Infomotions, Inc.Forest Roads / Black, Charles Bertram



Author: Black, Charles Bertram
Title: Forest Roads
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): ajaccio; headnote; sartene; bastia; corsica; calvi; corte; frs; pop; alla leccia; ponte alla; ponte; road; cap corse; forest; inn; diligence; miles; map; valley; chestnut trees; island; village; farther
Contributor(s): Morlock, Frank J. [Translator]
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Title: Itinerary through Corsica
       by its Rail, Carriage & Forest Roads


Author: Charles Bertram Black



Release Date: November 20, 2006  [eBook #19882]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-646-US (US-ASCII)


***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ITINERARY THROUGH CORSICA***


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Transcriber's note:

      The printed book carried two kinds of headnote: keyword and
      mileage.

      "Keyword" headers, noting the places and subjects mentioned
      on the page, have been placed before the most appropriate
      paragraph.

      Each itinerary gives the "miles from" {starting point} and
      "miles to" {ending point}, with the numbers themselves printed
      in the left and right corners of each paragraph. For this
      e-text the numbers are shown in braces before the beginning
      of each paragraph; the place names are given at the beginning
      of the itinerary, and repeated as needed. Paragraphs
      describing side exursions do not have mileage information.

      Additional transcriber's notes are at the end of the book.





CORSICA.

[Map:
Sketch Map of the Riviera and Corsica]


       *       *       *       *       *


New Editions of Guide-Books for
France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal
and the Channel Islands.

Copiously Illustrated with Maps and Plans.


NORTH-FRANCE--From the North Sea to the Loire, exclusive of Paris, and
  from the Bay of Biscay to the Rhine. 19 Maps and 21 Plans          7/6

SOUTH-FRANCE--From the Loire to the Mediterranean, and from the Bay of
  Biscay to the rivers Arno and Po. The island of Corsica. 40 Maps and
  27 Plans                                                           7/6

_Published also in separate Parts._

North-France, WEST-HALF, or NORMANDY, BRITTANY and TOURAINE. 14 Maps
  and 16 Plans. Eighth Edition                                       5/

NORMANDY: Its CASTLES and CHURCHES. Second Edition. 5 Maps and 9 Plans
                                                                     2/6

North-France, EAST-HALF, or PICARDY, CHAMPAGNE, LORRAINE, ALSACE and
  part of BURGUNDY. 5 Plans and 5 Maps. Third Edition                2/6

South-France, WEST-HALF. The SUMMER RESORTS in the PYRENEES; LUCHON,
  BIGORRE, BAREGES, etc.; the WINTER RESORTS of PAU, ARCACHON, BIARRITZ,
  ST. JEAN-DE-LUZ, VERNET, AMELIE-LES-BAINS and MALAGA, and the
  CLARET-WINE VINEYARDS in MEDOC. 17 Maps and 4 Plans. Fourth Edition
                                                                     2/6

South-France, EAST-HALF, or the VALLEYS of the WALDENSES, of the
  RHONE, the DURANCE and the UPPER LOIRE; the Baths of VICHY,
  AIX-LES-BAINS, ROYAT, VALS, MONT-DORE, BOURBOULE, BOURBON-LANCY,
  ACQUI, LUCCA, VALDIERI, etc.; the VOLCANIC REGION OF ARDECHE; the
  MOUNTAIN-PASSES between FRANCE and ITALY; and the RIVIERA of the
  MEDITERRANEAN from MARSEILLES to LEGHORN. 20 Plans and 21 Maps.
  Fourth Edition                                                     5/

THE RIVIERA, or the MEDITERRANEAN from MARSEILLES to LEGHORN,
  including the inland towns of PISA, LUCCA, CARRARA and FLORENCE,
  and Excursions into the MARITIME ALPS. Fourth Edition. 10 Plans and
  13 Maps                                                            2/6

CORSICA, its Rail, Carriage and Forest Roads, with 6 Maps from the
  latest authorities. Second Edition                                 1/

BELGIUM, its CHURCHES, CHIMES and BATTLEFIELDS. 9 Plans and 4 Maps
                                                                     2/6

NORTH-FRANCE (East-Half) and BELGIUM in One Volume, including a
  part of HOLLAND. Convenient for those going to Aix-la-Chapelle, Spa,
  Vittel, Contrexeville, or any of the Bathing Stations on the North Sea
                                                                     5/

HANDBOOK for the CAR-TOURIST in the pleasant Islands of JERSEY,
  GUERNSEY and ALDERNEY. Maps and Plans. Second Edition              1/

SPAIN and PORTUGAL. (O'SHEA.) Seventh Edition. Edited by JOHN LOMAS.
  Crown 8vo. Maps and Plans                                         15/


From "Scotsman," June 2, 1884.

_"C. B. Black's Guide-books have a character of their own; and that
character is a good one. Their author has made himself personally
acquainted with the localities with which he deals in a manner in which
only a man of leisure, a lover of travel, and an intelligent observer of
Continental life could afford to do. He does not 'get up' the places as
a mere hack guide-book writer is often, by the necessity of the case,
compelled to do. Hence he is able to correct common mistakes, and to
supply information on minute points of much interest apt to be
overlooked by the hurried observer."_



       *       *       *       *       *



ITINERARY THROUGH CORSICA

by Its Rail, Carriage & Forest Roads

by

C. B. BLACK

Illustrated by Five Maps and One Plan







[Illustration: Moor's Head]



Edinburgh
Adam and Charles Black
1888




CONTENTS: CORSICA.

  [Transcriber's Note:
  The four pages consisting of the Contents and List of Illustrations
  appeared twice in the original text, first as pgs. v-viii, then as
  pgs. xv-xviii. (The intervening pages are absent.) The text and layout
  are identical except that the first group is headed "Contents", the
  second "Corsica." The repeated text has been omitted here.]

                                                                    Page

Corsica. --Position --Extent --Population --Highest Mountains
  --Forests --Vegetation --Aspect --Climate --Steamboats               1

Ajaccio. --Hotels --Cabs --Napoleon's Birthplace --Memorial
  Chapel --Chapel of San Antonio --Chapelle Greco --Fontaine du
  Salario --Family Sepulchral Chapels --Climate --Fair of
  St. Pancras --Water Carriers --Curiosities                           3

Ajaccio to Bastia by Corte. --This road traverses the centre
  of the island diagonally, exhibits every characteristic of
  Corsica, crosses the longest rivers, passes through one of the
  greatest forests and by some of the highest mountains, and
  connects the three principal towns. Rail between Corte and
  Bastia                                                               7

  From Vivario, p. 8, a road leads to the mineral water
  establishment of Pietrapola. From Corte, p. 8, the ascent is
  made of Mt. Rotondo. From the Ponte Francardo, p. 9, the most
  important of the Forest roads extends S.W. to Porto by
  Albertacce and Evisa. From Albertacce the ascent is made of
  Mt. Cinto.

  The great highway traversing the island from Prunete to Calvi
  passes through Ponte alla Leccia, p. 9. From Bastia, p. 10,
  are trains or diligences to every part of the east coast, and
  steamers to Leghorn, Genoa, Nice and Marseilles.

Bastia to Rogliano and Morsaglia, skirting the east coast of
  the long peninsula called Cap Corse. This road follows more or
  less the level of the sea till it reaches Macinaggio, whence
  it ascends to Morsaglia. The highway on the western side of
  Cap Corse is cut along the flanks of the mountains, generally
  at a considerable height above the sea                              11

Bastia to Calvi by St. Florent and the Ile Rousse                   14

Calvi to Ajaccio, by Galeria, Porto and Sagona. From Galeria
  and Porto great Forest roads penetrate into the interior            16

GALERIA to the FORESTS of FILOSORMA. --Tourists should not
  explore any of the great Forest roads without being provided
  with letters to the dwellers in the maisons forestieres and in
  those of the Cantonniers; see p. 41 and map, p. 20                  16

PORTO to the PONTE FRANCARDO. --The most important of all the
  Forest roads. It passes through Evisa and by several good
  "maisons forestieres." From the Col Vergio is seen Mt.
  Tafanato, with its natural tunnel, and from Albertacce is
  commenced the ascent of Mt. Cinto. Several mule-paths ramify
  from this forest road, the most important being to Lake Nino
  and Corte, and to Asco: whence Mt. Cinto is also ascended. The
  most famous part of the road itself is the Scala di Santa
  Regina                                                              18

Calvi to Corte or to BASTIA by PONTE ALLA LECCIA. --This road
  traverses a most picturesque country, and the region of the
  finest olive trees in the island                                    20

BELGODERE to the FOREST of TARTAGINE. --This forest contains few
  old trees, and is not of easy access                                21

Ajaccio to Evisa, VICO and the BATHS of GUAGNO                      22

Ajaccio to Sartene, by CAURO, APA, OLMETO and PROPRIANO. See
  S.W. end of general map                                             23

CAURO to BASTELICA. --Bastelica is the common name of a group of
  hamlets, in one of which Sampiero was born. From this the
  ascent is made of Mt. Renoso                                        24

AJACCIO and APA to ZICAVO and the BATHS of GUITERA, by
  Santa-Maria-Siche, Frasseto and Zecavo. S. Maria-Siche is the
  birthplace of the fair and gentle Vanina. From Zicavo the
  ascent is made of Mt. Incudine; whence is beheld the finest
  view in Corsica. See maps on fly-leaf and fronting p. 27            24

PROPRIANO to SOLENZARA, from the S.W. to the S.E. of the island.
  This Route Forestiere is better treated on p. 36, as Solenzara
  to Sartene                                                          26

Sartene to Corte by Vivario. --This is the great central
  highway, of which the wildest and most difficult part is given
  on map, p. 27. It leads to some fine forests, of which the
  best is the Verde forest. At the most desolate portion are
  tolerably comfortable maisons forestieres. Vehicles should be
  hired either at Sartene or Vivario, 20 to 25 frs. per day           27

GHISONI to GHISONACCIA, by the route forestiere, extending from
  the central main road to the Ghisonaccia railway station on
  the east coast. The most dangerous part of the road is the
  "Passage" Inzecca. See map, p. 27                                   29

SARTENE to BONIFACIO                                                  30

Bonifacio to Bastia by the fertile plains and insalubrious
  lakes of the east coast                                             31

Aleria to Corte by a picturesque road following the course of
  the Tavignano. Coach every other day                                33

Prunete to Castagneto or ALESANI, by coach daily. Castagneto
  is one of the villages in the Castagniccia or Chestnut
  country. The road ascends all the way. It, as well as most
  of the roads into the interior, should not be taken till the
  chestnut trees are in leaf                                          33

FOLELLI to STAZZONA by coach daily. Stazzona is the village
  nearest to the Spa of Orezza. The road extends to Ponte alla
  Leccia                                                              33

VESCOVATO STATION to PORTA, by coach daily, passing Vescovato,
  Venzolasca and Silvareccio. In summer the coach goes on to
  Piedicroce                                                          34

PONTE ALLA LECCIA to PIEDICROCE by "Courrier" daily                   34

Piedicroce to Prunete-Railway Station, the finest part of the
  road being between Piedicroce and Castagneto. Coach from
  Castagneto to Prunete by Cervione. From Castagneto or Alesani
  to Prunete see Prunete to Alesani, on p. 33                         35

SOLENZARA, on the S.E. coast, to SARTENE, 46 m. S.W., by a
  forest road with much fine scenery                                  36

HISTORY, HABITS, AGRICULTURE and HOUSES OF REFUGE, called
  "Maison" in the index                                               37


LIST OF MAPS.

                                                                    Page

Sketch Map of the Riviera and Corsica, showing the relative
  position of their principal towns; as also the ports connected
  with each other by steamboat
_Fly-leaf_

General Map of Corsica                                               1

Plan of Ajaccio. --The town is built on rising ground                3

Environs of Ajaccio                                                  6

The Western Central Region. --This is the least known and the
  most difficult portion of the island to traverse. Yet easy and
  picturesque short excursions may be made from Porto, Evisa and
  Galeria, into the forests of evergreen oaks, etc                    20

Central Corsica, or the most troublesome part of the grand
  highway, which traverses Corsica from south to north, from
  Sartene to Ponte alla Leccia, whence it ramifies eastward to
  Bastia and westward to Calvi and Ile Rousse. It joins the
  railway and the road between Ajaccio and Corte near Vivario         27




CORSICA


Is situated 54 miles W. from Leghorn, 98 m. S. from Genoa, and 106 m.
S.E. from Nice. It is 116 m. long, 52 m. broad, and contains an area of
3376 square miles; divided into 5 arrondissements, subdivided into 62
cantons, and these again into 363 communes, with a population of
275,000. The surface, of which little more than a tenth is under
cultivation, is composed of lofty and rugged granite mountain chains,
diverging in all directions from the culminating peaks of Mounts Cinto,
8892 ft.; Rotondo, 8613 ft.; Pagliorba, 8278 ft.; Padro, 7846 ft.; and
Oro, 8829 ft. On the western and southern sides of the island these
ranges terminate abruptly on the shore, or run out into the sea; while,
on the eastern side, a great undulating plain intervenes between their
termination and the coast, in summer troubled with malaria, but in a
less degree than formerly.

Corsica is the central region of the great plant system of the
Mediterranean. Among the many fine forests which cover the mountains,
the most important are those of Valdoniello, Filosorma, Vizzavona Verde,
Zonza, Bavella, Ometa and Calenzana. They contain noble specimens of
pines, oaks, beech, chestnut, walnut and olive trees. The cork oak forms
woods, chiefly in the south of the island. The chestnut trees are as
large and fruitful as the best on the Apennines, and the nuts form the
staple article of food for man and beast during the winter months.
Indeed, these glorious chestnut and beech forests, when in full foliage,
are the grand features of Corsican scenery, which therefore cannot be
seen to advantage till towards the end of May, and if to this we add the
splendid bloom of the oleanders, not till July. "I at any rate know of
no such combination of sea and mountains, of the sylvan beauty of the
north with the rich colours of the south; no region where within so
small a space nature takes so many sublime and exquisite aspects as she
does in Corsica. Palms, orange groves, olives, vines, maize and
chestnuts; the most picturesque beech forests, the noblest pine woods in
Europe; granite peaks, snows and frozen lakes--all these are brought
into the compass of a day's journey. Everything is as novel to the
Alpine climber as if, in place of being on a fragment of the Alps,
severed only by 100 miles from their nearest snows, he was in a
different continent."--D. W. Freshfield, Alpine Club.

[Map: Corsica]

[Headnote: VEGETATION.]

The prickly pear, the American aloe, the castor-oil plant and the
fig-tree, grow wild along the coast; while a little farther upwards, on
the slopes and plateaus, the arbutus, cistus, oleander, myrtle and
various kinds of heaths, form a dense coppice, called in the island
maqui, supplying an excellent covert for various kinds of game and
numerous blackbirds. When the arbutus and myrtle berries are ripe the
blackbirds are eagerly hunted, as at that time they are plump and make
very savoury and delicate eating.

There are few cows on the island, the greater part of the milk supply
being procured from goats. It is excellent, and has no rank flavour.

The only remarkable creature is the mouflon, a species of sheep,
resembling that almost extinct animal the bouquetin or ibex of the Alps.
It inhabits the highest mountains, and though very wild is easily tamed.

The best red wines are grown about Ajaccio, Tallano, Cervione and
Sartene, and the best white wines in Sari and in the valleys of Cape
Corso. They improve up to twenty years, and even up to fifty.

The temperature of the climate of Corsica varies according to the
elevation. Along the coast the sun is warm even in January. After
January the temperature rises rapidly. The climate of the zone 2000 ft.
above the sea is considerably colder and snow generally appears there in
December. The olive ripens its fruit up to an elevation of 2000 ft. and
the chestnut to 3000, where it gives place to oaks, box trees, junipers,
firs and beeches. The greater part of the population inhabits the region
of the chestnut trees, in villages scattered over the mountain slopes,
valleys and tablelands.

[Headnote: STEAMBOATS.]

  Steamers to Corsica.--For invalids the easiest way is by the
  large weekly Tunis steamer of the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique,
  12 R. de la Republique, which on its way from and to Marseilles,
  touches at Ajaccio, 211 m. S., in 16 to 19 hrs., fare including
  meals, 38 frs. The Compagnie Insulaire, 29 R. Cannebiere, have boats
  every week for Ajaccio and Propriano, 38 frs., Calvi and Ile Rousse,
  28 frs., Bastia and Leghorn, 32 frs., and Nice, Bastia and Leghorn.
  Weekly steamers between Genoa, Leghorn and Bastia. The boats of the
  Compagnie Insulaire being smaller, come within a few yards of the
  mole. The luggage is landed from the steamers by the company free of
  expense and is delivered at the custom-house to the proprietor on
  presentation of the bulletin de baggage. Passengers are taken ashore
  and to their hotels for 2 frs. each.

  The Navigazione Generale Italiana, Piazza Marini, Genoa, have a
  steamer every week for Portotorres, at the north-west extremity of
  Sicily, calling at Bastia. Also from Leghorn to Bastia. Distance 72
  miles, fare 20 frs., time 7 hrs.

  Small steamer between Ajaccio and Propriano twice weekly.




AJACCIO.

  _Hotels._--On an eminence, in its own grounds, rising gently from
  the sea, is the *Grand Hotel, with sea and fresh water baths and
  every convenience; opened at the end of the present year. A skilled
  English physician on the premises.

  There are besides three good family hotels, charging from 8 to 12
  frs.; in the Course Grandval, the H. Continental, wine 1-1/2 fr.,
  carpeted brick floors, garden; near it, with south exposure and full
  view of the bay, the *H. Suisse or Schweizerhof, wine 1 fr., smooth
  wood floors, partially carpeted, garden; at the top of the Course
  Grandval, the H. Bellevue, wine 1-1/4 fr., partially carpeted wood
  floors, garden.

  These prices include coffee or tea in the morning, meat breakfast
  and dinner and service, but neither candles nor wine, of which the
  lowest price per bottle is given above. In the Place Bonaparte is
  the H. de France, a good French hotel, pension 8 to 12 frs.

  _Bankers and Money-changers._--The bank Bozzo-Costa and the bank
  Lanzi, both near each other in the Boulevard Roi Jerome.

  The office of the Compagnie Transatlantique is in the same
  Boulevard; the office of the Compagnie Insulaire is in the Place du
  Marche.

  _Cabs._--The course 1-1/2 fr., the hour 2 frs., the day 25 frs.

  Tariff of return drives, with 2 frs. extra for every hour of repose.

  _West_ from Ajaccio: Scudo, 5 frs.; Vignola 1114 ft., 15 frs.;
  Vignola village, 10 frs.; Lisa, 15 frs.; Iles Sanguinaires, 10 frs.;
  St. Antoine, 5 frs.; Salario, 5 frs. _North_ from Ajaccio:
  Castelluccio, 4 frs.; Mezzavia, 5 frs.; Alata and Col Carbinica, 25
  frs.; Afa, 20 frs.

  _East_ from Ajaccio: the Campo dell' Oro, or the plain at the mouth
  of the Gravona, 5 frs.; the Baths of Caldaniccia, 5 frs.;
  Bastelicaccia, 5 frs.; Pisciatella, 6 frs. Three frs. gratuity for a
  whole day. The horses cover on an average about thirty miles a day.

AJACCIO, pop. 19,050, the capital of Corsica, is situated on the
extremity of a small gulf 677 miles from Paris and 15 to 20 hours' sail
from Marseilles. Founded in 1492 by the Bank of St. George of Genoa, a
commercial association similar to the East India Company, it was raised
in 1811 through the influence of Madame Letitia and Cardinal Fesch to
the dignity of capital of the island, and became accordingly the
residence of the Prefet and the seat of the civil and ecclesiastical
Courts. Ajaccio has a handsome Episcopal chapel built by Miss Campbell,
of Moniack Castle, Scotland, an accomplished lady, the authoress of a
work on the island in French and English.

In the Cours Napoleon is a small French mission, whose worthy pastor,
besides conducting the regular Sunday services, gives two lectures
(conferences) every week, which are attended by from 80 to 100 people.

The houses in Ajaccio, as well as those throughout the island, are
generally built in large square blocks of from 3 to 5 stories, each
story forming a separate dwelling.

[Map: Ajaccio]

[Headnote: NAPOLEON'S BIRTHPLACE.]

The mole at which passengers land from the steamers is at the foot of
the Place du Marche. In the centre of this "Place" is a fountain
ornamented with lions and a white marble statue of Napoleon I. by
Laboureur. To the left of the statue is the Hotel de Ville, the markets,
and the commencement of the Rue Fesch, in which is the edifice
containing the public library, the museum, and the memorial chapel
(p. 5); while to the right is the Rue Napoleon, in which the first
opening right leads into the Place Letitia. A little beyond this opening
is No. 17, the house of the Pozzo di Borgo family, of whom Charles
Andre, 1768-1842, was the great upholder of Paoli and the bitter enemy
of Napoleon I. Napoleon's house, though not equal to that of the Borgo
family, was one of the best in Ajaccio. It is well built, of three
stories of six windows each, and all the rooms have a more or less
handsome marble chimney-piece. Over the door is inscribed on white
marble "Napoleon est ne dans cette maison le XV Aovt MDCCLXIX". A good
staircase, bordered by a wrought-iron railing, leads to the top. The
rooms shown are on the first floor. The first is the parlour, with a
small table, a few chairs, and a piano said to have belonged to Mme.
Letitia. Then after having passed through a small chamber we enter the
room in which Napoleon was born, into which Madame was brought hurriedly
from the church in the sedan chair kept in the end room. Over the
chimney-piece are portraits of the father and mother. Then follows the
dining-room, and after it the drawing-room, with inlaid wood floor and
six windows on both sides. The floors of all the other rooms are of
glazed tiles. In the next room is the sedan chair. Fee for party 1 fr.

This now silent and empty house was once enlivened and brightened by the
fair Letitia and her large family of children, just like other men's
children; schoolboys toiling at their Plutarch or Caesar, and their three
young sisters growing up careless and rather wild, like their
neighbours' daughters, in the half-barbarous island town. There is
Joseph, the eldest, then Napoleon, the second born, then Lucien, Louis,
and Jerome; then Caroline, Eliza, and Pauline, the children of a notary
of moderate income, who is incessantly and vainly carrying on law-suits
with the Jesuits of Ajaccio to gain a contested estate which is
necessary to his numerous family. Their future fills him with anxiety;
what will they be in the world and how will they secure a comfortable
subsistence? And behold! these same children, one after the other, take
to themselves the mightiest crowns of the earth--tear them from the
heads of the most unapproachable kings of Europe and wear them in the
sight of all the world; and they, the sons of an Ajaccio lawyer, cause
themselves to be embraced as brothers and brothers-in-law by emperors
and kings. Napoleon is European Emperor; Joseph King of Spain; Louis
King of Holland; Jerome King of Westphalia; Caroline Queen of Naples and
Pauline and Eliza Princesses of Italy. In 1793, after the flight of
Madame Letitia and her children to her country residence, the Casone,
the house was pillaged by the Corsicans opposed to the French Republic.

[Headnote: CATHEDRAL.]

Near the Place Letitia is the cathedral built in the 16th century by
Pope Gregory. It contains the font at which Napoleon I. was baptized on
the 21st July 1771.

[Headnote: MEMORIAL CHAPEL.]

In the Rue Fesch is the College founded in 1822. In one wing of the
edifice is the public library, with 33,000 volumes, founded by Lucien
Bonaparte, and the museum and picture gallery, with 900 paintings,
mostly copies; and in the other the memorial chapel built by Napoleon
III., lined with beautiful marble. In the crypt under the transept, left
hand, is the tomb of Marie Letitia Ramolino, died at Rome in 1836; and
right hand, that of Napoleon's uncle, Cardinal Fesch, died at Rome in
1839. Both bodies were brought to this, their present resting-place, in
1851. There are, besides, the tombs of Prince Charles and of Zenaida his
daughter. Napoleon's father died in 1785 and is buried at Montpellier.
Madame was only 35 at his death and had already borne him 13 children,
5 of whom were dead, and Jerome was an infant in the cradle.

Parallel with the Rue Fesch is the Cours Napoleon, by which all the
diligences enter and leave the town. The continuation round the bay is
bordered with plane trees. At the commencement is a bronze statue of
"E. C. Abbatucci ne a Zicavo le 12 Novembre 1770, mort pour la patrie
le 2 Decembre 1796." Near it is the railway station.

At the western end of the Cours Napoleon is the Place Bonaparte or
Diamant, bordered with trees and ornamented with a complicate bronze
monument on a granite pedestal by Violet le Duc, "a la memoire de
Napoleon I. et de ses freres Joseph, Lucien, Louis, Jerome." All are
life-size statues; Napoleon is on horseback, the others on foot,
marching solemnly towards the sea.


[Headnote: WALKS.]

EXCURSIONS.

From the port, 11 m. W., is the chapel S. Antonio, 850 ft. The road
passes the penitentiary of S. Antonio, 331 ft. North from it, under
the peak of La Barrage, 1476 feet, is the Castelluccio penitentiary.
Westward by the Hospice Eugenie and the Batterie de Maestrello, a
pleasant road leads along the coast to the orange gardens of Barbicaja,
passing by the Chapelle de Greco and the cemetery. About 4 m. farther is
the Tete Parata, 199 ft., opposite the Iles Sanguinaires.

A beautiful road, the continuation of the Cours Grandval, ascends 2-1/2 m.
to the Fontaine du Salario, 760 ft., commanding enchanting views. This
road traverses the Place Casone, 144 ft., occupying the site of the
Casone, the country house of the Bonapartes, destroyed in 1878. Close by
is the "grotte Napoleon," composed of blocks of granite, to which, it is
said, the youthful Napoleon used to retire.

About 6 m. N. from Ajaccio is the village of Alata, 1312 ft. Within an
easy walking distance north from Ajaccio is the pleasant estate of
Carrosaccia, on the canal which supplies the town with water from the
Gravona. 5-1/2 m. N. from Ajaccio are the sulphurous springs of
Caldaniccia.

[Headnote: FAMILY TOMBS.]

In the neighbourhood of Ajaccio and of the other Corsican towns and
villages are numerous family sepulchral chapels enclosed within walls. A
more pleasing characteristic feature, probably inherited from the Moors,
are the numerous fountains in the villages and by the road side, whence
flow streams of cold, sparkling water of exquisite purity.

[Headnote: CLIMATE.]

_Climate._--For convalescent invalids, Ajaccio forms a delightful change
from the Riviera, as it is so rural, and has such pleasant air and good
water. The hotels are comfortable and their charges moderate. As, too,
the road metal used around Ajaccio is that disintegrating granite which
so readily solidifies by the combined action of the rain and traffic,
there is very little dust in the neighbourhood (p. 9).

The principal winds are the Libeccio or S.W. wind, the Sirocco or S.E.
wind, and the Mistral or N.W. wind.

On the 12th, 13th and 14th of May the fair of St. Pancras is held, which
affords a good opportunity for purchasing Corsican horses. They are from
10 to 14 hands high and of great endurance. It is wonderful to behold
the energy these small slim creatures display in dragging heavy
lumbering diligences up long, steep, winding roads.

But more wonderful still is it to see the peasant women and girls as
young as thirteen carrying on their heads up and down the mountain paths
big pails, or the more elegant two-handled brass jars of classic form,
containing about two gallons of water, without ever stumbling on any of
the many stones. The pails are made of copper lined with tin, weighing
when full of water from 55 lbs. to 65 lbs.

Among the curiosities of Ajaccio are gourds made into bottles, of
various shapes and sizes and mounted with silver, and the pretty baskets
made of straw by the girls of Alata.


[Map: Environs of Ajaccio]


Ajaccio to Bastia.

  Ajaccio to Bocognano by rail, thence by diligence to Corte; Corte to
  Bastia by rail 47 m., or 44 by road. The road from Ajaccio ascends
  the valley of the Gravona to its source at the Col Vizzavona. On the
  N. side of the Col it follows the course of the Vecchio. The most
  picturesque part of this route is between Vizzavona and Vivario.

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   BASTIA

{ }{95}
AJACCIO. Start from the station in the Cours Napoleon. The road, after
traversing the fertile plain of Campo dell Oro, crosses the Col
Sudricchio, 804 ft., and then the bridge of Ucciani, 948 ft., built in
the reign of Louis XIV., 17-1/2 m. from Ajaccio and 2 m. from the village
of Ucciani. Use general map, and map, p. 27.

[Headnote: BOCOGNANO.]

{25}{70}
BOCOGNANO, pop. 2000, and 2120 ft. above the sea. _Inn:_ Univers.
Picturesquely situated in a plantation of chestnut trees, surrounded by
high mountain peaks. Near Bocognano commences the Vizzavona tunnel, 4375
yards through the mountain. Diligence now to Corte. The road, having
crossed the Sellola bridge, 2843 ft., winds its way up by the Col de
Pinzalone, 3370 ft., and the Maison and Pont de Lavatoggio 3615 ft. to
the top of the ridge. See map, p. 27.

[Headnote: VIZZAVONA.]

[Headnote: PINES.]

{31}{64}
LE FORT DE VIZZAVONA, on the summit of the Pass, 3813 ft. above the sea,
with the Gendarmerie and a few houses of refuge. A few miles northwards
is Monte d'Oro, 7845 ft., and southwards Monte Renoso, 7733 ft. The
diligence, in its descent to Vivario, traverses the forest of Vizzavona,
consisting mainly of beeches and larches, frequently 150 ft. high. Of
this tree there are two varieties, the _Pinus pinaster_ or cluster pine,
the _Pin maritime_ of the French, which grows best on deep loose soils
and flourishes even on the drifting sands of the sea shore. They supply
large quantities of resin. Their wood being soft, coarse and perishable,
is usually converted into charcoal and lamp black. The other is the
_Pinus laricio_, which thrives on the high lands of Corsica, Spain,
south of France, Greece and Cyprus. Their growth is rapid, the trunk
straight and from 100 to 150 ft. high, the branches are in regular
whorls, forming in large trees a pyramidal head, and the leaves are
slender, from 4 to 7 inches long, and of a dark green tint. The timber
is good and durable, though less strong than that of the _Pinus
silvestris_. Between the 51st and 53d kilometre stones are passed the
"Maison de Refuge d'Alzarella," and the "Maison de refuge Omellina,"
2832 ft.

After crossing the Col de Campo di Lupo, 2684 ft., 35 m. from Ajaccio,
the road descends into the ravine of the Vecchio, above which is

[Headnote: VIVARIO.]

{38}{57}
VIVARIO, pop. 1500, and 2152 ft. _Inn:_ H. Voyageurs a three-storied
house. Junction with road to Zicavo, 37 m. S. (pp. 27,29). Although
Vivario be a poor village, yet it has a terrace and fountain ornamented
with a statue of Diana. The breeding of pigs fed in the adjoining
chestnut forest, and the manufacture of hams, sausages and bacon, are
the most important industries of the inhabitants.

  From Vivario a forest road extends 27 m. S.E. to the hamlet of
  Vadina, by Muracciole 2022 ft., 1-1/2 m., the Col Erbajo 3018 ft.,
  7 m.; Pietroso 10-1/2 m., Saparelli 12-1/2 m., and Quinzena 18 m. From
  Vadina a good carriage road leads 6 m. to the Baths of Pietrapola,
  which are supplied by most copious springs of hot, saline,
  sulphurous water. The season is from May 1 to June 30; or
  September 1 to November 30. The situation is beautiful and the
  bathing-establishment and lodging accommodation comfortable, and
  much frequented.

The road from Vivario to Serraggio passes along the top of the rocky
gorge of the foaming Vecchio. The best view of the gorge is from the
Pont du Vecchio 40 m. from Ajaccio and 280 ft. above the bed. From
Serraggio, 1890 ft., Mt d'Oro is well seen. See map, p. 20.

The road now passes Lugo, 1980 ft.; S. Pietro, 2496 ft.; the Col. S.
Nicolo, 2473 ft.; and Casanova, 2136 ft., to

[Headnote: CORTE.]

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   BASTIA

{51}{44}
CORTE, 1329 ft., pop. 5500. _Hotels:_ *Paoli, 8 to 10 frs., Europe. Is
situated at the junction of the Tavignano with the Restonico, in the
midst of majestic mountains of the most varied form. The citadel or
chateau, built in the early part of the 15th century, stands on
precipitous and jagged rocks rising from the Tavignano, commanding from
the top a magnificent view of the wild surrounding scenery. In the
"Place" is a statue of Paoli, the Corsican patriot, born at Stretta in
1726, and to the right of the statue the post and telegraph office. In
the immediate neighbourhood stands a large house, a Franciscan convent,
in which the Corsican parliament assembled in Paoli's time. Near Corte,
by the left side of the Restonico, is a quarry of marble of a bluish
tint with reddish white veins. To take the walk up the gorge of the
Restonico, descend by first road left up the main street from the hotels
and cross only the Tavignano bridge. The mountain appearing to close the
valley is Mte. Rotondo. See map, p. 20.

Coach to Aleria, 31 m. S.E. (p. 33), by a beautiful road.

Just outside Corte the rail traverses the Torretta tunnel, 1531 yards.

[Headnote: MTE. ROTONDO.]

  From Corte the ascent of Monte Rotondo is most easily effected. It
  is 8613 feet above the sea-level, or 7284 feet above Corte. Cabins
  inhabited by the herdsmen are scattered over the declivities of the
  mountain up to within 3000 feet of the top. Time 2 days. Guide with
  mule 25 frs. Ascend by the road up the picturesque valley of the
  Restonico to the Timozzo bridge, 3590 feet, and 2-1/2 hours from Corte.
  From this the path extends 1-1/2 hour up the wild ravine of the Timozzo
  to the shepherds' huts; whence the rest must be done on foot. Now
  the hard work commences. Block lies above block, towering upwards
  and upwards in such endless masses of monotonous gray that the heart
  quails with the sight and the foot trembles to go farther. After
  about 2 hours' scramble over these colossal steps the traveller
  reaches the fontaine de Triggione, about 2200 feet below the summit
  and in full view of it, an incomplete circle of steep jagged cliffs.
  About 330 feet higher is a little dark lake, the Lago di Monte
  Rotondo, encircled by gentle green slopes, where the night is
  generally spent. Snow-field extend from the lake to the summit,
  which, although apparently near, requires 2 full hours' climbing to
  reach, often on hands and feet, over sharp fragments of rock, or up
  steep beds of slippery frozen snow. The extreme peak is a rugged
  obelisk of gray rock ending in a pinnacle. A way leads down by the
  S. side in 6 hours, to Guagno by lake Bettianella, 3419 ft., then W.
  by the road over the Col de Manganella, 5874 ft. See map, p. 20.

[Headnote: GRANITE.]

  "The view from Monte Rotondo did not impress me. The central
  uplands, which form a large portion of it, are bare and arid, while
  the great ridge of Monte Cinto stretches across the northern horizon
  like a long screen. Comparatively little of the coast is seen in any
  direction, but most towards the west. It was curious to notice how
  completely the tops of the mountains between us and the Cinto ridge
  were flattened down, while the crest on which we stood was a set of
  bristling teeth. There are two kinds of granite in Corsica, one
  friable and unable to resist the action of the air, the other hard
  and defiant of the elements. Of this latter consist the Cinto range,
  Monte Rotondo and the rocks in the forest of Bavella."--D. W.
  Freshfield, Alpine Club.

The road now from Corte to Bastia traverses the Quilico Col, 1932 ft.,
passes Soveria, 1843 ft., and Caporalino, 8 m. from Corte, 36 from
Bastia and 1 m. from Omessa. About 1-1/2 m. farther it crosses the Golo by
the Francardo bridge, 856 ft., where it meets the great Forest Road from
Porto, 50 m. S.W. by Evisa and the Col de Vergio, p. 18, and map, p. 20.

[Headnote: PONTE LECCIA.]

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   BASTIA

{66}{29}
PONTE ALLA LECCIA, 624 ft. Village, and coach and railway station.
_Inn:_ Cyrnoz. Diligence to Calvi by the beautiful northern continuation
of the road from Prunete by Cervione and Piedicroce, p. 20. "Courrier"
daily to Piedicroce, 18 m. S.E. by Morosaglia, see p. 34. During the
summer heats Ponte alla Leccia is considered insalubrious.

[Headnote: PONTE NOVO.]

{71}{24}
PONTE NOVO. The site of the disastrous battle fought on the 9th of May
1769, when the Corsicans lost their independence and became subject to
France. The two small houses on the right bank, a little farther down
the river, were Paoli's headquarters. One month afterwards he, with some
other Corsican refugees, sailed from Porto Vecchio in a British vessel
for England (p. 39).

[Headnote: BORGO.]

{85}{10}
BORGO, pop. 820. On the Mariana hills, rising from Lake Biguglia, one of
the many lagoons on the eastern coast, separated from the sea by narrow
sandbanks. Along this coast extend the only large plains in Corsica.
Unfortunately, in summer they are subject to malaria, which, however, a
judicious system of drainage is gradually abating. They are cultivated
by Italian labourers who visit the island periodically. Between Borgo
and Bastia is Bevinco, with valuable marble quarries. Southward from
Borgo on the coast is Mariana, the site of the colony founded by Marius
(p. 34).

[Headnote: BASTIA.]

{95}
BASTIA, pop. 21,000. _Hotels:_ *France; Europe; Lingenieur; Croix de
Malte over the post and telegraph office, all in the Boul. du Palais, 8
to 10 frs. Theatre; Public Library with 65,000 volumes. Steamers twice a
week to Marseilles, time 18 hours, touching once a week at Nice, 12
hours distant. Fare direct to Marseilles, including food, 28 frs. To
Nice, without food, 30 frs. Rubattino's steamers leave three times a
week for Leghorn; time 6 hours. These same steamers proceed afterwards
to Genoa. Railway to Corte. Rail also to Aleria, whence diligence to
Bonifacio, Sartene and Ajaccio.

Diligences daily from Bastia to Cap Corse, 7 hours, 6 or 5 frs.; and
also to Calvi, 12 hours, 13 or 10 frs.

[Headnote: BRANDO.]

Carriages to visit the stalactite cave at Brando, 10 frs. Admission 2
frs. each. It is 7 m. from Bastia, above Erbalunga, on the face of a
mountain; and was discovered in 1841 by M. Ferdinandi. A steep path
leads up to it. Keeper near cave. See p. 12.

_Bastia_, the most important city of Corsica, is built on ground rising
gently from the sea. Facing the sea and the principal harbour is the
Place St. Nicholas, adorned with a marble statue of Napoleon I., by
Bartolini, looking towards the island of Elba. In this "Place", the
promenade of the town, are the offices of the Messageries Maritimes and
of the Compagnie Insulaire. Fraissinet's office is at the old harbour;
whence also their steamers sail.

From the Place St. Nicholas ascends the principal street, the Boulevard
du Palais, to the Palais de Justice. In this Boulevard are the post and
telegraph offices (whence most of the diligences start), the hotels,
cafes and the best shops, and from it ramify the streets of the town. At
the top of the B. du Palais commences, right hand, the Boul. Cardo, one
of the best roads to take for views of the town and neighbourhood. A
flight of steps leads from the quay up to the cathedral, a handsome
building in the Italian style. The markets are held in the "Place"
fronting the cathedral. Most of the houses are built in large blocks
from 5 to 6 stories high and from 6 to 9 windows broad, each story
forming a separate residence.

Bastia owes its name to the bastion built here by the Genoese in the
14th century. From the hills behind Bastia the view embraces the islands
of Gorgona, Capraja, Elba, and Monte-Christo, seen best from the top of
the Serra di Pigno, 3640 feet. Refer to map on fly-leaf.

[Headnote: STEAMERS.]

The most beautiful part of Corsica, and the most easily visited, is the
eastern side, including the Castagniccia or the chestnut country, and
the whole region up in the mountains, which border this coast. The
wealthiest, most industrious and most enterprising of the people are
those who inhabit that long narrow tongue of land called Cap Corse.
Although boats are constantly sailing from Marseilles and Leghorn to
Bastia, invalids visiting Corsica with the intention of wintering in
Ajaccio should, if possible, sail from Marseilles or Nice direct to
Ajaccio; but on leaving the island, when winter is over, Bastia is
perhaps the best port to sail from, as it affords an excellent
opportunity for visiting the most beautiful parts of Corsica and the
most important towns in Italy. On arriving at Leghorn (see Black's
_South France_) it is best to proceed at once to the railway station,
and start for Pisa, only 30 minutes distant. There are numerous trains.
At the station and in the kiosques in the "Piazzas" of Leghorn, is sold
an excellent little book with all the railway Time-tables, _L'Indicatore
Ufficiale_, price 50 c.


[Headnote: CAP CORSE.--WINE.]

CAP CORSE.

Bastia to Rogliano and Morsaglia.

See General Map, p. 1.

By diligence, fare to Rogliano, 4 frs. and 3 frs., distance 27-1/2 m., 6
hrs. To Morsaglia, 5-1/2 and 4-1/2 frs., distance 37-1/2 m., 8 hrs. By
the road skirting the eastern side of the peninsula of Cap Corse, the best
cultivated part of the island, and containing the tidiest villages. The
best Cap Corse wine, mostly white, is produced around Luri and Rogliano.
The quality used as table wine is drunk the first year. It improves till
the fifth year, the better qualities till the tenth and twentieth year.
Cap Corse is traversed by a rugged mountain range or serra, of which the
culminating peaks are Mount Alticcione, 4230 feet; Mount Stello, 4536
feet; and the Serra de Pigno, 3640 feet. From the east side of this
rugged serra little fertile valleys extend to the sea.

[Headnote: PINO.--LURI.]

  Mr. Freshfield thus describes the "Cap":--"Down a promontory 8 to
  10 m. wide runs a range 3000 to 4000 ft. high, with the crest towards
  the western coast and the valleys towards the eastern. Hence the
  western Cornice road is a terrace along an always steep, sometimes
  sheer, mountain side, while the eastern crosses a succession of low
  maquis-covered spurs, which beyond Cap Sagro flatten and become
  monotonous. Pino is one of the most beautiful sites on the western
  coast. It is also important as the spot where the cross-road through
  the vale of Luri, under Seneca's tower, falls into the western
  Cornice. Half-way on this road the village of Luri groups itself in
  the most picturesque way imaginable on a hill-side broken by a deep
  ravine. Down on the seashore above the little Marina or port is a
  large convent; a church occupies a projecting brow 200 ft. above it;
  higher still, and right and left, every vantage-ground is occupied
  by groups of well-built villas and sepulchral chapels. The slopes
  are terraced into orchards of citron, lemon, peach and almond trees,
  olive groves and vineyards, sheltered from the gales of winter by
  high palisades."

  Farther south, 5-1/4 m., is Nonza, with inn, 479 ft., pop. 550. Coach
  to St. Florent. This is one of the most curious villages of the
  island. It stands like an eagle's nest, perched above the sea on a
  black rock on the mountain side. Its houses, built level with the
  edge of the cliffs, formed in olden days a sufficient rampart
  against marauders.

The diligence having passed Lavasina 4-1/2 m. from Bastia, Brando 7 m.,
and Erbalunga 6-1/4 m., halts at Sisco-port 9-1/4 m. To visit the cave of
Brando take the steep narrow path left, near a mill, just before arriving
at Erbalunga. Seats in shady places are placed here and there. The
keeper's house is close to the entrance. The diligence then proceeds by
Pietracorbara 11-1/2 m., and the Torre all'Osse 13 m.; one of the best
remaining specimens of the 85 towers built by the Pisans and Genoese to
ward off the attacks of the Saracens. From the Torre the diligence
proceeds other 2 m. to Perticciolo, where it halts.

[Headnote: SENECA'S TOWER.]

Two miles farther is S. Severa, where the horses are changed and the
passengers breakfast. From S. Severa, a road ramifies 10 m. W. to Pino
on the other side of the peninsula by the valley of the Luri, with
vineyards and orange groves, passing the village of Luri 3-1/2 m., with
good inn, the Col de S. Lucie 7 m., 1363 ft., and Saronese 9-3/4 m. From
the Santa Severa inn, Seneca's tower is distinctly seen, at the head of
the valley, on the summit of a precipitous peak, rising from the S. side
of the Col, 1355 ft., from which a steep, stony path leads up to it, by
a forsaken Franciscan convent. The view is grand. To this tower, one of
the many watch-towers built in the 12th cent., Seneca could never have
been sent, but to the Roman colony of Mariana, then used as a place of
banishment for political offenders.

[Headnote: SENECA.]

Lucius Annaeus Seneca was born at Cordova in Spain, just before the
commencement of the Christian era. His eldest brother was A. Seneca
Novatus, which name was altered afterwards to that of his adopted
father, Junius Gallio. This brother was the proconsul of Achaia, before
whom St. Paul was arraigned (Acts xviii. 12). While Seneca was still a
child he was brought by his aunt to Rome, where he had for teachers
Sotion, Papirius Fabianus and Attalus the Stoic. Although weak in body
he was a most diligent student, which, joined to his powerful memory,
enabled him to obtain at an early age important offices. Before his
banishment, A.D. 41, he had already served as quaestor. Having irritated
Caligula, he would have been put to death, had not one of the mistresses
of the emperor assured him that it was not worth while, as Seneca was so
consumptive he would soon die a natural death.

In the first year of the reign of Claudius, his wife Messalina having
become jealous of the influence his niece Julia, daughter of Germanicus,
had over Claudius her husband, succeeded in getting rid of her by
imputing to her improper intimacy with Seneca, then a married man. For
that reason Seneca was banished to Corsica A.D. 41.

During his exile he wrote his consolatory letter to his mother Helvia,
as well as a panegyric on Messalina and a consolatory letter to
Polybius, ostensibly to condole with him on the loss of his brother; but
in reality to get that powerful freedman to exert his influence with the
emperor, to recall his sentence of exile. This letter is full of fulsome
flattery and expressions unworthy of an honest man.

After the death of Messalina, Claudius married his niece Agrippina,
sister of Julia and mother of Nero by a former husband. Through her
influence Seneca was recalled A.D. 49 and appointed a praetor and tutor
to Nero, then 11 years old. In A.D. 51 Agrippina poisoned her husband.


[Headnote: MACINAGGIO.--ROGLIANO.]

From S. Severa, the diligence, resuming its journey, passes Meria
20-1/2 m., and halts again at the port of Macinaggio 2-1/2 m. more. From
this commences the steep ascent up to Rogliano 1300 ft., a town built in
groups on the side of the mountain, among vineyards and olive and
chestnut trees, the inn being in the second highest group, near the
post-office. After Rogliano the diligence crosses the Cols S. Anne,
Cappiaja and S. Nicholas, and arrives at Botticella 31 m., and then
proceeds to Ersa with inn, near the top of the Col de Serra 1182 ft.,
commanding a good view of Cap Corse. Shortly afterwards the diligence
arrives at Morsaglia, called also Pecorile, a village composed of groups
of houses like Rogliano on the side of a hill. The conductor of the
diligence will show the hotel. Six miles S. from Morsaglia is Pino, see
p. 12.

[Headnote: BOTTICELLA.]

From Botticella a road leads 4-1/2 m. N. to Barcaggio, opposite the
island of Giraglia, on which is a first-class lighthouse, 269 feet
above the sea, seen within a radius of 14 m.

From Morsaglia the road is continued 31 m. farther to the Col S.
Bernardino on the Bastia and St. Florent road, passing Pino, 25 m. from
the Col S. Bernardino; Minerbio, 21-1/2 m.; Marinca, 16 m.; Nonza, 9 m.;
Farinole, 2-1/2 m.; Pont du Patrimonio, 1-1/4 m.; and joins the Bastia
road at the Col S. Bernardino, 11-1/4 m. W. from Bastia.


Bastia to Calvi.

57 miles west; time 12 hours; fare 13 and 10 frs.

[Headnote: COL TEGHIME.]

  miles from BASTIA
  miles to   CALVI

{ }{57}
BASTIA. The road traverses a mountainous country, with scanty
vegetation. As far as St. Florent the prevailing rocks are micaceous and
beyond granitic. Immediately after leaving Bastia the diligence
commences the ascent of the Col de Teghime (1785 feet) in the Serra di
Pigno, discovering as it winds its way upwards, an ever-extending
panorama over the great eastern plain, including Lake Biguglia, and the
Mediterranean with the islands of Elba, Gorgona and Monte Christo. As
the road descends towards the western shore, the enchanting panorama of
the blue gulf of St. Florent, encircled by low reddish rocks, gradually
unfolds itself. It was at this road, made by Count Marboeuf, at which,
it is said, King Bernadotte worked among the other labourers. It passes
the hamlets of Barbaggio and Patrimonio, the Col St. Bernardino 11-1/4 m.
from Bastia, and the Pont des Strette, and enters the valley of Nebbio,
partly watered by the sluggish Aliso, flowing through a marsh crowded
with oleanders.

[Headnote: ST. FLORENT.]

{14-1/4}{42-3/4}
ST. FLORENT, pop. 760. Hotel de l'Europe, where a hurried breakfast can
be had while the horses are being changed. Close to the village is the
site of the ancient town of Nebbio, occupied now by a few poor houses
and a small church, now a ruin, built in the 12th century. Napoleon
said, "St. Florent has one of the finest situations I have ever seen. It
lies most favourably for commerce, its landing places are safe and its
roads can accommodate large fleets. I should have built there a large
and beautiful city." It was one of the first places to give adherence to
the Bank of Genoa.

The road now for some distance leaves the shore and ascends a range of
barren hills containing slate, limestone and granite. Hardy trees become
more abundant than the chestnut, and the mountains higher and more
imposing, as we approach the little port of

[Headnote: L'ILE ROUSSE.]

{42}{15}
L'ILE ROUSSE, pop. 1610; Hotel Europe. The diligence stops in the
"Place" near the monument to Pascal Paoli, and remains a sufficient time
to enable the traveller to cast a glance over the main features of this
port, founded by Paoli in 1759. The street beyond the "Place" leads by
the market to the harbour and to the long jagged tongue of red sandstone
rocks projecting into the sea, bearing on the extreme point a lighthouse
of the fourth order. Steamer every alternate week to Marseilles. There
is a charming view from the eminence St. Reparata, crowned with a
church, now abandoned.

Inland from L'Ile Rousse is the fertile valley of Balagna, famous for
the size and fertility of its olive trees (p. 20).

{47}{10}
ALGAJOLA, pop. 200. The block of granite which forms the pedestal of the
column in the Place Vendome came from the quarries of this place.
Pillars 65 feet long can be procured from this quarry.

[Headnote: LUMIO.]

{51}{6}
LUMIO, pop. 1100, among orange groves and high cactus hedges. From the
hills here there is a beautiful view of the valley and gulf of Calvi.
Junction here with road to Corte, 55-1/2 miles, south-east, passing through
a charming and picturesque country (see p. 20).

[Headnote: CALVI.]

{57}
CALVI, pop. 2200. _Inns:_ H. France, in the high town; *Colombani, in
the low town, near the dil. office and the wharf. Steamer for Marseilles
every alternate week. This, the nearest port to France, is composed of
the Citadel or Haute Ville and the Port or Basse Ville. The former,
although the residence of the public functionaries, has a dilapidated
and forsaken appearance. A rough road, paved with blocks of granite,
leads up to it and to the ramparts, commanding beautiful and extensive
views. The houses, shops and streets of the Basse Ville are much better
and more cheerful than those in the Citadel. Both are defended by Fort
Mozzello, rising behind the harbour. On the Punta-Revellata is a
lighthouse of the first order, with a fixed light seen 20 miles off.
Eight miles S.E. from Calvi is Calenzana, pop. 2900, with the chapel of
S. Restituta, visited by pilgrims.


Calvi to Ajaccio.

  miles from CALVI
  miles to   AJACCIO

{ }{102}
Distance 102 miles S.E. The road skirts the coast the greater part of
the way. The first village is Galeria, pop. 500--_Inn:_ Seta, 21 miles
S. from Calvi. From Galeria the Route Forestiere, No. 8, extends 16
miles eastwards to the Col Capronale, 4495 feet, in the forest of Ometa.
Six miles from Galeria is the entrance to the forest of evergreen oaks
of Treccio, as well as the commencement of the road, 4-1/2 m. long, to the
forest of Perticato by the Col Erbajo, 3-1/2 m., 2090 ft., and the Bocca
Melza, 4-1/2 m. 2500 ft.


Galeria to the Forests of Filosorma.

Grand scenery. Guide necessary. Map, p. 20.

  This, the forest road No. 8, has two ramifications. The main line
  follows the course of the Fango the whole way, and only becomes a
  mule-path when near the Maison de Cantonniers d'Ometa, 14 m. E.

  3-3/4 m. from Galeria a mule-path ramifies from the road to the hamlets
  of Tuarelli, Prunicciole and Chiorna. 3 m. farther is the
  ramification, 4-1/2 m. S., through the forest of Perticato by the Col
  d'Erbajo, 2090 ft., 3-1/2 m. S., and the Bocca Melza, 2500 ft., 4-1/2 m.
  S. From the Bocca Melza a very bad path leads 2 m. S. to the hamlet of
  Pinito. At the beginning of the above ramification the main road
  enters the Ilex forest of Treccio, and leaves it nearly 2 m.
  afterwards.

  8-3/4 m. from Galeria is a roadside inn, and 3-1/4 m. farther the
  entrance into the Ilex forest of Ometa.

  11-1/4 m. from Galeria and about 2 m. from the almost unknown valley of
  the Lonca, an affluent of the Porto, is the Pont de Lancone, 1083
  ft., across the Rocce. From this bridge there is a good view of Mt.
  Tafonato, 7687 ft., to the N. E., with its singularly perforated
  peak.

  13-1/4 m. is the Grand Cassis d'Ometa, 1680 ft. A little farther the
  road becomes a bridle-path, and ascends from 1677 ft. to the Maison
  de Cantonniers d'Ometa, 2274 ft., and 1 m. farther is the end of the
  forest of Ometa.

  15 m. from Galeria is the Grand Cassis de Giargione, 1163 ft., and
  about 2 m. farther the summit of Col Capronale, 4495 ft. A little
  way beyond, at the Capo Guagnerola, is a beautiful semicircle of
  reddish rocks covered with trees at the base. Farther E. by the Golo
  this forest road joins the forest road No. 9 to Francardo (p. 18).

  Having crossed the Col de Castellaccio, 850 feet, and passed through
  the villages of Partinello and Vitriccia, 20 m. from Galeria, we
  arrive at

  miles from CALVI
  miles to   AJACCIO

{51}{51}
PORTO (_Inn:_ H. Padoram), occupying a pleasant and sheltered situation
at the head of a fine gulf, with a climate rivalling that of Ajaccio.
Most of the timber from the forests of Valdoniello and Perticato is
shipped here. For Porto to Ponte Francardo, see p. 18.

  The road from Porto to La Piana (map, p. 20) affords a delightful
  drive, and exhibits good engineering. It is cut for a considerable
  distance through the rocks and cliffs and tall jagged peaks, like
  cypresses turned into stone, standing on the edge of this savage
  coast, parts of which are truly splendid. As the ascent is slowly
  continued, charming views disclose themselves, and on each side of
  the road the eye discerns some new beauty to dwell upon. At the Col
  Geneparo, to the right are the ruins of the castle of the Colonnas
  di Leca, rising boldly above the sea and surrounded and protected by
  magnificent natural battlements and pinnacles. Six miles from Porto,
  after having passed the Cols of Geneparo and Mezzano, both about
  1250 feet, the traveller reaches

[Headnote: LA PIANA.]

  miles from CALVI
  miles to   AJACCIO

{58}{44}
LA PIANA, 1587 feet, pop. 1280. _Inn:_ H. France. Delightfully situated,
with a fine sea-view. From the Col San Martino, 1 m. from La Piana and
1630 feet above the sea, the landscape undergoes a rapid change. The
magnificent rocks become parched and arid and the grass as yellow as the
soil where it tries to grow.

[Headnote: CARGESE.]

{70}{32}
CARGESE, pop. 1100. _Inn:_ H. de Voyageurs. A large village at the foot
of a hill which slopes down to the sea. It was founded by a colony of
730 Greeks, who, fleeing from the oppression of the Turks, arrived and
settled here, by the permission of the Genoese, in March 1676. For
having refused to aid Paoli in 1755 against the Genoese their villages
were burnt to the ground, and they themselves had to seek refuge in
Ajaccio. After the cession of Corsica to the French in 1769 M. de
Marboeuf had the village and church of Cargese built for the colonists,
when they all returned. Greek is still spoken in the village, and it has
a Greek as well as a Romanist priest.

[Headnote: SAGONA.]

{79}{23}
SAGONA, pop. 100. The port of Vico. It contains a few houses, one of
which is the inn, where beds, bread, eggs, coffee and wine can be had.
On the beach are generally large logs brought down from the forests for
shipment. Junction with road to Vico 9-1/4 miles E. (see p. 23), and also
with the road extending 19 miles E. to the forest of Aitone, passing by
the Col Vico, 7-1/2 m., 1607 ft.; Poggio, 12-1/2 m.; the Col Sevi, 3612
ft., 13-1/4 m.; Cristinacce, 16-1/2 m.; and the Col Lacciola, 3040 ft. in
the forest. Five and a half miles from Sagona are the cold sulphurous
springs of Caldanella; efficacious as a tonic.

{87-1/2}{14-1/2}
CALCATOGGIO, pop. 670. A poor village on a hill above the road. From
this the diligence shortly after commences the ascent of the Col
Sebastien, 1344 feet, 12 miles from Ajaccio. After the Col Sebastien,
the road having passed over the Col Staggiola, 930 feet, within a short
distance of Appietto, situated on a hill; reaches

AJACCIO, 102 miles south-west from Calvi.


Porto to the Ponte Francardo.

50 miles north-east. Map, p. 20.

  This important forest road traverses the region of the highest
  mountains and of the greatest forests, passes through Albertacce,
  and by the other villages of the Canton of Calacuccia, and then
  proceeds to Francardo by the defile of the Golo.

  Porto to Evisa, 13-3/4 m., by an excellent carriage road wending
  through most picturesque mountain scenery. The road, after following
  the course of the Porto, crosses the stream Onda, ascends the ravine
  of the Cario, which it crosses 3 m. from Porto under the Capo
  Polmonaccia, 5627 ft. It now winds its way round little valleys into
  the narrow gorge of the Porto between dark red cliffs crowned with
  pinnacles. Nine m. from Porto is the ramification of the mule-path
  to Chidazzo, and 1/2 m. farther the ramification to Marignano. The
  road, after passing the chapelle S. Cyprien, enters Evisa, pop.
  1000; _Inn:_ *H. Carrara; 2770 ft., on a high promontory projecting
  in the centre of a mountain-girt basin from the central range
  between two deep gulfs hollowed out to a depth of 2000 ft. Behind it
  rise pine forests to a broad mountain crest, the pass of the Niolo.

  Evisa is admirably situated for excursions. A difficult winding path
  leads in 2-1/2 hours down to the great walls of the dark granite ravine
  called the Spelunca, at the confluence of the Aitone with the Porto.
  Rambles and drives into the forest of Aitone, from which
  unfortunately the old stately pines have disappeared.

  Evisa to Albertacce, 18 m. E. The road traverses the forest of
  Aitone with its vigorous beeches and young pines (_Pinus laricio_),
  whose stems are clear of branches from 80 to 100 ft. It is watered
  by the Porto and numerous brawling streams; which rush down steep
  ravines covered with moss and ferns. In the forest, 3 m. from Evisa,
  by this road, is the Maison forestiere d'Aitone, where those
  provided with introductions, see p. 41, will find pleasant
  headquarters for grand excursions and fishing and botanical
  expeditions. 1-1/4 m. farther is the house of the road menders
  (Cantonniers) of Tagnone; where lodging can also be had.

  The road having made several detours to get round the heads of
  ravines, ascends the Col de Vergio 4803 ft. on the great mountain
  chain separating the valley of the Golo from the valley of the
  Porto. About 230 ft. above the Col on the Cricche ridge, a little to
  the W., is an admirable view of Mt. Tafonato, 7687 ft., almost due
  N., with a strange natural tunnel through the summit. From Mt.
  Cuculla, 6733 ft., nearly 1-3/4 hours W. from the Col is a still better
  view of Tafonato, and besides a sight of Mt. Cinto, the valley of
  the Golo and the mountain range of Monte Rotondo. A little beyond
  the summit of the Col is the Maison de Cantonniers de Castellaccio,
  whence there is a good view of the forest of Valdoniello, 11,483
  acres, containing besides many large pines very fine specimens of
  beeches, birches and alders. The felling of the trees in this forest
  commenced in 1863.

  After arriving at the Maison forestiere de Sciattarina 10-1/2 m. from
  Evisa, the road passes by some of the finest trees, and descends
  into the valley of the Golo; which has its source in a ravine
  between Mts. Tafonato and Paglia-Orba.

  Four and a half miles farther is the Maison forestiere de Popaja,
  3468 ft., 15 m. from Evisa and 3 m. from Albertacce. Either this
  house or the former, make good quarters for exploring the forest.

  Two miles farther is the Ponte Alto, 2740 ft.; where the road
  crosses the Golo and enters the pastoral country of the Niolo; now
  called the canton of Calacuccia, comprehending the villages of
  Albertacce, Calacuccia, Corscia, Lozzi, and Casamaccioli.

  From near the bridge a mule path of 1-3/4 m. ascends to Casamaccioli,
  2780 ft., pop. 550; whence the continuation leads in 7 hours to
  Corte by the Bocca la Croce, the Melo forest, and the valley of the
  Tavignano.

[Headnote: ALBERTACCE.--MONTE CINTO.]

  Albertacce, 18 m. from Evisa, 2845 ft., pop. 1000, a dirty village
  amidst chestnut and walnut trees; where a good deal of coarse linen
  and Corsican cloth is woven. It is one of the places whence the
  ascent is made of Monte Cinto, 8892 ft., in 7 hours, and in about 6
  for the descent. The path ascends by Calasima, 3610 ft., to the
  height of 5251 ft. After this the course extends almost horizontally
  in a western direction across ridges, ascending by gradations more
  or less fatiguing.

  When about 7720 ft., and having climbed nearly 6 hours, a cave is
  passed where shelter can be had. The remainder of the ascent is
  comparatively easy. The view is grand, Monte Falo, 8363 ft., being
  the most prominent object. The ascent cannot be made till the
  beginning of summer on account of the snow.

[Headnote: LAKE NINO.]

  To Lake Nino, 5598 ft., the source of the Tavignano in 5 hours.
  From the lake a mule path chiefly by the left bank of the Tavignano,
  leads in 6-1/2 hours to Corte, through magnificent forests.

  Around the lake are some shepherds huts; where rest and refreshment
  can be had, but no further supply of food can be counted on between
  the lake and Corte. The lake, full of fish, lies in a hollow between
  high mountains, the highest being Mt. Retto, 6592 at the western
  end.

  Albertacce to Ponte Francardo, 18 m. N.E. The road follows the
  Golo. To the left, a road 1-1/4 m., leads up to Lozzi, pop. 1050.
  2-1/2 m. from Albertacce is Calacuccia, 2779 ft. pop. 860, and 2 m.
  farther, another byeroad ascends to Corscia, 2913 ft., pop. 1000,
  about 5 hours walk S. from Asco, whence also Mt. Cinto may be
  ascended by the valley of the Asco called also Stranciacone. Asco is
  5 hours from Olmi Capella by the Stranciacone, its affluent the
  Tassinella, and the Col de Petrella, 6440 ft., to the S. of Mt.
  Corona, 7032 ft.

  Near the chapel of S. Pancrazio, 2786 ft., 4 m. from Albertacce is
  the commencement of the Scala di Santa Regina, as this part of road
  is called, cut in the face of perpendicular cliffs rising from the
  bed of the Golo. About half way are the small chapel and inn of
  Santa Regina, and the cave which in former times used to be the
  stronghold of robbers.

  Thirteen miles from Albertacce is the Pont du Diable, 1083 ft.,
  where four roads meet. The road southwards or to the right leads to
  Corte, 7 m. S. by Castirla and Soveria, and the Col of Oninanda,
  2155 ft., between cliffs rising 1720 ft. above it.

[Headnote: ASCO.]

  The road leading northwards extends to the beautiful highway between
  Ponte alla Leccia and Calvi; by Castiglione 3-1/4 m., pop. 550, at the
  foot of Mt. Traunato, 7186 ft., Popolasca, 7 m., pop. 200, with
  beautiful red granite pinnacles, and Moltifao 12 m., pop. 1050, with
  Inn, consisting of a group of villages, clustered on the slopes of
  the ridge which separate the valley of the Tartagine from the Asco.
  The byeroad S.W. from Moltifao leads up the highly picturesque
  valley of the Asco, with magnificent forest trees, to the village of
  Asco, pop. 950, a group of hamlets seldom visited, although one of
  the best points from which to make the ascent of Mt. Cinto.

  [Headnote: PONTE FRANCARDO.]

  The road leading 5 m. N.E. by the Golo extends to the Ponte
  Francardo, where the rail may be taken. See p. 9 and General Map.


Calvi to Corte or to Bastia.

See General Map.

  By Ponte alla Leccia. The finest part of the road is between Calvi
  and the Col Colombano. "If I were to permit myself to dwell in
  detail on the exquisite variety and charm of the drive, especially
  after quitting the _route forestiere_ a little E. of the hamlet of
  Palasca, I should wander far from the main purpose of this paper.
  Valery, Gregorovius, Lear and others have done justice to its
  wonderful beauty, and the last truly remarks that 'those who visit
  Corsica without going through upper Balagne remain ignorant of one
  of its finest divisions,' adding, 'no description can exaggerate the
  beauty of this remarkable tract of mountain background and deep
  valley, which for richness of foreground, cheerful fertility and
  elegance of distance may compete with most Italian landscapes.' The
  district is densely peopled--at least twelve large villages are
  situated on the road itself between Belgodere and Lumio, a distance
  of 21 miles--and picturesque hamlets with lofty campanili perch high
  up on the mountain slopes or crown the summits of the lower hills,
  whilst everywhere there is the richest culture and most varied
  produce, and the charm of the picture is completed by continually
  varying views over 'bowery hollows crowned with summer sea.'"--F. F.
  Tuckett, Alpine Club.

[Headnote: THE OLIVE TREE.]

  miles from CALVI
  miles to   CORTE

{ }{61}
CALVI. The road skirts the coast as far as Lumio, 6 m. from Calvi,
whence it commences to ascend gradually by an admirably engineered road
round the undulations of olive-clad mountains, disclosing at every turn
a different view of the fertile valley of Balagna, extending from the
distant mountains to the blue waters of the Mediterranean. It is said
that there is no district throughout the whole of Italy where the olive
attains such a size as in this valley. Of the tree there are three
varieties, the Sabine (_Sabinacci_), the Saracen (_Saraceni_), and the
Genoese (_Genovesi_), the most common of all, and is ascribed to the
Genoese, who during the government of Agostino Doria compelled the
Corsicans to plant olives in great numbers.

[Map: Corsica Western Central Region]

After passing the picturesquely situated village of Lavatoggio, 9 m.;
the Col Cesario, 1200 ft., 10-1/2 m.; the villages of Feliceto, inn, pop.
640, 16-1/4 m.; Castor, 24 m.; Speloncato; Ville di Paraso, pop. 750;
Occhiatana, and many more perched on the surrounding mountain tops, or
nestling in nooks among olive and chestnut trees, the diligence arrives
at

[Headnote: BELGODERE.]

{26-3/4}{34-1/4}
BELGODERE, 1017 feet, pop. 950, commanding the finest view of this
beautiful valley, its orchards, fields and mountains undulating towards
the blue sea. The diligence just remains long enough to give time to run
through the gate and up the narrow dirty street to the top of the rock
on which the houses are clustered, and there to take a rapid glance at
the lovely scene around and underneath. After the gate, the diligence
halts at the post-office, and then moves on a few yards towards the
stables, where the horses are changed.

FOREST ROAD FROM BELGODERE TO THE FOREST OF TARTAGINE.

[Headnote: CAPELLA.--TARTAGINE FOREST.]

  From Belgodere, Route Forestiere, No. 3, leads down to the small
  port of Losari, 6 miles N. from Belgodere and 4-1/2 E. from the Ile
  Rousse. A continuation of the same route southward extends to the
  bridge across the Tartagine, 2355 feet, 25 miles from the Ile
  Rousse, in the great forest of Tartagine. It passes the Bocca
  Campana, 2782 feet, 3-1/4 miles from Belgodere; the Bocca Croce, 3045
  feet, the culminating part of the road, 7 miles from Belgodere; and
  2-1/2 miles farther, the hamlets of Olmi and Capella, 9 miles from
  Speloncato; with ever-varying mountain and village scenes among
  great forests; 20 m. from Belgodere is the Pont Tartagine in the
  forest of that name. The forest of Tartagine, enclosed within the
  high crests of the Capo Dente 6667 ft. on the west, and of Mt. Padro
  on the east, measures 7166 acres, and contains principally the
  _Pinus laricio_ and the _P. pinaster_, intermingled with ilexes or
  evergreen oaks (p. 41).

  "Olmi-Capella 2723 ft. is in an open airy situation, commanding fine
  views of the mountains to the S. and S.W., and protected to some
  extent on the N. and N.W. by the ridge which sweeps round to the
  head of the Tartagine valley. This ridge, though in the
  neighbourhood of the village only about 1000 ft. above the sloping
  plateau on which it is built, rises to the W. into the peaks of
  Monte Tolo 4370 ft., Monte San Parteo 5512 ft., Monte Cineraggia
  5286 ft., Monte Grosso 6227 ft., Punta Radiche 6595 ft., Capo al
  Dente 6667 ft., and Monte Corona 7031 ft. The N. slope of this ridge
  is very steep, and commands most magnificent views of the Haute
  Balagne and the sea beyond, whilst it is traversed by numerous
  passes which afford charming scenery. Besides the _route
  forestiere_, which crosses the Col de Bocca Croce 3048 ft., and by
  which the timber of the forest of Tartagine is conveyed to Ile
  Rousse for shipment, several mule-paths connect Olmi Capella much
  more directly with Ville and Speloncato by the Bocca Battaglia 3550
  ft., and Bocca Croce d'Ovo 3629 feet; with Feliceto by the Bocca
  Pianile 5033 ft.; with Zilia and Calvi by the Bocca di Cineraggia
  4698 ft.; with Calenzana by the Bocca Bianca 6155 ft., with
  Calenzana or the Val Ficarella by the Bocca di Tartagine 6093 ft.;
  and with the head of the valley of Asco by the Bocca de l'Ondella
  6086 ft."--F. F. Tuckett, Alpine Club.

[Headnote: PALASCA.]

  miles from CALVI
  miles to   CORTE

{28-3/4}{32-1/4}
PALASCA, pop. 550. Situated lower down than the high road and the last
village on this side of the

{31-1/2}{29-1/2}
COL DE SAN COLOMBANO, 2625 feet above the sea. The view though more vast
is less distinct, presenting a succession of mountain-tops, between
which are dimly seen valleys with the sea in the distance. The diligence
now descends into the narrow, rocky vale of the Navaccia, an affluent of
the Tartagine, which enters the Golo a little above the important bridge
called the

[Headnote: PONTE ALLA LECCIA.]

{46-3/4}{14-1/4}
PONTE ALLA LECCIA. Inn at station. Here take rail for Corte (see p. 8)
or for Bastia, 29 miles N.E. (see p. 10). The Ponte Nuovo is distinctly
seen from the station. The two small houses near the railway bridge, on
the S. side of the Golo, were Paoli's headquarters during the battle
(see pp. 9 and 39).

{61}
CORTE, see page 8.


Ajaccio to Vico and Evisa.

33 miles north; time 7 to 8 hours; fare 4 frs.

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   VICO

{ }{33}
AJACCIO. At about two miles from the town the diligence commences the
ascent of the low Col of Stileto, passing the aqueduct for the Gravona
water. On the left hand are the granite quarries whence the large slabs
were taken for the monument to Napoleon in the Place d'Armes, as well as
the long blocks for the pillars of the Marseilles cathedral. To the
right are the village of Appietto, pop. 700, on a hill and the great
cliff Monte Gozzi, 656 feet high.

{12}{21}
Summit of the COL ST. SEBASTIEN, 1344 feet above the sea, commanding a
lovely prospect of the Bays of Liscia, Sagona and Cargese, and of the
valley of Cinarca, with its villages and vineyards. At the foot of the
Col is a small inn called Le Repos des Voyageurs, where bread and wine
and capital sea-urchins can be had. They are eaten raw, and taken out of
the shell by cutting it in two horizontally.

{23}{10}
SAGONA, junction with road to Calvi, 79 miles N. (see p. 17).

{31}{2}
Summit of the COL ST. ANTOINE, 1488 feet. Near the top, at some distance
to the left, is the village of Balogna, pop. 600, while in front is seen
the splendid range of the Monte Rotondo, among which the most
conspicuous is La Sposata, at the head of wooded valleys.

The road to the left or N. leads to Evisa, 18 miles from Vico, pop.
1000, and 2770 feet above the sea. _Hotel:_ Carrara, a comfortable
house, where vehicles may be hired. Evisa is charmingly situated on the
confines of the forest of Aitone, containing 3,749 acres. Beyond Aitone,
or 11 miles from Evisa, is the large forest of Valdoniello, 11,483
acres. These forests, instead of extending monotonously on large plains,
plunge into deep valleys, or creep up the sides of high mountains.

From Evisa descend to Porto (see p. 18).

[Headnote: VICO.]

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   VICO

{33}
VICO, pop. 2020. _Inns:_ France, where the diligence stops; Voyageurs;
Univers. Most picturesquely situated in the valley of the Liamone,
surrounded by steep mountains covered with apple, peach, chestnut,
walnut, olive and oak trees. On the opposite side of the valley is the
large whitewashed convent of St. Francis, with terraced garden shaded by
tall magnolias, beautifully placed on a thickly-wooded bank, above which
is seen the small hamlet of Nessa. It is a favourite summer resort of
the _elite_ of Ajaccio, who revel here on carpets of cyclamen, violets,
and a profusion of other wild flowers, in the shade of the dense foliage
of the chestnut groves around.

[Headnote: BATHS OF GUAGNO.]

  Seven and a half miles from Vico up the wooded vale of the Liamone
  and by the Bridges of Silvani and Belfiori, the village of Murzo and
  the Col de Sorro, are the Baths of Guagno, with hot, sulphurous
  springs, resembling in their properties those of Bareges in the
  Pyrenees (see Black's _South France_). From May to September they
  are much frequented, when a coach runs between Vico and Guagno.
  Time, 2 hours; fare, 3 frs. Coaches can be hired at Vico for Evisa.
  Charge, 10 frs.


Ajaccio to Sartene.

53 m. S. by diligence, over a hilly road; 13 hrs.

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   SARTENE

{ }{53}
AJACCIO. The most comfortable way to go to Sartene is to take the
steamer to Propriano, only 8 miles N. from Sartene, and there to await
the daily coach. The diligence from Ajaccio, after having crossed the
rivers Gravona, Prunelli, Agnone, Vergajolo and Margone, and the pass of
Campolaccio, 843 feet, arrives at

[Headnote: CAURO.]

{12-1/2}{40-1/2}
CAURO or CAVRO, 1180 ft. _Inn._ Coach to Bastelica. Pop. 700. A
straggling mountain village, commanding extensive views.


Cauro to Bastelica.

  12 m. northwards by "Courrier" by a charming forest road, which
  after crossing the Else at the Pont Zipitoli, 7 m. from Cauro,
  enters the defile of the Prunelli at the Col de Menta, about 2 m.
  from Bastelica.

  The road from Cauro crosses the Col Torro, 1394 ft., 1-1/2 m. Four
  miles, the col and bridge S. Alberto, 1710 ft. whence a road
  ramifies 7-1/2 m. S. to S. Maria-Siche and Grossetto. On the right side
  of the road a waterfall descends from the crest of the Usciolo.
  Large oaks and chestnut trees with ilexes and pines are now seen.
  7 m. here a short branch road leads to a maison forestiere surrounded
  by large trees, at the foot of Mt. Mantelluccio, 5515 ft. A little
  farther a road ramifies 4-1/2 m. by the wild and beautiful valley of
  the Else into the forest of Ponteniello, and where it ends a mule
  path commences to Frasseto, pop. 750, on the coach road between
  Ajaccio and the baths of Guitera. 7-1/2 m. the Zipitoli bridge across
  the Else, a short way above its junction with the Prunelli. On the
  right side of the river is the Maison de Cantonniers of Zipitoli.

  8 m. The Col Crichetto, 2380 ft., and nearly 3 m. farther the Col
  Menta, 2458 ft., from which the road descends to the Prunelli and
  continues by its banks to

[Headnote: DOMINICACCI.]

  Bastelica, pop. 4000, inn, 2400 ft., consisting of a group of
  hamlets, none of which bears the name of Bastelica. Sampiero was
  born in the one called Dominicacci, between Stazzona and Costa, at
  the end of the 15th cent., and killed by the Ornanos in the defile
  of the Prunelli on the 17th January 1567. The house which stands on
  the site of the one he lived in bears an epitaph to his memory,
  placed by "William Wyse, Irish Roman Catholic, nephew of Napoleon
  the Great."

[Headnote: MT. RENOSO.]

  Among the many pleasant excursions is the ascent of Mt. Renoso, 7733
  ft., 5-1/2 hrs. N.E.

  In summer men go up every day with mules for frozen snow. There are
  lakes on the south and east sides of the mountain, and some fine
  velvety swards. Map, p. 27.

Five miles beyond Cauro, the Sartene road attains the summit of the Col
St. Georges, 2500 ft., commanding a fine prospect of the surrounding
country, and afterwards descends to the valley of Ornano, the native
land of Vanina, traversed by the Taravo.

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   SARTENE

{20}{33}
APA, whence a Route Departamentale extends 18 m. N.E. to the baths of
Guitera and Zicavo. Maps, pp. 1 and 27.


AJACCIO TO ZICAVO AND THE BATHS OF GUITERA.

[Headnote: BATHS OF GUITERA.]

  8-1/4 hrs. by coach and 39 m. from Ajaccio by the Apa mill, 1841 ft.,
  then by the slopes of the Punta del Castello, 2674 ft., through a
  charming country, to S. Maria-Siche, 2 m. from Apa, inn where
  coach stops, pop. 800. An old lofty building here of granite, with
  the remains of towers blackened by age, was the birthplace of the
  unfortunate Vanina, strangled by Sampiero, p. 39. The ruins of the
  chateau he built for himself in 1554, after his house had been
  destroyed, are seen on a hill to the left of the road. Coaches for
  Ajaccio, Guitera, Zicavo, and Propriano. 4-1/2 m. from Apa at Campo,
  pop. 390, the road describes a great circuit to get round the head
  of the defile of the torrent of Frasseto, an affluent of the Taravo.
  1-1/4 m. farther is Frasseto, pop. 740. When about 2770 feet high there
  is, through an opening, a superb view extending to the sea by the
  valley of the Frasseto. 8 m. from Apa is the Col de Granace, 2713
  ft., with a splendid view. Zecavo, 10 m., 2238 ft., pop. 510, on an
  affluent of the Taravo. Then rounding the buttresses of the Sposata,
  3288 ft., enter the village of Corrano, 12 m., pop. 470, in a lovely
  situation. 14-1/2 m. from Apa and 34-1/2 from Ajaccio are the hot
  sulphurous springs of Guitera, with hotel, 1437 ft., on the right
  bank of the Taravo, an excellent trout stream. Coach to and from
  Ajaccio during the season, from May to September. Pleasantly
  situated among cork oaks and banks covered with the Osmunda fern.
  The road from the Baths of Guitera up to Zicavo, 3-1/2 m., follows for
  about 1 m. the Taravo till its union with the torrent from Mt.
  Coscione, whence it climbs up through the gorge to

[Headnote: ZICAVO.--MT. INCUDINE.]

  Zicavo, pop. 1500, hotel, 2385 ft., charmingly situated,
  overlooking the valley of the Taravo, 38 m. by coach from Ajaccio.
  From Zicavo the ascent is made of Monte Incudine, 7008 ft., in 6
  hrs. Mules can be employed to within 1/2 hr. of summit. Although not
  difficult, guide and mule are advisable, if for nothing else than to
  assist in fording the streams. After having passed the chapel of S.
  Roch, ascend a steep mule path, right, among the largest and best
  formed chestnut trees in the island, then rounding Mt. Buchino, 3623
  ft., among ilexes, and Mt. Occhiato, 5749 ft., covered with beech
  trees, ascend southwards by a wooded ravine between great rocks.
  Between 2 and 3 hrs. the Pastures of the plain of Coscione, with
  many shepherds' huts, are reached, whence Mt. Incudine is seen.
  After leaving this the path becomes very bad, over loose stones and
  across troublesome torrents. These are succeeded by an annoying
  thick coppice of alders, and then the Col de Cheralba, 6345 ft., is
  ascended, in about 5-1/2 hrs. from starting. The mules are left here,
  and the ascent is made by the western flank, taking care to make the
  guide understand that the highest peak is wanted, and not the Rocher
  de l'Incudine. "The view is probably the most beautiful in
  Corsica--a vast panorama full of variety. Steep pine clad hills sink
  abruptly into the eastern sea; glens open southward on a rich
  glowing valley; the blue depths of the bays are fringed with an
  edging of white sand and green water. The great granite aiguilles of
  the forest of Bavella, a strange array of horns and pinnacles, run
  across the foreground; to the left the long fiord of Porto Vecchio
  stretches far into the land; while in the centre of the picture are
  spread out the broad Straits of Bonifacio, studded with pale isles
  and islets. On the left is Caprera, the home of the liberator of the
  Two Sicilies. [Headnote: NELSON.] The one beside it, Maddalena, is
  linked with even greater memories--Nelson and Napoleon. Under its
  lee, in a bay which Nelson christened 'Agincourt Sound,' the British
  fleet lay for months before the battle of the Nile, watching for the
  French squadron sheltered behind the guns of Toulon. Two silver
  candlesticks on the altar of the village church record Nelson's
  gratitude for the friendly services of the inhabitants. It was in
  attacking this same village that Napoleon, in 1793, first saw fire.
  For mountain views the Alpine clubman is spoilt, but for sea views,
  and they are not less beautiful, he must go far, perhaps as far as
  Greece, to find such another."--D. F. Freshfield, Alpine Club. See
  map on fly-leaf.

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   SARTENE

{21}{32}
GROSSETO, 1476 feet, pop. 600; 4-1/2 hours by diligence from Ajaccio.
  A little beyond the inn is the church, sheltered by large ilex
  trees, which grow to a great height in this neighbourhood.

{30}{23}
BICCHISANO, 350 feet, pop. 1800, where the passengers dine.
  The diligence then passes the villages of Petreto and Cassalabriva,
  pop. 300, and shortly afterwards reaches the summit of the Col
  Celaccia, 1910 feet, about 2-1/2 m. E. from Sollacaro, pop. 800, where
  Boswell visited Paoli. Sollacaro is not on the highroad.

[Headnote: OLMETO.]

{39}{14}
OLMETO, pop. 1650, hotel. On a hill, with an extensive view.
  In the neighbourhood, on Monte Buttareto, are the ruins of the
  castle of Arrigo della Rocca. No more beautiful sight than that of
  Olmeto can be pictured. Immediately below the town the ground dips
  steeply down, covered with corn or turf; or in terraces of vineyard,
  varied with large groups of fine olive trees stretching down to the
  shore. Above the village a vast growth of vegetation climbs the
  heights. Among huge masses of granite are tangles of every shrub the
  island produces, the wild olive or oleaster being one of the most
  elegant; while every part of the heights close to the town abounds
  with little picture subjects, with a clear blue sky for a
  background.

  The road now descends to the coast, and after crossing the Baracci,
  near the hot sulphurous mineral baths of Baracci, arrives at

[Headnote: PROPRIANO.]

{44-1/2}{8-1/2}
PROPRIANO, pop. 1000. H. France.
  Every Saturday a steamer arrives from Ajaccio, and returns on the
  Monday morning. Another steamer twice weekly between this and
  Ajaccio. Near the bridge over the Rizzanese, are the two Celtic
  monuments called the Stazione del' Diavolo.

PROPRIANO TO SOLENZARA.

  Two and a half miles beyond the bridge commences the Route
  Forestiere, No. 4, leading to Solenzara, 42-1/2 m. N.E. This road
  ascends by the Rizzanese to S. Lucia di Tallano, whence eastward to
  Levie, 1970 ft.; and thence Zonza, 2586 ft. The road afterwards
  ascends N.E. by a picturesque ravine to the Col Bavella, 3965 ft.;
  whence after descending to the Maison Cantonniere, 1476 ft., it
  crosses the Col Larone, 2013; whence it descends by a winding road
  partly by the banks of the Fiumicello and partly by the R. Solenzara
  to Solenzara (see p. 36).

[Map: Corsica, Central Region]

Shortly after crossing the Rizzanese the diligence commences the long
ascent to Sartene, disclosing views of the great valley below and of the
splendid snowy heights of the long range of mountains opposite,
terminating in the lofty regions of the great Monte Incudine, 7008 ft.

[Headnote: SARTENE.]

  miles from AJACCIO
  miles to   SARTENE

{53}
SARTENE, 1000 feet; pop. 6010; _Inns:_ Commerce: Univers.
  Coaches daily to and from Ajaccio, Bonifacio and Santa Lucia di
  Tallano. Old Sartene is a town of narrow streets approached by a
  fine bridge, whence the whole valley is seen down to the Gulf of
  Valinco. It still retains some towers and parts of the walls erected
  in the 16th century. The houses are built of rough, dark gray
  granite, with steep stone steps leading up to the main entrance, and
  odd Italian chimneys, some in the shape of pillars with curious
  capitals, others in the form of towers or obelisks. The houses
  bordering the Nouvello Traverse and the streets leading into the
  "Place" form the new town.


Sartene to Corte by Vivario,

up the centre of the island. Maps, pp. 1 and 27.

  This grand mountain road, No. 196 bis, extends from Sartene,
  73 m. N. to the Ajaccio and Corte road, which it joins at the 60
  kilometres-stone, on the Col Serra, 1/2 mile from Vivario. All the
  diligences between Ajaccio and Corte halt at the inn of Vivario
  (p. 8).

[Headnote: S. LUCIA DI TALLANO.]

After leaving Sartene the road crosses the Fiumicicoli and ascends the
valley of the Rizzanese to Loreto, 12 m., and Cargiaca 15 m. N. from
Sartene 1302 ft.; grand view. Near Loreto is S. Lucia di Tallano, 1270
ft., with a quarry of a beautiful amphibole, a variety of hornblende.
The ground colour is grayish blue sprinkled with white and margined with
black spots (see p. 37).

[Headnote: ZICAVO.]

From Cargiaca the road enters the valley of the Coscione and ascends
through the ilex forest of Taca amidst towering mountains and vertical
cliffs by the villages of Zerubia and Aullene, 2736 ft., pop. 1100; inn;
21 m. N. from Sartene. It now crosses the Coscione, 3492 ft., then the
Col Vaccia, 3898 ft., and descends by the Col d'Alisandri, 3426 ft., to
Zicavo, 2445 ft., with an inn, 17 m. from Aullene, 3-1/2 m. E. from the
baths of Guitera, 38 m. N. from Sartene and 37 m. S. from Vivario.

From the Bocca Tinzole a road ramifies N.W. to Olivese 1460 ft., pop.
700, in the valley of the Taravo, 7 m. from Guitera by a beautiful
road.

From Zicavo the road crosses the Col San Francesco, 1969 ft., to
Cozzano, 40 m., pop. 900, and enters the valley of the Taravo, which it
ascends by the east bank between two great mountain chains, the
culminating point of the western chain being Mt. Don Giovanni 6405 ft.,
and that of the eastern Pointe Capella 6706 ft.

Three and a quarter miles up the valley from Cozzano a wheel road leads
1-1/2 m. E. to the Maison Forestiere of St. Antoine, whence a mule path by
the Col de Rapara, 5557 ft., extends to Isolaccio and the hot baths of
Pietrapola, p. 8, by a picturesque road through a beautiful part of the
forest.

Four and a half miles above Cozzano is the Col Scrivano, 2959 ft.,
whence a mule path leads across the valley to Palneca, pop. 1050, on the
wooded slopes of Mt. Pietra Cinta, 4958 ft.

A little below the summit of the Col is the Maison de Cantonniers de
Scrivano.

Nine and a half miles N. from Zicavo is the bridge Argentuccia, fronting
a grand semi-circle of mountains covered with noble trees. This is the
commencement of the real Verde forest.

Eleven and three quarter miles from Zicavo is the Maison de Cantonniers
de Ghiraldino, 3936 ft., 49 m. N. from Sartene, 2 m. S. from the Col
Verde and 5 m. S. from the House of Refuge of Marmano. A little beyond
the house a wheel road, left, descends into one of the finest parts of
the Verde forest.

[Headnote: COL VERDE.]

Thirteen and three quarter miles from Zicavo and 51 m. from Sartene is
the Col Verde, 4290 ft., with, nearly a mile distant, the Maison de
Cantonniers de Marmano. Below is the forest of Marmano, with its best
trees cut down, and in the neighbourhood the sources of the rivers
Taravo, 5678 ft., at the Col Tisina, of the Fium Orbo, 3783 ft. under a
mountain a little to the N. of the Col Verde, and of the Prunelli, 4790
ft., among a group of high mountains to the W. The Vecchio rises from
the springs on Mt. Oro.

[Headnote: REFUGE DE MARMANO.]

Seventeen miles from Zicavo and 54 m. from Sartene is the Refuge de
Marmano, 3182 ft., beautifully situated. Here was formerly the summer
station of the Casabianda penitentiary. The escaped criminals committed
such outrages that the government at the repeated petitioning of the
shepherds were obliged to withdraw it. Finally Casabianda was abandoned
also, and the prisoners removed to the neighbourhood of Ajaccio, where
they could be well looked after.

Food and lodging may be obtained at the Maison Forestiere, or 1-1/4 m.
farther at the Maison de Cantonniers de Canareccia, 2760 ft., in the
rocky defile of the Fium Orbo. Between this and Ghisoni, 6 m., 3 bridges
and 2 low Cols are crossed. At the second bridge, the Pont de Casso,
4-1/2 m. from Ghisoni, are seen the great pinnacles or needles and lofty
cliffs of Albuccia Point or Kyrie Eleison, 4935 ft.

From the Canaraccia the road winds its way northward along the flanks of
mountains sloping down to the Orbo, which it leaves shortly before
reaching

[Headnote: GHISONI.--COL SORBA.]

Ghisoni, pop. 1740, 2160 ft., 62 m. N. from Sartene, 12 m. S. from
Vivario, 8 m. N. from the House of Refuge, and 24 m. N. from Zicavo.
Four m. N. from Ghisoni the road crosses the Col Scozzolatojo, 3916 ft.,
and 2 m. farther the Col Sorba, 4310 ft., 6 m. S. from Vivario, see p.
8. The descent from the Col Sorba into Vivario is very striking. It is
effected by excessively sharp zigzags through a noble pine forest.
Between the branches tower the bold forms of Monte d'Oro, Monte Rotondo,
and, in the distance, behind the uplands of Corte, the crags of Monte
Traunato.

The best resting-places on this road are Zicavo, 39 m. S.E. from
Ajaccio, from which it is approached by a diligence; and the pleasant
village of Ghisoni, where there is a very fair inn. At Vivario there is
the Hotel Voyageurs. Guides and carriages should be hired either at
Sartene or Vivario, 20 frs. per day.


Ghisoni to Ghisonaccia.

18 m. S.E. Maps, pp. 1 and 27.

  By the Forest road No. 5, cut for nearly 11 m. in the face of the
  steep cliffs which enclose the Orbo. As this road in all the
  dangerous parts is hardly 11 ft. wide, it is necessary to ascertain
  before starting in a vehicle, the position of the carts conveying
  the logs, and to arrange accordingly.

  The road descends from Ghisoni to the Pont de Regolo, 2077 ft.,
  where it crosses the Casapietrone, and then follows the course of
  the Fium Orbo, crosses the Ruello Bridge 1450 ft., and enters the
  Salto della Sposata 4-1/2 m. from Ghisoni, where the river flows in a
  narrow bed between vertical precipices, some more than 1200 ft.
  high.

[Headnote: L'INZECCA.]

  The road, chiselled out of these cliffs, passes under 3 great
  portals. From the third is seen, through the great cleft in the rock
  of Inzecca, the sea at Aleria.

  After this the defile opens up to close again between serpentine
  cliffs. It then crosses the 2 Ponts de Parabuja and the viaduct de
  l'Inzecca, and reaches the entrance to the Passage de l'Inzecca,
  7 m. from Ghisoni, 985 ft. above the sea, where the road is cut
  through great serpentine rocks. This is the most difficult part for
  the waggons to pass. Map, p. 27.

  The plain now widens, and 8 m. from Ghisoni a branch road leads to
  Vezzani.

  Nine and a quarter miles from Ghisoni is the Col S. Antoine, 355 ft.,
  and 8-3/4 m. farther is Ghisonaccia, p. 32.


Sartene to Bonifacio.

33 miles south-east, by diligence; time, 6 hours.

  miles from SARTENE
  miles to   BONIFACIO

{ }{33}
SARTENE. The road winds its way through great blocks of granite
scattered on a plain studded with shrubby specimens of the ilex, towards
the shore of the Golfo di Roccapina, with a fantastically shaped rock
called il Leone Coronato. East from the gulf the road passes the village
of Pianottoli, 21 m. from Sartene, almost due south from the singular
mountain l'Uomo di Cagna, 3980 ft.; then the bridge across the Figari at
the head of the Gulf of Figari, 23 m.; the Col de la Testa or Scopeto,
225 ft., 24 m.; and the bridge across the Ventilegni, 27 m. from
Sartene, and 6 from Bonifacio.

[Headnote: BONIFACIO.]

{33}
BONIFACIO, pop. 4000. H. du Nord; France in the high town. Diligences
leave daily for Bastia, Sartene, and Ajaccio. A steamer arrives every
Saturday from Ajaccio and returns on the Monday. Bonifacio was founded
in 833 by the Tuscan marquis whose name it bears, to protect this part
of the island against the piratical incursions of the Saracens. The high
town is built on the top of a limestone rock rising vertically from the
sea. The low town occupies one side of the fine natural dock, hemmed in
by perpendicular cliffs with an opening of only 328 yards towards the
sea. From the steamboat wharf a broad paved series of steps leads up to
the high town, entering it through the Porte Vieille. In the old house
fronting this Porte or gateway, Charles V., in 1541, stayed two days and
a night on his return from his unsuccessful expedition against Algiers.
Overtaken by a storm, he had taken refuge in the Gulf of Santa Manza.
The door of the house, decorated with an arabesque on marble, is in the
narrow side street. In the Place d'Armes are the church of San Domenico,
built by the Templars, characterised by its octagonal tower with an
embrasured termination; and the great tower "Torrione," part of the
fortifications built by the marquis, and formerly the most important
part of the citadel. Near this tower is the flight of steps "Redragon,"
cut in the rock by the Genoese, which descends by 202 steps to the sea.
The small room over the gateway of the citadel, opposite the house of
Charles V., was inhabited by Napoleon for nearly eight months. There are
grand sea-views from the ramparts. The town consists of tall, dingy
houses, and narrow, steep, and in most cases dirty streets. The
promenade of Bonifacio is the small covered terrace before the church of
Santa Maria. Here also is the public cistern.

Of the numerous caves which pierce the base of the rock of Bonifacio,
the most remarkable one enters from the sea, 214 feet below the Place
d'Armes, and extends to an unknown distance. It contains a freshwater
lake, which rises and falls with the tide. A staircase with a vaulted
roof and consisting of 337 steps leads down to this lake. The water is
brought up to the surface by a force pump, is perfectly transparent,
with a slight calcareous taste. In the high town there are 39 private
and one public cistern, in which the rain water from the roofs is stored
up. The low town has a well supplied from a stream by an aqueduct. The
afternoon is the best time to visit the caves. A boat for one or party
should not cost more than 5 frs. The finest, the Dragonetta, cannot be
visited when the sea is rough.

On Monte Pertusato (the south extremity of Corsica), 2 miles S.E. from
Bonifacio, is a lighthouse of the first order, 325 feet above the sea.
The southern promontory is pierced by a cavern hung with stalactites.


Bonifacio to Bastia.

103 miles; diligence to Ghisonaccia, 50 m. N., the rest by rail.

  miles from BONIFACIO
  miles to   BASTIA

{ }{103}
BONIFACIO. The diligence, after passing the Col Finocchio, 354 feet, 2-1/2
miles N. from Bonifacio, the Maison Francola, 7 miles, the bridge across
the Stabiacco, 16 miles, and the Col Mattonara, 17-1/2 miles (whence the
Route Forestiere, No. 11, ascends 14 miles west into the forest of the
Ospedale), arrives in 3 hours at

[Headnote: PORTO-VECCHIO.]

{27}{76}
PORTO-VECCHIO, pop. 2740. Hotel Amis. Surrounded by its old walls, and
at the head of a beautiful gulf. The surrounding country is fertile, but
unhealthy during the hot weather, on account of the miasma rising from
the morasses and lagoons. To the N. of Porto, the mountains still
approach near to the sea; but beyond Solenzara (where the diligence
halts) 41-1/2 miles from Bonifacio, they recede and leave free those great
undulating plains which characterise the eastern coast of
Corsica--plains almost uninhabited and covered with heaths. From the
north side of the Travo commences a series of large lakes swarming with
fish and a kind of cockle. They are separated from the sea by long
narrow sandbanks, like earthen break-waters. The malaria prevails from
June to October, but even then only the night should be avoided in
travelling along this coast. The road after passing by the hamlet of
Favona, 33 m., arrives at

[Headnote: SOLENZARA.]

{45}{58}
SOLENZARA. Whence a wheel road extends westwards into the forest of
  Bavella by the Col Bavella 18-1/2 m. S.W., and the Col Scalella, 22 m.,
  2982 ft. to Zonza, 24-1/2 m. from Solenzara; 4 m. farther is the
  village of S. Gavino di Carbini, 2292 ft., and other 2-1/2 m. the
  village of Levie; 30 m. S.W. from Solenzara, and 10-1/2 from Propriano
  is S. Lucia de Tallano, on the highroad to Aullene (see p. 27), and
  for continuation of this road to Propriano see p. 26.

The road to Bastia, after passing the Travo, 44 m., Vicchiseri, 46 m.,
and Casamozza, 48-1/2 m., arrives at the railway station of

[Headnote: GHISONACCIA.]

{53}{50}
GHISONACCIA, pop. 850. On the Fium Orbo, 36 m. S.E. from Corte.
  From this a department road of 4-1/2 m. leads to the hot sulphurous
  baths of Pietrapola, with a large hotel in a healthy situation.

  From Ghisonaccia a carriage road extends N.W. to the villages of
  Poggio-di-Nazza, 9-1/2 m., and Lugo-di-Nazza, 11-1/2 m. From Ghisonaccia
  railway station a forest road extends 18 m. N.W. to Ghisoni, where
  it joins the high road between Sartene and Vivario (p. 29). The
  southern prolongation of this road leads to Zicavo, Petreto,
  Bicchisano, and Portopollo, on the Gulf of Valinco.

Forty-six m. from Bastia is Casabianda. H. Perett; a village situated on
a well-cultivated estate belonging to the government; formerly used as
an agricultural penitentiary for juvenile criminals. In the hot season
it is safer to pass the night at Casabianda than at Aleria.

[Headnote: ALERIA.]

  miles from BONIFACIO
  miles to   BASTIA

{58-1/4}{44-3/4}
ALERIA. Inn. The capital of Corsica till the invasion of the Saracens in
the 4th cent., now a poor village with an old Genoese fort, situated at
the mouth of the Tavignano, 1-1/4 m. from the Etang de Diane. Ancient
Aleria, the colony founded by the dictator Sulla about 82 B.C., occupied
both banks of the Tavignano, which waters one of the finest plains in
the world, where winter is unknown. The site of the town was well
selected. The population was probably 20,000.

It was at Aleria that Theodore Neuhoff, a native of Altona, in Germany,
landed to have himself proclaimed King of Corsica, March 1736. He died a
pauper in London, and was buried in an obscure corner of St. Anne's
churchyard, Soho. On a mural tablet against the exterior wall, west end,
is the following epitaph written by Horace Walpole:--"Near this place is
interred Theodore, King of Corsica, who died in this parish, Dec. 11,
1756, immediately after leaving the King's Bench prison, by the benefit
of the Act of Insolvency. In consequence of which, he registered his
kingdom of Corsica for the use of his creditors." His capital was
Cervione. The lake de Diane is a great sheet of salt water with one
narrow opening to the sea. It formed the harbour of Aleria, and was
provided with quays, of which a vestige still remains. The lake contains
an island 460 yards in circumference, composed of oyster shells covered
with luxurious vegetation. Fish, and a cockle a species of Venerupis,
inhabit the brackish water of the lake.

ALERIA TO CORTE.

Coach every other day; fare, 5 francs; time, 4 hours.

  Thirty-one and a half m. N.W., by a picturesque road up the
  course of the Tavignano, passing Cateraggio, 2 m., Rotani, 5 m.,
  commencement of bridle path leading N. to Tallone, 7-1/2 m., Tox,
  9-1/2 m., Campo, 11 m., and Moita, 12-1/2 m. Seven m. farther up
  the main road a ramification extends N. to Giuncaggio, 4-1/2 m.,
  and to Pancheraccia, 5-1/2 m.

  Up the main road, 21-1/2 m. from Aleria, and near the bridge across
  the Vecchio, a bridle path strikes off S. to Rospigliani, 5 m., and
  Vezzani, 6-1/2 m. A little higher a ramification extends 5 m. W. to
  Serraggio (p. 8). The road, after passing several other ramifications
  with the Corte and Ajaccio road, arrives at Corte, p. 8.

  Ten m. W. from Aleria are the cold saline sulphurous springs of
  Puzzichello, 190 ft., considered efficacious in the cure of
  syphilitic diseases, resembling in this property the water of Aulus
  in the Pyrenees. See Black's _South France_, West Half (Pyrenees).

[Headnote: PRUNETE.--CERVIONE.--ALESANI.]

  miles from BONIFACIO
  miles to   BASTIA

{79}{24}
PRUNETE. _Inn:_ Gaetan. Junction with road to Ponte alla Leccia, 44 m.
N.W. (p. 9), leading through a region of chestnut trees and past many
villages on the mountains, built chiefly on terraces. A coach runs from
the station to Alesani called also Castagneto 1938 ft. 14 m. W.;
  ascending by Muchieto 808 ft. 3-3/4 m., Cervione 1073 ft. 4-1/2 m., pop.
  1000; _Inns:_ France: Voyageurs: an untidy village, once the capital
  of King Theodore's realm. From Cervione the road describes a long
  detour to the bridge across the Chebbia, whence it ascends to Cotone
  1008 ft 6-1/4 m., the Col d'Aja 1236 ft., and Ortale 1489 ft., 1-3/4 m.
  from Alesani. Good red wine is made in the neighbourhood of
  Cervione. The dirty little village of Castagneto or Alesani is
  picturesquely situated on the side of a mountain overlooking a
  valley covered with chestnut trees. The diligence stops at an inn,
  where bread, eggs and coffee with goats' milk can be had and a
  comfortable bed. A char-a-banc from this inn to Piedicroce (Orezza)
  costs 10 frs., time 2-1/2 hours, 11 miles. For Orezza, see p. 34.
  Passengers from Prunete to Piedicroce or Stazzona should not stop at
  Cervione but continue the diligence route to Castagneto, whence
  start next morning. The drive between Castagneto and Piedicroce, 11
  miles, is by far the most beautiful part of the road. The highest
  part of the Col d'Arcarotta is a narrow ridge between the valleys of
  Orezza and Ortia, commanding a charming view. See also p. 35.

{87-1/4}{24-3/4}
PADULELLA. Four and a quarter miles west by a good road is San Nicolao,
pop. 600.

[Headnote: STAZZONA.]

{84-1/4}{18-3/4}
FOLELLI-Orezza station. Junction with road to Piedicroce 14-1/4 m. S.W.;
  by the course of the Fium'alto, the Chestnut country, and the
  village of Stazzona, 13-1/4 m. from Folelli, 1/4 m. from and 355 ft.
  under Piedicroce, and 1 m. from and 200 ft. above the spring of
  Orezza. The coach from the station stops at Stazzona, pop. 250.
  _Hotels_: *Paix, Casino. Very fine oleanders in the gardens. On the
  opposite side of the valley of the Fium'alto is Granajola, with the
  establishment Manfredi, 2016 ft. above the sea and 220 feet above
  the spring. The hotel Manfredi has the most select society, is the
  largest house, and its road from the spring is the least dusty; but
  as no public coach goes there it is necessary to hire a private
  conveyance either at Stazzona or Piedicroce, 3 or 4 miles. The
  charge in all the hotels is 7 frs. per day, not including coffee or
  tea in the morning. The hotels of Stazzona and the hotel Manfredi
  are the most convenient for the Spa drinkers; those of Piedicroce
  are too distant.

[Headnote: OREZZA.]

  The Orezza spring is in the centre of a small terrace in the narrow
  valley of the Fium'alto, whose steep banks are covered with chestnut
  trees, and ascended by dusty winding roads. The water is a
  bicarbonate chalybeate, with an agreeable amount of free carbonic
  acid gas.

[Headnote: VESCOVATO.]

{89}{14}
VESCOVATO STATION. Town 1-1/4 m. W., pop. 1500.
  *H. de Progreso in the large "Place" where all the coaches stop,
  near a fountain of pure gushing water, cold even in summer. The
  rather untidy town of Vescovato is almost hidden in the corner of a
  valley, 550 ft. above the sea, by woods of vigorous olive and
  chestnut trees. From it a coach starts daily to Porta, 15 m. W., by
  a bad, dusty, jolting road, passing through Venzolasca, pop. 1300,
  on the top of a hill, 732 ft., 1-1/2 m. from Vescovato. Three m.
  farther a road, left, 1 m., leads to Porri, 1718 ft., pop. 300.
  7-1/2 m. from Vescovato is the Col S. Agostino, and then follow, 8 m.,
  Silvareccio, 2198 ft., pop. 550; 8-1/2 m., Piano, 2230 ft., pop. 170;
  Casabianca, 4 m. farther, 2133 ft.; and then Porta, pop. 630; _Inn:_
  H. Franceschi, in the "Place," opposite the church, where the coach
  stops. In July and August the coach goes on to Piedicroce.

{91}{12}
PONT DU GOLO. A little more than 3 miles from the bridge, at the mouth
of the river, stood the town of Mariana, founded by Marius (B. 155, D.
86 B.C.), where Seneca most probably spent his exile, and of which there
remain only a few insignificant fragments on the beach. In the vicinity
are the ruins of a chapel, and about a mile farther those of the church,
called La Canonica, with 2 aisles and a nave 100 feet long and 40 wide,
ornamented with rows of pillars of the Doric order. Both church and
chapel are in the Pisan style.

At Casamozza Station, 12-1/2 m. S. from Bastia, the Aleria railway joins
the one from Corte.

{103}
BASTIA. See p. 10.


Ponte alla Leccia to Piedicroce.

  Eighteen miles S.E. by "Courrier" daily. Fare 3 frs. Time 5 hours,
  by a mountain road, making immense circuits round by the heads of
  ravines among rich pastures and great chestnut and beech trees.

  Nine miles from the Ponte is Morosaglia, pop. 1060, with an inn,
  where the coach stops. A conglomeration of hamlets on the slopes of
  a mountain, one of which, Stretta, was the birthplace of Pascal
  Paoli. 2 m. farther is the summit of the Col de Prato with an inn,
  3215 ft., 2850 ft. below, or 3 hours from the top of San Pietro,
  commanding a magnificent view of the Castagniccia or the Chestnut
  country, and the islands of Monte Christo, Pianosa, and Elba,
  floating in the haze between sky and water. See map on fly-leaf.

[Headnote: CASTAGNICCIA.]

  The Castagniccia may be said to lie between the Golo and the
  Tavignano, bounded on the W. by the railway. The chestnut trees are
  not so famous for their size as for the qualify of their fruit.

  The coach having passed the hamlet of Campana arrives at

[Headnote: PIEDICROCE.]

  Piedicroce, pop. 600, several inns, 2104 ft., 18 m. from Ponte
  alla Leccia, and 650 ft. above the spring of Orezza by a winding,
  dusty, bad wheel road, passing Stazzona 1978 ft. above the sea.

  Although Piedicroce is not a suitable place for those who come to
  drink the Orezza water, it is an excellent centre for excursions,
  the favourite one being to the top of Monte S. Pietro 5795 ft. in
  3 hours, by the cabins of Tajalto 4600 ft., and a beech forest. Mule
  to nearly the top. Guide and mule, 5 frs. See also above.

  Coach in July and August to the Vescovato station by Porta, p. 34.


Piedicroce to Prunete Station, 26 m. S.E.

The continuation of the road from Ponte alla Leccia.

  From Piedicroce the road passes by Pied'Orezza, 2106 ft., 1-3/4 m. from
  Piedicroce, Piedipartino, 2124 ft., 2 m.; Carcheto, 2172 ft., 3m.;
  Brustico, 2293 ft. 4 m.; the Col d'Arcarotta, 2698 ft., 5-1/4 m. from
  Piedicroce, between the richly wooded valleys of the Fium'alto and
  the Alesani, and commanding a very fine view of both. From this the
  road gradually descends to Prunete, the most beautiful part being
  from this Col to Castagneto called also Alesani, where there is an
  inn and whence a coach starts daily to Prunete Railway Station.

[Headnote: CASTAGNETO.]

  Seven miles from Piedicroce and 2 from the Col is Ortia, 2638 ft.,
  pop. 400, hidden among chesnut trees; Felce, 2570 ft., 8-3/4 m.,
  pop. 400; Pied Alesani 11 m.; Querceto, 2041 ft., and Castagneto
  or Alesani, 1938 ft., 12 m. from Piedicroce and 14 from Prunete
  Railway Station, the principal village in this valley.

  A little below Castagneto, at the commencement of this chestnut
  wooded valley is Ortale, 1489 ft., pop. 280. The coach then having
  passed Cotone 1008 ft., 19-1/4 m., pop. 800, and having crossed the
  little bridge over the stream Chebbia arrives at Cervione, _Inn_,
  France: 1073 ft., 21-3/4 m. from Piedicroce, and 4-1/4 from Prunete. From
  Cervione another coach descends to Prunete Railway Station by
  Muchieto 820 ft. Prunete consists of a few houses near the beach,
  resorted to by bathers in summer, situated on the highway between
  Bastia and Bonifacio. See also p. 33.


Solenzara to Sartene,

  46 m. S.W. This forest road, No. 4, ascends the valley of the
  Solenzara, crosses the great S.E. range at the Col de Bavella,
  descends into the valley of the Rizzanese, passes through the
  villages of Zonza, San Gavino, Levie, and Ste. Lucie, and joins the
  highroad between Ajaccio and Bonifacio at the milestone 76.690
  (47-3/4 m.) from Ajaccio, 3-3/4 m. from Sartene, and 42 m. from
  Solenzara.

The road, after passing up by the S. side of the river through olive
groves and "maquis," arrives at the Col and Maison de Cantonniers de
Castelluccio, 210 ft., 4 m. from Solenzara. Two m. farther by the Pont
de Ghiadole, the road crosses the Solenzara by the Calzatojo bridge,
6 m. from Solenzara, 340 ft., winds upward by the deep gully of the
Fiumicello, which having crossed by the bridge 7-1/4 m. from Solenzara,
ascends a steep winding road bordered with great trees to the Maison de
Cantonniers de Rocchio-Pinzuto, 8-3/4 m., 1060 ft., at the foot of the
great cliff of that name.

The road still winding upwards passes the immense wall of reddish cliffs
called the Rochers de Bavella before arriving at the Col de Larone
10-3/4 m., 2056 ft. The road, still winding, ascends a huge promontory
between the torrents Fiumicello and S. Pietro, separating into two
distinct parts the forest of Bavella, and crosses the Pont de Bocintoro,
1510 ft., 12 m. A little farther, in a wild yet beautiful situation,
is the Maison de Cantonniers d'Arghiavara. From the Pont 1-1/2 m. is the
better house, la maison forestiere de l'Alza, commanding superb views,
situated among great trees and nursery gardens.

The ascent from this is by a steep road, almost impracticable for
vehicles, through a forest of the stateliest and oldest pines in
Corsica.

18 m. from Solenzara and 28 from Sartene is the Maison de Cantonniers de
Bavella, 3885 ft., near the summit of the Col Bavella, 4068 ft. In this
house of refuge there is generally comfortable accommodation and a
supply of provisions. The surrounding huts are occupied in July and
August by people from the plains about Solenzara, who come here to
escape the fever-producing malaria. The house commands, even from the
windows, grand views.

On the other side of the Col, 550 ft. below it and 2-1/4 m. from it, is
the Maison de Cantonniers de Ballatojo, from which the road descends
amidst great pines mixed with a few oaks and ilexes, in view of the
Asinao forest and of the lofty granite pinnacled precipices, 10 m. long,
between Mt. Colva, 4520 ft., and the Point Tintinaja, 6658 ft.

Zonza, good inn, pop. 1040, height 2582 ft., 24-1/4 m. from Solenzara and
21-3/4 m. from Sartene, hidden among chestnut trees and conveniently
situated for visiting the forests of Zonza, Asinao, and Bavella.

[Headnote: S. GAVINO.]

3-1/2 m. beyond is San Gavino di Carbini, pop. 770, height 2238 ft., a poor
miserable village, where there existed in 1365 a sect of socialists,
with whom even the women and children were held in common, and by whom
were committed frightful abominations.

[Headnote: LEVIE.]

30 m. from Solenzara and 16 m. from Sartene is Levie, consisting of
various hamlets. Inn where the coach, running between this and Sartene,
stops. Pop, 2040, height 2238 ft This village, easily approached, is
situated among mountains abounding with game. It commands superb views,
and makes in April a very pleasant residence. In winter it is rather
cold. On the road between Levie and Santa Lucia di Tallano, 5-1/2 m. from
the Col d'Aja Vignarsa, 2408 ft., are seen the valley of the Rizzanese
and the Gulfs of Valinco and Ajaccio. On the grassy table lands of the
Col d'Aja are many rare flowers, among others a species of red
gladiolus.

[Headnote: S. LUCIA DI TALLANO.]

5-1/2 m. W. from Levie and 11-1/4 from Sartene is Santa Lucia di Tallano,
pop. 1300, Inn where the Sartene and Levie coach stops. S. Lucia is built
in terraces on the hills rising from the Fiumicicoli. Church 14th cent. The
wines grown in this neighbourhood command good prices in the Corsican
market.

Below, on the Fiumicicoli, is a hot sulphurous spring. On the way down
to the river by the sides of the Point Campolaccia, near a place called
Campolajo, is beautiful hornblende, page 27.

From Santa Lucia the road leads southwards by the Rizzanese to Sartene,
p. 27.




SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF CORSICA.

It is not known who the original inhabitants of Corsica were. The
Phocaeans of Ionia were the first civilised people that established
settlements in Corsica. About the year 560 B.C. they landed on the
island, and founded at the mouth of the Tavignano the city of Aleria,
which after a short occupation they were compelled to abandon. After an
interval of a few years they again returned, rebuilt Aleria, which they
fortified, and endeavoured to maintain their ground against the natives.
After a struggle of some years they were again compelled to leave the
island. The next foreign occupants of Corsica were the Tuscans, who
founded the city of Nicaea, but they in their turn were compelled to give
way before the growing maritime power of the Carthaginians, whose
jurisdiction in the island was unquestioned till the beginning of the
first Punic War. On that occasion the Romans sent out a fleet, drove the
Carthaginians from the island, and exacted at least a nominal homage
from the native population. They did not, however, fully establish their
power here till about thirty years later, and even then rebellions and
revolts were of constant occurrence.

[Headnote: ROMAN COLONIES.]

The first step made towards the real subjugation of the island was the
establishment of the two colonies on its eastern coast-that of Aleria by
Sulla and that of Mariana by Marius. In the time of the emperors the
island had fallen into disrepute among the Romans, by whom it was used
chiefly as a place of banishment for political offenders. One of the
most distinguished of these sufferers was the younger Seneca, who spent
in this island eight years of banishment ending with 49 A.D.

[Headnote: ARMS.] On the downfall of the Roman empire in the West,
Corsica passed into the hands of the Vandals. These barbarians were
driven out by Belisarius, but after his death, 565 A.D., the resistless
hordes of Attila once more gained possession of the island. Since that
period it has successively owned the dominion of the Goths, the
Saracens, the Pisans and the Genoese. The impress of the last is to be
found in the style of the church architecture, while the armorial crest
of the island, a Moor's head, with a band across the brow, dates from
the expedition of the Saracen king, Sanza Ancisa.

The patroness of Corsica, the "Protectrice de la Corse," is Santa
Devota; who is also the patron saint of Monaco. The Corsicans often
style the Virgin Mary simply La Santa; and in their common exclamation
Santa! Maria is understood.

[Headnote: SAMPIERO.]

Among the most renowned and intrepid patriots in the struggle of the
Corsicans to free themselves from the Genoese was Sampiero, born of poor
parents towards the end of the 15th cent, in Dominicacci, one of the
hamlets which compose Bastelica. His house having been burned down by
the Genoese, the inhabitants in the 18th cent. constructed a new one on
the same site, on which Mr. Wyse, an Irishman, affixed a tablet with an
inscription in 1855, expressing his admiration of the man. After serving
with great distinction in the armies of the Italian princes and in those
of Francis I., King of France, Sampiero returned to Corsica in 1547 and
married the fair Vanina, heiress of Ornano, belonging to one of the
oldest families in the island.

Shortly after the marriage the Corsicans, led by Sampiero, revolted
against the tyranny of the Banking Company of St. George of Genoa, and,
assisted by the French, under General Thermes, overthrew them after six
years of hard fighting and much bloodshed, in which Sampiero and his
peasant army bore by far the greatest share. All, however, they had
gained at such immense sacrifice was completely lost to them by the
treaty of Chateau Cambresis, 1559, by which France agreed to restore
Corsica to Genoa. Sampiero and his family had to leave the island. Such
was the virulent and implacable hatred Sampiero bore to the Genoese,
that he with his own hand, in cold blood, strangled mercilessly his
trembling wife three years after (1562) in Marseilles, for having
allowed herself, in his absence, to be persuaded to make an arrangement
with the Genoese to save the patrimony of her children. Sampiero escaped
with impunity, although he buried his murdered wife publicly, and with
pomp, in the church of St. Francis at Marseilles.

Antonio Francesco, the younger son, who was, when a mere child, with his
mother when she was murdered, was afterwards assassinated at Rome by a
Frenchman, whom he had insulted while playing at cards.

On the 12th June 1564 Sampiero landed at the Gulf of Valinco with a band
of 20 Corsicans and 25 Frenchmen, to make another desperate attempt to
free Corsica from the hated yoke. After a five years' life-and-death
struggle, fired by a feverish thirst for revenge, the Corsicans had to
yield to the might of Genoa, supported by well-drilled Italian, German
and Spanish mercenaries, commanded by their greatest generals, Doria,
Centurione and Spinola, and aided by a powerful fleet.

On the 17th January 1567 Sampiero was slain in an ambuscade laid for him
in the defile of Cauro, into which he had been led by forged letters
brought him by the monk Ambrosius of Bastelica.

His elder son Alfonso d'Ornano continued the struggle after his father's
death, till the exhausted state of Corsica compelled him to desist and
to accept a general amnesty proclaimed by the Genoese governor George
Doria in 1569. Alfonso d'Ornano was afterwards created "Marechal de
France."

[Headnote: PASCAL PAOLI.]

From 1755 the Corsicans, led by the brave Pascal Paoli, carried on the
struggle for their independence against the Genoese, who were
occasionally assisted by the French. On the 15th May 1768 the former
sold their presumed claims to the island to the French, who ended this
war of subjugation by the terrible battle of Ponte Nuovo, 9th May 1769.
On the llth of June Paoli left Porto-Vecchio for London; where, at the
instance of the Duke of Grafton, then prime minister of England, he
received an annual pension of L1200.

After Corsica had been made one of the departments of France he was
invited in 1790, by the National Assembly, to take the supreme command
in the island. On his arrival at Paris (3d April 1790), on his way to
Corsica, he was feted as the Washington of Europe, and Lafayette was
constantly by his side; while, on his arrival at Marseilles, he was
received by a deputation, among whom was Napoleon. In July 1790 he
landed at Macinaggio, on the east side of Cap Corse.

The execution of the king and the cruelties and excesses of the
Convention having shocked the philanthropic spirit of Paoli and
alienated his sympathies, he organised a revolt to separate Corsica from
France, and succeeded by the aid of the English fleet, 20th July 1794,
when Calvi, the last of the forts, surrendered. On the 10th of June 1794
the Corsicans declared that they would unite their country to Great
Britain, but that it was to remain independent, and to be governed by a
viceroy according to their own constitution.

The English, from ignorance, managed the affairs of the island so badly,
that when in 1796 Napoleon sent troops against them, they were joined by
the Corsicans, who together forced the English to leave the island. Not
only had a certain Gilbert Elliot been named viceroy instead of Paoli,
but this same man having written to the Government that it was necessary
for the safety of the English to remove Paoli from the island, George
III. wrote Paoli a letter inviting him to return to England and to his
court. It is suspected that Andrea Pozzo di Borgo, president of the
Council of State, under the short viceroyship of Elliot, influenced, for
his own ends or from jealousy, the English in Corsica against Paoli.

Paoli lived twelve years more in London, died peacefully on 5th February
1807 at the age of 82, was buried in St. Pancras churchyard, and a small
monument to his memory was placed in Westminster Abbey. He bequeathed to
four professors of the intended Corte University salaries of L50 a year
each, but as it was never established the money was given to the Ecole
Paoli in Corte, attended by 120 pupils.

Since the expulsion of the English, the French have remained in
undisturbed possession of Corsica. The English occupation lasted from
1794 to 1796.

[Headnote: CHARACTER.]

The Corsicans look to the Government for the improvement of their island
far more than to their own efforts, for they themselves are neither
industrious nor enterprising. The roads, railways, bridges and other
public works are constructed chiefly by Italian labourers. The women do
the drudgery both in their homes and on the fields, carrying great loads
on their heads, as the mules do on their backs; but bestow little labour
on the cleanliness of their children and dwellings, and do not make good
domestic servants. In many small towns women are the bread bakers and
assistant butchers. The villages, excepting in Cape Corse, are untidy.
The use of the bath is almost unknown to young and old, rich and poor.

[Headnote: VENDETTA.]

The tendency to take summary vengeance, called vendetta, still exists in
the villages; where the people having no social amusements, nothing to
read, nor any other resource than cards during the winter nights, are
apt to quarrel over trifles; which, fanned by their local petty
jealousies, assisted often by the generous nature of their wine, ripen
into deadly feuds.

[Headnote: OAKS.]

The staple food of the majority of the inhabitants, as well as of the
horses and mules, during a great part of the year, is the chestnut. For
domestic purposes it is mostly ground, when it costs only about half the
price of wheat flour, which is procured chiefly from Marseilles, Corsica
itself producing very little. The ease with which the harvest of
chestnuts is annually obtained tends to foster indolence and deaden
enterprise among the peasantry. The one great danger to which the
generous chestnut trees are exposed is a conflagration. Besides olives,
pines, beeches and chestnuts, there are also important forests of
evergreen oaks, the Quercus Ilex, called also the holm oak. It has
abundance of dark-green ovate leaves, mostly prickly at the margin; the
acorns are oblong on short stalks; the stem grows to the height of 80
ft.; the wood is dark-brown and hard, weighing 70 lbs. the cubic foot,
while the same of the Quercus ruber or British oak weighs only 55 lbs.,
and the tree attains a vast age. The cork oak, Quercus suber, grows
either singly among other trees or in groups, principally in the
southern parts of the island. The bark is of little commercial
importance.

[Headnote: AGRICULTURE.]

  The inhabitants do not assist nature. Their seed potatoes are of an
  inferior class, their fruit trees receive little attention, very few
  of the vineyards are carefully cultivated, and their sheep, goats
  and pigs are of poor breeds. Of late years many have taken to the
  growing of lemons and citrons; which in a good year yield a very
  handsome profit; but the harvest, through untimely frosts, is
  precarious. The headquarters of this culture is Cape Corse. The
  olive trees yield a more secure though less remunerative harvest.
  That terrible scourge the phylloxera has got among the vineyards,
  where it is committing its usual havoc.

  The drives and pedestrian excursions about Corsica are superb,
  especially along the east side and up the centre by Sartene, Zicavo
  and Ghisoni (p. 27), and the road between Calvi and Ponte alla
  Leccia (p. 20). There are inns in all the large villages, though the
  only good and comfortable hotels are in Ajaccio.

[Headnote: FORESTHOUSES.]

  Enterprising tourists wishing to explore the great forests and to
  scale the mountains should endeavour to procure letters of
  introduction from the chief forestal authorities at Ajaccio, Corte,
  Bastia or Calvi to the occupants of the Maisons Forestieres in the
  forests to be visited. Although the gardes forestieres are generally
  hospitable, they are afraid to follow their inclination without
  orders from their superiors. For each day in these houses 7 to 8
  frs. should be given.




INDEX.


AGRICULTURE                                               41
Aitone forest                                         18, 23
Ajaccio                                                  3
  Bankers                                                  3
  Cab tariff                                               3
  Cathedral                                                5
  Climate                                                  6
  Curiosities                                              6
  Drives                                                   3
  Episcopal chapel                                         3
  Excursions                                               5
  Fountains                                                6
  Hotels                                                   3
  Library                                                  5
  Memorial chapel                                          5
  Mission                                                  3
  Napoleon                                                 4
  Picture gallery                                          5
  Pozzo di Borgo                                           4
  St. Pancras                                              6
  Sepulchral chapels                                       6
  Steamers                                                 2
  Water-carriers                                           6
Ajaccio to Bastia                                          7
---- to Corte                                              7
---- to Sartene                                           23
---- to Vico and Evisa                                    22
Albertacce                                                19
Albuccia point                                            28
Aleria                                                    32
---- to Corte                                             33
---- to Puzzichello                                       33
Alesani                                               33, 35
Algajola                                                  15
Amphibole                                                 27
Apa                                                       24
---- to Zicavo                                            24
Appietto                                                  22
Arcarotta col                                         33, 35
Asco                                                  19, 20
Aullene                                                   27

BALAGNA VALLEY                                            20
Balogna                                                   23
Baracci baths                                             26
Barcaggio                                                 14
Bastelica                                                 24
Bastia                                                    10
---- to Calvi                                             14
---- to Cap Corse                                         11
---- rail to Aleria                                       34
Baths of Baracci                                          26
---- of Caldaniccia                                        6
---- of Guagno                                            23
---- of Guitera                                           25
---- of Orezza                                            34
---- of Pietrapola                                    28, 32
---- of Puzzichello                                       33
Bavella col                                       26, 31, 36
Belgodere                                                 21
---- to Olmi-Capella                                      21
---- to Tartagine forest                                  21
Bettianella lake                                           9
Bevinco                                                   10
Bianca bocca                                              22
Bicchisano                                                26
Biguglia lake                                             10
Bocca Melza                                               16
Bocognano                                                  7
Bonifacio                                               30
  Caves                                                   31
  Charles V.                                              30
  Napoleon                                                30
Bonifacio to Bastia                                       31
Borgo                                                     10
Botticella                                                14
Brando cave                                           10, 12
Brustico                                                  35

CALACUCCIA                                                19
Calasima                                                  19
Calcatoggio                                               17
Caldanella                                                17
Caldaniccia                                                6
Calenzana                                                 22
Calenzana                                                 15
Calvi                                                     15
---- to Ajaccio                                           16
---- to Bastia                                            20
Campo                                                     25
Cap Corse                                                 11
Capella mount                                             27
Capronale col                                             16
Cargese                                                   17
Cargiaca                                                  27
Carrosaccia                                                6
Casabianca                                                34
Casabianda                                                32
Casamaccioli                                              19
Casamozza                                                 34
Cassalabriva                                              26
Castagneto                                            33, 35
Castagniccia                                              35
Castellaccio col                                          16
Castello punta                                            24
Castiglione                                               20
Cauro                                                     23
---- to Bastelica                                         24
Celaccia col                                              26
Cervione                                              33, 35
Character                                                 40
Chestnut trees                                         1, 41
Chidazzo                                                  18
Cineraggia mount                                          21
  bocca                                                   22
Cinto mount                                        1, 19, 20
Climate                                                    2
Coast lakes                                       10, 31, 32
Corona mount                                          19, 21
Corsican arms                                             38
---- character                                            40
---- dimensions                                            1
---- patroness                                            38
Corscia                                                   19
Corte                                                      8
---- to Aleria                                             8
---- to Mt. Rotondo                                        8
Coscione mount                                            25
Cotone                                                33, 35
Cozzano                                                   27
Cristinacce                                               17
Cuculla mount                                             18

DENTE CAPO                                                21
Diana lake                                                32
Dominicacci                                               24
Don Giovanni mount                                        27

ELSE VALLEY                                               24
Erbajo col                                             8, 16
Erbalunga                                                 12
Ersa                                                      14
Escutcheon                                                38
Evergreen oaks                                            41
Evisa                                                 18, 23
---- to Albertacce                                        18

FELCE                                                     35
Feliceto                                              21, 22
Fium Orbo source                                          28
Folelli                                                   33
---- to Piedicroce                                        33
Francardo bridge                                       9, 20
Frasseto                                              24, 25

GALERIA                                                   16
---- to forests of Filosorma                              16
Ghisonaccia                                               32
---- to Ghisoni                                           29
Ghisoni                                                   29
---- to Ghisonaccia                                       29
Giraglia island                                           14
Golo source                                               19
Gozzi mount                                               22
Granace col                                               25
Grosso mount                                              21
Guagno baths                                              23
Guitera baths                                             25

HISTORY                                                   37
Houses of shelter 41. See also under "Maison."

ILE ROUSSE                                                15
Incudine mount                                            25
Inzecca                                                   29
Isolaccio                                                 28

KYRIE ELEISON                                             28

LACCIOLA COL                                              17
La Piana                                                  17
Larone col                                            26, 36
Lavatoggio                                                21
Leone coronato                                            30
Levie                                             26, 32, 37
Lonca valley                                              16
Lozzi                                                     19
Lugo                                                       8
Lugo di Nazza                                             32
Lumio                                                     15
Luri                                                      12

MACINAGGIO                                            13, 39
Maddalena isle                                            25
Maison Aitone                                             18
---- Alza                                                 36
---- Arghiavara                                           36
---- Ballatojo                                            36
---- Bavella                                              36
---- Canareccia                                           28
---- Castellaccio                                         18
---- Castelluccio                                         36
---- Ghiraldino                                           28
---- Marmano                                              28
---- Ometa                                                16
---- Popaja                                               19
---- Rocchio-Pinzuto                                      36
---- S. Antoine                                           28
---- Sciattarina                                          18
---- Scrivano                                             28
---- Tagnone                                              18
---- Zipitoli                                             24
Manganella col                                             9
Mariana                                                   34
Marmano forest                                            28
Menta col                                                 24
Moltifao                                                  20
Moor's head                                               38
Morosaglia                                                35
Morsaglia                                                 14
Mouflon                                                    2
Muchieto                                              33, 35

NAPOLEON                                           4, 26, 30
Nelson                                                    26
Nino lake                                                 19
Niolo                                                     19
Nonza                                                 12, 14

OLIVESE                                                   27
Olive trees                                               20
Olmeto                                                    26
Olmi-Capella                                              21
Ometa ilex forest                                         16
Oninanda col                                              20
Orezza spa                                                34
Oro mount                                                  1
Ortale                                                33, 35

PADRO MOUNT                                            1, 21
Padulella                                                 33
Pagliorba mount                                            1
Palasca                                                   22
Palneca                                                   28
Pancheraccia                                              33
Paoli                                                     39
Patron Saint                                              38
Pecorile                                                  14
Perticato forest                                          16
Pertusato mount                                           31
Petrella col                                              19
Piano                                                     34
Piedicroce                                         34, 9, 35
---- to Prunete                                           35
Pietrapola baths                                      28, 32
Pines                                                      7
Pino                                                  12, 14
Pinus Laricio                                              7
Pinus Pinaster                                             7
Poggio di Nazza                                           32
Pont Diable                                               20
Pont du Golo                                              34
Ponte alla Leccia                                      9, 22
---- to Calvi                                             20
---- to Piedicroce                                        34
Ponteniello forest                                        24
Ponte Novo                                             9, 22
Popolasca                                                 20
Porri                                                     34
Porta                                                     34
Porto                                                     16
---- to Evisa                                             18
---- to Ponte Francardo                                   18
Portopollo                                                32
Porto-Vecchio                                             31
Prato col                                                 35
Propriano                                                 26
---- to Solenzara                                         26
Prunelli source                                           28
Prunete                                               33, 35
---- to Alesani                                           33

QUERCUS ILEX                                              41

RAPARA COL                                                28
Renoso mount                                           7, 24
Retto mount                                               19
Rogliano                                                  13
Rotondo mount                                           1, 8

SAGONA                                                17, 23
---- to Aitone forest                                     17
---- to Vico                                              23
St. Antoine col                                           23
---- Bernardino col                                       14
---- Colombano col                                        22
---- Devota                                               38
---- Florent                                              14
---- Georges col                                          24
---- Gavino di Carbini                                    37
---- Lucia di Tallano                         26, 27, 32, 37
---- Lucie col                                            12
---- Maria Siche                                          24
---- Nicolao                                              33
---- Pietro mount                                         35
---- Sebastien col                                        22
---- Severa                                               12
Salario fountain                                           6
Sampiero                                              24, 38
Sartene                                                   27
---- to Bonifacio                                         30
---- to Vivario                                           27
Scala di Santa Regina                                     10
Scozzolatojo col                                          29
Scrivano col                                              28
Sea-urchins                                               22
Sebastien col                                             17
Seneca's tower                                            12
Serra col                                                 14
Serraggio                                              8, 33
Sevi col                                                  17
Silvareccio                                               34
Solenzara                                                 31
---- to Sartene                                           36
---- to Zonza                                             31
Sollacaro                                                 26
Sorba col                                                 29
Speloncato                                                21
Spelunca                                                  18
Sposata                                                   25
Stazzona                                                  34
Steamers                                           2, 10, 11
Stretta                                                   35

TACA FOREST                                               27
Tafonato mount                                        16, 18
Taravo source                                             28
Tartagine forest                                          21
Teghime col                                               14
Theodore Neuhoff                                          32
Torre all'Osse                                            12
Traunato mount                                            20
Treccio ilex forest                                       16

UCCIANI BRIDGE                                             7
Uomo di Cagna                                             30

VADINA                                                     8
Valdoniello forest                                    18, 23
Vanina                                                25, 38
Vecchio source                                            28
Vendetta                                                  40
Venzolasca                                                34
Verde col                                                 28
Verde forest                                              28
Vergio col                                                18
Vescovato                                                 34
---- to Porta                                             34
Vico                                                      23
Ville                                                     21
Vivario                                                8, 29
---- to Pietrapola                                         8
---- to Sartene                                           27
Vizzavona                                                  7

WINES                                                  2, 11
Wyse, W.,                                                 24

ZECAVO                                                    25
Zicavo                                            25, 27, 28
Zonza                                             26, 31, 36


THE END.




Printed by_ R. & R. CLARK, _Edinburgh




       *       *       *       *       *




Errors and Uncertainties noted by Transcriber

When the Index and body text disagreed on spelling, the form shown in
the General Map was used. The abbreviation "ft" has been regularized to
"ft." where full stop was missing or invisible.

_Inconsistencies (as alphabetized in Index, where applicable)_

Between the 51st and 53d kilometre stones
60 kilometres-stone,
  _inconsistency in original_
Calenzana (pg 15)
  _Index entry reads "Calenzani", but body text has "Calenzana"; it
  appears to refer to the same place as the earlier Index entry
  "Calenzana"_
Granace (col)
  _body text "Garanace", Index "Garance", Map "Granace". The Map's
  spelling was used because it can be found in modern sources._
PONTE NOVO. The site of the disastrous battle ...
The Ponte Nuovo is distinctly ...
... the terrible battle of Ponte Nuovo ...
[Index] Ponte Novo  9, 22
  _the General Map and the town description (p. 9) use the "Novo"
  spelling; other references (p. 22, 39) use "Nuovo". The Index as
  printed had parallel entries for each spelling, omitting p. 39_
Col St. Sebastien [text and Index]
Col Sebastien [text and Index]
  _variant forms of same name_
Zicavo ... 2385 ft.
Zicavo, 2445 ft.
  _same place: map has 2345 ft._

_Errors_

[Contents]
Ajaccio to Sartene
  _text reads "Sartene"_
Portotorres, at the north-west extremity of Sicily
  _error for Sardinia_
and other 2-1/2 m. the village of Levie
  _error for "and another"?_
S. Lucia de Tallano, on the highroad to Aullene
  _text reads "Lucie"_
Ortia, 2638 ft., pop. 400, hidden among chestnut trees
  _text reads "chesnut trees"_
From 1755 the Corsicans, led by the brave Pascal Paoli
  _text reads "Corscians"_
Quercus Ilex
  _text and Index: should be "Quercus ilex"_
[Index]
(Ajaccio) to Corte
  _page reference missing from text_
  _may be intentional: Corte is on Ajaccio-Bastia itinerary_
Corscia
  _not an error here: "Corscia" is the name of a village_
Levie
  _text has "Levie   37, 32" only_




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