematician would take the pains to examine and
consider the mathematical parts of the holy scripture."


      OF FATALITIES OF FAMILIES
      AND PLACES.


THE Lord Chancellor Bacon says,* " As for nobility in particular
persons, it is a reverend thing to see an antient castle or building
not in decay: or to see a fair timber tree sound and perfect; how much
more to behold an antient noble family, which hath stood against the
waves and weathers of time: for new nobility is but the act of power;
but antient nobility is the act of time."

*Essay XIV. of Nobility.

But "Omnium rerum est vicissitudo": families and places have their
fatalities, according to that of Ovid.

"Fors sua cuique loco est". Fast. lib. 4.

This piece of a verse puts me in mind of several places in Wiltshire,
and elsewhere, that are, or have been fortunate to their owners: and
e contra.

Stourton, (the seat of the Lord Stourton) was belonging to this family
before the conquest. They say, that after the victory at Battaile,
William the Conqueror came in person into the west, to receive their
rendition; that the Lord Abbot of Glastonbury, and the rest of the
Lords and Grandees of the western parts waited upon the Conqueror at
Stourton-house; where the family continue to this day.

The honourable family of the Hungerfords, is probably of as great
antiquity as any in the county of Wilts. Hungerford, (the place of the
barony) was sold but lately by Sir Edward Hungerford, Knight of the
Bath; as also the noble and ancient seat of Farleigh-Castle, about
anno 167-. But that this estate should so long continue is not very
strange; for it being so vast, 'twas able to make several
withstandings against the shock of fortune.

The family of Gawen, have been long at Norington, in the parish of
Alvideston in Wiltshire. It was sold by --- Gawen, Esq. to Sir Wadham
Wyndham, one of the Judges of the King's Bench, about 1665. They
continued in this place four hundred fifty and odd years. Then also
was sold their estate in Broad-Chalk, which they had as long, or
perhaps longer. On the south down of the farm of Broad-Chalk, is a
little barrow, called Gawen's Barrow (which must be before
ecclesiastical canons were constituted; for since, burials are only
in consecrated ground). King Edgar gave the manor and farm of Broad-
Chalk to the nuns of Wilton-Abby, which is 900 years ago.

Mr. Thynne, in his explanation of the hard words in Chaucer, writes
thus, Gawen, fol. 23, p. 1. This Gawyn was sisters son to Arthur the
Great, King of the Britains, a famous man in war, and in all manner
of civility; as in the acts of the Britains we may read. In the year
1082, in a province of Wales, called Rose, was his sepulchre found.
Chaucer, in the Squire's Tale.

      This straunger night that came thus sodenly
      All armed, save his head, full royally
      Salued the King, and Queen, and Lordes all
      By order as they sitten in the Hall
      With so high Reverence and Obeisaunce
      As well in Speech as in Countenaunce,
      That Gawain with his old Courtesie,
      Though he came again out of Fairie,
      He could him not amend of no word.

Sir William Button of Tockenham, Baronet, (the father) told me that
his ancestors had the lease of Alton-farm (400 . per annum) in Wilts,
(which anciently belonged to Hyde-Abby juxta Winton) four hundred
years. Sir William's lease expired about 1652, and so fell into the
hands of the Earl of Pembroke.

Clavel, of Smedmore, in the Isle of Purbec, in the county of Dorset,
was in that place before the conquest, as appears by Dooms-day book.
The like is said of Hampden, of Hampden in Bucks: their pedigree says,
that one of that family had the conduct of that county in two
invasions of the Danes. Also Pen of Pen, in that county, was before
the conquest, as by Dooms-day book.

Contrariwise, there are several places unlucky to their possessors,
e. g. Charter-house, on Mendip in Somersetshire, never passed yet to
the third generation. The manor of Butleigh near Glastonbury, never
went yet to the third generation.

Bletchington, in Oxfordshire, continued in the family of the Panures,
for about 300 years: it was alienated by --- Panure, to Sir John
Lenthal, about the year 1630, who sold it again to Sir Thomas Coghill,
about 1635. He sold it to William Lewis, Esq. whose relict made it
over to the Duke of Richmond and Lenox, about the year 166-. His Grace
sold it to Arthur, Earl of Anglesey, about the year 166-.

Fatality of proper names of Princes, e. g. Augustus, the first Roman
Emperor, and Augustulus the last. Constantine, the first Grecian
Emperor, and Constantine the last. The like is observed of the first
and last Mexican Emperors. And the Turks have a prophesy that the last
Emperor will be a Mahomet.

John hath been an unfortunate name to Kings. All the second Kings
since the conquest have been unfortunate.

London-Derry was the first town in Ireland that declared for the
Parliament against King Charles I. and for the Prince of Orange
against King James II. It was closely besieged both times without
effect. The King's party were once masters of all the kingdom, except
London-Derry and Dublin, and King James had all in his power but
London-Derry and Inniskilling. One Taylor, a minister, was as famous
for his martial feats in the first siege, as Walker in the last.

'Tis certain, that there are some houses unlucky to their inhabitants,
which the reverend and pious Dr. Nepier could acknowledge. See Tobit,
chap. 3, v. 8. "That she had been married to seven husbands, whom
Asmodasus, the evil spirit, had killed, before they had lain with her."

The Fleece-tavern, in Covent-garden, (in York-street) was very
unfortunate for Homicides:* there have been several killed, three in
my time. It is now (1692) a private house.

"Clifton the master of the house, hanged himself, having perjured
himself." MS. Note in a copy of the Miscellanies in the Library of the
Royal Society.

A handsome brick house on the south side of Clerkenwell church-yard
had been so unlucky for at least forty years, that it was seldom
tenanted; and at last, no body would adventure to take it. Also a
handsome house in Holborn, that looked towards the fields; the tenants
of it did not prosper, several, about six.

At the sign of--- over against Northumberland house,. near Charing-
Cross, died the Lady Baynton, (eldest daughter of Sir John Danvers of
Dansey.) Some years after in the same house, died my Lady Hobbey (her
sister) of the small-pox, and about twenty years after, died their
nephew Henry Danvers, Esq. of the small-pox, aged twenty-one, wanting
two weeks. He was nephew and heir to the Right Honourable Henry
Danvers, Earl of Danby.

Edmund Wild, Esq. hath had more Deodands from his manor of Totham in
Essex, than from all his estate besides: two mischiefs happened in
one ground there. Disinheriting the eldest son is forbid in the holy
scripture, and estates disinherited are observed to be unfortunate;
of which one might make a large catalogue. See Dr. Saunderson's
Sermon, where he discourses of this subject.

      **Periodical Small-Poxes.

The small-pox is usually in all great towns:* but it is observed at
Taunton in Somersetshire, and at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, that at one
of them at every seventh year, and at the other at every ninth year
comes a small-pox, which the physicians cannot master, e. g.

* This account, I had from Mr. Thomas Ax.

Small-pox in Sherborne + during the year 1626.

And during the year 1634.

>From Michaelmas 1642, to Mich. 1643.

>From Michaelmas 1649, to Mich. 1650.

>From Michaelmas 1657, to Midi. 1658.

In the year 1667, from Jan. to Sept. 1667.

Mr. Ax promised me to enquire the years it happened there after
1670, and 1680; but death prevented him.

+ Extracted out of the register-book.

Small-pox in Taunton all the year 1658.*

Likewise in the year 1670.

Again in the year 1677.

Again very mortal in the year 1684.

* Out of the register-book.

Mr. Ax also promised me to enquire at Taunton the years it happened
there after 1660.

It were to be wished that more such observations were made in other great towns.

Platerus makes the like observations in the second book of his
Practice, p. 323. He practised at Basil, fifty six years, and did
observe, that every tenth year they died of the plague there.

See Captain J. Graunt's observations on the bills of mortality at
London, (indeed written by Sir William Petty, which in a late
transaction he confessed) for the periodical plagues at London, which
(as I remember) are every twenty-fifth year.


      OSTENTA; OR, PORTENTS.


"HOW it comes to pass, I know not;* but by ancient and modern example
it is evident, that no great accident befalls a  city or province, but
it is presaged by divination, or prodigy, or astrology, or some way or
other. I shall here set down a few instances."

* Discourses of Nicholas Machiavel, book 1. Chap 56.

A Rainbow appeared about the sun before the battle of Pharsalia. See.
Appian, and Mr. T. May's 5th book of his Continuation of Lucan.

" Ex Chronico Saxonico, p. 112, Anno 1104, fuit primus Pentecostes
dies Nonis Junii, & die Martis sequnte, conjuncti sunt quatuor Circuli
circa Solem, aibi coloris, & quisque sub alio collocatus, quasi picti
essent.  Omnes qui videbant obstupuerunt, propterea quod nunquam ante
tales meminerant. Post haec facta est Pax inter Comitem, Robertum de
Normannia, & Robertum de Boeloesme i, e."

In the year 1104, on the first day of Pentecost, the sixth of June,
and on the day following being Tuesday, four circles of a white
colour, were seen to roll in conjunction round the sun, each under the
other regularly placed, as if they had been drawn by the hand of a
painter. All who beheld it were struck with astonishment, because they
could not learn that any such spectacles had ever happened in the
memory of man. After these things it is remarkable, that a peace was
immediately set on foot, and concluded between Robert, Earl of
Normandy, and Robert de Baelaesme.

The Duke of York (afterwards Edward IV.) met with his enemies near to
Mortimer's Cross, on Candlemas day in the morning, at which time the
Sun (as some write) appeared to him like three Suns, and suddenly
joined altogether in one, and that upon the sight thereof, he took
such courage, that he fiercely set on his enemies, and them shortly
discomfited: for which cause, men imagined that he gave Sun in his
full brightness for his cognisance or badge. Halle, F. 183, b. 4.

Our Chronicles tell us, that Anno Secundo Reginae Mariae, 15th of
February, two suns appeared, and a rainbow reversed: see the bow
turned downwards, and the two ends standing upwards, before the
coining in of King Philip.

The phaenomenon, fig. 1, was seen at Broad-Chalk in Wiltshire, on the
first day of May, 1647. It continued from about eleven o'clock
(or before) till twelve. It was a very clear day; but few did take
notice of it, because it was so near the sun-beams. My mother happened
to espy it, going to see what o'clock it was by an horizontal dial;
and then all the servants saw it. Upon the like occasion, Mr. J.
Sloper, B.D. vicar there, saw it, and all his family; and the servants
of Sir George Vaughan, (then of Falston) who were hunting on the downs,
saw it. The circles were of rainbow colour; the two filots, which cross
the greater circle, (I presume they were segments of a third circle)
were of a pale colour. The sun was within the intersections of the
circles.

The next remarkable thing that followed was, that on the third of June
following;* Cornet Joyce carried King Charles I. prisoner from
Holdenby to the Isle of Wight. The Isle of Wight lieth directly from
Broad-Chalk, at the 10 o'clock point.

* See Sir W. Dugdale's hist. of the Civil Wars.

The phaenomenon, fig. 2, was seen in the north side of the church-yard
of Bishop-Lavington in Wiltshire, about  the latter end of September
1688, about three o'clock in the afternoon. This was more than a
semicircle. B. B. two balls of light. They were about eleven degrees
above the Horizon by the quadrant; observed by Mr. Robert Blea, one of
the Earl of Abingdon's gentlemen.

Cicero de Natura Deorum, lib. 2. "Multa praeterea Ostentis, multa ex
eis admonemur, multisque rebus aliis, quas diuturnus usus ita notarit,
ut artem Divinationis efficeret". i. e.

Besides, we learn a world of things from these Portents and Prodigies,
and many are the warnings and admonitions we receive from them, and
not only from them indeed, but from a number of extraordinary
accidents, upon which daily use and constant observation has fixed
such marks, that from thence the whole art of divination has been
compounded.


      OMENS.


BEFORE the battle at Philippi began, two eagles fought in the air
between the two armies: both the armies stood still and beheld them,
and the army was beaten that was under the vanquished eagle.
See Appian's Hist. part 2, lib. 4, g. 2.

It is worthy of notice, that, at the time the cities of Jerusalem and
Antioch were taken from the Pagans, the Pope that then was, was called
Urban, and the Patriarch of Jerusalem was called Eraclius, and the
Roman Emperor was called Frederick; in like manner when Jerusalem was
taken from the Christians by the siege of Saladin, the Pope was called
Urban; the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Eraclius; and the Emperor,
Frederick: and it is remarkable, that fourscore and seven years
passed between these two events. Hoveden, f. 363.

Mathew Parker, seventieth Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, in the seventieth
year of his age, feasted Queen Elizabeth on her birth day, 1559, in
his palace at Canterbury. Parker. Vitae, 556.

It is a matter of notable consideration, says a Spanish historian,
that the royal throne of the Morish Kings of Granada, began and ended
in the times of the Fernandos of Castille: beginning in the time of
Saint Fernando, the third of that name, and ending in that of the
Catholic King, Don Fernando the fifth, his successor in the ninth
descent. In the same manner, it is observable that the first Morish
King was called Mahomad, and the last had the same name of Mahomad:
which resembles what passed in the empire of Constantinople, where the
first and last Emperors were called Constantines.
Garibay, 1. 40, c. 43.

The same author mentions it as an extraordinary circumstance that, at
one time lived in Castille, Arragon, and Portugal, three Kings called
Pedros, and whose fathers were named Alonsos, who were also Kings at
the same time. L. 14, c. 35.

While Edward, Duke of York,* was declaring his title, in the Chamber
of the Peers, there happened a strange chance, in the very same time,
amongst the Commons in the nether house, then there assembled: for a
Crown, which did hang in the middle of the same, to garnish a branch
to set lights upon, without touch of any creature, or rigor of wind,
suddenly fell down, and at the same time also, fell down the Crown,
which stood on the top of the Castle of Dover: as a sign and
prognostication, that the Crown of the realm should be divided and
changed from one line to another. Halle's Chronicle, H. 6. F. 181.

* Father of Edward IV.

Anno 1506. Through great tempest of wind in January, Philip, King of
Castille and his wife, were weather-driven and landed at Falmouth.
This tempest blew down the Eagle of Brass from the spire of St. Paul's
church in London, and in the falling, the same eagle broke and
battered the black Eagle* which hung for a sign in St. Paul's Church-
yard. Stow's Annals, 484.

* The black Eagle is the cognizance of the house of Austria,
of which Philip was head.

The silver cross that was wont to be carried before Cardinal Wolsey,
fell out of its socket, and was like to have knocked out the brains of
one of the Bishop's servants. A very little while after, came in a
messenger, and arrested the Cardinal, before he could get out of the
house. See Stow's Chronicle.

'Tis commonly reported, that before an heir of the Cliftons, of
Clifton in Nottinghamshire, dies, that a Sturgeon is taken in the
river Trent, by that place.

Thomas Flud, Esq. in Kent, told me that it is an old observation which
was pressed earnestly to King James I. that he should not remove the
Queen of Scots body from Northamptonshire, where she was beheaded and
interred: for that it always bodes ill to the family when bodies are
removed from their graves. For some of the family will die shortly
after, as did Prince Henry, and I think Queen Ann.

A little before the death of Oliver, the Protector, a Whale came into
the river Thames, and was taken at Greenwich, --- feet long. 'Tis said
Oliver was troubled at it.

When I was a freshman at Oxford, 1642, I was wont to go to Christ
Church, to see King Charles I. at supper; where I once heard him say,
" That as he was hawking in Scotland, he rode into the quarry, and
found the covey of partridges falling upon the hawk; and I do remember
this expression further, viz. and I will swear upon the book 'tis
true." When I came to my chamber, I told this story to my tutor; said
he, that covey was London.

The bust of King Charles I. carved by Bernini, as it was brought in a
boat upon the Thames, a strange bird (the like whereof the bargemen
had never seen) dropped a drop of blood, or blood-like, upon it; which
left a stain not to be wiped off. This bust was carved from a picture
of Sir Anthony Van Dyke's drawing: the sculptor found great fault with
the fore-head as most unfortunate. There was a seam in the middle of
his fore-head, (downwards) which is a very ill sign in Metoposcopie.

Colenel Sharington Talbot was at Nottingham, when King Charles I. did
set up his standard upon the top of the tower there. He told me, that
the first night, the wind blew it so, that it hung down almost
horizontal; which some did take to be an ill omen.

The day that the long Parliament began, 1641, the Sceptre fell out of
the figure of King Charles in wood, in Sir Thomas Trenchard's hall at
Wullich, in Dorset, as they were at dinner in the parlour: Justice
Hunt then dined there.

The picture of Arch-Bishop Laud, in his closet, fell down (the string
broke) the day of the sitting of that Parliament. This is mentioned in
Canterbury's doom by W. Prynne.

The psalms for the eleventh day of the month, are 56, 57, 58, &c. On
the eleventh day of one of the months in the summer time, the citizens
came tumultuously in great numbers in boats and barges over against
Whitehall, to shew they would take the Parliament's part. The psalms
aforesaid, both for morning and evening service, are as prophecies of
the troubles that did ensue.

When the high court of justice was voted in the parliament house, as
Berkenhead (the mace bearer) took up the mace to carry it before the
Speaker, the top of the mace fell off. This was avowed to me by an eye
witness then in the house.

The head of King Charles I's. staff did fall off at his trial: that is
commonly known.

The second lesson for the 30th of January in the calendar before the
common prayer, is concerning the trial of Christ: which, when Bishop
Duppa read, the King was displeased with him, thinking he had done it
of choice; but the Bishop cleared himself by the calendar, as is to be
seen.

King Charles II. was crowned at the very conjunction of the sun and
Mercury; Mercury being then in "Corde Solis". As the King was at
dinner in Westminster Hall, it thundered and lightened extremely. The
cannons and the thunder played together.

King Charles II. went by long sea to Portsmouth or Plymouth, or both;
an extraordinary storm arose, which carried him almost to France. Sir
Jonas Moor (who was then with his Majesty) gave me this account, and
said, that when they came to Portsmouth to refresh themselves, they
had not been there above half an hour, but the weather was calm, and
the sun shone: his Majesty put to sea again, and in a little time
they had the like tempestuous weather as before.

Not long before the death of King Charles II. a Sparrow-hawk escaped
from the perch, and pitched on one of the iron crowns of the white
tower, and entangling its string in the crown, hung by the heels and
died. Not long after, another hawk pitched on one of the crowns. From
Sir Edward Sherborne, Knight.

The Gloucester frigate cast away at the Lemanore, and most of the men
in it; the Duke of York escaping in a cock boat, anno 1682, May the
5th, on a Friday.

When King James II. was crowned, (according to the ancient custom, the
Peers go to the throne, and kiss the king) the Crown was almost kissed
off his head. An Earl did set it right; and as he came from the Abbey
to Westminster Hall, the Crown tottered extremely.

The canopy (of cloth of gold) carried over the head of King James II.
by the Wardens of the Cinque Ports, was torn by a puff of wind as he
came to Westminster Hull; it hung down very lamentably: I saw it.

When King James II. was crowned, a signal was given from Westminster
Abbey to the Tower, where it was Sir Edward Sherborne's post to stand
to give order for firing the cannons, and to hoist up the great flag
with the King's arms. It was a windy day, and the wind presently took
the flag half off, and carried it away into the Thames. From Sir
Edward Sherborne.

The top of his sceptre (Flower de Lys) did then fall.

Upon Saint Mark's Day, after the coronation of King James II. were
prepared stately fire works on the Thames: it hapened, that they took
fire all together, and it was so dreadful, that several spectators
leaped into the river, choosing rather to be drowned than burned. In a
yard by the Thames, was my Lord Powys's coach and horses; the horses
were so frightened by the fire works, that the coachman was not able
to stop them, but ran away over one, who with great difficulty
recovered.

When King James II. was at Salisbury, anno 1688, the Iron Crown upon
the turret of the council house, was blown off.- This has often been
confidently asserted by persons who were then living.

In February, March, and April, two ravens built their nests on the
weather cock of the high steeple at Bakewell in Derbyshire.

I did see Mr. Christopher Love beheaded on Tower Hill, in a delicate
clear day about half an hour after his head was struck off, the
clouds gathered blacker and blacker; and such terrible claps of
thunder came that I never heard greater.

'Tis reported, that the like happened after the execution of Alderman
Cornish, in Cheapside, October 23, 1685.

Anno 1643. As Major John Morgan of Wells, was marching with the King's
army into the west, he fell sick of a malignant fever at Salisbury,
and was brought dangerously ill to my father's at Broad-Chalk, where
he was lodged secretly in a garret. There came a sparrow to the
chamber window, which pecked the lead of a certain pannel only, and
only one side of the lead of the lozenge, and made one small hole in
it. He continued this pecking and biting the lead, during the whole
time of his sickness; (which was not less than a month) when the major
went away, the sparrow desisted, and came thither no more. Two of the
servants that attended the Major, and sober persons, declared this for
a certainty.

Sir Walter Long's (of Draycot in Wilts) widow, did make a solemn
promise to him on his death-bed, that she would not marry after his
decease, but not long after, one Sir --- Fox, a very beautiful young
gentleman, did win her love; so that notwithstanding her promise
aforesaid, she married him: she married at South-Wraxhall, where the
picture of Sir Walter hung over the parlour door, as it doth now at
Draycot. As Sir --Fox led his bride by the hand from the church,
(which is near to the house) into the parlour, the string of the
picture broke, and the picture fell on her shoulder, and cracked in
the fall. (It was painted on wood, as the fashion was in those days.)
This made her ladyship reflect on her promise, and drew some tears
from her eyes.*

*This story may be true in all its details, except the name of the
lady, who was a daughter of Sir W. Long; she married Somerset Fox,
Esq. See Sandford's Geneal. Hist, of the Kings of England, p. 344.

See Sir Walter Raleigh's history, book 4, chap. 2, sec. 7. The dogs of
the French army, the night before the battle of Novara, ran all to the
Swisses army: the next day, the Swisses obtained a glorious victory
of the French. Sir Walter Raleigh affirms it to be certainly true.

The last battle fought in the north of Ireland, between the
Protestants and the Papists, was in Glinsuly near Letterkenny in the
county of Donegall. Veneras, the Bishop of Clogher, was General of the
Irish army; and that of the Parliament army, Sir Charles Coot. They
pitched their tents on each side the river Suly, and the Papists
constantly persist in it to this very day, that the night before the
action,* a woman of uncommon stature, all in white, appearing to the
said Bishop, admonished him not to cross the river first, to assault
the enemy, but suffer them to do it, whereby he should obtain the
victory. That if the Irish took the water first to move towards the
English, they should be put to a total rout, which came to pass.
Ocahan, and Sir Henry O'Neal, who were both killed there, saw
severally the same apparition, and dissuaded the Bishop from giving
the first onset, but could not prevail upon him. In the mean time, I
find nothing in this revelation, that any common soldier might not
conclude without extraordinary means.

*So an apparition of a woman greater than ordinary, beckoned to
Julius Caesar to pass over the Rubicon, L. Flor. lib. 4. Satyres
appeared to Alexander when he besieged Tyrus; Alexander asked the
divines, what was the signification of it; they told him the meaning
is plain, {Greek Text: Sa Turos} (i.e.) Tyre is thine. Alexander took
the town. Q. Curtius.

Near the same place, a party of the Protestants had been surprized
sleeping by the Popish Irish, were it not for several wrens that just
wakened them by dancing and pecking on the drums as the enemy were
approaching. For this reason the wild Irish mortally hate these birds,
to this day, calling them the Devil's servants, and killing them
wherever they catch them; they teach their Children to thrust them
full of thorns: you will see sometimes on holidays, a whole parish
running like mad men from hedge to hedge a wren-hunting.

Anno 1679. After the discovery of the Popish plot, the penal laws were
put in execution against the Roman Catholics; so that, if they did not
receive the sacrament according to the church of England, in their
parish church, they were to be severely proceeded against according to
law: Mr. Ployden, to avoid the penalty, went to his parish church at
Lasham, near Alton, in Hampshire: when Mr. Laurence (the minister)
had put the chalice into Mr. Ployden's hand, the cup of it (wherein
the wine was) fell off. 'Tis true, it was out of order before; and he
had a tremor in his hand. The communion was stopt by this accident.
This was attested to me by two neighbouring ministers, as also
by several gentlemen of the neighbourhood.

When King James II. first entered Dublin, after his arrival from
France, 1689, one of the gentlemen that bore the mace before him,
stumbled without any rub in his way, or other visible occasion. The
mace fell out of his hands, and the little cross upon the crown
thereof stuck fast between two stones in the street. This is very well
known all over Ireland, and did much trouble King James himself, with
many of his chief attendants.

The first Moors that were expelled Spain, were in number five thousand
five hundred and fifty-five. They sailed from Denia, October 2, 1609.
H. Bleda. "Expulsion de Moriscos", p. 1000.


      DREAMS.


      {Greek Text: --'Onar kai Dios esi}. Homer Iliad A.

      DREAMS PROCEED FROM JOVE.

HE that has a mind to read of dreams, may peruse Cicero "de
Divinatione", Hier. Cardani "Somniorum Synesiorum", lib. 4, and
Moldinarius "de Insomniis", &c. I shall here mention but little out of
them, my purpose being chiefly to set down some remarkable and divine
dreams of some that I have had the honour to be intimately acquainted
with, persons worthy of belief.

Cicero "de Divinatione", lib. 1. "Hannibalem, Caslius scribit, cum
Columnam auream, quae esset in fano Junonis Laciniae, auferre vellet,
dubitaretque utrum ea solida esset, an extrinsecus inaurata,
perterebravisse; cumque solidam invenisset, statuissetque tollere:
secundum quietem visam esse ei Junonem praedicere, ne id faceret;
minarique, si id fecisset se curaturam, ut eum quoque oculum, quo bene
videret, amitteret; idque ab homine acuto non esse neglectum; itaque
ex eo auro quod exterebratum esset, buculam curasse faciendum, & eam
in summa columna collocavisse."

i. e.

Coelius writes, that Hannibal, when he had a mighty mind to take away a
gold pillar, that was in the Temple of Juno Lacinia, being in doubt
with himself, whether it was solid massive gold, or only gilt, or
thinly plated over on the out side, bored it through. When he had
found it to be solid, and fully designed to have it carried off; Juno
appeared to him in his sleep, and forewarned him against what he was
about, threatening him withal, that if he persisted and did it, she
would take care that he should lose the eye, that he saw perfectly
well with, as he had done the other.

The great man, it seems, was too wise to slight and neglect this
warning; nay, he even took care to have a ring made of the very gold,
that had been bored out of it, and placed it on the top of the pillar.

"--- Cum duo quidam Arcades familiares iter una, facerent, & Megaram
venissent, alterum ad cauponem divertisse; ad hospitem alterum. Qui,
ut coenati quiescerent, concubia nocte visum esse in somnis ei qui erat
in hospitio, ilium alterum orare ut subveniret, quod sibi a caupone
interitus pararetur; eum primo perterritum somnio surrexisse; deinde
cum se colligisset, idque visum pro nihilo habendum esse duxisset,
recubuisse; tum, ei dormienti eundem ilium visum esse rogare, ut
quoniam sibi vivo non subvenisset, mortem suam ne inultam esse
pateretur; se interfectum in plaustrum a caupone esse conjectum, &
supra stercus injectum; petere, ut mani ad portum adesset, priusquam
plaustrum ex oppido exiret. Hoc vero somnio commotum mano bubulco
presto ad portam fuisse, quaesisse ex eo, quid esset in plaustro;
ilium perterritum fugisse, mortuum erutum esse, cauponem re patefacta
poenas dedisse. Quid hoc somnio dici divinius potest ?" i. e.

As two certain Arcadians, intimate companions, were travelling
together, it so happened, that, when they came to Megara, one of them
went to an inn, and the other to a friend's house. Both had supped at
their respective places, and were gone to bed; when lo! he, that was
at his friend's house, dreamt, that his companion came to him, and
begged of him for Heaven's sake to assist him, for that the inn-keeper
had contrived a way to murder him: frightened at first out of his
sleep, he rose up; but soon afterward coming a little better to
himself, he thought, upon recollection, there was no heed to be given
to the vision, and went very quietly to bed again. But as soon as he
was got into his second sleep, the same vision repeated the visit, but
the form of his petition was quite altered. He beseeched him, that,
since he had not come to his assistance, while he was among the
living, he would not suffer his death, however, to go unrevenged. Told
him that as soon as he was murdered, he was tossed by the inn-keeper
into a waggon, and had a little straw thrown over his corpse. He
entreated him to be ready very early at the door before the waggon was
to go out of town. This dream truly disturbed him it seems very much,
and made him get up very early: he nicked the time, and met with the
waggoner just at the very door, and asked him what he had in his cart.
The fellow run away frightened and confounded. The dead body was
pulled out of it, and the whole matter coming plainly to light, the
inn-keeper suffered for the crime.--What is there that one can call
more divine than a dream like this ?"

"---Somnium de Simonide, qui, cum ignotum quendam projectum mortuum
vidisset, eumque humavisset, haberetque in animo navem conscendere,
moneri visus est, ne id faceret, ab eo, quem sepultum affecerat: si
navigasset, cum naufragio esse perituram: itaque Simonidem rediisse
periisse caeeteros, qui tum navigassent."

---The dream of Simonides. This person, when he saw a certain body
thrown dead upon the shore, though a stranger, caused him to be
buried. Much about that time he had it in his head to go on ship-
board, but dreamt that he had warning given him by the man he had got
to be interred, not to go; that if he went, the ship would
infallibly be cast away. Upon this Simonides returned, and every soul of
them besides that went on board was lost.

Cicero "de Divinatione", lib. 2. "Somnium, Alexandri. Qui, cum
Ptolomaeus familiaris ejus, in proelio, telo venenato ictus esset, eoque
vulnere summo cum dolore moreretur, Alexander assidens somno est
consopitus; tum secundum quietem visus ei dicitur draco is, quem
mater Olympias alebat, radiculam ore ferre & simul dicere quo illa
loci nasceretur neque is longe aberat ab eo loco: ejus autem esse vim
tantam, ut Ptolomaeum facile sanaret. Cum Alexander experrectus
narrasset amicis somnium, emisisse qui illam radiculam quaererent. Qua,
inventa, & Ptolomaeus sanatus dicitur, & multi milites, qui erant eodem
genere teli vulnerati."

(i. e.) The dream of Alexander, when his friend Ptolemy was wounded
in battle, by an envenomed dart, and died of the wound, in all the
extremities of pain and anguish; Alexander sitting by him, and
wearied out and quite fatigued, fell into a profound sleep. In this
sleep, that dragon is reported to have appeared to him, which was bred
up by his mother Olympias, carrying a little root in his mouth and to
have told him in what spot of ground it grew, (nor was it far from
that very place) and told him withal it seems, that such was the
force, efficacy, and virtue of it, that it would work an easy cure
upon Ptolomy. When Alexander waked, he told his friends the dream, and
sent some out in quest of this little root. The root (as story says)
was found, and Ptolemy was healed, so were many soldiers likewise,
that had been wounded with the same kind of darts.

Cardanus "Somniorum Synesiorum", lib. 4, chap. 2. "Narrat Plinius 35
lib. Nat. Hist, vir ab omnia superstitione alienissimus, Historiam
hujusmodi. 'Nuper cujusdam militantis in Praetorio mater vidit in
quiete, ut radicem sylvestris Rosae (quam Cynorrhodon vocant) blanditam
sibi aspectu pridie in Fruteto, mitteret filio bibendam: In Lusitania
res gerebatur, Hispaniae, proxima parte: casuque accidit, ut milite a
morsu Canis incipiente aquas expavescere superveniret epistola orantis
ut paretet religioni; servatusque est ex insperato, & postea
quisquis auxilium simile tentavit.' "

i. e. In his natural history, Pliny, a man the most averse to
superstition, relates to us the following passage. Lately, the mother
of one of the guards, who attended upon the General, was admonished by
a vision in her sleep, to send her son a draught composed of the
decoction of the root of a wild rose, (which they call Cynorrhodon)
with the agreeable look whereof she had been mightily taken the day
before, as she was passing through a coppice. The seat of the war at
that time lay in Portugal, in that part of it next adjoining to Spain,
that a soldier, beginning to apprehend mighty dangerous consequences
from the bite of a dog, the letter came unexpectedly from her,
entreating him to pay a blind obedience to this superstition. He did
so, and was preserved beyond all expectation; and everybody
afterwards had recourse to the same remedy.

Ibid. Galeni "tria Somnia".--- "Tertium magis dignum miraculo, cum bis
per somnium admonitus, ut arteriam secaret, quae inter pollicem &
indicem est, idque agens liberatus sit a diuturno dolore, quo
infestabatur ea in parte, qua septo transverso jecur jungitur, idque
in libri de sectione venae fine testatus est. Magno certe exemplo, quod
tantus vir in medicina eam adhibuerit somnio fidem, ut in seipso
periculum vitae subierit, in arte propria. Deinde probitatem admiror,
ut quo potuerit solertia ingenii sibi inventum ascribere, Deo cui
debebatur, rediderit. Dignus vel hoc solo vir immortalitate nominis, &
librorum suorum."

Galen's three dreams. The third more worthy of being called a miracle,
was, when being twice admonished in his sleep, to cut the artery that
lies between the fore finger and the thumb, and doing it accordingly,
he was freed from a continual daily pain with which he was afflicted
in that part where the liver is joined to the midriff; and this he has
testified at the end of his book of Venesection. 'Tis certainly a very
great example, when a man so great as he was in the medicinal art, put
so much confidence in a dream as to try experiments upon himself;
where he was to run the risque of his life, in his own very art. I
cannot help but admire his probity in the next place, that where he
might have arrogated the merit of the invention to himself, and placed
it wholly to the account of the subtility and penetration of his own
genius, he attributed it to God, to whom it was due. In this alone did
the man well deserve to purchase an immortality to his name and his
writings.

In his fourth book, chap. 4. "De Exemplis propriis", he owns the
solution of some difficult problems in Algebra to his dreams.

Plinii, Nat. Hist. lib. 22, chap. 17. "Verna carus Pericli
Atheniensium Principi, cum is in arce templum aedificaret,
repsissetque super altitudinem fastigii, & inde cecidisset, hac herba
(Parthenio) dicitur sanatus, monstrata Pericli somnio a Minerva. Quare
Parthenium vocari coepta est, assignaturque ei Deae."

Pliny's Natural History, book 22, chap. 17. "A little Home-bred Slave,
that was a darling favourite to Pericles, Prince of the Athenians, and
who, while a temple was building in the Prince's palace, had climbed
up to the very top of the pinnacle, and tumbled down from that
prodigious height; is said to have been cured of his fall by the herb
Parthenium, or mug-wort, which was shown to Pericles in a dream, by
Minerva. From hence it originally took the name of Parthenium, and is
attributed to that Goddess.

"Augustinus, Cui etiam praeter sanctitatem, plena fides adhiberi
potest, duo narrat inter reliqua somnia admiranda. Primum, quod cum
quidam mortuo nuper patre venaretur tanquam de pecunia quam pater illi
ex chirographo debuisset, dum incastus viveret, hac causa nocte quadam
umbram patris videt, quae illum admonuit de persoluta pecunia & ubi
chirographum esset repositum. Cum surrexisset, invenit chirographum
loco eo quem umbra paterna docuerat, liberatusque est ab injusto
petitore."

Saint Austin, to whom even, besides his sanctity, we owe an entire
credit, tells among others, two very wonderful dreams. The first is,
when a person was arrested by one, as for a certain sum of money,
which his father had owed him by a note under his own hand, while he
led a lewd debauched life, saw the ghost of his father one night, upon
this very account, which told him of the money being paid, and where
the acquittance lay. When he got up in the morning, he went and found
the acquittance in that very place that his father's ghost had
directed him to, and so was freed from the litigious suit of one that
made unjust demands upon him.

      "Alterum adhuc magis mirum".

"Praestantius, vir quidam a Philosopho petierat dubitationem quandam
solvi; quod ille pernegavit. Nocte sequente, tametsi vigilaret
Prsestantius, vidit sibi Philosophum assistere, ac dubitationem
solvere, moxque abire. Cum die sequenti obviam Praestantius eundem
habuisset Philosophum, rogat, Cur cum pridie rogatus nolluisset
solvere illam questionem, intempesta nocte, non rogatus, & venisset ad
se & dubitationem aperuisset. Cui Philosophus. Non quidem ego adveni
sed somnians visus sum tibi hoc Officium praestare."

      The other is much more wonderful still.

A certain gentleman named Praestantius, had been entreating a
Philosopher to solve him a doubt, which he absolutely refused to do.
The night following, although Praestantius was broad awake, he saw the
Philosopher standing full before him, who just explained his doubts to
him, and went away the moment after he had done. When Praestantius met
the Philosopher the next day, he asks him why, since no entreaties
could prevail with him the day before, to answer his question, he came
to him unasked, and at an unseasonable time of night, and opened every
point to his satisfaction. To whom thus the Philosopher. " Upon my
word it was not me that came to you; but in a dream I thought my own
self that I was doing you such a service."

The plague raging in the army of the Emperor Charles V. he dreamt that
the decoction of the root of the dwarf-thistle (a mountain plant since
called the Caroline thistle) would cure that disease. See Gerrard's
Herbal, who tells us this.

In Queen Mary's time, there was only one congregation of Protestants
in London, to the number of about three- hundred, one was the deacon
to them, and kept the list of their names: one of that congregation
did dream, that a messenger, (Queen's Officer) had seized on this
deacon, and taken his list; the fright of the dream awaked him: he
fell asleep and dreamt the same perfect dream again. In the morning
before he went out of his chamber, the deacon came to him and then he
told him his dream, and said, 'twas a warning from God; the deacon
slighted his advice, as savouring of superstition; but --- was so
urgent with him that he prevailed with him to deposite the list in
some other hand, which he did that day. The next day, the Queen's
officer attacked him, and searched (in vain) for the list, which had
it been found, would have brought them all to the flame.
Foxe's Martyrology.

When Arch Bishop Abbot's mother (a poor clothworker's wife in
Guilford) was with child of him, she did long for a Jack, and she
dreamt that if she should eat a Jack, her son in her belly should be a
great man. She arose early the next morning and went with her pail to
the river-side (which runneth by the house, now an ale-house, the sign
of the three mariners) to take up some water, and in the water in the
pail she found a good jack, which she dressed, and eat it all, or very
near. Several of the best inhabitants of Guilford were invited (or
invited themselves) to the christening of the child; it was bred up a
scholar in the town, and by degrees, came to be Arch Bishop of
Canterbury.

In the life of Monsieur Periesk, writ by Gassendus, it is said, that
Monsieur Periesk, who had never been at London, did dream that he was
there, and as he was walking in a great street there, espied in a
goldsmith's glass desk, an antique coin, he could never meet with. (I
think an Otho.) When he came to London, walking in (I think) Cheap-
side, he saw such a shop, and remembered the countenance of the
goldsmith in his dream, and found the coin desired, in his desk. See
his life.

When Doctor Hamey (one of the physicians college in London) being a
young man, went to travel towards Padoa, he went to Dover (with
several others) and shewed his pass, as the rest did, to the Governor
there. The Governor told him, that he must not go, but must keep him
prisoner. The Doctor desired to know for what reason ? how he had
transgrest ? well it was his will to have it so. The pacquet-boat
hoisted sail in the evening (which was very clear), and the Doctor's
companions in it. There ensued a terrible storm, and the pacquet-boat
and all the passengers were drowned: the next day the sad news was
brought to Dover. The Doctor was unknown to the Governor, both by name
and face; but the night before, the Governor had the perfect vision in
a dream, of Doctor Hamey, who carne to pass over to Calais; and that
he had a warning to stop him. This the Governor told the Doctor the
next day. The Doctor was a pious, good man, and has several times
related this story to some of my acquaintance.

My Lady Seymour dreamt, that she found a nest, with nine finches in
it. And so many children she had by the Earl of Winchelsea, whose name
is Finch.

The Countess of Cork (now Burlington) being at Dublin, dreamt, that
her father, (the Earl of Cumberland) who was then at York, was dead.
He died at that time.

'Tis certain, that several had monitory dreams of the conflagration of
London.

Sir Christopher Wren, being at his father's house, anno 1651, at
Knahill in Wilts (a young Oxford scholar) dreamt, that he saw a fight
in a great market-place, which he knew not; where some were flying,
and others pursuing; and among those that fled, he saw a kinsman of
his, who went into Scotland to the King's army. They heard in the
country, that the King was come into England, but whereabouts he was
they could not tell. The next night his kinsman came to his father at
Knahill, and was the first that brought the news of the fight at
Worcester.

When Sir Christopher Wren was at Paris, about 1671, he was ill and
feverish, made but little water, and had a pain in his reins. He sent
for a physician, who advised him to be let blood, thinking he had a
plurisy: but bleeding much disagreeing with his constitution, he
would defer it a day longer: that night he dreamt, that he was in a
place where palm-trees grew, (suppose AEgypt) and that a woman in a
romantic habit, reached him dates. The next day he sent for dates,
which cured him of the pain of his reins.

Since, I have learned that dates are an admirable medicine for the
stone, from old Captain Tooke of K--. Take six or ten date-stones, dry
them in an oven, pulverize and searce them; take as much as will lie
on a six-pence, in a quarter of a pint of white wine fasting, and at
four in the afternoon: walk or ride an hour after: in a week's time
it will give ease, and in a month cure. If you are at the Bath, the
Bath water is better than white wine to take it in.

Sir John Hoskin's Lady, when she lay in of her eldest son, had a
swelling on one side of her belly, the third day when the milk came,
and obstructions: she dreamt that syrup of elderberries and distilled
water of wormwood would do her good, and it did so; she found ease in
a quarter of an hour after she had taken it. I had this account from
her Ladyship's own mouth.

Captain --- Wingate told me, that Mr. Edmund Gunter, of Gresham
College, did cast his nativity, when about seventeen or eighteen years
old; by which he did prognosticate that he should be in danger to lose
his life for treason. Several years before the civil wars broke out,
he had dreamt that he was to be put to death before a great castle,
which he had never seen; which made a strong impression in his memory.
In anno 1642, he did oppose the church ceremonies, and was chosen a
member of Parliament, then was made a Captain, and was taken prisoner
at Edge Hill, by Prince Rupert, and carried to Kenilworth Castle,
where he was tried by a council of war, and condemned to die: but they
did better consider of it, and spared his life; for that he being so
considerable a person, might make an exchange for some of the King's
party-:* and he was exchanged for the right Honourable Montague, Earl of
Lindsey (heir of the General.) Since the restoration, he was made
one of the commissioners of the excise office in London. He did
protest that Kenilworth castle was the very castle he saw in his
dream.

*Captain Wingate was a prisoner in Oxford, after
Edgehill fight, 1642.


Sir Roger L'Estrange was wont to divertise himself with cocking in his
father's (Sir Hammond L'Estrange's) park; he dreamt that there came to
him in such a place of the park, a servant, who brought him news, that
his father was taken very ill. The next day going to his usual
recreation, he was resolved for his dream sake to avoid that way; but
his game led him to it, and in that very place the servant came and
brought him the ill news according to his dream.

Mr. Edmund Halley, R. S. S. was carried on with a strong impulse to
take a voyage to St. Hellens, to make observations of the southern
constellations, being then about twenty-four years old. Before he
undertook his voyage, he dreamt that he was at sea, sailing towards
that place, and saw the prospect of it from the ship in his dream,
which he declared to the Royal Society, to be the perfect
representation of that island, even as he had it really when he
approached to it.

A Gentlewoman dreamt that a pultess of blew corants would cure her
sore throat; and it did so. She was a pious woman, and affirmed it to
be true.

Anno 1690. One, in Ireland, dreamed of a brother or near relation of
his, (who lived at Amesbury in Wiltshire) that he saw him riding on
the downs, and that two thieves robbed him and murdered him. The dream
awaked him, he fell asleep again and had the like dream. He wrote to
his relation an account of it, and described the thieves complexion,
stature and cloaths; and advised him to take care of himself. Not long
after he had received this monitory letter, he rode towards Salisbury,
and was robbed and murdered; and the murderers were discovered by this
very letter, and were executed. They hang in chains on the road to
London.

'Twas revealed to a King of Scots, that if he drank of the water of
Muswell, he would be cured. After great enquiry they heard of such a
place, not far from Hornsey in Middlesex. See Weever's Funeral
Monuments of the Well. John Norden's Description of Middlesex. Here
was afterwards founded a religious house for Austin Monks: since it
belonged to Sir Thomas Row, and in 1677, was pulled down and the
materials sold. Anciently the Kings of Scotland were feudatory to the
Kings of England, and did their homage every Christmas day. They had
several lodges belonging to them for their reception in their
journey; as at Huntingdon, &c. See Caxton's Chronicle concerning
this.

The water of this spring is drank for some distempers still.

      "Somnium ex Eubernea porta."

Mrs. Cl---, of S---, in the county of S---, had a beloved daughter,
who had been a long time ill, and received no benefit from her
physicians. She dreamed that a friend of hers deceased, told her, that
if she gave her daughter a drench of yew pounded, that she would
recover; she gave her the drench, and it killed her. Whereupon she
grew almost distracted: her chamber maid to complement her, and
mitigate her grief, said surely that could not kill her, she would
adventure to take the same herself; she did so, and died also. This
was about the year 1670, or 1671. I knew the family.

A Gentlewoman, of my acquaintance, dreamed, that if she slept again,
the house would be in danger to be robbed. She kept awake, and anon
thieves came to break open the house, but were prevented.

J.  H. Esq.* being at West-Lavington with the Earl of Abbingdon,
dreamed, December the 9th, his mother rose up in mourning: and anon
the Queen appeared in mourning. He told his dream the next morning to
my Lord, and his Lordship imparted it to me (then there) Tuesday,
December 11. In the evening came a messenger, post from London, to
acquaint Mr. H. that his mother was dangerously ill: he went to London
the next day; his mother lived but about eight days longer. On
Saturday, December 15, the Queen was taken ill, which turned to the
small pox, of which she died, December 28, about two o'clock in the
morning.

J. H. Against these initials there is a note in the copy of the
first edition already referred to, in these words,-" James Herbert: He
saies he was never there."

Sir Thomas White, Alderman of London, was a very rich man, charitable
and public spirited. He dreamt that he had founded a college at a
place where three elms grow out of one root. He went to Oxford,
probably with that intention, and discovering some such tree near
Gloucester Hall, he began to repair it, with a design to endow it. But
walking afterwards by the Convent where the Bcrnardines formerly
lived, he plainly saw an elm with three large bodies rising out of the
same root: he forthwith purchased the ground, and endowed his college
there, as it is at this day, except the additions which Arch-bishop
Laud made, near the outside of which building in the garden belonging
to the president, the tree is still to be seen. He made this discovery
about the year 1557.

There are millions of such dreams too little taken notice of, but they
have the truest dreams whose IXth house is well dignified, which mine
is not: but must have some monitory dreams. The Germans are great
observers of them. It is said in the life of Vavasor Powell, that he
was a great observer of dreams, (p. 17 and 114, of his life) that he
had many warnings from them, that God had spoken to himself and others
by them; for warning, instruction, or reproof. And it is also there
averred, that Angels had appeared to him.  See p. 8, of his life.

In Mr. Walton's life of Sir Hen. Wotton, there is a remarkable story
of the discovery of stolen plate in Oxford, by a dream which his
father had at Bocton-Malherbe, in Kent. See in Ath. & Fasti. Oxon.
vol. 1, p. 351,

William Penn, proprietor of Pensylvania, told me, that he went with
his mother on a visit to Admiral Dean's wife, who lived then in Petty-
France; the Admiral was then at sea. She told them, that, the night
before, she had a perfect dream of her husband, whom she saw walking
on the deck, and giving directions, and that a cannon bullet struck
his arm into his side. This dream did much discompose her, and within
forty-eight hours she received news of the fight at sea, and that her
husband was killed in the very manner aforesaid.

Sir Berkley Lucy sold the fabric of the chapel of Netley Abbey, to one
Taylor, a carpenter of Southampton, who took off the roof, and pulled
down great part of the walls. During the time that this Taylor was in
treaty for the chapel, he was much disturbed in his sleep with
frightful dreams, and as some say, apparitions; and one, night he
dreamt that a large stone, out of one of the windows of the chapel,
fell upon him and killed him. The undertaker, though staggered with
these intimations, finished his agreement, and soon after fell to work
on pulling down the chapel; but he was not far advanced in it, when,
endeavouring with a pickax to get out some stones at the bottom of the
west wall, in which there was a large window, the whole body of the
window fell down suddenly upon him, and crushed him to pieces.
Willis's Mitred Abbeys, vol. 2, p. 205, 6.

Jan. 1774. One Daniel Healy, of Donaghmore, in Ireland, having three
different times dreamed that money lay concealed under a large stone
in a field near where he lived, procured some workmen to assist him in
removing it, and when they had dug as far as the foundation, it fell
suddenly and killed Healy on the spot.

March 25, 1779. This morning A. B. dreamt that he saw his friend 0. D.
throw himself from a bridge into a river, and that he could not be
found. The same evening, reading Dr. Geddes's account of Ignatius
Loyola, p. 105, 5th tract, v. 3, he met with the following particular
of him; as he was going into Bononia, he tumbled off a bridge into a
moat full of mud; this circumstance was quite new. Every tittle of the
above is strictly true, as the writer will answer it to God.-- To what
can be attributed so singular an impression upon the imagination when sleeping ?

      **Comical History of three Dreamers.

Three companions, of whom two were Tradesmen and Townsmen, and the
third a Villager, on the score of devotion, went on pilgrimage to a
noted sanctuary; and as they went on their way, their provision began
to fail them, insomuch that they had nothing to eat,, but a little
flour, barely sufficient to make of it a very small loaf of bread. The
tricking townsmen seeing this, said between them-selves, we have but
little bread, and this companion of ours is a great eater  on which
account it is necessary we should think how we may eat this little
bread without him. When they had made it and set it to bake, the
tradesmen seeing in what manner to cheat the countryman, said: let us
all sleep, and let him that shall have the most marvellous dream
betwixt all three of us, eat the bread. This bargain being agreed
upon, and settled between them, they laid down to sleep. The
countryman, discovering the trick of his companions, drew out the
bread half baked, eat it by himself, and turned again to sleep. In a
while, one of the tradesmen, as frightened by a marvellous dream,
began to get up, and was asked by his companion, why he was so
frightened ? he answered, I am frightened and dreadfully surprized by
a marvellous dream: it seemed to me that two Angels, opening the gates
of Heaven, carried me before the throne of God with great joy: his
companion said: this is a marvellous dream, but I have seen another
more marvellous, for I saw two Angels, who carried me over the earth
to Hell. The countryman hearing this, made as if he slept; but the
townsmen, desirous to finish their trick, awoke him; and the
countryman, artfully as one surprised, answered: Who are these that
call me ? They told him, we are thy companions. He asked them: How
did you return ? They answered: We never went hence; why d'ye talk of
our return ? The countryman replied: It appeared to me that two
Angels, opening the gates of Heaven, carried one of you before our
Lord God, and dragged the other over the earth to Hell, and I thought
you never would return hither, as I have never heard that any had
returned from Paradise, nor from Hell, and so I arose and eat the
bread by myself.- From an old edition of Lasarillo de Tormes.


      APPARITIONS.


CYNTHIA, Propertius's mistress, did appear to him after her death,
with the beryl-ring on her finger. See Propertius, eleg. 7. lib.

      "Sunt aliquid manes, letum non omnia finit,
      Luridaque evictos effugit umbra rogos.
      Cynthia namque meo visa est incumbere fulcro,
      Murmur ad extremae nuper humata viae:
      Quum mihi ab exequiis somnus penderet amaris.
      Et quererer lecti frigida regna mei.
      Eosdem habuit secum, quibus est elata, capillos,
      Eosdem oculos. Lateri vestis adusta fuit.
      Et solitum digito beryllon adederat ignis,
      Summaque Lethoeus triverat ora liquor:
      Spirantisque animos, & vocem misit, at illi
      Pollicibus fragiles increpuere manus."

      Thus translated by Mr. DART.

      Manes exist, when we in death expire,
      And the pale shades escape the funeral fire;
      For Cynthia's form beside my curtain's stood,
      Lately interr'd near Aniens' murm'ring flood.
      Thoughts of her funeral would, not let me close
      These eyes, nor seek the realms of still repose;
      Around her shoulders wav'd her flowing hair,
      As living Cynthia's tresses soft and fair:
      Beauteous her eyes as those once fir'd my breast,
      Her snowy bosom bare, and sing'd her breast.
      Her beryl-ring retain'd the fiery rays,
      Spread the pale flame, and shot the funeral blaze;
      As late stretch'd out the bloodless spectre stood,
      And her dead lips were wet with Lethe's flood.
      She breath'd her soul, sent forth her voice aloud,
      And chaf'd her hands as in some angry mood.

St. Augustin affirms that he did once see a satyr or daemon.

The antiquities of Oxford tell us, that St. Edmund, Arch-Bishop of
Canterbury, did sometimes converse with an angel or nymph, at a spring
without St. Clement's parish near Oxford; as Numa Pompilius did with
the nymph Egeria. This well was stopped up since Oxford was a
garrison.

Charles the Simple, King of France, as he was hunting in a forest, and
lost his company, was frighted to simplicity by an apparition.

Philip Melancthon writes that the apparition of a venerable person
came to him in his study, and bade him to warn his friend Grynseus to
depart from him as soon as he could, or else the inquisitors would
seize on him; which monitory dream saved Grynaeus's life.

Mr. Fynes Moryson, in his travels, saith, that when he was at Prague,
the apparition of his father came to him; and at that very time his
father died.

In the life of JOHN DONNE, Dean of St. Paul's, London, writ by
Isaak Walton.

At this time of Mr. Donne's, and his wife's living in Sir Robert
Drury's house in Drury-Lane, the Lord Haye was by King James sent upon
a glorious embassy, to the then French King Henry the IV. and Sir
Robert put on a sudden resolution to accompany him to the French
Court, and to be present at his audience there. And Sir Robert put on
as sudden a resolution, to subject Mr. Donne to be his companion in
that journey; and this desire was suddenly made known to his wife, who
was then with child, and otherwise under so dangerous a habit of body,
as to her health, that she protested an unwillingness to allow him any
absence from her; saying her divining soul boded her some ill in his
absence, and therefore desired him not to leave her. This made Mr.
Donne lay aside all thoughts of his journey, and really to resolve
against it. But Sir Robert became restless in his persuasions for it,
and Mr. Donne was so generous as to think he had sold his liberty,
when he had received so many charitable kindnesses from him, and told
his wife so; who, therefore, with an unwilling willingness, did give a
faint consent to the journey, which was proposed to be but for two
months: within a few days after this resolve, the Ambassador, Sir
Robert, and Mr. Donne, left London, and were the twelfth day got safe
to Paris. Two days after their arrival there, Mr. Donne was left alone
in the room, where Sir Robert and he, with some others, had dined: to
this place Sir Robert returned within half an hour, and as he left, so
he found Mr. Donne alone, but in such an extacy, and so altered as to
his looks, as amazed Sir Robert to behold him, insomuch as he
earnestly desired Mr. Donne to declare what had befallen him in the
short time of his absence? to which Mr. Donne was not able to make a
present answer, but after a long and perplexed pause, said, "I have
seen a dreadful vision since I saw you: I have seen my dear wife pass
twice by me through this room, with her hair hanging about her
shoulders, and a dead child in her arms; this I have seen since I saw
you." To which Sir Robert replied, "Sure Sir, you have slept since I
saw you, and this is the result of some melancholy dream, which I
desire you to forget, for you are now awake." To which Mr. Donne's
reply was, "I cannot be surer that I now live, than that I have not
slept since I saw you, and am sure that at her second appearing, she
stopt and lookt me in the face and vanished." - Rest and sleep had not
altered Mr. Donne's opinion the next day, for he then affirmed this
vision with a more deliberate, and so confirmed a confidence, that he
inclined Sir Robert to a faint belief, that the vision was true. It is
truly said, that desire and doubt have no rest, and it proved so with
Sir Robert, for he immediately sent a servant to Drury-House, with a
charge to hasten back and bring him word whether Mrs. Donne were
alive ? and if alive, in what condition she was as to her health. The
twelfth day the messenger returned with this account-that he found and
left Mrs. Donne very sad, sick in her bed, and that, after a long and
dangerous labour, she had been delivered of a dead child: and upon
examination, the abortion proved to be the same day, and about the
very hour, that Mr. Donne affirmed he saw her pass by him in his
chamber.

Henry IV. King of France, not long before he was stabbed by Ravillac,
as he was hunting in the forest (I think of Fontaine-Bleau), met in a
thicket, the Gros Venure, who said to him, "Demandez vous?" or "Entendez
vous?" He could not tell whether of the two.

There is a tradition (which I have heard from persons of honour), that
as the Protector Seymour and his Dutchess were walking in the gallery
at Sheen (in Surrey), both of them did see a hand with a bloody sword
come out of the wall. He was afterwards beheaded.

Sir John Burroughes being sent envoy to the Emperor by King Charles I.
did take his eldest son Caisho Burroughes along with him, and taking
his journey through Italy, left his son at Florence, to learn the
language; where he having an intrigue with a beautiful courtisan
(mistress of the Grand Duke), their familiarity became so public, that
it came to the Duke's ear, who took a resolution to have him murdered;
but Caisho having had timely notice of the Duke's design, by some of
the English there, immediately left the city without acquainting his
mistress with it, and came to England; whereupon the Duke being
disappointed of his revenge, fell upon his mistress in most
reproachful language; she on the other side, resenting the sudden
departure of her gallant, of whom she was most passionately enamoured,
killed herself. At the same moment that she expired, she did appear to
Caisho, at his lodgings in London; Colonel Remes* was then in bed with
him, who saw her as well as he; giving him an account of her
resentments of his ingratitude to her, in leaving her so suddenly, and
exposing her to the fury of the Duke, not omitting her own tragical
exit, adding withal, that he should be slain in a duel, which
accordingly happened; and thus she appeared to him frequently, even
when his younger brother (who afterwards was Sir John) was in bed with
him. As often as she did appear, he would cry out with great
shrieking, and trembling of his body, as anguish of mind, saying, 0
God ! here she comes, she comes, and at this rate she appeared till he
was killed; she appeared to him the morning before he was killed. Some
of my acquaintance have told me, that he was one of the most beautiful
men in England, and very valiant, but proud and blood-thirsty.

* This Colonel Remes was a Parliament man, and did belong to the
wardrobe, tempore Caroli II.

This story was so common, that King Charles I. Sent for Caisho
Burroughes's father, whom he examined as to the truth of the matter;
who did (together with Colonel Remes) aver the matter of fact to be
true, so that the King thought it worth his while to send to Florence,
to enquire at what time this unhappy lady killed herself; it was found
to be the same minute that she first appeared to Caisho, being in bed
with Colonel Remes. This relation I had from my worthy friend Mr.
Monson, who had it from Sir John's own mouth, brother of Caisho; he
had also the same account from his own father, who was intimately
acquainted with old Sir John Burroughes, and both his sons, and says,
as often as Caisho related this, he wept bitterly.

Anno 1647, the Lord Mohun's son and heir (a gallant gentleman,
valiant, and a great master of fencing and horsemanship), had a
quarrel with Prince Griffin; there was a challenge, and they were to
fight on horse-back in Chelsea-fields in the morning: Mr. Mohun went
accordingly to meet him; but about Ebury-Farm, he was met by some who
quarrelled with him and pistoled him; it was believed, by the order of
Prince Griffin; for he was sure, that Mr. Mohun, being so much the
better horse-man, &c. would have killed him, had they fought.

In James-street, in Covent-Garden, did then lodge a gentlewoman, a
handsome woman, but common, who was Mr. Mohun's sweet heart. Mr. Mohun
was murdered about ten o'clock in the morning; and at that very time,
his mistress being in bed, saw Mr. Mahon come to her bed-side, draw
the curtain, look upon her and go away; she called after him, but no
answer: she knocked for her maid, asked her for Mr. Mohun; she said
she did not see him, and had the key of her chamber-door in her
pocket. This account my friend aforesaid, had from the gentle-woman's
own mouth, and her maid's.

A parallel story to this, is, that Mr. Brown, (brother- in-law to the
Lord Coningsby) discovered his being murdered to several. His phantom
appeared to his sister and her maid in Fleet-street, about the time
he was killed in Herefordshire, which was about a year since. 1693.

Sir Walter Long of Draycot, (grandfather of Sir James Long) had two
wives; the first a daughter of Sir Thomas Packington in
Worcestershire; by whom he had a son: his second wife was a daughter
of Sir John Thynne of Long-Leat; by whom he had several sons and
daughters. The second wife did use much artifice to render the son by
the first wife, (who had not much Promethean fire) odious to his
father; she would get her acquaintance to make him drunk, and then
expose him in that condition to his father; in fine, she never left
off her attempts, till she got Sir Walter to disinherit him. She laid
the scene for doing this at Bath, at the assizes, where was her
brother Sir Egrimond Thynne, an eminent serjeant at law, who drew the
writing; and his clerk was to sit up all night to engross it; as he
was writing, he perceived a shadow on the parchment, from the candle;
he looked up, and there appeared a hand, which immediately vanished;
he was startled at it, but thought it might be only his fancy, being
sleepy; so he writ on; by and by a fine white hand interposed between
the writing and the candle (he could discern it was a woman's hand)
but vanished as before; I have forgot, it appeared a third time. But
with that the clerk threw down his pen, and would engross no more, but
goes and tells his master of it, and absolutely refused to do it. But
it was done by somebody, and Sir Walter Long was prevailed with to
seal and sign it. He lived not long after; and his body did not go
quiet to the grave, it being arrested at the church porch by the
trustees of the first lady. The heir's relations took his part, and
commenced a suit against Sir Walter (the second son) and compelled him
to accept of a moiety of the estate; so the eldest son kept South-
Wraxhall, and Sir Walter, the second son, Draycot-Cernes, &c. This was
about the middle of the reign of King James I.

I must not forget an apparition in my country, which appeared several
times to Doctor Turbervile's sister, at Salisbury; which is much
talked of. One married a second wife, and contrary to the agreement
and settlement at the first wife's marriage, did wrong the children by
the first venter. The settlement was hid behind a wainscot in the
chamber where the Doctor's sister did lie: and the apparition of the
first wife did discover it to her. By which means right was done to
the first wife's children. The apparition told her that she wandered
in the air, and was now going to God. Dr. Turbervile (oculist) did
affirm this to be true. See Mr. Glanvill's "Sadducismus Triumphatus".

To one Mr. Towes, who had been schoolfellow with Sir George Villers,
the father of the first Duke of Buckingham, (and was his friend and
neighbour) as he lay in his bed awake, (and it was day-light) came
into his chamber, the phantom of his dear friend Sir George Villers:
said Mr. Towes to him, why, you are dead, what make you here ? said
the Knight, I am dead, but cannot rest in peace for the wickedness and
abomination of my son George, at Court. I do appear to you, to tell
him of it, and to advise and dehort him from his evil ways. Said Mr.
Towes, the Duke will not believe me, but will say that I am mad, or
doat. Said Sir George, go to him from me, and tell him by such a token
(a mole) that he had in some secret place, which none but himself knew
of. Accordingly Mr. Towes went to the Duke, who laughed at his
message. At his return home the phantom appeared again, and told him
that the Duke would be stabbed (he drew out a dagger) a quarter of a
year after: and you shall outlive him half a year; and the warning
that you shall have of your death, will be, that your nose will fall a
bleeding. All which accordingly fell out so. This account I have had
(in the main) from two or three; but Sir William Dugdale affirms what
I have here taken from him to be true, and that the apparition told
him of several things to come, which proved true, e. g. of a prisoner
in the Tower, that shall be honourably delivered. This Mr. Towes had
so often the ghost of his old friend appear to him, that it was not at
all terrible to him. He was surveyor of the works at Windsor, (by the
favour of the Duke) being then sitting in the hall, he cried out, the
Duke of Buckingham is stabbed: he was stabbed that very moment.

This relation Sir William Dugdale had from Mr. Pine, (neighbour to Mr.
Towes without Bishops-gate) they were both great lovers of music, and
sworn brothers. Mr. W. Lilly, astrologer, did print this story false,
which made Sir Edmund Wyndham (who married Mr. Pine's daughter) give
to Sir George Hollis this true account contrary to Mr. Lilly.

Mr. Thomas Ellyot, Groom of the bedchamber, married Sir Edmund
Wyndham's daughter, and had the roll (of near a quire of paper) of the
conferences of the apparition and Mr. Towes. Mr. Ellyot was wont to
say, that Mr. Towes was (not a bigot, or did trouble himself much
about a religion, but was) a man of great morals.

Sir William Dugdale did farther inform me that Major General Middleton
(since Lord) went into the Highlands of Scotland, to endeavour to make
a party for King Charles I. An old gentleman (that was second-sighted)
came and told him, that his endeavour was good, but he would be
unsuccessful: and moreover, "that they would put the King to death:
And that several other attempts would be made, but all in vain: but
that his son would come in, but not reign; but at last would be
restored." This Lord Middleton had a great friendship with the Laird
Bocconi, and they had made an agreement, that the first of them that
died should appear to the other in extremity. The Lord Middleton was
taken prisoner at Worcester fight, and was prisoner in the Tower of
London, under three locks. Lying in his bed pensive, Bocconi appeared
to him; my Lord Middleton asked him if he were dead or alive ? he
said, dead, and that he was a ghost; and told him, that within three
days he should escape, and he did so, in his wife's cloaths. When he
had done his message, he gave a frisk, and said,

      Givenni Givanni 'tis very strange,
      In the world to see so sudden a change.

And then gathered up and vanished. This account Sir William Dugdale
had from the Bishop of Edinburgh. And this, and the former account he
hath writ in a book of miscellanies, which I have seen, and is now
reposited with other books of his in the Musaeum at Oxford.

Anno 1670, not far from Cirencester, was an apparition: being
demanded, whether a good spirit, or a bad ? returned no answer, but
disappeared with a curious perfume and most melodious twang. Mr. W.
Lilly believes it was a fairy. So Propertius.

      Omnia finierat; tenues secessit in auras:
      Mansit odor; posses scire fuisse Deam.

      Here, her speech ending, fled the beauteous fair,
      Melting th' embodied form to thinner air,
      Whom the remaining scent a goddess did declare.

The learned Henry Jacob, fellow of Merton college in Oxford, died at
Dr. Jacob's, M. D. house in Canterbury. About a week after his death,
the doctor being in bed and awake, and the moon shining bright, saw
his cousin Henry standing by his bed, in his shirt, with a white cap
on his head and his beard-mustachoes turning up, as when he was alive.
The doctor pinched himself, and was sure he was awaked: he turned to
the other side from him; and, after some time, took courage to turn
the other way again towards him, and Henry Jacob stood there still; he
should have spoken to him, but he did not; for which he has been ever
since sorry. About half an hour after, he vanished. Not long after
this, the cook-maid, going to the wood-pile to fetch wood to dress
supper, saw him standing in his shirt upon the wood-pile.* This
account I had in a letter from Doctor Jacob, 1673, relating to his
life, for Mr. Anthony Wood; which is now in his hands.

* See the whole story in Ath. & Fasti Oxon. Part 2, p. 91.

When Henry Jacob died, he would fain have spoken to the Doctor, but
could not, his tongue faltered, + 'Tis imagined he would have told
Doctor Jacob, with what person he had deposited his manuscripts of his
own writing; they were all the riches he had, 'tis suspected that one
had them and printed them under his own name. --- See there in the said
Athenae, vol. or part 2. p. 90.

+ This very story Dr. Jacob told me himself, being then at Lord
Teynham's, in Kent, where he was then physician to my eldest son;
whom he recovered from a fever, (A. Wood's note.)

T, M. Esq., an old acquaintance of mine, hath assured me that about a
quarter of a year after his first wife's death, as he lay in bed awake
with his grand-child, his wife opened the closet-door, and came into
the chamber by the bedside, and looked upon him and stooped down and
kissed him; her lips were warm, he fancied they would have been cold.
He was about to have embraced her, but was afraid it might have done
him hurt. When she went from him, he asked her when he should see her
again ? she turned about and smiled, but said nothing. The closet door
striked as it used to do, both at her coming in and going out. He had
every night a great coal fire in his chamber, which gave a light as
clear almost as a candle. He was hypochondriacal; he married two
wives since, the latter end of his life was uneasy.

Anno 165-.-- At---in the Moorlands in Staffordshire, lived a poor old
man, who had been a long time lame. One Sunday, in the afternoon, he
being alone, one knocked at his door: he bade him open it, and come
in. The Stranger desired a cup of beer; the lame man desired him to
take a dish and draw some, for he was not able to do it himself. The
Stranger asked the poor old man how long he had been ill? the poor man
told him. Said the Stranger, "I can cure you. Take two or three balm
leaves steeped in your beer for a fortnight or three weeks, and you
will be restored to your health; but constantly and zealously serve
God." The poor man did so, and became perfectly well. This Stranger
was in a purple-shag gown, such as was not seen or known in those
parts. And no body in the street after even song did see any one
in such a coloured habit. Doctor Gilbert Sheldon, since Archbishop
of Canterbury, was then in the Moorlands, and justified the truth of
this to Elias Ashmole, Esq., from whom I had this account, and he hath
inserted it in some of his memoirs, which are in the Musseum at Oxford.

**MR. J. LYDAL of Trinity College, Soc. Oxon. March 11, 1649, 50,
attests the ensuing relation, in a letter to Mr. Aubrey, thus,

MR. AUBREY,

CONCERNING that which happened at Woodstock, I was told by Mr.
William Hawes, (who now lives with Sir William Fleetwood in the
park) that the committee which sat in the manor-house for selling the
king's lands, were frighted by strange apparitions; and that the
four surveyors which were sent to measure the park, and lodged
themselves with some other companions in the manor, were pelted out
of their chambers by stones thrown in at the windows; but from what
hands the stones came they could not see; that their candles were
continually put out, as fast as they lighted them; and that one with
his sword drawn to defend a candle, was with his own scabbard in the
mean time well cudgelled; so that for the blow, or for fear, he fell
sick; and the others were forced to remove, some of them to Sir
William Fleetwood's house, and the rest to some other places. But
concerning the cutting of the oak, in particular, I have nothing.
Your Friend,
To be commanded to my power,
JOHN LYDALL.

One Lambert, a gun-smith at Hereford, was at Caermarthen, to mend
and put in order the ammunition of that county, before the expedition
to Scotland, which was in 1639. He was then a young man, and walking
on the sand by the sea side, a man came to him (he did verily believe
it was a man) and asked him if he knew Hereford ? yes, quoth he, I am
a Hereford man. Do you know it well, quoth the other; perfectly well,
quoth Lambert. "That city shall be begirt" (he told me he did not
know what the word begirt meant then) "by a foreign nation, that
will come and pitch their camp in the Hay wood, and they shall
batter such gate," which they did, (I have forgot the name of it)
"and shall go away and not take it."

The Scots came in 1645, and encamped before Hereford in the Hay-wood,
and stormed the --- gate, and raised the siege. Lambert did well
remember this discourse, but did not heed it till they came to the
Hay-wood. Many of the city had heard of this story, but when the --
gate was stormed, Lambert went to all the guards of the town, and
encouraged them with more than ordinary confidence: and contrary to
all human expectation, when the besieged had no hope of relief, the
Scots raised the siege, September 2, 1645, and went back into
Scotland, "re infecta". I knew this Lambert, and took this account
from his own mouth; he is a modest poor man, of a very innocent
life, lives poor, and cares not to be rich."

-- A minister, who lived by Sir John Warre in Somersetshire, about
1665, walking over the Park to give Sir John a visit, was
rencountered by a venerable old man, who said to him, "prepare
yourself, for such a day" (which was about three days after) "you
shall die." The minister told Sir John Wane and my Lady this story,
who heeded it not. On the morning forewarned, Sir John called upon
the Parson early to ride a hunting, and to laugh at his prediction:
his maid went up to call him, and found him stark dead. This from my
Lady Katherine Henley, who had it from my Lady Warre. But Dr. Burnet,
in the life of the Earl of Rochester, makes it a dream.

This put me in mind of a story in the Legend, &c. of King Edward the
Confessor, being forewarned of his death by a Pilgrim, to whom
St.John the Evangelist revealed it,. for which the King gave the
Pilgrim a rich ring off his finger: and the event answered. The
story is well painted on glass, in a window of the south isle of
Westminster-Abbey, (the next window from that over the door that
opens into the west walk of the cloyster) it is the best window in
the church. Underneath the two figures, viz. of the King and the
Pilgrim, are these following verses, viz.

      "Rex cui nil aliud praesto fuit, accipe, dixit.
      Annulum, & ex digito detrahit ille suo.
      --- Evangelistoe --- villa Johannis.
      -- gratia petit."

The verses under the Pilgrim are not legible. This story is in
Caxton's Chronicle.

Dr. --- Twiss, minister of the new church at Westminster, told me,
that his father, (Dr. Twiss, prolocutor of the assembly of divines,
and author of "Vindicitae Graticae") when he was a school-boy at
Winchester, saw the phantom of a school-fellow of his, deceased, (a
rakehell) who said to him "I am damned." This was the occasion of
Dr. Twiss'a (the father's) conversion, who had been before that time,
as he told his son, a very wicked boy; he was hypochondriacal. There
is a story like this, of the conversion of St. Bruno, by an
apparition: upon which he became mighty devout, and founded the
order of the Carthusians.

John Evelyn, Esq., R.S.S., showed us at the Royal-Society, a note
under Mr. Smith's hand, the curate of Deptford, that in
November,1679, as he was in bed sick of an ague, came to him the
vision of a master of arts, with a white wand in his hand, and told
him that if he did lie on his back three hours, viz. from ten to one,
that he should be rid of his ague. He lay a good while on his back,
but at last being weary he turned, and immediately the ague attacked
him; afterwards he strictly followed the directions, and was
perfectly cured. He was awake, and it was in the day-time.

This puts me in mind of a dream of old Farmer Good, a neighbour of
mine at Broad-Chalk, who being ill, dreamt that he met with an old
friend of his, (long since deceased) by Knighton Ashes (in that
parish) who told him, that if he rose out of his bed, that he would
die. He awaked, and rose to make water, and was immediately seized
with a shivering fit, and died of an ague, aged 84.

The Lady Viscountess Maidstone told me she saw (as it were) a fly of
fire, fly round about her in the dark, half an hour before her lord
died: he was killed at sea, and the like before her mother-in-law
the Countess of Winchelsea died, (she was then with child).

A Dutch prisoner at Wood-bridge, in Suffolk, in the reign of K.
Charles II. could discern Spirits; but others that stood by could
not. The bell tolled for a man newly deceased. The prisoner saw his
phantom, and did describe him to the Parson of the parish,* who was
with him; exactly agreeing with the man for whom the bell tolled.
Says the prisoner, now he is coming near to you, and now he is
between you and the wall; the Parson was resolved to try it, and went
to take the wall of him, and was thrown down; he could see nothing.
This story is credibly told by several persons of belief.

* Dr. Hooke, the Parson of the parish, has often told this story.


There is a very remarkable story of an apparition, which Martin
Luther did see. Mentioned in his "Commensalia" or Table-Talk, which
see.

Those that are delirious in high fevers, see (waking, men, and things
that are not there). I knew one Mr. M. L. that took opium, and he did
see (being awake) men and things that were not present, (or perhaps)
not in being. Those whose spleens are ill affected have the like
phantasies. The power of imagination is wonderful.

      "De seipso duplicate."

Cardanus, Synes. Somniorum, lib. ii. cap. 12. "In somniis mortis est
signum, quia duo fiunt, cum anima separatur a corpore. Est & signum
morbi in ipsis agrotantibus, nec tum aliud quicquam significat."

      **Of One's being divided into a Two-fold person.

In dreams it is a sign of death, because out of one are then made
two, when the soul is separated from the body. And it is a sign of
the disease in sick men, nor signifies it any thing else at
that time.

As concerning apparitions of a man's own self, there are sundry
instances, some whereof, I shall here set down.

The Countess of Thanet (Earl John's Lady) saw as she was in bed with
her Lord in London, her daughter my Lady Hatton, who was then in
Northamptonshire, at Horton Kirby; the candle was burning in her
chamber. Since, viz. anno 1675, this Lady Hatton was blown up with
gunpowder set on fire by lightning, in the castle at Guernsey, where
her Lord was Governor.*

* See Mr. Baxter's Treatise of Spirits

The beautiful Lady Diana Rich, daughter to the Earl of Holland, as
she was walking in her father's garden at Kensington, to take the
fresh air before dinner, about eleven o'clock, being then very well,
met with her own apparition, habit, and every thing, as in a looking-
glass. About a month after, she died of the small-pox. And it
is said that her sister, the Lady Isabella Thynne, saw the like of
herself also, before she died. This account I had from a person of
honour.

Mrs. E. W. daughter of Sir W. W. affirms that Mrs. J. (her father's
sister) saw herself, i. e. her phantom, half a year before she died,
for a quarter of an hour together. She said further, that her aunt
was sickly fourteen years before she died, and that she walked
living, i. e. her apparition, and that she was seen by several at the
same time. The like is reported of others.

Mr. Trahern, B.D. (chaplain to Sir Orlando Bridgman, Lord Keeper) a
learned and sober person, was son of a shoe-maker in Hereford: one
night as he lay in bed, the moon shining very bright, he saw the
phantom of one of the apprentices, sitting in a chair in his red
waistcoat, and head-band about his head, and strap upon his knee;
which apprentice was really in bed and asleep with another fellow-
apprentice, in the same chamber, and saw him. The fellow was living,
1671.  Another time, as he was in bed, he saw a basket come sailing in
the air, along by the valence of his bed; I think he said there was
fruit in the basket: it was a phantom. From himself.

When Sir Kichard Nepier, M.D. of London, was upon the road coming
from Bedfordshire, the chamberlain of the inn, shewed him his
chamber, the doctor saw a dead man lying upon the bed; he looked more
wistly and saw it was himself: he was then well enough in health. He
went forward on his journey to Mr. Steward's in Berkshire, and there
died. This account I have in a letter from Elias Ashmole, Esq. They
were intimate friends.

"In the Desarts of Africk, you shall meet oftentimes with fairies
appearing in the shape of men and women, but they vanish quite away
like phantastical delusions."*

* Pliny's Natural Hist. lib. 7, chap. 2.


I Captain Henry Bell, do hereby declare both to the present age and
to posterity, that being employed beyond the seas, in state affairs,
divers years together, both by King James, and also by the late King
Charles in Germany. I did hear and understand in all places great
bewailing and lamentation made, by reason of destroying and burning
of above fourscore thousand of Martin Luther's books, entituled, His
last Divine Discourses.+

+ This narrative is in the Preface of the translation of Mr. Luther's
Table-Talk.

Upon which divine work or discourses, the reformation, begun before
in Germany, was wonderfully promoted and spread in other countries.

But afterwards it so fell out, that the Pope then living, viz,
Gregory XIII. understanding what great hurt and prejudice he and his
religion had already received by reason of the said Luther's
discourses, and also fearing that the same might bring further
contempt and mischief upon himself and his church, he therefore to
prevent the same, did fiercely stir up and instigate the Emperor
then in being, viz. Rodolphus III. to make an edict through the
whole empire, that all the foresaid printed books should be burned,
and also that it should be death for any person to have or keep a
copy thereof, but to burn the same, which edict was speedily put in
execution accordingly; insomuch that not one of all the said printed
books, nor any one copy of the same, could be found out, or heard of
in any place.

Yet it pleased God, that in anno 1626, a German gentleman, named
Casparas Van Sparr, with whom, in my stay in Germany, about King
James's business, I became familiarly known and acquainted, having
occasion to build upon an old foundation of a house, wherein his
grandfather dwelt at that time, when the said edict was published in
Germany, for the burning the said books, and digging deep under the
said old foundation, one of the said original printed books was there
happily found, lying in a deep obscure hole, being wrapped in a
strong linen cloth, which was waxed all over with bees wax within and
without, whereby the said book was preserved fair without any blemish.

And at the same time Ferdinandus II. being Emperor of Germany, who
was a severe enemy and persecutor of the Protestant religion, the
foresaid gentleman, and grandchild to him, that had hidden the said
book in that obscure hole, fearing that if the said Emperor should
get knowledge that one of the said books were yet forthcoming, and in
his custody, whereby not only himself might be brought into trouble,
but also the book be in danger to be destroyed, as all the rest were
long before; and also calling to mind, that I had the High-Dutch
tongue very perfect, did send the said original book over hither into
England unto me: related to me the passages of the preserving and
finding the said book; and earnestly moved me in his letter, to
translate the said book into English.

Whereupon, I took the said book before me, and many times began to
translate the same, but always I was hindered therein, being called
upon about other business, insomuch that by no possible means I could
remain by that work. Then about six weeks after I had received the
said book, it fell out, that being in bed with my wife, one night
between twelve and one o'clock, she being asleep, but myself yet
awake, there appeared unto me an antient man, standing at my
bedside, arrayed in white, having a long and broad white beard,
hanging down to his girdle steed, who taking me by the right ear,
spake these words following unto me; "Sirrah, will not you take time
to translate that book which is sent unto you out of Germany? I will
provide for you both place and time to do it:" and then he vanished
out of my sight.

Whereupon being much affrighted, I fell into an extream sweat,
insomuch that my wife awaking, and finding me all over wet, she asked
me what I ailed; I told her what I had seen and heard; but I never
did heed or regard visions nor dreams. And so the same fell soon out
of my mind.

Then about a fortnight after I had seen the vision, on a Sunday I went
to Whitehall to hear the sermon, after which ended, I returned to my
lodging which was then in King-street, Westminster, and sitting down
to dinner with my wife, two messengers were sent from the council-
board with a warrant to carry me to the keeper of the gate-house at
Westminster, there to be safely kept, until farther order from
the Lords of the Council; which was done without shewing any cause* at
all, wherefore I was committed; upon which said warrant I was kept
there ten whole years close prisoner; where I spent five years thereof
about translating of the said book: Insomuch as I found the words
very true which the old man in the aforesaid vision said unto me, " I
will shortly provide you both place and time to translate it."

Then after I had finished the translation, Dr. Laud, Arch-Bishop of
Canterbury, sent to me in the prison, by Dr. Bray his chaplain, ten
pounds, and desired to peruse the book; he afterwards sent me by Dr.
Bray forty pounds. There was a committee of the House of Commons for
the printing of this translation, which was in 1652.

*Whatsoever was pretended, yet the true cause of the Captain's
commitment was, because he was urgent with the Lord Treasurer for his
arrears, which amounted to a great sum, he was not willing to pay, and
to be freed from his clamours, clapt him up into prison.

A full and true relation of the examination and confession of William
Barwick and Edward Mangall, of two horrid murders; one committed by
William Barwick, upon his wife being with child, near Cawood in
Yorkshire, upon the 14th of April last: as likewise a full account
how it came to be discovered by an apparition of the person
murdered.

The second was committed by Edward Mangall, upon Elizabeth Johnson,
alias Ringrose, and her bastard child, on the 4th of September last,
who said he was tempted thereto by the Devil.

Also their trials and convictions before the Honourable Sir JOHN
POWEL, Knight, one their Majesties Justices, at the assizes holden at
York, on the 16th of September, 1690.

As murder is one of the greatest crimes that man can be guilty of, so
it is no less strangely and providentially discovered, when privately
committed. The foul criminal believes himself secure, because there
was no witness of the fact. Not considering that the all-seeing eye of
Heaven beholds his concealed iniquity, and by some means or other
bringing it to light, never permits it to go unpunished. And indeed so
certainly does the revenge of God pursue the abominated murderer,
that, when witnesses are wanting of the fact, the very ghosts of the
murdered parties cannot rest quiet in their graves, till they have
made the detection themselves. Of this we are now to give the reader
two remarkable examples that lately happened in Yorkshire; and no
less signal for the truth of both tragedies, as being confirmed by the
trial of the offenders, at the last assizes held for that county.

The first of these murders was committed by William Barwick, upon the
body of Mary Barwick, his wife, at the same time big with child. What
were the motives, that induced the man to do this horrid fact, does
not appear by the examination of the evidence, or the confession of
the party: only it appeared upon the trial, that he had got her with
child before he married her: and 'tis very probable, that, being then
constrained to marry her, he grew weary of her, which was the reason
he was so willing to be rid of her, though he ventured body and soul
to accomplish his design.

The murder was committed on Palm-Monday, being the fourteenth of
April, about two of the clock in the afternoon, at which time the
said Barwick having drilled his wife along 'till he came to a certain
close, within sight of Cawood-Castle, where he found the conveniency
of a pond, he threw her by force into the water, and when she was
drowned, and drawn forth again by himself upon the bank of the pond,
had the cruelty to behold the motion of the infant, yet warm in her
womb. This done, he concealed the body, as it may readily be supposed,
among the bushes, that usually encompass a pond, and the next night,
when it grew duskish, fetching a hay-spade from a rick that stood in a
close, he made a hole by the side of the pond, and there slightly
buried the woman in her cloaths.

Having thus despatched two at once, and thinking him-self secure,
(because unseen) he went the same day to his brother-in-law, one
Thomas Lofthouse of Rufforth, within three miles of York, who had
married his drowned wife's sister, and told him he had carried his
wife to one Richard Harrison's house in Selby, who was his uncle, and
would take care of her. But Heaven would not be so deluded, but raised
up the ghost of the murdered woman to make the discovery. And
therefore it was upon the Easter Tuesday following, about two of the
clock in the after-noon, the forementioned Lofthouse having occasion
to water a quickset hedge, not far from his house; as he was going for
the second pail full, an apparition went before him in the shape of a
woman, and soon after sat down upon a rising green grass-plat, right
over against the pond: he walked by her as he went to the pond; and
as he returned with the pail from the pond, looking sideways to see
whether she continued in the same place, he found she did; and that
she seemed to dandle something in her lap, that looked like a white
bag (as he thought) which he did not observe before. So soon as he had
emptied his pail, he went into his yard, and stood still to try
whether he could see her again, but she was vanished.

In this information he says, that the woman seemed to be habited in a
brown coloured petticoat, waistcoat, and a white hood; such a one as
his wife's sister usually wore, and that her countenance looked
extreamly pale and wan, with her teeth in sight, but no gums
appearing, and that her physiognomy was like to that of his wife's
sister, who was wife to William Barwick.

But notwithstanding the ghastliness of the apparition, it seems it
made so little impression in Lofthouse's mind, that he thought no more
of it, neither did he speak to any body concerning it, 'till the same
night as he was at his family duty of prayer, that that apparition
returned again to his thoughts, and discomposed his devotion; so that
after he had made an end of his prayers, he told the whole story of
what he had seen to his wife, who laying circumstances together,
immediately inferred, that her sister was either drowned, or otherwise
murdered, and desired her husband to look after her the next day,
which was Wednesday in Easter week, Upon this, Lofthouse recollecting
what Barwick had told him of his carrying his wife to his uncle at
Selby, repaired to Harrison beforementioned, but found all that
Barwick had said to be false; for that Harrison had neither heard of
Barwick, nor his wife, neither did he know anything of them. Which
notable circumstance, together with that other of the apparition,
encreased his suspicions to that degree, that now concluding his
wife's sister was murdered, he went to the Lord Mayor of York; and
having obtained his warrant, got Barwick apprehended, who was no
sooner brought before the Lord Mayor, but his own conscience then
accusing him, he acknowledged the whole matter, as it has been already
related, as it appears by his examination and confession herewith
printed: to which are also annexed the informations of Lofthouse, in
like manner taken before the Lord Mayor of York, for a further
testimony and confirmation of what is here set down.

On Wednesday the sixteenth of September, 1690, the criminal, William
Barwick, was brought to his trial, before the Honourable Sir John
Powel, Knight, one of the judges of the northern circuit, at the
assizes holden at York, where the prisoner pleaded not guilty to his
indictment: but upon the evidence of Thomas Lofthouse, and his
wife, and a third person, that the woman was found buried in her
cloaths in the Close by the pond side, agreeable to the prisoner's
confession, and that she had several bruises on her head, occasioned
by the blows the murderer had given her, to keep her under water: and
upon reading the prisoner's confession before the Lord Mayor of York,
attested by the clerk, who wrote the confession, and who swore the
prisoner's owning and signing it for truth, he was found guilty, and
sentenced to death, and afterwards ordered to be hanged in chains.

All the defence which the prisoner made, was only this, that he was
threatened into the confession that he had made, and was in such a
consternation, that he did not know what he said or did. But then it
was sworn by two witnesses, that there was no such thing as any
threatening made use of; but that he made a free and voluntary
confession, only with this addition at first; that he told the Lord
Mayor, he had sold his wife for five shillings; but not being able to
name either the person or the place where she might be produced, that
was looked upon as too frivolous to outweigh circumstances, that were
proofs to apparent.

**The information of Thomas Lofthouse, of Ruforth, taken upon oath the
twenty-fourth day of April, 1690,

WHO sayeth and deposeth, that one William Barwick, who lately married
this informant's wife's sister,came to this informant's house, about
the fourteenth instant, and told this informant, he had carried his wife
to one Richard Harrison's house in Selby, who was uncle to him, and
would take care of her; and this informant hearing nothing of the said
Barwick's wife, his said sister-in-law, imagined he had done her some
mischief, did yesterday go to the said Harrison's house in Selby, where
he said he had carried her to; and the said Harrison told this informant,
he knew nothing of the said Barwick, or his wife, and this informant doth
verily believe the said Barwick to have murdered her.

THOMAS LOFTHOUSE.

"Jurat die & Anno
super dicto coram me,"

S. DAWSON, Mayor.

**The examination of the said William Harwich, taken the day and year
abovesaid,

WHO sayeth and confesseth, that he, this examinant, on Monday was
seventh night, about two of the clock in the afternoon, this examinant
was walking in a Close, betwixt Cawood and Wistow; and he farther
sayeth, that he threw his said wife into the pond, where she was
drowned, and the day following, towards the evening, got a hay-spade
at a hay-stake in the said Close, and made a grave beside the said
pond, and buried her.

WILLIAM BARWICK.

"Exam. capt. die & Anno
super dict, coram me,"

S. DAWSON, Mayor.

**The examination of William Barwick, taken the twenty- fifth day of
April, 1690,

WHO sayeth and confesseth, that he carried his wife over a certain
wain-bridge, called Bishopdike-bridge, betwixt Cawood and Sherborne,
and within a lane about one hundred yards from the said bridge, and on
the left hand of the said bridge, he and his wife went over a stile,
on the left hand of a certain gate, entering into a certain close, on
the left hand of the said lane; and in a pond in the said close,
(adjoining to a quick-wood-hedge) did drown his wife, and upon the
bank of the said pond, did bury her: and further, that he was within
sight of Cawood Castle, on the left hand; and that there was but one
hedge betwixt the said close, where he drowned his said wife, and the
Bishop-slates belonging to the said castle.

WILLIAM BARWICK
"Exam. capt. die & Anno
super dict, coram me,"

S. DAWSON, Mayor.

**On Tuesday, September the seventeenth, 1690, at York assizes.

THOMAS LOFTHOUSE of Rufforth, within three miles of York city, sayeth,
that on Easter Tuesday last, about half an hour after twelve of the
clock, in the day time, he was watering quickwood, and as he was going
for the second pail, there appeared walking before him, an apparition
in the shape of a woman, soon after she sat down over against the
pond, on a green hill, he walked by her as he went to the pond, and as
he came with the pail of water from the pond, looking side-ways to see
if she sat in the same place, which he saw she did; and had on her lap
something like a white bag, a dandling of it (as he thought) which he
did not observe before: after he had emptied his pail of water, he
stood in his yard, to see if he could see her again; but could not: he
says her apparel was brown cloaths, waist-coat and petticoat, a white
hood, such as his wife's sister usually wore, and her face looked
extream pale, her teeth in sight, no gums appearing, her visage being
like his wife's sister and wife to William Barwick.

Signed,
THOMAS LOFTHOUSE.

THE second was a murder committed by one Edward Mangall, upon the body
of Elizabeth Johnson alias Ringrose, the fourth of September last
past, at a place called King's Causey, near Adling-street, in the
county of York. He had got her with child, at least as she pretended;
and was brought to bed of a boy, which she called William, and laid
him to Mangall's charge, and required him to marry her: which he
refused at first to do; but afterwards pretending to make her his
wife, bid her go before him down King's Causey, towards the church,
and he would follow her, as he did; but knocked out her brains in a
close by the way, and at the same time, as was shrewdly suspected,
killed the child.

This Mangall being examined by Mr. William Mauleverer, the coroner,
confessed that he had murdered the woman; but denied that he meddled
with the boy. And being asked why he murdered the woman, he made
answer that the Devil put him upon it; appearing to him in a flash of
lightning, and directing him where to find the club, wherewith he
committed the murder. So ready is the Devil with his temptations, when
he finds a temper easy to work upon.

He was convicted and found guilty upon the evidence of Anne Hinde, and
his own confession to the coroner, as may be seen by the information
annexed; and was thereupon sentenced to death, and ordered to be
hanged in chains, as Barwick was before him, he making no defence for
himself for so foul and horrid a murder, but that he was tempted
thereto by the Devil.

**Informations taken upon oath, September the 10th, 1690.

**The information of Anne Hinde, wife of James Hinde, of Adling-street,
in the County of York, husband-man, upon her oath saith;

THAT on Monday, the first of September, one Elizabeth Johnson, alias
Ringrose, came to her house in the evening, with a child she called
William; and the said Elizabeth the next day told this deponent, that
the said Elizabeth was going to Gawthrope, in the county of Lincoln,
to seek for one Edward Mangall, who had got her with that child, to
see if he would marry her: upon which this deponent went with the
said Elizabeth, to persuade him to marry her; but he denied having any
dealings with her. But this deponent doth further depose, that on the
fourth of September, the said Edward came to this deponent's house,
and asked for the said Elizabeth; if she were there she might serve a
warrant on him, if she had one, for he was going to Rawclyff, to
consult his friends about it; and after some private discourse had
betwixt the said Edward and the said Elizabeth, the said Elizabeth
told this deponent, that he said, the said Elizabeth might go down
King's-Causey; and he would follow her, and marry her: and this
deponent did see the said Elizabeth go down King's-Causey; and a
little after this deponent saw the said Edward also go down the
King's-Causey; and after that, this deponent did not see the said
Elizabeth, nor the said child till she saw them lie dead.

ANNE HINDE.

Capt. 10. die Septembris 1690.

By me
W.  MAULEVERER.

Un. Coron, Commit, praedict.

THE examination of Edward Mangall, upon the murder of Elizabeth
Johnson alias Ringrose, taken before me William Mauleverer, Gent, one
of the Coroners of our Sovereign Lord and Lady King William and Queen
Mary, &c.

THE said Edward Mangall did confess, that he did murder the said
Elizabeth Johnson alias Ringrose, upon the fourth day of September
instant, in a close nigh to King's Causey, he being asked the reason,
said the Devil put him upon it, appearing to him in a flash of
lightning; but denied that he medled with William Johnson alias
Ringrose, the child.

Taken the 10th of Sept. 1690,
By me
W. MAULEVERER, Coroner.


      VOICES.


"Saepe etiam & in praeliis Fauni auditi, & in rebus turbidis veridicae
voces ex occulto missae esse dicuntur.  Cujus generis duo sunt ex
multis exempla, sed maxima. Nam non multo ante Urbem captam exaudita
vox est a Luco Vestae, qui a Palatii radice in novem viam devexus est,
ut muri & portae reficerentur: futurum esse, nisi provisum esset, ut
Roma caperetur. Quod neglectum cum caveri poterat, post acceptam illam
maximam cladem explicatum est. Ara enim Aio loquenti, quam septam
videmus, & adversus eum locum consecrata est."

i. e. Often even in battles have the Gods of the woods been heard to
speak, and in troublesome times, when the affairs of governments have
gone wrong, and been in disorder and turmoil, voices have been known
to steal upon the ears of persons, that came as it were from a corner,
but they knew not whence, and told them important truths. Of which
kind there are out of a great many, two examples, and those indeed
very rare and extraordinary.  For not long before the city was taken,
a voice was heard from the grove of Vesta, which went from the foot,
and basis of the palace, sloping and bending into a new road, that the
city walls and gates should be repaired: and that unless care was
taken of it, the consequence would be, that Rome would be taken. This
being omitted, when provision might have been made, was explained
after that most signal and dreadful overthrow. For the altar, which we
see enclosed, and that fronts that place, was a consecrated altar.

"--- Negue solum deorum voces Pythagorei observaverunt, sed etiam
hominum, quae vacant omina --- ."

i. e. Neither did the Pythagorean Philosophers observe the voices of
Gods only, but also those of men, which they called Omens.

"Nero --- & lo'n dit qu'on entendoit un son de trumpette dans les
collines d'alentour, des gemissemens sur le tombeau de sa mere."

Nero, they say, heard the sound of a trumpet among the hills and the
rocks round about him, and groans over the tomb of his mother.

In the life of King Henry IV. of France, written by the Arch-Bishop of
Paris, it is recorded, that Charles IX. (who caused the massacre) was
wont to hear screaches, like those of the persons massacred.

St. Augustin heard a voice, saying, TOLLE, LEGE, take, read. He took
up his bible, and dipt on Rom. 13. 13. "Not in rioting and
drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness," &c. And reformed his
manners upon it.

One Mr. Smith, a practitioner of physic at Tamworth in Warwickshire,
an understanding sober person, reading in Hollinshead's Chronicle,
found a relation of a great fight between Vortigern and Hengest, about
those parts, at a place called Colemore: a little time after, as he
lay awake in his bed, he heard a voice, that said unto him, "You
shall shortly see some of the bones of those men and horses slain,
that you read of:" he was surprized at the voice, and asked in the
name of God, who it was that spoke to him.  The voice made answer,
that he should not trouble himself about that; but what he told him
should come to pass.  Shortly after, as he went to see Colonel Archer
(whose servants were digging for marle) he saw a great many bones of
men and horses; and also pot-sherds; and upon the view it appeared to
be according to the description in Hollinshead' s Chronicle; and it
was the place where the fight was; but it is now called Blackmore.

This was about the year 1685, and I had the account from my worthy
friend and old acquaintance Thomas Marriet of Warwickshire, Esq., who
is very well acquainted with Mr. Smith aforesaid.

Extracts out of the book entitled "Relation de la Nouvelle France",
1662, and 1663, 12.

" Les Sauvages avoient eu de presentiments aussi bien que les
Francois, et de cet horrible Tremble-terre. Voicy la deposition d'une
sauvage age 20. fort innocente, simple, & sincere. La nuict du 4 ou 5
de Febr. 1663 estant entirement eveillee, & en plein jugement, assise
comme sur mon seant, j'ay entender une voix distincte & intelligible,
qui m'a dit, Il doit arrive aujourdhuy de choses extrangees, la Terre
doit tremble. Je me trouveray pour lors saisie d'une grand frayeur,
parce que je ne voyois personne d'ou peut provinir cette voix:
Remplie de crainte, ja taschay a m'endormir auec assez de peine: Et
le jour estant venu, je dis a mon mary cequi m'estoit arrive. Sur le
9, ou le 10 heure de mesme jour, allant au bois pour buscher, a peine
j'estois entree en la Forest que la mesme voix se fit --- entendre, me
disent mesme chose, & de la mesme facon que la nuicte precedente: La
peur fuit bien plus grande, moy estant tout seule."

i.  e. The wild inhabitants, as well as the French, had presages of
that dreadful earthquake. See here the depositions of a wild Indian,
about twenty-six years of age, who was very innocent, simple, and
sincere. On the night of the 4th or 5th of February, in the year 1663,
being perfectly awake, and in sound judgment, and setting up as it
were in my bed, I heard a distinct and intelligible voice, that said
to me, There will happen to day many strange things. The earth will
quake and tremble. I found myself seized with an extraordinary fear,
because I saw no person from whom the voice could proceed. I, full of
terror, with great difficulty, endeavoured to compose myself to sleep.
And as soon as it was day I told my husband what had happened to me.
About nine or ten of the clock the same day, going to a forest a wood-
gathering, I was scarce got into the brow of the forest, but I heard
the same voice again, which told me the same thing, and in the same
manner as it had done the night before. My fear was much greater this
time, because I was all alone. She got her burden of wood, and met her
sister who comforted her, to whom she told this story, and when she
came to her father's caben, she told the same story there; but they
heard it without any reflections.

" --- La chose en demeure la, jusquez a 5. ou 6 heures du soir du mesme
jour, ou un tremblement de Terre survenant, Ils reconnurent par
experience, que cequ'ils m'avoient intendu dire avant Midy, n'estoit
que trop vray."

i. e.---The matter rested there, till about five or six of the clock
in the evening of the same day, when an earthquake coming suddenly
upon us; experience made them recollect and acknowledge that, what
they had heard me say before noon, was but too true.

"Envoyee au R. P. Andre Castillon Provincial de la Province de France
par les Missioners de Peres de la Compagnie de Jesu. Imprime a Paris,
1664."

i. e. Sent to the reverend father Andrew Castillon, provincial of the
province of France, by the missioners of the fathers of the Society of
Jesus. Printed at Paris, 1664.

"Livy makes mention, that before the coming of the Gauls to Rome,
Marcus Ceditius, a Plebeian, acquainted the Senate, that passing one
night about twelve o'clock through the Via Nova, he heard a voice
(bigger than a man's) which advised him to let the Senate know, the
Gauls were on their march to Rome. How those things could be, it is to
be discoursed by persons well versed in the causes of natural and
supernatural events: for my part I will not pretend to understand
them, unless (according to the opinion of some Philosophers) we may
believe that the air being full of intelligences and spirits, who
foreseeing future events, and commiserating the condition of mankind,
give them warning by these kind of intimations, that they may the more
timely provide and defend themselves against their calamities. But
whatever is the cause, experience assures us, that after such
denunciations, some extraordinary thing or other does constantly
happen."


      IMPULSES.


Cicero "de Natura Deorum", lib. 2.

"PRAETEREA ipsorum Deorum saepe praesentiae, quales supra commemoravi,
--- declarant, ut ab his, & Civitatibus, & singulis Hominibus consuli.
Quod quidem intelligitur etiam significationibus rerum futurarum, quae
tum dormientibus, tum Vigilantibus portentantur. --- Nemo vir magnus
sine aliquo afflatu divino unquam fuit".

i. e. Moreover the frequent presence of the Gods themselves, as I
have above mentioned, plainly manifest, that they preside, with their
good advice, as guardians, not only over cities, but particular men.
This may be likewise certainly understood by the several
significations of future events, which are predicted to men both
sleeping and waking --- there was never any one single great man, but
what has, in some measure, partaken of this divine inspiration.

"Testor Deum me olim ante plures menses melancolia ex adverso casu
conceptam, Domini patris mei praesentisse, ac pronunciasse mortem,
cum tamen ipso valde incolumi, nulla ejus mihi ratio probabilis
afferretur: & sic ipse postea momentum sui obitus, septem circiter
horas antea pronunciavit".

i. e. I call God to witness, that formerly some months before, having
conceived it in a fit of melancholy, from an unlucky event, that I
foreknew, and foretold my father's death, when he being quite in
health, no probable account of it offered itself to me: and in like
manner he himself afterwards pronounced the moment of his departure
near seven hours before. "Imperialis Musaeum Physicum". 104.

Oliver Cromwell had certainly this afflatus. One that I knew, that was
at the battle of Dunbar, told me that Oliver was carried on with a
divine impulse; he did laugh so excessively as if he had been drunk;
his eyes sparkled with spirits. He obtained a great victory; but the
action was said to be contrary to human prudence. The same fit of
laughter seized Oliver Cromwell, just before the battle of Naseby; as
a kinsman of mine, and a great favourite of his, Colonel J. P. then
present, testified. Cardinal Mazarine said, that he was a lucky fool.

In one of the great fields at Warminster in Wiltshire, in the harvest,
at the very time of the fight at Bosworth field, between King Eichard
III. and Henry VII. there was one of the parish took two sheaves,
crying (with some intervals) now for Richard, now for Henry; at last
lets fall the sheaf that did represent Richard; and cried, now
for King Henry, Richard is slain. This action did agree with the very
time, day and hour. When I was a schoolboy I have heard this
confidently delivered by tradition by some old men of our country.

Monsieur de Scudery in his Poem, entituled "Rome Vaincue", fancies an
angel to be sent to Alaric, to impel him to overrun the Roman empire
with his swarms of northern people. The like may be fancied upon all
changes of government; when providence destines the ends, it orders
the means.

By way of parallel to this, the Pope by the like instinct, being at
Rome in the consistory, did speak of the engagement in the famous
battle of Lepanto, and that the Christians were victors. The fight
at sea being two hundred miles or more distant from them.

King Charles I. after he was condemned, did tell Colonel Tomlinson,
that he believed, that the English monarchy was now at an end: about
half an hour after, he told the Colonel, "that now he had assurance
by a strong impulse "on his spirit, that his son should reign after him."

This information I had from Fabian Philips, Esq. of the Inner-
temple, who had good authority for the truth of it: I have forgot who
it was.

The Lord Roscomon, being a boy of ten years of age at Caen in
Normandy, one day was (as it were) madly extravagant in playing,
leaping, getting over the table-boards, &c.

He was wont to be sober enough: they said, God grant this bodes no ill
luck to him; in the heat of this extravagant fit, he cries out, my
father is dead. A fortnight after news came from Ireland, that his
father was dead. This account I had from Mr. Knolles, who was his
governor, and then with him; since Secretary to the Earl of
Stafford, and I have heard his Lordship's relations confirm the same.

A very good friend of mine and old acquaintance, hath had frequent
impulses; when he was a commoner at Trinity College, Oxford, he had
several. When he rode towards the West one time in the stage coach,
he told the company, " We shall certainly be robbed," and they were
so. When a brother of his, a merchant, died, he left him with other
effects, a share of a ship, which was returning from Spain, and of
which news was brought to the Exchange at London of her good
condition; he had such an impulse upon his spirit, that he must needs
sell his share, though to loss; and he did sell it. The ship came safe
to Cornwall, (or Devon) and somewhere afterwards fell upon the rocks
and sunk: not a man perished; but all the goods were lost except some
parrots, which were brought for Queen Katherine.

The good genius of Socrates is much remembered, which gave him
warning. The Ethnick Genij are painted like our Angels; strong
impulses are to be referred to them.

The learned Dr. John Pell, hath told me, that he did verily believe,
that some of his solutions of difficult problems were not done "Sine
Domino auxilio".

Mr. J. N. a very understanding gentleman, and not superstitious,
protested to me, that when he hath been over-persuaded by friends to
act contrary to a strong impulse, that he never succeeded.


      KNOCKINGS.


R. BAXTER'S Certainty of the World of Spirits. "A gentleman, formerly
seemingly pious, of late years hath fallen into the sin of
drunkenness; and when he has been drunk, and slept himself sober,
something knocks at his beds-head, as if one knocked on a wainscot;
when they remove the bed, it follows him, besides loud noises on
other parts where he is, that all the house heareth".

" It poseth me to think what kind of spirit this is, that hath such a
care of this man's soul, (which makes me hope he will recover). Do
good spirits dwell so near us ? or, are they sent on such messages ?
or, is it his guardian Angel ? or, is it the soul of some dead friend,
that suffereth and yet retaining love to him, as Dives did to his
brethren, would have him saved ? God keepeth yet such things from us
in the dark."

Major John Morgan of Wells, did aver, that as he lay in bed with Mr.
Barlow (son of the Dean of Wells) they heard three distinct knocks
on the bed; Mr. Barlow shortly after fell sick and died.

Three or four days before my father died, as I was in my bed about
nine o'clock in the morning perfectly awake, I did hear three distinct
knocks on the beds-head, as if it had been with a ruler or ferula.

Mr. Hierome Banks, as he lay on his death bed, in Bell-yard, said,
three days before he died, that Mr. Jennings of the Inner-temple, (his
great acquaintance, dead a year or two before) gave three knocks,
looked in, and said, come away. He was as far from believing such
things as any man.

Mr. George Ent of the Middle-temple, told me, some days before he
died, that he had such a "Deceptio Visus", he called it.

" In Germany when one is to die out of one's family, or some friends,
there will sometimes likewise happen some token that signifieth the
death of one, e. g. some (or one) in the house heareth the noise, as
if a meal-sack fell down from on high upon the boards of the chamber;
they presently go up thither, where they thought it was done, and find
nothing; but all things in order".

" Also at Berlin, when one shall die out of the electoral house of
Brandenburgh, a woman drest in white linen appears always to several,
without speaking, or doing any harm, for several weeks before". This
from Jasper Belshazer Cranmer, a Saxon gentleman.


      BLOWS INVISIBLE.


MR. BROGRAVE, of Hamel, near Puckridge in Hertfordshire, when he was a
young man, riding in a lane in that county, had a blow given him on
his cheek: (or head) he looked back and saw that nobody was near
behind him; anon he had such another blow, I have forgot if a third.
He turned back, and fell to the study of the law; and was afterwards a
Judge. This account I had from Sir John Penruddocke of Compton-
Chamberlain, (our neighbour) whose Lady was Judge Brograve's niece.

Newark (Sir G. L.'s) has knockings before death. And there is a house
near Covent Garden that has warnings. The Papists are full of these
observations.

The like stories are reported of others.


      PROPHESIES.


CICERO de Divinatione, Lib. 1. "--gentem quidem nullam video, neque
tam humanam atque doctam: neque tam immanem tam; barbaram, quae non
significari futura, & a quibusdam intelligi, praedicique posse censeat".

i. e. I know of no country, either so polished and learned, or so
rude, barbarous and uncivilized, but what always allowed that some
particular persons are gifted with an insight into futurity, and are
endued with a talent of prediction.

To pass by the prophesies of holy writ, the prophesies of Nostradamus
do foretel very strangely; but not easily understood till they are
fulfilled. The book is now common.

Peter Martyr, in his Decades, tells us, that there was a prophet among
the Salvages in America, that did foretel the coming in of strangers
in ships, which they had not known.

The prophesies of St. Malachi, are exceeding strange. He describes the
Popes by their coats of arms, or their names, or manners: if his
prophesies be true, there will be but fifteen Popes more. It is
printed in a book in Octavo, entituled "Bucelini Historiae Nucleus,
1654, in calce Libri" thus, "Prophetia Malachiae Monachi Bangorensis, &
A. Episcopi Ardinensis, Hiberniae Primatis". 1665, in two leaves.

Mr. Lancelot Morehouse, in the time of the civil wars, rescued a sheet
of parchment in quarto, most delicately writ, from a taylor's sheers.
It was a part of a book, and was a prophecy concerning England in
Latin Hexameters; I saw it, 1649. It pointed at our late troubles: he
gave it to Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury, and is lost among other
good papers.

In a book* of Mr. William Lilly's, are hieroglyphick prophecies, viz.
of the great plague of London, expressed by graves and dead corpses;
and a scheme with ascending (the sign of London) and no planets in the
twelve houses. Also there is a picture of London all on fire, also
moles creeping, &c. Perhaps Mr. Lilly might be contented to have
people believe that this was from himself. But Mr. Thomas Flatman
(poet) did affirm, that he had seen those hieroglyphicks in an old
parchment manuscript, writ in the time of the monks.

* Monarchy: or, No Monarchy, 4to.

In the nave of the cathedral church at Wells, above the capitals of
two pillars, are the head of the King, and the head of a Bishop: it
was foretold, that when a King should be like that King, and a Bishop
like that Bishop, that Abbots should be put down, and Nuns should
marry: above the arch, is an abbot or monk, with his head hanging
downwards; and a nun with children about her. The inside of the arch
is painted blue, and adorned with stars, to signify the power and
influence of the stars. This prophecy was writ in parchment, and hung
in a table on one of those pillars, before the civil wars. Dr. Duck
(who was chancellor of Wells) said, that he had seen a copy of it
among the records of the tower at London. It was prophesied 300 years
before the reformation. Bishop Knight was Bishop here at the
reformation, and the picture (they say) did resemble him.

In the Spanish history, it is mentioned, that a vault being opened in
Spain, they found there Moors' heads, and some writings that did
express, when people resembling those heads should come into Spain,
they would conquer that country; and it was so. See this story more
at large in James Howell's Letters.

There is a prophecy of William Tyndal, poor vicar of Welling, in the
county of Hertford, made in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign.
I have seen it: it is in English verse, two pages and an half in
folio. It foretold our late wars. I know one that read it forty years
since.

            A Prophecy.

      Sexte verere Deos; vitae tibi terminus instat,
      Cum tuus in media ardebit Carbunculus igne.

      0 thou sixth King to God due honours pay,
      Remember Prince soon after thou'lt expire,
      When thou behold'st thy carbuncle display,
      Blaze against blaze amidst the red'ning fire.

These verses were made by George Buchanan; but (perhaps) the
prediction was made by some second-sighted person. King James, of
Scotland, the sixth, was taken with an ague, at Trinity-College in
Cambridge; he removed to Theobald's; (where he died) sitting by the
fire, the carbuncle fell out of his ring into the fire, according
to the prediction. This distich is printed in the life of King James.

Before the civil wars, there was much talk of the Lady Anne Davys's
prophesies; for which she was kept prisoner in the tower of London.
She was sister to the Earl of Castle-heaven, and wife to Sir John
Davys, Lord Chief Justice in Ireland; I have heard his kinsman
(Counsellor Davys of Shaftesbury) say, that she being in London,
(I think in the tower) did tell the very time of her husband's death in
Ireland.


      MIRANDA.


OUR English chronicles do record, that in the reign of King Henry III.
A child was born in Kent, that at two years old cured all diseases.
Several persons have been cured of the King's-evil by the touching, or
handling of a seventh son. It must be a seventh son, and no daughter
between, and in pure wedlock.

Samuel Scot, seventh son of Mr. William Scot of Hedington in
Wiltshire, did when a child wonderful cures by touching only, viz. as
to the King's-evil, wens, &c. but as he grew to be a man, the virtue
did decrease, and had he lived longer, perhaps might have been spent.
A servant boy of his father's was also a seventh son, but he could do
no cures at all. I am very well satisfied of the truth of this
relation, for I knew him very well, and his mother was my kinswoman.

'Tis certain, the touch of a dead hand, hath wrought wonderful
effects, e. g. - One (a painter) of Stowel in Somersetshire, near
Bridgewater, had a wen in the inside of his cheek, as big as a
pullet's egg, which by the advice of one was cured by once or twice
touching or rubbing with a dead woman's hand, (e contra, to cure a
woman, a dead man's hand) he was directed first to say the Lord's
prayer, and to beg a blessing. He was perfectly cured in a few weeks.
I was at the man's house who attested it to me, as also to the
reverend Mr. Andrew Paschal, who went with me.

Mr. Davys Mell, (the famous violinist and clock-maker) had a child
crook-backed, that was cured after the manner aforesaid, which Dr.
Ridgley, M.D. of the college of physicians, averred in my hearing.

The curing of the King's-evil by the touch of the King, does much
puzzle our philosophers: for whether our Kings were of the house of
York, or Lancaster, it did the cure (i. e.) for the most part. 'Tis
true indeed at the touching there are prayers read, but perhaps,
neither the King attends them nor his chaplains.

In Somersetshire, 'tis confidently reported, that some were cured of
the King's-evil, by the touch of the Duke of Monmouth: the Lord
Chancellor Bacon saith, "That imagination is next kin to miracle-
working faith."

When King Charles I. was prisoner at Carisbrook Castle, there was a
woman touched by him, who had the King's-evil in her eye, and had not
seen in a fortnight before, her eye-lids being glued together: as they
were at prayers, (after the touching) the woman's eyes opened. Mr
Seymer Bowman, with many others, were eye-witnesses of this.

At Stretton in Hertfordshire, in anno 1648, when King Charles I. Was
prisoner, the tenant of the Manor-House there sold excellent cyder to
gentlemen of the neighbourhood; where they met privately, and could
discourse freely, and be merry, in those days so troublesome to the
loyal party. Among others that met, there was old Mr. Hill. B. D.
parson of the parish, Quondam Fellow of Brazen-Nose college in Oxford.
This venerable good old man, one day (after his accustomed fashion)
standing up, with his head uncovered to drink his majesty's health,
saying, "God bless our Gracious Sovereign," as he was going to put the
cup to his lips, a swallow flew in at the window, and pitched on the
brim of the little earthen cup(not half a pint) and sipt, and so flew out
again. This was in the presence of the aforesaid parson Hill,
Major Gwillim, and two or three more, that I knew very well then, my
neighbours, and whose joint testimony of it I have had more than once,
in that very room. It was in the bay-window in the parlour there; Mr.
Hill's back was next to the window. I cannot doubt of the veracity of
the witnesses. This is printed in some book that I have seen, I think
in Dr. Fuller's Worthies. The cup is preserved there still as a rarity.

In Dr. Bolton's Sermons, is an account of the Lady Honywood, who
despaired of her salvation. Dr. Bolton endeavoured to comfort her:
said she, (holding a Venice-glass in her hand) I shall as certainly be
damned, as this glass will be broken: and at that word, threw it hard
on the ground; and the glass remained sound; which did give her great
comfort. The glass is yet preserved among the Cimelia of the family.
This lady lived to see descended from her (I think) ninety, which is
mentioned by Dr. Bolton.

William Backhouse, of Swallowfield in Berkshire, Esq. had an ugly scab
that grew on the middle of his forehead, which had been there for some
years, and he could not be cured; it became so nauseous, that he would
see none but his intimate friends: he was a learned gentleman, a
chymist, and antiquary: his custom was, once every summer to travel
to see Cathedrals, Abbeys, Castles, &c. In his journey, being come to
Peterborough, he dreamt there, that he was in a church and saw a
hearse, and that one did bid him wet his scab, with the drops of the
marble. The next day he went to morning-service, and afterwards going
about the church, he saw the very hearse (which was of black say, for
Queen Katherine, wife to King Henry VIII.) and the marble grave-stone
by. He found drops on the marble, and there were some cavities,
wherein he dipt his finger, and wetted the scab: in seven days it was
perfectly cured. This accurate and certain information, I had from my
worthy friend Elias Ashmole, Esq. who called Mr. Backhouse father, and
had this account from his own mouth. May-Dew is a great dissolvent.

Arise Evans had a fungous nose, and said, it was revealed to him, that the
King's hand would cure him, and at the first coming of King Charles II.
into St. James's Park, he kissed the King's hand, and rubbed his nose with
it; which disturbed the King, but cured him. Mr. Ashmole told it me.

In the year 1694, there was published,

"A true Relation of the wonderful
Cure of Mary Mallard, (lame almost ever since she was born) on Sunday the
26th of November 1693."

With the affidavits and certificates of the girl, and several other
credible and worthy persons, who knew her both before and since her being
cured. To which is added, a letter from Dr. Welwood, to the Right
Honourable the Lady Mayoress, upon that subject. London: printed for
Richard Baldwin, near the Oxford Arms in Warwick Lane, 1694.

A narrative of the late extraordinary cure, wrought in an instant upon
Mrs. Elizabeth Savage, (lame from her birth) without using of any natural
means.

With the affidavits which were made before the Right Honourable the Lord
Mayor; and the certificates of several credible persons, who knew her both
before and since her cure.

Enquired into with all its circumstances, by noted divines both of the
church of England, and others: and by eminent physicians of the college:
and many persons of quality, who have expressed their full satisfaction.

With an appendix, attempting to prove, that miracles are not ceased.
London, printed for John Dunton at the Raven, and John Harris at the
Harrow, in the Poultry. The London divines would have my annotations of
these two maids expunged.*

*" This Eliza Savage is still lame. It seems my Lord Mayor of London
and Ministers may be imposed on." MS. Note in a copy of the first
edition in the Library of the Royal Society.


      MAGICK.


IN Barbary are wizards, who do smear their hands with some black
ointment,and then do hold them up to the sun, and in a short time you
shall see delineated in that black stuff, the likeness of what you
desire to have an answer of. It was desired to know, whether a ship
was in safety, or no? there appeared in the woman's hand the perfect
lineaments of a ship under sail. This Mr. W. Cl. a merchant of London,
who was factor there several years, protested to me, that he did see.
He is a person worthy of belief.

A parallel method to this is used in England, by putting the white of
a new laid egg in a beer glass, and expose it to the sun in hot
weather, as August, when the sun is in Leo, and they will perceive
their husband's profession.

There are wonderful stories of the Bannians in India, viz. of their
predictions, cures, &c. of their charming crocodiles, and serpents:
and that one of them walked over an arm of the sea, he was seen in the
middle, and never heard of afterwards.

The last summer, on the day of St. John the Baptist, 1694, I
accidentally was walking in the pasture behind Montague house, it was
12 o'clock. I saw there about two or three and twenty young women,
most of them well habited, on their knees very busy, as if they had
been weeding. I could not presently learn what the matter was; at last
a young man told me, that they were looking for a coal under the root
of a plantain, to put under their head that night, and they should
dream who would be their husbands:It was to be sought for that day
and hour.

The women have several magical secrets handed down to them by
tradition, for this purpose, as, on St. Agnes' night, 21st day of
Jannary, take a row of pins, and pull out every one, one after
another, saying a Pater Noster, or (Our Father) sticking a pin in your
sleeve, and you will dream of him, or her, you shall marry. Ben Jonson
in one of his Masques make some mention of this.

      And on sweet Saint Agnes night
      Please you with the promis'd sight,
      Some of husbands, some of lovers,
      Which an empty dream discovers,

Another. *To know whom one shall marry.

You must lie in another county, and knit the left garter about the
right legged stocking (let the other garter and stocking alone) and
as you rehearse these following verses, at every comma, knit a knot.

      This knot I knit,
      To know the thing, I know not yet,
      That I may see,
      The man (woman) that shall my husband (wife) be,
      How he goes, and what he wears,
      And what he does, all days, and years.

Accordingly in your dream you will see him: if a musician, with a
lute or other instrument; if a scholar, with a book or papers.

A gentlewoman that I knew, confessed in my hearing, that she used this
method, and dreamt of her husband whom she had never seen: about two
or three years after, as she was on Sunday at church, (at our Lady's
church in Sarum) up pops a young Oxonian in the pulpit: she cries out
presently to her sister, this is the very face of the man that I saw
in my dream. Sir William Soames's Lady did the like.

Another way, is, to charm the moon thus: at the first appearance of
the new moon* after new year's day, go out in the evening, and stand
over the spars of a gate or stile, looking on the moon and say, +

      All hail to the moon, all hail to thee,
      I prithee good moon reveal to me,
      This night, who my husband (wife) must be.

You must presently after go to bed.

* Some say any other new moon is as good.
+ In Yorkshire they kneel on a ground-fast stone.

I knew two gentlewomen that did thus when they were young maids, and
they had dreams of those that married them.

Alexander Tralianus, of curing diseases by spells, charms, &c. is
cited by Casaubon, before John Dee's Book of Spirits: it is now
translated out of the Greek into English.

Moreri's Great Historical, Geographical, and Poetical Dictionary.
Abracadabra, a mysterious word, to which the superstitious in former
times attributed a magical power to expel diseases, especially the
tertian-ague, worn about their neck in this manner.

Some think, that Basilides, the inventor, intends the name of GOD by
it. The method of the cure was prescribed in these verses.

      "Inscribes Chartae quod dicitur Abracadabra
      Saepius, & subter repetes, sed detrahe summam
      Et magis atque magis desint elementa figuris
      Singula quae semper capies & caetera figes,
      Donec in angustum redigatur Litera Conum,
      His lina nexis collo redimire memento.
      Talia languentis conducent Vincula collo,
      Lethalesque abigent (miranda potentia) morbos".


      Abracadabra, strange mysterious word,
      In order writ, can wond'rous cures afford.
      This be the rule:-a strip of parchment take,
      Cut like a pyramid revers'd in make.
      Abracadabra, first at length you name,
      Line under line, repeating still the same:
      Cut at its end, each line, one letter less,
      Must then its predecessor line express;
      'Till less'ning by degrees the charm descends
      With conic form, and in a letter ends.
      Round the sick neck the finish'd wonder tie,
      And pale disease must from the patient fly.

Mr. Schoot, a German, hath an excellent book of magick: it is
prohibited in that country. I have here set down three spells, which
are much approved.

**To cure an Ague.

Write this following spell in parchment, and wear it about your neck.
It must be writ triangularly.

      A B R A C A D A B R A
       A B R A C A D A B R
        A B R A C A D A B
         A B R A C A D A
          A B R A C A D
           A B R A C A
            A B R A C
             A B R A
              A B R
               A B
                A

With this spell, one of Wells, hath cured above a hundred of the ague.

**To cure the biting of a Mad-Dog, write these words in paper, viz.

"Rebus Rubus Epitepscum", and give it to the party, or beast bit, to
eat in bread, &c. A Gentleman of good quality, and a sober grave
person, did affirm, that this receipt never fails.

**To cure the Tooth-Ach: out of Mr. Ashmole's manuscript writ with
his own hand.

      "Mars, hur, abursa, aburse".
      Jesu Christ for Mary's sake,
      Take away this Tooth-Ach.

Write the words three times; and as you say the words, let the party
burn one paper, then another, and then the last. He says, he saw it
experimented, and the party "immediately cured."

Mr. Ashmole told me, that a woman made use of a spell to cure an ague,
by the advice of Dr. Nepier; a minister came to her, and severely
repremanded her, for making use of a diabolical help, and told
her, she was in danger of damnation for it, and commanded her to burn
it. She did so, and her distemper returned severely; insomuch that she
was importunate with the Doctor to use the same again; she used it,
and had ease. But the parson hearing of it, came to her again, and
thundered hell and damnation, and frighted her so, that she burnt it
again. Whereupon she fell extremely ill, and would have had it a third
time; but the Doctor refused, saying, that she had contemned and
slighted the power and goodness of the blessed spirits (or Angels) and
so she died. The cause of the Lady Honywood's Desparation was, that
she had used a spell to cure her.

      "Jamblicus de Mysteriis de nominibus Divinis."

"Porphyrius querit, cur Sacerdotes utantur nominibus quibusdam nihil
significantibus ? Jamblicus respondet, omnia ejusmodi nomina
significare aliquid apud deos: quamvis in quibusdam significata
nobis sint ignota, esse tamen nota quaedam, quorum interpretationem
divinitus accepimus, omnino vero modum ineis significandi
ineffabilem esse. Neque secundum imaginationes humanas, sed secundum
intellectum qui in nobis est, divinus, vel potius simpliciore
praestantiorieque modo secundum intellectum diis unitum. Auferendum
igitur omnes excogitationes & rationales discursus, atque
assimulationes naturalis vocis ipsius congenitas, ad res positas
innatum. Et quemadmodum character symbolicus divinae similitudinis in
se intellectualis est, atque divinus, ita hunc ipsum in omnibus
supponnere, accipereque debemus, &c."

      **Jamblicus, concerning the Mysteries relating to divine names.

Porphyrius asks the question why Priests make use of certain names
which carry with them no known import or signification ? Jamblicus
replies, that all and every of those sort of names have their
respective significations among the Gods, and that though the things
signified by some of them remain to us unknown, yet there are some
which have come to our knowledge, the interpretation of which we
have received from above. But that the manner of signifying by them,
is altogether ineffable. Not according to human imaginations, but
according to that divine intellect which reigns within us, or rather
according to an intellect that has an union with the Gods, in a more
simple and excellent manner. And whereas the symbolical character of
the divine likeness is in it self intellectual and divine, so are we
to take and suppose it to be, in all, &c.

      ** To cure an ague, Tertian or Quartan.

Gather Cinquefoil in a good aspect of {Jupiter} to the {Moon} and let
the moon be in the Mid-Heaven, if you can, and take --- of the powder
of it in white wine: if it be not thus gathered according to the
rules of astrology, it hath little or no virtue in it. With this
receipt --- one Bradley, a quaker at Kingston Wick upon Thames,
(near the bridge end) hath cured above an hundred.

      **To cure the Thrush.

There is a certain piece in the beef, called the mouse-piece, which
given to the child, or party so affected to eat, doth certainly cure
the thrush. From an experienced midwife.

      **Another to cure a Thrush.

Take a living frog, and hold it in a cloth, that it does not go down
into the child's mouth; and put the head into the child's mouth 'till
it is dead; and then take another frog, and do the same.

      **To cure the Tooth-Ach.

Take a new nail, and make the gum bleed with it, and then drive it
into an oak. This did cure William Neal's son, a very stout gentleman,
when he was almost mad with the pain, and had a mind to have pistolled himself.

      **For the Jaundice.

The jaundice is cured, by putting the urine after the first sleep, to
the ashes of the ash-tree, bark of barberries.

      **To cure a Bullock, that hath the Whisp,
      (that is)lame between the Clees.

Take the impression of the bullock's foot in the earth, where he hath
trod then dig it up, and stick therein five or seven thorns on the
wrong side, and then hang it on a bush to dry: and as that dries, so
the bullock heals. This never fails for wisps. From Mr. Pacy, a yRoman
in Surry.

      **To cure a beast that is sprung, (that is) poisoned.

It lights mostly upon Sheep.
Take the little red spider, called a tentbob, (not so big as a great
pins-head) the first you light upon in the spring of the year, and rub
it in the palm of your hand all to pieces: and having so done, piss
on it, and rub it in, and let it dry; then come to the beast and make
water in your hand, and throw it in his mouth. It cures in a matter of
an hour's time. This rubbing serves for a whole year, and it is no
danger to the hand. The chiefest skill is to know whether the beast be
poisoned or no. From Mr. Pacy.

      **To staunch Bleeding.

Out an ash of one, two, or three years growth, at the very hour and
minute of the sun's entring into Taurus: a chip of this applied will
stop it; if it is a shoot, it must be cut from the ground. Mr. Nicholas
Mercator, astronomer, told me that he had tried it with
effect. Mr. G. W. says the stick must not be bound or holden; but
dipped or wetted in the blood. When King James II. was at Salisbury,
1688, his nose bled near two days; and after many essays in vain, was
stopped by this sympathetick ash, which Mr. William Nash, a surgeon in
Salisbury, applied.

      **Against an evil Tongue.

Take Unguentum populeum and Vervain, and Hypericon, and put a red hot
iron into it; you must anoint the back bone, or wear it on your
breast. This is printed in Mr. W. Lilly's Astrology. Mr. H. C. hath
tried this receipt with good success.

      Vervain and dill,
      Hinders witches from their will.

A house (or chamber) somewhere in London, was haunted; the curtains
would be rashed at night, and awake the gentleman that lay there, who
was musical, and a familiar acquaintance of Henry Lawes. Henry Lawes
to be satisfied did lie with him; and the curtains were rashed so
then. The gentleman grew lean and pale with the frights; one Dr. ---
cured the house of this disturbance, and Mr. Lawes said,that the
principal ingredient was Hypericon put under his pillow.

In Herefordshire, and other parts, they do put a cold iron bar upon
their barrels, to preserve their beer from being soured by thunder.
This is a common practice in Kent.

To hinder the night mare, they hang in a string, a flint with a hole
in it (naturally) by the manger; but best of all they say, hung about
their necks, and a flint will do it that hath not a hole in it. It is
to prevent the nightmare, viz. the hag, from riding their horses, who
will sometimes sweat all night. The flint thus hung does hinder it.

Mr. Sp. told me that his horse which was bewitched, would break
bridles and strong halters, like a Samson. They filled a bottle of the
horse's urine, stopped it with a cork and bound it fast in, and then
buried it underground: and the party suspected to be the witch, fell
ill, that he could not make water, of which he died. When they took
up. the bottle, the urine was almost gone; so, that they did believe,
that if the fellow could have lived a little longer, he had recovered.

It is a thing very common to nail horse-shoes on the thresholds of
doors: which is to hinder the power of witches that enter into the
house. Most houses of the West end of London, have the horse-shoe on
the threshold. It should be a horse-shoe that one finds. In the
Bermudas, they use to put an iron into the fire when a witch comes in.
Mars is enemy to Saturn. There are very memorable stories of witches
in Gage's Survey of the West-Indies of his own Knowledge: which see.

At Paris when it begins to thunder and lighten, they do presently ring
out the great bell at the Abbey of St. Germain, which they do believe
makes it cease. The like was wont to be done heretofore in Wiltshire;
when it thundered and lightened, they did ring St. Aldhelm's bell, at
Malmsbury Abbey. The curious do say, that the ringing of bells
exceedingly disturbs spirits.

In the Golden Legend by W. de Worde. It is said the evill spirytes
that ben in the regyon of th'ayre doubte moche whan they here the
belles rongen. And this is the cause why the belles ben rongen whan it
thondreth, and whan grete tempeste aud outrages of wether happen to
the ende that the feudes and wycked spirytes shold be abasshed, and
flee and cease of the movynge of tempeste. Fol. xxiv.


      TRANSPORTATIONBYAN
      INVISIBLEPOWER.


**A Letter from the Reverend Mr. Andrew Paschal, B.D. Rector of
Chedzoy in Somersetshire, to John Aubrey, Esq. at Gresham College,
London.

SIR,

I LAST week received a letter from a learned friend, the minister of
Barnstable in Devon, which I think worthy your perusal. It was dated
May 3, 1683, and is as follows. (He was of my time in Queen's
College, Cambridge.)

There having been many prodigious things performed lately in a parish
adjoining to that which Bishop Sparrow presented me to, called
Cheriton-Bishop, by some discontented daemon, I can easily remember,
that I owe you an account thereof, in lieu of that which you desired
of me, and which I could not serve you in.

About November last, in the parish of Spreyton in the county of Devon,
there appeared in a field near the dwelling house of Philip Furze, to
his servant Francis Pry, being of the age of twenty-one, next
August, an aged gentleman with a pole in his hand, and like that he
was wont to carry about with him when living, to kill moles withal,
who told the young man he should not be afraid of him; but should tell
his master, i. e. his son, that several legacies that he had
bequeathed were unpaid, naming ten shillings to one, ten shillings to
another, &c. Pry replied, that the party he last named was dead. The
Spectrum replied, he knew that, but said it must be paid to (and
named) the next relation. These things being performed, he promised he
 would trouble him no further. These small legacies were paid
accordingly. But the young man having carried twenty shillings ordered
by the Spectrum to his sister Mrs. Furze, of the parish of Staverton
near Totness, which money the gentlewoman refused to receive, being
sent her, as she said, from the Devil. The same night Fry lodging
there, the Spectrum appeared to him again, whereupon Fry challenged
his promise not to trouble him, and said he had done all he desired
him; but that Mrs. Furze would not receive the money. The Spectrum
replied, that is true indeed; but bid him ride to Totness and buy a
ring of that value, and that she would take. Which was provided for
her and received by her. Then Fry rode homewards attended by a servant
of Mrs. Furze. But being come into Spreyton parish, or rather a little
before, he seemed to carry an old gentlewoman behind him, that often
threw him off his horse, and hurried him with such violence, as
astonished all that saw him, or heard how horridly the ground was
beaten; and being come into his master's yard, Pry's horse (a mean
beast) sprung at once twenty-five feet. The trouble from the man-
spectre ceased from this time. But the old gentlewoman, Mrs. Furze,
Mr. Furze's second wife, whom the Spectre at his first appearance to
Fry,called, that wicked woman my wife, (though I knew her, and took
her for a very good woman) presently after appears to several in the
house, viz. to Fry, Mrs. Thomasin Gidley, Anne Langdon, born in my
parish, and to a little child which was forced to be removed from the
house; sometimes in her own shape, sometimes in shapes more horrid, as
of a dog belching fire, and of a horse, and seeming to ride out of the
window, carrying only one pane of glass away, and a little piece of
iron. After this Fry's head was thrust into a narrow space, where a
man's fist could not enter, between a bed and a wall; and forced to be
taken thence by the strength of men, all bruised and bloody; upon this
it was thought fit to bleed him; and after that was done, the binder
was removed from his arm, and conveyed about his middle and presently
was drawn so very straight, it had almost killed him, and was cut
asunder, making an ugly uncouth noise. Several other times with
handkerchiefs, cravats and other things he was near strangled, they
were drawn so close upon his throat. He lay one night in his periwig
(in his master's chamber, for the more safety) which was torn all to
pieces. His best periwig he inclosed in a little box on the inside
with a joined-stool, and other weight upon it; the box was snapped
asunder, and the wig torn all to flitters. His master saw his buckles
fall all to pieces on his feet. But first I should have told you the
fate of his shoe strings, one of which a gentlewoman greater than all
exception, assured me, that she saw it come out of his shoe, without
any visible hand, and fling itself to the farther end of the room; the
other was coming out too, but that a maid prevented and helped it out,
which crisped and curled about her hand like a living eel. The cloaths
worn by Anne Langdon and Fry, (if their own) were torn to pieces on
their backs. The same gentlewoman, being the daughter of the minister
of the parish, Mr. Roger Specott, showed me one of Fry's gloves, which
was torn in his pocket while she was by. I did view it near and
narrowly, and do seriously confess that it was torn so very accurately
in all the seams and in other places, and laid abroad so artificially,
and it is so dexterously tattered, (and all done in the pocket in a
minute's time) as nothing human could have done it; no cutler could
have made an engine to do it so. Other fantastical freeks have been
very frequent, as the marching of a great barrel full of salt out of
one room into another; an andiron laying itself over a pan of milk
that was scalding on the fire, and two flitches of bacon descending
from the chimney where they hung, and laid themselves over that
andiron. The appearing of the Spectrum (when in her own shape) in the
same cloaths, to seeming, which Mrs. Furze her daughter-in-law has on.
The intangling of Fry's face and legs, about his neck, and about the
frame of the chairs, so as they have been with great difficulty
disengaged.

But the most remarkable of all happened in that day that I passed by
the door in my return hither, which was Easter-eve, when Fry returning
from work (that little he can do) he was caught by the woman spectre
by the skirts of his doublet, and carried into the air; he was quickly
missed by his master and the workmen, and a great enquiry was made for
Francis Fry, but no hearing of him; but about half-an-hour after Fry
was heard whistling and singing in a kind of a quagmire. He was now
affected as he was wont to be in his fits, so that none regarded what
he said; but coming to himself an hour after, he solemnly protested,
that the daemon carried him so high that he saw his master's house
underneath him no bigger than a hay-cock, that he was in perfect
sense, and prayed God not to suffer the Devil to destroy him;
that he was suddenly set down in that quagmire. The workmen found one
shoe on one side of the house, and the other shoe on the other side;
his periwig was espied next morning hanging on the top of a tall
tree. It was soon observed, that Fry's part of his body that had laid
in the mud, was much benumed, and therefore the next Saturday, which
was the eve of Low-Sunday, they carried him to Crediton to be let
blood; which being done, and the company having left him for a little
while, returning they found him in a fit, with his forehead all
bruised and swoln to a great bigness, none able to guess how it came,
till he recovered himself, and then he told them, that a bird flew in
at the window with a great force, and with a stone in its mouth flew
directly against his forehead. The people looked for it, and found on
the ground just under where he sat, not a stone, but a weight of brass
or copper, which the people were breaking, and parting it among
themselves. He was so very ill, that he could ride but one mile or
little more that night, since which time I have not heard of him, save
that he was ill handled the next day, being Sunday. Indeed Sir, you
may wonder that I have not visited that house, and the poor afflicted
people; especially, since I was so near, and passed by the very door:
but besides that, they have called to their assistance none but
nonconforming ministers. I was not qualified to be welcome there,
having given Mr. Furze a great deal of trouble the last year about a
conventicle in his house, where one of this parish was the preacher.
But I am very well assured of the truth of what I have written, and
(as more appears) you shall hear from me again.

I had forgot to tell you that Fry's mother came to me, grievously
bewailing the miserable condition of her son. She told me, that the
day before he had five pins thrust into his side. She asked; and I
gave her the best advice I could. Particularly, that her son should
declare all that the spectre, especially the woman gave him in charge,
for I suspect, there is "aliquid latens"; and that she should remove him
thence by all means. But I fear that she will not do it. For I hear
that Anne Langdon is come into my parish to her mother, and that she
is grievously troubled there. I might have written as much of her, as
of Fry, for she had been as ill treated, saving the aerial journey.
Her fits and obsessions seem to be greater, for she screeches in a
most hellish tone. Thomasin Gidley (though removed) is in trouble I
hear.

Sir, this is all my friend wrote. This letter came inclosed in
another from a clergyman, my friend, who lives in those parts. He
tells me all the relations he receives from divers persons living in
Spreyton and the neighbouring parishes, agree with this. He spake
with a gentleman of good fashion, that was at Crediton when Fry was
blooded, and saw the stone that bruised his forehead; but he did not
call it copper or brass, but said it was a strange mineral. That
gentleman promised to make a strict inquiry on the place into all
particulars, and to give him the result: which my friend also promises
me; with hopes that he shall procure for me a piece of that mineral
substance, which hurt his forehead.

The occasion of my friend's sending me this narrative, was my
entreating him sometime since, to inquire into a thing of this nature,
that happened in Barnstable, where he lives. An account was given to
me long since, it fills a sheet or two, which I have by me: and to
gratify Mr. Glanvil who is collecting histories for his "Sadducismus
Triumphatus". I desired to have it well attested, it being full of very
memorable things; but it seems he could meet only a general consent as
to the truth of the things; the reports varying in the circumstances.

Sir, Yours.


      **A Copy of a Letter from a learned Friend of mine in SCOTLAND, dated
      March 25, 1695.

HONOURED SIR,

I RECEIVED yours dated May 24th, 1694, in which you desire me to
send you some instances and examples of Transportation by an Invisible
Power. The true cause of my delaying so long, to reply to that letter,
was not want of kindness; but of fit materials for such a reply.

As soon as I read your letter of May 24, I called to mind, a story
which I heard long ago, concerning one of the Lord Duffus, (in the
shire of Murray) his predicessors of whom it is reported, that upon a
time, when he was walking abroad in the fields near to his own house,
he was suddenly carried away, and found the next day at Paris in the
French King's cellar, with a silver cup in his hand; that being
brought into the King's presence and questioned by him, who he was ?
and how he came thither ? he told his name, his country, and the place
of his residence, and that on such a day of the month (which proved to
be the day immediately preceding) being in the fields, he heard the
noise of a whirl-wind, and of voices crying Horse and Hattock, (this
is the word which the fairies are said to use when they remove from
any place) whereupon he cried (Horse and Hattock) also, and was
immediately caught up, and transported through the air, by the fairies
to that place, where after he had drank heartily he fell asleep, and
before he awoke, the rest of the company were gone, and had left him
in posture wherein he was found. It is said, the King gave him the cup
which was found in his hand, and dismissed him.

This story (if it could be sufficiently attested) would be a noble
instance for your purpose, for which cause I was at some pains to
enquire into the truth of it, and found the means to get the present
Lord Duffus's opinion thereof; which shortly is, that there has been,
and is such a tradition, but that he thinks it fabulous; this account
of it, his Lordship had from his father, who told him that he had it
from his father, the present Lord's grandfather; there is yet an old
silver cup in his Lordship's possession still, which is called the
Fairy Cup; but has nothing engraven upon it, except the arms of the
family.

The gentleman, by whose means I came to know the Lord Duffus's
sentiment of the foregoing story, being tutor to his Lordship's eldest
son, told me another little passage of the same nature, whereof he was
an eye witness. He reports, that when he was a boy at school in the
town of Torres, yet not so young, but that he had years and
capacity, both to observe and remember that which fell out; he and his
school-fellows were upon a time whipping their tops in the church-yard
before the door of the church; though the day was calm, they heard a
noise of a wind, and at some distance saw the small dust begin to
arise and turn round, which motion continued, advancing till it came
to the place where they were; whereupon they began to bless
themselves: but one of their number (being it seems a little more
bold and confident than his companions) said, Horse and Hattock with
my top, and immediately they all saw the top lifted up from the
ground; but could not see what way it was carried, by reason of a
cloud of dust which was raised at the same time: they sought for the
top all about the place where it was taken up, but in vain; and it was
found afterwards in the church-yard, on the other side of the church.
Mr. Steward (so is the gentleman called) declared to me that he had a
perfect remembrance of this matter.

The following account I received, November last, from Mr. Alexander
Mowat, a person of great integrity and judgment, who being minister at
the church at Lesley, in the shire of Aberdene, was turned out for
refusing the oath of test, anno 1681. He informs, that he heard the
late Earl of Caithness, who was married to a daughter of the late
Marquis of Argyle, tell the following story, viz. That upon a time,
when a vessel which his Lordship kept for bringing home wine and other
provisions for his house, was at sea; a common fellow, who was reputed
to have the second-sight, being occasionally at his house; the Earl
enquired of him, where his men (meaning those in the ship) were at
that present time ? the fellow replied, at such a place, by name,
within four hours sailing of the harbour, which was not far from the
place of his Lordship's residence: the Earl asked, what evidence he
could give for that ? the other replied, that he had lately been at
the place, and had brought away with him one of the seamen's caps,
which he delivered to his Lordship. At the four hours end, the Earl
went down himself to the harbour, where he found the ship newly
arrived, and in it one of the seamen without his cap; who being
questioned, how he came to lose his cap ? answered, that at such a
place (the same the second-sighted man had named before) there arose a
whirl-wind which endangered the ship, and carried away his cap: the
Earl asked, if he would know his cap when he saw it ? he said he
would; whereupon the Earl produced the cap, and the seaman owned it
for that, which was taken from him.

This is all the information which I can give at present concerning
Transportation by an Invisible Power. I am sorry that I am able to
contribute so little to the publishing of so curious a piece as it
seems your collection of Hermetick Philosophy will be. I have given
instructions to an acquaintance of mine now living at Kirkwall, and
took him engaged when he left this place, to inform him concerning the
old stone monuments, the plants and cures in the Orcades, and to send
me an account. But I have not heard from him as yet, though I caused a
friend that was writing to him, to put him in mind of his promise; the
occasions of correspondence betwixt this place and Orkney are very
rare.

SIR,
Your faithful affectionate friend
And servant,
J. G.

SIR,

'Tis very likely my Lord Keeper, [North] (if an account of a thing so
considerable, hath not been presented to him by another hand) will
take it kindly from you. I would transcribe it for Dr. Henry More, to
whom, as I remember, I promised some time since an account of the
Barnstable apparition; but my hands are full of work. May I beg of you
to visit Dr. Whitchcot, minister of St. Laurence church, and to
communicate a sight of this letter from Barnstable: probably he will
be willing to make his servant transcribe it, and to convey it to Dr.
More. Pray present my humble service to him, as also my affectionate
service to our friends Mr. Hook and Mr. Lodwick. I ever rest, SIR,

Your most faithful
And affectionate servant,

Chedzoy.            ANDREW PASCHAL.


THERE was in Scotland one --- (an obsessus) carried in the air several
times in the view of several persons, his fellow-soldiers. Major
Henton hath seen him carried away from the guard in Scotland,
sometimes a mile or two. Sundry persons are living now, (1671) that
can attest this story. I had it from Sir Robert Harley (the son) who
married Major Henton's widow; as also from E. T. D. D.

A gentleman of my acquaintance, Mr. M. was in Portugal, anno 1655,
when one was burnt by the inquisition for being brought thither from
Goa, in East-India, in the air, in an incredible short time.


      VISIONS IN A BERYL OR CRYSTAL.


BERYL is a kind of Crystal that hath a weal tincture of red; it is one
of the twelve stones mentioned in the Revelation. I have heard,* that
spectacles were first made of this stone, which is the reason that the
Germans do call a spectacle-glass (or pair of spectacles) a Brill.

*Dr J. Pell

Dr. Pocock of Oxford, in his Commentary on Hosea, hath a learned
discourse of the Urim and Thummim; as also Dr. Spenser of Cambridge.
That the priest had his visions in the stone of the breast plate.

The Prophets had their seers, viz. young youths who were to behold
those visions, of whom Mr. Abraham Cowley writes thus.

      With hasty wings, time present they out-fly,
      And tread the doubtful maze of destiny;
      There walk and sport among the years to come,
      And with quick eye pierce every causes womb.

The magicians now use a crystal sphere, or mineral pearl, as No. 3,
for this purpose, which is inspected by a boy, or sometimes by the
querent himself.

No. 3. {Illustration}

There are certain formulas of prayer to be used, before they make the
inspection, which they term a call. In a manuscript of Dr. Forman of
Lambeth, (which Mr. Elias Ashmole had) is a discourse of this, and the
prayer. Also there is the call which Dr. Nepier did use.

James Harrington (author of Oceana) told me that the Earl of Denbigh,
then Ambassador at Venice, did tell him, that one did shew him there
several times in a glass, things past and to come.

When Sir Marmaduke Langdale was in Italy, he went to one of those
Magi, who did shew him a glass, where he saw himself kneeling before a
crucifix: he was then a Protestant; afterwards he became a Roman
Catholick. He told Mr. Thomas Henshaw, E.S.S., this himself.

I have here set down the figure of a consecrated Beryl, as No. 4, now
in the possession of Sir Edward Harley, Knight of the Bath, which he
 keeps in his closet at Brampton-Bryan in Herefordshire, amongst his
Cimelia, which I saw there. It came first from Norfolk; a minister had
it there, and a call was to be used with it. Afterwards a miller had
it, and both did work great cures with it, (if curable) and in the
Beryl they did see, either the receipt in writing, or else the herb.
To this minister, the spirits or angels would appear openly, and
because the miller (who was his familiar friend) one day happened to
see them, he gave him the aforesaid Beryl and Call: by these angels
the minister was forewarned of his death.

No. 4. {Illustration}

This account I had from Mr. Ashmole. Afterwards this Beryl came into
some-body's hand in London, who did tell strange things by it;
insomuch that at last he was questioned for it, and it was taken away
by authority, (it was about 1645).

This Beryl is a perfect sphere, the diameter of it I guess to be
something more than an inch: it is set in a ring, or circle of silver
resembling the meridian of a globe: the stem of it is about ten
inches high, all gilt. At the four quarters of it are the names of
four angels, viz. Uriel, Raphael, Michael, Gabriel. On the top is a
cross patee.

Sam. Boisardus hath writ a book "de Divinatione per Crystallum".

A clothier's widow of Pembridge in Herefordshire, desired Dr.
Sherborne (one of the canons of the church of Hereford, and Rector of
Pembridge) to look over her husband's writings after his decease:
among other things he found a call for a crystal. The clothier had his
cloths oftentimes stolen from his racks; and at last obtained this
trick to discover the thieves. So when he lost his cloths, he went out
about midnight with his crystal and call, and a little boy, or little
maid with him (for they say it must be a pure virgin) to look in the
crystal, to see the likeness of the person that committed the theft.
The doctor did burn the call, 1671.


VISIONS WITHOUT A GLASS OR 
CRYSTAL.


ABOUT the latter end of the reign of King James I. one --- a taylor in
London, had several visions, which he did describe to a painter to
paint, and he writ the description himself in an ill taylor-like hand,
in false English, but legible: it was at least a quire of paper. I
remember one vision is of St. James's park, where is the picture of an
altar and crucifix. Mr. Butler'of the toy-shop by Ludgate, (one of the
masters of Bridewell) had the book in anno 1659; the then Earl of
Northampton gave five pounds for a copy of it.


CONVERSE WITH ANGELS AND SPIRITS.


DR. RICHARD NEPIER was a person of great abstinence, innocence, and
piety: he spent every day two hours in family prayer: when a patient
or querent came to him, he presently went to his closet to pray: and
told to admiration the recovery, or death of the patient. It appears
by his papers, that he did converse with the angel Raphael, who gave
him the responses.

Elias Ashmole, Esq. had all his papers, where is contained all his
practice for about fifty years; which he, Mr. Ashmole, carefully bound
up, according to the year of our Lord, in --- volumes in folio; which
are now reposited in the library of the Musseum in Oxford. Before the
responses stands this mark, viz. R. Ris. which Mr. Ashmole said was
Responsum Raphaelis.

In these papers are many excellent medicines, or receipts for several
diseases that his patients had; and before some of them is the
aforesaid mark, Mr. Ashmole took the pains to transcribe fairly with
his own hand all the receipts; they are about a quire and a half of
paper in folio, which since his death were bought of his relict by
E. W. Esq. E.S.S.

The angel told him if the patient were curable or incurable.

There are also several other queries to the angel, as to religion,
transubstantiation, &c. which I have forgot. I remember one is,
whether the good spirits or the bad be most in number ? R. Ris. The
good.

It is to be found there, that he told John Prideaux, D.D. anno 1621,
that twenty years hence (1641) he would be a bishop, and he was so,
sc. bishop of Worcester. '

R. Ris. did resolve him, that Mr. Booth, of --- in Cheshire, should
have a son that should inherit three years hence, [sc. Sir George
Booth, the first Lord Delamere] viz. from 1619, Sir George Booth
aforesaid was born, December 18, anno 1622.

This I extracted out of Dr. Nepier's Original Diary, then in
possession of Mr. Ashmole.

When E. W. Esq. was about eight years old, he was troubled with the
worms. His grand father carried him to Dr. Nepier at Lynford. Mr. E.
W. peeped in at the closet at the end of the gallery, and saw him upon
his knees at prayer. The Doctor told Sir Francis that at fourteen
years old his grandson would be freed from that distemper; and he was
so. The medicine he prescribed was, to drink a little draught of
Muscadine in the morning. 'Twas about 1625.

It is impossible that the prediction of Sir George Booth's birth could
be found any other way, but by angelical revelation.

This Dr. Richard Nepier was rector of Lynford in Bucks, and did
practise physic; but gave most to the poor that he got by it. 'Tis
certain he told his own death to a day and hour; he died praying upon
his knees, being of a very great age, April 1, 1634. He was nearly
related to the learned Lord Nepier, Baron of M-- in Scotland: I have
forgot whether his brother. His knees were horny with frequent
praying. He left his estate to Sir Richard Nepier, M.D. of the college
of physicians, London, from whom Mr. Ashmole had the Doctor's picture,
now in the Musseum.

Dr. Richard Nepier, rector of Lynford, was a good astrologer, and so
was Mr. Marsh of Dunstable; but Mr. Marsh did seriously confess to a
friend of mine, that astrology was but the countenance; and that he
did his business by the help of the blessed spirits; with whom only
men of great piety, humility and charity, could be acquainted; and
such a one he was. He was an hundred years old when my friend was with
him; and yet did understand himself very well.

At Ashbridge in Buckinghamshire, near Berkhamsted, was a monastery,
(now in the possession of the Earl of Bridgewater) where are excellent
good old paintings still to be seen. In this monastery was found an
old manuscript entitled Johannes de Rupescissa, since printed, (or
part of it) a chymical book, wherein are many receipts; among others,
to free a house haunted with evil spirits, by fumes: Mr. Marsh had
it, and did cure houses so haunted by it. Ovid in his festivals hath
something like it. See "Thesaurus Exorcismorum" writ by --- e Societate
Jesu. Oct. Wherein are several high physical and medicinal things.

Good spirits are delighted and allured by sweet perfumes, as rich
gums, frankincense, salts, &c. which was the reason that priests of
the Gentiles, and also the Christians used them in their temples, and
sacrifices: and on the contrary, evil spirits are pleased and allured
and called up by suffumigations of Henbane, &c. stinking smells, &c.
which the witches do use in their conjuration. Toads (saturnine
animals) are killed by putting of salt upon them; I have seen the
experiment. Magical writers say, that cedar-wood drives away evil
spirits; it was, and is much used in magnificent temples.

      Plinii Natural Hist. lib. 12, cap. 14.
"Alexandra Magno in pueritia sine parsimonia thura ingerenti aris,
paedagogus Leonides dixerat, ut illo modo, cum devicisset thuriferas
gentes, supplicaret. At ille Arabia potitus; thure onustam navim
misit ei, large exhortatus, ut Deos adoraret".

i. e. As Alexander the great, in the time of his minority, was
heaping incense upon the altars, even to a degree of religious
prodigality, his preceptor Leonidas told him, that he should prefer
his supplications to the Gods after that free manner, when he had
subdued the nations, whose produce was frankincense. And he, as soon
as he had made himself master of Arabia, sent him accordingly a ship
laden with incense, and with it ample exhortations to adore the Gods.

One says, why should one think the intellectual world less peopled
than the material1? Pliny, in his Natural History, lib. --- cap. -
tells us that in Africa, do sometimes appear multitudes of aerial
shapes, which suddenly vanish. Mr. Richard Baxter in his Certainty
of the Worlds of Spirits, (the last book he writ, not long before his
death) hath a discourse of angels; and wonders they are so little
taken notice of; he hath counted in Newman's Concordance of the Bible,
the word angel, in above three hundred places.

Hugo Grotius in his Annotations on Jonah, speaking of Niniveh, says,
that history has divers examples, that after a great and hearty
humiliation, God delivered cities, &c. from their calamities. Some did
observe in the late civil wars, that the Parliament, after a
humiliation, did shortly obtain a victory. And as a three-fold chord
is not easily broken, so when a whole nation shall conjoin in fervent
prayer and supplication, it shall produce wonderful effects. William
Laud, Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, in a sermon preached before the
Parliament, about the beginning of the reign of King Charles I.
affirms the power of prayer to be so great, that though there be a
conjunction or opposition of Saturn or Mars, (as there was one of them
then) it will overcome the malignity of it. In the life of Vavasor
Powel, is a memorable account of the effect of fervent prayer, after an
exceeding drought: and Mr. Baxter (in his book aforementioned) hath
several instances of that kind, which see.

      **St. Michael and all Angels.
      The Collect.

0 everlasting God, who hast ordered and constituted the services of
men and angels, after a wonderful manner: mercifully grant, that as
thy holy angels always do thee service in Heaven: so by thy
appointment, they may succour and defend us, through Jesus Christ our
Lord. Amen.


      CORPS-CANDLES IN WALES.


      **Part of a Letter to MR. BAXTER.

SIR

I AM to give you the best satisfaction I can touching those fiery
apparitions* (Corps Candles) which do as it were mark out the way for
corpses to their {Greek text: Koimeterion} and sometimes before the
parties themselves fall sick, and sometimes in their sickness. I could
never hear in England of these, they are common in these three
counties, viz. Cardigan, Carmarthen, and Pembroke, and as I hear in
some other parts of Wales.+

* Mr. Baxter's Certainty of the Worlds of Spirits, p. 137.
+ And Radnor.

These {Greek text: Phantasmata} in our language, we call Canhwyllan
Cyrph, (i.e.) Corps Candles; and candles we call them, not that we
see any thing besides the light; but because that light doth as much
resemble a material candle-light as eggs do eggs, saving, that in
their journey these candles be "modo apparentes, modo disparentes",
especially, when one comes near them; and if one come in the way
against them, unto whom they vanish; but presently appear behind and
hold on their course. If it be a little candle pale or bluish, then
follows the corps either of an abortive or some infant; if a big one,
then the corps of some one come to age: if there be seen two, or
three, or more, some big, some small together, then so many and such
corpses together. If two candles come from divers places, and be seen
to meet, the corpses will the like; if any of these candles are seen
to turn, sometimes a little out of the way, or path, that leadeth to
the church, the following corps will be forced to turn in that very
place, for the avoiding some dirty lane or plash, &c. Now let us fall
to evidence. Being about the age of fifteen, dwelling at Lanylar, late
at night, some neighbour saw one of these candles hovering up and down
along the river bank, until they were weary in beholding it, at last
they left it so, and went to bed. A few weeks after came a proper
damsel from Montgomeryshire, to see her friends, who dwelt on the
other side of that river Istwith, and thought to ford the river at
that very place where the light was seen; being dissuaded by some
lookers on (some it is most likely of those that saw the light) to
adventure on the water, which was high by reason of a flood: she
walked up and down along the river bank, even where, and even as the
aforesaid candle did, waiting for the falling of the water; which at
last she took, but too soon for her, for she was drowned therein. Of
late my sexton's wife, an aged understanding woman, saw from her bed,
a little bluish candle on her tables-end; within two or three days
after, came a fellow enquiring for her husband, and taking something
from under his cloak, claped it down upon the tables-end; it was a
dead born child.

Another time, the same woman saw such another candle upon the end of
the self same table; within a few days after a weak child newly
christened by me, was brought to the sexton's house, where presently
he died: and when the sexton's wife, who was then abroad, came home,
she found the child on the other end of the table, where she had seen
the candle.

Some thirty or forty years since, my wife's sister, being nurse to
Baronet Rudd's three eldest children, and (the Lady mistress being
dead) the Lady comptroller of the house going late into the chamber
where the maid servants lay, saw no less than five of these lights
together. It happened a while after, that the chamber being newly
plaistered, and a grate of coal fire therein kindled to hasten the
drying of the plaister, that five of the maid servants went to bed as
they were wont (but as it fell out) too soon; for in the morning they
were all dead, being suffocated in their sleep with the steam of the
new tempered lime and coal. This was at Langathen in Carmarthenshire.
--- Jo. Davis. See more.---

Generglyn, March 1656.

To this account of Mr. Davis, I will subjoin what my worthy friend and
neighbour Randal Caldicot, D.D. hath affirmed to me many years since,
viz. When any Christian is drowned in the river Dee, there will
appear over the water where the corps is, a light, by which means they
do find the body: and it is therefore called the Holy Dee. The
doctor's father was Mr. Caldicot, of Caldicot in Cheshire, which lies
on the river.


      ORACLES.


HIERONIMUS Cardanus, lib. 3, "Synesiorum Somniorum", cap. 15,
treats of this subject, which see. Johannes Scotus Erigena, when he was in
Greece, did go to an Oracle to enquire for a Treatise of Aristotle,
and found it, by the response of the oracle. This he mentions in his
works lately printed at Oxford; and is quoted by Mr. Anthony a Wood in
his Antiquities of Oxon, in his life. He lived before the conquest,
and taught Greek at the Abby in Malmesbury, where his scholars stabbed
him with their penknives for his severity to them. Leland mentions
that his statue was in the choir there.


      ECSTACY.


Cardanus, lib. 2. Synes. Somniorum, cap. 8.

"IN Ecstasin multis modis dilabuntur homines, aut per Syncopen, aut
animi deliquium, aut etiam proprie abducto omni sensu externo, absque
alia Causa. Id vero contingit consuetis plerunque, & nimio affectu
alicujus rei laborantibus; --- Ecstasis medium est inter vigiliam &
somnium, sicut somnus inter mortem & vigiliam, seuvitam --- Visa in
Ecstasi certiora insomniis: Clariora & evidentiora --- Ecstasi
deprehensi audire possunt, qui dormiunt non possunt".

Men fall into an Ecstacy many ways, either by a syncope, by a
vanishing and absence of the spirits, or else by the withdrawing of
every external sense without any other cause. It most commonly happens
to those who are over sollicitous or fix their whole minds upon doing
any one particular thing. An Ecstacy is a kind of medium between
sleeping and waking, as sleep is a kind of middle state between life
and death. Things seen in an Ecstacy are more certain than those we
behold in dreams: they are much more clear, and far more evident.
Those seized with an Ecstacy can hear, those who sleep cannot.

Anno 1670, a poor widow's daughter in Herefordshire, went to service
not far from Harwood (the seat of Sir John Hoskins, Bart. R.S.S.) She
was aged near about twenty; fell very ill, even to the point of death;
her mother was old and feeble, and her daughter was the comfort of her
life; if she should die, she knew not what to do: she besought God
upon her knees in prayer, that he would be pleased to spare her
daughter's life, and take her to him: at this very time, the daughter
fell into a trance, which continued about an hour: they thought she
had been dead: when she recovered out of it, she declared the vision
she had in this fit, viz. that one in black habit came to her, whose
face was so bright and glorious she could not behold it; and also he
had such brightness upon his breast, and (if I forget not) upon his
arms. And told her, that her mother's prayers were heard, and that her
mother should shortly die, and she should suddenly recover; and she
did so, and her mother died. She hath the character of a modest,
humble, virtuous maid. Had this been in some Catholick country, it
would have made a great noise.

'Tis certain, there was one in the Strand, who lay in a trance a few
hours before he departed. And in his trance had a vision of the death
of King Charles II. It was at the very day of his apoplectick fit.

There is a sheet of paper printed 16 ... concerning Ecstacies, that
James Usher, late Lord Primate of Ireland, once had: but I have been
assured from my hon. friend James Tyrrell, Esq. (his Lordship's
grandson) that this was not an ecstacy; but that his Lordship upon
reading the 12, 13, 14, &c. chapters of the Revelation, and farther
reflecting upon the great increase of the sectaries in England,
supposed that they would let in popery, which consideration put him
into a great transport, at the time when his daughter (the Lady
Tyrrel) came into the room; when he discoursed to her divers things
(tho' not all) contained in the said printed paper.


      GLANCES OF LOVE AND MALICE.


"AMOR ex Oculo": Love is from the eye: but (as the Lord Bacon saith)
more by glances than by full gazings; and so for envy and malice.

      Tell me dearest, what is Love ?
      'Tis a Lightning from above:
      'Tis an Arrow, 'tis a Fire,
      'Tis a Boy they call Desire.*

* Mr. Fletcher in Cupid's Revenge.

'Tis something divine and inexplicable. It is strange, that as one
walks the streets sometimes one shall meet with an aspect (of male or
female) that pleases our souls; and whose natural sweetness of nature,
we could boldly rely upon. One never saw the other before, and so
could neither oblige or disoblige each other. Gaze not on a maid,
saith Ecclus. 9, 5.

The Glances of envy and malice do shoot also subtilly; the eye of the
malicious person, does really infect and make sick the spirit of the
other. The Lord Bacon saith it hath been observed, that after
triumphs, the triumphants have been sick in spirit.

The chymist can draw subtile spirits, that will work upon one another
at some distance, viz. spirits of alkalies and acids, e.g. spirits
coelestial (sal armoniac and spirits of C. C. will work on each other
at half a yard distance, and smoke;) but the spirits above mentioned
are more subtile than they.

      "Non amo te Sabati, nece possum dicere quare,
      Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te".

      Fellow, I love thee not, I can't tell why,
      But this, I'll tell thee, I could sooner die.

But if an astrologer had their nativities, he would find a great
disagreement in the schemes. These are hyper-physical opticks, and
drawn from the heavens.

Infants are very sensible of these irradiations of the eyes. In Spain,
France, &c. southern countries, the nurses and parents are very shy to
let people look upon their young children, for fear of fascination. In
Spain, they take it ill if one looks on a child, and make one say, God
bless it. They talk of "mal de ojos". We usually say, witches have
evil eyes.


      AN ACCURATE ACCOUNT OF SECOND-
      SIGHTED MEN IN SCOTLAND.


      **In Two Letters from a learned friend of mine in Scotland.

      I.

**To Mr. JOHN AUBREY, Fellow of the Royal Society.

SIR,

FOR your satisfaction I drew up some queries about the second-sighted
men, and having sent them to the northern parts of this kingdom, some
while ago, I received answers to them from two different hands,
whereof I am now to give you an account, viz.

      Query 1.

If some few credible, well attested instances of such a knowledge as
is commonly called the second-sight, can be given ?

      Answer.

Many instances of such knowledge can be given, by the confession of
such who are skilled in that faculty: for instances I refer you to
the fourth query.

      Query 2.

If it consists in the discovery of present or past events only ? or if
it extend to such as are to come ?

      Answer.

The second-sight relates only to things future, which will shortly
come to pass. Past events I learn nothing of it.

Query 3.

If the objects of this knowledge be sad and dismal events only; such
as deaths and murders ? or, joyful and prosperous also ?

Answer.

Sad and dismal events, are the objects of this knowledge: as sudden
deaths, dismal accidents. That they are prosperous, or joyful, I
cannot learn. Only one instance I have from a person worthy of credit,
and thereby judge of the joyfulness, or prosperity of it, and it is
this. Near forty years ago, Maclean and his Lady, sister to my Lord
Seaforth, were walking about their own house, and in their return both
came into the nurse's chamber, where their young child was on the
breast: at their coming into the room, the nurse falls a weeping; they
asked the cause, dreading the child was sick, or that she was scarce
of milk: the nurse replied, the child was well, and she had abundance
of milk; yet she still wept; and being pressed to tell what ailed her;
she at last said Maclean would die, and the Lady would shortly be
married to another man. Being enquired how she knew that event, she
told them plainly, that as they both came into the room, she saw a
man with a scarlet cloak and a white hat betwixt them, giving the Lady
a kiss over the shoulder; and this was the cause of weeping. All which
came to pass after Maclean's death; the tutor of Lovet married the
Lady in the same habit the woman saw him. Now by this instance, judge
if it be prosperous to one, it is as dismal to another.

      Query 4.

If these events which second-sighted men discover, or foretel, be
visibly represented to them, and acted, as it were before their eyes ?

      Answer.

Affirmatively, they see those things visibly; but none sees but
themselves; for instance, if a man's fatal end be hanging, they will
see a gibbet, or a rope about his neck: if beheaded, they will see
the man without a head; if drowned, they will see water up to his
throat; if unexpected death, they will see a winding sheet about his
head: all which are represented to their view.  One instance I had
from a gentleman here, of a Highland gentleman of the Macdonalds, who
having a brother that came to visit him, saw him coming in, wanting a
head; yet told not his brother he saw any such thing; but within
twenty-four hours thereafter, his brother was taken, (being a
murderer) and his head cut off, and sent to Edinburgh.  Many such
instances might be given,

      Query 5.

If the second-sight be a thing that is troublesome and uneasy to those
that have it, and such as they would gladly be rid of?

      Answer.

It is commonly talked by all I spoke with, that it is troublesome; and
they would gladly be freed from it, but cannot: only I heard lately of
a man very much troubled in his soul therewith, and by serious begging
of God deliverance from it, at length lost the faculty of the second-
sight.

      Query 6.

If any person, or persons, truly godly, who may justly be presumed to
be such, have been known to have had this gift or faculty ?

      Answer.

Negatively, not any godly, but such as are virtuous.

      Query 7.

If it descends by succession from parents to children ? or if not,
whether those that have it can tell how they came by it ?

      Answer.

That it is by succession, I cannot learn; how they came by it, it is
hard to know, neither will they tell; which if they did, they are sure
of their strokes from an invisible hand. One instance I heard of one
Alien Miller, being in company with some gentlemen, having gotten a
little more than ordinary of that strong liquor they were drinking,
began to tell stories and strange passages he had been at: but the
said Alien was suddenly removed to the farther end of the house, and
was there almost strangled; recovering a little, and coming to the
place where he was before, they asked him, what it was that troubled
him so ? He answered he durst not tell; for he had told too much
already.

Query 8. How came they by it ?

      Answer.

Some say by compact with the Devil; some say by converse with those
daemons we call fairies. I have heard, that those that have this
faculty of the second-sight, have offered to teach it to such as were
curious to know it; upon such and such conditions they would teach
them; but their proffers were rejected.

This is all I could learn by tradition of that faculty, from knowing
and intelligent men. If this satisfy not these queries aforesaid,
acquaint me, and what can be known of it shall be transmitted.

I cannot pass by an instance I have from a very honest man in the next
parish, who told me it himself. That his wife being big with child
near her delivery, he buys half a dozen of boards to make her a bed
against the time she lay in. The boards lying at the door of his
house, there comes an old fisher-woman, yet alive, and asked him,
whose were those boards ? He told her they were his own; she asked
again, for what use he had them ? He replied, for a bed; she again
said, I intend them for what use you please, she saw a dead corps
lying upon them, and that they would be a coffin: which struck the
honest man to the heart, fearing the death of his wife. But when the
old woman went off, he calls presently for a carpenter to make the
bed, which was accordingly done; but shortly after the honest man had
a child died, whose coffin was made of the ends of those boards.

Sir, the original, whereof this that I have writ, is a true copy, was
sent by a minister, living within some few miles of Inverness, to a
friend of mine whom I employed to get information for me; as I
insinuated before: I have other answers to these queries from another
hand, which I purposed to have communicated to you at this time; but I
find there will not be room enough for them in this sheet; howbeit, in
case you think it fit, they shall be sent you afterward.

In the mean time, I shall tell you what I have had from one of the
masters of our college here (a north country man both by birth and
education, in his younger years) who made a journey in the harvest
time into the shire of Ross, and at my desire, made some enquiry
there, concerning the second-sight. He reports, that there they told
him many instances of this knowledge, which he had forgotten, except
two. The first, one of his sisters, a young gentlewoman, staying with
a friend, at some thirty miles distance from her father's house, and
the ordinary place of her residence; one who had the second-sight in
the family where she was, saw a young man attending her as she went
up and down the house, and this was about three months before her
marriage.  The second is of a woman in that country who is reputed to
have the second-sight, and declared, that eight days before the death
of a gentleman there, she saw a bier or coffin covered with a cloth
which she knew, carried as it were, to the place of burial, and
attended with a great company, one of which told her it was the corps
of such a person, naming that gentleman, who died eight days after.
By these instances it appears that the objects of this knowledge are
not sad and dismal events only, but joyful and prosperous ones also:
he declares farther, that he was informed there, if I mistake not, by
some of those who had the second-sight, that if at any time when they
see those strange sights, they set their foot upon the foot of another
who hath not the second-sight, that other will for that time see what
they are seeing; as also that they offered, if he pleased, to
communicate the second-sight to him.  I have nothing more to add at
present, but that I am,      Sir, Your faithful friend,

And humble servant.

      II.

      **To Mr. JOHN AUBREY, Fellow of the Royal-Society at
      **Gresham-College, London. Honoured Sir,

SINCE my last to you, I have had the favour of two letters from you:
to the first, dated February 6, I had replied sooner, but that I
wanted leisure to transcribe some farther accounts of a second-sighted
man, sent me from the north, whereof (in obedience to your desire) I
give here the doubles.

May the 4th. 1694.

      **A Copy of an Answer to some Queries concerning Second-
      sighted Men, sent by a Minister living near Inverness, to a
      Friend of mine.

      Query 1.

THAT there is such an art, commonly called the second-sight, is
certain, from these following instances.

First, in a gentleman's house, one night the mistress considering why
such persons whom she expected were so late, and so long a coming, the
supper being all the while delayed for them; a servant man about the
house (finding the mistress anxious) having the second-sight, desires
to cover the table, and before all things were put on, those persons
she longed for would come in; which happened accordingly.

The second instance, concerning a young Lady of great birth, whom a
rich Knight fancied and came in sute of the Lady, but she could not
endure to fancy him, being a harsh and unpleasant man: but her friends
importuning her daily, she turned melancholy and lean, fasting and
weeping continually. A common fellow about the house meeting her one
day in the fields, asked her, saying Mrs. Kate, What is that that
troubles you, and makes you look so ill ? she replied, that the cause
is known to many, for my friends would have me marry such a man by
name, but I cannot fancy him. Nay, (says the fellow) give over these
niceties, for he will be your first husband, and will not live long,
and be sure he will leave you a rich dowry, which will procure you a
great match, for I see a Lord upon each shoulder of you: all which
came to pass in every circumstance; as eye and ear witnesses declare.

A third instance, of a traveller coming in to a certain house, desired
some meat: the mistress being something nice and backward to give him
victuals; you need not, says he, churle me in a piece of meat; for
before an hour and half be over, a young man of such a stature and
garb will come in with a great salmon-fish on his back, which I behold
yonder on the floor: and it came to pass within the said time.

A fourth instance, of a young woman in a certain house about supper-
time, refused to take meat from the steward who was offering in the
very time meat to her; being asked why she would not take it ?
replied, she saw him full of blood, and therefore was afraid to take
any thing of his hands. The next morning, the said steward offering to
compose a difference between two men, at an ale-house door, got a
stroak of a sword on the forehead, and came home full of blood. This
was told me by an eye witness.

      Query 2.

Those that have this faculty of the second-sight, see only things to
come, which are to happen shortly there-after, and sometimes foretel
things which fall out three or four years after. For instance, one
told his master, that he saw an arrow in such a man through his body,
and yet no blood came out: his master told him, that it was
impossible an arrow should stick in a man's body, and no blood come
out, and if that came not to pass, he would be deemed an impostor. But
about five or six years after the man died, and being brought to his
burial-place, there arose a debate anent his grave, and it came to
such a height, that they drew arms, and bended their bows; and one
letting off an arrow, shot through the dead body upon the bier-trees,
and so no blood could issue out at a dead man's wound. Thus his sight
could not inform him whether the arrow should be shot in him alive
or dead, neither could he condescend whether near or afar off.

      Query 3.

They foresee murthers, drownings, weddings, burials, combats, man-
slaughters, all of which, many instances might be given. Lately (I
believe in August last, 1695) one told there would be drowning in the
river Bewly, which come to pass: two pretty men crossing a ford both
drowned, which fell out within a month. Another instance; a man that
served the Bishop of Catnes, who had five daughters in his house, one
of them grudged, that the burthen of the family lay on her wholly: the
fellow told her that ere long she should be exonered of that task, for
he saw a tall gentleman in black, walking on the Bishop's right-hand,
whom she should marry: and this fell out accordingly, within a quarter
of a year thereafter. He told also of a covered table, full of varieties
of good fare, and their garbs who set about the table.

      Query 4.

They see all this visibly acted before their eyes; sometimes within,
and sometimes without-doors, as in a glass.

      Query 5.

It is a thing very troublesome to them that have it, and would gladly
be rid of it. For if the object be a thing that is so terrible, they
are seen to sweat and tremble, and shreek at the apparition. At other
times they laugh, and tell the thing chearfully, just according as the
thing is pleasant or astonishing.

      Query 6.

Sure it is, that the persons that have a sense of God and religion,
and may be presumed to be godly, are known to have this faculty. This
evidently appears, in that they are troubled for having it, judging it
a sin, and that it came from the Devil, and not from God; earnestly
desiring and wishing to be rid of it, if possible; and to that effect,
have made application to their minister, to pray to God for them that
they might be exonered from that burden. They have supplicated the
presbytery, who judicially appointed publick prayers to be made in
several churches, and a sermon preached to that purpose, in their own
parish church, by their minister; and they have compeired before the
pulpit, after sermon, making confession openly of that sin, with deep
sense on their knees; renounced any such gift or faculty which they
had to God's dishonour, and earnestly desired the minister to pray for
them; and this their recantation recorded; and after this, they were
never troubled with such a sight any more.

      **A Copy of a Letter, written to myself by a Gentleman's Son in
      Straths-pey in Scotland, being a Student in Divinity, concerning
      the Second-sight.

SIR,

I AM more willing than able to satisfy your desire: as for instances
of such a knowledge, I could furnish many. I shall only insert some
few attested by several of good credit yet alive.

And, first, Andrew Macpherson, of Clunie in Badenoch, being in sute of
Lord of Gareloch's daughter, as he was upon a day going to Gareloch,
the Lady Gareloch was going somewhere from her house within kenning to
the road which Clunie was coming; the Lady preceiving him, said to her
attendants, that yonder was Clunie, going to see his mistress: one
that had this second-sight in her company replied, and said, if yon be
he, unless he marry within six months, he'll never marry. The Lady
asked, how did he know that ? he said, very well, for I see him, saith
he, all inclosed in his winding-sheet, except his nostrils and his
mouth, which will also close up within six months; which happened even
as he foretold; within the said space he died, and his brother Duncan
Macpherson this present Clunie succeeded. This and the like may
satisfy your fourth query, he seeing the man even then covered all
over with his dead linens. The event was visibly represented, and as
it were acted (before his eyes) and also the last part of your second
query, viz. that it was as yet to come. As for the rest of the
questions, viz. That they discover present and past events, is also
manifest, thus: I have heard of a gentleman, whose son had gone
abroad, and being anxious to know how he was, he went to consult one
who had this faculty, who told him, that that same day five o'clock in
the afternoon his son had married a woman in France, with whom he had
got so many thousand crowns, and within two years he should come home
to see father and friends, leaving his wife with child of a daughter,
and a son of six months age behind him: which accordingly was true.
About the same time two years he came home, and verified all that was
fore-told.

It is likewise ordinary with persons that lose any thing, to go to
some of these men, by whom they are directed; how, what persons, and
in what place they shall find it. But all such as profess that skill,
are not equally dexterous in it. For instance, two of them were in Mr.
Hector Mackenzie, minister of Inverness, his father's house; the one a
gentleman, the other a common fellow; and discoursing by the fire
side, the fellow suddenly begins to weep, and cry out, alas ! alas!
such a woman is either dead, or presently expiring. The gentlewoman
lived five or six miles from the house, and had been some days
before in a fever. The gentleman being somewhat better expert in that
faculty, said; no, saith he, she's not dead; nor will she die of this
disease. 0, saith the fellow, do you not see her all covered with her
winding-sheet; ay, saith the gentleman, I see her as well as you; but
do you not see her linen all wet, which is her sweat ? she being
presently cooling of the fever. This story Mr. Hector himself will
testify. The most remarkable of this sort, that I hear of now, is one
Archibald Mackeanyers, alias Macdonald, living in Ardinmurch, within
ten or twenty miles, or thereby, of Glencoe, and I was present myself,
where he foretold something which accordingly fell out in 1683; this
man being in  Straths-pey, in John Macdonald of Glencoe his company,
told in Balachastell, before the Lord of Grant, his Lady, and several
others, and also in my father's house; that Argyle, of whom few or
none knew then where he was, at least there was no word of him then
here; should within two twelve months thereafter, come to the West-
Highlands, and raise a rebellious faction, which would be divided
among themselves, and disperse, and he unfortunately be taken and
beheaded at Edinburgh, and his head set upon the Talbooth, where his
father's head was before him; which proved as true, as he fore-told
it, in 1685, thereafter. Likewise in the beginning of May next after
the late revolution, as my Lord Dundee returned up Spey-side, after he
had followed General Major Mac Kay in his reer down the length of
Edinglassie, at the Milatown of Gartinbeg, the Macleans joined him,
and after he had received them, he marched forward, but they
remained behind, and fell a plundering: upon which Glencoe and some
others, among whom was this Archibald, being in my father's house, and
hearing that Mac Leans and others were pillaging some of his lands,
went to restrain them, and commanded them to march after the army;
after he had cleared the first town, next my father's house of them,
and was come to the second, there standing on a hill, this Archibald
said, Glencoe, if you take my advice, then make off with your self
with all possible haste, ere an hour come and go you'll be put to it
as hard as ever you was: some of the company began to droll and say,
what shall become of me ? whether Glencoe believed him, or no, I
cannot tell; but this I am sure of, that whereas before he was of
intention to return to my father's house and stay all night, now we
took leave, and immediately parted. And indeed, within an hour
thereafter, Mac Kay, and his whole forces, appeared at Culnakyle
in Abernethie, two miles below the place where we parted, and hearing
that Cleaverhouse had marched up the water-side a little before, but
that Mac Leans and several other straglers, had stayed behind,
commanded Major AEneas Mac Kay, with two troops of horse after them;
who finding the said Mac Leans at Kinchardie, in the parish of Luthel,
chased them up the Morskaith: in which chase Glencoe happened to be,
and was hard put to it, as was foretold. What came of Archibald
himself, I am not sure; I have not seen him since, nor can I get a
true account of him, only I know he is yet alive, and at that time one
of my father's men whom the red-coats meeting, compelled to guide
them, within sight of the Mac Leans, found the said Archibald's horse
within a mile of the place where I left him. I am also informed, this
Archibald said to Glencoe, that he would be murdered in the night time
in his own house three months before it happened.

Touching your third query, the objects of this knowledge, are not only
sad and dismal; but also joyful and prosperous: thus they foretell of
happy marriages, good children, what kind of life men shall live, and
in what condition they shall die: and riches, honour, preferment,
peace, plenty, and good weather.

      Query 7.

What way they pretend to have it ? I am informed, that in the Isle of
Sky, especially before the gospel came thither, several families had
it by succession, descending from parents to children, and as yet
there be many there that have it in that way; and the only way to be
freed from it is, when a woman hath it herself, and is married to a
man that hath it also; if in the very act of delivery, upon the first
sight of the child's head, it be baptized, the same is free from it;
if not, he hath it all his life; by which, it seems, it is a thing
troublesome and uneasy to them that have it, and such as they would
fain be rid of. And may satisfy your ninth query. And for your farther
contentment in this query, I heard of my father, that there was one
John du beg Mac Grigor, a Reanach man born, very expert in this
knowledge, and my father coming one day from Inverness, said by the
way, that he would go into an ale-house on the road, which then would
be about five miles off. This John Mac Grigor being in his company,
and taken up a slate stone at his foot, and looking to it, replied;
nay, said he, you will not go in there, for there is but a matter of a
gallon of ale in it even now, and ere we come to it, it will be all
near drunken, and those who are drinking there, are strangers to us,
and ere we be hardly past the house, they will discord among
themselves: which fell out so; ere we were two pair of butts past the
house, those that were drinking there went by the ears, wounded and
mischieved one another. My father by this and several other things of
this nature, turned curious of this faculty, and being very intimate
with the man, told him he would fain learn it: to which he answered,
that indeed he could in three days time teach him if he pleased; but
yet he would not advise him nor any man to learn it; for had he once
learned, he would never be a minute of his life but he would see
innumerable men and women night and day round about him; which perhaps
he would think wearisome and unpleasant, for which reason my father
would not have it. But as skilful as this man was, yet he knew not
what should be his own last end; which was hanging: And I am
informed, that most, if not all of them, though they can fore-see what
shall happen to others: yet they cannot foretell, much less prevent,
what shall befal themselves. I am also informed by one who came last
summer from the Isle of Sky, that any person that pleases will get it
taught him for a pound or two of tobacco.

As for your last query. For my own part, I can hardly believe they
can be justly presumed, much less truly godly. As for this Mac Grigor,
several report that he was a very civil discreet man, and some say he
was of good deportment, and also unjustly hanged. But Archibald
Mackenyere will not deny himself, but once he was one of the most
notorious thieves in all the Highlands: but I am informed since I
came to this knowledge which was by an accident too long here to
relate, that he has turned honester than before.

There was one James Mac Coil-vicalaster alias Grant, in Glenbeum near
Kirk-Michael in Strathawin, who had this sight, who I hear of several
that were well acquainted with him was a very honest man, and of right
blameless conversation. He used ordinarily by looking to the fire, to
foretell what strangers would come to his house the next day, or
shortly thereafter, by their habit and arms, and sometimes also by
their name; and if any of his goods or cattle were missing, he would
direct his servants to the very place where to find them, whether in a
mire or upon dry ground; he would also tell, if the beast were already
dead, or if it would die ere they could come to it; and in winter, if
they were thick about the fire-side, he would desire them to make room
for some others that stood by, though they did not see them, else some
of them would be quickly thrown into the midst of it. But whether this
man saw any more than Brownie and Meg Mullach, I am not very sure;
some say, he saw more continually, and would often be very angry-like,
and something troubled, nothing visibly moving him: others affirm he
saw these two continually, and sometimes many more.

They generally term this second-sight in Irish Taishi-taraughk, and
such as have it Taishatrin, from Taish, which is properly a shadowy
substance, or such naughty, and imperceptible thing, as can only, or
rather scarcely be discerned by the eye; but not caught by the hands:
for which they assigned it to Bugles or Ghosts, so that Taishtar, is
as much as one that converses with ghosts or spirits, or as they
commonly call them, the Fairies or Fairy-Folks. Others call these men
Phissicin, from Phis, which is properly fore-sight, or fore-knowledge.
This is the surest and clearest account of second-sighted men that I
can now find, and I have set it down fully, as if I were transiently
telling it, in your own presence, being curious for nothing but the
verity, so far as I could. What you find improper or superfluous you
can best compendise it, &c,

Thus far this letter, written in a familiar and homely stile, which I
have here set down at length. Meg Mullach, and Brownie mentioned in
the end of it, are two ghosts, which (as it is constantly reported) of
old, haunted a family in Straths-pey of the name of Grant. They
appeared at first in the likeness of a young lass; the second of a
young lad.

Dr. Moulin (who presents his service to you) hath no acquaintance in
Orkney; but I have just now spoken with one, who not only hath
acquaintance in that country, but also entertains some thoughts of
going thither himself, to get me an account of the cures usually
practised there. The Cortex Winteranus, mentioned by you as an
excellent medicine, I have heard it commended as good for the scurvy;
if you know it to be eminent or specific (such as the Peruvian Bark
is) for any disease, I shall be well pleased to be informed by you.

Thus, Sir, you have an account of all my informations concerning
second-sighted men: I have also briefly touched all the other
particulars in both your letters, which needed a reply, except your
thanks so liberally and obligingly returned to me for my letters, and
the kind sense you express of that small service. The kind reception
which you have given to those poor trifles, and the value which you
put on them, I consider as effects of your kindness to myself, and as
engagements on me to serve you to better purpose when it shall be in
the power of

Your faithful friend,

and servant, &c.


      ADDITAMENTS OF SECOND-SIGHT.


DIEMERBROECK in his book de Peste (i.e. of the Plague) gives us a
story of Dimmerus de Raet, that being at Delft, where the pestilence
then raged, sent then his wife thirty miles off. And when the doctor
went to see the gentleman of the house, as soon as he came in, the old
chair-woman that washed the cloathes fell a weeping; he asked her why?
said she, my mistress is now dead; I saw her apparition but just now
without a head, and that it was usual with her when a friend of hers
died, to see their apparitions in that manner, though never so far
off. His wife died at that time.

Mr. Thomas May in his History, lib. 8, writes, that an old man (like
an hermit) second-sighted, took his leave of King James I. when he
came into England: he took little notice of Prince Henry, but
addressing himself to the Duke of York (since King Charles I.) fell a
weeping to think what misfortunes he should undergo; and that he
should be one of the miserablest unhappy Princes that ever was.

A Scotch nobleman sent for one of these second-sighted men out of the
Highlands, to give his judgment of the then great favourite, George
Villers, Duke of Buckingham; as soon as ever he saw him, " Pish," said
he, he will come to nothing. I see a dagger in his breast;" and he was
stabbed in the breast by Captain Felton.

Sir James Melvil hath several the like stories in his Memoirs. Folio.

A certain old man in South-Wales, told a great man there of the
fortune of his family; and that there should not be a third male
generation.

In Spain there are those they call Saludadores, that have this kind of
gift. There was a Portugueze Dominican fryar belonging to Queen
Katherine Dowager's chapel, who had the second-sight.


      FARTHER ADDITAMENTS.


      **Concerning Predictions, Fatality, Apparitions, &c. From the
      various History of AELIAN. Rendered out of the Greek Original. By
      Mr. T. STANLEY.

THE wisdom of the Persian Magi was (besides other things proper to
them) conversant in prediction: they foretold the cruelty of Ochus
towards his subjects, and his bloody disposition, which they collected
from some secret signs. For when Ochus, upon the death of his father
Artaxerxes, came to the crown, the Magi charged one of the Eunuchs
that were next him, to observe upon what things, when the table was
set before him, he first laid hands; who watching intentively, Ochus
reached forth both his hands, and with his right, laid hold of a knife
that lay by, with the other, took a great loaf, which he laid upon the
meat, and did cut and eat greedily. The Magi, hearing this, foretold
that there would be plenty during his reign, and much blood shed. In
which they erred not.

It is observed, that on the sixth day of the month Thargelion, many
good fortunes have befallen not only the Athenians, but divers others.
Socrates was born on this day, the Persians vanquished on this day,
and the Athenians sacrifice three hundred goats to Agrotera upon this
day in pursuit of Miltiades's Vow: on the same day of this month was
the fight of Plataea, in which the Grecians had the better; for the
former fight which I mentioned was at Artemisium, neither was the
victory which the Greeks obtained at Mycale on any other day; seeing
that the victory at Plataea and Mycale happened on the self-same day.
Likewise Alexander the Macedonian, Son of Philip, vanquished many
myriads of the Barbarians on the sixth day, when he took Darius
prisoner. All which is observed to have happened on this month. It is
likewise reported that Alexander was born and died on the same day.

Some Pythian relations affirm, that Hercules, son of Jupiter and
Alcmena, was at his birth, named Heraclides; but that afterwards
coming to Delphi to consult the oracle about some business, he
obtained that for which he came, and received farther privately from
the God, this oracle concerning himself.

      Thee Hercules doth Phoebus name,
      For thou shalt gain immortal fame.

The Peripateticks assert, that the soul in the day-time is inslaved
and involved in the body, so that she cannot behold truth; but in the
night, being freed from this servitude, and gathered together, as it
were, in a round about the parts that are in the breast, she is more
prophetick, whence proceed dreams.

Socrates said of his daemon to Theages Demodocus, and many others, that
he many times perceived a voice warning him by divine instinct, which,
saith he, when it comes, signifieth a dissuasion from that which I am
going to do, but never persuades to do any thing. And when any of my
friends, (saith he) impart their business to me, if this voice
happens, it dissuades also, giving me the like counsel: whereupon, I
dehort him who adviseth with me, and suffer him not to proceed in what
he is about, following the divine admonition. He alledged as witness
here of Charmides son of Glauco, who asking his advice, whether he
should exercise at the Nemean games; as soon as he began to speak, the
voice gave the accustomed sigh. Whereupon Socrates endeavoured to
divert Charmides from this purpose, telling him the reason. But he not
following the advice, it succeeded ill with him.

Aspasia a Phocian, daughter of Hermotimus, was brought up an orphan,
her mother dying in the pains of child-birth. She was bred up in
poverty, but modestly and virtuously. She had many times a dream which
foretold her that she should be married to an excellent person. Whilst
she was yet young, she chanced to have a swelling under her chin,
loathsome to sight, whereat both the father and the maid were much
afflicted. Her father brought her to a physician: he offered to
undertake the cure for three staters; the other said he had not the money.
The physician replied, he had then no physic for him. Hereupon
Aspasia departed weeping ! and holding a looking-glass on her knee,
beheld her face in it, which much increased her grief. Going to rest
without supping, by the reason of the trouble she was in, she had an
opportune dream; a dove seemed to appear to her as she slept, which
being changed to a woman, said, "Be of good courage, and bid a long
farewel to physicians and their medicines: take of the dried rose of
Venus garlands, which being pounded apply to the swelling." After the
maid had understood and made trial of this, the tumour was wholly
assuaged; and Aspasia recovering her beauty by means of the most
beautiful goddess, did once again appear the fairest amongst her
virgin-companions, enriched with graces far above any of the rest. Of
hair yellow, locks a little curling, she had great eyes, some what
hawk-nosed, ears short, skin delicate, complexion like roses; whence
the Phocians, whilst she was yet a child called her Milto. Her lips
were red, teeth whiter than snow, small insteps, such as of those
women whom Homer calls {greek text: lisphurous}. Her voice sweet and
smooth, that whosoever heard her might justly say he heard the voice
of a Syren. She was averse from womanish curiosity in dressing: such
things are to be supplied by wealth. She being poor, and bred up under
a poor father, used nothing superfluous or extravagant to advantage
her beauty. On a time Aspasia came to Cyrus, son of Darius and
Parysatis, brother of Artaxerxes, not willingly nor with the consent
of her father, but by compulsion, as it often happens upon the taking
of cities, or the violence of tyrants and their officers. One of the
officers of Cyrus, brought her with other virgins to Cyrus, who
immediately preferred her before all his concubines, for simplicity of
behaviour, and modesty; whereto also contributed her beauty without
artifice, and her extraordinary discretion, which was such, that Cyrus
many times asked her advice in affairs, which he never repented to
have followed. When Aspasia came first to Cyrus, it happened that he
was newly risen from supper, and was going to drink after the Persian
manner: for after they have done eating, they betake themselves to
wine, and fall to their cups freely, encountering drink as an
adversary. Whilst they were in the midst of their drinking, four
Grecian virgins were brought to Cyrus, amongst whom was Aspasia the
Phocian. They were finely attired; three of them had their heads
neatly drest by their own women which came along with them, and had
painted their faces. They had been also instructed by their
governesses how to behave themselves towards Cyrus, to gain his
favour; not to turn away when he came to them, not to be coy when he
touched them, to permit him to kiss them, and many other amatory
instructions practised by women who expose their beauty to sale. Each
contended to out-vie the other in handsomeness. Only Aspasia would not
endure to be clothed with a rich robe, nor to put on a various
coloured vest, nor to be washed; but calling upon the Grecian and
Eleutherian gods, she cried out upon her father's name, execrating
herself to her father. She thought the robe which she should put on
was a manifest sign of bondage. At last being compelled with blows she
put it on, and was necessitated to behave herself with greater liberty
than beseemed a virgin. When they came to Cyrus, the rest smiled, and
expressed chearfulness in their looks. But Aspasia looking on the
ground, her eyes full of tears, did every way express an extraordinary
bashfulness. When he commanded them to sit down by him, the rest
instantly obeyed; but the Phocian refused, until the officer caused
her to sit down by force. When Cyrus looked upon or touched their
eyes, cheeks and fingers, the rest freely permitted him; but she
would not suffer it; for if Cyrus did but offer to touch her, she
cried out, saying, he should not go unpunished for such actions. Cyrus
was herewith extreamly pleased; and when upon his offering to touch
her breast, she rose up, and would have run away, Cyrus much taken
with her native ingenuity which was not like the Persians, turning to
him that brought them, "This maid only saith he, of those which you
have brought me is free and pure; the rest are adulterate in face, but
much more in behaviour." Hereupon Cyrus loved her above all the women
he ever had. Afterwards there grew a mutual love between them, and
their friendship proceeded to such a height that it almost arrived at
parity, not differing from the concord and modesty of Grecian
marriage. Hereupon the fame of his affection to Aspasia was spread to
Ionia and throughout Greece; Peloponnesus also was filled with
discourses of the love betwixt Cyrus and her. The report went even to
the great King [of Persia,] for it was conceived that Cyrus, after his
acquaintance with her, kept company with no other woman. From these
things Aspasia recollected the remembrance of her old apparition, and
of the dove, and her words, and what the goddess foretold her. Hence
she conceived that she was from the very beginning particularly
regarded by her. She therefore offered sacrifice of thanks to Venus.
And first caused a great image of gold to be erected to her, which she
called the image of Venus, and by it placed the picture of a dove
beset with jewels, and every day implored the favour of the goddess
with sacrifice and prayer. She sent to Hermotimus her father many rich
presents, and made him wealthy. She lived continently all her life, as
both the Grecian and Persian women affirm. On a time a neck-lace was
sent as a present to Cyrus from Scopas the younger, which had been
sent to Scopas out of Sicily. The neck-lace was of extraordinary
workmanship, and variety. All therefore to whom Cyrus shewed it
admiring it, he was much taken with the jewel, and went immediately to
Aspasia, it being about noon, finding her asleep, he lay down gently
by her watching quietly while she slept. As soon as she awaked, and
saw Cyrus she embraced him after her usual manner. He taking the neck-
lace out of a box, said, "this is worthy either the daughter or the
mother of a King." To which she assenting; "I will give it you, said
he, for your own use, let me see your neck adorned with it." But she
received not the gift, prudently and discreetly answering, "How will
Parysatis your mother take it, this being a gift fit for her that bare
you ? send it to her, Cyrus, I will shew you a neck handsome enough
without it." Aspasia from the greatness of her mind acted contrary to
other royal Queens, who are excessively desirous of rich ornaments.
Cyrus being pleased with this answer, kissed Aspasia. All these
actions and speeches Cyrus writ in a letter which he sent together
with the chain to his mother; and Parysatis receiving the present was
no less delighted with the news than with the gold, for which she
requited Aspasia with great and royal gifts; for this pleased her
above all things, that though Aspasia were chiefly affected by her
son, yet in the love of Cyrus, she desired to be placed beneath his
mother. Aspasia praised the gifts, but said she had no need of them;
(for there was much money sent with the presents) but sent them to
Cyrus, saying, "To you who maintain many men this may be useful: for
me it is enough that you love me and are my ornament." With these
things, as it seemeth she much astonished Cyrus. And indeed the woman
was without dispute admirable for her personal beauty, but much more
for the nobleness of her mind. When Cyrus was slain in the fight
against his brother, and his army taken prisoners, with the rest of
the prey she was taken, not falling accidentally into the enemies
hands, but sought for with much diligence by King Artaxerxes, for he
had heard her fame and virtue. When they brought her bound, he was
angry, and cast those that did it into prison. He commanded that a
rich robe should be given her: which she hearing, intreated with
tears and lamentation that she might not put on the garment the King
appointed, for she mourned exceedingly for Cyrus. But when she had
put it on, she appeared the fairest of all women, and Artaxerxes was
immediately surprised and inflamed with love of her. He valued her
beyond all the rest of his women, respecting her infinitely. He
endeavoured to ingratiate himself into her favour, hoping to make her
forget Cyrus, and to love him no less than she had done his brother;
but it was long before he could compass it. For the affection of
Aspasia to Cyrus had taken so deep impression, that it could not
easily be rooted out. Long after this, Teridates, the Eunuch died, who
was the most beautiful youth in Asia. He had full surpassed childhood,
and was reckoned among the youths. The King was said to have loved
him exceedingly: he was infinitely grieved and troubled at his death, and
there was an universal mourning throughout Asia, every one
endeavouring to gratify the King herein; and none durst venture to
come to him and comfort him, for they thought his passion would not
admit any consolation. Three days being past, Aspasia taking a
mourning robe as the King was going to the bath, stood weeping, her
eyes cast on the ground. He seeing her, wondered, and demanded the
reason of her coming. She said, "I come, 0 King, to comfort your
grief and affliction, if you so please; otherwise I shall go back."
The Persian pleased with this care, commanded that she should retire
to her chamber, and wait his coming. As soon as he returned, he put
the vest of the Eunuch upon Aspasia, which did in a manner fit her;
and by this means her beauty appeared with greater splendour to the
King's eye, who much affected the youth. And being once pleased
herewith, he desired her to come always to him in that dress, until
the height of his grief were allayed: which to please him she did.
Thus more than all Hs other women, or his own son and kindred, she
comforted Artaxerxes, and relieved his sorrow; the King being pleased
with her care, and prudently admitting her consolation.

      **GEORGE BUCHANAN in his History of SCOTLAND, reciteth of one of
      their Kings, James IV. the following very remarkable Passages.

THE presence of this King being required to be with his army, whither
he was going, at Linlithgo, whilst he was at Vespers in the church,
there entered an old man, the hair of his head being red, inclining to
yellow, hanging down on his shoulders; his forehead sleek through
baldness, bare-headed, in a long coat of a russet colour, girt with a
linen girdle about his loins; in the rest of his aspect, he was very
venerable: he pressed through the crowd to come to the King: when he
came to him, he leaned upon the chair on which the King sat, with a
kind of rustic simplicity, and bespoke him thus; "0 King," said he, "I
am sent to warn thee, not to proceed in thy intended design;
and if thou neglectest this admonition, neither thou nor thy followers
shall prosper. I am also commanded to tell thee, that thou shouldest
not use the familiarity, intimacy, and council of women; which if thou
dost, it will redound to thy ignominy and loss." Having thus spoken,
he withdrew himself into the croud; and when the King inquired for
him, after prayers were ended, he could not be found which matter
seemed more strange, because none of those who stood next, and
observed him, as being desirous to put many questions to him, were
sensible how he disappeared; amongst them there was David Lindsey of
Mont, a man of approved worth and honesty, (and a great scholar too)
for in the whole course of his life, he abhorred lying; and if I had
not received this story from him as a certain truth, I had omitted it
as a romance of the vulgar.

On Tuesday, July 26, 1720, at a sale of the copies belonging to Mr.
Awnsham Churchill, of London, Book-seller, which were sold at the
Queen's Head tavern, in Pater Noster Row, there was among them a
printed copy of these Miscellanies, corrected for the press by Mr.
Aubrey, wherein were many very considerable alterations,
corrections, and additions, together with the following letter to Mr.
Churchill, written upon the first blank leaf, concerning the then
intended second edition.

MR. CHURCHILL,

THERE is a very pretty remark in the Athenian Mercury, concerning
Apparitions, which I would have inserted under this head, it is in
vol. 17, numb. 25. Tuesday, June 1695.

Mr. Dunton, at the Raven in Jewin-Street, will help you to this
Mercury, but yesterday he would not, his wife being newly departed.

J. A.

June 1, 1697.
      **The Passage referred to by Mr. AUBREY, in his Letter
      to Mr. CHURCHILL.*

* The passage referred to in this letter is now here inserted: the other
additions are incorporated in the text. Ed.

Two persons (Ladies) of quality, (both not being long since deceased,)
were intimate acquaintance, and loved each other entirely: it so fell
out, that one of them fell sick of the small-pox, and desired mightily
to see the other, who would not come, fearing the catching of them.
The afflicted at last dies of them, and had not been buried very long,
but appears at the other's house, in the dress of a widow, and asks
for her friend, who was then at cards, but sends down her woman to
know her business, who, in short, told her, "she must impart it to
none but her Lady", who, after she had received this answer, bid her
woman have her in a room, and desired her to stay while the game was
done, and she would wait on her. The game being done, down stairs she
came to the apparition, to know her business; "madam," says the
ghost, (turning up her veil, and her face appearing full of the small-
pox) "You know very well, that you and I, loved entirely; and your not
coming to see me, I took it so ill at your hands, that I could not
rest till I had seen you, and now I am come to tell you, that you have
not long to live, therefore prepare to die; and when you are at a
feast, and make the thirteenth person in number, then remember my
words" and so the apparition vanished.

To conclude, she was at a feast, where she made the thirteenth person
in number, and was afterwards asked by the deceased's brother,
"whether his sister did appear to her as was reported?" she made him
no answer, but fell a weeping, and died in a little time after. The
gentleman that told this story, says, that there is hardly any person
of quality but what knows it to be true. (From the Athenian Mercury.)


      APPENDIX.

      AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SURVEY AND
      NATURAL HISTORY OF THE NORTH DIVISION
      OF THE COUNTY OP WILTSHIRE.

      BY J. AUBREY, ESQ.

      **Printed in "Miscellanies on several curious subjects."
      London, E. Curll, 1714.

AT a meeting of gentlemen at the Devizes, for choosing of Knights of
the Shire in March 1659, it was wished by some, that this County
(wherein are many observable antiquities) was surveyed, in imitation
of Mr. Dugdale's illustration of Warwickshire; but it being too great
a task for one man, Mr. William Yorke (Councellor at Law, and a lover
of this kind of learning) advised to have the labour divided: he
himself would undertake the Middle Division; I would undertake the
North; T. Gore, Esq., Jeffrey Daniel, Esq., and Sir John Erneley would
be assistants. Judge Nicholas was the greatest antiquary, as to
evidences, that this County hath had in memory of man, and had taken
notes in his Adversariis of all the ancient deeds that came to his
hands. Mr. York had taken some memorandums in this kind too, both now
dead; 'tis pity those papers, falling into the hands of merciless
women, should be put under pies. I have since that occasionally made
this following Collection, which perhaps may some-time or other fall
into some antiquary's hands, to make a handsome Work of it. I hope my
worthy friend Mr. Anthony Wood of Oxford will be the man. I am
heartily sorry I did not set down the antiquities of these parts
sooner, for since the time aforesaid, many things are irrecoverably
lost.

In former days the churches and great houses hereabouts did so abound
with monuments and things remarkable, that it would have deterred an
antiquary from undertaking it. But as Pythagoras did guess at the
vastness of Hercules' stature by the length of his foot, so among
these ruins are remains enough left for a man to give a guess what
noble buildings, &c. were made by the piety, charity, and
magnanimity of our forefathers.

And as in prospects, we are there pleased most where something keeps
the eye from being lost, and leaves us room to guess; so here the eye
and mind is no less affected with these stately ruins, than they would
have been when standing and entire. They breed in generous minds a
kind of pity, and sets the thoughts a-work to make out their magnifice
as they were taken in perfection. These remains are "tanquam Tabulata
Naufragii", that after the revolution of so many years and
governments, have escaped the teeth of Time, and (which is more
dangerous) the hands of mistaken Zeal. So that the retrieving of these
forgotten things from oblivion, in some sort resembles that of a
conjurer, who make those walk and appear that have lain in their
graves many hundreds of years, and to represent, as it were to the
eye, the places, customs, and fashions that were of old time.

Let us imagine then what kind of country this was in the time of the
ancient Britains, by the nature of the soil, which is a soure,
woodsere land, very natural for the production of oaks especially;
one may conclude, that this North-Division was a shady, dismal wood;
and the inhabitants almost as salvage as the beasts, whose skins were
their only raiment. The language, British (which for the honour of it,
was in those days spoken from the Orcades to Italy and Spain). The
boats on the Avon (which signifies river) were baskets of twigs
covered with an ox-skin, which the poor people in Wales use to this
day, and call them curricles.

Within this shire I believe that there were several Reguli, which
often made war upon one another, and the great ditches which run on
the plains and elsewhere so many miles, were (not unlikely) their
boundaries, and withall served for defence against the incursion of
their enemies, as the Picts' Wall, Offa's Ditch, and that in China; to
compare small things to great. Their religion is at large described by
Csesar; their priests were the Druids. Some of their temples I pretend
to have restored; as Anbury, Stonehenge, &c., as also British
sepulchres. Their way of fighting is livelily set down by Caesar. Their
camps, with those of their antagonists, I have set down in another
place. They knew the use of iron; and about Hedington fields, Bromham,
Bowdon, &c. are still ploughed up cinders (i. e. the scoria of melted
iron). They were two or three degrees I suppose less salvage than the
Americans. Till King John's time wolves were in this island; and in
our grandfathers' days more foxes than now, and marterns (a beast of
brown rich furr) at Stanton Park, &c. the race now extinct thereabout.

The Romans subdued and civilized them; at Lekham (Mr. Camden saith)
was a colony of them, as appears there by the Roman coin found there.
About 1654, in Weekfield, in the parish of Hedington, digging up the
ground deeper than the plough went, they found, for a great way
together, foundations of houses, hearths, coals, and a great deal of
Roman coin, silver and brass, whereof I had a pint; some little
copper-pieces, no bigger than silver half-pence (quaere if they were
not the Roman Denarii) I have portrayed the pot in which a good deal
was found, which pot I presented to the Royal Society's Repository, it
resembles an apprentice's earthen Christmas-box.

At Sherston, hath several times been found Roman money in ploughing. I
have one silver piece found there (1653) not long since, of
Constantine the Great. Among other arts, that of architecture was
introduced by them; and no doubt but here, as well as in other parts,
were then good buildings, here being so good stone: I know not any
vestigia now left in this country, except the fragments of the Castle
of Salisbury, which takes its name from Caeesar, Caesarisburghum, from
whence Sarisburgh, whence Salisbury.

At Bath are several Roman inscriptions, which Mr. Camden hath set
down, and by the West Gate a piece of a delicate Corinthian freeze,
which he calls wreathed leaves, not understanding architecture; and
by in a bass relieve of an optriouch. At Bethford, about 1663, was
found a grotto paved with Mosaic work, some whereof I have preserved.

The Saxons succeeding them, and driving away to Ireland, Cornwal, &c.
these Britains were by Romans left here; for they used the best of
them in their wars, (being their best soldiers) here was a mist of
ignorance for 600 years. They were so far from knowing arts, that they
could not build a wall with stone. They lived sluttishly in poor
houses, where they eat a great deal of beef and mutton, and drank good
ale in a brown mazard; and their very kings were but a sort of
farmers. After the Christian Religion was planted here, it gave a
great shoot, and the kings and great men gave vast revenues to the
Church, who were ignorant enough in those days. The Normans then came
and taught them civility and building; which though it was Gothick (as
also their policy "Feudalis Lex") yet they were magnificent. For the
Government, till the time of King Henry VIII. it was like a nest of
boxes; for copyholders, (who, till then were villains) held of the
lords of the Manor, who held of a superior lord, who perhaps held of
another superior lord or duke, who held of the king. Upon any occasion
of justing or tournaments in those days, one of these great lords
sounded his trumpets (the lords then kept trumpeters, even to King
James) and summoned those that held under them. Those again sounded
their trumpets, and so downward to the copy-holders. The Court of
Wards was a great bridle in those days. A great part of this North
Division held of the honour of Trowbridge, where is a ruinated castle
of the dukes of Lancaster. No younger brothers then were by the custom
and constitution of the realm to betake themselves to trades, but were
churchmen or retainers, and servants to great men rid good horses (now
and then took a purse) and their blood that was bred of the good
tables of their masters, was upon every occasion freely let out in
their quarrels; it was then too common among their masters to have
feuds with one another, and their servants at market, or where they
met (in that slashing age) did commonly bang one another's bucklers.
Then an esquire, when he rode to town, was attended by eight or ten
men in blue coats with badges. The lords (then lords in deed as well
as title) lived in their countries like petty kings, had "jura
regalia" belonging to their seigniories, had their castles and
boroughs, and sent burgesses to the Lower House; had gallows within
their liberties, where they could try, condemn, draw and hang; never
went to London but in parliament-time, or once a year to do their
homage and duty to the king. The lords of manours kept good houses in
their countries, did eat in their great Gothick halls, at the high
table; (in Scotland, still the architecture of a lord's house is
thus, viz. a great open hall, a kitchen and buttery, a parlour, over
which a chamber for my lord and lady; all the rest lye in common, viz.
the men-servants in the hall, the women in a common room) or oriele,
the folk at the side-tables. (Oriele is an ear, but here it signifies
a little room at the upper end of the hall, where stands a square or
round table, perhaps in the old time was an oratory; in every old
Gothic hall is one, viz. at Dracot, Lekham, Alderton, &c.) The meat
was served up by watch-words. Jacks are but an invention of the other
age: the poor boys did turn the spits, and licked the dripping-pan,
and grew to be huge lusty knaves. The beds of the servants and
retainers were in the great halls, as now in the guard-chamber, &c.
The hearth was commonly in the middle, as at most colleges, whence the
saying, "Round about our coal-fire." Here in the halls were the
mummings, cob-loaf-stealing, and a great number of old Christmas plays
performed. Every baron and gentleman of estate kept great horses for a
man at arms. Lords had their armories to furnish some hundreds of men.
The halls of justices of the peace were dreadful to behold, the
skreens were garnished with corslets and helmets, gaping with open
mouth, with coats of mail, lances, pikes, halberts, brown bills,
batterdashers, bucklers, and the modern colivers and petronils (in
King Charles I.'s time) turned into muskets and pistols. Then were
entails in fashion, (a good prop for monarchy). Destroying of manors
began temp. Henry VIII., but now common; whereby the mean people live
lawless, nobody to govern them, they care for nobody, having no
dependance on anybody. By this method, and by the selling of the
church-lands, is the ballance of the Government quite altered, and put
into the hands of the common people. No ale-houses, nor yet inns were
there then, unless upon great roads: when they had a mind to drink,
they went to the fryaries; and when they travelled they had
entertainment at the religious houses for three days, if occasion so
long required. The meeting of the gentry was not then at tipling-
houses, but in the fields or forest, with their hawks and hounds, with
their bugle horns in silken bordries. This part very much abounded
with forests and parks. Thus were good spirits kept up, and good
horses and hides made; whereas now the gentry of the nation are so
effeminated by coaches, they are so far from managing great horses,
that they know not how to ride hunting-horses, besides the spoiling of
several trades dependant. In the last age every yRoman almost kept a
sparrow-hawk; and it was a divertisement for young gentlewomen to
manage sparrow-hawks and merlins. In King Henry VIII.'s time, one Dame
Julian writ The Art of Hawking in English verse, which is in Wilton
Library. This country was then a lovely champain, as that about
Sherston and Cots-wold; very few enclosures, unless near houses: my
grandfather Lyte did remember when all between Cromhall (at Eston) and
Castle-Comb was so, when Easton, Yatton and Comb did intercommon
together. In my remembrance much hath been enclosed, and every year,
more and more is taken in. Anciently the Leghs (now corruptly called
Slaights) i. e. pastures, were noble large grounds, as yet the Demesne
Lands at Castle Combe are. So likewise in his remembrance, was all
between Kington St. Michael and Dracot-Cerne common fields. Then were
a world of labouring people maintained by the plough, as yet in
Northamptonshire, &c. There were no rates for the poor in my
grandfather's days; but for Kington St. Michael (no small parish) the
church-ale at Whitsuntide did the business. In every parish is (or
was) a church-house, to which belonged spits, crocks, &c., utensils
for dressing provision. Here the house-keepers met, and were merry,
and gave their charity. The young people were there too, and had
dancing, bowling, shooting at butts, &c., the ancients sitting gravely
by and looking on. All things were civil and without scandal. This
church-ale is doubtless derived from the {Greek text: agapai}, or
love-feast, mentioned in the New Testament. Mr. A. Wood assures me,
that there were no alms-houses, at least they were very scarce before
the Reformation; that over against Christ Church, Oxon, is one of the
ancientest. In every church was a poor man's box, but I never
remembered the use of it; nay, there was one at great inns, as I
remember it was before the wars. Before the Reformation, at their
vigils or revels, sat up all night fasting and praying. The night
before the day of the dedication of the church, certain officers were
chosen for gathering the money for charitable uses. Old John
Wastfield, of Langley, was Peter-man at St. Peter's Chapel there; at
which time is one of the greatest revels in these parts, but the
chapel is converted into a dwelling-house. Such joy and merriment was
every holiday, which days were kept with great solemnity and
reverence. These were the days when England was famous for the " grey
goose quills." The clerk's was in the Easter holidays for his benefit,
and the solace of the neighbourhood.

Since the Reformation, and inclosures aforesaid, these parts have
swarmed with poor people. The parish of Cain pays to the poor (1663)
L500 per annum; and the parish of Chippenham little less, as appears
by the poor's books there. Inclosures are for the private, not for the
public, good. For a shepherd and his dog, or a milk-maid, can manage
meadow-land, that upon arable, employed the hands of several scores of
labourers.

In those times (besides the jollities already mentioned) they had
their pilgrimages to Walsingham, Canterbury, &c. to several shrines,
as chiefly hereabouts, to St. Joseph's of Arimathea, at his chapel in
Glastonbury Abbey. In the roads thither were several houses of
entertainment, built purposely for them; among others, was the house
called "The Chapel of Playster" near Box; and a great house called
....... without Lafford's Gate, near Bristol.

Then the Crusado's to the Holy War were most magnificent and glorious,
and the rise, I believe, of the adventures of knights errant and
romances. The solemnities , of processions in and about the churches,
and the perambulations in the fields, besides their convenience, were
fine pleasing diversions: the priests went before in their
formalities, singing the Latin service, and the people came after,
making their good-meaning responses. The reverence given to holy men
was very great. Then were the churches open all day long, men and
women going daily in and out hourly, to and from their devotions. Then
were the consciences of the people kept in so great awe by
confession, that just dealing and virtue was habitual. Sir Edwyn
Sandys observed, in his travels in the Catholic countries, so great
use of confession as aforesaid, that though a severe enemy to the
Church of Rome, he doth heartily wish it had never been left out by
the Church of England, perceiving the great good it does beyond sea.
Lent was a dismal time, strictly observed by fasting, prayer, and
confessing against Easter. During the forty days, the Fryars preached
every day.

This country was very full of religious houses; a man could not have
travelled but he must have met monks, fryars, bonnehommes, &c. in
their several habits, black, white, grey, &c. And the tingle tangle of
their convent bells, I fancy, made very pretty musick, like the
college bells at Oxford.

Then were there no free-schools; the boys were educated at the
monasteries; the young maids, not at Hackney schools, &c. to learn
pride and wantonness, but at the nunneries, where they had examples of
piety, humility, modesty, and obedience, &c. to imitate and practise.
Here they learned needle-work, and the art of confectionary,
surgery, physick, writing, drawing, &c.

Old Jaques (who lived where Charles Hadnam did) could see from his
house the nuns of the priory of St. Mary's (juxta Kington) come forth
into the nymph-hay with their rocks and wheels to spin, and with their
sewing work. He would say that he hath told threescore and ten; though
of nuns there were not so many, but in all, with lay-sisters, as
widows, old maids, and young girls, there might be such a number. This
was a fine way of breeding up young women, who are led more by example
than precept; and a good retirement for widows and grave single
women, to a civil, virtuous, and holy life.

Plato says, that the foundation of government is, the education of
youth; by this means it is most probable that that was a golden age. I
have heard Judge Jenkins, Mr. John Latch, and other lawyers, say, that
before the Reformation, one shall hardly in a year find an action on
the case, as for slander, &c. which was the result of a good
government.

It is a sarcasm, more malicious than true, commonly thrown at the
church-men, that they had too much land; for their constitution being
in truth considered, they were rather administrators of those great
revenues to pious and publick uses, than usufructuaries. As for
themselves, they had only their habit and competent diet, every order
according to their prescribed rule; from which they were not to vary.
Then for their tenants, their leases were almost as good to them as
fee simple, and perchance might longer last in their families. Sir
William Button (the father) hath often told me, that Alton farm had
been held by his ancestors from the Abbey of Winchester, about four
hundred years. The powers of Stanton Quintin held that farm of the
Abbey of Cirencester in lease 300 years: and my ancestors, the
Danvers, held West Tokenham for many generations, of the Abbey of
Broadstock, where one of them was a prior. Memorandum, that in the
abbies were several corrodies granted for poor old shiftless men,
which Fitzherbert speaks of amongst his writs. In France, to every
parish church is more than one priest, (because of the several masses
to be said) which fashion, Mr. Dugdale tells me, was used here, and at
some churches in London, in near half a dozen.

In many chancels are to be seen three seats with niches in the wall
(most commonly on the south side) rising by degrees, and sometimes
only three seats, the first being for the bishop, the second for the
priest, and the third for the deacon. Anciently the bishops visited
their churches in person. This I had from Mr. Dugdale; as also that in
many churches where stalls are, as at cathedrals, (which I mistook for
chauntries) and in collegiate churches. This searching after
antiquities is a wearisome task. I wish I had gone through all the
church-monuments. The Records at London I can search gratis. Though of
all studies, I take the least delight in this, yet methinks I am
carried on with a kind of oestrum; for nobody else hereabout hardly
cares for it, but rather makes a scorn of it. But methinks it shows a
kind of gratitude and good nature, to revive the memories and
memorials of the pious and charitable benefactors long since dead and gone.

Eston Pierse, April 28, 1670.


HOROSCOPE OF JOHN AUBREY'S NATIVITY, from his own Sketch.



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by John Aubrey


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