Infomotions, Inc.Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World / Cook, James, 1728-1779



Author: Cook, James, 1728-1779
Title: Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): longitude; degrees minutes; longitude degrees; latitude; south; west; degrees; latitude degrees; east; leagues; north; minutes west; minutes; island; noon; minutes south; weather; ship; degrees west; miles; north degrees; new zealand; distance miles; dist
Contributor(s): Hazlitt, William Carew, 1834-1913 [Editor]
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Size: 223,345 words (tome-like) Grade range: 10-12 (high school) Readability score: 63 (easy)
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Title: Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World

Author: James Cook

Release Date: August 25, 2004 [EBook #8106]

Language: English

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*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CAPTAIN COOK'S JOURNAL ***




Produced by Sue Asscher





CAPTAIN COOK'S JOURNAL.

FIRST VOYAGE.

(PLATE: PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN JAMES COOK WITH A FACSIMILE OF HIS SIGNATURE.
Collotype, Waterlow & Sons Ltd.)

CAPTAIN COOK'S JOURNAL

DURING HIS

FIRST VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD

MADE IN

H.M. BARK "ENDEAVOUR"

1768-71

A Literal Transcription of the Original MSS.

WITH

NOTES AND INTRODUCTION

EDITED BY

CAPTAIN W.J.L. WHARTON, R.N., F.R.S.
Hydrographer of the Admiralty.

Illustrated by Maps and Facsimiles.

LONDON
ELLIOT STOCK, 62 PATERNOSTER ROW
1893

43931

DEDICATED BY PERMISSION

TO

ADMIRAL H.R.H. THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH,

K.G., ETC.,

WHOSE DEEP INTEREST IN ALL MATTERS CONNECTED WITH
THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE BRITISH NAVY
IS WELL KNOWN TO ALL WHO HAVE HAD
THE PRIVILEGE OF SERVING WITH HIM.


PREFACE.

STRANGE it must appear that the account of perhaps the most celebrated
and, certainly to the English nation, the most momentous voyage of
discovery that has ever taken place--for it practically gave birth to the
great Australasian Colonies--has never before been given to the world in
the very words of its great leader. It has fallen out in this wise.

After the return of the Endeavour it was decided that a full and
comprehensive account of the voyage should be compiled. COOK'S JOURNAL
dealt with matters from the point of view of the seaman, the explorer,
and the head of the expedition, responsible for life, and for its general
success. The Journals of Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander looked from the
scientific side on all that presented itself to their enthusiastic
observation.

What could be better than to combine these accounts, and make up a
complete narrative from them all?

The result, however, according to our nineteenth-century ideas, was not
altogether happy. Dr. Hawkesworth, into whose hands the Journals were
put, not only interspersed reflections of his own, but managed to impose
his own ponderous style upon many of the extracts from the united
Journals; and, moreover, as they are all jumbled together, the whole
being put into Cook's mouth, it is impossible to know whether we are
reading Cook, Banks, Solander, or Hawkesworth himself.

The readers of the day were not, however, critical. Hawkesworth's book,*
(* "Hawkesworth's Voyages" 3 volumes quarto 1773.) which undoubtedly
contains all the most generally interesting passages of the three
writers, gave a clear description of the events of the voyage in a
connected manner, and was accepted as sufficient; and in the excitement
of devouring the pages which introduced so many new lands and peoples,
probably few wished for more, and the Journals were put away as dealt
with.

Since that time it has been on several occasions in contemplation to
publish Mr. (after Sir Joseph) Banks' Journal; but this has never been
accomplished.

Cook's Journal was in triplicate. The Admiralty Orders of the day
enjoined that the captain should keep a journal of proceedings, a copy of
which was to be forwarded to the Admiralty every six months, or as soon
after as possible. In the case of this voyage the ship was two and a half
years from England before any opportunity of sending this copy occurred.
The ship was the whole of this time in new and savage lands. When Batavia
was reached the duplicate of Cook's Journal was sent home, and six months
later, when the ship arrived in England, the full Journal of the voyage
was deposited at the Admiralty.

The Secretary of the Admiralty, Sir Philip Stephens, a personal friend
and appreciator of Cook, appears to have appropriated the Batavia
duplicate, as we find it in the hands of his descendants, and passing
thence by sale, first to Mr. Cosens in 1868, and then in 1890 to Mr. John
Corner.

The other and complete copy is still in possession of the Admiralty,
though in some unexplained manner it was absent for some years, and was
only recovered by the exertions of Mr. W. Blakeney, R.N.

A third copy of the Journal also terminates a few days before reaching
Batavia. It is in the possession of Her Majesty the Queen, and from its
appearance was kept for, and probably presented to, George III, who took
great interest in the voyage.

Neither private possessors nor the Admiralty have felt moved to publish
this interesting document until Mr. Corner acquired his copy, when, being
an enthusiastic admirer of Captain Cook, he determined to do so, and was
making preliminary arrangements, when he suddenly died, after a few
hours' illness. His son, anxious to carry out his father's wishes, which
included the devotion of any proceeds to the restoration of Hinderwell
Church--the parish church of Staithes, whence Cook ran away to sea--has
completed these arrangements, and the present volume is the result.

The text is taken from Mr. Corner's copy so far as it goes, paragraphs
from the Admiralty copy, which do not appear in the former, being added,
with a notation of their source.

The last portion, from October 23rd, 1770, which is only given in the
Admiralty copy, is necessarily taken from it.

The three copies are, practically, identical, except for the period
August 13th to 19th, 1770, during which the wording is often different,
though the events are the same.

It is not very difficult to account for this.

The two first-mentioned Journals are in the handwriting of an amanuensis,
Mr. Orton, the clerk. No autograph journal is, so far as is known, in
existence, but some rough original must have been kept, as both copies
bear internal evidence of having been written up after the lapse of an
interval after the events described.

This is markedly the case in the Australian part of the Journal.

It is known that Botany Bay was at first called by Cook, Stingray Bay, on
account of the number of rays caught there; but after Banks had examined
his collection, and found all his plants new to science, Cook determined
to call it Botany Bay. It is, however, called Botany Bay from the first
in the Journals.

The name, "New South Wales," was not bestowed without much consideration,
and apparently at one stage New Wales was the appellation fixed upon, for
in Mr. Corner's copy it is so called throughout, whereas the Admiralty
copy has "New South Wales."

It would therefore seem that about the period of the discrepant accounts
Mr. Corner's copy was first made, and that Cook, in the Admiralty copy,
which for this part is fuller, revised the wording of his description of
this very critical portion of the voyage.

The Queen's Copy has been written with especial care, and by several
different hands. It was evidently the last in point of time.

In reading COOK'S JOURNAL of his First Voyage it must be remembered that
it was not prepared for publication. Though no doubt the fair copies we
possess were revised with the care that characterises the man, and which
is evidenced by the interlineations and corrections in his own hand with
which the pages are dotted, it may be supposed, from the example we have
in the published account of his Second Voyage, which was edited by
himself, that further alterations and additions would have been made, to
make the story more complete, had he contemplated its being printed.

This does not, however, in any way detract from the interest of a
transcript of his record on the spot; and though many circumstances
recorded in Hawkesworth, from Banks or others, will not be found, it is
probable that an exact copy of the great navigator's own impressions, and
the disentanglement of them from the other interpolated matter, will be
welcome.

In printing this Journal the only alterations that have been made are the
breaking-up into chapters, with modern headings; the addition of
punctuation; and in the form of the insertion of the daily record of
wind, weather, and position of the ship. These in the original are on the
left hand page in log form. To save space they have been placed at the
end of every day's transactions.

The eccentricities in the spelling have been preserved. A good many of
these would seem to be due to Mr. Orton, the transcriber, as Cook's own
letters are generally correct in their orthography. The use of the
capital letter was usual at the time.

References will be found to sketches and plans which have not been
reproduced.

Cook's knack of finding names for localities was peculiarly happy. Those
who have had to do this, know the difficulty. Wherever he was able to
ascertain the native name, he adopts it; but in the many cases where this
was impossible, he manages to find a descriptive and distinctive
appellation for each point, bay, or island.

He seems to have kept these names very much to himself, as it is seldom
the officers' logs know anything of them; and original plans, still in
existence, in many cases bear different names to those finally pitched
upon.

Cook's names have rarely been altered, and New Zealand and Australian
places will probably for all time bear those which he bestowed.

In the orthography of his native names he was not so successful. The
constant addition of a redundant "o" has altered many native sounds, such
as Otaheite for Tahiti, Ohwhyhee for Hawaii; while his spelling generally
has been superseded by more simple forms. This is a matter, however, in
which great difficulties are found to the present day by Englishmen,
whose language presents no certain laws for rendering any given sound
into a fixed combination of letters.

Cook's language is unvarnished and plain, as a sailor's should be. His
incidents, though often related with circumstance, are without
exaggeration; indeed if any fault is to be found, it is that he takes
occurrences involving much labour and hardship as such matters of course,
that it is not easy for the reader, especially if he be a landsman, to
realise what they really entail.

Cook was assiduous in obtaining observations to ascertain the Variation
of the compass--i.e., the difference between the direction shown by the
magnetic needle and the true north. He is constantly puzzled by the
discrepancies in these observations made at short intervals. These arose
from the different positions of the ship's head, whereby the iron within
a certain distance of the compass is placed in different positions as
regards the needle working the compass card, the result being that the
needle is attracted from its correct direction in varying degree. This is
known as the Deviation of the compass. The cause of this, and of the laws
which govern it, were only discovered by Captain Flinders in 1805.
Happily for the navigators of those days, little iron entered into the
construction of ships, and the amount of the Deviation was not large,
though enough to cause continual disquiet and wonderment.

Cook's longitudes in this voyage are all given as west of Greenwich, not
divided into east and west, as is usual at this day. The latter system
again has only been adopted universally since his time.

Though Cook himself gives, at the beginning of the Journal, a note of the
method of reckoning days adopted, it may not be amiss to give further
explanation here.

It was the usual custom on board ships to keep what was known as Ship
time--i.e., the day began at noon BEFORE the civil reckoning, in which
the day commences at midnight. Thus, while January 1st, as ordinarily
reckoned, is from midnight to midnight, in ship time it began at noon on
December 31st and ended at noon January 1st, this period being called
January 1st. Hence the peculiarity all through the Journal of the p.m.
coming before the a.m. It results that any events recorded as occurring
in the p.m. of January 1st in the log, would, if translated into the
ordinary system, be given as happening in the p.m. of December 31st;
while occurrences in the a.m. of January 1st would be equally in the a.m.
of January 1st in both systems.

This puzzling mode of keeping the day at sea continued to a late period,
and was common to seamen of all nations.

The astronomical day, again, begins at noon AFTER the midnight at which
the civil day begins, and hence is a whole day later than the ship's day.
This does not enter into Cook's Journal, but one of the logs of the
Endeavour, extant, that of Mr. Green the astronomer, was kept in this
time, and the events of say Thursday, June 24th, of Cook's Journal, are
therein given as happening on Wednesday, June 23rd. These differences of
reckoning have been a fertile source of confusion in dates in many
voyages.

Besides Cook's Journals there are other Journals and Logs of the voyage
extant. Perhaps it may be necessary to state that a Log is the official
document in which the progress of the ship from hour to hour is recorded,
with such official notes as the alteration in sail carried, expenditure
of provisions and stores, etc. A Journal contains this information in a
condensed form, with such observations as the officer keeping it may feel
inclined to insert.

The ship's Log Book of the Endeavour is in the British Museum. Mr. R.M.
Hudson of Sunderland possesses Cook's own log, not autograph however,
presented by Cook to Sir Hugh Palliser, the ancestor of his wife.

The Journals of all the officers of the Endeavour are preserved at the
Public Record Office. There is, however, nothing to be got out of them,
as they are mainly copies one of the other, founded on the ship's log.

The portion of Mr. Molineux's, the Master's, Log that exists (at the
Admiralty) is a most beautifully kept and written document, enriched with
charts and sketches that attest the accuracy of Cook's remark, that he
was a "young man of good parts."

The log kept by Mr. Green, however, does contain a few original remarks,
some of which have been made use of. This book contains a mass of
astronomical observations, and witnesses to the zeal of this gentleman in
his especial duty.

He records in one place, when far away from land, his disgust that the
officers were unwilling to aid him in lunar observations. No doubt they
saw no particular use in them when there was no coast to fix; but there
is ample proof that he received every aid when Cook thought it necessary.

Sufficient charts have been placed in this book to enable the reader to
follow the more interesting parts of the voyage; some being reproductions
of Cook's own charts, others modern publications. In the case of the
coast of East Australia, the coast-line as laid down by Cook, and as now
known, are given side by side for comparison.

It must be understood, that although this book is styled CAPTAIN COOK'S
JOURNAL, he was on this voyage only a Lieutenant in Command, and
therefore only Captain by courtesy.

W.J.L. WHARTON.

FLORYS, WIMBLEDON PARK,

April 7th, 1893.



CONTENTS.

SKETCH OF CAPTAIN COOK'S LIFE.

LIST OF PERSONS WHO LEFT ENGLAND IN H.M.S. ENDEAVOUR, 26TH AUGUST, 1768.

CHAPTER 1. ENGLAND TO RIO JANEIRO.

CHAPTER 2. RIO JANEIRO TO TAHITI.

CHAPTER 3. TAHITI.

CHAPTER 4. TAHITI TO NEW ZEALAND.

CHAPTER 5. EXPLORATION OF NEW ZEALAND.

CHAPTER 6. EXPLORATION OF MIDDLE ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND.

CHAPTER 7. PASSAGE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO NEW HOLLAND.

CHAPTER 8. EXPLORATION OF EAST COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

CHAPTER 9. FROM TORRES STRAIT TO BATAVIA.

CHAPTER 10. BATAVIA TO CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

CHAPTER 11. CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO ENGLAND.

INDEX.

[ILLUSTRATIONS.

1. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN JAMES COOK WITH A FACSIMILE OF HIS SIGNATURE.
COLLOTYPE, WATERLOW & SONS LTD.

2. MODERN CHART OF SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN SHOWING TRACK OF H.M.S. ENDEAVOUR,
1769 TO 1770.

3. FACSIMILE OF SATURDAY, 3RD JUNE, 1769.

4. CHART OF THE ISLAND OTAHEITE, BY LIEUTENANT JAMES COOK, 1769.
REPRODUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL PUBLISHED CHART.

5. TAHITI: TYPES OF CANOES.

6. CHART OF THE SOCIETY ISLES, DISCOVERED BY LIEUTENANT JAMES COOK, 1769.
REPRODUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL PUBLISHED CHART.

7. WAR CANOE OF NEW ZEALAND.

8. TRACK OF ENDEAVOUR FROM TORRES STRAIT TO JAVA. AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER
1770.

9. FACSIMILE OF TUESDAY, 23RD OCTOBER, 1770.

10. CHART OF NEW ZEALAND, EXPLORED IN 1769 AND 1770, BY LIEUTENANT I:
COOK, COMMANDER OF HIS MAJESTY'S BARK ENDEAVOUR, ENGRAVED BY I. BAYLY.
REPRODUCTION OF THE ORIGINAL PUBLISHED CHART.

11. PRINTERS' PLATE: Owl on books, distant town, hills, tree and moon.
"REST, PRAY, SLEEP."
Elliott Stock, 62, Paternoster Row.]



SKETCH OF CAPTAIN COOK'S LIFE.

CAPTAIN COOK'S life, or the account of so much of it as is recoverable,
has been so often recounted that there is no occasion to insert more in
this publication than is necessary as a reference to the reader, to
enable him to realise the career and character of the man.

Cook's first biographer, Andrew Kippis, wrote in 1788, and his work has
recently been republished.* (* "A Narrative of the Voyage round the
World, performed by Captain James Cook, with an Account of His Life" by
A. Kippis, D.D., F.R.S. London: Bickers & Son 1889.)

The latest and best life is by Walter Besant,* (* "Captain Cook" by
Walter Besant: "English Men of Action" London, Macmillan & Co. 1890.)
whose graceful pen has given us a fascinating, interesting, and, as far
as is possible, complete picture of this great Englishman. Many details
of Cook's private life are lost, but enough has been collected by Mr.
Besant to place our hero vividly before us, and a perusal of his work is
strongly recommended.

Many things in the following sketch are taken from Mr. Besant, to whom I
wish to tender my acknowledgments.

James Cook rose from nearly the lowest ranks. The second son of James
Cook, a Yorkshire labourer, and Grace his wife, he was born on the edge
of the Cleveland Hills on February 27th, 1728, in the little village of
Marton, which lies about four miles south-south-east of Middlesborough,
and five miles west of the well-known hill and landmark, Roseberry
Topping. Eight years later his father removed to Great Ayton, which lies
close under Roseberry Topping.

At the age of thirteen Cook, who, it is recorded, had had some elementary
schooling both at Marton and Great Ayton, was apprenticed to one
Sanderson, a draper and grocer of Staithes, a fishing village on the
coast, about fourteen miles from Ayton and nine north-west of Whitby.

A year later Cook went, or ran away, to sea, shipping at Whitby on board
the Freelove, a collier belonging to the brothers Walker.

In this hard school Cook learnt his sailor duties. No better training
could have been found for his future responsibilities. Here he learnt to
endure the utmost rigours of the sea. Constant fighting with North Sea
gales, bad food, and cramped accommodation, taught him to regard with the
indifference that afterwards distinguished him, all the hardships that he
had to encounter, and led him to endure and persevere where others, less
determined or more easily daunted by difficulties, would have hurried on,
and left their work incomplete.

All details of Cook's life during his thirteen years in the merchant
service are lost: what voyages he made, how he fared, whether he advanced
in general knowledge, all is gone. The only fact known is that in May
1755, when Cook was twenty-seven years of age, and mate of a vessel of
Messrs. Walker, then in the Thames, he, to avoid the press, then active
on account of the outbreak of the war with France, volunteered on board
H.M.S. Eagle, of 60 guns, as an able seaman.

Captain Hugh Palliser, who succeeded to the command of this ship in
October, was certainly Cook's warmest patron, and it would appear that
Cook did work superior to that of an able seaman in the Eagle. Be that as
it may, all that is absolutely known is that that ship took her share of
the fighting at the taking of Louisbourg and elsewhere on the North
American and West Indian Station, and returned to England in 1759.

By Palliser's interest Cook was now appointed master of the Mercury. It
is therefore evident that his qualifications as a navigator recommended
themselves to Palliser.

The Mercury went to North America, and here Cook did his first good
service recorded, namely, taking soundings in the St. Lawrence, to enable
the fleet then attacking Quebec to take up safe positions in covering the
army under Wolfe. This he accomplished with great skill, under many
difficulties, in the face of the enemy, much of it being done at night.
He was immediately employed in making a survey of the intricate channels
of the river below Quebec, and for many years his chart was the guide for
navigation. Cook was indeed a born surveyor. Before his day charts were
of the crudest description, and he must have somehow acquired a
considerable knowledge of trigonometry, and possessed an intuitive
faculty for practically applying it, to enable him to originate, as it
may truly be said he did, the art of modern marine surveying.

The expedition to Quebec concluded, Cook was appointed master of the
Northumberland, bearing Admiral Lord Colville's flag, and during that
ship's winter at Halifax he applied himself to further study of
mathematics and astronomy.

In 1762, the Northumberland being at Newfoundland during the capture of
that island from the French, Cook again was employed in surveys. This
attracted the attention of Captain Graves, the Governor, who conceived a
high opinion of his abilities in this respect.

In the latter part of 1762 Cook returned to England and married Elizabeth
Batts, daughter of a man in business at Wapping; but a few months
afterwards he was called upon by Captain Graves to go again to
Newfoundland to make marine surveys.

In this important work he was engaged until 1767, Captain Palliser, who
succeeded Captain Graves as Governor, being only too glad to avail
himself of Cook's services.

The charts he made during these years in the schooner Grenville were
admirable. The best proof of their excellence is that they are not yet
wholly superseded by the more detailed surveys of modern times. Like all
first surveys of a practically unknown shore, and especially when that
shore abounds in rocks and shoals, and is much indented with bays and
creeks, they are imperfect, in the sense of having many omissions; but
when the amount of the ground covered, and the impediments of fogs and
bad weather on that coast is considered, and that Cook had at the most
only one assistant, their accuracy is truly astonishing. The originals of
these surveys form part of the most precious possessions of the
Hydrographic Office of the Admiralty.

We now approach the crowning achievements of Cook's life.

After many years' neglect the exploration of the Pacific was awaking
interest. This great ocean, which very few, even to this day, realise
occupies nearly one half of the surface of the globe, had been, since the
first voyage of Magellan, crossed by many a vessel.

Notwithstanding, very little was known of the islands occupying its
central portion.

For this there were two reasons. First, the comparatively small area
covered by islands; secondly, the fact that nearly all who traversed it
had followed Magellan's track, or, if they started, as many did, from
Central America, they made straight for Magellan's discovery, the Ladrone
Islands. For this, again, there was a reason.

Few sailed for the purpose of exploration pure and simple; and even those
who started with that view found, when embarked on that vast expanse,
that prudence dictated that they should have a moderate certainty of, by
a certain time, falling in with a place of sure refreshment. The
provisions they carried were bad at starting, and by the time they had
fought their way through the Straits of Magellan were already worse;
water was limited, and would not hold out more than a given number of
days. Every voyage that is pursued tells the same story--short of water,
and eagerly looking out for an opportunity of replenishing it. The winds
were found to blow in fixed directions, and each voyager was fearful of
deviating from the track on which it was known they would be fair, for
fear of delays. And ever present in each captain's mind was the dread of
the terrible scourge, scurvy. Every expedition suffered from it. Each
hoped they would be exempt, and each in turn was reduced to impotence
from its effects.

It was the great consideration for every leader of a protracted
expedition, How can I obviate this paralyzing influence? And one after
another had to confess his failure.

It is yearly becoming more difficult for us to realise these obstacles.

The prevailing winds and currents in each part of the ocean are well
known to us: the exact distance and bearing from one point to another are
laid down in the chart; steam bridges over calm areas, and in many cases
conducts us on our entire journey at a speed but little inferior to that
of land travelling by railroad; modern science preserves fresh and
palatable food for an indefinite period; and, in a word, all the
difficulties and most of the dangers of long voyages have disappeared.

Take one element alone in long voyages--the time required. The average
progress of a ship in the eighteenth century was not more than fifty
miles a day. Nowadays we may expect as much as four hundred miles in a
full powered steamer, and not less than one hundred and fifty in a
well-fitted sailing ship.

But navigation, and more especially the navigation of the unknown
Pacific, was very different in Cook's days, when all the obstacles above
mentioned impeded the explorers, and impelled them to follow a common
track.

There were a few who had deviated from the common track.

The Spaniards, Mendana, Quiros, Torres, in the latter part of the
sixteenth century, starting first from their colonies in Peru, had
ventured along the central line of the Pacific, discovering the
Marquesas, certain small coral islands, the Northern New Hebrides, and
the Solomon Islands; but their voyages, mainly for fear of Drake and his
successors, were kept so secret that no one quite knew where these
islands lay.

Abel Tasman, in 1642, coming across the Indian Ocean from the westward,
had touched at Tasmania, or, as he called it, Van Diemen's Land, had
skirted the western coast of the north island of New Zealand without
landing, and had stretched away to the north-east, and found the Tonga
Group.

The English Buccaneers were not among these discoverers; Dampier, Woods
Rogers, and others, all went from Acapulco to the Ladrones, looking out
for the valuable Spanish galleons from
Manila, and they added little or nothing to the knowledge of the Pacific
and what it contained.

It was not therefore strange that the imagination of geographers ran riot
amongst the great unknown areas. They were impressed, as they looked at
the globes of the day, with the fact that, while the northern hemisphere
contained much land, the southern showed either water or blank spaces;
and starting with the ill-founded idea that the solid land in either
hemisphere should balance, they conceived that there must be a great
unknown continent in the southern part of the Pacific to make up the
deficiency. This was generally designated Terra Australis Incognita, and
many is the ancient chart that shows it, sketched with a free and
uncontrolled hand, around the South Pole. It was held by many that Tasman
had touched it in New Zealand; that Quiros had seen it near his island of
Encarnacion, and again at Espiritu Santo (New Hebrides), but no one had
been to see.

In George III's reign the desire to know more of this unknown ocean arose
in England. The king himself took great interest in it, and for the first
time since Queen Elizabeth's age, when Davis, Frobisher, Drake,
Narborough, and others, had gone on voyages of discovery, the pursuit was
renewed.

In 1764 the Dolphin and Tamor, under the command of Commodore Byron and
Captain Mouat, sailed on a voyage round the world. They spent some time,
as ordered, in exploring the Falkland Islands, and, after a two months'
passage through Magellan Strait, they stood across the Pacific. They,
however, also followed near the well-beaten track, and passing north of
the Paumotus, of which they sighted a few small islands, they too made
for the Ladrones. As usual, they suffered much from scurvy, and the one
idea was to get to a known place to recover. Byron returned in May 1766,
having added but little to the knowledge of the Pacific, and the Dolphin
was again sent in the August of the same year, with the Swallow, under
the command of Captains Wallis and Carteret, on a similar voyage.

They did somewhat better. After the usual struggle through the long and
narrow Strait of Magellan, against the strong and contrary winds that
continually blow, and which occupied four months, they got into the
Pacific.

As they passed out they separated, the Dolphin outsailing the Swallow,
and a dispassionate reader cannot well escape the conclusion that the
senior officers unnecessarily parted company.

The Dolphin kept a little south of the usual route, fell in with some of
the Paumotu Group, and finally discovered Tahiti, where she anchored at
Royal Bay, after grounding on a reef at its entrance, with her people, as
usual, decimated by scurvy. They were almost immediately attacked by the
natives, who, however, received such a reception that they speedily made
friends, and fast friends too. The remainder of the month of the Dolphin
stay was marked with the most friendly intercourse, and she sailed with a
high opinion of Tahiti and the Tahitians; the Queen, Cook's Obereia,
being especially well disposed to them. Their communication with the
natives must, however, have been limited, as they remained too short a
time to learn the language, and we gather little of the manners and
customs from the account of the voyage.

After sailing from Tahiti we hear the same tale--sickness, want of water,
doubt of what was before them. After sailing by several small islands,
and an attempt to water at one, course was steered as before for the
Ladrones. Let Wallis tell his own story. He says:--

"I considered that watering here would be tedious and attended with great
fatigue; that it was now the depth of winter in the southern hemisphere;
that the ship was leaky, that the rudder shook in the stern very much,
and that what other damage she might have received in her bottom could
not be known. That for these reasons she was very unfit for the bad
weather which she would certainly meet with, either in going round Cape
Horn or through the Streight of Magellan; that if she should get safely
through the streight or round the Cape, it would be absolutely necessary
to refresh in some port; but in that case no port would be in her reach.
I therefore determined to make the best of my way to Tinian, Batavia, and
so to Europe by the Cape of Good Hope.

"By this rout, as far as we could judge, we should sooner be at home; and
if the ship should prove not to be in a condition to make the whole
voyage, we should still save our lives, as from this place to Batavia we
should probably have a calm sea, and be not far from a port."

These are scarcely the sentiments of a bold explorer, and we shall look
in vain for any similar ideas on the part of Cook. Here was a ship just a
year from England, just come from a convenient and friendly island, where
every refreshment and opportunity for refit were to be found, and the
only thought is how to get home again!

It was the vastly different conduct of Cook's voyages; the determination
that nothing should stop the main object of the expedition; his resource
in every difficulty and danger; that caused, and rightly caused, him to
be hailed as a born leader of such expeditions.

Wallis followed nearly on Byron's track: went from the Ladrones, through
the China Sea, to Batavia, and so home, arriving in May 1768.

The Swallow, under Captain Carteret, was navigated in a different spirit.
She was badly fitted out for such a voyage, had not even a forge, and all
the articles for trade were on board the Dolphin. But Carteret was not
easily daunted. He might, under the circumstances, when he found himself
alone, have abandoned the voyage; but he boldly went forward. Passing
from the Strait of Magellan, he touched at Juan Fernandez, and steering
somewhat south of Wallis's line, he passed south of Tahiti, discovering
Pitcairn's Island on his way, and some of the islands south of the
Paumotus.

By this time his people were severely afflicted with scurvy, and his ship
in a bad state; but Carteret only thought of getting to some place of
refreshment, from which he might afterwards pass on his voyage towards
the south, in the hope of falling in with the great southern Continent.

In this he was not fortunate. Missing all other islands, he fell across
the Santa Cruz Group, and hoping that he had found what he wanted, he
anchored and tried to water. The party were, however, attacked by the
natives, and several, including the master, were wounded and died by
poisoned arrows. All hope of a quiet refit was over, and his ship's
company being in a wretched condition, no forge or tools on board to
enable him to effect his many repairs, Carteret, who was himself very
ill, was obliged to give up all intention of exploration to the
southward. He got enough water to last him, and sailed on toward the
Solomon Islands. These he also just missed, but fell in with New Britain,
and passing between it and New Ireland, demonstrated for the first time
that these two large islands were not one, as had been supposed. He here
managed to do something to repair his leaky vessel, heeling and caulking
her, but got little but fruit for his scurvy-stricken crew. He was
attacked by the fierce islanders, and was altogether unable to do as much
as he evidently earnestly desired towards examining the islands.

Thence they struggled on by Mindanao to Makassar in Celebes, delayed by
contrary winds, disappointed of refreshments at every place they tried,
and losing men from scurvy. At Makassar they met with but an inhospitable
reception from the Dutch, who refused to permit them to receive
refreshments there, and after waiting at Bonthain, a place in Celebes,
several months, for the monsoon to change, they at last arrived at
Batavia, the only port in the Dutch Indies really open to ships, in June
1768. Thence, after heaving down and a thorough repair, they reached
home, via the Cape, on March 20th, 1769.

Of all the voyages before Cook's, Carteret's showed most determination
and true spirit of enterprise; and had his ship been better supplied, and
more suited to the exigencies of such a long cruise, he would, but for
one thing, have accomplished far more. This was the fatal disease, which
no captain had as yet succeeded in warding off, and which hampered and
defeated the efforts of the most enthusiastic. No man could go beyond a
certain point in disregarding the health of his crew.

These, then, were the kind of voyages, with their scanty fruits, to which
the English people were getting accustomed, and they were not such as to
encourage repetition.

In all the years that had elapsed since the Spaniards first sailed on the
Pacific, but little real knowledge of the lands in it had been gained.

Let us attempt to give a picture of what was known.

The Marquesas and Santa Cruz Group were known to exist; but of the
Solomons grave doubts were felt, as no man had seen them but Mendana, and
they were, if placed on a map at all, shown in very different longitudes.

Several voyagers had sighted different members of the extensive Paumotu
Group, but the varying positions caused great confusion.

Tahiti had been found by Wallis.

Tasman had laid down the south point of Tasmania, the western coast of
the North Island of New Zealand, and the Tonga Islands. Dampier and
Carteret had shown that New Britain and New Ireland were separate
islands, lying north-east of New Guinea. Quiros had found the northern
island of the New Hebrides.

But of none of these lands was anything really known. Those who had
visited them had merely touched. In no case had they gone round them, or
ascertained their limits, and their descriptions, founded on brief
experience, were bald and much exaggerated.

Let us turn to what was unknown.

This comprises the whole of the east coast of Australia, or New Holland,
and whether it was joined to Tasmania on the south, and New Guinea to the
north; the dimensions of New Zealand; New Caledonia and the New Hebrides,
with the exception of the fact that the northern island of the latter
existed; the Fiji Islands; Sandwich Islands; the Phoenix, Union, Ellice,
Gilbert, and Marshall Groups, with innumerable small islands scattered
here and there; the Cook Islands, and all the Society Islands except
Tahiti. The majority of the Paumotu Group. The coast of North America
north of 45 degrees north was unknown, and there was the great,
undefined, and imaginary southern Continent to disprove.

Whether other voyages of exploration would have been undertaken one
cannot say; but in 1768 the Royal Society put in a word.

A transit of Venus over the sun's disc was to occur in 1769, and
astronomers were anxious to take advantage of it, the object of the
observation being to ascertain the distance of the earth from the sun,
the fundamental base line in all astronomical measurements, and which was
very imperfectly known.

The Central Pacific afforded a favourable position, and the Royal Society
memorialised the king to send a ship for the purpose. The request was
granted, and at first Alexander Dalrymple, who had conducted marine
surveys in the East Indies, and was known as a scientific geographer, was
selected as observer. As, however, it was found that he also expected to
command the ship, the Admiralty positively refused to have anything to do
with him, and after some discussion James Cook was selected.

This says volumes for Cook's reputation at the time. To have risen
absolutely from the ranks was a great deal, but to be chosen as a master,
to command a ship, and undertake a scientific observation of this
importance, was a most exceptional occurrence, and speaks well for the
judgment of those who had the selection.

It seems that Mr. Stephens, the Secretary to the Admiralty, had much to
do with it. How Stephens had become acquainted with Cook history does not
relate, but doubtless his personal visits to the Admiralty in connection
with the completion of his charts of Newfoundland, from which he returned
every winter, had brought him into contact with the Secretary, who had
clearly formed a high opinion of him.

Cook, we may be sure, jumped at the chance, and his pride must have been
great when he found he was to receive a commission as Lieutenant.

This in itself was a most unusual step. The occasions on which a master
had been transferred to the executive line of the Royal Navy were very
rare, and many an admiral used his influence in favour of some deserving
officer in vain.

This was not without good reason, as the whole training of the Master of
those days was unfavourable to success in command of ships or men. The
exception was, however, in this case amply justified.

Cook was allowed to choose his vessel, and bearing in mind the dangers of
grounding in unknown seas, he pitched upon his old friends, the
stoutly-built, full-bottomed colliers of the North Sea trade.

His ship, the Endeavour, was a Whitby built vessel of three hundred and
seventy tons, and was known as H.M. Bark Endeavour, there being another
vessel, a cutter, of the same name in the Royal Navy. She was brought to
the dockyard at Deptford to fit out. Her appearance was, of course,
wholly different from that of a vessel built as a man-of-war, and we
shall see that this caused trouble at Rio Janeiro, where the combination
of merchant build and officers in uniform in an armed ship, aroused
suspicions in the mind of the Portuguese Viceroy.

It is nowhere directly stated whether the Endeavour was sheathed with
copper or not; but as Cook in the account of his second voyage expresses
himself as adverse to this method of protecting ships' bottoms, and the
operation is recorded of heeling and boot topping, which was cleaning and
greasing the part of the ship just below waterline, it may be concluded
that her sheathing was wood.

She proved a most suitable vessel. The log states she was a little crank,
but an admirable sea-boat. Her rate of sailing was of course, with her
build, slow, but her strength and flat bottom stood her in good stead
when she made acquaintance with a coral reef.

She mounted ten small carriage guns and twelve swivels.

Mr. Banks, a scientific botanist, afterwards well known as Sir Joseph
Banks, and for a long time President of the Royal Society, a gentleman of
private means, volunteered to accompany Cook, and took with him a staff
of his own, of artists and others.

He also induced Dr. Solander, a Swedish naturalist, afterwards attached
to the British Museum, to accompany him.

Mr. Charles Green, one of the assistants at the Royal Observatory at
Greenwich, was sent as astronomer.

This scientific staff added much to the success of the expedition.

Banks and Solander, both men of observation, were able to collect
specimens of natural history, and study the manners and customs of the
natives with whom they came in contact, which neither the time at Cook's
disposal nor his training enabled him to undertake; and though the
Journal of the former has never yet been published, and cannot at the
present time be traced, many interesting remarks were extracted by Dr.
Hawkesworth from it and went far to make his account of the voyage
complete.

Mr. Green also demands special notice.

One great question of the day amongst seamen and geographers was the
discovering of some ready and sure method of ascertaining the longitude.
Half the value of the explorations made up to this time had been lost
from this want. The recognised means of finding longitude was by the
observation of lunars; that is, accurately measuring the angular distance
between the centres of the moon and of the sun, or of the moon and some
star.

The motion of the moon is so rapid that this angular distance changes
from second to second, and thereby, by previous astronomical calculation,
the time at Greenwich at which its distance from any body is a certain
number of degrees can be ascertained and recorded.

By well-known calculations the local time at any spot can be obtained,
and when this is ascertained, at the precise moment that the angular
distance of sun and moon is observed, the difference gives the longitude.

This seems simple enough, but there is a good deal of calculation to go
through before the result is reached, and neither the observation nor the
calculation is easy, especially with the astronomical tables of those
days, and there were very few sailors who were capable of, or patient
enough to make them, nor was the result, as a rule, very accurate. For
one thing, the motions of the moon, which are extremely complicated, were
not enough known to allow her calculated position in the heavens to be
very accurate, and a very small error in this position considerably
affects the time, and therefore the longitude.

Luckily for Cook, the Nautical Almanac had just been started, and
contained tables of the moon which had not previously been available, and
which much lightened the calculations.

The great invention of the chronometer, that is, a watch that can be
trusted to keep a steady rate for long periods, was at this time
completed by Harrison; but very few had been manufactured, and
astronomers and sailors were slow to believe in the efficacy of this
method of carrying time about with a ship. Thus Cook had no chronometer
supplied to him.

Green had accompanied Mr. Maskelyne, afterwards Astronomer Royal, to
Barbados in 1763 in H.M.S. Princess Louisa, in order to test Harrison's
timekeeper, and also a complicated chair, from which it was supposed
observations of Jupiter's satellites could be observed on board ship; and
as this trial afforded the final triumph of the new method, one would
have thought that on a voyage of circumnavigation he would have made
every effort to get one of these watches.

Be this as it may, the Endeavour had no chronometer, and lunars were the
mainstay of the expedition.

In these observations Green was indefatigable. Cook, an excellent
observer himself frequently took part in them; but it was Green's
especial business, and no doubt to him is due the major part of the
determinations of accurate longitude, which is one of the very remarkable
points of this voyage.

Green's log, which is extant, is filled with lunar observations, and the
extraordinary coincidence between different observations attests the care
with which they were made. I dwell upon this because, while full of
admiration for Cook's knowledge, and his untiring zeal in every detail of
his expedition, it is evident, from a study of the original documents,
that without Green many opportunities of getting longitude would have
been lost, Cook having no time to spare to make use of them. Let us give
honour to whom honour is due.

The final results of the observations are not equally good, but this
arises from the errors, before referred to, in the moon's place in the
heavens as given in the almanac, which would vary with her position, and
affect the longitude accordingly. The astonishing thing is, not that some
longitudes are considerably in error, but that the majority of them are
so near the truth.

The Endeavour sailed from the Thames on June 30th, 1768, and was in
Plymouth Sound from July 14th to the 26th, when she finally sailed, Banks
and the scientific staff having joined here.

She carried a complement, all told, of ninety-four, and very close
stowage it must have been.

A list is given in this book, immediately before the "Journal," of every
person on board when the ship sailed from Plymouth.

The draught of the ship was 13 feet 6 inches, and her provisions were
calculated to last eighteen months. The original intention had been that
the transit of Venus should be observed at the Marquesas; but the
Dolphin's return before Cook sailed, with the news of the discovery of
Tahiti and its friendly inhabitants, caused this island to be finally
selected.

The exact text of Cook's orders cannot be given. They were secret orders;
but, curiously enough, while the covering letter, which enjoined him to
show them to nobody, which is dated July 30th, 1768, is duly entered in
Admiralty Records, the orders themselves, which should follow in the
letter book, are omitted. They have never been published. Nevertheless,
we can gather what they were.

Cook, in the published account of his Second Voyage, says he had
instructions to proceed directly to Tahiti, and afterwards to prosecute
the design of making discoveries in the Pacific by proceeding southward
to the latitude of 40 degrees, and if he did not find land to continue
his voyage to the west till he fell in with New Zealand, which he was
directed to explore, and thence to return to England by such route as he
should judge most convenient.

Precautions against the terrible scourge, scurvy, had not been forgotten.

Besides the supply of all anti-scorbutics then known, a special letter
was written to Cook directing him to take a quantity of malt to sea, for
the purpose of being made into wort, as a cure for scorbutic disorders,
as recommended by Dr. McBride.

The directions for its use were as follows:--

"The malt must be ground under the direction of the surgeon, and made
into wort, fresh every day, in the following manner:--

"1. Take one quart of ground malt, and pour on it three quarts of boiling
water. Stir them well, and let the mixture stand close covered up for
three or four hours, after which strain off the liquor.

"2. The wort, so prepared, is then to be boiled into a panada, with sea
biscuit or dried fruits generally carried to sea.

"3. The patient must make at least two meals a day of the said panada,
and should drink a quart or more of the fresh infusion as it may agree
with him, every twenty-four hours.

"4. The surgeon is to keep an exact account of its effects."

Though it is somewhat anticipating events, it is convenient to record
here the result of these efforts to defeat the hitherto unconquerable
enemy. Mr. Perry's report at the termination of the voyage is as
follows:--

"Sour krout, mustard, vinegar, wheat, inspissated orange and lemon
juices, saloup, portable soup, sugar, molasses, vegetables (at all times
when they could be got) were, some in constant, others in occasional use.
These were of such infinite service to the people in preserving them from
a scorbutic taint, that the use of the malt was (with respect to
necessity) almost entirely precluded.

"Again cold bathing was encouraged and enforced by example; the allowance
of salt beef and pork was abridged from nearly the beginning of the
voyage, and the sailors' usual custom of mixing the salt beef fat with
their flour, etc., was strictly forbad.

"Upon our leaving England, also, a stop was put to our issuing butter and
cheese, and throughout the voyage raisins were served with the flour
instead of pickled suet. At Tierra del Fuego we collected wild celery,
and every morning our breakfast was made with this herb, with ground
wheat and portable soup.

"We passed Cape Horn, all our men as free from scurvy as on our sailing
from Plymouth.

"Three slight cases of scorbutic disorders occurred before arriving at
Otaheite. Wort was given, with apparently good effect, and the symptoms
disappeared.

"No other cases occurred during the voyage, but the wort was served out
at sea as a regular article of diet."

To this it may be added, that no opportunity was, as appears by the
Journal, ever lost of getting wild celery and any other wild herb that
presented itself.

The personal washing is mentioned by Mr. Perry, and the tradition in the
Navy is, that the men's deck was more constantly scrubbed than had then
been usual; in fact, that unusual attention was paid to cleanliness.
Stoves were used to dry the decks below even in hot weather.

As this voyage forms the subject of this book, its events may be passed
over briefly.

Calling at Madeira--where the log records that the Endeavour was fired
upon by the fort on the Loo Rock through some misapprehension while
shifting berth, though Cook passes this by in silence--and Rio Janeiro,
Cook proceeded to double Cape Horn. His predecessors had struggled
through the Strait of Magellan, losing much time and wearing out their
men with the continual anchoring and weighing in that long and narrow
passage, rendered necessary by the constant foul and strong winds that
prevail. The idea was to avoid the heavy seas and gales of the open sea;
but Cook's action was amply justified by a more rapid passage without any
danger. Discovering several of the low coral atolls of the Paumotu Group,
he arrived at Tahiti on April 13th, 1769.

On July 13th, the transit of Venus having been observed under favourable
conditions on June 1st, he left Tahiti, exploring and mapping the Society
Islands immediately to the westward, never before visited, and then stood
to the southward. It may here be mentioned that it is only during the
last decade that Cook's charts of the Society Group have been superseded
by more elaborate surveys by the French.

Cook went to 40 degrees south, discovering one of the Austral Group on
his way, when, finding no sign of the hypothetical southern Continent,
and getting into very dirty weather, he first gained a more northern
latitude and favourable winds, and then stood for New Zealand.

On October 7th he arrived at Poverty Bay, and during the next six months
he completely circumnavigated and mapped the islands of New Zealand. He
had received on board at Tahiti a native, one Tupia, formerly the high
priest, and a man of much intelligence. Tupia proved to be of the utmost
service, as, to their astonishment and delight, they found that the
languages were sufficiently identical to enable him to act as a most
efficient interpreter; which made it possible to obtain information, and
establish relations with the New Zealanders which they could never have
succeeded in doing without him.

Cook now, after consideration, determined to explore the unknown east
coast of New Holland. The health of his ship's company, and the good
order on board, permitted him to make this good use of his time, instead
of hurrying on to a civilised port, as all his forerunners had had to do.

He struck Australia at its south-east point, and followed the whole coast
to the northward, mapping it as he went.

When nearing the northern end the voyage nearly came to a premature
conclusion by the ship grounding on a coral reef, twenty miles from the
land. Cook's seamanship was, however, equal to the occasion. The ship was
got off, much damaged and leaking severely, and carried into a little
port they discovered not far off. Here she was cleared out and laid upon
the ground, the tide sufficing to dry enough of her bottom to let the
carpenters repair it.

The wisdom of Cook's choice of a ship of the build of the Endeavour was
here very apparent. It was not every ship that could be safely beached in
this way without danger of falling over. After long delay she proceeded
on her voyage, and soon had a second narrow escape. The long line of
coral reefs that front the northern part of Eastern Australia, for a
distance of 1200 miles, approach the coast about the place where the ship
had grounded. The passage between the outer reef and the land is strewn
with shoals, and finding his further progress much impeded by them, and
fearful of a repetition of his disaster, Cook with some difficulty found
a channel to seaward, and gained the open ocean. He was, however, yet
determined to follow the land he was exploring, and more especially to
solve the great question as to whether Australia was joined to New Guinea
or no; and three days after his escape from the line of reefs he found
himself with a light wind, embayed on the outer side of them, with the
reefs close to him, and the ship drifting slowly but surely on them, the
heavy swell of the great ocean breaking mountains high on their outer
edge.

Here again calmness and promptitude saved him, and the ship was pushed
through a narrow channel in these terrible reefs into the smooth, though
reef-dotted, waters within. No event in the voyage is more dramatically
narrated, though without any exaggeration, than this hair-breadth escape.

With the caution born of recent dangers, Cook now slowly found his way
through the maze of reefs, by a route that no one has again followed, to
the northern point of Australia, and was rewarded for his pertinacity by
finding the channel now known as Torres Strait, which led him between New
Guinea and Australia.

Thus far Cook's enthusiasm in adventure and desire to explore had been
fully shared by his companions; but it is apparent that at this point
they fell short of his high standard. Cook, having secured his direct
passage to Batavia, and having still a little provision left, was anxious
to do still more in the way of discovery, and stood over to the
little-known New Guinea shore. It is evident, however, from Cook's
expressions, though he does not complain, that his people were pining for
fresh food and civilisation. Australia had produced them little but
occasional fish and a few turtle. The salt provisions of those days were
most unpalatable, and the effect of their continued hard work and
inadequate food for so long, for they were now over two years from
England, with no communication of any kind with the outer world, were
telling on them, though they were still free from scurvy.

Cook, therefore, after landing once in New Guinea, unwillingly turned his
ship's head towards Batavia.

The complaints grew louder as he passed by Timor without attempting to
communicate, and falling in with the island of Savu, he yielded to
importunity, and touched there to get refreshments.

Thence he went by the south shore of the chain of islands to Sunda Strait
and Batavia.

So far all had gone well. It was undoubtedly far the most successful
voyage ever made. Much had been done--more than his orders directed--to
explore unknown lands, and the dire enemy of seamen, scurvy, had been
conquered.

But his luck was not to last.

It was absolutely necessary to remain some time at Batavia, while the
roughly repaired damage to the ship was made good in the Dutch dockyard.

Two months and a half in the sickly climate of Batavia, during a bad time
of the year, wrought a sad change in his ship's company. The port they so
much desired proved but the door of the grave to many of them, and Cook
sailed for England on December 27th, 1770, with dysentery pervading the
ship. The surgeon had already died of it; so had the poor Tahitian,
Tupia, with two seamen, and one of Mr. Banks' artists.

Worse was, however, to follow. Day by day, as the ship slowly found her
way over the Indian Ocean towards the Cape, against the wet and unhealthy
north-west monsoon, the sick list grew larger. Man after man succumbed,
and before half the distance to Capetown was traversed twenty-two more
were carried off. Green, the astronomer, two more of Banks' staff, two
midshipmen, the boatswain and carpenter were among the number. The crew
was more than decimated.

The ship touched at the Cape, and war with France being expected, the
Endeavour joined the East India convoy, under H.M.S. Portland, at St.
Helena. The heavy-sailing, collier-built craft was not, however, when the
ships had crossed the line and got upon a wind, able to keep up with
them, and she once more found herself alone on her way.

Two more officers, the First Lieutenant, Mr. Hicks, and the Master, Mr.
Molineux, died after leaving the Cape, but not of dysentery, and the ship
finally reached England on June 12th, 1771.

Ninety-four persons left England in the Endeavour, of whom fifty-four
returned. Thirty-eight died on the voyage, out of which number thirty-one
died after reaching Batavia, most of them from fever and dysentery
contracted at that place.

After paying off in August 1771, the Endeavour was sold in 1775, and for
many years sailed as a collier in the North Sea.

This voyage gave a new impetus to discovery, and the immediate thought
was to resume it, under this heaven-born leader.

Cook was given little leisure, as it was nearly at once decided to send
him out again, and he was appointed to command the Resolution on November
28th, 1771, the interval having been occupied in considering what ships
should be employed.

Cook's experience of the qualities of the Endeavour caused him to uphold
the selection of similar vessels, for there were to be two, and the
Resolution and Adventure, of 462 and 336 tons respectively, both Whitby
built colliers, were bought for the voyage. Cook was promoted to
Commander, and Tobias Furnaux, in the Adventure, was placed under his
command. It was not, however, until April 1772 that they sailed.

It was originally intended that Banks should again accompany Cook, and
with a view to his better accommodation a poop was added to the
Resolution. The short trip, however, from Deptford to Sheerness proved to
Cook that the ship was dangerously over-weighted, and the poop was
removed, with the consequence that Banks did not sail. The alteration
delayed final departure until June 22nd from Sheerness, and July 13th
from Plymouth.

The naturalists on this voyage were two Forsters, Germans, father and
son; and as astronomers Mr. Wales sailed in the Resolution, and Mr.
Bayley in the Adventure. Two of Cook's former companions sailed as
Lieutenants: Clerke, who was Lieutenant, and Pickersgill, who was master
of the Endeavour when she reached England. This witnesses to the
confidence and enthusiasm that Cook inspired amongst those under him.
There were also other Endeavours amongst the junior officers.

The main object of the voyage was the settlement of the great question of
the southern Continent. Cook was directed to explore the whole region
about the South Pole, starting from the Cape of Good Hope, and working
eastward. The winter of the southern hemisphere was to be employed as
Cook thought fit.

This voyage brought Cook's qualities as a seaman and commander more
prominently to view even than the former. The conditions were very
different. Instead of mapping coasts and islands, the principal duty was
exploration of tempestuous seas in high latitudes, amongst ice, searching
in vain for the illusive southern land.

Cook carried it out thoroughly. No gales, no temperatures deterred him
from searching wherever the ships would safely sail, and it was only ice
in dense masses that turned him back.

What his people thought of it we do not know, but the Forsters have given
a piteous account of the privations and hardships of an exploration that
gave them little chance of exercising their special knowledge.

Cook was better provided with instruments for the determination of
longitude than before, and the ships carried four chronometric
timekeepers; but the proper method of making use of them was scarcely yet
realised, and the course of his voyage did not permit them to be of much
service.

Mindful of his former success in combating scurvy, and making use of his
experience, Cook carried with him all his former anti-scorbutics, and
redoubled his general precautions as to cleanliness, both of person and
ship. The result was complete immunity from more than symptoms of scurvy.
He was able to say, when he returned, that no man had died not only of
this disease, but of any other, due to the exposures of the voyage. Three
lost by accidents, and one from a complaint contracted before leaving
England, were the sole losses on a voyage lasting three years, and during
which the exposure to heat, cold, rain, and all the hardships of a sea
life was probably never surpassed.

Leaving the Cape on November 22nd, Cook stood at once to the southward,
intending to pass over a spot in latitude 54 degrees South, where in 1739
M. Bouvet sighted land that was generally supposed to be a part of the
Southern Continent, and which he had been especially directed to examine.
Gales, however, drove him from his course, and to this day Bouvet's
Islands (for Cook proved they could be nothing else) are doubtfully shown
upon charts.* (* They were again reported in 1825 by the Sprightly, an
English whaler, but Sir James Ross searched for them in 1840 without
success.) Cook soon got into the ice, and fought with it and gales of
wind, in snow and sleet and fog, working gradually eastwards from the
longitude of the Cape for four months. The ship penetrated to 67 degrees
South at one point, and kept as high a latitude as ice permitted
everywhere, but without discovering any land. Cook found to his great joy
that the ice yielded good fresh water, and replenished his water casks in
this manner, without any fear of falling short. With all his power of
communicating his enthusiasm to others, it may be doubted if they shared
his pleasure at finding that the search in these inclement regions need
not be curtailed from lack of this necessary.

At last, in the longitude of Tasmania, Cook hauled to the northward, and
headed for New Zealand, where, after sailing over eleven thousand miles
since leaving the Cape without once sighting land, he anchored in Dusky
Bay on March 26th, 1774, with the Resolution only, the Adventure having
parted company in thick weather on February 9th. Moving on to Queen
Charlotte's Sound, his old anchorage at the north end of Middle Island,
he found the Adventure there on May 18th. Captain Furneaux had, after
vainly searching for his consort, run for Tasmania, and explored the east
coast. He did not, however, clear up the point for which he states he
visited this coast, namely, whether it joined New Holland or not, as
strong winds from the eastward made him fearful of closing what he
thought was a deep bay, though really the Strait, and he sailed for the
rendezvous in New Zealand under the impression that Tasmania and
Australia were one.

The ships left New Zealand on June 7th, 1773, and, after making a wide
circuit to the south and east in search of land, arrived at Tahiti on
August 16th. A good many of the Adventure's people were ill with scurvy,
and Cook is much puzzled to know the reason why they were attacked while
his own crew were free. He puts it down to the greater trouble he had
taken to make all his men use wild celery and other herbs in New Zealand,
and no doubt this had its effect; but one cannot but suspect that the
constant care on his part to keep the ship clean and sweet below had much
to do with it. The Adventure had the same anti-scorbutics, and Cook
especially mentions that they were in use; but the personal efforts of
the captain in the direction of general sanitary precautions were, we
know, exercised in one case, while we know nothing of the other.

After a month's stay at Tahiti and the Society Islands, where the crews
were much benefited by fresh provisions, the ships sailed for the
Friendly Islands, never visited since Tasrnan's time, and touched at Eoa
and Tongatabu, or, as Tasman had called them, Middleburg and Amsterdam.
These were finally left on October 7th for New Zealand, which was made on
the 21st, and from this day to November 2nd the time was spent in
fruitless endeavours to get into Cook's Strait. Gale succeeded gale--no
uncommon thing here--and in one of them the Adventure parted company
never again to rejoin. Cook anchored in Queen Charlotte's Sound on
November 2nd, and waited until the 25th for his consort in vain. Whilst
here they gained further and indisputable proof of the cannibalistic
tendencies of the Maoris, some of the natives eating human flesh before
them. Cook has been much blamed for permitting this scene, which took
place on board; but there had been so much disputing in England as to the
possibility of the fact, that he could not resist the opportunity of
putting it beyond a doubt.

It was, however, to be shortly proved in a much more horrible manner, for
the Adventure, which only arrived at Queen Charlotte's Sound after the
Resolution left, had a boat's crew attacked, overpowered, and eaten by
the natives. The circumstances were never wholly known, as not a man
escaped; but the cooked remains were found, the natives decamping as the
search-party approached.

Cook sailed south on November 25th, 1773, and was soon again battling
with the ice, into which he pushed as far as was safe with as much
hardihood as if he had still had the second ship with him. He gained the
latitude of 67 degrees south, and worked eastward, searching religiously
for land--which, needless to say, he never found--his ropes frozen, and
sails like, as he says, plates of metal. Whatever the feelings of others
on board were, Cook never flinched from every effort to get south,
penetrating in one place to 71 degrees south, where he was stopped by
dense pack, until he found himself nearly in the longitude of Tierra del
Fuego, when, satisfied that no Southern Continent existed in the Pacific,
he, on February 6th, steered north, to continue exploration in more
genial weather and more profitable latitudes. All this time there was no
scurvy, and very little sickness of any kind; an indisputable proof of
the untiring supervision Cook exercised over the health of his men. The
object of his voyage, so far as the Southern Pacific was concerned, was
now accomplished, and Cook might have rounded Cape Horn, and made for the
Cape of Good Hope, completing his tour of the world in southern
latitudes; but such was not his idea of his duty. His own nervous words
will explain his feelings best:--

"We undoubtedly might have reached the Cape of Good Hope in April, and so
have put an end to the expedition so far as related to the finding of a
continent, which indeed was the first object of the voyage; but for me at
this time to have quitted this Southern Pacific Ocean with a good ship
expressly sent out on discoveries, a healthy crew, and not in want either
of stores or provisions, would have betrayed not only a want of
perseverance, but of judgment, in supposing the South Pacific Ocean to be
so well explored that nothing remained to be done in it. This, however,
was not my opinion; for, although I had proved there was no continent but
what must lie far to the south, there remained, nevertheless, room for
very large islands in places wholly unexamined, and many of those which
were formerly discovered are but imperfectly explored, and their
situation as imperfectly known. I was, besides, of opinion that my
remaining in this sea some time longer would be productive of
improvements in navigation and geography, as well as other sciences."

Cook mentions that, on communicating his intentions to his officers, they
all heartily concurred; and he adds, "Under such circumstances it is
hardly necessary to say that the seamen were always obedient and alert,
and they were so far from wishing the voyage at an end that they rejoiced
at the prospect of its being prolonged another year." This, be it
remembered, without a prospect of news from home or contact with
civilisation, for Cook's design was to pass again through the breadth of
the Pacific searching for islands as far as Quiros' discovery of Espiritu
Santo, which lay due north of New Zealand, and then to return through the
tempestuous regions they were now quitting to Cape Horn. Perhaps the
charms of Tahiti reconciled them.

This design Cook triumphantly carried out; though shortly after leaving
southern latitudes he was so ill of what he describes as a bilious
cholic, that his life was despaired of. He first searched for, and
visited, Davis' discovery of Easter Island, where he examined and
described the wonderful colossal, though rude, statues there found. He
then went to the Marquesas, a group but little known, where, after the
usual attempt of the natives to appropriate sundry articles, and the
consequent necessity of firing upon them, peaceful relations were
established, and a brisk trade in much-wanted refreshments was set up.
This did not last long, however, as the market was spoiled by some red
feathers, obtained at the Friendly Islands, being given for a pig; after
which nothing would buy provisions but these same red feathers, and these
being scarce, trade ceased. Cook therefore sailed once more for Tahiti.

On his way he touched at some of the coral atolls of the innumerable
Paumotu Group, and arrived at Matavai on April 22nd, again with not a
sick man on board.

Three weeks were spent here with much satisfaction to all. Provisions
were in plenty, the king and people very friendly, and all went well. The
islanders were preparing for an attack on Eimeo, a neighbouring island,
and a gathering of the fleets gave Cook an opportunity of learning much
of their naval power and manner of conducting war. He observed that the
general prosperity of Tahiti seemed to be at a much higher point than on
his former visit.

After another three weeks' stay at Huaheine, and Ulietea, also amongst
old friends, the Resolution sailed on June 4th to the west.

Discovering Palmerston and Savage Islands on the way, she called at
Namuka, one of the Friendly Group, thus extending the knowledge of those
islands gained the year before. Thence Cook sailed west, discovering
Turtle Island, but just passing out of sight to the southward of the
large Fiji Group, and thus lost the chance of adding them to his other
finds.

He was now bound for the New Hebrides, of which the northern island had
been discovered by Quiros. Bougainville, the French explorer, had, in
1768, passed just south of Quiros' Island, and named one or two others he
sighted, but had made no stay, and knew nothing of the extent of the
Group.

This was not Cook's fashion. He explored and circumnavigated the whole
Group, which extends in a long line for three hundred and fifty miles. He
touched first at Mallicolo, where, after a temporary disagreement,
friendship was formed. Passing Sandwich Island, Erromanga was landed
upon; but the suspicion of the natives here impelled them to attack the
boats, and no intercourse was established.

The ship then anchored in the convenient harbour of Resolution Bay in the
island of Tanna, and remained a fortnight, wooding and watering.
Observations on the hot springs that gush from the side of the volcano
bordering the harbour were made, and the relations with the natives were
altogether friendly. Sighting Anityeum, the southern member of the New
Hebrides, and making sure there was nothing beyond it, Cook returned
along the west side of the islands, passing eastward of them again,
between Mallicolo and Espiritu Santo. The latter island was closely
followed round its whole extent, and Quiros' Bay of St. Philip and St.
James identified in the great inlet in the northern side. Having laid
down the whole of this extensive group of islands, and very accurately
fixed the longitude by many lunar observations, Cook, on August 31st,
sailed to the westward to search for more lands.

His chart of the New Hebrides is still, for some of the islands, the only
one; and wherever superseded by more recent surveys the general accuracy
of his work, both in outline and position, is very remarkable. On several
occasions up to the present year (1893) Cook's recorded positions have
saved the adoption of so-called amendments reported by passing ships,
which would have been anything but amendments in reality.

Four days after leaving the New Hebrides Cook discovered New Caledonia.
He explored the whole of the eastern side of this large island, which is
three hundred miles in length, anchoring in one harbour inside the reefs
which border it, and making friends with the natives. Other attempts to
get inside the reefs were, however, unsuccessful, and after several
narrow escapes from shipwreck Cook gave up, to his regret, a complete
circumnavigation of the island. The summer approaching, he wished to
refit and recruit in New Zealand before once more standing south.

Norfolk Island was discovered and landed upon on the way, and Queen
Charlotte's Sound was once more reached on October 19th.

The Adventure's visit was ascertained from the Maoris, but Cook was much
puzzled by incompletely understood accounts of white men having been
killed. As far as could be gathered a ship had been lost on the coast,
and Cook was led to believe that this disaster had no reference to the
Adventure.

It was found that pigs and fowls left here on the former visit were still
in existence, and presumably thriving. It may here be mentioned, that
wherever Cook touched he invariably, so far as his stock allowed, left
animals to stock the country, and that New Zealand was, when the settlers
eventually came, found to be well supplied with pigs.

After a stay of three weeks the Resolution sailed, on November 10th, for
Cape Horn. She kept farther north than on the last occasion, the object
being to pass over new ground, and more completely disprove the existence
of any land.

The western part of Tierra del Fuego being reached, Cook followed the
shore to the south-east, mapping the outside of this dangerous and
inhospitable archipelago. On December 20th he put in to what he
afterwards called Christmas Sound, where large numbers of kelp geese were
obtained, giving the crew what Cook describes as a dainty Christmas
feast, though the flesh of these birds is as tough, fishy, and
unpalatable as can well be imagined; on this occasion, however, the
seamen seemed to have concurred in the verdict of their omnivorous
commander, to whom nothing ever came amiss. Be it remembered, however,
how long they had been on salt provisions, and that the South Sea
Islands, though pleasant in many respects, produced but little solid
food--no beef, mutton, or flesh of any quadruped but pigs, and those in
not very great plenty--while New Zealand gave them nothing but fish.

Rounding Cape Horn, he passed through the Strait Le Maire, and followed
the north shore of Staten Island, anchoring at one place to obtain seals
and birds.

Whilst praising the flavour of a young seal cub, Cook is compelled to
admit that the flesh of an old sea lion is abominable; a remarkable
statement as coming from him.

Leaving Staten Island, Cook steered east and discovered South Georgia,
named after the king. He followed the north coast of this desolate and
ice-clad island, obtaining more refreshment in the shape of seals,
penguins, and shags--unpalatable, but welcome food to men who had so long
subsisted on bad salt meat. From South Georgia the ship's head was once
more turned southwards, and before many days ice was again encountered.
In stormy and thick weather the Resolution made her way, disproving the
existence of a great tract of land laid down by speculative geographers,
until January 31st, 1775, when Sandwich Land was discovered in about
latitude 60 degrees south. This ice-covered group of islands was sketched
under great difficulties from gales, fogs, snow, and numerous icebergs;
and Cook then bore away along their parallel, to seek once more for
Bouvet's Islands to the eastward.

He found nothing, and on February 26th steered for the Cape of Good Hope,
even he being glad to leave this trying, tempestuous latitude. On March
23rd he anchored in Table Bay, having learnt from some vessels outside of
the safe arrival of the Adventure in England the year before, and of her
boat's crew having been eaten by the Maoris, which cleared up the mystery
of the wrecked ship.

The Resolution finally arrived at Spithead on July 29th, 1775, after an
absence of three years and eighteen days.

Captain Furneaux had, on leaving New Zealand, sailed straight for Cape
Horn, the Cape of Good Hope, and England, arriving just a year before the
Resolution.

Cook speaks most warmly of Captain Furneaux; but one cannot help
contrasting his action with Cook's. Left, by the separation, his own
master, he might have continued exploration, as did Cook. His ship was
staunch, his provisions in much the same condition as the Resolution's;
but he went straight home. His crew had suffered from scurvy, whereas
Cook's had not; but he says not one word of this, nor does he give any
reason why he gave up any further thought of the objects of the voyage,
except a search for Bouvet's Islands, which he also looked for on his
way.

It was the indomitable perseverance that led Cook to act so differently
that raised his reputation so far above all other leaders.

Thus ended this very remarkable voyage. Never was a ship's crew exposed
to more continual hardships, with so little to keep up interest and
excitement, as the people of the Resolution; and yet Cook is able to
record, with allowable pride, that only four lives had been lost, and
only one by a sickness contracted before leaving England.

Once more the scurvy was defeated; and, without a doubt, owing to the
intelligent action and untiring supervision of the captain. He gives a
full description of the measures adopted, and while giving full
acknowledgment to the anti-scorbutics with which he was supplied, he is
of opinion that the general sanitary precautions formed the best
prevention. Cleanliness of persons, bedding, clothes, and ship, were
continually enforced. All these were foreign to the sailors of the time,
and extraordinary it is that it was a man born in the lower rank of life,
and brought up in a collier, who had the sense to perceive that in these
lay the surest preventatives against this paralysing scourge.

Cook was promoted to captain--a proud position for the collier boy--and
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society; perhaps even a greater distinction
for a man of his bringing up. He contributed papers on his methods of
preventing scurvy, and on the tides of the Pacific.

He also employed himself in publishing the account of his recent voyage,
the only one which he himself edited.

He was not, however, long at rest. The Admiralty wished to send an
expedition to explore the north-western coasts of North America, and to
examine the Polar Sea from the Bering Straits side, with a view of the
discovery of a north-west passage. Cook seems to have volunteered for the
command without being actually asked, and, needless to say, was at once
accepted.

In February he once more received his commission to command the
Resolution, this time accompanied by the Discovery, a vessel very similar
to the Adventure, his consort during the last voyage. Clerke, a master's
mate in the Endeavour, and second lieutenant in the Resolution, was
appointed as commander to the Discovery. He, like Cook, was fated not to
return from this third journey to the great Pacific.

Others who had sailed with Cook before were ready to accompany him, once
more to encounter privations and find new lands.

Cook's orders were long and detailed, but were to the effect that he was
to proceed by way of the Cape of Good Hope to search in the Indian Ocean
for the land recently seen by M. Kerguelen; thence via Tahiti, on to the
coast of North America in about latitude 45 degrees, which he was to
follow to latitude 65 degrees, searching especially for any channel which
might lead to the north-east, as it was supposed there might be a passage
communicating with Hudson's Bay. He was further to look for any passage
north of North America to the Atlantic, and to make such other
explorations as might seem fit to him. A money reward of 20,000 pounds
was also offered in case of success in finding such a passage.

Chronometers were again carried, and more confidence in them being felt,
more use was made of them.

Cook took with him Omai, a young Society islander, who had induced
Captain Furneaux to take him to England, and whom Cook now engaged to
return to his native country.

The ships sailed on July 11th, 1776, and arrived at Table Bay on October
18th.

Sailing thence on November 30th, he passed and roughly mapped Prince
Edward's, Marion, and Croset's Islands, all of which had been discovered
by Marion de Fresne. He then struck Kerguelen's Land, spent Christmas Day
in one of its harbours, and mapped the eastern side of this large but
desolate island. He was unaware that Kerguelen had visited this island a
second time, and had gained much more information about it than he did in
his first voyage.

Cook had taken on board at the Cape as many cattle, horses, bulls, cows,
goats, and sheep as he could stow, with a view of landing them at Tahiti
or elsewhere, and it is without surprise that we learn that after several
weeks in these stormy seas a good many of them had died. When we consider
the size of the ships the wonder is where they found room for these
animals.

On January 26th the ships arrived in Tasmania, and anchored in Adventure
Bay, principally with a view of getting fodder for the remaining cattle.
Pigs were left here, according to Cook's usual custom.

After four days the ships sailed, and arrived in Queen Charlotte's Sound,
New Zealand, on February 12th, 1777. Here Cook learnt the history of the
attack on the Adventure's boat's crew from the chief who led it, but made
no attempt at reprisals, although urged by many other natives to kill
him. He seems to have been guided by the consideration that, as related
by the natives, it was a dishonest act of barter on the part of one of
the sailors which commenced the disturbance; and that occurring so long
before, no good purpose would be served by punishment. It says much for
his humane treatment of natives.

On leaving this, Cook records that he had at different times left about a
dozen pigs in New Zealand. These increased, and stocked the whole island
by the time the English settlers arrived.

On the way to Tahiti Cook fell across several islands belonging to what
was afterwards called after him, the Cook Group. He visited Mangaia,
Atiu, Takutea,* (* Spelt by Cook Mangeea, Wateeo, and Otakootaia.) and
the Hervey Islands. Relations were established with the natives, and Cook
was much interested at finding on Atiu three natives of the Society
Islands, the survivors of twelve, who had been blown away in a canoe, and
landed on this island, five hundred miles distant. As he remarks, this
throws great light on the manner in which the different islands of the
Pacific have been peopled.

Cook now made up his mind that he was too late to prosecute discovery
this year on the American Continent, it being well into April, and being
anxious to save the remaining cattle that he wished to land at Tahiti,
and which had been taken on board especially for this purpose, the island
being still far to windward, he bore away for the Friendly Islands for
fodder and refreshments. He landed on Palmerston on the way--an island
discovered last voyage--and arrived at Namuka* (* Cook's Anamooka.) on
May 1st, with not a sick man in the ships.

The ships remained in the Friendly Group for two months and a half,
visiting and mapping the different islands, and learning much of the
manners of this interesting race, seeing their great concerted dances,
and the ceremonies of coming of age of the heir to the throne. Cook here
first became acquainted with the mysterious rite of Tabu, which was
closely connected with his own death. A selection of useful animals,
including horses, were left at Tongatabu.

While at the Friendly Islands Cook heard of the Fiji Group, and saw some
of the natives, who had come over in a canoe. The intelligence he was
able to gather concerning them was imperfect, and he saw no reason to
justify a long detour to leeward to search for them, when his object was
to stock the Society Islands with the animals he had. Had he known their
size and importance, his course might possibly have been different. As it
was, he sailed for Tahiti, and discovering Tubuai, one of the Austral
Group, on his passage, arrived there on August 13th, 1777.

Six weeks were spent here, and the old friendships further cemented.
Bulls and cows and other animals were presented to the king. Cook also
attended at several ceremonies consequent on war being declared against
Eimeo, which included the offering of the dead body of a man, previously
killed for the purpose, to the war god. He positively refused to aid in
this war, which very shortly came to an end.

Eimeo was next visited, and here the theft of a goat, which Cook intended
to land at Huaheine, induced him to take severe measures to get it back.
Several war canoes and houses were destroyed before it was returned. At
Huaheine, Omai was established, with many valuable European articles in
his possession. Here again Cook acted with considerable severity in the
case of a thief cutting off his ears, and confining him on board. His
action has been questioned, but considering his humane character, and the
judgment that he always displayed in these questions, we are justified in
believing that he had good reason for departing from his ordinary custom
of mild treatment of natives. At Ulietea, or Raiatea, next visited, a
midshipman and a seaman of the Discovery deserted. Cook took his usual
step of confining some natives of importance, and informing their
relatives that they would be retained until the deserters were returned.
In this case he impounded the king's son and daughter, with the desired
effect, as the stragglers were soon brought back from Bolabola, whither
they had gone; but both Cook and Captain Clerke were nearly captured by
the natives when on shore in the interval.

It is only surprising that more of Cook's people did not attempt to
remain in these pleasant islands. The hardships of the sea press much on
certain natures, and the allurements of the easy and careless life of a
tropical island offered such a contrast, that it scarcely required the
desire of the natives to get white men with their superior knowledge, and
above all superior arms, to remain with them, to induce them to desert.
This last, however, made desertion more easy, and had not Cook taken
strong measures, no doubt the epidemic would have spread.

After visiting Bolabola, Cook sailed north, to prosecute the main object
of his voyage, the exploration of the north-west coast of America. On
December 24th he fell in with Christmas Island, which he so named from
the season. After mapping it, and getting many turtle, he continued his
course to the north, and discovered Atooi or Kauai, the western island of
the Sandwich Group.

Communicating with this island and another, he finally left on February
3rd, 1778, and on March 7th made the coast of North America, a little
south of the Columbia River. Gales ensued, and Cook missed the entrance
of Juan de Fuca Strait, making the land again a little north of it.

Anchoring first in Nootka Sound in Vancouver Island--though Cook did not
know it was an island--the ships continued their exploration to the
north-west, skirting the coast as near as stormy weather permitted them,
and calling at various places until the north-west extremity of the
Alaska Peninsula was reached. In one place, afterwards called Cook's
River, it was hoped that the desired passage eastward was found; but it
was soon discovered that it was merely an inlet.

Passing through the Aleutian Chain, east of Unalaska, Cook visited that
island, and continued his voyage through the Bering Sea, clinging to the
land as much as possible, and finally got into Bering Strait. Here he had
both continents in sight, and communicated with both sides.

Standing further north, he, in latitude 70 degrees 30 minutes north, came
across the icy barrier of the Arctic Sea. After vainly trying for a
passage in fog and strong wind, surrounded by loose ice, and after
mapping a good deal of the shores on both sides, the ships again turned
south at the end of August, exploring as they went first on the Asiatic
side, and afterwards on the American, especially examining Norton Sound.
In the beginning of October they once more arrived at Unalaska, and the
Resolution having sprung a dangerous leak, the opportunity was taken to
stop it.

On October 26th the ships sailed for the Sandwich Islands, where Cook had
determined to winter, for the double purpose of refreshing his crew,
gaining more knowledge of the Group, and being in a convenient position
for resuming his exploration in the spring.

The voyage just accomplished was very remarkable, whether for the amount
of coast mapped, which extended for between three and four thousand
miles, or for the determination with which it was prosecuted in
tempestuous and thick weather, on a most dangerous and inhospitable
coast, part of the time in ice. The crews were perfectly healthy, with no
sign of scurvy, and he brought both his ships off without any damage.

Maui, another of the Sandwich Group, was made on November 26th, and after
communicating, the ships stood over to Owhyhee (Hawaii). Wind was against
them, and it was not until January 17th that the two ships, having passed
along the north side of the island to the eastward, at last anchored in
Kealakekua Bay, on the south-west side.

The events which followed the arrival of the ships at Hawaii, which
terminated in Captain Cook's death, were not understood at the time, but
have been elucidated by the inquiries of the early missionaries, which
throw much light upon the beliefs of the islanders.

It appears that a tradition existed that a chief of earlier times, one
Rono, Orono, or Lono (the R and the L in the Pacific languages are almost
interchangeable), had, after killing his wife, become frantically insane,
and after travelling through the islands boxing and wrestling with all he
met, had departed in a canoe, prophesying that he would some day return
in an island with trees, hogs, and dogs. He was deified, and temples
erected in his honour.

When Cook's ships arrived it was believed that the prophecy was
fulfilled. Rono had returned as he had said, and the natives flocked to
do him honour. When Cook landed he was received with adoration, the
crowds prostrating themselves, and the priests escorting him with much
ceremony. Led to a temple, he was clothed with red cloth, had pigs
offered to him, and was generally treated in a manner which, though
satisfactory as showing the friendly feelings of the natives, was
puzzling to the Europeans. This continued throughout their stay, presents
of all kinds being showered upon them. The officers, however, observed
that the warrior chiefs were not so enthusiastic as the priests and
common people. The death of a seaman, who was buried on shore in the
presence of a large concourse, would seem to have been the first
circumstance that threw doubts upon the godlike character of the
visitors; but the ready way in which the fence of a Morai or sacred
inclosure, which included various images, was granted for fuel, shows
that the priests still held to their idea. The king, Taraiopu (or
Terreooboo, as his name was written by Captain King), arrived shortly
after the ships anchored, and showed himself to be as much impressed with
the public belief as any of his subjects.

Thus matters continued during the eighteen days the ships remained; but
towards the end of this time the natives began to show anxiety that they
should be gone. The drain of hogs and other provisions, which were poured
upon the visitors, doubtless led to anxious thoughts as to how long this
was to last; and probably those members of the community who were less
amenable to the influence of the priests, and were jealous of their own
authority, were by no means so certain that the popular opinion of the
supernatural nature of the white men was correct.

The ships sailed on February 4th, but, as ill-luck had it, the Resolution
sprung her foremast in a gale, and Cook resolved to return to Kealakekua
Bay for repairs. Here they again anchored on the 11th.

Their reception was, however, very different.

No crowd of canoes round the ship; no enthusiastic mass of natives on
shore. Everything was silence.

What had happened was that the king had departed, leaving the bay under
"tabu," i.e., a sacred interdict.

The priests, however, received them with as much friendliness as before,
and the Morai was given up to them as a place of repairs for the damaged
mast.

The king hurried back on hearing of the return of the ships, and removed
the tabu; but the native disposition was changed. Some of the party on
shore had persuaded women to break the tabu.

Whether this affected relations is uncertain, but the inhabitants
generally exhibited considerable hostility, and headed by some chiefs,
showed an inclination to attack a watering party. Thefts followed, and
the capture of a canoe as a reprisal caused a scuffle on the beach, in
which the Englishmen were worsted by the crowd, though a friendly chief
soon restored order.

Instructions were now given to the party on shore at the Morai to permit
no natives to approach in the night, and a musket was fired at one of
them who came near.

On the morning of February 14th the Discovery's cutter was found to have
been stolen.

Cook at once decided to have recourse to his usual practice, and get
either the king or some principal chief on board, as a hostage till it
was returned. He at the same time gave orders to prevent any canoes from
leaving the bay, in order that he might, if necessary, seize them, and
sent his boats to carry this out. Guns were fired from the ships at two
large canoes that attempted to pass. Cook himself landed with a small
armed force, and went in search of the king, who at once consented to
come on board. The conduct of Taraiopu throughout showed that he had
perfect confidence in Cook, and was entirely friendly, whether he still
believed in the Rono theory or not.

While walking down to the boat, the natives, who were momentarily
increasing in numbers, implored the king not to go. His wife joined her
entreaties. Taraiopu hesitated. At this moment a man ran up and cried,
"It is war; they have killed a chief!" One of the guard boats had, in
fact, fired at a canoe attempting to leave the bay, and killed a man. The
natives at once ran to arms, and Cook, seeing his intentions frustrated,
walked towards the boat. A native attacked him with a spear, and Cook
shot him with his gun. Still, no further attack was made, but the men in
the boats hearing Cook's shot, and seeing the excited crowd, commenced to
fire without orders. Cook still moved to the shore, calling to his men to
cease firing; but whilst so doing, and with his back to the exasperated
natives, he was stabbed in the back with a dagger, and fell with his face
in the water.

There was then general confusion. The boats were a little way from the
beach, and several of the marines were also killed, before they could
reach them. Cook's body was at once dragged off by the natives.

The boats returned on board amid general consternation, and it is
mentioned that a general silence reigned on board when it was known that
their beloved commander had fallen.

The party at the Morai were shortly after attacked, but beat off the
assailants, and reinforcements were sent from the ships. Lieutenant King,
a favourite officer of Cook's, behaved with great discretion, and
assisted by some of the priests, made a truce, during which the mast and
other articles on shore for repairs were got off.

The sailors were mad for reprisals, but Captain Clerke, on whom the
command devolved, decided on pacific measures, and every attempt was made
to recover Cook's body. All that was obtained, however, were some of his
bones, which were brought down with much solemnity by a chief, and
delivered wrapped up in new cloth and red feathers.

It was known in after years that Cook's body had been instantly cut up;
the flesh was burnt, as was the custom with great chiefs and many of the
bones were preserved with great honour in a Morai dedicated to Rono.

It seems clear that Cook's death was due to a revulsion of feeling on the
part of some of the natives, who no longer believed in his divine
character, but that many regarded the outrage with horror. When the first
Europeans came to reside on the island, and learnt the story from the
native side, they found universal regret prevailing at this untoward
occurrence.

Cook left officers imbued with his own noble sentiments. No general
attack was made in revenge for what they saw was the result of
misunderstanding, although they were ignorant of the exact circumstances
which led, first to the uncommon and extraordinary veneration with which
he had been treated, and then to the sudden change in the native
behaviour.

It was found necessary to fire on the natives who prevented the watering
party from working, and some of the sailors on this duty burnt some
houses; but before the ships left, friendly relations were again
established, and many natives visited them.

After Cook's remains had been committed to the sea, the prosecution of
the voyage was determined upon, although Captain Clerke was in the last
stage of consumption, and as soon as the Resolution's mast could be
repaired, the two vessels once more departed, on February 22nd, 1779.

Cook's intentions were carried out as if he had still been in command.
The remainder of the Sandwich Group was mapped, and the ships proceeded
once more to the north. Calling at Petropavlovsk in Avatcha Bay,
Kamtchatka, they again passed through Bering Strait, and sought in vain
for a passage either to the north-east or north-west, being everywhere
baffled by dense masses of ice. Captain Clerke at last abandoned the
struggle, and repassed Bering Strait on his way south on August 1st.

On August 22nd Captain Clerke died.

This officer had accompanied Captain Cook in all his voyages, and had
also circumnavigated the globe in the Dolphin with Captain Byron before.
No man had seen more of the Pacific, and he proved himself, during his
short period of command, a worthy successor of Cook.

Captain Gore, who had been with Cook on his First Voyage, now succeeded,
King being put as Commander into the Discovery, and the two ships made
the best of their way home, via Macao and the Straits of Sunda, arriving
at the Nore on October 4th, 1780, after an absence of four years and two
months. During the whole of this voyage not the slightest symptom of
scurvy appeared in either ship, so completely were Cook's precautions
successful.

Cook had six children. Three died young. Of the others, all boys, the
eldest, James, entered the Navy, and lived to be a Commander, when, in
1794, he was drowned. The second, Nathaniel, also in the Navy, was lost
in a hurricane in 1780. The third died when at Cambridge. They none of
them lived to be married, and no descendant of the great navigator has
perpetuated his race.

Of Cook's private life during his brief intervals at home we know
nothing. A man rising from the ranks, and of his reserved character,
would have but few friends, when he had such short time to make them in
his new sphere. He lived at Mile End when at home, but after his death
his widow removed to Clapham, living there for forty years, at first with
her cousin, Isaac Smith, who had served with Cook in the Endeavour and
Resolution. She died in 1835, at the great age of ninety-three.

Of Cook's character, none could be a better judge than Captain King, who
writes as follows, after describing his death:--

"Thus fell our great and excellent commander. After a life of so much
distinguished and successful enterprise, his death, as far as regards
himself, cannot be considered premature, since he lived to finish the
great work for which he seems to have been designed. How sincerely his
loss was felt and lamented, by those who had so long found their general
security in his skill and conduct, and every consolation in their
hardships in his tenderness and humanity, it is neither necessary nor
possible for me to describe. The constitution of his body was robust,
inured to labour, and capable of undergoing the severest hardships. His
stomach bore without difficulty the coarsest and most ungrateful food.
Indeed, temperance with him was scarcely a virtue, so great was the
indifference with which he submitted to every kind of self-denial. The
qualities of his mind were of the same hardy, vigorous kind with those of
his body. His understanding was strong and perspicacious. His judgment in
whatever related to the service he was engaged in quick and sure. His
designs were bold and manly, and both in the conception and in the mode
of execution bore evident marks of a great original genius. His courage
was cool and determined, and accompanied by an admirable presence of mind
in the moment of danger. His manners were plain and unaffected. His
temper might, perhaps, have been justly blamed as subject to haughtiness
and passion, had not these been disarmed by a disposition the most
benevolent and humane. Those intervals of recreation, which sometimes
unavoidably occurred, and were looked for by us with a longing that
persons who have experienced the fatigues of service will readily excuse,
were submitted to by him with a certain impatience whenever they could
not be employed in making further provision for the more effectual
prosecution of his designs."

This is a pretty complete picture, and of a great man; a man who had
before him continually his duty, and who had in an eminent degree the
capacity to carry it out.

Though, under his determination to do this, he drove his people hard;
though he tried them with his irascibility; their conviction of his
greatness, their confidence in his leadership and in his justice, led
them to love him. He had no sympathy with the ordinary foibles and
weaknesses of his men. The charms of Tahiti, the paradise of the sailor,
were no charms for him; he hardly notices the attractive ladies of that
island; the attractions of the place to him were the abundance of
provisions, as a means of fitting his expedition for further exploration
and hardship. The strongest proof of his capacity as a commander is the
devotion of his officers. Those who know the Navy know how difficult it
is for any man who rises from the ranks to be successful in command. But
Cook was a gentleman born; he had the intuition of great minds for
fitting themselves to every position to which they may rise, and there is
never a whisper of disinclination to submit to the rule of the once
collier boy, the son of a labourer.

His intelligence is remarkably shown in his greatest triumph, the
suppression of scurvy. That it should be left to a man of little
education to discern the combination of means by which this enemy of long
voyages could be conquered, is the most remarkable thing about this
remarkable man. He himself notices the disinclination of the sailor to
any new article of food, especially when not particularly palatable; but
he soon found the means to induce them to understand that their lives
greatly depended upon these rather nasty messes. Sour krout; the
unsavoury portable soups of that day; the strange greens that Cook
insisted on hunting up at every land he visited, and boiling with their
ordinary food; the constant washing between decks; the drying below with
stoves, even in the hottest weather; the personal baths; the change of
wet clothing; the airing of bedding, were all foreign and repugnant to
the notions of the seamen of the day, and it required constant
supervision and wise management to enforce the adoption of these odd
foods and customs.

It is evident that it is to Cook's personal action the success was due.
Wallis and Byron had anti-scorbutics, but they suffered from scurvy;
Furneaux, sailing with Cook in the second voyage, under precisely similar
circumstances, suffered from scurvy. It was only in Cook's ships, and in
the Discovery, commanded and officered by men who had sailed with Cook,
and seen his methods, that exemption occurred.

Cook did more, incomparably more, than any other navigator to discover
new lands. This was only accomplished by dint of hard work; and yet his
men suffered less than in any ships, British or foreign, or similar
expeditions. Though his tracks were in new and unknown waters, we never
hear of starvation; he always manages to have an abundant supply of
water.

The completeness and accuracy of his accounts and charts are no less
remarkable.

M. de La Perouse, one of the foremost of the great French navigators,
told Captain Phillip, the founder of the Colony of New South Wales, that
"Cook had left him nothing but to admire." This was all but literally
true; wherever Cook went he finished his work, according to the
requirements of navigation of his time. He never sighted a land but he
determined its dimensions, its shape, its position, and left true guides
for his successors. His charts are still for some parts unsuperseded, and
his recorded observations still save us from hasty and incorrect
alterations desired by modern navigators.

Well may Englishmen be proud that this greatest of navigators was their
countryman.


PERSONS WHO LEFT ENGLAND IN H.M.S. ENDEAVOUR, 26TH AUGUST, 1768.

Those not otherwise disposed of were paid off on 1st August, 1771.

COLUMN 1: NAME.
COLUMN 2: RANK OR RATING.
COLUMN 3: DISPOSAL.
COLUMN 4: DATE.

James Cook : Lieutenant in Command.

Zachary Hicks : Lieutenant : Died : 25 May, 1771.

John Gore : Lieutenant.

Robert Molineux : Master : Died : 15 April, 1771.

Rich. Pickersgill : Master's Mate, Master, 16 April, 1771.

Chas. Clerke : Master's Mate, A.B., 20 August, 1768, Master's Mate, 17
April, 1771, Lieutenant, 26 May, 1771.

Francis Wilkinson : A.B., Master's Mate, 20 August, 1768.

John Bootie : Midshipman : Died : 4 February, 1771.

Jonathan Monkhouse : Midshipman : Died : 6 February, 1771.

Patrick Saunders : Midshipman, A.B., 24 May, 1770 : Deserted :
25 December, 1770.

Isaac Smith : A.B., Midshipman, 24 May, 1770, Master's Mate, 27 May, 1771.

William Harvey : Lieutenant's Servant, Midshipman, 8 February, 1771.

Jos. Magra : A.B., Midshipman, 27 May, 1771.

Isaac Manley : Master's Servant, Midshipman, 5 February, 1771.

William B. Monkhouse : Surgeon : Died : 5 November, 1770.

William Perry : Surgeon's Mate, Surgeon, 6 November, 1770.

Rich. Orton : Clerk.

Stephen Forwood : Gunner.

John Gathray : Boatswain : Died : 4 February, 1771.

John Satterly : Carpenter : Died : 12 February, 1771.

John Thompson : Cook : Died : 31 January, 1771.

Sam Evans : Quarter Master, Boatswain, 6 February, 1771.

Alex. Weir : Quarter Master : Drowned : 14 September, 1768.

Thos. Hardman : Boatswain's Mate, A.B., 26 March, 1769, Sailmaker,
2 February, 1771.

John Reading : Boatswain's Mate : Died : 29 August, 1769.

Benjamin Jordan : Carpenter's Mate : Died : 31 January, 1771.

John Ravenhill : Sailmaker : Died : 27 January, 1771.

George Nowell : A.B., Carpenter, 14 February, 1771.

Isaac Parker : A.B., Boatswain's Mate, 26 November, 1769.

Robt. Anderson : A.B., Quarter Master, 16 September, 1768.

James Gray : A.B., Quarter Master, 6 February, 1771.

Robert Taylor : Armourer : Died : 1 August, 1771.

Rich. Hutchins : A.B., Boatswain's Mate, 1 September, 1769.

Joseph Childs : A.B., Cook, 1 February, 1771.

Peter Flowers : A.B. : Drowned : 2 December, 1768.

Timothy Rearden : A.B. : Died : 24 December, 1770.

John Rainsay : A.B.

William Dawson : A.B.

Francis Haite : A.B. : Died : 1 February, 1771.

Sam Jones. : A.B.

James Nicholson : A.B. : Died : 31 January, 1771.

Forby Sutherland : A.B. : Died : 30 April, 1770.

Thomas Simmonds : A.B.

Rich. Hughes : A.B., Carpenter's Mate, 14 February, 1771.

Sam Moody : A.B. : Died : 31 January, 1771.

Isaac Johnson : A.B.

Robt. Stainsby : A.B.

William Collett : A.B.

Archibald Wolfe : A.B. : Died : 31 January, 1771.

Matthew Cox : A.B.

Chas. Williams : A.B.

Alex. Simpson : A.B.. : Died : 21 February, 1771.

Thos. Knight : A.B.

Hy. Stevens : A.B.

Thos. Jones (2) : A.B.

Antony Ponto : A.B.

Jeh. Dozey : A.B. : Died : 7 April, 1771.

Jas. Tunley : A.B.

Mich. Littleboy : A.B.

John Goodjohn : A.B.

John Woodworth : A.B. : Died : 24 December, 1770.

William Peckover : A.B.

Robt. Littleboy : A.B.

Henry Jeffs : A.B. : Died : 27 February, 1771.

William Howson : Captain's Servant : Died : 30 June, 1771.

Nathl. Morey : Lieutenant's Servant.

Thos. Jones : Surgeon's Servant : Discharged : 5 November, 1770.

Ed. Terrell : Carpenter's Servant, A.B. 1 September, 1769.

Thos. Jordan : Boatswain's Servant.

Thos. Matthews : Cook's Servant.

Danl. Roberts : Gunner's Servant : Died. : 2 February, 1771.

John Thurmand (Pressed at Madeira) : A.B. : Died : 3 February, 1771.

MARINES.

John Edgecombe : Sergeant R.M.

John Trusslove : Corporal : Died : 24 January, 1771.

Thos. Rossiter : Drummer.

William Judge : Private.

Hy. Paul : Private.

Danl. Preston : Private : Died : 16 February, 1771.

William Wiltshire : Private.

William Greenslade : Private : Drowned : 6 April, 1769.

Saml. Gibson : Private, Corporal, 26 January, 1771.

Thos. Dunster : Private : Died : 26 January, 1771.

Clement Webb : Private.

John Bowles : Private.

CIVILIANS AND STAFF.

Joseph Banks, Esquire.

Charles Solander : Naturalist.

Charles Green : Astronomer : Died : 29 January, 1771.

John Reynolds : Artist : Died : 18 December, 1770.

Sydney Parkinson : Artist : Died : 26 January, 1771.

Alexander Buchan : Artist : Died : 17 April, 1769.

Herman Sporing : Died : -- : 24 January, 1771.

James Roberts : Servant.

Peter Briscoe : Servant.

Thomas Richmond : Negro Servant : Frozen to death : 16 January, 1769.

George Dorlton : Negro Servant : Frozen to death : 16 January, 1769.

TOTAL LOSS.

1768: Drowned 2.
1769: Drowned 1.
1769: Frozen 2.
1769: Died 2.
1770: Died 5.
1771: Died 26.
Total: 38.

***


A JOURNAL OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF HIS MAJESTY'S BARK ENDEAVOUR, ON A VOYAGE
ROUND THE WORLD, BY
LIEUTENANT JAMES COOK, COMMANDER, COMMENCING THE 25TH OF MAY, 1768.


EXPLANATION (FROM JOURNAL).

IT is necessary to premise by way of explanation, that in this Journal
(except while we lay at George's Island) the day is supposed to begin and
end at noon, as for instance, Friday the 27th May, began at noon on
Thursday 26th, and ended the following noon according to the natural day,
and all the courses and bearings are the true courses and bearings
according to the Globe, and not by Compass. The longitude is counted West
from the meridian of Greenwich where no other place is particularly
mentioned. The proportional length of the log-line to the half minute
glass, by which the ships run was measured, is as thirty seconds is to
thirty feet.

While the ship lay in port or was coasting in sight of land, or sailing
in narrow seas, this Journal is not kept in the usual form, but the
degrees of Latitude and Longitude the ship passes over are put down at
the top of each page, by which together with the notes in the margin* an
easy reference will be had to the Chart. (* These notes in the margin
have not been printed. ED.)


CHAPTER 1. ENGLAND TO RIO JANEIRO.

REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES ON BOARD HIS MAJESTY'S BARK ENDEAVOUR.

1768.

[May to July 1768.]

RIVER THAMES, Friday, May 27th, to Friday, July 29th. Moderate and fair
weather; at 11 a.m. hoisted the Pendant, and took charge of the Ship,
agreeable to my Commission of the 25th instant, she lying in the Bason in
Deptford Yard. From this day to the 21st of July we were constantly
employed in fitting the Ship, taking on board Stores and Provisions, etc.
The same day we sailed from Deptford and anchored in Gallions reach, were
we remained until the 30th. The transactions of Each Day, both while we
lay here and at Deptford, are inserted in the Log Book, and as they
contain nothing but common Occurrences, it was thought not necessary to
insert them here.

[July to August 1768.]

July 30th to August 7th. Saturday, July 30th, Weighed from Gallions, and
made sail down the River, the same day Anchored at Gravesend, and the
next Morning weighed from thence, and at
Noon Anchored at the Buoy of the Fairway. On Wednesday, 3rd of August,
Anchored in the Downs in 9 fathoms of water, Deal Castle North-West by
West. On Sunday, 7th, I joined the Ship, discharged the Pilot, and the
next day saild for Plymouth.

Monday, 8th. Fresh Breezes and Cloudy weather the most part of these 24
hours. At 10 a.m. weighed and came to sail; at Noon the South Foreland
bore North-East 1/2 North, distant 6 or 7 Miles. Wind West by North,
North-West.

Tuesday, 9th. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. At 7 p.m. the Tide being
against us, Anchored in 13 fathoms of Water; Dungeness South-West by
West. At 11 a.m. Weighed and made Sail down Channel; at Noon, Beachy
Head, North by East 1/2 East, distant 6 Leagues, Latitude observed 50
degrees 30 minutes North. Wind North-West to North.

Wednesday, 10th. Variable: light Airs and Clear weather. At 8 p.m. Beachy
Head North-East by East, distant 4 Leagues, and at 8 a.m. it bore
North-East by North, 9 Leagues. Found the Variation of the Compass to be
23 degrees West; at Noon the Isle of Wight North-West by North. Wind West
by North, North-East by East.

Thursday, 11th. Light Airs and Clear weather. At 8 p.m. Dunnose North by
West 5 Leagues, and at 4 a.m. it bore North-North-East 1/2 East, distant
5 Leagues. Wind Variable.

Wednesday, 12th. Light Airs and Calms all these 24 Hours. At Noon the
Bill of Portland bore North-West 1/2 West, distant 3 Leagues. Latitude
Observed 50 degrees 24 minutes North. Wind Easterly.

Thursday, 13th. Ditto weather. At Noon the Start Point West 7 or 8 miles.
Latitude Observed 50 degrees 12 minutes North, which must be the Latitude
of the Start, as it bore West.* (* This is correct.) Wind Variable.

Sunday, 14th. Fine breezes and Clear weather. At 1/2 past 8 p.m. Anchored
in the Entrance of Plymouth Sound in 9 fathoms water. At 4 a.m. weighed
and worked into proper Anchoring ground, and Anchored in 6 fathoms, the
Mewstone South-East, Mount Batten North-North-East 1/2 East, and Drake's
Island North by West. Dispatched an Express to London for Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander to join the Ship, their Servants and Baggage being already
on board. Wind North-Easterly.

Monday, 15th. First and latter parts Moderate breezes and fair; Middle
squally, with heavy showers of rain. I this day received an order to
Augment the Ship's Company to 85 Men, which before was but 70. Received
on board fresh Beef for the Ship's Company. Wind South-West to
South-East.

Tuesday, 16th. First part moderate and Hazey; Middle hard Squalls with
rain; the Latter moderate and fair. Received on board a supply of Bread,
Beer, and Water. A Sergeant, Corporal, Drummer, and 9 Private Marines as
part of the Complement. Wind South-South-East to North-East.

Wednesday, 17th. Little wind and Hazey weather. Sent some Cordage to the
Yard in order to be Exchanged for Smaller. Several Shipwrights and
Joiners from the Yard Employed on board refitting the Gentlemen's Cabins,
and making a Platform over the Tiller, etc. Wind South-East to East by
South.

Thursday, 18th. Little wind and Cloudy. Struck down 4 guns into the Hold.
Received on board 4 More, with 12 Barrels of Powder and several other
Stores. Shipwrights and Joiners Employed on board. Wind Easterly.

Friday, 19th. Former part little wind with rain; remainder fair weather;
a.m. Read to the Ship's Company the Articles of War and the Act of
Parliament, they likewise were paid two Months' Wages in advance. I also
told them that they were to Expect no additional pay for the performance
of our intended Voyage; they were well satisfied, and Expressed great
Cheerfulness and readiness to prosecute the Voyage. Received on board
another Supply of Provisions, Rum, etc. Wind North-West to South-West.

Saturday, 20th. First part little wind with rain; remainder fresh Gales
and thick rainy weather. Employed making ready for Sea. Wind
West-South-West.

Sunday, 21st. Fresh Gales and Ditto Weather. The Shipwrights having
finished their Work, intended to have sailed, instead of which was
obliged to let go another Anchor. Wind South-West, West-South-West.

Monday, 22nd. Fresh Gales, with heavy squalls of Wind and Rain all this
24 hours. Wind South-West.

Tuesday, 23rd. Ditto weather. Struck Yards and Topmasts; Anchored between
the Island and the Main His Majesty's Ship Gibraltar. Wind West by South.

Wednesday, 24th. Fresh Gales and Hazey weather; a.m. hove up the Small
Bower Anchor and got Topmasts and Yards. Wind West by South.

Thursday, 25th. Moderate and Cloudy weather; a.m. received on Board a
supply of Beer and Water, and returned all our Empty Casks. Loosed the
Topsails as a Signal for Sailing. Wind West, North by West, North-West by
West.

[Sailed from Plymouth.]

Friday, 26th. First part fresh Breezes and Cloudy, remainder little wind
and Clear. At 2 p.m. got under Sail and put to Sea, having on board 94
Persons, including Officers, Seamen, Gentlemen, and their Servants; near
18 Months' Provisions, 10 Carriage Guns, 12 Swivels, with good Store of
Ammunition and Stores of all kinds. At 8 the Dodman Point
West-North-West, distant 4 or 5 Leagues; at 6 a.m. the Lizard bore
West-North-West 1/2 West, 5 or 6 Leagues distant. At Noon Sounded and had
50 fathoms, Grey sand with small Stones and broken Shells. Wind North by
West, North-West, West by South; course South 21 degrees East; distance
23 miles; latitude 49 degrees 30 minutes North, longitude 5 degrees 52
minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 21 degrees West distant 23 miles.

Saturday, 27th. First part Light Airs and Clear weather, remainder fresh
breezes and Cloudy. Berthed the Ship's Company, Mustered the Chests and
Stove all that were unnecessary. Wind North-West, North-East, South-East;
course South-West; distance 77 miles; latitude 48 degrees 42 minutes
North, longitude 6 degrees 49 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 29
degrees East, 80 miles.

Sunday, 28th. Former part fresh Gales and Hazey with rain; remainder a
Moderate breeze and Cloudy. Wind Easterly; course South 48 degrees West;
distance 130 miles; latitude 47 degrees 16 minutes North, longitude 9
degrees 7 minutes West; at noon Lizard North 40 degrees 5 minutes East;
69 leagues.

Monday, 29th. Light Airs and Hazey the Most part of these 24 hours with
some Rain. Wind North-Westerly; course South 21 degrees West; distance 41
miles; latitude 46 degrees 38 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 29
minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 37 degrees 45 minutes East, 86
leagues.

Tuesday, 30th. Fresh Gales all these 24 Hours. At 1/2 past 1 p.m. Spoke
with His Majesty's Ship Guardaloupe; at 6 Close Reeft the Topsails, and
got down the Top Gallant Yards. Wind Westerly; course South 27 degrees
West; distance 33 miles; latitude 46 degrees 9 minutes North, longitude 9
degrees 52 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 36 degrees East, 96
leagues.

Wednesday, 31st. First and Middle parts, Moderate breezes and Clear;
Latter, fresh Gales and Cloudy. At 6 p.m. loosed the 2nd Reef out of the
Topsails, and at 8 a.m. took them in again; at Noon Tacked and stood to
the North-West, having stood before to the Southward. Wind West to
South-West; course South 36 degrees East; distance 82 miles; latitude 45
degrees 3 minutes North, longitude 8 degrees 43 minutes West; at noon,
Lizard North-North-East, 105 leagues.

[September 1768. Plymouth to Madeira.]

Thursday, September 1st. Very hard gales, with some heavy showers of
Rain, the most part of these 24 Hours, which brought us under our two
Courses, Broke one of our Main Topmast phuttock Plates, washed overboard
a small Boat belonging to the Boatswain, and drowned between 3 and 4
Dozen of our Poultry, which was worst of all. Towards Noon it moderated,
so that we could bear our Maintopsail close Reefd. At Midnight wore and
stood to the Southward. Wind Westerly; course South 70 degrees West;
distance 20 miles; latitude 44 degrees 56 minutes North, longitude 9
degrees 9 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 28 degrees 15 minutes West,
109 leagues.

Friday, 2nd. Fresh Gales and Cloudy the most part of these 24 hours. P.M.
got up the spare Mainsail to dry, it being Wet by the Water getting into
the Sail room, occasioned by the Ship being very Leakey in her upper
works. At 5 a.m. loosed 2 Reefs out of each Topsail, and saw the Land,
which we judged to be Cape Finister and Cape Ortugal. At 10 Tackt, being
about 4 miles off Shore, and stood to the North-West; at Noon, Cape
Ortugal bore East by South, distance about 8 Leagues. Wind North by West,
West, South-West, West-South-West; course South by West; distance 64
miles; latitude 43 degrees 53 minutes North, longitude 9 degrees 26
minutes West; at noon, Lizard North-North-East, 130 leagues.

Saturday, 3rd. First part little wind and Hazey, with rain; remainder
strong Gales with hard squalls, which brought us under our close Reeft
Topsails, and obliged us to strike Topgallant Yards. At 8 a.m. wore ship
and stood to the Southward. Wind South-West and West; course South 68
degrees 45 minutes West; distance 44 miles; latitude 44 degrees 9 minutes
North, longitude 10 degrees 20 minutes West; at noon, Lizard North 29 1/2
degrees East, 138 leagues.

Sunday, 4th. Fore part fresh Gales and Clear; remainder light Airs and
Calm. At 6 a.m. Cape Finister bore South by West 1/2 West, distance 10 or
11 leagues. Loosed all the Reefs out of the Topsails, and got Topgallant
Yards across. Wind Westerly, Calm; at noon, Island of Cyserga,* (*
Sisarga, near Coruna.) East-South-East 3 leagues.

Monday, 5th. Light breezes and Calm all these 24 hours. At 2 p.m. had an
Observation of the Sun and Moon, which gave the Longitude 8 degrees 42
minutes West from Greenwich. At 6 Cape Finister bore South by West 1/2
West, 6 Leagues. Variation of the Compass per Azimuth 18 degrees 42
minutes West. At Noon, Cape Finister South by East, distant 4 leagues;
latitude observed 43 degrees 4 minutes, therefore Cape Finister must lay
in latitude 42 degrees 53 minutes North.* (* This is correct.) Wind
Westerly, North-West, Calm.

Tuesday, 6th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather these 24 Hours. A.M.
found the Variation by the Mean of 5 Azimuth to be 21 degrees 40 minutes
West, 3 Degrees more than what it was found Yesterday, which I cannot
account for,* (* Cook, as all other navigators of his time, was unaware
of the deviation of the compass caused by the iron of the ship.) as both
Observations appeared to me to be equally well made. At 10.28 had an
Observation of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 9 degrees 40
minutes West from Greenwich. By this Observation Cape Finister must lay
in 8 degrees 52 minutes, and by that made yesterday in 8 degrees 40
minutes. The Mean of the two is 8 degrees 46 minutes West of Greenwich
the Longitude of the Cape,* (* The correct longitude is 9 degrees 15
minutes West.) its latitude being 42 degrees 53 minutes North. Wind
North-West; course South 42 degrees West; distance 70 miles; latitude 42
degrees 1 minute North, longitude 9 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon,
Cape Finister North 42 degrees East, 70 miles.

Wednesday, 7th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather; found the Variation
to be 21 degrees 4 minutes West. Wind West-North-West; course South by
West; distance 92 miles; latitude 40 degrees 29 minutes North, longitude
10 degrees 11 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 13 degrees East,
49 leagues.

Thursday, 8th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy weather. A.M. Past by 2 Sail, which
were standing to the North-East. Wind West-North-West to West by South;
course South 4 degrees East; distance 111 miles; latitude 38 degrees 33
minutes North, longitude 10 degrees West; at noon, Cape Finister North 12
degrees East, 88 leagues.

Friday, 9th. First part fresh Gales; remainder moderate breezes and fine,
Clear weather. Set up the Topmast rigging, and found the Variation to be
19 degrees 50 minutes West. Wind West by North to North-East; course
South 40 degrees West; distance 116 miles; latitude 37 degrees 4 minutes
North, longitude 11 degrees 33 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North
20 degrees East, 124 leagues.

Saturday, 10th. A steady, fresh breeze and fine Clear weather. Found the
Variation of the Compys by the Evening and Morning Amplitude and by 2
Azimuth to be 20 degrees 59 minutes West. Wind North-East by East; course
South 36 minutes West; distance 130 miles; latitude 35 degrees 20 minutes
North, longitude 13 degrees 28 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North
24 degrees East, 166 leagues.

Sunday, 11th. The same Winds and weather Continue. Found the Variation to
be this Evening 18 degrees 54 minutes, and in the Morning 17 degrees 58
minutes West, they both being the mean result of several good
Observations. Wind North-East by East, North by East; course South 32
degrees West; distance 94 miles; latitude 34 degrees 1 minute North,
longitude 14 degrees 29 minutes West; at noon, Cape Finister North 26 1/2
degrees East, 198 leagues.

Monday, 12th. Moderate breezes and fine Clear weather. At 6 a.m. the
Island of Porto Santo bore North-West by West, distance 9 or 10 leagues.
Hauld the Wind to the westward at noon, the Deserters extending from
West-South-West to South-West by South, the Body of Madeira West 1/2
South, and Porto Santo North-North-West 1/2 West. Wind North-North-West;
course South 40 degrees West; distance 102 miles; latitude 32 degrees 43
minutes North, longitude 15 degrees 53 minutes West.

Tuesday, 13th. Fresh breezes and clear weather. At 8 p.m. anchored in
Funchal Road in 22 fathoms. Found here His Majesty's Ship Rose and
several Merchants' Vessels. In the Morning new berthed the Ship, and
Moor'd with the Stream Anchor, half a Cable on the Best Bower and a
Hawser and a half on the Stream Wind North-West.

MOORED IN FUNCHAL ROAD, MADEIRA, Wednesday, 14th. First part fine, Clear
weather, remainder Cloudy, with Squals from the land, attended with
Showers of rain. In the Night the Bend of the Hawsers of the Stream
Anchor Slip'd owing to the Carelessness of the Person who made it fast.
In the Morning hove up the Anchor in the Boat and carried it out to the
Southward. In heaving the Anchor out of the Boat Mr. Weir, Master's Mate,
was carried overboard by the Buoy rope and to the Bottom with the Anchor.
Hove up the Anchor by the Ship as soon as possible, and found his Body
intangled in the Buoy rope. Moor'd the Ship with the two Bowers in 22
fathoms Water; the Loo Rock West and the Brazen Head East. Saild His
Majesty's Ship Rose. The Boats employed carrying the Casks a Shore for
Wine, and the Caulkers caulking the Ship Sides. Wind Easterly.

Thursday, 15th. Squals of Wind from the Land, with rain the most part of
these 24 Hours. Received on board fresh Beef and Greens for the Ship's
Company, and sent on shore all our Casks for Wine and Water, having a
Shore Boat employed for that purpose. Wind North-East to South-East.

Friday, 16th. The most part fine, Clear weather. Punished Henry Stevens,
Seaman, and Thomas Dunster, Marine, with 12 lashes each, for refusing to
take their allowance of Fresh Beef. Employed taking on board Wine and
Water. Wind Easterly.

Saturday, 17th. Little wind, and fine Clear weather. Issued to the whole
Ship's Company 20 pounds of Onions per Man. Employed as Yesterday. Wind
Westerly.

Sunday, 18th. Ditto Weather. P.M. received on board 270 pounds of fresh
Beef, and a Live Bullock charged 613 pounds. Compleated our Wine and
Water, having received of the former 3032 Gallons, of the Latter 10 Tuns.
A.M. unmoor'd and prepar'd for Sailing. Funchall, in the Island of
Madeira, by Observations made here by Dr. Eberton, F.R.S., lies in the
latitude of 32 degrees 33 minutes 33 seconds North and longitude West
from Greenwich 16 degrees 49 minutes,* (* Modern determination is 32
degrees 38 minutes North, 16 degrees 54 minutes West.) the Variation of
the Compass 15 degrees 30 minutes West, decreasing as he says, which I
much doubt;* (* Cook was right: the variation was increasing.) neither
does this Variation agree with our own Observations. The Tides flow full,
and Change North and South, and rise Perpendicular 7 feet at Spring Tides
and 4 feet at Niep tides. We found the North point of the Diping Needle,
belonging to the Royal Society, to Dip 77 degrees 18 minutes. The
Refreshments for Shipping to be got at this place are Wine, Water, Fruit
of Several Sorts, and Onions in Plenty, and some Sweatmeats; but Fresh
Meat and Poultry are very Dear, and not to be had at any rate without
Leave from the Governour. Wind southerly, East-South-East, South-West.

[Sailed from Madeira.]

Monday, 19th. Light breezes and fine Clear weather. At Midnight Sailed
from Funchall. At 8 a.m. the high land over it bore North 1/2 East.
Unbent the Cables, stow'd the Anchors, and issued to the Ship's Company
10 pounds of Onions per Man. Ship's Draught of Water, Fore 14 feet 8
inches; Aft 15 feet 1 inch. Wind East-South-East; latitude 31 degrees 43
minutes North; at noon, High land over Funchall North 7 degrees East, 49
miles.

Tuesday, 20th. Light Airs and Clear weather. P.M. took several Azimuth,
which gave the Variation 16 degrees 30 minutes West. Put the Ship's
Company to three Watches. Wind variable; course South 21 degrees 30
minutes West; distance 28 miles; latitude 31 degrees 17 minutes,
longitude 17 degrees 19 minutes West; at noon, Funchall, Island of
Madeira, North 13 degrees East, 76 miles.

Wednesday, 21st. First part light Airs, remainder fresh Breezes and Clear
weather. Served Hooks and Lines to the Ship's Company, and employed them
in the day in making Matts, etc., for the Rigging. Wind South-West to
South-West by West; course South 60 degrees East; distance 60 miles;
latitude 30 degrees 46 minutes North, longitude 16 degrees 8 minutes
South; at noon, Funchall North 10 degrees West, 113 miles.

Thursday, 22nd. Genteel breezes and Clear weather. At 4 p.m. saw the
Salvages bearing South; at 6, the Body of the Island bore South 1/2 West,
distant about 5 leagues. Found the Variation of the Compass by an Azimuth
to be 17 degrees 50 minutes West. At 10 the Isles of Salvages bore West
by South 1/2 South, distance 2 leagues. I make those Islands to be in
latitude 30 degrees 11 minutes South, and South 16 degrees East, 58
leagues from Funchall, Madeira. Wind South-West; course South 35 degrees
30 minutes East; distance 73 miles; latitude 29 degrees 40 minutes North,
longitude 15 degrees 31 minutes West; at noon, Funchall North 21 degrees
West, 62 leagues.

Friday, 23rd. Light breezes and Clear weather. At 6 a.m. saw the Peak of
Teneriff bearing West by South 1/2 South, and the Grand Canaries South
1/2 West. The Variation of the Compass from 17 degrees 22 minutes to 16
degrees 30 minutes, Wind South-West, North-East; course South 26 degrees
West; distance 54 miles; latitude 28 degrees 51 minutes North, longitude
15 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon, Funchal North 12 degrees 45 minutes
West, 77 leagues.

Saturday, 24th. A fresh Breeze and Clear weather the most part of these
24 Hours. I take this to be the North-East Trade we have now got into. At
6 p.m. the North-East end of the Island of Teneriff West by North,
distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Off this North-East point lies some Rocks high
above the water. The highest is near the point, and very remarkable. By
our run from Yesterday at Noon this end of the Island must lie in the
latitude of 28 degrees 27 minutes and South 7 degrees 45 minutes East,
distance 83 leagues from Funchal, and South 18 degrees West, 98 miles
from the Salvages. At 1 a.m. the Peak of Teneriff bore West-North-West.
Found the Variation to be this morning 16 degrees 14 minutes West. The
Peak of Teneriff (from which I now take my departure) is a very high
Mountain upon the Island of the same name--one of the Canary Islands. Its
perpendicular higth from Actual Measurement is said to be 15,396 feet.*
(* The received height is 12,180 feet. Latitude 28 degrees 16 minutes
North, Longitude 16 degrees 38 minutes West.) It lies in the Latitude of
28 degrees 13 minutes North, and Longitude 16 degrees 32 minutes from
Greenwich. Its situation in this respect is allowed to be pretty well
determined. Wind North-East by East; latitude 27 degrees 10 minutes
North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 18 degrees 45 minutes, 74 miles.

Sunday, 25th. A Steady Trade Wind and Clear Weather. The Variation by the
Amplitude this Evening was 14 degrees 58 minutes West. Wind East by
North, East-North-East; course South 41 degrees West; distance 126 miles;
latitude 25 degrees 36 minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 33
degrees 15 minutes East, 61 leagues.

Monday, 26th. Fresh breezes and somewhat Hazey. Variation by this Evening
Amplitude 15 degrees 1 minute West. Wind North-East by East; course South
22 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 122 miles; latitude 23 degrees 43
minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff North 29 degrees East, 317 miles.

Tuesday, 27th. Ditto weather. Served Wine to the Ship's Company, the Beer
being all Expended but 2 Casks, which I intend to keep some time Longer,
as the whole has proved very good to the last Cask. At Noon found the
Ship by Observation 10 miles a Head of the Log, which I suppose may be
owing to a Current setting in the same direction of the Trade Wind. Wind
North-East; course South 19 degrees West; distance 145 miles; latitude 21
degrees 26 minutes North; at noon, Peak of Teneriff, North 26 degrees
East, 154 leagues.

Wednesday, 28th. A Fresh Trade wind and Hazey weather. The Variation of
the Compass by the mean of Several Azimuth taken this Evening 12 degrees
46 minutes, and in the Morning by the same Method 12 degrees 43 minutes
West. This day's Log and Observed Latitude agree, which is not
reconcilable to Yesterday. Exercised the People at Small Arms. Wind
North-East, East-North-East; course South 12 degrees 30 minutes West;
distance 150 miles; latitude 18 degrees 59 minutes North; at noon, Peak
of Teneriff North 23 degrees 15 minutes East, 204 leagues.

Thursday, 29th. Fresh breezes and Hazey weather. The Variation 12 degrees
33 minutes West; the Observed Latitude ahead of that given by the Log 10
miles. Wind North-East by North; course South 14 degrees West; distance
90 miles; latitude 17 degrees 32 minutes North; at noon Peak of Teneriff,
North 33 degrees East, 236 leagues.

[Off Cape de Verd Islands.]

Friday, 30th. A Steady breeze and Pleasant weather. At 6 a.m. saw the
Island of Bonavista (one of the Cape de Verd islands), Extending from
South by East to South-West by South, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Ranged the
East side of this Island at the Distance of 3 or 4 miles from the Shore,
until we were obliged to Haul Off to avoid a Ledge of Rocks which
stretched out South-West by West from the Body or South-East Point of the
Island 1 1/2 leagues. Had no ground with 40 fathoms a Mile without this
Ledge. The Island of Bonavista is in Extent from North to South about 5
leagues, is of a very uneven and hilly Surface, with low sandy beaches on
the East side. The South-East part of the Island, from which I take my
Departure, by an Observation this day at Noon lies in the latitude of 16
degrees North, and according to our run from Madeira in the longitude of
21 degrees 51 minutes West from Greenwich, and South 21 degrees West; 260
leagues from Tenerriff. Drawings Numbers 1 and 2 represent the appearance
of the East side of this Island, where (2) is the South-East point, with
the hill over it, which is high, of a round Figure, and the southermost
on the Island. Wind North-East; course South 12 degrees 30 minutes West;
distance 97 miles; latitude 15 degrees 37 minutes North per observation;
Teneriffe, North 20 degrees 43 minutes East, 262 1/3 leagues; at noon the
hill on the South-East Point of the Island Bonavista North 69 degrees
West, distant from the shore 3 leagues.

[October 1768.]

Saturday, October 1st. A steady gale and somewhat Hazey. Variation by
very good Azimuths this Evening 10 degrees 37 minutes, and by the same in
the Morning 10 degrees 0 minutes West; at Noon found the ship a Head of
the Log 5 Miles. Wind North, North-North-East; course South 12 degrees 12
minutes West; distance 114 miles; latitude 14 degrees 6 minutes North,
longitude 22 degrees 10 minutes West; at noon Island of Bonavista,
South-East point, North 9 degrees West, 116 miles.

Sunday, 2nd. First part a Steady breeze and pleasant weather, remainder
light breezes and Cloudy. At noon found the Ship by Observation ahead of
the Log 7 miles. Wind North by East, North-North-West; course South 1
degree West; distance 92 miles; latitude 12 degrees 34 minutes North,
longitude 22 degrees 10 minutes West; at noon Bonavista, South-East
point, North 5 degrees 45 minutes East, 69 leagues.

Monday, 3rd. Cloudy weather, with light winds and Calms. Variation by
this Evening Amplitude South 8 degrees 49 minutes West. A.M. hoisted out
a Boat to try if there was any Current; found one setting to the
South-East at the rate of 3/4 of a Mile per hour. Wind North, calm,
South-South-West 1/2 West; course South 3 degrees 30 minutes East;
distance 20 miles; latitude 12 degrees 14 minutes North, longitude 22
degrees 10 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5
degrees East, 76 leagues.

Tuesday, 4th. Calm for the Greatest part of the 24 Hours. By an
Observation we had this Morning of the Sun and Moon found our Selves in
the Longitude of 22 degrees 32 minutes 30 seconds West from Greenwich;
that by account is 21 degrees 58 minutes, the Difference being 34 miles
Westerly, which does not agree with the Setting of the Current, for
having try'd it twice to-day and found it set to the East-South-East 1
Mile per Hour, and at the same time found the Ship to the Southward of
the Log by the Noon Observation 10 miles. Served Portable soup and Sour
kroutt to the Ship's Company. Wind variable; course South 53 degrees
West; distance 17 miles; latitude 11 degrees 53 minutes North, longitude
22 degrees 33 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2
degrees East, 82 leagues.

Wednesday, 5th. Light breezes of Wind, sometimes Clear and sometimes
Cloudy weather. Variation 6 degrees 10 minutes West by an Amplitude and
Azimuth this evening. At noon found the Ship by the Observed Latitude 7
Miles to the Southward of the Log, and by the Observed Longitude 30
degrees to the Eastward of Yesterday's Observations; and as these
Observations for finding the Longitude (if carefully observed with good
Instrument) will generally come within 10 or 15 Miles of each other, and
very often much nearer, it therefore can be no longer in Doubt but that
there is a Current setting to the Eastward;* (* This was the Counter
Equatorial Current.) yet we cannot have had this Current long, because
the Longitude by account and that by Observation agree to-day, but
Yesterday she was 28 miles to the Westward of the Observation. Wind calm,
North-East, East; course South 29 degrees East; distance 57 miles;
latitude 10 degrees 56 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 3 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2 degrees East, 101
leagues.

Thursday, 6th. First part light Breezes and Cloudy; Middle frequent heavy
Squalls, with rain, till towards Noon when we had again little wind.
Found the Variation by the mean of 3 Azimuth, taken this Morning, to be 8
degrees 52 minutes West, which makes the Variation found Yesterday
doubtful. Wind North-East, South-East, Southerly; course South 10 degrees
30 minutes West; distance 77 miles; latitude 9 degrees 40 minutes North,
longitude 22 degrees 28 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East
point, North 4 degrees East, 128 leagues.

Friday, 7th. Variable light Airs and Calm all these 24 Hours. At Noon
found the Current to set South-East 1/4 South one Mile per hour, and yet
by Observation at Noon I find the Ship 12 Miles to the Northward of
Account, a Circumstance that hath not happened for many days, and which I
believe to be owing to the heavy Squalls we had Yesterday from the
South-East, which obliged us to put frequently before the Wind. Wind
Southerly, calm, Northerly; course South 5 degrees West; distance 10
miles; latitude 9 degrees 42 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 19
minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 4 degrees East,
127 leagues.

[Between Cape de Verd Islands and Equator.]

Saturday, 8th. First part, light Airs and Clear weather; Middle, Squally,
with Thunder and Lightning all round; latter part, Moderate breezes and
Clear weather. Had several Azimuths both in the Evening and Morning,
which gave the Variation South 8 degrees 30 minutes West. At Noon found
by Observation that the Ship had outrun the Log 20 Miles, a Proof that
there is a Current setting to the Southward. Wind North-East by North to
East-South-East; course South by East; distance 78 miles; latitude 8
degrees 25 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 4 minutes West; at noon,
Bonavista, South-East point, North 1 degree 45 minutes East, 152 leagues.

Sunday, 9th. Light Airs and fine Clear weather. Found the Variation by a
great Number of Azimuth made this Afternoon to be 8 degrees 21 minutes 30
seconds West, and by the Morning Amplitude 7 degrees 48 minutes. At Noon
try'd the Current, and found it set North-North-West 3/4 West, 1 1/8
miles per hour. The Shifting of the Current was conformed by the Observed
Latitude Wind East-South-East; course South 16 degrees West; distance 29
miles; latitude 7 degrees 58 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 13
minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 2 degrees 40
minutes, 161 leagues.

Monday, 10th. First part, light breezes and Clear weather; Middle,
squally, with heavy Showers of Rain; latter, Variable, light Airs and
Calm and dark gloomy weather. At 3 p.m. found the Current to set
North-North-East 1/4 East, 1 1/4 Mile per Hour, and at Noon found it to
set North-East 3/4 North at the same rate, and the Variation to be 8
degrees 39 minutes West by the Mean of Several Azimuth. Wind South-East
by East, Southerly; course South; distance 10 miles; latitude 7 degrees
48 minutes North; longitude 22 degrees 13 minutes West; at noon,
Bonavista, South-East point, North 3 degrees East, 164 leagues.

Tuesday, 11th. Very Variable weather, with frequent Squalls rain, and
Lightning. By the Observed Latitude at Noon I find the Ship hath only
made 22 Miles Southing since the last Observation two days ago, whereas
the Log gives 55 Miles, a Proof that there is a Current setting to the
Northward. Wind South-East; course South 52 degrees West; distance 18
miles; latitude 7 degrees 36 minutes North, longitude 22 degrees 8
minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 3 degrees East,
168 leagues.

Wednesday, 12th. Much the same weather as Yesterday the first part, the
remainder mostly Calm and cloudy weather. A.M. try'd the Current and
found it set South by West 1/4 West, 1/2 Mile per Hour, which is not
agreeable to yesterday's remark. Wind variable; course South 33 degrees
30 minutes West; distance 20 miles; latitude 7 degrees 21 minutes North,
longitude 22 degrees 39 minutes West; at noon Bonavista North 5 degrees
East, 174 leagues.

Thursday, 13th. Light Airs of Wind, with some heavy showers of rain.
Variation by Azimuth and Amplitude this Evening 8 degrees 46 minutes
West. At Noon try'd the Current, and found it set South 3/4 East, 1/3 of
a Mile per Hour; but finding the Observation and Log agree, I am
inclinable to think it hath had no effect upon the Ship. Wind South-West,
West-South-West; course South 16 degrees 45 minutes East; distance 21
miles; latitude 7 degrees 1 minute North, longitude 22 degrees 32 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees East, 181
leagues.

Friday, 14th. Dark, gloomy weather, with much rain, the Wind Variable
from West-South-West to South-South-East, sometimes on one Tack and
sometimes on the other. Wind West-South-West to South-South-East; course
South 5 degrees East; distance 24 miles; latitude 6 degrees 38 minutes
North, longitude 22 degrees 30 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 3 degrees 15 minutes, 188 leagues.

Saturday, 15th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; Middle, Squally, with
rain; latter part, light Airs and Clear weather. A little before Noon
took several Observations of the sun and moon, the mean result of which
gave the Longitude to be 23 degrees 46 minutes West from Greenwich, which
is 1 degree 22 minutes more Westerly than that by account carried on from
the last Observation; and the Observed Latitude is 24 Miles more
Northerly than the Log since the Last Observation 2 days ago, all of
which shows that the North-Westerly Current hath prevailed for this some
Days past. Wind South-South-West to South-East; course South 30 degrees
East per log; distance 12 miles; latitude 6 degrees 50 minutes North;
longitude 22 degrees 23 minutes West per account, 23 degrees 46 minutes
per sun and moon; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North by East,
187 leagues.

Sunday, 16th. First part Calm, the remainder Gentle breezes and fine,
Pleasant weather. At 3 hours 30 minutes 39 seconds Apparent time p.m. the
observed distance of the sun and moon's nearest Limb was 52 degrees 42
minutes 30 seconds; the Altitude of the sun's lower limb 32 degrees 39
minutes; the Altitude of the moon's lower limb 58 degrees 36 minutes; the
longitude of the Ship from the aforegoing Observations 23 degrees 33
minutes 33 seconds West from Greenwich, differing 13 minutes from those
made this Morning or Yesterday, the Ship laying all the time becalmed.
Variation of the Compass 8 degrees 45 minutes West. Wind South-East,
variable, North-East; course South 2 degrees East; distance 72 miles;
latitude 5 degrees 38 minutes North, longitude 23 degrees 45 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees 15 minutes
East, 208 leagues.

Monday, 17th. Variable, light Airs and Calm clear weather. 1/2 past 1
p.m. took two Distances of the sun and moon, the first of which gave the
Longitude 23 degrees 45 minutes 56 seconds, and the last 23 degrees 44
minutes West, the difference being not quite two miles, which shows how
near to one another these observations can be made. Wind South,
South-East, variable; course South by West 1/2 West; distance 11 miles;
latitude 5 degrees 17 minutes North, longitude 23 degrees 47 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 5 degrees 15 minutes
East, 212 leagues.

Tuesday, 18th. Sometimes little wind, sometimes Squally, with rain and
Lightning. Wind South to East-South-East; course South 48 degrees West;
distance 45 miles; latitude 4 degrees 47 Minutes North, longitude 24
degrees 23 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East point, North 12
degrees East, 229 leagues.

Wednesday, 19th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. The Observed Latitude
to the Northward of that given by the Log 9 miles, which I suppose must
be owing to a Current. Wind South by East to South-East by South; course
South 42 degrees West; distance 88 miles; latitude 3 degrees 44 minutes
North, longitude 25 degrees 23 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 14 degrees East, 253 leagues.

Thursday, 20th. A Genteel gale and Clear weather. At a little before 5
p.m. had an Observation of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 25
degrees 46 minutes West from Greenwich, which is more Westerly than that
by account carried on from the last Observation; and the Observed
latitude being again to the Northward shows that there must be a current
setting between the North and West. Wind South by East to South-East by
South; course South 52 degrees West; distance 48 miles; latitude 3
degrees 16 minutes North, longitude 26 degrees 20 minutes West; at noon,
Bonavista, North 18 degrees 30 minutes East, 270 leagues.

[Crossing Equator.]

Friday, 21st. A moderate breeze, and for the most part clear weather.
Longitude per the Mean of 2 Observations of the sun and moon made at 4
hours 45 minutes and at 4 hours 54 minutes p.m., 26 degrees 33 minutes
West. Variation of the Compass 4 degrees 7 minutes West, and the Observed
Latitude at Noon to the Northward of the Log 7 Miles. Wind South-East to
South-South-East; course South 58 degrees West; distance 57 miles;
latitude 2 degrees 46 minutes North, longitude 27 degrees 11 minutes
West; at noon, Bonavista South-East point, North 21 degrees East, 281
leagues.

Saturday, 22nd. Moderate breezes and fine, pleasant weather. Variation 3
degrees 17 minutes West. Wind South-East by South; course South 43
degrees 15 minutes West; distance 87 miles; latitude 1 degree 40 minutes
North, longitude 28 degrees 12 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 23 degrees East, 312 leagues.

Sunday, 23rd. A moderate, Steady breeze and fine Clear weather. The Ship
by Observation at Noon is 8 Miles to the Northward of the Log. Wind
South-South-East; course South; distance 5 miles; latitude 1 degree 40
minutes North, longitude 28 degrees 12 West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 23 degrees East, 312 leagues.

Monday, 24th. First part ditto weather; remainder fresh Breezes and
Cloudy, with some flying Showers of rain. Variation per Azimuth this
morning 3 degrees West. At Noon by Observation found the Ship 11 Miles
ahead of the Log. Wind South by East to South-East by South; course South
49 degrees West; distance 50 miles; latitude 1 degree 7 minutes North;
longitude 28 degrees 50 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East
point, North 25 degrees East, 328 leagues.

Tuesday, 25th. A Genteel breeze and Clear weather, with a Moist Air. Soon
after sunrise found the Variation of the Compass to be 2 degrees 24
minutes West, being the Mean result of several very good Azimuths. This
was just before we crossed the Line in the Longitude of 29 degrees 29
minutes West from Greenwich. We also try'd the Diping Needle belonging to
the Royal Society, and found the North point to Dip 26 degrees below the
Horizon; but this Instrument cannot be used at Sea to any great degree of
accuracy on account of the Motion of the Ship, which hinders the Needle
from resting. However, as the Ship was pretty steady, and by means of a
Swinging Table I had made for that purpose, we could be Certain of the
Dip to two Degrees at most. The Observed Latitude and that by account
nearly Agree. Wind South-East to South-East by East; course South 30
degrees West; distance 95 miles; latitude 0 degrees 15 minutes South,
longitude 29 degrees 30 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East
point, North 26 degrees East, 358 leagues.

Wednesday, 26th. First part light Airs and Cloudy weather, the remainder
a Moderate Breeze and Cloudy. After we had got an observation, and it was
no longer Doubted that we were to the Southward of the Line, the Ceremony
on this occasion practis'd by all Nations was not Omitted. Every one that
could not prove upon the Sea Chart that he had before Crossed the Line
was either to pay a Bottle of Rum or be Duck'd in the Sea, which former
case was the fate of by far the Greatest part on board; and as several of
the Men chose to be Duck'd, and the weather was favourable for that
purpose, this Ceremony was performed on about 20 or 30, to the no small
Diversion of the Rest. Wind South-East to South-South-East; course South
31 degrees West; distance 77 miles; latitude 1 degree 21 minutes South,
longitude 30 degrees 18 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista, South-East
point, North 25 degrees 30 minutes East, 385 leagues.

Thursday, 27th. Fresh Gales and Close Cloudy weather. Variation 2 degrees
48 minutes West. Wind South-South-East to South-East; course South 38
degrees 15 minutes West; distance 79 miles; latitude 2 degrees 23 minutes
South, longitude 31 degrees 7 minutes West; at noon, Bonavista,
South-East point, North 26 degrees East, 410 leagues.

Friday, 28th. Fresh Breeze and fine Clear weather. At a little past 1
a.m. Longitude in by the 3 following Observations--viz., by the Moon and
the star Arietis, 32 degrees 27 minutes; by the Moon and Pollux, 32
degrees 0 minutes 15 seconds; by ditto, 31 degrees 48 minutes 32 seconds;
the mean of the whole is 32 degrees 5 minutes 16 seconds West from
Greenwich, which is 31 minutes more Westerly than the longitude by
account carried on since the last Observation. The two first observations
were made and computed by Mr. Green, and the last by myself. The star
Arietis was on one side of the Moon and Pollux on the other. This day at
Noon, being nearly in the latitude of the Island Ferdinand Noronha, to
the Westward of it by some Charts and to the Eastward by others, was in
Expectation of seeing it or some of those Shoals that are laid down in
most Charts between it and the Main; but we saw neither one nor a Nother.
We certainly passed to the Eastward of the Island, and as to the Shoals,
I don't think they Exhist, grounding this my Opinion on the Journal of
some East India Ships I have seen who were detain'd by Contrary winds
between this Island and the Main, and being 5 or 6 Ships in Company,
doubtless must have seen some of them did they lay as Marked in the
Charts.* (* There is a very dangerous reef, As Rocas, 80 miles west of
Fernando Noronha. The Endeavour passed 60 miles east of latter.) Wind
South-East to South-East by East; course South 33 degrees West; distance
93 miles, latitude 3 degrees 41 minutes South, longitude 32 degrees 29
minutes West.

Saturday, 29th. Fresh Breezes and pleasant weather. Variation of the
Compass 2 degrees 25 minutes West. Wind East-South-East; course South by
West; distance 101 miles; latitude 5 degrees 25 minutes South, longitude
32 degrees 48" West.

Sunday, 30th. A Steady breeze, and for the most part close cloudy
weather. Variation by several Azimuths 1 degree 31 minutes West. At noon
the observed latitude 7 miles southward of account. Wind East-South-East;
course South 3/4 West; distance 107 miles; latitude 7 degrees 8 minutes
South, longitude 33 degrees 4 minutes West.

Monday, 31st. A Fresh breeze and Clear weather. Variation 0 degrees 15
minutes West. Observed Latitude again to the Southward of the Log. Wind
East to East-South-East; course, South 1/2 West; distance 114 miles;
latitude 9 degrees 1 minute South, longitude 33 degrees 16 minutes West.

[November 1768. Between Equator and Rio.]

Tuesday, November 1st. Moderate breezes, for the most part Cloudy.
Variation by the mean of Several Azimuths 0 degrees 58 minutes West in
the Evening, and in the Morning found it to be 0 degrees 18 minutes West.
Wind East-South-East; course South 3/4 West; distance 98 miles; latitude
10 degrees 38 minutes South.

Wednesday, 2nd. A Steady breeze and fine pleasant weather. This
Afternoon, by the mean of Several Azimuths and the Amplitude, found the
Variation to be 0 degrees 34 minutes East, from which it appears that
about the aforegoing Noon we have Crossed the Line of no Variation in the
Latitude of 10 degrees 38 minutes South, and, according to the following
Observations, in 32 degrees 0 minutes West longitude from Greenwich. At 5
hours 5 minutes 0 seconds Apparent time a.m. the longitude of the Ship
and the Observation of the moon and the star Aldebaran was found to be 32
degrees 0 minutes 45 seconds; at 8 hours 17 minutes 0 seconds, per sun
and moon, 32 degrees 25 minutes 0 seconds; and at 9 hours 0 minutes 16
seconds, 32 degrees 19 minutes 0 seconds. The mean of the three is 32
degrees 14 minutes 55 seconds. And again at 7 hours 12 minutes 52
seconds, per sun and moon, 32 degrees 10 minutes 4 seconds; and at 7
hours 19 minutes 42 seconds, per sun and moon, 32 degrees 15 minutes 20
seconds. The mean of these two is 32 degrees 12 minutes 42 seconds, and
the mean of the whole is 32 degrees 13 minutes 43 seconds West from
Greenwich, which is less by a whole Degree than that by account, which is
a Considerable Error to be made in 5 Days in these low Latitudes. One
would think from this that we must have had a Current setting to the
Eastward, which is not likely that it should set against the settled
trade wind. The 3 first of these Observations were made by Mr. Green, and
the 2 last by myself. Wind East-South-East, South; course South by West;
distance 132 miles; latitude 12 degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 32
degrees 20 minutes West per Observation.

Thursday, 3rd. A Fresh Trade wind and fair weather. Variation per Azimuth
this Evening 0 degrees 47 minutes East, and at a little past 9 a.m.
longitude in per sun and moon 33 degrees 0 minutes West of Greenwich.
Wind East by South-East; course South 15 degrees West; distance 128
miles; latitude 14 degrees 51 minutes South, longitude 33 degrees 7
minutes West.

Friday, 4th. A Steady Gale and fair weather. P.M. Variation per Azimuth 1
degree 29 minutes West, ditto 1 degree 28 minutes West, and by the
Amplitude 1 degree 12 minutes West; mean 1 degree 23 minutes West, by
which it appears that we have again Crossed the Line of no Variation. At
1/2 past 9 a.m. the longitude of the Ship, per Observation of the sun and
moon, 33 degrees 26 minutes 30 seconds. Wind East by South; course South
19 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 125 miles; latitude 16 degrees 49
minutes South, longitude 33 degrees 37 minutes West.

Saturday, 5th. Fine pleasant weather. Variation per Azimuth this morning
3 degrees 21 minutes East, which makes me Doubtful of the Variation found
yesterday, tho' at the time I had not the least room to doubt of the
Accuracy of the Observations. Longitude per Observation 34 degrees 43
minutes 30 seconds West. Wind East to North-East; course South 30 degrees
35 minutes West; distance 109 miles; latitude 18 degrees 22 minutes
South, longitude 34 degrees 50 minutes West.

Sunday, 6th. First and Latter part squally, with heavy Showers of rain;
middle moderate and fair. I now determined to put into Rio de Janeiro in
preferance to any other port in Brazil or Falkland Islands, for at this
place I knew we could recruit our Stock of Provisions, several Articles
of which I found we should in time be in want of, and at the same time
procure Live Stock and refreshment for the People; and from the reception
former Ships had met with here I doubted not but we should be well
received. Wind North-North-East, variable, South; course South 55 degrees
West; distance 74 miles; latitude 19 degrees 3 minutes South, longitude
35 degrees 50 minutes West.

Monday, 7th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather. P.M. found the Variation
to be 4 degrees 49 minutes East. At 6 Sounded and had 32 fathoms Water;
the Bottom Coral Rocks, fine Sand and Shells, which Soundings we carried
upon a South-West 1/2 West Course 9 or 10 leagues, and then had no ground
with 100 fathom. We were by our account and per run afterwards 54 Leagues
East from the Coast of Brazil and to the Southward of the Shoals called
Abrollos, as they are laid down in Most Charts. Wind South-East to
North-East; course South 58 degrees West; distance 68 miles; latitude 19
degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 36 degrees 50 minutes West.

Tuesday, 8th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. P.M. variation by the
Mean of 12 Azimuths 5 degrees 26 minutes East, and by an Amplitude in the
Morning 7 degrees 52 minutes. At 6 a.m. saw the Land of Brazil bearing
North-West 1/2 North, distance 8 or 10 leagues. At 8 Sounded, had 37
fathoms, Coarse Sand, broken Shells, and Coral Rocks. At 9 brought too
and Spoke with a Fishing Boat, who informed us that the land in sight lay
to the Southward of Santo Espiritu. It appears high and Mountainous; the
drawing Number (3) exhibits a View of this Land as it appeared from the
Ship (A), being near to Santo Espiritu, and a remarkable hill (B) bore
North-West 1/2 North, distance 7 or 8 leagues. Made Sail in Shore, the
wind being Southerly. Had from the above Depth to 14 fathoms the same
sort of Bottom. Found the Ship at Noon by Observation 10 Miles to the
Southward of account, which I suppose to be occasioned by a Current
setting between the South and West. Wind North-North-East, North by West,
South-South-West to South by West; course South 50 degrees West; distance
140 miles; latitude 21 degrees 16 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 35
minutes West.

Wednesday, 9th. First and Latter part Hazey, with a Moderate Breeze;
Middle, fresh Gales, with Thunder, Lightning, and rain. At 3 p.m. tack't
in 16 fathoms, distance from the Shore 5 Leagues, the land Extending from
the North-West by West to North-East. At 5 took the 2nd Reef in the
Topsails and got down Topgallant Yards, stood to the South-East until
Midnight, then tack'd, Sounding from 16 to 55 fathoms. At 8 a.m. Loosed
the Reefs out of the Topsails and got Topgallant Yards a Cross; unstowed
the Anchors and bent the Cables. At Noon Latitude Observed 21 degrees 29
minutes South, the Land Extending from South-West by South to
North-North-West, distance 4 leagues, Soundings from 55 to 10 fathoms.
Wind South-South-East, South-South-West, South; course South 62 degrees
15 minutes West; distance 28 miles; latitude 21 degrees 29 minutes South.

[Nearing Rio Janeiro.]

Thursday, 10th. Moderate breezes and Hazey upon the Land. Stood in for
the Shore South-West 1/2 West. Depth of water from 10 to 9 fathoms and
from 9 to 16 fathoms, being then 4 Leagues from the Land. From 16 fathoms
it shoalded gradually to 5 fathoms; then we tacked, being about 1 1/2
Leagues from the Shore. The extreams of the Land to the Southward, which
we took for Cape St. Thomas, bore South 3/4 West, distance 4 leagues. The
Land from Cape St. Thomas to the Northward lies North by East 1/2 East.
Along the Shore is low land covered with Wood and Sandy Beaches, but
inland are very high Mountains, the greatest part of them being hid in
the Clouds. Stood off until 5 in the Morning East and East by South.
Depth of Water 10, 20, 16, 23, and 30 fathoms. At Noon Latitude Observed
21 degrees 30 minutes; Depth of Water 14 fathoms; Grey sand with black
Specks. Extreams of the Land from South-West by West to North-North-West;
distance 12 or 14 leagues. Wind South-South-East, South-East by South,
South by East; course East 1/4 South; distance 17 miles; latitude 21
degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 43 minutes West per
account.

Friday, 11th. First and Latter parts, moderate breezes and fair, but
Cloudy and Hazey over the Land; middle, a fresh breeze and Cloudy. At 8
tack'd and Stood to the North-East. Extream of the Land to the southward,
which we took for Cape St. Thomas, South-West 1/2 South; distance 5 or 6
leagues; Depth of Water 13 fathoms, Grey sand. At 11 a.m. tack'd in 14
fathoms and Stood to the South-South-East, and at 3 a.m. Stood over a
Shoal or Bank of 6 fathoms, afterwards the Depth increased to 30 fathoms,
at Noon in 36 fathoms. Latitude Observed 22 degrees 37 minutes South,
which is 10 miles to the Southward of the Log. No Land in sight. Wind
South-East to East; course South 5 degrees West; distance 67 miles;
latitude 23 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 49 minutes
West.

Saturday, 12th. Genteel breezes and fine Clear weather. At 2 p.m.
Sounded, but had no ground with 38 fathoms, and soon after sounded and
had none at 50 fathoms, from which it appears that we are to the
Southward of the Bank we have been upon this 2 days past. It Extends off
from the Land between the Latitude 21 degrees and 22 degrees nor less
than 18 or 20 Leagues, How much farther I know not. Standing in from Sea,
the Depth of Water very soon diminisheth from 30 to 20 and 17 fathoms,
afterwards gradually from 9, 8 and even to 6 fathoms; but between this
Shoal Water and the Main, which is 6 or 7 leagues, you will have 10, 12
and even 16 fathoms, till you come within 2 or 3 leagues of the Shore.
The Bottom is of Various kinds, sometimes Coral Rocks, Coral Rocks and
broken Shells, Coarse sand and broken Shells, Small Stones and at other
times fine Sand varying at almost every Cast of the Lead. At 5 p.m. saw
the Land bearing North-West by West 1/2 West, distance 10 or 12 leagues,
which proved to be the Island of Cape Frio; it appeared in two Hillocks,
and from the Deck looked like two Islands. Took several Azimuth of the
Sun, which gave the Variation 6 degrees 40 minutes East. At 8 a.m. the
Isle of Cape Frio bore West by North 4 leagues. This Island is situated
in the Latitude of 23 degrees 2 minutes South, and according to our
Reckoning in the Longitude of 38 degrees 45 minutes West from Greenwich,
but from many Circumstances I have good reason to think that our
reckoning is wrong and that it lies in the Longitude 41 degrees 10
minutes West. It is not of a Large Circuit, but Tolerable high, with a
hollow in the Middle, which makes it look like 2 Islands when it first
makes its appearance out of the Water. It lays not far from the Main,
which with the Island forms a right Angle, one side trending North and
the other West. To the northward of the Island and between it and the
Main there appears to lay several smaller Islands near each other. The
Main land on the Sea Coast appears to be low, but inland are high
Mountains. Drawing Number 4 exhibits a View of this Island when it bore
West-North-West, distance 4 leagues. Wind North-East, East-North-East;
course South 60 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 59 miles; latitude 23
degrees 6 minutes South; Isle of Cape Frio North 60 degrees East, 4
leagues.

Sunday, 13th. First and Latter parts a Genteel Sea breeze and Clear
weather, the Middle Calm. P.M. standing along Shore for Rio De Janeiro
observed that the land on the Sea Coast is high and Mountainous, and the
shore forms some small Bays or Coves wherein are Sandy Beaches. At 8
Shortned Sail; the Sugar Loaf Hill at the West Entrance to Rio De Janeiro
West-North-West, distant 4 or 5 leagues, at the same time was abreast of
2 Small rocky Islands, that lie about 4 Miles from the Shore. At 9 a.m.
Sprung up a light breeze at South-East, at which time we made Sail for
the Harbour, and sent the Pinnace with a Lieutenant before us up to the
city of Rio De Janeiro, to acquaint the Vice Roy with the reason that
induced us to put in here, which was to procure Water and other
refreshments, and to desire the Assistance of a Pilot to bring us into
proper Anchoring ground; at Noon Standing in for the Harbour.

[At Rio Janeiro.]

ARRIVAL AT RIO DE JANEIRO, Monday, 14th. Moderate Sea and Low breezes and
fine pleasant weather. At 5 p.m. Anchored in 5 fathoms just above the
Isle of Cobras, which lies before the City of Rio De Janeiro. A little
before we Anchor'd the Pinnace return'd and informed me that the Vice Roy
had thought proper to detain the Officer until I went ashore. Soon after
we Anchored a Boat came on board bringing several of the Vice Roy's
Officers, who asked many Questions in respect to the Ship: Cargo, from
whence she came, Number of Guns, Men, etc., all of which was Answered to
their satisfaction. They told me it was the Custom of the Port to Detain
the first Officer that came from any Ship on her first Arrival until a
Boat from the Vice Roy had Visited her; that my Officer would be sent on
board as soon as they got on shore, which was accordingly done. About
this time a Boat filled with Soldiers kept rowing about the Ship, which
had orders, as I afterwards understood, not to Suffer any one of the
Officers or Gentlemen, except myself, to go out of the Ship. In the
Morning I waited upon the Vice Roy and obtained leave to purchase
Provisions, Refreshments, etc., for the Ship, but obliged me to employ a
person to buy them for me under a pretence that it was the Custom of the
Place, and he likewise insisted (notwithstanding all I could say to the
contrary), on putting a Soldier into the Boats that brought anything to
or from the Ship, alledging that it was the Orders of his Court, and they
were such as he could not Dispence with, and this indignity I was obliged
to submit to, otherwise I could not have got the supplys I wanted; being
willing, as much as in me lay, to avoid all manner of Disputes that might
cause the least delay, and at the same time to Convince him that we did
not come here to Trade, as I believe he imagined--for he Certainly did
not believe a word about our being bound to the Southward to observe the
Transit of Venus, but looked upon it only as an invented story to cover
some other design we must be upon, for he could form no other Idea of
that Phenomenon (after I had explained it to him), than the North Star
Passing through the South Pole; these were his own words. He would not
permit the Gentlemen to reside ashore during our Stay here, nor permit
Mr. Banks to go into the country to gather plants, etc.; but not the
least hint was given me at this time that no one of the Gentlemen was to
come out of the Ship but myself, or that I was to be put under a Guard
when I did come; but this I was soon Convinced of after I took my leave
of His Excellency and found that an Officer was to attend upon me
whereever I went, which at first the Vice Roy pretended was only meant as
a Complement, and to order me all the Assistance I wanted. This day the
People were Employed in unbending the Sails, in fitting and rigging the
Spare Topmasts in the room of the others, and getting on shore Empty
Water Casks.

Tuesday, 15th. Fine pleasant weather. Received on board fresh Beef and
Greens for the Ship's Company, with which they was served every Day
During our Stay here. Got all the Empty Casks on shore, and set the
Coopers to Work to repair them; Heeld and Boot Topt the Starboard side.

Wednesday, 16th. Set up the Forge to repair the Iron Work; the People
employed in Heeling and Boot Topping the Larboard side, Blacking the
Yards, etc.

Thursday, 17th. Set some People to repair the Sails and the Caulkers to
Caulk the Ship; the rest of the People employed in the Hold and about the
Rigging. For 3 days past I have remonstrated to the Vice Roy and his
Officers against his putting a Guard into my Boat, thinking I could not
Answer it to the Admiralty the tamely submitting to such a Custom, which,
when practiced in its full force, must bring Disgrace to the British
Flag. On the other hand, I was loath to enter into Disputes, seeing how
much I was like to be delay'd and imbarrassed in getting the supplys I
wanted, for it was with much difficulty that I obtained leave for one of
my People to attend the Market to buy necessaries for my Table and to
assist the Agent to buy the things for the Ship. Having gained this Point
and settled everything with the Agent in regard to what was wanting for
the Ship, I resolved, rather than be made a Prisoner in my own Boat, not
to go any more ashore unless I could do it without having a Soldier put
into the Boat, as had hitherto been done; and thinking that the Vice Roy
might lay under some Mistake, which on proper Application might be
clear'd up, I therefore drew up a Memorial stating the whole case and
sent to the Vice Roy this afternoon; and thus a Paper War commenced
between me and His Excellency, wherein I had no other Advantage than the
racking his invention to find reasons for treating us in the manner he
did, for he never would relax the least from any one point.

Friday, 18th. This day I received an Answer to my Memorial, wherein he
tells me, amongst other things, that if I think it hard submitting to the
Customs of this Port I may leave it when I please; but this did not suit
my purpose at present, but I resolved to make my stay as short as
possible. I must own that the Memorial of the Vice Roy's was well drawn
up and very much to the Purpose, which is more than I can say of any of
the subsequent ones.

Saturday, 19th. Close cloudy weather. Employed getting aboard Rum, Water,
and other necessaries. Caulking and refitting the Ship. Punished John
Thurman, Seaman, with 12 Lashes for refusing to assist the Sailmaker in
repairing the Sails.

Sunday, 20th. First part cloudy weather; the Middle very hard Storms of
Wind and Rain; the Latter moderate, with rain. This Afternoon sent
Lieutenant Hicks in the Pinnace with an Answer to the Vice Roy's
Memorial, with orders not to Suffer a Soldier to be put into the Boat;
upon which the Guard Boat attended him to the Landing Place and reported
it to the Vice Roy, who refused to receive the Memorial, and ordered Mr.
Hicks on board Again; but in the Meantime they had put a Guard into the
Boat, which Mr. Hicks insisted should be order'd out, that he might
return on board in the same manner as he came, without a Guard; and upon
his refusing to return other way, all the Crew were by Arm'd force taken
out of the Boat (though they gave no provocation nor made the least
resistance) and hurried to Prison, where they remained until the next
day. Mr. Hicks was then put into one of their Boats, and brought on board
under the Custody of a Guard. Immediately upon my hearing of this I wrote
to the Vice Roy demanding my Boat and Crew and his Excellency's reason
for detaining her, and inclosed the Memorial he had before refused to
receive. This I sent by a petty Officer, as I had never objected against
a Guard being put into any of my Boats wherein was no Commissioned
Officer. He was admitted ashore and delivered the Letter, and was told an
Answer would be sent the next day. This evening, between 8 and 9 o'Clock,
came on an Excessive hard storm of Wind and Rain, the Longboat coming on
board the same time with 4 Pipes of Rum in her. The rope they got hold of
broke, and she went a Drift. The Yawl was immediately sent after her; but
the Longboat filling with Water, they brought her to a Grapnel and left
her, and the Yawl with the People got on board about 3 in the morning.
Early this Morning I sent to the Vice Roy to acquaint him with the loss
of our Boat, to desire leave and the Assistance of a Shore Boat to look
after her, and at the same time to demand the Pinnace and her Crew. After
some time the whole was granted, and we was so fortunate as to find the
Longboat the same Day, and likewise the 4 Pipes of Rum; but every other
thing that was in her was lost.

Monday, 21st. This Morning I received his Excellency's Answer to my last
Memorial and Letter. In his Letter he owns there was some indecency in
Detaining the Boat, but lays the Blame to my Officer, who only Executed
the orders I gave him with Spirit. In one part of his Memorial he says
that from the Built of the Ship and other Circumstances he Doubts that
she is the King's. This I thought proper to Answer in Writing by telling
his Excellency that I was ready to produce my Commission. Rain the most
part of this Day.

Tuesday, 22nd. Moderate breezes, with frequent Showers of Rain. Employed
getting on board Water, Provisions, etc. Caulking the Ship and repairing
the Sails.

Wednesday, 23rd. Fine pleasant weather. Employed as before and setting up
the Rigging. This day I received from the Vice-Roy an Answer to my last
Memorial, wherein he still keeps up his Doubts that she is not a King's
Ship, and accuseth my people of Smuggling, a thing I am very Certain they
were not guilty of, and for which his Excellency could produce no proof,
notwithstanding many Artful means were made use of to tempt such of our
People as were admitted ashore to Trade by the Very Officers that were
under His Excellency's own Roof. I thought it incumbent on me to Answer
this Memorial, in which I desir'd His Excellency to take into Custody any
one of my People that should be found trading even if it amounted to no
more than one of the Sailors selling his Cloaths from off his Back for a
Bottle of Rum--for what His Excellency called smuggling I was very
certain amounted to no more, and even this was only Suspicions of my own.

Thursday, 24th. This day a Spanish Packet (a Small Brig) from Buenos
Ayres put in here in her way to Spain. This Vessel belonged to his
Catholic Majesty, and notwithstanding the Vice-Roy had all along
pretended that the orders he had respecting Foreign Vessels were General,
yet this Vessel meet with very Different Treatment from us. No Guard was
put over her, and her Officers and Crew went wherever they pleased.* (*
The build and general appearance of the Endeavour not being that of a
man-of-war, the Portuguese authorities entertained suspicions regarding
her true character, which is not altogether surprising, considering the
times; but we can well understand Cook's indignation.)

Friday, 25th, Saturday, 26th. Employed getting on board Water as fast as
the Coopers could set up and repair the Casks, setting up the rigging and
Caulking the Ship's sides.

Sunday, 27th. Bent the Sails and Cleaned the Ship Fore and Aft.

Monday, 28th. Fine pleasant weather. The Caulkers having finished the
sides, paid them with Tar. This day I unexpectedly received an Answer
from my last Memorial, wherein were only a few weak Arguments to support
His Excellency's Suspicions that the Ship did not belong to the King, and
that my People Smugled. This Memorial I answered.

Tuesday, 29th. Employed Lashing the Casks that were on the upper Deck and
between Decks and making ready for Sea.

Wednesday, 30th. Punished Robert Anderson, Seaman, and William Judge,
Marine, with 12 Lashes Each, the former for leaving his Duty ashore and
attempting to desert from the Ship, and the latter for using abusive
language to the Officer of the Watch, and John Reading, Boatswain's Mate,
with 12 lashes for not doing his Duty in punishing the above two Men.
Sent a Shore to the Vice-Roy for a Pilot to Carry us to Sea, who sent one
on board together with a Large Boat, which I did not want, but it is the
Custom in this Port for the Pilots to have such a Boat to attend upon the
Ship they Pilot out, and for which you must pay 10 shillings per day,
besides the Pilot's fees, which is Seven pounds four Shillings Sterling.

[December 1768.]

Thursday, 1st December. Wind at South-East, which hinder'd us from
Sailing as we intended. Received on board a large Quantity of fresh Beef,
Greens and Yams for the Ship's Company.

Friday, 2nd. This morning sent a Packet for the Secretary of the
Admiralty on board the Spanish Pacquet, containing copies of all the
Memorials and Letters that have passed between the Vice-Roy and me, and
likewise another Packet containing Duplicates thereof I left with the
Vice-Roy to be by him forwarded to Lisbon. At 9 Weighed and came to Sail
and turned down the Bay. Peter Flower, Seaman, fell overboard, and before
any Assistance could be given him was drowned; in his room we got a
Portugue.

Saturday, 3rd. First part, moderate breezes at South-East; remainder,
fresh Gales at South with Rain. At 1 p.m. Anchored in 18 fathoms Water in
the Great Road (see Plan).

Sunday, 4th. Fore and Middle parts fresh Gales at South-South-East with
heavy rain; Latter, Variable Light Airs and fair weather. Hoisted in the
Long-boat and secured her.

Monday, 5th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; Middle, Thunder,
Lightning and Rain; latter, little wind at South-West and fair. At 4 a.m.
Weighed and tow'd down the Bay (being Calm) with an intent to go to Sea,
but having 2 Shott fired at us from Santa Cruze Fort was obliged to come
to an Anchor and to send a Boat to the Fort to know the Reason of their
firing, who it seems had no orders to let us pass, without which no Ship
can go to Sea. This surprized me not a little, as I had but this very
morning received a very Polite Letter from the Vice-Roy (in answer to one
I had wrote some days ago), wherein he wishes me a good voyage. I
immediately dispatched a petty Officer to the Vice-Roy to know the reason
why we was not permitted to pass the Fort; the Boat very soon return'd
with an order to the Captain of the Fort to let us pass, which Order had
been wrote some Days Ago, but either by Design or neglect had not been
sent. At 11 weighed in order to put to Sea, but before we could heave up
the Anchor, it got hold of a Rock, where it held fast in spite of all our
endeavours to Clear it until the Sea Breeze set in.

Tuesday, 6th. The Sea breeze continued all this day. At 2 p.m. the Ship
tended to the Wind, which cleared the Anchor. Hove it up and run higher
up the Bay and Anchored in 15 fathoms, a little below the Isle or Church
of Bon Voyage; found the cable very much rubbed several fathoms from the
Anchor.

Wednesday, 7th. First and latter part a Genteel breeze at South-East and
East; the Middle, Calm. At 5 a.m. weighed and tow'd out of the Bay; at 8
Discharged the Pilot and his Boat. A breeze of Wind Springing up Easterly
made Sail out to Sea, and sent a boat to one of the Islands laying before
the Bay to cut Brooms, a thing we was not permitted to do while we lay in
the Harbour; the Guard Boat which had constantly attended all the time we
lay in the Bay and Harbour did not leave us until the Pilot was
discharged. At noon the Sugar Loaf at the west Entrance of the Bay bore
North by West 1/2 West, distance, 8 or 9 miles.

[Description of Rio Janeiro.]

A DESCRIPTION OF THE BAY OR RIVER OF RIO DE JANEIRO.

The few days' delay we met with in getting out of Rio de Janeiro gave me
an opportunity of Drawing a Plan or Sketch of great part of the Bay, but
the Strict watch that was kept over us during our whole stay hinder'd me
from taking so accurate a Survey as I wisht to have done, and all the
Observations I could make was taken from on board the Ship. This Plan
hath no pretensions to accuracy, yet it will give a very good idea of the
place, differing not much from the truth in what is Essential.

The Bay of Rio de Janeiro, by some called a River--which its Name
Signifies--but this I think is improper, it being nothing more than a
Deep inlet of the Sea, into which no considerable fresh water River
Emptys itself that I could hear of. Be this as it will, it is Capacious
and Capable of Containing a vast Number of Shipping where they may ride
in perfect Security. The Entrance is Situated West by North 18 Leagues
from Cape Frio, and may be known by a remarkable Hill in the Form of a
Sugar Loaf, at the West Entrance of the Bay; but as all the Coast is
exceeding high, terminating at the top in Peaked Hills, it is much better
known by the Islands laying before it, one of which (called Rodonda) is
high and round in form of a Hay Stack, and lies South by West 2 1/2
leagues from the Sugar Loaf or Entrance of the Bay. A little without the
East Entrance of the Bay, and near the shore, lay 2 Islands near each
other: 3 leagues from the Eastward and 4 miles from the Shore are 2 low
Rocky Islands, which are the first you meet with in coming from the
Eastward or from Cape Frio.

To sail into Rio de Janeiro there is not the least Danger until you are
the length of the Fort of Santa Cruze, which stands on the point that
forms the East Entrance of the Bay or River; on the West Entrance is Fort
Lorio, built upon a Rock which lies close to the Main Land, the distance
from one Fort to the other is 3/4 of a mile East and West, but the
Channel for Shipping is not quite so broad by reason of Sunken Rocks
laying off each of the Forts; these rocks may not be properly placed in
the plan, being only laid down from the information of the Pilot. The
Narrowness of the Channell here causeth the Tides both Flood and Ebb to
run pretty strong, insomuch that you cannot Stem it without a fresh
breeze of Wind, nor is it safe Anchoring because the bottom is foul and
Rocky. By keeping in the Middle of the Channell you will not only avoid
being forced to come to an Anchor, but all other Dangers. Being got
within the entrance your Course up the Bay is North by West 1/2 West and
North-North-West something more than one League; this brings you the
length of the great Road, and North-West and West-North-West one league
more carrys you the length of the Ilha dos Cobras, which lies before the
City. Keep the North side of this Island close on board and Anchor above
it in 5 fathoms of water, where you see most Convenient before the
Monastery of Benedictines, which stands upon a hill at the North-West End
of the City. Small Ships and Vessels generally lay between the Town and
the Ilha dos Cobras, but in order to get there they must come round the
North side of the Island.

I shall now give the best description I can of the Different Forts that
are Erected for the Defence of the Bay. The first you meet with coming in
from Sea is a Battery of 22 Guns, seated in the Bottom of a sandy Bay,
which is on the South side of the Sugar Loaf, and can be designed for no
other use than to hinder an Enemy from landing in that valley, from
whence I suppose they may March up to the Town or round by the West side
of the Sugar Loaf to attack the Forts that are on that side of the
Entrance into the Bay, the first of which is Seated under the foot of the
Sugar Loaf on a low Isthmus which joyns the Peninsula or point of the Bay
with the Land of the Sugar Loaf. It appears to be a square of Stone Work
without a Ditch, with Bastions and furnished with Cannon. A little within
this fort are 2 battrys of 5 or 6 Guns each. They are designed to play
upon Shipping, but neither these battrys or the Fort are out of reach of
a Ship's Cannon. Hard by these batterys stands Fort Logie. It is an
irregular hexagon, built of Stone upon a Small Rock standing at the west
Entrance of the Bay, and is surrounded on all Sides by the Sea. It is
mounted with 14 or 15 guns, which are placed so as to play upon Shipping
going in and out of the Harbour. There is only one way to go into it,
which is by Steps Leading up to a Sally Port on the North-West side.
Opposite this is the Fort of Santa Cruze, built upon a low rocky point
that forms the East Entrance of the Bay. It hath the Appearance of a
Regular Fortification of Stone Work built upon the Slope of the Rock, on
which account there are in some places 2 Tier of Guns. It hath no Ditch
but on the Land side, where it is cut out of the Rock; in every other
part the Sea washes up to its Walls. It seems everywhere to be well
Mounted with Cannon Except on the land side, where none are wanting,
because they could be of no use, the land being so very high above it.
Yet, after all, neither this Fort nor those on the opposite shore do not
appear to be of any great Strength, even against Shipping, for which they
are wholly design'd, being the key of the Bay. They lay low, and Ships
may come so near as to have them entirely within the reach of their Guns;
but it would require 5 or 6 Sail of the line to insure Success. Between 2
and 3 Miles within the Entrance of the Bay, on the West Side, is the Isle
Borghleone, upon the east point of which is Erected a Battry of Stone,
and Mounted with 17 pieces of Cannon. Besides this, on the highest part
of the Island, is a Battry of 6 Guns mounted on an Open Platform. These
battrys are designed to play upon Shipping in the Bay, and seems not ill
designed for that purpose; yet they would be Obliged to Submit to the
Attack of Shipping or that of a Land force, there being nothing to hinder
the latter from Landing on the Island behind the Battrys. Opposite to
this Island, on the low point on the east side of the Bay, is the Battry
of St. Dominica of 7 Guns. A little without this Battry, on the East side
of the Bay, is a small but high Island, close to the Shore, on the Top of
which is the Church of Bonn Voyage, about half-way down the Cliff. Below
the Church is a Battry of 3 Guns. Neither the one nor the other of these
battry's are of much Consequence. They serve, indeed, to force Shipping
coming into the Bay between 2 Fires, and hinder them from Anchoring on
that side until they are silenced. The next fortification is that on the
Ilha dos Cobras, the east point and North side of which consists of a
Rampart Bastion and a Parrapet faced with Stones and mounted with Cannon,
but no Ditch, which is not much wanting, as the works are built on the
Edge of the rising Ground. The other side next the Town hath no other
inclosure but a plain wall without any Guns. It is said that the works on
this Island are in bad repair, on account of being so Extensive that they
would take more men to Defend them than they could spare, and, placing no
Dependancy on their Strength, let them go to decay. The ground on which
the Monastry of Benedictines Stands Commands the Works on the Island.
Over the South end of the City stands the Castle of St. Sebastian; it is
Seated upon a Hill, and Commands the whole Town; and this is all I know
of it, only that it is not counted a place of any great Strength. For the
Defence of these Forts and the Town the King of Portugal Maintains 7
Regiments of Regular Troops. Those I saw were well cloathed and in good
Condition; but this, as I was told, was not the Case with the whole.
Besides these Troops are 3 Regiments of Militia, 2 of Horse and one of
foot. These consist of the principal inhabitants of the place, who serve
without pay, Muster and Exercise in turns nine Months in the year, on
which account they rank with the Regular Troops.

The City of Rio de Janeiro is in the Latitude of 22 degrees 50 minutes
South and Longitude 42 degrees 15 minutes West from Greenwich.* (* Modern
determination, 22 degrees 54 minutes South, 43 degrees 10 minutes West.)
According to Observations made at Sea it is Seated on a plain close to
the Shore on the West side of the Bay, at the foot of Several high
Mountains. It is neither ill designed nor ill built. The Houses are
mostly stone, generally one and two Storys high, with Balconys to most of
them. The Streets are of a Convenient breadth, and Cross each other at
right Angles, and the whole City may be about 3 miles in Compass. It is
Govern'd by a Governor appointed by the King. The present Governor is Don
Anto Mendoyaz Fastada, who is no Friend to the English. It likewise is
the Residence of the Vice-Roy and Captain General of the States of
Brazil, who is as absolute as any Monarch on Earth, and the people to all
appearance as much Slaves. This City and Adjacent parts about the Bay are
said to contain 100,000 Souls; but not above a twentieth part are Whites.
The rest are blacks, many of whom are free, and seem to live in tolerable
Circumstances.

The city of Rio de Janeiro is supplied with Water from 2 Different parts
of the Adjacent Mountains. That which comes from the Southward is
Convey'd a Cross a Deep Valley by an Acquiduct, which Consists of a great
Number of Arches placed in 2 Rows, one upon the other; from thence in
pipes to a fountain which stands in the Middle of the Square before the
Vice-Roy's Palace. At another part of the City is a Reservoir, to which
the water is conveyed much in the same manner. From these 2 places, but
mostly from the former, the inhabitants fetch all they want, where there
is always a Centinel to keep order: and it is likewise here that the
Ships Water. They land their Casks upon a Smooth sandy beach about 100
yards from the Fountain, and upon application to the Vice-Roy you have a
Centinel to look after them and to clear the way for to come to the
fountain to fill water. Upon the whole, Rio de Janeiro is not a bad place
for Ships to put in at that want refreshments, not only because the
Harbour is safe and Commodious, but that Provision and all manner of
Refreshments may be had in tolerable plenty. Bread and Flour are,
however, Scarce and Dear, being brought hither from Europe, and are never
the better for that Passage. In lieu of these are to be had Yams and
Casada. All sorts of Grain--though it may be the produce of this
Country--is Dear. Fresh Beef (tho' bad) is to be had in plenty at about 2
1/4 pence per pound, and Jurked Beef about the same price. This is cured
with Salt, and dryd in the shade, the bones being taken out, and the Meat
cut into large but very thin slices. It eats very well, and if kept in a
dry place will remain good a long time at Sea. Rum, Sugar, and Molasses
are all good and Cheap. Tobacco is Cheap, but not good. Mutton they have
very little. Hogs and all sorts of Poultry are to be got, tho' in no
great plenty, and of Course rather dear. Garden Stuff and Fruit in
plenty, but none that will keep long at Sea except Pumpkins.

They have a Yard for building Shipping and a small Hulk for heaving down
by, there being no other method to come at a Ship's bottom, as the Tides
doth not rise above 6 or 7 feet. At the New and full Moon it is high
Water at that time about 8 o'clock, when the Land and Sea breezes are
regular, but when they are not the Course of Tides are alter'd. The Sea
breeze begins to blow about 10 or 12 o'clock, and continues until sunset,
when it dies away and is succeeded by the land breeze, which continues
most part of the night. From a little after sunrise until the Sea breeze
sets in it is generally Calm, and is then the Hotest and most
Disagreeable part of the whole day.


CHAPTER 2. RIO JANEIRO TO TAHITI.

REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES FROM RIO DE JANEIRO TOWARDS TERRA DEL FUEGO.

[December 1768. Rio to Strait Le Maire.]

THURSDAY, December 8th. Fore and Middle parts Moderate breezes and
Cloudy; remainder, little wind and Clear weather. At 3 p.m. the Boat
returned from the Island; hoisted her in and made Sail at 6. The Sugar
Loaf at the west Entrance of Rio de Janeiro bore North 1/2 East, distance
7 leagues; it lies from the City of Rio de Janeiro, from which I take my
Departure, South-West 4 miles. Wind East-North-East, North-East, North by
East; course South 7 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 85 miles; latitude
24 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 42 degrees 29 minutes West.

Friday, 9th. Genteel light breezes and Clear weather. At 3 a.m. the Fore
top-gallant Mast broke short by the Cap; the Carpenter employed making
another. Wind North, North-East, South-South-West; course South 22
degrees East; distance 32 miles; latitude 24 degrees 46 minutes South,
longitude 42 degrees 16 minutes West.

Saturday, 10th. Moderate breezes with some flying showers of Rain the
first part. Wind southerly; course, South-East 1/2 East; distance 75
miles; latitude 25 degrees 34 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 12
minutes West.

Sunday, 11th. Little wind and Clear weather the Most part of this day.
Serv'd Slops* (* Slops are materials for making clothes.) to the People.
Wind southerly; course South 20 degrees East; distance 9 miles; latitude
25 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 8 minutes West.

Monday, 12th. First part, light Airs; remainder, Genteel breezes and
Clear weather. Found the variation of the Compass by the Evening
Amplitude and an Azimuth in the Morning to be 8 degrees 30 minutes East,
and the Observed Latitude at Noon to be short of that given by the Log 10
Miles. Exercised the People at Great Guns and Small Arms. Wind variable;
course South-South-West; distance 34 miles; latitude 26 degrees 14
minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 23 minutes West.

Tuesday, 13th. First part Gentle breezes and Clear, remainder a Steady
Gale. The weather a little hazey. Variation 8 degrees 23 minutes East.
Wind North-East and North-North-East; course South 19 degrees 40 minutes
West; distance 113 miles; latitude 28 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude
42 degrees 6 minutes West.

Wednesday, 14th. First and latter parts, fresh breezes and Cloudy;
middle, little wind, with Thunder, Lightning and Rain. The Caulkers
employed Caulking the Ship's Decks. Wind, North-West, West, South by
West; course South 16 degrees East; distance 87 miles; latitude 29
degrees 24 minutes South, longitude 41 degrees 55 minutes West.

Thursday, 15th. The first part a fresh Gale and dark Cloudy weather;
Remainder, little wind and clear; a large swell from South-West. Wind
South-West by South, South, East-South-East; course South 14 degrees 15
minutes East; distance 45 miles; latitude 30 degrees 8 minutes South,
longitude 41 degrees 39 minutes West.

Friday, 16th. Genteel breezes and Clear weather. Variation 9 degrees 36
minutes East. Wind East-North-East, North-West, North-East; course South
32 degrees West: distance 86 miles; latitude 31 degrees 21 minutes South,
longitude 42 degrees 32 minutes West.

Saturday, 17th. Hazey with frequent Showers of Rain all the Fore and
Middle part; latter, Clear weather with a Gentle breeze of wind. Wind,
variable from North-West, South-West, to South-South-East; course South
14 degrees West; distance 56 miles; latitude 32 degrees 15 minutes South,
longitude 42 degrees 48 minutes West.

Sunday, 18th. First part, light winds; remainder, fresh breezes and Clear
weather. Variation 11 degrees 3 minutes East. Wind, South-East to
North-East; course South 51 West; distance 43 miles; latitude 32 degrees
42 minutes South, longitude 43 degrees 27 minutes West.

Monday, 19th. A steady fresh breeze and fair weather. At half-past 5 p.m.
Longitude in per Observation of the sun and moon 43 degrees 38 minutes
West from Greenwich. Variation 11 degrees 3 minutes East. The Observed
Latitude exceeds that given by the Log 7 Miles. Wind northerly; course
South-West; distance 116 miles; latitude 34 degrees 4 minutes South,
longitude 45 degrees 6 minutes West.

Tuesday, 20th. A fresh breeze of Wind and hazey. Variation 13 degrees 44
minutes East. Observed Latitude exceeds that given by the Log 11 miles.
Wind north; course South-West 1/4 South; distance 160 miles; latitude 36
degrees 2 minutes South, longitude 47 degrees 14 minutes West.

Wednesday, 21st. Wind and weather Variable. Saw several black sheer
Waters. Sounded twice this 24 Hours but found no ground with 90 fathoms.
The Observed Latitude again ahead of the Log 16 miles. Wind variable;
course South 42 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 90 miles; latitude 37
degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 48 degrees 30 minutes West.

Thursday, 22nd. Little wind the most part of this day. Variation 15
degrees 30 minutes East. Bent a New Suit of Sails. Wind southerly; course
West; distance 40 miles; latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude
49 degrees 1 minute West.

Friday, 23rd. Light Airs and Clear weather. Saw some Turtle upon the
Water but could not catch any. Sounded no ground with 200 fathoms.
Variation 15 degrees 40 minutes East. Wind southerly; course North 48
degrees West; distance 33 miles; latitude 36 degrees 46 minutes South,
longitude 49 degrees 32 minutes West.

Saturday, 24th. First part Calm; remainder a Genteel breeze and fine
Clear weather. This night had 2 Sets of Observations of the Moon and the
Star Aldebaran, which gave the Longitude
49 degrees 54 minutes 15 seconds West; the first sett gave 49 degrees 55
minutes 15 seconds, and the Second 49 degrees 53 minutes 15 seconds. Wind
calm, north-easterly; course South 50 degrees West; distance 39 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 50 degrees 32 minutes
West.

Sunday, 25th. Fresh breezes and fine Clear weather. Wind North-East by
North to North; course South 50 degrees West; distance 116 miles;
latitude 38 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude 52 degrees 5 minutes
West.

Monday, 26th. A Fresh breeze of Wind and Cloudy weather; passed by some
Rock Weed. At noon the Observed latitude 26 Miles to the Southward of the
Log, which I believe is chiefly owing to her being Generally steer'd to
the Southward of her Course. Yesterday being Christmas Day the people
were none of the Soberest. Wind North; course South-West; distance 158
miles; latitude 40 degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 54 degrees 30
minutes West.

Tuesday, 27th. Fresh breezes and Hazey with Squalls which Obliged us
during the Night to take in the small Sails and 2 reefs in the Topsails
which were let out in the Morning. Wind northerly; course South 50
degrees West; distance 123 miles; latitude 41 degrees 38 minutes South,
longitude 56 degrees 15 minutes West.

Wednesday, 28th. First part Strong Gales and Cloudy, which Obliged us to
get down Top-Gallant Yards. At 8 p.m. it blew a Storm of Wind with Rain
which brought us under our Mainsail with her Head to the Westward.
Sounded 50 fathoms, fine brown Sand; at midnight had 40 fathoms, the same
bottom. At 4 a.m. had 46 fathoms Coral Rock. The weather being more
Moderate, made Sail under the Courses and Set the Topsails with 2 Reefs
in. Wind South-East to South; latitude 40 degrees 49 minutes South,
longitude 58 degrees 29 minutes West.

Thursday, 29th. First part moderate breezes and Cloudy; remainder fresh
breezes and Clear. P.M. loosed all the Reefs out, and got Topgallant
Yards a Cross. Variation per Azimuth 16 degrees 12 minutes, per Amplitude
16 degrees 32 minutes; Mean of the Two 16 degrees 22 minutes East.
Between 9 and 10 a.m. took 7 sets of Observations between the sun and
moon to find the Longitude of the Ship. Each set Consists of three
Observations; the Mean of the whole gave 59 degrees 18 minutes 34 seconds
West of Greenwich. The result of each set was as follows: viz., 1st set,
59 degrees 8 minutes; Second, 59 degrees 21 minutes; Third, 59 degrees 34
minutes; Fourth, 59 degrees 17 minutes; Fifth, 59 degrees 11 minutes 45
seconds; Sixth, 59 degrees 19 minutes 30 seconds; and the Seventh, 59
degrees 20 minutes 45 seconds. The greatest differance between any
two--viz., the first and third--is but 26 minutes, and the mean of these
two differ from the mean of the whole only 2 minutes 26 seconds. This
shews to what degree of accuracy these observations can be made even by
Different Persons, for four of these were made and computed by Mr. Green
and the rest by myself. The Longitude given by the Ship, reckoning from
the last Observation 5 Days ago, differs only 8 Miles from the
Observation, which shews that we have not been in any Currents. Soundings
from 40 to 47. Wind North-Easterly; course South 46 degrees 30 minutes
West; distance 81 miles; latitude 41 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude
59 degrees 37 minutes West.

Friday, 30th. Little wind, and sometimes Calm; the first part Clear
weather, remainder Foggy and Hazey. Soundings from 44 to 49 fathoms; Grey
sandy Bottom. Caught both this Morning and last Night a great Number of
insects. Some were upon the Wing, but the greater part were upon the
water, and many of these alive and of such sort as cannot fly far; and
yet at this Time we could not be less than 30 Leagues from Land. Wind
variable; course South 30 degrees West; distance 54 miles; latitude 42
degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 60 degrees 15 minutes West.

Saturday, 31st. Cloudy weather, with some Lightning and a few showers of
rain. Variation 18 degrees 36 minutes East. Soundings from 46 to 50
fathoms; fine dark sand. Wind South-Easterly; course South 18 degrees
West; distance 43 miles; latitude 43 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude
60 degrees 26 minutes West.

[January 1769.]

Sunday, January 1st, 1769. First and Latter part, fresh breezes and Clear
weather; in the Middle, light Airs and Calm. At Noon, longitude in per 4
Sets of Observations between the sun and moon 61 degrees 8 minutes 28
seconds west. The Difference between the least and Greatest of these sets
was 8 minutes, and the mean of 2 differs from the Mean of the whole but
32 seconds. The Longitude by account carried on from the last
Observations exactly agree with these Observations. Saw a great number of
small Whales about the Ship. Wind South to West-South-West; course South
36 degrees West; distance 39 miles; latitude 43 degrees 35 minutes South;
longitude 61 degrees 8 minutes 28 seconds West.

Monday, January 2nd. The first part of this day a Genteel gale and Clear
weather; middle, Squally, with Lightning and rain, and some showers of
Large Hail Stones; towards Noon a Steady fresh breeze and Clear weather.
At noon longitude in by 3 sets of Observations between the sun and moon
61 degrees 7 minutes 45 seconds, which is 43 seconds to the Eastward of
yesterday's Observations. The Ship by the Log has made 4 minutes East.
Wind Westerly; course South 2 degrees East; distance 92 miles; latitude
45 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 7 minutes 45 seconds
West.

Tuesday, 3rd. Fresh gales and clear weather; under Single Reef Topsails.
P.M. Saw some Whales and Porpoises and small red Crawfish, some of which
we Caught. At Noon saw several Birds of a light Grey Colour, like
Pidgeons, but smaller; these are of the Mother Carey's kind. Longitude
per Observation 61 degrees 29 minutes 45 seconds, which is 22 minutes to
the westward of Yesterday, but the ship hath made 41 minutes,
Consequently there is an Error of 19 minutes, which is not to be supposed
to be in the Log in one Day's run; but, be it which way it will, it is
not great. Wind West, Southerly; course South 11 degrees; distance 122
miles; latitude 47 degrees 17 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 29
minutes 45 seconds West.

Wednesday, 4th. First part, genteel breeze and Clear; latter, fresh
gales, with heavy squalls of wind and rain, which brought us under our
courses and main topsails close reefed. Soon after noon saw the
appearance of Land to the Eastward, and being in the Latitude of Peypes
Island, as it is lay'd down in some Charts, imagined it might be it.* (*
Pepys' Island, placed on charts, from a report by Captain Cowley in 1683,
about 230 miles north of Falkland Islands, and long imagined to exist. It
was eventually recognised, after the discovery of Cowley's manuscript
Journal, that Cowley had sighted the Falklands.) Bore down to be Certain,
and at 1/2 past 2 p.m. discovered our Mistake, and hauld the Wind again.
At 6 sounded, and had 72 fathoms black sand and mud. Variation 19 degrees
45 minutes East. Wind West-North-West to South-West by South; course
South 30 degrees East; distance 76 miles; latitude 48 degrees 28 minutes
South, longitude 60 degrees 51 minutes West.

[Nearing Terra del Fuego.]

Thursday, 5th. Fore part, fresh Gales and Clear; Middle, light Airs;
remainder, fresh Gales and a little hazey. P.M. found the Variation to be
20 degrees 4 minutes East; Soundings 75 and 73 fathoms. A great Number of
Water Fowl about the Ship. Wind South-West, North-East, North-North-East;
course South 28 degrees West; distance 92 miles; latitude 49 degrees 49
minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 67 minutes West.

Friday, 6th. Fresh gales, the Air very Sharp and Cold; frequent showers
of rain and Squalls. Soundings 75 fathoms. Saw some Penguins. Gave to
each of the People a Fearnought Jacket and a pair of Trowsers, after
which I never heard one Man Complain of Cold, not but that the weather
was cold enough. Wind West, Southerly; course South 8 degrees 45 minutes
West; distance 92 miles; latitude 51 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude
62 degrees 19 minutes West.

Saturday, 7th. First part, Strong Gales, with excessive hard Squals, with
rain. At 9 p.m. wore and brought too, her head to the Westward under the
Mainsail, and Reef'd the Foresail for the first time. The Storm continued
with a little intermission until a little towards Noon, when it abated,
so we could set the Topsails close Reefed. Saw many Penguins and some
Seals. Wind southerly: course South 62 degrees East; distance 14 miles;
latitude 51 degrees 26 minutes South, longitude 61 degrees 59 minutes
West.

Sunday, 8th. Wind and weather both Variable, but for the most part little
wind. P.M. loosed the Reef out of the Foresail and 2 Reefs out of Each
Topsail. A.M. got Top gallant Yards across and loosed all the Reefs out.
Soundings from 80 to 75 fathoms. Wind South, South-West, West,
North-West; course North 72 degrees West; distance 33 miles; latitude 51
degrees 16 minutes South; longitude 62 degrees 50 minutes West.

Monday, 9th. First and Latter parts, a moderate breeze and Clear weather;
Middle, squally with rain. P.M. found the Variation by several azimuths
to be 22 degrees 24 minutes East. Saw a great Number of Penguins and
Seals.

Tuesday, 10th. Moderate breezes and fine clear weather. At 2 p.m. Sounded
86 fathoms; black sand and Small stones. Variation 21 degrees 57 minutes
East. At 1/2 past 10 Tackt having Stood south 12 Leagues. After standing
to the Westward 14 Miles, sounded, and had 80 fathoms black grey sand; 3
Leagues farther 76, coarse black sand; Tack'd, and at noon had 70 fathoms
black gravel and Small Stones of different Colours. Saw several flights
of black Sheerwaters. Wind West-South-West, South-West; course South 18
degrees West; distance 38 miles; latitude 52 degrees 54 minutes South,
longitude 63 degrees 10 minutes West.

Wednesday, 11th. A Steady Genteel breeze and clear weather. P.M. after
standing 13 Leagues South-South-West Sounded 64 fathoms Gravel and small
Stones; Standing South-West by South 11 leagues farther, had 46 fathoms,
the same sort of bottom. At 8 a.m. saw the land of Terra del Fuego,
extending from the west to the South-East by South, distance off shore
between 3 and 4 Leagues; sounded and had 35 fathoms small, soft, Slate
Stones. Variation 23 degrees 30 minutes East. In ranging along shore to
the South-East at the distance of 2 or 3 leagues, had 27 and 26 fathoms
muddy bottom. Saw some of the natives, who made a Smook in several
places, which must have been done as a Signal to us as they did not
continue it after we passed. By our Longitude we ought not to have been
so far to the Westward as Statenland, as it is laid down in the Charts;
but it appeared from Subsequent Observations that the Ship had got near a
Degree of Longitude to the Westward of the Log, which is 35 Miles in
these Latitudes. Probably this in part may be owing to a Small Current
setting to the Westward, occasioned by the Westerly Current which comes
round Cape Horn and through Strait La Maire, and the indraught of the
Streights of Magellan. Wind westerly; course South 30 degrees West;
distance, 100 miles; latitude 54 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 64
degrees 35 minutes West per log.

Thursday, 12th. First part, moderate breezes and Cloudy; remainder
sometimes a fresh breeze, sometimes Calm, Hazey weather with rain. At 5
the wind coming to the Northward obliged us to Tack and Stood
North-Westward, being then about 5 Miles from the Shore, and had 23
fathoms, sandy Bottom. At Midnight Tackt and Stood to the Eastward. At
Noon the Land over the Entrance of Straits La Maire, East-North-East,
distance, 7 leagues; Soundings from 28 to 38 fathoms. Wind North,
North-North-East, variable, West-South-West; latitude 54 degrees 34
minutes South per observation.

Friday, 13th. The greatest part of this day little wind and Cloudy. At 8
p.m., Cape St. Diego, at the west entrance of Straits La Maire, East,
distance about 5 leagues. Keept under an easey Sail until daylight, at
which time we were abreast of Cape St. Diego, and then put into the
Straits, but the Tide soon turned against us and obliged us to haul under
the Cape again and wait until 9 a.m. when it shifted in our favour. Put
into the Straits again with a Moderate breeze at South-West, which soon
grew Boisterous with very heavy Squalls, with rain and hail, and obliged
us to Close reef our Topsails. Wind North-East by East, West-South-West,
South-West; latitude 54 degrees 39 minutes South; at noon, Cape St. Diego
North 2 leagues.

[In Strait of Le Maire.]

Saturday, 14th. First part Strong Gales, and very heavy squalls with Hail
and Rain; remainder more moderate but unsettled, sometimes a fresh breeze
and Squally, and sometimes little wind. Kept plying in the Straits until
1/2 past 4 p.m., at which time the Tide had made strong against us, and
the wind not abating, bore away, intending to have hauled under Cape St.
Diego, but was prevented by the force of the Tide, which carried us past
that Cape with surprising rapidity, at the same time caused a very great
sea. At 6, the weather being Clear, took 9, or 3 sets of, Observations of
the sun and moon in order to find the Longitude of the place, and as they
perhaps are the first Observations of this kind that were ever made so
near to the Extremity of South America, I have inserted them below just
as they were taken, that everybody may judge for themselves.

COLUMN 1: NAME OF SET.
COLUMN 2: TIME BY THE WATCH IN HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 3: APPARENT TIME COMPUTED FROM IN HOURS, MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 4: OBSERVED DISTANCE. SUN AND MOON'S NEAREST LIMB IN DEGREES,
MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 5: OBSERVED ALTITUDE. SUN'S LOWER LIMB IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND
SECONDS.
COLUMN 6: OBSERVED ALTITUDE. MOON'S UPPER LIMB IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND
SECONDS.
COLUMN 7: CORRECT ALTITUDE. SUN'S CENTER IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.
COLUMN 8: CORRECT ALTITUDE. MOON'S CENTER IN DEGREES, MINUTES AND
SECONDS.
COLUMN 9: THE LONGITUDE RESULTING FROM BOTH SETS OF OBSERVATIONS IN
DEGREES, MINUTES AND SECONDS.

-- : 8 27 15 : -- : 71 26 0 : 15 36 0 : 24 13 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 30 30 : -- : 71 28 0 : 15 11 0 : 24 8 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 32 15 : -- : 71 29 0 : 14 56 0 : 23 57 0 : -- : -- : --.
------------------------------------------------
-- : 25 30 00 : -- : - 83 0 : 45 43 0 : 72 18 0 : -- : -- : --.
------------------------------------------------
1st set : 8 30 0 : 6 12 53 : 71 27 40 : 15 14 20 : 24 6 0 : 15 22 39 : 23
43 0 : 66 7 45.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------

-- : 8 33 50 : -- : 71 30 0 : 14 43 0 : 23 38 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 35 39 : -- : - 31 0 : 14 25 0 : 23 42 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 37 46 : -- : - 30 30 : 14 10 0 : 23 32 0 : -- : -- : --.
-------------------------------------------------
-- : 8 107 15 : -- : - 91 30 : 43 18 0 : 23 112 0 : -- : -- : --.
-------------------------------------------------
2nd set : 8 35 45 : 6 18 41 : 71 30 30 : 14 26 0 : 23 37 20 : 14 34 00 :
23 14 0 : 66 19 45.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------

-- : 8 39 10 : -- : 71 31 30 : 13 56 0 : 23 26 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 41 20 : -- : - 32 00 : 13 40 0 : 23 20 0 : -- : -- : --.
-- : 8 43 49 : -- : - 33 00 : 13 18 0 : 23 6 0 : -- : -- : --.
-------------------------------------------------
-- : 8 124 19 : -- : - 96 30 : - 114 0 : - 52 0 : -- : -- : --.
-------------------------------------------------
3rd set : 8 41 26 : 6 24 26 : 71 32 10 : 13 38 0 : 23 17 20 : 13 46 0 :
22 55 0 : 66 0 45.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------

N.B. The mean of the three sets is 66 degrees 9 minutes 25 seconds, and
the mean of Mr. Green's Computations from the same Observations was 66
degrees 14 minutes 0 seconds, and the mean of his computations and mine
will be 66 degrees 11 minutes 32 seconds, and therefore the Longitude of
Cape St. Diego or the North-West entrance of Strait Le Maire will be 66
degrees 0 minutes 0 seconds West from Greenwich, and its Latitude 54
degrees 39 minutes South.* (* Modern determination is 54 degrees 40
minutes South, 65 degrees 8 minutes West.)

Note: The distance of the sun and moon was taken by Mr. Green alone, my
Quadrant being out of Order.

Cape St. Diego bore at this time South by East about 4 Leagues Distant.
At 1/2 past 7 Tackt and Stood to the South-East, Cape St. Diego bearing
South by East, distance 5 Leagues. At 1 a.m., Squally, wore Ship, Staten
Land extending from North to East. At 4, Moderate Weather, loosed a Reef
out of each Topsail, the Cape of Good Success West by South, and Cape St.
Diego North-North-West, being now in the Strait, but the Tide turning
against us soon carried us out. The Violence of the Tide of Ebb rose such
a Sea off Cape St. Diego, that it looked as if it was breaking Violently
on the ledge of Rocks, and would be taken for such by any who know'd not
the true cause. When the Ship was in this Torrent she frequently Pitched
her Bowsprit in the Water. By Noon we got under the Land between Cape St.
Diego and Cape St. Vincent, where I thought to have Anchored, but found
the Bottom every where hard and Rocky; the Depth of Water from 30 to 12
fathoms. Sent the Master to Examine a small Cove which appeared to our
View a little to the Eastward of Cape St. Vincent. Wind South-South-West
and South-West by South.

Sunday, 15th. Moderate breezes at South and South-East, and cloudy
weather, the greater part of this day. At 2 p.m. the Master return'd with
an account that there was Anchorage in 4 fathoms Water and a good bottom
close to the Eastward of the first black bluff point which is on the East
side of Cape St. Vincent, at the very Entrance of the Cove we saw from
the Ship (which I named Vincent Bay). Before this Anchoring ground lay
several Rocky Ledges covered with Sea Weed: on these Ledges I was
informed was not less than 8 or 9 fathoms, but in standing in with the
Ship the first we came upon had only 4 fathoms upon it. I therefore
thought that Anchoring here would be attended with some Risk, and that it
would be better to Endeavour to find some Port in the Strait, and there
Compleat our Wood and Water. However, I sent an Officer with a Boat on
shore to attend to Mr. Banks and people who was very desirous of being on
shore at any rate, while I keept plying as near the shore as possible
with the Ship. At 9 they return'd on board bringing with them several
Plants, Flowers, etc., most of them unknown in Europe, and in that Alone
consisted their whole Value; they saw none of the Natives, but meet with
several of their old Hutts. Hoisted the Boat in and made Sail into the
Straits and at 3 a.m. Anchord in 12 1/2 fathoms Water (the bottom Coral
rocks) before a small Cove which we took for Port Maurice, and near 1/2 a
Mile from the shore Cape St. Diego South-South-West, and Cape St.
Bartholomew (which is the south point of Staten Land) East-South-East.

Port Maurice appeared to afford so little Shelter for Shipping that I did
not think it worth while to hoist a Boat out to Examine it; we saw here 2
of the Natives come down to the Shore, who stay'd sometime, then retir'd
into the Woods againe. At 10 o'Clock got under Sail, Wind at South-East,
and plyed to Windward.

[In Success Bay.]

Monday, 16th. A Fresh breeze of Wind at South and South-West, with
frequent showers of Rain and Snow. At 2 p.m. Anchored in the Bay of
Success in 9 fathoms, the bottom Owse and sand.* (* The Endeavour was
three days and a half in getting through the Strait of Le Maire, as far
as Success Bay. It is a difficult passage for a sailing vessel even in
the present day, as the tides are strong and winds generally contrary,
but experience has enabled good directions to be given as to the best way
to pass the Strait. Cook himself gives capital advice farther on.) The
south point of the Bay bore South-East and the north point
East-North-East. This Bay I shall describe when I come to speake of the
rest of the Coast. Hoisted out the Boats and moor'd with the Stream
Anchor. While this was doing I went ashore accompanyed by Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander to look for a Watering place and to speak with the Natives,
who were assembled on the Beach at the Head of the Bay to the Number of
30 or 40. They were so far from being afraid or surprised at our coming
amongst them that three of them came on board without the least
hesitation. They are something above the Middle size, of a Dark Copper
Colour with long black hair; they paint their Bodies in Streakes, mostly
Red and Black. Their Cloathing consists wholy in a Guanacoe Skin or that
of a Seal, in the same form as it came from the Animal's back.

The Women Wear a Piece of Skin over their Privy Parts, but the Men
observe no such decency. Their Hutts are made like a behive, and open on
one side where they have their fires; they are made of small Sticks and
covered with branches of trees, long Grass, etc., in such a manner that
they are neither Proof against Wind, Hail, rain or Snow, a sufficient
proof that these People must be a very hardy race. They live chiefly on
shell fish, such as Muscels, which they gather from off the Rocks along
the Sea Shore, and this seems to be the Work of the Women. Their Arms are
Bows and Arrows neatly made; their Arrows are bearded, some with glass
and others with fine flint; several Pieces of the former we saw amongst
them with other European things, such as rings, Buttons, Cloth, Canvas,
etc., which I think proves that they must sometimes travel to the
Northward, as we know of no Ship that hath been in these parts for many
Years; besides, they were not at all surprised at our Fire Arms; on the
Contrary, they seemed to know the use of them, by making signs to us to
fire at Seals or Birds that might come in the way. They have no Boats
that we saw or anything to go upon the Water with; their number doth not
Exceed 50 or 60 young and old, and there are fewer Women than Men. They
are Extreamly fond of any Red thing, and seemed to set more Value on
Beads than anything we could give them; in this Consists their whole
Pride, few, either Men or Women, are without a Necklace or String of
Beads made of Small Shells or bones about their Necks. They would not
taste any strong Liquor, neither did they seem fond of our Provisions. We
could not discover that they had any Head or Chief or Form of Government,
neither have they any useful or necessary Utensil except it be a Bag or
Basket to gather their Muscels into. In a word they are perhaps as
Miserable a sett of People as are this day upon Earth.* (* Cook's
description of the natives of Tierra del Fuego is good to the present
day, except that those who live farther westward are still more wretched.
Those of the main island, in which the Bay of Good Success lies, are able
to kill guanaco, and enjoy a better climate. They, as Cook observed,
never go on the water, whereas those westward practically live in
canoes.) Having found a convenient place on the south side of the Bay to
Wood and Water at, we set about that Work in the Morning, and Mr. Banks
with a Party went into the Country to gather Plants, etc.

Tuesday, 17th. Fresh Gales at South-South-West and West-South-West with
rain and Snow, and, of Course, very cold weather; notwithstanding we kept
geting on board Wood and Water, and finished the Survey of the Bay. Mr.
Banks and his Party not returning this Evening as I expected, gave me
great uneasiness, as they were not prepared for Staying out the Night.
However, about Noon they returned in no very Comfortable Condition, and
what was still worse 2 blacks, servants to Mr. Banks, had perished in the
Night with Cold. Great part of the day they landed was spent before they
got through the Woods, after which they advanced so far into the Country
that they were so far from being able to return that night, and with much
difficulty they got to a place of Tolerable Shelter where they could make
a fire: these 2 men being Intrusted with great part of the Liquor (that
was for the whole party) had made too free with it, and Stupified
themselves to that degree that they either could or would not Travel, but
laid themselves down in a place where there was not the least thing to
Shelter them from the inclemency of the night. This was about 1/4 of a
Mile from where the rest took up their Quarters, and notwithstanding
their repeated Endeavours, they could not get them to move one Step
farther, and the bad travelling made it impossible for any one to Carry
them, so that they were Obliged to leave them, and the next morning they
were both found dead.

Wednesday, 18th. All the Middle and Latter parts of this day it blow'd
very strong from the South-South-West and South-West, attended with Snow,
Hail and Rain, and brought such a Sea into the Bay, which rose the Surf
to such a Height that no Boat could land. The same Stormy weather and
Surf continued all

Thursday, 19th. All this time the Ship road very easy with her Broad side
to the swell. The great Surf that always will be upon the Shore when the
wind blows hard from the Southward makes Wooding and Watering tedious,
notwithstanding there are great plenty of both close to high water Mark.

Friday, 20th. Moderate gales and Cloudy with frequent Showers of rain all
this day. This Evening the Surf abated, and at 2 a.m. sent the People on
shore to Wood and Water and cut Brooms, all of which we Completed this
day. In this Service we lost our small Kedge Anchor, it having been laid
off the Watering Place to ride the Long-boat by, and the Gale had broke
away the Hawser and Buoy rope, and perhaps buried the Anchor in the Sand,
for notwithstanding our utmost Endeavours we were not able to Hook it.
Took up the Stream Anchor and made ready for Sailing.

[Sailed from Success Bay.]

Saturday, 21st. Wind from South-South-West to South-West; moderate
breezes the first part; latter, fresh Gales with Showers of Rain. P.M.
hoisted in the Boats, and made ready for Sailing; at 2 a.m. weighed and
made Sail out of the Bay. At 1/2 past 4 the Cape of good Success bore
West, and Cape Bartholomew East. Variation per Azimuth, 24 degrees 9
minutes East; at Noon the Cape of good Success bore North 36 degrees
West; distance, 11 leagues.

Sunday, 22nd. Wind between the South and the West first and Latter part,
fresh Gales and Squally, with rain; the Middle, little wind and rain.
A.M. found the Variation by several Azimuths to be 20 degrees 4 minutes
East. Unbent the Cables and Stowed the Anchors. At Noon, Latitude
observed 56 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude, made from the Cape of
Good Success, 42 minutes East.

Monday, 23rd. Winds variable from South-East round by the South-West to
North-West. First part, a fresh breeze and Squally, the remainder
moderate breezes and sometimes Calm and clear weather, which is more than
we have had for several days past. At 4 a.m. saw the Land in the
South-West Quarter, and a small Island bearing West; from this Time until
9 it was Calm, at which time the Ship drove very fast to the North-East
by North. At 9 Sprung up a light breeze at North, loos'd all the Reefs
out, and set the Steering sails. The Cape of good Success bore North-East
by North; Staten land seen from the Deck bearing North-East; the Sugar
Loaf on Terra Del Fuego North-North-East, and is the same Hill as is seen
from the North-East side of the Land; it appears to stand but a little
way in Land from the Shore; and the Mainland and Islands on the Coast
extending from the Cape of good Success to the South by West. The Country
Mountainous, of an indifferent height; the Tops were covered with Snow,
which had lately fell, as it did not lay long. There appeared to be
several Bays and inlets and Islands laying along the Coast; the 3rd view
in the Chart exhibits the appearance of this Coast where g is new Island,
c the Sugar Loaf, and h the Cape of good Success. At noon the West End of
New Island bore North-West by West, 5 leagues. Latitude observed 55
degrees 25 minutes South, this Island I named New Island because it is
not laid down in any Chart.* (* This island is still so called in the
charts.)

Tuesday, 24th. The fore and Middle parts of these 24 Hours Moderate Gales
and Cloudy with some Showers of Rain; the Latter, fresh gales with flying
Showers. At 7 p.m. New Island bore North-West by North, and a small
Island laying to the Westward of it bore West by North. Variation per
Several Azimuths 21 degrees 0 minutes East, which is much less than we
have yet found it upon this Coast; yet I am satisfied with the Goodness
of the Observations. At 1/2 past 1 a.m. the Wind Shifted from
South-South-West to East-South-East. Tackt and stood South-West; at 6 Saw
the Land to the Westward making like several Islands. At 8 two Small
Islands laying off a low Point of Land bore West by South, distant 3
Leagues, and the small Island we saw last night bore North-North-West.
This I take to be the Island of Evouts, it is about one League in
Circuit, and of a Moderate height and lies 4 Leagues from the Main. Near
the South Point of it are some Peaked rocks pretty high above Water; the
wind coming to the Southward we did but just weather this Island; in
passing it, sounded and had 40 fathoms Water, sand, and broken Shells. At
Noon it bore North-East distance one League, and the low point of land
before mentioned South 17 degrees West distant 4 or 5 Leagues. Tackt and
Stood to the South-East, wind at South-South-West. From this low Point
the land trends to the North-West, about 4 Leagues, where it ends in a
low point round which to the Westward appears to be a Deep Bay, unless
this land should prove to be an Island or Islands, which is most likely.
It rises into high Craggy hills, and the Shore seems to form several
Bays; if so, they must afford good Shelter for Shipping against Southerly
and Westerly winds.

[Off Cape Horn.]

Wednesday, 25th. Winds from the South to the West-North-West, the first
part fresh Gales and Squally with some Rain; Middle, little wind with
Hail and Rain; latter, fresh Gales and Hazey, with Showers of Rain. At 8
p.m. the Island of Evouts North-West, distant 3 or 4 miles. Variation,
per morning Amplitude 21 degrees 16 minutes East. At 8 a.m. the
Southermost low point of land seen Yesterday Bore South 74 degrees West,
and a remarkable Peaked Hill to the Southward of it South-West; and soon
after we discovered that the land which we took Yesterday to be a part of
the Main or an Island, was three Islands, which I take to be Hermites. At
Noon the South Point of the Southermost Island bore North-West by West
distant 3 leagues, having then 58 fathoms Peble Stones. This Point is
pretty high and consists of Peaked Craggy rocks, and not far from it lay
several others high above Water. It lies in the Latitude of 55 degrees 53
minutes South and South-West 26 Leagues from Straits La Mair, and by some
on board thought to be Cape Horn; but I was of another Opinion, and with
good reason, because we saw land to the Southward of it about 3 or 4
leagues. It appeared not unlike an Island with a very high round Hummock
upon it; this I believe to be Cape Horn, for after we had stood about 3
Leagues the weather cleared up for about a quarter of an hour, which gave
us a sight of the land bearing West-South-West, but we could see no land
to the southward or Westward of it, and therefore conclude that it must
be the Cape, but whether it be an Island of itself, a part of the
Southermost of Hermits Islands, or a part of Terra del Fuego, I am not
able to determine. However, this is of very little Consequence to
Navigation: I only wished to be Certain whether or no it was the
Southermost Land on or near to Terra del Fuego; but the thick foggy
weather and the westerly winds which Carried us from the land prevented
me from satisfying my Curiosity in this point, but from its Latitude and
the reasons before given I think it must, and if so it must be Cape Horn,
and lies in the latitude of 55 degrees 53 minutes South and Longitude 68
degrees 13 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich,* (* No doubt this
was Cape Horn, but it lies in 55 degrees 58 minutes South, 67 degrees 16
minutes West.) being the Mean result of Several Observations of the sun
and moon made the day after we left the land, and which agreed with those
made at Straits Le Mair, allowing for the distance between one place and
the other, which I found means very accurately to determine. As we are
now about taking our departure from the Land, which we are not likely to
fall in with again, I shall give a more full Description of such parts of
the Coasts of Terra del Fuego as hath fallen under my inspection.

We fell in with this Coast 21 Leagues to the Westward of Straits Le Mair,
and ranged the coast from thence to the Strait within 2 or 3 Leagues of
the Land, and had soundings all the way from 40 to 20 fathoms, a Gravelly
and Sandy Bottom. The land near the Shore is in general low but hilly,
the face of the Country appears Green and Woody, but in land are Craggy
Mountains; they appeared to be of no great height, nor were they Covered
with Snow. The most remarkable land on Terra Del Fuego is a high Mountain
in form of a Sugar Loaf, situated not far from the sea on the South-West
side of the Land, and 3 hills called the 3 Brothers. They lay near the
Shore and nine Miles to the Westward of Cape St. Diego, which is a low
point that forms the North-West Entrance of Strait Le Mair, and are
Contiguous to Each other. The Sugar Loaf lies from these Hills
South-South-West, and when it was in this situation the Appearances of
the Land is represented in the first View in the Chart, but it must be
observed that from this point of View the Three Brothers appear far more
Conspicuous than from any other; these land Marks are by some Voyagers
thought very necessary to know Strait Le Mair by, but whoever coasts
Terra Del Fuego within sight of land cannot possibly miss the Strait, it
being of itself so very Conspicuous; and Staten Land, which forms the
East side, is still more so from its very rugged appearance. One League
and a half to the Westward of Cape St. Diego lies Cape St. Vincent,
between these two Capes lies Vincent's Bay,* (* Now called Thetis Bay, it
is a very poor anchorage.) a Small Cove wherein is Wood and Water, and
before which a Ship might Anchor with a Southerly or South-West wind, but
the ground is none of the best, unless you go into the very Mouth of the
Cove, which is on the East side of the first Bluff point from Cape St.
Vincent, where there is Anchorage in 4 fathoms, a Sandy Bottom. In going
in keep clear of the Sea Weed, and send a Boat Ahead to sound, and at
best this is but a bad place for Shipping, and only recommended to such
as are in want of Wood and Water, and have no Opportunity to put into the
Strait, which in Prudence ought not to be attempted but with a fair wind
or Moderate weather, and upon the very first of the Tide of Flood, which
hapens here at the full and Change of the Moon about 1 or 2 o'clock, and
then to keep as near to Terra Del Fuego Shore as the winds will permit.
By using these Precautions you will be sure of either getting quite
through the Straits in one Tide or to the Southward of Success Bay; and
it may be more Prudent to put in there should the wind be Southerly, than
to attempt to weather Staten Land with a Lee Wind and Current, for I
believe this to be the Chief reason why Ships have run a Risk of being
drove on that Island.

Strait Le Maire is formed on the West by part of Terra Del Fuego, and on
the East by the West end of Staten Land or Island; its Length and Breadth
is about 5 Leagues each; about the Middle of the Strait is Success Bay,
on Terra Del Fuego side, and about a 1/4 of a League more to the
Northwards is Port Maurice, a little Cove, before which we Anchored in 12
fathoms.

[Description of Strait of Le Maire.]

The Bay of Success is discovered immediately upon entring the Strait from
the Northward; there is likewise a good Land Mark near the South head to
know it by, which is a Mark on the land like a lane or broad road leading
up from the Sea into the Country; this Bay is 1/2 a League Wide at the
Entrance, and lies in West 2 1/2 Miles, and hath good Anchorage in every
part of it, in 10, 8, and 7 fathoms clear ground, and affords plenty of
exceeding good Wood and Water. The Wood is of the Birch kind, but of a
diffrent Quality to that in England or North America; here are likewise
of the Winter Bark tree and some few others, Wild Selary, some Berrys
like Cranberrys, but growing on Bushes, very few Wild Fowls of any Sort,
and no Fish Except Shell Fish, such as Muscels, Limpets, etc.; and what
we saw of the interior parts of the Country is still more barren of the
necessaries of Life than the Sea. The few days we stay'd here we had
constant bad weather, the Winds from the South-West and West-South-West
with rain, Hail and Snow. Snow generally fell on the Hills everywhere
with these winds when we had rain in the Bay or upon the Sea Coast. I
observed the same in respect to Staten Land, but as it never froze it did
not lay long; yet it must render the Country Cold and barren, and unfit
for Cultivation. The Tides in Success Bay flows at the full and Change of
the Moon, about 4 or 5 o'Clock, and riseth between 5 and 6 feet
Perpendicular, but in the Strait the flood runs 2 or 3 Hours longer, and
there the Ebb or Southerly Current runs near Double the strength of the
Flood or Northerly Current.

Staten Island lies nearest East and West, and from what I could see and
judge of it may be about 12 Leagues in length and 5 in breadth. On the
North side are the appearances of Bays or Harbours, and the land is not
destitute of Wood and Verdure, nor covered with Snow any more than Terra
del Fuego.

On the South-West side of the Cape of good Success (which forms the
South-West entrance of Strait Le Mair, and is known by some rocks off it)
lies Valentine's Bay, the entrance of which we only saw. From this Bay
the land Trends to the West-South-West; for 20 or 30 Leagues it appears
High and Mountainous, and forms several Bays and inlets South-West 1/2
South 14 Leagues from the Cape of good Success, and 2 or 3 Leagues from
the Shore lies New Island; it is 2 leagues in length, North-East and
South-West, the North-East end is terminated by a remarkable Hillock.
South-West 7 Leagues from New Island lies the Isle Evouts, and South, a
little Westerly from this island, lies Barnevelts, two small flatt
Islands close to each other; they are partly Environ'd with rocks of
Different height above water, and lay South-West 24 leagues from Strait
le Mair. From Barnevelts Island to the South-East point of Hermites
island is South-West by South, distance 3 Leagues. These Islands lay
South-East and North-West, and are pretty high, and will, from most
points of view, be taken for one Island or a part of the Main; from the
South-East point of Hermites Isles to Cape Horn, the Course is South-West
by South, distance 3 Leagues. The Appearance of this Cape and Hermites
Islands is represented in the last View in the chart which I have drawn
of this Coast from our first making the land unto Cape Horn, in which is
included Strait Le Mair and part of Staten Land. In this chart I have
laid down no land nor figured out any Shore, but what I saw myself and
thus far the Chart may be depended upon. The Bays and inlets are left
voide, the openings of which we only see from the Ship. It cannot be
doubted but what there is Anchorage, Wood and Water in those Bays, and it
must have been in some of them that the Dutch Squadron commanded by
Hermites put into in the year 1624. It was the Vice Admiral Chapenham, of
this Squadron, who first discovered that the land of Cape Horn was
consisted of a Number of Islands, but the account they have given of
those parts is very short and imperfect, and that of Schouton and Le
Maire still worse, that it is no wonder that the Charts hitherto
published should be found incorrect, not only in laying down the Land,
but in the Latitude and Longitude of the places they contain, but I can
now venture to Assert that the Longitude of few parts of the World are
better Ascertained than that of Strait Le Maire and Cape Horn, being
determined by several Observations of the Sun and moon made both by
myself and Mr. Green, the Astronomer.

We found the Variation of the Compass on this Coast to be from 23 to 25
degrees east, except near Barnevelts Islands and Cape Horn, where we
found it less and unsettled; it is likely that it is here disturbed by
the land, as the Dutch Squadron before mentioned found in this very place
all their Compasses to differ from each other. The declination of the
South point of the Dipping Needle when set up ashore in Success Bay was
68 degrees 15 minutes below the horizon. Between Strait Le Maire and Cape
Horn we found a Current setting generally pretty strong to the North-East
when we were in with the Shore, but when 15 or 20 Leagues off we were not
sencible of any.

REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES IN JANUARY 1769. SOUTH SEAS.

[Off Cape Horn.]

Thursday, 26th. Fresh Gales and thick Hazey weather, with small rain. At
2 p.m., the weather clearing up a little, saw Cape Horn bearing
West-South-West, distance about 6 leagues, and from which I take my
departure. Its Latitude and Longitude have before been taken notice of.
Wind South-West by West to West-North-West; course South 15 degrees West;
distance, 63 miles; latitude 56 degrees 57 minutes South; longitude 68
degrees 13 minutes West; at noon, Cape Horn North, 58 miles.

Friday, 27th. First part, moderate breezes and thick Hazey weather; the
Middle, fair and Cloudy; and the Latter, fresh Gales with some rain. At 8
a.m. took two Setts of Observations of the sun and moon; the first gave
68 degrees 15 minutes; the second, 68 degrees 9 minutes; the Mean of the
2 is 68 degrees 12 minutes West. The Longitude of the Ship at Noon by
these Observations is 68 degrees 42 minutes less 14 minutes, the
Longitude made from Cape Horn, equal to 68 degrees 28 minutes, the
longitude of Cape Horn according to the Observation. A Great many large
Albetrosses about the Ship. Wind, South-West, West and North; course,
South and West; distance, 32 miles; latitude 57 degrees 2 minutes South,
longitude 68 degrees 27 minutes West.

Saturday, 28th. Fresh Gales the most part of this day; first and Middle
parts cloudy; latter, clear with a Sharp cold air. At 2 p.m. saw the
land, bearing North, distant about 8 Leagues; it made in 2 Hummocks, and
appeared to be an Island, which I take to be the Isle of Diego Ramirez.
It lays in the Latitude of 56 degrees 38 minutes South and Longitude 68
degrees 47 minutes West from Greenwich.* (* Diego Ramirez is in 56
degrees 31 minutes South, 68 degrees 43 minutes West.) Found the
Variation this Evening to be 22 degrees East. A.M. had 3 sets of
Observations of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 69 degrees 7
minutes 15 seconds West. The Longitude of the Ship at Noon by the
Observation is 69 degrees 24 minutes, from which take 1 degree 48
minutes, the longitude made from Cape Horn, the remainder is 67 degrees
36 minutes, the Longitude of the Cape, which is 52 minutes less than the
result of Yesterday's Observations.* (* This was the best observation.)
This difference may arise partly from the Observations and partly from
the Ship's runs; the mean of the 2 gives 68 degrees 2 minutes and 68
degrees 24 minutes, the Longitude of the Cape from the Observations taken
at Strait Maire 136 degrees 26 minutes/2 = 68 degrees 13 minutes West
from Greenwich. The Longitude of Cape Horn being deduced from no less
than 24 Observations taken at no very great distance from the Cape, and
on both sides of it, and when the Sun was both to the East and West of
the Moon; for in this case the Errors arising from the Observations are
most likely to Correct one another. Wind, North and West by North to
North-West by West; course, South 39 degrees West; distance, 80 miles;
latitude 58 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 70 degrees 1 minute West.

Sunday, 29th. First and Latter parts, fresh Gales and Squally, with
flying Showers of rain and Hail; the Middle, strong Gales with heavy
Squalls and showers of rain. At 8 p.m. took 2nd Reef Topsails, at 6 a.m.
Close reefd the Foretopsails and took in the Mizen Topsl, and at 10 set
it again and let the reef out of the Fore top-sails. Wind, West
Northerly; course South-West; distance, 79 miles; latitude 59 degrees 0
minutes South, longitude 72 degrees 48 minutes West.

Monday, 30th. Fore part, fresh Gales and Squally with Hail and rain,
remainder moderate and Cloudy. At 6 a.m. loosed the 2nd reef out of the
Topsails and set Top-gallant Sails. At 11 Longitude per 3 sets of
Observations of the sun and moon, 1st set 73 degrees 38 minutes 15
seconds; second set 73 degrees 25 minutes 45 seconds; and 3rd, 73 degrees
19 minutes 30 seconds; the mean of the whole is 73 degrees 27 minutes 50
seconds West, and 35 minutes less than the Longitude by Dead reckoning,
which is only 6 Leagues in this Latitude, and therefore not worth taking
notice of. Latitude per Observation 60 degrees 4 minutes South. Wind West
by North and West-North-West; course, South 33 degrees West; distance, 76
miles; latitude 60 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 74 degrees 10
minutes West.

Tuesday, 31st. First part moderate and Cloudy, with some rain; in the
night, little wind and Calm; towards Noon, fresh Gales and Cloudy.
Between 7 and 8 p.m., being then in the Latitude of 60 degrees 10
minutes, which was the farthest south we were, and in the Longitude of 74
degrees 30 minutes found the Variation of the Compass by the mean of
Azimuth to be 27 degrees 9 minutes East. At 3 a.m. wind at
East-South-East, and Moderate breeze. Set the Steeringsails, and soon
after 2 Birds like Penguins were seen by the Mate of the Watch. Wind
West-North-West, calm, East-South-East, South-South-East; course North 71
degrees West; distance, 55 miles; latitude 59 degrees 46 minutes South,
longitude 75 degrees 54 minutes West.

[February 1769.]

Wednesday, February 1st. First part, fresh Gales; latter, light Airs and
Cloudy; P.M. found the Variation by several Azimuth to be 24 degrees 53
minutes East. At Noon sounded, but had no ground with 240 fathoms of
line; hoisted a Boat out to try if there was any Current, but found none.
The weather was such as to admit Mr. Banks to row round the Ship in a
Lighterman's Skiff shooting birds. Wind, South-East by East,
South-South-East, East; course, North-West by West; distance, 106 miles;
latitude 58 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 78 degrees 42 minutes
West.

Thursday, 2nd. First part, light breezes and Cloudy; remainder, sometimes
a fresh breeze and at other times little wind and hazey, rainy, Cold
weather. Took in the Steeringsls and a reef in each Topsail. Wind
variable, North-North-West, South-West and South; course, West by North;
distance, 82 miles; latitude 58 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 80
degrees 58 minutes West.

Friday, 3rd. Calm and Light Airs, and for the most part Cloudy and
sometimes drizling rain. Variation 24 degrees 4 minutes East. Wind, West
by North, North-West by West; course South 82 West; distance 30 miles;
latitude 58 degrees 33 minutes South, longitude 81 degrees 55 minutes
West.

Saturday, 4th. Fore and Middle parts, little wind and dark cloudy
weather; latter, fresh Gales and Cloudy with some rain. P.M. had a Boat
out and Shott several sorts of Birds, one of which was an Albetross as
large as a Goose, whose wings when Extended measured 10 feet 2 inches;
this was grey, but there are of them all White except the very tip end of
their Wings. Another sort, in size between an Albetross and a large Gull,
of a grey Colour, with a white Spot above their Tail about the Breadth of
one's hand, and several other sorts. Wind Westerly; course North 13
degrees West; distance 48 miles; latitude 57 degrees 45 minutes South,
longitude 82 degrees 16 minutes West.

Sunday, 5th. Fresh gales with heavy squalls the first part; remainder,
little wind and Cloudy. Very cold weather. Wind, West-South-West, West by
North and South-West by West; course North; distance 49 miles; latitude
56 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 82 degrees 16 minutes West.

Monday, 6th. A moderate breeze of Wind with some flying showers of hail
and rain; close upon a Wind all this day. Wind South-West by West to West
by North; course North 1/4 East; distance 86 miles; latitude 55 degrees
20 minutes South, longitude 82 degrees 23 minutes West.

Tuesday, 7th. A fresh breeze and dark cloudy weather, with some showers
of rain; the wind, varying from West to North by West, obliged us to Tack
several times. Wind North-West by West, West by South; course North 20
degrees West; distance 46 miles; latitude 54 degrees 40 minutes South,
longitude 82 degrees 54 minutes West.

Wednesday, 8th. First part, cloudy with Squalls of wind and Showers of
rain and hail; Latter part thick hazey weather, with frequent Showers.
Wind, Westerly, South by West; course North 14 degrees 43 minutes West;
distance 58 miles; latitude 53 degrees 36 minutes South, longitude 83
degrees 19 minutes West.

Thursday, 9th. Fresh gales all this day, sometimes squally with rain;
under Double-reef Topsails in the night, and Single-reeft Topsail in the
day. Wind Southerly; course North 55 degrees West: distance 130 miles;
latitude 52 degrees 22 minutes South, longitude 86 degrees 17 minutes
West.

Friday, 10th. The former part of this day had fresh breezes and Dark
cloudy weather; in the night hard Squalls with rain, and afterwards hazy,
rainy weather. Wind Westerly; course North 22 degrees West; distance 67
miles; latitude 51 degrees 16 minutes South, longitude 86 degrees 37
minutes West.

Saturday, 11th. Former part Light Airs with drizling rain; remainder, a
Moderate breeze and Cloudy. Wind, variable, southerly; course, North 54
degrees West; distance 36 miles; latitude 50 degrees 55 minutes South,
longitude 87 degrees 24 minutes West.

Sunday, 12th. First and Middle parts, fresh gales and cloudy; latter,
little wind and clear. Having for some time past generally found the Ship
by Observation to the Northward of the Log, which is not owing to a
Current as I at first imagined, but to a wrong Division of the Log line,
being 2 1/2 feet in each Knot--but this is now rectified. Wind South-West
by South; course North 48 degrees West; distance 113 miles; latitude 49
degrees 41 minutes South, longitude 89 degrees 36 minutes West.

Monday, 13th. The first part of these 24 Hours, moderate breezes and
Cloudy; remainder, fresh Gales and cloudy. P.M saw a great many
Albetrosses and other Birds about the Ship; some were all white and about
the size of Teal. Took several Observations of the sun and moon, the
result of which gave 90 degrees 13 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich.
The Variation of the Compass by the Mean of several Azimuths 17 degrees
East. The Longitude by account is less than that by Observation, 37
minutes, which is about 20 Miles in these high Latitudes, and nearly
equal to the Error of the Log line before mentioned. This near Agreement
of the 2 Longitudes proves to a Demonstration that we have had no Western
Current since we left the Land. Wind West, Northerly; course North 75
degrees West; distance 35 miles; latitude 49 degrees 35 minutes,
longitude 90 degrees 37 minutes.

[Remarks on Passage round Cape Horn.]

From the Foregoing observations it will appear that we are now advanced
about 12 degrees to the westward of the Strait of Magellan, and 3 1/2
degrees to the Northward of it, having been 33* (* N.B. 23 days only from
Success Bay.) days in Doubling Cape Horn or the Land of Terra del Fuego,
and Arriving into the Degree of Latitude and Longitude we are now in, and
without being brought once under our close Reef'd Topsails since we left
Strait Le Maire, a Circumstance that perhaps never hapned before to any
ship in those Seas so much dreaded for Hard gales of Wind; in so much
that the doubling of Cape Horn is thought by some to be a mighty thing,
and others to this day prefer the Straits of Magellan. As I have never
been in those Straits I can only form my Judgement on a Carefull
Comparison of the Different Ships' Journals that have passed them, and
those that have sail'd round Cape Horn, particularly the Dolphin's two
last Voyages and this of ours, being made at the same season of the Year,
when one may reasonable expect the same Winds to prevail. The Dolphin in
her last Voyage was three Months in getting through the Straits, not
reckoning the time she lay in Port Famine; and I am firmly perswaided
from the Winds we have had, that had we come by that Passage we should
not have been in these Seas, besides the fatiguing of our People, the
damage we must have done to our Anchors, Cables, Sails, and Rigging, none
of which have suffer'd in our passage round Cape Horn.

From what I have said it will appear that I am no advocate for the
Straits of Magellan, but it should be expected that I should say
something of Strait le Mair, through which we passed, and this is the
more incumbant on me as it was by choice and contrary to the Advice given
by Mr. Walter, the ingenious Author of Lord Anson's Voyage, who advised
all Ships not to go through this Strait but to go to the Eastward of
Staten Land, and likewise to stand to the Southward as far as 61 or 62
degrees south before any Endeavour is made to get to the Westward. With
respect to the Passing of Strait le Mair or going round Staten Land, I
look upon of little Consequence, and either one or the other to be
pursued according to Circumstances; for if you happen to fall in with the
land to the Westward of the Strait, and the winds favourable for going
through, it certainly must be a piece of folly to lose time in going
round Staten Land, for by paying a little Attention to the Directions I
have already given no ill Consequences can attend; but on the Contrary if
you should fall in with the land to the eastward of the Straits or the
wind should prove Boisterous, or unfavourable, in any of these Cases the
going to the eastward of Staten Land is the most Advisable. And next, as
to running into the Latitude of 61 or 62 degrees South before any
Endeavour is made to get to the Westward, is what I think no man will
ever do that can avoid it, for it cannot be supposed that anyone will
steer south mearly to get into a high Latitude, when at the same time he
can steer west, for it is not Southing but Westing that is wanting. But
this way you cannot Steer because the Wind blows almost Constantly from
that Quarter, so that you have no other Choice but to stand to the
Southward, close upon a Wind, and by keeping upon that Tack you not only
make Southing but Westing also, and sometimes not a little when the wind
Varies to the Northward of West; and the farther you advance to the
Southward the better Chance you have of having the Winds from that
Quarter or Easterly, and likewise of meeting with finer weather, both of
which we ourselves Experienced. Prudence will direct every man when in
those high Latitudes to make sure of sufficient Westing to double all the
lands before he thinks of standing to the Northward. When the winds was
Westerly the Mountains on Terra Del Fuego were generally covered with
dense Clouds, formed, as one may reasonably suppose, by Westerly
Exhalations and by Vapours brought thither by the Westerly winds. From
that Quarter come frequent Showers of rain, hail, and Snow; and after we
had left the land and were standing to the Southward, with the winds
westerly, dark dence clouds were Continually forming in the Horizon, and
rose to about 45 degrees, where they began to dissipate. These were
generally attended with Showers of Rain, or hail, and Squals of Wind, but
as we advanced to the Southward, these Clouds became less dence, and in
the Latitude of 60 degrees 10 minutes, when we got the winds Easterly,
the weather was more serene and Milder; again as we advanced to the
Northward we had a constant Clouded sky and dark gloomy weather, the
whole time exceeding Cold.

[Cape Horn to Tahiti.]

Tuesday, 14th. The first part, fresh Gales and Hazey with rain; the
remainder moderate and Cloudy, with frequent rain. Wind, Westerly, South;
course South-West; distance 32 miles; latitude 49 degrees 6 minutes
South, longitude 91 degrees 12 minutes West.

Wednesday, 15th. Little wind and Cloudy the most part of this day.
Variation per Azimuth in the Evening 12 degrees East, and in the morning
both by an Amplitude and an Azimuth 11 degrees East. A.M. Shifted the
Mainsail, Mizen, Fore, and Main topsail. Wind, South-South-West,
South-West, West by North; course North 46 degrees West; distance 86
miles; latitude 48 degrees 27 minutes South, longitude 92 degrees 5
minutes West.

Thursday, 16th. The first part of this day had fresh Gales and Cloudy; in
the night thick hazey weather with heavy squalls of wind and rain, which
obliged us to close-reef our Topsails. In the morning and all the
forenoon had strong gales and cloudy weather, and very heavy Seas from
the South-South-West, one of which broke upon the Quarter and carried
away the Driver Boom. Wind North-West, West, and South; course North 74
degrees West; distance 97 miles; latitude 48 degrees 0 minutes South,
longitude 94 degrees 25 minutes West.

Friday, 17th. Strong Gales and Cloudy the most part of this day. Split
the Maintopsail and unbent it, and bent another. Wind South-South-West;
course North-West by West 1/2 West; distance 132 miles; latitude 46
degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 97 degrees 17 minutes West.

Saturday, 18th. Fresh gales all this day. The weather Variable, sometimes
fair and Cloudy, other times hazey, with drizzling rain. Saw some Birds
nearly as big as Albetrosses; they were all black, with Yellow Beaks.
Wind South-West by West; course North 32 degrees 30 minutes West;
distance 140 miles; latitude 44 degrees 50 minutes South, longitude 99
degrees 7 minutes West.

Sunday, 19th. First part, fresh Gales and Hazey; the Middle part, hazey,
with drizling rain; the latter, gentle breezes and fine Clear weather,
yet the Air is still Cold. Wind South-West by West to West by South;
course North-North-West 3/4 West; distance 103 miles; latitude 43 degrees
21 minutes South, longitude 100 degrees 21 minutes West.

Monday, 20th. Moderate breezes and fine weather the greater part of this
day, and the Sea very smooth. Found by repeated trials that the South
point of the Dipping Needle Dip'd 65 degrees 52 minutes below the
Horizon. Wind Westerly; course South 65 degrees West; distance 58 miles;
latitude 43 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 101 degrees 34 minutes
West.

Tuesday, 21st. Fresh breezes and pretty Clear weather. Variation 6
degrees 30 minutes East. Wind North-West; course South 62 degrees West;
distance 115 miles; latitude 44 degrees 39 minutes South, longitude 103
degrees 54 minutes West.

Wednesday, 22nd. Hazey, rainy weather the most part of this Day. Wind
North-Westerly; course South 86 degrees West; distance 91 miles; latitude
44 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 106 degrees 1 minute West.

Thursday, 23rd. Little wind and Calm, and some Lightning, a thing we have
not seen for some time past, and therefore suppose not common in these
Seas in high Latitudes. Variation 5 degrees 34 minutes East. Wind
North-West, calm; course North 30 degrees East; distance 13 miles;
latitude 44 degrees 35 minutes South, longitude 105 degrees 52 minutes
West.

Friday, 24th. First part, Calm; Middle, light breezes; latter, fresh
breezes and hazey. P.M. had several Azimuths, all of which gave the
Variation less than 4 degrees East, but they were a little doubtful on
account of the Rowling of the Ship. What winds we have had this day hath
been from the Eastward, and are the first we have had from that Quarter
since we left the Latitude 58 degrees 46 minutes. Wind calm,
East-North-East and East-South-East; course North 42 degrees 45 minutes
West; distance 79 miles: latitude 43 degrees 37 minutes South, longitude
107 degrees 6 minutes West.

Saturday, 25th. First and Middle parts, fresh Gales and Cloudy, with some
rain; the Latter, little Wind and Cloudy. Wind South-East by East,
South-South-East; course North 48 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 112
miles; latitude 42 degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 109 degrees 0
minutes West.

Sunday, 26th. First part, Calm and light Airs; remainder, very strong
gales and Squally, with Showers of rain, which at length brought us under
our two Courses, and close-reefed Maintopsail. Wind calm, North-West and
West-South-West; course North 26 degrees 15 minutes West; distance 88
miles; latitude 41 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 109 degrees 52
minutes West.

Monday, 27th. First part, Strong Gales and Cloudy; the remainder, Gentle
Breezes and clear weather. P.M. set the topsail one Reef out. A large
swell from the South-West. Wind westerly; course North 18 degrees West;
distance 85 miles; latitude 39 degrees 43 minutes South, 110 degrees 26
minutes West.

Tuesday, 28th. The former part little wind and fine clear weather; the
Air full as warm as in the same Degree of North Latitude at the
Correspondent Season of the Year. The South-West swells still keep up,
notwithstanding the Gale hath been over about 30 Hours, a proof that
there is no land near in that Quarter.* (* These are instances of Cook's
observation and seamanlike perspicacity. The prevailing belief of the
time was in a great southern continent.) The remainder part of this day
fresh breezes and clear. At 9 a.m. took 3 Sets of Observations of the sun
and moon in order to find the Longitude of the Ship. Wind West to
North-West; course North 13 degrees West; distance 42 miles; latitude 39
degrees 33 minutes 30 seconds South, longitude 110 degrees 38 minutes
West.

[March 1769.]

Wednesday, March 1st. First part fresh breezes, the remainder moderate
breezes and clear weather. The result of the Forementioned Observations
gives 110 degrees 33 minutes West Longitude from Greenwich, and exactly
agrees with the Longitude given by the Log from Cape Horn. This Agreement
of the two Longitudes after a Run of 660 leagues is surprizing, and much
more than could be expected; but, as it is so, it serves to prove, as
well as the repeated trials we have made when the weather would permit,
that we have had no Current that hath Affected the Ship since we came
into these Seas. This must be a great Sign that we have been near no land
of any extent, because near land are generally found Currents. It is well
known that on the East side of the Continent in the North Sea we meet
with Currents above 100 Leagues from the Land, and even in the Middle of
the Atlantic Ocean, between Africa and America, are always found
Currents; and I can see no reason why Currents should not be found in
this Sea, supposing a Continent or lands lay not far West from us, as
some have imaggin'd, and if such land was ever seen we cannot be far from
it, as we are now 560 leagues West of the Coast of Chili.* (* These are
instances of Cook's observation and seamanlike perspicacity. The
prevailing belief of the time was in a great southern continent.) Wind
West by South; course North 76 degrees West; distance 52 miles; latitude
38 degrees 44 minutes South, longitude 111 degrees 43 minutes West; at
noon, Cape Horn South 60 degrees East 660 leagues.

Thursday, 2nd. Former part, fresh gales and hazey, with much rain; the
remainder, a Strong fresh gale and pretty clear weather. Wind Westerly;
course North by West; distance 87 miles; latitude 37 degrees 16 minutes
South, longitude 112 degrees 5 minutes West.

Friday, 3rd. First part, moderate breezes; remainder, calm and clear
weather. A.M. employed filling salt Water in the Fore Hold and airing all
the Spare Sails. Wind West, calm; course North 17 degrees East; distance
31 miles; latitude 36 degrees 49 minutes South, longitude 111 degrees 34
minutes West.

Saturday, 4th. First part, Calm; remainder, a fine genteel breeze and
clear weather. Variation per Azimuth and Amplitude this Evening 2 degrees
26 minutes East. The South-West swell still keeps up, notwithstanding it
hath been Calm 24 hours. Wind calm, North-East, North; course North 50
degrees West; distance 58 miles; latitude 36 degrees 12 minutes South,
longitude 112 degrees 50 minutes West.

Sunday, 5th. First and latter parts, fine Clear weather; the Middle,
fresh gales and Hazey, with rain. Wind North-West by North and
North-West; course South 81 degrees 40 minutes West; distance 64 miles;
latitude 36 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 114 degrees 9 minutes
West.

Monday, 6th. Moderate breezes and Tolerable clear weather all this day.
The wind a little Variable, which caused us to Tack several Times. Wind
North-West by North to West-North-West; course South 57 degrees West;
distance 20 miles; latitude 36 degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 114
degrees 30 minutes West.

Tuesday, 7th. A Moderate steady breeze and clear weather. Wind
North-West; course South 64 degrees 15 minutes West; distance, 83 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 8 minutes South, longitude 116 degrees 8 minutes
West.

Wednesday, 8th. The first and Middle parts moderate breezes and Cloudy;
the Latter Part Variable winds and much Rain. Wind North-West, variable;
course South 78 degrees West; distance, 76 miles; latitude 37 degrees 24
minutes South, longitude 117 degrees 41 minutes West.

Thursday, 9th. First part, moderate and Hazey, with Drizling rain; the
remainder fresh breezes and clear weather. Variation 4 degrees 41 minutes
east. Wind South-West by West to South by East; course North 38 degrees
West; distance 123 miles; latitude 35 degrees 47 minutes South, longitude
119 degrees 18 minutes West.

Friday, 10th. Moderate breezes and fine Pleasant weather. Wind
South-East; course North 40 degrees West; distance 121 miles; latitude 34
degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 120 degrees 54 minutes West.

Saturday, 11th. A Steady gale and fine weather. Variation 4 degrees 12
minutes East. Wind South-East; course North 46 degrees 15 minutes West;
distance 116 miles; latitude 32 degrees 54 minutes South, longitude 122
degrees 35 minutes West.

Sunday, 12th. Ditto weather. Variation 4 degrees 12 minutes East. Put the
Ship's Company to three Watches, they having been at Watch and Watch
since our first arrival on the coast of Terra del Fuego. Wind South-East;
course North 49 degrees West; distance 122 miles; latitude 31 degrees 34
minutes South, longitude 124 degrees 25 minutes West.

Monday, 13th. First part a Steady, fresh Gale; the remainder, little wind
and fine Clear weather. Wind South-East; course North 48 degrees 15
minutes West; distance 72 miles; latitude 30 degrees 46 minutes South,
longitude 125 degrees 28 minutes West.

Tuesday, 14th. Little wind and fine Pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. took
several Observations of the sun and moon; the mean result of which gave
126 degrees 20 minutes 45 seconds, the Longitude of the Ship West of
Greenwich, and is 47 degrees Longitude West of account carried on from
Cape Horn. Wind South, East-South-East, East-North-East; course North 50
degrees West; distance 47 miles; latitude 30 degrees 17 minutes South,
longitude 126 degrees 10 minutes West.

Wednesday, 15th. Light breezes and clear weather. Variation, p.m. 3
degrees 45 minutes East, a.m. 3 degrees 22 minutes East. Saw a Tropic
Bird. Wind, East-North-East and East-South-East; course, North 47 degrees
15 minutes West; distance, 50 miles; latitude 29 degrees 43 minutes
South, longitude 126 degrees 53 minutes West.

Thursday, 16th. Light Airs next to a Calm and clear Weather. Variation by
the mean result of 21 Azimuths, 1 degree 30 minutes East. This evening
observed an Occultation of h by the [crescent],* (* h is Saturn,
[crescent] the Moon.) Immersion at ---- hours ---- minutes and Emersion
at ---- hours ---- minutes ---- seconds a.m.* (* Blanks in manuscript.)
Variation per several Azimuths 2 degrees East. Wind East-South-East,
South-South-East, South-West; course North-North-West; distance 34 miles;
latitude 29 degrees 22 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 8 minutes
West.

Friday, 17th. Little wind and fine Pleasant weather. Variation, p.m. 3
degrees 27 minutes East. Wind, South-East by South; course, North 20
degrees West; distance, 55 miles; latitude 28 degrees 30 minutes South,
longitude 127 degrees 29 minutes West.

Saturday, 18th. First part, little wind and Cloudy; latter, fresh gales
and hard Squalls, with much rain. Took 2 Reefs in the Topsails. Wind
North-East North; course North 60 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 78
miles; latitude 27 degrees 52 minutes South, longitude 128 degrees 44
minutes West.

Sunday, 19th. First part fresh Gales and Squally, with rain; remainder
more moderate and cloudy. Variation, a.m. per Means of several Azimuths,
3 degrees 14 minutes East. Loosed the 2d reefs out of the Topsails. Wind
between the North and West; course North 52 degrees West; distance 50
miles; latitude 27 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28
minutes West.

Monday, 20th. A Fine breeze and pleasant weather. Saw several Tropic
Birds. Wind West; course North; distance 95 miles; latitude 25 degrees 44
minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28 minutes West.

Tuesday, 21st. First part little wind, the remainder Calm. Variation, 3
degrees 43 minutes East. Saw some rock weed and a great many Tropic
Birds. Wind West by North, calm; course North; distance 23 miles;
latitude 25 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 28 minutes
West.

Wednesday, 22nd. First part Calm, in the night Squally, with rain. A.M. a
fresh breeze and Cloudy. Variation per Amplitude 3 degrees 10 minutes
East. Saw some Egg Birds. Wind North by East to North-North-West; course
West; distance 57 miles; latitude 25 degrees 21 minutes South, longitude
129 degrees 52 minutes West.

Thursday, 23rd. Fresh gales and Squally, with rain, the first part;
remainder fresh Gales and Cloudy. P.M. saw some Men-of-War Birds, and Egg
Birds, and in the Morning saw more Egg Birds and Tropic Birds. The
Man-of-War and Tropic Birds are pretty well known, but the Egg Bird (as
it is called in the Dolphin's Journal) requires some discription to know
it by that Name. It is a small slender Bird of the Gull kind, and all
white, and not much unlike the small white Gulls we have in England, only
not so big.* (* Terns.) There are also Birds in Newfoundland called
Stearings that are of the same shape and Bigness, only they are of a
Greyish Colour. These Birds were called by the Dolphin Egg Birds on
account of their being like those known by that name by Sailors in the
Gulph of Florida; neither they nor the Man-of-War Birds are ever reckoned
to go very far from Land. Wind North by West to West by North: course
North 13 degrees West; distance 49 miles; latitude 24 degrees 43 minutes
South, longitude 130 degrees 8 minutes West.

[Passing Low Archipelago.]

Friday, 24th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy, with some rain in the forepart of
this day. All the forepart of these 24 hours the Sea was smooth, but at
12 at night it was more so, and about 3 in the Morning one of the people
saw, or thought he saw, a Log of Wood pass the Ship. This made us think
that we were near some land,* (* The Endeavour was now passing to the
northward of the easternmost islands of the Paumotu or Low Archipelago,
though out of sight of them.) but at daylight we saw not the least
appearance of any, and I did not think myself at liberty to spend time in
searching for what I was not sure to find, although I thought myself not
far from those Islands discovered by Quiros in 1606; and very probably we
were not, from the birds, etc., we have seen for these 2 or 3 days past.
Wind West-North-West to North-West; course North-East by North 1/4 East;
distance 99 miles; latitude 22 degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 129
degrees 2 minutes West.

Saturday, 25th. First part dark cloudy weather, with rain and a fresh
breeze of wind; remainder fair and Cloudy. Wind North-West by North, to
West by North; course North-East 1/2 North; distance 95 miles; latitude
22 degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 55 minutes West.

Sunday, 26th. Squally weather, with rain. At 5 p.m. saw some sea Weed
pass the Ship, and at 7 William Greenslade, Marine, either by Accident or
design, went overboard and was Drowned. The following circumstances makes
it appear as tho' it was done design'dly. He had been Centinel at the
Steerage door between 12 and 4 o'clock, where he had taken part of a Seal
Skin put under his charge, and which was found upon him. The other
Marines thought themselves hurt by one of their party commiting a crime
of this nature, and he being a raw young fellow, and, as very probable,
made him resolve upon commiting this rash Action, for the Serjeant not
being willing that it should pass over unknown to me, was about 7 o'clock
going to bring him aft and have it inquired into, when he gave him the
Slip between Decks, and was seen to go upon the Forecastle, and from that
time was seen no more. I was neither made acquainted with the Theft or
the Circumstances attending it, until the Man was gone. Wind, North-West
to West; longitude 127 degrees 43 minutes West.

Monday, 27th. Variable winds and weather, with frequent showers of rain.
At Noon saw a Bird like a Gannet. Wind variable; course North 1/4 East;
distance 30 miles; latitude 21 degrees 2 minutes South, longitude 127
degrees 38 minutes West.

Tuesday, 28th. Little wind and Cloudy. Variation per Amplitude 3 degrees
56 minutes East. Wind Easterly; course North-North-West; distance 37
miles; latitude 20 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 127 degrees 50
minutes West.

Wednesday, 29th. Little winds and Cloudy weather. Variation per Azimuth 2
degrees 27 minutes East. Saw a Bird like a Dove and several fish about
the Ship. Employed worming the Best Br. Cable, repairing and Painting the
Boats. Wind Easterly; course North 75 degrees West; distance 50 miles;
latitude 20 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude 129 degrees 27 minutes
West.

Thursday, 30th. First part, Calm and close Cloudy weather; in the night
had Variable winds and weather, with rain. A.M. Genteel Breezes and
Cloudy weather. Between 10 and 11 a.m. took several Observations of the
sun and moon; the mean result of them gave the Longitude of the Ship at
Noon to be 127 degrees 38 minutes, and is 1 degree 49 minutes East of the
Longitude given by the Log; but on the 4th Instant the ship by
Observation was 47 minutes West of the Log, therefore she must have lost
2 degrees 36 minutes of the Log since the last Observation--an Error too
great to be accounted for. Wind calm, variable, South-South-East; course
North 40 degrees West; distance 53 miles; latitude 19 degrees 34 minutes
South, longitude 129 degrees 27 minutes West.

Friday, 31st. A Steady breeze and fine pleasant weather. A.M. took
several Observations of the sun and moon, the mean result of them came
within 8 Miles of Yesterday's Observations computed both by Mr. Green and
myself, and yet cannot think so great an error can have been committed in
the ship's run in so short a time as these observations seem to point
out, and therefore I shall abide by the Longitude given by the Log unless
from subsequent Observations this error should be found to be just. Wind
South; course North 75 degrees 45 minutes West; distance 111 miles;
latitude 19 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 131 degrees 21 minutes
West.

[April 1769.]

Saturday, April 1st. A steady fresh Trade and fine Weather. Variation per
several Azimuths 2 degrees 32 minutes East. Wind South-East to East 1/2
North; course West; distance 122 miles; latitude 19 degrees 7 minutes
South, longitude 133 degrees 28 minutes West.

Sunday, 2nd. A fresh Trade wind and fine pleasant weather. At Noon saw a
Large flock of Birds; they had brown backs and white Bellies. They fly
and make a noise like Stearings, and are shaped like them, only something
larger. Saw likewise some black Sheerwaters and Several Man-of-War birds.
Wind East; course North 86 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 118 miles;
latitude 19 degrees 0 minutes South, longitude 135 degrees 33 minutes
West.

Monday, 3rd. First and Latter parts a steady fresh Breeze and cloudy; the
Middle, sometimes squally with rain, at other times little wind. P.M. saw
2 Birds like Albetrosses; they were all white except the Tip of their
wings and Tails. Wind East; course North 82 degrees 45 minutes West;
distance 110 miles; latitude 18 degrees 46 minutes South, longitude 137
degrees 29 minutes West.

Tuesday, 4th. A Steady fresh Trade and clear weather. At 1/2 past 10 a.m.
saw land bearing south, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. Haul'd up for it, and
soon found it to be an Island of about 2 Leagues in Circuit and of an
Oval form, with a Lagoon in the Middle, for which I named it Lagoon
Island. The Border of land Circumscribing this Lagoon is in many places
very low and narrow, particularly on the south side, where it is mostly a
Beach or Reef of rocks; it is the same on the North side in 3 places, and
these disjoins the firm land and make it appear like so many Islands
covered with wood. On the West end of the Island is a large Tree which
looks like a large Tower, and about the Middle of the Island are two
Cocoa Nutt Trees that appears above all the other wood, which as we
approached the Island looked very much like a flag. We approached the
north side of this Island within a Mile, and found no Bottom with 130
fathoms of line, nor did there appear to be Anchorage about it. We saw
several of the Inhabitants, the most of them men, and these Marched along
the shore abreast of the Ships with long Clubs in their hands as tho'
they meant to oppose our landing. They were all naked except their Privy
parts, and were of a Dark Copper Colour with long black Hair, but upon
our leaving the Island some of them were seen to put on a Covering, and
one or two we saw in the Skirts of the Wood was Cloathed in White; these
we supposed to be Women. This Island lies in the Latitude of 18 degrees
47 minutes and Longitude 139 degrees 28 minutes West from the Meridian of
Greenwich;* (* This island is Vahitahi, one of the Paumotu or Low
Archipelago.) variation 2 degrees 54 minutes East. Wind East, East by
South; course North 88 degrees West; distance 114 miles; latitude 18
degrees 42 minutes South, longitude 139 degrees 29 minutes West.

Wednesday, 5th. A fresh steady gale and fine weather. At 1 p.m. made Sail
to the Westward, and at 1/2 past 3 saw land to the North-West, which we
got up with at Sun sett and proved to be a low woody Island of a Circular
form, and not much above a Mile in Compass. This Island I called Thrum
Cap* (* Akiaki. It is inhabited.); it lies in the Latitude of 18 degrees
35 minutes South and in the Longitude of 139 degrees 48 minutes West from
Greenwich, and North 62 degrees West, 7 Leagues from Lagoon Island. We
saw no inhabitants, nor the appearance of any, and yet we were within 1/2
a Mile of the Shore. I observed by the Shore that it was near low Water,
and at Lagoon Island I observed that it was either high Water or else
there was no Ebbing and flowing of the Sea. From these Circumstances I
infer that a South by East or South Moon makes high Water. Here we caught
a King Fish, being the first fish we have got in these Seas. Wind East;
course North 77 degrees 30 minutes West; distance 79 miles; latitude 18
degrees 25 minutes South, longitude 140 degrees 51 minutes West.

Thursday, 6th. A fresh Trade and fine Pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. Saw
land to the Westward, which proved to be an Island of about 12 or 15
Leagues in Compass; is very low and entirely drown'd in the Middle,
forming there a large lake, into which there appeared to be no inlet. The
border of land and Reef surrounding this lake like a wall appeared to be
of a Bow-like figure, for which reason I named it Bow Island. The South
side, along which we sail'd, was one continued low narrow Beach or Reef
like a Causeway for 4 Leagues and upwards, and lies East by North and
West by South. The East and West Ends and North side of this Island are
wooded-in Groves, and the firm Land appeared disjoined and like a Number
of Islands, and very probably is so. The North-West parts of the Island
we only saw across the Lake, and not very distinct on account of its
great extent, and night coming on before we had run the whole length of
the Island. This description must be imperfect, and the whole Island may
form a Different figure to what I have here described.* (* Hao. It is a
large atoll, thirty miles in length. Cook only saw a portion of it.) The
east end lies in the Latitude of 18 degrees 23 minutes South, and
Longitude 141 degrees 12 minutes West from Greenwich. Variation 5 degrees
38 minutes East. This Island is Inhabited; we not only saw smook in
Different Parts, but people also. At Noon saw Land to the Westward. Wind
east; course North 85 degrees West; distance 94 miles; latitude 18
degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 142 degrees 29 minutes West.

Friday, 7th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy. At 1/2 past 2 p.m. got up with the
East end of the Land seen yesterday at Noon, and which proved to be an
assemblage of Islands join'd together by Reef, and extending themselves
North-West by North and South-East by South in 8 or 9 Leagues and of
various breadths; but there appeared to be a total Seperation in the
middle by a Channell of half a Mile broad, and on this account they are
called the two Groups.* (* Marokau and Ravahare. Two atolls close
together.) The South Eastermost of them lies in the Latitude of 18
degrees 12 minutes and Longitude of 142 degrees 42 minutes West from
Greenwich, and West 1/2 North distant 25 Leagues from the West end of Bow
Island. We ranged along the South-West side of this Island, and hauled
into a Bay which lies to the North-West of the Southermost point of them,
and where there appeared to be Anchorage and the Sea was smooth and not
much Surf on the Shore; but we found no ground with 100 fathoms 3/4 of a
Mile from the Shore, and nearer we did not go. Here several of the
Inhabitants assembled together with their Canoes, with a design, as we
thought, to come off to us, as they hauld one of them over the reef
seemingly for that purpose; but after waiting near 1/2 an hour, and they
not attempting to come, we bore away and made Sail, and presentley the
Canoe put off after us; but, as we did not stop, they soon went back
again. They were in all respects like those we had seen on Lagoon Island,
and Armed with Clubs and long Pikes like them. At 1/2 past 6 a.m. Saw a
small Island to the Northward, hauled our wind for it, and soon got close
in with it. It is about 3 or 4 Miles in Circuit, and very low, with a
Pond in the Middle. There is some wood upon it, but no inhabitants but
Birds, and for this reason is called Bird Island.* (* Reitoru.) It lies
in the latitude 17 degrees 48 minutes and longitude 143 degrees 35
minutes West, and West 1/2 North 10 Leagues from the West end of the two
Groups. The birds we saw were Men-of-War Birds and several other sorts.
Wind East; course North 66 degrees West; distance 66 miles; latitude 17
degrees 48 minutes South, longitude 143 degrees 31 minutes West.

Saturday, 8th. Fresh Trade and pleasant weather, but about noon had a few
flying showers of rain. Variation 6 degrees 32 minutes East. Wind East by
South and East; course North 87 degrees West; distance 100 miles;
latitude 17 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 145 degrees 16 minutes
West.

Sunday, 9th. A steady fresh gale and pleasant weather. At 2 p.m. saw Land
to the Northward, hauld up for it, and found it to be a double range of
low woody islands joined together by reefs, by which means they make one
Island in form of an Ellipsis or Oval, in the Middle of which is a Salt
water lake. The small Islands and reefs circumscribes or bounds this lake
like a Chain; it is therefore called Chain Island.* (* Anaa.) It is in
length, North-West and South-East, about 5 Leagues, and in breadth about
5 Miles. The middle of it lies in the Latitude of 17 degrees 23 minutes
South, and Longitude 145 degrees 54 minutes West, and West by North 45
Leagues from Bird Island. Variation per Several Azimuths 4 degrees 54
minutes East. Wind East by North to North by East; course West,
Northerly; distance 81 miles; latitude 17 degrees 42 minutes South,
longitude 146 degrees 40 minutes West.

Monday, 10th. P.M. moderate breezes and cloudy; in the Night, dark,
cloudy, unsettled weather, with very much Thunder, Lightning, and rain.
A.M. little wind and fair. P.M. variation per Several Azimuths 5 degrees
41 minutes East. At 8 a.m. saw Osnaburg Island* (* Maitea, the
easternmost of the Society Islands, which are all high, and a great
contrast to the low coral atolls of the Paumotus.) (so called by Captain
Wallis, the first discoverer) bearing North-West by West, distance 4 or 5
Leagues. It is a high round Island, and appears to be not above a League
in Circuit, and when it bears as above it looks like a high Crown'd Hatt,
but when it bears North the Top is more like the roof of a House. It lies
in the Latitude of 17 degrees 48 minutes South and Longitude 148 degrees
10 minutes West, and West by South, 44 Leagues, from Chain Island. Wind
North-North-West, variable, North-West by North; course South 13 degrees
West; distance 67 miles; latitude 18 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude
147 degrees 47 minutes West; at noon, Osnaburg Island North by West 1/2
West, 5 leagues.

[Arrive at Tahiti.]

Tuesday, 11th. First part, little wind and cloudy; the remainder, little
wind and very Variable; unsettled weather, with some rain. P.M. took
several Observations of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude of the
ship to be 148 degrees 18 minutes West, and differs but little from that
given by the Log. At 6 a.m. saw King George's Island* (* So named by
Captain Wallis. The native name was ascertained by Cook, who spelt it
Otaheite. Now known as Tahiti. It is the chief island of the Society
Group, and was annexed by the French in 1844.) Extending from West by
South 1/2 South to West by North 1/2 North. It appeared very high and
Mountainous. Wind variable; course North 66 degrees West; distance 54
miles; latitude 17 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 39
minutes West; Osnaburg Island East 1/2 South, 13 leagues.

Wednesday, 12th. Variable, light Airs all these 24 Hours, and Hot sultry
weather. At 5 p.m. King George's Island extending from North-West by West
to South-West, distance 6 or 7 Leagues; and at 6 a.m. it bore from
South-South-West to West by North, being little wind with Calms. Several
of the Natives came off to us in their Canoes, but more to look at us
than anything else. We could not prevail with any of them to come on
board, and some would not come near the ship. Wind variable; course West;
distance 18 miles; latitude 17 degrees 38 minutes South, longitude 148
degrees 58 minutes West; at noon, King George's Island, from South to
West by North, 5 leagues.

Thursday, 13th. The first part Cloudy and Squally, with Showers of rain;
remainder, genteel breezes and clear weather. At 4 p.m. the North-East
point of Royal Bay West 1/2 North; run under an easy sail all night, and
had soundings from 22 to 12 fathoms 2 or 3 Miles from the Shore. At 5
a.m. made sail for the bay, and at 7 anchored in 13 fathoms.* (* Matavai
Bay.) At this time we had but very few men upon the sick list, and these
had but slite complaints. The Ship's company had in general been very
healthy, owing in a great measure to the Sour kroutt, Portable Soup and
Malt; the two first were served to the People, the one on Beef Days and
the other on Banyan Days. Wort was made of the Malt, and at the
discretion of the Surgeon given to every man that had the least simptoms
of Scurvy upon him. By this means, and the Care and Vigilance of Mr.
Monkhouse, the Surgeon, this disease was prevented from getting a footing
in the Ship. The Sour Kroutt, the Men at first would not eat it, until I
put it in practice--a method I never once Knew to fail with seamen--and
this was to have some of it dressed every day for the Cabin Table, and
permitted all the Officers, without exception, to make use of it, and
left it to the Option of the men either to take as much as they pleased
or none at all; but this practice was not continued above a Week before I
found it necessary to put every one on board to an allowance; for such
are the Tempers and disposition of Seamen in general that whatever you
give them out of the common way--altho' it be ever so much for their
good--it will not go down, and you will hear nothing but murmurings
against the Man that first invented it; but the moment they see their
superiors set a value upon it, it becomes the finest stuff in the world
and the inventor an honest fellow. Wind easterly.


CHAPTER 3. TAHITI.

REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES, ETC., AT GEORGE'S ISLAND.

[At Tahiti.]

NOTE. The way of reckoning the day in Sea Journals is from Noon to Noon,
but as the most material transaction at this Island must hapen in the Day
time, this method will be attended with ill conveniences in inserting the
transactions of each day; for this reason I shall during our stay at this
Island, but no longer, reckon the day according to the Civil account that
is to begin and end at Midnight.

We had no sooner come to an Anchor in Royal Bay, as before-mentioned,
than a great number of the Natives in their Canoes came off to the Ship
and brought with them Cocoa Nuts, etc.; these they seem'd to set a great
value upon. Amongst those that came off to the Ship was an elderly man
whose Name was Owhaa, him the Gentlemen that had been here before in the
Dolphin* (* Lieutenant Gore and Mr. Molineux, the Master.) knew and had
often spoke of as one that had been of Service to them. This man
(together with some others) I took on board and made much of, thinking
that he might on some occasions be of use to us. As our stay at this
place was not likely to be very short, I thought it very necessary that
some order should be observed in Traficking with the Natives, that such
Merchandize as we had on board for that purpose might continue to bear a
proper value, and not leave it to everyone's own particular fancy, which
could not fail to bring on Confusion and Quarrels between us and the
Natives, and would infallibly lessen the value of such Articles as we had
to trafick with. In Order to prevent this, the following rules were
ordered to be Observed; viz.:--

Rules to be observed by every person in or belonging to His Majesty's
Bark the Endeavour for the better Establishing a regular and uniform
Trade for Provisions, etc., with the Inhabitants of George's Island:--

1. To endeavour by every fair means to Cultivate a Friendship with the
Natives, and to treat them with all imaginable humanity.

2. A Proper Person or Persons will be appointed to Trade with the Natives
for all manner of Provisions, Fruits, and other Productions of the Earth;
and no Officer or Seaman or other person belonging to the Ship, excepting
such as are so appointed, shall Trade or offer to Trade for any sort of
Provisions, Fruit or other Productions of the Earth, unless they have my
leave so to do.

3. Every Person employ'd on shore on any duty whatsoever is strictly to
attend to the same, and if by neglect he looseth any of His Arms or
working Tools, or suffers them to be stole, the full value thereof will
be charged against his pay, according to the Custom of the Navy in such
Cases, and he shall receive such further punishment as the nature of the
Offence may deserve.

4. The same Penalty will be inflicted upon every person who is found to
Embezzle, Trade, or Offer to Trade with any of the Ship's Stores of what
Nature so ever.

5. No sort of Iron or anything that is made of Iron, or any sort of Cloth
or other useful or necessary Articles, are to be given in Exchange for
anything but Provisions.

J.C.

As soon as the Ship was properly secured I went on shore, accompanied by
Mr. Banks and the other Gentlemen,* (* Cook generally uses this term for
the civilians on board.) with a Party of Men under Arms; we took along
with us Owhaa--who took us to the place where the Dolphin watered, and
made signs to us as well as we could understand that we might Occupy that
ground, but it hapned not to be fit for our purpose. No one of the
Natives made the least opposition at our landing, but came to us with all
imaginable Marks of Friendship and Submission. We Afterwards made a
Circuit through the Woods, and then came on board. We did not find the
inhabitants to be numerous, and we imagin'd that several of them had fled
from their habitations upon our Arrival in the Bay.

Friday, 14th. This morning we had a great many Canoes about the Ship; the
most of them came from the Westward, and brought nothing with them but a
few Cocoa Nuts, etc. Two that appeared to be Chiefs we had on board,
together with several others, for it was a hard matter to keep them out
of the Ship, as they Climb like Munkeys; but it was still harder to keep
them from Stealing but everything that came within their reach; in this
they are Prodigious Expert. I made each of these two Chiefs a present of
a Hatchet, things that they seemed mostly to value. As soon as we had
partly got clear of these People I took 2 Boats and went to the Westward,
all the Gentlemen being along with me. My design was to see if there was
not a more commodious Harbour, and to try the disposition of the Natives,
having along with us the 2 Chiefs above mentioned; the first place we
landed at was in great Canoe Harbour (so called by Captain Wallis); here
the Natives Flocked about us in great numbers, and in as friendly a
manner as we could wish, only that they show'd a great inclination to
Pick our Pockets. We were conducted to a Chief, who for distinction sake
we called Hurcules. After staying a short time with him, and distributing
a few Presents about us, we proceeded farther, and came to a Chief who I
shall call Lycurgus; this man entertained us with broil'd fish, Cocoa
Nutts, etc., with great Hospitality, and all the time took great care to
tell us to take care of our Pockets, as a great number of People had
crowded about us. Notwithstanding the care we took, Dr. Solander and Dr.
Monkhouse had each of them their Pockets picked: the one of his spy glass
and the other of his snuff Box. As soon as Lycurgus was made acquainted
with the Theft he dispers'd the people in a moment, and the method he
made use of was to lay hold on the first thing that came in his way and
throw it at them, and happy was he or she that could get first out of his
way. He seem'd very much concern'd for what had hapned, and by way of
recompence offered us but everything that was in his House; but we
refused to accept of anything, and made signs to him that we only wanted
the things again. He had already sent people out after them, and it was
not long before they were return'd. We found the Natives very numerous
wherever we came, and from what we could judge seemed very peacably
inclin'd. About six o'Clock in the evening we return'd on board, very
well satisfied with our little Excursion.

Saturday, 15th. Winds at East during the day, in the Night a light breeze
off the land; and as I apprehend it be usual here for the Trade wind to
blow during a great part of the day from the Eastern Board, and to have
it Calm or light breezes from the land that is Southerly during the night
with fair weather, I shall only mention the wind and weather when they
deviate from this rule. This morning several of the Chiefs we had seen
Yesterday came on board, and brought with them Hogs, Bread fruit, etc.,
and for these we gave them Hatchets, Linnen, and such things as they
valued. Having not met with yesterday a more Convenient situation for
every purpose we wanted than the place we now are, I therefore, without
delay, resolved to pitch upon some spot upon the North-East point of the
Bay, properly situated for observing the Transit of Venus, and at the
same time under the command of the Ship's Guns, and there to throw up a
small fort for our defence. Accordingly I went ashore with a party of
men, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Mr. Green. We took along
with us one of Mr. Banks's Tents, and after we had fix'd upon a place fit
for our purpose we set up the Tent and marked out the ground we intended
to Occupy. By this time a number of the Natives had got collected
together about us, seemingly only to look on, as not one of them had any
weapon, either Offensive or defensive. I would suffer none to come within
the lines I had marked out, excepting one who appeared to be a chief and
old Owhaa--to these 2 men we endeavour'd to explain, as well as we could,
that we wanted that ground to Sleep upon such a number of nights and then
we should go away. Whether they understood us or no is uncertain, but no
one appeared the least displeased at what we was about; indeed the Ground
we had fixed upon was of no use to them, being part of the sandy Beach
upon the shore of the Bay, and not near to any of their Habitations. It
being too late in the day to do anything more, a party with a petty
officer was left to guard the Tent, while we with another party took a
Walk into the woods, and with us most of the natives. We had but just
crossed the River when Mr. Banks shott three Ducks at one shott, which
surprised them so much that most of them fell down as though they had
been shott likewise. I was in hopes this would have had some good effect,
but the event did not prove it, for we had not been long from the Tent
before the natives again began to gather about, and one of them more
daring than the rest pushed one of the Centinels down, snatched the
Musket out of his hand and made a push at him, and then made off, and
with him all the rest. Immediately upon this the Officer ordered the
party to fire, and the Man who took the musket was shot Dead before he
had got far from the Tent, but the musquet was carried quite off when
this hapned. I and Mr. Banks with the other party was about half a Mile
off, returning out of the woods, upon hearing the firing of Muskets, and
the Natives leaving us at the same time, we Suspected that something was
the matter and hastened our march, but before we arrived the whole was
over, and every one of the Natives fled except old Owhaa, who stuck by us
the whole time, and I believe from the first he either knew or had some
suspicion that the People would attempt something at the Tent, as he was
very much against our going into the Woods out of sight of the Tent.
However, he might have other reasons, for Mr. Hicks, being ashore the day
before, the natives would not permit him to go into the Woods. This made
me resolved to go and see whether they meant to prescribe bounds to us or
no. Old Owhaa, as I have said before, was the only one of the Natives
that stayed by us, and by his means we prevail'd on about 20 of them to
come to the Tent and there sit down with us, and Endeavour'd by every
means in our power to Convince them that the Man was kill'd for taking
away the Musket, and that we still would be friends with them. At sunset
they left us seemingly satisfied, and we struck our Tent and went on
board.

Sunday, 16th. This day worked the Ship nearer the Shore and moored her in
such a manner as to command all the shore of the North-East part of the
Bay, but more particularly the place where we intended to Erect a Fort.
Punished Richard Hutchins, seaman, with 12 lashes for disobeying
commands. Several of the Natives came down to the shore of the Bay, but
not one of them came off to the Ship during the whole day. In the evening
I went on shore with only a Boat's crew and some of the Gentlemen. The
Natives gathered about us to the Number of about 30 or 40, and brought us
Cocoa Nuts, etc., and seemed as friendly as ever.

Monday, 17th. At two o'Clock this morning, departed this life, Mr. Alex
Buchan, Landskip Draftsman to Mr. Banks, a Gentleman well skill'd in his
profession and one that will be greatly missed in the Course of this
Voyage. He had long been subject to a disorder in his Bowels, which had
more than once brought him to the very point of Death, and was at one
time subject to fits, of one of which he was taken on Saturday morning;
this brought on his former disorder, which put a Period to his life. Mr.
Banks thought it not so advisable to Inter the Body ashore in a place
where we were utter strangers to the Custom of the Natives on such
occasions; it was therefore sent out to sea and committed to that Element
with all the decency the Circumstance of the place would admit of. This
morning several of the Chiefs from the westward made us a Visit: they
brought with them Emblems of Peace, which are Young Plantain Trees. These
they put on board the Ship before they would venture themselves. They
brought us a present of 2 Hogs (an Article we find here very Scarce) and
some Bread Fruit; for these they had Hatchets and other things. In the
afternoon we set up one of the Ship's Tents ashore, and Mr. Green and
myself stay'd there the night to observe an eclipse of Jupiter's first
Satilite, which we was hinder'd from seeing by Clouds.

Tuesday, 18th. Cloudy weather with some showers of rain. This morning
took as many people out of the Ship as could possibly be spared, and set
about Erecting a Fort. Some were employ'd in throughing up intrenchment,
while others was cutting facines, Picquets, etc. The Natives were so far
from hindering us that several of them assisted in bringing the Picquets
and facines out of the woods, and seemed quite unconcern'd at what we was
about. The wood we made use of for this occasion we purchased of them,
and we cut no Tree down before we had first obtained their Consent. By
this time all the Ship's sails were unbent and the Armourer's Forge set
up to repair the Ironwork, etc. Served fresh Pork to the Ship's Company
to-day for the first time. This is like to be a very scarce Article with
us, but as to Bread fruit, Cocoa Nutts and Plaintains, the Natives supply
us with as much as we can destroy.

Wednesday, 19th. This morning Lycurgus, whose real name is
Toobouratomita, came with his family from the Westward in order, from
what we could understand, to live near us. He brought with him the cover
of a House, with several other Materials for building one. We intend to
requite the confidence this man seems to put in us by treating him with
all imaginable kindness. Got on shore some Empty Casks, which we placed
in a double row along the Bank of the River, by way of a breast work on
that side.

Thursday, 20th. Wind at South-East and Squally, with rain. All hands
employ'd on shore, and nothing remarkable, excepting a Hog weighing about
90 pound was brought alongside the Ship for Sale, but those who brought
it would not part with it for anything we could offer them but a
Carpenter's broad axe, and this was what we could not part with; they
carried it away. Thus we see those very People who but 2 years ago
prefer'd a spike Nail to an Axe of any Sort, have so far learnt the use
of them that they will not part with a Pig of 10 or 12 pounds weight for
anything under a Hatchet, and even those of an inferior or small sort are
of no great esteem with them, and small Nails such as 10 penny, 20 penny,
or any under 40 penny, are of no value at all; but beads, particularly
white cut glass beads, are much valued by them. Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander lays ashore to-night for the first time, their Markee's being
set up within the Walls of the Fort and fit for their reception.

Friday, 21st. Got the Copper Oven ashore and fixed it in the bank of the
breastwork. Yesterday, as Mr. Green and Dr. Monkhouse were taking a walk,
they happened to meet with the Body of the Man we had shott, as the
Natives made them fully understand; the manner in which the body was
interred being a little extraordinary. I went to-day, with some others,
to see it. Close by the House wherein he resided when living was built a
small shed, but whether for the purpose or no I cannot say, for it was in
all respects like some of the Sheds or Houses they live in. This shed was
about 14 or 16 feet long, 10 or 12 broad, and of a proportionable height.
One end was wholy open, the other end and two sides was partly inclosed
with a kind of wicker'd work. In this Shed lay the Corps, upon a Bier or
frame of wood, with a matted bottom, like a Cott frame used at Sea, and
Supported by 4 Posts about 5 feet from the Ground. The body was cover'd
with a Matt, and over that a white Cloth; alongside of the Body lay a
wooden Club, one of their Weapons of War. The Head of the Corps lay next
the close end of the Shed, and at this end lay 2 Cocoa Nutt Shells, such
as they sometimes use to carry water in; at the other end of the Shed was
a Bunch of Green leaves, with some dry'd twigs tied all together and
stuck in the Ground, and a stone lying by them as big as a Cocoa Nutt.
Near to these lay a young Plaintain Tree, such as they use as Emblems of
Peace, and by it lay a stone Axe. At the open end of the Shed was stuck
upwright in the ground the Stem of a Plaintain Tree about 5 feet high, on
the Top of which stood a Cocoa Nutt shell full of fresh water, and on the
side of the post hung a small Bag, wherein was a few pieces of Bread
Fruit roasted ready for eating. Some of the pieces were fresh and others
Stale. The Natives did not seem to like that we should go near the body,
and stood at a little distance themselves while we examin'd these
matters, and appeared to be pleased when we came away. It certainly was
no very agreeable place, for it stunk intollerably, and yet it was not
above 10 yards from the Huts wherein several of the living resided. The
first day we landed we saw the Skeleton of a human being laying in this
manner under a shade that was just big enough to cover it, and some days
after that, when some of the Gentlemen went with a design to examine it
more narrowly, it was gone. It was at this time thought that this manner
of interring their Dead was not common to all ranks of People, as this
was the first we had seen Except the Skeleton just mentioned; but various
were the opinions concerning the Provisions, etc., laid about the Dead.
Upon the whole, it should seem that these people not only believe in a
Supreem being, but in a future state also, and this must be meant either
as an Offering to some Deitie or for the use of the Dead in the other
world; but this latter is not very probable, as there appeared to be no
Priest Craft in the thing, for whatever Provisions were put there it
appeared very plain to us that there it remain'd until it consumed away
of itself. It is most likely that we shall see more of this before we
leave the Island, but if it is a Religious ceremony we may not be able to
understand it, for the Misteries of most Religions are very Dark and not
easily understood, even by those who profess them.

Saturday, 22nd, to Thursday, 27th. Nothing worthy of Note Hapned. The
people were Continually at work upon the Fort,* (* Near the site of this
Fort is still a Tamarind Tree, planted by Captain Cook. All visitors to
Tahiti go to see "Cook's Tamarind.") and the Natives were so far
reconciled to us that they rather assisted us than not. This day we
mounted 6 Swivels at the Fort, which was now nearly finished. This struck
the Natives with some fear, and some fishermen who lived upon the point
moved farther off, and old Owhaa told us by signs that after 4 days we
should fire Great Guns from the Ship. There were some other Circumstances
co-operated with this man's prophecy, whether an opinion hath prevailed
amongst them that after that time we intend to fire upon them, or that
they intend to Attack us, we know not: the first we do not intend unless
the latter takes place, which is highly improbable.

Friday, 28th. This morning a great number of the natives came to us in
their Canoes from differant parts of the Island, several of whom we had
not seen before. One of these was the Woman called by the Dolphins the
Queen of this Island; she first went to Mr. Banks's tent at the fort,
where she was not known, till the Master, happening to go ashore, who
knew her, and brought her on board with 2 Men and several Women, who
seem'd to be all of her family. I made them all some presents or other,
but to Oberiea (for that is this Woman's name) I gave several things, in
return for which, as soon as I went on shore with her, she gave me a Hog
and several Bunches of plaintains. These she caused to be carried from
her Canoes up to the Fort in a kind of Procession, she and I bringing up
the rear. This Woman is about 40 years of Age, and, like most of the
other Women, very Masculine. She is head or chief of her own family or
Tribe, but to all appearance hath no Authority over the rest of the
Inhabitants, whatever she might have when the Dolphin was here. Hercules,
whose real Name is Tootaha, is, to all appearance, the Chief Man of the
Island, and hath generally visited us twice a week since we have been
here, and came always attended by a number of Canoes and people; and at
those times we were sure to have a supply, more or less, of everything
the Island afforded, both from himself and from those that came with him,
and it is a Chance thing that we get a Hog at any other time. He was with
us at this Time, and did not appear very well pleased at the Notice we
took of Oberiea.

Saturday, 29th. This day got the 4 guns out of the Hold, and Mounted 2 of
them on the Quarter Deck and the other 2 in the Fort on the Bank of the
River.

Sunday, 30th. This being the day that Owhaa told us that we should fire
our Guns, no one of us went from the Fort; however, the day passed over
without any Visible alteration in the behaviour of any one of the
Natives.

[May 1769.]

Monday, 1st May. This morning Tootaha came on board the Ship, and was
very Desireous of seeing into every Chest and Drawer that was in the
Cabin. I satisfied his curiosity so far as to open most of those that
belong'd to me. He saw several things that he took a fancy to, and
collected them together; but at last he Cast his eyes upon the Adze I had
from Mr. Stephens* (* The Secretary of the Admiralty.) that was made in
imitation of one of their Stone Adzes or Axes.* (* The stone adzes of
Tahiti were of excellent workmanship.) The Moment he lays his hands upon
it he of his own accord put away everything he had got before, and ask'd
me if I would give him that, which I very readily did, and he went away
without asking for any one thing more, which I by experience knew was a
sure sign that he was well pleased with what he had got.

This day one of the Natives, who appeared to be a Chief, dined with us,
as he had done some days before; but then there were always some Women
present, and one or another of them put the Victuals into his Mouth, but
this day there hapned to be none to Perform that Office. When he was
help'd to victuals and desir'd to eat, he sat in the Chair like a
Statute, without once attempting to put a Morsel to his mouth, and would
certainly have gone without his dinner if one of the Servants had not fed
him. We have often found the women very officious in feeding us, from
which it would seem that it is the Custom on some occasions for them to
feed the Chiefs. However, this is the only instance of that kind we have
seen, or that they could not help themselves as well as any of us.

This afternoon we set up the Observatory and took the Astronomical
Quadrant ashore for the first time, together with some other Instruments,
the fort being now finished and made as Tenantable as the time, Nature,
and situation of the Ground and Materials we had to work upon would admit
of. The North and South parts consisted of a Bank of Earth 4 1/2 feet
high on the inside, and a Ditch without, 10 feet broad and 6 feet deep;
on the West side facing the Bay a Bank of Earth 4 feet high, and
Palisades upon that, but no Ditch, the works being at high-water mark. On
the East side upon the Bank of the river was placed a double row of
Casks, and, as this was the weakest side, the 2 four Pounders were
planted there, and the whole was defended, beside these 2 Guns, with 6
Swivels, and generally about 45 Men with small Arms, including the
Officers and Gentlemen who resided ashore. I now thought myself perfectly
secure from anything these people would attempt.

Tuesday, 2nd. This morning, about 9 o'Clock, when Mr. Green and I went to
set up the Quadrant, it was not to be found. It had never been taken out
of the Packing Case (which was about 18 Inches square) since it came from
Mr. Bird, the Maker; and the whole was pretty heavy, so that it was a
matter of Astonishment to us all how it could be taken away, as a
Centinal stood the whole night within 5 Yards of the door of the Tent,
where it was put, together with several other Instruments; but none of
them was missing but this. However, it was not long before we got
information that one of the Natives had taken it away and carried it to
the Eastward. Immediately a resolution was taken to detain all the large
Canoes that were in the Bay, and to seize upon Tootaha and some others of
the principal people, and keep them in Custody until the Quadrant was
produced; but this last we did not think proper immediately to put in
Execution, as we had only Oberiea in our power, and the detaining of her
by force would have alarm'd all the rest. In the meantime, Mr. Banks (who
is always very alert upon all occasions wherein the Natives are
concern'd) and Mr. Green went into the Woods to enquire of Toobouratomita
which way and where the Quadrant was gone. I very soon was inform'd that
these 3 was gone to the Eastward in quest of it, and some time after I
followed myself with a small party of Men; but before I went away I gave
orders that if Tootaha came either to the Ship or the Fort he was not to
be detain'd, for I found he had no hand in taking away the Quadrant, and
that there was almost a Certainty of getting it again. I met Mr. Banks
and Mr. Green about 4 miles from the Fort, returning with the Quadrant.
This was about Sun set, and we all got back to the Fort about 8 o'Clock,
where I found Tootaha in Custody, and a number of the Natives crowding
about the Gate of the Fort. My going into the Woods with a party of Arm'd
men so alarmed the Natives that in the evening they began to move off
with their Effects, and a Double Canoe putting off from the Bottom of the
Bay was ohserv'd by the Ship, and a Boat sent after her. In this Canoe
hapned to be Tootaha, and as soon as our Boat came up with her, he and
all the people that were in the Canoe jump'd overboard, and he only was
taken up and brought on board the Ship, together with the Canoe; the rest
were permitted to swim to the Shore. From the Ship Tootaha was sent to
the Fort, where Mr. Hicks thought proper to detain him until I return'd.
The Scene between Toobouratomita and Tootaha, when the former came into
the Fort and found the latter in Custody, was really moving. They wept
over each other for some time. As for Tootaha, he was so far prepossessed
with the thought that he was to be kill'd that he could not be made
sencible to the Contrary till he was carried out of the Fort to the
people, many of whom Expressed their joy by embracing him; and, after
all, he would not go away until he had given us two Hogs, notwithstanding
we did all in our power to hinder him, for it is very certain that the
Treatment he had meet with from us did not merit such a reward. However,
we had it in our power to make him a present of equal value whenever we
pleased.

Wednesday, 3rd. Very early this morning Tootaha sent for the Canoe we had
detained yesterday, and in the Afternoon sent a man for an Axe and a
Shirt in return for the Hogs he gave us last night; but as this man told
us that Tootaha would not come near us himself in less than 10 days, we
thought proper not to send them, to try if he would not come himself for
them sooner.

Thursday, 4th. Some people came to the Fort to-day from York Island; one
of them gave us an account of 22 Islands lying in this Neighbourhood. Set
up the 2 Clocks; one in the Tent wherein Mr. Green and I lay, and the
other in the Observatory. This evening Tootaha sent a man again for the
Axe and Shirt, and we sent him word by the same man that Mr. Banks and I
would come and see him to-morrow and bring them along with us, for it now
became necessary that we should take some steps to reconcile this man to
us in order to procure a sufficient supply of Bread fruit, and Cocoa
Nuts, which we have not had for these 2 days past, owing, as we
apprehend, to Tootaha not being reconciled to us, or otherwise the people
take this method to shew their resentment of the Treatment their Chief
meet with.

Friday, 5th. Early this morning Tootaha sent some of his people to put us
in mind of our promise, and these seem'd very uneasy until we set out,
which Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself did about 10 o'clock in the
Pinnace, having one of these men with us. As soon as we came to Appara,
the place where Tootaha resided, we saw a great number of People at the
landing place near his House; one among them, who had a large Turban
about his Head, and a long white stick in his Hand, drove the others from
the landing place by beating them with his Stick, and throwing stones at
them, and at the same time directed us whereabouts to land. After we had
landed he conducted us to the Chief, but in this there was no order,
everyone crowded upon us crying out "Tyo Tootaha," this Tootaha was our
Friend. We found the chief setting in the shade under a large Tree, with
a Circle of old men round him; he made us set down by him, and
immediately asked for the Axe. I then gave him one, together with an
upper Garment made of Broad Cloth after their Fashion, and a Shirt. The
Garment he put on, but the Shirt he gave to the man who first received us
at landing, who was now seated by us, and the Chief seemed desirous that
we should take particular notice of him. By that Time Obaria, and several
other women whom we knew, came and sat down by us. Tootaha did not stay
long before he went away, as we thought to show himself to the people in
his new Dress. He was not gone long before he return'd and took his seat
again for a few minutes, then went away again, as we was told, to order
something to be got for us to Eat, and at this time we gladly would have
gone too, being almost Suffocated with the Crowd that was about us.
However, here we remained for about 10 Minutes longer, when word was
brought us that the Chief wanted us. We were then conducted to our own
Boat, where we found him setting alone under the Awning. He made signs to
us to come to him, which we did, and as many with us as the Boat would
hold. Here he ordered some Bread fruit and Cocoa Nut to be brought, of
both of which we tasted.

After we had set here sometime, a Message was brought to the Chief, who
immediately went out of the Boat, and we was desired to follow, and was
conducted to a large Aria or Court Yard on one side of his House, where
we were entertained with Public wrestling. Tootaha seated himself at one
end of the place, and several of his Principal men sat round him in a
Semicircle. We were desir'd to sit down here likewise, but we rather
chose to walk about. Everything being now ready, several men entered the
Theater, 8, 10, or 12, sometimes more. These walked about in a Stooping
Poster, with their left hand upon their right breast, and with their
Right hand Open struck with a smack their left Arm and fore-arm. In this
manner they walked about until one Challenged another, which was done by
motion and jesture, without speaking one word. The 2 Antagonists would
then meet and endeavour to seize each other by the thighs, but if that
fail'd they would seize each other by the Hair of the Head or wherever
they could, and then Wrestle together until by main Strength the one or
the other was thrown on his back. This was always (Except once) followed
by three Huzzas from some old men who sat in the House, and at the same
time another Company of men would dance for about a Minute, the Wrestlers
all the time continuing their game without taking the least notice of
anything else. The only dexterity the Wrestlers seemed to make use of was
in first seizing each other, for after they had closed it was all decided
by Main strength. It would sometimes happen that neither the one nor the
other could throw his Antagonist; in this Case they would either part by
mutual consent or were parted by others. The Conqueror never exulted over
the Conquer'd, neither did the Conquer'd ever repine at his ill luck, but
the whole was carried on with great good Humour. There were present,
Young and old, near 500 People. The women do not seem to partake of this
diversion, only some few of the Principal ones were present, and that
appeared to be owing to us being there.

After this was over we were given to understand that we were to go to
Dinner, and were desired to follow Tootaha, who led us into our own Boat,
and soon after came a small Pig ready roasted, with some Bread Fruit and
Cocoa Nuts. Here we thought we were to have dined, but Tootaha, after
waiting about 10 Minutes, made signs to us to put off the Boat and go a
Board, which we did, and bring him and Toobouratomida along with us. As
soon as we got on board we all dined on the Cheer the Chief had provided.
We soon found the good effects of having made friends with this man, for
it was no sooner known to the Natives that he was on board the Ship than
they brought Bread Fruit, Cocoa Nuts, etc., to the Fort.

Saturday, 6th; Sunday, 7th. Nothing remarkable, only that the Natives
supply us with as much bread fruits and Cocoa Nuts as we can destroy.

Monday, 8th. Early this morning the Master went to the Eastward in the
Pinnace to try if he could procure some Hogs and Fowls from that Quarter;
but he return'd in the evening without success. He saw but very few, and
those the inhabitants pretended belonged to Tootaha; so great is this
man's influence or authority over them that they dare part with nothing
without his Consent, or otherwise they use his Name to Excuse themselves
from parting with the few they have, for it is very certain these things
are in no great plenty with them.

Tuesday, 9th; Wednesday, 10th; Thursday, 11th. Nothing remarkable hapned
for these three days. Oberiea, the Dolphin's queen, made us a Visit for
the first time since the Quadrant was Stolen. She introduced herself with
a Small Pig, for which she had a Hatchet, and as soon as she got it she
Lugg'd out a Broken Axe, and several pieces of Old Iron. These, I
believe, she must have had from the Dolphin; the Axe she wanted to be
mended, and Axes made of the old iron. I obliged her in the first, but
excused myself in the latter: since the Natives had seen the Forge at
work they have frequently brought pieces of Iron to be made into one sort
of Tool or other, which hath generally been done whenever it did not
hinder our own work--being willing to Oblige them in everything in my
power. These Pieces of old Iron the Natives must have got from the
Dolphin, as we know of no other Ship being here;* (* M. de Bougainville,
in the French ships La Boudeuse and L'Etoile, had visited Tahiti the year
before, after its discovery by the Dolphin. He was unfortunate in his
choice of anchorage, and his ships lost anchors and got into various
difficulties. The crews were also much afflicted with scurvy.) and very
probable some from us, for there is no species of Theft they will not
commit to get this Article, and I may say the same of the common Seamen
when in these parts.

Friday, 12th. Cloudy weather with Showers of rain. This morning a Man and
2 Young Women, with some others, came to the Fort, whom we had not seen
before, and as their manner of introducing themselves was a little
uncommon, I shall insert it. Mr. Banks was as usual at the gate of the
Fort trading with the people, when he was told that some Strangers were
coming, and therefore stood to receive them. The Company had with them
about a Dozen young Plantain Trees, and some other small Plants, these
they laid down about 20 feet from Mr. Banks; the people then made a Lane
between him and them. When this was done the Man (who appeared to be only
a Servant to the two Women) brought the young Plantains singly, together
with some of the other plants, and gave them to Mr. Banks, and at the
delivery of each pronounced a Short sentence which we understood not.
After he had thus disposed of all his plantain trees, he took several
pieces of Cloth and spread them on the ground. One of the Young women
then stepp'd upon the Cloth, and with as much innocency as one could
possibly conceive, exposed herself, entirely naked, from the waist
downwards; in this manner she turn'd herself once or twice round, I am
not certain which, then stepped off the cloth, and dropp'd down her
Cloaths. More Cloth was then spread upon the former, and she again
performed the same Ceremony. The Cloth was then rowled up and given to
Mr. Banks, and the two Young women went and Embraced him, which ended the
Ceremony.

Saturday, 13th. Nothing worthy of Note hapned during the day; in the
Night one of the Natives attempted to get into the Fort by Climbing over
the Wall, but, being discovered by the Centinel, he made off. The Iron
and Iron Tools daily in use at the Armourer's Forge are Temptations that
these people cannot possibly withstand.

Sunday, 14th. This day we performed divine Service in one of the Tents in
the fort, where several of the Natives attended and behaved with great
decency the whole time. This day closed with an odd sceen at the Gate of
the Fort, where a young Fellow above 6 feet high made love to a little
Girl about 10 or 12 years of Age publickly before several of our people
and a number of the Natives. What makes me mention this is because it
appear'd to be done according to Custom, for there were several women
present, particularly Obariea and several others of the better sort, and
these were so far from showing the least disapprobation that they
instructed the Girl how she should Act her part, who, young as she was,
did not seem to want it.

Monday, 15th. Winds variable and cloudy weather. Last Night one of our
Water Casks was taken away from the outside of the Fort, where they stood
full of water. In the morning there was not one of the Natives but what
knew it was gone; yet, Contrary to what we had always met with on these
Occasions, not one of them would give us any information about it, and I
thought it of too little Consequence to take any methods to Oblige them.
In the evening Toobouratomida and his Wife, and a Man belonging to
Tootaha, would needs lay all Night by the Casks to prevent any more from
being taken away; but, as we had placed a Centinel there, this care of
theirs became unnecessary, and they were prevailed upon to go home; but
before they went away they made signs to the Centinel to keep his Eyes
open. From this it should seem that they knew that an attempt would be
made in the night to take away more, which would have been done had not
the Centinel prevented it.

Tuesday, 16th. Winds Westerly. The morning cloudy, with heavy showers of
rain; the Remainder of the day fair weather. From this day nothing
remarkable hapned until

Monday, 22nd, which was usher'd in with thick Cloudy weather, and
Excessive hard Showers of rain and very much Thunder and Lightning, which
Continued the Greater part of the day.

Tuesday, 23rd. Wind Southerly and fair weather in the Forenoon, but in
the Afternoon Showers. We have had a Scarcity of all sorts of Fruit for
these 2 days past, which we immagine to be owing to the Wet weather.

Wednesday, 24th. Fine clear weather all this day. Having found the Long
boat Leakey for these few days past, we hauld her ashore to-day to stop
the leakes, when, to our great surprise, we found her bottom so much
Eaten by the Worms that it was necessary to give her a new one, and all
the Carpenters were immediately set to work upon her.

Thursday, 25th. Most part of these 24 hours Cloudy, with frequent Showers
of Rain.

Friday, 26th. Some flying showers again. This morning we hauled the
pinnace a Shore to examine her bottom, and had the Satisfaction to find
that not one worm had touched it, notwithstanding she hath been in the
water nearly as long as the Long Boat. This must be owing to the White
Lead with which her bottom is painted, the Long boats being paid with
Varnish of Pine, for no other reason can be assign'd why the one should
be preserved and the other destroy'd, when they are both built on the
Same sort of Wood and have been in equal use. From this Circumstance
alone the Bottom of all Boats sent into Countrys where these worms are
ought to be painted with White Lead, and the Ships supply'd with a good
stock in order to give them a New Coat whenever it's necessary. By this
means they would be preserved free from these destructive Vermin. The
Long boat's Bottom being so much destroy'd appear'd a little
extraordinary, as the Dolphin's Launch was in the Water at this very
place full as long, and no such thing happened to her, as the Officers
that were in the Dolphin say.

Saturday, 27th. Winds variable and fair weather.

Sunday, 28th. Winds Southerly and clear weather. This morning myself, Mr.
Banks, and Dr. Solander set out in the Pinnace to pay Tootaha a Visit,
who had moved from Apparra to the South-West part of the island. What
induced us to make him this visit was a Message we had received from him
some days ago importing that if we would go to him he would give us
several Hogs. We had no great faith in this, yet we were resolved to try,
and set out accordingly. It was Night before we reached the place where
he was, and, as we had left the Boat about half-way behind us, we were
obliged to take up our Quarters with him for the Night. The Chief
received us in a Friendly manner, and a Pig was ordered to be killed and
dressed for Supper; but we saved his Life for the present, thinking it
would do us more service in another place, and we supped on Fruit and
what else we could get. Here was, along with the Chief, Obariea and many
more that we knowd. They all seem'd to be travellers like ourselves, for
neither the Canoes they had along with them, nor the Houses where they
were, were sufficient to contain the one half of them. We were in all Six
of us, and after supper began to look out for Lodgings. Mr. Banks went to
one place, Dr. Solander to another, while I and the other 3 went to a
third. We all of us took as much care of the little we had about us as
possible, knowing very well what sort of People we were among; yet,
notwithstanding all the care we took, before 12 o'clock the most of us
had lost something or other. For my own part I had my Stockings taken
from under my head, and yet I am certain that I was not a Sleep the whole
time. Obariea took charge of Mr. Banks's things, and yet they were stol'n
from her, as she pretended. Tootaha was acquainted with what had hapned,
I believe by Obariea herself, and both him and her made some stir about
it; but this was all meer shew, and ended in nothing. A little time after
this Tootaha came to the Hutt where I and those that were with me lay,
and entertain'd us with a Consort of Musick consisting of 3 Drums, 4
Flutes, and Singing. This lasted about an Hour, and then they retir'd.
The Music and Singing was so much of a piece that I was very glad when it
was over. We stay'd with them till near noon the next day in hopes of
getting some of our things again, and likewise some Hogs; but we were at
last obliged to come away with the one we had saved out of the Fire last
Night, and a promise from Tootaha that he would come to the Ship in a Day
or two with more, and bring with him the things that are lost, a promise
we had no reason to expect he would fulfill. Thus ended our Visit, and we
got to the Fort late in the evening.

Tuesday, 30th. We are now very buisey in preparing our Instruments, etc.,
for the Observations, and Instructing such Gentlemen in the use of them,
as I intend to send to other parts to observe, for fear we should fail
here.

Wednesday, 31st. Late this Evening the Carpenters finished the Long boat.

[June 1769.]

Thursday, June 1st. This day I sent Lieutenant Gore in the Long boat to
York Island* (* Eimeo, westward of, and near to Tahiti.) with Dr.
Monkhouse and Mr. Sporing (a Gentleman belonging to Mr. Banks) to Observe
the Transit of Venus, Mr. Green having furnished them with Instruments
for that purpose. Mr. Banks and some of the Natives of this Island went
along with them.

Friday, 2nd. Very early this morning Lieutenant Hicks, Mr. Clark, Mr.
Pickersgill and Mr. Saunders went away in the Pinnace to the Eastward,
with orders to fix upon some Convenient situation upon this Island, and
there to Observe the Transit of Venus, they being likewise provided with
Instruments for that purpose.

Saturday, 3rd. This day proved as favourable to our purpose as we could
wish. Not a Cloud was to be seen the whole day, and the Air was perfectly
Clear, so that we had every advantage we could desire in observing the
whole of the Passage of the planet Venus over the Sun's Disk. We very
distinctly saw an Atmosphere or Dusky shade round the body of the planet,
which very much disturbed the times of the Contact, particularly the two
internal ones. Dr. Solander observed as well as Mr. Green and myself, and
we differ'd from one another in Observing the times of the Contact much
more than could be expected. Mr. Green's Telescope and mine where of the
same Magnifying power, but that of the Doctor was greater than ours. It
was nearly calm the whole day, and the Thermometer Exposed to the Sun
about the Middle of the day rose to a degree of heat we have not before
met with.

Sunday, 4th. Punished Archd. Wolf with 2 Dozen lashes for Theft, having
broken into one of the Storerooms and stol'n from thence a large quantity
of Spike Nails; some few of them where found upon him. This evening the
Gentlemen that were sent to observe the Transit of Venus, return'd with
success; those that were sent to York Island were well received by the
Natives. That Island appear'd to them not to be very fruitful.

Monday, 5th. Got some of the Bread ashore out of the Bread Room to dry
and Clean. Yesterday being His Majesty's birthday, we kept it to-day and
had several of the Chiefs to dine with us.

Tuesday, 6th. This day and for some days past we have been informd by
several of the Natives that about 10 or 15 months ago Two Ships touched
at this Island and stayed 10 days in a Harbour to the Eastward, called
Ohidea, the Commander's name was Tootteraso,* (* M. de Bougainville, who
laid at Hitiaa from April 6th to April 16th, 1768.)--so at least the
Natives call him--and that one of the Natives, Brother to the Chief of
Ohidea, went away with him. They likewise say these ships brought the
venerial distemper to this Island, where it is now as Common as in any
part of the world, and which the people bear with as little concern as if
they have been accustom'd to it for Ages past. We had not been here many
days before some of our People got this disease, and as no such thing
hapned to any of the Dolphin's people while she was here, that I ever
heard of, I had reason (notwithstanding the improbability of the thing)
to think that we had brought it along with us, which gave me no small
uneasiness, and did all in my power to prevent its progress, but all I
could do was to little purpose, as I was obliged to have the most part of
the Ship's Company ashore every day to work upon the Fort, and a Strong
Guard every Night; and the Women were so very liberal with their
favours--or else Nails, Shirts, etc., were temptations that they could
not withstand, that this distemper very soon spread itself over the
greatest part of the Ship's company, but now I have the satisfaction to
find that the Natives all agree that we did not bring it here.

We have several times seen Iron tools and other Articles with these
people that we suspected came not from the Dolphin, and these they now
say they had from these two Ships.

Wednesday, 7th; Thursday, 8th; Friday, 9th. These three days we have been
employ'd in Careening both sides of the Ship, and paying them with Pitch
and Brimstone. We found her Bottom in good order, and that the worm had
not got into it.

Saturday, 10th. Wind Variable, with very much rain all day and last
night.

Sunday, 11th. Cloudy, with rain last night and this morning; the
remainder of the day fair weather. This day Mr. Banks and I took
Toobouratomita on board the Ship and shew'd him the print containing the
Colours worne by the ships of Diffrent Nations, and very soon made him
understand that we wanted to know which of them was worn by the ships
that were at Ohidea. He at once pitched upon the Spanish Flag and would
by no means admit of any other; this, together with several Articles we
have lately seen amongst these people, such as Jackets, Shirts, etc.,
usually worn by Spanish Seamen, proves beyond doubt that they must have
been Ships of that Nation, and come from some Port on the Coast of South
America.* (* This was of course a mistake, as the ships were French.)

Monday, 12th. Yesterday Complaint was made to me by some of the Natives
that John Thurman and James Nicholson, Seamen, had taken by force from
them several Bows and Arrows and plaited Hair, and the fact being proved
upon them they were this day punished with 2 dozen lashes each.

Tuesday, 13th. Some Showers of rain last night, but fair weather the most
part of the day. Tootaha, whom we have not seen for some time past, paid
us a Visit to-Day. He brought with him a Hog and some Bread Fruit, for
which he was well paid.

Wednesday, 14th. Between 2 and 4 o'clock this morning, one of the Natives
stole out of the Fort an Iron rake, made use of for the Oven. It hapned
to be set up against the Wall, and by that means was Visible from the
outside, and had been seen by them in the evening, as a man had been seen
lurking about the Fort some Hours before the thing was Missed. I was
informed by some others of the Natives that he watch'd an opportunity
when the Centinel's back was turned, he hooked it with a long crooked
stick, and haled it over the Wall. When I came to be informed of this
theft in the Morning I resolved to recover it by some Means or other, and
accordingly went and took possession of all the Canoes of any value I
could meet with, and brought them into the River behind the Fort to the
number of 22, and told the Natives then present (most of them being the
owners of the Canoes) that unless the principal things they had stol'n
from us were restored I would burn them every one: not that I ever
intended to put this in execution, and yet I was very much displeased
with them, as they were daily committing, or attempting to commit, one
theft or other, when at the same time--contrary to the opinion of
everybody, I would not suffer them to be fir'd upon, for this would have
been putting it in the power of the Centinels to have fir'd upon them
upon the most slitest occasions, as I had before experienced. And I have
a great Objection to firing with powder only amongst People who know not
the difference, for by this they would learn to despise fire Arms and
think their own Arms superior, and if ever such an Opinion prevailed they
would certainly attack you, the Event of which might prove as
unfavourable to you as them. About Noon the rake was restored us, when
they wanted to have their Canoes again; but now, as I had them in my
possession, I was resolved to try if they would not redeem them by
restoring what they had stol'n from us before. The Principal things which
we had lost was the Marine Musquet, a pair of Pistols belonging to Mr.
Banks, a Sword belonging to one of the Petty Officers, and a Water Cask,
with some other Articles not worth mentioning. Some said that these
things were not in the Island, others that Tootaha had them, and those of
Tootaha's friends laid the whole to Obariea, and I believe the whole was
between these two persons.

Thursday, 15th. We have been employed for some Days past in overhauling
all the Sea Provisions, and stowing such as we found in a State of decay
to hand, in order to be first expended; but having the people divided
between the Ship and the Shore, this work, as well as refitting the Ship,
goes on but slowly.

Friday, 16th; Saturday, 17th. Variable winds, with Showers of rain and
Cloudy weather.

Sunday, 18th. Variable winds and Clear weather. This Night was observed
the Moon totally Eclipsed.

Monday, 19th. Punished James Tunley with 12 lashes for taking Rum out of
the Cask on the Quarter Deck.

Tuesday, 20th. Got all the Powder ashore to Air, all of which we found in
a bad Condition, and the Gunner informs me that it was very little better
when it came first on board. Last Night Obariea made us a visit, whom we
have not seen for some time. We were told of her coming, and that she
would bring with her some of the Stol'n things, which we gave Credit to
because we know'd several of them were in her possession; but we were
surprised to find this Woman put herself wholy in our power, and not
bring with her one Article of what we had lost. The Excuse she made was
that her Gallant, a man that used to be along with her, did Steal them,
and she had beat him and turned him away, but she was so Sencible of her
own Guilt that she was ready to drop down through fear, and yet she had
resolution Enough to insist upon Sleeping in Mr. Banks's Tent all Night,
and was with difficulty prevailed upon to go to her canoe, altho no one
took the least notice of her. In the morning she brought her Canoe, with
everything she had, to the Gate of the Fort, after which we could not
help admiring her for her Courage and the Confidence she seem'd to place
in us, and thought that we could do no less than to receive her into
favour, and except the Present she had brought us, which consisted of a
Hog, a Dog, some Bread Fruit and Plantains.

We refused to Except of the Dog, as being an Animal we had no use for; at
which she seemed a little surprised, and told us it was very good eating,
and we very soon had an opportunity to find that it was so, for Mr.
Banks, having bought a Basket of Fruit in which was the Thigh of a Dog
ready dressed, of this several of us tasted, and found that it was Meat
not to be despised, and therefore took Obariea's Dog and had him
immediately dressed by some of the Natives in the following manner: They
first made a hole in the Ground about a foot Deep, in which they made a
fire and heated some small Stones. While this was doing the Dog was
strangled and the hair got off by laying him frequently on the fire, and
as clean as if it had been scalded off with hot water. His Intrails was
taken out, and the whole washed Clean, and as soon as the Stones and Hole
was sufficiently heated the fire was put out and part of the Stones were
left in the bottom of the hole. Upon these stones were laid green leafs,
and upon them the Dog, together with the Intrails, these were likewise
covered with leaves, and over them hot stones; and then the hole was
close cover'd with mould. After he had laid here about 4 Hours, the Oven
(for so I must call it) was op'ned, and the dog taken out, whole and well
done, and it was the Opinion of every one who tasted it that they never
eat sweater Meat, therefore we resolved for the future never to dispise
Dog's flesh. It is in this manner that the Natives dress and Bake all
their Victuals that require it--Flesh, fish, and Fruit. I now gave over
all thoughts of recovering any of the things the Natives had stol'n from
us, and therefore intend to give them up their Canoes whenever they apply
for them.

Wednesday, 21st. Employed drying the Powder, or getting on board Wood,
Water, etc. Confined Robert Anderson, Seaman, for refusing to obey the
orders of the Mate when at work in the Hold. This morning a Chief, whose
Name is Oamo, and one we had not seen before, came to the Fort. There
came with him a Boy about 7 Years of Age and a Young Woman of about 18 or
20. At the Time of their coming Obariea and several others were in the
fort. They went out to meet them, having first uncovered their Heads and
Bodies as low as their Waists; and the same thing was done by all those
that were on the outside of the Fort. As we looked upon this as a
Ceremonial respect, and had not seen it paid to any one before, we
thought that this Oamo must be some extraordinary person, and wondered to
see so little notice taken of him after the Ceremony was over. The Young
woman that came along with him could not be prevailed upon to come into
the Fort, and the Boy was Carried upon a Man's back, altho' he was as
able to walk as the Man who carried him. This Lead us to inquire who they
were; and we was informed that the Boy was Heir Apparent to the
Sovereignty of the Island, and the Young Woman was his Sister, and as
such the respect was paid them which was due to no one else except the
Arreedehi, which was not Tootaha, from what we could learn, but some
other person who we had not seen, or like to do, for they say that he is
no Friend of ours, and therefore will not come near us. The Young Boy
above mentioned is son to Oamo by Obariea, but Oamo and Obariea do not at
this time live together as Man and Wife, he not being able to endure with
her troublesome disposition. I mention this because it shows that
seperation in the Marriage state is not unknown to these people.* (* See
note Notes on Tahiti below.)

Thursday, 22nd. This morning I released Robert Anderson from Confinement
at the intercession of the Master and a promise of behaving better for
the future.

Friday, 23rd. This morning Emanuel Parreyra, a Portugue, was Missing, and
I had some reason to think that he was gone with an intent to stay here.
It was not long before I was informed that he was at Apparra with
Tootaha. The Man who gave us this information was one of Tootaha's
Servants. He was Offer'd a Hatchet if he would go to Apparra and bring
him to us. This was perhaps the very thing he came for, for he
immediately set out and return'd with the Man in the Evening. The man
said in his defence that as he was going to the Boat to go on board last
night, he was taken away by force by 3 Men, and upon enquiring farther
into this matter I found it to be so, and that Tootaha wanted to have
kept him, only that he was perswaided to the contrary, or perhaps he
thought that the Hatchet he would get by returning him would do him more
service than the Man.

Saturday, 24th, Sunday, 25th. Nothing remarkable.

[Tahiti: Expedition round Island.]

Monday, 26th. Very early this morning I set out in the pinnace,
accompanied by Mr. Banks, with an intent to make the Circuit of the
Island in order to Examine and draw a Sketch of the Coast and Harbours
thereof. We took our rout to the Eastward, and this night reached the
Isthmus, which is a low neck of Land running across the Island, which
divides it into two districts or Governments wholly independent of each
other as we was informed. The first thing we saw which struck our
attention in this day's rout was a small Pig that had not been roasted
above a Day or 2 laid upon one of their Altars near to a place where lay
the Body or Bones of a Dead Person. This Pig must have been put their as
an offering to their God, but on what account we know not. The Coast from
Royal Bay trends East by South and East-South-East 10 miles South by East
and South 11 miles to the Isthmus. In the first direction the Shore is
mostly open to the Sea, but in the last it is cover'd by reefs of rocks;
these forms several good Harbours, wherein are safe Anchorage for
Shipping in 16, 18, 20, and 24 fathoms, with other Conveniences. It was
in one of these Harbours the Spanish Ships before mentioned lay; the
Natives shew'd us the place where they Pitched their Tent and the Brook
they water'd at, otherways there was not the least signs of Shipping
having been there.

Tuesday, 27th. Winds Easterly and fine weather. It was late last night
before we reached the Isthmus, and all the Observations I could make this
morning was that it appeared to be a Marshey flatt of about 2 miles in
Extent across which the Natives Haul their Canoes partly by land and
partly by water. From the Isthmus the land trends East Southerly near 3
Leagues, to the South-East point of the Great Bay which lies before the
Isthmus. On the west side of this point is a Bay called Ohitepepa, which
is in many respects similar to Royal Bay, and is situated in every bit as
fertile and populous part of the Island. There are other places formed by
the Reefs that lay along the Shore between this and the Isthmus, where
Shipping can lay in perfect security. The Land then trends South-East and
South to the South-East part of the Island, which is near 3 Leagues, and
covered all the way by a Reef of Rocks, but no Harbour. We took up our
Quarters at the East part of the Island, being conducted thither by a
Young Chief we had Often seen on board the Ship, and the next morning
proceeded round the South-East point of the Island, part of which is not
cover'd by any reef, but lies wholy open to the Sea and here the Hills
rise directly from the Shore. At the Southernmost part of the Island the
Shore is again cover'd by a Reef, and there forms a very good Harbour,
and the land about it very fertile. At this place we saw a Goose and a
Turkey left at Royal Bay by the Dolphin; they were in possession of a
Chief who came along with us in the Boat, and remain'd with us the
remainder of the day, and conducted us over the Shoals we here meet with;
and for this piece of service we lent him a Cloak to Sleep in in the
night, but we had not been laid down above 10 minutes before he thought
proper to move off with it, but both Mr. Banks and I pursued him so close
that he was obliged to relinquish his prize, and we saw no more of him.
When we returned to our Lodging we found the House, in which were not
less than 2 or 300 people when we went away, intirely deserted, so that
we had one of the Largest and best houses on the Island wholy to
ourselves; but when they found that we meant them no harm the Chief and
his Wife with some others came and Slept by us the remainder of the
night. This place is situated on the South-West side of Tiarreboo,* (*
Taiarapu.) the South-East district of the Island, and about 5 miles
South-East from the Isthmus. Here is a large, safe, and Commodious
Harbour, inferior to none on the whole Island, and the land about it Rich
in Produce. We found that the people of this district had had little or
no communication with us, yet we was everywhere well received by them. We
found all this part of the Island very fertile and the Natives numerous,
and had a great many large Double Canoes built and Ornamented uniformly.
They were all halled ashore, and appeared to be going to decay for want
of use. Their Mories or Burial places stood generally upon these points
of land that projected into the Sea, and were both better built and
Ornamented than those about Royal Bay--Tootaha's excepted. In general
this district appear'd to be in a more flourishing state than the other,
although it is not above one fourth part as big and cannot contain
nothing near the Number of inhabitants.

Thursday, 29th. Squally weather with Showers of rain. This morning we
left Tiaraboo and entered upon that of Opooreonoo, the North-West
district of the Island. The first thing we met with worthy of note was at
one of their Mories, where lay the scull bones of 26 Hogs and 6 Dogs.
These all lay near to and under one of their Altars. These Animals must
have been offer'd as a Sacrifice to their Gods either all at once or at
different times, but on what account we could not learn. The next day we
met with an Effigy or Figure of a Man made of Basket work and covered
with white and Black feathers placed in such order as to represent the
Colour of their Hair and Skins when Tattow'd or painted. It was 7 1/2
feet high and the whole made in due proportion; on its head were 4 Nobs
not unlike the stumps of Large Horns--3 stood in front and one behind. We
were not able to learn what use they made of this Monster; it did not at
all appear to us that they paid it the least Homage as a God: they were
not the least Scrupulous of letting us examine every part of it. I am
inclinable to think that it is only used by way of diversion at their
Hevas or public entertainments, as Punch is in a Puppet show.* (* Note by
Cook in Admiralty copy: "Tupia informs us that this is a representation
of one of the Second rank of Eatuas or Gods, called Mauwi, who inhabited
the Earth upon the Creation of man. He is represented as an immense Giant
who had seven heads, and was indued with immense strength and abilities.
Many absurd stories are told of his Feats by Tupia.") We next passed
through a Harbour, which is the only one on the south side of Opooreonoo
fit for Shipping. It is situated about 5 Miles to the Westward of the
Isthmus between 2 Small Islands that lay near the shore and a Mile from
each other. In this Harbour is 11 and 12 fathoms of water and good
Anchorage. About a League and a half to the Westward of this Harbour is
the Morie of Oamo or Oberia, for some told us it belong'd to the one and
some to the other; it far Exceeds every thing of this Kind upon the whole
Island. It is a long square of Stonework built Pyramidically; its base is
267 feet by 87 feet; at the Top it is 250 feet by 8 feet. It is built in
the same manner as we do steps leading up to a Sun Dial or fountain
erected in the Middle of a Square where there is a flite of steps on each
side. In this building there are 11 of such steps; each step is about 4
feet in height and the breadth 4 feet 7 inches, but they decreased both
in height and breadth from the bottom to the Top. On the middle of the
Top stood the Image of a Bird carved in Wood, near it lay the broken one
of a Fish carved in stone. There was no hollow or Cavity in the inside,
the whole being fill'd up with stones. The outside was faced partly with
hewn stones and partly with others, and these were placed in such a
manner as to look very agreeable to the Eye. Some of the hewn stones were
4 feet 7 inches by 2 feet 4 inches and 15 inches thick, and had been
squared and Polished with some sort of an Edge Tool. On the East side was
enclosed with a stone wall a piece of ground in form of a square, 360
feet by 354, in this was growing several Cypress trees and Plantains.
Round about this Morie was several smaller ones all going to decay, and
on the Beach between them and the Sea lay scatter'd up and down a great
quantity of human bones. Not far from the Great Morie was 2 or 3 pretty
large Altars, where lay the Scull bones of some Hogs and dogs. This
Monument stands on the south side of Opooreonoo, upon a low point of land
about 100 Yards from the Sea.* (* On map Morai-no te Oamo.) It appeared
to have been built many Years, and was in a State of decay, as most of
their Mories are. From this it would seem that this Island hath been in a
more Flourishing state than it is at present, or that Religious Customs
are (like most other Nations) by these people less observed. We took up
our Quarters near this Morie for the night, and early in the Morning
proceeded on our rout, and without meeting with anything remarkable, got
on board the Ship on Saturday, the 1st of July, having made the Circuit
of the whole Island, which I Estimated at something more than 30
Leagues.* (* A remarkably close estimate.) The Plan or Sketch which I
have drawn, altho' it cannot be very accurate, yet it will be found
sufficient to point out the Situation of the different Bays and Harbours
and the true figure of the Island, and I believe is without any Material
error. For the first 2 or 3 days we was out upon this excursion we
labour'd under some difficulty for want of Provisions--particularly
bread--an Article we took but little of with us--not doubting that we
should get bread fruit, more than sufficient for a Boat's Crew at every
place we went to, but, on the Contrary, we found the season for that
fruit wholy over, and not one to be seen on the Trees, and all other
fruit and roots were scarce. The Natives live now on Sour paist--which is
made from bread fruit--and some bread fruit and plantains that they get
from the Mountains where the season is Later, and on a Nut not unlike a
chessnut which are now in Perfection; but all these Articles are at
present very scarce, and therefore it is no wonder that the Natives have
not supply'd us with these things of Late. [At Tahiti.] Upon my return to
the Ship I found that the Provisions had been all examined and the Water
got on board, amounting to 65 Tons. I now determind to get everything off
from the Shore and leave the Place as soon as possible. The getting the
several Articles on board, and Scraping and paying the Ship's side, took
us up the following Week without anything remarkable happening until

[July 1769. At Tahiti.]

Sunday, July 9th. When, sometime in the Middle Watch, Clement Webb and
Saml. Gibson, both Marines and young Men, found means to get away from
the Fort (which was now no hard matter to do) and in the morning were not
to be found. As it was known to everybody that all hands were to go on
board on the Monday morning, and that the ship would sail in a day or
two, there was reason to think that these 2 Men intended to stay behind.
However I was willing to stay one day to see if they would return before
I took any step to find them.

Monday, 10th. The 2 Marines not returning this morning, I began to
enquire after them, and was inform'd by some of the Natives that they
were gone to the Mountains, and that they had got each of them a Wife and
would not return; but at the same time no one would give us any certain
intelligence where they were, upon which a resolution was taken to seize
upon as many of the Chiefs as we could. This was thought to be the
readiest method to induce the other natives to produce the 2 Men. We had
in our custody Obariea, Toobouratomita, and 2 other Chiefs, but that I
know'd Tootaha would have more weight with the Natives than all these put
together, I dispatched Lieutenant Hicks away in the Pinnace to the place
where Tootaha was, to endeavour to decoy him into the Boat and bring him
on board, which Mr. Hicks performed without the least disturbance. We had
no sooner taken the other Chiefs into Custody in Mr. Banks's Tent than
they became as desirous of having the Men brought back has they were
before of keeping them, and only desir'd that one of our people might be
sent with some of theirs for them. Accordingly I sent a petty officer and
the Corporal of Marines with 3 or 4 of their People, not doubting but
they would return with the 2 Men in the evening; but they not coming as
soon as I expected, I took all the Chiefs on board the ship for greater
safety. About 9 o'Clock in the evening Webb, the Marine, was brought in
by some of the natives and sent on board. He informed me that the Petty
Officer and Corporal that had been sent in quest of them were disarm'd
and seiz'd upon by the natives, and that Gibson was with them.
Immediately upon getting this information I dispatch'd Mr. Hicks away in
the Long boat with a strong party of men to rescue them but before he
went Tootaha and the other Chiefs was made to understand that they must
send some of their People with Mr. Hicks to shew him the place where our
men were, and at the same time to send orders for their immediate
releasement, for if any harm came to the men they (the Chiefs) would
suffer for it; and I believe at this time they wished as much to see the
Men return in safety as I did, for the guides conducted Mr. Hicks to the
place before daylight, and he recovered the men without the least
opposition, and return'd with them about 7 o'Clock in the morning of

Tuesday, 11th. I then told the Chiefs that there remain'd nothing more to
be done to regain their liberty but to deliver up the Arms the People had
taken from the Petty Officer and Corporal, and these were brought on
board in less than half an Hour, and then I sent them all on shore. They
made but a short stay with our people there before they went away, and
most of the natives with them: but they first wanted to give us 4 Hogs.
These we refused to except of them, as they would take nothing in return.
Thus we are likely to leave these people in disgust with our behaviour
towards them, owing wholy to the folly of 2 of our men, for it does not
appear that the natives had any hand in inticing them away, and therefore
were not the first Agressors. However, it is very certain that had we not
taken this step we never should have recovered them. The Petty Officer
whom I sent in quest of the deserters told me that the Natives would give
him no intelligence where they were, nor those that went along with him,
but, on the contrary, grew very troublesome, and, as they were returning
in the evening, they were suddenly seized upon by a number of Armed men
that had hid themselves in the wood for that purpose. This was after
Tootaha had been seized upon by us, so that they did this by way of
retaliation in order to recover their Chief; but this method did not meet
with the approbation of them all. A great many condemn'd these
proceedings, and were for having them set at liberty, while others were
for keeping them until Tootaha was releas'd. The dispute went so far that
they came from words to blows, and our people were several times very
near being set at liberty; but at last the party for keeping them
Prevailed, but, as they had still some friends, no insult was offer'd
them. A little while after they brought Webb and Gibson, the two
deserters, to them as Prisoners likewise; but at last they agreed that
Webb should be sent to inform us where the others were. When I came to
Examine these 2 Men touching the reasons that induced them to go away, it
appeared that an acquaintance they had contracted with 2 Girls, and to
whom they had strongly attached themselves, was the Sole reason of their
attempting to stay behind. Yesterday we weighed the small Bower Anchor,
the Stock of which was so much eaten by the worms as to break in heaving
up, and to-day we hove up the best Bower, and found the Stock in the very
same Condition. This day we got everything off from the Shore, and
to-night everybody lays on board.

Wednesday, 12th. The Carpenter employ'd in stocking the Anchors and the
Seamen in getting the Ship ready for Sea. This morning we found the
Staves of the Cask the Natives stole from us some time ago laying at the
Watering place; but they had been Sencible enough to keep the Iron Hoops,
and only return what to them was of no use.

[Sail from Tahiti.]

Thursday, 13th. Winds Easterly, a light breeze. This morning we was
visited by Obariea and several others of our acquaintance, a thing we did
not expect after what had hapned but 2 days ago; but this was in some
measures owing to Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself going to Apparra
last night, where we so far convinc'd them of our Friendly disposition
that several of them were in tears at our coming away. Between 11 and 12
o'Clock we got under Sail, and took our final leave of these People,
after a stay of just three Months, the most part of which time we have
been upon good terms with them. Some few differences have now and then
hapned owing partly to the want of rightly understanding each other, and
partly to their natural thievish disposition, which we could not at all
times bear with or guard against; but these have been attended with no
ill consequence to either side except the first, in which one of them was
kill'd, and this I was very sorry for, because from what had hapned to
them by the Dolphin I thought it would have been no hard matter to have
got and keep a footing with them without bloodshed. For some time before
we left this Island several of the Natives were daily offering themselves
to go away with us; and as it was thought they must be of use to us in
our future discoveries we resolved to bring away one whose name is Tupia,
a Chief and a Priest. This man had been with us most part of the time we
had been upon the Island, which gave us an opportunity to know something
of him. We found him to be a very intelligent person, and to know more of
the Geography of the Islands situated in these Seas, their produce, and
the religion, laws, and Customs of the inhabitants, than any one we had
met with, and was the likeliest person to answer our Purpose. For these
reasons, and at the request of Mr. Banks, I received him on board,
together with a young Boy, his Servant. For the first two Months we were
at this Island the Natives supplied us with as much Bread fruit, Cocoa
Nuts, etc., as we could well dispence with, and now and then a few Hogs,
but of these hardly sufficient to give the Ship's company one and
sometimes two fresh Meals a week. As to Fowls, I did not see above 3
dozen upon the whole Island, and fish they seldom would part with; but
during the last Month we got little refreshment of any sort. The
detaining of their Canoes broke off Trade at that time, and it never
after was begun again with any Spirit. However, it was not wholy owing to
this, but to a Scarcity. The Season for Bread fruit was wholy over, and
what other Fruits they had were hardly sufficient for themselves; at
least, they did not care to part with them. All sorts of Fruits we
purchased with Beads and Nails, not less than 40-penny, for a nail under
that size was of no value; but we could not get a Hog above 10 or 12
pounds weight for anything less than a Hatchet, not but that they set
great value upon Spike Nails; but, as this was an Article many in the
Ship are provided with, the Women soon found a much easier way at coming
at them than by bringing Provisions. Our Traffick with this people was
carried on with as much Order as in the best regulated Market in Europe.
It was managed ashore chiefly by Mr. Banks, who took uncommon Pains to
procure from the Natives every kind of refreshment that was to be got.
Axes, Hatchets, Spikes, large Nails, looking Glasses, Knives, and Beads
are all highly valued by this People, and nothing more is wanting to
Traffick with them for everything they have to dispose of. They are
likewise very fond of fine Linnen Cloth, both White and Printed, but an
Axe worth half a Crown will fetch more than a Piece of Cloth worth Twenty
Shillings.

Upon our arrival at Batavia we had certain information that the two ships
that were at George's Island some time before our arrival there were both
French ships.* (* In Admiralty copy.)

DESCRIPTION OF KING GEORGE'S ISLAND.

This Island is called by the Natives Otaheite, and was first discovered
by Captain Wallis, in His Majesty's ship Dolphin, on June 19th, 1767, and
to the Credit of him and his Officers, the Longitude of Royal Bay was by
them settled to within half a degree of the Truth, and the whole figure
of the Island not ill described. It is situated between the Latitude of
17 degrees 29 minutes and 17 degrees 53 minutes South, and between the
Longitude of 149 degrees 10 minutes and 149 degrees 39 minutes West from
the Meridian of Greenwich.* (* These latitudes are exact. The modern
limits of longitude are 149 degrees 7 minutes to 149 degrees 36 minutes
30 seconds.) Point Venus, so called from the Observation being made
there, is the Northern extremity of the Island, and lies in the Longitude
of 149 degrees 30 minutes,* (* Now considered to be 149 degrees 29
minutes.) being the mean result of a Great number of Observations made
upon the Spot. The Shores of this Island are mostly guarded from the Sea
by reefs of coral rocks, and these form several excellent Bays and
Harbours, wherein are room and depth of Water sufficient for the largest
Ships.

Royal Bay, called by the Natives Matavie,* (* Matavai.) in which we lay,
and the Dolphin before us, is not inferior to any on the Island, both in
Point of conveniency and Situation. It may easily be known by a
Prodigious high Mountain in the middle of the Island, which bears due
south from Point Venus, which is the Eastern point of the Bay. To sail
into it either keep the West point of the Reefs which lies before Point
Venus close on board, or give it a berth of near half a Mile in order to
avoid a small Shoal of Coral Rocks, whereon is but 2 1/2 fathoms of
water. The best Anchoring is on the Eastern side of the Bay in 16 or 14
fathoms of water, owsey bottom. The Shore of the bay is all a fine sandy
beach, behind which runs a river of Fresh Water, so that any Number of
Ships might Water here without discommoding one another. The only wood
for fuel upon the whole Island is fruit Trees, and these must be
purchased of the Natives, if you mean to keep on good Terms with them.
There are some Harbours to the Westward of this bay that have not been
mentioned, but as they lay Contiguous to it, and are to be found in the
plan, the description of them is unnecessary.

The land of this Island, except what is immediately bordering upon the
Sea coast, is of a very uneven Surface, and rises in ridges which run up
into the middle of the Island, and there form mountains, that are of a
height Sufficient to be seen at the distance of 20 leagues. Between the
foot of the ridges and the Sea is a border of low Land surrounding the
whole Island, except in a few places where the ridge rises directly from
the Sea. This low land is of Various Breadths, but nowhere exceeds a Mile
and a half. The Soil is rich and fertile, being for the most part well
stock'd with fruit Trees and small Plantations. and well water'd by a
number of small Rivulets of Excellent Water which come from the adjacent
hills. It is upon this low Land that the greatest part of the inhabitants
live, not in Towns or Vilages, but dispersed everywhere round the whole
Island; the Tops of most of the ridges and mountains are Barren and, as
it were, burnt up with the sun, yet many parts of some of them are not
without their produce, and many of the Valleys are fertile and inhabited.

[Produce of Tahiti.]

OF THE PRODUCE.

The produce of this Island is Bread Fruit, Cocoa Nuts, Bonanoes,
Plantains, a fruit like an Apple, sweet Potatoes, Yams, a Fruit known by
the name of Eag Melloa, and reck'ned most delicious; Sugar Cane which the
inhabitants eat raw; a root of the Salop kind, called by the inhabitants
Pea; the root also of a plant called Ether; and a fruit in a pod like a
Kidney bean, which when roasted eats like a Chestnut, and is called Ahee;
the fruit of a Tree which they call Wharra, something like a Pine Apple;
the fruit of a Tree called by them Nano; the roots of a Fern and the
roots of a plant called Thive. All these Articles the Earth almost
Spontaniously produces, or, at least, they are raised with very little
Labour. In the Article of food these people may almost be said to be
exempt from the Curse of our Forefathers, scarcely can it be said that
they Earn their bread with the sweat of their brow; benevolent Nature
hath not only Supply'd them with necessarys, but with abundance of
Superfluities. The Sea coast supplies them with vast Variety of most
Excellent fish, but these they get not without some Trouble and
Perseverance. Fish seems to be one of their greatest Luxuries, and they
Eat it either raw or Dressed and seem to relish it one way as well as the
other. Not only fish but almost everything that comes out of the Sea is
Eat and Esteem'd by these People; Shell Fish, Lobsters, Crabs, and even
sea insects, and what is commonly called blubbers of many kinds, conduce
to their support.

For tame Animals they have Hogs, Fowls, and Dogs, the latter of which we
learned to Eat from them, and few were there of us but what allow'd that
a South Sea dog was next to an English Lamb. One thing in their favour is
that they live intirely upon Vegetables; probably our Dogs would not Eat
half so well. Little can be said in favour of their Fowles, but their
pork is most Excellent, they have no beasts of Prey of any Sort, and Wild
Fowls are scarce and confin'd to a few Species. When any of the Chiefs
kill a Hog it seems to be almost equally divided among all his
Dependents, and as these are generally very numerous, it is but a little
that come to each person's share, so that their chief food is Vegetables,
and of these they eat a large quantity.

Cookery seems to have been but little studied here; they have only 2
Methods of applying Fire--broiling and Baking, as we called it; the
method this is done I have before described, and I am of Opinion that
Victuals dressed this way are more juicy and more equally done than by
any of our Methods, large Fish in particular, Bread Fruit, Bananoes.
Plantains Cooked this way eat like boil'd Potatoes, and was much used by
us by way of bread whenever we could get them. Of bread Fruit they make 2
or 3 dishes by beating it with a Stone Pestle till it makes a Paste,
mixing Water or Cocoa Nut Liquor, or both, with it, and adding ripe
Plantains, Bananoes, Sour Paste, etc.

This last is made from bread Fruit in the following manner. This fruit,
from what I can find, remains in Season only 8 or 9 months in the year,
and as it is the Chief support of the inhabitants a reserve of food must
be made for those months when they are without it. To do this the Fruit
is gathered when upon the point of ripening; after the rinde is scraped
off it is laid in heaps and coverd close with leaves, where it undergoes
a fermentation, and becomes soft and disagreeably sweet. The Core is then
taken out, and the rest of the fruit thrown into a Hole dug for that
purpose, the sides and bottom of which are neatly laid with grass. The
whole is covered with leaves and heavy stones laid upon them; here it
undergoes a second Fermentation and becomes sourish, in which condition
they say it will keep good 10 or 12 months. As they want to use it they
make it into balls, which they wrap up in leaves and bake in the same
manner as they do the Fruit from the Tree; it is then ready for eating
either hot or cold, and hath a sour and disagreeable taste. In this last
State it will keep good a Month or 6 Weeks; it is called by them Mahai,
and they seldom make a Meal without some of it, one way or another. To
this plain diet Salt Water is the universal sauce, hardly any one sets
down to a meal without a Cocoa Nut shell full of it standing by them,
into which they dip most of what they Eat, especially Fish, drinking at
Intervals large sops of it out of their Hands, so that a man may use half
a Pint at a Meal.

It is not common for any 2 to eat together, the better sort hardly ever;
and the women never upon any account eat with the Men, but always by
themselves. What can be the reason of so unusual a custom it is hard to
say; especially as they are a people, in every other instance, fond of
Society and much so of their Women. They were often Asked the reason, but
they never gave no other Answer, but that they did it because it was
right, and Express'd much dislike at the Custom of Men and Women Eating
together of the same Victuals. We have often used all the intreatys we
were Masters of to invite the Women to partake of our Victuals at our
Tables, but there never was an instance of one of them doing it publick,
but they would Often goe 5 or 6 together into the Servants apartments,
and there eat very heartily of whatever they could find, nor were they
the least disturbed if any of us came in while they were dining; and it
hath sometimes hapned that when a woman was alone in our company she
would eat with us, but always took care that her own people should not
know what she had don, so that whatever may be the reasons for this
custom, it certainly affects their outward manners more than their
Principle.

[Natives of Tahiti.]

PERSON OF THE NATIVES.

With respect to their persons the Men in general are tall, strong-limb'd,
and well shaped. One of the tallest we saw measured 6 feet 3 inches and a
half. The superior women are in every respect as large as Europeans, but
the inferior sort are in General small, owing possibly to their early
Amours, which they are more addicted to than their superiors. They are of
various Colours: those of the inferior sort, who are obliged to be much
exposed to the Sun and air, are of a very Dark brown; the superiors
again, who spend most of their Time in their Houses under Shelter, are
not browner than people who are born or reside longer in the West Indies;
nay, some of the Women are almost as fair as Europeans. Their hair is
almost universally black, thick, and Strong; this the Women wear short
Cropt Round their Ears. The Men, on the other hand, wear it different
ways: the better sort let it grow long, and sometimes tying it up on the
Top of their Heads, or letting it hang loose over their Shoulders; but
many of the inferiors, and such who, in the exercise of their
professions, fishing, etc., are obliged to be much upon or in the Water,
wear it cropt short like the women. They always pluck out a part of their
beards, and keep what remains neat and Clean. Both Sexes eradicate every
hair from under their Armpits, and look upon it as a mark of
uncleanliness in us that we do not do the Same.

They have all fine white Teeth, and for the most part short flat Noses
and thick lips; yet their features are agreeable, and their gaite
graceful, and their behavior to strangers and to each other is open,
affable, and Courteous, and, from all I could see, free from treachery,
only that they are thieves to a man, and would steal but everything that
came in their way, and that with such dexterity as would shame the most
noted Pickpocket in Europe. They are very cleanly people, both in their
persons and diet, always washing their hands and Mouth immediately before
and after their Meals, and wash or Bathe themselves in fresh Water 3
times a day, morning, Noon, and Night.

The only disagreeable thing about them is the Oil with which they anoint
their heads, Monoe, as they call it; this is made of Cocoanutt Oil, in
which some sweet Herbs or Flowers are infused. The Oil is generally very
rancid, which makes the wearer of it smell not very agreeable.* (* Other
voyagers have, on the contrary, described the odour of this sweetened oil
as agreeable.) Another custom they have that is disagreeable to
Europeans, which is eating lice, a pretty good stock of which they
generally carry about them. However, this custom is not universal; for I
seldom saw it done but among Children and Common People, and I am
perswaided that had they the means they would keep themselves as free
from lice as we do; but the want of Combs in a Hot climate makes this
hardly possible. There are some very fine men upon this Island whose
skins are whiter than any European's, but of a Dead Colour, like that of
the Nose of a White Horse; their Eyes, eyebrows, hair and beards are also
White. Their bodys were cover'd, more or less, with a kind of White down.
Their skins are spotted, some parts being much whiter than others. They
are short-sighted, with their eyes oftimes full of rheum, and always
look'd unwholesome, and have neither the Spirit nor the activity of the
other Natives. I did not see above 3 or 4 upon the whole Island, and
these were old men; so that I concluded that this difference of colour,
etc., was accidental, and did not run in families, for if it did they
must have been more Numerous. The inhabitants of this Island are Troubled
with a sort of Leprosy, or Scab all over their bodys. I have seen Men,
Women, and Children, but not many, who have had this distemper to that
degree as not to be able to walk. This distemper, I believe, runs in
familys, because I have seen both mother and Child have it.

Both sexes paint their Bodys, Tattow, as it is called in their Language.
This is done by inlaying the Colour of Black under their skins, in such a
manner as to be indelible. Some have ill-design'd figures of men, birds,
or dogs; the women generally have this figure Z simply on every joint of
their fingers and Toes; the men have it likewise, and both have other
differant figures, such as Circles, Crescents, etc., which they have on
their Arms and Legs; in short, they are so various in the application of
these figures that both the quantity and Situation of them seem to depend
intirely upon the humour of each individual, yet all agree in having
their buttocks covered with a Deep black. Over this Most have Arches
drawn one over another as high as their short ribs, which are near a
Quarter of an inch broad. These Arches seem to be their great pride, as
both men and Women show them with great pleasure.

Their method of Tattowing I shall now describe. The colour they use is
lamp black, prepar'd from the Smoak of a Kind of Oily nut, used by them
instead of Candles. The instrument for pricking it under the Skin is made
of very thin flatt pieces of bone or Shell, from a quarter of an inch to
an inch and a half broad, according to the purpose it is to be used for,
and about an inch and a half long. One end is cut into sharp teeth, and
the other fastened to a handle. The teeth are dipped into black Liquor,
and then drove, by quick, sharp blows struck upon the handle with a Stick
for that purpose, into the skin so deep that every stroke is followed
with a small quantity of Blood. The part so marked remains sore for some
days before it heals. As this is a painful operation, especially the
Tattowing their Buttocks, it is perform'd but once in their Life times;
it is never done until they are 12 or 14 years of Age.

[Clothing of Tahitians.]

Their Cloathing is either of Cloth or Matting of several different sorts;
the dress of both Men and Women are much the same, which is a Piece of
Cloth or Matting wrapp'd 2 or 3 times round their waist, and hangs down
below their Knees, both behind and before, like a Pettycoat; another
piece, or sometimes 2 or 3, about 2 yards or 2 1/2 yards long, with a
hole in the Middle, through which they put their heads. This hangs over
their Shoulders down behind and before, and is tied round their waist
with a long piece of thin Cloth, and being open at the sides gives free
liberty to their arms. This is the common dress of all ranks of people,
and there are few without such a one except the Children, who go quite
naked, the Boys until they are 6 or 7 years of Age, and the girls until 3
or 4. At these Ages they begin to cover what nature teaches them to hide.
Besides the dress I have mentioned some of the better sort, such as can
afford it, but more especially the Women, will one way or other wrap
round them several pieces of Cloth, each 8 or 10 Yards long and 2 or 3
broad, so much that I have often wondered how they could bear it in so
hot a climate. Again, on the other hand, many of the inferior sort during
the heat of the Day, go almost naked, the women wearing nothing but the
Petticoat aforementioned, and sometimes hardly that. The men wear a piece
of Cloth like a Sack, which goes between their thighs, and brought up
before and behind, and then wrapped round their waist. This every man
wears always without exception, and it is no uncommon thing to see many
of the better sort have nothing else on, as it is reckoned no shame for
any part of the body to be exposed to View, except those which all
mankind hide.

Both sexes sometimes shade their faces from the Sun with little Bonnets
made of Cocoa-Nut leaves. Some have them of fine Matting, but this is
less common. They sometimes wear Turbands, but their Chief Headdress is
what they call Tomou, which is human Hair plaited scarce thicker than
common thread. Of this I can safely affirm that I have seen pieces near a
mile in length worked upon one end without a Knott. These are made and
worn only by the women, 5 or 6 such pieces of which they will sometimes
wind round their Heads, the effect of which, if done with taste, is very
becoming. They have Earings by way of Ornament, but wear them only at one
Ear. These are made of Shells, Stones, Berries, red pease, and some small
pearls which they wear 3 tied together; but our Beads, Buttons, etc.,
very soon supply'd their places.

[Customs of Tahiti.]

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

After their meals in the Heat of the day they often Sleep, middle Aged
people especially, the better sort of whom seem to spend most of their
time in eating and Sleeping. Diversions they have but few, shooting with
the Bow and Wrestling are the Chief; the first of which is confin'd
almost wholy to the Chiefs; they shoot for distance only, kneeling upon
one knee and dropping the Bow the instant of the Arrows parting from it.
I have seen one of them shoot an Arrow 274 yards, yet he looked upon it
as no Great Shotte.

Musick is little known to them, yet they are very fond of it; they have
only 2 Instruments--the flute and the Drum. The former is made of hollow
Bamboo about 15 inches long, in which are 3 Holes; into one of them they
blow with one Nostril, stopping the other with the thumb of the left
hand, the other 2 Holes they stop and unstop with their fingers, and by
this means produce 4 Notes, of which they have made one Tune, which
serves them upon all Occasions, to which they sing a number of songs
generally consisting of 2 lines and generally in rhime. At any time of
the day when they are Lazy they amuse themselves by singing these
Couplets, but especially after dark when their candles are lighted, which
are made of the Kernels of a Nutt abounding much in oil; these are stuck
upon a Skewer of Wood one upon another, and give a very Tolerable light,
which they often keep burning an hour after dark, and if they have
strangers in the House much longer. Their drums are made of a hollow
block of wood covered with Shark's Skin, and instead of Drumsticks they
use their hands. Of these they make out 5 or 6 tunes and accompany the
flutes.

The drums are Chiefly used at their Heivas, which are a set of Musicians,
2 or 3 Drums for instance, as many flutes and singers, which go about
from House to House and play, and are always received and rewarded by the
Master of the family, who gives them a Piece of Cloth or whatever he can
spare, for which they will stay 3 or 4 hours, during which time his house
will be crowded full, for the people are extravagantly fond of this
diversion. The Young Girls whenever they can collect 8 or 10 Together
dance a very indecent Dance, which they call Timorodee, singing most
indecent songs and using most indecent actions, in the practice of which
they are brought up from their earliest childhood; in doing this they
keep time to a great nicety. This exercise is generally left off as soon
as they arrive at Years of Maturity, for as soon as they have form'd a
connection with man they are expected to leave off dancing Timorodee.

One amusement or custom more I must mention, though I confess I do not
expect to be believed, it is founded upon a Custom so inhuman and
contrary to the Principles of human nature. It is this: that more than
one half of the better sort of the inhabitants have enter'd into a
resolution of injoying free liberty in Love, without being Troubled or
disturbed by its consequences. These mix and Cohabit together with the
utmost freedom, and the Chilldren who are so unfortunate as to be thus
begot are smother'd at the Moment of their Birth; many of these People
contract intimacies and live together as man and wife for years, in the
course of which the Children that are born are destroy'd. They are so far
from concealing it that they look upon it as a branch of freedom upon
which they Value themselves. They are called Arreoys, and have meetings
among themselves, where the men amuse themselves with Wrestling, etc.,
and the Women in dancing the indecent dance before-mentioned, in the
course of which they give full Liberty to their desires, but I believe
keep up to the appearance of decency. I never see one of these meetings;
Dr. Monkhouse saw part of one, enough to make him give Credit to what we
had been told.

Both sexes express the most indecent ideas in conversation without the
least emotion, and they delight in such conversation beyond any other.
Chastity, indeed, is but little valued, especially among the middle
people--if a Wife is found guilty of a breach of it her only punishment
is a beating from her husband. The Men will very readily offer the Young
Women to Strangers, even their own Daughters, and think it very strange
if you refuse them; but this is done merely for the sake of gain.

The Houses or dwellings of these People are admirably calculated for the
continual warmth of the Climate; they do not build them in Towns or
Villages, but seperate each from the other, and always in the Woods, and
are without walls, so that the air, cooled by the shade of the Trees, has
free access in whatever direction it hapens to blow. No country can boast
of more delightful walks than this; the whole Plains where the Natives
reside are covered with groves of Bread Fruit and Cocoa Nut Trees,
without underwood, and intersected in all directions by the Paths which
go from House to House, so that nothing can be more grateful in a Climate
where the sun hath so powerful an influence. They are generally built in
form of an Oblong square, the Roofs are supported by 3 Rows of Pillars or
posts, and neatly covered with Thatch made of Palm leaves. A middle-siz'd
house is about 24 feet by 12, extream heigth about 8 or 9, and heigth of
the Eves 3 1/2 or 4. The floors are cover'd some inches deep with Hay,
upon which, here and there, lay matts for the conveniency of sitting
down; few houses has more than one Stool, which is only used by the
Master of the family.

In their houses are no rooms or Partitions, but they all huddle and Sleep
together; yet in this they generally observe some order, the Married
people laying by themselves, and the unmarried each sex by themselves, at
some small distance from each other. Many of the Eares or Chiefs are more
private, having small movable houses in which they Sleep, man and Wife,
which, when they go by Water from place to place, are tied upon their
Canoes; these have walls made of Cocoa-Nut leaves, etc. I have said that
the houses are without walls, but this is only to be understood in
general, for many of them are walled with wickering, but not so close but
to admit a free circulation of Air. The matts which serve them to sit
upon in the daytime are also their beds in the night, and the Cloathes
they wear in the day serve for covering, a little wood Stool, block of
wood, or bundle of Cloth for a Pillow. Besides these common houses there
are others much larger, 200 feet long and upwards, 30 broad, and 20 in
heigth. There are generally 2 or 3 of these in every district, and seem'd
not only built for the accommodation of the principal people, but common
to all the inhabitants of that district, and raised and kept up by their
joint Labour; these are always without walls, and have generally a large
Area on one side neatly inclosed with low pallisades, etc.

[Tahitian Canoes.]

Their Canoes or Proes are built all of them very narrow, and some of the
largest are 60 or 70 feet long. These consist of several pieces; the
bottom is round and made of large logs hollow'd out to the thickness of
about 3 Inches, and may consist of 3 or 4 pieces; the sides are of Plank
of nearly the same thickness, and are built nearly perpendicular,
rounding in a little towards the Gunwale. The pieces on which they are
built are well fitted, and fastned or sewed together with strong platting
something in the same manner as old China, Wooden Bowls, etc., are
mended. The greatest breadth is at the after part, which is generally
about 18 or 20 Inches, and the fore part about 1/3 Narrower; the heigth
from the bottom to the Gunwale seldom exceeds 2 1/2 or 3 feet. They build
them with high curv'd Sterns which are generally ornamented with carved
work; the head or fore part curves little or nothing. The smaller Canoes
are built after the same plan, some out of one, 2, or more trees
according to their size or the use they are for. In order to prevent them
from oversetting when in the Water, all those that go single, both great
and Small, have what is called Outriggers, which are Pieces of Wood
fastened to the Gunwale and project out on one side about 6, 8, or 10
feet, according to the size of the Boat. At the end is fastened in a
Parrallel direction to the Canoe a long log of wood simply; or some have
it Shaped in the form of a small Boat, but this is not common; this lays
in the Water and Balances the Boat. Those that are for sailing have
Outriggers only on the other side abreast of the Mast; these serves to
fasten the Shrouds to, and are of use in Trimming the Boat when it blows
fresh; the sailing proes have some one and some 2 masts; the sails are of
Matting and are made narrow at the head and Square at the foot, something
like a Shoulder of Mutton Sail, such as are generally used in Man-of-War
Barges, etc.

I have mentioned above that the single Canoes have Outriggers, for those
that go double--that is 2 together, which is very common--have no need of
any; and it is done in this manner: 2 Canoes are placed in a parrallel
direction to each other, about 3 or 4 feet asunder, securing them
together by small Logs of Wood laid across and lashed to each of their
gunwales; thus the one boat supports the other, and are not in the least
danger of upsetting, and I believe it is in this manner that all their
large Proes are used, some of which will carry a great number of Men, by
means of a Platform made of Bamboo or other light wood and the whole
length of the Proes and considerably broader, but I never saw but one
fitted in this manner upon the whole Island. Upon the Forepart of all
these large double Proes was placed an Oblong Platform about ten or
twelve feet in length, and six or eight in Breadth, and supported about 4
feet above the Gunwale by stout Carved Pillars. The use of these
Platforms, as we were told, are for the Club Men to stand and fight upon
in time of Battle, for the large Canoes, from what I could learn, are
built most, if not wholly, for war, and their method of fighting is to
Graple one another and fight it out with Clubs, spears, and stones. I
never saw but one of these sort of Canoes in the water, the rest was all
hauled ashore and seemed to be going to decay, neither were there very
many of them upon the Island.* (* The war canoes of Tahiti exist no
longer. The others are still used, and merit all Cook's encomiums on
their sailing qualities.)

The Chiefs and better sort of People generally go from one part of the
island to another in small double Canoes which carry a little movable
House, this not only Skreens them from the Sun by day, but serves them to
Sleep in in the Night, and this way of Travelling is Extremely commodious
about such Islands as are inclosed by a reef as this is; for as these
Canoes draw but Little water they can always keep in the Reefs, and by
that means are never in danger.

They have some few other Canoes, Pahees as they call them, which differ
from those above discribed, but of these I saw but 6 upon the whole
Island, and was told they were not built here. The 2 largest was each 76
feet long, and when they had been in use had been fastned together. These
are built Sharp and Narrow at both Ends and broad in the Middle; the
bottom is likewise Sharp, inclining to a Wedge, yet Buldges out very much
and rounds in again very quick just below the Gunwale. They are built of
several pieces of thick plank and put together as the others are, only
these have timbers in the inside, which the others have not. They have
high Curved Sterns, the head also Curves a little, and both are
ornamented with the image of a man carved in wood, very little inferior
work of the like kind done by common Ship Carvers in England.

When one Considers the Tools these people have one cannot help but
admiring their workmanship; these are Adzes and small Hatchets made of a
hard Stone, Chizels and Gouges made of human bones, generally the bones
of the Forearm, but Spike Nails have pretty well supplyd the place of
these. With these ordinary Tools, that a European would expect to break
the first stroke, I have seen them work surprisingly fast. To plain or
polish their work they rub upon it, with a small stone, Coral Beat small
and Mixed with Water; this is done sometimes by scraping it with Shells,
with which alone they perform most of their Small wood work.

Their Proes or Canoes, large and Small, are row'd and Steer'd with
Paddles, and, notwithstanding the large ones appear to be very unweildy,
they manage them very dexterously, and I believe perform long and distant
Voyages in them, otherwise they could not have the knowledge of the
Islands in these Seas they seem to have. They wear for Shew or Ornament
at the Mast Head of most of their Sailing Canoes Pendants made of
Feathers.

Having described their fighting Canoes I shall next describe their Arms
with which they attack their Enemys, both by Sea and Land. These are
Clubs, Spears or Lances, Slings and Stones which they throw by hand. The
Clubs are made of a hard wood, and are about 8 or 9 feet long; the one
half is made flatish with 2 Edges, and the other half is round and not
thicker than to be easily grasped by the hand. The Lances are of various
lengths, some from 12, 20 or 30 feet, and are generally Arm'd at the
Small end with the Stings of Sting-rays, which makes them very dangerous
weapons. Altho' these people have Bows and Arrows--and those none of the
worst--we are told that they never use them in their wars, which
doubtless is very extraordinary and not easily accounted for. They have
very Curious breastplates, made of small wickers, pieces of Matting,
etc., and neatly Cover'd with Sharks' teeth, Pearl Oyster shells, birds'
feathers, and dogs' hair. Thus much for their Arms, etc.

[Tahitian Cloth.]

I shall now describe their way of making Cloth, which, in my opinion, is
the only Curious manufacture they have. All their Cloth is, I believe,
made from the Bark of Trees; the finest is made from a plant which they
Cultivate for no other purpose.* (* Broussonetia papyrifera. The
manufacture is common to all Polynesia, and the ordinary name for it in
the Pacific is Tapa. The Tahitians, however, called it Ahu.) Dr. Solander
thinks it is the same plant the bark of which the Chinese make paper of.
They let this plant grow till it is about 6 or 8 feet high, the Stem is
then about as thick as one's Thum or thicker; after this they cut it down
and lay it a Certain time in water. This makes the Bark strip off easy,
the outside of which is scraped off with a rough Shell. After this is
done it looks like long strips of ragged linnen; these they lay together,
by means of a fine paist made of some sort of a root, to the Breadth of a
yard more or less, and in length 6, 8 or 10 Yards or more according to
the use it is for. After it is thus put together it is beat out to its
proper breadth and fineness, upon a long square piece of wood, with
wooden beaters, the Cloth being keept wet all the time. The beaters are
made of hard wood with four square sides, are about 3 or 4 inches broad
and cut into grooves of different fineness; this makes the Cloth look at
first sight as if it was wove with thread, but I believe the principal
use of the Groves is to facilitate the beating it out, in the doing of
which they often beat holes in it, or one place thinner than another; but
this is easily repair'd by pasting on small bits, and this they do in
such a manner that the Cloth is not the least injured. The finest sort
when bleached is very white and comes nearest to fine Cotton. Thick
cloth, especially fine, is made by pasting two or more thickness's of
thin cloth, made for that Purpose, together. Coarse thick cloth and
ordinary thin cloth is made of the Bark of Bread fruit Trees, and I think
I have been told that it is sometimes made from the Bark of other trees.
The making of Cloth is wholy the work of the women, in which all ranks
are employ'd. Their common colours are red, brown and yellow, with which
they dye some pieces just as their fancy leads them. Besides Cloth they
make several different sorts of matting, both better and finer than any
we have in Europe; the stuff they make it on is the Produce of the Palm
tree.

This Island produceth 2 or 3 sorts of plants, of which they make the rope
they use in rigging their Canoes, etc.; the finest sort, such as fishing
lines, saine twine, etc., is made of the Bark of a Tree, and some from
the Kind of Silk grass. Their fishing lines and saines are in Point of
goodness preferable to any of ours. Their fishing Hooks are very
curiously made of Tortoise, Pearl Oyster Shells, etc. They have a sort of
Saine that is made of Coarse broad grass like flags; these are twisted
and tied together in a loose manner until the whole is as thick as a
large sack, and 60 or 80 fathoms long. This they haul in Shoal smooth
water; its own weight keeps it so close to the ground that hardly the
smallest fish can escape out.

I have before mentioned that the Island is divided into two districts or
kingdoms, which are frequently at war with each other, as hapned about 12
Months ago, and each of these are again divided into smaller districts,
Whennuas as they call them. Over each of the kingdoms is an Eare dehi, or
head, whom we call a King, and in the Whennuas are Eares, or Chiefs. The
King's power seems to be but very little; he may be reverenced as a
father, but he is neither fear'd nor respected as a monarch, and the same
may be said of the other Chiefs. However, they have a pre-eminence over
the rest of the People, who pay them a kind of a Voluntary Obedience.
Upon the whole, these people seem to enjoy liberty in its fullest
extent--every man seems to be the sole judge of his own actions and to
know no punishment but death, and this perhaps is never inflicted but
upon a public enemy. There are 3 ranks of Men and Women: first, the
Eares, or chiefs; second, the Manahoonas, or Middling sort; and lastly,
the Toutous, which comprehend all the lower-class, and are by far the
most numerous. These seem to live in some sort dependent on the Eares,
who, together with the Manahoonas, own most, if not all the land. This is
Hereditary in their families, and the moment the Heir is born he succeeds
the Father, both in title and Estate; at least to the name, for its most
likely that the latter must have the power during his Son or Daughter's
Minority.

Note by Cook. Upon our arrival at Batavia, we were informed the two
French Ships, commanded by the Monsieurs Beaugainvile, touched at that
place in their way home from the South Seas two years ago. We were here
told many circumstances of these two Ships, all tending to prove that
they were the same ships that were at George's Island, which we judged
were Spaniards; being led into this mistake by the Spanish Iron, etc., we
saw among the natives, which is easy accounted for, for we are told that
while Beaugainvile in the Frigate was delivering up that part of Falkland
Islands possess'd by the French, to the Spaniards, the Store ship was
trading with the Spaniards in the River Plate, where it is very probable
she disposed of all her European goods, and purchased others to trade
with the Islands in the South Seas. To confirm these last circumstances
we were told that when they arrived at Batavia, the Frigate had on board
a great quantity of Spanish Dollars.

[Religion of Tahiti.]

Having given the best account I can of the manners and Customs of these
people, it will be expected that I should give some account of their
religion, which is a thing I have learned so little of that I hardly dare
to touch upon it, and should have passed it over in silence, was it not
my duty as well as inclination to insert in this Journal every and the
least knowledge I may obtain of a People, who for many Centuries have
been shut up from almost every other part of the world.

They believe that there is one Supreem God whom they call Tane; from him
sprung a number of inferior Deities, Eatuas as they call them--these they
think preside over them and intermeddle in their affairs. To these they
offer Oblations such as Hogs, Dogs, Fish, Fruit, etc., and invoke them on
some particular occasions, as in time of real or Apparent Danger, the
setting out of a long Voyage, sickness's, etc.; but the Ceremony made use
of on these occasions I know not. The Mories, which we at first thought
were burying places, are wholy built for Places of worship, and for the
Performing of religious ceremonies in.* (* Cook did not apparently learn
anything in this voyage of the human sacrifices offered in the Morais on
many occasions, such as before war; at the coronation of the king; etc.
The Tahitians were, however, never guilty of cannibalism.) The Viands are
laid upon altars erected 8, 12, or 12 Feet high, by stout Posts, and the
Table of the Altar on which the Viands lay, is generally made of Palm
leaves; they are not always in the Mories, but very often at some
Distance from them. Their Mories, as well as the Tombs of the Dead, they
seem to hold sacred, and the women never enter the former, whatever they
may do the latter. The Viands laid near the Tombs of the Dead are, from
what I can learn, not for the deceased, but as an Offering to the Eatua
made upon that Occasion who, if not, would distroy the body and not
except of the soul--for they believe of a future state of rewards and
punishments; but what their Ideas are of it I know not. We have seen in
some few places small Houses set apart on purpose for the Oblations
offer'd to the Eatua, which consists of small strips of Cloth, Viands,
etc. I am of Opinion they offer to the Eatua a Strip or small piece of
every piece of Cloth they make before they use it themselves, and it is
not unlikely but what they observe the same thing with respect to their
Victuals, but as there are but few of these houses this cannot be a
common Custom; it may only be observ'd by the Priests and such families
as are more religious than others.

Now I have mentioned Priests, there are men that Exercise that function,
of which Numbers Tupia is one. They seem to be in no great repute,
neither can they live wholy by their Profession, and this leads me to
think that these People are no bigots to their religion. The Priests on
some occasions do the Office of Physicians, and their prescriptions
consists in performing some religious ceremony before the sick person.
They likewise Crown the Eare dehi, or King, in the performing of which we
are told much form and Ceremony is used, after which every one is at
liberty to treat and play as many Tricks with the new King as he pleaseth
during the remainder of the day.

There is a ceremony which they perform at or after the Funerals of the
Dead which I had forgot to mention at the time; we hapned to see it
sometime before we left the Island. An old Woman, a relation of
Toobouratomita's, hapned to die and was interr'd in the Usual manner. For
several successive evenings after, one of her relations dressed himself
in a very odd dress, which I cannot tell how to describe or to convey a
better Idea of it than to suppose a man dress'd with plumes of feathers,
something in the same manner as those worn by Coaches, Hearses, Horses,
etc., at the Funerals in London. It was very neatly made up of black or
brown and white cloth, black and white feathers, and pearl Oyster Shells.
It cover'd the head, face, and body, as low as the Calf of the Legs or
lower, and not only looked grand but awful likewise. The man thus
equip'd, and attended by 2 or 3 more men and Women with their faces and
bodys besmear'd with soot, and a Club in their hands, would about sunset
take a Compass of near a mile running here and there, and wherever they
came the People would fly from them as tho' they had been so many
hobgoblins, not one daring to come in their way. I know not the reason
for their Performing this ceremony, which they call Heiva, a name they
give to most of their divertisements.

They compute time by the Moon, which they call Malama, reckoning 30 days
to each moon, 2 of which they say the moon is Mattee, that is, dead, and
this is at the time of the new moon, when she cannot be seen. The day
they divide into smaller Portions not less than 2 Hours. Their
computations is by units, tens, and scores, up to ten score, or 200, etc.
In counting they generally take hold on their fingers one by one,
Shifting from one hand to the other, until they come to the number they
want to express; but if it be a high number, instead of their fingers
they use pieces of Leaves, etc.

In conversation one with another they frequently join signs to their
words, in which they are so expressive that a stranger will very soon
comprehend their meaning by their actions.

Having now done with the People, I must once more return to the Island
before I quit it altogether, which, notwithstanding nature hath been so
very bountiful to it, yet it does not produce any one thing of intrinsick
value or that can be converted into an Article of Trade; so that the
value of the discovery consists wholy in the refreshments it will always
afford to shipping in their passage through those seas; and in this it
may be greatly improved by transporting hither horned cattle, etc.
Pumpkins have got quite a footing here, the seeds of which most probably
were brought here by the Spaniards.* (* Bougainville.) We sowed of the
seeds of Water and Musk Mellons, which grew up and throve very fast. We
also gave of these seeds and the seeds of Pine Apples to several of the
Natives, and it cannot be doubted but what they will thrive here, and
will be a great addition to the fruits they already have. Upon our first
arrival we sowed of all sorts of English garden seeds and grain, but not
a single thing came up except mustard sallad; but this I know was not
owing either to the Soil or Climate, but to the badness of the seeds,
which were spoil'd by the length of the Passage.

[Winds at Tahiti.]

Altho' this Island lies within the Tropick of Capricorn, yet the Heat is
not Troublesome, nor do the winds blow constantly from the East, but are
subject to variations, frequently blowing a fresh gale from the
South-West Quarter for two or three days together, but very seldom from
the North-West. Whenever these variable winds happen they are always
accompanied with a swell from the South-West or West-South-West, and the
same thing happens whenever it is calm and the Atmosphere at the same
time loaded with Clouds--sure indication that the winds are Variable or
Westerly out at Sea, for clear weather generally attends the settled
Trade.

The meeting of Westerly winds within the general Limits of the Easterly
Trade is a little extraordinary, and has induced former Navigators, when
they met with them, to think that they were caused by the nearness of
some large Tracks of Land: but I rather think they were owing to another
Cause. It hath been found both by the Dolphin and us that the trade winds
in those parts of this Sea doth not extend further to the Southward than
20 degrees, and without which we generally meet with a wind from the
westward. Now, is it not reasonable to suppose that when these winds blow
strong they must encroach upon and drive back the Easterly winds as to
cause the variable winds and South-Westerly swells I have been speaking
of? It is well known that the Trade winds blow but faint for some
distance within their limits, and are therefore easily stopt by a wind
from the Contrary direction. It is likewise known that these limits are
subject to vary several degrees, not only at different seasons of the
Year, but at one and the same season. Another reason why I think that
these South-West winds are not caused by the nearness of any large Track
of land, is in their being always accompanied with a large swell from the
same Quarter, and we find a much greater surf beating upon the Shores of
the South-West sides of the Islands situated just within the Limits of
the Trade winds than upon any other part of them.

The tides are perhaps as inconsiderable in these Seas as in any part of
the world. A South or South by West moon makes high water in Royal Bay,
but the water does not rise upon a perpendicular above 10 or 12 inches,
except on some very Extraordinary occasions.

The variation of the Compass I found to be 4 degrees 46 minutes Easterly,
this being the mean result of a great number of Trials made by 4 of Dr.
Knight's needles belonging to the Azimuth Compasses, all of which I
judged to be good ones, and yet when applied to the Meridian line I found
them not only differ one from another sometimes a degree and a half; but
the same needle would differ from itself more or less, the difference
sometimes amounting to half a degree, both at the same time and on
differant days. This will in a great measure account for the seeming
errors that may, upon a nice examination, appear to have been made in
observing the Variation inserted in the Course of this Journal. This
variableness in Magnetick Needles I have many times and in many places
experienced both ashore and on board of Ships, and I do not remember of
ever finding two Needles that would agree exactly together at one and the
same time and place, but I have often found the same Needle agree with
itself for several Trials made immediately one after another.* (* These
discrepancies result from imperfections in the suspension and mounting of
the needles, and are only absent in instruments too delicate for ordinary
sea service.) However, all this is of no sort of consequence to
Navigation, as the Variation of the Compass can always be found to a
degree of accuracy more than sufficient for all nautical Purposes.

I have before hinted that these People have an Extensive knowledge of the
Islands situated in these Seas. Tupia, as well as several others, hath
given us an account of upwards of 70; but, as the account they have given
of their situation is so Vague and uncertain, I shall refer giving a list
of them until I have learnt from Tupia the Situation of each island with
a little more certainty. Four of these islands--viz., Huaheine, Ulietea,
Otaha, and Bolabola* (* These islands are now known as Huaheine, Raiatea,
Tahaa, and Borabora or Bolabola, and are under French sovereignty.)--we
were informed, lay only one or two days' sail to the Westward of George's
Island, and that we might there procure Hogs, Fowls, and other
refreshments, Articles that we have been very sparingly supply'd with at
this last Island, as the Ship's Company (what from the Constant hard duty
they have had at this place, and the two free use of Woman) were in a
worse state of health than they were on our first arrival, for by this
Time full half of them had got the Venerial disease, in which Situation I
thought they would be ill able to stand the Cold weather we might expect
to meet with to the Southward at this Season of the Year, and therefore
resolved to give them a little time to recover while we ran down to and
explored the Islands before-mentioned.

Tupia informs us that in the Months of November, December, and January
they have constant Westerly winds, with rain; also that the whole island
can muster 6780 Fighting Men, by which some judgment can be formed of the
number of inhabitants. Each district furnishes a certain number, which
the chief is obliged to bring into the field when summoned by the Eare
dehi, or King of the Island, either to make war or repell an invasion.*
(* This paragraph is added in Admiralty copy.)

[Historical Notes, Tahiti.]

Notes on Tahiti. The missionaries who came to Tahiti in 1797, in the
missionary ship Duff, and settled at Matavai, gathered many details of
the history and economy of the islands. It appears that the state of
society, though in many respects savage, had attained a certain pitch of
civilisation, especially with regard to government. There was generally a
head chief or king of the whole island, who governed after the feudal
manner by the sub-chiefs. The sovereignty was hereditary, with this
peculiarity, that the eldest son of the king became from his birth the
sovereign. The father governed henceforth as regent until the son was of
an age to take the reins in his own hands, when the father retired. This
was the idea; but, as may be imagined, it led to various complications
and difficulties, and wars between the different parts of the island and
the different chiefs were frequent.

When Wallis discovered the island, in June 1767, Amo was king, or
Arii-rahi (called by Cook Eare-dehi), Bereia (Cook's Obereia) being his
wife. The latter seems to have been a woman of much character, and to
have practically governed the island. The two were separated, inasmuch
that they had mutually contracted other alliances, but, according to the
custom of the country, without affecting their friendship.

On Wallis's appearance the warlike Tahitians at once attacked the
Dolphin, but were easily defeated, and the guns and small arms with which
they then for the first time made acquaintance had such an effect upon
them that they speedily made peace, and recognised the superiority of
Europeans.

The defeat had, however, a great effect on the prestige of Amo, whose
authority rapidly diminished. Tootaha, Amo's brother, and chief of the
district of Matavai, where the Dolphin anchored, was much enriched by her
visit, and became a greater man in the eyes of his compatriots.
Bougainville also touched at Tootaha's district; and although his two
ships only remained ten days, it was long enough to furnish this chief
with many more valuable and coveted articles.

In about December 1768, or six months before Cook's visit, war broke out
in the island, and Amo was totally defeated by the chief who governed the
eastern peninsula. Cook saw at Papara, on the south side of the main
island, the relics of this battle in the shape of many human bones.
Tootaha, who had joined in the war against his brother, became regent for
the son (Pomare) of another brother, Hapai, and was therefore the
principal man in the island when Cook appeared. Notwithstanding, when Amo
(whom Cook calls Oamo), came to visit the Europeans on 21st June,
bringing his young son, Temare, with him, the latter was carried on men's
shoulders, which was one of the ceremonial observances due to the Otou,
or young king, and the natives present recognised his royal character by
uncovering their shoulders.

Tupia (or Tupaia), who left the island with Cook, was the chief priest of
the island, and had been living with Bereia; but having shortly before
conspired to kill Tootaha, it is probable that he felt his life was
unsafe in the island.

Frequent wars raged in the island for many years after Cook's first
visit. Tootaha was killed in one of these, and when Cook again arrived,
in 1773, Pomare was king, though Cook only knew him by his title of Otou,
which he apparently still retained, though there was no regent.

In 1789 Captain Bligh called at Tahiti in the Bounty, to export young
bread-fruit trees to the West Indies. The delights of Tahiti probably had
their part in bringing about the well-known mutiny a few days after the
ship left; and on the return of the Bounty with her crew of mutineers,
sixteen of them remained on the island. These men took a leading part in
the continual dissensions in the island, until, in 1791, they were
carried off by the Pandora, sent with the object of capturing the
mutineers.

English missionaries came to Tahiti in 1797; but after twelve years'
residence, during which they made no progress, and were constantly in
danger from the frequent wars, they retreated to Sydney, in New South
Wales, leaving two only of their number in Huahine and Eimeo, two of the
Society Islands. Two years later, on the invitation of Pomare II, who
was, however, then expelled from Tahiti and living in Eimeo, some of them
returned, and Pomare became the first convert. Christianity rapidly
spread, and in 1815, Pomare having returned to Tahiti, he and his
Christian followers were attacked. The battle ended in the complete
victory of Pomare, and for the first time in the sanguinary history of
the island no butchery of the vanquished followed, nor any devastation of
the country. The principal idols were destroyed; and whether in
consequence of the surprise the natives felt at finding that no
retribution followed this sacrilege, or from gratitude at the clemency of
the victors, opposition to the new religion ceased, the whole island soon
became Christian, and the customs of the inhabitants were much changed.
In 1827 the British Government declined to accede to a request to throw
its protectorate over Tahiti.

In 1836 two French priests came to the island with the avowed intention
of proselytising. They were expelled; and after several visits of French
men-of-war, who came to obtain redress for this act, and an assurance of
free entrance for French subjects, the island was taken possession of by
a French squadron in 1843, and Queen Pomare, daughter of Pomare II, was
de facto deposed. The island has been ever since under the dominion of
France. Tahiti is now in a flourishing condition, and exports a
considerable quantity of cotton, cocoanuts, and vanilla.

The majority of the natives still profess the Protestant religion.

Papiete, a little westward of Matavai, is now the principal port and town
of the island, the harbour possessing some advantages over the latter.

The Tahitians are marvellously fond of singing and dancing, and still
retain their primitive and exceedingly free manners, and the custom of
decorating themselves with flowers.

The beauty of the island, with its neighbouring western group, is
probably unsurpassed, and, considering all the circumstances, it says
much for the discipline of the Endeavour that only two of her crew
attempted to remain in what seemed a Paradise.

Cook's efforts to make his men deal properly with the natives are well
illustrated by the following extract from Mr. Molineux's Log, of the 29th
April. The incident is not mentioned by Cook.

"Punished Hy. Jeffs, Seaman, with a dozen lashes for ill-behaviour on
shore. He had been rude to a man's wife yesterday, of which the Indian
complained, and Jeffs was confined immediately the Captain had the fact
plainly proved, and next morning the Captain invited the offended Parties
on board, who were ignorant of his intentions. All hands being called,
and the Prisoner brought aft, the Captain explained the nature of his
Crime in the most lively manner, and made a very Pathetick speech to the
Ship's Company during his punishment. The woman was in the greatest
agonies, and strongly interceded for him. The man's name was Tuburi and
his wife's name Tamide. I remember them both last Voyage. I should have
mentioned Tuburi being sorry to see Jeffs punished."

It is evident, from what Cook himself tells us (above), and from what is
now well known of the laxity of Tahitian morals, that this punishment
would seem excessive to the natives, and especially to the women, who
were accustomed themselves to bear whatever blame was bestowed.

Note. For full description of original Tahitian manners and customs, see
"Polynesian Researches," by W. Ellis (London, H.G. Bohn, 1853); "Iles
Taiti," par MM. Vincendon-Dumoulin et Chas. Desgraz (Paris, 1844).


CHAPTER 4. TAHITI TO NEW ZEALAND.

REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES AT SEA.

[July 1769.]

FRIDAY, July 14th. Gentle breezes at North-East and Clear weather. I have
before made mention of our departure from Royal Bay on the preceeding
forenoon, and likewise that I had determined to run down to Huaheine and
Ulietea* (* Raiatea.) before we stood to the Southward; but having
discovered, from the Hills of George's Island, an Island laying to the
Northward, we first stood that way to take a nearer View of it. This
Island is called Tethuroa.* (* Tetiaroa.) It lies North 1/2 West, distant
8 Leagues from Point Venus, and is a small, low, uninhabited Island,
frequented by the people of George's Island for fish, with which it is
said to abound. At 6 A.M. the Westermost part of York Island bore
South-East 1/2 South and the body of George's Island East 1/2 South.
Punished the 2 Marines who attempted to desert from us at George's Island
with 2 Dozen lashes each, and then released them from Confinement. At
Noon the body of York Island* (* Eimeo, or Murea.) bore East by South 1/2
South, Royal Bay South 70 degrees 45 minutes East, distant 61 Miles; and
an Island which we took to be Saunder's Island, discovered by Captain
Wallace (called by the Natives Topoamanan),* (* Tubuai Manu.) bore
South-South-West Latitude observed, 17 degrees 9 minutes South. Saw land
bearing North-West 1/2 West, which Tupia calls the Island of Huaheine.

Saturday, 15th. Light airs and Variable between the North and
West-South-West. Clear weather. At 6 p.m. York Island bore South-East,
and Huaheine West-North-West, and at 7 a.m. it bore West. Latitude
observed at Noon 16 degrees 50 minutes South. Royal Bay South 37 degrees
30 minutes East, distant 22 Leagues.

[At Huaheine.]

Sunday, 16th. Winds at South and South-South-East. A Gentle Breeze, with
some few showers of rain. At 6 p.m. the Island of Huaheine West 1/2
South, distant 7 or 8 leagues. At 8 a.m., being close in with the
North-West part of the Island, sounded, but had no ground with 80
fathoms. Some of the Natives came off to the Ship, but they were very shy
of coming near until they discover'd Tupia; but after that they came on
board without hesitation. Among those who came on board was the King of
the Island, whose name is Oree. He had not been long on board before he
and I exchanged Names, and we afterwards address'd each other
accordingly.* (* The Tahitians called Cook Tootee, which was their idea
of the sound of his name, with a vowel termination, none of their words
ending in a consonant.) At noon the North end of the Island bore South by
East 1/2 East, distant 72 Leagues. Latitude observed, 16 degrees 40
minutes South. Three other Islands in sight, namely, Ulietea, Otaha, and
Bolabola,* (* Tahaa and Borabora.) so called by the Natives.

Monday, 17th. Winds Southerly, fine pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. anchored
in a small Harbour on the West side of the Island called by the Natives
Owarhe, in 18 fathoms water, clear ground, and secure from all winds.
Soon after, I went on shore, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and
Dr. Monkhouse, Tupia, the King of the Island, and some others of the
Natives, who had been on board since the morning. The Moment we landed
Tupia stripped himself as low as his waist, and desir'd Mr. Monkhouse to
do the same. He then sat down before a great number of the Natives that
were collected together in a large Shed or House, the rest of us, by his
own desire, standing behind; he then begun a long speach or prayer, which
lasted near a Quarter of an Hour, and in the Course of this Speech
presented to the People two Handkerchiefs, a black silk Neckcloth, some
beads, and two very small bunches of Feathers. These things he had before
provided for that purpose. At the same time two Chiefs spoke on the other
side in answer to Tupia, as I suppose, in behalf of the People, and
presented us with some young Plantains plants, and 2 small bunches of
Feathers. These were by Tupia order'd to be carried on board the Ship.
After the Peace was thus concluded and ratified, every one was at liberty
to go where he pleased, and the first thing Tupia did was to go and pay
his Oblations at one of the Mories. This seem'd to be a common ceremony
with this people, and I suppose always perform'd upon landing on each
other's Territories in a peaceable manner. It further appear'd that the
things which Tupia gave away was for the God of this People, as they gave
us a Hog and some Cocoanuts for our God, and thus they have certainly
drawn us in to commit sacriledge, for the Hog hath already received
sentence of Death, and is to be dissected to-morrow. A.M. I set about
Surveying the Island, and Dr. Monkhouse, with some hands, went ashore to
Trade with the Natives, while the Long boat was employ'd compleating our
Water.

Tuesday, 18th. Gentle breezes at South and South-South-West. Clear
weather. The Trading party had no Success to-day. The Natives pretend
that they have not had time to collect their provisions from the
Differant parts of the Island, but that on the Morrow we should have
some; and as I had not seen so much of the Island as I desir'd, I
resolved to stay one day longer to see if anything was to be got.

Wednesday, 19th. P.M. Variable light Airs and clear weather. The Trading
party had better success to-day than Yesterday. A.M. a Gentle breeze at
South-East. As it was known to the Natives that we intended to sail
to-day, Oree, the Chief, and several more, came on board to take their
leave of us. To the Chief was given a small plate on which was Stamp'd
the following inscription--viz., "His Britannick Majesty's Ship,
Endeavour, Lieutenant Cook, Commander, 16th July, 1769, Huaheine." This
was accompanied with some Medals, or Counters, of the English Coins,
struck 1761, together with some other Presents. All these, but more
particularly the Plate, the Chief promised never to part with. This we
thought would prove as lasting a Testimony of our having first discover'd
this Island as any we could leave behind. After this was done they were
dismissed, and we began to prepare to leave the place. But as that falls
out on the following day, I shall conclude this with a Discription of the
Island, which is situated in the Latitude of 16 degrees 43 minutes South,
and Longitude 150 degrees 52 minutes West from Greenwich and North 58
degrees West, distance, 31 leagues, from King George's Island, or
Otaheite. It is about 7 Leagues in compass, and of a Hilly and uneven
surface. It hath a safe and commodious Harbour, which lies on the West
side, under the Northermost high land and within the North end of the
Reef which lays along that side of the Island. Into this Harbour are 2
inlets, or openings in the Reef, about 1 1/2 Miles from each other. The
Southermost is the Broadest, on the South side of which is a very small
sandy Island. This Harbour is called by the Natives Ohwarhe. The produce
of this Island is in all respects the same as King George's Island, and
the Manner and Customs of the inhabitants much the same, only that they
are not addicted to Stealing; and with respect to colour they are rather
fairer than the natives of George's Island, and the whole more Uniformly
of one Colour.

[At Raiatea.]

Thursday, 20th. Moderate breezes at East and East-North-East. Fair
weather. At 1/2 past 2 p.m. weighed and made Sail for the Island of
Ulietea, which lies South-West by West, Distance 7 or 8 leagues from
Huaheine. At 1/2 past 6 we were within 3 Leagues of it, then shortened
sail and stood off and on all night, and at daylight made Sail in shore,
and soon after discover'd an opening in the Reef that lies along this
side of the Island, within which, Tupia said, was a good Harbour. Upon
this I hoisted out the Pinnace, and sent the Master in to Examine it, who
soon made the Signal for the Ship to follow. Accordingly we stood in and
Anchor'd in 22 fathoms, soft ground. Soon after we Anchor'd some of the
Natives came on board the Ship with very little invitation.

Friday, 21st. Winds variable, and dark, cloudy weather, with frequent
Showers of rain. At 1 p.m. I landed in Company with Mr. Banks and the
other gentlemen. The first thing done was the performing of Tupia's
ceremony in all respects as at Huaheine. I then hoisted an English jack,
and took possession of the Island and those adjacent in the name of His
Britannick Majesty, calling them by the same names as the natives do.
A.M. sent the Master in the Long boat to examine the coast of the South
part of the Island, and one of the Mates in the Yawl to sound the Harbour
where the Ship lay, while I was employ'd in the Pinnace surveying the
Northern part of the Island, and Mr. Monkhouse went ashore to trade with
the Natives for such refreshments as were to be got.

Saturday, 22nd. P.M. the wind Variable with Showers of rain. A.M. strong
Gales at South and hazey with rain, and which continued the most part of

Sunday, 23rd, in so much that I did not think it safe to break the Ship
loose and put to sea as I intended.

Monday, 24th. Winds variable from South-South-East to North-East. At 8
a.m. got under sail and plyed to the Northward within the Reef, in order
to go out at the Northern Channell, it being the broadest; but being
little wind and meeting with Shoals we had not before discovered, we
turned down but slowly.

Tuesday, 25th. First part, little wind at North-East; in the night calm,
A.M. a fresh breeze at West-North-West, fair weather. At 3 p.m. Anchor'd
in 22 fathoms Muddy bottom, the North Channell open bearing North-East
1/2 East, at 5 a.m. a breeze sprung up at North-West, weighed and put to
Sea, and hauled to the Northward in order to take a View of the Island
and Ataha and Bolabola; but before I proceed farther, I shall describe
the Harbour we have been in.* (* It has no particular name, but extends
the whole of the eastern side of Raiatea.) This Harbour, taken in its
greatest Extent, is capable of holding any number of Shipping in perfect
security, as it extends almost the whole length of this side of the
Island, and is defended from the Sea by a reef of Coral rocks; the
Southermost opening* (* Teava Moa Pass.) in this reef or Channell into
the Harbour, which is not more than a Cable's length wide, is off the
Eastermost point of the Island, and may be known by a small woody Island,
which lies a little to the South-East of it. Between 3 and 4 miles
North-West from this Island lies 2 other small Islands, and in the same
direction as the reef, of which they are a part. Between these 2 Islands
is another Channell* (* Iriru Pass.) into the Harbour that is a full
Quarter of a Mile broad; still further to the North-West are some other
small Islands, where, I am informed, is another small inlet, but this I
did not see; but, as to the other 2, we enter'd the Harbour by the one
and came out by the other.

The principal refreshments we have got here consists in Plantains, Cocoa
nuts, some Yams and a few Hogs and fowls. This side of the Island is
neither Populous nor Rich in Produce, if compared to George's Island, or
even Huaheine; however, here is no want of refreshments for a ship who
may put in here and stay but a short time; and wood and water may be got
everywhere, tho' the latter is not very convenient to come at.

[Off Bolabola.]

Wednesday, 26th. Winds at West by North and West by South, but very
Variable towards the Latter part. At 4 p.m. the North End of Ulietea
South 75 degrees West, distance 2 leagues, and the south end of Otaha
North 77 degrees West. About a League to the Northward of the South end
of Otaha, on the East side of the Island, a mile or more from the Shore,
lies 2 Small Islands. Between these Islands Tupia says there is a
Channell into a very good harbour which lies within the Reef and it had
all the appearance of such. Keept plying to Windward all night without
getting any ground. At Noon the Peak on Bolabola West by South. Latitude
observed 16 degrees 26 minutes South.

Thursday, 27th. Variable light Airs of wind in the South-West Quarter,
and fair weather. Seeing that there is a broad Channell between Otaha and
Bolabola, I intend to go through that way and not run to the Northward of
all; but as the wind is right an end, and very Variable withall, we get
little or no ground. Between 5 and 6 o'Clock p.m., as we were standing to
the Northward, we discover'd a small low Island lying North by West or
North-North-West distant 4 or 5 Leagues from Bolabola. This Island is
called Tubai. Tupia says it produces nothing but a few Cocoa Nuts, that
there are only 3 families live upon it, but that the people from these
Islands resort thither to Catch fish. At Noon the peak of Bolabola bore
North 25 degrees West, and the north end of Otaha North 80 degrees West,
distant 3 Leagues. Latitude observed 16 degrees 38 minutes South.

Friday, 28th. Little wind and Variable between the South-West and
North-West. At 6 a.m., being near the Entrance of the Harbour which lies
on the East side of Otaha before mentioned,* (* Hamene Bay.) and finding
that it might be examin'd without loosing time, I sent away the Master in
the Long boat, with orders to sound the Harbour, and if the wind did not
shift in our favour to land upon the Island and to Traffick with the
Natives for such refreshments as were to be got. Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander went along with him.

Saturday, 29th. Little wind and Variable. Kept plying on and off this
day, waiting for the return of the Long boat. At 1/2 past 5 not seeing
anything of her, fir'd a Gun for her to return, and as soon as it was
dark hoisted a light. At 1/2 past 8 heard the report of a musquet, which
we answered with a Gun; and soon after the Boat came on board with 3
small Hogs, a few Fowls, and a large Quantity of Plantains, and some
Yams. They found the Natives very Sociable and ready to part with
anything they had, and the Harbour safe and Commodious, with a good
Anchorage in 25, 20, and 16 fathoms clear ground. As soon as the Boat was
hoisted in we made Sail to the Northward, and at 8 o'Clock a.m. were
close under the Peak of Bolabola, but as we could not weather the Island,
we Tack'd and stood off until near Noon, then Tack'd again and stood to
the South-West. At Noon the Peak of Bolabola bore South 75 degrees West;
we were then distant from the Shore under it 2 or 3 miles, and from the
Peak about 5 miles. Latitude observed 16 degrees 29 minutes South.

Sunday, 30th. Wind in the South-East Quarter. At first a Gentle breeze,
but afterwards freshned upon us. P.M. made several Trips before we could
weather the South end of Bolabola, which at last we accomplished between
7 and 8 o'Clock, and stood off South-South-West until 12 at night, then
Tack'd and stood in until 4 a.m., then stood off again; but meeting with
a large swell from the Southward, against which the Ship made little or
no way, at 8 we tack'd and stood in Shore again. At this time we
discovered an Island which bore from us North 63 degrees West, distant
about 8 Leagues: at the same time the Peak of Bolabola bore North 1/2
East, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. This Island Tupia calls Maurua, and
according to his account it is but small, and surrounded by a Reef of
Rocks, and hath no Harbour fit for Shipping. It is inhabited, and its
produce is the same as the other Islands we have touched at. It riseth in
a high round hill in the middle of the Island, which may be seen 10
Leagues. At noon the South end of Otaha bore North 80 degrees East,
distance 4 Leagues. Latitude observed 16 degrees 39 minutes South.

Monday, 31st. Fresh Gales in the South-East Quarter, and close, cloudy
weather. Plying to windward all this day, on the South-West side of
Otaha, without gaining little or anything. In the middle watch was
obliged to double reef our Topsails, but in the morning it fell moderate,
and we crowded all the sail we could. At Noon the South end of Otaha bore
East, distance 2 Leagues. Latitude observed 16 degrees 40 minutes South.
Tupia told us there was a very good Harbour within the Reef which lies on
this side of Otaha; but this Harbour I shall discribe in another place.

[August 1769. At Raiatea.]

Tuesday, August 1st. A fresh Gale at South-East the most part of this
day. Keept plying to windward all the afternoon and night, and in the
morning found ourselves nearly the length of the South end of Ulietea,
and to windward of some Harbours that lay on the West side of this
Island. Into one of them I intended to go with the Ship, in order to stop
a Leak in the Powder room, which could not be easily done at Sea, and to
take in more Ballast, as I found her too light to carry sail upon a wind.
At Noon plying off one of the Harbour's mouth, the wind being right out.

Wednesday, 2nd. Moderate breezes at South-East and East, with some
Showers of Rain. At 3 p.m. anchor'd in the Entrance of the Channell
leading into the Harbour* (* Rautoanui.) in 14 fathoms water; found a
tide setting pretty strong out, which was the reason that we could not
work in; carried out the Kedge Anchor in order to warp into the Harbour,
but after this was done we could not Trip the Bower Anchor with all the
purchass we could make, and was therefore obliged to lay still all night,
but in the morning we did it with Ease, and warped the Ship into a proper
birth, and moor'd in 28 fathoms, a sandy bottom. A great many of the
Natives came off to us both last night and this morning, and brought with
them Hogs, Fowls, Plaintains, etc., which they parted with at a very easy
rate.

Thursday, 3rd. Winds from East-South-East to North-East; very Hot weather
this afternoon. I went ashore to look for a place to get stones for
Ballast, and a watering place, both of which I found very convenient; and
in the morning sent an Officer a Shore to Superintend the getting off the
Ballast and Water, and I went in the Pinnace to the Northward to survey
that part of the Island, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, while
the Carpenters were employ'd on board stopping the Leaks of the Powder
room and Foresail room.

Friday, 4th. First and Latter parts, moderate breezes, at
East-North-East; in the night, Calm, Hot, and sultry. In our rout to the
Northward this afternoon we were entertained at one place with Musick and
Dancing. The Musick consisted of 3 Drums, and the Dancing was mostly
perform'd by 2 Young Women and one Man, and this seem'd to be their
profession. The dress of the women was such as we had not seen before; it
was neat, decent, and well chose, and in many respects not much unlike a
European dress; only their Arms, Necks, and Shoulders were bare, and
their headdress was the Tomow stuck with Flowers. They made very little
use of their feet and Legs in Dancing, but one part or another of their
bodies were in continual motion and in various postures, as standing,
setting, and upon their Hands and knees, making strange Contorsions.
Their Arms, hands, and Fingers they moved with great Agility and in a
very Extraordinary manner, and altho' they were very exact in observing
the same motion in all their movements, yet neither their Musick or
Dancing were at all Calculated to please a European. There were likewise
some men, who acted a kind of a Farce; but this was so short that we
could gather nothing from it, only that it shew'd that these People have
a Notion of Dramatick performances, and some of our Gentlemen saw them
act a Farce the next day, wherein was 4 Acts, and it seem'd to them to
represent a War between the Bolabola men and those of Ulietea, wherein
the former triumph'd over the latter; but what might help them to draw
this Conclusion was the knowing that such a thing has not long ago hapned
between these 2 People, and that the Bolabola men at present possess most
of the Lands on this Island. This is their grand Dramatick Heiva, and I
believe is occasionally performed in all the Islands. Upon my return to
the Ship in the evening I found that they had got on board 20 Tuns of
Ballast, and this I thought would be sufficient. In the morning we sent
all our water Casks on shore, and got them all off full by Noon. This
morning I received a present from Opoony, the Eare dehi of Bolabola, who
at this time was upon this Island. It consisted of 3 Hogs, some pieces of
Cloth, Plantains, Cocoa Nuts, etc. These were sent by his Servants, and I
was told that he would come the next day himself.

Saturday, 5th. This evening we bought as much Fish as the whole Ship's
Company could destroy while good. In the morning I sent the Master to the
North End of the Island with the Long boat to Traffick with the Natives
for Provisions, as they did not bring it to the Ship, as they had
hitherto done; and myself, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander,
went in the Pinnace to the Southern part of the Island, partly on the
same account and partly to Examine that part of the Island. In our rout
we passed thro' 2 Harbours equally as good as the one in which the Ship
lays, but the Country about them is poorer and but thinly inhabited, and
we got no one thing worth bringing home with us, but the Master succeeded
something better.

Sunday, 6th. Variable light Airs and fair weather. A.M. I sent the Master
again to the Northward to procure refreshments, who return'd not
unsuccessfull. Opoony, the Chief, sent some of his people this morning to
me to get something in return for the present he sent the other day; he
not choosing, as I suppose, to trust himself on board, or perhaps he
thought the persons he sent (who were 3 very pretty young Girls) would
succeed better than he should do. Be this as it may, they went away very
well satisfied with what they got, altho' I believe that they were
disappointed in some things.

Monday, 7th. Variable light Airs. P.M. some Showers of rain. Being
desirous to see King Opoony, we made a party this afternoon and I went
ashore for that purpose, carrying along with us a small present. Upon our
landing he did not receive us setting, as all the other Chiefs had
hitherto done, or in any manner of Form; this we attributed to his
Stupidity, for such he appeared to be. However, he gave me a Hog in
return for the present I made him, and this was paying us full as great a
Complement. Before we took our leave we let him know that we should go to
Otaha in the morning in our Boats, and would be glad to have him along
with us, and he accordingly promised to accompany us thither.
Accordingly, very early in the morning, I set out with both Pinnace and
Long boat for Otaha, and some of the Gentlemen along with me; and in our
way called upon Opoony, who was in his Canoe ready to set out. As soon as
we landed on Otaha I made him a present of a Axe; this I thought would
induce him to incourage his Subjects to bring us such Provisions as we
wanted, but I believe we had already got all they intended us, for after
staying with him until Noon we were obliged to go away without geting any
one thing.

Tuesday, 8th. After leaving Opoony we proceeded towards the North point
of the Island, and in our way pick'd up half a Dozen Hogs, as many Fowls,
and some Plantains and Yams; and I had an opportunity to view and draw a
Sketch of the Harbour which lies on this Side of the Island, and which
was the only thing that induced me to make this Excursion. After it was
dark we met with the Longboat, which I had in the morning dispatch'd to
another part of the Island; and we now made the best of our way to the
Ship and got on board about 10 at night. The Carpenter having finished
stopping the Leaks about the Powder Room and Sailroom I now intend to
sail as soon as ever the wind will permit us to get out of the Harbour.

Wednesday, 9th. P.M. had a light breeze of wind at North; in the night
had much rain. A.M. little wind and Variable, with some Showers of rain.
At 11 a.m. a breeze of wind sprung up at East, which carried us out of
the Harbour, and as soon as the Boats were hoisted in made Sail to the
Southward. Since we have been about these Islands we have expended but
little of our Sea Provisions, and have at this last place been very
plentifully supply'd with Hogs, Fowls, Plantains, and Yams, which will be
of very great use to us in case we should not discover any lands in our
rout to the Southward, the way I now intend to Steer.

[Description of Society Islands.]

DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLANDS, ULIETEA, OTAHA AND BOLABOLA.

So called by the Natives, and it was not thought adviseable to give them
any other Names; but these three, with Huaheine, Tuibai, and Maurua, as
they lay contigious to one another, I have named Society Isles.

They are situated between the Latitude of 16 degrees 10 minutes and 16
degrees 55 minutes South and between the Longitude 151 degrees 00 minutes
and 151 degrees 42 minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich. Ulietea
and Otaha lay close to each other, and are both inclosed within a Reef of
Coral Rocks; and altho' the distance between the one and the other is
near 2 Miles, yet there is no Passage for Shipping. By means of this reef
are form'd several excellent Harbours. The entrance into them are but
narrow, but when a Ship is once in nothing can hurt her. Those on the
East side have been already described. On the West side of Ulietea, which
is the largest Island of the 2, are 3, the Northermost of which, called
Oraotanue,* (* Rautoanui.) we lay in, the Channell leading in is a 1/4 of
a Mile wide and lies between 2 low sandy Islands, which are the
Northermost small Islands on this side. You have good Anchorage between
or just within the 2 Islands in 28 fathoms soft ground. This harbour,
tho' but small, yet it is preferable to any on the Island, on account of
the easy getting of fresh Water, and being seated in the most fertile
part of the Island. The other 2 harbours lay to the Southward of this,
and not far from the South end of the Island. In both of them are good
Anchorage in 10, 12, and 14 fathoms water: they are readily known by 3
small woody Islands that lay at their entrance, the Southermost Harbour
lies within and to the Southward of the Southermost Island, and the other
lies between the Northermost. There are more Harbours at the South End of
this Island, as I am inform'd, but these were not examind by us.

Otaha affords 2 very good Harbours, one on the East and the other on the
West side; that on the East side called Ohamane* (* Hamene.) hath been
already mentioned, the other is called Oharurua* (* Hurepiti.) and lies
about the middle of the South-West side of the Island. It is pretty
large, and affords good Anchorage in 20 and 25 fathoms, and there is no
want of fresh Water. The breach in the Reef which forms a Channell into
this harbour is 1/4 of a mile broad, steep too, on both sides, and the
same may be said of all the others, and in general there is no danger but
what is Visible.

The Island of Bolabola lies North-West by West from Otaha, distant 4
Leagues, it is incompassed by a reef of Rocks and several small Islands,
and the Circuit of the whole appear'd to be about 8 Leagues. On the
South-West side of the Islands (as I am inform'd) is an opening in the
Reef which admits of a Channell into a very good Harbour. This Island is
very remarkable on account of a high Craggy hill upon it, which
Terminates at Top in 2 Peaks, one higher than the other; this hill is so
perpendicular that it appears to be quite inaccessible. The land on
Ulietea and Otaha is of a very hilly, broken, and uneven surface, except
what borders upon the Sea Coast, and high withall, yet the Hills look
green and pleasant and are in many places cloathed with woods.

The Produce of these Islands, and manners and Customs of the Natives are
much the same as at King George's Island, only as the Bread fruit Tree is
here in not such plenty, the natives to supply that deficiency plant and
Cultivate a greater Quantity of Plantains and Yams of several sorts, and
these they have in the greatest Perfection.

The inhabitants are rather of a fairer Colour than the Generality of the
Natives of George's Island, but more especially the Women, who are much
fairer and handsomer, and the Men are not so much Addicted to thieving,
and are more Open and free in their behaviour.

The only differance we could see in their Religion was in the Houses of
their Gods, which were very different to those we saw on George's Island.
Those here were made about the Size and shape of a Coffin open at one
End; they are laid upon a Number of small Wooden Arches, which are fram'd
and fastned together like the Roof of a House, and these are generally
supported about 3 or 4 feet above the ground by Posts. Over the box is a
small roof or shade made of Palm thatch; in this Box are deposited the
Oblations of the Gods, such as Pieces of Cloth, Human bone, etc., and
these places they hold sacred, and some are placed in their Mories, and
some not. They have a Custom of preserving the Sculls and under Jaw bones
of the Dead, but wether of their Friends or Enemies I cannot pretend to
say. Several of the Sculls, we observed, were broke, and its very
probable that the owners of them had been kill'd in battle, as some of
their Weapons are well Calculated for breaking of Heads; and from what we
could learn it is a Custom with them to cut out the Lower jaw of their
Enemies, but I believe not before they are kill'd, and these they keep as
Trophies, and are sometimes hung up in their Houses.

The Chief or King of Bolabola hath of late Years Usurped the Sovereignty
of the other two, and the Bolabola men at this time possess great part of
the Lands on Ulietea and Otaha that they have taken from the Natives. The
Lands adjoining to the Harbours of Oraotanue belong'd to Tupia, the
Person we have on board, who is a Native of Ulietea. These people are
very ingenious in building their Proes or Canoes, and seem to take as
much Care of them, having large Shades or Houses to put them in, built
for the purpose, and in these houses they likewise build and repair them,
and in this they shew a great deal of ingenuity far more than one could
expect. They are built full Bellied, and after the very same Model as
those Six we saw on George's Island, which I have already described, and
some of them are full as large; it is more than probable that these 6
Proes were built at some of these Islands. In these Proes, or Pahies as
they call them, from all the accounts we can learn, these people sail in
those Seas from Island to Island for several hundred Leagues, the Sun
serving them for a Compass by day, and the Moon and Stars by night. When
this comes to be proved, we shall be no longer at a loss to know how the
Islands lying in those Seas came to be peopled; for if the inhabitants of
Ulietea have been at Islands laying 2 or 300 Leagues to the Westward of
them, it cannot be doubted but that the inhabitants of those Western
Islands may have been at others as far to Westward of them, and so we may
trace them from Island to Island quite to the East Indies.

Tupia tells us that during the months of November, December, and January
Westerly winds, with rain, prevail; and as the inhabitants of the Islands
know very well how to make the proper use of the winds, there will no
difficulty arise in Trading or Sailing from Island to Island, even tho'
they lie in an East and West direction.* (* This paragraph is from the
Admiralty copy of Cook's Journal. This fact is now well known. The
islands here described, the Society Islands of Cook, and now known as the
Leeward Group of the Society Islands, were generally under the dominion
of Tahiti. At the time of Cook's visit, the chief of Bolabola was supreme
over most of the group, and their tie to Tahiti was but slight. They are
all very beautiful and fertile. Within the last decade they have formally
been recognised as belonging to France.)

[Sail from Society Islands.]

REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES IN THE SOUTH SEAS.

Thursday, August 10th. P.M., Light Airs and Calm, remainder fresh breezes
and Cloudy. At 6 p.m. the South end of Ulietea South-East 1/2 East,
distant 4 Leagues; but I take my departure from the
Harbour, saild from in Latitude 16 degrees 46 minutes South, and
Longitude 151 degrees 27 minutes West. At 7 a.m. found the Variation to
be 5 degrees 50 minutes East. Wind Easterly; course South 16 degrees
West; distance 50 miles; Latitude observed 17 degrees 34 minutes South,
longitude 151 degrees 41 minutes West.

Friday, 11th. Fresh breezes and Clear weather. Wind East; course South 4
degrees West; distance 85 miles; latitude 18 degrees 59 minutes South,
longitude 151 degrees 45 minutes West.

Saturday, 12th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. Wind East, East by
North; course South 3/4 East; distance 77 miles; latitude 20 degrees 15
minutes South, longitude 151 degrees 36 minutes West.

Sunday, 13th. Moderate breezes and Clear weather. Variation 5 degrees 40
minutes East. Wind East by North; course South 16 degrees East; distance
96 miles; latitude 21 degrees 47 minutes South, longitude 151 degrees 9
minutes West.

Monday, 14th. Fresh breezes and fair weather. At 2 p.m. saw land bearing
South-East, which Tupia calls the Island of Ohetiroa.* (* Rurutu, one of
the Tubuai or Austral Group. They are now under French protectorate.) At
6 was within 2 or 3 Leagues of it, the Extreams bearing from South by
East to South-East; shortned sail and stood off and on all night; at 6
a.m. made Sail and stood in for the Land and run to Leeward of the
Island, keeping close in shore all the time, saw several of the Natives
as we run along shore, but in no great numbers. At 9 hoisted out the
Pinnace and sent Lieutenant Gore, Mr. Banks, and Tupia to Endeavour to
land upon the Island, and to speak with the Natives, and to try if they
could learn from them what lands lay to the Southward of us, and likewise
to see if there was Anchorage in a Bay which appear'd to our View, not
that I intended to Anchor or make any stay here. Wind North-North-East;
latitude 22 degrees 26 minutes South, longitude 150 degrees 55 minutes
West; at noon, Ohetiroa East 2 leagues.

Tuesday, 15th. Fresh breezes and fair weather. At 2 p.m. the Pinnace
return'd on board without landing, not but what it was practicable, but
they did not think it Altogether safe with only one Boat, as it would
have been attended with some danger on account of the Surf and Rocks upon
the Shore. The Natives were Arm'd, and Shewd no Signs either of fear or
Friendship. Some of them came off to the Boat in a Canoe, and had some
Nails and Beads given them; but with these they were not Satisfied,
thinking they had a right to everything in the Boat, and at last grew so
Troublesome that in order to get clear of them our People were obliged to
fire some Musquets, but with no intent to hurt any of them; however, it
so hapned that one Man was Slightly wounded in the head. The firing had
the desired effect, and they thought fit to retire. After this, as the
Boat lay near the Shore, some of them waded off to her, and brought with
them some Trifles which they parted with for small Nails, etc. They
seem'd desirous that our people should land, but this was looked upon as
a Piece of Policy in them to get the whole Boat's Crew in their power;
however, this was not attempted, as I had given orders to run no Risk.
The Bay they went into, which lies on the West side of the Island, had in
it 25 fathoms Water, but the bottom was very foul and Rocky. We had now
made the Circuit of the Island (which did not appear to the best
advantage), and found that there was neither a Harbour or safe Anchorage
about it, and therefore I thought the Landing upon it would be attended
with no advantage either to ourselves or any future navigators; and from
the Hostile and thievish disposition of the Natives it appear'd that we
could have no friendly intercourse with them until they had felt the
Smart of our fire Arms, a thing that would have been very unjustifiable
in me at this Time; we therefore hoisted in the Boat, and made Sail to
the Southward.

[Of the Austral Group.]

This Island is situated in the Latitude of 22 degrees 27 minutes South,
and in the Longitude of 150 degrees 47 minutes West from the Meridian of
Greenwich.* (* Latitude is correct. Longitude 151 degrees 20 minutes
West.) It is 13 miles in Circuit, and tolerably high; it appears to be
neither Populous nor fertile; its produce seem'd to be nearly the same as
the other Islands we have touched at, and likewise the Stature, Colour,
Habit, and Arms of the Natives, only that some of them wore Pieces of
Cloth like broad belts, different both in Shape and Colour to anything of
the kind we had seen before, and their Arms, and in general everything
they had about them, much neater made, and shew'd great proofs of an
ingenious fancy. Tupia says that their are several Islands laying at
different directions from this--that is, from the South to the West and
North-West--and that 3 days' sail to the North-East is an Island called
Manua, that is Bird Island, and that it lies 4 days' sail from Ulietea,
which is one day less than from Ulietea to Ohetiroa.* (* Tupia was right
except with respect to Manua, as there is no island answering his
description.) From this account I shall be able to find the Situation of
Manua pretty well. Since we have left Ulietea Tupia hath been very
desirous for us to steer to the Westward, and tells us if we will go that
way we shall be with plenty of Islands: the most of them he himself hath
been at, and from the discription he gives of two of them they must be
those discover'd by Capt. Wallace, and by him called Boscawen and
Keppel's Islands, and those do not lay less than 400 Leagues to the
Westward of Ulietea. He says that they are 10 or 12 days in going
thither, and 30 or more in coming Back, and that their Pahies--that is
their large Proes--sails much faster than this Ship. All this I believe
to be true, and therefore they may with Ease sail 40 Leagues a day or
more.

The farthest Island to the Southward that Tupia hath been at, or knows
anything of, lies but 2 days' Sail from Ohetiroa, and is called Moutou,*
(* Tubuai.) but he says that his father once told him that there was
Islands to the Southward of it; but we Cannot find that he either knows
or ever heard of a Continent or large Track of Land. I have no reason to
doubt Tupia's information of these Islands, for when we left Ulietea and
steer'd to the Southward he told us that if we would keep a little more
to the East (which the wind would not permit us to do) we should see
Manua, but as we then steer'd we should see Ohetiroa, which hapned
accordingly. If we meet with the Islands to the Southward he speaks off,
it's well, but if not, I shall spend no more time searching for them,
being now fully resolv'd to stand directly to the Southward in search of
a Continent. Wind Northerly; course South 1/2 East; distance 94 miles;
latitude 24 degrees 1 minute South, longitude 150 degrees 37 minutes
West; at noon, Ohetiroa North 1/2 West, 31 leagues; variation 6 degrees 7
minutes East.

NOTE. As we advanced to the Southward into Cold weather, and a troubled
Sea, the Hogs we got at Ulietea began to die apace. They cannot endure
the least cold, nor will they hardly eat anything but vegetables, so that
they are not at all to be depended upon at Sea. The fowls also have a
complaint general among them which affects their heads, so that they
continue holding it down betwixt their Legs until they die; this at least
was the fate of most of ours. This is necessary to be known to those who
come such Voyages as these, least they place too much dependance on the
live stock they get at the Islands.

Wednesday, 16th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy the first part; in the night,
Squally, with rain; remainder, moderate and fair weather. At 8 am, saw
the Appearances of high land to the Eastward; bore up towards it, but at
10 we discover'd it to be only Clouds, at which we hauld our wind to the
Southward. At Noon found the Ship by Observation 21 Miles to the
Northward of the Log, which may in some measure be owing to a South-West
swell we have had all the last 24 hours. Wind North by West, West, West
by South; course South 15 degrees East; distance 62 miles; latitude 25
degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 150 degrees 19 minutes West.

Thursday, 17th. A Gentle breeze with some flying showers of rain. Had a
large Swell from the South-West all this day, much larger than yesterday,
and this must be the reason why the observ'd Latitude differ'd from the
Log again to day 16 miles. Wind West by South to South-West by South;
course South-South-East; distance 76 miles; latitude 26 degrees 10
minutes South, longitude 149 degrees 46 minutes West.

Friday, 18th. The first part Calm; remainder light breezes and Clear.
Variation per Amplitude in the evening 8 degrees 8 minutes East; in the
Morning 7 degrees 56 minutes East. Carpenters employed repairing the
Boats. The South-West swell still Continues, but not so much as
Yesterday, and the observed Latitude and Log agrees. Wind Calm, North;
course South 18 degrees East; distance 38 miles; latitude 26 degrees 48
minutes South, longitude 149 degrees 42 minutes West.

Saturday, 19th. Little wind with much rain in the night, the South-West
swell still Continues, from which I conclude that there is no land near
us in that Quarter. Wind North-West; course South-East by South; distance
62 miles; latitude 27 degrees 40 minutes South; longitude 149 degrees 6
minutes West.

Sunday, 20th. Little wind all this day. Saw a large Albetross. Wind
North-West; course South-East by South; distance 57 miles; latitude 28
degrees 24 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 25 minutes West.

Monday, 21st. Fresh Gales and Hazey weather. Saw 2 Pintado Birds, the
first I have seen this Voyage; they are larger than a Pidgeon and
checquer'd black and white over their backs and wings, with white
Bellies, Black heads, and the end of their Tails black.* (* Cape pigeons,
Daption Capensis.) Wind North-North-West; course South by East; distance
80 miles; latitude 29 degrees 44 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 22
minutes West.

[Society Islands to New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 22nd. First part Strong Gales with much rain, Thunder, and
Lightning; remainder moderate and fair weather. About Noon saw some rock
weed, an Albetross, and some Smaller Sea Birds. Wind North by West,
South-West by West; course South 14 degrees East; distance 81 miles;
latitude 31 degrees 3 minutes South, longitude 148 degrees 00 minutes
West.

Wednesday, 23rd. Little wind for the most part, and pretty clear weather.
In the night had some Showers of rain. Saw a Grampus, and several Pintado
Birds. Wind South-West to West-South-West; course South-South-East;
distance 68 miles; latitude 31 degrees 6 minutes South; longitude 147
degrees 29 minutes West.

Thursday, 24th. The first part light Airs and Calm; Middle, moderate
breezes and Cloudy; latter part very squally with rain. A.M. Variation
per Azimuth 7 degrees 18 minutes East. At Noon took in the Topsails and
got down Topgallant yards. Saw a Water Spout in the North-West; it was
about the breadth of a Rainbow, of a dark Colour, the Upper end of the
Cloud from whence it came was about 8 degrees above the Horizon. Wind
Variable; course South-South-East; distance 41 miles; latitude 32 degrees
44 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 10 minutes West.

Friday, 25th. The first and middle part Strong Gales and Squally with
rain, remainder moderate and Cloudy. P.M. Unbent the Maintopsail being
Split and bent another; in the night lay too under the Foresail, and in
the morning made sail under the Courses and Topsails with one reef only.
Had a large Sea from the Southward, saw several Albetrosses, Pintado
Birds, and Sheer Waters; some of the Albetrosses were small, such as we
usually saw off Cape Horn; all these kinds of birds are generally seen at
a great distance from land. Wind, Southerly; course North-West; distance
26 miles; latitude 32 degrees 26 minutes South; longitude 147 degrees 32
minutes West.

Saturday, 26th. Moderate and cloudy weather, a Swell from the South-West.
By observation of the Sun and Moon made this morning, the Longitude of
the Ship at Noon is 147 degrees 18 minutes 40 seconds, which differs but
11 minutes from that given by the Log. Wind South-West; course South 6
degrees East; South distance 13 miles; latitude 32 degrees 39 minutes
South, longitude 147 degrees 30 minutes West.

Sunday, 27th. First part little wind and Cloudy; latter part, fresh Gales
and Clear weather. Variation per Azimuth 6 degrees 40 minutes East. Saw
several Albetrosses, Pintado Birds and Sheer Waters. Wind West,
North-North-West; course South 5 degrees East; distance 55 miles;
latitude 33 degrees 34 minutes, longitude 147 degrees 25 minutes.

Monday, 28th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy, with rain on the Latter part. At 10
departed this Life Jno. Rearden,* (* John Reading.) Boatswain's Mate; his
Death was occasioned by the Boatswain out of mere good Nature giving him
part of a Bottle of Rum last night, which it is supposed he drank all at
once. He was found to be very much in Liquor last night, but as this was
no more than what was common with him when he could get any, no farther
notice was taken of him than to put him to Bed, where this morning about
8 o'clock he was found Speechless and past recovery. Wind Northerly;
course South; distance 110 miles; latitude 35 degrees 34 minutes South,
longitude 147 degrees 25 minutes West.

Tuesday, 29th. Fore and Middle parts fresh Gales and Dark, Hazey weather
with some rain. At 5 a.m. saw a Comet in the North. Wind North-West to
South-West; course South 1/4 East; distance 96 miles; latitude 37 degrees
0 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 21 minutes West.

Wednesday, 30th. Fresh breeze and fair weather. At 1 a.m. saw the Comet a
little above the Horizon in the East. It pass'd the Meridian about 1/2
past 4; the Tail of the Comet Subtended an Angle of 42 degrees. At 8 a.m.
Variation per Azimuth 7 degrees 9 minutes East. Bent another suit of
Sails. Saw a piece of Rock weed, Some Pintado birds and Sheer Waters and
a Green bird something smaller than a Dove, but it was not near enough to
distinguish whether it was a Sea or Land bird; it was only seen by one
Person, and he probably was Mistaken in the Colour. A Swell from the
South-West, Wind Westerly; course South 3/4 East; distance 81 miles;
latitude 38 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 6 minutes
West.

Thursday, 31st. The first part a fresh breeze and cloudy. At 6 p.m. hauld
the wind to the South-West and close reefd the Topsails. At 1 a.m. being
very squally with rain, took in the Topsails and brought too under the
Mainsail. At 6 made Sail under the Courses. Saw some seaweed, sounded,
but had no ground at 65 fathoms of Line. Some Albetrosses, Sheer Waters,
and a great many Pintado Birds about the Ship with some hundreds of Birds
that were smaller than Pidgeons, their backs were grey, their Bellies
white, and the ends of their Tails black, and have a blackish line along
the upper parts of the wings from the Tip of one to the other. We saw
birds very like those near Faulklands Islands on the Coast of Patagonia,
only they had not the black streak along the wings; they fly low like
sheer waters or mother Carys birds, and are perhaps of the same Tribe,
for Distinction sake I shall call them Doves.* (* Probably petrels of the
genus Prion.) Wind Westerly; course South 4 degrees 15 minutes East;
distance 68 miles; latitude 39 degrees 28 minutes South, longitude 147
degrees 0 minutes West.

[September 1769.]

Friday, September 1st. Very strong Gales and heavy Squalls with rain; at
6 p.m. brought too under the Main Sail. At 6 a.m. set the Foresail, a
Great Sea from the Westward. The same sort of Birds about the Ship as
Yesterday, but not in such great Numbers. Wind, Westerly; Course, South
29 degrees East; distance 50 miles; latitude 40 degrees 12 minutes South,
longitude 146 degrees 29 minutes West.

Saturday, 2nd. Very strong Gales, with heavy squalls of Wind, hail, and
rain. At 4 p.m., being in the Latitude of 40 degrees 22 minutes South,
and having not the least Visible signs of land, we wore, and brought too
under the Foresail, and reef'd the Mainsail, and handed it. I did intend
to have stood to the Southward if the winds had been Moderate, so long as
they continued Westerly, notwithstanding we had no prospect of meeting
with land, Rather than stand back to the Northward, on the same Track as
we came, but as the weather was so very Tempestious I laid aside this
design, and thought it more adviseable to stand to the Northward into
better weather, least we should receive such Damage in our Sails and
Rigging as might hinder the further Prosecutions of the Voyage.* (* This
long excursion to the south is a fine instance of Cook's thoroughness and
determination in exploration. The belief in a southern continent was
strong amongst most geographers; but it rested on nothing more than the
false idea that dry lands in the two hemispheres should balance one
another. Cook himself did not share the general belief; and few others in
his position would have struggled for 1500 miles out of his direct course
into bad weather, simply to disprove an idea, when so much unexplored
ocean lay before him to the westward, with a fair wind and fine weather.)
Some Albetrosses, Pintado birds, and Doves about the Ship, and a Bird
larger than a Duck, his plumage of a Dark Brown, with a Yellow beak. We
saw of these Birds in our Passage to the Northward, after doubling Cape
Horn. At Noon the weather was more moderate; set the Reefd Mainsail. A
great Sea from the West-South-West. Wind West; Course North 54 degrees 30
minutes East; distance 46 miles; latitude 39 degrees 45 minutes South,
longitude 145 degrees 39 minutes West.

Sunday, 3rd. The fore and Middle parts fresh gales, with hard Squalls;
Latter more moderate. At 5 a.m. loos'd the Reef out of the Mainsail, and
set the Topsail double reef'd, and before noon had all the Reefs out.
Wind Westerly; course North; distance 50 miles; latitude 38 degrees 54
minutes South, longitude 145 degrees 39 minutes West.

Monday, 4th. First and latter parts, little wind and Cloudy; in the night
Calm. Very few Birds about the Ship. Wind Westerly; course North by East;
distance 26 miles; latitude 38 degrees 29 minutes South, longitude 145
degrees 32 minutes West.

Tuesday, 5th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. At 2 p.m. saw a piece of
rock Weed. Variation, per Azimuth 7 degrees 0 minutes East. Wind West to
North-West; course North 32 West; distance 44 miles; latitude 37 degrees
52 minutes South, longitude 146 degrees 2 minutes West.

Wednesday, 6th. Fresh Gales and Squally, with rain. At Noon saw a Bird
which was all white, except the Tip of each Wing; it was nearly as big as
an Albetross. We saw 2 of these Birds in Latitude 19 degrees before we
Arrived at George's Island. Wind Westerly; course South 87 degrees 30
minutes West; distance 70 miles; latitude 37 degrees 49 minutes South,
longitude 147 degrees 30 West.

Thursday, 7th. Fresh Gales and hard squalls, with rain. At 3 p.m. saw
something upon the Water, which must either have been a Billet of Wood or
a Seal. At Noon a hard gale and Squally, which obliged us to take in the
Topsails. Wind Westerly; course South 80 degrees West; distance 15 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 52 minutes South, longitude 147 degrees 49 minutes
West.

Friday, 8th. P.M. very strong gales and Squally. A.M. more moderate; set
the Topsails. At Noon the Observed Latitude was 13 Miles to the North of
the Log. This I take to be owing to the great Sea we have had constantly
of Late from the South-West. Wind Westerly; course North 1/4 East;
distance 76 miles; latitude 36 degrees 36 minutes South, longitude 147
degrees 40 minutes West.

Saturday, 9th. Moderate breezes and dark, cloudy weather, sometimes
Hazey, with Drizling Rain. Wind South-East; course North 77 degrees West;
distance 76 miles; latitude 36 degrees 19 minutes South, longitude 149
degrees 12 minutes West.

Sunday, 10th. Fresh breezes and cloudy. At 9 a.m. we thought the Colour
of the Sea was paler than Usual, which occasioned us to sound, but had no
ground with 100 fathoms. Wind South-West, West-South-West; course North
52 degrees West; distance 97 miles; latitude 35 degrees 19 minutes South,
longitude 150 degrees 46 minutes West.

Monday, 11th. Fresh breezes, and for the most part thick, hazey weather,
with rain. Wind South-West; course North 43 degrees West; distance 87
miles; latitude 34 degrees 15 minutes South, longitude 152 degrees 00
minutes West.

Tuesday, 12th. Fresh breezes and cloudy; a swell from the
South-South-West. Some Albetrosses and Pintado Birds about the Ship. Wind
Westerly; course North 30 degrees West; distance 73 miles; latitude 33
degrees 12 minutes South, longitude 152 degrees 44 minutes West.

Wednesday, 13th. Gentle breezes, with some flying Showers. At 6 p.m.
Variation per Azimuth, 8 degrees 8 minutes East. Note, while we was
between the Latitude of 37 and 40 degrees we had constantly blowing
Tempestious weather, but since we have been to the Northward of 37
degrees, the weather hath been very moderate. Wind South-West and
West-South-West; course North-North-West; distance 74 miles; latitude 32
degrees 3 minutes South, longitude 153 degrees 16 minutes West.

Thursday, 14th. Gentle breezes, and sometimes Calm. A Swell from the
South-South-West. Wind Variable; course South 86 degrees West; distance
33 miles; latitude 32 degrees 5 minutes South, longitude 153 degrees 54
minutes West.

Friday, 15th. First part, moderate and Cloudy, remainder Strong Gales and
Squally. Several Albetrosses, Pintado Birds, and Sheer Waters about the
Ship; some of the Albetrosses were all White. Wind North-East to
South-East; course South 77 West; distance 139 miles; latitude 32 degrees
36 minutes South, longitude 156 degrees 34 minutes West.

Saturday, 16th. First part very strong Gales and Squally; remainder more
moderate, with a large Swell from the Southward. Wind South-South-East,
South, West-South-West; course North 60 degrees West; distance 100 miles;
latitude 31 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 158 degrees 16 minutes
West.

Sunday, 17th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy. Wind South-West; course North 25
West; distance 100 miles; latitude 31 degrees 14 minutes South, longitude
159 degrees 6 minutes West.

Monday, 18th. Moderate Gales and Cloudy, with a Swell from the Southward.
Wind Westerly; course North by West 1/2 West; distance 78 miles; latitude
29 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 159 degrees 32 minutes West.

Tuesday, 19th. Variable; light Airs and Calm. Variation per Amplitude at
sunset, 8 degrees 36 minutes East; per Azimuth in the morning, 8 degrees
29 minutes East; mean, 8 degrees 32 1/2 minutes East. A large hollow
swell from the Southward. Wind Variable; course East; distance 6 miles;
latitude 29 degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 159 degrees 25 minutes
West.

Wednesday, 20th. Light Airs and Calm. Wind Variable; course South-West by
South; distance 20 miles; latitude 29 degrees 20 minutes South, longitude
159 degrees 47 minutes West.

Thursday, 21st. Most part Gentle breezes and clear weather. Wind South
Easterly; course South 50 degrees West; distance 62 miles; latitude 30
degrees 00 minutes South, longitude 160 degrees 42 minutes West.

Friday, 22nd. Fresh breezes and Cloudy. The Southerly swell still
Continues, from which I conjecture that there is no land near in that
Direction. Wind South-East; course South 34 West; distance 81 miles;
latitude 31 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 161 degrees 35 minutes
West.

Saturday, 23rd. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. Wind South-East;
course South-West by South; distance 62 miles; latitude 31 degrees 59
minutes South, longitude 162 degrees 44 minutes West.

Sunday, 24th. Moderate breezes and Cloudy. At Noon saw some sea-Weed. The
Southerly swell is now quite gone down. Wind South-East to North-East;
course South 35 West; distance 97 miles; latitude 33 degrees 18 minutes
South, longitude 162 degrees 51 minutes West.

Monday, 25th. Ditto weather. At 1 p.m. passed by a Piece of Wood, about 3
feet long and 7 or 8 Inches thick. Variation at 6 p.m. per Azimuth, 10
degrees 48 minutes East. A.M., got up all the Boatswain's Stores, to take
an account of them. Wind North-East; course South 43 1/2 West; distance
103 miles; latitude 34 degrees 30 minutes South, longitude 165 degrees 10
minutes West.

Tuesday, 26th. Fresh breezes and fair weather. Wind North-North-East;
course South-West; distance 136 miles; latitude 36 degrees 9 minutes
South, longitude 167 degrees 14 minutes West.

Wednesday, 27th. Very strong Gales and hazey, with rain the First and
Middle part; Latter, moderate and clear weather. In the evening took in
the Topsails and Mainsail, and lay too with her head to the Westward
under the Foresail. During the night, at 4 a.m., made Sail. Saw several
Pieces of Sea Weed at different times this 24 Hours. Wind North by East,
Westerly; course South 28 West; distance 95 miles; latitude 37 degrees 33
minutes South, longitude 168 degrees 10 minutes West.

Thursday, 28th. First and Middle parts, fresh gales and Cloudy; Latter
part, very strong Gales and Squally. At 4 p.m. saw a Seal asleep upon the
Water, and some Weed. A.M. saw several bunches of Sea Weed and a few
Albetrosses and Sheer Waters. Wind Westerly; course South 21 degrees
West; distance 92 miles; latitude 38 degrees 59 minutes South, longitude
169 degrees 5 minutes West.

Friday, 29th. The first part strong Gales and Squally; remainder a fresh
breeze and settled weather. At 1 p.m. was obliged to take in the
Topsails, but set them again at 4. At 11 a.m. saw a Bird something like a
Snipe, only it had a short bill; it had the appearance of a land bird.
Several Albetrosses, Pintado birds, and Sheer Waters about the Ship, and
a Number of Doves; of these we have seen more or less ever since the 31st
of last Month, the day we first saw them. Wind South-West; course North
59 degrees West; distance 60 miles; latitude 38 degrees 30 minutes South,
longitude 170 degrees 14 minutes West.

Saturday, 30th. Moderate breezes and Settled weather. Saw a dark brown
bird as big as a Raven; it is a Sea Fowl, and are seen in great Numbers
about the Faulkland Islands, as I am told. We likewise saw several pieces
of Sea Weed. Wind South Easterly; course North 87 1/2 West; distance 90
miles; latitude 38 degrees 26 minutes South, longitude 172 degrees 20
minutes West.

[October 1769.]

Sunday, October 1st. Little Wind in the day time and Calm in the Night.
At 8 a.m. sounded: no ground with 120 fathoms of line. Saw an immence
number of Birds, the most of them were Doves; saw likewise a Seal asleep
upon the Water, which we at first took for a Crooked billet. These
creatures, as they lay upon the Water, hold their fins up in a very odd
manner, and very different to any I have seen before; we generally reckon
that seals never go out of Soundings or far from Land, but the few we
have seen in this Sea is certainly an exception to that rule. However,
one would think that we were not far from some land, from the Pieces of
Rock weed we see daily floating upon the Water. To-day we took up a small
Piece of Stick, but to all appearance it had been a long time at Sea. The
observ'd Latitude is considerable to the Northward of that given by the
Log, in so much that I think there must be some Current seting from the
Southward. Wind South to West by North; course North 16 degrees West;
distance 43 miles; latitude 37 degrees 45 minutes South, longitude 172
degrees 36 minutes West.

Monday, 2nd. Little wind. At 3 p.m. hoisted out a Boat to try the
Current, but found none. Saw several Grampusses. A.M. had a Boat in the
Water, and Mr. Banks shott an Albetross which measured 10 feet 8 Inches
from the tip of Wing to the other. He likewise shott 2 birds that were
very much like Ducks, excepting their head and Bill; their plumage were
dark brown. We first saw some of these birds in the Latitude of 40
degrees South, after our first coming into those Seas. Wind
West-South-West, South-West; course North-North-West; distance 35 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 10 minutes South, longitude 172 degrees 54 minutes
West.

Tuesday, 3rd. Little wind and sometimes Calm. A.M. Variation per Azimuth
13 degrees 22 minutes East. Saw some fish like a Skip Jack, and a small
sort that appeared very Transparent. Took up a very small piece of wood
with Barnacles upon it, a proof that it hath been some time at Sea. Some
very large Albetrosses about the Ship and other birds. The observed
Latitude is 10 Miles to the Northward of that given by the Log, and it
was the same Yesterday, which I think is a Proof that there must be a
Current setting to the Northward, notwithstanding we did not find any
when we try'd it. Wind Southerly; course North 60 degrees West; distance
28 miles; latitude 36 degrees 56 minutes South, longitude 173 degrees 27
minutes West.

Wednesday, 4th. Gentle breezes and Cloudy weather. P.M. Variation per
Azimuth 12 degrees 48 minutes East; sounded twice, but found no ground,
with 120 fathoms of line. Saw some rock weed, but not in such plenty as
of late. Wind South-East; course South 52 1/2 West; distance 86 miles;
latitude 37 degrees 43 minutes South, longitude 175 degrees 00 minutes
West.

Thursday, 5th. Light, gentle breezes and Clear weather. P.M. saw one of
the same sort of Birds as we saw last Saturday. These birds are of a dark
brown or Chocolate Colour, with some white feathers under their wings,
and are as big as Ravens. Mr. Gore says that they are in great plenty at
Port Egmont in Faulklands Islands, and for that reason calls them Port
Egmont Hens. Saw a great many Porpoisses, large and Small; the small ones
had white bellies and Noses. A.M. saw 2 Port Egmont Hens, a Seal, some
sea Weed, and a Piece of wood with Barnacles upon it. Wind South-East to
East-North-East; course South 49 1/2 West; distance 63 miles; latitude 38
degrees 23 minutes South, longitude 176 degrees 3 minutes West.

Friday, 6th. Little wind, and fine pleasant weather. Saw some Seals, sea
weed, and Port Egmont Hens. P.M. Variation per Azimuth 12 degrees 50
minutes East. Per Amplitude 12 degrees 40 minutes. A.M. per Azimuth 14
degrees 2 minutes East; the difference is 1 degree 3 minutes, and the
Ship has only gone 9 Leagues in the Time. The Colour of the water appears
to be paler than common, and hath been so for some days past; this makes
us sound frequently, but can find no ground with 180 fathoms of Line.
Wind East-North-East; course South-West; distance 62 miles; latitude 39
degrees 11 minutes South, longitude 177 degrees 2 minutes West.

[Make New Zealand.]

Saturday, 7th. Gentle breezes and settled weather. At 2 p.m. saw land* (*
The North island of New Zealand.) from the Masthead bearing West by
North, which we stood directly for, and could but just see it of the Deck
at sunset. Variation per Azimuth and Amplitude 15 degrees 4 1/2 minutes
East; by observation of the Sun and Moon made this afternoon the
Longitude of the Ship is 180 degrees 55 minutes West, by the mean of
these and Subsequent observations the Error of the Ship's account in
Longitude from George's Island is 3 degrees 16 minutes; that is, so much
to the Westward of the Longitude resulting from the Log, which is what is
inserted in the Columns. At Midnight brought too and sounded, but had no
ground with 170 fathoms. At daylight made sail in for the Land, at Noon
it bore from South-West to North-West by North, distant 8 Leagues.
Latitude observed 38 degrees 57 minutes South; Wind North-East,
South-East, Variable; course South 70 degrees West; distance 41 miles;
latitude 38 degrees 57 minutes observed South; longitude 177 degrees 54
minutes West.

Sunday, 8th. Gentle breezes and clear weather. At 5 p.m., seeing the
opening of a Bay that appear'd to run pretty far inland, hauld our wind
and stood in for it; but as soon as night came on we keept plying on and
off until day light, when we found ourselves to leeward of the Bay, the
wind being at North. By Noon we fetch'd in with the South-West point, but
not being able to weather it we tacked and stood off. We saw in the Bay
several Canoes, People upon the Shore, and some houses in the Country.
The land on the Sea Coast is high, with Steep Cliffs; and back inland are
very high Mountains. The face of the Country is of a hilly surface, and
appears to be cloathed with wood and Verdure. Wind between the
East-North-East and North.


CHAPTER 5. EXPLORATION OF NORTH ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND.

[October 1769. At Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

MONDAY, 9th October. Gentle breezes and Clear Weather. P.M. stood into
the Bay and Anchored on the North-East side before the Entrance of a
small River,* (* Tauranga nui. The township of Gisborne is now situated
on its eastern bank.) in 10 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom. The North-East
point of the Bay bore East by South 1/2 South, and the South-West point
South, distance from the Shore half a League. After this I went ashore
with a Party of men in the Pinnace and yawl accompanied by Mr. Banks and
Dr. Solander. We landed abreast of the Ship and on the East side of the
River just mentioned; but seeing some of the Natives on the other side of
the River of whom I was desirous of speaking with, and finding that we
could not ford the River, I order'd the yawl in to carry us over, and the
pinnace to lay at the Entrance. In the mean time the Indians made off.
However we went as far as their Hutts which lay about 2 or 300 Yards from
the water side, leaving 4 boys to take care of the Yawl, which we had no
sooner left than 4 Men came out of the woods on the other side the River,
and would certainly have cut her off had not the People in the Pinnace
discover'd them and called to her to drop down the Stream, which they
did, being closely persued by the Indians. The coxswain of the Pinnace,
who had the charge of the Boats, seeing this, fir'd 2 Musquets over their
Heads; the first made them stop and Look round them, but the 2nd they
took no notice of; upon which a third was fir'd and kill'd one of them
upon the Spot just as he was going to dart his spear at the Boat. At this
the other 3 stood motionless for a Minute or two, seemingly quite
surprised; wondering, no doubt, what it was that had thus kill'd their
Comrade; but as soon as they recovered themselves they made off, dragging
the Dead body a little way and then left it. Upon our hearing the report
of the Musquets we immediately repair'd to the Boats, and after viewing
the Dead body we return'd on board. In the morning, seeing a number of
the Natives at the same place where we saw them last night, I went on
shore with the Boats, mann'd and arm'd, and landed on the opposite side
of the river. Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself only landed at first,
and went to the side of the river, the natives being got together on the
opposite side. We called to them in the George's Island Language, but
they answer'd us by flourishing their weapons over their heads and
dancing, as we suppos'd, the War Dance; upon this we retir'd until the
Marines were landed, which I order'd to be drawn up about 200 yards
behind us. We went again to the river side, having Tupia, Mr. Green, and
Dr. Monkhouse along with us. Tupia spoke to them in his own Language, and
it was an agreeable surprize to us to find that they perfectly understood
him. After some little conversation had passed one of them swam over to
us, and after him 20 or 30 more; these last brought their Arms, which the
first man did not. We made them every one presents, but this did not
satisfy them; they wanted everything we had about us, particularly our
Arms, and made several attempts to snatch them out of our hands. Tupia
told us several times, as soon as they came over, to take care of
ourselves for they were not our friends; and this we very soon found, for
one of them snatched Mr. Green's hanger from him and would not give it
up; this encouraged the rest to be more insolent, and seeing others
coming over to join them, I order'd the man who had taken the Hanger to
be fir'd at, which was accordingly done, and wounded in such a manner
that he died soon after. Upon the first fire, which was only 2 Musquets,
the others retir'd to a Rock which lay nearly in the middle of the River;
but on seeing the man fall they return'd, probably to carry him off or
his Arms, the last of which they accomplished, and this we could not
prevent unless we had run our Bayonets into them, for upon their
returning from off the Rock, we had discharged off our Peices, which were
loaded with small shott, and wounded 3 more; but these got over the River
and were carried off by the others, who now thought proper to retire.
Finding nothing was to be done with the People on this side, and the
water in the river being salt, I embarked with an intent to row round the
head of the Bay in search of fresh water, and if possible to surprise
some of the Natives and to take them on board, and by good Treatment and
Presents endeavour to gain their friendship with this view.

Tuesday, 10th. P.M., I rowed round the head of the bay, but could find no
place to land on account of the Great Surf which beat everywhere upon the
Shore. Seeing 2 Boats or Canoes coming in from Sea I rowed to one of
them, in order to Seize upon the People; and came so near before they
took notice of us that Tupia called to them to come alongside and we
would not hurt them; but instead of doing this they endeavour'd to get
away, upon which I order'd a Musquet to be fir'd over their Heads,
thinking this would either make them surrender, or jump overboard; but
here I was mistaken, for they immediately took to their Arms or whatever
they had in the Boat, and began to attack us. This obliged us to fire
upon them, and unfortunately either 2 or 3 were kill'd and one wounded,
and 3 jumped overboard. These last we took up and brought on board, where
they was Cloathed and Treated with all imaginable kindness; and to the
Surprise of everybody became at once as cheerful and as merry as if they
had been with their own Friends. They were all 3 Young, the eldest not
above 20 years of Age, and the youngest about 10 or 12. I am aware that
most Humane men who have not experienced things of this nature will
Censure my Conduct in firing upon the People in their Boat, nor do I
myself think that the reason I had for seizing upon her will at all
justify me; and had I thought that they would have made the Least
Resistance I would not have come near them; but as they did, I was not to
stand still and suffer either myself or those that were with me to be
knocked on the head.

In the morning, as I intended to put our 3 Prisoners ashore, and stay
here the day to see what effect it might have upon the other Natives, I
sent an Officer ashore with the Marines and a party of men to cut wood,
and soon after followed myself, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander,
and Tupia, taking the 3 Natives with us, whom we landed on the West side
of the River before mentioned. They were very unwilling to leave us,
pretending that they should fall into the hands of their Enemies, who
would kill and Eat them. However, they at last of their own accord left
us and hid themselves in some bushes. Soon after this we discover'd
several bodys of the Natives marching towards us, upon which we retir'd
across the River, and joind the wooders; and with us came the 3 Natives
we had just parted with, for we could not prevail upon them to go to
their own people. We had no sooner got over the River than the others
assembled on the other side to the Number of 150 or 200, all Arm'd. Tupia
now began to Parly with them, and the 3 we had with us shew'd everything
we had given them, part of which they laid and left upon the Body of the
Man that was Kill'd the day before. These things seem'd so far to
Convince them of our friendly intentions that one man came over to us,
while all the others sat down upon the Sand. We everyone made this man a
present, and the 3 Natives that were with us likewise presented him with
such things as they had got from us, with which, after a short Stay, he
retir'd across the River. I now thought proper to take everybody on
board, to prevent any more Quarrels, and with us came the 3 Natives, whom
we could not prevail upon to stay behind; and this appear'd the more
strange as the man that came over to us was Uncle to one of them. After
we had return'd on board we saw them Carry off the Dead Man; but the one
that was Kill'd the first evening we Landed remain'd in the very spot
they had left him.

[Leave Poverty Bay.]

Wednesday, 11th. In the P.M., as I intended to sail in the Morning, we
put the 3 Youths ashore, seemingly very much against their inclination;
but whether this was owing to a desire they had to remain with us, or the
fear of falling into the hands of their Enemies, as they pretended, I
know not. The latter, however, seemed to be ill-founded, for we saw them
carried across the River in a Catamaran, and walk Leasurely off with the
other Natives. At 6 a.m. we weighed and stood out of the Bay, which I
have named Poverty Bay, because it afforded us no one thing we wanted
(Latitude 38 degrees 42 minutes South, Longitude 181 degrees 36 minutes
West).* (* Latitude correct. Longitude is 181 degrees 57 minutes West.)
It is in the form of a Horse Shoe, and is known by an Island lying close
under the North-East point. The 2 points which forms the Entrance are
high, with Steap white Cliffs, and lay a League and a half or 2 Leagues
from Each other, North-East by East and South-West by West. The Depth of
Water in this Bay is from 12 to 6 and 5 fathoms, a sandy bottom and good
Anchorage, but you lay open to the winds between the South and East.
Boats can go in and out of the river above mentioned at any time of Tide
in fine weather; but as there is a Bar at the Entrance, on which the Sea
Sometimes runs so high that no Boat can either get in or out, which
hapned while we laid here; however, I believe that Boats can generally
land on the North-East side of the river. The shore of this Bay, from a
little within each Entrance, is a low, flat sand; but this is only a
Narrow Slip, for the face of the Country appears with a variety of hills
and Vallies, all cloathed with woods and Verdure, and to all appearance
well inhabited, especially in the Vallies leading up from the Bay, where
we daily saw Smoke at a great distance inland, and far back in the
Country are very high Mountains. At Noon the South-West point of Poverty
Bay, which I have named Young Nicks head (after the Boy who first saw
this land),* (* In Mr. Molineux's Log, his name is given as Nicholas
Young, but no such name appears in the official lists.) bore North by
West, distance 3 or 4 leagues, being at this time about 3 Miles from the
Shore, and had 25 fathoms Water, the Main Land extending from North-East
by North to South. My intention is to follow the direction of the Coast
to the Southward, as far as the Latitude of 40 or 41 degrees, and then to
return to the Northward, in case we meet with nothing to incourage us to
proceed farther.

[Off Portland Island, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 12th. Gentle breezes at North-West and North, with frequent
Calms. In the Afternoon, while we lay becalm'd, several Canoes came off
to the Ship, but keept at a distance until one, who appeared to come from
a different part, came off and put alongside at once, and after her all
the rest. The people in this boat had heard of the Treatment those had
met with we had had on board before, and therefore came on board without
hesitation; they were all kindly treated, and very soon entered into a
Traffick with our People for George's Island Cloth, etc.; giving in
Exchange their Paddles, having little else to dispose of, and hardly left
themselves a sufficient number to paddle ashore; nay, the people in one
Canoe, after disposing of their Paddles, offer'd to sell the Canoe. After
a stay of about 2 hours they went away, but by some means or other 3 were
left on board, and not one boat would put back to take them in, and, what
was more surprizing, those aboard did not seem at all uneasy with their
situation. In the evening a light breeze springing up at North-West, we
steer'd along Shore, under an easy sail, until midnight, then brought
too. Soon after it fell Calm, and continued so until 8 o'Clock a.m., when
a breeze sprung up at North, with which we stood along shore
South-South-West. At and after sunrise found the variation to be 14
degrees 46 minutes East. About this time 2 Canoes came off to the Ship,
one of which was prevailed upon to come along side to take in the 3
people we had had on board all night, who now seem'd glad of the
opportunity to get ashore. As the People in the Canoe were a little shy
at first, it was observed that one Argument those on board made use on to
intice the others alongside, was in telling them that we did not Eat men;
from which it should seem that these people have such a Custom among
them. At the time we made sail we were abreast of the Point of Land set
yesterday at Noon, from which the Land trends South-South-West. This
point I have named Cape Table, on account of its shape and figure. It
lies 7 Leagues to the Southward of Poverty Bay, in the Latitude of 39
degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 181 degrees 36 minutes West, it is of
a moderate height, makes in a sharpe Angle, and appears to be quite flat
at Top. In steering along shore to the Southward of the Cape, at the
distance of 2 or 3 miles off, our soundings were from 20 to 30 fathoms,
having a Chain of Rocks that appears at different heights above water,
laying between us and the Shore. At Noon, Cape Table bore North 20
degrees East, distant 4 Leagues, and a small Island (being the
Southermost land in sight) bore South 70 degrees West, distant 3 miles.
This Island I have named Isle of Portland, on account of its very great
resemblance to Portland in the English Channel. It lies about a mile from
a Point on the Main, but there appears to be a ledge of Rocks extending
nearly, if not quite, across from the one to the other. North 57 degrees
East, 2 Miles from the South point of Portland, lies a sunken rock
whereon the sea breaks; we passed between this Rock and the land having
17, 18, and 20 fathom Water. We saw a great Number of the Natives
assembled together on the Isle of Portland; we likewise saw some on the
Main land, and several places that were Cultivated and laid out in square
Plantations.

Friday, 13th. At 1 p.m. we discover'd land behind or to the Westward of
Portland, extending to the Southward as far as we could see. In hauling
round the South end of Portland we fell into Shoal Water and broken
ground, which we, however, soon got clear of. At this time 4 Canoes came
off to us full of People, and keept for sometime under our stern
threatning of us all the while. As I did not know but what I might be
obliged to send our Boats ahead to sound, I thought these Gentry would be
as well out of the way. I order'd a Musquet shott to be fir'd close to
one of them, but this they took no notice of. A 4 Pounder was then fir'd
a little wide of them; at this they began to shake their Spears and
Paddles at us, but notwithstanding this they thought fit to retire.
Having got round Portland, we hauled in for the Land North-West, having a
Gentle breeze at North-East, which died away at 5 o'Clock and obliged us
to Anchor in 21 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom: the South Point of Portland
bore South-East 1/2 South distant about 2 Leagues, and a low Point on the
Main bore North 1/2 East. In this last direction there runs in a deep bay
behind the Land on which is Table Cape, which makes this Land a
Peninsula, joined to the Main by a low, narrow neck of land; the Cape is
the North Point of the Peninsula, and Portland the South. While we lay at
Anchor 2 Boats came off to us, and so near as to take up some things we
throw'd them out of the Ship, but would not come alongside. At 5 a.m. a
breeze springing northerly we weigh'd and steer'd in for the Land. The
shore here forms a very large Bay, of which Portland is the North-East
Point, and the Bay above mentioned is an Arm of it. I would gladly have
examin'd this Arm, because there appear'd to be safe Anchorage in it, but
as I was not certain of this, and the wind being right an End, I did not
care to spend time in Turning up to it. At Noon Portland bore South 50
degrees East, and the Southermost land in sight bore South-South-West,
distant 10 or 12 Leagues, being about 3 miles from the Shore, and in this
situation had 12 fathoms water--24 fathoms have been the most Water we
have had since we have been within Portland, every where clear ground.
The land near the Shore is of a moderate height, with white Cliffs and
Sandy beaches. Inland are several Pretty high Mountains, and the whole
face of the Country appears with a very hilly surface, and for the most
part Covered with wood, and hath all the appearances of a very pleasant
and fertile Country.

Saturday, 14th. P.M. had Gentle breezes between the North-East and
North-West. Kept running down along shore at the distance of 2 or 3 miles
off. Our sounding was from 20 to 13 fathoms, an even sandy bottom. We saw
some Canoes or Boats in shore, and several houses upon the Land, but no
harbour or Convenient watering place--the Main thing we were looking for.
In the night had little wind, and Sometimes Calm with Dirty, rainy
weather. A.M. had Variable light Airs next to a Calm and fair weather. In
the morning, being not above 2 Leagues from the South-West corner of the
great Bay we have been in for the 2 days past, the Pinnace and Long boat
were hoisted out in order to search for Fresh Water; but just as they
were ready to put off we observed several Boats full of People coming off
from the Shore, and for that reason I did not think it prudent to send
our own from the Ship. The first that came were 5 in Number, in them were
between 80 and 90 men. Every Method was tried to gain their Friendship,
and several things were thrown overboard to them; but all we could do was
to no purpose, neither would they accept of any one thing from us, but
seem'd fully bent on attacking us. In order to prevent this, and our
being obliged to fire upon them, I order'd a 4 Pounder Loaded with grape
to be fir'd a little wide of them, letting them know at the same time by
Means of Tupia what we were going to do; this had the desir'd effect, and
not one of these would afterwards trust themselves abreast of the Ship.
Soon after 4 more came off; one of these put what Arms they had into
another Boat, and then came alongside so near as to take what things we
gave them, and I believe might have been Prevailed upon to come on board
had not some of the first 5 came up under our Stern and began again to
threaten us, at which the people in this one Boat seem'd displeased;
immediately after this they all went ashore. At Noon Latitude in per
Observation 39 degrees 37 minutes South. Portland bore by our run from it
East by North, distant 14 Leagues; the Southermost land in sight, and
which is the South point of the Bay, South-East by South, distant 4 or 5
Leagues; and a Bluff head lying in the South-West corner of the Bay South
by West 2 or 3 Miles. On each side of this bluff head is a low narrow
sand or stone beach; between these beaches and the Main land is a pretty
large lake of Salt Water, as I suppose. On the South-East side of this
head is a very large flatt, which seems to extend a good way inland to
the Westward; on this flatt are Several groves of Streight, tall Trees,
but there seems to be a great Probability that the lake above mentiond
extends itself a good way into this flatt Country. Inland are a Chain of
Pretty high Mountains extending North and South; on the Summits and Sides
of these Mountains were many Patches of Snow, but between them and the
Sea the Land is Cloathed with wood.* (* The Endeavour was now off what is
called Ahuriri Bay. The bluff head is known as Ahuriri Bluff, and the
town of Napier, of 8000 inhabitants, lies at the back of it. The large
sheet of salt water is called Manganui-o-rotu. There was no sheltered
harbour for a vessel in the Endeavour's situation, but at present,
harbour works have improved the entrance to the lagoon into which vessels
drawing 12 feet can enter. Produce of the value of over a million pounds
per annum is now exported from Napier.)

[In Hawkes Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 15th. P.M. stood over for the Southermost Land or South point of
the Bay, having a light breeze at North-East, our soundings from 12 to 8
fathoms. Not reaching this point before dark, we stood Off and on all
night, having Variable light Airs next to a Calm; depth of water from 8
to 7 fathoms; Variation 14 degrees 10 minutes East. At 8 a.m., being
abreast of the South-West point of the Bay, some fishing Boats came off
to us and sold us some stinking fish; however it was such as they had,
and we were glad to enter into Traffick with them upon any Terms. These
People behaved at first very well, until a large Arm'd boat, wherein were
22 Men, came alongside. We soon saw that this Boat had nothing for
Traffick, yet as they came boldly alongside we gave them 2 or 3 pieces of
Cloth, Articles they seem'd the most fond off. One Man in this Boat had
on him a black skin, something like a Bear Skin, which I was desirous of
having that I might be a better judge what sort of an Animal the first
Owner was. I offer'd him for it a piece of Red Cloth, which he seem'd to
jump at by immediately putting off the Skin and holding it up to us, but
would not part with it until he had the Cloth in his possession and after
that not at all, but put off the Boat and went away, and with them all
the rest. But in a very short time they return'd again, and one of the
fishing Boats came alongside and offer'd us some more fish. The Indian
Boy Tiata, Tupia's Servant, being over the side, they seiz'd hold of him,
pull'd him into the Boat and endeavoured to carry him off; this obliged
us to fire upon them, which gave the Boy an opportunity to jump
overboard. We brought the Ship too, lower'd a Boat into the Water, and
took him up unhurt. Two or 3 paid for this daring attempt with the loss
of their lives, and many more would have suffer'd had it not been for
fear of killing the Boy. This affair occasioned my giving this point of
land the name of Cape Kidnapper. It is remarkable on account of 2 White
rocks in form of Haystacks standing very near it. On each side of the
Cape are Tolerable high white steep Cliffs, Latitude 39 degrees 43
minutes South; Longitude 182 degrees 24 minutes West; it lies South-West
by West, distant 13 Leagues from the Island of Portland. Between them is
a large Bay wherein we have been for these 3 days past; this Bay I have
named Hawkes Bay in Honour of Sir Edward, first Lord of the Admiralty; we
found in it from 24 to 8 and 7 fathoms, everywhere good Anchoring. From
Cape Kidnapper the Island Trends South-South-West, and in this direction
we run along shore, keeping about a League off, having a steady breeze
and Clear weather. At Noon the above Cape bore from us North 9 degrees
East, distant 2 Leagues, and the Southermost land in sight South 25
degrees West Latitude in Per Observation 39 degrees 50 minutes South.

Monday, 16th. First and latter part, fresh breezes, Northerly; in the
night, Variable and sometimes calm. At 2 p.m. passed by a Small but a
Pretty high white Island lying close to the Shore. On this Island we saw
a good many Houses, Boats, and Some People. We concluded that they must
be fishers, because the Island was quite barren; we likewise saw several
people upon the Shore in a small Bay on the Main within the Island. At 7
the Southermost land in sight bore South-West by South, and Cape
Kidnapper North 3/4 East, distant 8 leagues, being then about 2 Leagues
from the Shore, and had 55 fathoms. At 11 brought too until daylight,
then made Sail along shore to the Southward. At 7 passed a pretty high
point of Land, which lies South-South-West, 12 Leagues from Cape
Kidnapper. From this point the Land Trends 3/4 of a point more to the
Westward. At 10 saw more land appear to the Southward, at South-West by
South. At Noon the Southermost land in sight bore South 39 degrees West,
distant 8 or 10 Leagues, and a high Bluff head with Yellowish Cliffs bore
West, distant 2 miles, Latitude observed 40 degrees 34 minutes South;
depth of water 32 fathoms.

[Returning North from Cape Turnagain.]

Tuesday, 17th. P.M. winds at West, a fresh breeze; in the night, Variable
light Airs and Calm; a.m. a Gentle breeze between the North-West and
North-East. Seeing no likelyhood of meeting with a Harbour, and the face
of the Country Visibly altering for the worse, I thought that the
standing farther to the South would not be attended with any Valuable
discovery, but would be loosing of Time, which might be better employ'd
and with a greater Probability of success in examining the Coast to the
Northward. With this View, at 1 p.m. Tack'd and stood to the Northward,
having the Wind at West, a fresh breeze.* (* If Cook had known the exact
shape of New Zealand, he could scarcely have taken a better resolve, in
view of saving time, than to turn northward again when he did.) At this
time we could see the land extending South-West by South, at least 10 or
12 Leagues. The Bluff head or high point of land we were abreast off at
Noon I have called Cape Turnagain because here we returned. It lies in
the Latitude of 40 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 182 degrees 55
West, and 18 Leagues South-South-West and South-South-West 1/2 West from
Cape Kidnapper. The land between them is of a very unequal height; in
some places it is high, with White Cliffs next the Sea--in others low,
with sandy beaches. The face of the Country is not nearly so well
Cloathed with wood as it is about Hawkes Bay, but for the most part looks
like our high Downs in England, and to all appearance well inhabited, for
we saw several Villages as we run along shore, not only in the Vallies,
but on the Tops and sides of the Hills, and Smokes in other places. The
ridge of Mountains before mentioned extends to the Southward farther than
we could see, and are every where Checquer'd with Snow. This night saw 2
Large fires up in the inland Country, a sure sign that it must be
inhabited. At Noon Cape Kidnapper bore North 56 degrees West, distant 7
Leagues; latitude observed 39 degrees 52 minutes South.

Wednesday, 18th. Variable light winds and fine weather. At 4 a.m. Cape
Kidnapper bore North 32 degrees West, distant 2 Leagues. In this
situation had 62 fathoms; and when the said Cape bore West by North,
distant 3 or 4 Leagues, had 45 fathoms; Midway between the Isle of
Portland and Cape Kidnapper had 65 fathoms. At Noon the Isle of Portland
bore North-East 1/2 East, distant 4 Leagues; latitude observ'd 39 degrees
34 minutes South.

Thursday, 19th. The first part had Gentle breezes at East and
East-North-East; in the night, fresh Gales between the South and
South-West; dark, Cloudy weather, with Lightning and rain. At 1/2 past 5
P.M. Tack'd and stood to the South-East: the Isle of Portland bore
South-East, distant 3 Leagues. Soon after we Tacked a boat or Canoe came
off from the Shore, wherein were 5 People. They came on board without
shewing the least signs of fear, and insisted upon staying with us the
whole night; indeed, there was no getting them away without turning them
out of the Ship by force, and that I did not care to do; but to prevent
them playing us any Trick I hoisted their Canoe up alongside. Two
appear'd to be Chiefs, and the other 3 their Servants. One of the Chiefs
seem'd to be of a free, open, and Gentle disposition; they both took
great notice of everything they saw, and was very thankful for what was
given them. The 2 Chiefs would neither Eat nor Drink with us, but the
other 3 Eat whatever was offer'd them. Notwithstanding that these people
had heard of the Treatment the others had meet with who had been on board
before, yet it appear'd a little strange that they should place so much
Confidence in us as to put themselves wholy in our power wether we would
or no, especially as the others we had meet with in this bay had upon
every occasion behaved in quite a different manner. At 11 brought too
until daylight (the night being dark and rainy), then made sail. At 7
a.m. brought too under Cape Table, and sent away the Indian Canoe. At
this Time some others were putting off from the Shore, but we did not
wait their coming, but made sail to the Northward. At Noon the
Northermost land in sight North 20 degrees East, and Young Nicks head, or
the South point of Poverty Bay, West-Northerly, near 4 Leagues. Latitude
observed 38 degrees 44 minutes 30 seconds South.

Friday, 20th. P.M. a fresh breeze at South-South-West; in the night,
variable light breezes, with rain; A.M. a fresh breeze at South-West. At
3 p.m. passed by a remarkable head, which I called Gable end Foreland on
account of the very great resemblance the white cliff at the very point
hath to the Gable end of a House. It is made still more remarkable by a
Spir'd Rock standing a little distance from it. This head land lies from
Cape Table North 24 degrees East, distant 12 Leagues. Between them the
Shore forms a Bay, wherein lies Poverty Bay, 4 Leagues from the former
and 8 Leagues from the Latter. From Gable end Foreland the land trends
North by East as far as we could see. The land from Poverty Bay to this
place is of a moderate but very unequal height, distinguished by Hills
and Vallies that are Cover'd with woods. We saw, as we run along shore,
several Villages, cultivated lands, and some of the Natives. In the
evening some Canoes came off to the Ship, and one Man came on board to
whom we gave a few Trifles and then sent him away. Stood off and on until
daylight, and then made sail in shore in order to look into 2 Bays that
appear'd to our view about 2 Leagues to the Northward of the Foreland.
The Southermost we could not fetch, but in the other we Anchor'd about 11
o'Clock in 7 fathoms, a black sandy bottom. The North point bore
North-East 1/2 North, distant 2 Miles, and the South Point South-East by
East, distant one Mile, and about 3/4 of a Mile from the Shore. This Bay
is not so much Shelter'd from the Sea as I at first thought it was; but
as the Natives, many of whom came about us in their Canoes, appear'd to
be of a friendly disposition, I was willing to try if we could not get a
little water on board, and to see a little into the Nature of the Country
before we proceeded further to the Northward.

Saturday, 21st. We had no sooner come to an Anchor, as mentioned above,
than perceiving 2 old Men in the Canoes, who from their Garbe appear'd to
be Chiefs, these I invited on board, and they came without Hesitation. To
each I gave about 4 Yards of linnen and a Spike Nail; the linnen they
were very fond of, but the Nails they seem'd to set no Value upon. Tupia
explain'd to them the reasons of our Coming here, and that we should
neither hurt nor Molest them if they did but behave in the same peaceable
manner to us; indeed, we were under very little apprehension but what
they would, as they had heard of what hapned in Poverty Bay. Between 1
and 2 p.m. I put off with the Boats mann'd and Arm'd in order to land to
look for fresh Water, these 2 Men along with us; but the surf running
very high, and it begun to blow and rain at the same time, I returned
back to the Ship, having first put the 2 Chiefs into one of their Canoes.
In the evening it fell moderate, and we landed and found 2 Small Streams
of Fresh Water, and the Natives to all appearance very friendly and
peaceable; on which account I resolved to Stay one day at least, to fill
a little water and to give Mr. Banks an opportunity to Collect a little
of the Produce of the Country. In the morning Lieutenant Gore went on
shore to superintend the Watering with a Strong party of Men, but the
getting the Casks off was so very difficult, on account of the Surf, that
it was noon before one Turn came on board.

[At Tegadoo Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 22nd. P.M. light breezes and Cloudy. About or a little after Noon
several of the Natives came off to the Ship in their Canoes and began to
Traffick with us, our people giving them George's Island Cloth for
theirs, for they had little else to dispose of. This kind of exchange
they seem'd at first very fond of, and prefer'd the Cloth we had got at
the Islands to English Cloth; but it fell in its value above 500 p. ct.
before night. I had some of them on board, and Shew'd them the Ship, with
which they were well pleased. The same friendly disposition was observed
by those on shore, and upon the whole they behaved as well or better than
one could expect; but as the getting the Water from the Shore proved so
very Tedious on account of the Surf, I resolved upon leaving this place
in the morning, and accordingly, at 5 a.m., we weighed and put to Sea.
This Bay is called by the Natives Tegadoo;* (* Anaura Bay.) it lies in
the Latitude of 38 degrees 16 minutes South, but as it hath nothing to
recommend it I shall give no discription of it. There is plenty of Wild
Sellery, and we purchased of the Natives 10 or 15 pounds of sweet
Potatoes. They have pretty large plantations of these, but at present
they are scarce, it being too Early in the Season. At Noon the Bay of
Tegadoo bore West 1/2 South, distant 8 Leagues, and a very high double
peak'd Mountain some distance in land bore North-West by West. Latitude
observed 38 degrees 13 minutes South; Wind at North, a fresh Gale.

Monday, 23rd. P.M. fresh Gales at North, and Cloudy weather. At 1 Tack'd
and stood in shore; at 6 Sounded, and had 56 fathoms fine sandy bottom;
the Bay of Tegadoo bore South-West 1/2 West, distance 4 Leagues. At 8
Tack'd in 36 fathoms, being then about 2 Leagues from land; stood off and
on all night, having Gentle breezes. At 8 a.m., being right before the
Bay of Tegadoo and about a League from it, some of the Natives came off
to us and inform'd us that in a Bay a little to the Southward (being the
same that we could not fetch the day we put into Tegadoo) was fresh Water
and easey getting at it; and as the wind was now against us, and we
gain'd nothing by beating to windward, I thought the time would be better
spent in this Bay* (* Tolaga.) in getting on board a little water, and
forming some Connections with the Natives, than by keeping the Sea. With
this view we bore up for it, and sent 2 Boats in, Mann'd and Arm'd, to
Examine the Watering Place, who returned about noon and conform'd the
account the Natives had given. We then Anchor'd in 11 fathoms, fine sandy
bottom; the North point of the Bay North by East and the South point
South-East, and the watering place, which was in a Small Cove a little
within the South point of the Bay, distance one Mile.

Tuesday, 24th. Winds Westerly and fine weather. This afternoon, as soon
as the Ship was moor'd, I went ashore to Examine the watering place,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. I found the Water good and the
Place pretty Convenient, and plenty of Wood close to high Water Mark, and
the Natives to all appearance not only very friendly but ready to
Traffick with us for what little they had. Early in the morning I sent
Lieutenant Gore ashore to Superintend the Cutting wood and filling of
Water, with a Sufficient number of men for both purposes, and all the
Marines as a Guard. After breakfast I went myself, and remain'd there the
whole day; but before this Mr. Green and I took several observations of
the Sun and Moon. The mean result of them gave 180 degrees 47 minutes
West Longitude from the Meridian of Greenwich; but as all the
observations made before exceeded these, I have laid down this Coast
agreeable to the means of the whole. At noon I took the Sun's Meridian
Altitude with the Astronomical Quadrant, and found the Latitude 38
degrees 22 minutes 24 seconds South.

Wednesday, 25th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. P.M. set up the
Armourer's Forge to repair the Tiller braces, they being broke. By night
we had got on board 12 Tons of Water and two or 3 Boats' loads of Wood,
and this I looked upon to be a good day's work. The Natives gave us not
the least disturbance, but brought us now and then different sorts of
Fish out to the Ship and Watering place, which we purchased of them with
Cloth, beads, etc.

Thursday, 26th. P.M. had the winds from between the South and South-West,
fair weather; the remainder, rainy, dirty weather. Notwithstanding we
continued getting on board Wood and Water.

Friday, 27th. Winds at South-West; first part rainy weather, the
remainder fair. A.M. sent the Pinnace to drudge, but she met with no
success; after this, I went and sounded the Bay. I made a Shift to land
in 2 Places, the first time in the bottom of the bay, where I went a
little way into the Country, but met with nothing extraordinary. The
other place I landed at was at the North point of the Bay, where I got as
much Sellery and Scurvy grass as loaded the Boat. This day we compleated
our Water to 70 Tons, but not wood Enough.

Saturday, 28th. Gentle breezes Southerly and fine weather. Employ'd
wooding, cutting, and making of Brooms, there being a Shrub here very fit
for that purpose; and as I intended to sail in the morning some hands
were employ'd picking of Sellery to take to Sea with us. This is found
here in great plenty, and I have caused it to be boiled with Portable
Soup and Oatmeal every morning for the people's breakfast; and this I
design to continue as long as it will last, or any is to be got, and I
look upon it to be very wholesome and a great Antiscorbutick.

[At Tolaga Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Monday, 29th. P.M. Gentle breezes with Thunder and Lightning up the
Country; in the night had light Airs off the land and very foggy; in the
forenoon had a gentle breeze at North-North-East and Clear weather. At 4
a.m. unmoor'd, and at 6 weigh'd and put to Sea. At Noon the bay sail'd
from bore North 63 degrees West, distant 4 Leagues. This bay is called by
the Natives Tolaga;* (* It still goes by this name.) it is moderately
large, and hath in it from 13 to 8 and 7 fathoms, clean sandy bottom and
good Anchorage, and is shelterd from all winds except those that blow
from the North-East Quarter. It lies in the Latitude of 38 degrees 22
minutes South, and 4 1/2 Leagues to the Northward of Gable end Foreland.
Off the South point lies a small but high Island, so near to the Main as
not to be distinguished from it. Close to the North end of this Island,
at the Entrance into the Bay, are 2 high Rocks; one is high and round
like a Corn Stack, but the other is long with holes thro' it like the
Arches of a Bridge. Within these rocks is the Cove, where we cut wood and
fill'd our Water. Off the North point of the Bay is a pretty high rocky
Island, and about a Mile without it are some rocks and breakers. The
variation of the Compass is here 14 degrees 31 minutes East, and the Tide
flows at full and change of the Moon about 6 o'Clock, and rises and falls
upon a Perpendicular 5 or 6 feet, but wether the flood comes from the
Southward or Northward I have not been able to determine.

During our stay in this bay we had every day more or less Traffick with
the Natives, they bringing us fish, and now and then a few sweet Potatoes
and several trifles which we deemd Curiosities; for these we gave them
Cloth, Beads, Nails, etc. The Cloth we got at King George's Island and
Ulietea, they valued more than anything we could give them, and as every
one in the Ship were provided with some of this sort of Cloth, I suffer'd
every body to purchase what ever they pleased without limitation; for by
this means I knew that the Natives would not only sell but get a good
Price for every thing they brought. This I thought would induce them to
bring to Market whatever the Country afforded, and I have great reason to
think that they did, yet it amounted to no more than what is above
mentioned. We saw no 4 footed Animals, either Tame or Wild, or signs of
any, except Dogs and Rats,* (* Cook's powers of observation are here
evident. There were no other quadrupeds in New Zealand.) and these were
very Scarce, especially the latter. The flesh of the former they eat, and
ornament their clothing with their skins as we do ours with furs, etc.
While we lay here I went upon some of the Hills in order to View the
Country, but when I came there I could see but very little of it, the
sight being interrupted by still higher hills. The Tops and ridges of the
Hills are for the most part barren, at least little grows on them but
fern; but the Valleys and sides of many of the Hills were luxuriously
clothed with woods and Verdure and little Plantations of the Natives
lying dispers'd up and down the Country. We found in the Woods, Trees of
above 20 different sorts; Specimens of each I took on board, as all of
them were unknown to any of us. The Tree which we cut for firing was
something like Maple and yeilded a whitish Gum. There was another sort of
a deep Yellow which we imagin'd might prove useful in dying. We likewise
found one Cabage Tree* (* Palm.) which we cut down for the sake of the
cabage. The Country abounds with a great Number of Plants, and the woods
with as great a variety of beautiful birds, many of them unknown to us.
The soil of both the hills and Valleys is light and sandy, and very
proper for producing all kinds of Roots, but we saw only sweet potatoes
and Yams among them; these they plant in little round hills, and have
plantations of them containing several Acres neatly laid out and keept in
good order, and many of them are fenced in with low paling which can only
serve for Ornament.

Monday, 30th. P.M. little wind and cloudy weather. At 1 Tack'd and stood
in shore; at 7 o'Clock Tolaga Bay bore West-North-West, distant one
League. Tack'd and lay her head off; had it calm until 2 a.m., when a
breeze sprung up at South-West, and we made Sail to the Northward. At 6,
Gable end Foreland bore South-South-West, and Tolaga bay South-South-West
1/4 West, distance 3 Leagues. At 8, being about 2 Miles from the shore,
some Canoes that were fishing came after the Ship; but we having a fresh
of wind they could not come up with us, and I did not chuse to wait for
them. At Noon, Latitude per observation 37 degrees 49 minutes South, a
small Island lying off the Northernmost land in sight, bore North 16
degrees East, distant 4 Miles; course from Tolaga bay North by East 1/2
East, distance 13 Leagues. The Land from thence is of a moderate but
unequal height, forming several small bays wherein are sandy beaches.
Hazey, cloudy weather prevented us from seeing much of the inland
country, but near the Shore we could see several Villages and Plantations
of the Natives. Soundings from 20 to 30 fathoms.

[Off Cape Runaway, North Island, New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 31st. At half-past one p.m. hauled round the Island above
mentioned, which lies East 1 Mile from the North-East point of the land.
The lands from hence Trends North-West by West, and West-North-West, as
far as we could see. This point of Land I have called East Cape, because
I have great reason to think that it is the Eastermost land on this whole
Coast; and for the same reason I have called the Island which lays off
it, East Island. It is but of a small circuit, high and round, and
appears white and barren. The Cape is of a moderate height with white
cliffs, and lies in the Latitude of 37 degrees 42 minutes 30 seconds
South, and Longitude 181 degrees 00 minutes West from the Meridian of
Greenwich. After we had rounded the East Cape we saw, as we run along
shore, a great number of Villages and a great deal of Cultivated land;
and in general the country appear'd with more fertility than what we had
seen before; it was low near the Sea, but hilly inland. At 8, being 8
leagues to the Westward of Cape East, and 3 or 4 miles from the shore,
shortned sail and brought too for the night, having at this Time a fresh
Gale at South-South-East and squally weather; but it soon fell moderate,
and at 2 a.m. made Sail again to the South-West as the land now Trended.
At 8 saw land which made like an Island bearing West. At the same time
the South-Westermost part of the Main bore South-West. At 9, five Canoes
came off to us, in one of which were upwards of 40 Men all Arm'd with
Pikes, etc.; from this and other Circumstances it fully appear'd that
they came with no friendly intentions; and I at this Time being very
buisey, and had no inclination to stay upon deck to watch their Motions,
I order'd a Grape shot to be fir'd a little wide of them. This made them
pull off a little, and then they got together either to consult what to
do or to look about them. Upon this I order'd a round shott to be fir'd
over their heads, which frightend them to that degree that I believe they
did not think themselves safe until they got ashore. This occasion'd our
calling the Point of land off which this hapned, Cape Runaway. Latitude
37 degrees 32 minutes South, longitude 181 degrees 50 minutes West, and
17 or 18 Leagues to the Westward of East Cape. 4 Leagues to the Westward
of East Cape is a bay which I have named Hicks's bay, because Lieutenant
Hicks was the first who discover'd it.

[November 1769.]

Wednesday, 1st November. P.M., as we stood along shore (having little
wind, and Variable), we saw a great deal of Cultivated land laid out in
regular inclosures, a sure sign that the Country is both fertile and well
inhabited. Some Canoes came off from the shore, but would not come near
the Ship. At 8 brought to 3 Miles from the Shore, the land seen yesterday
bearing West, and which we now saw was an Island, bore South-West,* (*
This should evidently be North-West.) distant 8 leagues. I have named it
White Island,* (* White Island is an active volcano. It was evidently
quiescent at the time of the Endeavour passing.) because as such it
always appear'd to us. At 5 a.m. made Sail along shore to the South-West,
having little wind at East-South-East and Cloudy weather. At 8 saw
between 40 and 50 Canoes in shore. Several of them came off to the Ship,
and being about us some time they ventur'd alongside and sold us some
Lobsters, Muscels, and 2 Conger Eales. After these were gone some others
came off from another place with Muscels only, and but few of these they
thought proper to part with, thinking they had a right to everything we
handed them into their Canoes without making any return. At last the
People in one Canoe took away some linnen that was towing over the side,
which they would not return for all that we could say to them. Upon this
I fir'd a Musket Ball thro' the Canoe, and after that another musquet
load with Small Shott, neither of which they minded, only pulled off a
little, and then shook their paddles at us, at which I fir'd a third
Musquet; and the ball, striking the Water pretty near them, they
immediately apply'd their Paddles to another use; but after they thought
themselves out of reach they got altogether, and Shook their Paddles
again at us. I then gave the Ship a Yaw, and fir'd a 4 Pounder. This sent
them quite off, and we keept on our course along shore, having a light
breeze at East-South-East. At noon we were in the Latitude of 37 degrees
55 minutes, White Island bearing North 29 degrees West, distant 8
Leagues.

Thursday, 2nd. Gentle breezes from North-West round Northerly to
East-South-East and fair weather. At 2 p.m. saw a pretty high Island
bearing West from us, and at 5 saw more Islands and Rocks to the Westward
of it. Hauld our wind in order to go without them, but, finding that we
could not weather them before dark, bore up, and run between them and the
Main. At 7 was close under the first Island, from whence a large double
Canoe full of People came off to us. This was the first double Canoe we
had seen in this Country. They staid about the Ship until it was dark,
then left us; but not before they had thrown a few stones. They told us
the name of the Island, which was Mowtohora.* (* Motuhora, called also
Whale Island.) It is but of a small Circuit, but high, and lies 6 Miles
from the Main. Under the South side is Anchorage in 14 fathoms.
South-West by South from this Island on the Main land, seemingly at no
great distance from the Sea, is a high round Mountain, which I have named
Mount Edgcombe. It stands in the middle of a large Plain, which make it
the more Conspicuous. Latitude 37 degrees 59 minutes South, Longitude 183
degrees 07 minutes West. In standing to the Westward we Shoalded our
Water from 17 to 10 fathoms, and knowing that we were not far from some
Small Islands and Rocks that we had seen before dark, after Passing of
which I intended to have brought too for the night, but I now thought it
more prudent to tack, and spend the Night under the Island of Mowtohora,
where I knew there was no danger. And it was well we did, for in the
morning, after we had made Sail to the Westward, we discovered Rocks
ahead of us Level with and under the Water.* (* Rurima Rocks.) They lay 1
1/2 Leagues from the Island Mowtohora, and about 9 Miles from the Main,
and North-North-East from Mount Edgecumbe. We passed between these Rocks
and the Main, having from 7 to 10 fathoms. The double Canoe which we saw
last night follow'd us to-day under Sail, and keept abreast of the Ship
near an hour talking to Tupia, but at last they began to pelt us with
stones. But upon firing one Musquet they dropt astern and left us. At 1/2
past 10 Passed between a low flat Island and the Main, the distance from
one to the other being 4 Miles; depth of Water 10, 12, and 15 fathoms. At
Noon the flat Island* (* Motunau.) bore from North-East to East 1/2
North, distance 5 or 6 Miles; Latitude in per Observation 37 degrees 39
minutes South, Longitude 183 degrees 30 minutes West. The Main land
between this and the Island of Mowtohara, which is 10 Leagues, is of a
moderate height, and all a level, flat Country, pretty clear of wood and
full of Plantations and Villiages. These Villiages are built upon
Eminences Near the Sea, and are Fortified on the land side with a Bank
and a Ditch, and Pallisaded all round. Besides this, some of them
appear'd to have out-works. We have before now observed, on several parts
of the Coast, small Villiages inclosed with Pallisades and works of this
kind built on Eminences and Ridges of hills, but Tupia had all along told
us that they were Mories, or places of worship; but I rather think they
are places of retreat or strong hold where they defend themselves against
the Attack of an Enemy, as some of them seem'd not ill design'd for that
Purpose.* (* In the contests with the Maories in after years, these Pahs,
or forts, proved to be no despicable defences.)

[In Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand.]

Friday, 3rd. P.M. Fresh Gales at North-East by East and hazey weather. At
2 pass'd a small high Island lying 4 Miles from a high round head on the
Main* (* The island was Moliti; the high round head was Maunganui, which
marks the entrance to Tauranga harbour, a good port, where now stands a
small town of the same name.) from this head the land Trends North-West
as far as we could see, and appeared to be very rugged and hilly. The
weather being very hazey, and the Wind blowing fresh on shore, we hauled
off close upon a wind for the weathermost Island in sight, which bore
from us North-North-East, distant 6 or 7 Leagues. Under this Island we
spent the Night, having a fresh gale at North-East and North-East by
East, and hazey weather with rain; this Island I have called the Mayor.
At 7 a.m. it bore South 47 degrees East, distant 6 Leagues, and a Cluster
of small Islands and Rocks bore North 1/2 East, distant one League. At
the time had a Gentle breeze at East-North-East and clear weather. The
Cluster of Islands and Rocks just mentioned we named the Court of
Aldermen; they lay in the Compass of about half a League every way, and 5
Leagues from the Main, between which and them lay other Islands. The most
of them are barren rocks, and of these there is a very great Variety,
some of them are of as small a Compass as the Monument in London, and
Spire up to a much greater height; they lay in the Latitude of 36 degrees
57 minutes, and some of them are inhabited. At Noon they bore South 60
degrees East, distant 3 or 4 Leagues, and a Rock like a Castle lying not
far from the Main, bore North 40 degrees West, one League. Latitude
observed 36 degrees 58 minutes South; Course and distance since Yesterday
noon is North-North-West 1/2 West, about 20 Leagues. In this Situation
had 28 fathoms water, and a great many small Islands and Rocks on every
side of us. The Main land appears here with a hilly, rugged, and barren
surface, no Plantations to be seen, nor no other signs of its being well
inhabited.

Saturday, 4th. The first and middle parts, little wind at East-North-East
and Clear weather; the Latter had a fresh breeze at North-North-West and
hazey with rain. At 1 p.m. 3 Canoes came off from the Main to the Ship,
and after Parading about a little while they darted 2 Pikes at us. The
first was at one of our Men as he was going to give them a rope, thinking
they were coming on board; but the 2nd they throw'd into the Ship; the
firing of one musquet sent them away. Each of these Canoes were made out
of one large Tree, and were without any sort of Ornament, and the people
in them were mostly quite naked. At 2 p.m. saw a large op'ning or inlet
in the land, which we bore up for with an intent to come to an Anchor. At
this time had 41 fathoms, which gradually decreased to 9 fathoms, at
which time we were 1 1/2 Mile from a high Tower'd Rock lying near the
South point of the inlet; the rock and the Northermost of the Court of
Aldermen being in one bearing South 61 degrees East. At 1/2 past 7
Anchor'd in 7 Fathoms a little within the South Entrance of the Bay or
inlet. We were accompanied in here by several Canoes, who stay'd about
the Ship until dark; and before they went away they were so generous as
to tell us that they would come and attack us in the morning; but some of
them paid us a Visit in the night, thinking, no doubt, but what they
should find all hands asleep, but as soon as they found their Mistake
they went off. My reasons for putting in here were the hopes of
discovering a good Harbour, and the desire I had of being in some
convenient place to observe the Transit of Mercury, which happens on the
9th Instant, and will be wholy Visible here if the day is clear. If we be
so fortunate as to obtain this observation, the Longitude of this place
and Country will thereby be very accurately determined. Between 5 and 6
o'Clock in the morning several Canoes came off to us from all parts of
the Bay; in them were about 130 or 140 People. To all appearances their
first design was to attack us, being all Completely Arm'd in their way;
however, this they never attempted, but after Parading about the Ship
near 3 Hours, sometimes trading with us, and at other times Tricking of
us, they dispersed; but not before we had fir'd a few Musquets and one
great gun, not with any design to hurt any of them, but to shew them what
sort of Weapons we had, and that we could revenge any insult they offer'd
to us. It was observable that they paid but little regard to the Musquets
that were fir'd, notwithstanding one ball was fir'd thro' one of their
Canoes, but what Effect the great gun had I know not, for this was not
fir'd until they were going away.

[At Mercury Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

At 10, the weather Clearing up a little, I went with 2 Boats to sound the
Bay and to look for a more convenient Anchoring place, the Master being
in one Boat, and I in the other. We pull'd first over the North Shore,
where some Canoes came out to meet us, but as we came near them they
retir'd to the Shore and invited us to follow them, but seeing they were
all Arm'd I did not think fit to Except of their Invitation; but after
Trading with them out of the Boat for a few Minutes we left them and went
towards the head of the Bay. I observed on a high Point a fortified
Village, but I could only see a part of the works, and as I intend to see
the whole, shall say no more about it at this time. After having fix'd
upon an Anchoring place not far from where the Ship lay I return'd on
board.

Sunday, 5th. Winds at North-North-West, Hazey weather with rain in the
night. At 4 p.m. weigh'd and run in nearer the South shore and Anchor'd
in 4 1/2 fathoms, a soft sandy bottom, the South point of the Bay bearing
East, distant 1 Mile, and a River (into which the boats can go at low
Water) South-South-East, distant 1 1/2 Miles.* (* The bight in which the
Endeavour anchored is now known as Cook Bay.) In the morning the Natives
came off again to the Ship, but their behaviour was very different to
what it was Yesterday morning, and the little traffick we had with them
was carried on very fair and friendly. Two came on board the Ship--to
each I gave a Piece of English Cloth and some Spike Nails. After the
Natives were gone I went with the Pinnace and Long boat into the River to
haul the Sean, and sent the Master to sound the Bay and drudge for fish
in the Yawl. We hauled the Sean in several places in the River, but
caught only a few Mullet, with which we returned on board about Noon.

Monday, 6th. Moderate breezes at North-North-West, and hazey weather with
rain in the night. P.M. I went to another part of the Bay to haul the
Sean, but meet with as little Success as before; and the Master did not
get above 1/2 a Bucket full of Shells with the Drudge. The Natives
brought to the Ship, and sold to our People, small Cockles, Clams, and
Mussels, enough for all hands. These are found in great plenty upon the
Sand Banks of the River. In the morning I sent the Long boat to Trawl in
the Bay, and one Officer with the Marines and a party of men to Cut wood
and haul the Sean, but neither the Sean nor the Trawl meet with any
success; but the Natives in some measure made up for this by bringing
several Baskets of dry'd or ready dress'd fish; altho' it was none of the
best I order'd it all to be bought up in order to encourage them to
Trade.

Tuesday, 7th. The first part moderate and fair; the remainder a fresh
breeze, northerly, with dirty, hazey, raining Weather. P.M. got on board
a Long boat Load of Water, and Caught a dish of fish in the Sean. Found
here a great Quantity of Sellery, which is boild every day for the Ship's
Company as usual.

Wednesday, 8th. P.M. fresh breeze at North-North-West and hazey, rainy
weather; the remainder a Gentle breeze at West-South-West and Clear
Weather. A.M. heeld and Scrubb'd both sides of the Ship and Sent a Party
of Men ashore to Cutt wood and fill Water. The Natives brought off to the
Ship, and Sold us for Small pieces of Cloth, as much fish as served all
hands; they were of the Mackrell kind, and as good as ever was Eat. At
Noon I observ'd the Sun's Meridian Zenith distance, by the Astronomical
Quadrant, which gave the Latitude 36 degrees 47 minutes 43 seconds South;
this was in the River before mentioned, that lies within the South
Entrance of the Bay.

Thursday, 9th. Variable light breezes and Clear weather. As soon as it
was daylight the Natives began to bring off Mackrell, and more than we
well know what to do with; notwithstanding I order'd all they brought to
be purchased in order to encourage them in this kind of Traffick. At 8,
Mr. Green and I went on shore with our Instruments to observe the Transit
of Mercury, which came on at 7 hours 20 minutes 58 seconds Apparent time,
and was observed by Mr. Green only.* (* Mr. Green satirically remarks in
his Log, "Unfortunately for the seamen, their look-out was on the wrong
side of the sun." This probably refers to Mr. Hicks, who was also
observing. It rather seems, however, as if Cook, on this occasion, was
caught napping by an earlier appearance of the planet than was expected.)
I, at this time, was taking the Sun's Altitude in order to Ascertain the
time. The Egress was observed as follows:--

By Mr. Green:
Internal Contact at 12 hours 8 minutes 58 seconds Afternoon.
External Contact at 12 hours 9 minutes 55 seconds Afternoon.

By myself:
Internal Contact at 12 hours 8 minutes 45 seconds Afternoon.
External Contact at 12 hours 9 minutes 43 seconds Afternoon.

Latitude observed at noon 36 degrees 48 minutes 28 seconds, the mean of
this and Yesterday's observation gives 36 degrees 48 minutes 5 1/2
seconds South; the Latitude of the Place of Observation, and the
Variation of the Compass was at this time found to be 11 degrees 9
minutes East. While we were making these observations 5 Canoes came
alongside the Ship, 2 Large and 3 Small ones, in one were 47 People, but
in the other not so many. They were wholy strangers to us, and to all
appearance they came with a Hostile intention, being compleatly Arm'd
with Pikes, Darts, Stones, etc.; however, they made no attempt, and this
was very probable owing to their being inform'd by some other Canoes (who
at this time were alongside selling fish) what sort of people they had to
Deal with. When they first came alongside they begun to sell our people
some of their Arms, and one Man offer'd to Sale a Haahow, that is a
Square Piece of Cloth such as they wear. Lieutenant Gore, who at this
time was Commanding Officer, sent into the Canoe a piece of Cloth which
the Man had agreed to Take in Exchange for his, but as soon as he had got
Mr. Gore's Cloth in his Possession he would not part with his own, but
put off the Canoe from alongside, and then shook their Paddles at the
People in the Ship. Upon this, Mr. Gore fir'd a Musquet at them, and,
from what I can learn, kill'd the Man who took the Cloth; after this they
soon went away. I have here inserted the account of this Affair just as I
had it from Mr. Gore, but I must own it did not meet with my approbation,
because I thought the Punishment a little too severe for the Crime, and
we had now been long Enough acquainted with these People to know how to
Chastise Trifling faults like this without taking away their Lives.

Friday, 10th. P.M., Gentle breezes and Variable; the remainder, a Strong
breeze at East-North-East, and hazey weather. A.M., I went with 2 Boats,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and the other Gentlemen into the River which
Emptys itself into the head of the Bay, in order to Examine it; none of
the Natives came off to the Ship this morning, which we think is owing to
bad weather.

[Pahs in Mercury Bay, New Zealand.]

Saturday, 11th. Fresh Gales at East-North-East, and Cloudy, hazey weather
with rain. Between 7 and 8 o'Clock p.m. I returnd on board from out the
River, having been about 4 or 5 Miles up it, and could have gone much
farther had the weather been favourable. I landed on the East side and
went upon the Hills, from whence I saw, or at least I thought I saw, the
head of the River. It here branched into several Channels, and form'd a
Number of very low flat Islands, all cover'd with a sort of Mangrove
Trees, and several places of the Shores of both sides the River were
Cover'd with the same sort of wood. The sand banks were well stored with
Cockles and Clams, and in many places were Rock Oysters. Here is likewise
pretty plenty of Wild Fowl, such as Shags, Ducks, Curlews, and a Black
bird, about as big as a Crow, with a long, sharp bill of a Colour between
Red and Yellow; we also saw fish in the River, but of what sort I know
not. The Country especially on the East side is barren, and for the most
part destitute of wood, or any other signs of Fertility; but the face of
the country on the other side looked much better, and is in many places
cover'd with wood. We meet with some of the Natives and saw several more,
and Smokes a long way inland, but saw not the least signs of Cultivation,
either here or in any other part about the Bay, so that the inhabitants
must live wholy on shell and other fish, and Fern roots, which they Eat
by the way of Bread. In the Entrance of this river, and for 2 or 3 Miles
up, it is very safe and Commodious Anchoring in 3, 4, and 5 fathoms, and
Convenient places for laying a Ship ashore, where the Tide rises and
falls about 7 feet at full and Change. I could not see whether or no any
considerable fresh Water Stream came out of the Country into this river,
but there are a number of small Rivulets which come from the Adjacent
hills. [Pahs in Mercury Bay, New Zealand.] A little within the Entrance
of the River on the East side is a high point or peninsula juting out
into the River on which are the Remains of one of their Fortified towns.
The Situation is such that the best Engineer in Europe could not have
Chose a better for a Small Number of men to defend themselves against a
greater; it is strong by Nature and made more so by Art. It is only
Accessible on the land Side, and there have been cut a Ditch and a Bank
raised on the inside. From the Top of the Bank to the Bottom of the Ditch
was about 22 feet, and depth of the Ditch on the land side 14 feet; its
breadth was in proportion to its depth, and the whole seem'd to have been
done with great Judgment. There had been a row of Pickets on the Top of
the Bank, and another on the outside of the Ditch; these last had been
set deep in the ground and Sloping with their upper ends hanging over the
Ditch. The whole had been burnt down, so that it is probable that this
place had been taken and destroy'd by an Enemy. The people on this side
of the Bay seem now to have no houses or fix'd habitations, but Sleep in
the open Air, under Trees and in small Temporary shades; but to all
appearance they are better off on the other side, but there we have not
set foot. In the morning, being dirty rainy weather, I did not Expect any
of the Natives off with fish, but thinking that they might have some
ashore I sent a Boat with some Trade, who return'd about noon loaded with
Oysters, which they got in the River which is abreast of the Ship, but
saw no fish among the Natives.

Sunday, 12th. P.M. had Strong Gales at North-East, and hazey, rainy
weather; A.M. a fresh breeze at North-West, and Clear weather. In the
morning got on board a Turn of Water, and afterwards sent the Long boat
into the River for Oysters to take to sea with us; and I went with the
Pinnace and Yawl, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, over to the
North side of the Bay in order to take a View of the Country and the
Fortified Village which stands there. We landed about a mile from it, and
were meet by the inhabitants in our way thither, who, with a great deal
of good nature and friendship, conducted us into the place and shew'd us
everything that was there.

This village is built upon a high Promontory or point on the North side
and near the head of the Bay. It is in some places quite inaccessible to
man, and in others very difficult, except on that side which faced the
narrow ridge of the hill on which it stands. Here it is defended by a
double ditch, a bank and 2 rows of Picketing, the inner row upon the
Bank; but not so near the Crown but what there was good room for men to
Walk and handle their Arms between the Picketing and the inner Ditch. The
outer Picketing was between the 2 Ditches, and laid sloping with their
upper ends hanging over the inner Ditch. The Depth of this Ditch from the
bottom to the Crown of the bank was 24 feet. Close within the inner
Plcketing was erected by strong Posts a stage 30 feet high and 40 in
length and 6 feet broad. The use of this stage was to stand upon to throw
Darts at the Assailants, and a number of Darts lay upon it for that
purpose. At right angles to this Stage and a few paces from it was
another of the same Construction and bigness; this stood likewise within
the Picketing, and was intended for the same use as the other--viz., to
stand upon to throw stones and darts upon the Enemy as they advanc'd up
the side of the Hill where lay the Main way into the place. It likewise
might be intended to defend some little outworks and hutts that lay at
the Skirts and on this side of the Hill. These outworks were not intended
as advanced Posts, but for such of the Inhabitants to live in as had not
room in the Main works, but had taken Shelter under it. Besides the works
on the land side, above described, the whole Villiage was Pallisaded
round with a line of pretty strong Picketing run round the Edge of the
hill. The ground within having not been level at first, but laid Sloping,
they had divided it into little squares and Leveled each of these. These
squares lay in the form of an Amphitheatre, and were each of them
Pallisaded round, and had communication one with another by narrow lanes
and little gateways, which could easily be stoped up, so that if an Enemy
had forced the outer Picketing he had several others to incounter before
the place could be easily reduced, supposing them to defend everyone of
the places one after another. The main way leading into this
fortification was up a very steep part of the Hill and thro' a narrow
passage about 12 feet long and under one of the Stages. I saw no door nor
gate, but it might very soon have been barricaded up. Upon the whole I
looked upon it to be very strong and well choose Post, and where a small
number of resolute men might defend themselves a long time against a vast
superior force, Arm'd in the manner as these People are. These seem'd to
be prepared against a Siege, having laid up in store an immense quantity
of Fern roots and a good many dry'd fish; but we did not see that they
had any fresh Water nearer than a brook which runs close under the foot
of a hill, from which I suppose they can at times get water, tho'
besiged, and keep it in gouards until they use it. Under the foot of the
point on which the Village stands are 2 Rocks, the one just broke off
from the Main and other detatched a little from it. They are both very
small, and more fit for Birds to inhabit than men; yet there are houses
and places of defence on each of them, and about a Mile to Eastward of
these is another of these small Fortified rocks, which communicates with
the Main by a Narrow pathway, where there is a small Villiage of the
Natives. Many works of this kind we have seen upon small Islands and
Rocks and Ridges of hills on all parts of the Coast, besides a great
number of Fortified towns, to all appearances Vastly superior to this I
have described. From this it should seem that the People must have long
and frequent Warrs, and must have been long accustomed to it, otherwise
they never would have invented such strong holds as these, the Erecting
of which must cost them immense labour, considering the Tools they have
to work with, which are only made of Wood and Stone. It is a little
strange that with such a Warlike People, as these undoubtedly are, no
Omissive weapons are found among them, such as bows and Arrows, Slings,
etc., things in themselves so easily invented, and are common in every
other part of the world. The Arms they use are long spears or Lances, a
Staff about 5 feet long. Some of these are pointed at one end like a
Serjeant's Halberd, others are round and Sharp; the other ends are broad,
something like the blade of an Oar. They have another sort about 4 1/2
feet long; these are shaped at one End like an Axe, and the other is made
with a Sharp point. They have short Truncheons about a foot long, which
they call Pattoo Pattoas; some made of wood, some of bone, and others of
Stone. Those made of wood are Variously shaped, but those made of bone
and Stone are of one shape, which is with a round handle, a broadish
blade, which is thickest in the Middle and taper'd to an Edge all round.
The use of these are to knock Men's brains out, and to kill them outright
after they are wounded; and they are certainly well contrived things for
this purpose. Besides these Weapons they Throw stones and Darts; the
Darts are 10 or 12 feet long, are made of hard wood, and are barbed at
one end. They handle all their Arms with great Agility, particularly
their long Pikes or Lances, against which we have no weapon that is an
equal match except a Loaded Musquet.

Monday, 13th. P.M., Gentle Breezes at North-West and Clear weather. After
taking a Slight View of the Country and Loaded both boats with Sellery,
which we found in Great plenty near the Sea beach, we return'd on board
about 5 o'Clock. The Long boat at the same time return'd out of the River
Loaded as deep as she could swim with Oysters. And now I intended to put
to Sea in the morning if wind and weather will permit. In the night had
the wind at South-East, with rainy, dirty, hazey weather, which continued
all day, so that I could not think of Sailing, but thought myself very
happy in being in a good Port. Samuel Jones, Seaman, having been confin'd
since Saturday last for refusing to come upon deck when all hands were
called, and afterwards refused to Comply with the orders of the officers
on deck, he was this morning punished with 12 lashes and remited back to
confinement.

Tuesday, 14th. Fresh Gales, Easterly, and rainy, Dirty weather.

Wednesday, 15th. In the evening I went in the Pinnace and landed upon one
of the Islands that lies off of the South Head of the Bay, with a view to
see if I could discover any sunken rocks or other Dangers lying before
the Entrance of the Bay, as there was a pretty large swell at this Time.
The Island we landed upon was very small, yet there were upon it a
Village, the inhabitants of which received us very friendly. This little
Village was laid out in small Oblong squares, and each pailisaded round.
The Island afforded no fresh Water, and was only accessible on one side:
from this I concluded that it was not choose for any Conveniency it could
afford them, but for its Natural Strength.

[Sail from Mercury Bay, New Zealand.]

At 7 A.M. weigh'd, with a light breeze at West, and clear weather, and
made Sail out of the Bay, steering North-East, for the Northermost of a
Number of Islands lying off the North point of the Bay. These Islands are
of Various extents, and lye Scattered to the North-West in a parallel
direction with the Main as far as we could see. I was at first afraid to
go within them, thinking that there was no safe Passage, but I afterwards
thought that we might; and I would have attempted it, but the wind,
coming to the North-West, prevented it, so that we were obliged to stand
out to Sea. At Noon was in the Latitude of 36 degrees 4 minutes South.
The Northermost Island, above mentioned, bore North, distant half a
League; the Court of Aldermen, South-East by South, distant 6 Leagues;
and the Bay Sail'd from, which I have named Mercury Bay, on account of
the observation being made there, South-West by West, distant 6 Miles.

Mercury Bay* (* At the head of Mercury Bay is a small settlement called
Whitianga.) lies in the Latitude of 36 degrees 47 minutes South, and the
Longitude of 184 degrees 4 minutes West, from the Meridian of Greenwich.
It lies in South-West between 2 and 3 Leagues. There are several Islands
lying both to the Southward and Northward of it, and a Small high Island
or Rock in the Middle of the Entrance. Within this Island the depth of
water doth no were Exceed 9 or 8 fathoms; the best Anchorage is in a
sandy Bay which lies just within the South head in 5 and 4 fathoms,
bringing a high Tower Rock, which lies without the head, in one with the
head, or just shut in behind it. Here it is very Convenient Wooding and
Watering, and in the River are an immense quantity of Oysters and other
small Shell fish; and this is the only thing it is remarkable for, and
hath occasioned my giving it the Name of Oyster River. But the Snugest
and Safest place for a Ship to lay in that wants to stay there any time
is in the River at the head of the Bay, and where there is every
conveniency the place can afford. To sail up and into it keep the South
shore all the way on board. As we did not learn that the Natives had any
name for this River, I have called it the River of Mangroves,* (* Still
so called.) because of the great quantity of these Trees that are found
in it. The Country on the South-East side of this River and Bay is very
barren, producing little else but Fern, and such other plants as delight
in a Poor Soil. The land on the North-West side is pretty well cover'd
with wood, the Soil more fertile, and would no doubt produce the
Necessarys of Life, was it Cultivated. However, this much must be said
against it, that it is not near so Rich nor fertile as the lands we have
seen to the Southward; and the same may be said of its inhabitants, who,
although pretty numerous, are poor to the highest degree when Compar'd to
others we have seen. They have no Plantations, but live only on Fern
roots and fish; their Canoes are mean, and without ornament, and so are
their Houses, or Hutts, and in general everything they have about them.
This may be owing to the frequent wars in which they are Certainly
ingaged; strong proofs of this we have seen, for the people who resided
near the place where we wooded, and who Slept every night in the Open
Air, placed themselves in such a manner when they laid down to sleep as
plainly shew'd that it was necessary for them to be always upon their
Guard. They do not own Subjection to Teeratie, the Earadehi,* (* Cook did
not realize that the New Zealanders were divided into independent
tribes.) but say that he would kill them was he to come Among them; they
confirm the Custom of Eating their Enemies, so that this is a thing no
longer to be doubted. I have before observed that many of the People
about this bay had no fix'd habitations, and we thought so then, but have
since learnt that they have strong holds--or Hippas, as they call
them--which they retire to in time of danger.

We found, thrown upon the Shore in several places in this Bay, a quantity
of Iron Sand, which is brought down out of the Country by almost every
little fresh-water brook. This proves that there must be of that Ore not
far inland. Neither of the Inhabitants of this Place, nor any other where
we have been, know the use of Iron or set the least Value upon it,
preferring the most Trifling thing we could give them to a Nail, or any
sort of Iron Tools. Before we left this bay we cut out upon one of the
Trees near the Watering Place the Ship's Name, date, etc., and, after
displaying the English Colours, I took formal possession of the place in
the Name of His Majesty.

[Off Cape Colville, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 16th. Fresh breezes between the North-West and South-West, and
fair weather. At 1 P.M., having got within the Group of Islands which
lies of the North head of Mercury Bay, hauld our wind to the Northward,
and Kept plying to windward all the day between these Islands and some
others laying to the Northward of them, with a View to get under the Main
land, the Extream North-West point of which we could see, at Noon, bore
West by North, distant 6 or 8 Leagues; Latitude in Per Observation 36
degrees 33 minutes South.

Note, in speaking of Mercury Bay, I had forgot to mention that the
Mangrove Trees found there produce a resinous substance very much like
Rosin. Something of this kind, I am told, is found in both the East and
West Indies. We found it, at first, in small Lumps upon the Sea Beach,
but afterwards found it sticking to the Mangrove Trees, and by that means
found out from whence it came.

Friday, 17th. The fore and Middle parts had fresh Gales between the
South-West and West by South, and Squally. Kept plying to windward in
order to get under the land. At 6 A.M. fetched close under the lee of the
Northernmost Island in sight, then Tackd and Stood to the Southward until
11, when we tack'd and Stood to the Northward. At this time the North
head of Mercury Bay, or Point Mercury, bore South-East by East, distant 3
Leagues, being at this time between 2 and 3 Leagues from the Main land,
and abreast of a place where there appear'd to be a Harbour;* (* Probably
Waikawau Bay) but the heavy squalls which we had from the Land would not
permit us to take a nearer View of it, but soon brought us under our
Close reeft Topsails. At Noon Point Mercury bore South-East, distant 4
Leagues, and the weathermost point of the Main land in sight bore North
60 degrees West, distant 5 Leagues. Over the North-West side of Mercury
Bay is a pretty high round hill, rising sloping from the Shore of the
Bay. This hill is very conspicuous from where we now are.

Saturday, 18th. First part strong Gales at South-West and
South-South-West, with heavy squalls: in the morning had Gentle breezes
at South and South-East, towards noon had Whifling light Airs all round
the Compass. Kept plying to windward under close Reeft Topsails until
daylight, at which time we had got close under the Main, and the wind
coming at South-East we made sail and steer'd North-West by West, as the
land lays, keeping close in shore. At 6 we passed a small Bay* (* Charles
Cove.) wherein there appear'd to be Anchorage, and pretty good Shelter
from the Sea Winds, at the Entrance of which lies a Rock pretty high
above water. 4 Miles farther to the West-North-West is a very Conspicuous
promontory or point of land which we got abreast of about 7 o'Clock; it
lies in the Latitude of 36 degrees 26 minutes South and North 48 degrees
West, 9 Leagues from Point Mercury. From this point the Land trends West
1/2 South near one League, then South-South-East as far as we could see.
Besides the Islands laying without us we could see land round by the
South-West as far as North-West, but whether this was the Main or Islands
was not possible for us at this Time to determine; the fear of loosing
the Main land determin'd me to follow its direction. With this View we
hauld round the point* (* Cape Colville.) and Steer'd to the Southward,
but meeting with Whifling light Airs all round the Compass, we made but
little progress untill noon, when we found ourselves by Observation in
the Latitude of 36 degrees 29 minutes South; a small Island* (* Channel
Island.) which lays North-West 4 Miles from the Promontory
above-mentioned bore North by East, distant 6 1/2 Miles, being at this
time about 2 Miles from the Shore. While we lay under the land 2 large
Canoes came off to us; in one of them were 62 people; they staid about us
some time, then began to throw stones into the Ship, upon which I fir'd a
Musquet ball thro' one of the Canoes. After this they retir'd ashore.

Sunday, 19th. At 1 p.m. a breeze sprung up at East, which afterwards came
to North-East, and with it we steer'd along shore South by East and
South-South-East, having from 25 to 18 fathoms Water. At 1/2 past 7,
having run 7 or 8 Leagues since Noon, we Anchor'd in 23 fathoms, not
choosing to run any farther in the Dark, having the land on both sides of
us forming the Entrance of a Streight, Bay or River, lying in South by
East, for on that point of the Compass we could see no land. At daylight
A.M., the wind being still favourable, we weighed and run under an Easy
sail up the inlet, keeping nearest the East side. Soon after we had got
under Sail 3 large Canoes came off to the Ship, and several of the people
came on board upon the very first invitation; this was owing to their
having heard of our being upon the Coast and the manner we had treated
the Natives. I made each of those that came on board a small present, and
after about an Hour's stay they went away well Satisfied. After having
run 5 Leagues from the place where we Anchor'd last night our Depth of
Water gradually decreased to 6 fathoms, and into less I did not choose to
go, and as the wind blew right up the inlet and tide of flood, we came to
an Anchor nearly in the middle of the Channell, which is here about 11
Miles over, and after this sent 2 Boats to sound, the one on one side and
the other on the other side.

[At Frith of Thames, North Island, New Zealand.]

Monday, 20th. Moderate breezes at South-South-East and fair weather. At 2
p.m. the boats return'd from sounding, not having found above 3 feet more
water than were we now lay; upon this I resolved to go no farther with
the Ship but to examine the head of the Bay in the Boat, for as it
appeard to run a good way inland, I thought this a good opportunity to
see a little of the interior part of the Country and its produce.
Accordingly at daylight in the morning I set out with the Pinnace and
Long boat accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia. We found the
inlet end in a River, about 9 miles above the Ship, into which we Enter'd
with the first of the flood, and before we had gone 3 Miles up it found
the Water quite fresh. We saw a number of Natives and landed at one of
their Villages, the inhabitants of which received us with open Arms. We
made but a Short stay with them but proceeded up the river until near
Noon, when finding the face of the country to continue pretty much the
same, and no alteration in the Course or stream of the River or the least
probability of seeing the end of it, we landed on the West side in order
to take a View of the lofty Trees which Adorn its banks, being at this
time 12 or 14 Miles within the Entrance, and here the Tide of Flood runs
as strong as it does in the River Thames below bridge.

Tuesday, 21st. After Landing as above-mention'd, we had not gone a
hundred yards into the woods before we found a Tree that girted 19 feet 8
inches, 6 feet above the ground, and having a Quadrant with me, I found
its length from the root to the first branch to be 89 feet; it was as
Streight as an Arrow and Taper'd but very little in proportion to its
length, so that I judged that there was 356 Solid feet of timber in this
Tree, clear of the branches. We saw many others of the same sort, several
of which were Taller than the one we measured, and all of them very
stout; there were likewise many other sorts of very Stout Timber Trees,
all of them wholy unknown to any of us. We brought away a few specimens,
and at 3 o'Clock we embarqued in order to return (but not before we had
named this river the Thames,* (* The flourishing town of Thames now
stands at the eastern entrance of the river: population nearly 5000. Gold
is found in the vicinity.) on account of its bearing some resemblance to
that River in England) on board with the very first of the Ebb. In our
return down the river, the inhabitants of the Village where we landed in
going, seeing that we return'd by another Channell, put off in their
Canoes and met us and Trafficked with us in the most friendly manner
immaginable, until they had disposed of the few Trifles they had. The
tide of Ebb just carried us out of the narrow part of the River into the
Sea reach, as I may call it, where meeting with the flood and a Strong
breeze at North-North-West obliged us to come to a Grapnel, and we did
not reach the Ship until 7 o'Clock in the A.M. Intending to get under
Sail at high water the Long boat was sent to take up the Kedge Anchor,
but it blow'd so strong that she could not reach the Buoy, and the gale
increasing soon obliged us to vear away more Cable and Strike Top Gallant
Yards.

Wednesday, 22nd. Winds at North-North-West. The A.M. fresh Gales and
hazey with rain; the remainder, moderate and Clear. At 3 p.m. the Tide of
Ebb making, we took up our Anchors and got under Sail and ply'd down the
River until 8 o'Clock, when we again came to an Anchor in 7 fathoms,
muddy bottom. At 3 a.m. weigh'd with the first of the Ebb and keept
plying until the flood obliged us to anchor again. After this I went in
the Pinnace over to the Western Shore, but found there neither
inhabitants or anything else worthy of Note. At the time I left the Ship
a good many of the Natives were alongside and on board Trafficking with
our people for such Trifles as they had, and seem'd to behave as well as
people could do, but one of them took the 1/2 hour glass out of the
Bittacle, and was caught in the very fact, and for which Mr. Hicks, who
was Commanding Officer, brought him to the Gangway and gave him a Dozen
lashes with a Catt of nine Tails. The rest of the people seem'd not
displeased at it when they came to know what it was for, and some old man
beat the fellow after he had got into his Canoe; however, soon after this
they all went away.

Thursday, 23rd. P.M. Gentle breezes at North-North-West and fair weather.
Between 3 and 4 o'Clock got under Sail with the first of the Ebb and
ply'd to windward until 9 when we anchor'd in 16 fathoms over upon the
East shore. In the night had light Airs and Calm; at 3 A.M. weighed but
had little or no wind until near noon, when a light breeze sprung up at
North-North-West. At this time we were close under the West shore in 7
fathoms Water; Latitude 36 degrees 51 minutes South.

[Description of Frith of Thames, New Zealand.]

Friday, 24th. P.M., Fresh Gales and dark, Cloudy, squally weather, with
Thunder, Lightning, and rain. Winds from the North-West to the
South-West, and this last carried us by 7 o'Clock without the North-West
point of the River, but the weather being bad and having land on all
sides of us, and a Dark night coming on, I thought it most adviseable to
Tack and stretch in under ye Point where we Anchor'd in 19 fathoms. At 5
a.m. weighed and made Sail to the North-West under our Courses and double
Reef'd Topsails, the wind being at South-West by West and
West-South-West, a strong Gale and Squally blowing right off the land,
which would not permit us to come near it, so that from the time of our
getting under Sail until' Noon (during which time we ran 12 Leagues) we
had but a slight and distant View of the Coast and was not able to
distinguish wether the points we saw were parts of the Main or Islands
laying before it, for we never once lost sight of the Main Land.* (* The
Endeavour was now in Hauraki Gulf and had passed the harbour where
Auckland now stands, which is hidden behind a number of islands.) At noon
our Latitude by observation was 36 degrees 15 minutes 20 seconds South,
being at this time not above 2 Miles from a Point of Land on the Main and
3 1/2 Leagues from a very high Island* (* Little Barrier Island, now
(1892) about to be made a reserve to protect native fauna.) which bore
North-East by East of us; in this Situation had 26 fathoms Water. The
farthest point we could see on the Main bore from us North-West, but we
could see several small Islands laying to the Northward of that
direction. The point of land we are now abreast off, I take to be the
North-West Extremity of the River Thames, for I shall comprehend under
that Name the Deep Bay we have been in for this week past, the North-East
point of which is the Promontory we past on Saturday morning last, and
which I have named Cape Colvill in honour of the Right hon'ble the Lord
Colvill;* (* Cook had served under Rear Admiral Lord Colville in
Newfoundland.) Latitude 36 degrees 26 minutes South; Longitude 184
degrees 27 minutes West. It rises directly from the Sea to a Considerable
height, but what makes it most remarkable is a high Rock standing close
to the pitch of the point, and from some points of view may be
distinguished at a very great distance. From the South-West point of this
Cape the river Extends itself in a direct line South by East, and is no
where less than 3 Leagues broad until' you are 14 Leagues above the Cape,
there it is at once Contracted to a Narrow stream. From this place it
still continues the same South by East Course thro' a low flat Country or
broad Valley that lies Parrallel with the Sea Coast, the End of which we
could not see. The land on the East side of the Broadest part of this
river is Tollerable high and hilly, that on the West side is rather low,
but the whole is cover'd with woods and Verdure and looks to be pretty
fertile, but we saw but a few small places that were Cultivated. About
the Entrance of the narrow part of the River the land is mostly Cover'd
with Mangroves and other Shrubs, but farther in are immense woods of as
stout lofty timber as is to be found perhaps in any other part of the
world. In many places the woods grow close upon the very banks of the
River, but where it does not the land is Marshey such as we find about
the Thames in England. We saw poles stuck up in many places in the River
to set nets for Catching of fish; from this we immagin'd that there must
be plenty of fish, but of what sort we know not for we saw none. The
Greatest Depth of Water we found was 26 fathoms and decreaseth pretty
gradually as you run up to 1 1/2 and 1 fathom. In the mouth of the
fresh-water Stream or narrow part is 3 and 4 fathoms, but before this are
sand banks and large flatts; Yet, I believe, a Ship of a Moderate draught
of Water may go a long way up this River with a flowing Tide, for I
reckon that the Tides rise upon a perpendicular near 10 feet, and is high
water at the full and Change of the Moon about 9 o'Clock. Six Leagues
within Cape Colvill, under the Eastern Shore, are several small Islands,
these Islands together with the Main seem'd to form some good Harbours.*
(* Coromandel Harbour.) Opposite to these Islands under the Western Shore
lies some other Islands, and it appear'd very probable that these form'd
some good Harbours likewise.* (* Auckland Harbour is one of them.) But
even supposing there were no Harbours about this River, it is good
anchoring in every part of it where the depth of Water is Sufficient,
being defended from the Sea by a Chain of Large and Small Islands which I
have named Barrier Isles, lying across the Mouth of it extending
themselves North-West and South-East 10 Leagues. The South end of these
Islands lies North-East 4 1/2 Leagues from the North-West point of the
River, which I have named point Rodney; it lies West-North-West 9 leagues
from Cape Colvill, Latitude 36 degrees 15 minutes; Longitude 184 degrees
58 minutes West. The Natives residing about this River do not appear to
be very numerous considering the great Extent of Country; at least not
many came off to the Ship at one Time, and as we were but little ashore
ourselves we could not so well judge of their numbers. They are a Strong,
well made, active People as any we have seen yet, and all of them Paint
their Bodys with Red Oker and Oil from Head to foot, a thing that we have
not seen before. Their Canoes are large, well built and Ornamented with
Carved work in general as well as most we have seen.

Saturday, 25th. P.M., had fresh Gales at South-West, and Squally weather.
We kept standing along Shore to the North-West, having the Main land on
the one side and Islands on the other; our Soundings were from 26 to 12
fathoms. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. we Anchor'd in a Bay in 14 fathoms, sandy
bottom. We had no sooner come to an Anchor than we caught between 90 and
100 Bream (a fish so called), this occasioned my giving this place the
Name of Bream Bay.* (* Whangarei Bay.) The 2 points which forms this Bay
lie North and South 5 Leagues from each other. The Bay is every where
pretty broad and between 3 and 4 Leagues deep; at the bottom of it their
appears to be a fresh water River.* (* Whangarei River. The district is
very fertile. Coal mines are in the vicinity, and coal is exported.) The
North head of the Bay, called Bream head, is high land and remarkable on
account of several peaked rocks ranged in order upon the top of it; it
lies in the Latitude 35 degrees 46 minutes South and North 41 degrees
West, distant 17 1/2 Leagues from Cape Colvill. This Bay may likewise be
known by some Small Islands lying before it called the Hen and Chickens,
one of which is pretty high and terminates at Top in 2 peaks. The land
between Point Rodney and Bream Head, which is 10 Leagues, is low and
wooded in Turfs, and between the Sea and the firm land are white sand
banks. We saw no inhabitants but saw fires in the Night, a proof that the
Country is not uninhabited. At daylight A.M. we left the Bay and directed
our Course along shore to the northward, having a Gentle breeze at South
by West and Clear weather. A little after sunrise found the Variation to
be 12 degrees 42 minutes Easterly. At Noon, our Latitude by observation
was 36 degrees 36 minutes South; Bream head bore South distant 10 Miles;
some small Islands (Poor Knights) at North-East by North distant 3
Leagues, and the Northermost land in sight bore North-North-West, being
at this Time 2 miles from the Shore, and in this Situation had 26
fathoms; the land here about is rather low and pretty well cover'd with
wood and seems not ill inhabited.

[Off Cape Brett, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 26th. P.M., Gentle breezes between the East-North-East and North,
kept ranging along shore to the Northward. At the distance of 4 or 5
Miles off saw several Villages and some Cultivated lands; towards evening
several Canoes came off to us, and some of the Natives ventur'd on board;
to 2, who appear'd to be Chiefs, I gave presents. After these were gone
out of the Ship, the others became so Troublesome that in order to get
rid of them we were at the expence of 2 or 3 Musquet Balls, and one 4
pound Shott, but as no harm was intended them, none they received, unless
they hapned to over heat themselves in pulling on shore. In the Night had
variable light Airs, but towards morning had a light breeze at South, and
afterward at South-East; with this we proceeded slowly to the Northward.
At 6 a.m. several Canoes came off from the place where they landed last
night, and between this and noon many more came from other parts. Had at
one time a good many of the people on board, and about 170 alongside;
their behaviour was Tolerable friendly, but we could not prevail upon
them to Traffic with us. At noon, the Mainland Extending from South by
East to North-West by West; a remarkable point of land bore West, distant
4 or 5 miles. Latitude Observed 35 degrees 11 minutes South.

Monday, 27th. P.M., Gentle breezes Easterly, and Clear weather. At 3
passed the point of land afore-mentioned, which I have named Cape Brett
in honour of Sir Piercy.* (* Rear Admiral Sir Piercey Brett was one of
the Lords of the Admiralty when the Endeavour sailed.) The land of this
Cape is considerable higher than any part of the Adjacent Coast. At the
very point of the Cape is a high round Hillock, and North-East by North,
near one Mile from this is a small high Island or Rock with a hole
pierced thro' it like the Arch of a Bridge, and this was one reason why I
gave the Cape the above name, because Piercy seem'd very proper for that
of the Island. This Cape, or at least some part of it, is called by the
Natives Motugogogo; Latitude 35 degrees 10 minutes 30 seconds South,
Longitude 185 degrees 25 minutes West. On the West side of Cape Brett is
a large and pretty deep Bay* (* The Bay of Islands.) lying in South-West
by West, in which there appear'd to be several small Islands. The point
that forms the North-West entrance I have named Point Pocock; it lies
West 1/4 North, 3 or 4 Leagues from Cape Brett. On the South-West side of
this Bay we saw several Villages situated both on Islands and on the Main
land, from whence came off to us several large Canoes full of People,
but, like those that had been alongside before, would not Enter into a
friendly Traffick with us, but would Cheat whenever they had an
opportunity. The people in these Canoes made a very good appearance,
being all stout well-made men, having their Hair--which was black--comb'd
up and tied upon the Crown of their heads, and there stuck with white
feathers; in each of the Canoes were 2 or 3 Chiefs, and the Habits of
these were rather superior to any we had yet seen. The Cloth they wore
was of the best sort, and cover'd on the outside with Dog Skins put on in
such a manner as to look Agreeable enough to the Eye. Few of these people
were Tattow'd or marked in the face, like those we have seen farther to
the South, but several had their Backsides Tattow'd much in the same
manner as the inhabitants of the Islands within the Tropics. In the
Course of this day, that is this afternoon and Yesterday forenoon, we
reckoned that we had not less than 400 or 500 of the Natives alongside
and on board the ship, and in that time did not range above 6 or 8
Leagues of the Sea Coast, a strong proof that this part of the Country
must be well inhabited. In the Evening, the Wind came to the Westward of
North, and we Tack'd and stood off North-East until 11 o'Clock, when the
wind coming more favourable we stood again to the Westward. At 8 a.m we
were within a Mile of Groups of Islands lying close under the Mainland
and North-West by West 1/2 West, distance 22 Miles from Cape Brett. Here
we lay for near 2 Hours, having little or no wind. During this time
several Canoes came off to the Ship, and 2 or 3 of them sold us some
fish--Cavallys as they are called--which occasioned my giving the Islands
the same name. After this some others began to Pelt us with Stones, and
would not desist at the firing of 2 Musquet Balls thro' one of their
Boats; at last I was obliged to pepper 2 or 3 fellows with small Shott,
after which they retir'd, and the wind coming at North-West we stood off
to Sea. At Noon, Cavally Islands bore South-West by South, distant 4
Miles; Cape Brett South-East, distant 7 Leagues, and the Westermost land
in sight, making like Islands, bore West by North; Latitude in per
Observation 34 degrees 55 minutes South.

Tuesday, 28th. A Fresh breeze from the Westward all this day, which being
right in our teeth, we kept beating to windward with all the sail we
could Crowd, but instead of Gaining we lost ground. A.M., being close in
with the land to the Westward of the Bay, which lies on this side of Cape
Brett, we saw at some distance inland 2 pretty large Villages Pallisaded
in the same manner as others we have seen. At noon, Cape Brett South-East
by East 1/2 East, distant 6 Leagues; Latitude observed 35 degrees 0
minutes South.

[At Bay of Islands, North Island, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 29th. Fresh Gales at North-West and West-North-West, kept
plying to Windward until 7 A.M., and finding that we lost ground every
board we made, I thought I could not do better than to bear up for the
Bay, which lies to the Westward of Cape Brett, it being at this Time not
above 2 Leagues to Leeward of us, for by putting in there we should gain
some knowledge of it, on the Contrary, by Keeping the Sea with a Contrary
wind, we were sure of meeting with nothing new. These reasons induced me
to bear away for the Bay,* (* The Bay of Islands.) and at 11 o'Clock we
Anchor'd under the South-West side of one of the many Islands* (* Motu
Arohia.) that line the South-East side of it, in 4 1/2 fathoms; but as we
fell into this shoald water all at once, we Anchor'd sooner than was
intended, and sent the Master with 2 Boats to sound, who found that we
had got upon a Bank that spitted off from the North-West end of the
Island, and that on the outside of it was 8 and 10 fathoms Water.

Thursday, 30th. P.M., had the winds Westerly, with some very heavy
Showers of Rain. We had no sooner come to an Anchor than between 300 and
400 of the Natives Assembled in their Canoes about the Ship; some few
were admitted on board, and to one of the Chiefs I gave a piece of Broad
Cloth and distributed a few Nails, etc., among some others of them. Many
of these People had been off to the Ship when we were at Sea, and seem'd
to be very sencible of the use of Fire Arms, and in the Trade we had with
them they behaved Tolerable well, but continued so not long, before some
of them wanted to take away the Buoy,* (* The buoy on the anchor.) and
would not desist at the firing of several Musquets until one of them was
hurt by small Shott, after which they withdrew a small distance from the
Ship, and this was thought a good opportunity to try what Effect a Great
Gun would have, as they paid so little respect to a Musquet, and
accordingly one was fir'd over their Heads. This, I believe, would have
sent them quite off, if it had not been for Tupia, who soon prevail'd on
them to return to the Ship, when their behaviour was such as gave us no
room to suspect that they meant to give us any farther Trouble.

After the Ship was moved into Deeper Water I went with the Pinnace and
Yawl, mann'd and Arm'd, and landed upon the Island, accompanied by Mr.
Banks and Dr. Solander. We had scarce landed before all the Canoes left
the Ship and landed at different parts of the Island, and before we could
well look about us we were surrounded by 2 or 300 People, and,
notwithstanding that they were all Arm'd, they came upon us in such a
confused, straggling manner that we hardly suspected that they meant us
any harm; but in this we were very soon undeceived, for upon our
Endeavouring to draw a line on the sand between us and them they set up
the War dance, and immediately some of them attempted to seize the 2
Boats. Being disappointed in this, they next attempted to break in upon
us, upon which I fir'd a Musquet loaded with small Shott at one of the
Forwardest of them, and Mr. Banks and 2 of the Men fir'd immediately
after. This made them retire back a little, but in less than a minute one
of the Chiefs rallied them again. Dr. Solander, seeing this, gave him a
peppering with small Shott, which sent him off and made them retire a
Second time. They attempted to rally several times after, and only seem'd
to want some one of resolution to head them; but they were at last
intirely dispers'd by the Ship firing a few shott over their Heads and a
Musquet now and then from us. In this Skirmish only one or 2 of them was
Hurt with small Shott, for I avoided killing any one of them as much as
Possible, and for that reason withheld our people from firing. We had
observed that some had hid themselves in a Cave in one of the Rocks, and
sometime after the whole was over we went Towards them. The Chief who I
have mentioned to have been on board the Ship hapned to be one of these;
he, his wife, and another came out to meet us, but the rest made off.
Those 3 people came and sat down by us, and we gave them of such things
as we had about us. After this we went to another part of the Island,
where some of the inhabitants came to us, and were as meek as lambs.
Having taken a View of the Bay from the Island and Loaded both Boats with
Sellery, which we found here in great plenty, we return'd on board, and
at 4 A.M. hove up the Anchor in order to put to Sea, with a light breeze
at East, but it soon falling Calm, obliged us to come too again, and
about 8 or 9 o'Clock, seeing no probability of our getting to Sea, I sent
the Master to Sound the Harbour. But before this I order'd Matthew Cox,
Henry Stevens, and Emanl Parreyra to be punished with a dozen lashes each
for leaving their duty when ashore last night, and digging up Potatoes
out of one of the Plantations.* (* Cook's care to deal fairly with
natives is evinced by this punishment.) The first of the 3 I remitted
back to Confinement because he insisted that there was no harm in what he
had done. All this Forenoon had abundance of the Natives about the Ship
and some few on board. We Trafficked with them for a few Trifles, in
which they dealt very fair and friendly.

[December 1769.]

Friday, 1st December. Winds at North-North-West a Gentle breeze. At 3
p.m., the Boats having return'd from sounding, I went with them over to
the South side of the Harbour, and landed upon the Main, accompanied by
Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We met with nothing new or remarkable. The
place where we landed was in a small sandy Cove, where there are 2 small
Streams of Fresh Water and Plenty of Wood for fuel. Here were likewise
several little Plantations planted with Potatoes and Yams. The Soil and
Natural produce of the Country was much the same as what we have hitherto
met with. The people we saw behaved to us with great marks of friendship.
In the evening we had Some very heavy showers of rain, and this brought
us on board sooner than we intended. A.M., the wind being still contrary,
I sent some people ashore upon the Island to cut Grass for our Sheep, in
the doing of which the inhabitants gave them no sort of disturbance, and
in the same friendly manner did those behave that were alongside the
Ship. Punished Matthew Cox with 6 Lashes, and then dismiss'd him.

Saturday, 2nd. Winds at North-West and North. P.M. a Gentle breeze; the
remainder Strong Gales and hazey, with much rain towards Noon. At 8 a.m.
hoisted out the Long boat, and sent her ashore for water, and the Pinnace
to haul the Sean; but they had not got well ashore before it began to
blow and rain very hard. This occasioned them to return on board with one
Turn of water and but a very few fish.

Sunday, 3rd. P.M., Strong Gales at North, with rain; the remainder Gentle
breezes from the Westward. A.M., sent 2 Boats to sound the Harbour and
one to haul the Sean, the latter of which met with very little Success.

Monday, 4th. Gentle breezes at North-West, West-North-West, and West;
very fair weather. P.M., Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself landed upon
one of the Islands* (* Probably Motu-Rua.) on the North side of the one
the Ship lays under. This Island is about 3 Miles in Circuit, and hath
upon it 40 or 50 Acres of Land cultivated and planted with roots; here
are likewise several small streams of Excellent water. This Island, as
well as most others in this Bay, seem to be well inhabited. At 4 a.m.
sent the Long boat to the above Island for water and some hands to cut
Grass, and at 9, I went with the Pinnace and Yawl over upon the Main,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. In our way we passed by a
point of land on which stood a Hippa or Fortified Village, the
inhabitants of which waved us to come ashore, and accordingly we landed,
which we had no sooner done than the People came about us with Quantitys
of various sorts of fish, which we purchased of them for meer Trifles.
After this they shew'd us the Village, which was a neat Compact place,
and its situation well Choose. There were 2 or 3 more near unto this, but
these we did not go to. We afterwards went a little way into the Country,
and had some of the Natives along with us; we met with a good deal of
Cultivated land, planted mostly with sweet potatoes. The face of the
Country appear'd Green and pleasant, and the soil seem'd to be pretty
rich and proper for Cultivation. The land is every where about this Bay
of a moderate height, but full of small Hills and Vallies, and not much
incumbered with wood. We met with about 1/2 a dozen Cloth plants, being
the same as the inhabitants of the Islands lying within the Tropics make
their finest Cloth on. This plant must be very scarce among them, as the
Cloth made from it is only worn in small pieces by way of Ornaments at
their ears, and even this we have seen but very seldom. Their knowing the
use of this sort of Cloth doth in some measure account for the
extraordinary fondness they have shew'd for it above every other thing we
had to give them. Even a sheet of white paper is of more value than so
much English Cloth of any sort whatever; but, as we have been at few
places where I have not given away more or less of the latter, it's more
than probable that they will soon learn to set a value upon it, and
likewise upon Iron, a thing not one of them knows the use of or sets the
least value upon; but was European commodities in ever such Esteem among
them, they have no one thing of Equal value to give in return, at least
that we have seen.

Tuesday, 5th. P.M., had the winds at South-West and West-South-West, a
fresh breeze. At 3 o'Clock we return'd on board, and after dinner Visited
another part of the Bay, but met with nothing new. By the evening all our
Empty Casks were fill'd with water, and had at the same time got on board
a large quantity of Sellery, which is found here in great Plenty. This I
still caused to be boild every morning with Oatmeal and Portable Soup for
the Ship's Company's breakfast. At 4 a.m. weigh'd with a light breeze at
South-East, but had Variable light Airs and sometimes Calm until near
Noon, when a Gentle breeze sprung up at North. At this time we had not
got out of the Bay; our Latitude by Observation was 35 degrees 9 minutes
South. This Bay I have before observed, lies on the West side of Cape
Brett: I have named it the Bay of Islands,* (* The principal settlement
in the Bay of Islands is Russell. A little higher up the Waikare River,
at Opua, coal obtained from mines in the vicinity is shipped. At Russell,
then called Kororarika, the first settlement of missionaries was formed
in 1814 by Samuel Marsden. Here also the Government of the Island was
first established in 1840, but was soon removed to Auckland.) on account
of the Great Number which line its shores, and these help to form Several
safe and Commodious Harbours, wherein is room and Depth of Water
sufficient for any number of Shipping. The one we lay in is on the
South-West side of South-Westermost Island, that lies on the South-East
side of the Bay. I have made no accurate Survey of this Bay; the time it
would have requir'd to have done this discouraged me from attempting it;
besides, I thought it quite Sufficient to be able to Affirm with
Certainty that it affords a good Anchorage and every kind of refreshment
for Shipping, but as this was not the Season for roots, we got only fish.
Some few we Caught ourselves with hook and line and in the Sean, but by
far the greatest part we purchased of the Natives, and these of Various
sorts, such as Sharks, Stingrays, Breams, Mullet, Mackerel, and several
other sorts. Their way of Catching them is the same as ours, viz., with
Hook and line and Seans; of the last they have some prodidgious large
made all of a Strong Kind of Grass. The Mackerel are in every respect the
same as those we have in England, only some are larger than any I ever
saw in any other Part of the World; although this is the Season for this
fish, we have never been able to Catch one with hook and line. The
inhabitants of this Bay are far more numerous than at any other place we
have yet been in, and seem to live in friendship one with another,
although it doth not at all appear that they are united under one head.*
(* This district was found to be very populous when the missionaries
came.) They inhabited both the Islands and the Main, and have a Number of
Hippas, or Strong Holds, and these are all built in such places as nature
hath in a great part fortified, and what she hath left undone the people
themselves have finished. It is high water in this Bay at full and change
of the Moon about 8 o'clock, and the tide at these times rises and falls
upon a perpendicular 6 or 8 feet. It appears, from the few Observations I
have been able to make of the Tides on the Sea-Coast, that the flood
comes from the Southward, and I have lately had reasons to think that
there is a current which comes from the Westward and sets along shore to
the South-East or South-South-East, as the Land lays.

[Sail from Bay of Islands, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 6th. P.M., had a Gentle breeze at North-North-West, with which
we kept turning out of the Bay, but gain'd little or nothing; in the
evening it fell little wind; at 10 o'Clock it was Calm. At this time the
tide or Current seting the Ship near one of the Islands, where we were
very near being ashore; but, by the help of our Boats and a light Air
from the Southward, we got clear. About an hour after, when we thought
ourselves out of all danger, the Ship struck upon a Sunken rock* (*
Called Whale Rock, in Endeavour's chart.) and went immediately clear
without receiving any perceptible damage. Just before the man in the
Chains had 17 fathoms Water, and immediately after she struck 5 fathoms,
but very soon Deepned to 20. This rock lies half-a-mile West-North-West
from the Northermost or outermost Island that lies on the South-East side
of the Bay. Had light Airs from the Land and sometimes Calm until 9
o'Clock a.m.; at this time we had got out of the Bay, and a breeze
springing up at North-North-West, we stood out to Sea. At noon Cape Brett
bore South-South-East 1/2 South, distant 10 miles. Latitude observed, 34
degrees 59 minutes South.

Thursday, 7th. P.M., a fresh breeze from the Westward and Clear weather.
At 3 o'Clock took several Observations of the Sun and Moon; the mean
result of them gives 185 degrees 36 minutes West Longitude from the
Meridian of Greenwich. What winds we have had this 24 hours hath been
against us, so that at Noon we had advanced but very little to the
Westward.

Friday, 8th. Forepart of P.M. had a Gentle breeze at North-North-West,
with which we stood in shore and fetched close under the Cavalle Islands.
They are a Group of Small Islands lying close under the Main land, and 7
Leagues North 60 West from Cape Brett, and 3 1/2 Leagues from Point
Rodney. From these Islands the Main land trends West by North. We were
here Visited by several Canoes, and the People in them seem'd desirous of
Trafficking with us, but at this time a breeze of wind sprung up at
South, they could not keep up with the Ship, and I would not wait for
them. The wind did not continue long at South before it veer'd to
South-West and West, a light breeze. Found the Variation in the Evening
to be 12 degrees 42 minutes East, and in the Morning 13 degrees East.
Keept standing to the West-North-West and North-West until 10 A.M., at
which time we tacked and stood in for the Shore, being about 5 Leagues
off, and in this situation had 118 fathoms Water. At Noon Cape Brett bore
South-East, distant 13 Leagues, and the Westermost land in sight bore
West by South, being at this time about 4 Leagues from Land. Latitude in
per Observation, 34 degrees 42 minutes South.

Saturday, 9th. P.M., had a Gentle Breeze at West, which in the Evening
came to South and continued so all night; this by daylight brought us
pretty well in with the land, 7 Leagues to the Westward of the Cavalle
Isles, and where lies a deep Bay running in South-West by West and
West-South-West, the bottom of which we could but just see, and there the
land appear'd to be low and level, the 2 points which form the Entrance
lie West-North-West and East-South-East 5 Miles from each other. This Bay
I have named Doubtless Bay;* (* There is a small settlement called
Mangonui in Doubtless Bay.) the wind not permitting us to look into this
Bay we steer'd for the Westermost land we had in sight, which bore from
us West-North-West, distant 3 Leagues, but before we got the length of it
it fell calm, and continued so until 10 o'Clock, when a breeze sprung up
at West-North-West, and with it we stood off North. While we lay
becalm'd, several of the Natives came off to the Ship in 5 Canoes, but
were fearful of venturing alongside. After these were gone, 6 more came
off; these last came boldly alongside, and sold us fish of different
sorts sufficient to give all hands a little.

At noon, the Cavalle Islands bore South-East by East, distant 8 Leagues,
and the Entrance of Doubtless Bay South by West distant 3 Leagues, and
the North-West Extremity of the Land in sight, which we judge to be the
Main, bore North-West by West. Our Latitude by observation was 34 degrees
44 minutes South.

[Off Rangaunu Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 10th. Had the winds from the Western board all this day, a Gentle
breeze and clear weather. In the evening found the Variation to be 12
degrees 41 minutes East per Azimuth and 12 degrees 40 minutes by the
Amplitude; in the morning we stood Close in with the Land, 7 Leagues to
the westward of Doubtless Bay. Here the shore forms another large open
Bay; the Bottom of this and Doubtless Bay cannot be far from each other,
being to all appearance only seperated by a low neck of land from which
juts out a Peninsula or head land, which I have named Knockle Point. West
by South 6 Leagues from this point and about the Middle of the Bay is a
high Mountain or Hill standing upon a desart shore, on which account we
called it Mount Camel; Latitude 34 degrees 51 minutes; Longitude 186
degrees 50 minutes. In this Bay we had 24 and 25 fathoms Water, the
bottom good for Anchorage, but their seems to be nothing that can induce
Shipping to put into it for no Country upon Earth can look more barren
than the land about this bay doth. It is in general low, except the
Mountain just Mentioned, and the Soil to all appearance nothing but white
sand thrown up in low irregular hills, lying in Narrow ridges parrallel
with the shore; this occasioned me to name it Sandy Bay.* (* Rangaunu
Bay.) The first ridge behind the Sea beach is partly cover'd with Shrubs,
Plants, etc., but the second ridge hath hardly any green thing upon it,
which induced me to think that it lies open to the Western Sea.* (* This
is the fact.) As barren as this land appears it is not without
inhabitants. We saw a Village on this Side of Mount Camel and another on
the Eastern side of the Bay, besides 5 Canoes that were pulling off to
the Ship, but did not come up with us. At 9 a.m. we tacked and stood to
the Northward at Noon. Latitude in Per observation 34 degrees 38 minutes.
The Cavalle Isles bore South-East by East, distant 13 Leagues; the
Northern Extremity of the land in sight making like an Island bore
North-West 1/4 North, distant 9 Leagues, and Mount Camel bore South-West
by South, distant 6 Leagues. Tacked and stood in Shore.

Monday, 11th. Gentle breezes at North. M.d and pleasant weather. Keept
plying all the day, but got very little to Windward; at Noon was in the
Latitude of 34 degrees 32 minutes South, the Northermost inland set
yesterday at noon bore North-West by West, distant 6 or 7 Leagues.

Tuesday, 12th. Moderate breezes of Wind between the North-West and North
and Smooth Water, yet we gain'd very little in plying to Windward; at
Noon Mount Camel bore South by West 1/4, distant 4 or 5 Leagues. Latitude
observed 34 degrees 34 minutes South.

Wednesday, 13th. Fore part of P.M., Moderate breezes at North by West and
fair weather; stood in shore until 5 O'Clock, at which time we tack'd and
stood to the North-East being 2 Leagues to the Northward of Mount Camel
and 1 1/2 Mile from shore, and this situation had 22 fathoms water. At 10
it began to blow and rain, which brought us under double Reeft Top sails;
at 12 Tack'd and Stood to the Westward until 7 A.M. when we Tack'd and
stood again to North-East, being at this time about a Mile to windward of
the place where we tack'd last night. Soon after we Tack'd it came on to
blow very hard at North-North-West with heavy squalls attended with rain,
this brought us under our Courses and Split the Main Top sail in such a
manner that it was necessary to unbend it and bring another to the Yard.
At 10 it fell more moderate and we set the Top sails double reef'd. At
Noon had strong Gales and hazey weather, Tack'd and stood to the
Westward. No land in sight for the first time since we have been upon the
Coast.

Thursday, 14th. Strong Gales at West and West-South-West with Squalls at
times attended with Rain. At 1/2 past 3 P.M. Tack'd and stood to the
Northward. A small Island lying off Knockle point, bore South 1/2 West,
distant half a League. In the evening brought the Ship under her Courses,
having first Split the Fore and Mizen Top sails; at Midnight wore and
Stood to the Southward until 5 a.m., then Tack'd and stood to the
North-West. At this time saw the land bearing South, distant 8 or 9
Leagues; by this we found we had fell very much to Leeward since
Yesterday morning. Set the Top sails close Reeft and the people to dry
and repair the Damaged Sails. At Noon a strong Gale and clear weather,
Latitude observ'd 34 degrees 6 minutes South. Saw land bearing South-West
being the same North-Westermost land we have seen before, and which I
take to be the Northern Extremity of this Country, as we have now a large
swell rowling in from the Westward which could not well be, was we
covered by any land on that point of the Compass.* (* The Endeavour was
now to the northward of the north point of New Zealand.)

[Off North Cape, New Zealand.]

Friday, 15th. Fresh Gales at South-West, and for the most part clear
weather with a large Swell from the Westward. At 8 P.M. Tack'd and Stood
to the South-East until 8 a.m., and then Tack'd and stood to the Westward
with as much sail as the Ship could bear. At Noon we were in the Latitude
of 34 degrees 10 minutes South, and Longitude 183 degrees 45 minutes
West, and by Estimation about 15 Leagues from the Land notwithstanding we
used our utmost Endeavours to keep in with it.

Saturday, 16th. Fresh breezes between the South by West and South-West.
Clear weather with a Swell from the Westward. At 6 A.M. saw the land from
the Mast Head bearing South-South-West. Got Top Gallant Yards up and set
the Sail, unbent the Foresail to repair and brought another to the Yard.
At Noon, Latitude observ'd 33 degrees 43 minutes South; Course made since
Yesterday Noon North 60 degrees West; distance 56 Miles. The Land in
sight bearing South by West, distant 14 Leagues.

Sunday, 17th. A Gentle breeze between the South-West by West and West
with Clear weather. In standing in Shore sounded several times and had no
ground with 90 fathoms of line. At 8 a.m. Tack'd in 108 fathoms 3 or 4
miles from the Shore, being the same point of Land as we had to the
North-West of us before we were blown off. At Noon it bore South-West,
distant about 3 Miles. Mount Camel bore South by East, distant 11
Leagues, and the Westermost land in sight bore South 75 degrees West;
Latitude observ'd 34 degrees 20 minutes South. The people at work
repairing the Sails, the most of them having been Split in the late
blowing weather.

Monday, 18th. Moderate breezes at West and West-North-West and Clear
weather. At 4 p.m. Tack'd and stood in shore, in doing of which we meet
with a Strong rippling, and the Ship fell fast to leeward, occasioned, as
we thought, by a Current setting to the Eastward. At 8 Tack'd and stood
off North until 8 a.m., when we Tack'd and stood in, being about 10
Leagues from the Land. At Noon the Point of Land we were near to
yesterday at noon bore South-South-West, distant 5 Leagues. Latitude
observed 34 degrees 8 minutes South.

Tuesday, 19th. The wind still continues at West. P.M., a moderate breeze
and Clear weather. At 7 Tack'd in 35 fathoms; the point of land before
mentioned bore North-West by North, distant 4 or 5 Miles, having not
gained one inch to windward this last 24 hours, which is a great proof
that there must be a Current setting to the Eastward.* (* This strong
easterly current is now well known.) The Point of Land above mentioned I
have called North Cape, judging it to be the Northermost Extremity of
this Country. It lies in the Latitude of 34 degrees 22 minutes South and
Longitude 186 degrees 55 minutes West from Greenwich,* (* This position
is very correct.) and North 63 degrees West 31 Leagues from Cape Brett;
it forms the North Point of Sandy Bay, and is a peninsula juting out
North-East about 2 Miles, and Terminates in a Bluff head which is flatt
at Top. The Isthmus which joins this head to the Mainland is very low, on
which account the land off the Cape from several situations makes like an
Island. It appears still more remarkable when to the Southward of it by
the appearance of a high round Island at the South-East Point of the
Cape; but this is likewise a deception, being a round hill join'd to the
Cape by a low, narrow neck of Land; on the South-East side of the Cape
there appears to be anchorage, and where ships must be covered from
South-East and North-West winds. We saw a Hippa or Village upon the Cape
and some few inhabitants. In the night had some Squalls attended with
rain, which obliged us to take another Reef in our Topsails. At 8 a.m.
Tack'd and stood in Shore, and being moderate loosed a Reef out of each
Topsail and set the small sails. At noon we were in the Latitude of 34
degrees 2 minutes South, and being hazey over the land we did not see it.

Wednesday, 20th. P.M., Fresh breezes at West by North, and Clear weather.
At 6 Tack'd and stood off, North Cape bore South, distant 3 or 4 Miles.
At 4 a.m. Tack'd and stood in, Wind at West-North-West a fresh breeze,
but at 9 it increased to a Strong Gale with heavy squalls attended with
Thunder and Rain, which brought us under our Courses. At 11 it Cleared up
and the Wind came to West-South-West; we set the Topsails, double Reef'd
and Tack'd and stood to the North-West. At Noon, a Stiff Gale and Clear
weather; Latitude observed 34 degrees 14 minutes South. North Cape
South-South-West, distant 3 Leagues.

Thursday, 21st. Fresh breezes at South-West and clear weather with a
heavy swell first from the West, then from the South-West. At 8 a.m.
loosed the 2nd Reef out of the Topsails; at noon clear weather, no land
in sight. The North Cape bore South 25 degrees East, distant 24 Leagues.
Latitude observed 33 degrees 17 minutes South.

Friday, 22nd. A moderate Gale at South by West and South-South-West and
Cloudy weather. At 8 a.m. got up Top Gallant Yards and set the sails. At
Noon Latitude observ'd 33 degrees 2 minutes South. Course and distant
since Yesterday at Noon is North 69 1/2 West, 37 Miles. The North Cape
bore South 39 degrees East, distant 38 Leagues.

Saturday, 23rd. Gentle breezes between the South by West and South-West,
and Clear settled weather, with a swell from the South-West. Course and
distance sailed since Yesterday at Noon is South 60 degrees East, 30
Miles. Latitude observed 33 degrees 17 minutes South. North Cape South 36
minutes East, distant 27 Leagues.

Sunday, 24th. Light Airs next to a Calm all this 24 Hours. At 7 p.m. saw
the land from the Mast head bearing South 1/2 East; at 11 a.m. saw it
again bearing South-South-East, distant 8 Leagues. At Noon Latitude
observed 33 degrees 48 minutes South.

Monday, 25th. A Gentle breeze at South-East, the weather a little hazey.
P.M., stood to the South-West. At 4 the land above mentioned bore
South-East by South, distant 4 Leagues. It proves to be a small Island,
which we take to be the 3 Kings discover'd by Tasman; there are several
Smaller Islands or Rocks lying off the South-West end and one at the
North-East end. It lies in the Latitude of 34 degrees 10 minutes South,
and Longitude 187 degrees 45 minutes West and West 14 degrees North, 14
or 15 Leagues from the North Cape. At Midnight Tack'd and stood to the
North-East until 6 a.m., then Tack'd and stood to the Southward. At Noon
the Island of the 3 Kings bore East 8 degrees North, distant 5 or 6
Leagues. Latitude observed 34 degrees 12 minutes South, Longitude in 188
degrees 5 minutes West; variation per Azimuth taken this morning 11
degrees 25 minutes East.

Tuesday, 26th. Moderate breezes, Easterly and hazey weather; standing to
the Southward close upon a wind. At Noon was in the Latitude of 35
degrees 10 minutes South and Longitude 188 degrees 20 minutes West. The
island of the 3 Kings North 26 degrees West, distant 22 Leagues. In this
situation had no land in sight, and yet by observation we are in the
Latitude of the Bay of Islands, and by my reckoning but 30 Leagues to the
Westward of the North Cape, from whence it appears that the Northern part
of this land must be very narrow, otherwise we must have seen some part
of the West side of it.

Wednesday, 27th. Winds at East. P.M., a fresh Gale, with which we stood
to the Southward until 12 at Night, then Tack'd and Stood to the
Northward. At 4 a.m. the wind began to freshen, and increased in such a
manner that at 9 we were obliged to bring the Ship too under her
Mainsail, it blowing at this time excessive hard with heavy Squalls
attended with rain, and at the same time thick hazey weather. Course made
good since Yesterday at Noon South-South-West 1/2 West, distance 11
Miles. Latitude in 35 degrees 19 minutes South, Longitude in 188 degrees
29 minutes West. The Island of the 3 Kings, North 27 degrees East,
distant 77 Miles.

[Off North End of New Zealand.]

Thursday, 28th. The Gale continued without the least intermission until 2
a.m., when the wind fell a little and began to veer to the Southward and
to the South-West where it fixed at 4, and we made Sail and steer'd East
in for the Land under the Foresail and Mainsail, but was soon obliged to
take in the latter as it began to blow very hard and increased in such a
manner that by 8 o'Clock it was a meer Hurricane attended with rain and
the Sea run prodidgious high. At this time we wore the Ship, hauld up the
Topsail, and brought her too with her head to the North-West under a
Reefed Mainsail, but this was scarcely done before the Main Tack gave way
and we were glad to take in the Mainsail and lay too under the Mizen
staysail and Ballanced Mizen, after which we reefd the Foresail and
furl'd both it and the Mainsail. At Noon the Gale was a little abated,
but had still heavy squalls attended with rain. Our Course made good
to-day is North, a little Easterly, 29 miles; Latitude in per Account 34
degrees 50 minutes South; Longitude in 188 degrees 27 minutes West; the 3
Kings North 41 East; distant 52 Miles.

Friday, 29th. Winds at South-West and South-West by West. A very hard
Gale with Squalls but mostly fair weather. At 7 p.m. wore and lay on the
other Tack. At 6 a.m. loosed the Reef out of the Foresail and Set it and
the Reefd Mainsail. At 11 unbent both Foresail and Mainsail to repair,
and bent others and made Sail under them. At Noon Latitude observed 34
degrees 45 minutes South. Course and distance saild since yesterday East
by North 29 miles.

Saturday, 30th. Winds at South-West. P.M., hard Gales with some Squalls
attended with rain. A.M., more moderate and fair. At 8 p.m. wore and
stood to the North-West until 5 a.m., then wore and stood to the
South-East and being pretty moderate we set the Topsails close Reef'd,
but the South-West Sea runs so high that the Ship goes Bodily to leeward.
At 6 saw the land bearing North-East distant about 6 Leagues which we
judge to be the same as Tasman calls Cape Maria Van Dieman; at Noon it
bore North-North-East 1/2 East and we could see the land extend to the
East and Southward as far as South-East by East. Our Latitude by
observation 34 degrees 50 minutes South.

Sunday, 31st. Fresh gales at South-West and South-West by South
accompanied by a large Sea from the same Quarter. At 1 p.m. Tack'd and
Stood to the North-West until 8, then stood to the South-East. At this
time the Island of the 3 Kings bore North-West by West, distant 11
Leagues, and Cape Maria Van Diemen North by East. At Midnight wore and
Stood to the North-West until 4 a.m., then wore and Stood to the
South-East; at Noon our Latitude by observation was 34 degrees 42 minutes
South. The land of Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North-East by North distant
about 5 Leagues.

1770.

[January 1770.]

Monday, January 1st. P.M., fresh breezes at South-West by South and
Squally, the remainder moderate breezes at South-West by South and
South-West clear weather. At 7 p.m. Tack'd and stood to the Westward. At
this time Mount Camel bore North 83 degrees East and the Northermost land
or Cape Maria Van Diemen North by West, being distant from the Nearest
Shore 3 Leagues; in this situation had 40 fathoms Water.

NOTE. Mount Camel doth not appear to lay little more than a Mile from the
Sea on this Side* (* It is, in fact, about six miles, but the coast in
front is so low that the mistake in estimation is very natural.) and
about the same distance on the other, so that the land here cannot be
above 2 or 3 Miles broad from Sea to Sea, which is what I computed when
we were in Sandy Bay on the other side of the Coast. At 6 a.m. Tack'd and
Stood to the Eastward, the Island of the 3 Kings North-West by North. At
Noon Tack'd again and stood to the Westward, being in the Latitude of 34
degrees 37 minutes South; the Island of the 3 Kings bore North-West by
North, distant 10 or 11 Leagues; and Cape Maria Van Diemen North 31 East,
distant 4 1/2 Leagues; in this situation had 54 fathoms. I cannot help
thinking but what it will appear a little strange that at this season of
the Year we should be 3 Weeks in getting 10 Leagues to the Westward and 5
Weeks in getting 50 Leagues, for so long it is since we pass'd Cape
Brett; but it will hardly be credited that in the midst of Summer and in
the Latitude of 35 degrees South such a Gale of wind as we have had could
have hapned which for its Strength and Continuance was such as I hardly
was ever in before. Fortunately at this time we were a good distance from
land, otherwise it would have proved fatal to us.* (* The north point of
New Zealand is celebrated for bad weather.)

Tuesday, 2nd. Fresh breezes at South-South-West and West accompanied with
a rowling Sea from the South-West. At 5 p.m. the wind Veering to the
Westward we Tack'd and Stood to the Southward. At this time the North
Cape bore East 3/4 North and was just open of a point that lies 3 Leagues
West by South from it, being now well assured that it is the Northermost
Extremity of this Country and is the East point of a Peninsula which
Stretches out North-West and North-West by North 17 or 18 Leagues, and as
I have before observed is for the most part low and narrow except its
Extremity where the land is Tollerable high and Extends 4 or 5 Leagues
every way. Cape Maria Van Diemen is the West point of the Peninsula and
lies in the Latitude of 34 degrees 30 minutes South; Longitude 187
degrees 18 minutes West from Greenwich.* (* This is extraordinarily
accurate, seeing that the ship was never close to the Cape, and the
observations were all taken in bad weather. The latitude is exact, and
the longitude is only three miles in error. The persistence with which
Cook clung to this point until he could resume his exploration and
examination of the coast is very characteristic of the man. He would not
willingly miss a mile of it, nor did he.) From this Cape the Land Trends
away South-East by South and South-East to and beyond Mount Camel, and is
everywhere a barren shore affording no better prospect than what ariseth
from white sand Banks. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. the Island of the 3 Kings bore
North-West by North and Cape Maria Van Diemen North-East by East, distant
4 Leagues. At 5 a.m. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North-North-East 1/2 East
and Mount Camel East. At Noon was in the Latitude of 35 degrees 17
minutes and Cape Maria Van Diemen by judgment bore North distant 16
Leagues; having no land in sight, not daring to go near it as the wind
blow'd fresh right on shore and a high rowling Sea from the Same Quarter,
and knowing that there was no Harbour that we could put into in case we
were Caught upon a lee shore.

Wednesday, 3rd. Winds at West-South-West and South-West; a fresh breeze
and Squally, the remainder moderate with frequent Squalls attended with
rain. In the evening shortned Sail and at Midnight Tack'd and made a Trip
to the North-West until 2 a.m., then wore and stood to the Southward. At
daylight made Sail and Edged away in order to make the Land; at 10 saw it
bearing North-East and appeared to be high land; at Noon it extended from
North to East-North-East distant, by Estimation, 8 or 10 Leagues, and
Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North 2 degrees 30 minutes West, distant 33
Leagues. Our Latitude by observation was 36 degrees 2 minutes South. A
high rowling swell from the South-West.

[Off Kaipara Harbour, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 4th. Winds at South-West and South-West by South; mostly a
fresh Gale accompanied with a rowling sea from the same Quarter. Being
desirous of taking as near a View of the coast as we could with safety we
keept Edging in for it until 7 o'Clock p.m., being at this time 6 Leagues
from the Land. We then hauld our wind to South-East and keept on that
Course close upon the wind all night, sounding several times but had no
ground with 100 and 110 fathoms. At 8 o'Clock a.m. was about 5 Leagues
from the Land and a place which lies in the Latitude of 36 degrees 25
minutes that had the Appearance of a Bay or inlet bore East.* (* This was
Kaipara Harbour, although, on a closer inspection, Cook thought he had
been deceived. It is the largest harbour on this part of the coast. The
town of Helensville stands on one of its arms.) In order to see more of
this place we kept on our Course until 11 o'Clock when we were not above
3 Leagues from it, and then found that it was neither a Bay nor inlet,
but low land bounded on each side by higher lands which caused the
deception. At this time we Tack'd and stood to the North-West. At Noon we
were between 3 and 4 Leagues from the Land and in the Latitude of 36
degrees 31 minutes and Longitude 185 degrees 50 minutes West. Cape Maria
Van Diemen bore North 25 West, distant 44 1/2 Leagues. From this I form
my judgment of the direction of this Coast, which is nearly
South-South-East 3/4 East and North-North-West 3/4 West, and must be
nearly a Strait Shore. In about the Latitude 35 degrees 45 minutes is
some high land adjoining to the Sea; to the Southward of that the land is
of a moderate heigth, and wears a most desolate and inhospitable aspect.
Nothing is to be seen but long sand Hills, with hardly any Green thing
upon them, and the great Sea which the prevailing Westerly winds impell
upon the Shore must render this a very Dangerous Coast. This I am so
fully sencible of, that was we once clear of it I am determined not to
come so near Again, if I can possible avoid it, unless we have a very
favourable wind indeed.* (* The mingled audacity and caution of Cook's
navigation off this coast must awake the admiration of every seaman.)

Friday, 5th. Fresh gales at South-West with frequent Squalls attended
with rain. The South-West swell still keeping up we stood to the
North-West all this day with a prest Sail in order to get an Offing. At
Noon True Course made good North 38 West, distance 102 Miles. Latitude in
per Observation 35 degrees 10 minutes South. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore
North 10 degrees East; distant 41 Miles.

Saturday, 6th. First part a fresh breeze at South-West by South; in the
night had it at South. A.M., light Airs from the Southward next to a
Calm, and Clear weather. Course made good to-day is North 76 West;
distance 8 Miles; Latitude per Observation 35 degrees 8 minutes South.

Sunday, 7th. Variable light Airs and Sometimes Calm with Clear pleasant
weather. At daylight saw the land which we took to be Cape Maria Van
Diemen bearing North-North-East, distant 8 or 9 Leagues. At Noon Latitude
in per Observation 35 degrees 0 minutes South. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore
North, distant 11 Leagues.

Monday, 8th. Gentle breezes at North-East and pleasant weather. At 6 p.m.
saw the land bearing East, and sometime after saw a Turtle upon the
Water. At Noon the land Extending from North to East, distant 5 or 6
Leagues, being the high land before mentioned and which it intersected in
2 places each having the appearance of a Bay or inlet, but I believe it
is only low land.* (* These were Hokianga and False Hokianga.) Course and
distance made good since Yesterday at Noon is South 33 East, 53 miles.
Latitude per Observation 35 degrees 45 minutes South. Cape Maria Van
Diemen North 25 West, distant 30 Leagues.

Tuesday, 9th. Gentle breezes between the North-East and North-West,
Cloudy weather sailing along shore within sight of Land at Noon. Course
and distance Sailed South 37 East, 69 Miles. Latitude in per Observation
36 degrees 39 minutes South; the place we were abreast of the 4th
Instant, which we at first took for a Bay or Inlet* (* Kaipara.) bore
North-East by North, distant 5 1/2 Leagues, and Cape Maria Van Diemen
bore North 29 West, distant 47 Leagues.

[Off Kawhia Harbour, North Island, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 10th. Winds at North-North-East and North, the first part a
Gentle breeze, the remainder a fresh breeze and Cloudy with rain towards
Noon. Continued a South-East Course until' 8 o'Clock p.m. at which time
we had run 7 Leagues since Noon, and were between 3 and 4 Leagues from
the Land which appear'd to be low and Sandy such as I have before
Discribed, and we then steer'd South-East by East in a Parrallel
direction with the Coast, our Depth of Water from 48 to 34 fathoms; a
black sandy bottom; at daylight found ourselves between 2 and 3 Leagues
from the land which was of a Moderate height and Cloathed with Wood and
Verdure. At 7 o'Clock steer'd South by East and afterwards South by West,
the land laying in that direction; at 9 was abreast of a Point of Land
which rises sloping from the Sea to a Considerable height; it lies in the
Latitude of 37 degrees 43 minutes South; I named it Woodyhead. South-West
1/2 West 11 Miles from this Head is a very small Island which we named
Gannet Island, on account of the Great Number of these Birds we saw upon
it. At Noon a high Craggy point bore East-North-East, distance 1 1/2
Leagues; this point I have named Albetross Point; it lies in the Latitude
of 38 degrees 4 minutes South, and Longitude 184 degrees 42 minutes West,
and from Woodyhead South 17 minutes West 7 Leagues. On the North side of
it the shore forms a Bay wherein there appears to be anchorage and
Shelter for Shipping against Southerly Winds;* (* Kawhia Harbour. There
is a settlement here.) our Course and distance saild since Yesterday at
Noon is South 37 East, distance 69 Miles. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore
North 30 West, distant 82 Leagues.

Thursday, 11th. At 1/2 past Noon the wind Shifted at Once from
North-North-East to South-South-West with which we stood to the Westward
until 4 p.m., then Tack'd and stood on Shore until' 7, when we again
stood to the Westward having but little wind. At this Time Albetross
Point bore North-East, distant near 2 Leagues, and the Southermost land
in sight bore South-South-West 1/2 West being a very high Mountain and
made very much like the Peak of Teneriff; in this Situation had 30
fathoms Water; had little wind all night; at 4 a.m. Tacked and stood in
Shore, but it soon after fell Calm and being in 42 fathoms Water; the
People caught about 10 or 12 Bream. At 11 a light breeze sprung up from
the Westward and we made Sail to the Southward. At Noon was by
Observation in the Latitude of 38 degrees 4 minutes South; Albetross
Point bore due East, distant 5 or 6 Leagues.

Friday, 12th. Gentle breezes from between the North-West and
North-North-East; Fore and Middle part Clear Weather; the Latter part
dark and Cloudy; steering along shore South by West and South-South-West
at the distance of 4 Leagues off. At 7 p.m. saw the top of the Peaked
Mountain to the Southward above the Clouds bearing from us South; at the
same time the Southermost land we had in Sight bore South by West. Took
several Azimuths both in the Evening and the Morning which gave the
Variation 14 degrees 15 minutes Easterly. At Noon had the winds very
Variable with dark cloudy weather attended with excessive heavy Showers
of rain; at this time we were about 3 Leagues from the Shore which lies
under the Peaked Mountain before mentioned. This Peak we did not see, it
being hid in the Clouds, but judged it to bear about South-South-East,
and some very remarkable peaked Islands, lying under the Shore, bore
East-South-East, distant 3 or 4 Leagues.

Saturday, 13th. Winds Variable. P.M., Cloudy weather. At 7 o'Clock
sounded and had 42 fathoms water, being distant from the Shore between 2
and 3 Leagues and the Peaked Mountain as near as I could judge bore East.
After it was Dark saw a fire upon the Shore, a sure sign that the Country
is inhabited. In the night had some Thunder, Lightning, and Rain; at 5
a.m. saw for a few Minutes the Top of the Peaked Mountain above the
Clouds bearing North-East. It is of a prodidgious height and its Top is
cover'd with Everlasting Snow; it lies in the Latitude of 39 degrees 16
minutes South, and in the Longitude of 185 degrees 15 minutes West. I
have named it Mount Egmont in honour of the Earl of Egmont.* (* The Earl
of Egmont was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1763 to 1766. Mount Egmont
is a magnificent conical mountain, surrounded on three sides by the sea,
from which it rises to a height of 8300 feet.) This mountain seems to
have a pretty large base and to rise with a Gradual Ascent to the Peak,
and what makes it more Conspicuous is its being situated near the Sea and
in the Midst of a flat Country which afforded a very good Aspect, being
Cloathed with Woods and Verdure. The shore under the foot of this
Mountain forms a large Cape which I have named Cape Egmont; it lies
South-South-West 1/2 West, 27 Leagues from Albetross Point. On the
North-East side of the Cape lay 2 Small Islands near to a very remarkable
Point of the Main that riseth to a good height in the very form of a
Sugar Loaf. To the Southward of the Cape the Land tends away South-East
by East and East-South-East, and seems to be every where a bold shore. At
Noon had variable light Airs and Clear weather. Latitude observ'd 39
degrees 32 minutes South. Cape Egmont bore about North-East, and we were
about 4 Leagues from the Shore in that direction; in this situation had
40 fathoms Water.

[In North Part of Cook's Strait.]

Sunday, 14th. P.M., had a Gentle Breeze at West. In the evening came to
North-West by West and Continued so all night and blow'd a fresh breeze;
we steer'd along shore East-South-East and South-East by East, keeping
between 2 and 3 Leagues off. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. Saw for a few Minutes
Mount Egmont which bore from us North 17 West, distant 10 Leagues. At 5
a.m. Steer'd South-East by South the land inclining more Southerly, but
half an hour after we saw land bearing South-West by South which we hauld
up for.* (* The north end of the South Island, New Zealand.) At this time
the weather was squally attended with showers of rain. At noon had a
Steady fresh breeze at West by North and Cloudy weather; the South-West
Extremity of the Land in sight bore South 63 degrees West and some high
land, which makes like an Island lying under the Main, bore
South-South-East, distant 5 Leagues. The bottom of the Bay* (* This was
the Northern part of Cook's Strait, but it was thought at the time to be
a bay.) we are now in, and which bears from us South we cannot see,
altho' it is very Clear in that Quarter. Our Latitude by Observation is
40 degrees 27 minutes South, Longitude 184 degrees 39 minutes West.* (*
The western side of the North Island, which Cook took such trouble to
follow, is 400 miles long, and is a most dangerous coast to explore, on
account of the winds being mostly on shore. This prevented him from
getting very close; and he missed the entrances to several harbours, such
as the Manukau, the Waikato River, Whaingaroa, and others. No canoes were
seen, as the coast is not favourable for such craft.)

Monday, 15th. Fore and Middle parts, fresh breezes between the West and
North-West and fair weather. At 8 p.m. we were within 2 Leagues of the
Land, we discover'd in the morning, having run 10 Leagues since Noon; the
land seen then bearing South 63 degrees West bore now North 59 degrees
West, distant 7 or 8 Leagues and makes like an Island. Between this land
or Island and Cape Egmont is a very broad and Deep Bay or inlet the
South-West side of which we are now upon, and here the Land is of a
Considerable height, distinguished by Hills and Valleys, and the Shore
seems to form several Bays, into one of which I intend to go with the
Ship in order to Careen her (she being very foul) and to repair some few
defects, recruit our Stock of Wood, Water, etc. With this View we Keept
plying on and off all Night, having from 80 to 63 fathoms Water; at
daylight stood in for an inlet which runs in South-West.* (* Queen
Charlotte's Sound, in the north-east part of the Middle Island.) At 8
a.m. we were got within the Entrance which may be known by a Reef of
Rocks stretching off from the North-West point, and some rocky Islands
lying off the South-East point. At 9 o'clock being little wind and
Variable we were carried by the Tide or Current within 2 Cables length of
the North-West Shore where we had 54 fathoms, but with the help of our
Boats we got Clear, at this time we saw rise up twice near the Ship a Sea
Lyon, the Head of which was Exactly like the head of the Male one
described by Lord Anson. We likewise saw a Canoe with some of the Natives
cross the Bay, and a Village situated upon a point of an Island, which
lies 7 or 8 miles with the Entrance. At Noon we were the length of this
Island, and being little wind had the Boats ahead Towing.


CHAPTER 6. EXPLORATION OF MIDDLE ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND.

[January 1770. In Queen Charlotte's Sound, New Zealand.]

TUESDAY, 16th. Variable light Airs and Clear settled weather. At 1 p.m.
hauled close round the South-West end of the Island, on which stands the
Village before mention'd, the inhabitants of which were all in Arms. At 2
o'Clock we anchor'd in a very Snug Cove,* (* Ship Cove, in Queen
Charlotte's Sound.) which is on the North-West side of the Bay facing the
South-West end of the Island in 11 fathoms; soft Ground, and moor'd with
the Stream Anchor. By this time several of the Natives had come off to
the Ship in their Canoes, and after heaving a few stones at us and having
some Conversation with Tupia, some of them Ventur'd on board, where they
made but a very short stay before they went into their Canoes again, and
soon after left us altogether. I then went ashore in the bottom of the
Cove, accompanied by most of the Gentlemen on board. We found a fine
Stream of Excellent Water, and as to wood the land is here one intire
forest. Having the Sean with us we made a few hauls and caught 300 pounds
weight of different sorts of fish, which were equally distributed to the
Ship's Company. A.M., Careen'd the Ship, scrubb'd and pay'd the Larboard
side. Several of the Natives Visited us this Morning, and brought with
them some stinking fish, which, however, I order'd to be bought up to
encourage them in this kind of Traffick, but Trade at this time seem'd
not to be their Object, but were more inclinable to Quarrel, and as the
Ship was upon the Carreen I thought they might give us some Trouble, and
perhaps hurt some of our people that were in the Boats alongside. For
this reason I fir'd some small shott at one of the first Offenders; this
made them keep at a proper distance while they stay'd, which was not long
before they all went away. These people declared to us this morning, that
they never either saw or heard of a Ship like ours being upon this Coast
before. From this it appears that they have no Tradition among them of
Tasman being here, for I believe Murtherers bay, the place where he
anchor'd, not to be far from this place;* (* Tasman's Massacre Bay lies
70 miles to the West-North-West.) but this cannot be it from the
Latitude, for I find by an Observation made this day at Noon that we are
at an Anchor in 41 degrees 5 minutes 32 seconds South, which is 15 miles
to the Southward of Murtherers Bay.* (* The bay in Queen Charlotte's
Sound in which the Endeavour anchored, Ship Cove, lies 7 miles within the
entrance on the western shore.)

Wednesday, 17th. Light Airs, Calm and pleasant weather. P.M., righted
ship and got the other Side ready for heeling out, and in the Evening
Haul'd the Sean and caught a few fish. While this was doing some of us
went in the pinnace into another Cove, not far from where the Ship lays;
in going thither we meet with a Woman floating upon the Water, who to all
appearance had not been dead many days. Soon after we landed we meet with
2 or 3 of the Natives who not long before must have been regaling
themselves upon human flesh, for I got from one of them the bone of the
Fore arm of a Man or Woman which was quite fresh, and the flesh had been
but lately picked off, which they told us they had eat; they gave us to
understand that but a few days before they had taken, Kill'd, and Eat a
Boats Crew of their Enemies or strangers, for I believe they look upon
all strangers as Enemies. From what we could learn the woman we had seen
floating upon the Water was in this Boat and had been drowned in the
fray. There was not one of us that had the least doubt but what these
people were cannibals; but the finding this bone with part of the sinews
fresh upon it was a stronger proof than any we had yet met with, and, in
order to be fully satisfied of the truth of what they had told us, we
told one of them that it was not the bone of a man, but that of a dog;
but he, with great fervency, took hold of his Fore Arm, and told us again
that it was that bone: and to convince us that they had eat the flesh he
took hold of the flesh of his own Arm with his teeth and made Signs of
Eating. A.M., Careen'd, Scrub'd, and pay'd the Starboard side of the
Ship; while this was doing some of the Natives came alongside seemingly
only to look at us. There was a woman among them who had her Arms,
thighs, and Legs cut in several place's; this was done by way of Mourning
for her Husband who had very lately been Kill'd and Eat by some of their
Enemies as they told us and pointed towards' the place where it was done,
which lay somewhere to the Eastward. Mr. Banks got from one of them a
Bone of the fore Arm, much in the same state as the one before mentioned;
and to show us that they eat the flesh, they bit and Naw'd the bone and
draw'd it through their Mouths, and this in such a manner as plainly
Shew'd that the flesh to them was a Dainty Bit.

Thursday, 18th. Winds mostly from the South-West; a gentle breeze and
Clear settled weather. P.M., righted the Ship and sent on shore all or
most of our empty Casks, and in the Morning the Coopers went about
Trimming them, and the Carpenters went to work to Caulk the sides and to
repair other defects in the Ship, while the seamen are Employ'd in the
hold Cutting Wood, etc., etc. I made a little Excursion in the pinnace in
order to take a View of the Bay, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander. We met with nothing remarkable, and as we were on the West side
of the Bay where the land is so closely cover'd with wood that we could
not penetrate into the country.

Friday, 19th. Winds and weather as yesterday, and the employment of the
people the same. In the P.M. some of our people found in the Skirts of
the Wood 3 hip Bones of Men; they lay near to a Hole or Oven, that is a
place where the Natives dress their Victuals; this Circumstance, trifling
as it is, is still a further proof that these people eat human flesh. In
the A.M. set up the Forge to repair the Braces of the Tiller and such
other Iron work as was wanting. The Natives came alongside and sold us a
quantity of large Mackrell for Nails, pieces of Cloth and paper, and in
this Traffick they never once attempted to defraud us of any one thing
but dealt as fair as people could do.

Saturday, 20th. Winds Southerly and fair, pleasant weather. Employ'd
wooding, Watering, etc., and in the A.M. sent part of the Powder ashore
to be Air'd. Some of the Natives brought alongside in one of their Canoes
4 of the heads of the Men they had lately kill'd; both the Hairy Scalps
and Skin of the faces were on. Mr. Banks bought one of the 4, but they
would not part with any of the other on any account whatever. The one Mr.
Banks got had received a blow on the Temple that had broke the Skull.
This morning I set out in the Pinnace accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander, in order to Survey the West Coast of the Bay; we took our rout
towards the head of the Bay, but it was near noon before we had got
beyond the place we had been before.

Sunday, 21st. P.M., a Gentle breeze of Wind Southerly, the remainder
light Airs and Calm with clear, settled weather. P.M., the people
employ'd as usual, and at 8 o'Clock we return'd on board the Pinnace from
surveying the bay, in the doing of which I met with an Excellent Harbour,
but saw no inhabitants or any Cultivated land. In the A.M. after hauling
the Sean for fish, I gave every body leave to go ashore at the Watering
place to amuse themselves as they thought proper.

Monday, 22nd. P.M., and in the night had variable light Airs and Calms.
A.M., had a fresh breeze Southerly and Cloudy weather. In the morning the
people were set about the necessary business of the Ship, and I set out
in the Pinnace accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, with a view of
examining the head of the inlet, but after rowing between 4 and 5 Leagues
up it, and finding no probability of reaching it, or even seeing the
end,* (* The head of Queen Charlotte's Sound is 20 miles from where the
Endeavour was lying.) the wind being against us and the day already half
spent; we landed at Noon on the South-East side in order to try to get
upon one of the Hills, to view the inlet from thence.

Tuesday, 23rd. P.M., Winds Southerly, a fresh breeze. Agreeable to what
is mentioned above I took one hand with me and Climbed up to the Top of
one of the Hills, but when I came there I was hindered from seeing up the
inlet by higher hills, which I could not come at for impenetrable woods,
but I was abundantly recompensed for the trouble I had in assending the
Hill, for from it I saw what I took to be the Eastern Sea, and a Strait
or passage from it into the Western Sea; a little to the Eastward of the
Entrance of the inlet in which we now lay with the Ship. The Main land
which lies on the South-East side of this inlet appeared to me to be a
narrow ridge of very high hills, and to form a part of the South-West
side of the Strait;* (* Cook's Strait, which divides the two islands of
New Zealand.) the land on the opposite side seem'd to tend away East, as
far as the Eye could see. To the South-East appeared an Open Sea, and
this I took to be the Eastern. I likewise saw some Islands lying on the
East side of the inlet, which before I had taken to be a part of the main
land. As soon as I had desended the hill and we had refreshed ourselves,
we set out in order to return to the Ship, and in our way passed through
and Examin'd the Harbours, Coves, etc., that lay behind the Islands above
mentioned. In this rout we met with an old Village in which were a good
many Houses, but no Body had lived in them lately; we likewise saw
another that was inhabited, but the day being so far spent, that we had
not time to go to it, but made the best of our way to the Ship, which we
reached between 8 and 9 o'Clock. In the night had much rain with Cloudy,
Hazey weather, which continued by intervals until Noon.

Wednesday, 24th. P.M., had a fresh breeze southerly and cloudy weather.
After dinner I employ'd myself in carrying on the survey of the place,
and upon one of the Islands where I landed were a number of houses but no
inhabitants, neither had any been there lately. In the morning the Gunner
was sent ashore with the remainder of the powder to-day, and the Long
boat was sent with a Gang of hands to one of the Islands to cut Grass for
our Sheep, and the rest of the people were employ'd about the usual work
of the Ship. This forenoon some of us visited the Hippa which is situated
on the point of the Island mentioned on our first arrival;* (* Motuara.)
the inhabitants of this place shew'd not the least dislike at our coming,
but, on the contrary, with a great deal of seeming good nature shew'd us
all over the place. We found among them some human bones, the flesh of
which they told us they had eat; they likewise informed us that there was
no passage into the Sea thro' this inlet, as I had imagined their was,
because above where I was in the Boat it turn'd away to the Westward.
Leaving these people, we Travelled to the other end of the Island, and
there took Water and Crossed over upon the Main, where we met with
several Houses that were at present, or had very lately been, inhabited,
but we saw but very few of the inhabitants, and these were in their Boats
fishing; after Viewing this place we returned on board to Dinner.

Thursday, 25th. Winds at North West, a Gentle breeze and fair weather.
P.M. the Long boat having return'd with a Load of Grass, she was employ'd
bringing on board Wood and Water, and the Caulkers having finished
Caulking the Ship's sides (a thing they have been employ'd upon ever
since we came here), they were pay'd with Tar. Early in the A.M. the Long
boat was sent again for Grass, and return'd at Noon with a Load.

Friday, 26th. Gentle breezes and pleasant weather. In the P.M. I made a
little Excursion in the pinnace along shore towards the Mouth of the
inlet, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We found in a small
Cove several of the Natives, of whom we purchased a quantity of fresh
fish; and upon our return to the Ship found that the Sean had been
equally as Successfull, which we generally haul morning and evening, and
seldom fail of getting fish sufficient for all hands. In the A.M. I made
an Excursion into one of the Bays which lye on the East side of the
inlet, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. Upon our landing we
assended a very high hill, from which we had a full View of the passage I
had before discovered, and the land on the opposite shore, which appeared
to be about 4 Leagues from us; but as it was hazey near the Horizon we
could not see far to the South-East. However, I had now seen enough of
this passage to Convince me that there was the Greatest probability in
the World of its running into the Eastern Sea, as the distance of that
Sea from this place cannot Exceed 20 Leagues even to where we where. Upon
this I resolved after putting to Sea to Search this passage with the
Ship. We found on the Top of the Hill a parcel of loose stones, of which
we built a Pyramid, and left in it some Musquet balls, small Shott,
beads, and whatever we had about us that was likely to stand the test of
Time; after this we descended the hill, and found along with Tupia and
the boat's Crew several of the Natives, setting in the most free and
friendly manner imaginable. Tupia always accompanies us in every
Excursion we make, and proves of infinate Service. In our return to the
Ship we visited the Hippa we had seen on Tuesday last, which is situated
on a small Island, or rather a Rock. The inhabitants of this place
invited us ashore with their usual Marks of Friendship, and shew'd us all
over the place; which indeed was soon done, for it was very small, yet it
contain'd a good number of people, and they had in it, Split and hanging
up to dry, a prodidgious quantity of various sorts of small fish, a part
of which they sold to us for such Trifles as we had about us.

Saturday, 27th. Fresh gales, Westerly. This day we got the Tiller
properly secured, which hath been the Employment of the Armourers and
part of the Carpenters since we Anchor'd at this place; the former in
repairing and making new Iron work, and the Latter in fixing a Transom,*
(* A transom is a curved piece of wood which supports the end of the
tiller.) for the want of which the Tiller has often been in danger of
being broke; the Iron braces that supply'd the want of a Transom have
broke every time they have been repair'd. Coopers still employ'd
repairing the Casks; some hands with the Long boat getting on board
Stones to put into the bottom of the bread room to bring the Ship more by
the Stern; while others were employ'd cutting wood, repairing the
rigging, and fishing.

Sunday, 28th. Strong Gales westerly. P.M. fair and Cloudy, the remainder
thick, hazey weather, with much rain.

Monday, 29th. Winds as yesterday. P.M. rainy weather, the remainder fair
and Cloudy. Pretty early in the A.M. an old man, who had made us several
visits upon our first Arrival here, came on board, and told us that one
of our boats had fir'd upon and wounded 2 of their people, one of which
was dead of his wounds. This affair hapned on Sunday was a week, and
never before now came to my Knowledge; on that day the Master and 5 Petty
officers desir'd to have a small boat to go a fishing; but instead of
Keeping within the usual bounds and under the protection of the Ship,
they went over to the Hippa on the Island, from which some of the
inhabitants put off in 2 Canoes, as they thought to attack them; this
Caused the Master to fire, and, according to the report of the old Man,
wounded 2, one of which is since dead; but this last circumstance was
soon after contradicted by another of the Natives, who Mr. Green and
Tupia saw ashore, and I wish this last report may be true, because I find
the reasons for firing upon them are not very Justifiable. This morning I
went out to the Mouth of the Inlet and landed upon the West point, and
from the Top of a pretty high hill which is there I had a view of this
Coast to the North-West. The farthest land I could see in that Quarter
was an Island* (* Stephens Island. Cape Stephens, off which it lies,
forms the western termination of the strait, Cook's, between the two
islands of New Zealand. The Coast between this and Cape Jackson, where
Cook was standing, is thickly indented with inlets of great extent. The
two Capes were named after the Secretaries of the Admiralty.) about 10
Leagues off, and lying pretty near the Main, and is the same as hath been
before mentioned. Between this Island and the place where I was lay some
other Islands close under the Shore, which forms several Bays, where
there appears to be safe Anchorage for Shipping. After I had set the
different points, etc., we Erected upon the Top of the Hill a Tower or
Pile of Stones, in which we left a Piece of Silver Coin, some Musquet
Balls, Beads, etc., and left flying upon it a piece of an old Pendant.
After this we return'd to the Boat, and in our way to the Ship visited
some of the Natives we met with along shore, and purchased of them a
small quantity of fish.

Tuesday, 30th. Winds at North-West, Gentle breezes, and fair weather.
Early in the A.M. a boat was sent to one of the Islands to get Sellery to
boil for the People's breakfasts. While our people were gathering it near
some empty huts about 20 of the Natives landed there--Men, Women, and
Children. They had no sooner got out of their Canoe than 5 or 6 Women set
down together, and cut and sacrificed themselves--viz., their Legs,
Shins, Arms, and Faces, some with Shells, and others with pieces of
Jaspar. So far as our people could understand them, this was done on
account of their husbands being lately killed and devoured by their
Enemies. While the women was performing this Ceremony, the Men went about
repairing the Huts without showing the least Concern. The Carpenter went
with part of his people into the Woods to cut and Square some Timber to
saw into boards for the use of the Ship, and to prepare two Posts to be
set up with inscriptions on them.

Wednesday, 31st. Little wind and Variable. In the P.M. the Carpenters
having prepared the 2 Posts with inscriptions upon them, setting forth
the Ship's Name, Month, and Year, one of them was set up at the Watering
Place, on which was hoisted the Union flag; and in the Morning I took the
other over to the Island which is known by the name of Motuouru, and is
the one that lies nearest to the Sea; but before I attempted to set up
the Post I went first to the Hippa, having Dr. Monkhouse and Tupia along
with me. We here met with the old Man I have before spoke of. The first
thing I did was to inquire after the Man said to be kill'd by our people,
and the one that was wounded at the same time, when it did not appear to
me that any such accidents had happened. I next (by means of Tupia)
explain'd to the old Man and several others that we were Come to set up a
Mark upon the Island, in order to shew to any ship that might put into
this place that we had been here before. They not only gave their free
Consent to set it up, but promised never to pull it down. I then gave
every one a present of one thing or another; to the old man I gave
Silver, three penny pieces dated 1763, and Spike Nails with the King's
Broad Arrow cut deep in them; things that I thought were most likely to
remain long among them. After I had thus prepared the way for setting up
the post, we took it up to the highest part of the Island, and after
fixing it fast in the ground, hoisted thereon the Union flag, and I
dignified this Inlet with the name of Queen Charlotte's Sound, and took
formal possession of it and the Adjacent lands in the Name and for the
use of his Majesty. We then drank her Majesty's health in a Bottle of
wine, and gave the Empty bottle to the old man (who had attended us up
the hill), with which he was highly pleased. Whilst the Post was setting
up we asked the old man about the Strait or Passage into the Eastern sea,
and he very plainly told us there was a Passage, and as I had some
Conjectures that the lands to the South-West of this Strait (which we are
now at) was an Island, and not a Continent, we questioned the old Man
about it, who said it consisted of two Wannuas, that is 2 lands or
Islands that might be Circumnavigated in a few days, even in 4. This man
spoke of 3 lands, the 2 above mentioned which he called Tovy-poinammu,*
(* The two Wannuas were doubtless the peninsulas lying west of Queen
Charlotte's Sound. The third was the North Island. Te Wai Pounamu (The
Water of the Greenstone, of which the most prized weapons were made) is
the native name of the Middle Island; but there must have been some
confusion as to the possibility of getting round this in four days. The
name of the North Island is Te Ika o Maui (The Fish of Maui), but is
given by Cook as Aeheino Mouwe. It has been suggested (Rusden) that the
name given to him was Tehinga o Maui (The Fishing of Maui), and
imperfectly rendered.) which Signifies green Talk or Stone, such as they
make their Tools or ornaments, etc., and for the third he pointed to the
land on the East side of the Strait; this, he said, was a large land, and
that it would take up a great many Moons to sail round it; this he called
Aeheino Mouwe, a name many others before had called it by. That part
which borders on the strait he called Teiria Whitte. After we had done
our business upon the Island we returned on board, bringing the old Man
along with us, who after dinner went ashore in a Canoe that came to
attend upon him.

[February 1770.]

Thursday, February 1st. P.M. having compleated the Ship with wood, and
filled all our water, the Boatswain was sent ashore with a party of Men
to cut and make brooms, while others were Employ'd about the rigging,
fishing, etc. In the night and the remainder of the day had a Strong Gale
from the North-West, attended with very much rain.

Friday, 2nd. In the P.M. the Gale increased to a Storm, attended with
rain and squalls, which came down in Excessive heavy gusts from off the
high land, in one of which the hawser we had fast to the shore broke;
this obliged us to let go another Anchor. Towards midnight the Gale
moderated, and in the morning it fell Calm, and we took up the Sheet
Anchor, looked at the best bower, and moored the ship again to the Shore.
The heavy rain, which both fell and Continues to fall, hath caused the
Brook we water'd at to overflow its banks, and carry away 10 small Casks
we had Standing there full of Water, and notwithstanding we searched the
whole Cove, we could not find one of them.

Saturday, 3rd. Winds Northerly, mostly fair weather. Very early in the
A.M. sent the Long boat for Sellery to boil for the Ship's Company's
breakfast, and as I intended sailing the first opportunity, I went over
to the Hippa, which is on the East side of the sound, and purchased of
the inhabitants a quantity of split and half dry'd fish, and such as I
could get. While we were at this Hippa, Tupia made farther enquiry about
the Lands and Strait, and these people confirm'd everything the old Man
had before told us. About noon we took our leave of them, which some
seem'd not sorry for; notwithstanding they sold us their fish very
freely, there were some few among them who shew'd evident signs of
disapprobation.

Sunday, 4th. Winds Northerly, a fresh breeze and fair weather. In the
P.M., after returning from the Hippa, some of us made an Excursion along
shore to the Northward, in order to Traffic with the Natives for fish, in
which we had no great Success. In the evening got everything off from the
Shore, designing to sail in the Morning, but the wind not permitting, we
amused ourselves in fishing, collecting of shells, etc.

Monday, 5th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. In the A.M. Cast off the
Hawser, hove short on the Bower, and carried out the Kedge Anchor, in
order to warp the Ship out of the Cove. All the dry fish we have been
able to procure from the Natives since we came here were this day divided
amongst the Ship's Company.

Tuesday, 6th. At 2 p.m. hove up the Anchor, warped the Ship out of the
Cove, and got under Sail, but it soon after falling little wind, and that
very Variable, we anchor'd again a little above Motu-ouru. The old man,
seeing us under sail, came on board to take his leave of us. Amongst
other conversation that passed between him and Tupia, he was asked if
either he or any of his Ancestors had ever seen or heard of any Ship like
this being in these parts; to which question he answer'd in the Negative,
but said that his Ancestors had told him that there came once to this
place a small Vessel from a distant part, wherein were 4 Men that were
all kill'd upon their landing; and being asked where this distant land
lay, he pointed to the North, intimating that it would take up a great
many days to go thither. Something of this land was mentioned by the
People of the Bay of Islands, who said that some of their Ancestors had
been there; but it is very clear to us that there knowledge of this land
is only traditionary.* (* This was doubtless the tradition current among
the Maoris, that their ancestors came from islands to the north. See Note
below.) Had it Calm all night until 6 o'clock in the Morning, when a
light breeze sprung up at North, and we got again under sail; but as the
wind proved very unsteady, we got no farther than just without Motu-ouru
by noon, but had a fair prospect of getting clear out of the Sound, which
I shall next describe.

DESCRIPTION OF QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S SOUND.

The entrance of this Sound is situated in the Latitude of 41 degrees
South and Longitude 184 degrees 45 minutes West, and near the middle of
the South-West side of the Strait before mentioned. The land off the
South-East head of the Sound called by the Natives, Koamaroo (off which
lies 2 Small Islands and some rocks) makes the Narrowest part of the
Strait. There stretcheth out 2 Miles North-East by North from the
North-West head a reef of rocks, a part of which is above Water. This
account of the 2 Heads will be found sufficient guide to know this sound,
which is 3 Leagues broad at the Entrance, and lies in South-West by
South-South-West, and West-South-West at least 10 Leagues, and is a
collection of some of the finest harbours in the world, as will evidently
appear from the plan which was taken with all the accuracy that time and
Circumstances would admit. The Harbour or Cove in which we lay, called
Ship Cove, is not inferior to any in the Sound, both in point of Security
and other Conveniences. It lies on the West side of the Sound, and is the
Southermost of 3 Coves lying within Motu-ouru, which Island bears East
from it. You may sail into this Cove either between this last mentioned
Island and the Isle Hamote, or Long Island, or between Motuouru and the
West shore; in this last Channell are 2 Ledges of Rocks 3 fathoms under
water, but they may be known by the Sea Weed which grows upon them. In
sailing in or out of this sound with little wind attention must be had to
the Tides, which flow 9 or 10 o'Clock full and Change of the Moon, and
rises and falls upon a Perpendicular 7 or 8 feet. The flood comes in
through the Strait from the South-East, and sets strong over upon the
North-West Head and the reef laying off it; the Ebb sets with great
rapidity to the South-East over upon the Islands and Rocks lying off the
South-East Head. The Variation of the Compass from good observations we
found to be 13 degrees 5 minutes East. The land about this Sound is of
such height that we first saw it at the distance of 20 Leagues. It
consists wholy of high hills and deep Valleys, well stored with a variety
of excellent Timber, fit for all purposes except Ships' Masts, for which
use it is too hard and heavy. The Sea abounds with a variety of fish, and
in such plenty that, without going out of the Cove where we lay, we
caught daily, what with the Sean, Hook, and Lines, quite sufficient for
all hands, and upon our first arrival we found plenty of Shags and some
few other Wild Fowls, which to people in our situation was fresh food not
to be dispised. The Number of Inhabitants hardly exceeds 300 or 400
People. They live dispers'd along the Shore in search of their daily
bread, which is fish and firn roots, for they Cultivate no part of the
lands. Upon the appearance of danger they Retire to their Hippas or
strongholds, for in this situation we found them, and they remain'd so
for some days after. This people are poor when compared to many we have
seen, and their Canoes are mean and without ornament. The little Traffick
we had with them was wholy for fish, for we saw little else they had to
dispose of. They had some knowledge of Iron, for they very readily took
Nails in Exchange for fish, and sometimes Prefer'd them to anything else,
which was more than the people of any other place would do. They were at
first fond of Paper, but when they found it spoile by being wet they
would not take it; nor did they set much value upon the cloth we got at
George's Island, but shew'd an extraordinary fondness for English broad
cloth and red Kersey, which shew'd them to be a more sensible People than
many of their Neighbours. Besides the common dress, many of these People
wore on their Heads round Caps made of Birds' feathers, which were far
from being unbecoming.* (* Cook was not able to explore the whole of
Queen Charlotte's Sound, which runs into the land for 25 miles. Towards
the southern end is Picton, the port of Blenheim, the capital of the
province of Marlborough.)

[In Cook's Strait, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 7th. In the P.M. had a light breeze at North by West, with
which we got out of the Sound and stood over to the Eastward, in order to
get the Strait well open before the tide of Ebb Made. At 7 the 2 Small
Islands which lies off Cape Koamaroo, or the South-East head of Queen
Charlotte's Sound, bore East, distant 4 miles. At this time we had it
nearly Calm, and the tide of Ebb making out, we were Carried by the
Rapidity of the Stream in a very short time close upon one of the
Islands,* (* The Brothers. There is now a lighthouse on this island.)
where we narrowly escaped being dashed against the Rocks by bringing the
Ship to an Anchor in 75 fathoms Water, with 150 fathoms of Cable out.
Even this would not have saved us had not the Tide, which first set South
by East, by meeting with the Island changed its direction to South-East,
and carried us past the first point. When the Ship was brought up she was
about 2 Cables' Lengths of the Rocks and in the Strength of the Stream,
which set South-East at least 4 or 5 Knotts or miles per Hour. A little
before 12 o'Clock the Tide abated, and we began to heave; by 3 the Anchor
was at the bows, and having a light breeze at North-West, we made sail
over for the Eastern Shore; but having the tide against us we made but
little way. The wind afterwards freshned, and Came to North and
North-East, with which and the tide of Ebb we were in a short time
hurried thro' the narrowest part of the Strait, and then stood away for
the Southermost land we had in sight, which bore from us South by West.
Over this land appeared a Prodigious high Mountain,* (* The Kairoura
Range, the summit of which is 9500 feet high.) the Summit of which was
covered with snow. The narrowest part of the Strait we have passed lies
between Cape Koamaroo on Tovy-poinammu and Cape Teerawhitte on
Aeheino-mouwe; the distance from the one to the other I judged to be
between 4 and 5 Leagues. And notwithstanding the strength of the Tides,
now that is known, there is no great danger in passing it; in the doing
of which I am of opinion that the North-East Shore is the safest to keep
upon, for upon that side there appeared no danger, whereas on the other
shore there are not only the Islands and Rocks lying off Cape Koamaroo,
for I discover'd from the hill from which I had the Second View of the
Strait, a Reef of Rocks stretching from these Islands 6 or 7 Miles to the
Southward, and lay about 2 or 3 Miles off from the Shore. I shall not
pretend here to assign limits to the length of this Strait; a view of the
Chart will best illustrate that. About North 9 Leagues from Cape
Teerawhitte, under the same shore, is a high remarkable Island, that may
be distinctly seen from Queen Charlotte Sound, from which it lies
North-East by East 1/4 East, distant 6 or 7 Leagues. I have called it
Entry Isle, and was taken Notice of when we first past it on Sunday 14th
of last Month. On the East side of Cape Teerawhitte the Land Trends away
South-East by East about 8 Leagues, where it ends in a point, and is the
Southermost land on Aeheinomouwe, which I have named Cape Pallisser in
Honour of my worthy friend Capt. Pallisser.* (* Captain Palliser,
afterwards Sir Hugh, was Captain of the Eagle, Cook's first ship in the
Royal Navy. He discovered Cook's talents, and was his warm friend
throughout his life. Between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser is the
entrance to Port Nicholson, wherein is situated Wellington, the capital
of New Zealand. This entrance is, however, narrow, and Cook was never
near enough to the land to discover it.) Latitude 41 degrees 34 minutes,
Longitude 183 degrees 58 minutes, it bore from us this day at Noon South
79 degrees East, distant 12 or 13 Leagues, being then in the Latitude of
41 degrees 27 minutes South; at the same time Cape Koamaroo bore North
1/2 East, distant 7 or 8 Leagues. The Southermost point of land in sight
bore South 16 degrees West, and the snowy Mountain South-West being about
3 Leagues from the shore and abreast of a Deep Bay or inlet called Cloudy
bay, in the bottom of which appear'd low land cover'd with tall Trees.

Thursday, 8th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at North-North-East and
Cloudy weather. At 3 o'Clock was abreast of the Southermost point of land
set at Noon, which I named Cape Campbell, Latitude 41 degrees 42 minutes
South, Longitude 184 degrees 47 minutes West, it lies South by West,
distant 12 or 13 Leagues from Cape Koamaroo, and together with Cape
Pallisser forms the Southern Entrance of the Straits; the Distance of the
one to the other is 13 or 14 Leagues West by South and East by North.
From this Cape we steer'd along Shore South-West by South until 8
o'Clock, when the wind died away; but an Hour after a fresh breeze sprung
up at South-West, and we put the Ship right before it. The reason of my
doing this was owing to a notion, which some of the Officers had just
started, that Aeheinomouwe was not an Island; founding their opinion on a
supposition that the land might extend away to the South-East from
between Cape Turnagain and Cape Pallisser, there being a space of about
12 or 13 leagues which we had not seen. For my own part, I had seen so
far into this Sea the first time I discover'd the Strait, together with
many other Concurrent testimonies of its being an Island, that no such
supposition ever enter'd my thoughts; but being resolved to clear up
every doubt that might Arise on so important an Object, I took the
opportunity of the Shifting of the Wind to Stand to the Eastward, and
accordingly steer'd North-East by East all night. At 9 o'Clock A.M. we
were abreast of Cape Pallisser, where we found the Land trend away
North-East towards Cape Turnagain, which I reckon'd to be distant from us
about 26 Leagues, but as the weather was hazey so that we could not see
above 4 or 5 Leagues ahead, we Still kept standing to the North-East,
with a light breeze at South. At Noon Cape Pallisser bore North 72
degrees West, distant 3 Leagues; our Latitude by account is 41 degrees 30
minutes South.

[Complete the Circuit of North Island, New Zealand.]

Friday, 9th. Gentle breezes at South and South-South-East, hazey Cloudy
weather. In the P.M. 3 Canoes came off to the Ship, wherein were between
30 and 40 of the Natives, who had been pulling after us sometime. It
appeared from the behaviour of these people that they had heard of our
being upon the Coast, for they came alongside, and some of them on board
the Ship, without shewing the least signs of fear. They were no sooner on
board than they asked for Nails, but when Nails was given them they asked
Tupia what they were, which was plain that they had never seen any
before; yet they not only knowed how to ask for them, but know'd what use
to make of them, and therefore must have heard of Nails, which they call
Whow, the name of a Tool among them made generally of bone, which they
use as a Chisel in making Holes, etc. These people asking so readily for
Nails proves that their connections must extend as far North as Cape
Kidnapper, which is 45 Leagues, for that was the Southermost place on
this side the coast we had any Traffick with the Natives; and it is most
probable that the inhabitants of Queen Charlotte's sound got the little
knowledge they seem'd to have of Iron by the Connections they may have
with the Teerawhitteans bordering upon them; for we have no reason to
think that the inhabitants of any part of this land had the least
knowledge of Iron before we came amongst them. After a short stay these
people were dismissed with proper presents, and we continued our Course
along shore to the North-East until 11 o'Clock A.M., when the weather
clear'd up, and we saw Cape Turnagain bearing North by East 1/4 East,
distant 7 Leagues. I then called the Officers upon deck, and asked them
if they were now satisfied that this land was an Island; to which they
answer'd in the Affirmative, and we hauled our wind to the Eastward.* (*
The Endeavour had now completely circumnavigated the North Island of New
Zealand, having spent four months in the exploration. That Cook had
communicated his enthusiasm to his officers is evident; or, knowing his
determination to leave nothing doubtful, they would not have started the
idea that the North Island might not be really an island. The natural
wish after so many months' absence from civilization must have been to
get back to it, and to take things for granted that would otherwise delay
their progress.) At Noon our Latitude by observation was 40 degrees 55
minutes South, which is 21 Miles to the Southward of Cape Turnagain, it
bearing North by East, and Cape Pallisser by this day's run bears South
43 degrees West, 19 or 20 Leagues.

Saturday, 10th. Gentle breezes at South-East and Cloudy weather. At 4
P.M. Tack'd and stood South-West until 8 A.M., when being not above 3 or
4 Miles from the Shore we Tack'd, and stood off 2 hours, and then stood
again to the South-West until noon, when being in the Latitude of 41
degrees 13 minutes South, and about 2 Miles from the Shore, the land of
Cape Pallisser bearing South 53 degrees West, had 26 fathoms of water.

Sunday, 11th. P.M. had light breeze from the South-East. In the night it
was Calm until 9 a.m., when a Gentle breeze sprung up at East-North-East,
with which we made sail to the Southward, having a large swell rolling in
from that Quarter. At Noon was in the Latitude of 41 degrees 6 minutes
South, distant from the Shore 1 1/2 Leagues; a remarkable hillock,* (*
Castle Point.) which stands close to the Sea, bore North 1/2 East,
distance 4 Leagues. At this time 2 Canoes came alongside the Ship, with
whom we had some little Traffic, and then dismissed them.

Monday, 12th. Most part of P.M. had a fresh breeze at North-East, which
by sunset carried us the length of Cape Pallisser, and as the weather was
clear I had an opportunity of Viewing the land of this Cape, which is of
a height Sufficient to be seen in clear weather 12 or 14 Leagues, and is
of a broken and hilly surface. Between the foot of the high land and the
Sea is a border of low, flat land, off which lies some rocks, that appear
above water. Between this Cape and Cape Turnagain the land near the shore
is in many places low and flatt, and appear'd green and pleasant; but
inland are many Hills. From Cape Pallisser to Cape Teerawhitte the land
is tollerable high, making in Table-points, and the Shore forms 2 Bays;
at least it appear'd so, for we were always too far off this part of the
Coast to be particular.* (* The northern of these was the entrance to
Port Nicholson, the harbour of Auckland.) The wind continued at
North-East until 12 at Night, when it died away, and veer'd round to the
West, and afterwards to South and South-South-East little wind, so that
by noon we had advanced no farther than 41 degrees 52 minutes South
Latitude. Cape Pallisser bearing North, distant 5 Leagues, and the Snowy
mountain bore South 83 degrees West.

Tuesday, 13th. P.M. light Airs at South-East, the remainder Calm. At Noon
found ourselves in the Latitude of 42 degrees 2 minutes South, Cape
Pallisser bearing North 20 degrees East, distant 8 Leagues.

Wednesday, 14th. P.M. a fresh breeze sprung up at North-East, and we
Steer'd South-West by West for the Southermost land we had in sight,
which bore from us at sunset South 74 degrees West. At this time we found
the Variation to be 15 degrees 4 minutes East. At 8 A.M. it fell Calm; at
this time we had run 21 Leagues South 58 degrees West since Yesterday at
noon, which brought us abreast of the high Snowy mountain, it bearing
from us North-West in this direction. It lay behind a Mountainous ridge
of nearly the same height, which riseth directly from the Sea, and runs
Parrallel with the Shore, which lies North-East 1/2 North and South-West
1/2 South. The North-East end of the ridge takes its rise but a little
way inland from Cape Campbell. These mountains are distinctly seen both
from Cape Koamaroo and Cape Pallisser, being distant from the former
South-West 1/2 South 22 Leagues, and from the Latter West-South-West 30
Leagues: but they are of a height sufficient to be seen at a much greater
distance. By some on board they are thought to be much higher than the
Peak of Teneriffe, which I cannot agree to; neither do I think them so
high as Mount Egmont, on the South-West Coast of Aeheinomouwe, founding
my opinion on the summit of the Latter being almost wholy covered with
Snow, whereas it only lies upon these in patches.* (* The highest peak of
the Kaikoura Mountains, Mount Tapuaepuka, is 9500 feet high. It is
therefore higher than Mount Egmont, but not so high as the Peak of
Teneriffe. The snow lies thicker on the western side of New Zealand
mountains, so Cook's parallel was fallacious. The Endeavour was now near
the Kaikoura Peninsula, where a small town stands at the present day, the
shipping port of an agricultural district.) At noon was in the Latitude
of 42 degrees 34 minutes South; the Southermost land we had in sight bore
South-West 1/2 West, and some low land that made like an Island lying
close under the foot of the Ridge North-West by North, distant about 5 or
6 Leagues.

Thursday, 15th. In the P.M. 4 Double Canoes, in which were 57 Men, came
off to the Ship; they kept at the distance of about a Stone's throw from
us, and would not be prevailed upon to put alongside by all that Tupia
could say to them. From this we concluded that they never had heard of
our being upon the coast. At 8 p.m. a breeze sprung up at
South-South-West, with which we Stretched off South-East, because some on
board thought they saw land in that Quarter. We continued on this course
until 6 A.M., at which time we had run 11 Leagues, but saw no land but
that which we had left. Soon after this it fell calm, and continued so
for an hour; then a light breeze sprung up at West, which afterwards
veer'd to the North, and we stood to the Westward. At Noon our Latitude
by Observation was 42 degrees 56 minutes South, and the High Land we were
abreast of yesterday at Noon, North-North-West 1/2 West.

Friday, 16th. In the P.M. had a light breeze North-East, with which we
steer'd West, edging in for the land, which was distant from us about 8
Leagues. At 7 o'Clock the Southermost Extream of the land in sight bore
West-South-West, being about 6 Leagues from the Shore; soon after this it
fell Calm, and continued so most part of the night, with sometimes light
Airs from the land. At daylight we discover'd land bearing South by West,
and seemingly detached from the Coast we were upon; at 8 o'Clock a breeze
sprung up at North by East, and we steer'd directly for it. At Noon was
in the Latitude of 43 degrees 19 minutes South; the Peak on the Snowy
Mountains bore North 20 degrees East, distant 27 Leagues; the Southern
Extremity we could see of that land bore West, and the land discover'd in
the morning, making like an Island, extending from South-South-West to
South-West by West 1/2 West, distant about 8 Leagues; our Course and
distance sail'd since yesterday at Noon South-West by West, 43 Miles;
Variation by this Morning's Amplitude 14 degrees 39 minutes East.

[Off Banks Peninsula, New Zealand.]

Saturday, 17th. P.M. stood to the Southward for the land above mention'd,
with the wind at North, a fresh breeze and Clear weather. At 8 o'Clock we
had run 11 Leagues since Noon, when the land extended from South-West by
West to North by West, being distant from the nearest shore about 3 or 4
Leagues; in this situation had 50 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom. Soon
after this it fell Calm, and continued so until 6 A.M., when a light
breeze sprung up at North-West, which afterwards veer'd to North-East. At
sun rise, being very Clear, we plainly discover'd that the last mentioned
land was an Island by seeing part of the Land of Tovy-poenammu open to
the Westward of it, extending as far as West by South. At 8 o'Clock the
Extreams of the Island bore North 76 degrees West and North-North-East
1/2 East, and an opening that had the Appearance of a Bay or Harbour,
lying near the South point North 20 degrees West, distant 3 or 4 Leagues,
being in 38 fathoms, a brown Sandy bottom. This Island,* (* It is not an
island, but a mountainous peninsula, still called after Mr. Banks, but
from the lowness of the land it adjoins, looks like an island. On the
north side is the fine harbour of Lyttelton, the port of Christchurch, a
town of nearly 40,000 inhabitants. The harbour on the south side, that
Cook saw, is Akaroa, a magnificent port.) which I have named after Mr.
Banks, lies about 5 Leagues from the Coast of Tovy poenammu; the South
point bears South 21 degrees West from the higher peak on the Snowy
Mountain so often mention'd, and lies in the Latitude of 43 degrees 52
minutes South and in the Longitude of 186 degrees 30 minutes West, by
observations made of the Sun and Moon this morning. It is of a circular
figure, and may be about 24 Leagues in Compass; the land is of a height
sufficient to be seen 12 or 15 Leagues, and of a very broken, uneven
Surface, and hath more the appearance of barrenness than fertility. Last
night we saw smoke up it, and this morning some people, and therefore
must be inhabited. Yesterday Lieutenant Gore, having the Morning Watch at
the time we first saw this Island, thought he saw land bearing
South-South-East and South-East by East; but I, who was upon Deck at the
same time, was very Certain that it was only Clouds, which dissipated as
the Sun rose. But neither this, nor the running 14 Leagues to the South,
nor the seeing no land to the Eastward of us in the Evening, could
Satisfy Mr. Gore but what he saw in the morning was, or might be, land;
altho' there was hardly a possibility of its being so, because we must
have been more than double the distance from it at that time to what we
were either last night or this morning, at both of which times the
weather was Exceeding Clear, and yet we could see no land either to the
Eastward or Southward of us. Notwithstanding all this, Mr. Gore was of
the same opinion this morning; upon this I order'd the Ship to be wore,
and to be steer'd East-South-East by Compass on the other Tack, the point
on which he said the land bore at this time from us.* (* Another instance
of the general desire to leave nothing unexplored.) At Noon we were in
the Latitude of 44 degrees 7 minutes South; the South point of Banks
Island bore North, distant 5 Leagues.

Sunday, 18th. Gentle breezes at North and fair weather. P.M. stood
East-South-East in search of Mr. Gore's imaginary land until 7 o'clock,
at which time we had run 28 Miles since Noon; but seeing no land but that
we had left, or signs of any, we bore away South by West, and continued
upon that Course until Noon, when we found ourselves in the Latitude of
45 degrees 16 minutes South. Our Course and distance sail'd since
Yesterday is South 8 minutes East, 70 Miles; the South point of Banks
Island North 6 degrees 30 minutes West, distant 28 Leagues; Variation per
Amplitude this Morning 15 degrees 30 minutes. Seeing no signs of Land, I
thought it to no purpose standing any farther to the Southward, and
therefore hauled to the Westward, thinking we were far enough to the
Southward to weather all the land we had left; but this opinion was only
founded on the information we had had from the Natives of Queen
Charlotte's sound.* (* The ship was still 250 miles from the south point
of New Zealand.)

Monday, 19th. P.M. had a Moderate breeze at North-North-West and North
until 8 o'clock, when it fell little wind, and was very unsettled until
10, at which time it fix'd at South, and freshen'd in such a manner that
before the morning it brought us under our close reeft Topsails. At 8
a.m. having run 28 Leagues upon a West by North 1/2 North Course, and now
judging ourselves to be to the Westward of the Land of Tovy Poenammu, we
bore away North-West with a fresh Gale at South. At 10 o'clock, having
run 11 Miles upon this Course, we saw land extending from the South-West
to the North-West at the distance of about 10 Leagues from us, which we
hauled up for. At Noon our Latitude per observation was 44 degrees 38
minutes South; the South-East point of Banks Island bore North 59 degrees
30 minutes East, distant 30 Leagues, and the Main body of the land in
sight West by North. Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon
is North 66 degrees 45 minutes West, 96 Miles.

[Off Timaru, Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 20th. All P.M. had little wind, which veer'd round from South by
East to North-North-East. Steer'd South-South-West, but got very little
to the Southward on account of a head Sea. At 2 o'Clock sounded in 35
fathoms, fine sandy Bottom, being about 6 Leagues from the land. At 7
o'Clock the Extreams of the land extending from South-West by South to
North by West, distant from the nearest shore 6 Leagues, depth of water
32 fathoms. At 12 o'Clock it fell Calm, and continued so until 4 A.M.,
when a fresh breeze sprung up at South by West, with which we stood in
shore West by South, 4 Leagues, our Depth of Water from 32 to 13 fathoms.
In this last Depth we Tack'd and Stood off, being about 3 Miles from the
Shore, which lies nearly North and South, and is here very low and flatt,
and continues so up to the skirts of the hills, which are at least 4 or 5
Miles inland. The whole face of the Country appears barren, nor did we
see any signs of inhabitants.* (* This is a little south of Timaru, a
rising town in a fertile district; so deceptive is appearance from the
sea.) Latitude at Noon 44 degrees 44 minutes South; Longitude made from
Banks' Island to this land 2 degrees 22 minutes West.

Wednesday, 21st. Wind at South. A fresh Gale at 2 p.m., being in 50
fathoms, and 12 Leagues from the land, we tack'd and stood in Shore until
8 o'Clock, when we Tack'd and Stood off until 4 a.m.; then Tack'd and
Stood in, at 8 o'Clock being 10 Leagues from the Land; had 57 fathoms. At
Noon, being in the Latitude 44 degrees 35 minutes, and 5 or 6 Leagues
from the land, had 36 fathoms; notwithstanding we have Carried as much
sail as the Ship could bear, it is apparent from the observed Latitudes
that we have been drove 3 Leagues to leeward since Yesterday.

Thursday, 22nd. Moderate breezes between the South-East and South by
West, and dark gloomy weather, with a Swell from the South-East plying to
windward, keeping between 4 and 12 Leagues from the land; depth of water
from 35 to 53 fathoms, fine sandy bottom. A great many Sea fowl and
Grampusses about the Ship. In the A.M. Condemn'd 60 fathoms of the B.B.
Cable,* (* B.B. stands for Best Bower, one of the principal cables. The
hempen cables of those days were a continual cause of solicitude, and
required great care.) and converted it into Junk; at Noon had no
Observation, but by the land judged ourselves to be about 3 Leagues
farther North than Yesterday.

Friday, 23rd. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze, and for the most part
Cloudy weather. At sunset, the weather clearing up, presented to our View
a high peaked Mountain* (* There are so many lofty mountains in this
region that it is impossible to identify this. This ship was now no
farther south than she had been five days earlier.) bearing North-West by
North, and at the same time we saw the Land more Distincter than at any
time we had before, extending from North to South-West by South, the
inland parts of which appear'd to be high and Mountainous. We cannot tell
yet whether or no this land joins to, or makes a part of, the land we
have left; from the accounts received from the Natives of Queen
Charlotte's sound it ought not, because if it did it must have been
impossible for us to have sail'd round it in 4 Days; besides, the
Mountains inland and the soundings off the Coast seem to indicate this
Country to be more extensive than any they spoke of lying to the
Southward. Having a large hollow swell from the South-East, which made me
expect the Wind from the same quarter, we keept plying from 7 to 15
Leagues from the land, depth of Water 44 to 70 fathoms; at Noon our
Latitude, by Observation, was 44 degrees 40 minutes South; Longitude made
from Banks's Island 1 degree 31 minutes West.

Saturday, 24th. Calm until 6 p.m., at which time a light breeze sprung up
at East-North-East, with which we steer'd South-South-East all night,
edging off from the Land because of a hollow swell which we had from the
South-East; depth of water from 60 to 75 fathoms. At daylight the wind
began to freshen, and before noon blowed a fresh Gale, and veer'd to
North-North-East; at 8 a.m. Saw the land extending as far as South-West
by South, which we steer'd directly for, and at Noon we were in the
Latitude of 45 degrees 22 minutes South; the land in sight extending from
South-West 1/2 South to North-North-West making high and hilly. Course
and distance run since Yesterday at Noon is South 15 degrees West, 47
Miles. In the P.M., while we lay becalm'd, Mr. Banks, in a small Boat,
shott 2 Port Egmont Hens, which were in every respect the same sort of
Birds as are found in great Numbers upon the Island of Faro; they are of
a very dark brown plumage, with a little white about the under side of
their wings, and are as large as a Muscovy Duck. These were the first
that we have seen since we arrived upon the Coast of this Country, but we
saw of them for some days before we made land.

[Off Otago, Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 25th. In the P.M. Steer'd South-West by South and South-West,
edging in for the land, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale at North,
which I was over desirous of making the most of, and by that means
carried away the Maintop Gallant Mast and Foretopmast Steering Sail Boom;
but these were soon replaced by others. Altho' we keept at no great
Distance from the Shore, yet the weather was so Hazey that we could see
nothing distinct upon the land, only that there were a ridge of Pretty
high Hills lying Parrallel with, and but a little way from, the Sea
Coast, which lies South by West and North by East, and seem'd to End in a
high Bluff point to the Southward, which we run the length of by 8
o'Clock, when, being dark, and not knowing which way the Land Trended, we
brought too for the night, having run 15 Leagues upon a South-West 1/2
West Course since Noon. The point bore at this time West, distant about 5
Miles, depth of Water 37 fathoms, the bottom small pebble stones. At 4
A.M. we made Sail, but by this time the Northerly wind was gone, and was
succeeded by one from the Southward, which proved very Var'ble and
unsteady. At day light the point above mention'd bore North, distant 3
Leagues, and we found that the land trended away from it South-West by
West, as far as we could see. This point of land I have Named Cape
Saunders, in Honour of Sir Charles* (* Admiral Sir Charles Saunders was
First Lord of the Admiralty in 1766. He commanded the fleet at the
capture of Quebec in 1759, in which Cook served.) (Latitude 45 degrees 55
minutes South; Longitude 189 degrees 4 minutes West). It requires no
discription to know it by, the Latitude and the Angle made here by the
Coast will be found quite sufficient; however, there is a remarkable
saddle hill laying near the Shore, 3 or 4 Leagues South-West of the Cape.
From 1 to 4 Leagues North of the Cape the Shore seem'd to form 2 or 3
Bays, wherein there appear'd to be Anchorage and Shelter from South-West,
Westerly, and North-West winds.* (* One of these is Otago Harbour, where
lies Dunedin, perhaps the most important commercial city in New Zealand.)
I had some thoughts of bearing up for one of these places in the morning
when the Wind came to South-West, but the fear of loosing time and the
desire I had of pushing to the Southward, in order to see as much of the
Coast as possible, or, if this land should prove to be an Island, to get
round it, prevented me. Being not far from the Shore all this morning, we
had an Opportunity of Viewing the Land pretty distinctly; it is of a
Moderate height, full of Hills, which appear'd green and Woody, but we
saw not the least signs of inhabitants. At Noon Cape Saunders bore North
30 degrees West, distant 4 Leagues. Latitude per Log, for we had no
Observation, 46 degrees 0 minutes South.

Monday, 26th. In the P.M. had the wind Whifling all round the Compass,
sometimes blowing a fresh Gale, and at other times almost Calm. At 5
o'Clock it fixed at West-South-West, and soon blow'd so hard as to put us
past our Topsails, and to split the foresail all to pieces. After getting
another to the Yard, we continued standing to the Southward under 2
Courses. At 1 A.M. the wind Moderating, set the Topsails with one Reef
out; but soon after day light the Gale increased to a Storm, with heavy
Squalls, attended with rain. This brought us again under our Courses, and
the Main Topsail being Split we unbent it and bent another. At 6 o'Clock
the Southermost land in sight bore West by North, and Cape Saunders bore
North by West, distant 8 Leagues; at Noon it bore North 20 minutes West,
distant 14 Leagues. Latitude observed 46 degrees 35 minutes.

Tuesday, 27th. A very hard gale at South-West by West, and
West-South-West, with heavy squalls attended with Showers of rain, and a
large hollow sea, without the least intermission the whole of this 24
Hours. We continued under our Courses from Noon until 7 P.M., when we
handed the Mainsail, and lay too under the Foresail with the head to the
Southward. Latitude at Noon 46 degrees 54 minutes; Longitude made from
Cape Saunders 1 degree 24 minutes East.

Wednesday, 28th. Strong Gale at South-West, with a large Sea from the
Same quarter. At 7 p.m. made sail under the Courses; at 8 a.m. set the
Topsails close reefed. At Noon, being in the Latitude of 47 degrees 43
minutes South, and Longitude East from Cape Saunders 2 degrees 10
minutes, wore and stood to the Northward.

[March 1770.]

Thursday, March 1st. Winds between the South-West and North-North-West, a
fresh gale. In the P.M. found the Variation to be 16 degrees 34 minutes
East. At 8 Tack'd and Stood to the Southward, with the wind at West,
which before the morning veer'd to North-West, accompanied with hazey
weather and drizzling rain; at day light loosed a reef out of Each
Topsail, and set some of the small sails. At Noon our Latitude by account
was 47 degrees 52 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Saunders 1
degree 8 minutes East.

Friday, 2nd. Strong Gales from the West, with heavy Squalls, attended
with showers of rain. In the P.M. Stood to the Southward till half-past
3, when being in the Latitude 48 degrees 0 minutes South and Longitude
188 degrees 00 minutes West, and seeing no Visible signs of Land, we
Tack'd and Stood to the Northward, having a very large swell from the
South-West by West. Soon after we tack'd we close reef'd the Topsails,
and in the night were obliged to hand them, but at day light set them
again. At Noon our Latitude by Observation was 46 degrees 42 minutes
South, Cape Saunders bearing North 46 degrees West, distant 68 Miles.

Saturday, 3rd. P.M. Wind and weather as Yesterday. A.M. quite Moderate,
yet the South-West swell continues, which makes me conjecture that there
is no land near in that quarter. At Noon our Latitude was 46 degrees 42
minutes South, being East of Cape Saunders 1 degree 30 minutes.

Sunday, 4th. At 4 p.m. the Wind coming to the Northward we stood to the
Westward with all the sail we could make. In the morning got up
Topgallant yards, and set the sails; found the Variation to be 16 degrees
16 minutes East. Saw several Whales, Seals, and one Penguin; this bird
was but Small of the sort, but seem'd to be such a one as we had never
seen before. We have seen several Seals since we passed the Straits, but
never saw one upon the whole Coast of Aeheinomouwe. We sounded both in
the Night and the morning, but found no bottom with 150 fathoms Line; at
Noon we saw Cape Saunders bearing North 1/2 West; our Latitude by
observation was 46 degrees 31 minutes South.* (* The Endeavour had been
blown off the land for seven days, and had barely recovered her
position.)

[Off South Part of Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Monday, 5th. Most part of P.M. had a fresh breeze at North by East. Half
past 1 saw Land bearing West by South, which we steer'd for; before dark
we were within 3 or 4 Leagues of it, and seeing no land farther to the
South we were in hopes this would prove the Southern point. At 7 shortned
sail, and kept under an easy sail all night, standing to the
West-South-West, having the wind at North-West, and North-North-West
until 2 a.m., when it fell Calm, and soon after a breeze sprung up at
South-East by South, and daylight coming on we made sail. During the
whole night we saw a large fire upon the land; a certain sign of its
being inhabited. At 7 the Extreams of the land bore from North 38 degrees
East to West 6 minutes South, being distant from the Shore about 3
Leagues. The land appear'd of a Moderate height, and not hilly. At 1/2
past 10 o'Clock the westermost land in sight bore West 1/2 North, distant
7 Leagues; at Noon had fresh Gales at South-South-East, and thick hazey
weather with rain. Our Latitude by account was 46 degrees 50 minutes
South, and Longitude made from Cape Saunders 1 degree 56 minutes West.*
(* The ship was now off the south point of the Middle Island.)

Tuesday, 6th. P.M. Winds at South by East and South-East, and thick hazey
weather until 3 o'clock, when it clear'd up, and we saw the land
extending from North-East by North to North-West 1/2 North, and soon
after low land, making like an Island, bearing West 1/2 South. Keeping on
our Course to the West by South, we in 2 hours' time saw high land over
the low, extending to the Southward as far as South-West by South; we
could not see this land join to that to the Northward of us, there either
being a total seperation, a deep Bay, or low land between them. At 8
o'Clock, being within 3 Leagues of the low land (which we now took to be
an Island* (* Ruapuke Island.)), we Tack'd and stood to the Eastward,
having the wind at South, which proved very unsettled all night; by which
means, and a little bad management, I found the Ship in the morning
considerably farther to the Eastward than I expected, and the wind
afterwards coming to South-West and West-South-West, so that at noon we
found ourselves much about the same place as we were Yesterday, our
Latitude by observation being 46 degrees 50 minutes South, the land
extending from North-East by East to West by North 1/2 North, the nearest
part bearing North, distance 3 Leagues; the land to the South-West just
in sight.

Wednesday, 7th. Light Airs in the South-West quarter. P.M. Clear weather,
remainder dark and Cloudy. In the P.M. found the Variation per several
Azimuths, and the Amplitude to be 15 degrees 10 minutes East, and by the
Amplitude in the morning to be 15 degrees 56 minutes East. Stood to the
South-East until 8 a.m., then tack'd and stood to the North-West; but it
soon after fell Calm, and continued so until noon, when by our account we
were in the Latitude of 47 degrees 6 minutes South, and had made 12 Miles
Easting since Yesterday at Noon.

Thursday, 8th. Light Airs next to a Calm from South-South-East to
North-East, with which we kept Steering to the South-West, but made but
little way because of a swell which took us right ahead. At daylight A.M.
we saw, or thought we saw, from the Masthead, the land which we have left
to the Northward of us joined to that to the South-West of us; and at the
same time we imagined we saw the land extend to the Southward as far as
South-South-West; but after steering this Course until noon we discovered
our Mistake, for there was no land to be seen to the Southward of West,
which Course we now steer'd, being by observation in the Latitude of 47
degrees 12 minutes; Longitude made from Cape Saunders 2 degrees 2 minutes
West.

[Off South Cape of New Zealand.]

Friday, 9th. P.M. Winds at North, a Gentle breeze and Clear weather.
Stood to the Westward until sunset, at which time the Extreams of the
land bore from North by East to West, distant about 7 or 8 Leagues; Depth
of Water 55 fathoms; Variation by the Amplitude 16 degrees 29 minutes
East. The wind now veer'd to the Westward, and as the weather was fine
and Moonlight we kept standing close upon a Wind to the South-West all
night. At 4 a.m. Sounded, and had 60 fathoms; at daylight we discover'd
under our lee bow Ledges of Rocks, on which the Sea broke very high,
extending from South by West to West by South, and not above 3/4 of a
Mile from us; yet upon sounding we had 45 fathoms, a Rocky bottom. The
wind being at North-West we could not weather the Ledge, and as I did not
care to run to leeward, we tackt and made a Trip to the Eastward; but the
wind soon after coming to the North enabled us to go clear of all. Our
soundings in passing within the Ledge was from 35 to 47 fathoms, a rocky
bottom. This Ledge lies South-East, 6 Leagues from the Southermost part
of the Land, and South-East by South from some remarkable hills which
stand near the Shore. These rocks are not the only dangers that lay here,
for about 3 Leagues to the Northward of them is another Ledge of Rocks,
laying full 3 Leagues from the land, whereon the Sea broke very high. As
we passed these rocks in the night at no great distance, and discover'd
the others close under our Lee at daylight, it is apparent that we had a
very fortunate Escape. I have named them the Traps, because they lay as
such to catch unweary Strangers.* (* The dangerous Traps lie south and
east of the South Island of New Zealand. The Endeavour had now at last
got to the southward of the land. There is a small but high rock farther
south, the Snares, that Cook did not sight this voyage.) At Noon our
Latitude per observation was 47 degrees 26 minutes South; Longitude made
from Cape Saunders 3 degrees 4 minutes West, the land in sight--which has
very much the appearance of an Island* (* South or Stewart
Island.)--extending North-East by North to North-West by West, distant
from the Shore about 4 or 5 Leagues; the Eastermost ledge of rocks bore
South-South-East, distant 1 1/2 Leagues; and Northermost North-East 1/2
East, 3 Leagues. This land is of a moderate height, and has a very barren
Aspect; not a Tree to be seen upon it, only a few Small Shrubs. There
were several white patches, on which the sun's rays reflected very
strongly, which I take to be a kind of Marble such as we have seen in
many places of this Country, particularly to the Northward.

Saturday, 10th. P.M. Moderate breezes at North-West by North and North
with which we stood close upon a Wind to the Westward. At sunset the
Southermost point of land, which I afterwards named South Cape,* (* South
Cape is the southern point of Stewart Island. Cook's position for it is
wonderfully exact.) and which lies in the Latitude of 47 degrees 19
minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 12 minutes West from Greenwich, bore
North 38 degrees East, distant 4 Leagues, and the Westermost land in
sight bore North 2 degrees East. This last was a small Island, lying off
the point of the Main.* (* Long Island, which lies, with others, on the
west side of Stewart Island.) I began now to think that this was the
Southermost land, and that we should be able to get round it by the West,
for we have had a large hollow swell from the South-West ever since we
had the last gale of wind from that Quarter, which makes one think there
is no land in that direction. In the Night it began to blow, so that at
or before daylight we were brought under our 2 Courses; but at 8 a.m. it
fell moderate, and we set the Topsails close Reeft, and the Mizn and Mizn
Staysail being split, we unbent them and bent others. At Noon, the wind
Coming at West, we Tackt and stood to the Northward, having no land in
sight; our Latitude by observation was 47 degrees 33 minutes South,
Longitude West from the South Cape 0 degrees 59 minutes.

Sunday, 11th. Winds between the West and North-West, a fresh Gale, and
Clear weather. Stood away North-North-East close upon a wind without
seeing any land until 2 A.M., when we discover'd an Island bearing
North-West by North, distant 4 or 5 Leagues. Two hours after this we saw
the Land ahead, upon which we Tackt and stood off until 6 o'Clock; then
stood in, in order to take a nearer View of it. At 11, being about 3
Leagues from the land, and the wind seem'd to incline on Shore, we Tackt
and stood off to the Southward. And now we thought that the land to the
Southward, or that we have been sailing round these 2 days past, was an
Island, because there appeared an Open Channell between the North part of
that land and the South part of the other in which we thought we saw the
Small Island we were in with the 6th Instant; but when I came to lay this
land down upon paper from the several bearings I had taken, it appeared
that there was but little reason to suppose it an Island. On the
contrary, I hardly have a doubt but what it joins to, and makes a part
of, the Mainland,* (* Cook was deceived, as Stewart is an island.) the
Western extremity of which bore at Noon North 59 degrees West, and the
Island seen in the Morning* (* This was called by Cook Solander Island.)
South 59 degrees West, distant 5 Leagues. Latitude observed 46 degrees 24
minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 49 minutes West. It is nothing but a
barren rock of about a Mile in Circuit, remarkably high, and lies full 5
Leagues from the Main. The shore of the Main lies nearest East by South
and West by North, and forms a large open bay, in which there is no
appearance of a Harbour or other place of safety for shipping against
South-West and Southerly winds. The face of the Country bears a very
rugged Aspect, being full of high craggy hills, on the Summits of which
were several patches of Snow. However, the land is not wholy barren; we
could see wood, not only in the Valleys, but on several of the Hills; but
we saw no signs of inhabitants.

Monday, 12th. Fresh Gales between the West and North-West; latter part
squally, with rain. Stood to the South-West by South until 11 a.m., at
which time the wind shifted to the South-West by West. We wore, and stood
to the North-North-West, being then in the Latitude of 47 degrees 40
minutes South, and Longitude 193 degrees 50 minutes West, having a Hollow
Sea from the South-West.

Tuesday, 13th. Strong Gale between the South-West by West and
South-South-West, with a large Hollow sea from the same Quarter. In the
P.M. had frequent Squalls, with Showers of rain; in the night had several
very heavy squalls, attended with Showers of Hail, which obliged us to
take in our Topsails. During the night steer'd North-North-West until 6
a.m., when, seeing no land, we steer'd North by East, and set the Main
Topsail, single reeft. At 8 set the Foretopsail, single reeft, and loosed
all the Reefs out of the Maintopsail, and Steer'd North-East by East 1/2
East in order to make the land. At 10 saw it bearing East-North-East, and
appeared to be very high; but, being hazey over it, we could see nothing
distinct neither now nor at Noon, when, by Observation, we were in the
Latitude of 46 degrees 0 minutes South. Course and distance Sailed since
Yesterday North 5 degrees West, 96 Miles. Longitude made from the South
Cape 1 degree 40 minutes West.

[Off the New Zealand Sounds.]

Wednesday, 14th. In the P.M. had a fresh Gale from the Southward,
attended with Squalls. At 2 it Clear'd up over the land, which appeared
high and Mountainous. At 1/2 past 3 double reeft the Topsails, and hauld
in for a Bay, wherein their appear'd to be good Anchorage, and into which
I had thought of going with the Ship; but after standing in an hour, we
found the distance too great to run before dark, and it blow'd too hard
to attempt it in the night, or even to keep to Windward; for these
reasons we gave it up, and bore away along shore. This bay I have named
Dusky Bay. It lies in the Latitude of 45 degrees 47 minutes South; it is
about 3 or 4 Miles broad at the Entrance, and seems to be full as deep.
In it are several Islands, behind which there must be Shelter from all
winds, provided there is a Sufficient Depth of Water.* (* Dusky Bay is
one of the remarkable inlets known now as the New Zealand Sounds. They
are very deep, narrow fiords, running into the high mountains, that here
come close to the shore, and are much visited now for the sake of the
grandeur of the scenery. Cook visited and surveyed Dusky Bay in his next
voyage. The Endeavour had nearly as much tempestuous weather in rounding
the south end of New Zealand as she had off the North Cape; but Cook
managed to get a very fair idea of the coast, notwithstanding, by dint of
perseverance.) The North point of this bay, when it bears South-East by
South, is very remarkable, there being off it 5 high peaked rocks,
standing up like the 4 fingers and thumb of a Man's hand; on which
account I have named it Point Five Fingers. The land of this point is
farther remarkable by being the only Level land near it, and extends near
2 Leagues to the Northward. It is pretty high, wholy cover'd with wood,
and hath very much the Appearance of an Island, by its aspect being so
very different from the Land behind it, which is nothing but barren rocky
Mountains. At Sunset the Southermost Land in sight bore due South,
distant 5 or 6 Leagues; and as this is the Westermost point of land upon
the whole Coast I have called it West Cape. It lies about 3 Leagues to
the Southward of the bay above-mentioned, in the Latitude of 45 degrees
54 minutes South, and Longitude 193 degrees 17 minutes West. The land of
this Cape seems to be of a moderate height next the Sea, and hath Nothing
remarkable about it that we could see, Except a very White Clift 2 or 3
Leagues to the Southward of it. The land to the Southward of Cape West
trends away towards the South-East; to the Northward of it it Trends
North-North-East and North-East. At 7 o'Clock brought the Ship too under
the Foresail, with her head off Shore, having a fresh Gale at South by
East. At Midnight it moderated, and we wore and lay her head in shore
until 4 a.m.; then made Sail, and Steer'd along shore North-East 1/2
North, having a moderate breeze at South-South-East. At Noon we were by
observation in the Latitude 45 degrees 13 minutes South; Course and
distance sailed since Yesterday North 41 degrees East, 62 Miles;
Longitude made from Cape West 0 degrees 29 minutes East, being at this
time about 1 1/2 Leagues from Shore. Sounded, and had no ground with 70
fathoms Line. A little before Noon we passed a little Narrow opening in
the land, where there appear'd to be a very Snug Harbour,* (* Doubtful
Sound, another of the fiords mentioned in note above.) form'd by an
Island, in the Latitude of 45 degrees 16 minutes South; inland, behind
this Opening, were Mountains, the summits of which were Cover'd with Snow
that seem'd to have fallen lately, and this is not to be wondered at, for
we have found it very cold for these 2 days past. The land on each side
the Entrance of this Harbour riseth almost perpendicular from the Sea to
a very considerable Height; and this was the reason why I did not attempt
to go in with the Ship, because I saw clearly that no winds could blow
there but what was right in or right out, that is, Westerly or Easterly;
and it certainly would have been highly imprudent in me to have put into
a place where we could not have got out but with a wind that we have
lately found to blow but one day in a Month. I mention this because there
was some on board that wanted me to harbour at any rate, without in the
least Considering either the present or future Consequences.

Thursday, 15th. Clear weather, Winds at South-West and South-West by
South, a Gentle breeze, except in the night, when we had variable light
Airs and Calm. In the evening, being about 2 Leagues from the land, we
sounded, but had no ground with 103 fathoms. Variation per Azimuth 14
degrees East, per Amplitude 15 degrees 2 minutes East. With what wind we
had we made the best of our way along shore to the North-East, keeping at
the distance of 2 or 3 Leagues off from the Land. At Noon we were in the
Latitude of 44 degrees 47 minutes, having run only 12 Leagues upon a
North-East 1/4 North Course since Yesterday at Noon; Longitude made from
Cape West 1 degree 3 minutes East.

Friday, 16th. Winds at South-West; a fresh breeze and Clear. Steer'd
along shore North-East 1/4 East until 6 p.m., when we Shortned Sail, and
brought too for the Night. Variation per Azimuth 13 degrees 48 minutes
East. At 4 A.M. made sail, and Stood in for the land. At daylight saw the
appearance of an inlet into the land; but upon a nearer approach found
that it was only a deep Valley, bounded on each side by high lands, upon
which we bore away North-East 1/4 East along shore, keeping about 4 or 5
miles off. At Noon the Northermost point of land in sight bore North 60
degrees East, distant 10 Miles; Latitude per Observation 44 degrees 5
minutes; Longitude made from Cape West 2 degrees 8 minutes East.

Saturday, 17th. Continued our Course along shore, having in the P.M. the
advantage of a fresh Gale at South-West. At 2, past by the point
afore-mentioned, which is of a Moderate height, with deep Red Clifts,
down which falls 4 Small streams of Water, on which account it is named
Cascades Point. Latitude 44 degrees 0 minutes South; Longitude 2 degrees
20 minutes East from Cape West. From this point the land at first Trends
North 76 degrees East, but afterwards more to the Northward
East-North-East, 8 Leagues. From this point and near the Shore lies a
small low Island, which bore from us South by East, distant 1 1/2
Leagues. At 7 o'Clock we Shortned sail, and brought too under the
Topsails, with her head off Shore, having 33 fathoms, and fine sandy
bottom. At 10, had 50 fathoms, and at 12, wore in 65 fathoms, having
drove about 5 Miles North-North-West since we brought too. Two hours
after this had no ground with 140 fathoms; which shews that the soundings
extend but a little way from the land. From 2 to 8 a.m. had it Calm and
hazey, with drizzling rain, at which time a breeze sprung up at
South-West, with which we steer'd along shore North-East by East 1/4
East, keeping about 3 Leagues from the land. At Noon had no Observation,
being Hazey with rain. Our run since Yesterday at Noon is North-East by
East, 55 Miles; Longitude from Cape West 3 degrees 12 minutes East.

[Off West Coast of Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 18th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at South-West by West,
attended with drizzling rain. At 8, being about 3 Leagues from the land,
shortned sail, and brought too, having run 10 Leagues North-East by East
since noon; at this time had 44 fathoms, and 2 hours before had 17
fathoms, fine sandy bottom, being then about 1 League from the land. Had
it Calm the most part of the Night, and until 10 a.m., when a light
breeze sprung up at South-West by West. We Made sail along shore
North-East by North, having a large swell from the West-South-West, which
had risen in the Night. At Noon Latitude in per Observation 43 degrees 4
minutes South; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday is North 54
degrees East, 54 Miles; Longitude made from Cape West 4 degrees 12
minutes East. The Mountains and some of the Vallies we observed this
morning were wholy cover'd with Snow, part of which we suppos'd to have
fallen in the P.M. and fore part of the Night, at the time that we had
rain--and yet the weather is not Cold.* (* They did not see Mount Cook,
12,300 feet high, and the highest mountain in New Zealand; no doubt the
summit was in the clouds.)

Monday, 19th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at South-West by West and
West-South-West, which we made the most of until 6, when we shortned
sail, and at 10 brought too, and sounded 115 fathoms, judging ourselves
to be about 5 Leagues from the land. At midnight it fell little wind, on
which account we made sail. At 8 a.m. the wind veer'd to the North-West
by North, with which we stood to the North-East close upon a wind until
noon, at which time we Tack'd, being about 3 Leagues from the land, and
by Observation in the Latitude of 42 degrees 8 minutes and Longitude from
Cape West 5 degrees 5 minutes East* (* The Endeavour had passed the mouth
of the Grey River, the district of the great coalfields of New Zealand.)
Course and distance run since Yesterday at Noon North 35 degrees East, 68
Miles; Depth of Water 65 fathoms, the land extending from North-East by
North to South-South-West.

Tuesday, 20th. Fresh Gales at North-West by North and North by West. P.M.
fair weather; the remainder hazey, with rain, and Squall, which brought
us under close Reeft Topsails. Stood to the Westward until 2 a.m., when
we made a Trip to the Eastward, and afterwards stood to the Westward
until Noon, when, by our reckoning, we were in the Latitude of 42 degrees
23 minutes South. Course and distance sail'd South 74 degrees West, 54
Miles; Longitude made from Cape West 5 degrees 55 minutes East. Tack'd
and stood to the Eastward.

Wednesday, 21st. In the P.M. had a fresh Gale at North by West, attended
with rain until 6, when the Wind shifted to South and South-South-West,
and continued to blow a fresh Gale, with which we steer'd North-East by
North until 6 A.M., at which time we haul'd in East by North in order to
make the land which we saw soon after. At Noon our Latitude per Account
was 41 degrees 37 minutes, and Longitude from Cape West 5 degrees 42
minutes East; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday North 60 degrees
East, 92 miles. At this time we were not above 3 or 4 Leagues from the
land, but being very foggy upon it we could see nothing distinct, and as
we had not much wind, and a prodigious swell rowling in upon the Shore
from the West-South-West, I did not think it safe to go nearer.

Thursday, 22nd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze from the
South-South-West, with which we steer'd along shore North-East until 8,
when being about 2 or 3 Leagues from shore we sounded, and had 34
fathoms, upon which we haul'd off North-West by North until 11, then
brought too, having at this time 64 fathoms. At 4 a.m. made sail to the
North-East, wind at South-South-West, a light breeze. At 8 the wind
veer'd to the Westward, and soon after fell Calm; at this time we were
about 3 or 4 Miles from the Shore, and in 54 fathoms, having a large
swell from the West-South-West rowling Obliquely upon the Shore, which
put me under a good deal of Apprehension that we should be obliged to
Anchor; but by the help of a light Air now and then from the South-West
quarter we were Enabled to keep the Ship from driving much nearer the
shore. At Noon the Northermost land in sight bore North-East by East 1/4
East, distant 8 or 10 Leagues; our Latitude by account was 40 degrees 55
minutes South, Longitude from Cape West 6 degrees 35 minutes East; Course
and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon North 36 degrees East, 42
Miles; very foggy over the Land.

[Off Cape Farewell, Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Friday, 23rd. Light Airs from the Southward, at intervals Calm, the fore
part hazey, the remainder clear, pleasant weather. At Noon our Latitude,
by observation, 40 degrees 36 minutes 30 seconds South, Longitude from
Cape West 6 degrees 52 minutes East; the Eastermost point of Land in
sight* (* Cape Farewell, the north point of the Middle Island.) bore East
10 degrees North, distant 7 Leagues, and a bluff head or point we were
abreast of yesterday at Noon, off which lay some rocks above Water, bore
South 18 degrees West, distant 6 Leagues. This point I have named Rocks
Point, Latitude 40 degrees 55 minutes South. Having now nearly run down
the whole of this North-West Coast of Tovy Poenammu, it is time I should
describe the face of the Country as it hath at different times appeared
to us. I have mentioned on the 11th Instant, at which time we were off
the Southern part of the Island, that the land seen then was rugged and
mountainous; and there is great reason to believe that the same ridge of
Mountains extends nearly the whole length of the Island from between the
Westermost Land seen that day and the Eastermost seen on the 13th. There
is a space of about 6 or 8 Leagues of the sea Coast unexplored, but the
Mountains inland were Visible enough. The land near the Shore about Cape
West is rather low, and riseth with a gradual assent up to the foot of
the Mountains, and appear'd to be mostly covered with wood. From Point
Five Fingers down to the Latitude of 44 degrees 20 minutes there is a
narrow ridge of Hills rising directly from the Sea, which are Cloathed
with wood; close behind these hills lies the ridge of Mountains, which
are of a Prodidgious height, and appear to consist of nothing but barren
rocks, covered in many places with large patches of Snow, which perhaps
have lain there since the Creation. No country upon Earth can appear with
a more rugged and barren Aspect than this doth; from the Sea for as far
inland as the Eye can reach nothing is to be seen but the Summits of
these rocky Mountains, which seem to lay so near one another as not to
admit any Vallies between them. From the Latitude of 44 degrees 20
minutes to the Latitude 42 degrees 8 minutes these mountains lay farther
inland; the Country between them and the Sea consists of woody Hills and
Vallies of Various extent, both for height and Depth, and hath much the
Appearance of Fertility. Many of the Vallies are large, low, and flatt,
and appeared to be wholy covered with Wood; but it is very probable that
great part of the land is taken up in Lakes, Ponds, etc., as is very
common in such like places. From the last mentioned Latitude to Cape
Farewell, afterwards so Called, the land is not distinguished by anything
remarkable; it rises into hills directly from the Sea, and is covered
with wood. While we were upon this part of the Coast the weather was
foggy, in so much that we could see but a very little way inland;
however, we sometimes saw the Summits of the Mountains above the fogg and
Clouds, which plainly shew'd that the inland parts were high and
Mountainous, and gave me great reason to think that there is a Continued
Chain of Mountains from the one End of the Island to the other.* (* This
is, to a great extent, the case.)

Saturday, 24th. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South-West, which by
Dark run us the length of the Eastern Point set at Noon, and not knowing
what Course the land took on the other side, we brought too in 34 fathoms
about one League from the land. At 8, it falling little wind, we fill'd
and stood on until 12, at which time we brought too until 4 a.m., then
made Sail. At daylight we saw low land extending from the above point to
the East-South-East as far as the Eye could reach, the Eastern Extremity
of which appear'd in round Hillocks; by this time the wind had veer'd to
the Eastward, which obliged us to ply to windward. At Noon the point
above mention'd bore South-West by South, distant 16 miles; Latitude
observ'd 40 degrees 19 minutes South. This point I afterwards named Cape
Farewell, for reasons which will be given in their proper place.

Sunday, 25th. Winds Easterly; towards Noon had little winds and hazey,
with rain. Made several trips, but gain'd nothing to Windward, so that at
Noon our Situation was nearly as Yesterday.

Monday, 26th. At 3 p.m. the wind came to North, and we Steer'd
East-South-East with all the Sail we could set until dark, when we
shortned sail until the morning, having thick Misty weather. All Night we
keept the lead going continually, and had from 37 to 48 fathoms. At day
light we saw the land bearing South-East by East, and an Island laying
near it bearing East-South-East, distant 5 Leagues. This I knew to be the
Island* (* Stephens Island.) seen from the Entrance of Queen Charlotte's
sound, from which it bears North-West by North, Distant 9 Leagues. At
Noon it bore South-East, distant 4 or 5 miles, and the North-West head of
Queen Charlotte's sound bore South-East by South, distant 10 1/2 Leagues;
Latitude ohserv'd 43 degrees 33 minutes South.

[In Admiralty Bay, Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 27th. Fresh breeze of Wind Westerly, and hazey, Misty weather,
with Drizling rain. As we have now Circumnavigated the whole of this
Country, it is time for me to think of quitting it; but before I do this
it will be necessary to compleat our Water first, especially as we have
on board above 30 Tons of Casks empty, and knowing that there is a Bay
between the above-mentioned Island and Queen Charlotte's sound, wherein
no doubt there is Anchorage and convenient Watering places. Accordingly,
in the P.M. we hauled round the Island and into the bay,* (* Admiralty
Bay.) leaving 3 more Islands* (* Rangitoto Islets.) on our Starboard
hand, which lay close under the West Shore 3 or 4 Miles within the
Entrance. As we run in we keept the lead going, and had from 40 to 12
fathoms. At 6 we Anchor'd in 11 fathoms, Muddy bottom, under the West
Shore, in the Second Cove within the fore-mentioned Island. At daylight I
took a Boat and went to look for a Watering place, and a proper birth to
moor the Ship in, both of which I found convenient enough. After the Ship
was moor'd I sent an Officer ashore to Superintend the Watering, and the
Carpenter with his Crew to cut wood, while the Long boat was employed
carrying on shore Empty Casks.

Wednesday, 28th. Winds Westerly, which in the A.M. blow'd a fresh Gale,
attended with rain. Employ'd getting on board Wood and Water and fishing;
in the Latter we were pretty Successfull.

Thursday, 29th. In the P.M. had a Strong Gale from the Westward. A.M.
Variable light Airs from the Eastward and hazey rainy weather the whole
day; which, however, did not prevent us getting on board Wood and Water.

Friday, 30th. Winds at South-East, a moderate breeze; the first and
middle part dark, Hazey weather, with rain; the latter, fair. In the
A.M., as the wind seem'd to be settled at South-East, and having nearly
compleated our Water, we warped the Ship out of the Cove in order to have
room to get under Sail. Before this was done it was Noon, at which time I
went away in the Pinnace, in order to examine the Bay, and to Explore as
much of it as the little time I had would Admit.

Saturday, 31st. In the P.M., after rowing a League and a half or 2
Leagues up the Bay, I Landed upon a point of Land on the West side,
where, from an Eminency, I could see this Western Arm of the Bay run in
South-West by West, about 5 Leagues farther, yet did not see the Head of
it. There appeared to be several other inlets, or at least small bays,
between this and the North-West head of Queen Charlotte's sound, in every
one of which I make no doubt but what there is Anchorage and Shelter for
Shipping, as they are partly cover'd from the Sea wind by these Islands
that lay without them.* (* There is a maze of inlets and harbours between
Admiralty Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound, a distance of 20 miles.) The
land about this bay, at least what I could see of it, is of a very hilly,
uneven Surface, and appears to be mostly cover'd with wood, Shrubs,
Firns, etc., which renders Travelling both difficult and Fatiguing. I saw
no inhabitants, neither have we seen any since we have been in this bay,
but met with several of their Huts, all of which appear'd to have been at
least 12 Months deserted.

Upon my return to the Ship, in the Evening, I found the Water, etc., all
on board, and the Ship ready for Sea; and being now resolv'd to quit this
Country altogether, and to bend my thought towards returning home by such
a rout as might Conduce most to the Advantage of the Service I am upon, I
consulted with the Officers upon the most Eligible way of putting this in
Execution. To return by the way of Cape Horn was what I most wished,
because by this rout we should have been able to prove the Existance or
Non-Existance of a Southern Continent, which yet remains Doubtfull; but
in order to Ascertain this we must have kept in a higher Latitude in the
very Depth of Winter, but the Condition of the Ship, in every respect,
was not thought sufficient for such an undertaking. For the same reason
the thoughts of proceeding directly to the Cape of Good Hope was laid
aside, especially as no discovery of any Moment could be hoped for in
that rout. It was therefore resolved to return by way of the East Indies
by the following rout: upon Leaving this Coast to steer to the Westward
until we fall in with the East Coast of New Holland, and then to follow
the direction of that Coast to the Northward, or what other direction it
might take us, until we arrive at its Northern extremity; and if this
should be found impracticable, then to Endeavour to fall in with the Land
or Islands discovered by Quiros.* (* Quiros, a Spanish navigator,
discovered in 1605 Espiritu Santo, the northern island of the New
Hebrides, which he supposed to be a part of a great southern continent.
Cook, in his second voyage, thoroughly explored the New Hebrides group;
and for some of the islands his charts are still the only guide.)

With this view, at daylight we got under Sail and put to Sea, having the
Advantage of a fresh Gale at South-East and Clear weather. At Noon the
Island, which lies off the North-West point of the Bay, bore East 9
degrees South, distant 10 Miles; our Latitude, by Observation, was 40
degrees 35 minutes South. This bay I have named Admiralty Bay; the
North-West point Cape Stephens, and the East Point Jackson, after the 2
Secretarys.* (* The two secretaries of the Admiralty, Philip Stephens and
George Jackson, both of whom showed great appreciation of Cook.) It may
always be known by the Island above mentioned, which is pretty high, and
lies North-East, 2 Miles from Cape Stephens; Latitude 40 degrees 37
minutes South; Longitude 185 degrees 6 minutes West. Between this Island
and Cape Farewell, which is West by North and East by South, distant 14
or 15 Leagues from each other, the Shore forms a large deep Bay, the
bottom of which we could hardly see in sailing in a Strait line from the
one Cape to the other; but it is not at all improbable but what it is all
lowland next the Sea, as we have met with less water here than on any
other part of the Coast at the same distance from Land; however, a Bay
there is, and is known on the Chart by the Name of Blind Bay, but I have
reason to believe it to be Tasman's Murderers' Bay.* (* Blind Bay is now
also known as Tasman Bay, and Massacre Bay is supposed to be a smaller
bay in it, on the north-western side.)

Before I quit this land altogether I shall give a short general
discription of the Country, its inhabitants, their manners, Customs,
etc., in which it is necessary to observe that many things are founded
only on Conjecture, for we were too short a time in any one place to
learn much of their interior policy, and therefore could only draw
conclusions from what we saw at different times.

[Description of New Zealand.]

SOME ACCOUNT OF NEW ZEALAND.

Part of the East* (* This should be West Coast.) Coast of this Country
was first discovered by Abel Tasman in 1642, and by him called New
Zeland; he, however, never landed upon it; probably he was discouraged
from it by the Natives killing 3 or 4 of his People at the first and only
place he Anchor'd at. This country, which before now was thought to be a
part of the imaginary Southern Continent, consists of 2 large Islands,
divided from each other by a Strait or Passage of 4 or 5 Leagues broad.
They are situated between the Latitude of 34 and 48 degrees South, and
between the Longitude of 181 and 194 degrees West from the Meridian of
Greenwich. The situation of few parts of the world are better determin'd
than these Islands are, being settled by some hundreds of Observations of
the Sun and Moon, and one of the Transit of Mercury made by Mr. Green,
who was sent out by the Royal Society to observe the Transit of Venus.

The Northermost of these Islands, as I have before observed, is called by
the Natives Aeheinomouwe and the Southermost Tovy Poenammu. The former
name, we were well assured, comprehends the whole of the Northern Island;
but we were not so well satisfied with the latter whether it comprehended
the whole of the Southern Islands or only a part of it. This last,
according to the Natives of Queen Charlotte's Sound, ought to consist of
2 Islands, one of which at least we were to have sail'd round in a few
days; but this was not verify'd by our own Observations. I am inclinable
to think that they know'd no more of this land than what came within the
Limits of their sight.* (* As before remarked, the natives at Queen
Charlotte's Sound doubtless were speaking of the large peninsula and the
islands which lie west of the Sound. There is a spot at the isthmus where
canoes could be hauled over.) The Chart* (* See copy of this chart.)
which I have drawn will best point out the figure and Extent of these
Islands, the situation of the Bays and Harbours they contain, and the
lesser Islands lay about them.

And now I have mentioned the Chart, I shall point out such places as are
drawn with sufficient accuracy to be depended upon and such as are not,
beginning at Cape Pallisser and proceed round Aeheinomouwe by the East
Cape, etc. The Coast between these 2 Capes I believe to be laid down
pretty accurate, both in its figure and the Course and distance from
point to point; the opportunities I had and the methods I made use on to
obtain these requisites were such as could hardly admit of an Error. From
the East Cape to Cape Maria Van Diemen, altho' it cannot be perfectly
true, yet it is without any very Material error; some few places,
however, must be excepted, and these are very Doubtfull, and are not only
here, but in every other part of the Chart pointed out by a Pricked or
broken line. From Cape Maria Van Diemen up as high as the Latitude of 36
degrees 15 minutes we seldom were nearer the Shore than from 5 to 8
Leagues, and therefore the line of the Sea Coast may in some places be
erroneous. From the above Latitude to nearly the Length of Entry Island
we run along and near the shore all the way, and no circumstance occurd
that made me liable to commit any Material error. Excepting Cape
Teerawhitte, we never came near the Shore between Entry Island and Cape
Pallisser, and therefore this part of the coast may be found to differ
something from the truth; in Short, I believe that this Island will never
be found to differ Materially from the figure I have given it, and that
the Coast Affords few or no Harbours but what are either taken notice of
in this Journal, or in some Measure pointed out in the Chart; but I
cannot say so much for Tovy Poenammu. The Season of the Year and
Circumstance of the Voyage would not permit me to spend so much time
about this Island as I had done at the other, and the blowing weather we
frequently met with made it both dangerous and difficult to keep upon the
Coast. However, I shall point out the places that may be Erroneous in
this as I have done in the other. From Queen Charlotte's sound to Cape
Campbell, and as far to the South-West as the Latitude 43 degrees, will
be found to be pretty Accurate; between this Latitude and the Latitude 44
degrees 20 minutes the coast is very Doubtfully laid down, a part of
which we hardly, if at all, saw. From this last mentioned Latitude to
Cape Saunders we were generally at too great a distance to be Particular,
and the weather at the same time was unfavourable. The Coast, as it is
laid down from Cape Saunders to Cape South, and even to Cape West, is no
doubt in many places very erroneous, as we hardly were ever able to keep
near the Shore, and were sometimes blown off altogether. From the West
Cape down to Cape Farewell, and even to Queen Charlotte's sound, will in
most places be found to differ not much from the truth.* (* Cook's open
and plain statement as to the comparative accuracy of different parts of
his chart is much to be commended. It has been too much the fashion with
first explorers to leave such matters to be discovered by the student.
But the astonishing accuracy of his outline of New Zealand must be the
admiration of all who understand the difficulties of laying down a coast;
and when it is considered that this coastline is 2400 miles in extent,
the magnitude of the task will be realised by everybody. Never has a
coast been so well laid down by a first explorer, and it must have
required unceasing vigilance and continual observation, in fair weather
and foul, to arrive at such a satisfactory conclusion; and with such a
dull sailer as the Endeavour was, the six and a half months occupied in
the work must be counted as a short interval in which to do it.)

[Animals, Timber, etc., New Zealand.]

Mention is likewise made in the Chart of the appearance or aspect of the
face of the Country. With respect to Tovy Poenammu, it is for the most
part very Mountainous, and to all appearance a barren Country. The people
in Queen Charlotte's sound--those that came off to us from under the
Snowy Mountain, and the five we saw to the South-West of Cape
Saunders--were all the inhabitants, or Signs of inhabitants, we saw upon
the whole Island; but most part of the Sea Coast of Aeheinomouwe, except
the South-West side, is well inhabited; and although it is a hilly,
Mountainous Country, yet the very Hills and Mountains are many of them
cover'd with wood, and the Soil of the plains and Valleys appear'd to be
very rich and fertile, and such as we had an opportunity to examine we
found to be so, and not very much incumber'd with woods.

It was the Opinion of every body on board that all sorts of European
grain, fruit, Plants, etc., would thrive here; in short, was this Country
settled by an industrious people they would very soon be supplied not
only with the necessaries, but many of the Luxuries, of Life. The Sea,
Bays, and Rivers abound with a great Variety of Excellent Fish, the most
of them unknown in England, besides Lobsters, which were allowed by every
one to be the best they ever had eat. Oysters and many other sorts of
shell fish all Excellent in their kind. Sea and Water Fowls of all sorts
are, however, in no great plenty; those known in Europe are Ducks, Shags,
Gannets, and Gulls, all of which were Eat by us, and found exceeding
good; indeed, hardly anything came Amiss to us that could be Eat by Man.
Land fowl are likewise in no great plenty, and all of them, except
Quails, are, I believe, unknown in Europe; these are exactly like those
we have in England. The Country is certainly destitute of all sorts of
beasts, either wild or tame, except dogs and Rats; the former are tame,
and lived with the people, who breed and bring them up for no other
purpose than to Eat, and rats are so scarce that not only I, but many
others in the Ship, never see one. Altho' we have seen some few Seals,
and once a Sea Lion upon this Coast, yet I believe they are not only very
scarce,* (* There are a good many seals round the southern part of New
Zealand, and a regular fishery is now established on Stewart Island. Cook
saw nothing of the few natives that occupied the southern parts of the
Island.) but seldom or ever come ashore; for if they did the Natives
would certainly find out some Method of Killing them, the Skins of which
they no doubt would preserve for Cloathing, as well as the Skins of Dogs
and birds, the only Skins we ever saw among them. But they must sometimes
get Whales, because many of the Patta Pattoas are made of the bones of
some such fish, and an Ornament they wear at their breast (on which they
set great Value), which are supposed to be made of the Tooth of a Whale;
and yet we know of no method or instrument they have to kill these
Animals.

In the woods are plenty of Excellent Timber, fit for all purposes except
Ships' Masts; and perhaps upon a Close Examination some might be found
not improper for that purpose. There grows spontainously everywhere a
kind of very broad-bladed grass, like flags of the Nature of Hemp,* (*
The New Zealand flax (Phormium Tenax) is now a considerable article of
commerce. It furnishes a very strong fibre, and is made into rope, etc.)
of which might be made the very best of Cordage and Canvas, etc. There
are 2 sorts, one finer than the other; of these the Natives make Cloth,
rope, Lines, netts, etc. Iron Ore is undoubtedly to be found here,
particularly about Mercury Bays, where we found great quantities of Iron
sand; however, we met with no Ore of any Sort, neither did we ever see
any sort of Metal with the Natives. We met with some stones at Admiralty
Bay that appear'd to be Mineral in some degree, but Dr. Solander was of
Opinion that they contain'd no Sort of Metal* (* Gold and coal have been
found in New Zealand in large quantities. Gold at Otago and Hokatika in
the South Island, and at Thames in the North. The coalfields round the
Grey River are enormous, and have no doubt a great future; and this
useful mineral is also found in the Bay of Islands, and other places in
the North Island. Other metals, as copper, silver, antimony, have also
been found and worked.) The white stone we saw near the South Cape and
some other parts to the Southward, which I took to be a kind of Marble,
such as I had seen on one of the Hills I was upon in Mercury Bay, Mr.
Banks--I afterwards found--was of Opinion that they were Mineral to the
highest degree; he is certainly a much better Judge of these things than
I am, and therefore I might be mistaken in my opinion, which was only
founded on what I had before seen not only in this Country, but in other
parts where I have been; and at the same time I must observe we were not
less than 6 or 8 Leagues from the Land, and nearer it was not possible
for us at that time to come without running the Ship into Apparent
Danger. However, I am no Judge how far Mineral can be distinguished as
such; certain it is that in Southern parts of this Country there are
whole Mountains of Nothing Else but stone, some of which, no doubt, may
be found to contain Metal.

Should it ever become an object of settling this Country, the best place
for the first fixing of a Colony would be either in the River Thames or
the Bay of Islands; for at either of these places they would have the
advantage of a good Harbour, and by means of the former an Easy
Communication would be had, and settlements might be extended into the
inland parts of the Country. For a very little trouble and Expence small
Vessels might be built in the River proper for the Navigation thereof. It
is too much for me to assert how little water a Vessel ought to draw to
Navigate this River, even so far up as I was in the Boat; this depends
intirely upon the Depth of Water that is upon the bar or flat that lay
before the narrow part of the River, which I had not an opportunity of
making myself acquainted with, but I am of Opinion that a Vessel that
draws not above 10 or 12 feet may do it with Ease. So far as I have been
able to Judge of the Genius of these people it does not appear to me to
be at all difficult for Strangers to form a settlement in this Country;
they seem to be too much divided among themselves to unite in opposing,
by which means, and kind and Gentle usage, the Colonists would be able to
form strong parties among them.

The Natives of this Country are a Strong, rawboned, well made, Active
People, rather above than under the common size, especially the Men; they
are of a very dark brown colour, with black hair, thin black beards, and
white teeth, and such as do not disfigure their faces by tattowing, etc.,
have in general very good features. The Men generally were their Hair
long, Coomb'd up, and tied upon the Crown of their Heads; some of the
women were it long and loose upon their Shoulders, old women especially;
others again were it crop'd short. Their coombs are made some of bones,
and others of Wood; they sometimes Wear them as an Ornament stuck upright
in their Hair. They seem to enjoy a good state of Health, and many of
them live to a good old Age.* (* The Maoris were remarkable for
longevity, and for health and strength in old age.) Many of the old and
some of the Middle aged Men have their faces mark'd or tattow'd with
black, and some few we have seen who have had their buttocks, thighs, and
other parts of their bodies marked, but this is less common. The figures
they mostly use are spirals, drawn and connected together with great
nicety and judgement. They are so exact in the application of these
Figures that no difference can be found between the one side of the face
and the other, if the whole is marked, for some have only one side, and
some a little on both sides; hardly any but the old Men have the whole
tattow'd. From this I conclude that it takes up some time, perhaps Years,
to finish the Operation, which all Who have begun may not have
perseverance enough to go through, as the manner in which it must be done
must certainly cause intollerable pain, and may be the reason why so few
are Marked at all--at least I know no other. The Women inlay the Colour
of Black under the skins of their lips, and both sexes paint their faces
and bodies at times more or less with red Oker, mixed with fish Oil.

[Clothing of New Zealanders.]

Their common Cloathing are very much like square Thrumb'd Matts, that are
made of rope Yarns, to lay at the doors or passages into houses to clean
ones shoes upon. These they tie round their necks, the Thrumb'd side out,
and are generally large enough to cover the body as low as the knee; they
are made with very little Preparation of the broad Grass plant before
mentioned. Beside the Thrumb'd Matts, as I call them, they have other
much finer cloathing, made of the same plant after it is bleached and
prepared in such a Manner that it is as white and almost as soft as flax,
but much stronger. Of this they make pieces of cloth about 5 feet long
and 4 broad; these are wove some pieces close and others very open; the
former are as stout as the strongest sail cloth, and not unlike it, and
yet it is all work'd or made by hand with no other Instrument than a
Needle or Bodkin. To one end of every piece is generally work'd a very
neat border of different colours of 4 or 6 inches broad, and they very
often Trim them with pieces of Dog Skin or birds' feathers. These pieces
of Cloth they wear as they do the other, tying one End round their Necks
with a piece of string, to one end of which is fixed a Needle or Bodkin
made of Bone, by means of which they can easily fasten, or put the string
through any part of the Cloth; they sometimes wear pieces of this kind of
Cloth round their Middles, as well as over their Shoulders. But this is
not common, especially with the Men, who hardly ever wear anything round
their Middles, observing no sort of Decency in that respect; neither is
it at all uncommon for them to go quite Naked without any one thing about
them besides a belt round their waists, to which is generally fastened a
small string, which they tye round the prepuse; in this manner I have
seen hundreds of them come off to and on board the Ship, but they
generally had their proper Cloathing in the boat along with them to put
on if it rain'd, etc. The Women, on the other hand, always wear something
round their Middle; generally a short, thrumbd Matt, which reaches as low
as their Knees. Sometimes, indeed, I have seen them with only a Bunch of
grass or plants before, tyed on with a piece of fine platting made of
sweet-scented grass; they likewise wear a piece of cloth over their
Shoulders as the Men do; this is generally of the Thrum kind. I hardly
ever saw a Woman wear a piece of fine cloth. One day at Talago I saw a
strong proof that the Women never appear naked, at least before
strangers. Some of us hapned to land upon a small Island where several of
them were Naked in the Water, gathering of Lobsters and shell fish; as
soon as they saw us some of them hid themselves among the Rocks, and the
rest remain'd in the Sea until they had made themselves Aprons of the Sea
Weed; and even then, when they came out to us, they shew'd Manifest signs
of Shame, and those who had no method of hiding their nakedness would by
no means appear before us.

The Women have all very soft Voices, and may by that alone be known from
the Men. The Making of cloth and all other Domestick work is, I believe,
wholy done by them, and the more Labourious work, such as building Boats,
Houses, Tilling the ground, etc., by the Men. Both men and women wear
ornaments at their Ears and about their Necks; these are made of stone,
bone, Shells, etc., and are variously shaped; and some I have seen wear
human Teeth and finger Nails, and I think we were told that they did
belong to their deceased friends. The Men, when they are dressed,
generally wear 2 or 3 long white feathers stuck upright in their Hair,
and at Queen Charlotte's sound many, both men and women, wore Round Caps
made of black feathers.

[War Practices of New Zealanders.]

The old men are much respected by the younger, who seem to be govern'd
and directed by them on most Occasions. We at first thought that they
were united under one head or Chief, whose Name is Teeratu; we first
heard of him in Poverty Bay, and he was own'd as Chief by every one we
met with from Cape Kidnappers to the Northward and Westward as far as the
Bay of Plenty, which is a great extent of territories for an Indian
Prince. When we were upon the East Coast they always pointed inland to
the Westward for the place of his residence, which I believe to be in the
Bay of Plenty, and that those Hippas or fortified Towns are Barrier Towns
either for or against him; but most likely the former, and if so, may be
the utmost Extent of his Dominions to the Westwards, for at Mercury bay
they did not own him as their Prince, nor no where else either to the
Westward or Southward, or any other single person; for at whatever place
we put in at, or whatever people we spoke with upon the Coast, they
generally told us that those that were at a little distance from them
were their Enemies; from which it appear'd to me that they were very much
divided into Parties, which make war one with another, and all their
Actions and behaviour towards us tended to prove that they are a brave,
open, war-like people, and void of Treachery.

Whenever we were Visited by any number of them that had never heard or
seen anything of us before they generally came off in the largest Canoe
they had, some of which will carry 60, 80, or 100 people. They always
brought their best Cloaths along with them, which they put on as soon as
they came near the Ship. In each Canoe were generally an old Man, in some
2 or 3; these used always to direct the others, were better Cloathed, and
generally carried a Halbard or Battle Axe in their hands, or some such
like thing that distinguished them from the others. As soon as they came
within about a Stone's throw of the Ship they would there lay, and call
out, "Haromoi harenta a patoo ago!" that is, "Come here, come ashore with
us, and we will kill you with our patoo patoos!" and at the same time
would shake them at us. At times they would dance the War dance, and
other times they would trade with and talk to us, and Answer such
Questions as were put to them with all the Calmness imaginable, and then
again begin the War Dance, shaking their Paddles, Patoo patoos, etc., and
make strange contortions at the same time. As soon as they had worked
themselves up to a proper pitch they would begin to attack us with Stones
and darts, and oblige us, wether we would or no, to fire upon them.
Musquetry they never regarded unless they felt the Effect; but great Guns
they did, because they threw stones farther than they could Comprehend.
After they found that our Arms were so much superior to theirs, and that
we took no advantage of that superiority, and a little time given them to
reflect upon it, they ever after were our very good friends; and we never
had an instance of their attempting to surprize or cut off any of our
people when they were ashore; opportunity for so doing they must have had
at one time or another.

It is hard to account for what we have every where been told, of their
Eating their Enemies killed in Battle, which they most Certainly do;
Circumstances enough we have seen to Convince us of the Truth of this.
Tupia, who holds this Custom in great aversion, hath very often Argued
with them against it, but they have always as streniously supported it,
and never would own that it was wrong. It is reasonable to suppose that
men with whom this custom is found, seldom, if ever, give Quarter to
those they overcome in battle; and if so, they must fight desperately to
the very last. A strong proof of this supposition we had from the People
of Queen Charlotte's sound, who told us, but a few days before we Arrived
that they had kill'd and Eat a whole boat's crew. Surely a single boat's
crew, or at least a part of them, when they found themselves beset and
overpowered by numbers would have surrender'd themselves prisoners was
such a thing practised among them. The heads of these unfortunate people
they preserved as Trophies; 4 or 5 of them they brought off to shew to
us, one of which Mr. Banks bought, or rather forced them to sell, for
they parted with it with the utmost reluctancy, and afterwards would not
so much as let us see one more for any thing we could offer them.

In the Article of Food these People have no great Variety; Fern roots,
Dogs, Fish, and wild fowl is their Chief diet, for Cocos, Yams, and Sweet
Potatoes is not Cultivated every where. They dress their Victuals in the
same Manner as the people in the South Sea Islands; that is, dogs and
Large fish they bake in a hole in the ground, and small fish, birds, and
Shell fish, etc., they broil on the fire. Fern roots they likewise heat
over the fire, then beat them out flat upon a stone with a wooden Mallet;
after this they are fit for Eating, in the doing of which they suck out
the Moist and Glutinous part, and Spit out the Fibrous parts. These ferns
are much like, if not the same as, the mountain ferns in England.

They catch fish with Seans, Hooks and line, but more commonly with hooped
netts very ingeniously made; in the middle of these they tie the bait,
such as Sea Ears, fish Gutts, etc., then sink the Nett to the bottom with
a stone; after it lays there a little time they haul it Gently up, and
hardly ever without fish, and very often a large quantity. All their
netts are made of the broad Grass plant before mentioned; generally with
no other preparation than by Splitting the blade of the plant into
threads. Their fish hooks are made of Crooked pieces of Wood, bones, and
Shells.

[New Zealand Canoes, Houses, etc.]

The people shew great ingenuity and good workmanship in the building and
framing their boats or Canoes. They are long and Narrow, and shaped very
much like a New England Whale boat. Their large Canoes are, I believe,
built wholy for war, and will carry from 40 to 80 or 100 Men with their
Arms, etc. I shall give the Dimensions of one which I measured that lay
ashore at Tolago. Length 68 1/2 feet, breadth 5 feet, and Depths 3 1/2,
the bottom sharp, inclining to a wedge, and was made of 3 pieces hollow'd
out to about 2 Inches or an Inch and a half thick, and well fastned
together with strong platting. Each side consisted of one Plank only,
which was 63 feet long and 10 or 12 Inches broad, and about 1 1/4 Inch
thick, and these were well fitted and lashed to the bottom part. There
were a number of Thwarts laid a Cross and Lashed to each Gunwale as a
strengthening to the boat. The head Ornament projected 5 or 6 feet
without the body of the Boat, and was 4 feet high; the Stern Ornament was
14 feet high, about 2 feet broad, and about 1 1/2 inch thick; it was
fixed upon the Stern of the Canoe like the Stern post of a Ship upon her
Keel. The Ornaments of both head and Stern and the 2 side boards were of
Carved Work, and, in my opinion, neither ill design'd nor executed. All
their Canoes are built after this plan, and few are less than 20 feet
long. Some of the small ones we have seen with Outriggers, but this is
not Common. In their War Canoes they generally have a quantity of Birds'
feathers hung in Strings, and tied about the Head and stern as Additional
Ornament. They are as various in the heads of their Canoes as we are in
those of our Shipping; but what is most Common is an odd Design'd Figure
of a man, with as ugly a face as can be conceived, a very large Tongue
sticking out of his Mouth, and Large white Eyes made of the Shells of Sea
Ears. Their paddles are small, light, and neatly made; they hardly ever
make use of sails, at least that we saw, and those they have are but ill
contrived, being generally a piece of netting spread between 2 poles,
which serve for both Masts and Yards.

The Houses of these People are better calculated for a Cold than a Hot
Climate; they are built low, and in the form of an oblong square. The
framing is of wood or small sticks, and the sides and Covering of thatch
made of long Grass. The door is generally at one end, and no bigger than
to admit of a man to Creep in and out; just within the door is the fire
place, and over the door, or on one side, is a small hole to let out the
Smoke. These houses are 20 or 30 feet long, others not above half as
long; this depends upon the largeness of the Family they are to contain,
for I believe few familys are without such a House as these, altho' they
do not always live in them, especially in the summer season, when many of
them live dispers'd up and down in little Temporary Hutts, that are not
sufficient to shelter them from the weather.

The Tools which they work with in building their Canoes, Houses, etc.,
are adzes or Axes, some made of a hard black stone, and others of green
Talk. They have Chiszels made of the same, but these are more commonly
made of Human Bones. In working small work and carving I believe they use
mostly peices of Jasper, breaking small pieces from a large Lump they
have for that purpose; as soon as the small peice is blunted they throw
it away and take another. To till or turn up the ground they have wooden
spades (if I may so call them), made like stout pickets, with a piece of
wood tied a Cross near the lower end, to put the foot upon to force them
into the Ground. These Green Talk Axes that are whole and good they set
much Value upon, and never would part with them for anything we could
offer.* (* The weapons of greenstone, found in the South Islands, were
much prized. This hard material required years to shape into a mere, or
short club, and these were handed down from father to son as a most
valuable possession.) I offer'd one day for one, One of the best Axes I
had in the Ship, besides a number of Other things, but nothing would
induce the owner to part with it; from this I infer'd that good ones were
scarce among them.

Diversions and Musical instruments they have but few; the latter Consists
of 2 or 3 sorts of Trumpets and a small Pipe or Whistle, and the former
in singing and Dancing. Their songs are Harmonious enough, but very
doleful to a European ear. In most of their dances they appear like mad
men, Jumping and Stamping with their feet, making strange Contorsions
with every part of the body, and a hideous noise at the same time; and if
they happen to be in their Canoes they flourish with great Agility their
Paddles, Pattoo Pattoos, various ways, in the doing of which, if there
are ever so many boats and People, they all keep time and Motion together
to a surprizing degree. It was in this manner that they work themselves
to a proper Pitch of Courage before they used to attack us; and it was
only from their after behaviour that we could tell whether they were in
jest or in Earnest when they gave these Heivas, as they call them, of
their own accord, especially at our first coming into a place. Their
signs of Friendship is the waving the hand or a piece of Cloth, etc.

We were never able to learn with any degree of certainty in what manner
they bury their dead; we were generally told that they put them in the
ground; if so it must be in some secret or by place, for we never saw the
least signs of a burying place in the whole Country.* (* The burying
places were kept secret. The body was temporarily buried, and after some
time exhumed; the bones were cleaned, and hidden in some cave or cleft in
the rocks. As bones were used by enemies to make implements, it was a
point to keep these depositories secret, to prevent such desecration.)
Their Custom of mourning for a friend or relation is by cutting and
Scarifying their bodys, particularly their Arms and breasts, in such a
manner that the Scars remain indelible, and, I believe, have some
signification such as to shew how near related the deceased was to them.

[Maori and Tahiti Words.]

With respect to religion, I believe these people trouble themselves very
little about it; they, however, believe that there is one Supream God,
whom they call Tawney,* (* Probably Tane-mahuta, the creator of animal
and vegetable life. The Maori does not pray.) and likewise a number of
other inferior deities; but whether or no they worship or Pray to either
one or the other we know not with any degree of certainty. It is
reasonable to suppose that they do, and I believe it; yet I never saw the
least Action or thing among them that tended to prove it. They have the
same Notions of the Creation of the World, Mankind, etc., as the people
of the South Sea Islands have; indeed, many of their notions and Customs
are the very same. But nothing is so great a proof of their all having
had one Source as their Language, which differ but in a very few words
the one from the other, as will appear from the following specimens,
which I had from Mr. Banks, who understands their Language as well, or
better than, any one on board.

COLUMN 1: ENGLISH.
COLUMN 2: NEW ZEALAND.
COLUMN 3: SOUTH SEA ISLANDS.

A Chief : Eareete : Eare.
A Man : Taata : Taata.
A Woman : Ivahina : Ivahine.
The Head : Eupo : Eupo.
The Hair : Macauve : --.
The Ear : Terringa : Terrea.
The Forehead : Erai : Erai.
The Eyes : Matu : Matu.
The Cheek : Paparinga : Paparea.
The Nose : Ahewh : Ahew.
The Mouth : Hangoutou : Outou.
The Chinn : Ecouwai : --.
The Teeth : Hennihu : Nihio.
The Arm : Haringaringu : Rema.
The Finger : Maticara : Maneow.
The Belly : Ateraboo : Oboo.
The Naval : Apeto : Peto.
Come here : Haromai : Haromai.
Fish : Heica : Eyca.
A Lobster : Kooura : Tooura.
Coccos : Taro : Taro.
Sweet Potatoes : Cumala : Cumala.
Yamms : Tuphwhe : Tuphwhe.
Birds : Mannu : Mannu.
The Wind : Mebaw : Mattai.
A Thief : Amootoo : Teto.
To examine : Mataketake : Mataibai.
To sing : Eheiva : Heiva.
Bad : Keno : Eno.
Trees : Oratou : Eraou.
Grand Father : Toubouna : Toubouna.
Friend : -- : Tio.
No : Kaoura : Oure.
Number 1 : Tahai : Tahai.
Number 2 : Rua : Rua.
Number 3 : Torou : Torou.
Number 4 : Ha : Hea.
Number 5 : Rema : Remo.
Number 6 : Ono : Ono.
Number 7 : Etu : Hetu.
Number 8 : Wharou : Wharou.
Number 9 : Iva : Hyva.
Number 10 : Angahourou : Ahourou.
What do you call this or that? : Owy Terra : Owy Terra.

[Speculations on a Southern Continent.]

There are some small differance in the Language spoke by the
Aeheinomoweans and those of Tovy Poenammu; but this differance seem'd to
me to be only in the pronunciation, and is no more than what we find
between one part of England and another. What is here inserted as a
Specimen is that spoke by the People of Aeheinomouwe. What is meant by
the South Sea Islands are those Islands we ourselves Touched at; but I
gave it that title because we have always been told that the same
Language is universally spoke by all the Islanders, and that this is a
Sufficient proof that both they and the New Zelanders have had one Origin
or Source, but where this is even time perhaps may never discover.

It certainly is neither to the Southward nor Eastward, for I cannot
perswaide myself that ever they came from America; and as to a Southern
Continent, I do not believe any such thing exist, unless in a high
Latitude. But as the Contrary opinion hath for many Years prevail'd, and
may yet prevail, it is necessary I should say something in support of
mine more than what will be directly pointed out by the Track of this
Ship in those Seas; for from that alone it will evidently appear that
there is a large space extending quite to the Tropick in which we were
not, or any other before us that we can ever learn for certain. In our
route to the Northward, after doubling Cape Horn, when in the Latitude of
40 degrees, we were in the Longitude of 110 degrees; and in our return to
the Southward, after leaving Ulietea, when in the same Latitude, we were
in the Longitude of 145 degrees; the differance in this Latitude is 35
degrees of Longitude. In the Latitude of 30 degrees the differance of the
2 Tracks is 21 degrees, and that differance continues as low as 20
degrees; but a view of the Chart will best illustrate this.

Here is now room enough for the North Cape of the Southern Continent to
extend to the Northward, even to a pretty low Latitude. But what
foundation have we for such a supposition? None, that I know of, but
this, that it must either be here or no where. Geographers have indeed
laid down part of Quiros' discoveries in this Longitude, and have told us
that he had these signs of a Continent, a part of which they have
Actually laid down in the Maps; but by what Authority I know not. Quiros,
in the Latitude of 25 or 26 degrees South, discover'd 2 Islands, which, I
suppose, may lay between the Longitude of 130 and 140 degrees West.
Dalrymple lays them down in 146 degrees West, and says that Quiros saw to
the Southward very large hanging Clouds and a very thick Horizon, with
other known signs of a Continent. Other accounts of their Voyage says not
a word about this; but supposing this to be true, hanging Clouds and a
thick Horizon are certainly no signs of a Continent--I have had many
proofs to the Contrary in the Course of this Voyage; neither do I believe
that Quiros looked upon such things as known signs of land, for if he had
he certainly would have stood to the Southward, in order to have
satisfied himself before he had gone to the Northward, for no man seems
to have had discoveries more at heart than he had. Besides this, this was
the ultimate object of his Voyage.* (* It is conjectured that what Quiros
saw was Tahiti, but his track on this voyage is very vague. There are
certainly no islands in the latitude given except Pitcairn.) If Quiros
was in the Latitude of 26 degrees and Longitude 146 degrees West, then I
am certain that no part of the Southern Continent can no where extend so
far to the Northward as the above mentioned Latitude. But the Voyage
which seems to thrust it farthest back in the Longitude I am speaking of,
viz., between 130 and 150 degrees West, is that of Admiral Roggeween, a
Dutchman, made in 1722, who, after leaving Juan Fernandes, went in search
of Davis's Island; but not finding it, he ran 12 degrees more to the
West, and in the Latitude of 28 1/2 degrees discover'd Easter Island.
Dalrymple and some others have laid it down in 27 degrees South and 106
degrees 30 minutes West, and supposes it to be the same as Davis's Isle,
which I think cannot be from the Circumstance of the Voyage; on the other
hand Mr. Pingre, in his Treatise concerning the Transit of Venus, gives
an extract of Roggeween's Voyage and a map of the South Seas, wherein he
places Easter Island in the Latitude of 28 1/2 degrees South, and in the
Longitude of 123 degrees West* (* Easter Island is in longitude 110
degrees West, and is considered identical with Davis' Island.) his reason
for so doing may be seen at large in the said Treatise. He likewise lays
down Roggeween's rout through those South Seas very different from any
other Author I have seen; for after leaving Easter Island he makes him to
steer South-West to the height of 34 degrees South, and afterwards
West-North-West. If Roggeween really took this rout, then it is not
probable that there is any Main land to the Northward of 35 degrees
South. However, Mr. Dalrymple and some Geographers have laid down
Roggeween's track very different from Mr. Pingre. From Easter Isle they
have laid down his Track to the North-West, and afterwards very little
different from that of La Maire; and this I think is not probable, that a
man who, at his own request, was sent to discover the Southern Continent
should take the same rout thro' these Seas as others had done before who
had the same thing in View; by so doing he must be Morally certain of not
finding what he was in search of, and of course must fail as they had
done. Be this as it may, it is a point that cannot be clear'd up from the
published accounts of the Voyage, which, so far from taking proper notice
of their Longitude, have not even mentioned the Latitude of several of
the Islands they discover'd, so that I find it impossible to lay down
Roggeween's rout with the least degree of accuracy.* (* Roggeween's track
is still unknown.)

But to return to our own Voyage, which must be allowed to have set aside
the most, if not all, the Arguments and proofs that have been advanced by
different Authors to prove that there must be a Southern Continent; I
mean to the Northward of 40 degrees South, for what may lie to the
Southward of that Latitude I know not. Certain it is that we saw no
Visible signs of Land, according to my Opinion, neither in our rout to
the Northward, Southward, or Westward, until a few days before we made
the Coast of New Zeland. It is true we have often seen large flocks of
Birds, but they were generally such as are always seen at a very great
distance from land; we likewise saw frequently peices of Sea or Rock
Weed, but how is one to know how far this may drive to Sea. I am told,
and that from undoubted Authority, that there is Yearly thrown up upon
the Coast of Ireland and Scotland a sort of Beans called Oxe Eyes, which
are known to grow no where but in the West Indies; and yet these 2 places
are not less than 1200 Leagues asunder. Was such things found floating
upon the Water in the South Seas one would hardly be perswaided that one
was even out of sight of Land, so apt are we to Catch at everything that
may at least point out to us the favourite Object we are in persuit of;
and yet experiance shews that we may be as far from it as ever.

Thus I have given my Opinion freely and without prejudice, not with any
View to discourage any future attempts being made towards discovering the
Southern Continent; on the Contrary, as I think this Voyage will
evidently make it appear that there is left but a small space to the
Northward of 40 degrees where the grand object can lay. I think it would
be a great pity that this thing, which at times has been the Object of
many Ages and Nations, should not now be wholy be clear'd up; which might
very Easily be done in one Voyage without either much trouble or danger
or fear of Miscarrying, as the Navigator would know where to go to look
for it; but if, after all, no Continent was to be found, then he might
turn his thoughts towards the discovery of those Multitude of Islands
which, we are told, lay within the Tropical regions to the South of the
Line, and this we have from very good Authority, as I have before hinted.
This he will always have in his power; for, unless he be directed to
search for the Southern lands in a high Latitude, he will not, as we
were, be obliged to go farther to the Westward in the Latitude of 40
degrees than 140 or 145 degrees West, and therefore will always have it
in his power to go to George's Island, where he will be sure of meeting
with refreshments to recruit his people before he sets out upon the
discovery of the Islands.* (* Cook carried out this programme in his
second voyage, when he set at rest for ever the speculation regarding the
Southern Continent.) But should it be thought proper to send a Ship out
upon this Service while Tupia lives, and he to come out in her, in that
case she would have a prodidgious Advantage over every ship that hath
been upon discoveries in those Seas before; for by means of Tupia,
supposing he did not accompany you himself, you would always get people
to direct you from Island to Island, and would be sure of meeting with a
friendly reception and refreshment at every Island you came to. This
would enable the Navigator to make his discoveries the more perfect and
Compleat; at least it would give him time so to do, for he would not be
Obliged to hurry through those Seas thro' any apprehentions of wanting
Provisions.

[Tupia's List of Islands.]

I shall now add a list of those Islands which Tupia and Several others
have given us an account of, and Endeavour to point out the respective
Situations from Otaheite, or George's Island; but this, with respect to
many of them, cannot be depended upon. Those marked thus (*) Tupia
himself has been at, and we have no reason to doubt his Veracity in this,
by which it will appear that his Geographical knowledge of those Seas is
pretty Extensive; and yet I must observe that before he came with us he
hardly had an Idea of any land being larger than Otaheite.

COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS NORTH-EAST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.

Oopate : Between the North and North-North-East.
Ooura : Between the North and North-North-East.
Teohcoa : Between the North and North-North-East.
Oryvoa : Between the North and North-North-East.
Ohevapato : Between the North and North-North-East.
Otaah : North-North-East to North-East by North.
Ohevaroa : North-North-East to North-East by North.
Temanno : North-North-East to North-East by North.
Ootta : North-North-East to North-East by North.

COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS SOUTH-EAST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.

Moutou : South to South-East.
Toomitoaroaro : South to South-East.
*Tennowhammeatane : South to South-East.
Ohitetamaruire : South to South-East.
Ouropoe : South to South-East.
*Mytea or Oznaburg Island : East-South-East and  East.
Ohevanue : East-South-East and  East.
Ohirotah : East-South-East and  East.

COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS SOUTH-WEST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.

*Imao or York Island : West by South and West-South-West.
*Tapooamanue or Saunders Island : West by South and West-South-West.
*Manua : Between the South and South-West.
*Honue : Between the South and South-West.
*Ohiteroa : Between the South and South-West.
Onawhaa : Between the South and South-West.
Otaohoera : Between the South and South-West.
Opooroo : Between the South and South-West.
Ooonow : Between the South and South-West.
Teorooromatiwhatea : Between the South and South-West.
*Teatowhite : Between the South and South-West.
Oheavie : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Pooromathetua : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Teamoorohete : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Ohetotarive : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Ohetotareva : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
Ohitetoutoumi : Between the South-West and West-South-West.
*Mooenatayo : West.
Tetupatunaeo : West.
Ohiteteutenatu : West.
Ohitepoto : West.

COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS NORTH-EAST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.

Whareva : North-East.
Whatteruro : North-East.
Tetioo : North-East.
Tetineohva : North-East.
Terouwhah : North-East.
Whaoa : North-North-East.
Whaterretaah : North-North-East.
Whaneanea : North-North-East.
Ohevatoutua : East by North.

COLUMN 1: NAME OF THE ISLANDS NORTH-WEST QUARTER.
COLUMN 2: BEARINGS FROM OTAHEITE.

*Tethuroa : North by West.
Oonnah : North by West.
Obaha : North by West.
Maataah : North by West.
*Huiheine : Between the North and West.
*Ulietea : Between the North and West.
*Otaha : Between the North and West.
*Bolabola : Between the North and West.
*Tubai : Between the North and West.
*Maurua : Between the North and West.
Opoopooa : Between the North and West.
Opopatea : Between the North and West.
*Whennuaouda : Between the North by West and West.
*Motehea : Between the North by West and West.
*Oourio : Between the North by West and West.
*Orurutu : Between the North by West and West.
*Oateea : Between the North by West and West.
Oahooahoo : Between the North by West and West.
Oweha : Between the North by West and West.
Orotuma : Between the North by West and West.
Tenuna : Between the North by West and West.
Orevavie : Between the North by West and West.
Toutepa : Between the North by West and West.
Orarathoa : Between the North by West and West.
Oryvavai : Between the North by West and West.
Oahourou : Between the North by West and West.

The above list* was taken from a Chart of the Islands drawn by Tupia's
own hands. (* This list is hopeless. With the exception of the Society
Group (Huiheine, and the names that follow), Imao (Eimeo), Tapooamanuo,
Tethuroa, and Ohiteroa, all lying near Tahiti, none can be recognised.
Those north and east are no doubt names of the Paumotu Group, low coral
islands, disposed in rings round lagoons, whose innumerable names are
very little known to this day, and very probably the Tahitians had their
own names for them.) He at one time gave us an account of near 130
Islands, but in his Chart he laid down only 74; and this is about the
number that some others of the Natives of Otaheite gave us an account of;
but the account taken by and from different people differ sencibly one
from another both in names and numbers. The first is owing to the want of
rightly knowing how to pronounce the names of the Islands after them; but
be this as it may, it is very certain that there are these number of
Islands, and very Probably a great many more, laying some where in the
Great South Sea, the greatest part of which have never been seen by any
European.

[Historical Notes on New Zealand.]

NOTES ON NEW ZEALAND.

As already stated by Cook in the Journal, New Zealand was first
discovered by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in the year 1642. Sailing
from Tasmania, he sighted the northern part of the Middle island, and
anchored a little east of Cape Farewell in Massacre (Golden) Bay, so
called by him because the Maoris cut off one of his boats, and killed
three of the crew.

Tasman never landed anywhere, but coasted from Massacre Bay along the
western side of the North Island to the north point. He passed outside
the Three Kings, and thence away into the Pacific, to discover the
Friendly Group.

No European eye again sighted New Zealand until Cook circumnavigated and
mapped the islands.

The warlike character of the natives is well shown in this Journal. On
nearly every occasion they either made, or attempted to make, an attack,
even on the ships, and in self-defence firearms had constantly to be
used. Nevertheless, Cook's judgment enabled him to inaugurate friendly
relations in most places where he stopped long enough to enable the
natives to become acquainted with the strangers.

It was not so with other voyagers. De Surville, a Frenchman, who called
at Doubtless Bay very shortly after Cook left it, destroyed a village,
and carried off a chief. Marion de Fresne was, in 1772, in the Bay of
Islands, killed by the natives, with sixteen of his people, and eaten,
for violation of some of their customs, and illtreatment of some
individuals.

Other outrages followed, committed on both sides, and it is no wonder
that, though Cook represented the advantages of the island for
colonization, it was not considered a desirable place in which to settle.
The cannibalism of the Maoris especially made people shy of the country.

Intermittent communication took place between New Zealand and the new
Colony of New South Wales, and at last, in 1814, Samuel Marsden, a
clergyman of the Church of England, who had seen Maoris in New South
Wales, landed in the Bay of Islands with other missionaries. This
fearless and noble-minded man obtained the confidence of the Maoris, and
a commencement of colonization was made.

It was not, however, until 1840 that the New Zealand Company was formed
to definitely colonize. They made their station at Wellington.

In the same year Captain Hobson, R.N., was sent as Lieutenant-Governor.
Landing first at the Bay of Islands, he transferred his headquarters to
the Hauraki Gulf in September 1840, where he founded Auckland, which
remained the capital until 1876, when the seat of Government was
transferred to Wellington.

The North Island, in which all these occurrences took place, contained by
far the greater number of the natives, and it seems strange now that the
first efforts to settle were not made in the Middle Island, which has
proved equally suitable for Europeans, and where the difficulties of
settlement, from the existence of a less numerous native population, were
not so great. It is not necessary here to follow the complicated history
of New Zealand in later years, which unfortunately comprises several
bloody wars with the Maoris.

The present prosperous condition of this great colony is well known, but
it has not been effected without the rapid diminution of the natives, who
have met with the fate of most aborigines in contact with Europeans,
especially when the former were naturally bold and warlike.

The Maoris have retained the tradition of the original arrival of their
race in a fleet of canoes from a country called Hawaiki, which is by some
supposed to be Hawaii in the Sandwich Group. As we have seen, the
language was practically the same as that of Tahiti, and there is no
doubt that they came from some of the Polynesian islands. The date of the
immigration is supposed to be the fifteenth century.

Each canoe's crew settled in different parts of the North Island, and
were the founders of the different great tribes into which the New
Zealanders were divided. The more celebrated canoes were the Arawa,
Tainui, Aotea, Kuruhaupo, Takitumu, and others.

The Arawa claimed the first landing, and the principal idols came in her.
One of these is now in the possession of Sir George Grey. A large tribe
on the east coast still bears the name of Arawa, and her name, that of
the Tainui, and other of the canoes, are now borne by some of the great
steamships that run to New Zealand.

Cook, in the voyage with which we have to deal, completely examined the
whole group. His pertinacity and determination to follow the whole coast
is a fine instance of his thoroughness in exploration. No weather nor
delay daunted him, and the accuracy with which he depicted the main
features of the outline of the islands is far beyond any of the similar
work of other voyagers. It is true that he missed in the south island
many of the fine harbours that have played such an important part in the
prosperity of the Colony; but when we consider the narrowness of their
entrances, and the enormous extent of the coast line which he laid down
in such a short time, this is not astonishing.

His observations on the natives and on the country display great
acuteness of observation, and had the settlers displayed the same spirit
of fair treatment and respect for the customs of the natives, much of the
bloody warfare that has stained the annals of the Colony might have been
averted; though it is scarcely possible that with such a high-spirited
race the occupation of the islands, especially the North island, where
the majority of the Maoris were, could have taken place without some
disturbances.

New Zealand now contains 630,000 Europeans, and 41,000 Maoris. Its
exports are valued at 10,000,000 pounds, and the imports at 6,250,000
pounds. There are 2000 miles of railways open. Such is the result of
fifty years of colonization in a fertile and rich island, the climate of
which may be described as that of a genial England.


CHAPTER 7. PASSAGE FROM NEW ZEALAND TO NEW HOLLAND.

[April 1770. From New Zealand to Australia.]

SUNDAY, 1st April. In the P.M. had a moderate breeze at East, which in
the Night Veer'd to the North-East, and was attended with hazey, rainy
weather. I have before made mention of our quitting New Zeland with an
intention to steer to the Westward, which we accordingly did, taking our
departure from Cape Farewell in the Latitude of 40 degrees 30 minutes
South and Longitude 185 degrees 58 minutes West from Greenwich, which
bore from us at 5 p.m. West 18 degrees North, distance 12 Miles. After
this we steer'd North-West and West-North-West, in order to give it a
good berth, until 8 o'Clock a.m., at which time we steered West, having
the Advantage of a fresh Gale at North by East. At Noon our Latitude by
account was 40 degrees 12 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape
Farewell 1 degree 11 minutes West.

Monday, 2nd. In the P.M. had a moderate Gale at North, with thick hazey
weather, attended with rain. At 8 it fell little wind, and Veer'd to
West-South-West, at which time we Tack'd. At Midnight the wind came to
South-South-West, and increased to a brisk gale with fair Cloudy weather,
which we made the most of as soon as it was daylight. At Noon our
Latitude, by Observation, was 40 degrees 0 minutes, and Longitude made
from Cape Farewell 2 degrees 31 minutes West.

Tuesday, 3rd. Cloudy weather; Winds at South-West and South-South-West, a
fresh Gale, with which we made our Course good North-West by West, and
distance run from Yesterday at Noon to this day at Noon 38 1/2 Leagues.
Latitude, by observation, 38 degrees 56 minutes South; Longitude made
from Cape Farewell 4 degrees 36 minutes West.

Wednesday, 4th. Had a steady brisk Gale at South-South-West with some
flying showers of rain and large hollow Sea from the Southward. In the
P.M. unbent the Maintopsail to repair, and brought another to the Yard
and set it close reefed. At Noon our Latitude, by Observation, was 37
degrees 56 minutes South; Course and distance since Yesterday at Noon
North 60 degrees West, 122 Miles; Longitude made from Cape Farewell 6
degrees 54 minutes West.

Thursday, 5th. Fresh Gales at South, which in the A.M. veer'd to
South-East by South. At Noon our Latitude, by observation, was 37 degrees
23 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 9 degrees 10 minutes
West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon North 73 degrees
15 minutes West, 37 Leagues.

Friday, 6th. Winds between the South by East and South-East, with a
Continued swell from the South-South-West. At Noon our Latitude in per
Observation 37 degrees 18 minutes South; Course and distance sail'd since
Yesterday at Noon North 85 degrees West, 58 Miles. Longitude made from
Cape Farewell 10 degrees 35 minutes West.

Saturday, 7th. Gentle breezes at North-East, which in the A.M. Veer'd to
North-West. In the P.M. found the Variation by the Mean of several
Azimuths to be 13 degrees 50 minutes East, being then in the Latitude of
37 degrees 23 minutes South, and Longitude 196 degrees 44 minutes West.
In the A.M. Punished Jno. Bowles, Marine, with 12 lashes for refusing to
do his duty when order'd by the Boatswain's Mate and Serjeant of Marines.
At Noon Latitude per Observation 37 degrees 35 minutes South, Longitude
made from Cape Farewell 11 degrees 34 minutes West; Course and distance
run since Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 50 Miles.

Sunday, 8th. Gentle breezes from the North-West and North. In the P.M.
found the Variation to be 13 degrees 56 minutes East. At Noon Latitude in
per Observation 38 degrees 0 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape
Farewell 13 degrees 2 minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since
Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 74 Miles.

Monday, 9th. Gentle breezes at North-West; pleasant weather and a Smooth
Sea. In the A.M. saw a Tropic Bird, which, I believe, is uncommon in such
high Latitudes. At Noon Latitude observ'd 38 degrees 29 minutes South,
Longitude made from Cape Farewell 14 degrees 45 minutes West; Course and
distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 70 degrees 15 minutes West, 86
Miles.

Tuesday, 10th. Gentle breezes at North-West by North, and clear settled
weather. In the A.M. found the Variation, by the Amplitude, to be 11
degrees 25 minutes East, and by Azimuth 11 degrees 20 minutes. At Noon
the observed Latitude was 38 degrees 51 minutes South, and Longitude made
from Cape Farewell 16 degrees 45 minutes; Longitude in 202 degrees 43
minutes West; Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 76
degrees 45 minutes West, 96 Miles.

Wednesday, 11th. Gentle breezes from the North-West, and pleasant
weather, with some few showers of rain. In the A.M. found the Variation
to be 13 degrees 48 minutes East, which is 2 1/2 degrees more than it was
yesterday, altho' I should have expected to have found it less, for the
observations were equally good. At Noon Latitude in 39 degrees 7 minutes
South, Longitude made from Cape Farewell 17 degrees 23 minutes; and
Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 62 degrees West, 34
Miles.

Thursday, 12th. Calm, with now and then light Airs from the North-East
and North-West; cloudy weather, but remarkably warm, and so it hath been
for some days past. At Noon we were in the Latitude of 39 degrees 11
minutes, and Longitude from Cape Farewell 17 degrees 35 minutes West;
Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 66 degrees West, 10
Miles.

Friday, 13th. Light Airs next to a Calm, with Clear pleasant weather;
what little wind we had was from the North-West quarter. In the Course of
this day found the Variation to be 12 degrees 27 minutes East, being at
Noon, by observation, in the Latitude of 39 degrees 23 minutes South, and
Longitude 204 degrees 2 minutes West; Course and distance since Yesterday
noon South 62 degrees West, 26 Miles, and Longitude made from Cape
Farewell 18 degrees 4 minutes West.

Saturday, 14th. Calm serene weather, with sometimes light Airs from the
Northward. At sun set found the Variation to be 11 degrees 28 minutes
East, and in the Morning to be 11 degrees 30 minutes East. The Spritsail
Topsail being wore to rags, it was condemn'd as not fit for its proper
use, and Converted to repair the 2 Top Gallant Sails, they being of
themselves so bad as not to be worth the Expence of new Canvas, but with
the help of this sail may be made to last some time longer. At Noon
Latitude in 39 degrees 25 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape
Farewell 18 degrees 21 minutes West; Course and distance since Yesterday
noon South 18 degrees West, 13 Miles.

Sunday, 15th. In the P.M. had light Airs at North, which in the A.M.
increased to a fresh Gale, with which we made the best of our way to the
Westward, and by noon had run since yesterday upon a South 86 degrees 15
minutes West Course, 79 Miles. Latitude in, by Observation, 39 degrees 30
minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Farewell 20 degrees 2 minutes
West. Some flying fish seen this day.

Monday, 16th. Fresh Gales at North-North-West, with Cloudy, hazey
weather. In the P.M. saw an Egg Bird, and yesterday a Gannet was seen;
these are Birds that we reckon never to go far from land. We kept the
lead going all night, but found no soundings with 100 and 130 fathoms
line. At noon we were in the Latitude of 39 degrees 40 minutes South, and
had made 22 degrees 2 minutes of Longitude from Cape Farewell; course and
distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon South 82 degrees West, 108 Miles.

Tuesday, 17th. At 2 p.m. the wind came to West-South-West, at which time
we Tack'd and stood to the North-West. Before 5 o'Clock we were obliged
to close reef our Topsails, having a Strong gale, with very heavy
squalls; about this time a Small land bird was seen to pearch upon the
rigging. We sounded, but had no ground with 120 fathoms of line. At 8
o'Clock we wore and stood to the Southward until 12 at Night, then wore
and stood to the North-West until 4 a.m., when we again stood to the
Southward, having a fresh Gale at West-South-West, attended with Squalls
and dark hazey unsettled weather until 9; at which time it fell little
wind, and the weather soon after Clear'd up, which, a little after 11,
gave us an Opportunity of taking several observations of the Sun and
Moon, the Mean result of which gave 207 degrees 56 minutes West Longitude
from the Meridian of Greenwich. From these observations the Longitude of
the Ship at Noon was 207 degrees 58 minutes, and by the Log 208 degrees
20 minutes, the difference being only 22 minutes; and this Error may as
well be in the one as the other. Our Latitude at Noon was 39 degrees 36
minutes South, the Longitude made from Cape Farewell 22 degrees 22
minutes West.

Wednesday, 18th. Winds Southerly, a hard gale, with heavy squalls,
attended with Showers of rain and a great Sea from the same Quarter. At 3
p.m. Close reeft the Topsails, handed the Main and Mizen Topsail, and got
down Top Gallant Yards. At 6 the Gale increased to such a height as to
oblige us to take in the Foretopsail and Mainsail, and to run under the
Foresail and Mizen all night; Sounding every 2 hours, but found no ground
with 120 fathoms. At 6 a.m. set the Mainsail, and soon after the
Foretopsail, and before Noon the Maintopsail, both close reeft. At Noon
our Latitude by observation was 38 degrees 45 minutes South, Longitude
from Cape Farewell 23 degrees 43 minutes West; and Course and distance
run since Yesterday noon North 51 degrees West, 82 Miles. Last night we
saw a Port Egmont Hen, and this morning 2 More, a Pintado bird, several
Albetrosses, and black sheer Waters. The first of these birds are Certain
signs of the nearness of land; indeed we cannot be far from it. By our
Longitude we are a degree to the Westward of the East side of Van
Diemen's Land, according to Tasman, the first discoverer's, Longitude of
it, who could not err much in so short a run as from this land to New
Zeland; and by our Latitude we could not be above 50 or 55 Leagues to the
Northward of the place where he took his departure from.


CHAPTER 8. EXPLORATION OF EAST COAST OF AUSTRALIA.

[April 1770.]

THURSDAY, 19th. In the P.M. had fresh Gales at South-South-West and
Cloudy Squally weather, with a large Southerly Sea; at 6 took in the
Topsails, and at 1 A.M. brought too and Sounded, but had no ground with
130 fathoms of line. At 5, set the Topsails close reef'd, and 6, saw
land* (* The south-east coast of Australia. See chart.) extending from
North-East to West, distance 5 or 6 Leagues, having 80 fathoms, fine
sandy bottom. We continued standing to the Westward with the Wind at
South-South-West until 8, at which time we got Topgallant Yards a Cross,
made all sail, and bore away along shore North-East for the Eastermost
land we had in sight, being at this time in the Latitude of 37 degrees 58
minutes South, and Longitude of 210 degrees 39 minutes West. The
Southermost point of land we had in sight, which bore from us West 1/4
South, I judged to lay in the Latitude of 38 degrees 0 minutes South and
in the Longitude of 211 degrees 7 minutes West from the Meridian of
Greenwich. I have named it Point Hicks, because Lieutenant Hicks was the
first who discover'd this Land. To the Southward of this point we could
see no land, and yet it was clear in that Quarter, and by our Longitude
compared with that of Tasman's, the body of Van Diemen's land ought to
have bore due South from us, and from the soon falling of the Sea after
the wind abated I had reason to think it did; but as we did not see it,
and finding the Coast to trend North-East and South-West, or rather more
to the Westward, makes me Doubtfull whether they are one land or no.* (*
Had not the gale on the day before forced Cook to run to the northward,
he would have made the north end of the Furneaux Group, and probably have
discovered Bass Strait, which would have cleared up the doubt, which he
evidently felt, as to whether Tasmania was an island or not. The fact was
not positively known until Dr. Bass sailed through the Strait in a
whale-boat in 1797. Point Hicks was merely a rise in the coast-line,
where it dipped below the horizon to the westward, and the name of Point
Hicks Hill is now borne by an elevation that seems to agree with the
position.) However, every one who compares this Journal with that of
Tasman's will be as good a judge as I am; but it is necessary to observe
that I do not take the Situation of Vandiemen's from the Printed Charts,
but from the extract of Tasman's Journal, published by Dirk Rembrantse.
At Noon we were in the Latitude of 37 degrees 50 minutes and Longitude of
210 degrees 29 minutes West. The extreams of the Land extending from
North-West to East-North-East, a remarkable point, bore North 20 degrees
East, distant 4 Leagues. This point rises to a round hillock very much
like the Ramhead going into Plymouth sound, on which account I called it
by the same name; Latitude 37 degrees 39 minutes, Longitude 210 degrees
22 minutes West. The Variation by an Azimuth taken this morning was 8
degrees 7 minutes East. What we have as yet seen of this land appears
rather low, and not very hilly, the face of the Country green and Woody,
but the Sea shore is all a white Sand.

Friday, 20th. In the P.M. and most part of the night had a fresh Gale
Westerly, with Squalls, attended with Showers of rain. In the A.M. had
the Wind at South-West, with Severe weather. At 1 p.m. saw 3 Water Spouts
at once; 2 were between us and the Shore, and one at some distance upon
our Larboard Quarter. At 6, shortned sail, and brought too for the Night,
having 56 fathoms fine sandy bottom. The Northermost land in sight bore
North by East 1/2 East, and a small Island* (* Gabo Island.) lying close
to a point on the Main bore West, distant 2 Leagues. This point I have
named Cape Howe* (* Cape Howe, called after Admiral Earl Howe, is the
south-east point of Australia. The position is almost exact.); it may be
known by the Trending of the Coast, which is North on the one Side and
South-West on the other. Latitude 37 degrees 28 minutes South; Longitude
210 degrees 3 minutes West. It may likewise be known by some round hills
upon the main just within it. Having brought too with her head off Shore,
we at 10 wore, and lay her head in until 4 a.m., at which time we made
sail along shore to the Northward. At 6, the Northermost land in sight
bore North, being at this time about 4 Leagues from the Land. At Noon we
were in the Latitude of 36 degrees 51 minutes South and Longitude of 209
degrees 53 minutes West, and 3 Leagues from the land. Course sail'd along
shore since Yesterday at Noon was first North 52 degrees East, 30 miles,
then North by East and North by West, 41 Miles. The weather being clear
gave us an opportunity to View the Country, which had a very agreeable
and promising aspect, diversified with hills, ridges, plains, and
Valleys, with some few small lawns; but for the most part the whole was
covered with wood, the hills and ridges rise with a gentle slope; they
are not high, neither are there many of them.

[Off Cape Dromedary, New South Wales.]

Saturday, 21st. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze, and Clear weather, with
which we coasted along shore to the Northward. In the P.M. we saw the
smoke of fire in several places; a Certain sign that the Country is
inhabited. At 6, being about 2 or 3 Leagues from the land, we shortned
Sail, and Sounded and found 44 fathoms, a sandy bottom. Stood on under an
easey sail until 12 o'Clock, at which time we brought too until 4 A.M.,
when we made sail, having then 90 fathoms, 5 Leagues from the land. At 6,
we were abreast of a pretty high Mountain laying near the Shore, which,
on account of its figure, I named Mount Dromedary (Latitude 36 degrees 18
minutes South, Longitude 209 degrees 55 minutes West). The shore under
the foot of the Mountain forms a point, which I have named Cape
Dromedary, over which is a peaked hillock. At this time found the
Variation to be 10 degrees 42 minutes East. Between 10 and 11 o'Clock Mr.
Green and I took several Observations of the Sun and Moon, the mean
result of which gave 209 degrees 17 minutes West Longitude from the
Meridian of Greenwich. By observation made yesterday we were in the
Longitude 210 degrees 9 minutes. West 20 minutes gives 209 degrees 49
minutes the Longitude of the Ship to-day at noon per yesterday's
observation, the Mean of which and to-day's give 209 degrees 33 minutes
West, by which I fix the Longitude of this Coast. Our Latitude at Noon
was 35 degrees 49 minutes South; Cape Dromedary bore South 30 degrees
West, distant 12 Leagues. An Open Bay* (* Bateman Bay.) wherein lay 3 or
4 Small Islands, bore North-West by West, distant 5 or 6 Leagues. This
Bay seem'd to be but very little Shelter'd from the Sea Winds, and yet it
is the only likely Anchoring place I have yet seen upon the Coast.

Sunday, 22nd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South by West with which
we steer'd along shore North by East and North-North-East at the distance
of about 3 Leagues. Saw the smoke of fire in several places near the Sea
beach. At 5, we were abreast of a point of land which, on account of its
perpendicular Clifts, I call'd Point Upright; Latitude 35 degrees 35
minutes South; it bore from us due West, distant 2 Leagues, and in this
Situation had 31 fathoms, Sandy bottom. At 6, falling little wind, we
hauld off East-North-East; at this time the Northermost land in sight
bore North by East 1/2 East, and at midnight, being in 70 fathoms, we
brought too until 4 A.M., at which time we made sail in for the land, and
at daylight found ourselves nearly in the same Place we were at 5 o'Clock
in the evening, by which it was apparent that we had been drove about 3
Leagues to the Southward by a Tide or Current in the night. After this we
steer'd along shore North-North-East, having a Gentle breeze at
South-West, and were so near the Shore as to distinguish several people
upon the Sea beach. They appeared to be of a very dark or black Colour;
but whether this was the real Colour of their skins or the Cloathes they
might have on I know not. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude
of 35 degrees 27 minutes and Longitude 209 degrees 23 minutes; Cape
Dromedary bore South 28 degrees West, distance 15 Leagues. A remarkable
peak'd hill laying inland, the Top of which looked like a Pigeon house,
and occasioned my giving it that name, bore North 32 degrees 33 minutes
West, and a small low Island, laying close under the Shore, bore
North-West, distance 2 or 3 Leagues; Variation of the Compass 9 degrees
50 minutes East. When we first discover'd this Island in the morning I
was in hopes, from its appearance, that we should have found Shelter for
the Ship behind it; but when we came to approach it near I did not think
that there was even security for a Boat to land. But this, I believe, I
should have attempted had not the wind come on Shore, after which I did
not think it safe to send a Boat from the Ship, as we had a large hollow
Sea from the South-East rowling in upon the land, which beat every where
very high upon the Shore; and this we have had ever since we came upon
the Coast. The land near the Sea coast still continues of a moderate
height, forming alternately rocky points and Sandy beaches; but inland,
between Mount Dromedary and the Pigeon house, are several pretty high
Mountains, 2 only of which we saw but what were covered with Trees, and
these lay inland behind the Pigeon House, and are remarkably flat a Top,
with Steep rocky clifts all round them. As far as we could see the Trees
in this Country hath all the appearance of being stout and lofty. For
these 2 days past the observed Latitude hath been 12 or 14 Miles to the
Southward of the Ship's account given by the Log, which can be owing to
nothing but a Current set to the Southward.

Monday, 23rd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at East, which in the night
veer'd to North-East and North. At 1/2 past 4 P.M., being about 5 Miles
from the Land, we Tack'd and stood off South-East and East until 4 A.M.,
at which time we Tack'd and stood in, being then about 9 or 10 Leagues
from the land. At 8, it fell little wind, and soon after Calm. At Noon we
were by Observation in the Latitude of 35 degrees 38 minutes and about 6
Leagues from the land, Mount Dromedary bearing South 37 degrees West,
distant 17 Leagues, and the Pidgeon house North 40 degrees West; in this
situation had 74 fathoms.

Tuesday, 24th. In the P.M. had Variable light Airs and Calms until 6
o'Clock, at which time a breeze sprung up at North by West; at this time
we had 70 fathoms Water, being about 4 or 5 Leagues from the land, the
Pidgeon house bearing North 40 degrees West, Mount Dromedary South 30
degrees West, and the Northermost land in sight North 19 degrees East.
Stood to the North-East until Noon, having a Gentle breeze at North-West,
at which time we Tack'd and stood to the Westward, being then, by
observation, in the Latitude of 35 degrees 10 minutes South and Longitude
208 degrees 51 minutes West. A point of land which I named Cape St.
George, we having discovered it on that Saint's day, bore West, distant
19 Miles, and the Pidgeon house South 7 degrees West, the Latitude and
Longitude of which I found to be 35 degrees 19 minutes South and 209
degrees 42 minutes West. In the morning we found the Variation to be, by
the Amplitude, 7 degrees 50 minutes East, by several Azimuths 7 degrees
54 minutes East.

[Off Jervis Bay, New South Wales.]

Wednesday, 25th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at North-West until 3
o'Clock, at which time it came to West, and we Tack'd and stood to the
Northward. At 5 o'Clock, being about 5 or 6 Leagues from the land, the
Pidgeon house bearing West-South-West, distant 9 Leagues, sounded and had
86 fathoms. At 8, being very squally, with lightning, we close reef'd the
Topsails and brought too, being then in 120 fathoms. At 3 A.M. made sail
again to the Northward, having the advantage of a fresh Gale at
South-West. At Noon we were about 3 or 4 Leagues from the land and in the
Latitude of 34 degrees 22 minutes and Longitude 208 degrees 36 minutes
West. Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon is North by East 49
Miles. In the Course of this day's run we saw the Smoke of fire in
several places near the Sea beach. About 2 Leagues to the Northward of
Cape St. George the Shore seems to form a bay,* (* Jervis Bay, a very
fine port, but little use has been made of it up to the present time.)
which appear'd to be shelter'd from the North-East winds; but as we had
the wind it was not in my power to look into it, and the appearance was
not favourable enough to induce me to loose time in beating up to it. The
North point of this bay, on account of its Figure, I nam'd Long Nose.
Latitude 45 degrees 4 minutes South, 8 Leagues to the Northward of this,
is a point which I call'd Red Point; some part of the Land about it
appeared of that Colour (Latitude 34 degrees 29 minutes South, Longitude
208 degrees 49 minutes West). A little way inland to the North-West of
this point is a round hill, the top of which look'd like the Crown of a
Hatt.

Thursday, 26th. Clear, serene weather. In the P.M. had a light breeze at
North-North-West until 5, at which time it fell Calm, we being then about
3 or 4 Leagues from the land and in 48 fathoms. Variation by Azimuth 8
degrees 48 minutes East, the extreams of the land from North-East by
North to South-West by South. Saw several smokes along shore before dark,
and 2 or 3 times a fire. In the Night we lay becalm'd, driving in before
the Sea, until one o'Clock A.M., at which time we got a breeze from the
land, with which we steer'd North-East, being then in 38 fathoms water.
At Noon it fell little Wind, and veer'd to North-East by North, we being
then in the Latitude of 34 degrees 10 minutes and Longitude 208 degrees
27 minutes West, and about 5 Leagues from the land, which extended from
South 37 degrees West to North 1/2 East. In this Latitude are some White
Clifts, which rise perpendicular from the Sea to a moderate height.

Friday, 27th. Var'ble light Airs between the North-East and North-West,
clear pleasant weather. In the P.M. stood off Shore until 2, then Tackt
and Stood in till 6, at which time we tack'd and stood off, being then in
54 fathoms and about 4 or 5 miles from the land, the Extreams of which
bore from South, 28 degrees West to North 25 degrees 30 minutes East. At
12 we tack'd and stood in until 4 A.M., then made a Trip off until day
light, after which we stood in for the land; in all this time we lost
ground, owing a good deal to the Variableness of the winds, for at Noon
we were by Observation in the Latitude of 34 degrees 21 minutes South,
Red Point bearing South 27 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues. In this
Situation we were about 4 or 5 Miles from the land, which extended from
South 19 degrees 30 minutes West to North 29 degrees East.

Saturday, 28th. In the P.M. hoisted out the Pinnace and Yawl in order to
attempt a landing, but the Pinnace took in the Water so fast that she was
obliged to be hoisted in again to stop her leakes. At this time we saw
several people a shore, 4 of whom where carrying a small Boat or Canoe,
which we imagin'd they were going to put in to the Water in order to Come
off to us; but in this we were mistaken. Being now not above 2 Miles from
the Shore Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Tupia, and myself put off in the Yawl,
and pull'd in for the land to a place where we saw 4 or 5 of the Natives,
who took to the Woods as we approached the Shore; which disappointed us
in the expectation we had of getting a near View of them, if not to speak
to them. But our disappointment was heightened when we found that we no
where could effect a landing by reason of the great Surf which beat
everywhere upon the shore. We saw haul'd up upon the beach 3 or 4 small
Canoes, which to us appeared not much unlike the Small ones of New
Zeland. In the wood were several Trees of the Palm kind, and no under
wood; and this was all we were able to observe from the boat, after which
we return'd to the Ship about 5 in the evening.* (* The place where Cook
attempted to land is near Bulli, a place where there is now considerable
export of coal. A large coal port, Wollongong, lies a little to the
southward.) At this time it fell Calm, and we were not above a Mile and a
half from the Shore, in 11 fathoms, and within some breakers that lay to
the Southward of us; but luckily a light breeze came off from the Land,
which carried us out of danger, and with which we stood to the Northward.
At daylight in the morning we discover'd a Bay,* (* Botany Bay.) which
appeared to be tollerably well shelter'd from all winds, into which I
resolved to go with the Ship, and with this View sent the Master in the
Pinnace to sound the Entrance, while we keept turning up with the Ship,
having the wind right out. At noon the Entrance bore North-North-West,
distance 1 Mile.

[At Anchor, Botany Bay, New South Wales.]

Sunday, 29th. In the P.M. wind Southerly and Clear weather, with which we
stood into the bay and Anchored under the South shore about 2 miles
within the Entrance in 5 fathoms, the South point bearing South-East and
the North point East. Saw, as we came in, on both points of the bay,
several of the Natives and a few hutts; Men, Women, and Children on the
South Shore abreast of the Ship, to which place I went in the Boats in
hopes of speaking with them, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and
Tupia. As we approached the Shore they all made off, except 2 Men, who
seem'd resolved to oppose our landing. As soon as I saw this I order'd
the boats to lay upon their Oars, in order to speak to them; but this was
to little purpose, for neither us nor Tupia could understand one word
they said. We then threw them some nails, beads, etc., a shore, which
they took up, and seem'd not ill pleased with, in so much that I thought
that they beckon'd to us to come ashore; but in this we were mistaken,
for as soon as we put the boat in they again came to oppose us, upon
which I fir'd a musquet between the 2, which had no other Effect than to
make them retire back, where bundles of their darts lay, and one of them
took up a stone and threw at us, which caused my firing a Second Musquet,
load with small Shott; and altho' some of the shott struck the man, yet
it had no other effect than making him lay hold on a Target. Immediately
after this we landed, which we had no sooner done than they throw'd 2
darts at us; this obliged me to fire a third shott, soon after which they
both made off, but not in such haste but what we might have taken one;
but Mr. Banks being of Opinion that the darts were poisoned, made me
cautious how I advanced into the Woods. We found here a few small hutts
made of the Bark of Trees, in one of which were 4 or 5 Small Children,
with whom we left some strings of beads, etc. A quantity of Darts lay
about the Hutts; these we took away with us. 3 Canoes lay upon the beach,
the worst I think I ever saw; they were about 12 or 14 feet long, made of
one piece of the Bark of a Tree, drawn or tied up at each end, and the
middle keept open by means of pieces of Stick by way of Thwarts. After
searching for fresh water without success, except a little in a Small
hole dug in the Sand, we embarqued, and went over to the North point of
the bay, where in coming in we saw several people; but when we landed now
there were nobody to be seen. We found here some fresh Water, which came
trinkling down and stood in pools among the rocks; but as this was
troublesome to come at I sent a party of men ashore in the morning to the
place where we first landed to dig holes in the sand, by which means and
a Small stream they found fresh Water sufficient to Water the Ship. The
String of Beads, etc., we had left with the Children last night were
found laying in the Hutts this morning; probably the Natives were afraid
to take them away. After breakfast we sent some Empty Casks a shore and a
party of Men to cut wood, and I went myself in the Pinnace to sound and
explore the Bay, in the doing of which I saw some of the Natives; but
they all fled at my Approach. I landed in 2 places, one of which the
people had but just left, as there were small fires and fresh Muscles
broiling upon them; here likewise lay Vast heaps of the largest Oyster
Shells I ever saw.

Monday, 30th. As Soon as the Wooders and Waterers were come on board to
Dinner 10 or 12 of the Natives came to the watering place, and took away
their Canoes that lay there, but did not offer to touch any one of our
Casks that had been left ashore; and in the afternoon 16 or 18 of them
came boldly up to within 100 yards of our people at the watering place,
and there made a stand. Mr. Hicks, who was the Officer ashore, did all in
his power to intice them to him by offering them presents; but it was to
no purpose, all they seem'd to want was for us to be gone. After staying
a Short time they went away. They were all Arm'd with Darts and wooden
Swords; the darts have each 4 prongs, and pointed with fish bones. Those
we have seen seem to be intended more for striking fish than offensive
Weapons; neither are they poisoned, as we at first thought. After I had
return'd from sounding the Bay I went over to a Cove on the North side of
the Bay, where, in 3 or 4 Hauls with the Sean, we caught about 300 pounds
weight of Fish, which I caused to be equally divided among the Ship's
Company. In the A.M. I went in the Pinnace to sound and explore the North
side of the bay, where I neither met with inhabitants or anything
remarkable. Mr. Green took the Sun's Meridian Altitude a little within
the South Entrance of the Bay, which gave the Latitude 34 degrees 0
minutes South.

[May 1770.]

Tuesday, May 1st. Gentle breezes, Northerly. In the P.M. 10 of the
Natives again visited the Watering place. I, being on board at this time,
went immediately ashore, but before I got there they were going away. I
follow'd them alone and unarm'd some distance along shore, but they would
not stop until they got farther off than I choose to trust myself. These
were armed in the same manner as those that came Yesterday. In the
evening I sent some hands to haul the Saine, but they caught but a very
few fish. A little after sunrise I found the Variation to be 11 degrees 3
minutes East. Last night Forby Sutherland, Seaman, departed this Life,
and in the A.M. his body Was buried ashore at the watering place, which
occasioned my calling the south point of this bay after his name. This
morning a party of us went ashore to some Hutts, not far from the
Watering place, where some of the Natives are daily seen; here we left
several articles, such as Cloth, Looking Glasses, Coombs, Beads, Nails,
etc.; after this we made an Excursion into the Country, which we found
diversified with Woods, Lawns, and Marshes. The woods are free from
underwood of every kind, and the trees are at such a distance from one
another that the whole Country, or at least great part of it, might be
Cultivated without being obliged to cut down a single tree. We found the
Soil every where, except in the Marshes, to be a light white sand, and
produceth a quantity of good Grass, which grows in little Tufts about as
big as one can hold in one's hand, and pretty close to one another; in
this manner the Surface of the Ground is Coated. In the woods between the
Trees Dr. Solander had a bare sight of a Small Animal something like a
Rabbit, and we found the Dung of an Animal* (* This was the kangaroo.)
which must feed upon Grass, and which, we judge, could not be less than a
Deer; we also saw the Track of a Dog, or some such like Animal. We met
with some Hutts and places where the Natives had been, and at our first
setting out one of them was seen; the others, I suppose, had fled upon
our Approach. I saw some Trees that had been cut down by the Natives with
some sort of a Blunt instrument, and several Trees that were barqued, the
bark of which had been cut by the same instrument; in many of the Trees,
especially the Palms, were cut steps of about 3 or 4 feet asunder for the
conveniency of Climbing them. We found 2 Sorts of Gum, one sort of which
is like Gum Dragon, and is the same, I suppose, Tasman took for Gum lac;
it is extracted from the largest tree in the Woods.

Wednesday, 2nd. Between 3 and 4 in the P.M. we return'd out of the
Country, and after Dinner went ashore to the watering place, where we had
not been long before 17 or 18 of the Natives appeared in sight. In the
morning I had sent Mr. Gore, with a boat, up to the head of the Bay to
drudge for Oysters; in his return to the Ship he and another person came
by land, and met with these people, who followed him at the Distance of
10 or 20 Yards. Whenever Mr. Gore made a stand and faced them they stood
also, and notwithstanding they were all Arm'd, they never offer'd to
Attack him; but after he had parted from them, and they were met by Dr.
Monkhouse and one or 2 more, who, upon making a Sham retreat, they
throw'd 3 darts after them, after which they began to retire. Dr.
Solander, I, and Tupia made all the haste we could after them, but could
not, either by words or Actions, prevail upon them to come near us, Mr.
Gore saw some up the Bay, who by signs invited him ashore, which he
prudently declined. In the A.M. had the wind in the South-East with rain,
which prevented me from making an Excursion up the head of the bay as I
intended.

Thursday, 3rd. Winds at South-East, a Gentle breeze and fair weather. In
the P.M. I made a little excursion along the Sea Coast to the Southward,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. At our first entering the
woods we saw 3 of the Natives, who made off as soon as they saw us; more
of them were seen by others of our people, who likewise made off as soon
as they found they were discover'd. In the A.M. I went in the Pinnace to
the head of the bay, accompanied by Drs. Solander and Monkhouse, in order
to Examine the Country, and to try to form some Connections with the
Natives. In our way thither we met with 10 or 12 of them fishing, each in
a Small Canoe, who retir'd into Shoald water upon our approach. Others
again we saw at the first place we landed at, who took to their Canoes,
and fled before we came near them; after this we took Water, and went
almost to the head of the inlet, were we landed and Travel'd some
distance in land. We found the face of the Country much the same as I
have before described, but the land much richer for instead of sand I
found in many places a deep black soil, which we thought was Capable of
producing any kind of grain. At present it produceth, besides Timber, as
fine Meadow as ever was seen; however, we found it not all like this,
some few places were very rocky, but this, I believe, to be uncommon. The
stone is sandy, and very proper for building, etc. After we had
sufficiently examin'd this part we return'd to the Boat, and seeing some
Smoke and Canoes at another part we went thither, in hopes of meeting
with the people, but they made off as we approached. There were 6 Canoes
and 6 small fires near the Shore, and Muscles roasting upon them, and a
few Oysters laying near; from this we conjectured that there had been
just 6 people, who had been out each in his Canoe picking up the Shell
fish, and come a Shore to eat them, where each had made his fire to dress
them by. We tasted of their Cheer, and left them in return Strings of
beads, etc. The day being now far spent, we set out on our return to the
Ship.

Friday, 4th. Winds northerly, serene weather. Upon my return to the Ship
in the evening I found that none of the Natives had Appear'd near the
Watering place, but about 20 of them had been fishing in their Canoes at
no great distance from us. In the A.M., as the Wind would not permit us
to sail, I sent out some parties into the Country to try to form some
Connections with the Natives. One of the Midshipmen met with a very old
man and Woman and 2 Small Children; they were Close to the Water side,
where several more were in their Canoes gathering of Shell fish, and he,
being alone, was afraid to make any stay with the 2 old People least he
should be discovr'd by those in the Canoes. He gave them a bird he had
Shott, which they would not Touch; neither did they speak one word, but
seem'd to be much frightned. They were quite Naked; even the Woman had
nothing to cover her nudities. Dr. Monkhouse and another Man being in the
Woods, not far from the watering place, discover'd 6 more of the Natives,
who at first seem'd to wait his coming; but as he was going up to them he
had a dart thrown at him out of a Tree, which narrowly escaped him. As
soon as the fellow had thrown the dart he descended the Tree and made
off, and with him all the rest, and these were all that were met with in
the Course of this day.

Saturday, 5th. In the P.M. I went with a party of Men over to the North
Shore, and while some hands were hauling the Sean, a party of us made an
Excursion of 3 or 4 Miles into the Country, or rather along the Sea
Coast. We met with nothing remarkable; great part of the Country for some
distance inland from the Sea Coast is mostly a barren heath, diversified
with Marshes and Morasses. Upon our return to the Boat we found they had
caught a great number of small fish, which the sailors call leather
Jackets on account of their having a very thick skin; they are known in
the West Indies. I had sent the Yawl in the morning to fish for Sting
rays, who returned in the Evening with upwards of four hundred weight;
one single one weigh'd 240 pounds Exclusive of the entrails. In the A.M.,
as the wind Continued Northerly, I sent the Yawl again a fishing, and I
went with a party of Men into the Country, but met with nothing
extraordinary.

[Description of Botany Bay, New South Wales.]

Sunday, 6th. In the evening the Yawl return'd from fishing, having Caught
2 Sting rays weighing near 600 pounds. The great quantity of plants Mr.
Banks and Dr. Solander found in this place occasioned my giving it the
Name of Botany Bay.* (* The Bay was at first called Stingray Bay. The
plan of it at the Admiralty is called by this name, and none of the logs
know Botany Bay. It seems probable that Cook finally settled on the name
after the ship left, and when Banks had had time to examine his
collections. A monument was erected in 1870 near the spot, on the
southern side, where Cook first landed. Botany Bay was intended to be the
site where the first settlement of convicts should be made, but on the
arrival of Captain Phillip, on January 18th, 1788, he found it so
unsuited for the number of his colony that he started in a boat to
examine Broken Bay. On his way he went into Port Jackson, and immediately
decided on settling there. On the 25th and 26th the ships went round, and
Sydney was founded.) It is situated in the Latitude of 34 degrees 0
minutes South, Longitude 208 degrees 37 minutes West. It is capacious,
safe, and Commodious; it may be known by the land on the Sea Coast, which
is of a pretty even and moderate height, Rather higher than it is inland,
with steep rocky Clifts next the Sea, and looks like a long Island lying
close under the Shore. The Entrance of the Bay lies about the Middle of
this land. In coming from the Southward it is discover'd before you are
abreast of it, which you cannot do in coming from the Northward; the
entrance is little more than a Quarter of a Mile broad, and lies in
West-North-West. To sail into it keep the South shore on board until
within a small bare Island, which lies close under the North Shore. Being
within that Island the deepest of Water is on that side, 7, 6 and 5
fathoms a good way up; there is Shoald Water a good way off from the
South Shore--from the inner South Point quite to the head of the harbour;
but over towards the North and North-West Shore is a Channell of 12 or 14
feet at low Water, 3 or 4 Leagues up, to a place where there is 3 or 4
fathoms; but there I found very little fresh Water. We Anchor'd near the
South Shore about a Mile within the Entrance for the Conveniency of
Sailing with a Southerly wind and the getting of Fresh Water; but I
afterwards found a very fine stream of fresh Water on the North shore in
the first sandy Cove within the Island, before which the Ship might lay
almost land locked, and wood for fuel may be got everywhere. Although
wood is here in great plenty, yet there is very little Variety; the
bigest trees are as large or larger than our Oaks in England, and grows a
good deal like them, and Yields a reddish Gum; the wood itself is heavy,
hard, and black like Lignum Vitae. Another sort that grows tall and
Strait something like Pines--the wood of this is hard and Ponderous, and
something of the Nature of America live Oak. These 2 are all the Timber
trees I met with; there are a few sorts of Shrubs and several Palm Trees
and Mangroves about the Head of the Harbour. The Country is woody, low,
and flat as far in as we could see, and I believe that the Soil is in
general sandy. In the Wood are a variety of very beautiful birds, such as
Cocatoos, Lorryquets, Parrots, etc., and crows Exactly like those we have
in England. Water fowl is no less plenty about the head of the Harbour,
where there is large flats of sand and Mud, on which they seek their
food; the most of these were unknown to us, one sort especially, which
was black and white, and as large as a Goose, but most like a Pelican.*
(* Most probably the Black and White or Semipalmated Goose, now
exterminated in these parts.) On the sand and Mud banks are Oysters,
Muscles, Cockles, etc., which I believe are the Chief support of the
inhabitants, who go into Shoald Water with their little Canoes and peck
them out of the sand and Mud with their hands, and sometimes roast and
Eat them in the Canoe, having often a fire for that purpose, as I
suppose, for I know no other it can be for. The Natives do not appear to
be numerous, neither do they seem to live in large bodies, but dispers'd
in small parties along by the Water side. Those I saw were about as tall
as Europeans, of a very dark brown Colour, but not black, nor had they
woolly, frizled hair, but black and lank like ours. No sort of Cloathing
or Ornaments were ever seen by any of us upon any one of them, or in or
about any of their Hutts; from which I conclude that they never wear any.
Some that we saw had their faces and bodies painted with a sort of White
Paint or Pigment. Altho' I have said that shell fish is their Chief
support, yet they catch other sorts of fish, some of which we found
roasting on the fire the first time we landed; some of these they strike
with Gigs,* (* A fishing implement like a trident.) and others they catch
with hook and line; we have seen them strike fish with gigs, and hooks
and lines are found in their Hutts. Sting rays, I believe, they do not
eat, because I never saw the least remains of one near any of their Hutts
or fire places. However, we could know but very little of their Customs,
as we never were able to form any Connections with them; they had not so
much as touch'd the things we had left in their Hutts on purpose for them
to take away. During our stay in this Harbour I caused the English
Colours to be display'd ashore every day, and an inscription to be cut
out upon one of the Trees near the Watering place, setting forth the
Ship's Name, Date, etc. [Off Port Jackson, New South Wales.]Having seen
everything this place afforded, we, at daylight in the morning, weigh'd
with a light breeze at North-West, and put to Sea, and the wind soon
after coming to the Southward we steer'd along shore North-North-East,
and at Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 33 degrees 50
minutes South, about 2 or 3 Miles from the Land, and abreast of a Bay,
wherein there appear'd to be safe Anchorage, which I called Port
Jackson.* (* Cook having completed his water at Botany Bay, and having
many hundreds of miles of coast before him, did not examine Port Jackson,
the magnificent harbour in which Sydney, the capital of New South Wales,
now lies. His chart gives the shape of what he could see very accurately,
but the main arm of the harbour is hidden from the sea. He named the bay
after Mr. (afterwards Sir George) Jackson, one of the Secretaries of the
Admiralty. This fact is recorded on a tablet in the Bishop Stortford
Church to the memory of Sir George Duckett, which name Sir George had
assumed in later years. This interesting evidence was brought to light by
Sir Alfred Stephen, Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales, and puts an
end to the legend which was long current, that Port Jackson was named
after a sailor who first saw it. There was, moreover, no person of the
name of Jackson on board.) It lies 3 leagues to the Northward of Botany
Bay. I had almost forgot to mention that it is high water in this Bay at
the full and change of the Moon about 8 o'Clock, and rises and falls upon
a Perpendicular about 4 or 5 feet.

Monday, 7th. Little wind, Southerly, and Serene pleasant Weather. In the
P.M. found the Variation by several Azimuths to be 8 degrees East; at
sunset the Northermost land in sight bore North 26 degrees East; and some
broken land that appear'd to form a bay bore North 40 degrees West,
distant 4 Leagues. This Bay I named Broken bay,* (* The Hawkesbury River,
the largest on the east coast of Australia, runs into Broken Bay.)
Latitude 33 degrees 36 minutes South. We steer'd along shore
North-North-East all night at the distance of about 3 Leagues from the
land, having from 32 to 36 fathoms, hard sandy bottom. A little after sun
rise I took several Azimuths with 4 Needles belonging to the Azimuth
Compass, the mean result of which gave the Variation of 7 degrees 56
minutes East. At Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 33
degrees 22 minutes South, and about 3 Leagues from the land, the
Northermost part of which in sight bore North 19 degrees East. Some
pretty high land which projected out in 3 bluff Points, and occasioned my
calling it Cape 3 Points (Latitude 33 degrees 33 minutes South), bore
South-West, distant 5 Leagues; Longitude made from Botany Bay 0 degrees
19 minutes East.

Tuesday, 8th. Variable Light Airs and Clear weather. In the P.M. saw some
smooks upon the Shore, and in the Evening found the Variation to be 8
degrees 25 minutes East; at this time we were about 2 or 3 Miles from the
land, and had 28 fathoms Water. Our situation at Noon was nearly the same
as Yesterday, having advanced not one Step to the Northward.

Wednesday, 9th. Winds northerly; most part a fresh breeze, with which we
stood off Shore until 12 at Night. At the distance of 5 Leagues from the
land had 70 fathoms, at the distance of 6 Leagues 80 fathoms, which is
the Extent of the Soundings, for at the Distance of 10 Leagues off we had
no ground with 150 fathoms. Stood in Shore until 8 o'Clock A.M., and
hardly fetched Cape Three Points; having a little wind at North-West by
North, we tack'd, and stood off until Noon, at which Time we Tack'd with
the wind at North-North-East, being then in the Latitude of 33 degrees 37
minutes South, Cape Three Points bearing North West by West, distance 4
Leagues.

Thursday, 10th. In the P.M., had the wind at North-East by North, with
which we stood in Shore until near 4 o'Clock, when we Tack'd in 23
fathoms Water, being about a Mile from the land, and as much to the
Southward of Cape 3 Points. In the night the wind veer'd to North-West
and West, and in the morning to South-West. Having the advantage of a
light Moon, we made the best of our way along shore to the Northward. At
Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 32 degrees 53 minutes
South, and Longitude 208 degrees 0 minutes West, and about 2 Leagues from
the land, which extended from North 41 degrees East to South 41 degrees
West. A small round rock or Island,* (* Nobby Head, at the entrance of
Newcastle Harbour, formed by the Hunter River. Newcastle is the great
coal port of New South Wales. It has a population of 20,000, and exports
1,500,000 tons of coal in the year.) laying close under the land, bore
South 82 degrees West, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. At sunrise in the Morning
found the Variation to be 8 degrees East. In the Latitude of 33 degrees 2
minutes South, a little way inland, is a remarkable hill, that is shaped
like the Crown of a Hatt, which we past about 9 o'Clock in the forenoon.

[Off Cape Hawke, New South Wales.]

Friday, 11th. Winds Southerly in the day, and in the night Westerly; a
Gentle breeze and Clear weather. At 4 P.M. past, at the distance of one
Mile, a low rocky point which I named Point Stephens (Latitude 32 degrees
45 minutes); on the North side of this point is an inlet which I called
Port Stephens* (* Called after Mr. Stephens, one of the Secretaries to
the Admiralty. It is a large and fine harbour.) (Latitude 32 degrees 40
minutes; Longitude 207 degrees 51 minutes), that appear'd to me from the
Masthead to be shelter'd from all Winds. At the Entrance lay 3 Small
Islands, 2 of which are of a Tolerable height, and on the Main, near the
shore, are some high round hills that make at a distance like Islands. In
passing this bay at the distance of 2 or 3 miles from the Shore our
soundings were from 33 to 27 fathoms; from which I conjectured that there
must be a sufficient depth of Water for Shipping in the bay. We saw
several smokes a little way in the Country upon the flat land; by this I
did suppose that there were Lagoons which afforded subsistance for the
Natives, such as shell-fish, etc., for we as yet know nothing else they
have to live upon. At 1/2 past 5, the Northermost land in sight bore
North 36 degrees East, and Point Stephens South-West, distant 4 Leagues,
at which time we took in our Steerings,* (* Studding sails.) and run
under an Easey sail all night until 4 A.M., when we made all sail; our
soundings in the night were from 48 to 62 fathoms, at the distance of
between 3 and 4 Leagues from the land. At 8 we were abreast of a high
point of Land, which made in 2 Hillocks; this point I called Cape Hawke*
(* After Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, First Lord of the Admiralty.)
(Latitude 32 degrees 14 minutes South, Longitude 207 degrees 30 minutes
West). It bore from us at this time West distant 8 Miles, and the same
time the Northermost land in sight bore North 6 degrees East, and
appear'd high and like an Island. At Noon this land bore North 8 degrees
East, the Northermost land in sight North 13 degrees East, and Cape Hawke
South 37 degrees West. Latitude in per Observation 32 degrees 2 minutes
South, which was 12 Miles to the Southward of that given by the Log,
which I do suppose to be owing to a Current setting that way. Course and
distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon was first North-East by East, 27
Miles, then North 10 degrees East, 37 Miles; Longitude in 207 degrees 20
minutes West; Variation per morning Amplitude and Azimuth 9 degrees 10
minutes East.

Saturday, 12th. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze in the P.M. As we run
along Shore we saw several smokes a little way in land from the Sea, and
one upon the Top of a hill, which was the first we have seen upon
elevated ground since we have been upon the Coast. At sunset we were in
23 fathoms, and about a League and a half from the land, the Northermost
part of which we had in sight bore North 13 degrees East; and 3
remarkable large high hills lying Contigious to each other, and not far
from the shore, bore North-North-West. As these Hills bore some
resemblance to each other we called them the 3 Brothers. We steer'd
North-East by North all Night, having from 27 to 67 fathoms, from 2 to 5
and 6 Leagues from the Land, and at day light we steer'd North for the
Northermost land we had in sight. At noon we were 4 Leagues from the
Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 31 degrees 18 minutes South,
which was 15 miles to the Southward of that given by the Log. Our Course
and distance made good since Yesterday noon was North 24 degrees East, 48
miles. Longitude 206 degrees 58 minutes West; several smokes seen a
little way in land.

Sunday, 13th. In the P.M. stood in shore with the Wind at North-East
until 6, at which time we Tack'd, being about 3 or 4 miles from the land,
and in 24 fathoms. Stood off shore with a fresh breeze at North and
North-North-West until midnight, then Tack'd, being in 118 fathoms and 8
Leagues from the Land. At 3 a.m. the wind veer'd to the Westward, and we
Tack'd and stood to the Northward. At noon we were by Observation in the
Latitude of 30 degrees 43 minutes South, and Longitude 206 degrees 45
minutes West, and about 3 or 4 Leagues from the Land, the Northermost
part of which bore from us North 13 degrees West; and a point or head
land, on which were fires that Caused a great Quantity of smoke, which
occasioned my giving it the name of Smokey Cape, bore South-West, distant
4 Leagues; it is moderately high land. Over the pitch of the point is a
round hillock; within it 2 others, much higher and larger, and within
them very low land (Latitude 30 degrees 51 minutes, Longitude 206 degrees
5 minutes West). Besides the smoke seen upon this Cape we saw more in
several places along the Coast. The observed Latitude was only 5 Miles to
the Southward of the Log.

Monday, 14th. At the P.M. it fell Calm, and continued so about an hour,
when a breeze sprung up at North-East, with which we stood in shore until
6 o'Clock, when, being in 30 fathoms and 3 or 4 Miles from the land, we
Tack'd, having the wind at North-North-West. At this time Smoky Cape bore
South 3/4 degrees West, distant about 5 Leagues, and the Northermost land
in sight North 1/4 degrees East. At 8 we made a Trip in shore for an
hour; after this the wind came off Shore, with which we stood along shore
to the Northward, having from 30 to 21 fathoms, at the distance of 4 or 5
Miles from the Land. At 5 A.M. the Wind veer'd to North, and blow'd a
fresh breeze, attended with Squalls and dark cloudy weather. At 8 it
began to Thunder and Rain, which lasted about an Hour, and then fell
Calm, which gave us an opportunity to sound, and found 86 fathoms, being
about 4 or 5 Leagues from the Land; after this we got the wind Southerly,
a fresh breeze and fair weather, and we Steer'd North by West for the
Northermost land we had in sight. At noon we were about 4 Leagues from
the land, and by observation in the Latitude of 30 degrees 22 minutes
South, which was 9 Miles to the Southward of that given by the Log.
Longitude in 206 degrees 39 minutes West, and Course and distance made
good since Yesterday Noon North 16 degrees East, 22 miles; some Tolerable
high land near the Shore bore West. As I have not mentioned the Aspect of
the Country since we left Botany Bay, I shall now describe it as it hath
at different times appear'd to us. As we have advanced to the Northward
the land hath increased in height, in so much that in this Latitude it
may be called a hilly Country; but between this and Botany Bay it is
diversified with an agreeable variety of Hills, Ridges, and Valleys, and
large plains all Cloathed with wood, which to all appearance is the same
as I have before mentioned, as we could discover no Visible alteration in
the Soil. Near the shore the land is in general low and Sandy, except the
points which are rocky, and over many of them are pretty high hills,
which at first rising out of the Water appear like a Island.

Tuesday, 15th. Fresh Gales at South-West, West-South-West, and
South-South-West. In the P.M. had some heavy Squalls, attended with rain
and hail, which obliged us to close reef our Topsails. Between 2 and 4 we
had some small rocky Islands* (* The Solitary Islands.) between us and
the land; the Southermost lies in the Latitude of 30 degrees 10 minutes,
the Northermost in 29 degrees 58 minutes, and about 2 Leagues or more
from the land; we sounded, and had 33 fathoms about 12 Miles without this
last island. At 8 we brought too until 10, at which time we made sail
under our Topsails. Having the Advantage of the Moon we steer'd along
shore North and North by East, keeping at the distance of about 3 Leagues
from the land having from 30 to 25 fathoms. As soon as it was daylight we
made all the sail we could, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale and fair
weather.* (* During the night the entrance of the Clarence River, now the
outlet for the produce of a large and rich agricultural district, was
passed, and in the morning that of the Richmond River, which serves a
similar purpose.) At 9, being about a League from the Land, we saw upon
it people and Smoke in Several places. At noon we were by observation in
the Latitude of 28 degrees 39 minutes South, and Longitude 206 degrees 27
minutes West; Course and distance saild since Yesterday at Noon North 6
degrees 45 minutes East, 104 Miles. A Tolerable high point of land bore
North-West by West, distant 3 Miles; this point I named Cape Byron* (*
Captain John Byron was one of Cook's predecessors in exploration in the
Pacific, having sailed round the World in H.M.S. Dolphin, in company with
the Tamar, in 1764 to 1766.) (Latitude 28 degrees 37 minutes 30 seconds
South, Longitude 206 degrees 30 minutes West). It may be known by a
remarkable sharp peaked Mountain lying in land North-West by West from
it. From this point the land Trends North 13 degrees West. Inland it is
pretty high and hilly, but near the Shore it is low; to the Southward of
the Point the land is low, and Tolerable level.

[Off Point Danger, New South Wales.]

Wednesday, 16th. Winds Southerly, a fresh Gale, with which we steer'd
North along shore until sunset, at which time we discover'd breakers
ahead, and on our Larboard bow, being at this time in 20 fathoms, and
about 5 miles from the land. Haul'd off East until 8, at which time we
had run 8 Miles, and had increased our Depth of Water to 44 fathoms. We
then brought too with her head to the Eastward, and lay on this Tack
until 10 o'Clock, when, having increased our Soundings to 78 fathoms, we
wore and lay with her head in shore until 5 o'Clock a.m., when we made
Sail. At daylight we were surprized by finding ourselves farther to the
Southward than we were in the evening, and yet it had blown strong all
night Southerly. We now saw the breakers again within us, which we passed
at the distance of about 1 League; they lay in the Latitude of 28 degrees
8 minutes South, and stretch off East 2 Leagues from a point under which
is a small Island; their situation may always be found by the peaked
mountain before mentioned, which bears South-West by West from them, and
on their account I have named it Mount Warning. It lies 7 or 8 Leagues in
land in the Latitude of 28 degrees 22 minutes South. The land is high and
hilly about it, but it is Conspicuous enough to be distinguished from
everything else. The point off which these shoals lay I have named Point
Danger;* (* Point Danger is the boundary point on the coast between New
South Wales and Queensland.) to the Northward of it the land, which is
low, Trends North-West by North; but we soon found that it did not keep
that direction long before it turn'd again to the Northward. At Noon we
were about 2 Leagues from the land, and by observation in the Latitude of
27 degrees 46 minutes, which was 17 Miles to the Southward of the Log;
Longitude 206 degrees 26 minutes West. Mount Warning bore South 20
degrees West, distant 14 Leagues; the Northermost land in sight bore
North. Our Course and distance made good since yesterday North 1 degree
45 minutes West, 53 miles.

[Off Moreton Bay, Queensland.]

Thursday, 17th. Winds Southerly, mostly a fresh breeze, with which in the
P.M. we steer'd along shore North 3/4 East, at the distance of about 2
Leagues off. Between 4 and 5 we discover'd breakers on our Larboard bow;
our Depth of Water at this time was 37 fathoms. At sunset the Northermost
land in sight bore North by West, the breakers North-West by West,
distant 4 Miles, and the Northermost land set at Noon, which form'd a
Point, I named Point Lookout, bore West, distant 5 or 6 Miles (Latitude
27 degrees 6 minutes).* (* There is some mistake in this latitude. It
should be 27 degrees 26 minutes.) On the North side of this point the
shore forms a wide open bay, which I have named Morton's Bay,* (* James,
Earl of Morton, was President of the Royal Society in 1764, and one of
the Commissioners of Longitude.) in the Bottom of which the land is so
low that I could but just see it from the Topmast head. The breakers I
have just mentioned lies about 3 or 4 Miles from Point Lookout; at this
time we had a great Sea from the Southward, which broke prodigious high
upon them. Stood on North-North-East until 8, when, being past the
breakers, and having Deepned our water to 52 fathoms, we brought too
until 12 o'Clock, then made sail to the North-North-East. At 4 A.M. we
sounded, and had 135 fathoms. At daylight I found that we had in the
night got much farther to the Northward and from the Shore than I
expected from the Course we steer'd, for we were at least 6 or 7 Leagues
off, and therefore hauled in North-West by West, having the Advantage of
a Fresh Gale at South-South-West. The Northermost land seen last night
bore from us at this time South-South-West, distant 6 Leagues. This land
I named Cape Morton, it being the North point of the Bay of the same Name
(Latitude 26 degrees 56 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 28 minutes).
From Cape Morton the Land Trends away West, further than we could see,
for there is a small space where we could see no land; some on board
where of opinion that there is a River there because the Sea looked paler
than usual. Upon sounding we found 34 fathoms fine white sandy bottom,
which alone is Sufficient change, the apparent Colour of Sea Water,
without the Assistance of Rivers. The land need only to be low here, as
it is in a Thousand other places upon the Coast, to have made it
impossible for us to have seen it at the distance we were off. Be this as
it may, it was a point that could not be clear'd up as we had the wind;
but should any one be desirous of doing it that may come after me, this
place may always be found by 3 Hills which lay to the Northward of it in
the Latitude of 26 degrees 53 minutes South. These hills lay but a little
way inland, and not far from Each other; they are very remarkable on
account of their Singular form of Elivation, which very much resembles
Glass Houses,* (* The Glass houses form a well-known sea mark on entering
Moreton Bay, as the name is now written. Brisbane, the capital of
Queensland, stands on the river of the same name, which falls into
Moreton Bay.) which occasioned my giving them that Name. The Northermost
of the 3 is the highest and largest. There are likewise several other
peaked hills inland to the Northward of these, but they are not near so
remarkable. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 26 degrees
28 minutes South, which was 10 Miles to the Northward of the Log; a
Circumstance that hath not hapned since we have been upon the Coast
before. Our Course and distance run since Yesterday noon was North by
West 80 Miles, which brought us into the Longitude of 206 degrees 46
minutes. At this time we were about 2 or 3 Leagues from the land, and in
24 fathoms Water; a low bluff point, which was the Southern point of an
open Sandy bay,* (* Laguna Bay. The point is called Low Bluff.) bore
North 52 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues, and the Northermost point of
land in sight bore North 1/4 East. Several Smokes seen to-day, and some
pretty far inland.

Friday, 18th. In steering along shore at the distance of 2 Leagues off
our Soundings was from 24 to 32 fathoms Sandy bottom. At 6 P.M. the North
point set at Noon bore North 1/4 West; distant 4 Leagues; at 10 it bore
North-West by West 1/2 West, and as we had seen no land to the Northward
of it we brought too, not knowing which way to steer, having at this time
but little wind, and continued so for the most part of the night. At 2
P.M. we made sail with the wind at South-West, and at daylight saw the
land extending as far as North 3/4 East. The point set last night bore
South-West by West, distant 3 or 4 Leagues; I have named it Double Island
Point, on account of its figure (Latitude 25 degrees 58 minutes South,
Longitude 206 degrees 48 minutes West). The land within this point is of
a moderate and pretty equal height, but the point itself is of such an
unequal Height that it looks like 2 Small Islands laying under the land;
it likewise may be known by the white Clifts on the North side of it.
Here the land trends to the North-West, and forms a large open bay,* (*
Wide Bay.) in the bottom of which the land appear'd to be very low, in so
much that we could but just see it from the Deck. In crossing the mouth
of this bay our Depth of Water was from 30 to 32 fathoms, a white sandy
bottom. At Noon we were about 3 Leagues from the Land, and in the
Latitude of 25 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 45 minutes
West; Double Island Point bore South 3/4 West, and the Northermost land
in sight North 3/4 East. The land hereabouts, which is of a moderate
height, appears more barren than any we have yet seen on this Coast, and
the Soil more sandy, there being several large places where nothing else
is to be seen; in other places the woods look to be low and Shrubby, nor
did we see many signs of inhabitants.

Saturday, 19th. In the P.M. had Variable light Airs, and Calms; in the
night had a light breeze from the land, which in the A.M. veer'd to
South-West and South-South-West. In the evening found the Variation to be
8 degrees 36 minutes East, and in the Morning 8 degrees 20 minutes; as we
had but little wind we keept to the Northward all night, having from 23
to 27 fathoms fine sandy bottom, at the Distance of 2 or 3 Leagues from
the Land. At Noon we were about 4 Miles from it, and by observation in
the Latitude of 25 degrees 4 minutes, and in this situation had but 13
fathoms; the Northermost land in Sight bore North 21 degrees West,
distant 8 Miles; our Course and distance saild since yesterday at Noon
was North 13 degrees 15 minutes East, 31 Miles.

[Off Sandy Cape, Queensland.]

Sunday, 20th. Winds Southerly, Gentle breezes. At 10 p.m. we passed, at
the distance of 4 Miles, having 17 fathoms, a black bluff head or point
of land, on which a number of the Natives were Assembled, which
occasioned my naming it Indian Head; Latitude 25 degrees 0 minutes North
by West, 4 Miles from this head, is another much like it. From this last
the land Trends a little more to the Westward, and is low and Sandy next
the Sea, for what may be behind it I know not; if land, it must be all
low, for we could see no part of it from the Mast head. We saw people in
other places besides the one I have mentioned; some Smokes in the day and
fires in the Night. Having but little wind all Night, we keept on to the
Northward, having from 17 to 34 fathoms, from 4 Miles to 4 Leagues from
the Land, the Northermost part of which bore from us at daylight
West-South-West, and seem'd to End in a point, from which we discover'd a
Reef stretching out to the Northward as far as we could see, being, at
this time, in 18 fathoms; for we had, before it was light, hauld our Wind
to the Westward, and this course we continued until we had plainly
discover'd breakers a long way upon our Lee Bow, which seem'd to Stretch
quite home to the land. We then Edged away North-West and
North-North-West, along the East side of the Shoal, from 2 to 1 Miles
off, having regular, even Soundings, from 13 to 7 fathoms; fine sandy
bottom. At Noon we were, by Observation, in the Latitude of 24 degrees 26
minutes South, which was 13 Miles to the Northward of that given by the
Log. The extream point of the Shoal we judged to bear about North-West of
us; and the point of land above-mentioned bore South 3/4 West, distant 20
Miles. This point I have named Sandy Cape,* (* Sandy Cape is the northern
point of Great Sandy Island. A long narrow channel separates the latter
from the mainland, and opens at its northern end into Harvey Bay, a great
sheet of water 40 miles across. This channel is now much used by the
coasting trade, as it avoids the long detour round Breaksea Spit, a most
dangerous shoal.) on account of 2 very large white Patches of Sand upon
it. It is of a height Sufficient to be seen 12 Leagues in Clear weather
(Latitude 24 degrees 46 minutes, Longitude 206 degrees 51 minutes West);
from it the Land trends away West-South-West and South-West as far as we
could see.

Monday, 21st. In the P.M. we keept along the East side of the Shoal until
2, when, judging there was water for us over, I sent a Boat a Head to
sound, and upon her making the Signal for more than 5 fathoms we hauld
our wind and stood over the Tail of it in 6 fathoms. At this time we were
in the Latitude of 24 degrees 22 minutes South, and Sandy Cape bore South
1/2 East, distant 8 Leagues; but the Direction of the Shoal is nearest
North-North-West and South-South-East. At this time we had 6 fathoms; the
boat which was not above 1/4 of a mile to the Southward of us had little
more than 5 fathoms. From 6 fathoms we had the next Cast, 13, and then 20
immediately, as fast as the Man could heave the Lead; from this I did
suppose that the West side of the Shoal is pretty steep too, whereas on
the other side we had gradual Soundings from 13 to 7 fathoms. This Shoal
I called Break Sea Spit, because now we had smooth water, whereas upon
the whole Coast to the Southward of it we had always a high Sea or swell
from the South-East. At 6, the Land of Sandy Cape extending from South 17
degrees East to South 27 degrees East, distance 8 Leagues; Depth of
Water, 23 fathoms, which depth we keept all Night, as we stood to the
Westward with light Airs from the Southward; but between 12 and 4 A.M. we
had it Calm, after which a Gentle breeze sprung up at South, with which
we still keept on upon a Wind to the Westward. At 7 we Saw from the
Masthead the Land of Sandy Cape bearing South-East 1/2 East, distance 12
or 13 Leagues. At 9, we discover'd from the Mast head land to the
Westward, and soon after saw smooke upon it. Our depth of Water was now
decreased to 17 fathoms, and by Noon to 13, at which time we were by
observation in the Latitude of 24 degrees 28 minutes South, and about 7
Leagues from the Land, which extended from South by West to
West-North-West. Longitude made from Sandy Cape 0 degrees 45 minutes
West.

For these few days past we have seen at times a sort of Sea fowl we have
no where seen before that I remember; they are of the sort called
Boobies. Before this day we seldom saw more than 2 or 3 at a time, and
only when we were near the land. Last night a small flock of these birds
passed the Ship and went away to the North-West, and this morning from
1/2 an hour before sun rise to half an hour after, flights of them were
continually coming from the North-North-West, and flying to the
South-South-East, and not one was seen to fly in any other direction.
From this we did suppose that there was a Lagoon, River, or Inlet of
Shallow Water to the Southward of us, where these birds resorted to in
the day to feed, and that not very far to the Northward lay some Island,
where they retir'd too in the night.

Tuesday, 22nd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South-East, with which
we stood in for the land South-West until 4, when, being in the Latitude
of 24 degrees 36 minutes South, and about 2 Leagues from land, in 9
fathoms, we bore away along shore North-West by West; at the same time we
could see the land extending to the South-South-East about 8 Leagues.
Near the Sea the land is very low, but inland are some moderately high
hills, and the whole appeared to be thickly Cloathed with wood. In
running along shore we shoalded our Water from 9 to 7 fathoms, and at one
time had but 6 fathoms, which determined me to Anchor for the Night, and
accordingly at 8 o'Clock we came too in 8 fathoms, fine gravelly bottom,
about 5 miles from the land. This evening we saw a Water Snake, and 2 or
3 evenings ago one lay under the Ship's Stern some time; this was about 1
1/2 Yards in length, and was the first we had seen. At 6 A.M. weighed
with a Gentle breeze Southerly, and Steer'd North-West 1/4 West, edging
in for the land until we got Within 2 Miles of it, having from 7 to 11
fathoms; we then steer'd North-North-West as the land laid. At Noon we
were by Observation in the Latitude of 24 degrees 19 minutes South;
Longitude made from Sandy Cape 1 degree 14 minutes West.

[At Anchor. Bustard Bay, Queensland.]

Wednesday, 23rd. Continued our Course alongshore at the distance of about
2 Miles off, having from 12 to 9, 8 and 7 fathoms, until 5 o'Clock, at
which time we were abreast of the South point of a Large open Bay,* (*
Bustard Bay.) wherein I intended to Anchor. Accordingly we hauld in Close
upon a Wind, and sent a boat ahead to sound; after making some Trips we
Anchored at 8 o'Clock in 5 fathoms, a Sandy bottom. The South point of
the bay bore East 3/4 South, distant 2 Miles; the North point North-West
1/4 North, about 2 Miles from the shore, in the bottom of the bay. Last
night, some time in the Middle watch, a very extraordinary affair hapned
to Mr. Orton, my Clerk. He having been drinking in the evening, some
Malicious person or persons in the Ship took Advantage of his being
Drunk, and cut off all the Cloaths from off his back; not being satisfied
with this, they some time after went into his Cabin and cut off a part of
both his Ears as he lay a Sleep in his Bed. The person whom he suspected
to have done this was Mr. Magra, one of the Midshipmen; but this did not
appear to me. Upon enquiry, however, as I had been told that Magra had
once or twice before this in their drunken Frolicks cut off his cloaths,
and had been heard to say (as I was told) that if it was not for the Law
he would Murder him, these things consider'd, induced me to think that
Magra was not Altogether innocent. I therefore for the present dismiss'd
him the Quarter deck, and Suspended him from doing any duty in the Ship,
he being one of those Gentlemen frequently found on board King's Ships
that can very well be spared; besides, it was necessary in me to show my
immediate resentment against the person on whom the suspicion fell, least
they should not have stop'd here. With respect to Mr. Orton, he is a man
not without faults; yet from all the inquiry I could make, it evidently
appear'd to me that so far from deserving such Treatment, he had not
designed injuring any person in the Ship; so that I do--and shall
always--look upon him as an injured man. Some reasons, however, might be
given why this misfortune came upon him, in which he himself was in some
measure to blame; but as this is only conjecture, and would tend to fix
it upon some people in the Ship, whom I would fain believe would hardly
be guilty of such an Action, I shall say nothing about it, unless I shall
hereafter discover the Offenders, which I shall take every method in my
power to do, for I look upon such proceedings as highly dangerous in such
Voyages as this, and the greatest insult that could be offer'd to my
Authority in this Ship, as I have always been ready to hear and redress
every complaint that have been made against any Person in the Ship.* (*
This history of Mr. Orton's misadventure is omitted from the Admiralty
copy. It is an illustration of the times to note that the fact of Orton
having got drunk does not seem to call for the Captain's severe censure.
In these days, though the practical joker receives punishment, the
drunkard would certainly come in for a large share also.)

In the A.M. I went ashore with a party of men in order to Examine the
Country, accompanied by Mr. Banks and the other Gentlemen; we landed a
little within the South point of the Bay, where there is a Channel
leading into a large Lagoon. The first thing that I did was to sound and
examine the Channell, in which I found 3 fathoms, until I got about a
Mile up it, where I met with a Shoal, whereon was little more than one
fathom; being over this I had 3 fathoms again. The Entrance into this
Channell lies close to the South point of this Bay, being form'd on the
East by the Shore, and on the West by a large Spit of sand; it is about a
1/4 of a Mile broad, and lies in South by West; here is room for a few
Ships to lay very secure, and a small Stream of Fresh Water. After this I
made a little excursion into the Woods while some hands made 3 or 4 hauls
with the Sean, but caught not above a dozen very small fish. By this time
the flood was made, and I imbarqued in the Boats in order to row up the
Lagoon; but in this I was hindred by meeting everywhere with Shoal Water.
As yet we had seen no people, but saw a great deal of Smook up and on the
West side of the Lagoon, which was all too far off for us to go by land,
excepting one; this we went to and found 10 Small fires in a very small
Compass, and some Cockle Shells laying by them, but the people were gone.
On the windward or South side of one of the fires was stuck up a little
Bark about a foot and a half high, and some few pieces lay about in other
places; these we concluded were all the covering they had in the Night,
and many of them, I firmly believe, have not this, but, naked as they
are, sleep in the open air. Tupia, who was with us, observed that they
were Taata Eno's; that is, bad or poor people. The Country is visibly
worse than at the last place we were at; the soil is dry and Sandy, and
the woods are free from underwoods of every kind; here are of the same
sort of Trees as we found in Bottany Harbour, with a few other sorts. One
sort, which is by far the most Numerous sort of any in the Woods, grow
Something like birch; the Bark at first sight looks like birch bark, but
upon examination I found it to be very different, and so I believe is the
wood; but this I could not examine, as having no axe or anything with me
to cut down a Tree. About the Skirts of the Lagoon grows the true
Mangrove, such as are found in the West Indies, and which we have not
seen during the Voyage before; here is likewise a sort of a palm Tree,
which grows on low, barren, sandy places in the South Sea Islands. All,
or most of the same sort, of Land and Water fowl as we saw at Botany
Harbour we saw here; besides these we saw some Bustards, such as we have
in England, one of which we kill'd that weighed 17 1/2 pounds, which
occasioned my giving this place the Name of Bustard Bay (Latitude 24
degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 208 degrees 22 minutes West); we likewise
saw some black and white Ducks. Here are plenty of small Oysters sticking
to the Rocks, Stones, and Mangrove Trees, and some few other shell fish,
such as large Muscles, Pearl Oysters, Cockels, etc. I measured the
perpendicular height of the last Tide, and found it to be 8 foot above
low water mark, and from the time of low water to-day I found that it
must be high Water at the full and Change of the Moon at 8 o'Clock.

Thursday, 24th. In the P.M. I was employ'd ashore in the Transactions
before related; at 4 a.m. we weighed with a Gentle breeze at South, and
made sail out of the Bay. In standing out our soundings were from 5 to 15
fathoms; when in this last Depth we were abreast of the North Point, and
being daylight we discover'd breakers stretching out from it about
North-North-East, 2 or 3 miles; at the Outermost point of them is a Rock
just above Water. In passing these rocks at the distance of 1/2 a mile we
had from 15 to 20 fathoms; being past them, we hauld along shore
West-North-West for the farthest land we had in sight. At Noon we were by
Observation in the Latitude of 23 degrees 52 minutes South; the North
part of Bustard Bay bore South 62 degrees East, distance 10 miles, and
the Northermost land in sight North 60 degrees West. Longitude in 208
degrees 37 minutes West, distance from the nearest shore 6 Miles; in this
situation had 14 fathoms water.

[Off Cape Capricorn, Queensland.]

Friday, 25th. In the P.M. had it calm until 5, when a light breeze sprung
up at South-East, and we steer'd North-West as the land lay until 10,
then brought too, having had all along 14 and 15 fathoms. At 5 A.M. we
made sail; at daylight the Northermost point of the Main bore North 70
degrees West, and soon after we saw more land making like Islands,
bearing North-West by North; at 9 we were abreast of the point, distant
from it 1 mile; Depth of Water 14 fathoms. I found this point to lay
directly under the Tropic of Capricorn, and for that reason call it by
that Name. Longitude 209 degrees 0 minutes West. It is of a Moderate
height, and looks white and barren, and may be known by some Islands
which lie to the North-West of it, and some small Rocks one League
South-East from it; on the West side of the Cape there appeared to be a
Lagoon. On the 2 Spits which form the Entrance were a great Number of
Pelicans; at least, so I call them. The most northermost land we could
see bore from Cape Capricorn North 24 degrees West, and appeared to be an
Island;* (* Hummocky Island.) but the Main land Trended West by North 1/2
North, which Course we steer'd, having from 15 to 16 fathoms and from 6
to 9, a hard sandy bottom. At Noon our Latitude by Observation was 23
degrees 24 minutes South; Cape Capricorn bore South 60 degrees East,
distance 2 Leagues; a small Island North by East 2 Miles. In this
Situation had 9 fathoms at the distance of 4 Miles from the Main land,
which is here low and Sandy next the Sea, except the points which are
moderately high and rocky; in land the Country is hilly, and affords but
a very indifferent prospect.* (* Between Bustard Bay and Cape Capricorn
is Port Curtis, in which stands the small town of Gladstone. Cape
Capricorn is the eastern point of Curtis Island, and to the northward is
Keppel Bay, into which falls the Fitzroy River. Up the latter, 35 miles
from the sea, is Rockhampton, the second largest town of Queensland. All
this coast is encumbered with shoals, outside of which Cook had so far
prudently kept. To seaward begins the long chain of islands and reefs
known as the Great Australian Barrier, which stretches up to Torres
Straits. Cook was unaware of their existence, as they were out of sight,
but he became painfully acquainted with them later, where the reefs
approach the land, and make navigation along the coast anxious work; but
he here began to get into difficulties with the shoals which stretch off
the coast itself.)

Saturday, 26th. In the P.M. light breezes at East-South-East, with which
we stood to the North-West until 4 o'Clock, when it fell calm, and soon
after we Anchored in 12 fathoms. Cape Capricorn bearing South 54 degrees
East, distant 4 Leagues, having the Main land and Islands in a manner all
around us. In the night we found the tide to rise and fall near 7 feet,
and the flood to set to the Westward and Ebb to the Eastward; which is
quite the reverse to what we found it when at Anchor to the Eastward of
Bustard Bay. At 6 a.m. we weigh'd with the Wind at South, a Gentle
breeze, and stood away to the North-West, between the Outermost range of
Islands* (* The Keppel Islands.) and the Main land, leaving several small
Islands between us and the Latter, which we passed Close by. Our
soundings was a little irregular, from 12 to 4 fathoms, which caused me
to send a Boat ahead to sound. At noon we were about 3 Miles from the
Main, about the same distance from the Islands without us; our Latitude
by Observation was 23 degrees 7 minutes South, and Longitude made from
Cape Capricorn 18 Miles West. The Main land in this Latitude is tolerable
high and Mountainious; and the Islands which lay off it are the most of
them pretty high and of a Small Circuit, and have more the appearance of
barrenness than fertility. We saw smookes a good way in land, which makes
me think there must be a River, Lagoon, or Inlet, into the Country, and
we passed 2 places that had the Appearance of such this morning; but our
Depth of Water at that Time was too little to haul in for them, where I
might expect to meet with less.

Sunday, 27th. We had not stood on to the Northward quite an hour before
we fell into 3 fathoms, upon which I anchor'd, and Sent away the Master
with 2 Boats to sound the Channell, which lay to Leeward of us between
the Northermost Island and the Main Land, which appear'd to me to be
pretty broad; but I suspected that it was Shoal, and so it was found, for
the Master reported to me upon his return that he found in many places
only 2 1/2 fathoms, and where we lay at Anchor we had only 16 feet, which
was not 2 feet more than the Ship drew.* (* This was between Great Keppel
Island and the Main. There is a mass of shoals here.) In the Evening the
wind veer'd to East-North-East, which gave us an opportunity to stretch 3
or 4 miles back the way we Came before the Wind Shifted to South, and
obliged us again to Anchor in 6 fathoms. At 5 o'Clock in the A.M. I sent
away the Master with 2 Boats to search for a Passage out between the
Islands, while the Ship got under sail. As soon as it was light the
Signal was made by the boats of their having found a Passage, upon which
we hoisted in the Boats, and made sail to the Northward as the land lay;
soundings from 9 to 15 fathoms, having still Some small Islands without
us.* (* The ship passed out between Great Keppel Island and North Keppel
Island.) At noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Main Land, and by
observation in the Latitude of 22 degrees 53 minutes South, Longitude
made from Cape Capricorn 0 degrees 20 minutes West. At this time the
Northermost point of Land we had in sight bore North-North-West, distance
10 Miles; this point I named Cape Manyfold, from the Number of high Hills
over it; Latitude 22 degrees 43 minutes South; it lies North 20 degrees
West, distant 17 Leagues from Cape Capricorn. Between them the shore
forms a large Bay, which I call'd Keppel Bay, and the Islands which lay
in and Off it are known by the same name; in this Bay is good Anchorage,
where there is a sufficient depth of Water; what refreshment it may
afford for Shipping I know not.* (* As before mentioned, the Fitzroy
River falls into Keppel Bay, and forms a good harbour, though much
encumbered with sand banks.) We caught no fish here, notwithstanding we
were at Anchor; it can hardly be doubted but what it afforded fresh Water
in several places, as both Mainland and Islands are inhabited. We saw
smokes by day and fires in the night upon the Main, and people upon one
of the Islands.

[Off Cape Townshend, Queensland.]

Monday, 28th. Winds at South-South-East, a fresh breeze. At 3 o'Clock in
the P.M. we passed Cape Manifold, from which the Land Trends
North-North-West. The land of this Cape is tolerable high, and riseth in
hills directly from the Sea; it may be known by 3 Islands laying off it,
one near the Shore, and the other 2 Eight Miles out at Sea; the one of
these is low and flat, and the other high and round.* (* Peak and Flat
Islands.) At 6 o'Clock we shortned sail and brought too; the Northermost
part of the Main we had in sight bore North-West, and some Islands lying
off it bore North 31 degrees West; our soundings since Noon were from 20
to 25 fathoms, and in the Night 30 and 34 fathoms. At day light we made
Sail, Cape Manifold bearing South by East, distance 8 Leagues, and the
Islands set last night in the same directions, distance from us 4 Miles.
The farthest point of the Main bore North 67 degrees West, distant 22
Miles; but we could see several Islands to the Northward of this
direction.* (* The easternmost of the Northumberland Islands.) At 9
o'Clock we were abreast of the above point, which I named Cape Townshend*
(* Charles Townshend was Chancellor of the Exchequer 1767.) (Latitude 22
degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 209 degrees 48 minutes West); the land of
this Cape is of a moderate and pretty even height, and is more barren
than woody. Several Islands lay to the Northward of it, 4 or 5 Leagues
out at Sea. 3 or 4 Leagues to the South-East the Shore forms a bay,* (*
Shoalwater Bay, a large inlet.) in the bottom of which there appeared to
be an inlet or Harbour to the Westward of the Coast, and Trends
South-West 1/2 South; and these form a very large Bay, which turns away
to the Eastward, and probably communicates with the Inlet above
mentioned, and by that Means makes the land of the Cape an Island. As
soon as we got round the Cape we hauld our wind to the Westward in order
to get within the Islands which lay scatter'd up and down in this bay in
great number, and extend out to Sea as far as we could see from the
Masthead; how much farther will hardly be in my power to determine; they
are as Various in their height and Circuit as they are numerous.* (* The
Northumberland islands, a very extensive group.) We had not stood long
upon a Wind before we meet with Shoal Water, and was obliged to Tack
about to avoid it; after which I sent a boat ahead, and we bore away West
by North, leaving many small Islands, Rocks, and Shoals between us and
the Main, and a number of Large Islands without us; soundings from 14 to
17 fathoms, Sandy Bottom. A little before noon the boat made the Signal
for meeting with Shoal Water, upon which we hauld close upon a Wind to
the Eastward, but suddenly fell into 3 1/4 fathoms water, upon which we
immediately let go an Anchor, and brought the Ship up with all sails
standing, and had then 4 fathoms Coarse sandy bottom. We found here a
strong Tide setting to the North-West by West 1/2 West, at the rate of
between 2 and 3 Miles an Hour, which was what Carried us so quickly upon
the Shoal. Our Latitude by Observation was 22 degrees 8 minutes South;
Cape Townshend bore East 16 degrees South, distant 13 Miles, and the
Westermost part of the Main Land in sight West 3/4 North, having a number
of Islands in sight all round us.* (* The ship was on the Donovan Shoal
in Broad Sound Channel.)

Tuesday, 29th. Fresh gales between the South-South-East and
East-South-East, Hazey weather, with some showers of rain. In the P.M.,
having sounded about the Ship, and found that their was Sufficient Water
for her over the Shoal, we at 3 o'clock weigh'd and made Sail, and stood
to the Westward as the Land lay, having first sent a boat ahead to sound.
At 6 we Anchor'd in 10 fathoms, Sandy bottom, about 2 Miles from the Main
Land, the Westermost part of which bore West-North-West, having still a
Number of Islands in sight a long way without us. At 5 a.m. I sent away
the Master with 2 Boats to sound the Entrance of an inlet, which bore
from us West, distance about 1 League, into which I intended to go with
the Ship to wait a few days, until the Moon increased, and in the
meantime to examine the Country. By such time as we had got the Ship
under Sail the Boats made the Signal for Anchorage, upon which we stood
in with the Ship, and Anchor'd in 5 fathoms, about a League within the
Entrance of the inlet, which we judged to be a River running a Good way
inland, as I observed the Tides to flow and Ebb something considerable.*
(* It is in reality a narrow channel which runs into Broad Sound.) I had
some thoughts of laying the Ship a Shore to Clean her bottom. With this
view both the Master and I went to look for a Convenient place for that
purpose, and at the same time to look for fresh Water, not one drop of
which we could find, but met with several places where a Ship might be
laid ashore with safety.

[At Anchor, Thirsty Sound.]

Wednesday, 30th. In the P.M. I went again in search of Fresh Water, but
had no better success than before; wherefore I gave over all thoughts of
laying the Ship a Shore, being resolved to spend as little time as
possible in a place that was likely to afford us no sort of refreshment.
But as I had observed from the Hills the inlet to run a good way in, I
thought this a good time to penetrate into the Country to see a little of
the inland parts. Accordingly I prepared for making that Excursion in the
morning, but the first thing I did was to get upon a pretty high Hill,
which is at the North-West entrance of the inlet, before Sunrise, in
order to take a view of the Sea Coast and Islands, etc., that lay off it,
and to take their bearings, having the Azimuth Compass with me for that
purpose, the Needle of which differ'd from its True position something
very considerable, even above 30 degrees, in some places more, and in
other less, for I try'd it in several places. I found it differ in itself
above 2 points in the space of about 14 feet. The loose stones which lay
upon the Ground had no effect upon the Needle; I therefore concluded that
it must be owing to Iron Ore upon the Hill, visible signs of which
appeared not only here, but in several other places. As soon as I had
done here I proceeded up the inlet. I set out with the first of the
flood, and long before high water got about 8 Leagues up it; its breadth
thus far was from 2 to 4 or 5 Miles upon a South-West by South direction;
but here it spread every way, and formed a Large lake, which communicated
with the Sea to the North-West. I not only saw the Sea in this direction,
but found the tide of flood coming strong in from the North-West. I
likewise observ'd an Arm of this Lake extending to the Eastward, and it
is not at all improbable but what it Communicates with the Sea in the
bottom of the bay, which lies to the Westward of Cape Townshend.* (* This
is exactly what it does.) On the South side of the Lake is a ridge of
pretty high hills, which I was desirous of going upon; but as the day was
far spent and high water, I was afraid of being bewilder'd among the
Shoals in the night, which promised to be none of the best, being already
rainy, dirty weather, and therefore I made the best of my way to the
Ship. In this little Excursion I saw only 2 people, and those at a
distance, and are all that we have seen in this place, but we have met
with several fire places, and seen smokes at a distance. This inlet,
which I have named Thirsty Sound, by reason we could find no fresh Water,
lies in the Latitude of 22 degrees 05 minutes South, and Longitude 210
degrees 24 West; it may be known by a Group of small Islands Laying under
the shore from 2 to 5 Leagues North-West from it.* (* Barren Islands.)
There is likewise another Group of Islands laying right before it between
3 and 4 Leagues out at Sea.* (* Duke Islands.) Over each of the Points
that form the Entrance is a pretty high, round Hill; that on the
North-West is a Peninsula, surrounded by the Sea at high water; the
distance from the one to the other is about 2 Miles bold to both Shores.
Here is good Anchoring in 7, 6, 5, and 4 fathoms water, and very
Convenient places for laying a Ship ashore, where at Spring Tides the
tides doth not rise less than 16 or 18 feet, and flows at full and Change
of the Moon about 11 o'Clock. We met with no fresh water, or any other
kind of refreshments whatever; we saw 2 Turtle, but caught none, nor no
sort of Fish or wild fowl, except a few small land birds. Here are the
same sort of Water Fowl as we saw in Botany Bay, and like them, so shy
that it is hardly possible to get within shott of them. No signs of
Fertility is to be seen upon the Land; the Soil of the up lands is mostly
a hard, redish Clay, and produceth several sorts of Trees, such as we
have seen before, and some others, and clear of all underwoods. All the
low lands are mostly overrun with Mangroves, and at Spring tides
overflow'd by the Sea; and I believe in the rainy Seasons here are large
land floods, as we saw in many places Gullies, which seem'd to have been
made by torrents of Water coming from the Adjacent hills, besides other
Visible signs of the Water having been a Considerable height above the
Common Spring Tides. Dr. Solander and I was upon a rising Ground up the
inlet, which we thought had at one time or another been overflow'd by the
Sea, and if so great part of the Country must at that time been laid
under Water. Up in the lakes, or lagoons, I suppose, are shell fish, on
which the few Natives subsist. We found Oysters sticking to most of the
Rocks upon the Shore, which were so small, as not to be worth the picking
off.* (* Cook was very unfortunate in his landing here. The channel is at
the end of a long headland between two bays, Shoalwater Bay and Broad
Sound, and was a very unlikely place either to find water or get any true
idea of the country.)

Thursday, 31st. Winds Southerly and South-East; Dark, Hazey weather, with
rain. In the P.M., finding no one inducement to stay longer in this
place, we at 6 a.m. Weighed and put to Sea, and stood to the North-West,
having the Advantage of a fresh breeze at South-South-East. We keept
without the Group of Islands which lay in Shore, and to the North-West of
Thirsty Sound, as there appear'd to be no safe passage between them and
the Main; at the same time we had a number of Islands without us
extending out to Sea as far as we could see; as we run in this direction
our depth of Water was 10, 8 and 9 fathoms.* (* The ship passed between
the Duke Islands and the maze of reefs and islands lying North-West of
Thirsty Sound.) At Noon the North-West point of Thirsty Sound, which I
have named Pier head, bore South 36 degrees East, distant 5 Leagues; the
East point of the other inlet, which Communicates with the former, as I
have before mentioned, bore South by West, distance 2 1/2 Leagues, the
Group of Islands above mentioned laying between us and the point. The
farthest part of the Main in sight, on the other side of the inlet, bore
North-West; our Latitude by Observation was 21 degrees 53 minutes South.

[June 1770.]

Friday, June 1st. At 1/2 an hour After Noon, upon the Boat we had ahead
sounding making the Signal for Shoal Water, we hauld our wind to the
North-East, having at that time 7 fathoms; the Next cast 5, and then 3,
upon which we let go an Anchor, and brought the Ship up. The North-West
point of Thirsty Sound, or Pier Head, bore South-East, distance 6
Leagues, being Midway between the Islands which lies off the East point
of the Western inlet and 3 Small Islands directly without them,* (* The
shoal is now known as Lake Shoal. The three Islands are the Bedwell
Islands.) it being now the first of the flood which we found to set
North-West by West 1/2 West. After having sounded about the Shoal, on
which we found not quite 3 fathoms, but without it deep water, we got
under Sail, and hauld round the 3 Islands just mentioned, and came to an
Anchor under the Lee of them in 15 fathoms, having at this time dark,
hazey, rainy weather, which continued until 7 o'Clock a.m., at which time
we got again under sail, and stood to the North-West with a fresh breeze
at South-South-East and fair weather, having the Main land in Sight and a
Number of Islands all round us, some of which lay out at Sea as far as we
could See. The Western Inlet before mentioned, known in the Chart by the
Name of Broad Sound, we had now all open. It is at least 9 or 10 Leagues
wide at the Entrance, with several Islands laying in and before, and I
believe Shoals also, for we had very irregular Soundings, from 10 to 5
and 4 fathoms. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 21
degrees 29 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Townshend 59
degrees West. A point of Land, which forms the North-West Entrance into
Broad Sound, bore from us at this Time West, distance 3 Leagues; this
Cape I have named Cape Palmerston* (* Henry Viscount Palmerston was a
Lord of the Admiralty, 1766 to 1778.) (Latitude 21 degrees 27 minutes
South, Longitude 210 degrees 57 minutes West). Between this Cape and Cape
Townshend lies the Bay of Inlets, so named from the Number of Inlets,
Creeks, etc., in it.* (* The name Bay of Inlets has disappeared from the
charts. Cook applied it to the whole mass of bays in this locality,
covering over 60 miles. A look at a modern chart causes amazement that
Cook managed to keep his ship off the ground, as the whole sea in his
track is strewed with dangers.)

[Off Cape Hillsborough, Queensland.]

Saturday, 2nd. Winds at South-South-East and South-East, a gentle breeze,
with which we stood to the North-West and North-West by North, as the
land lay, under an easey Sail. Having a boat ahead, found our Soundings
at first were very irregular, from 9 to 4 fathoms; but afterwards
regular, from 9 to 11 fathoms. At 8, being about 2 Leagues from the Main
Land, we Anchor'd in 11 fathoms, Sandy bottom. Soon after this we found a
Slow Motion of a Tide seting to the Eastward, and rode so until 6, at
which time the tide had risen 11 feet; we now got under Sail, and Stood
away North-North-West as the land lay. From the Observations made on the
tide last Night it is plain that the flood comes from the North-West;
whereas Yesterday and for Several days before we found it to come from
the South-East. This is neither the first nor second time that we have
observed the same thing, and in my Opinion easy accounted for; but this I
shall do in another place. At sun rise we found the Variation to be 6
degrees 45 minutes East. In steering along shore between the Island and
the Main, at the Distance of 2 Leagues from the Latter, and 3 or 4 from
the former, our soundings were Regular, from 12 to 9 fathoms; but about
11 o'Clock we were again embarrassed with Shoal Water,* (* Blackwood
Shoals.) but got clear without letting go an Anchor; we had at one time
not quite 3 fathoms. At Noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Main land,
and about 4 from the Islands without us; our Latitude by Observation was
20 degrees 56 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Palmerston 16
degrees West; a pretty high Promontory, which I named Cape Hillsborough,*
(* Earl of Hillsborough was the First Secretary of State for the
Colonies, and President of the Board of Trade when the Endeavour sailed.)
bore West 1/2 North, distant 7 Miles. The Main Land is here pretty much
diversified with Mountains, Hills, plains, and Vallies, and seem'd to be
tollerably Cloathed with Wood and Verdure. These Islands, which lay
Parrallel with the Coast, and from 5 to 8 or 9 Leagues off, are of
Various Extent, both for height and Circuit; hardly any Exceeds 5 Leagues
in Circuit, and many again are very small.* (* The Cumberland Islands.
They stretch along the coast for 60 miles.) Besides the Chain of Islands,
which lay at a distance from the Coast, there are other Small Ones laying
under the Land. Some few smokes were seen on the Main land.

Sunday, 3rd. Winds between the South by East and South-East. A Gentle
breeze and Clear weather. In the P.M. we steer'd along shore North-West
1/2 West, at the distance of 2 Leagues from the Main, having 9 and 10
fathoms regular soundings. At sun set the furthest point of the Main Land
that we could distinguish as such bore North 48 degrees West; to the
Northward of this lay some high land, which I took to be an Island, the
North West point of which bore North 41 degrees West; but as I was not
sure that there was a passage this way, we at 8 came to an Anchor in 10
fathoms, muddy bottom. 2 hours after this we had a tide setting to the
Northward, and at 2 o'clock it had fallen 9 Feet since the time we
Anchored. After this the Tide began to rise, and the flood came from the
Northward, which was from the Islands out at Sea, and plainly indicated
that there was no passage to the North-West; but as this did not appear
at day light when we got under Sail, and stood away to the North-West
until 8, at this time we discover'd low land, quite a Cross what we took
for an Opening between the Main and the Islands, which proved to be a Bay
about 5 or 6 Leagues deep. Upon this we hauld our wind to the Eastward
round the Northermost point of the Bay, which bore from us at this time
North-East by North, distance 4 Leagues. From this point we found the
Main land trend away North by West 1/2 West, and a Strait or Passage
between it and a Large Island* (* Whitsunday Island.) or Islands laying
in a Parrallel direction with the Coast; this passage we Stood into,
having the Tide of Ebb in our favour. At Noon we were just within the
Entrance, and by observation in the Latitude of 20 degrees 26 minutes
South; Cape Hillsborough bore South by East, distant 10 Leagues, and the
North point of the Bay before mentioned bore South 19 degrees West,
distance 4 Miles. This point I have named Cape Conway* (* General H.S.
Conway was Secretary of State 1765 to 1768.) (Latitude 20 degrees 30
minutes, Longitude 211 degrees 28 minutes), and the bay, Repulse Bay,
which is formed by these 2 Capes. The greatest and least depth of Water
we found in it was 13 and 8 fathoms; every where safe Anchoring, and I
believe, was it properly examined, there would be found some good Harbour
in it, especially on the North Side within Cape Conway, for just within
the Cape lay 2 or 3 Small Islands, which alone would shelter that side of
the Bay from the South-East and Southerly winds, which seem to be the
prevailing or Trade Winds. Among the many islands that lay upon this
Coast there is one more Remarkable than the rest,* (* Probably Blacksmith
Island.) being of a Small circuit, very high and peaked, and lies East by
South, 10 Miles from Cape Conway at the South end of the Passage above
mention'd.

[In Whitsunday Passage, Queensland.]

Monday, 4th. Winds at South-South-East and South-East, a Gentle breeze
and Clear weather. In the P.M. Steerd thro' the passage* (* Whitsunday
Passage. The aspect of the shores is very pleasing.) which we found from
3 to 6 or 7 Miles broad, and 8 or 9 Leagues in length, North by West 1/2
West and South by East 1/2 East. It is form'd by the Main on the West,
and by Islands on the East, one of which is at least 5 Leagues in length.
Our Depth of Water in running thro' was between 25 and 20 fathoms;
everywhere good Anchorage; indeed the whole passage is one Continued safe
Harbour, besides a Number of small Bays and Coves on each side, where
ships might lay as it where in a Bason; at least so it appear'd to me,
for I did not wait to Examine it, as having been in Port so lately, and
being unwilling to loose the benefit of a light Moon. The land, both on
the Main and Islands, especially on the former, is Tolerably high, and
distinguished by Hills and Vallies, which are diversified with Woods and
Lawns that looked green and pleasant. On a Sandy beach upon one of the
Islands we saw 2 people and a Canoe, with an outrigger, which appeared to
be both Larger and differently built to any we have seen upon the Coast.
At 6 we were nearly the length of the North end of the Passage; the North
Westermost point of the Main in sight bore North 54 degrees West, and the
North end of the Island North-North-East, having an open Sea between
these 2 points. [This passage I have named Whitsundays Passage, as it was
discover'd on the day the Church commemorates that Festival, and the
Isles which form it Cumberland Isles, in honour of His Royal Highness the
Duke of Cumberland.* (* Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, was a
younger brother of George III.)] We keept under an Easey Sail and the
Lead going all Night, having 21, 22, and 23 fathoms, at the distance of 3
Leagues from the land. At daylight A.M. we were abreast of the point
above mentioned, which is a lofty promontory; that I named Cape
Gloucester* (* William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, a younger
brother of George III.) (Latitude 19 degrees 57 minutes South, Longitude
211 degrees 54 minutes West). It may be known by an Island which lies out
at Sea North by West 1/2 West, 5 or 6 Leagues from it; this I called
Holbourn Isle.* (* Admiral Francis Holbourne commanded the fleet in North
America in which Cook served in 1757.) There are also Islands laying
under the Land between it and Whitsundays Passage. On the West side of
the Cape the Land Trends away South-West and South-South-West, and forms
a deep bay. The Sand in the bottom of this bay I could but just see from
the Masthead; it is very low, and is a Continuation of the same low land
as is at the bottom of Repulse Bay. Without Waiting to look into this
bay, which I called Edgcumbe Bay,* (* In Port Denison, on the western
side of Edgcumbe Bay, is the rising town of Bowen, the port of an
agricultural district. There is good coal in the vicinity. Captain G.
Edgcumbe commanded the Lancaster in the fleet in North America in 1758 in
which Cook served. Afterwards Earl of Mount Edgcumbe.) we continued our
Course to the Westward for the Westermost land we had in sight which bore
from us West by North 1/2 North, and appeared very high. At Noon we were
about 3 Leagues from the Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 19
degrees 47 minutes South, Cape Gloucester bearing South 63 degrees East,
distant 7 1/2 Leagues.

Tuesday, 5th. Winds between the South and East, a Gentle breeze, and
Serene weather. At 6 a.m. we were abreast of the Western point of Land
above mentioned, distant from it 3 Miles, which I have named Cape
Upstart, because being surrounded with low land it starts or rises up
singley at the first making of it (Latitude 19 degrees 39 minutes South,
Longitude 212 degrees 32 minutes West); it lies West-North-West 14
Leagues from Cape Gloucester, and is of a height sufficient to be seen 12
Leagues; but it is not so much of a Promontory as it appears to be,
because on each side of it near the Sea is very low land, which is not to
be seen unless you are pretty well in with the Shore. Inland are some
Tolerable high hills or mountains, which, like the Cape, affords but a
very barren prospect. Having past this Cape, we continued standing to the
West-North-West as the land lay, under an easey Sail, having from 16 to
10 fathoms, until 2 o'Clock a.m., when we fell into 7 fathoms, upon which
we hauled our wind to the Northward, judging ourselves to be very near
the land; as so we found, for at daylight we were little more than 2
Leagues off. What deceived us was the Lowness of the land, which is but
very little higher than the Surface of the Sea, but in the Country were
some hills. At noon we were in 15 fathoms Water, and about 4 Leagues from
the land. Our Latitude by Observation was 19 degrees 12 minutes South;
Cape Upstart bore 38 degrees 30 minutes East, distant 12 Leagues. Course
and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon North 48 degrees 45 minutes, 53
Miles. At and before Noon some very large smokes were Seen rise up out of
the low land. At sun rise I found the Variation to be 5 degrees 35
minutes Easterly; at sun set last night the same Needle gave near 9
degrees. This being Close under Cape Upstart, I judged that it was owing
to Iron ore or other Magnetical Matter Lodged in the Earth.

[Off Cleveland Bay, Queensland.]

Wednesday, 6th. Light Airs at East-South-East, with which we Steer'd
West-North-West as the Land now lay; Depth of Water 12 and 14 fathoms. At
Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 19 degrees 1 minute South,
Longitude made from Cape Gloucester 1 degree 30 minutes West; Course and
distance saild since Yesterday noon West-North-West, 28 Miles. In this
situation we had the Mouth of a Bay all open extending from South 1/2
East to South-West 1/2 South, distance 2 Leagues. This bay, which I named
Cleveland Bay,* (* In Cleveland Bay is Townsville, the largest town in
Northern Queensland. Population 12,000.) appeared to be about 5 or 6
Miles in Extent every way. The East point I named Cape Cleveland, and the
West, Magnetical Head or Island, as it had much the appearance of an
Island; and the Compass did not traverse well when near it. They are both
Tolerable high, and so is the Main Land within them, and the whole
appeared to have the most rugged, rocky, and barren Surface of any we
have yet seen. However, it is not without inhabitants, as we saw smoke in
several places in the bottom of the bay. The Northermost land we had in
sight at this time bore North-West; this we took to be an Island or
Islands, for we could not trace the Main land farther than West by North.

Thursday, 7th. Light Airs between the South and East, with which we
steer'd West-North-West, keeping the Main land on board, the outermost
part of which at sun set bore from us West by North; but without this lay
high land, which we took to be Islands. At daylight A.M. we were the
Length of the Eastern part of this Land, which we found to Consist of a
Group of Islands* (* Palm Islands.) laying about 5 Leagues from the Main.
We being at this time between the 2, we continued advancing Slowly to the
North-West until noon, at which time we were by observation in the
Latitude of 18 degrees 49 minutes, and about 5 Leagues from the Main
land, the North-West part of which bore from us North by West 1/2 West,
the Island extending from North to East; distance of the nearest 2 Miles.
Cape Cleveland bore South 50 degrees East, distant 18 Leagues. Our
Soundings in the Course of this day's Sail were from 14 to 11 fathoms.

Friday, 8th. Winds at South-South-East and South; first part light Airs,
the remainder a Gentle breeze. In the P.M. we saw several large smokes
upon the Main, some people, Canoes, and, as we thought, Cocoa Nut Trees
upon one of the Islands; and, as a few of these Nutts would have been
very acceptable to us at this Time, I sent Lieutenant Hicks ashore, with
whom went Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, to see what was to be got. In the
Meantime we keept Standing in for the Island with the Ship. At 7 they
returned on board, having met with Nothing worth Observing. The Trees we
saw were a small kind of Cabbage Palms. They heard some of the Natives as
they were putting off from the Shore, but saw none. After the Boat was
hoisted in we stood away North by West for the Northermost land we had in
sight, which we were abreast of at 3 o'Clock in the Morning, having
passed all the Islands 3 or 4 hours before. This point I have named Point
Hillock,* (* Point Hillock is the east point of Hinchinbrook Island,
which is separated from the main by a narrow and tortuous channel.) on
account of its Figure. The Land of this point is Tolerable high, and may
be known by a round Hillock or rock that appears to be detached from the
point, but I believe it joins to it. Between this Cape and Cape Cleveland
the shore forms a Large bay, which I named Hallifax bay;* (* The Earl of
Halifax was Secretary of State 1763 to 1765.) before it lay the Groups of
Islands before mentioned, and some others nearer the Shore. These Islands
shelter the Bay in a manner from all Winds, in which is good Anchorage.
The land near the Shore in the bottom of the bay is very low and Woody;
but a little way back in the Country is a continued ridge of high land,
which appear'd to be barren and rocky. Having passed Point Hillock, we
continued standing to the North-North-West as the land Trended, having
the Advantage of a light Moon. At 6 a.m. we were abreast of a point of
Land which lies North by West 1/2 West, 11 Miles from Point Hillick; the
Land between them is very high, and of a craggy, barren surface. This
point I named Cape Sandwich;* (* Earl of Sandwich was First Lord of the
Admiralty 1763.) it may not only be known by the high, craggy land over
it, but by a small Island which lies East one Mile from it, and some
others about 2 Leagues to the Northward of it. From Cape Sandwich the
Land trends West, and afterwards North, and forms a fine, Large Bay,
which I called Rockingham Bay;* (* The Marquis of Rockingham was Prime
Minister 1765 to 1766.) it is well Shelter'd, and affords good Anchorage;
at least, so it appear'd to me, for having met with so little
encouragement by going ashore that I would not wait to land or examine it
farther, but continued to range along Shore to the Northward for a parcel
of Small Islands* (* The Family Islands.) laying off the Northern point
of the Bay, and, finding a Channel of a Mile broad between the 3
Outermost and those nearer the Shore, we pushed thro'. While we did this
we saw on one of the nearest Islands a Number of the Natives collected
together, who seem'd to look very attentively upon the Ship; they were
quite naked, and of a very Dark Colour, with short hair. At noon we were
by observation in the Latitude of 17 degrees 59 minutes, and abreast of
the North point of Rockingham Bay, which bore from us West 2 Miles. This
boundry of the Bay is form'd by a Tolerable high Island, known in the
Chart by the Name of Dunk Isle; it lays so near the Shore as not to be
distinguished from it unless you are well in with the Land. At this time
we were in the Longitude of 213 degrees 57 minutes. Cape Sandwich bore
South by East 1/2 East, distant 19 Miles, and the northermost land in
sight North 1/2 West. Our depth of Water in the Course of this day's Sail
was not more than 16, nor less than 7, fathoms.* (* About here the Great
Barrier Reefs begin to close in on the land. Cook kept so close to the
latter that he was unconscious as yet of their existence; but he was soon
to find them.)

[Anchored near Cape Grafton, Queensland.]

Saturday, 9th. Winds between the South and South-East, a Gentle breeze,
and Clear weather, with which we steer'd North by West as the land lay,
the northern extream of which at sunset bore North 25 degrees West. We
keept on our Course under an Easey sail all night, having from 12 to 16
fathoms, at the distance of about 3 or 4 Leagues from the Land. At 6 a.m.
we were abreast of Some small Islands, which we called Frankland Isles,
that lay about 2 Leagues from the Mainland, the Northern Point of which
in sight bore North by West 1/2 West; but this we afterwards found to be
an Island,* (* Fitzroy Island.) tolerable high, and about 4 Miles in
Circuit. It lies about 2 Miles from the Point on the Main between which
we went with the ship, and were in the Middle of the Channell at Noon,
and by observation in the Latitude of 16 degrees 55 minutes, where we had
20 fathoms of water. The point of land we were now abreast of I called
Cape Grafton* (* The Duke of Grafton was Prime Minister when Cook
sailed.) (Latitude 16 degrees 55 minutes South, Longitude 214 degrees 11
minutes West); it is Tolerable high, and so is the whole Coast for 20
Leagues to the southward, and hath a very rocky surface, which is thinly
cover'd with wood. In the night we saw several fires along shore, and a
little before noon some people.

Sunday, 10th. After hauling round Cape Grafton we found the land trend
away North-West by West; 3 Miles to the Westward of the Cape is a Bay,
wherein we Anchor'd, about 2 Miles from the Shore, in 4 fathoms, owsey
bottom. The East point of the Bay bore South 74 degrees East, the West
point South 83 degrees West, and a Low green woody Island laying in the
Offing bore North 35 degrees East. The Island lies North by East 1/2
East, distance 3 or 4 Leagues from Cape Grafton, and is known in the
Chart by the Name of Green Island. As soon as the Ship was brought to an
Anchor I went ashore, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander; the
first thing I did was to look for fresh Water, and with that View rowed
out towards the Cape, because in the bottom of the bay was low Mangrove
land, and little probability of meeting with any there. But the way I
went I found 2 Small streams, which were difficult to get at on account
of the Surf and rocks upon the Shore. As we came round the Cape we saw,
in a sandy Cove, a small stream of Water run over the beach; but here I
did not go in the boat because I found that it would not be Easey to
land. We hardly advanced anything into the Country, it being here hilly,
which were steep and rocky, and we had not time to Visit the Low lands,
and therefore met with nothing remarkable. My intention was to have
stay'd here at least one day, to have looked into the Country had we met
with fresh water convenient, or any other Refreshment; but as we did not,
I thought it would be only spending of time, and loosing as much of a
light Moon to little purpose, and therefore at 12 o'Clock at night we
weighed and stood away to the North-West, having at this time but little
wind, attended with Showers of rain.* (* In the next bay west of where
Cook anchored is Cairns, a small but rising town in the centre of a
sugar-growing district.) At 4 the breeze freshned at South by East, with
fair weather; we continued steering North-North-West 1/2 West as the Land
lay, having 10, 12, and 14 fathoms, at a distance of 3 Leagues from the
Land. At 11 we hauld off North, in order to get without a Small Low
Island* (* Low Isles. There is now a lighthouse on them.) which lay about
2 Leagues from the Main; it being about high Water, about the time we
passed it, great part of it lay under water. About 3 Leagues to the North
Westward of this Island, close under the Main land, is another Island,*
(* Snapper Island.) Tolerable high, which bore from us at Noon North 55
degrees West, distant 7 or 8 Miles; we being at this time in the Latitude
of 16 degrees 20 minutes South, Cape Grafton bore South 29 degrees East,
distant 40 Miles, and the Northermost point of Land in Sight North 20
degrees West, and in this Situation had 15 fathoms Water. The Shore
between Cape Grafton and the above Northern point forms a large but not
very deep Bay, which I named Trinity Bay, after the day on which it was
discover'd; the North point Cape Tribulation, because here began all our
Troubles. Latitude 16 degrees 6 minutes South, Longitude 214 degrees 39
minutes West.

[The Ship Aground on Endeavour Reef.]

Monday, 11th. Wind at East-South-East, with which we steer'd along shore
North by West at the distance of 3 or 4 Leagues off, having from 14 to 10
and 12 fathoms water. Saw 2 Small Islands in the Offing, which lay in the
Latitude of 16 degrees 0 minutes South, and about 6 or 7 Leagues from the
Main. At 6 the Northermost land in sight bore North by West 1/2 West, and
2 low, woody Islands,* (* Hope Islands.) which some took to be rocks
above Water, bore North 1/2 West. At this time we shortened Sail, and
hauld off shore East-North-East and North-East by East, close upon a
Wind. My intention was to stretch off all Night as well to avoid the
danger we saw ahead as to see if any Islands lay in the Offing,
especially as we now begun to draw near the Latitude of those discover'd
by Quiros, which some Geographers, for what reason I know not, have
thought proper to Tack to this land. Having the advantage of a fine
breeze of wind, and a clear Moon light Night in standing off from 6 until
near 9 o Clock, we deepned our Water from 14 to 21 fathoms, when all at
once we fell into 12, 10 and 8 fathoms. At this time I had everybody at
their Stations to put about and come to an Anchor; but in this I was not
so fortunate, for meeting again with Deep Water, I thought there could be
no danger in standing on.* (* The ship passed just northward of
Pickersgill Reef.) Before 10 o'Clock we had 20 and 21 fathoms, and
Continued in that depth until a few minutes before 11, when we had 17,
and before the Man at the Lead could heave another cast, the Ship Struck
and stuck fast. Immediately upon this we took in all our Sails, hoisted
out the Boats and Sounded round the Ship, and found that we had got upon
the South-East Edge of a reef of Coral Rocks, having in some places round
the Ship 3 and 4 fathoms Water, and in other places not quite as many
feet, and about a Ship's length from us on the starboard side (the Ship
laying with her Head to the North-East) were 8, 10, and 12 fathoms. As
soon as the Long boat was out we struck Yards and Topmast, and carried
out the Stream Anchor on our Starboard bow, got the Coasting Anchor and
Cable into the Boat, and were going to carry it out in the same way; but
upon my sounding the 2nd time round the Ship I found the most water a
Stern, and therefore had this Anchor carried out upon the Starboard
Quarter, and hove upon it a very great Strain; which was to no purpose,
the Ship being quite fast, upon which we went to work to lighten her as
fast as possible, which seem'd to be the only means we had left to get
her off. As we went ashore about the Top of High Water we not only
started water, but threw overboard our Guns, Iron and Stone Ballast,
Casks, Hoop Staves, Oil Jarrs, decay'd Stores, etc.; many of these last
Articles lay in the way at coming at Heavier. All this time the Ship made
little or no Water. At 11 a.m., being high Water as we thought, we try'd
to heave her off without Success, she not being afloat by a foot or more,
notwithstanding by this time we had thrown overboard 40 or 50 Tuns
weight. As this was not found sufficient we continued to Lighten her by
every method we could think off; as the Tide fell the ship began to make
Water as much as two pumps could free: at Noon she lay with 3 or 4
Streakes heel to Starboard; Latitude observed 15 degrees 45 minutes
South.

Tuesday, 12th. Fortunately we had little wind, fine weather, and a smooth
Sea, all this 24 Hours, which in the P.M. gave us an Opportunity to carry
out the 2 Bower Anchors, one on the Starboard Quarter, and the other
right a Stern, got Blocks and Tackles upon the Cables, brought the falls
in abaft and hove taught. By this time it was 5 o'Clock p.m.; the tide we
observed now begun to rise, and the leak increased upon us, which obliged
us to set the 3rd Pump to work, as we should have done the 4th also, but
could not make it work. At 9 the Ship righted, and the Leak gain'd upon
the Pumps considerably. This was an alarming and, I may say, terrible
circumstance, and threatened immediate destruction to us. However, I
resolv'd to risque all, and heave her off in case it was practical, and
accordingly turn'd as many hands to the Capstan and Windlass as could be
spared from the Pumps; and about 20 Minutes past 10 o'Clock the Ship
floated, and we hove her into Deep Water, having at this time 3 feet 9
Inches Water in the hold. This done I sent the Long boat to take up the
Stream Anchor, got the Anchor, but lost the Cable among the Rocks; after
this turn'd all hands to the Pumps, the Leak increasing upon us.

A mistake soon after hapned, which for the first time caused fear to
approach upon every man in the Ship. The man that attended the well took
the Depth of water above the Ceiling; he, being relieved by another who
did not know in what manner the former had sounded, took the Depth of
water from the outside plank, the difference being 16 or 18 inches, and
made it appear that the leak had gained this upon the pumps in a short
time. This mistake was no sooner cleared up than it acted upon every man
like a Charm; they redoubled their vigour, insomuch that before 8 o'clock
in the morning they gained considerably upon the leak.* (* The
circumstance related in this paragraph is from the Admiralty copy.) We
now hove up the Best Bower, but found it impossible to save the small
Bower, so cut it away at a whole Cable; got up the Fore topmast and
Foreyard, warped the Ship to the South-East, and at 11 got under sail,
and stood in for the land, with a light breeze at East-South-East. Some
hands employ'd sewing Oakham, Wool, etc., into a Lower Steering sail to
fother the Ship; others employ'd at the Pumps, which still gain'd upon
the Leak.

[Fothering the Ship.]

Wednesday, 13th. In the P.M. had light Airs at East-South-East, with
which we keept edging in for the Land. Got up the Maintopmast and
Mainyard, and having got the Sail ready for fothering of the Ship, we put
it over under the Starboard Fore Chains, where we suspected the Ship had
suffer'd most, and soon after the Leak decreased, so as to be keept clear
with one Pump with ease; this fortunate circumstance gave new life to
every one on board.

It is much easier to conceive than to discribe the satisfaction felt by
everybody on this occasion. But a few minutes before our utmost Wishes
were to get hold of some place upon the Main, or an island, to run the
Ship ashore, where out of her Materials we might build a Vessel to carry
us to the East Indies; no sooner were we made sencible that the outward
application to the Ship's bottom had taken effect, than the field of
every Man's hopes inlarged, so that we thought of nothing but ranging
along Shore in search of a Harbour, when we could repair the Damages we
had sustained.* (* The foregoing paragraph is from the Admiralty copy.
The situation was indeed sufficiently awkward. When it is considered that
the coast was wholly unknown, the natives decidedly hostile, the land
unproductive of any means of subsistence, and the distance to the nearest
Dutch settlements, even if a passage should be found south of New Guinea,
1500 miles, there was ample cause for apprehension if they could not save
the ship. Knowing what we now know, that all off this coast is a
continuous line of reefs and shoals, Cook's action in standing off might
seem rash. But he knew nothing of this. There was a moon; he reduced sail
to double reefed topsails with a light wind, as the log tells us, and
with the cumbrous hempen cables of the day, and the imperfect means of
heaving up the anchor, he was desirous of saving his men unnecessary
labour. Cook was puzzled that the next tide did not, after lightening the
ship, take him off; but it is now known that on this coast it is only
every alternate tide that rises to a full height, and as he got ashore
nearly at the top of the higher of the two waters he had to wait
twenty-four hours until he got a similar rise. Lucky was it for them that
the wind was light. Usually at this season the trade wind is strong, and
raises a considerable sea, even inside the Barrier. Hawkesworth or Banks
makes the proposition to fother the ship emanate from Mr. Monkhouse; but
it is scarcely to be supposed that such a perfect seaman as Cook was not
familiar with this operation, and he merely says that as Mr. Monkhouse
had seen it done, he confided to him the superintendence of it, as of
course the Captain had at such a time many other things to do than stand
over the men preparing the sail. In 1886 the people of Cooktown were
anxious to recover the brass guns of the Endeavour which were thrown
overboard, in order to place them as a memento in their town; but they
could not be found, which is not altogether surprising.) In justice to
the Ship's Company, I must say that no men ever behaved better than they
have done on this occasion; animated by the behaviour of every Gentleman
on board, every man seem'd to have a just sence of the Danger we were in,
and exerted himself to the very utmost. The Ledge of Rocks, or Shoal, we
have been upon, lies in the Latitude of 15 degrees 45 minutes, and about
6 or 7 Leagues from the Main land; but this is not the only Shoal that
lay upon this part of the Coast, especially to the Northward, and one
which we saw to the Southward, the tail of which we passed over when we
had the uneven Soundings 2 hours before we Struck. A part of this Shoal
is always above Water, and looks to be white Sand; part of the one we
were upon was dry at low Water, and in that place consists of Sand and
stones, but every where else Coral Rocks. At 6 we Anchored in 17 fathoms,
about 5 or 6 Leagues from the land, and one from the Shoal. At this time
the Ship made about 15 Inches Water per hour. At 6 a.m. weigh'd and stood
to the North-West, edging in for the land, having a Gentle breeze at
South-South-East. At 9 we past close without 2 small low Islands, laying
in the Latitude of 15 degrees 41 minutes, and about 4 Leagues from the
Main; I have named them Hope Islands, because we were always in hopes of
being able to reach these Islands. At Noon we were about 3 Leagues from
the Land, and in the Latitude of 15 degrees 37 minutes South; the
Northermost part of the Main in sight bore North 30 degrees West, and the
above Islands extending from South 30 degrees East to South 40 degrees
East. In this situation had 12 fathoms water and several sandbanks
without us. The Leak now decreaseth, but for fear it should break out
again we got the Sail ready fill'd for fothering; the manner this is done
is thus: We Mix Oacham and Wool together (but Oacham alone would do), and
chop it up Small, and then stick it loosely by handfulls all over the
Sail, and throw over it Sheep dung or other filth. Horse Dung for this
purpose is the best. The Sail thus prepared is hauld under the Ship's
bottom by ropes, and if the place of the Leak is uncertain, it must be
hauld from one part of her bottom to another until one finds the place
where it takes effect. While the Sail is under the Ship the Oacham, etc.,
is washed off, and part of it carried along with the water into the Leak,
and in part stops up the hole. Mr. Monkhouse, one of my Midshipmen, was
once in a Merchant Ship which Sprung a Leak, and made 48 Inches Water per
hour; but by this means was brought home from Virginia to London with
only her proper crew; to him I gave the direction of this, who executed
it very much to my satisfaction.

[In Endeavour River, Queensland.]

Thursday, 14th. P.M., had a Gentle breeze at South-East by East. Sent the
Master, with 2 Boats as well, to sound ahead of the Ship, as to look out
for a Harbour where we could repair our defects, and put the Ship on a
proper Trim, both of which she now very much wanted. At 3 saw an Opening
that had the appearance of a Harbour; stood off and on while the Boats
were examining it, who found that there was not a sufficient depth of
Water for the Ship. By this time it was almost sun set, and seeing many
shoals about us we Anchored in 4 fathoms about 2 miles from the Shore,
the Main land extending from North 1/2 East to South by East 1/2 East. At
8 o'clock the Pinnace, in which was one of the Mates, return'd on board,
and reported that they had found a good Harbour* (* Cook Harbour,
Endeavour River.) about 2 Leagues to leeward. In consequence of this
information we, at 6 a.m., weigh'd and run down to it, first sending 2
Boats ahead to lay upon the Shoals that lay in our way; and
notwithstanding this precaution, we were once in 3 fathoms with the Ship.
Having pass'd these Shoals, the Boats were sent to lay in the Channell
leading into the Harbour. By this time it begun to blow in so much that
the Ship would not work, having missed stays Twice; and being entangled
among Shoals, I was afraid of being drove to Leeward before the Boats
could place themselves, and therefore Anchoredd in 4 fathoms about a Mile
from the Shore, and then made the Signal for the Boats to come on board,
after which I went myself and Buoy'd the Channell, which I found very
narrow, and the Harbour much smaller than I had been told, but very
convenient for our Purpose. At Noon Latitude observed 15 degrees 26
minutes South. [Note. This day I restor'd Mr. Magra to his Duty, as I did
not find him guilty of the crimes laid to his charge.]

Friday, 15th. A fresh Gale at South-East and Cloudy weather, attended
with Showers of Rain. In the Night, as it blow'd too fresh to break the
Ship loose to run into the Harbour, we got down the Topgallant yards,
unbent the Mainsail, and some of the Small sails; got down the
Foretopgallant mast, and the Jibb Boom and Spritsailyard in, intending to
lighten the Ship Forward as much as possible, in order to lay her ashore
to come at the Leak.

Saturday, 16th. Strong Gales at South-East, and Cloudy, hazey weather,
with Showers of Rain. At 6 o'Clock in the A.M. it moderated a little, and
we hove short, intending to get under sail, but was obliged to desist,
and veer away again; some people were seen ashore to-day.

Sunday, 17th. Most part strong Gales at South-East, with some heavy
showers of rain in the P.M. At 6 a.m., being pretty moderate, we weigh'd
and run into the Harbour, in doing of which we run the Ship ashore Twice.
The first time she went off without much Trouble, but the Second time she
Stuck fast; but this was of no consequence any farther than giving us a
little trouble, and was no more than what I expected as we had the wind.
While the Ship lay fast we got down the Foreyard, Foretopmast, booms,
etc., overboard, and made a raft of them alongside.

Monday, 18th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy, with Showers of Rain. At 1 p.m. the
Ship floated, and we warped her into the Harbour, and moor'd her
alongside of a Steep Beach on the South side; got the Anchors, Cables,
and all the Hawsers ashore. In the A.M. made a Stage from the Ship to the
Shore, Erected 2 Tents, one for the Sick, and the other for the Stores
and Provisions; Landed all the empty Casks and part of the Provisions,
and sent a boat to haul the Sean, which return'd without Success.

Tuesday, 19th. Fresh Gales at South-East and Cloudy weather, with
frequent showers of Rain. P.M., landed all the Provisions and Part of the
Stores; got the Sick ashore, which amounted, at this time, to 8 or 9,
afflicted with different disorders, but none very dangerously ill. This
afternoon I went upon one of the highest Hills over the Harbour, from
which I had a perfect View of the inlet or River, and adjacent country,
which afforded but a very indifferent prospect. The Low lands near the
River is all over run with Mangroves, among which the salt water flows
every tide, and the high land appear'd to be barren and Stoney. A.M., got
the 4 remaining Guns out of the hold, and mounted them on the Quarter
Deck; got a spare Anchor and Stock ashore, and the remaining part of the
Stores and ballast that were in the Hold; set up the Forge, and set the
Armourer and his Mate to work to make Nails, etc., to repair the Ship.

Wednesday, 20th. Winds at South-East, a fresh breeze, Fore and Middle
parts rainy, the Latter fair. This day got out all the Officers' stores
and the ground Tier of Water, having now nothing in the Fore and Main
Hold But the Coals and a little Stone ballast.

Thursday, 21st. P.M., landed the Powder, got out the stone ballast, wood,
etc., which brought the Ship's Draught of water to 8 feet 10 inches
Forward, and 13 feet abaft. This I thought, by trimming the Coals aft,
would be sufficient, as I find the Tides will rise and fall upon a
Perpendicular 8 feet at Spring tides; but after the Coals was trimm'd
away from over the Leak we Could hear the Water come Gushing in a little
abaft the Foremast about 3 feet from her Keel. This determin'd me to
clear the hold intirely; accordingly very early in the Morning we went to
work to get out the Coals, which was Employment for all hands.

[Ship Beached in Endeavour River.]

Friday, 22nd. Winds at South-East, fair weather. At 4 p.m., having got
out most of the Coals, cast loose the Ship's moorings, and warped her a
little higher up the Harbour to a place I had pitched upon to lay her
ashore to stop the Leak; draught of water Forward 7 feet 9 inches and
abaft 13 feet 6 inches. At 8, being high water, hauld her bow close
ashore, but Keept her stern afloat, because I was afraid of Neaping her,*
(* I.e., Having her so far on shore that they could not heave her off at
Neap tide.) and yet it was necessary to lay the whole of her as near the
ground as possible.* (* The town of Cooktown now stands where the
Endeavour was beached, and the (as near as can be judged) exact spot is
marked by a monument.) At 2 a.m. the Tide left her, which gave us an
Opportunity to Examine the Leak, which we found to be at her Floor Heads,
a little before the Starboard Fore Chains; here the Rocks had made their
way thro' 4 planks, quite to, and even into the Timbers, and wounded 3
more. The manner these planks were damaged--or cut out, as I may say--is
hardly credible; scarce a Splinter was to be seen, but the whole was cut
away as if it had been done by the Hands of Man with a blunt-edge Tool.
Fortunately for us the Timbers in this place were very close; other wise
it would have been impossible to have saved the Ship, and even as it was
it appeared very extraordinary that she made no more water than what she
did. A large peice of Coral rock was sticking in one Hole, and several
peices of the Fothering, small stones, etc., had made its way in, and
lodged between the Timbers, which had stopped the Water from forcing its
way in in great Quantities. Part of the Sheathing was gone from under the
Larboard bow, part of the False Kiel was gone, and the remainder in such
a Shatter'd Condition that we should be much better off if it was gone
also; her Forefoot and some part of her Main Kiel was also damaged, but
not Materially. What damage she may have received abaft we could not see,
but believe not much, as the Ship makes but little water, while the Tide
Keeps below the Leak forward. At 9 the Carpenters went to work upon the
Ship, while the Armourers were buisy making Bolts, Nails, etc.

Saturday, 23rd. Winds South Easterly, a fresh Gale and fair weather.
Carpenters employed Shifting the Damaged planks as long as the tide would
permit them to work. At low water P.M. we examined the Ship's bottom
under the Starboard side, she being dry as far aft as the After-part of
the Fore Chains; we could not find that she had received any other damage
on this side but what has been mentioned. In the morning I sent 3 Men
into the Country to shoot Pidgeons, as some of these birds had been seen
flying about; in the evening they return'd with about 1/2 a Dozen. One of
the Men saw an Animal something less than a greyhound; it was of a Mouse
Colour, very slender made, and swift of Foot.* (* Kangaroo.) A.M., I sent
a Boat to haul the Sean, who return'd at noon, having made 3 Hauls and
caught only 3 fish; and yet we see them in plenty Jumping about the
harbour, but can find no method of catching them.

Sunday, 24th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. P.M., the Carpenters
finished the Starboard side, and at 9 heeld the Ship the other way, and
hauld her off about 2 feet for fear of Neaping. In the A.M. they went to
work repairing the Sheathing under the Larboard bow, where we found 2
planks cut about half thro'. Early in the morning I sent a party of Men
into the Country under the direction of Lieutenant Gore to seek for
refreshments; they return'd about noon with a few Palm Cabbages and a
Bunch or 2 of wild Plantains; these last were much Smaller than any I had
ever seen, and the Pulp full of small Stones; otherwise they were well
tasted. I saw myself this morning, a little way from the Ship, one of the
Animals before spoke off; it was of a light mouse Colour and the full
size of a Grey Hound, and shaped in every respect like one, with a long
tail, which it carried like a Grey hound; in short, I should have taken
it for a wild dog but for its walking or running, in which it jump'd like
a Hare or Deer. Another of them was seen to-day by some of our people,
who saw the first; they described them as having very small Legs, and the
print of the Feet like that of a Goat; but this I could not see myself
because the ground the one I saw was upon was too hard, and the length of
the Grass hindered my seeing its legs.* (* These kangaroos were the first
seen by Europeans. The name was obtained from the natives by Mr. Banks.)

Monday, 25th. At low water in the P.M. While the Carpenters were buisey
in repairing the Sheathing and plank under the Larboard bow I got people
to go under the Ship's bottom, to examine all her Larboard side, she only
being dry Forward, but abaft were 9 feet water. They found part of the
Sheathing off abreast of the Mainmast about her floor heads, and a part
of one plank a little damaged. There were 3 people who went down, who all
agreed in the same Story; the Master was one, who was positive that she
had received no Material Damage besides the loss of the Sheathing. This
alone will be sufficient to let the worm into her bottom, which may prove
of bad consequence. However, we must run all risque, for I know of no
method to remedy this but by heaving her down, which would be a work of
Emence Labour and time, if not impractical in our present situation.

The Carpenters continued hard at work under her bottom until put off by
the Tide in the evening, and the morning Tide did not Ebb out far enough
to permit them to work upon her, for here we have only one Tolerable low
and high tide in 24 Hours. A.M., a party of Men were employ'd ashore
filling water, while others were employ'd overhauling the rigging.

Tuesday, 26th. Fair weather, a South-East wind, and a fresh Gale; at low
Water P.M. the Carpenters finished under the Larboard bow and every other
place the tide would permit them to come at. Lashed some Casks under the
Ship's bows in order to help to float her, and at high water in the Night
attempted to heave her off, but could not, she not being afloat partly
owing to some of the Casks not holding that were Lashed under her. A.M.,
employed getting more Casks ready for the same purpose; but I am much
afraid that we shall not be able to float her now the Tides are Taking
off.

Wednesday, 27th. A fresh breeze of Wind at South-East and Cloudy weather.
P.M., lashed 38 empty Butts under the Ship's Bottom in order to float her
off, which proved ineffectual, and therefore gave over all hopes of
getting her off until the Next spring tides. At daylight we got a
Considerable weight of sundry Articles from Aft forward to ease the Ship;
the Armourer at work at the Forge repairing Iron work, etc., Carpenters
caulking and Stocking one of the Spare Anchors, Seamen employ'd filling
of Water and overhauling the rigging, and I went in the pinnace up the
Harbour, and made several hauls with the Sean, but caught only between 20
and 30 pound of fish, which were given to the sick and such as were weak
and Ailing.

Thursday, 28th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy. All hands employ'd as
Yesterday.

Friday, 29th. Wind and weather as Yesterday, and the employment of the
People the same, Lieutenant Gore having been 4 or 5 miles in the Country,
where he met with nothing remarkable. He saw the footsteps of Men, and
likewise those of 3 or 4 sorts of wild beasts, but saw neither Man nor
beast. Some others of our people who were out Yesterday on the North side
of the River met with a place where the Natives have just been, as their
fires was then burning; but they saw nobody, nor have we seen one since
we have been in port. In these excursions we found some Wild Yamms or
Cocos growing in the Swampy grounds, and this Afternoon I sent a Party of
Men to gather some. The Tops we found made good greens, and eat
exceedingly well when Boil'd, but the roots were so bad that few besides
myself could eat them. This night Mr. Green and I observ'd an Emersion of
Jupiter's first Satellite, which hapned at 2 hours 58 minutes 53 seconds
in the A.M.; the same Emersion hapnd at Greenwich, according to
Calculation, on the 30th at 5 hours 17 minutes 43 seconds A.M. The
differance is 14 hours 18 minutes 50 seconds, equal to 214 degrees 42
minutes 30 seconds of Longitude,* (* This was an excellent observation.
The true longitude is 214 degrees 45 minutes.) which this place is West
of Greenwich, and its Latitude 15 degrees 26 minutes South. A.M., I sent
some hands in a Boat up the River to haul the Sean, while the rest were
employ'd about the rigging and sundry other Dutys.

Saturday, 30th. Moderate breezes at South-East, and clear serene weather.
P.M., the Boat returned from hauling the Sean, having caught as much fish
as came to a pound and a half a Man. A.M., I sent her again to haul the
Sean, and some hands to gather greens, while others were employ'd about
the rigging, etc., etc. I likewise sent some of the Young Gentlemen to
take a plan of the Harbour, and went myself upon the hill, which is near
the South point to take a view of the Sea.* (* Grassy Hill.) At this time
it was low water, and I saw what gave me no small uneasiness, which were
a Number of Sand Banks and Shoals laying all along the Coast; the
innermost lay about 3 or 4 Miles from the Shore, and the outermost
extended off to Sea as far as I could see without my glass, some just
appeared above water.* (* These were the innermost reefs of the Great
Barrier. There is a tolerably clear passage about 8 miles wide between
them and the shore, though this has some small shoals in it.) The only
hopes I have of getting clear of them is to the Northward, where there
seems to be a Passage, for as the wind blows constantly from the
South-East we shall find it difficult, if not impractical, to return to
the Southward.

[July 1770.]

Sunday, 1st July. Gentle breezes at South-East, and Cloudy weather, with
some Gentle Showers in the morning. P.M., the People return'd from
hauling the Sean, having caught as much fish as came to 2 1/2 pound per
Man, no one on board having more than another. The few Greens we got I
caused to be boil'd among the pease, and makes a very good Mess, which,
together with the fish, is a great refreshment to the people. A.M., a
party of Men, one from each Mess, went again a fishing, and all the rest
I gave leave to go into the Country, knowing that there was no danger
from the Natives. To-day at Noon the Thermometer in the Shade rose to 87
degrees, which is 2 or 3 Degrees higher than it hath been on any day
before in this place.

Monday, 2nd. Ditto weather. P.M., the fishing-party caught as much fish
as came to 2 pounds a Man. Those that were in the Country met with
nothing New. Early in the A.M. I sent the Master in the pinnace out of
the Harbour, to sound about the Shoals in the Offing and to look for a
Channel to the Northward. At this time we had a breeze of wind from the
land, which continued till about 9. What makes me mention this is, that
it is the first Land breeze we have had since we have been in this River.
At low water lashed empty Casks under the Ship's bows, being in some
hopes of floating her the next high Water, and sent some hands a fishing,
while others were employ'd in refitting the Ship.

Tuesday, 3rd. Winds at South-East, Fore and Middle part gentle breeze,
the remainder a fresh gale. In the evening the fishing Party return'd,
having got as much fish as came to 2 pounds a Man. At high water we
attempted to heave the Ship off, but did not succeed. At Noon the Master
return'd, and reported he had found a passage out to Sea between the
Shoals, which passage lies out East-North-East or East by North from the
River mouth. He found these Shoals to Consist of Coral Rocks; he landed
upon one, which drys at low Water, where he found very large cockles* (*
Tridacna.) and a Variety of other Shell fish, a quantity of which he
brought away with him. He told me that he was 5 Leagues out at Sea,
having at that distance 21 fathoms water, and judg'd himself to be
without all the Shoals, which I very much doubted.* (* Cook was right.
The shoals extend for four leagues farther.) After this he came in Shore,
and Stood to the Northward, where he met with a Number of Shoals laying a
little distance from the Shore. About 9 in the evening he landed in a Bay
about 3 Leagues to the Northward of this Place, where he disturbed some
of the Natives, whom he supposed to be at supper; they all fled upon his
approach, and Left him some fresh Sea Eggs, and a fire ready lighted
behind them; but there was neither House nor Hut near. Although these
Shoals lay within sight of the Coast, and abound very much with Shell
fish and other small fish, which are to be caught at Low water in holes
in the Rocks, yet the Natives never visit them, for if they did we must
have seen of these Large shells on shore about their  fire places. The
reason I do suppose is, that they have no Boats that they dare Venture so
far out at Sea in.* (* Nevertheless the natives do get out to the islands
which lie farther from the shore than these reefs, as Cook himself
afterwards found.)

Wednesday, 4th. Strong gales at South-East and fair weather. P.M., the
fishing party return'd with the usual success; at High water hove the
ship Afloat. A.M., employ'd trimming her upon an even Kiel, intending to
lay her ashore once more, to come at her bottom under the Larboard Main
Chains.

Thursday, 5th. Strong breezes at South-East and fair weather. P.M. Warped
the Ship over, and at high Water laid her ashore on the Sandbank on the
South side of the River, for I was afraid to lay her broad side to the
Shore where she lay before, because the ground lies upon too great a
decent, and she hath already received some Damage by laying there these
last Niep Tides, at least she still makes water.

[At Anchor, Endeavour River.]

Friday, 6th. Ditto weather. At low water in the P.M. had hardly 4 feet
water under the Ship; yet could not repair the Sheathing that was beat
off, the place being all under water. One of the Carpenter's crew, a Man
I could trust, went down and Examin'd it, and found 3 Streakes of the
Sheathing gone about 7 or 8 feet long, and the Main Plank a little
rubbed; this account agrees with the report of the Master and others that
were under her bottom before. The Carpenter, who I look upon to be well
skill'd in his profession, and a good judge in these matters, was of
Opinion that this was of little consequence; and as I found that it would
be difficult, if not impractical, for us to get under her bottom to
repair it, I resolved to spend no more time about it. Accordingly at high
water hove her off, and moor'd her alongside the beach, where the Stores,
etc., lay, and in the A.M. got everything in readiness for taking them on
board, and at the same time got on board 8 Tuns of Water, and stow'd in
the ground Tier in the after Hold. In the Morning Mr. Banks and
Lieutenant Gore with 3 Men went in a small Boat up the Harbour, with a
View to stay 2 or 3 days to try to Kill some of the Animals we have seen
about this place.

Saturday, 7th. Fresh breezes at South-East and fair weather. Employ'd
getting on board Coals, Ballast, etc., and caulking the Ship; a work that
could not be done while she lay aground. The Armourer and his Mate are
Still employ'd at the Forge making and repairing sundry Articles in the
Iron way.

Sunday, 8th. Gentle breeze and South-East, and clear weather. Early I
sent the Master in a Boat out to Sea to sound again about the Shoals,
because the account he had given of the Channell before mentioned was to
me by no means Satisfactory; likewise sent some hands to haul the Sean,
who caught near 80 pounds of fish; the rest of the people I gave leave to
go into the Country.

Monday, 9th. In the Day Ditto Winds, but in the night Calm. P.M., Mr.
Gore and Mr. Banks return'd, having met with nothing remarkable; they
were about 3 or 4 Leagues up in the Country without finding hardly any
Variation either in the Soil or Produce. In the Evening the Master
return'd, having been several Leagues out at Sea, and at that Distance
off saw Shoals without him, and was of opinion there was no getting out
to Sea that way. In his return he touched upon one of the Shoals, the
same as he was upon the first time he was out; he here saw a great number
of Turtle, 3 of which he Caught weighing 791 pounds. This occasion'd my
sending him out again this morning provided with proper gear for Striking
them, he having before nothing but a Boat Hook. Carpenters, Smiths, and
Coopers at their respective Employments, and the Seamen employed getting
on board stones, ballast, etc. This day all hands feasted upon Turtle for
the First time.* (* As they had had nothing fresh but a little fish for
four months, and scarcely any meat since they left the Society Islands,
eleven months before, we can imagine that this was a feast.)

Tuesday, 10th. Winds and weather as yesterday. Employ'd hoisting on board
and stowing away the ground Tier of Water. P.M., saw 7 or 8 of the
Natives on the South side of the River, and 2 of them came down upon the
Sandy point opposite the Ship; but as soon as I put off in a Boat in
order to speak with them they run away as fast as they could. At 11 Mr.
Banks, who had gone out to Sea with Mr. Molineux, the Master, return'd in
his own Small Boat, and gave but a Very bad account of our
Turtlecatchers. At the time he left them, which was about 6 o'Clock, they
had not got one, nor were they likely to get any; and yet the Master was
so obstinate that he would not return,* (* This seems rather hard upon
the Master.) which obliged me to send Mr. Gore out in the Yawl this
morning to order the Boat and People in, in Case they could not be
employ'd there to some Advantage. In the A.M. 4 of the Natives came down
to the Sandy point on the North side of the Harbour, having along with
them a small wooden Canoe with Outriggers, in which they seem'd to be
employed striking fish, etc. Some were for going over in a Boat to them;
but this I would not suffer, but let them alone without seeming to take
any Notice of them. At length 2 of them came in the Canoe so near the
Ship as to take some things we throw'd them. After this they went away,
and brought over the other 2, and came again alongside, nearer than they
had done before, and took such Trifles as we gave them; after this they
landed close to the Ship, and all 4 went ashore, carrying their Arms with
them. But Tupia soon prevailed upon them to lay down their Arms, and come
and set down by him, after which most of us went to them, made them again
some presents, and stay'd by them until dinner time, when we made them
understand that we were going to eat, and asked them by signals to go
with us; but this they declined, and as soon as we left them they went
away in their Canoe. One of these Men was something above the Middle Age,
the other 3 were young; none of them were above 5 1/2 feet high, and all
their Limbs proportionately small. They were wholy naked, their Skins the
Colour of Wood soot, and this seem'd to be their Natural Colour. Their
Hair was black, lank, and cropt short, and neither wooly nor Frizled; nor
did they want any of their Fore Teeth, as Dampier has mentioned those did
he saw on the Western side of this Country. Some part of their Bodys had
been painted with red, and one of them had his upper lip and breast
painted with Streakes of white, which he called Carbanda. Their features
were far from being disagreeable; their Voices were soft and Tunable, and
they could easily repeat any word after us, but neither us nor Tupia
could understand one word they said.

Wednesday, 11th. Gentle land and Sea breezes. Employed Airing the Bread,
stowing away water, Stores, etc. In the night the Master and Mr. Gore
returned with the Long Boat, and brought with them one Turtle and a few
Shell fish; the Yawl Mr. Gore left upon the Shoal with 6 Men to endeavour
to strike more Turtle. In the morning 4 of the Natives made us another
Short Visit; 3 of them had been with us the preceeding day, the other was
a stranger. One of these men had a hole through the Bridge* (* The
cartilage of the nostril.) of his nose, in which he stuck a peice of Bone
as thick as my finger. Seeing this we examin'd all their Noses, and found
that they had all holes for the same purpose; they had likewise holes in
their Ears, but no Ornaments hanging to them; they had bracelets on their
Arms made of hair, and like Hoops of small Cord. They sometimes may wear
a kind of fillet about their Heads, for one of them had applied some part
of an old shirt which I had given them to this use.

Thursday, 12th. Winds and weather as Yesterday, and the Employment of the
People the same. At 2 A.M. the Yawl came on board, and brought 3 Turtle
and a large Skeat, and as there was a probability of succeeding in this
kind of fishery, I sent her out again after breakfast. About this time 5
of the Natives came over and stay'd with us all the Forenoon. There were
7 in all--5 Men, 1 Woman, and a Boy; these 2 last stay'd on the point of
Land on the other side of the River about 200 Yards from us. We could
very clearly see with our Glasses that the Woman was as naked as ever she
was born; even those parts which I always before now thought Nature would
have taught a woman to Conceal were uncovered.

Friday, 13th. Gentle breezes from the South-East in day, and Calm or
light Airs from the Land in the Night. Employ'd taking on board water,
Stores, etc. At Noon the Yawl return'd with one Turtle and a large Sting
ray.

Saturday, 14th. Gentle breezes at South-East and Hazey weather. In the
P.M. compleated our water; got on board all the Bread, and part of our
Stores; in the evening sent the Turtlers out again. A.M., employ'd
getting on board stone ballast and Airing the spare Sails. Mr. Gore,
being in the Country, shott one of the Animals before spoke of; it was a
small one of the sort, weighing only 28 pound clear of the entrails; its
body was ----* (* Blank in manuscript.) long; the head, neck, and
Shoulders very Small in proportion to the other parts. It was hair lipt,
and the Head and Ears were most like a Hare's of any Animal I know; the
Tail was nearly as long as the body, thick next the Rump, and Tapering
towards the End; the fore Legs were 8 Inches long, and the Hind 22. Its
progression is by Hopping or Jumping 7 or 8 feet at each hop upon its
hind Legs only, for in this it makes no use of the Fore, which seem to be
only design'd for Scratching in the ground, etc. The Skin is cover'd with
a Short, hairy furr of a dark Mouse or Grey Colour. It bears no sort of
resemblance to any European animal I ever saw; it is said to bear much
resemblance to the Jerboa, excepting in size, the Jerboa being no larger
than a common rat.

Sunday, 15th. Gentle breezes at South-East and East. P.M., got on board
the Spare Sails and sundry other Articles. In the A.M., as the people did
not work upon the Ship, one of the Petty Officers was desirous of going
out to Catch Turtles. I let him have the Pinnace for that purpose, and
sent the Long boat to haul the Sean, who caught about 60 fish.

Monday, 16th. Fore and Latter parts gentle breezes at East-North-East; in
the night had light Airs and Calm. In the evening the Yawl came in with 4
Turtle and a Large Sting ray, and soon after went out again; but the
Pinnace did not return as I expected. A.M., employ'd getting on board
Cables; at the same time I went upon one of the high hills on the North
side of the River, from which I had an extensive view of the inland
Country, which consisted of hills, Valleys, and Large plains, agreeably
diversified with Woods and Lawns.

Tuesday, 17th. Wind at South-East, a fresh breeze; people employed as
yesterday setting up the rigging. In the evening the Pinnace returned
with 3 Turtles, 2 of which the Yawl caught and sent in. At 7 hours 41
minutes 17 seconds p.m. observ'd the first Satellite of Jupiter to
Emerge, and the same Emersion hapned at Greenwich at 10 hours 00 minutes
52 seconds in the a.m.; the difference is 14 hours 19 minutes 35 seconds
equal to 214 degrees 53 minutes 45 seconds of Longitude. The observation
made on the 29th of last Month gave 214 degrees 42 minutes 30 seconds;
the mean is 214 degrees 48 minutes 7 1/2 seconds, which this place is
West of Greenwich.* (* As before mentioned, the true longitude is 214
degrees 45 minutes.)

Wednesday, 18th. Wind at East-South-East, a Gentle breeze. P.M., I sent
the Master and one of the Mates in the Pinnace to the Northward to look
for a Channell that way clear of the Shoal. Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and
myself took a turn into the woods on the other side of the water, where
we met with 5 of the Natives; and although we had not seen any of them
before, they came to us without showing any signs of fear. 2 of these
wore Necklaces made of Shells, which they seem'd to Value, as they would
not part with them. In the evening the Yawl came in with 3 Turtle, and
early in the A.M. she went out again. About 8 we were Visited by several
of the Natives, who now became more familiar than ever. Soon after this
Mr. Banks and I went over to the South* (* This should be North.) side of
the River, and Travel'd 6 or 8 miles along shore to the Northward, where
we ascended a high hill, from whence I had an extensive view of the Sea
Coast; it afforded us a melancholy prospect of the difficulties we are to
encounter, for in whatever direction we looked it was cover'd with Shoals
as far as the Eye could see; after this we return'd to the Ship without
meeting with anything remarkable, and found several of the Natives on
board. At this time we had 12 tortoise or Turtle upon our Decks, which
they took more Notice of than anything Else in the Ship, as I was told by
the officers, for their Curiosity was Satisfied before I got on board,
and they went away soon after.

Thursday, 19th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. Employ'd getting
everything in readyness for Sea. A.M., we were Visited by 10 or 11 of the
Natives; the most of them came from the other side of the Harbour, where
we saw 6 or 7 more, the most of them Women, and, like the men, quite
naked. Those that came on board were very desirous of having some of our
Turtles, and took the liberty to haul 2 of them to the Gangway to put
over the side; being disappointed in this, they grew a little
Troublesome, and were for throwing every thing overboard they could lay
their hands upon. As we had no Victuals dress'd at this time, I offer'd
them some bread to Eat, which they rejected with Scorn, as I believe they
would have done anything else excepting Turtle;* (* No doubt, in the
native view, the turtle belonged to them, and they considered the
strangers had annexed their property.) soon after this they all went
ashore, Mr. Banks, myself, and 5 or 6 of our people being their at same
time. Immediately upon their Landing one of them took a Handful of dry
grass and lighted it at a fire we had ashore, and before we well know'd
what he was going about he made a larger Circuit round about us, and set
fire to the grass in his way, and in an instant the whole place was in
flames. Luckily at this time we had hardly anything ashore, besides the
Forge and a Sow with a litter of young Pigs, one of which was scorched to
Death in the fire. As soon as they had done this they all went to a place
where some of our people were washing, and where all our nets and a good
deal of linnen were laid out to dry; here with the greatest obstinacy
they again set fire to the grass, which I and some others who were
present could not prevent, until I was obliged to fire a Musquet load
with small Shott at one of the Ring leaders, which sent them off. As we
were apprised of this last Attempt of theirs we got the fire out before
it got head, but the first spread like wild fire in the Woods and grass.
Notwithstanding my firing, in which one must have been a little hurt,
because we saw a few drops of blood on some of the linnen he had gone
over, they did not go far from us; for we soon after heard their Voices
in the woods, upon which Mr. Banks and I and 3 or 4 more went to look for
them, and very soon met them coming toward us. As they had each 4 or 5
Darts, and not knowing their intention, we seized upon 6 or 7 of the
first darts we met with. This alarm'd them so much that they all made
off, and we follow'd them for near 1/2 a Mile, and then set down and
called to them, and they stop'd also; after some little unintelligible
conversation had passed they laid down their darts, and came to us in a
very friendly manner. We now return'd the Darts we had taken from them,
which reconcil'd everything. There were 4 Strangers among them that we
had not seen before, and these were interduced to us by name by the
others; the Man which we supposed to have been Struck with small Shott
was gone off, but he could not be much hurt as he was at a great distance
when I fir'd. They all came along with us abreast of the Ship, where they
stay'd a short time, and then went away, and soon after set the woods on
fire about a Mile and a half or two Miles from us.

Friday, 20th. Fresh breezes at South-East and Cloudy weather. P.M., got
everything on board the Ship, new berth'd her, and let her swing with the
tide. In the night the Master return'd with the pinnace, and reported
that there was no safe Passage for the Ship to the Northward at low
water. A.M., I went and Sounded and buoy'd the Bar, being now ready to
put to sea the first opportunity.

Saturday, 21st. Strong breezes at South-East and Cloudy weather. P.M.,
sent a Boat to haul the Sean, which return'd with as much fish as came to
1 3/4 pounds per Man; the Yawl return'd with only one Turtle, which was
caught in the Net, for it blew too hard for the Boat to strike any. In
the morning I sent her out again, but she was obliged to return, not
being able to get to Windward. The Carpenters employ'd in repairing the
Boats and overhauling the Pumps, and as the Wind would not permit us to
sail, I sent the Boatswain with some hands ashore to make rope, and a
petty Officer with 2 Men to gather Greens for the Ship's Company.

Sunday, 22nd. Fresh breezes at South-East and East-South-East. Employ'd
as Yesterday. A.M., the weather would not permit us to Sail; sent the
Turtlers out again. In opening of one to-day we found sticking thro' both
Shoulder bones a wood Harpoon, or Turtle Peg, 15 Inches long, bearded at
the end, such as we have seen among the Natives; this proves to a
Demonstration that they strike Turtle, I suppose at the Time they come
ashore to lay their Eggs, for they certainly have no boat fit to do this
at Sea, or that will carry a Turtle, and this Harpoon must have been a
good while in, as the wound was quite heal'd up.

Monday, 23rd. Fresh breezes in the South-East quarter, which so long as
it continues will confine us in Port. Yesterday, A.M., I sent some people
in the Country to gather greens, one of which stragled from the rest, and
met with 4 of the Natives by a fire, on which they were broiling a Fowl,
and the hind leg of one of the Animals before spoke of. He had the
presence of mind not to run from them (being unarm'd), least they should
pursue him, but went and set down by them; and after he had set a little
while, and they had felt his hands and other parts of his body, they
suffer'd him to go away without offering the least insult, and perceiving
that he did not go right for the Ship they directed him which way to go.

Tuesday, 24th. Winds and weather continues. The Seamen employ'd making
ropes, Caulking the Ship, Fishing, etc.

Wednesday, 25th. Fresh gales at South-East and fair weather. In the
evening the Yawl came in, having not been able to Strike one Turtle on
account of the blowing weather, nor can we catch much fish with the Sean
in the Harbour.

Thursday, 26th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. Such people as can be
spared from the necessary Dutys of the Ship are employ'd fishing and
gathering greens and other refreshments.

Friday, 27th. Very fresh Gales at South-East by South and fair weather.
A.M., caught as much fish as served 3/4 pounds a man, and Mr. Gore shott
one of the Animals before spoke of, which weighed 80 pounds and 54
pounds, exclusive of the entrails, Skin, and head; this was as large as
the most we have seen.

Saturday, 28th. Winds and weather as above, without the least Variation
the whole of the 24 hours. The Carpenters finish'd caulking the Ship.

Sunday, 29th. Winds at South-East, a fresh breeze until 5 a.m., at which
time it fell calm, and soon after had a light breeze from the land. Upon
this I sent a Boat to see what water was upon the bar (it being 2 hours
Ebb), and hove up the Anchor in order to put to Sea; but upon the return
of the Boat came too again, as there were only 13 feet water on the Bar,
which was 6 Inches less water than what the Ship Draw'd. After this I
sent the Yawl to look for Turtle, as those we had got before were nearly
all expended. About 8 the Sea breeze set in again, which put an end to
our Sailing this day; after which I sent the Pinnace to haul the Sean;
she return'd with only 20 pounds of Fish.

Monday, 30th. Winds at South-East, a fresh Gale and fair weather in the
P.M., the remainder Hazey, with rain, but the winds, tho more moderate,
keept in the South-East quarter.

Tuesday, 31st. Fresh Gales at South-East, and hazey with rain all P.M.
and most part of the Night. At 2 a.m. I had thoughts of trying to Warp
the Ship out of the Harbour, but upon my going first out in a Boat I
found it blow too fresh for such an Attempt.

[August 1770.]

Wednesday, 1st August. Strong Gales from the South-East, with Squalls
attended with Rain. P.M., the Yawl came in with 2 Rays, which together
weighed 265 pounds; it blow'd too hard all the time they were out for
striking Turtle. Carpenters employ'd overhauling the Pumps, all of which
we find in a state of decay; and this the Carpenter says is owing to the
Sap having been left in, which in time has decay'd the sound wood. One of
them is quite useless, and was so rotten when hoisted up as to drop to
peices. However, I cannot complain of a Leaky Ship, for the most water
She makes is not quite an Inch an Hour.

Thursday, 2nd. Winds and weather as yesterday, or rather more Stormy; we
have now no Success in the Sein fishing, hardly getting above 20 or 30
pounds a day.

Friday, 3rd. Strong breezes, and hazey until 6 a.m., when it moderated,
and we unmoor'd, hove up the Anchor, and began to Warp out; but the Ship
tailing upon the Sand on the North side of the River, the Tide of Ebb
making out, and a fresh breeze setting in, we were obliged to desist and
moor the Ship again just within the Barr.

Saturday, 4th. In the P.M., having pretty moderate weather, I order'd the
Coasting Anchor and Cable to be laid without the barr, to be ready to
warp out by, that we might not loose the least opportunity that might
Offer; for laying in Port spends time to no purpose, consumes our
Provisions, of which we are very Short in many Articles, and we have yet
a long Passage to make to the East Indies through an unknown and perhaps
dangerous Sea; these Circumstances consider'd, make me very Anxious of
getting to Sea. The wind continued moderate all night, and at 5 a.m. it
fell calm; this gave us an opportunity to warp out. About 7 we got under
sail, having a light Air from the Land, which soon died away, and was
Succeeded by the Sea breezes from South-East by South, with which we
stood off to Sea East by North, having the Pinnace ahead sounding. The
Yawl I sent to the Turtle bank to take up the Net that was left there;
but as the wind freshen'd we got out before her, and a little After Noon
Anchor'd in 15 fathoms water, Sandy bottom, for I did not think it safe
to run in among the Shoals until I had well view'd them at low Water from
the Mast head, that I might be better Able to Judge which way to Steer;
for as yet I had not resolved whether I should beat back to the Southward
round all the Shoals, or seek a Passage to the Eastward or Northward, all
of which appeared to be equally difficult and dangerous. When at Anchor
the Harbour sail'd from bore South 70 degrees West, distant 4 or 5
Leagues; the Northermost point of the Main land we have in sight, which I
named Cape Bedford* (* Probably after John, 4th Duke, who had been First
Lord of the Admiralty, 1744 to 1747.) (Latitude 15 degrees 17 minutes
South, Longitude 214 degrees 45 minutes West), bore North 20 degrees
West, distant 3 1/2 Leagues; but we could see land to the North-East of
this Cape, which made like 2 high Islands;* (* Direction Islands.) the
Turtle banks bore East, distant one Mile. Latitude by Observation 15
degrees 23 minutes South; our depth of Water, in standing off from the
land, was from 3 1/2 to 15 fathoms.

[Description of Endeavour River.]

I shall now give a Short description of the Harbour, or River, we have
been in, which I named after the Ship, Endeavour River. It is only a
small Barr Harbour or Creek, which runs winding 3 or 4 Leagues in land,
at the Head of which is a small fresh Water Brook, as I was told, for I
was not so high myself; but there is not water for Shipping above a Mile
within the barr, and this is on the North side, where the bank is so
steep for nearly a quarter of a Mile that ships may lay afloat at low
water so near the Shore as to reach it with a stage, and is extreamly
Convenient for heaving a Ship down. And this is all the River hath to
recommend it, especially for large Shipping, for there is no more than 9
or 10 feet Water upon the Bar at low water, and 17 or 18 feet at high,
the Tides rises and falling about 9 feet at spring Tide, and is high on
the days of the New and full Moon, between 9 and 10 o'Clock. Besides,
this part of the Coast is barrocaded with Shoals, as to make this Harbour
more difficult of access; the safest way I know of to come at it is from
the South, Keeping the Main land close on board all the way. Its
situation may always be found by the Latitude, which hath been before
mentioned. Over the South point is some high Land, but the North point is
formed by a low sandy beach, which extends about 3 Miles to the
Northward, then the land is again high.

The refreshments we got here were Chiefly Turtle, but as we had to go 5
Leagues out to Sea for them, and had much blowing weather, we were not
over Stocked with this Article; however, what with these and the fish we
caught with the Sean we had not much reason to Complain, considering the
Country we were in. Whatever refreshment we got that would bear a
Division I caused to be equally divided among the whole Company,
generally by weight; the meanest person in the Ship had an equal share
with myself or any one on board, and this method every commander of a
Ship on such a Voyage as this ought ever to Observe. We found in several
places on the Sandy beaches and Sand Hills near the Sea, Purslain and
beans, which grows on a Creeping kind of a Vine. The first we found very
good when boiled, and the latter not to be dispised, and were at first
very serviceable to the Sick; but the best greens we found here was the
Tarra, or Coco Tops, called in the West Indies Indian Kale,* (* Colocasia
Macrorhiza.) which grows in most Boggy Places; these eat as well as, or
better, than Spinnage. The roots, for want of being Transplanted and
properly Cultivated, were not good, yet we could have dispensed with them
could we have got them in any Tolerable plenty; but having a good way to
go for them, it took up too much time and too many hands to gather both
root and branch. The few Cabage Palms we found here were in General
small, and yielded so little Cabage that they were not worth the Looking
after, and this was the Case with most of the fruit, etc., we found in
the woods.

Besides the Animals which I have before mentioned, called by the Natives
Kangooroo, or Kanguru, here are Wolves,* (* Probably Dingos.) Possums, an
Animal like a ratt, and snakes, both of the Venemous and other sorts.
Tame Animals here are none except Dogs, and of these we never saw but
one, who frequently came about our Tents to pick up bones, etc. The
Kanguru are in the greatest number, for we seldom went into the Country
without seeing some. The land Fowls we met here, which far from being
numerous, were Crows, Kites, Hawkes, Cockadores* (* Cockatoos.) of 2
Sorts, the one white, and the other brown, very beautiful Loryquets of 2
or 3 Sorts, Pidgeons, Doves, and a few other sorts of small Birds. The
Sea or Water fowl are Herns, Whisling Ducks, which perch and, I believe,
roost on Trees; Curlews, etc., and not many of these neither. Some of our
Gentlemen who were in the Country heard and saw Wild Geese in the Night.

The Country, as far as I could see, is diversified with Hills and plains,
and these with woods and Lawns; the Soil of the Hills is hard, dry, and
very Stoney; yet it produceth a thin Coarse grass, and some wood. The
Soil of the Plains and Valleys are sandy, and in some places Clay, and in
many Parts very Rocky and Stoney, as well as the Hills, but in general
the Land is pretty well Cloathed with long grass, wood, Shrubs, etc. The
whole Country abounds with an immense number of Ant Hills, some of which
are 6 or 8 feet high, and more than twice that in Circuit. Here are but
few sorts of Trees besides the Gum tree, which is the most numerous, and
is the same that we found on the Southern Part of the Coast, only here
they do not grow near so large. On each side of the River, all the way up
it, are Mangroves, which Extend in some places a Mile from its banks; the
Country in general is not badly water'd, there being several fine
Rivulets at no very great distance from one another, but none near to the
place where we lay; at least not in the Dry season, which is at this
time. However we were very well supply'd with water by springs which were
not far off.* (* Cooktown, which now stands on the Endeavour River, is a
thriving place, and the northernmost town on this coast. It has some 2000
inhabitants, and is the port for a gold mining district. A deeper channel
has now been dredged over the bar that gave Cook so much trouble, but it
is not a harbour that will admit large vessels.)

[At Anchor, Off Turtle Reef, Queensland.]

Sunday, 5th. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South-East and Clear
weather. As I did not intend to weigh until the morning I sent all the
Boats to the Reef to get what Turtle and Shell fish they could. At low
water from the Mast head I took a view of the Shoals, and could see
several laying a long way without this one, a part of several of them
appearing above water; but as it appear'd pretty clear of Shoals to the
North-East of the Turtle Reef, I came to a Resolution to stretch out that
way close upon a wind, because if we found no Passage we could always
return back the way we went. In the Evening the Boats return'd with one
Turtle, a sting ray, and as many large Clams as came to 1 1/2 pounds a
Man; in each of these Clams were about 20 pounds of Meat; added to this
we Caught in the night several Sharks. Early in the morning I sent the
Pinnace and Yawl again to the Reef, as I did not intend to weigh until
half Ebb, at which time the Shoals began to appear. Before 8 it came on
to blow, and I made the Signal for the Boats to come on Board, which they
did, and brought with them one Turtle. We afterwards began to heave, but
the wind Freshening obliged us to bear away* (* To veer cable, i.e., pay
out more cable, in order to hold the ship with the freshening wind.)
again and lay fast.

Monday, 6th. Winds at South-East. At 2 o'Clock p.m. it fell pretty
Moderate, and we got under sail, and stood out upon a wind North-East by
East, leaving the Turtle Reef to windward, having the Pinnace ahead
sounding. We had not stood out long before we discovered shoals ahead and
on both bows. At half past 4 o'Clock, having run off 8 Miles, the Pinnace
made the Signal for Shoal water in a place where we little Expected it;
upon this we Tack'd and Stood on and off while the Pinnace stretched
farther to the Eastward, but as night was approaching I thought it safest
to Anchor, which we accordingly did in 20 fathoms water, a Muddy bottom.
Endeavour River bore South 52 degrees West; Cape Bedford West by North
1/2 North, distant 5 Leagues; the Northermost land in sight, which made
like an Island, North; and a Shoal, a small, sandy part of which appear'd
above water, North-East, distance 2 or 3 Miles. In standing off from this
Turtle Reef to this place our soundings were from 14 to 20 fathoms, but
where the Pinnace was, about a Mile farther to the East-North-East, were
no more than 4 or 5 feet of water, rocky ground; and yet this did not
appear to us in the Ship. In the morning we had a strong Gale from the
South-East, that, instead of weighing as we intended, we were obliged to
bear away more Cable, and to Strike Top Gallant yards.

Tuesday, 7th. Strong Gales at South-East, South-East by South, and
South-South-East, with cloudy weather at Low water in the P.M. I and
several of the Officers kept a look out at the Mast head to see for a
Passage between the Shoals; but we could see nothing but breakers all the
way from the South round by the East as far as North-West, extending out
to Sea as far as we could see. It did not appear to be one continued
Shoal, but several laying detached from each other. On the Eastermost
that we could see the Sea broke very high, which made one judge it to be
the outermost; for on many of those within the Sea did not break high at
all, and from about 1/2 flood to 1/2 Ebb they are not to be seen, which
makes the Sailing among them more dangerous, and requires great care and
Circumspection, for, like all other Shoals, or Reefs of Coral Rocks, they
are quite steep too. Altho' the most of these Shoals consist of Coral
Rocks, yet a part of some of them is sand. The Turtle Reef and some
others have a small Patch of Sand generally at the North end, that is
only cover'd at high water. These generally discover themselves before we
come near them. Altho' I speak of this as the Turtle Reef, yet it is not
to be doubted but what there are Turtle upon the most of them as well as
this one. After having well viewed our situation from the Mast Head, I
saw that we were surrounded on every side with Dangers, in so much that I
was quite at a loss which way to steer when the weather will permit us to
get under sail, for to beat back to the South-East the way we came, as
the Master would have had me done, would be an endless peice of work, as
the winds blow constantly from that Quarter, and very Strong, without
hardly any intermission;* (* The south-east trade wind blows home on this
coast very strong from about June to October. Though the Barrier Reef
prevents any great sea from getting up, the continuance of this wind is a
great nuisance for a sailing ship from many points of view though from
others it is an advantage.) on the other hand, if we do not find a
passage to the Northward we shall have to come back at last. At 11 the
Ship drove, and obliged us to bear away to a Cable and one third, which
brought us up again; but in the morning the Gale increasing, she drove
again. This made us let go the Small Bower Anchor, and bear away a whole
Cable on it and 2 on the other; and even after this she still kept
driving slowly, until we had got down Top gallant Masts, struck Yards and
Top masts close down, and made all snug; then she rid fast, Cape Bedford
bearing West-South-West, distant 3 1/2 Leagues. In this situation we had
Shoals to the Eastward of us extending from the South-East by South to
the North-North-West, distant from the nearest part of them about 2
Miles.

Wednesday, 8th. Strong gales at South-South-East all this day, in so much
that I durst not get up Yards and Topmasts.

Thursday, 9th. In the P.M., the weather being something moderate, we got
up the Top masts, but keept the Lower yards down. At 6 in the morning we
began to heave in the Cable, thinking to get under sail; but it blow'd so
fresh, together with a head sea, that we could hardly heave the ship a
head, and at last was obliged to desist.

[Off Cape Flattery, Queensland.]

Friday, 10th. Fresh Gales at South-South-East and South-East by South.
P.M., the wind fell so that we got up the small Bower Anchor, and hove
into a whole Cable on the Best Bower. At 3 in the morning we got up the
Lower Yards, and at 7 weighed and stood in for the Land (intending to
seek for a passage along Shore to the northward), having a Boat ahead
sounding; depth of water as we run in from 19 to 12 fathoms. After
standing in an hour we edged away for 3 Small Islands* (* Now called the
Three Isles.) that lay North-North-East 1/2 East, 3 Leagues from Cape
Bedford. To these Islands the Master had been in the Pinnace when the
Ship was in Port. At 9 we were abreast of them, and between them and the
Main, having another low Island between us and the latter, which lies
West-North-West, 4 Miles from the 3 Islands. In this Channell had 14
fathoms water; the Northermost point of the Main we had in sight bore
from us North-North-West 1/2 West, distant 2 Leagues. 4 or 5 Leagues to
the North-East of this head land appeared 3 high Islands,* (* The
Direction Islands.) with some smaller ones near them, and the Shoals and
Reefs without, as we could see, extending to the Northward as far as
these Islands. We directed our Course between them and the above
headland, leaving a small Island* (* The Two Isles. Cook had now got
among the numerous islands and reefs which lie round Cape Flattery. There
are good channels between them, but they are very confusing to a
stranger. Cook's anxiety in his situation can well be imagined,
especially with his recent disaster in his mind.) to the Eastward of us,
which lies North by East, 4 Miles from the 3 Islands, having all the
while a boat ahead sounding. At Noon we were got between the head Land
and the 3 high Islands, distant from the former 2, and from the latter 4
Leagues; our Latitude by observation was 14 degrees 51 minutes South. We
now judged ourselves to be clear of all Danger, having, as we thought, a
Clear, open Sea before us; but this we soon found otherwise, and
occasioned my calling the Headland above mentioned Cape Flattery
(Latitude 14 degrees 55 minutes South, Longitude 214 degrees 43 minutes
West). It is a high Promontory, making in 2 Hills next the sea, and a
third behind them, with low sandy land on each side; but it is better
known by the 3 high Islands out at Sea, the Northermost of which is the
Largest, and lies from the Cape North-North-East, distant 5 Leagues. From
this Cape the Main land trends away North-West and North-West by West.

Saturday, 11th. Fresh breezes at South-South-East and South-East by
South, with which we steer'd along shore North-West by West until one
o'Clock, when the Petty Officer at the Masthead called out that he saw
land ahead, extending quite round to the Islands without, and a large
reef between us and them; upon this I went to the Masthead myself. The
reef I saw very plain, which was now so far to windward that we could not
weather it, but what he took for Main land ahead were only small Islands,
for such they appeared to me; but, before I had well got from Mast head
the Master and some others went up, who all asserted that it was a
Continuation of the Main land, and, to make it still more alarming, they
said they saw breakers in a Manner all round us. We immediately hauld
upon a wind in for the Land, and made the Signal for the Boat, which was
ahead sounding, to come on board; but as she was well to leeward, we were
obliged to edge away to take her up, and soon after came to an Anchor
under a point of the Main in 1/4 less 5* (* The nautical manner of
expressing four and three-quarters.) fathoms, about a Mile from the
Shore, Cape Flattery bearing South-East, distant 3 1/2 Leagues. After
this I landed, and went upon the point, which is pretty high, from which
I had a View of the Sea Coast, which trended away North-West by West, 8
or 10 Leagues, which was as far as I could see, the weather not being
very clear. I likewise saw 9 or 10 Small, Low Islands and some Shoals
laying off the Coast, and some large Shoals between the Main and the 3
high Islands, without which, I was now well assured, were Islands, and
not a part of the Mainland as some had taken them to be. Excepting Cape
Flattery and the point I am now upon, which I have named point Lookout,
the Main land next the sea to the Northward of Cape Bedford is low, and
Chequer'd with white sand and green Bushes, etc., for 10 or 12 Miles
inland, beyond which is high land. To the northward of Point Lookout the
shore appear'd to be shoal and flat some distance off, which was no good
sign of meeting with a Channell in with the land, as we have hitherto
done. We saw the footsteps of people upon the sand, and smoke and fire up
in the Country, and in the evening return'd on board, where I came to a
resolution to visit one of the high Islands in the Offing in my Boat, as
they lay at least 5 Leagues out at Sea, and seem'd to be of such a height
that from the Top of one of them I hoped to see and find a Passage out to
sea clear of the Shoals. Accordingly in the Morning I set out in the
Pinnace for the Northermost and largest of the 3, accompanied by Mr.
Banks. At the same time I sent the Master in the Yawl to Leeward, to
sound between the Low Islands and the Main. In my way to the Island I
passed over a large reef of Coral Rocks and sand, which lies about 2
Leagues from the Island; I left another to leeward, which lays about 3
Miles from the Island. [On Lizard Island, Queensland.] On the North part
of this is a low, sandy Isle, with Trees upon it; on the reef we pass'd
over in the Boat we saw several Turtle, and Chased one or Two, but caught
none, it blowing too hard, and I had no time to spare, being otherways
employ'd. I did not reach the Island until half an hour after one o'Clock
in the P.M. on

Sunday, 12th, when I immediately went upon the highest hill on the
Island,* (* Lizard Island.) where, to my Mortification, I discover'd a
Reef of Rocks laying about 2 or 3 Leagues without the Island, extending
in a line North-West and South-East, farther than I could see, on which
the sea broke very high.* (* This was the outer edge of the Barrier
Reefs.) This, however, gave one great hopes that they were the outermost
shoals, as I did not doubt but what I should be able to get without them,
for there appeared to be several breaks or Partitions in the Reef, and
Deep Water between it and the Islands. I stay'd upon the Hill until near
sun set, but the weather continued so Hazey all the time that I could not
see above 4 or 5 Leagues round me, so that I came down much disappointed
in the prospect I expected to have had, but being in hopes the morning
might prove Clearer, and give me a better View of the Shoals. With this
view I stay'd all night upon the Island, and at 3 in the Morning sent the
Pinnace, with one of the Mates I had with me, to sound between the Island
and the Reefs, and to Examine one of the breaks or Channels; and in the
mean time I went again upon the Hill, where I arrived by Sun Rise, but
found it much Hazier than in the Evening. About Noon the pinnace
return'd, having been out as far as the Reef, and found from 15 to 28
fathoms water. It blow'd so hard that they durst not venture into one of
the Channels, which, the Mate said, seem'd to him to be very narrow; but
this did not discourage me, for I thought from the place he was at he
must have seen it at disadvantage. Before I quit this Island I shall
describe it. It lies, as I have before observed, about 5 Leagues from the
Main; it is about 8 Miles in Circuit, and of a height sufficient to be
seen 10 or 12 Leagues; it is mostly high land, very rocky and barren,
except on the North-West side, where there are some sandy bays and low
land, which last is covered with thin, long grass, Trees, etc., the same
as upon the Main. Here is also fresh Water in 2 places; the one is a
running stream, the water a little brackish where I tasted it, which was
close to the sea; the other is a standing pool, close behind the sandy
beach, of good, sweet water, as I daresay the other is a little way from
the Sea beach. The only land Animals we saw here were Lizards, and these
seem'd to be pretty Plenty, which occasioned my naming the Island Lizard
Island. The inhabitants of the Main visit this Island at some Seasons of
the Year, for we saw the Ruins of Several of their Hutts and heaps of
Shells, etc. South-East, 4 or 5 Miles from this Island, lay the other 2
high Islands, which are very small compared to this; and near them lay 3
others, yet smaller and lower Islands, and several Shoals or reefs,
especially to the South-East. There is, however, a clear passage from
Cape Flattery to those Islands, and even quite out to the outer Reefs,
leaving the above Islands to the South-East and Lizard Island to the
North-West.

Monday, 13th. At 2 P.M. I left Lizard Island in order to return to the
Ship, and in my way landed upon the low sandy Isle mentioned in coming
out. We found on this Island* (* Eagle Island.) a pretty number of Birds,
the most of them sea Fowl, except Eagles; 2 of the Latter we shott and
some of the others; we likewise saw some Turtles, but got none, for the
reasons before mentioned. After leaving Eagle Isle I stood South-West
direct for the Ship, sounding all the way, and had not less than 8
fathoms, nor more than 14. I had the same depth of Water between Lizard
and Eagle Isle. After I got on board the Master inform'd me he had been
down to the Islands I had directed him to go too, which he judged to lay
about 3 Leagues from the Main, and had sounded the Channel between the 2,
found 7 fathoms; this was near the Islands, for in with the Main he had
only 9 feet 3 Miles off, but without the Islands he found 10, 12, and 14
fathoms. He found upon the islands piles of turtle shells, and some finns
that were so fresh that both he and the boats' crew eat of them. This
showed that the natives must have been there lately. After well
considering both what I had seen myself and the report of the Master's, I
found by experience that by keeping in with the Mainland we should be in
continued danger, besides the risk we should run in being lock'd in with
Shoals and reefs by not finding a passage out to Leeward. In case we
persever'd in keeping the Shore on board an accident of this kind, or any
other that might happen to the ship, would infallibly loose our passage
to the East India's this Season,* (* In November the wind changes to the
North-West, which would have been a foul wind to Batavia.) and might
prove the ruin of both ourselves and the Voyage, as we have now little
more than 3 Months' Provisions on board, and that at short allowance.
Wherefore, after consulting with the Officers, I resolved to weigh in the
morning, and Endeavour to quit the Coast altogether until such time as I
found I could approach it with less danger. With this View we got under
sail at daylight in the morning, and stood out North-East for the
North-West end of Lizard Island, having Eagle Island to windward of us,
having the pinnace ahead sounding; and here we found a good Channell,
wherein we had from 9 to 14 fathoms. At Noon the North end of Lizard
Island bore East-South-East, distant one Mile; Latitude observed 14
degrees 38 minutes South; depth of water 14 fathoms. We now took the
pinnace in tow, knowing that there were no dangers until we got out to
the Reefs.* (* From the 13th to the 19th the language used in Mr.
Corner's copy of the Journal is quite different from that of the
Admiralty and the Queen's, though the occurrences are the same. From
internal evidences, it appears that Mr. Corner's copy was at this period
the first written up, and that Cook amended the phrases in the other fair
copies.)

[Pass Outside Barrier Reef, Queensland.]

Tuesday, 14th. Winds at South-East, a steady gale. By 2 P.M. we got out
to the outermost reefs, and just fetched to Windward of one of the
openings I had discover'd from the Island; we tacked and Made a short
trip to the South-West, while the Master went in the pinnace to examine
the Channel, who soon made the signal for the Ship to follow, which we
accordingly did, and in a short time got safe out. This Channel* (* Now
known as Cook's Passage.) lies North-East 1/2 North, 3 Leagues from
Lizard Island; it is about one-third of a Mile broad, and 25 or 30
fathoms deep or more. The moment we were without the breakers we had no
ground with 100 fathoms of Line, and found a large Sea rowling in from
the South-East. By this I was well assured we were got with out all the
Shoals, which gave us no small joy, after having been intangled among
Islands and Shoals, more or less, ever since the 26th of May, in which
time we have sail'd above 360 Leagues by the Lead without ever having a
Leadsman out of the Chains, when the ship was under sail; a Circumstance
that perhaps never hapned to any ship before, and yet it was here
absolutely necessary. I should have been very happy to have had it in my
power to have keept in with the land, in order to have explor'd the Coast
to the Northern extremity of the Country, which I think we were not far
off, for I firmly believe this land doth not join to New Guinea. But this
I hope soon either to prove or disprove, and the reasons I have before
assign'd will, I presume, be thought sufficient for my leaving the Coast
at this time; not but what I intend to get in with it again as soon as I
can do it with safety. The passage or channel we now came out by, which I
have named, ----* (* Blank in MS.) lies in the Latitude of 14 degrees 32
minutes South; it may always be found and known by the 3 high Islands
within it, which I have called the Islands of Direction, because by their
means a safe passage may be found even by strangers in within the Main
reef, and quite into the Main. Lizard Island, which is the Northermost
and Largest of the 3, Affords snug Anchorage under the North-West side of
it, fresh water and wood for fuel; and the low Islands and Reefs which
lay between it and the Main, abound with Turtle and other fish, which may
be caught at all Seasons of the Year (except in such blowing weather as
we have lately had). All these things considered there is, perhaps, not a
better place on the whole Coast for a Ship to refresh at than this
Island. I had forgot to mention in its proper place, that not only on
this Island, but on Eagle Island, and on several places of the Sea beach
in and about Endeavour River, we found Bamboos, Cocoa Nutts, the seeds of
some few other plants, and Pummice-stones, which were not the produce of
the Country. From what we have seen of it, it is reasonable to suppose
that they are the produce of some lands or Islands laying in the
Neighbourhood, most likely to the Eastward, and are brought hither by the
Easterly trade winds. The Islands discover'd by Quiros lies in this
parrallel, but how far to the Eastward it's hard to say; for altho' we
found in most Charts his discoveries placed as far to the West as this
country yet from the account of his Voyage, compared with what we
ourselves have seen, we are Morally certain that he never was upon any
part of this Coast.* (* The Island of Espiritu Santo, in the New
Hebrides, which Quiros discovered, lies 1200 miles to the eastward, and
New Caledonia, from which these objects might equally have come, is 1000
miles in the same direction.) As soon as we had got without the Reefs we
Shortened sail, and hoisted in the pinnace and Long boat, which last we
had hung alongside, and then stretched off East-North-East, close upon a
wind, as I did not care to stand to the Northward until we had a whole
day before us, for which reason we keept making short boards all night.
The large hollow sea we have now got into acquaints us with a
Circumstance we did not before know, which is that the Ship hath received
more Damage than we were aware of, or could perceive when in smooth
Water; for now she makes as much water as one pump will free, kept
constantly at work. However this was looked upon as trifling to the
Danger we had lately made an Escape from. At day light in the morning
Lizard Island bore South by West, distant 10 Leagues. We now made all the
sail we could, and stood away North-North-West 1/2 West, but at 9 we
steer'd North-West 1/2 North, having the advantage of a Fresh Gale at
South-East; at Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 13 degrees
46 minutes South, the Lizard Island bore South 15 degrees East, distant
58 Miles, but we had no land in sight.

Wednesday, 15th. Fresh Trade at South-East and Clear weather. At 6 in the
evening shortned sail and brought too, with her head to the North-East.
By this time we had run near 12 Leagues upon a North-West 1/2 North
Course since Noon. At 4 a.m. wore and lay her head to the South-West, and
at 6 made all Sail, and steer'd West, in order to make the land, being
fearful of over shooting the passage, supposing there to be one, between
this land and New Guinea. By noon we had run 10 Leagues upon this Course,
but saw no land. Our Latitude by observation was 13 degrees 2 minutes
South, Longitude 216 degrees 00 minutes West, which was 1 degree 23
minutes to the West of Lizard Island.

[Ship in Danger, Outside Barrier Reef.]

Thursday, 16th. Moderate breezes at East-South-East and fair weather. A
little after Noon saw the Land from the Mast head bearing
West-South-West, making high; at 2 saw more land to the North-West of the
former, making in hills like Islands; but we took it to be a Continuation
of the Main land. An hour after this we saw a reef, between us and the
land, extending away to the Southward, and, as we thought, terminated
here to the Northward abreast of us; but this was only on op'ning, for
soon after we saw it extend away to the Northward as far as we could
distinguish anything. Upon this we hauld close upon a Wind, which was now
at East-South-East, with all the sail we could set. We had hardly trimm'd
our sails before the wind came to East by North, which made our
weathering the Reef very doubtful, the Northern point of which in sight
at sun set still bore from us North by West, distant about 2 Leagues.
However, this being the best Tack to Clear it, we keept standing to the
Northward, keeping a good look out until 12 at night, when, fearing to
run too far upon one Course, we tack'd and stood to the southward, having
run 6 Leagues North or North by East since sun set; we had not stood
above 2 Miles to the South-South-East before it fell quite Calm. We both
sounded now and several times before, but had not bottom with 140 fathoms
of line.* (* The description which follows, of the situation of the ship,
and the occurrences until she was safely anchored inside the Barrier
Reef, is from the Admiralty copy, as it is much fuller than that in Mr.
Corner's.) A little after 4 o'clock the roaring of the surf was plainly
heard, and at daybreak the Vast foaming breakers were too plainly to be
seen not a mile from us, towards which we found the ship was carried by
the Waves surprisingly fast. We had at this time not an air of Wind, and
the depth of water was unfathomable, so that there was not a possibility
of anchoring. In this distressed Situation we had nothing but Providence
and the small Assistance the Boats could give us to trust to; the Pinnace
was under repair, and could not immediately be hoisted out. The Yawl was
put in the Water, and the Longboat hoisted out, and both sent ahead to
tow, which, together with the help of our sweeps abaft, got the Ship's
head round to the Northward, which seemed to be the best way to keep her
off the Reef, or at least to delay time. Before this was effected it was
6 o'clock, and we were not above 80 or 100 yards from the breakers. The
same sea that washed the side of the ship rose in a breaker prodidgiously
high the very next time it did rise, so that between us and destruction
was only a dismal Valley, the breadth of one wave, and even now no ground
could be felt with 120 fathom. The Pinnace was by this time patched up,
and hoisted out and sent ahead to Tow. Still we had hardly any hopes of
saving the ship, and full as little our lives, as we were full 10 Leagues
from the nearest Land, and the boats not sufficient to carry the whole of
us; yet in this Truly Terrible Situation not one man ceased to do his
utmost, and that with as much Calmness as if no danger had been near. All
the dangers we had escaped were little in comparison of being thrown upon
this reef, where the Ship must be dashed to pieces in a Moment. A reef
such as one speaks of here is Scarcely known in Europe. It is a Wall of
Coral Rock rising almost perpendicular out of the unfathomable Ocean,
always overflown at high Water generally 7 or 8 feet, and dry in places
at Low Water. The Large Waves of the Vast Ocean meeting with so sudden a
resistance makes a most Terrible Surf, breaking Mountains high,
especially as in our case, when the General Trade Wind blows directly
upon it. At this Critical juncture, when all our endeavours seemed too
little, a Small Air of Wind sprung up, but so small that at any other
Time in a Calm we should not have observed it. With this, and the
Assistance of our Boats, we could observe the Ship to move off from the
Reef in a slanting direction; but in less than 10 Minutes we had as flat
a Calm as ever, when our fears were again renewed, for as yet we were not
above 200 Yards from the Breakers. Soon after our friendly Breeze visited
us again, and lasted about as long as before. A Small Opening was now
Seen in the Reef about a 1/4 of a Mile from us, which I sent one of the
Mates to Examine. Its breadth was not more than the Length of the Ship,
but within was Smooth Water. Into this place it was resolved to Push her
if Possible, having no other Probable Views to save her, for we were
still in the very Jaws of distruction, and it was a doubt wether or no we
could reach this Opening. However, we soon got off it, when to our
Surprise we found the Tide of Ebb gushing out like a Mill Stream, so that
it was impossible to get in. We however took all the Advantage Possible
of it, and it Carried us out about a 1/4 of a Mile from the breakers; but
it was too Narrow for us to keep in long. However, what with the help of
this Ebb, and our Boats, we by Noon had got an Offing of 1 1/2 or 2
Miles, yet we could hardly flatter ourselves with hopes of getting Clear,
even if a breeze should Spring up, as we were by this time embay'd by the
Reef, and the Ship, in Spite of our Endeavours, driving before the Sea
into the bight. The Ebb had been in our favour, and we had reason to
Suppose the flood which was now made would be against us. The only hopes
we had was another Opening we saw about a Mile to the Westward of us,
which I sent Lieutenant Hicks in the Small Boat to Examine. Latitude
observed 12 degrees 37 minutes South, the Main Land in Sight distant
about 10 Leagues.

[Pass Again Inside Barrier Reef.]

Friday, 17th. While Mr. Hicks was Examining the opening we struggled hard
with the flood, sometime gaining a little and at other times loosing. At
2 o'Clock Mr. Hicks returned with a favourable Account of the Opening. It
was immediately resolved to Try to secure the Ship in it. Narrow and
dangerous as it was, it seemed to be the only means we had of saving her,
as well as ourselves. A light breeze soon after sprung up at
East-North-East, with which, the help of our Boats, and a Flood Tide, we
soon entered the Opening, and was hurried thro' in a short time by a
Rappid Tide like a Mill race, which kept us from driving against either
side, though the Channel was not more than a 1/4 of a Mile broad, having
2 Boats ahead of us sounding.* (* This picture of the narrow escape from
total shipwreck is very graphic. Many a ship has been lost under similar
circumstances, without any idea of anchoring, which would often save a
vessel, as it is not often that a reef is so absolutely steep; but that
Cook had this possibility in his mind is clear. As a proof of the
calmness which prevailed on board, it may be mentioned that when in the
height of the danger, Mr. Green, Mr. Clerke, and Mr. Forwood the gunner,
were engaged in taking a Lunar, to obtain the longitude. The note in Mr.
Green's log is: "These observations were very good, the limbs of sun and
moon very distinct, and a good horizon. We were about 100 yards from the
reef, where we expected the ship to strike every minute, it being calm,
no soundings, and the swell heaving us right on.") Our deepth of water
was from 30 to 7 fathoms; very irregular soundings and foul ground until
we had got quite within the Reef, where we Anchor'd in 19 fathoms, a
Coral and Shelly bottom. The Channel we came in by, which I have named
Providential Channell, bore East-North-East, distant 10 or 12 Miles,
being about 8 or 9 Leagues from the Main land, which extended from North
66 degrees West to South-West by South.

It is but a few days ago that I rejoiced at having got without the Reef;
but that joy was nothing when Compared to what I now felt at being safe
at an Anchor within it. Such are the Visissitudes attending this kind of
Service, and must always attend an unknown Navigation where one steers
wholy in the dark without any manner of Guide whatever. Was it not from
the pleasure which Naturly results to a man from his being the first
discoverer, even was it nothing more than Land or Shoals, this kind of
Service would be insupportable, especially in far distant parts like
this, Short of Provisions and almost every other necessary. People will
hardly admit of an excuse for a Man leaving a Coast unexplored he has
once discovered. If dangers are his excuse, he is then charged with
Timerousness and want of Perseverance, and at once pronounced to be the
most unfit man in the world to be employ'd as a discoverer; if, on the
other hand, he boldly encounters all the dangers and Obstacles he meets
with, and is unfortunate enough not to succeed, he is then Charged with
Temerity, and, perhaps, want of Conduct. The former of these Aspersions,
I am confident, can never be laid to my Charge, and if I am fortunate to
Surmount all the Dangers we meet with, the latter will never be brought
in Question; altho' I must own that I have engaged more among the Islands
and Shoals upon this Coast than perhaps in prudence I ought to have done
with a single Ship* (* Cook was so impressed with the danger of one ship
alone being engaged in these explorations, that in his subsequent voyages
he asked for, and obtained, two vessels.) and every other thing
considered. But if I had not I should not have been able to give any
better account of the one half of it than if I had never seen it; at
best, I should not have been able to say wether it was Mainland or
Islands; and as to its produce, that we should have been totally ignorant
of as being inseparable with the other; and in this case it would have
been far more satisfaction to me never to have discover'd it. But it is
time I should have done with this Subject, which at best is but
disagreeable, and which I was lead into on reflecting on our late
Dangers.

In the P.M., as the wind would not permit us to sail out by the same
Channel as we came in, neither did I care to move until the pinnace was
in better repair, I sent the Master with all the other Boats to the Reef
to get such refreshments as he could find, and in the meantime the
Carpenters were repairing the pinnace. Variations by the Amplitude and
Azimuth in the morning 4 degrees 9 minutes Easterly; at noon Latitude
observed 12 degrees 38 minutes South, Longitude in 216 degrees 45 minutes
West. It being now about low water, I and some other of the officers went
to the Masthead to see what we could discover. Great part of the reef
without us was dry, and we could see an Opening in it about two Leagues
farther to the South-East than the one we came in by; we likewise saw 2
large spots of sand to the Southward within the Reef, but could see
nothing to the Northward between it and the Main. On the Mainland within
us was a pretty high promontary, which I called Cape Weymouth (Latitude
12 degrees 42 minutes South, Longitude 217 degrees 15 minutes); and on
the North-West side of this Cape is a Bay, which I called Weymouth Bay.*
(* Viscount Weymouth was one of the Secretaries of State when the
Endeavour sailed.)

Saturday, 18th. Gentle breezes at East and East-South-East. At 4 P.M. the
Boats return'd from the Reef with about 240 pounds of Shell-fish, being
the Meat of large Cockles, exclusive of the Shells. Some of these Cockles
are as large as 2 Men can move, and contain about 20 pounds of Meat, very
good. At 6 in the morning we got under sail, and stood away to the
North-West, as we could not expect a wind to get out to Sea by the same
Channel as we came in without waiting perhaps a long time for it, nor was
it advisable at this time to go without the Shoals, least we should by
them be carried so far off the Coast as not to be able to determine
wether or no New Guinea joins to or makes a part of this land. This
doubtful point I had from my first coming upon the Coast, determined, if
Possible, to clear up; I now came to a fix'd resolution to keep the Main
land on board, let the Consequence be what it will, and in this all the
Officers concur'd. In standing to the North-West we met with very
irregular soundings, from 10 to 27 fathoms, varying 5 or 6 fathoms almost
every Cast of the Lead. However, we keept on having a Boat ahead
sounding. A little before noon we passed a low, small, sandy Isle, which
we left on our Starboard side at the distance of 2 Miles. At the same
time we saw others, being part of large Shoals above water, away to the
North-East and between us and the Main land. At Noon we were by
observation in the Latitude of 12 degrees 28 minutes South, and 4 or 5
Leagues from the Main, which extended from South by West to North 71
degrees West, and some Small Islands extending from North 40 degrees West
to North 54 degrees West, the Main or outer Reef seen from the Masthead
away to the North-East.

[Amongst Shoals off Cape Grenville.]

Sunday, 19th. Gentle breezes at South-East by East and Clear wether. At 2
P.M., as we were steering North-West by North, saw a large shoal right
ahead, extending 3 or 4 points on each bow, upon which we hauld up
North-North-East and North-East by North, in order to get round to North
Point of it, which we reached by 4 o'clock, and then Edged away to the
westward, and run between the North end of this Shoal and another, which
lays 2 miles to the Northward of it, having a Boat all the time ahead
sounding. Our depth of Water was very irregular, from 22 to 8 fathoms. At
1/2 past 6 we Anchor'd in 13 fathoms; the Northermost of the Small
Islands mentioned at Noon bore West 1/2 South, distant 3 Miles. These
Islands, which are known in the Chart by the name of Forbes's Isles,* (*
Admiral John Forbes was a Commissioner of Longitude in 1768, and had been
a Lord of the Admiralty from 1756 to 1763.) lay about 5 Leagues from the
Main, which here forms a moderate high point, which we called Bolt head,
from which the Land trends more westerly, and is all low, sandy Land, but
to the Southward it is high and hilly, even near the Sea. At 6 A.M. we
got under sail, and directed our Course for an Island which lay but a
little way from the Main, and bore from us at this time North 40 degrees
West, distant 5 Leagues; but we were soon interrupted in our Course by
meeting with Shoals, but by the help of 2 Boats ahead and a good lookout
at the Mast head we got at last into a fair Channel, which lead us down
to the Island, having a very large Shoal on our Starboard side and
several smaller ones betwixt us and the Main land. In this Channel we had
from 20 to 30 fathoms. Between 11 and 12 o'Clock we hauld round the
North-East side of the Island, leaving it between us and the Main from
which it is distant 7 or 8 Miles. This Island is about a League in
Circuit and of a moderate height, and is inhabited; to the North-West of
it are several small, low Islands and Keys, which lay not far from the
Main, and to the Northward and Eastward lay several other Islands and
Shoals, so that we were now incompassed on every side by one or the
other, but so much does a great danger Swallow up lesser ones, that these
once so much dreaded spots were now looked at with less concern. The
Boats being out of their Stations, we brought too to wait for them. At
Noon our Latitude by observation was 12 degrees 0 minutes South,
Longitude in 217 degrees 25 minutes West; depth of Water 14 fathoms;
Course and distance sail'd, reduced to a strait line, since yesterday
Noon is North 29 degrees West, 32 Miles. The Main land within the above
Islands forms a point, which I call Cape Grenville* (* George Grenville
was First Lord of the Admiralty for a few months in 1763, and afterwards
Prime Minister for two years.) (Latitude 11 degrees 58 minutes, Longitude
217 degrees 38 minutes); between this Cape and the Bolt head is a Bay,
which I Named Temple Bay.* (* Richard Earl Temple, brother of George
Grenville, was First Lord of the Admiralty in 1756.) East 1/2 North, 9
Leagues from Cape Grenville, lay some tolerable high Islands, which I
called Sir Charles Hardy's Isles;* (* Admiral Sir C. Hardy was second in
command in Hawke's great action in Quiberon Bay, 1759.) those which lay
off the Cape I named Cockburn Isles.* (* Admiral George Cockburn was a
Commissioner of Longitude and Comptroller of the Navy when Cook left
England. Off Cape Grenville the Endeavour again got into what is now the
recognised channel along the land inside the reefs.)

[Nearing Cape York, Queensland.]

Monday, 20th. Fresh breezes at East-South-East. About one P.M. the
pinnace having got ahead, and the Yawl we took in Tow, we fill'd and
Steer'd North by West, for some small Islands we had in that direction.
After approaching them a little nearer we found them join'd or connected
together by a large Reef; upon this we Edged away North-West, and left
them on our Starboard hand, steering between them and the Island laying
off the Main, having a fair and Clear Passage; Depth of Water from 15 to
23 fathoms. At 4 we discover'd some low Islands and Rocks bearing
West-North-West, which we stood directly for. At half Past 6 we Anchor'd
on the North-East side of the Northermost, in 16 fathoms, distant from
the Island one Mile. This Isle lay North-West 4 Leagues from Cape
Grenville. On the Isles we saw a good many Birds, which occasioned my
calling them Bird Isles. Before and at Sunset we could see the Main land,
which appear'd all very low and sandy, Extends as far to the Northward as
North-West by North, and some Shoals, Keys, and low sandy Isles away to
the North-East of us. At 6 A.M. we got again under sail, with a fresh
breeze at East, and stood away North-North-West for some low Islands* (*
Boydong Keys.) we saw in that direction; but we had not stood long upon
this Course before we were obliged to haul close upon a wind in Order to
weather a Shoal which we discover'd on our Larboard bow, having at the
same time others to the Eastward of us. By such time as we had weathered
the Shoal to Leeward we had brought the Islands well upon our Leebow; but
seeing some Shoals spit off from them, and some rocks on our Starboard
bow, which we did not discover until we were very near them, made me
afraid to go to windward of the Islands; wherefore we brought too, and
made the signal for the pinnace, which was a head, to come on board,
which done, I sent her to Leeward of the Islands, with Orders to keep
along the Edge off the Shoal, which spitted off from the South side of
the Southermost Island. The Yawl I sent to run over the Shoals to look
for Turtle, and appointed them a Signal to make in case they saw many; if
not, she was to meet us on the other side of the Island. As soon as the
pinnace had got a proper distance from us we wore, and stood After her,
and run to Leeward of the Islands, where we took the Yawl in Tow, she
having seen only one small Turtle, and therefore made no Stay upon the
Shoal. Upon this Island, which is only a Small Spott of Land, with some
Trees upon it, we saw many Hutts and habitations of the Natives, which we
supposed come over from the Main to these Islands (from which they are
distant about 5 Leagues) to Catch Turtle at the time these Animals come
ashore to lay their Eggs. Having got the Yawl in Tow, we stood away after
the pinnace North-North-East and North by East to 2 other low Islands,
having 2 Shoals, which we could see without and one between us and the
Main. At Noon we were about 4 Leagues from the Main land, which we could
see Extending to the Northward as far as North-West by North, all low,
flat, and Sandy. Our Latitude by observation was 11 degrees 23 minutes
South, Longitude in 217 degrees 46 minutes West, and Course and distance
sail'd since Yesterday at Noon North 22 degrees West, 40 Miles; soundings
from 14 to 23 fathoms. But these are best seen upon the Chart, as
likewise the Islands, Shoals, etc., which are too Numerous to be
Mentioned singly.* (* It is very difficult to follow Cook's track after
entering Providential Channel to this place. The shoals and islands were
so confusing that their positions are very vaguely laid down on Cook's
chart. It is easy to imagine how slow was his progress and tortuous his
course, with a boat ahead all the time constantly signalling shallow
water. Nothing is more trying to officers and men.)

Tuesday, 21st. Winds at East by South and East-South-East, fresh breeze.
By one o'Clock we had run nearly the length of the Southermost of the 2
Islands before mentioned, and finding that we could not well go to
windward of them without carrying us too far from the Main land, we bore
up, and run to Leeward, where we found a fair open passage. This done, we
steer'd North by West, in a parrallel direction with the Main land,
leaving a small Island between us and it, and some low sandy Isles and
Shoals without us, all of which we lost sight of by 4 o'Clock; neither
did we see any more before the sun went down, at which time the farthest
part of the Main in sight bore North-North-West 1/2 West. Soon after this
we Anchor'd in 13 fathoms, soft Ground, about five Leagues from the Land,
where we lay until day light, when we got again under sail, having first
sent the Yawl ahead to sound. We steer'd North-North-West by Compass from
the Northermost land in sight; Variation 3 degrees 6 minutes East. Seeing
no danger in our way we took the Yawl in Tow, and made all the Sail we
could until 8 o'Clock, at which time we discover'd Shoals ahead and on
our Larboard bow, and saw that the Northermost land, which we had taken
to be a part of the Main, was an Island, or Islands,* (*Now called Mount
Adolphus Islands.) between which and the Main their appeared to be a good
Passage thro' which we might pass by running to Leeward of the Shoals on
our Larboard bow, which was now pretty near us. Whereupon we wore and
brought too, and sent away the Pinnace and Yawl to direct us clear of the
Shoals, and then stood after them. Having got round the South-East point
of the Shoal we steer'd North-West along the South-West, or inside of it,
keeping a good lookout at the Masthead, having another Shoal on our
Larboard side; but we found a good Channel of a Mile broad between them,
wherein were from 10 to 14 fathoms. At 11 o'Clock, being nearly the
length of the Islands above mentioned, and designing to pass between them
and the Main, the Yawl, being thrown a stern by falling in upon a part of
the Shoal, She could not get over. We brought the Ship too, and Sent away
the Long boat (which we had a stern, and rigg'd) to keep in Shore upon
our Larboard bow, and the Pinnace on our Starboard; for altho' there
appear'd nothing in the Passage, yet I thought it necessary to take this
method, because we had a strong flood, which carried us on end very fast,
and it did not want much of high water. As soon as the Boats were ahead
we stood after them, and got through by noon, at which time we were by
observation in the Latitude of 10 degrees 36 minutes 30 seconds South.
The nearest part of the Main, and which we soon after found to be the
Northermost,* (* Cape York, the northernmost point of Australia.) bore
West southerly, distant 3 or 4 Miles; the Islands which form'd the
passage before mentioned extending from North to North 75 degrees East,
distant 2 or 3 Miles. At the same time we saw Islands at a good distance
off extending from North by West to West-North-West, and behind them
another chain of high land, which we likewise judged to be Islands.* (*
The islands around Thursday Island.) The Main land we thought extended as
far as North 71 degrees West; but this we found to be Islands. The point
of the Main, which forms one side of the Passage before mentioned, and
which is the Northern Promontory of this Country, I have named York Cape,
in honour of his late Royal Highness, the Duke of York.* (* Edward
Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was a brother of George III.) It lies
in the Longitude of 218 degrees 24 minutes West, the North point in the
Latitude of 10 degrees 37 minutes South, and the East point in 10 degrees
41 minutes. The land over and to the Southward of this last point is
rather low and very flatt as far inland as the Eye could reach, and looks
barren. To the Southward of the Cape the Shore forms a large open bay,
which I called Newcastle bay, wherein are some small, low Islands and
shoals, and the land all about it is very low, flatt, and sandy. The land
on the Northern part of the Cape is rather more hilly, and the shore
forms some small bays, wherein there appear'd to be good Anchorage, and
the Vallies appear'd to be tolerably well Cloathed with wood. Close to
the East point of the Cape are 3 small Islands, and a small Ledge of
rocks spitting off from one of them. There is also an Island laying close
to the North Point. The other Islands before spoke of lay about 4 Miles
without these; only two of them are of any extent. The Southermost is the
largest, and much higher than any part of the Main land. On the
North-West side of this Island seem'd to be good Anchorage, and Vallies
that to all appearance would afford both wood and fresh Water. These
Isles are known in the Chart by the name of York Isles.* (* Now called
Mount Adolphus Islands.) To the Southward and South-East of them, and
even to the Eastward and Northward, are several low Islands, rocks, and
Shoals. Our depth of Water in sailing between them and the Main was 12,
13, and 14 fathoms.* (* In this channel is the dangerous rock on which
the steamship Quetta was wrecked, with such terrible loss of life, in
1890. By the Endeavour's track she must have passed very near it.)

[Land upon Possession Island.]

Wednesday, 22nd. Gentle breezes at East by South and clear weather. We
had not steer'd above 3 or 4 Miles along shore to the westward before we
discover'd the land ahead to be Islands detached by several Channels from
the main land; upon this we brought too to Wait for the Yawl, and called
the other Boats on board, and after giving them proper instructions, sent
them away again to lead us thro' the Channell next the Main, and as soon
as the Yawl was on board made sail after them with the Ship. Soon after
we discover'd rocks and Shoals in this Channell, upon which I made the
Signal for the boats to lead thro' the next Channel to the Northward* (*
This led to Endeavour Strait, but the recognised track is the channel
farther north.) laying between the Islands, which they accordingly did,
we following with the Ship, and had not less than 5 fathoms; and this in
the narrowest part of the Channel, which was about a Mile and a 1/2 broad
from Island to Island. At 4 o'Clock we Anchor'd about a Mile and a 1/2 or
2 Miles within the Entrance in 6 1/2 fathoms, clear ground, distance from
the Islands on each side of us one Mile, the Main land extending away to
the South-West; the farthest point of which we could see bore from us
South 48 degrees West, and the Southermost point of the Islands, on the
North-West side of the Passage, bore South 76 degrees West. Between these
2 points we could see no land, so that we were in great hopes that we had
at last found out a Passage into the Indian seas; but in order to be
better informed I landed with a party of men, accompanied by Mr. Banks
and Dr. Solander, upon the Islands which lies at the South-East point of
the Passage. Before and after we Anchor'd we saw a Number of People upon
this Island, Arm'd in the same manner as all the others we have seen,
Except one man, who had a bow and a bundle of Arrows, the first we have
seen upon this Coast. From the appearance of the people we expected they
would have opposed our landing; but as we approached the shore they all
made off, and left us in peaceable possession of as much of the Island as
served our purpose. After landing I went upon the highest hill, which,
however, was of no great height, yet no less than twice or thrice the
height of the Ship's Mastheads; but I could see from it no land between
South-West and West-South-West, so that I did not doubt but there was a
passage. I could see plainly that the lands laying to the North-West of
this passage were compos'd of a number of Islands of Various extent, both
for height and Circuit, ranged one behind another as far to the Northward
and Westward as I could see, which could not be less than 12 or 14
Leagues.

Having satisfied myself of the great Probability of a passage, thro'
which I intend going with the Ship, and therefore may land no more upon
this Eastern coast of New Holland, and on the Western side I can make no
new discovery, the honour of which belongs to the Dutch Navigators, but
the Eastern Coast from the Latitude of 38 degrees South down to this
place, I am confident, was never seen or Visited by any European before
us; and notwithstanding I had in the Name of his Majesty taken possession
of several places upon this Coast, I now once More hoisted English
Colours, and in the Name of His Majesty King George the Third took
possession of the whole Eastern coast from the above Latitude down to
this place by the Name of New Wales,* (* The Admiralty copy, as well as
that belonging to Her Majesty, calls it New South Wales. The island where
the ceremony was performed was named on Cook's chart Possession Island,
and is still so called.) together with all the Bays, Harbours, Rivers,
and Islands, situated upon the said Coast; after which we fired 3 Volleys
of small Arms, which were answer'd by the like number from the Ship.

This done, we set out for the Ship, but were some time in getting on
board on account of a very Rapid Ebb Tide, which set North-East out of
the Passage. Ever since we came in amongst the Shoals this last time we
have found a Moderate Tide; the flood setting to the North-West and Ebb
to the South-East; at this place is high water at full and change of the
moon, about 1 or 2 o'Clock, and riseth and falleth upon a perpendicular
about 10 or 12 feet. We saw upon all the Adjacent Lands and Islands a
great number of smokes--a certain sign that they are inhabited--and we
have daily seen smokes on every part of the Coast we have lately been
upon. Between 7 and 8 o'Clock a.m. we saw several naked people, all or
most of them Women, down upon the beach picking up Shells, etc.; they had
not a single rag of any kind of Cloathing upon them, and both these and
those we saw yesterday were in every respect the same sort of People we
have seen everywhere upon the Coast. 2 or 3 of the Men we saw Yesterday
had on pretty large breast plates, which we supposed were made of pearl
Oyster Shells; this was a thing, as well as the Bow and Arrows, we had
not seen before. At low water, which hapned about 10 o'Clock, we got
under sail, and stood to the South-West, with a light breeze at East,
which afterwards veer'd to North by East, having the Pinnace ahead; depth
of Water from 6 to 10 fathoms, except in one place, were we passed over a
Bank of 5 fathoms. At Noon Possession Island, at the South-East entrance
of the Passage, bore North 53 degrees East, distant 4 Leagues; the
Western extream of the Main land in sight South 43 degrees West, distant
4 or 5 Leagues, being all exceeding low. The South-West point of the
largest Island* (* Prince of Wales Island.) on the North-West side of the
passage bore North 71 degrees West, distant 8 Miles; this point I named
Cape Cornwall (Latitude 10 degrees 43 minutes South, Longitude 218
degrees 59 minutes West),* (* This longitude is 70 minutes too far west,
and one of the worst given in the Journal. There were no observations,
and the dead reckoning among the shoals was difficult to keep.) and some
low Islands lying about the Middle of the Passage, which I called
Wallace's Isles, bore West by South 1/2 South, distance about 2 Leagues.
Our Latitude by Observation was 10 degrees 46 minutes South.

[In Endeavour Strait, Torres Strait.]

Thursday, 23rd. In the P.M. had little wind and Variable, with which and
the Tide of Flood we keept advancing to the West-North-West; depth of
Water 8, 7, and 5 fathoms. At 1/2 past 1 the pinnace, which was ahead,
made the Signal for Shoal Water, upon which we Tackt and sent away the
Yawl to sound also, and then Tack'd again, and stood after them with the
Ship; 2 hours after this they both at once made the Signal for having
Shoal water. I was afraid to stand on for fear of running aground at that
time of the Tide, and therefore came to an Anchor in 1/4 less 7 fathoms,
sandy ground. Wallice's Islands bore South by West 1/2 West, distant 5 or
6 Miles, the Islands to the Northward extending from North 73 degrees
East to North 10 degrees East, and a small island* (* Booby Island.) just
in sight bearing North-West 1/2 West. Here we found the flood Tide set to
the Westward and Ebb to the Contrary. After we had come to Anchor I sent
away the Master with the Long boat to sound, who, upon his return in the
evening, reported that there was a bank stretching North and South, upon
which were 3 fathoms Water, and behind it 7 fathoms. We had it Calm all
Night and until 9 in the morning, at which time we weigh'd, with a light
breeze at South-South-East, and steer'd North-West by West for the Small
Island above mentioned, having first sent the Boats ahead to sound; depth
of Water 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, and 3 fathoms when upon the Bank,* (* The
Endeavour Strait is now little used, on account of this great bank, which
nearly bars its western part. There is, however, deeper water than Cook
found, a few miles to the southward; but it is just the difficulty of
finding this narrow pass, so far from land, and the fact that there is a
deep though narrow channel north of Prince of Wales Island, that has
caused it to be abandoned. The passage of Torres Strait is, however,
still an anxious bit of navigation.) it being now the last Quarter Ebb.
At this time the most Northermost Islands we had in sight bore North 9
degrees East; the South-West point of the largest Islands on the
North-West side of the Passage, which I named Cape Cornwall, bore East;
distant 3 Leagues. This bank, at least so much as we sounded, extends
nearly North and South, how far I cannot say; its breadth, however, is
not more than 1/4 or at most 1/2 a Mile. Being over the Bank, we deepned
our water to a 1/4 less 7 fathoms, which depth we carried all the way to
the small Island ahead, which we reached by Noon, at which time it bore
South, distant near 1/2 a Mile; depth of Water 5 fathoms. The most
northermost land we had in sight (being part of the same Chain of Islands
we have had to the Northward of us since we entered the Passage) bore
North 71 degrees East; Latitude in, by Observation, 10 degrees 33 minutes
South, Longitude 219 degrees 22 minutes West. In this situation we had no
part of the Main land in sight. Being now near the island, and having but
little wind, Mr. Banks and I landed upon it, and found it to be mostly a
barren rock frequented by Birds, such as Boobies, a few of which we
shott, and occasioned my giving it the name of Booby Island.* (* Booby
Island is now the great landmark for ships making Torres Strait from the
westward. There is a light upon it.) I made but very short stay at this
Island before I return'd to the Ship; in the meantime the wind had got to
the South-West, and although it blow'd but very faint, yet it was
accompanied with a Swell from the same quarter. This, together with other
concuring Circumstances, left me no room to doubt but we had got to the
Westward of Carpentaria, or the Northern extremity of New Holland, and
had now an open Sea to the Westward; which gave me no small satisfaction,
not only because the danger and fatigues of the Voyage was drawing near
to an end, but by being able to prove that New Holland and New Guinea are
2 separate Lands or Islands, which until this day hath been a doubtful
point with Geographers.* (* Luis Vaez de Torres, commanding a Spanish
ship in company with Quiros in 1605, separated from his companion in the
New Hebrides. He afterwards passed through the Strait separating New
Guinea from Australia, which now bears his name. This fact, however, was
little known, as the Spaniards suppressed all account of the voyage; and
though it leaked out later, the report was so vague that it was very much
doubted whether he had really passed this way. On most charts and maps of
the period, New Guinea was shown joined to Australia, and to Cook the
establishment of the Strait may fairly be given. Only the year before
Bougainville, the French navigator, who preceded Cook across the Pacific,
and who was steering across the Coral Sea on a course which would have
led him to Lizard Island, abandoned his search in that direction, after
falling in with two reefs to the eastward of the Barrier, because he
feared falling amongst other shoals, and had no faith whatever in the
reports of the existence of Torres Strait. Had he persevered, he would
have snatched from Cook the honour of the complete exploration of Eastern
Australia, and of the verification of the passage between it and New
Guinea. Bougainville paid dearly for his caution, as he found that
retracing his steps against the trade wind, in order to pass eastward and
northward of New Guinea, occupied such a weary time, that he and his
people were nearly starved before they reached a place of refreshment.)

[Description of Endeavour Strait.]

The North-East entrance of this passage or Strait lies in the Latitude of
10 degrees 27 minutes South, and in the Longitude of 218 degrees 36
minutes West from the Meridian of Greenwich.* (* As before mentioned,
this longitude is over a degree in error. The sun was not available for
lunars until the 24th August, and the first was observed on the 25th,
when the ship was at Booby Island; but the result is not recorded in Mr.
Green's log. Mr. Green was at this time ill. The latitude is a clerical
error for 10.37, which Cook's chart shows, and is nearly correct.) It is
form'd by the Main, or the northern extremity of New Holland, on the
South-East, and by a Congeries of Islands to North-West, which I named
Prince of Wales's Islands. It is very Probable that the Islands extend
quite to New Guinea;* (* This conjecture was very near the truth. The
whole of Torres Strait is obstructed by either islands or reefs that
leave very little passage.) they are of Various Extent both for height
and Circuit, and many of them seem'd to be indifferently well Cloath'd
with wood, etc., and, from the smokes we saw, some, if not all of them,
must be inhabited. It is also very probable that among these Islands are
as good, if not better, passages than the one we have come thro', altho'
one need hardly wish for a better, was the access to it from the Eastward
less dangerous; but this difficulty will remain until some better way is
found out than the one we came, which no doubt may be done was it ever to
become an object to be looked for.* (* It is the western and not the
eastern approach of Endeavour Strait that forms the difficulty, now the
locality has been charted, for vessels of deeper draught than the
Endeavour; though for small craft, as Cook says, you can hardly wish for
a better.) The northern Extent of the Main or outer reef, which limit or
bounds the Shoals to the Eastward, seems to be the only thing wanting to
Clear up this point; and this was a thing I had neither time nor
inclination to go about, having been already sufficiently harrass'd with
dangers without going to look for more.* (* The east coast of Australia,
which Cook had now followed from end to end, is 2000 miles in extent. He
took four months over it, much less time than he had given to New
Zealand; but this is easily accounted for. His people were getting worn
out, and he was haunted by fears of not getting off the coast before the
North-West monsoon set in, which would have been a foul wind for him in
getting from Torres Straits to Batavia, and his provisions were running
short. Besides this, there was the grave doubt whether Australia and New
Guinea were really separated. If this turned out to be false, there was a
long round to make, back to the eastern extremity of the latter, and the
voyage to Batavia would have been infinitely extended. Considering these
circumstances, Cook's exploration of the coast was wonderful, and the
charts attached to this book attest the skill and unwearied pains taken
in mapping it from such a cursory glance. He only stopped at four places:
Botany Bay, Bustard Bay, Thirsty Sound, and the Endeavour River; and from
the neighbourhood of these, with the view obtained as he coasted along,
he had to form his opinion of the country--an opinion, as we shall see,
singularly correct.)

This passage, which I have named Endeavour Straits, after the Name of the
Ship, is in length North-East and South-West 10 Leagues, and about 5
leagues broad, except at the North-East entrance, where it is only 2
Miles broad by reason of several small Islands which lay there, one of
which, called Possession Island, is of a Moderate height and Circuit;
this we left between us and the Main, passing between it and 2 Small
round Islands, which lay North-West 2 Miles from it. There are also 2
Small low Islands, called Wallice's Isles,* (* These are probably called
after Captain Wallis, who made a voyage across the Pacific in the Dolphin
in 1767, and discovered Tahiti.) laying in the Middle of the South-West
entrance, which we left to the southward; the depth of Water we found in
the Straits was from 4 to 9 fathoms. Every where good Anchorage, only
about 2 Leagues to the Northward of Wallice's Islands is a Bank, whereon
is not more than 3 fathoms at low Water, but probable there might be
found more was it sought for. I have not been particular in describing
this Strait, no more than I have been in pointing out the respective
Situations of the Islands, Shoals, etc., on the Coast of New Wales; for
these I refer to the Chart, where they are deliniated with all the
accuracy that Circumstances would admit of.

With respect to the Shoals that lay upon this Coast I must observe, for
the benefit of those who may come after me, that I do not believe the one
1/2 of them are laid down in my Chart; for it would be Absurd to suppose
that we Could see or find them all. And the same thing may in some
Measure be said of the Islands, especially between the Latitude of 20 and
22 degrees, where we saw Islands out at Sea as far as we could
distinguish any thing. However, take the Chart in general, and I believe
it will be found to contain as few Errors as most Sea Charts which have
not undergone a thorough correction.* (* Cook's pride in his chart is
well justified, as its general accuracy is marvellous, when one considers
that he simply sailed along the coast. The great feature of this shore,
however--the Barrier Reef--only appears on it at its northern end, where
its approach to the land caused Cook to make such unpleasant acquaintance
with it. See charts.) The Latitude and Longitude of all, or most of, the
principal head lands, Bays, etc., may be relied on, for we seldom fail'd
of getting an Observation every day to correct our Latitude by, and the
Observation for settling the Longitude were no less Numerous, and made as
often as the Sun and Moon came in play; so that it was impossible for any
Material error to creep into our reckoning in the intermediate times. In
justice to Mr. Green,* (* From this phrase, and from various remarks in
Mr. Green's own log, it would appear that Mr. Green was not very easy to
get on with; but there is no doubt of his un