Infomotions, Inc.Three Centuries of a City Library an Historical and Descriptive Account of the Norwich Public Library Established in 1608 and the present Public Library opened in 1857 / Stephen, George A., 1880-1934

Author: Stephen, George A., 1880-1934
Title: Three Centuries of a City Library an Historical and Descriptive Account of the Norwich Public Library Established in 1608 and the present Public Library opened in 1857
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): norwich; catalogue; vellum book; library keeper; trinity college; city; library committee
Contributor(s): Williams, L. [Translator]
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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Three Centuries of a City Library, by George
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Title: Three Centuries of a City Library
       an Historical and Descriptive Account of the Norwich Public Library Established in 1608 and the present Public Library opened in 1857

Author: George A. Stephen

Release Date: November 14, 2006  [eBook #19804]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-646-US (US-ASCII)


Transcribed from the 1917 Norwich Public Library Committee edition by
David Price,



                             GEO. A. STEPHEN

                         City Librarian, Norwich
                    Fellow of the Library Association
              Silver Medallist of the Royal Society of Arts
Author of "Guide to the Study of Norwich," "Commercial Bookbinding," etc.
             Joint-author of "Manual of Library Bookbinding"

                       THE PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMITTEE

  [Picture: Blackfriar's Church, now called St. Andrew's Hall, Norwich,
  circa 1650.  Showing House in which the Public Library was originally

"I can wonder at nothing more, than how a man can be idle; but, of all
other, a Scholar; in so many improvements of reason, in such sweetness of
knowledge, in such variety of studies, in such importunity of thoughts.
. . . To find wit, in poetry; in philosophy, profoundness; in mathematics,
acuteness; in history, wonder of events; in oratory, sweet eloquence; in
divinity, supernatural light and holy devotion; as so many rich metals in
their proper mines, whom would it not ravish with delight!"--_Joseph
Hall_, _Bishop of Norwich_, 1641-7.


This book was prepared by instruction of the Norwich Public Library
Committee, and it is now published as a souvenir of the sixtieth
anniversary of the opening of the present Public Library, which will take
place on March 16th, 1917.  Norwich occupies a unique place in the
history of libraries: it has the distinction of having established in
1608 one of the earliest provincial public libraries, if not the first in
England, and it was the first municipality to adopt the Public Library
Act, 1850.  It is hoped, therefore, that the following sketch, besides
giving local readers and archaeologists a detailed account of an
important Norwich institution, will form an interesting chapter in the
history of British Libraries.

The compilation has been made from the recently discovered Minute Book of
the old Public Library, covering the period 1656-1733, from annual
reports and other official records, and from notes accumulated since
1911.  The work has been done under difficulties due to the abnormal
conditions caused by the Great War, and I am conscious that imperfections
have resulted; for these I crave the reader's indulgence.

I am grateful to the Dean of Norwich (the Very Rev. H. C. Beeching, D.D.,
D.Litt.) for his kind help in several matters, for many suggestions, and
for reading the galley proofs.  To Mr. Walter Rye I am indebted for
reading the proofs, and for assistance.  Thanks are also due to Mr. F.
Johnson, the Assistant City Archivist, for consulting the City Records
and providing me with some extracts; and to Mr. F. R. Beecheno, the
historian of the parish of St. Andrew's, for assistance and information.
My obligations to Dr. Montague Rhodes James, the Provost of King's
College, Cambridge, and Mr. A. W. Pollard, M.A., of the British Museum,
are acknowledged in the text.  For any errors in the book I am solely

                                                          _January_, 1917.
                                                          GEO. A. STEPHEN.


In mediaeval times the making, collecting, and preserving of books, as
well as the maintenance of learning, were almost exclusively confined to
monastic institutions, some of which lent books to laymen, and thus
became the public libraries of the surrounding district.  As to the
literary life of Norwich in the fifteenth century, the late Dr. Jessopp
wrote: "Whatever may have been the case in other dioceses, it is certain
that the bishops of Norwich during the fifteenth century were resident in
their see, and that they were prominent personages as scholars and men of
culture and learning. . . . It is clear that . . . their influence was
not inconsiderable in encouraging literary tastes and studious habits
among their clergy.  Pitts, in his list of distinguished Englishmen of
letters who flourished during the latter half of the fifteenth century,
mentions no less than twenty-four Norfolk men who were recognised as
prominent scholars, controversialists, historians, or students of
science." {1}  Coincident with the decline of monastic learning in Europe
were the revival of secular learning and the invention of printing, which
gave a great impetus to the collection of books, especially on the
continent.  The sixteenth century was a dark age in the history of
British libraries, the iconoclasts of the Reformation ruthlessly
destroying innumerable priceless treasures both of books and bindings.
John Bale, Bishop of Ossory, who was educated at a Carmelite Convent in
Norwich, and became vicar of Swaffham, Norfolk, in 1551, wrote scathingly
of the literary condition of England in the middle of the sixteenth
century, and referred specifically to Norwich: "O cyties of Englande,
whose glory standeth more in bellye chere, than in the serch of wysdome
godlye.  How cometh it, that neyther you, nor yet your ydell masmongers,
haue regarded thys most worthy commodyte of your contrey?  I meane the
conseruacyon of your Antiquytees, and of the worthy labours of your
lerned men. . . . I have bene also at Norwyche, oure seconde cytie of
name, and there all the library monumentes are turned to the vse of their
grossers, candelmakers, sope sellers, and other worldly occupyers." {2a}

In the early years of the seventeenth century many famous collegiate and
town libraries--i.e., libraries under the guardianship of
municipalities--were founded throughout the country, and in the history
of the latter Norwich has a unique place.  So far as can be ascertained
from the published historical accounts of libraries, Norwich has the
distinction of having established in 1608 (six years after the foundation
of the Bodleian Library, and 145 years before the foundation of the
British Museum) the first provincial town library under municipal
control. {2b}  The other earliest popular town libraries are those of
Ipswich (1612), Bristol (founded in 1613 and opened in 1615), and
Leicester (1632).  Mr. Norris Mathews, the City Librarian of Bristol,
contends that "The claim to the earliest [public library] in England
still belongs to Bristol.  This library was that of the Kalendars or
Kalendaries, a brotherhood of clergy and laity who were attached to the
Church of All-Hallowen or All Saints, still existing in Corn Street"
("Library Association Record," vol. 2, 1900, p. 642).  In some notes
regarding this Gild of Kalendars in Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith's
Introduction to "Ricart's Calendar" {3} it is stated that "In 1464
provision was made as to a library, lately erected in the house of the
Kalendars," and reference is made to a deed of that date by which it was
"appointed that all who wish to enter for the sake of instruction shall
have 'free access and recess' at certain times, and that, lest the books
should be lost, three inventories shall be made, to be yearly collated
with the books, which books shall be chained in a room, and for the loss
of which heavy penalties are imposed on the prior.  The prior to be
appointed by the Mayor."  Mr. John Taylor in his article on "The earliest
English free libraries" ("Library Chronicle," vol. 3, 1886, p. 156),
stated that these regulations were made by an ordinance of John, Bishop
of Worcester, A.D. 1464.  From the foregoing quotations it is obvious
that the Library was under the control of the Gild, and not of the
municipality, and therefore while, as a semi-monastic library, it may be
regarded as a prototype of the modern public library, it cannot be justly
claimed as the first public town library.

The following account of the first provincial town library and its
successor is in two parts: part I. deals with the Library established in
1608 and now known as the City Library, and part II. deals with the
Public Library, established under the Public Library Act of 1850.



According to the judicious Norfolk antiquary John Kirkpatrick, who
accumulated vast collections of material relating to Norwich, "There was
a design of erecting a Public Library in this City, in the reign of
Edward the Fourth, as appears by this legacy, in the will of John
Leystofte, vicar of St. Stephen's church, here, A.D. 1461,
namely,--"Item.  I will that, if a library be begun in Norwich, within
two years after my decease, I bequeath to the same, my book called
Repyngton." {4}  Kirkpatrick was unable to say whether the legacy was
effected, and no record remains.

The first City Library of which there is any record was founded on the
3rd May, 1608, and by the following order of Assembly which was then
recorded, it will be observed that it had an ecclesiastical basis, like
so many libraries of previous centuries: "Ordered, with the consent of
Jerrom Goodwyne, sword-bearer, that iij chambers, parcel of his
dwelling-howse, which he hath by lease of the cyttie, shal be converted
to a lybrary for the use of the preachers, and for a lodging chamber for
such preachers as shall come to this cittie, to preach on the
sabboth-dayes, and at other tymes, in the common place, and elsewhere,
within this cittie; where the said Jerrom Goodwyn shall fynd beddyng,
lynnynge, and other necessaries for lodging, for the preachers that so
shall come, during their abode in the cittie for the intent aforesaid:
which said romes for the lybrary shal be made fytt at the charge of this
cittie; and the said Goodwyn to allowe one of his servants to attende the
preachers.  In consideration whereof, the said Goodwyne shal be allowed
yearly the rent which he now payeth, and his lease, notwithstanding, to
stand good for the terme therein expressed." {4}

The Library, however, was not intended solely for ministers.  The wording
of the title-page of the first donation book, commenced in 1659, states
that it was founded for students: "Bibliotheca publica Norvicensis
communi studiosorum bono instituta incoepta et inchoata fuit Ano Domini
MDCVIII."  (See reproduction, facing page 46).  Moreover, the list of the
early members of the Library includes the names of people who were not
ministers.  Facing pages 4 and 6 are facsimiles of the two pages in the
Minute Book bearing signatures of early members who subscribed to the
rules of the Library.  Perhaps the most notable autographs are those of
Charles Trimnell, Bishop of Norwich, William Whiston, translator of
Josephus, and chaplain to John Moore, Bishop of Norwich, Thomas Tanner,
Bishop of St. Asaph, and Benjamin Mackerell, a Norfolk antiquary and
Librarian of the Norwich Public Library.

       [Picture: Autographs of early members of the City Library 1]

To Judge by the existing records, the City had then received no books for
placing in the rooms.  Mr. J. C. Tingey, {5a} however, considers it
"rather strange that when, in 1608, three rooms were fitted up for the
reception of the library at the New Hall there should be no existing
books to be placed in the presses, though promises of donations may have
been given.  As a matter of fact the compilers of the old catalogues
mention several works without being able to say by whom they were
presented, and as many of these were printed in the 16th century it is
not impossible that some of them constituted a primary stock.  On the
other hand many books whose donors are unknown were issued after the
library was inaugurated, so of these it is certain that they were
presented later."  The number of works whose donors are not stated in the
first printed catalogue of 1706 is 51, but in the second printed
catalogue of 1732 the donors of 36 of these are stated, so there remain
only 15 works in the first printed catalogue of which the donors are
unknown.  Of these fifteen one was printed after the establishment of the
Library, and so the primary stock suggested by Mr. Tingey could not have
consisted of more than 14 works.

There is a hiatus in the records of the Library proceedings from its
establishment to 1656.  Possibly the books presented to the Library from
1608 to 1656 were simply allowed to accumulate in the Library rooms,
without any regulations in regard to their use and safe-keeping.  That
the books were sadly neglected is very evident from a codicil to the will
dated September 18th, 1655, of John Carter, Rector of St. Laurence's
Church, Norwich, giving to the Library "divers books, etc."  He revoked
his bequest by the following codicil, and "instead thereof gave 5 pounds
to each of the three united parishes of St. Laurence, St. Swithin, and
St. Margaret, for a stock of coals for ever": "nowe seeinge (to my no
small grief) that that library is locked up, ministers shut out of it,
and that it is never like to be of publique use againe, but that the
books are devoted to the wormes, dust, and rotteness, to the dishonour of
God, the damage of the ministry, and the wrong of the benefactors, the
dead, and the living, &c." {5b}

       [Picture: Autographs of early members of the City Library 2]

By 1656, the year of Carter's death, the Assembly had evidently realised
the necessity for making regulations for the use of the Library, and had
drawn them up before the 16th January in that year, when it was "ordered
that the Articles moved touching the ordering of the Library be

On the ninth day of the following month eight ministers met at the
Library, when they received the "Orders" of the Council for the
regulation of the Library, and having subscribed to them, they were
admitted to the use of the Library.  At this meeting they ordered two
frames for the "Orders"; that Mr. John Collinges should be Library Keeper
until January, 1657; that each minister admitted to the use of the
Library should pay 12d. quarterly; and that "a book should be bought for
registring the acts of the mins at their severall meetings in the
Library, and sheets of parchment fit for the engrossing of the orders,
and that the library keeper be desired to provide these against the next
meeting."  This minute book is still in the City Library, but it has been
overlooked by all previous writers of notices of the Library.  It
commences with the proceedings of the meeting on the 9th February, 1656,
and records the meetings until April 3rd, 1733.  As the Assembly Minute
Books for the years 1632 to 1682 are missing the actual "orders"
previously mentioned cannot be quoted, but fortunately the other end of
the Minute Book was used to write in the declaration of admission and the
rules for the conduct of the Library.  They are as follows:--

    "We whose names are hereunto annexed upon our admission to ye use of
    ye Publick Library in ye City of Norwch, in Complyance wth an Act of
    ye Common Council of ye said City dated ye 16th January 1656, do
    faithfully engage and promise,

    "Imprimis That we will not at any time Carry out of ye said Library
    any booke belonging to it.

    "2 ly That we will not Leave any booke belonging to ye said Library
    (after our using it) out of its due place, nor write any thing in any
    of ye bookes, nor Leave them wth any Leaves turned downe.

    "3 ly That we will not prejudice any other pson by our use of ye said
    Library, to which purpose we shall not at any time delay our going to
    ye Library after ye receipt of ye Keyes from ye Keeper, nor ye
    restoring them when we Come out of ye said Library.

    "4 ly That we shall as to all these Articles be Responsabl for our
    friends who shall goe wth us to ye said Library, as for our selves.

    "5 ly We shall (being duly Chosen thereto) not above once in seaven
    yeares, discharge ye office of Library-Keeper.

    "6 ly We shall faithfully pay our proportions to ye under-Keeper of
    ye said Library quarterly, and also our equall share wth ye rest of
    our brethren in all Charges they shall be at for ye better preserving
    of ye said Library.

    "All these things we shall endeavour faithfully to observe & keep, if
    through our negligence we shall fail in any of them, we Agree to
    subject our selves to ye Penalties mentioned in ye orders Confirmed
    by the Court of Common Councill in ye said City."

The Library at this time was clearly a Reference Library, and its
maintenance partly depended on the members who agreed to pay their
"proportions" of 12d. quarterly, and also their equal share in any
charges made for the "better preserving of the Library."  The earlier
entries in the Minute Book give a fair record of the proceedings at the
meetings: they record the names of the members present, the names of new
members admitted to the use of the Library, the quarterly payments of the
members, the donations of books, books purchased with money given to the
Library, duplicate books exchanged for other books, the appointments of
the Library Keepers and Under Library Keepers, and other matters
connected with the administration of the Library; but the fulness of the
entries gradually diminishes until the records are little more than lists
of members present, and notes of quarterly payments.

The meetings were held monthly, and on February 6th, 1656, it was
resolved that the meetings should be held on the second Monday in each
month between 2 and 3 o'clock.  At that meeting a levy on the members was
recorded: "All the mins present at this meeting deposed Sixpence a piece
in Mr. Collinges hand towards the providing of frames and parchment for
the orders for the regulation of the library, in all 5/-: and ordered
such as were not present if admitted already, or such as hereafter should
be admitted, should at their admission or next appearing at meeting lay
down so much towards the frames and parchment aforesaid, and the buying
of a book to register the Acts of the mins in."

That the members were permitted to enjoy the fragrant weed on the library
premises is evident from an entry under date October 12th, 1657:
"Threepence was laid out for tobacco pipes," and on April 1st, 1690 it
was recorded, "That Mr. Pitts is this day discharged from ye office of
Library Keeper, and is endebted to ye under=Library=Keeper for his 2
years for fire, candle, pipes, pens, ink and paper, nine shillings."

From many records it is obvious that the City Authorities closely
controlled the administration of the Library.  According to the Minute
Book on January 12th, 1673, the members "consented yt Mr Riveley and Mr
Morley should attend yppon the Court to craue their Order for appoynting
the time for ye Ministers Meeting at the Library for future to be uppon
the first Tuesday in every moneth."  The request was granted.  On 29th
March, 1673, the Court ordered "36s. to be paid for six Russia leather
chairs for City Library." {8}

The library receipts from fees and charges are not regularly entered, but
throughout the Minute Book there are occasional records of receipts and
payments, and under date March 3, 1684, is the following: "This day ye
account of ye Last year was stated.  The Library keeper had received 4ll
3s & 4d and had expended 4l 11s 10d--due to Him 8s 6d."

Either as a means of raising additional money for the Library or of
securing a better attendance of members at the meetings it was ordered on
Jan. 15th, 1677 "that all persons that will continue the use & benefitte
of the librarie shall pay for every omission of meeting upon the day
appointed the forfeiture of 2 pence, no excuse to be admitted for
absence; & the said forfeitures are to be dispos'd of every halfe year
according as the major part of psons at yt meeting shall determine."  The
Minute Book does not show that the fines for absence were usually
disposed of half-yearly, but the following memorandum was made therein on
April 1st, 1690: "That this day we present cast up ye forfeitures of ye
two last years, viz. 1688, 1689 And the several persons are indebted in
all two pounds, ten shillings & four pence as appears by ye particulars
in ye Book of forfeitures."

For the first 108 years of the Library's existence it remained a
reference library, and books were not lent, but surreptitious borrowing
probably took place occasionally.  At any rate on December 2nd, 1684, the
following memorandum was made: "That BP J. Ushers treatise de Macedonum
et Assyriorum [Asianorum] anno solari was missing this meeting yt was, by
ye under-library-keepers attestation here the last meeting and has bin
missing this three weeks, 'tis desired that he that has it would be
pleased to restore it, and not to do any such thing as is contrary to wt
he hath subscribed."  By 1716 the members had considered it desirable to
allow the borrowing of books for home reading, and on May 7th, 1716,
occurs the following record of the petition of the members to the City

    "This Society having requested ye Court to give leave yt an order
    might be made to render ye Library more usefull it was accordingly
    ordered by ye Court

    "Norwich.  At an Assembly held the third day of May Anno Dnj 1716

    "The Petition of ye Clergy about ye Books in ye Library is now agreed
    to, so as such care be taken by ye Library-keeper yt there be no loss
    of ye Books.

                                                          P Cur: Chappell.

    "The Articles or Conditions of borrowing any book out of ye Library
    are order'd to be written in ye first leave of a Register to be
    provided for ye use of ye Society."

    "These Articles or Conditions are fortunately written at the end of
    the Minute Book, and are as follows:

    "First, That every Person taking out any Book, shall enter ye same
    into a Book to be provided for yt purpose.

    "2dly: That He shall be obliged to return ye same Book or Books wthin
    one month from ye time of borrowing, & enter ye return of ye sd Book
    in a Column of ye Register opposite to that wherein ye borrowing of
    ye sd Book is mention'd.

    "3dly: That No Person shall have above ye Number of three Books (from
    this Library) at one time, unless ye leave of ye Society be first
    Ask'd & obtain'd.

    "4thly: That if any damage be done to any Book, He in whose hands it
    is shall make it good, & to prevent disputes, if ye Book be damag'd
    before taken out of ye Library it shall be shown to ye

    "5thly: That there be some Persons appointed to assist ye Upper
    Library Keeper in calling over ye sd Books ye first Monday of January
    next, & so yearly & every year, & yt ye Library Keeper shall have
    power to send for & call in such Books as are ytt abroad, & every
    person in whose hands any Books have been above ye limited time of
    one Month at such days of calling over ye sd Books shall forfeit two
    shillings & six pence to be applied to such use as ye Society shall
    adjudge proper.

    "6thly: That No Person shall be admitted to ye use of this Library,
    (Those of this Court excepted) Nor have ye liberty of borrowing any
    Book from ye sd Library who are not already, or shall not hereafter
    be admitted to ye use of ye sd Library according to ye usages &
    Customs of the Society Now in great measure entrusted wth ye Care &
    Charge of ye Books of ye sd Library, except such Person shall first
    give unto ye sd Library ye sum of fourty shillings or Books to yt

    "7thly: Tis agreed yt there be two fair Catalouges made, One to be &
    remain wth ye Court of this City, & ye other to be kept in ye
    Library, yt ye Library Keeper do get ye sd Catalouges made wth all
    convenient speed, yt ye Books be rang'd into some method & order, yt
    ye Library Keeper shall take in such assistance as is wanting, & his
    charge & trouble be allow'd according to ye discretion of ye

These rules show that borrowers were permitted to record the books they
borrowed, that they were allowed to retain them for a month, that damaged
books should be reported to the Under Library Keeper before being taken
away, and that a stocktaking fine of 2s. 6d. was provided for in the
event of books not being returned in the January of each year.

The Minutes between 1716 and 1731 chiefly record formal matters, and
little of note regarding the administration of the Library.  On February
7th, 1731, "It was then unanimously agreed that the Members meet for the
future on the first Tuesday in every Month at two o'Clock in ye
afternoon."  On the 7th of the following month two delinquent borrowers
were dealt with: "Whereas the Revd Mr. Francis Johnson took some time
since the Works of Bishop Bull in 4 volumes 8vo out of this Library, &
has return'd only ye 1st, 3rd & 4th Vols & instead of ye 2d Sherlock on
providence, it Was then Order'd, that that shd be return'd him again, &
that he be requir'd either to send back ye sd 2d vol. or take the
remaining three, & send an entire Sett.  Order'd likewise that Mr Morrant
be requir'd to return B-p. Stillingfleets Origines Sacrae, being ye 2d
vol. of his works, Long since taken out by Him."

The regulations for the administration of the Library were again revised
in 1732/3 by the City Council: {11}

    "At an ASSEMBLY held on _Feb._ the 24th, 1732/3. the Right Worshipful
    the MAYOR, _Sheriffs_, _Aldermen_, and _Common-Council_ this Day
    assembled, for the better Regulation of the _Publick Library_, have
    unanimously appointed the following ORDERS to be observed, upon Pain
    of Exclusion from the said _Library_.

    "ORDERED, That the Catalogues already printed be Six Hundred; and
    that one Half of them be kept in the Town-Clerk's Office, to be
    delivered out to the Members of the Corporation; and the other Half
    be left in the Library, to be delivered out to the Subscribers.

    "ORDERED, That the Books in the said Library be Annually called over,
    in the first Week of _June_, in the Presence of the _Chamberlain_;
    and that such books as are found to be Duplicates, be sold by the
    _Chamberlain_ and _Library-Keeper_; and that the Money arising by
    Sale thereof, be laid out in the Purchasing of such Books as shall be
    thought proper by the said Subscribers.

    "ORDERED, That after the said Annual Call is finished, the
    Subscribers to the said Library, upon their next Monthly Meeting,
    have Liberty to choose a _Library-Keeper_ for the Year ensuing.

    "ORDERED, That on the Reception of any Book or Books given to the
    said Library, the _Donor's_ Name shall be written on the inside Cover
    of the Book, and that the _Library-Keeper_ shall Register the same in
    the Vellum Book.

    "ORDERED, That no Person shall have more than Three Books out of the
    said Library at one Time, nor keep them longer than one Month,
    without the Consent of the Majority of the Subscribers present at
    their Monthly Meeting: And that an Account of every Book Lent, and
    the Return thereof, be duly made and enter'd in a Book for that

    "ORDERED, That every Person who shall be admitted to the Use of the
    said Library, shall declare his full and free Consent to comply with
    the said Orders, as far as to him may appertain, according to the
    true Intent and Meaning of the same; and particularly with the
    following Orders or Articles, by subscribing his Name in the said
    _Library-Book_ upon his Admission: And also that all the said Orders,
    and the following Articles, shall be entred in the said
    _Library-Book_, _viz_:

    "_First_, That every Subscriber upon Admission shall pay to the Under
    _Library-Keeper_ one Shilling, and also one Shilling Quarterly, for
    his Care of, and Attendance at the said Library: And every Subscriber
    shall also pay his Proportion of all Charges that may be thought
    necessary by the Subscribers, for the better preserving of the Books
    in the said Library; or shall be excluded the Use thereof.

    "_Secondly_, That if any Book be lent out, and lost or damaged, the
    Borrower shall be obliged to make good such Loss or Damage.

    "_Thirdly_, The Subscribers have Leave to meet the first _Tuesday_ in
    every Month, to inspect the said Library, and take out such Books as
    they may have Occasion for, then or at any other Time; and see that
    the said Orders and Articles be duly observed.

                                                            "_Per Curiam_,

                             "LODGE."  [i.e., Nehemiah Lodge, Town Clerk].

The Minute Book which finishes on April 3rd, 1733, is silent regarding
these new regulations, but Benjamin Mackerell (Librarian of the City
Library from 1724 to 1731) writing in 1737 shewed that they did not
result in improving the management of the Library:

    "For some few years it has been a Lending Library and some persons
    have had books two or three years together contrary to an order to
    the contrary.  Here is no salary given by the city for anyone to take
    care and the charge of the books upon him only the keys thereof are
    left at the house of the Clark of St. Andrews Parish, and any man may
    be admitted that will but give him twelve-pence a quarter, but unless
    the Corporation would be at the expence of a salary for any sober
    discreet person to take the charge of the said books upon himself and
    have the sole custody of them, and pecuniary mulcts inflicted upon
    such as break the orders already made, there is little hopes of
    keeping the books there, or in any good order long together, besides
    this is also made use of upon the account of the trustees for the
    Charity Schools who frequently meet here, notwithstanding there are
    so many more convenient rooms in the said hall.  Especially that in
    which the Grand Jury meet in at every Assizes.  Persons may borrow
    two books out of this Library at a time but ought not to keep them
    above one month without giving notice to the Library keeper." {13a}

Mackerell's remarks, and the fact that the Minute Book was not filled,
seem to indicate that the Library was neglected for some years.  On
September 21st, 1801, the Assembly complied with the request of the
Committee of a subscription library, with the misnomer "Public Library"
(established in 1784 in St. Andrew's Hall) by granting them leave "to
have the use of the books in the City Library, to be kept under the care
of their Librarian apart from other books, the President giving a receipt
for the safe return of the same on demand." {13b}  The City Committee
reported to the Assembly in 1805 "that the books in the City Library have
not of late been carefully preserved, that some valuable works have been
mutilated and others lost or mislaid." {13c}  The Assembly thereupon
rescinded the order of September 21st, 1801, requested the President and
Committee of the "Public Library" to "make good all losses and injuries,"
and committed the custody of the City Library to the Steward.  In 1815
the City Library was again entrusted to the "Public Library."  Ten years
afterwards, the "Public Library," which still housed the City Library,
was removed to a building in St. Andrew's Street.  The admission fee to
this Library in 1825, as stated in the Catalogue of the Library of that
date, was five guineas, and the annual subscription was one guinea.  This
Catalogue contains the following rules regarding the City Library:

    "LIV.  The books belonging to the City Library having been deposited
    in the Library Room of the Public Library, by permission of the
    Corporation, are accessible to the subscribers, and may be delivered
    out under a written order of the president, or vice-president,
    countersigned by an officer of the Corporation.

    "LV.  The Librarian shall have charge of the books belonging to the
    City Library, and shall procure the necessary authority for the
    delivery of books to subscribers applying for them.

    "LVI.  The books belonging to the City Library shall be returned to
    the Librarian every quarter day; and the same fines and penalties
    shall apply to subscribers not attending to this regulation, or to
    losing, lending or injuring books belonging to the City Library,
    which are laid down by the laws for the protection of the books
    belonging to the Public Library."

In the same catalogue it was stated that the City Library was under the
particular inspection of the Mayor and seven members of the Council who
constituted the Library Committee of the Corporation.  "The Right
Worshipful the Mayor of Norwich, for the time being, is an Honorary
Member of the Public Library; and the Members of the Library Committee of
the Corporation, together with the Speaker of the Commons, the Town
Clerk, and the Chamberlain, if not already Members of the Society, have
the privilege of constant access to the Library Rooms during their
continuance of office." {14}  These rules were in force in 1847, and were
reprinted in a new edition of the Catalogue printed in that year.  The
members of the rival subscription library, called "The Norfolk and
Norwich Literary Institution," which was established in 1822, were also
allowed to borrow books from the City Library, by an order from the
Chamberlain of the City. {15a}  In 1835 the "Public Library" with the
City Library was removed to a new building opposite the north door of the
Guildhall, on the site of the present Norfolk and Norwich Subscription

Ostensibly the City Library was adequately cared for by the "Public
Library," but in reality it was greatly neglected.  At a meeting of the
Council on July 10th, 1856, the Town Clerk read a report from the City
Library Committee, stating that they had inspected the books of the City
Library, and "considered them in a very disorderly and dirty condition,
that they could not be compared with the catalogue till they were
re-arranged.  They recommended that a grant of 25 pounds should be made
for the rearrangement of the books, and that Mr. Langton [the Librarian]
be employed for that purpose." {15b}  In the discussion that ensued Mr.
Ling said some of the books "were lying on the floor, damaged by dust and
cobwebs, and an extremely valuable manuscript of Wickliffe's Bible was in
a bad state." {15c}  Mr. Brightwell suggested that the City Library would
be a capital foundation for the Free Library, and the matter was referred
back for the consideration of the City Library Committee.  Those
interested in the "Public Library" strove hard to retain the City
Library, and on November 20th, 1856, the following memorial signed by the
President was presented to the Council and discussed:--

    To the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of Norwich, in Council
    assembled. {15d}  The Memorial of the Committee of the Norwich Public

    Sheweth,--That at a quarterly assembly of the Corporation, held June
    19th, 1815, a certain Report of the Library Committee was agreed to,
    and consent given for the city books to be taken to the Public
    Library under the direction of the same Committee.

    That your memorialists have learned with deep regret that it is
    contemplated to apply to the Council for power to remove the city
    books to the Free Library.

    That upon the faith of their tenure of these books, as long as the
    conditions imposed were satisfactorily complied with, various sums of
    money, to a considerable amount, have from time to time been expended
    by your memorialists from the funds of the Public Library in their

    That the books of the City Library have been embodied in the
    catalogues of 1825 and 1847, under the same scientific arrangement as
    the books which are the property of the Public Library,
    distinguishing those which are the property of the Corporation by a
    prominent and appropriate designation; and that therefore by the
    removal of the City Library, the catalogue, to which your
    memorialists have recently published the first appendix, will be
    rendered quite useless and an expense, otherwise unnecessary, will be

    That although the books of the City Library were recently found in a
    very dusty condition; yet that during the 40 years they have been in
    the custody of your memorialists, they have suffered no deterioration
    from damp, loss, or otherwise.

    That the contiguity of the Public Library to the Guildhall affords
    the greatest convenience of application to the Town Clerk for
    permission to take out books from the City Library, and of the access
    of the Library Committee of the Corporation to inspect their

    That it is in contemplation to place a fire in the room appropriated
    to the City Library, and further to improve it by the insertion of a
    large bay-window, which will make it a light and cheerful place for
    all who need reference to these ancient and valuable books.

    That your memorialists venture to point out the entire
    unsuitableness, in their judgment, of works in learned languages, on
    abstruse subjects or in black letter, to the objects of the Free

    And your memorialists therefore pray that the books of the City
    Library be allowed to remain, as heretofore, in their keeping.

    Signed on behalf of the Public Library Committee.

    Norwich, Nov. 10th, 1856.

                                                G. W. W. FIRTH, President.

Edward Edwards, in his monumental "Memoirs of Libraries," 1859, (vol. 1,
p. 739) printed the above memorial which he said carried "its refutation
on its face."  "On so puerile a production," he continued, "it were idle
to waste words.  One remark, however, may be appropriate in anticipation
of the history and objects of the Act of Parliament in pursuance of which
the Free City Library of Norwich has been created.  No Institution
established under that Act can with justice address itself to any "class"
of the population in particular.  Rate-supported Libraries are _ipso
facto_ "Town Libraries."  Their cost is defrayed by ratepayers of all
degrees.  It is the imperative duty of every Town-Council so to manage
them as to make them conduce, in the utmost possible measure, to the
researches, the pursuits, and the profit of _every_ class of the
townspeople.  For some readers it may also be desirable to add that the
so-called "Public" Library by whose managers this Memorial is drawn up,
is Public in name only."

Notwithstanding the persistent attempts of the "Public Library" on futile
pretexts to retain the City Library, the Council on February 17th, 1857,
decided by a large majority in favour of the removal of the City Library
to the new library building under its own control.  Even then the Free
Library Committee had difficulty in securing the books, and it was only
after their repeated applications that the City Library was installed in
the Library in 1862.  Mr. John Quinton, the Librarian of the Norfolk and
Norwich Literary Institution, superintended the removal of the books, and
arranged them in their new quarters.  The book-plate in the volumes was
printed from a wood-block engraved by his daughter, Miss Jane Quinton, a
student of the Norwich School of Art, which at that time occupied the top
floor of the Library.  The books were shelved in cases on the ground
floor until 1879 when they were removed to their present glass cases in
the News Room.

The Council on the 17th March, 1868, agreed to the recommendation of the
City Committee "that the Wyckliffe Bible and other books be committed as
a loan into the custody of the trustees of the [Norfolk and Norwich]
Museum, proper provision to be made for the exhibition and preservation
thereof." {17}  Several manuscripts and printed books were sent to the
Museum, and Mr. J. J. Colman, the Mayor in that year, presented to the
city a glass case for the exhibition of the books.

In 1872 the Norfolk and Norwich Law Library, which had just been
established, applied for the loan of between 30 and 40 legal works in the
City Library, and the Council acceded to its request on condition that
any person not a member of the Law Library should have access to the
books, and that the books should be returned to the City Library on
request.  A list of the books lent was printed in the Catalogue of the
Law Library published in 1874.  The books were returned during the year
ending March, 1900.

The Catalogue of 1883 stated that the following was the rule for the use
of the City books: "A loan of these books may be obtained at the Free
Library, from 11 to 4 on any day of the week excepting Thursday, by
application to the Town Clerk, who will supply a Form to be filled up by
the applicant and forwarded to the Chairman of the Libraries Committee."
Now the books are issued by and at the discretion of the City Librarian,
for use in the Reference Library, in accordance with the rules of the
Public Library.

The City Committee, which is responsible for the City Library, provided
in 1912 a large exhibition case in the Reading Room for the display of
some of the more rare and interesting books.


The Library was formed almost entirely by donations, principally from
local residents, including bishops, deans, and other clergy, magistrates,
merchants and tradesmen.  The donations from the inception of the Library
in 1608 to 1737 are enumerated in the Vellum Book provided for the
purpose in 1659, to which reference is made on page 46.  The first
donation was a gift of fifteen volumes from Sir John Pettus who was Mayor
during the year of the foundation of the Library, viz., Severinus Binius'
"Concilia generalia et provincialia," 4 vols. in 5, (Cologne, 1606),
"Centuriones Magdeburgh," 7 vols., (Basel), and Bellarmine's
"Disputationes de controversiis Christianae Fidei," 3 vols., (Paris,
1608).  His gift was followed by one in the same year from Susannah
Downing, wife of Alderman George Downing, who had been Mayor in the
previous year.  She gave Hieronymus Zanchius' "Opera theologica," 8 vols.
in 3, 1605 (Excudebat Stephanus Gamonetus).  In the following year Thomas
Corye, merchant, gave Luther's Works in 7 vols. and three volumes of
Ludwig Lavater's Commentaries, (Zurich); Sir Thomas Hirne, the Mayor,
gave ten volumes of Calvin's works, and a polyglot Bible--Biblia Sacra,
Hebraice, Graece, et Latine (1599), 2 vols.; Thomas Corbett gave St.
Augustine's Works (Basel, 1569); and Henry Doyly gave St. Bernard's Works
(Paris, 1586).

The three chief benefactors to the Library were Richard Ireland, who at
the time of his death was rector of Beeston, Norfolk; Thomas Nelson,
rector of Morston, Norfolk; and John Kirkpatrick, a linen merchant, of
Norwich, the eminent antiquary.

Ireland's bequest was made in 1692, and the entry in the Vellum Book is
as follows:

    "Mr Richard Ireland, Formerly Rector of Beeston and sometime also of
    St Edmonds in the Citty of Norwich where he was born, gave by his
    last Will all his Bookes to the publick Library of the Citty: where
    they are set up on Shelves, and accordingly specifyed in the
    Catalogue of the Library, viz, the Folios on Classis. 16 and the
    smaller bookes on Classis 20 and 21. with some others of the Old
    Citty Library distinguished in the said Catalogue.

    "Memorandum.  Some of Mr Irelands bookes which the Library was
    furnished with before, are set up in the outward Library to be Sold
    and exchanged for others, as he gave leave."  The total number of
    volumes shown in the Library Catalogue of 1732 to have been given by
    Ireland is 142.

The entry in the Vellum Book regarding Nelson's bequest in 1714 reads:
"Mr Thomas Nelson Late Rector of Morston in the County of Norfolk gave by
his Last Will and Testament All his Books unto the Publick Library of
this City where they are placed upon Six Shelves by Themselves in the
Inner Room belonging to the said Library with his Name Over them in Gold
Letters."  Numerically his gift was the largest to the Library, 570
volumes being assigned to him in the Catalogue of 1732.

The bequest of Kirkpatrick is recorded as follows under date 1728: "Mr
John Kirkpatrick Mercht and Treasurer to the Great Hospital in this City
did by his last Will and Testament Give (Note the following are the very
Words of his Will) To the Maior Sheriffs, Citizens & Commonalty aforesaid
All my Ancient Manuscripts and all my Medals and Ancient Coins of Silver
& Brass to be reposited in their Library at the New-Hall.  Also my
Printed Books in the Anglo-Saxon Language, & all such of my Books which
were Printed before the Year of our Lord 1600 as are not already in the
said Library, together with Mountfaucon's Antiquities, & Maddox's Firma
Burgi lately printed; and I will & desire that all these things be kept
there For Publick Use as the other Books in the said Library are.  (Thus
Far his Will.--

"Sometime after the Decease of the said Mr John Kirkpatrick there was
more than Two Hundred Books sent to this Library According to his Will
and Desire which are inserted in the Catalogue with his Name before Each

"N.B.  The Medals and Coins are not yet delivered But are still in the
Hands of John Custance, Esq."  Although the memorandum following the
extract from the will states that more than 200 books were sent to the
Library, the total number of books assigned to him in the 1732 catalogue
is 168.  Possibly the remainder were duplicates, and were sold or
exchanged for other books.

Many other donations are worthy of special mention, but it is impossible
to enumerate all of them.  Gabriel Barbar, in the name of the Society of
Virginia, gave 11 vols. in 1614, in which year, says Blomefield, "the
Lords of the _privy council_, by letters dated the 22nd of _March_,
desired the city to given [sic] encouragement to a _lottery_, set on foot
for the benefit of the _English Virginia_ plantation, . . . and by
another letter dated 21 Dec. 1617, they desired them to assist Gabriel
Barbor, &c in the management of a running _lottery_, to be by them kept
in Norwich." {20a}  In 1618 Thomas Atkins, Merchant of Norwich, gave
seven volumes and 5 pounds for books.

During the mayoralty of Thomas Cory, 1628-29, the City of Norwich gave a
copy of the second edition of John Minsheu's "The Guide into Tongues"
(London: John Haviland, 1627) for which twenty shillings were paid. {20b}
This work is still of value as a dictionary of Elizabethan English.  In
1659 the City also gave a set of the famous English Polyglot Bible,
edited by Bryan Walton, in 6 vols., (London, 1657)--a work which was a
fine scholarly achievement of the Church of England at a time of great

In 1658 Joseph Paine, Alderman of Norwich, who was Mayor in 1660, gave
one book and 20 pounds for the purchase of books.  In the Minute Book the
donation is described thus under date Dec. 13, 1658: "Mr. Whitefoot, Mr.
Harmar, and Dr. Collings made report to ye rest of the Brethren mett this
day That Mr. Joseph Paine Alderman of the City of Norwich uppon Munday
preceding this meeting, sent for ye 3 minrs. aforesaid to his house, and
there did give into the hands of Mr. John Whitefoot one of the aforesaid
minrs. twenty pounds declaring it his mind that it should be laid out at
the discretion of ye 3 minrs. aforesaid together with Mr. George Cock to
bee added to them to buy such bookes with it as they shall judge most fit
for ye City Library."

The ministers evidently desired to mark especially their appreciation of
Paine's gift.  On February 9th, 1662/3 "The brethren taking notice that
no bookes were yet markd as the guift of Sr Jos. Paine, and Mr. Whitefoot
acquainting the brethren that he had procured printed paps to this
purpose--Ex Dono Dni _Josephi Paine_ militis hujus Civitatis praetoris,
they ordered that some of those papers should bee affixed to the 9 vol.
of ye Criticks: wch cost 15l & to the 4 vol. of Gerard's Comon places wch
cost 3l 13s & to the 2 vol. of Theophilact. wch cost 1l 02s: in all 19l
17s: the other 3s: beeing accounted for ye Carriage: they also ordered
that a like paper be affixed to Ravanella before giuen to the library by
ye said Sr Jos. Paine."

In the Vellum Book under date Dec. 12th, 1659, are entered 29 volumes as
a gift from Thomasine Brooke, "Widow & Relict of Wm Brooke, Gent."  These
were evidently purchased with a donation of 20 pounds, as under the same
date in the Minute Book is the following: "Mr. Whitefoot acknowledged
himself to have received of Mrs Brooke wid. to the use of the library to
bee laid out uppon bookes by ye Consent of ye minrs. the summe of twenty

Sir Thomas Browne, who made Norwich his home from 1637, gave in 1666
eight volumes of Justus Lipsius' Works, (Antwerp, 1606-17), and under the
entry recording this gift, which describes the donor as "Thomas Browne,
Med: Professor", has been written in a different hand, "Opera sua, viz.
Religio Medicj, Vulgar Errors, &c."  (A reproduction of the page in the
Vellum Book recording Browne's gift faces page 46.)  The latter volume
was evidently a copy of his "Pseudodoxia Epidemica . . . together with
the Religio Medici," sixth edition, (London, 1672), which is still in the

Another eminent benefactor was Thomas Tenison, who became Archbishop of
Canterbury in 1694, and is noteworthy to librarians as having established
a public library in his parish of St. Martins-in-the-Fields, London, in
1695.  Tenison was educated at the Norwich Free School, and in 1674 he
was chosen "upper minister" of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, having been
previously preacher at that Church.  He was admitted to the use of the
City Library on February 9th, 1673, and on March 2nd, 1674 and April 6th,
1675, he gave the following five volumes: Georgius Codinus' "De Officijs
et Officialibus Magnae Ecclesiae et Aulae Constantinopolitanae" (Paris,
1625); Edward Herbert's "De religione gentilium" (Amsterdam, 1663); Peter
Heylyn's "Historia Quinqu-Articularis" (London, 1660); Archbishop James
Ussher's "Chronologia sacra" (Oxford, 1660); and the "Racovian
Catechism," which is entered in the 1732 catalogue as "Moscorrow's

Nathaniel Cock, described as a Merchant of London, but who was doubtless
connected with the county, is credited with a donation of 33 volumes in
1674.  These volumes were evidently purchased with the legacy of 20
pounds which Edmund Cock, his executor, paid to the Library-Keeper.  This
legacy is mentioned in the Minute Book, and also by Blomefield, {22} who
states that he was the brother of Edmund Cocke, and that he also "gave
the _city chamberlain_ 100l, to be freely lent to five honest poor
_weavers_, housekeepers and freemen, without interest, they giving
security for the repayment at three years end."

In 1676, the year of the death of Edward Reynolds, Bishop of Norwich, the
Vellum Book records a donation from him of 24 volumes.  These books,
however, were probably purchased with a legacy, as in the Assembly Book,
21st Sept., 1676, it is stated that the Clavors [Keepers of City Chest]
to pay Robt Bendish Esq. 20 pounds to be pd to Mr John Whitefoot senr. to
buy bookes for City Library according to will of Edward [Reynolds] late
Bp. of Norwich.

Dean Humphrey Prideaux, the orientalist, was another distinguished
benefactor.  In August, 1681, he was installed as a Prebendary of
Norwich, and in the following March he gave a copy of his edition of two
tracts by Maimonides which he published with the title "De jure pauperis
et peregrini apud Judaeos" (1679), "and other money [1 pound] from many
others received" with which were purchased Joannes Caspar Suicerus'
"Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus," 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1682), and J. J.
Hoffman's "Lexicon Universale
Historico-Geographico-Chronologico-Poetico-Philologicum," 2 vols. (Basel,
1677).  When Dean of Norwich he gave a copy of the two works upon which
his literary fame rests, "Life of Mahomet" and "The Old and New Testament
Connected," 2 vols. (1716-18), and also his "Validity of the Orders of
the Church of England," and "The Original and Right of Tithes," (Norwich,

Three citizens and Aldermen of Norwich gave donations of money in 1678
amounting to 11 pounds, with which ten volumes were purchased: Augustine
Briggs 5 pounds, Thomas Wisse 3 pounds, and Bernard Church 3 pounds.

In 1700 William Adamson, Rector of St. John's Maddermarket, Norwich, who
was buried therein in 1707, "gave to this Library three shelves full of
books, viz. Classis 17, 18, and 19, the first in Folio, the Second in
quarto, the third in Octavo, and are Specifyed in the Catalogue of the
Library."  The total number of the books assigned to him in the 1732
catalogue is 118 vols.

In 1706 John Moore, Bishop of Norwich "gave to this Library Eusebij,
Socratis, Sozomeni, Theodoriti, & Evagrij Hist. Ecclesiast. in 3 vol.,
Paris, 1678," and Thomas Tanner, who had been made Chancellor of the
Norwich Diocese in 1701, gave a copy of La Bigne's "Sacrae Bibliothecae
Sanctorum Patrum," 5 vols. (Paris, 1589).  Tanner also gave a large
donation in 1726 which was thus recorded: "Thomas Tanner, S.T.P. and
Chancellor of the Diocess of Norwich This year added more than an Hundred
Books to those which he had formerly Given to this Publick Library; Which
are particularly inserted in the Catalogue, with his Name before each
Book."  Possibly some of the books he gave were duplicates and were
exchanged for others, as the 1732 Catalogue credits him with only 92

During the years 1707 to 1709 several Fellows of Trinity and other
Cambridge Colleges gave donations of books (See List of Donors at the end
of Part I., pp. 52-56).  The Minute Book records that on August 5th, 1707
"was brought into the Library by Mr. Reddington, Fellow of Trinity
College, in Cambridge, these following books being the gift of several
persons of the said college, as here follows."  These donations,
numbering 28 volumes, were the gift of twelve Fellows, and may have been
the result of an organised effort by Reddington to increase the Library.
John Reddington was Rector of St. Edmund, Norwich, 1712, Rector of
Rackheath, 1711-39, and of Hethel, 1737-39, and master of Norwich Grammar
School from 1732 to 1737.  He died in 1739, aged 57.  In 1708 the Minute
Book states that on Sept. 6th Mr. Reddington brought in five books the
gift of five Fellows of Trinity College; and on Oct. 4, Mr. Brett brought
in 8 volumes the gift of John Lightwin, the President of Caius College,
and four other Cambridge men.

Benjamin Mackerell, described as "of the City of Norwich, Gent.", gave
two volumes in 1716, and 13 volumes in 1731, when he held the office of
Library Keeper.

John Jermy was stated in 1729 to "have sent & Given to this Library
several Law Books and others; which are particularly inserted in the
Catalogue, with his Name before Each Book."  In 1733 he gave forty books,
and in 1737 fourteen books.  In the 1732 Catalogue he is credited with 67

Edmund Prideaux, the son of Dean Prideaux, in 1730 "gave to this Library
more than Threescore Books which are all of them inserted in the
Catalogue with his Name before each Book."  In the 1732 Catalogue only 49
volumes are shown to have been given by him.

The last entry in the Vellum Book records a gift from Robert Nash,
Chancellor of the Diocese of Norwich, of a copy of "A Defence of Natural
and Revealed Religion: being an abridgment of the Sermons preached at the
Lecture founded by the Hon. R. Boyle," 4 vols. (London, 1737), by Gilbert
Burnet, vicar of Coggeshall, which was published in that year.

Possibly it was the misfortune of the Library to lose a donation of
manuscripts from Peter Le Neve relating to Norfolk that would have been
of inestimable value, as the collector's work, said Mr. Walter Rye, "was
characterised by strictest honesty," and the material "formed the
backbone of the well-known county history, begun by Blomefield, and
completed by Parkin." {24}  Bishop Tanner, one of Le Neve's executors,
stated in a letter to Dr. Rawlinson in 1735 that "There was an ugly
Codicil made a few days before his death in favour of his wife, upon
which she set up a claim for several of his Norfolk Collections, and has
hindered the execution of that part of his will, which relates to the
putting those papers into some public library in Norwich.  But I have
hopes given me that she is coming into better temper, and will let us
perform our trust without entering into a chancery suit." {25a}  There is
no codicil to the will at Somerset House, and the actual words relating
to his collections are as follows: "I give and bequeath unto the Revd.
Doctor Tanner Chancellor of Norwich and Mr. Thomas Martin of Palgrave all
my abstracts out of Records old Deeds Books pedigrees seals papers and
other collections which shall only relate to the antiquities and history
of Norfolk and Suffolk or one of them upon condition that they or the
survivor of them or the Exors or Admors of such survivor do & shall
within 12 months next after my decease procure a good and safe repository
in the Cathedral Church of Norwich or in some other good and publick
building in the said city for the preservation of the same collections
for the use and benefit of such curious persons as shall be desirous to
inspect transcribe or consult the same."  Le Neve's widow evidently
impeded his purpose, as his collections did not come to the city.

A donation, the loss of which, however, cannot be regretted, is referred
to in the Court Book for 1677: "The Chamberlain, with the advice of Rob'
Bendish & Jo: Manser, Esqrs are to consult a good workeman about ye
making of a Case of Deale for ye skeleton of a Man given to the City
Librarie & to report ye charge." {25b}  Kirkpatrick quotes this and
remarks: "But it seems it was not made, for there is no skeleton in the
library now." {25c}  Since the days of Rameses II., whose Egyptian
Library bore the inscription "Dispensary of the Soul," libraries have
often been properly so regarded, as their contents are undoubtedly
remedial agents of vigour and virtue, but it is not clear why a library
should be regarded as a repository for man's mortal frame.


The Library having been established primarily but not exclusively for the
clergy, by whom it was chiefly used, its contents were designed to
facilitate their studies, and pre-eminence was given to theological
works, and other works of particular interest or value to them.
Regarding the contents of the Library in 1706, when the first printed
catalogue was published, the Rev. Joseph Brett said in the preface: "It
may be more proper to observe, that upon the first Foundation of this
Library many and great Benefactions, (by which alone it was first raised,
and still encreases) were given by the Magistrates, Gentlemen and
Tradesmen of this City, by which means, here is no inconsiderable
Collection of Divinity Book, [sic] for that time especially.  But
considering the great Advance of Learning, in the last Century, the fine
Editions of many of the Fathers, and the many learned Books that were
then published, it must be owned, that this Library is now very
deficient, even in Divinity itself.  Besides here are very few Humanity
Books, few or none of Law, Physick, Mathematicks, or indeed of any
science but Divinity."  Large donations from the Rev. Thomas Nelson, John
Kirkpatrick, and others greatly increased the usefulness of the Library,
and accordingly Mackerell, in his preface to the 1732 Catalogue,
considered that "this Library is far from being meanly provided with
Books (I wish I could say in all Faculties)."

While time has caused many of the works to decrease in value and
practical interest, it has greatly enhanced the value of the few
manuscripts and the considerable number of early printed books in the
Library.  The following are the most interesting and valuable
manuscripts, some of which are on loan at the Castle Museum for
exhibition.  Dr. Montague Rhodes James, the Provost of King's College,
Cambridge, one of the greatest authorities on early manuscripts, has
kindly examined and dated four of them, and he has also supplied detailed
descriptions which it is hoped will be published on another occasion.


Anon.  IN APOCALYPSIN.  XIIIth century.

Vellum, 10.25 x 7.5 inches, ff. 5 + 74 + 28, double columns, the number
of lines varies.  Bound in wooden boards.  Presented to the Library in
1618 by Thomas Atkins, merchant, Norwich.

Contains: 1.  Anonymous comment on the Apocalypse, with a few very rough
pictures, coloured.

2.  The Summa of Richard de Wethersett, Chancellor of Cambridge, called
_Qui bene praesunt_.


Vellum, 9 2/10 x 7 1/10 inches, double columns of 52-53 lines.  The
illuminated initial letters are unfinished.  Brown leather binding.

Presented to the Library in 1614 by Bassingbourne Throckmorton.

Contains: Genesis--2 Chron. (imperfect), Proverbs--Ecclus.  Then the
prologue to Wisdom and a small piece of the text of Wisdom repeated.
Matthew, 1 leaf of Mark.  Philippians, Col.  1, 2 Thess.  _Laodiceans_
(apocryphal)  1, 2 Tim.  Tit.  Phil.  Heb.  Apoc.

MEDICA.  XIIIth century.

Vellum, 7.5 x 5.5 inches, ff. 62, double columns of 40 lines, in a small
clear hand which Dr. James thinks may be South French.  Initials in green
and red and blue.  There is no binding; the first page is much soiled.

Contains thirteen items: medical tracts, list of materia medica, etc.

MANUALE.  XVth century.

Vellum, 9 7/8 x 7.25 inches, ff. 1 + 62 + 1, double columns of 27 lines,
early XVth century, well written.

Original binding, white skin with circuit edge over wooden boards
bevelled at the edges; remains of two strap and pin fastenings.

On the fly-leaf: John Kirkpatrick, Sept. 12, 1704.  An old pressmark: 4to
K 147.  An illegible (not early) note of price.

The covers are lined with four half-leaves of a folio XVth century Missal
in double columns, with parts of the Offices for St. Thomas of Canterbury
and Sundays after Epiphany.  At the end are bound in 7 smaller leaves of
paper on which Kirkpatrick (?) has carefully facsimiled alphabets and
abbreviations, and arranged the latter in alphabetical order.

Contents: The occasional offices to be used by a priest, according to
Sarum use.  The first page has a rather rough border in gold, red, and
blue, and an initial of the same.  Other like initials head the principal


Vellum, 17 2/10 x 12 inches, ff. 208 + 1, double columns of 59 lines.

Original sides of brown leather have been laid down on modern binding;
ornamented in blind with rectangular panel formed by two roll stamps,
enclosing another panel formed by the same stamps.  Illuminated page at
beginning of each book.

It belonged to Sir James Boleyn of Blickling Hall, who died in 1561, and
was presented to the Library in 1692 by Richard Ireland.


Paper, 5 3/4 x 4.5 inches, ff. 120, 32 lines to a page.  In three hands;
clearly written.

Original binding, wrapper of skin lined with linen.  Contains thirteen
items: astrological treatises, tables, etc.


Vellum, 11.5 x 8.5 inches, ff. 124 (imperfect, commences at f. 10), 37
lines to a page.  Rough calf binding.

Book of Precedents of Royal Writs.


Paper, 11 x 7.5 inches, ff. 81.  Vellum binding.

Alphabetical index of offenders at various sessions courts held at
Fakenham, Walsingham, Lynn and Swaffham, from 1651 to 1669.

The early printed books in the Library include no less than twenty-eight
incunabula, four of these being from English presses, and two, the 1483
"Scriptum super logica," printed at St. Albans, and the 1497 "Expositio
Hymnorum et Sequentiarum," printed by Pynson, are of great rarity.
Several of the incunabula are imperfect, but Mr. Alfred W. Pollard, M.A.,
the Hon. Secretary of the Bibliographical Society and an eminent
authority on early printed books, very kindly identified them, and he
also undertook to edit the list of incunabula.  To Mr. Pollard the
writer's thanks are tendered for the following annotated list, arranged
chronologically, and giving the place of printing and the name of the


B.M. = Catalogue of Books printed in the XVth century now in the British
Museum.  Parts 1-111.  1908-1913.

Campbell. = Annales de la typographie neerlandaise au XVe siecle.  Par M.
F. A. G. Campbell.  1874.

Copinger. = Supplement to Hain's Repertorium Bibliographicum.  By W. A.
Copinger.  1895-1902.

Hain. = Repertorium bibliographicum in quo libri omnes ab arte
typographica inventa usque ad annum MD typis expressi ordine alphabetico
vel simpliciter enumerantur vel adcuratius recensentur.  Opera Ludovici
Hain. 1826-1838.

Proctor. = An Index to the Early Printed Books in the British Museum from
the invention of printing to the year MD.  By Robert Proctor.  1898.


1480                                COLOGNE.  Conrad Winters de Homborch.
                                    JACOBUS DE VORAGINE.  Legenda Aurea.
                                    B.M. p. 248 (IB. 4043).
1481                                NUREMBERG.  Anton Koberger
                                    NICOLAUS DE LYRA.  Postillae super
                                    Biblia cum additionibus Pauli
                                    Burgensis.  Folio.
                                    Hain *10369.  B.M. p. 419 (IC 898).
[1482, after July end]              WESTMINTSER.  Wm. Caxton.
                                    HIGDEN, Ranulphus.  Polychronicon.
                                    Blades 46.  De Ricci no. 19, copy 38.
                                    Imperfect at beginning and end.
[1483]                              [ST. ALBANS.  Schoolmaster printer.]
                                    ANDREAE, Antonius.  Scriptum super
                                    logica.  Quarto.
                                    Imperfect copies at Jesus College,
                                    Cambridge, and Wadham College,
[About 1483-85.]                    LONDON.  Wilhelmus de Machlinia.
                                    ALBERTUS MAGNUS.  Liber aggregationis
                                    seu De virtutibus herbarum.  Quarto.
                                    Proctor 9770.
[1485?]                             LOUVAIN.  Johannes de Westphalia.
                                    [ROLEWINCK, Werner].  De Regimine
                                    Rusticorum.  Quarto.
                                    Campbell *1480.  Proctor 9274.
1487                                VENICE.  Georgius de Arrivabenis.
                                    Biblia Latina.  Quarto.
                                    Hain *3099.  Proctor 4912.
1490                                STRASSBURG.  [Printer of Jordanus de
                                    Modus legendi abbreuiaturas in
                                    utroque iure, etc.  Folio.  Hain
                                    11485.  B.M. p. 140 (IB. 2030).
1491                                MAINZ.  Jacobus Meydenbach.
                                    Hortus Sanitatis.  Folio.
                                    Hain *8944.  B.M. p. 44 (IB. 343).
                                    Imperfect, wanting seven leaves at
                                    the end.
1492                                PARIS.  Antoine Caillaut.
                                    GUILLERMUS PARISIENSIS.  Super septem
                                    sacramentis.  Quarto.
                                    ?Hain 8313.  Not described.
1493                                NUREMBERG.  Anton Koberger.
                                    SCHEDEL, Hartmann.  Liber Cronicarum.
                                    Hain *14508.  B.M. p. 437 (1C. 7451).
1494                                NUREMBERG.  Anton Koberger.
                                    DURANTI, Guilelmus.  Rationale
                                    diuinorum officiorum.  Quarto.
                                    Hain *6497.  B.M. p. 439 (IB. 7478).
1494                                NUREMBERG.  Anton Koberger.
                                    HEROLT, Joannes.  Sermones de tempore
                                    et de sanctis.  Folio.
                                    Hain *8504.  B.M. p. 440 (IB. 7485).
1494                                STRASSBURG.  [Martin Flach].
                                    MARCHESINUS, Joannes.  Mammotrectus
                                    super Bibliam.  Quarto.
                                    Hain *10573.  B.M. p. 153 (IA. 2184).
1495                                PARIS.  Jean Petit.
                                    Postilles des dimenches et des festes
                                    de lanee.  Quarto.
                                    Not described.
[1495?]                             VENICE.  Bernardus Benalius.
                                    TERTULLIANUS.  Apologeticus aduersus
                                    Gentes.  Folio.  Hain 15443.  Proctor
[About 1495]                        [FRANCE?]
                                    BURLEY, Walter.  De vita et moribus
                                    philosophorum.  Quarto.
                                    Copinger 1387.  Copy in University
                                    Library, Cambridge.
1496                                NUREMBERG.  Anton Koberger.
                                    GREGORY IX.  Decretales cum
                                    summariis.  Folio.
                                    Hain *8034.  B.M. p. 442 (IB. 7519).
1496                                VENICE.  Baptista de Tortis.
                                    GREGORY IX.  Decretales cum
                                    summariis.  Folio.
                                    Hain *8035.  Proctor 4656.
1497                                BOLOGNA.  Benedictus Hectoris Faelli.
                                    PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA (Giov. Fran.).
                                    De morte Christi, etc.  Quarto.
                                    Hain *13002.  Proctor 6634.
1497                                LONDON.  Richard Pynson.
                                    Expositio Hymnorum secundum usum
                                    Expositio Sequentiarum secundum usum
                                    Sarum.  Quarto.
                                    Other copies known are at the
                                    Bodleian Library and St. John's
                                    College, Oxford.
1497                                NUREMBERG.  Anton Koberger.
                                    Biblia Latina cum postillis Nicolai
                                    de Lyra et additionibus Pauli
                                    Burgensis.  Folio.
                                    A complete copy has four parts.  This
                                    contains only the first and about
                                    half of the second.  Wrongly lettered
                                    Hain *3171.  B.M. p. 443 (IB. 7535).
1497                                VENICE.  Simon Bevilaqua.
                                    LACTANTIUS.  De diuinis
                                    institutionibus, etc.  Folio.
                                    Hain *9818.  Proctor 5401.
1497                                VENICE.  Bonetus Locatellus for
                                    Octavianus Scotus.
                                    GUAINERIUS, Antonius.  Practica.
                                    Hain *8099.  Proctor 5076.
1498 etc.                           BASEL.  Johann Froben & Johann Petri.
                                    Biblia Latina cum glosa ordinaria et
                                    expositione Nicolai de Lyra.  Folio.
                                    Hain *3172.  B.M. p. 791 (IB. 37895).
                                    Imperfect, wanting parts 3, 5 and 6.
1499                                VENICE.  Simon de Luere for Andreas
                                    BARTHOLOMAEUS MONTAGNANA.  Consilia
                                    medica.  Folio.
                                    Proctor 5622.
1499                                STRASSBURG.  Johannes Gruninger.
                                    SIBYLLA, Bartholomaeus.  Speculum
                                    peregrinarum quaestionum.  Quarto.
                                    Hain *14720.  B.M. p. 113 (IA. 1486).
1500                                VENICE.  Johann Emerich for L. A.
                                    JOANNES FRANCISCUS BRIXIANUS.
                                    Quattuor viuendi regulae.  Quarto.
                                    Hain *13827.  Proctor 5504.

In addition to the foregoing early printed books the Library includes
examples from the English presses of Wynkyn de Worde, Julian Notary,
Peter Treveris, Thomas Berthelet, Richard Grafton, John Day, Richard
Tottell, Christopher Barker, Robert Barker, John Norton (celebrated for
his magnificent edition of St. Chrysostom's Works in 8 vols., printed at
Eton, 1610-1612--a copy of which is in the Library--which T. B. Reed
described as "one of the most splendid examples of Greek printing in this
country"), Thomas Roycroft, etc.  Continental typography is also
represented by specimens from many presses, including those of Jean du
Pre, Jodocus Badius Ascensius (Josse Bade of Asch), the Estiennes, the
Elzevirs, Christopher Plantin, John Koberger, H. Petrus, Peter Perna,

Coming to early Norwich printed books there are unfortunately no examples
of the rare works from the first Norwich press set up about 1566 by
Anthony de Solemne or Solempne, whose first extant printed work is dated
1570, and whose last is dated 1579.  The Library, however, possesses an
example from the press established by Francis Burges, who in 1701 styled
himself "the first printer in Norwich."  It is a copy of Erasmus Warren's
"A Rule for Shewing Mercy," printed by F. Burges, and "sold by the widow
Oliver, Bookseller in Norwich, 1706."  When Burges died in 1706 his
business was carried on by his widow, and the 1706 catalogue of the City
Library (see page 47) "Printed by Eliz. Burges, near the Red-Well," is a
specimen from her establishment.  The press of Freeman Collins is
represented by Dean Prideaux's "The Original and Right of Tithes,"
printed in 1710.  The second catalogue of the City Library, printed in
1732, (see page 48) was printed by "William Chase, in the Cockey Lane,"
who founded the _Norwich Mercury_.

A perusal of the 1883 catalogue will shew that the Library had indeed "no
inconsiderable Collection of Divinity Book[s], for that time especially,"
as was said by Brett in his Catalogue of 1706, and repeated by Mackerell.
There are sixteen printed Bibles and five New Testaments in the Library,
including the second and fourth of the great Polyglots, the Plantin
edition (1572) and Brian Walton's (1655-57), and the following English
versions: Matthew's Bible (1549), The Great Bible (1553), and the first
edition of the Geneva version (1560).  It is curious that there should be
no copy of any edition of the Bishops' Bible.

Most of the principal Fathers are represented by some of their writings.
Of the ante-Nicene Fathers there are writings by Justin Martyr, Irenaeus,
Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen and Cyprian, and of the
post-Nicene Fathers there are writings by Eusebius of Caesarea, Hilary of
Poitiers, Athanasius, Basil, Cyril of Jerusalem, Ambrose, Epiphanius,
Chrysostom, Augustine, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory the Great, and John
of Damascus.

The literature of the theological controversies which raged in the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the writings of the principal
theologians of those centuries are fairly well represented in the

Belonging to the period of the Revival of Learning are Hugh Latimer's
"Frutefull Sermons" (1575) Cranmer's "Defence of the True and Catholike
doctrine of the sacrament of the body and bloud of our Savior Christ"
(London: R. Wolfe, 1550), Thomas Becon's Works (London: various dates),
and others.  The theological literature of the Elizabethan period is
represented by such works as the "Ecclesiastical Polity" (London, 1622)
by Richard Hooker--that great champion of Anglicanism--and some of the
published writings of the famous controversy between Bishop Jewel and the
Roman Catholic Thomas Harding.

The works of Dutch scholars of the first half of the seventeenth century,
when Dutch scholarship was the ripest in Europe, are represented by five
works of G. J. Vossius (a German by birth), including his valuable
"Historia Pelagiana" (Leyden, 1618), three works of Daniel Heinsius, and
five works of Hugo Grotius, the great Dutch jurist and theologian.  The
latter include an edition of "De Jure Belli ac Pads" (Amsterdam, 1667),
which was translated into the principal European languages, and "De
veritate religionis Christiana" (Paris, 1640), a popular treatise which
became for a time the classical manual of apologetics in Protestant

The "Annales Ecclesiastici" of the Italian Cardinal, Caesar Baronius--of
which the Library has an edition in twelve volumes, (Cologne, 1609)--a
work characterized by great learning and research, greatly stimulated
Protestant study no less than it provoked criticism.  Its most important
critic was Isaac Casaubon, who issued a fragment of the massive criticism
which he contemplated, "Exercitationes in Baronium."  The Library has a
copy of the edition printed in Frankfort, 1615.

The Jacobean period was "The Golden Age of the English Pulpit," the
period when sermons were extremely popular, and discharged, with the
playhouse, some of the functions of the modern newspaper.  At this time
Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester, who was eminent in the
capacities of prelate, preacher, and writer, was generally regarded as
the very "stella praedicantium."  Of his published sermons the Library
now possesses "XCVI Sermons," 3rd ed. (London, 1635), and "Nineteen
Sermons concerning Prayer" (Cambridge, 1641).  The most erudite of
theologians in this erudite time was James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh,
described by Selden as "learned to a miracle."  Of his works the Library
contains eight, including his "Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti"
(London, 1650), which is regarded as his most important production, and
his "Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates" (London, 1687).

Joseph Hall, Bishop and satirist, who took an active part in the Arminian
and Calvinistic controversy in the English Church, is of particular
interest to Norwich, of which he became Bishop in 1641.  In the Library
are his "Works" (London, 1647), "Resolutions and Decisions of Cases of
Divers Practicall Cases of Conscience" (London, 1649) and "Remaining
Works" (London, 1660).  Just before he came to Norwich he wrote "An
Humble Remonstrance to the High Court of Parliament" (1640), in which he
skilfully vindicated liturgies and episcopacy.  This provoked an answer
by "Smectymnuus," the pseudonym of five puritan divines, the initials of
whose names made up the word.  This "Answer" (2nd ed., London, 1654), a
subsequent "Vindication" in reply to the Bishop's "Defence" (London,
1641), and Milton's "Apology for Smectymnuus" (London, 1642) are all in
the Library.

An important theologian in the Caroline period was Jeremy Taylor, whose
works are only represented by "The Great Exemplar of Sanctity" (London,
1667), "Ductor Dubitantium" (London, 1696), which is still the chief
English treatise on casuistry, and "A Collection of Polemical and Moral
Discourses" (London, 1657).  The Library contains two editions of the
works (1683 and 1716) of Isaac Barrow, whom Charles II. described as "the
best scholar in England."  Other eminent writers of this period
represented in the Library are Thomas Fuller, Richard Baxter, William
Chillingworth, Henry Hammond, who has been called "the Father of English
Biblical Criticism," Robert Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln, John Gauden,
Bishop of Worcester, and Bishop Pearson, a Norfolk man, whose famous
"Exposition of the Creed" (the Library has a copy of the 3rd edition,
1669), is a masterpiece of the doctrinal exposition of the time.

The theological writers of the Augustan age are also fairly represented
in the Library.  For example, there are three works by Gilbert Burnet,
Bishop of Salisbury, including a copy of his "Exposition of the
Thirty-Nine Articles" (London, 1700), which was for more than a century
as famous as Pearson's "Exposition of the Creed," and his "History of the
Reformation," 2 vols. (London, 1681-83); the works (6 volumes, London,
1710) of Edward Stillingfleet, called because of his personal beauty and
piety "the beauty of holiness"; the works (6th edition, London, 1710) and
"Sermons" of John Tillotson, who rose to be Archbishop of Canterbury as
much through the pulpit as through politics; the "Opera Omnia" of George
Bull (London, 1703), and others.

Works of history, antiquities and travel form the class which is next in
importance and extent to the theological works.  In proportion to the
size and character of the Library, the selection in this class is
moderately good.  Most of the chief or popular English historians from
Matthew Paris to Strype and Dugdale are represented by some of their
works.  There are, for example, Fabyan's Chronicle (London, 1559), Hall's
"Union of the . . . famelies of Lancastre and Yorke" (London, 1550),
Grafton's Chronicle (1569), Holinshed's Chronicles, first and second
editions (1577 and 1587), Stow's "Annales" (1615), Speed's "Theatre of
the Empire of Great Britaine" (1611), Camden's "Remains concerning
Britain" (1657), "History of Queen Elizabeth" (in "A Complete History of
England," London, 1706), "Annals of King James I.", and "Britannia",
(1695), Sir Thomas Smith's "Commonwealth of England" (1633), Foxe's
"Ecclesiasticall Historie" (1597), Sir Walter Raleigh's "History of the
World" (1676), {35} Rushworth's "Historical Collections" (1659), Bacon's
"Life of Henry VII." (in "A Complete History of England," London, 1706),
Herbert's "King Henry VIII." (in "A Complete History of England," London,
1706), Heylyn's "Cosmographie" (1669), Clarendon's "History of the
Rebellion" (odd vols. of the 1706 edition), Bulstrode Whitelocke's
"Memorials of the English affairs" (1682), Burnet's "History of the
Reformation" (1681-83), Strype's "Annals of the Reformation" (1709),
Dugdale's "Monasticon Anglicanum" (odd vols.), and his "Antiquities of
Warwickshire" (1730), and Anthony a Wood's "Athenae Oxonienses"

Other historical and geographical works are Munster's "Cosmographiae
Universalis" (Basel, 1559), the first detailed, scientific and popular
description of the world; Foresti's "Supplementum Supplementi
Chronicarum" (Venice, 1506), a universal history written by an Italian
monk and historian; Lonicerus' "Chronicorum Turcicorum in quibus Turcorum
origo" etc. (Frankfort, 1578); and Braun and Hogenberg's "Civitates Orbis
Terrarum" (Cologne, 1577-88), containing the earliest general collection
of topographical views of the chief cities of the world, including one of

The Rev. Joseph Brett in 1706 pointed out that the Library possessed
"very few Humanity Books, few or none of Law, Physick, Mathematicks, or
indeed of any science but Divinity," and it never became strong in these
subjects.  It is weak in the ancient classics, but the following are some
of the authors represented: Aristotle, Cicero, Cornelius Nepos, Diogenes
Laertius, Euclid, Eutropius, Juvenal, Livy, Lucan, Plato, Pliny,
Plutarch, Seneca, Suetonius, and Tacitus.  In English belles-lettres the
chief works are Chaucer's Works (London, 1721), Abraham Cowley's Works
(1668), Michael Drayton's "Poly-Olbion" (1613), Gower's "Confessio
Amantis" (London, 1554), and George Herbert's "The Temple and other
Sacred Poems" (1633).

The outstanding scientific works are Sir Isaac Newton's "Opticks" (1704),
Burnet's "Theory of the Earth" (1691), The Grete Herball (London: Peter
Treveris, 1526), Walter Charleton's "Physiologia
Epicuro-Gassendo-Charltoniana" (London, 1654) and his "OEconomia
Animalis" (London, 1659), J. B. Duhamel's "Elementa astronomica"
(Cambridge, 1665), Galileo's "Systeme of the World," transl. by T.
Salusbury (London, 1661), Gassendi's "Institutio astronomica" (London,
1653), Johannes de Sacro Bosco's "Opus sphericum" (Cologne, 1508),
Munster's "Rudimenta mathematica" (Basel, 1551), "Hortus Sanitatis"
(Mainz, 1491), vol. 3 of John Ray's "Historia Plantarum" (London, 1704),
and Thomas Willis' "Cerebri anatome" (London, 1664).

The bias of local patriotism is declared by Mr. Havelock Ellis in his
"Study of British Genius" to be "an unfailing sign of intellectual
ill-breeding," notwithstanding which no apology is herein made for
drawing special attention to the fact that the Library includes some of
the writings of more than a score of authors--most of whom achieved some
eminence--who are connected with Norfolk or Norwich, either by birth or
residence.  Taking the names in alphabetical order, the first of the
Norfolk men whose writings are represented is Thomas Becon or Beacon, who
took orders in 1538, and preached in Norfolk and Suffolk.  The edition of
his "Works," is that printed by John Day [? 1560-64], containing a tract
on "The Common-places of Holy Scripture," dedicated "To my deare
countrymen and faythfull Ministers of Iesu Christ watching and attending
upon the Lordes flocke in the Parishes of Norfolke and Suffolke," dated
1562.  Francis Blomefield's "History of the Ancient City and Burgh of
Thetford," printed at the author's residence at Fersfield in 1739,
contains a book-plate, apparently printed by the author, stating that the
book was presented to the City Library.  Samuel Clarke, who was born at
Norwich in 1675, became chaplain to Bishop Moore of Norwich, and
afterwards rector of Drayton, is represented by his "Scripture-Doctrine
of the Trinity," 1712, and his Boyle lectures of 1704 and 1705, viz.,
"Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God," 1705, and "Discourse
concerning the unchangeable obligations of Natural Religion," 1706.  Of
the works of the great Sir Edward Coke, judge and law writer, who came of
an old Norfolk family, there are the "First Part of the Institutes of the
Lawes of England," 1629, and "Les Reports de Edward Coke . . . donnes . . .
per les judges, et sages de la ley," 11 vols.  The "Scholastic History
of the Canon of the Holy Scripture" (London, 1684) is the only volume of
the works of John Cosin, Bishop of Durham, who was born at Norwich in
1594.  In the preparation of this, his most elaborate and important work,
he injured his eyesight.  Thornhagh Gurdon, a receiver-general for
Norfolk, who is included in Mr. Walter Rye's "Norfolk Families," and who
resided mostly at Norwich, presented a copy of the first edition of his
"History of the High Court of Parliament" (London, 1731).  The only work
of Hamon Le Strange, a Norfolk historian and theologian, is "The Alliance
of Divine Offices" (London, 1690), in the preface of which he speaks of
having undergone an eight years' sequestration, apparently between
1643-1651.  John Pearson, Bishop of Chester, whose "Exposition of the
Creed" has already been referred to, was born at Great Snoring on 28th
Feb., 1612/3.

Again taking the names in alphabetical order, the first author who is
connected with the county by residence is Edward Boys, who became rector
of Mautby in 1639, where he died in 1667.  Of his publications the
Library contains "Sixteen Sermons preached upon several occasions"
(London, 1672).  William Bridge, whose "Works" (London, 1649) are in the
Library, was born at Cambridge, became rector of St. Peter Hungate,
Norwich, in 1636, and afterwards settled at Yarmouth.  John Collinges, a
Presbyterian, who came to Norwich in 1646, published controversial and
devotional tracts and sermons.  He is only represented by "A Short
Discourse against Transubstantiation" (London, 1675), and "On the
Intercourse of Divine Love" (1676), but the Local Collection of the
Public Library contains many of his writings.  "The Notion of Schism"
(London, 1676) is the work of another parson who came to Norfolk, Robert
Connould, rector of Bergh Apton.  John Graile, rector of Blickling, whom
Blomefield referred to as "This learned and pious pastor," presented to
the Library his "Youth's Grand Concern" (London, 1711) and "Sacra
Privata" (London, 1699).  Reference has already been made to the works of
Bishop Hall (see p. 33).  There are two volumes, "The Open Door for Man's
approach to God" (London, 1650) and "A Consideration of Infant Baptism"
(London, 1653), by John Horne, who was beneficed at All Hallows, King's
Lynn.  John Jeffery, who was elected to the living of St. Peter Mancroft,
Norwich, in 1678, and became Archdeacon of Norwich in 1694, is
represented by "Select Discourses" (London, 1710), "Complete Collection
of Sermons and Tracts," 2 vols. (London, 1753), and "Forms of Prayer"
(1706).  Dr. Peter de Laune, a minister of the French Church in Norwich
during the early years of the seventeenth century, presented to the
Library a copy of his translation of the English Prayer Book into French,
entitled "La Liturgie Angloise; ou, le livre des prieres publiques"
(London: John Bill, 1616).  His name is not printed in the book, but the
copy in the Library bears on the title-page the following inscription
which was probably written by him: "Liber bibliothecae publicae
Nordouicensis ex dono doctoris Petri Launaei quo authore Anglicanae haec
ecclesiae liturgia facta est Gallicana." {38}  This book is the first
French edition of the English Prayer Book entered in the Catalogue of the
British Museum.  Francis Mason's "Vindiciae Ecclesiae Anglicanae," is the
work of an Archdeacon of Norfolk, who is remembered for his vigorous
defence of the authority of the church, which earned for him the title of
"Vindex Ecclesiae Anglicanae."  Another preacher with the memorable title
"Apostle of Norwich," procured by a great reputation, was John More,
minister of St. Andrew's Church, Norwich, whose posthumous work "Table
from the Beginning of the World to this Day" (Cambridge, 1593) is in the
Library.  "An Explanation of the Epistle of St. Jude" (London, 1633) is a
series of sermons preached in the parish church of North Walsham by
Samuel Otes, rector of South Repps, Norfolk, who was chaplain to the Lord
Chief Justice Hobart.  Reference has already been made to the works of
Humphrey Prideaux, Dean of Norwich.  Anthony Sparrow, Bishop of Norwich,
who was born in Suffolk, published "Rationale upon the Book of Common
Prayer" (London, 1661), which was often reprinted and is still of some
value, and a companion volume "Collection of Articles, Canons," etc.
(London, 1684).  Last but not least to be mentioned is the "Increpatio
Barjesu" (London, 1660) of Matthew Wren, who was successively Bishop of
Hereford, Norwich and Ely.  It is a volume of polemical interpretations
of Scripture, in reply to the Racovian catechism--a copy of which was in
the Library--written during the author's imprisonment in the Tower, and
edited by his son Matthew.

Many of the books have autographs of their former owners, and some have
inscriptions and annotations.  Edward Lhuyd's "Archaeologica Britannica"
contains some notes made by George Borrow, who also wrote an English
translation of some Arabic in Thomas Erpenius' "Grammatica Arabica."  The
second folio of the "Golden Legend" (1503) bears the signature of Thomas
Kirkpatrick, and the first fly-leaf has the following inscription: "This
book was given to the Publick Library of the City of Norwich, A.D. 1728,
by Mr. Thomas Kirkpatrick, merchant there, and was bound at the expence
of Isaac Preston, Esq., 1742, that it might the better be preserv'd being
an Authentick & antient Evidence of the extravagant Foppery and
Superstition of the Church of Rome, & of the necessity of the
Reformation.  Vide the Commandments page ye 20th in the life of Moses."

An interesting request from Archbishop Wake for the loan of a Prayer
Book, which was not returned, is recorded in the Minute Book under date
February 2nd, 1718/9: "This day a Book wch has for some years been lodged
in ye Library of ye City entituled--The Book of Common-prayer &
Administration of ye Sacraments & other Rights & Ceremonies of the Church
of England, printed at London by Robert Barker, 1632--Wherein are several
Marginal Notes in Writing done by ye order of King Charles ye first was
delivered to Mr Brand of this city Clerke to be by Him transmitted to the
Arch-Bishop of Canterbury He having requested the said Book might be sent
to Him."  A memorandum against this entry reads: "The order of the Court
dated Jan. 28, 1718, and enter'd in this book was alter'd May ye ninth
1719, and ye Common prayer book there nam'd deliver'd by Mr. Mott yn
Mayor to Dr. John Clark to be by Him sent to ye A: Bp: of Canterbury."
The Dean of Christ Church, Oxford (the Very Rev. Thomas B. Strong, D.D.),
after receiving a copy of the foregoing quotation, examined the Prayer
Books in the Wake Collection at Christ Church, and found one which
answers to the description.  He has kindly consented to the publication
of the following quotation from his correspondence thereon: "I took the
book to the Bodleian Library yesterday; and Dr. Craster (the
Sub-Librarian), who is an expert in these matters, has verified the facts
for me.  The book is a quarto book, 'printed by Robert Barker, Printer to
the King's Most Excellent Majesty and by the assignees of John Bull,
1632.'  There are no marks of any kind in the book except the mark K11 (I
suppose a shelf-mark {40}) on the inside of the cover.  It is bound in
limp vellum.  A blank sheet of paper has been cut out in front of the
title-page.  On the page opposite the beginning of the Morning Prayer,
and under the Ornaments Rubric, there is the signature of Charles I.
Under the signature is the following note, in a clear and formal hand,
which Dr. Craster has proved to be the handwriting of Archbishop Laud's

    'I gave the Arcbbp. of Canterburye comand to make the Alterations
    expressed in this Booke, and to fitt a Liturgy for the Church of
    Scotland.  And whersoever they shall differ from another Booke signed
    by Us at Hampt. Court September 28, 1634, Our pleasure is to have
    these followed rather than the former, unless the Archbp. of St.
    Andrews, and his Brethren who are upon the place, shall see apparent
    reason to the contrary.  At Whitehall Apr. 19, 1636.'

The same hand has made various alterations in the book; and has written
the collect for Easter Even, which appeared first in the Scottish
Prayer-Book of 1637, in its place.  The remaining notes and alterations
are in the hand of Archbishop Laud.  The 1637 edition of the Scottish
Prayer-Book follows exactly, as far as I have been able to verify them,
all the notes in the book.  One note is perhaps worth mentioning.  In the
Quicunque, the verse, 'He therefore that will be saved must thus think of
the Trinity,' is altered as follows: 'He therefore that would be saved,
let him thus think'; and this alteration appears in the 1637 book."

A fair number of the books are still in their original bindings or have
been so rebound that their original covers have been preserved.  Of these
most are ornamented in "blind," i.e., impressed with tools or panel
stamps without being gilt or coloured, but a few have centre-pieces in
gold.  A few examples may be noted.  In the early Tudor period panel
stamps with heraldic or pictorial designs were frequently used by English
and foreign binders practising their craft in England.  A number of
English binders adorned their books with a pair of large heraldic panel
stamps, the different binders making slight variations in the designs.  A
fairly good example of a binding stamped with two such panels is that of
a copy of "Anticella cum quamplurimis tractatibus superadditis," (Venice,
1507) in the Library, which has had its original covers repaired and laid
down again.  The lower cover shows the arms of Henry VIII. (France and
England) supported by two angels; the upper cover has a large Tudor rose
surrounded by two ribbons, supported by two angels, and bearing the

    Hec rosa virtutis de celo missa sereno
    Eternum Florens regia sceptra feret

which has been rendered:

    Virtue's a rose, which born of heaven's clear ray
    Shall ever flourish and bear kingly sway.

In the upper left-hand corner of the panel is the cross of St. George on
an escutcheon, and in the right-hand corner the arms of the city of
London, indicating that the binder was a citizen.  Underneath the rose is
the mark of the London binder, G.G., who was one of the noteworthy
binders to use these panel stamps at the beginning of the sixteenth

Several of the bindings are adorned with rectangular panels formed by
fillets and bands, the enclosed space being divided, after the German
system, into lozenge-shaped compartments.  Two such examples are the
following.  The first is the binding of "Cathena aurea super Psalmos ex
dictis sanctorum" (Paris: Jehan Petit, 1520).  The rectangular frame is
formed by vertical and horizontal three-line fillets, and adorned with a
roll-stamp representing a hound, a falcon, and a bee, amid sprays of
foliage and flowers.  Above the hound is the binder's mark composed of
the letters I.R, i.e., John Reynes, a notable London binder of the
earlier part of the 16th century.  The enclosed panel is divided by
three-line fillets, forming four lozenge-shaped and eight triangular
compartments stamped with a foliated ornament.  The second example is the
binding of an edition in Latin of Plato's Works, printed by Jodocus
Badius Ascensius in 1518.  The rectangular frame is formed by parallel
vertical and horizontal fillets intersecting each other at right-angles,
and adorned with a roll-stamp representing a portcullis, a pomegranate, a
griffin, a Tudor rose, a hound, and a crown.  The enclosed panel is
divided by diagonal three-line fillets forming four lozenge-shaped and
eight triangular compartments, stamped with foliated ornaments.  The
Library now contains about 2,000 volumes.


When the Library was organised in 1656 it was made a condition of
membership that being duly chosen thereto a member should discharge the
office of Library-Keeper "not above once in seaven yeares."  The
Library-Keeper elected in that year was Mr., afterwards Dr., John
Collinges, a well-known Presbyterian divine, who was a prolific writer
and a keen controversialist.  Apparently the office was to be held for a
year, and the first three Library-Keepers held the office for that
period, but afterwards the usual period was two years.  The Minute Book
records the appointment of the following thirty-six Library Keepers who
held office during the years 1656 to 1731: John Collinges, 1656-57; John
Whitefoote, 1658-59;--Harmar, 1660-61; George Cock, 1662;--Smith, 1664;
Thomas Morley, 1667; Ben Snowden, 1669;--Norgate, 1671: [Benedict]
Rively, 1673; [Jo:] Watson, 1675; Dr. Jon Elsworth, 1677; [Thomas] Studd,
1679; [William] Cecil, 1681; John Whitefoote, the younger, (Mr. Painter
was chosen but declined to serve), 1682; [John] Jeffery, [Archdeacon of
Norwich] 1683; [Jo:] Shaw, 1685-86; John Pitts, 1687-89; [W.] Adamson,
(Burges was chosen but declined to serve), 1690-91; [John] Graile, 1692;
[John] Richardson, 1694-96; [Joseph] Ellis, 1696-97; [Isa:] Girling,
1698; [Tho:] Clayton, 1699; [John] Barker, 1700; [Edward] Riveley, 1702;
[Joseph] Brett, 1704; [John] Havett, 1706-07; [W.] Herne, 1708-09; [Sam:]
Jones, 1710-11; [Francis] Fayerman, 1712; [Sam: or John] Clark, 1713-14;
[John] Brand, 1715-16; [Sam.] Salter, 1719;--Morrant, (John Fox was
chosen but declined to serve), 1722-23; Benjamin Mackerell, 1724-31;
William Pagan, 1731.  Benjamin Mackerell, who held the office from 1724
to 1731, is the best-known of the Library-Keepers.  He wrote a History of
King's Lynn, which was published in the year of his death, 1738, and
several works relating to Norwich, which are still in manuscript; Mr.
Gordon Goodwin, the writer of his biography in the "Dictionary of
National Biography," says Mackerell was "an accurate, painstaking
antiquary, and left work of permanent value."  Although he compiled the
second edition of the catalogue during his extended tenure of office, his
services were either not appreciated, or the members thought that the
rule regarding the period of office should not be indefinitely ignored,
for on December 6th, 1731, the following memorandum was made: "It was
then Order'd by the psons whose Names are above written that Peter Scott
wait upon Mr. Mackerell, Library Keeper, and desire him to meet them the
next Library day; they intending to proceed to the Election of a new one
The time for such Election being long since lapsed."

The office of Library Keeper was an honorary one, a condition that agrees
with the opinion expressed by John Dury in his "Reformed Librarie-Keeper"
published in 1650, but it is doubtful whether the Library Keepers
fulfilled all his other qualifications: "His work then is to bee a Factor
and Trader for helps to Learning, and a Treasurer to keep them, and a
dispenser to applie them to use, or to see them well used, or at least
not abused." {43}  The duties of the Library Keeper appear to have
included general responsibility for the Library, the cataloguing of the
Library, and the recording of the donations in the Vellum Book provided
for the purpose.  To relieve the Library Keeper of the routine part of
his charge, an Under Library Keeper was appointed from time to time.  The
sixth condition to which members had to subscribe from 1656 included a
promise to "pay our proportions to ye under-Keeper of ye said Library
quarterly."  This "proportion" was 12d. upon admission, and 12d.
quarterly, and was the Under-Library-Keeper's remuneration for services
rendered.  This payment was still in force when the regulations were
revised in 1732, and were specifically provided for in the first
"Article."  The Minute Book constantly records payments of arrears due to
the Under Library Keeper, showing that many of the Members were very
dilatory in their payments.  Some of the Library Keepers were also
dilatory in their repayments to him of incidental expenses.  On April
1st, 1690, a memorandum was made "That Mr. Pitts is this day discharged
from ye office of Library Keeper, and is endebted to ye
under=Library=Keeper for his 2 years for fire, candle, pipes, pens, ink,
& paper, nine shillings," and on Feb. 16th, 1699, it was recorded that
the Library Keeper, "Mr. Girling owe to the vnder libarey keeper for
three years and A half Fourten shillings 00ll-14s-00d."

Provision was made for relieving members from the obligation to assume
the office in their turn, upon payment of a fine.  On March 6th, 1682/3
"Mr. Painter being chosen Library keeper for this yeare desired upon the
paymt of 20sh to the use of the library according to the order in that
case made to be excused and he was dismissed from his office, and Mr.
John Whitefoot the younger was chosen library keeper for the same yeare
in his stead."

The Library was under the care of William Sayer, the Librarian of the
"Public Library," from 1801 to 1805, when it was committed to the custody
of the Steward.  The Library was again entrusted to the "Public Library"
in 1815, and came under the care of its librarian Richard Langton, until
1833, when he was succeeded by Edward Langton, who retained the office
until the Library was housed at the Free Library in 1862.  Henceforth the
books came under the charge of the following Librarians to the
Corporation for the periods stated: Mr. George Harper, 1862-76, Mr.
George Easter, 1877-1900, Mr. J. Geo. Tennant, 1901-11, and Mr. Geo. A.
Stephen, 1911-.


The first reference in the Minute Book to a catalogue is under date 8th
June, 1657: "The library keeper this day brought in catalogues of the
books wch were affixed.  Sixpence was ordered to bee given to a boy for
pasting up the Catalogues."  It may perhaps be assumed that these
catalogues were written lists which were displayed in the Library.

At the meeting on Jan. 11th, 1657, an order was given for "a book
consisting of 3 qrs of thick venice paper, to be bound up to make a book
to contain Catalogues of the bookes in the library," and "Mr. Collinges
was desired to keep the office of library keeper untill the aforesaid
book be bought and the Catalogues made."

On Dec. 13th, 1658 "The library keeper brought in a paper book ruled
containing a Classicall and an alphabetical catalogue of all ye bookes in
the library" . . . "He further informed them that hee had laid out 3s for
paper and 4s. for ye ruling & binding ye said book, in all 7s wch is more
then he received 2s 10d.  That he had procured 2 catalogues to be wrote
in it fairly, that for ye catalogue of Comentators it was begun & should
before ye next meeting be pfected by his own hand."  This book has
fortunately been preserved, and is in good state.  It is a folio volume,
measuring 13.5 by 9.5 inches, and is in three sections.  The first
section is a classified catalogue of the books on the east side of the
Library, which were arranged in two groups of sizes, (1) Folio, divided
into ten classes, and (2) Quarto and Octavo, divided into four classes.
At first an attempt was made to classify the books according to subjects,
the classification of the folios being I Bibles; II and III Old
Commentaries, etc.; IVa Theology, IVb History; V Canon Law; VI The
Fathers; VII Lexicons, Dictionaries, etc.; VIII Reformation Commentaries;
IX Ecclesiastical History; X Miscellaneous.  The four classes in the
quarto and octavo section were not grouped according to subjects.  A
heading was started in the catalogue for a classification of the books on
the west side, but that part of the work was not done.  The second
section is an author catalogue of the books with two columns, the numbers
in the first column denoting the class and those in the second the book.
The third section of the catalogue, ruled in double columns, has a
heading in Latin, to this effect: "Catalogue of the authors whose books
are to be found in the Library of Norwich, who either illustrated the
whole book of Sacred Scripture or any part of it with their most
illuminating annotations or commentaries.  The column towards the left
indicates the authors who have written on the whole Book, the other
indicates those who have written on any part of it."  Following the names
of the authors are the class and book numbers.

At the meeting on July 11th, 1659, "The library keep brought in a
Catalogue of the bookes & Benefactors names fairly written in a parchment
booke; For the wrighting wherof hee pd to the cleark 7s; For the repaymt
of wch monye it was aggreed every minister should pay viijd: wch monye
was paid by as many as were then present."  This catalogue or "Donation
Book" is a folio volume measuring 14 3/4 by 9.5 inches, and is bound in
rough calf, with three small brass clasps.  Later, in the Minute Book it
is generally referred to as the Vellum Book.  In it are entered in
chronological order the names of the donors, the date of each gift, brief
author and title entries of the books, and frequently their date and
place of publication.  The entries are all very clearly written, from the
date of the first donation in 1608, the year of inauguration, to 1737.
Facsimiles of the title-page, with the initials "J.S." in the lower
corners, and two typical pages face this page.  The lettering of these
pages is characteristic of the period, and shows the decadence of the art
of manuscript writing.

    [Picture: The Vellum Book.  Title-page and two other pages of the
                       Donation Book begun in 1659]

In the "Extracts from the Court Books of the City of Norwich, 1666-1688,"
edited by Mr. Walter Rye, there is one on Jan. 15, 1669, stating that
"Mr. Thos.  Morly, clerk, keeper of the Library of the City, brought in a
catalogue of all the books there," but there is no reference to this in
the Library Minute Book.  On January 12th, 1673, however, the ministers
"did appoynt yt Mr Norgate should agt their next meeting bring in a
Catalogue of the Bookes to be dd to the Court and yt he shall see yt the
Bookes given to the Library in his time be fayrely written in the
Vellam-booke appoynted to yt purpose."  It is evident, therefore, that
reports regarding the stock of books had to be made to the Court.

The first printed catalogue was an author catalogue, with brief
particulars of about 923 volumes, and was printed in 1706/7.  On December
3rd, 1706, it was "Ordered then that ye Alphabeticall Catalogue of ye
City Library be printed by the Widow Burges," and on February 4th,
1706/7, when Joseph Brett was Library Keeper he "brought in the Catalogue
of Books, printed, wch cost two pds sixteen shillings & three pence & he
was allow'd also a shilling for printing an advertisement."  This
catalogue, which is exceedingly scarce, {47} is entitled "A Catalogue of
the Books in the Library of the City of Norwich in the year 1706."  It is
a crown 8vo volume, consisting of 38 pages.  The catalogue proper is
preceded by an alphabetical list of the benefactors to the Library,
giving the dates of their donations, and abbreviations of their surnames,
(e.g., Ad. for Adamson, All. for Allen).  The entries in the catalogue
are extremely brief, and frequently occupy only one line.  Each entry is
preceded by an abbreviation for the author's name, and is followed by the
class and book numbers.

In the preface it was confessed that while the catalogue would be useful
to the members of the Library, the "great motive, and main end of
Publishing this Catalogue was to encourage donations to the Library."
Possessors of the catalogue were recommended to interleave it with "spare
paper, on which may be added such books as shall be given, it may serve
for many Years, even till the number of Books here be doubled, which
when, (as is greatly to be wished for) it shall be, a new Edition of the
Catalogue may be expected."

The cost of the catalogue involved the members in debt.  Under the date
May 2nd, 1709, in the Minute Book is the following memorandum: "It is
this day Agreed by us whose Names are underwritten yt ye fourteen
shillings & three pence now paid by Mr Herne the present library keeper
to Mr Joseph Brett to clear his disbursemts for catalogus &c for ye
service of ye Library shal be repaid ye said Mr Herne by the succeeding
Library keeper upon his Election unles paid before."  A further
memorandum dated May 6th, 1709, shows that a book was sold to raise the
money: "Recd of the Under-library keeper Fourteen Shillings for Sr Waltr
Raileigh: A super-numerary book sold to Mr. Lillington by order of the
Society which is towds ye discharge of the above sd 14s 3d paid to Mr.
Brett by me.  W. Herne."

The second edition of the author catalogue was compiled by Benjamin
Mackerell, the late Library Keeper, and published in 1732, the preface
being dated April 15th, 1732.  Mackerell closely followed the plan of the
previous catalogue, using part of the preface for his "Dedication" "To
the Right Worshipful Robert Marsh, Esqr; Mayor, The Worshipful The
Sheriffs, Aldermen, and Common Council of the City of Norwich."  The
entries are limited to one line each, and there is a column showing the
sizes.  The catalogue consisting of 54 printed pages, and measuring 8.5
by 6.5 inches, is entitled "A New Catalogue of the Books in the Publick
Library of the City of Norwich, in the year 1732, to which is added, An
Account of the Orders prescribed by the Court and Common Council for the
regulation of the same, together with an account of Mr. John
Kirkpatrick's Roman and Other Coins," printed by William Chase, in the
Cockey Lane.  Neither of the two copies of this catalogue in the Library
contains the account of Kirkpatrick's coins, and Mr. F. Kitton, the
compiler of the 1883 catalogue, had not seen a copy containing it.  As
all the pages of the catalogue except the last one have a catchword it is
reasonable to assume that the account of the coins was not included.

The next catalogue was published in 1817 as a supplement to that of the
"Public Library" where the City Library was housed.  Unfortunately the
present writer has been unable to trace a copy of this catalogue, which,
however, is recorded in Samuel Woodward's "Norfolk Topographer's Manual,"
1842: "A Catalogue of Books belonging to the Norwich City Library, which,
by permission of the Corporation, are now deposited in the Norwich
Public-Library Room; 35 pp., 8 vo.  Norwich (1817)."  This catalogue,
according to a paragraph in the Catalogue of the Public Library, 1825,
had an "alphabetical arrangement, in divisions of languages and sizes."
Perhaps this catalogue served as the "copy" for the catalogue of the City
Library which is printed at the end of the "Second Catalogue of the
Library of the Norfolk and Norwich Literary Institution," 1825, pp.
105-137, as its arrangement is by languages and sizes.  This arrangement
not being "calculated to be conveniently accessible" it was deemed
advisable by the Committee of the Public Library that "it should be
subjected to the same scientific arrangement as the books which are the
property of the Public Library; and in order to prevent the obvious
inconvenience of two references, the Committee have included both sets of
works under the same arrangement, distinguishing those which are the
property of the Corporation . . . by a prominent and appropriate
designation," i.e., the letters C. L. in black letter.  This catalogue is
a classified catalogue with the following nine classes, seven of which
are subdivided, and the arrangement in each class is alphabetical by
authors' names: I.  Theology; II.  Ethics, Metaphysics, and Logic; III.
Sciences and the Arts; IV.  Jurisprudence, Government, and Politics; V.
History and Biography; VI.  Geography, Topography, Voyages and Travels;
VII.  Polite Literature and Philology; VIII.  Poetry and Dramatic Works,
Novels and Romances; IX.  Transactions of Literary and Scientific
Societies, Reviews, Magazines and Reports.

A new edition of the Public Library Catalogue was published in 1847, the
arrangement being the same as in the preceding one.

The Library books having been repaired in 1879 and 1880, the City
Committee decided in 1882 to issue a new catalogue, with the view of
making the books accessible to the citizens.  The work of compiling the
catalogue was entrusted to Mr. Frederic Kitton, Hon. F.R.M.S., an eminent
microscopist of his day, who resided in Norwich for many years, but who
apparently had no bibliographical knowledge or library experience.  This
appointment was made in the days when it was the common fashion to regard
the work of compiling a library catalogue as within the capacity of any
intelligent person; whereas there are, in fact, many rules to be
observed, and much practical experience is necessary if the thousand and
one pitfalls which beset the path of the cataloguer are to be avoided.
The catalogue {50a} was on much more ambitious lines than its
predecessors, and the compiler claimed to "have carefully copied the
title pages, retaining their abbreviations, antique spelling,
inaccuracies, or other peculiarities."  An examination of it, however,
shows that it abounds in inaccuracies, and exhibits most of the errors
that can be made in an author catalogue.  A catalogue of the City Library
compiled in accordance with modern bibliographical practice is still a


The first home of the Library, as stated on page 4, was parcel of the
dwelling house of Jerrom Goodwyne, the sword-bearer of the City.  This
house was built over the south porch of the Church of the Black Friars,
now known as St. Andrew's Hall, which had been acquired by the City at
the Dissolution.  It is clearly shewn in the frontispiece, which is a
reproduction of Daniel King's engraving of Black Friars' Hall, probably
executed about 1650.  The Local Collection contains two copies of the
engraving which have different plate numbers: one, numbered 78, is from
the edition of Dugdale's "Monasticon" published in 1718, but the book
from which the other one, numbered 50, was taken, has not been traced.

Writing in 1857 Henry Harrod remarked that "If the view engraved by King
correctly represents this house, it was by no means an ornamental
feature; still it was as good as the far more pretentious structure which
has replaced it." {50b}

In regard to the building of this house Kirkpatrick gives an extract from
a record of 34th Henry VIII, showing that the city granted to John Kempe,
the chaplain, "in consideration that he, of his benevolence hath bestowed
about the buylding of a lodgyng with three chambers, over the porch of
the house, late the black friars, now the common hall of the city, and on
either side of the same porch, above sixty pounds;--that, therefore, the
said J. Kempe shall have the same lodgyng, with the office called the
_Chapleyn of the Chappell_, belonging to the said hall called, _St.
John's Chapel_, with all the oblacions; also, liberty of the garden and
yard called the prechyng-yard." {51}

The first of the few entries in the Minute Book regarding the library
rooms shows that the books were not too well protected from the elements,
for on 10th August, 1657, "Mr. Collinges gaue an acct of 1s. laid out for
coale and wood for the drying of ye bookes harmed by ye raine."

From the instructions, in Latin, to the Librarian which are set out in
the classified and alphabetical catalogue of 1658 we learn that the
library was arranged in two parts, East and West, and that the books were
classified.  "On the East part the treasury of the books is double, major
and minor.  The larger part is divided into ten classes folio.  The
smaller has only four classes of books in 4to and 8vo.  The numbering of
all classes must always be begun from the bottom.  On the West part the
treasury of books is single, arranged in five larger classes.  Here the
number must always be reckoned from the top."

In 1664 the development of the Library necessitated the enlargement of
the accommodation, and on 11th July "All the minrs. present agreed in a
petition to ye Mayr Sherriffs Aldn. &c in Court of Comon Councell for ye
addition of a roome to ye library, and ye better shelving of it.  They
further desired Mr. George Cock and Mr. Beresford to present ye petition
to ye Comon Councell at their next assembly.  Mr. Chamberlain hauing
first viewed ye roome & computed ye charge."  On the 12th January 1673
the members decided to petition the Court for removing some wainscot
doors, and on March 9th it was recorded that by order of the Court of
Assembly "we haue also leaue to take downe ye waynscott Doores wch now
conceale the Bookes."

The Library was removed about 1801, when it was lent to the "Public
Library" (see p. 13), to a building formerly a Roman Catholic Chapel, in
what is now St. Andrew's Street, which afterwards became a portion of the
old Museum Building, now the offices of the Norwich Guardians.  In 1835
the City Library, still on loan to the "Public Library," went with it to
its new building in the Market Place opposite the north door of the
Guildhall, on the site of its successor, the present Norfolk and Norwich
Subscription Library.  The City Library returned to the direct control of
the Corporation in 1862, and was housed in the present Public Library
building then recently erected.

                DONATIONS TO THE CITY LIBRARY, 1608-1737.
                   (_Extracted from the Vellum Book_.)

DATE.                   DONOR.                  VOLS.
1608                    Pettus, Sir John,       15
                        Knt., Alderman of
1608                    Downing, Mrs.           3
                        Susannah, wife of
                        Alderman George
1609                    Corye, Mr. Thomas,      10
1609                    Hirne, Sir Thomas,      12
1609/10                 Corbett, Thomas, Esq.   6
1609/10                 Doyly, Henry, Esq.      2
1610                    Doyly, Charles, Gent.   11
1610                    Sedgwick, Robert,       12
1610                    Peade, Michael,         2
                        Notary Public and
                        Registrar to the
                        Archdeacon of Norwich
1610                    Mingay, John, Gent.     2
1610                    Pettus, Augustine,      4
                        Son and heir of the
                        said [Sir] John
                        Howlett, Laurence,      1
                        S.T.B., Minister of
                        St. Andrew's
1611                    Newhowse, Thomas,       4
                        A.M., & Minister of
                        God's Word
1611                    Hannam, William,        3
                        Gent., A.M.
1612/3                  Garsett, Robert, Esq.   7
1613                    Blowe, Joanna, widow    4
1613                    Thurston, Hamond,       3
1613                    Peckover, Mathew,       3
                        late Sheriff of
1614                    Launey, Peter,          2
                        Minister of the
                        Walloon Church [in
                        Wells, William,         5
                        Throkmorton,            2
1614                    Cropp, John,            4
                        Physician and Surgeon
                        Bird, Henry             1
1615                    Ross, Richard, Gent.,   1
                        late Sheriff of
1614                    Barbar, Gabriel,        11
                        Gent., in the name of
                        the Society of
1616/7                  Nutting, Edward, late   5
                        Sheriff of Norwich
1616/7                  Batho, William, B.T.    1
1617                    Anguish, John, Gent.,   7
                        and Citizen
1617                    Anguish, Edmund,        9
1617                    Catelyn, Thomas, Esq.   7
                        Corbett, Anne, widow    1
                        of Thomas Corbett,
1618                    Atkins, Thomas,         5 pounds and 7
                        Merchant, Norwich
1621                    Scottowe, Augustine     17
                        Gallard, Robert,        1
                        formerly minister of
                        St. Andrew's
1625/6                  Page, Francis           1
1628                    City of Norwich         1
                        Remington, Nathaniel,   4
                        Alderman [of Norwich]
1631                    Borage, John            7
1633                    Chapman, Samuel,        2
1633                    Barret, Thomas,         2
1634                    Mingay, Antony, Gent.   11
                        Mingay, Mrs., Widow     7
1634                    Freeman, John           Map of Canaan
1634                    Blosse, Prudence,       8
                        Widow, Relict of
                        Alderman T. Blosse
                        Chappell, John,         4
                        S.T.B., Minister of
                        St. Andrew's
1658                    Payne, Joseph,          20 pounds and 1
                        Alderman [afterwards
                        Thornback, John,        1
                        Minister of St.
                        Stinett, William,       7
                        S.T.B., Rector of St.
                        John Maddermarket
1658/9                  Collinges, John,        1 pounds and 6
                        S.T.: Dr.
[1657]                  Whitefoote, John,       4
                        Rector of Heigham,
                        next Norwich
1659                    Brooke, Thomasine,      29 {53a}
                        Widow & Relict of Wm.
                        Brooke, Gent.
[1659]                  Allen, Thomas           1
[1659/60]               City of Norwich         6
1661                    Payne, Sir Joseph,      16
                        Knt., late Mayor of
                        this City
                        Scottowe, Augustine,    7 {53b}
[1661]                  Smyth, John, Rector     1
                        of St. Michael
[1661]                  Barret, Thomas          5 {53c}
1662                    Norris, Francis,        14
                        Citizen and Alderman
                        [of Norwich]
[1664]                  Morley, Thomas,         2
                        Curate of St. Peter
1664                    Mann, John, Citizen     38
                        and Alderman [of
1665                    Fromentell, Samuel,     1
1666                    Meene, Joshua,          3
                        formerly Curate of
                        St. Peter Per
1666                    Browne, [Sir] Thomas,   9
                        Professor of Medicine
1668 and 1673           Oliver, William,        2
1673                    Cock, George, Curate    18
                        of St. Peter of
1671-1676               Barnham, John,          5
1673                    Norris, Anthony,        3
                        Merchant of Norwich
[1674]                  Ellsworth, John,        2
[1674/5]                Tenison, Thomas,        5
                        S.S.T.B. [afterwards
                        Archbishop of
1674                    Cock, Nathaniel,        33 {53d}
                        Merchant of London
1676                    [Reynolds,] Edward,     24
                        [D.D.] Bishop of
1678                    Watson, John, Vicar     2
                        of Wroxham
1678                    Clarke, Samuel,         1
                        Rector of Rainham
1681                    Gardiner, Francis,      2
                        Citizen and Alderman
                        [of Norwich]
[1681]                  Nurce, William, Clerk   2
[1681/2]                Prideaux, Humphrey,      1 pounds {54a} and 1
                        S.T.P., and
                        [afterwards Dean of
1691                    Adamson, William,       2
                        Rector of St. John in
1678                    Brigges, Augustine,     [10] {54b}
                        Citizen and Alderman
                        [of Norwich]
                        Wisse, Thomas,
                        Citizen and Alderman
                        [of Norwich] Church,
                        Bernard, Citizen and
                        Alderman [of Norwich]
1696                    Penning, Benjamin,      1
                        A.M., and Rector of
                        St. Clement's,
1692                    Ireland, Richard,       His Library
                        formerly Rector of
                        Beeston and sometime
                        also of St. Edmond's,
                        Norwich, where he was
1700                    Adamson, William,       3 shelves of books
                        Rector of St. John's
1704                    Trimnell, Dr.,          3
                        Archdeacon of
                        Norfolk, and
                        Prebendary of Norwich
                        [afterwards Bishop of
1704                    Gardiner, Stephen,      1
                        Esq., Recorder of
                        this City
1706                    Gurdon, Thornaugh,      2
                        Esq., [Letton]
1706                    Resbury, Benjamin,      1
                        Rector of Cranworth
                        cum Letton
1706                    Adams, Archibald        1
1706                    Moore, John, [D.D.],    3
                        Lord Bishop of
1706/7                  Tanner, Thomas, D.D.,   5
                        Chancellor of Norwich
                        [afterwards Bishop of
                        St. Asaph]
1706/7                  Bacon, Waller, Esq.     1
1706/7                  Beverley, Michael,      8
                        Esq., Citizen and
                        Alderman of Norwich
1707                    Potts, Algernon, Esq.   1
                        [of Norwich]
1707                    Nelson, Thomas,         3
                        Rector of Morston, in
1707                    Cook, Sir William,      9
1707                    Eden, Henry, Fellow     4
                        of Trinity College,
1707                    Laughton, John,         4
                        Trinity College,
                        Cambridge, and
                        Library Keeper to the
1707                    Rudd, Edward, Fellow    3
                        of Trinity College,
                        Bradshaw, Samuel,       1
                        A.B., Trinity
                        College, Cambridge
                        Granger, Gilbert,       1
                        A.B., Trinity
                        College, Cambridge
                        Snow, Matthew,          1
                        Trinity College,
                        Chamberlain, William,   1
                        Fellow of Trinity
                        College, Cambridge
                        Bourchier, Ralph,       1
                        Trinity College,
                        Cotes, Roger, Fellow    3
                        of Trinity College,
                        Eusden, Lawrence, of    5
                        Trinity College,
                        Smith, Edward, of       3
                        Trinity College,
                        Fleming, David, A.B.,   1
                        of Trinity College,
[1707/8]                Ganning, Nathaniel,     1
                        Rector of
                        Reyme[r]ston, in
1708                    Doyly, Samuel, Fellow   1
                        of Trinity College,
                        Farewell, Mr. [of       1
                        Trinity College,
                        Andrews, Mr., [of       1
                        Trinity College,
                        Foulis, [J.] Mr. [of    1
                        Trinity College,
                        Hill, Mr., Fellow of    1
                        Trinity College,
[1708]                  Lightwin, John,         2
                        President of Caius
                        College, Cambridge
1708                    Gurdon, Brampton,       2
                        Fellow of Caius
                        College, Cambridge
                        Hawys, Roger, Fellow    1
                        of Caius College,
                        Crask, Dr., of          1
                        Dodd, Mr., Fellow of    1
                        Clare Hall
                        Worts, William, A.M.,   1
                        of Cambridge
1709/10                 Bedingfield, James,     1
                        als De Grey, Fellow
                        of Gonvil and Caius
                        College, Cambridge
1709/10                 Prideaux, Humphrey,     1
                        D.D., and Dean of
1712                    [Trimnell], Charles,    3
                        Lord Bishop of
1713/4                  Peck, John, Esq., of    2
1714                    Nelson, Thomas, Late    His Library
                        Rector of Morston, in
1715                    Herne, Clement, Esq.,   2
                        of Heverland
[1715/6]                Seaman, Thomas, Esq.,   2
                        of Heigham
1716                    Mackerell, Benjamin,    2
                        of the City of
                        Norwich, Gent.
[1716]                  Helwys, Nicholas,       1
                        Esq., Citizen and
                        Alderman of Norwich
1717 and 1718           Prideaux, Humphrey,     2
                        D.D., and Dean of
1718                    Clark, Thomas, Esq.     3
1719                    Houghton, William       1
1721                    Grayle, John, Rector    9
                        of Blickling
1725                    Knyvett, John, of       1
                        this City, Esq.
1726                    Tanner, Thomas,         100 {55a}
                        S.T.P., and
                        Chancellor of the
                        Diocese of Norwich
                        [afterwards Bishop of
                        St. Asaph]
1727                    Reveley, Edward         4
1728                    Kirkpatrick, John,      His Library
                        Merchant and
                        Treasurer to the
                        Great Hospital in
                        this City
1729                    Jermy, John, Esq.       [?] {55b}
1730                    Prideaux, Edmund,       60 {55c}
1730                    Wingfield, Robert,      13
                        Writing master
1731                    Pagan, William          7
1731                    Gurdon, Thornaugh,      [2?] {55d}
                        King, Reuben, Primier   1
                        [_sic_] English
                        Schoolmaster in this
1731                    Mackerell, Benjamin,    13
                        the present Library
1733                    Whaley, John            1
                        Bennet, Gilbert         2
1733                    Jermy, John             40
1732                    Ellis, Ben-Jos[eph],    2
                        Minister of St.
                        Andrew's in Norwich
1737                    Jermy, John, Esq.       14
1737                    Nash, Robert, Esq.,     4
                        Chancellor of this



Warrington and Salford claim to have established the earliest examples of
municipally-controlled and rate-supported free popular libraries in the
United Kingdom, they having added books to the attractions of their
museums which were established in 1848 and 1849 respectively under the
Act of 1845 "for encouraging the establishment of museums in large
towns."  Norwich, however, has the distinction of being the first
municipality to adopt the first public library act, which was due to the
labours of Mr. William Ewart.  Ewart's act received the royal assent on
the 14th August, 1850, and within seven weeks Norwich had decided to
adopt it!

 [Picture: Norwich Public Library.  Foundation Stone Laid 13th September,
                 1854.  Library Opened 16th March, 1857]

The initiator of the library movement in Norwich apparently was Mr.
Thomas Brightwell, a man of scientific tastes, who was Mayor of the City
in 1837.  At the Council meeting held on September 13th, 1850, he drew
attention to the new act, and, according to the first annual report of
the Library, he "presented a strongly worded memorial signed by 600
persons."  He succeeded in carrying his motion that the Mayor be directed
to ascertain the feeling of the citizens as to whether the provisions of
the new act should be adopted, and a poll of the burgesses was taken on
September 27th, when 150 voted in favour of the adoption of the act while
only 7 voted against it.  The act provided that a rate of one halfpenny
in the pound might be levied for library purposes, but no provision was
made for buying books.  In 1855 this act was repealed by another, which
remained the principal library act for England and Wales until 1892; it
allowed one penny in the pound to be levied, and provided for the
purchase of books.

After the adoption of the act the Council appointed committees for making
all the necessary arrangements for the establishment of a Library, and it
received reports from them in 1851, 1852, and 1853.  By September 1854
two levies of the halfpenny rate had been made amounting to 500 pounds,
and with that sum in hand the Corporation ventured to purchase the
library site, and to approve the architectural plans, prepared by the
City Surveyor, Mr. Edward Everett Benest.

The first stone of the building was laid on September 13th, 1854, by the
Mayor, Sir Samuel Bignold, who lent 4,000 pounds for the erection of the
building, and worked assiduously to promote the Library.  The ceremony
was reported at length in the _Norfolk Chronicle_ of September 16th,
1854, from which the following extracts are taken:

    "The ceremony of laying the first stone took place on Wednesday
    afternoon, in the presence of a large concourse of spectators.  The
    ground had been decorated for the occasion with numerous flags,
    banners, and devices in flowers and foliage, and amongst the most
    conspicuous of the mottoes was one complimentary to the Mayor,
    bearing the words 'Bignold for ever!' surmounted by 'The Queen and
    Constitution,' with 'Trade and Manufactures' on the right and
    'Commerce and Agriculture' on the left.  In a convenient position a
    platform had been erected for the express accommodation of the fairer
    portion of the spectators.  As the time for the performance of the
    ceremony drew nigh all the neighbouring approaches to the spot were
    densely crowded; every window within sight of the ground had its full
    share of occupants, and daring spirits had even ventured to take up
    their position on the surrounding walls and house-tops.

    "A few minutes after four the sounds of distant music intimated the
    approach of Sir Samuel Bignold (the Mayor) and his friends, and,
    after the lapse of another second or so, his worship appeared in
    sight, accompanied by H. Birkbeck, Esq. (the Sheriff of the city),
    the Duke of Wellington, the Earl of Orford, Sir Fitzroy Kelly, M.P.,
    Sir J. P. Boileau, Bart., Edmond Wodehouse, Esq., M.P., S. M. Peto,
    Esq., M.P., the Rev. E. Sidney, most of the members of the city
    magistracy and corporation, several county magistrates, a large
    number of influential county gentlemen and citizens, J. R. Staff,
    Esq. (the Town Clerk), Mr. E. E. Benest (the City Surveyor), the
    Corporation officers bearing the city regalia, &c., &c.--followed by
    a large procession of the Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows, carrying
    flags and banners, the most prominent of which bore the
    mottoes--'Success to the Free Library,' 'Peto, the true Friend of
    Civil and Religious Liberty,' 'The Durability of the Constitution,'
    and 'Education for the People.'  The procession was headed by an
    excellent brass band, playing, as it approached, the popular air,
    'Cheer, boys, cheer!'  At this stage of the proceedings the outer
    crowd, in their anxiety to get within view of the proceedings, broke
    the barriers, overpowered the police, and made a rush to the
    palisades which surrounded the ground.  These, by the weight of the
    many persons who clung upon them, unfortunately gave way, bringing
    with them a coping stone to which they were attached, and on which a
    young man named Samuel Harper had been sitting.  He was thrown to the
    ground, and several people falling upon him he sustained a fracture
    of one of his ankles.  He was immediately conveyed to the hospital,
    and we are glad to learn is doing well.  Several other persons were
    also injured, but not seriously.  Beyond this no accident occurred.

    "With the assistance of the City Surveyor and Mr. Stanley,
    stone-mason, the worthy Mayor then proceeded to discharge his
    agreeable duty--the laying of the first stone.  He used for the
    purpose a very elegant silver trowel {59a} with ivory handle,
    furnished by the Messrs. Etheridge (which had been presented to his
    worship by Mr. E. E. Benest) bearing the following inscription on the

                         Sir Samuel Bignold, Knight,
                              Mayor of Norwich,
                        on the occasion of his laying
                               the first stone
                              The Free Library,
                               September 13th,

    "Upon the surface of the stone a brass plate was fixed, on which was
    engraved the following inscription:--

                               This first stone
                                    of the
                            Norwich Free Library,
                                   was laid
                            on the 13th September,
                                  A.D. 1854,
                         Sir Samuel Bignold, Knight,
                       Mayor of this City in the years
                           1833-4, 1848-9, 1853-4.
                        Henry Birkbeck, Esq., Sheriff.
                     John Rising Staff, Esq., Town Clerk.
              Architect--Edward Everett Benest, City Surveyor."

The ceremony having been completed and the stone securely fixed in its
place, addresses were delivered on the contemplated advantages of the
library by the Mayor, the Rev. Edwin Sidney, M.A., Rector of Cornard
Parva, Suffolk, and author of various works, Mr. Samuel Morton Peto, M.P.
for Norwich, Sir J. P. Boileau, Bart., an archaeologist of Ketteringham,
who was Sheriff of Norfolk in 1844, Sir Fitzroy Kelly, M.P., who in the
early part of his legal career was on the Norfolk circuit, and two
members of the Council, Mr. W. J. Utten Browne, and Mr. J. H. Tillett.
The Town Clerk presented to the Mayor an address from the Norwich
District of the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows, begging "most
respectfully to tender the thanks of our numerous association to you and
the Corporation of this city for the manifestation of regard for the
Working Classes in having determined on the erection of a Free Library;
feeling assured that such an institution will be welcomed by a large
number of the industrious inhabitants, and will prove largely beneficial
to all who will avail themselves of the advantages it offers."  In the
course of his address the Mayor said: "It has been my lot now, during my
life, which has not been a short one, to aid a great many undertakings in
this city--insurance offices, spinning factories, waterworks, literary
and scientific institutions, and public charities; but I have never lent
my assistance to any undertaking which more entirely commends itself to
my judgment than that in which I am this day engaged in commencing" . . .
"and I must here say that Mr. Tillett has been the main-spring of this
undertaking, for he has never lost sight of it since the act placed it in
the hands of the Corporation."

After the erection of the building had been commenced it was considered
that it would be highly advantageous if the School of Art was connected
with and formed part of the Library, and the Council authorised the
expenditure of a further sum in order to add another story for the
accommodation of the School of Art.  This involved some delay in the
progress of the building, and for various reasons the Library was not
ready for opening until March, 1857.

According to the first annual report issued on August 31st, 1858, a
special committee appointed by the Council estimated that the total cost
of the site and building would amount to 7428 pounds : 5 : 0.  "In order
to repay Sir Samuel Bignold the amount advanced by him during the
progress of the works, and to complete the same, a loan of 6,000 pounds,
at 5 pounds per cent., was, in 1857, obtained from the Norwich Union
Office, and it is to be repaid by instalments of 200 pounds yearly,
which, with the interest on the loan, will nearly absorb for several
years the rate of one penny in the pound per annum, authorized to be
levied under the act . . ."  The report proceeded: "The cost of the
building has, unfortunately been a subject much talked about and
misrepresented, and it should be remembered that the portion of the
building occupied by the Library is less than a third of the whole, the
other parts being occupied by the Museum, the Literary Institution, and
the School of Art.  The cost of the building, giving accommodation to all
these institutions, has certainly been small compared with the cost of
buildings for similar purposes in other towns: in Liverpool, for
instance, the building cost 50,000 pounds."

"Under arrangements made with the committee of the Museum, the advantages
of that institution have been secured to the citizens on two days of the
week, and that such advantages have been appreciated, is evinced by the
large number of visitors, chiefly of the working classes, every Monday
and Saturday, to inspect the splendid collection of specimens in Natural

"The School of Art was, early in 1857, removed to the upper story of the
new building, whereby the annual grant of 75 pounds made for the support
of the institution will be in future saved."

As the first public library act made no provision for the purchase of
books, a subscription fund was commenced for that purpose about the time
of the laying of the foundation stone, and the following donations, with
others, were soon made: The Duke of Wellington 50 pounds, Lord Wodehouse
25 pounds, Lord Suffield 25 pounds, Sir Samuel Bignold 21 pounds, Mr. J.
H. Gurney, M.P., 50 pounds, and Mr. S. M. Peto, M.P., 50 pounds.  At the
time of the first annual report the total amount of donations received
for the purchase of books, etc., and interest thereon was 357 pounds : 7
: 1, nearly all of which had been expended in the purchase of books,
periodicals and newspapers.

On September 30th, 1854, the Council proceeded to the formation of a body
of management, on lines suggested by a Committee which had been appointed
to arrange preliminary proceedings for establishing a free library, and
the following accepted office: President and Treasurer, Sir Samuel
Bignold, Mayor of Norwich.  Vice-Presidents: The Lord Bishop of Norwich,
Lord Wodehouse, Lord Stafford, Lord Suffield, Sir J. P. Boileau, Mr. S.
M. Peto, M.P., Mr. J. H. Gurney, M.P., Mr. H. J. Stracey, and the Rev.
Edwin Sidney.  Committee: Aldermen E. Willett and C. Darkins; Councillors
Thomas Brightwell, J. G. Johnson, J. H. Tillett, J. Barwell, W. J. Utten
Browne, O. Springfield, and two co-opted members, Dr. Goodwin and Mr. J.
W. Dowson.  Hon. Secretary, Mr. A. D. Bayne, the author of the
"Comprehensive History of Norwich," 1869.  The Committee had power to add
to its number not exceeding five, and it was also resolved that the
Committee should include five members to be nominated by the subscribers
and five by the working classes.  The Committee shortly afterwards added
to its number.  Protests were received regarding the proposal that
admission to the Library should be by subscription, and apparently it was
not proceeded with.  In accordance with the other resolution of the
Council, to the effect that the working classes should nominate five
persons to serve on the Committee, the Mayor convened a meeting of the
"working classes" at St. Andrew's Hall on the 1st October, 1856, when the
following were selected for nomination to the Council, and were duly
elected on the 16th October: Mr. C. J. Bunting, printer, Mr. Daniel
Weavers, weaver, Mr. Henry Roberts, herbalist, Mr. L. Hill, news-vendor,
and Mr. James Lofty, hairdresser.

The Library was opened on the 16th March, 1857, without any public
function, owing to the difficulty of getting an eminent person to perform
the ceremony, and the Committee resolved to celebrate the opening at a
later date, which, however, was not done, although Mr. Ewart had promised
to be present.  According to the particulars in the appendices of J. J.
Ogle's "The Free Library," Norwich was the eleventh modern rate-supported
public library to open its doors, the previous ten libraries being those
of Warrington and Salford (established under the Museums Act of 1845),
Winchester, Manchester, Liverpool, Bolton, Kidderminster, Cambridge,
Birkenhead and Sheffield.  The following is a description of the building
which appeared in the _Illustrated London News_, May 16th, 1857:

"The exterior of the lower story of the building is Roman Doric, the
second story Roman Ionic, and the third Italian.  The Library and an
adjoining apartment, appropriated to the Museum, are on the ground floor;
and below are spacious vaults, which are devoted to trade purposes, and
from which a considerable annual revenue is expected to be derived.  Over
the principal entrance is a well executed head of Homer, and in the
entrance-hall which has a tesselated pavement, are four scagliola columns
with Corinthian capitals.  The Museum-room is 54 feet in length and 26
feet wide, and the Library is 44 feet long and 33 feet wide.  A broad and
handsome stone staircase conducts the visitor to the second floor, on
which is a lecture-room of the same dimensions as the Library, and two
apartments appropriated to the Literary Institution, which are
collectively of the same size as the Museum beneath.  On the third floor
are two large rooms for the School of Art, with domed roofs and ample
skylights, and four smaller apartments for classes are also provided."  A
reproduction of a recent photograph of the building, showing to the left
a portion of the Reading Room added in 1907, faces page 56.

The Library proper at first consisted of one room, as stated above, which
combined a news and reading room, and reference and lending departments.
Books were not issued from the lending department until January 1st,
1858, when the books in two classes, "General Literature" and "Voyages
and Travels" were ready for circulation.  Regarding rules for the loan of
these books, the Committee provisionally adopted those of the Sheffield
Free Library.  By July of the same year all the books were available for
borrowing, and the circulation "reached 500 volumes, always on loan,
every volume being returned or renewed within a week."  When the first
report was published in August, 1858, there were 3,354 volumes in the
Library, of which 2,468 volumes were presented, arranged in ten classes:
A, General Literature, 586 vols.; B, Geography, Voyages and Travels, 560
vols.; C, Dramatists, Poets, and Novelists, 454 vols.; D, History and
Biography, 383 vols.; E, Bohn's Libraries, 318 vols.; F, Bonn's Libraries
and Cabinet Cyclopaedia, 315 vols.; G, Natural History and Sciences, 244
vols.; H, Metaphysics, Logic and Religion, 306 vols.; I, Dictionaries,
Cyclopaedias, Reviews, 88 vols.; [J] Magazines, 100 vols.  All the books
were apparently available either for reading at the library or for
home-reading.  In 1858 a record of issues was kept which showed that
during the first half year 5,225 volumes were circulated "to nearly 700
persons," and the total issue of books "for perusal" in the reading room
was 10,066 "issued to a large number of citizens."

Owing to the small amount of money available for the purchase of books
and periodicals, the citizens were invited in the second quarter of 1857
to contribute for the supply of reviews, periodicals and newspapers, and
by July 1858 nearly 60 pounds in subscriptions for this purpose had been

Mr. A. D. Bayne, as Hon. Secretary to the Committee, virtually acted as
Librarian until his resignation in April, 1860, attending its meetings,
conducting its business, purchasing the books for the Library, etc.  The
first person to take charge of the Library was Mr. Henry Turner who was
engaged pro tem. on the 31st December, 1856, to take care of the new
building, to catalogue the books, collect the subscriptions, etc., at a
salary of 1 pounds weekly.  For the first year he was regarded as an
attendant, but subsequently he was called the Librarian.  Apparently by
reason of illness his engagement ceased at the end of 1858, and after a
short interval, during which time Mr. R. L. M. Overton and Mr. C. Hunt
were successively engaged, Mr. George Harper was appointed Librarian, the
Committee recommending his appointment to the Council on 30th June, 1859.
Mr. Harper remained the Librarian until his death at the end of 1876.
During his tenure of office very little progress in the development of
the Library was made, chiefly because the greater part of the library
rate was absorbed in extinguishing the building loan, and no annual
reports were issued.  In a schedule in Edward Edwards' "Free Town
Libraries," 1869, it is stated that the aggregate number of volumes in
the Library in 1868 was 3,642, that the aggregate annual issues were
13,480, and that the annual expenditure on the Library was 600 pounds.
As a matter of fact, the expenditure for the year ending 1st September,
1868, was 634 pounds : 7 : 3, of which 492 pounds : 9 : 11 was for the
interest on, and repayment of, the loan.  The product of the penny rate
was 740 pounds, and an additional 119 pounds : 6 : 5 was received as fees
for the hire of the upper rooms and the cellars of the Library.  In the
early days of the Library these rooms were hired for many purposes,
including Sunday services, temperance meetings, Cambridge University
local examinations, lectures, dinners, entertainments, etc., the cellars
were used for the storage of wines and spirits, and the Norwich
Meteorological Society had an anemometer fixed on top of the building.

Mr. George Easter, who succeeded Mr. Harper as Librarian in January 1877,
was a native of Norwich, who had followed the craft of a wood-carver in
Cambridge, and had had no training in library work.  The burden of debt
upon the Library having been considerably diminished, and the librarian
coming to his duties with enthusiasm and a disposition to seek advice on
books and library matters from those competent to give it, he was able to
effect some improvements in the administration of the Library, and to
develop it.  About six months after his appointment he had prepared for
the press an author catalogue of the books in the Lending and Reference
Departments of the Library, which was ready for sale at sixpence each in
December.  One thousand copies of this crown octavo catalogue of 94 pages
were printed.  In this catalogue the hours of the Lending Department were
stated to be from 11 a.m. till 3.30 p.m. on week-days.

The publication of an annual report was revived in 1879 when a report
covering the period December 1st, 1877 to December 31st 1878 was
submitted to the Town Council.  It showed that the stock consisted of
4,400 volumes, of which nearly 1,000 had been added during the year; and
that during the period 1,545 borrowers' tickets had been issued, and
27,408 volumes had been issued, as compared with 15,312 vols. issued from
September 1875 to September 1876.

In 1879 the Librarian requested the Committee to allow him to purchase
works relating to Norwich, which eventually led to the formation of the
Local Collection, which is described on pp. 77-81.

The library rate was one penny in the pound from the date of the opening
of the library until 1871, but for several years afterwards it was either
about three farthings or one halfpenny.  The rate was raised to three
farthings in the pound in 1880, and in the following year it was raised
to one penny in the pound, thereby providing 937 pounds : 10 : 0 for the
year, since which time the full library rate has always been levied.  Mr.
F. W. Harmer took a prominent part in securing the increase in the
library rate.  He pointed out that to spend the product of a halfpenny
rate on the plea of economy was really the reverse of economical, as it
just sufficed to pay standing charges, leaving little or nothing for the
purchase of books.

The annual report for the year ending March 25th, 1888, is interesting as
it records that the great burden of the debt on the building had been
cleared off, and briefly reviews the work of the Library after ten years'
service of the Librarian, as follows:

    "The present Librarian was appointed in 1877, starting with a stock
    of 3,500 books in the Lending Department and almost none in the
    Reference Department; whereas the present stock consists of 11,500
    for Lending and 5,000 for Reference purposes, about 1,200 of the
    latter, with 1,650 pamphlets, pictures, &c., being of a local
    character and purchased with fines imposed for detaining books beyond
    the time allowed for reading.

    "The number of borrowers in 1877 was 1,540, whereas the number in
    1887 was 3,550; the number of issues of books in the same period
    increasing from 27,000 to 77,000--about 10,000 of the population of
    the city over 14 years of age having taken advantage of the boon
    afforded by this department."

The report draws attention to an increase in the hours of the lending
library, which hitherto had been 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. and 7 to 9 p.m., to 11
a.m. till 9 p.m. every week-day except Thursday.

The establishment of a juvenile department as a means of stimulating
interest in the Library was one of the first suggestions made by Mr.
Easter after his appointment, and although the Committee did not
entertain it then he did not abandon it, and the subject was raised in
the press and in Committee in 1885.  As a result the Mayor, Mr. John
Gurney, who was keenly interested in the proposal, offered to give 100
pounds on condition that an additional 150 pounds was raised, but he died
before the establishment of the scheme.  The Chairman of the School
Board, Mr. (afterwards Sir) George White, who was a member of the
Committee, promised to raise the matter at a School Board Meeting, but
the scheme, to be financed by public subscription, did not come to
fruition until 1889.  In that year the total amount of subscriptions
reached 276 pounds : 14 : 9, and 3,667 volumes suitable for juveniles
were obtained.

Batches of books were forwarded to every elementary school in the City,
and the head teacher in each was made responsible for the distribution of
the books to the scholars in standards IV and upwards.  The tables
published in the annual report for the year ending March 1890 show that
3,621 books were sent to 38 schools, and that the total issues for the
first seven months was 52,312.  In the report for the year ending March
1893 the Committee reported:

"The Juvenile Department having proved a source of labour and cost much
beyond what was anticipated, a Sub-Committee appointed to report on the
subject recommended that the School Board should be asked to contribute
to the expense of repair and renewal of books, and to urge upon their
staff increased care and vigilance in the management of the Department.
This expense the Board report they are unable legally to incur.  Pending
this decision the distribution of the books was suspended, but the
Committee have now decided to continue the circulation for another twelve

The wear and tear of the juvenile books proceeded apace, and the report
for 1894-95 stated that when they were last called in "1,700 had to be
rebound or repaired, and in the four circulations about 800 volumes have
been found defective or worn out and withdrawn.  The Committee therefore
decided to issue the reduced number of books, to such schools as made
application for them, under more systematic regulations."  The juvenile
books went from bad to worse, and in the report for the year ending March
1900 it was stated that the Committee had decided to hand over the stock
to the Norwich School Board, which had recently decided to establish and
work a Juvenile Library of its own.  Thus ended an experiment which was
financed unsatisfactorily, badly controlled, and of very doubtful utility
as a means of developing the work of the Library.

The large increase in the stock of the lending library necessitated a new
catalogue, and one (304 pp.) was printed and published in 1889, which was
followed by supplements (88 pp. and 106 pp.) in 1889 and 1895.  These
catalogues were compiled on the dictionary plan, the authors' names and
the titles and subjects of the books being arranged in one alphabetical

The question of Sunday opening was discussed by the Committee in July,
1884, but the Council declined to sanction the Committee's recommendation
to open the Reading Room.  Five and a half years later the Council
revoked its decision, and the men's and women's reading rooms on the
first floor were opened on Sundays between the hours of 3 and 9 p.m.  In
the annual report following the Sunday opening the experiment was
described as "quietly successful," and in the reports for the next few
years the visits were estimated at 15,000 annually--a daily average of
289.  The Reading Room continued to be open all the year round until
1913, when owing to the small attendances during the summer months it was
closed from June to September inclusive; in that year the average
attendance on the Sundays was 117.  Having regard to the small
attendances and the inadequate library staff, the Committee in 1915
decided that the Reading Room should be closed on Sundays during the war.

The Report for the year ending March 1894 briefly reviewed the work of
the Library after forty years.  By that time the stock had reached 30,124
volumes in all departments, and the annual issue from the lending
library, excluding 49,000 books issued by the teachers in 36 elementary
schools, was 86,355.  The Reference Library, including the Local
Collection, contained 10,520 volumes and 5,367 pamphlets.

The large room on the ground floor vacated by the Museum was extended and
renovated during the year 1895-6, and was partially furnished with
book-cases and shelving in order to provide accommodation for the
Reference Library, which then comprised 8,450 volumes and 2,081
pamphlets, with 2,987 local books and 4,327 local pamphlets.

In 1896 a loan of 1,300 pounds was sanctioned by the Local Government
Board for defraying the cost of the extension of the Reference Library
and fittings, the purchase of a Cotgreave Indicator, installed in 1897,
the restoration of the exterior stonework of the building, and interior
decoration and repairs.  The total expenditure amounted to 1,740 pounds,
the difference between the cost and the amount of the loan being paid
from the balance in hand.

During the year 1898-1899 a catalogue of the Reference Library was
prepared for printing in sections, and in the following year five were
printed.  The entries in these sectional catalogues were single-line
author and subject entries, the latter being merely inverted

Mr. J. Geo. Tennant, the Sub-Librarian, who had been appointed to that
position in 1888, having previously been engaged part-time at the
Library, was promoted to the office of Librarian in 1901, following the
death of Mr. Easter.  A few months later the Committee advertised the
vacant office of Sub-Librarian, candidates to have had training and
experience in a public library, and Mr. Llewellyn R. Haggerston, an
assistant in the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Public Libraries, was appointed.

The safeguarded open-access system, by which borrowers are allowed to
choose books from the shelves, was considered by the Committee and the
Council in 1905, but not adopted.  The system was then in its infancy,
but has since been introduced into many public libraries.

The provision of catalogues of the Library was considered by the
Committee in 1905-6, and it was decided to provide type-written sheaf
catalogues of authors and subjects for the Lending Department, which were
completed in 1906-7.

Owing to the inadequate accommodation in the Reading Room on the first
floor, the question of extending the Library building received the
attention of the Committee for a considerable period, and eventually the
City Engineer prepared plans for the extension of the building, to
provide a reading room on the ground floor.  The new room cost about
1,640 pounds and was provided with book-cases, furniture, etc., at a cost
of 267 pounds, and was opened to the public in April, 1907.  Most of the
book-cases were provided for shelving several classes of the Lending
Library books, partly because more shelving accommodation was required,
but principally to permit the public to inspect the books, "the object
being to induce a more general use of these works in place of fiction."
A collection of directories, annuals, and reference books was placed on
open shelves in the room for ready reference.

In accordance with the Committee's decision to adopt the Dewey Decimal
System of Classification, some attempt was made to classify the books
according to this system.

An experiment which aimed at fostering the use of the Library by school
children was made during the winter of 1907-8.  "By arrangement with the
Education Committee a selection of books likely to meet the tastes of
elementary school children was made by several of the teachers.  These
books were placed on Saturday mornings in one of the rooms on the top
floor where tables and chairs were provided.  One or more teachers
attended in rotation to superintend the young readers . . . It has to be
confessed, however, that the attendance, once the novelty had worn off,
was not sufficient to justify the expenditure of time and trouble which
was necessarily involved." {70}

Owing to ill-health Mr. Tennant, who had served the Library faithfully
for about 21 years, was compelled to vacate the office of Librarian in
1909, and light occupation was found for him in the capacity of
Superintendent of the Reading Room, which post he filled until his death
in August, 1911.  He was succeeded as Librarian by the Sub-Librarian, Mr.
Haggerston, who resigned his appointment on 1st March, 1911.  Following
Mr. Haggerston's resignation, the Committee advertised for a trained
librarian, and from 110 candidates the author of this History, who was
the Chief Assistant Librarian of the St. Pancras Public Libraries, and
who received his earlier training at the Bishopsgate Institute, was
appointed in May, 1911.

The administration of the Library for many years had, in the words of the
Report for 1909-10 "proceeded steadily on the old lines," and when the
present Librarian took office his first duty was to present a
comprehensive report to the Committee on the condition of the Library,
and to make suggestions for its re-organisation on up-to-date methods of
library administration.  The Report was approved in principle, and since
that date the work of re-organisation has proceeded as rapidly as the
conditions have allowed.

The work of re-organisation may be briefly described.  The rules and
regulations for the conduct and management of all departments of the
Library were revised with the view of affording additional facilities to
the public.  Structural alterations were made for the better lighting and
arrangement of the Lending Library, and improvements were made in the
electric lighting of the several departments.

The condition of the Lending Library was especially serious.  The Library
had been in existence for over half a century, and the stock of books had
never been subjected to a thorough overhauling, so that there were
accumulations of old, useless and worn-out books, while numerous standard
works on various branches of knowledge were not in the Library.  The work
of re-organisation was done systematically, class by class.  First the
useless books were discarded, and new standard and popular books were
added.  The class was then closely classified according to the Dewey
System of Classification, and catalogued.  As complaints regarding the
lack of a printed catalogue had been made continuously for several years,
it was decided, as an immediate advantage to the public, to publish at
the price of one penny, a bi-monthly magazine entitled "The Readers'
Guide," which would contain the whole or a portion of an annotated and
classified catalogue of the books in one of the sections immediately
after its revision, and also an annotated list of new books added to the
Library.  The Fiction Catalogue was published in the first number, which
was issued on 1st November, 1911, and the series of classified catalogues
containing altogether the titles of over 17,000 volumes was completed in
the issue for May, 1915, since which date the "Readers' Guide" has
contained special bibliographies of local subjects and topics of current
interest, in addition to the usual list of recent books.  The special
bibliographies have included the subjects of the University Extension
lectures each year, George Borrow, Lord Nelson, Agincourt and Erpingham,
Norfolk Artists, the European War, Shakespeare, Child Welfare, and Thomas
Gray.  For the use of borrowers two card catalogues have been installed
in the Lending Library, the one being a complete author catalogue, and
the other a complete classified catalogue, with numerous subject guide
cards to facilitate reference.

A stock of books specially suitable for juvenile readers was obtained in
1911 to form a Juvenile Department of the Lending Library, in order that
the young people should acquire a facility in the use of a large library
which would be of value to them after leaving school.  A classified
catalogue of the books in this Department was prepared by the
Sub-Librarian under the supervision of the City Librarian, and was
published in September, 1914, and an enlarged edition was published in
September, 1916.

During the period 1911-1916 there were several changes in the personnel
of the staff.  The great pressure of the re-organising work and the need
for a trained assistant on the staff led the Committee to advertise for a
Sub-Librarian in 1913, and in November Mr. Charles Nowell, Chief
Assistant of the Coventry Public Libraries, and the holder of four
certificates of the Library Association, was appointed to the position.
With the view of increasing the efficiency of the staff the Committee, in
common with many other Public Library Committees, has made the
appointments of junior assistants conditional on their obtaining the
professional certificates of the Library Association.

The title of the Library was altered in July, 1911, by the Council from
"Free Library" to its statutory title "Public Library."

The large oval room on the second floor, which in the early days of the
Library had been used as an art room, was converted into an exhibition
and lecture room in 1912.

The Norfolk and Norwich Photographic Survey Record was inaugurated in
1913, particulars of which are given on pp. 81-82.

The Library has fulfilled special national functions during the present
European War.  Several thousand leaflets issued by the Central Committee
for National Patriotic Organisations were distributed at the Library.
The Committee realising the importance to the public of studying the
deeper causes of the war, and other important matters involved, appointed
a Sub-Committee to deal with the problem of war literature.  A large and
representative selection, dealing with the subject from every point of
view, was made from the several thousand books published.  The books thus
purchased made the collection of war books a thoroughly representative
one, and an annotated and classified catalogue of the books was printed
in the "Readers' Guide."  The Library has also been at the service of
soldiers billeted in Norwich both for borrowing and for reference, and a
large number of soldiers have availed themselves of its facilities for
recreative reading and study.  To assist the Camps Library, which
provides libraries for all the camps of the British armies at home and
abroad, the Committee sent many of its worn-out books, collected for it
hundreds of books and magazines from readers frequenting the Library, and
sent a donation of 12 pounds : 15 : 0, referred to on page 85.

Three members of the staff enlisted in H.M. Forces in 1915, with the
promise of their positions being retained.  The Sub-Librarian, 2nd Lieut.
Chas. Nowell (22nd London Regiment) was wounded in France in September,
1916, but he was able to return to his military duties in December; Mr.
F. T. Bussey, the Senior Assistant in the Lending Department is serving
in France with the Norfolk Division of the Royal Engineers; and Mr. A. R.
Nobbs, a Junior Assistant, is a Sick Berth Attendant in the Royal Navy.


During the earliest years of the Library Committee, the Chairmen and
Vice-Chairmen were not regularly appointed annually.  The following is a
list of the definite appointments:--

DATE.                   CHAIRMAN.               VICE-CHAIRMAN.
1850-1856               Various.
1857                    J. Godwin Johnson.      J. H. Tillett.
1858-1860               Various.
1861                    George Middleton (who
                        was generally in the
                        Chair during 1860).
1862                    Various.
1863-1868               Councillor J. W.
1869-1870               Councillor Carlos
1871-1877               Councillor Thomas
1878-1885               Councillor James
1886-1887               The Mayor, John         Alderman James Freeman.
                        Gurney, Esq., of
1887-1890               Councillor
                        (afterwards Alderman)
                        James Freeman.
1891-1892               Alderman Samuel         Alderman George White.
1893-1907               Councillor T. Breese.   1893-1902 Alderman George
                                                1903-1907 Councillor H.
                                                J. Copeman.
1908-1917               Councillor              Alderman R. G. Bagshaw.
                        (afterwards Alderman)
                        H. J. Copeman.


Although the Public Library Act of 1855 amended the first act, and made
provision for the purchase of books, a power denied under the first act,
the Library was so deeply involved in debt at its commencement that
appeals had to be made for donations of books and money for the purchase
of books, newspapers, and periodicals.  As previously stated, the
Committee's first annual report presented to the Council on 31st August,
1858, showed that donations in cash, with interest, had amounted to 357
pounds : 7 : 1.  The same report gave a list of the donors of 2,468
volumes--about two-thirds of the entire stock--of which 833 were from the
People's College, and 1,000 were transferred from the Penny Library.

The donations to the Library during its history have been many and
varied--good, bad, and indifferent--such as are usually offered to public
libraries.  Notice may be made of some of the outstanding gifts.  The
British Association in 1868, the year of its visit to Norwich, made a
grant of 50 pounds to the Library for the purchase of books, perhaps at
the suggestion of the Rev. (afterwards Canon) Hinds Howell, who was the
Organising Secretary for the visit.  At any rate, at the meeting of the
Library Committee on 4th November, 1868, he attended to explain "that the
grant would be expended in the purchase of books, which embraced
thirty-five different scientific subjects, or such of them as the
Committee might think best adapted to the wants of, and most beneficial
to, the classes using the Library," and he received the thanks of the
Committee for representing the wants of the Library to the Association.
The Committee complied with the request that a bookcase should be
provided for the books, bearing a suitable inscription.

A large number of patent specifications were presented by H.M. Patent
Office about the year 1865, and in 1889 the Office acceded to the
Committee's request for Abridgments of Specifications, since which time
they have been presented as issued.

Having regard to the slender financial resources of the Library the Mayor
(Mr. H. Bullard) in 1879 suggested a public subscription, and headed the
list with 10 pounds.  This was followed by donations of 10 pounds from
Mr. J. J. Colman, (who also gave 25 pounds in 1887), and Mr. Henry
Birkbeck, and by smaller sums from other people, amounting altogether to
91 pounds : 2 : 0.

A successful application was made to H.M. Treasury in 1886, for a
donation of official publications, and some 260 volumes of Calendars of
State Papers, Chronicles, Records, etc. were received, followed in 1901
by a further donation of 193 volumes.  In 1900 the Library received from
the same source twenty-five Memoirs of the Geological Survey relating to
the Eastern Counties.

In 1890 the late Alderman James Freeman, who was Chairman of the Public
Library Committee for several years, bequeathed 20 pounds for some
special purpose in connection with the Library, which enabled the
Committee to commence a Shakespeare Collection, now comprising over 600
books and pamphlets.

Mr. Russell J. Colman, J.P., D.L., made a handsome donation to the
Reference Library in 1900, when he presented a set of Parliamentary
Debates in 511 volumes, in half calf, comprising Cobbett's "Parliamentary
History," continued by Hansard, 1066-1803, Hansard's "Parliamentary
Debates," 1803-1890, and the "Official Parliamentary Debates" to 1897.
Since that date the following members of Parliament for Norwich have
partly kept the set up to date: Mr. Louis J. Tillett, Sir George White,
Sir Frederick Low and Lieut. E. Hilton Young.

The firm of Messrs. J. and J. Colman, Ltd., of Norwich, presented 3,500
Parliamentary Papers, Blue Books, etc. in 1900 which Mr. J. J. Colman had

Mr. T. R. Kemp, K.C., Recorder of Norwich, 1892-1905, who had made a
study of the Letters of Junius, bequeathed his collection of various
editions of the Letters and works relating to them, numbering altogether
128 volumes.

Mr. Henry F. Euren, a member of the Library Committee since 1880, gave
160 volumes on agriculture and other subjects in 1907, before and after
which date he made other donations.

The Reference Library was largely increased in 1914 by a bequest of Mr.
Bosworth W. Harcourt, an esteemed co-opted member of the Committee who
had taken an active interest in the Library for over 27 years.  The
bequest, comprising about 2,250 books and pamphlets, was made on
condition that such books and pamphlets should be known as the "Bosworth
Harcourt Bequest" and that the same should not be placed in circulation,
but only read or consulted in the Library.  Miss C. M. Nichols, R.E.,
S.M., N.B.A., designed a suitable book-plate for the books, and a
book-case, surmounted by the testator's name was provided.  Mr.
Harcourt's library naturally reflected his tastes: works of and about the
chief poets and dramatists, well-illustrated volumes, and books on the
graphic arts preponderate, and there are many volumes dealing with the
history and antiquities of Norfolk and Norwich.

The munificent bequest of Mrs. Elizabeth Russell Hillen, by which the
Library will receive 500 pounds for the advancement of local archaeology,
is mentioned in more detail on page 79.

The chief benefactor to the Library is Mr. Walter Rye, who has been a
member of the Committee since 1904.  In addition to his many and valuable
gifts to the Local Collection, which are described on pages 78-79, he has
given a large number of reference books, chiefly relating to heraldry and
history, but also including a collection of books and tracts on the Civil
War, and a number of calendars of patent rolls, and other official


The collection of literature relating to Norfolk and Norwich was first
mooted on January 15th, 1879, when the Committee resolved that works of
interest connected with Norwich should be purchased.  This decision was
doubtless the result of a recommendation from the Librarian, Mr. George
Easter, as Mr. James Reeve, F.G.S., then Curator of the Castle Museum,
had suggested to him the wisdom of forming a Local Collection.  In April
of the following year the Librarian reported to the Committee that he had
received during the year 10 pounds for fines, and he requested that he
might retain the amount for the purpose of forming a Local Reference
Library.  The Committee sanctioned his request, and from that time to the
present the fines imposed for the detention of lending library books
beyond the time allowed for reading have been exclusively devoted to the
Local Collection.  Mr. Councillor Stanley, a member of the Committee, by
way of a commencement, gave "the books containing a complete list of the
city and county charities," and the annual report for 1880 stated that "A
collection of Books of local interest is proceeding very satisfactorily."
The collection had grown in ten years to 1,603 volumes and 1,933
pamphlets.  In the annual report for 1893-94 it was stated that the
receipts for fines from 1880 to that date had been 620 pounds, and that
the collection numbered 2,646 volumes, 3,462 pamphlets, and numerous
engravings, maps, portraits, etc.  Mr. Easter was mainly responsible for
the selection of the books for the Local Collection, and owing to his
great enthusiasm in its development the collection comprised at his death
in December, 1900, nearly 4,000 volumes and about 5,100 pamphlets.

Mr. Walter Rye joined the Committee as a co-opted member in the latter
part of 1904, and within a few months the Committee had accepted his
voluntary services as a Norfolk antiquary, to compile a card catalogue of
the local books and pamphlets.  This catalogue he has kept up to date.
The collection soon engaged his special attention, and from the time of
his joining the Committee until the present year he has been zealous in
its development, giving each year donations from his private collection,
and working in its interest in various ways.  In 1908 he published at his
own expense the following catalogues which he had compiled: "Catalogue of
the Topographical and Antiquarian portions of the Free Library at
Norwich" (81 pp.), "Calendar of the Documents relating to the Corporation
of Norwich, preserved in the Free Library there" (22 pp.), "Catalogue of
the Portraits referring to Norfolk and Norwich Men . . . preserved in the
Free Library at Norwich" (33 pp.), and "Short List of Works relating to
the Biographies of Norfolk Men and Women, preserved in the Free Library
at Norwich" (34 pp.).

Mr. Rye's donations have been both numerous and valuable.  In 1905-06 he
presented his collection of prints, comprising about 700 portraits and
nearly 7,000 views, which included the well-known Smith Collection.
During the years 1911-16 his donations became more extensive, and were
crowned by his promise made to the Committee in 1916 that he would
bequeath his valuable Norfolk manuscripts and the remainder of his
printed books, of which copies were not in the Library.  Some of the more
important manuscripts which he has given to the Library are the
following: Friar Brackley's Armorial Manuscript, circa 1460--a paper
volume of 142 pages, with 75 coloured drawings of arms of the Pastens and
Mautbys and their matches, being the oldest Norfolk Armorial manuscript
known; Collection of original manuscripts relating to the Carpenters'
Company of Norwich, 1594; Rev. F. Blomefield's Original Entry Book for
his "History of Norfolk," 1733-6; Norfolk Pedigrees, compiled by Peter Le
Neve--a volume (86 pp.) of Norfolk pedigrees, with the arms in colours,
and an index of names.  For these and other gifts the Committee provided
an oak exhibition case in the Reading Room in February, 1912.  In May
1916 the Council placed on record its appreciation of, and grateful
thanks for, Mr. Walter Rye's munificence to the Library.

At the close of 1911 the Committee, having a considerable balance in
hand, resolved to bid for a number of items at the auction sales of Dr.
Augustus Jessopp's Library and the Townshend Heirlooms.  At these sales
many interesting and valuable documents relating to the history of
Norfolk and Norwich were purchased for about 92 pounds, including fifteen
of Dr. Jessopp's note-books and an "Address from the Gentry of Norfolk
and Norwich to General Monck" in 1660, bearing the signatures of about
800 persons.  The latter manuscript was published in facsimile by Messrs.
Jarrold and Sons in 1913, the volume also including an introduction by
Mr. Hamon Le Strange, F.S.A., biographical notes and index by Mr. Walter
Rye, a catalogue of the collection of books in the Library on the Civil
War period by the City Librarian, and several portraits.

The Committee received in 1915 an intimation of a munificent bequest of
500 pounds by the late Mrs. Elizabeth Russell Hillen, of King's Lynn, for
the advancement of local archaeology, etc., on condition that the name of
Hillen should be permanently associated with the use of the money.  The
Norwich Castle Museum also received a similar bequest.  Mrs. Hillen was
the widow of Mr. Henry James Hillen, a native of King's Lynn, who died in
1910.  After retiring from the profession of schoolmaster he devoted much
of his time to historical and archaeological research, and subsequently
published the fruits of part of his work in local newspapers, several
brochures, and his monumental "History of the Borough of King's Lynn," 2
vols., 1907.  Mr. Hillen made considerable use of the Local Collection,
and his wife's bequest was no doubt partly in recognition of the services
it had rendered.

For many years the Committee has tried to make the collection as complete
as possible, its wise object being to collect everything local: it has
endeavoured to obtain all books, pamphlets, prints, plans and maps, and
important manuscripts relating to Norfolk and Norwich, all books and
pamphlets printed locally until about 1850, all books and pamphlets by
authors associated with the county either by birth or residence,
portraits and biographical publications relating to Norfolk people, local
newspapers, election literature, early theatre bills, broadsides,
book-plates, reports and proceedings of local authorities and societies,

When the present Librarian commenced his duties in 1911 the collection,
as recorded in the stock-book of the Library, comprised 5,129 volumes and
6,362 pamphlets, since which time by purchase, spontaneous donations, and
systematic application for local publications the collection has
increased to 6,364 volumes and 8,126 pamphlets.  In addition there are
about 7,900 topographical prints and photographs, 950 portraits, and 380
maps, exclusive of the Photographic Survey Collection.

The collection contains extremely valuable files of local newspapers,
including a rare volume of "Crossgrove's News or the Norwich Gazette" for
the years 1728-32, the "Norwich Gazette" 1761-64, a long file of its
successor the "Norfolk Chronicle" from 1772 with a few gaps to date, the
"Norwich Mercury" 1756-60, 1771-80, and from 1802 to date, and "The
Eastern Daily Press" from 1875 to date.  Recent features introduced in
the Local Collection are files of obituary notices of Norfolk people,
extracted from various papers and mounted on large cards, and cuttings
from newspapers and periodicals of items of local interest, which are
mounted on uniform sheets, classified, and filed for reference.

Donations to the Local Collection have been far too numerous even to
allow mention of the names of all the chief donors, but the interest of
Mr. James Reeve, F.G.S., the Consulting Curator of the Castle Museum,
should not pass unnoticed.  He has given in recent years several scarce
books and prints, including a copy of his rare monograph on "John Sell
Cotman," and a volume of etchings by the Rev. E. T. Daniell.

In order to provide a handy guide to the extensive literature relating to
Norwich, the present writer prepared an annotated and classified
catalogue of the books, pamphlets, articles and maps in the Local
Collection dealing with the City under its most important aspects.  The
catalogue, entitled "Guide to the Study of Norwich" was published in
1914, and the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society marked its
appreciation of it by purchasing 360 copies.  In 1915 a series of special
annotated catalogues of literature in the Library relating to Norfolk
Celebrities was commenced in the "Readers' Guide."  The first was devoted
to the collection of literature relating to Lord Nelson (comprising 218
books, 39 pamphlets, 81 articles, and 31 prints), and the second to
Norfolk Artists.  Both catalogues were reprinted as pamphlets for sale at
sixpence each.

He also prepared a scheme of classification for the entire collection,
and began classifying and cataloguing the contents in 1915, but the work
has been suspended owing to the absence of his trained assistants on
service.  However, about 3,000 books and pamphlets have been classified
and catalogued in accordance with modern bibliographical practice, and it
is hoped that in due course a complete catalogue will be prepared and
printed, which will not only serve as a key to unlock this vast store of
local information, but will also form an extensive bibliography of
Norfolk and Norwich.


A valuable adjunct to the Local Collection is the Norfolk and Norwich
Photographic Survey Record which was inaugurated in January, 1913.
Shortly after the disastrous flood in Norfolk and Norwich during August,
1912, the Committee favourably considered a report from the City
Librarian on the collection of photographs of everything interesting,
valuable and characteristic of Norfolk and Norwich.  A conference was
convened between a Sub-Committee of the Public Library Committee and
representatives of the local learned and scientific societies on 13th
January, 1913, and ultimately a comprehensive scheme was adopted.  It is
carried out by the Public Library in collaboration with the Norwich and
District Photographic Society and other local scientific societies, with
the following object: "To preserve by permanent photographic process,
records of antiquities, art, architecture, geology and palaeontology,
natural history, passing events of local or historical importance,
portraits, old documents, prints, and characteristic scenery of the
county of Norfolk."  The photographs contributed to the Survey become the
property of the Public Library, under the care of the City Librarian, who
is the Secretary and Curator of the Survey.  The Public Library has
undertaken the responsibility of the mounting, storage and cataloguing of
the photographs.  The Collection is increased by donations of prints, and
the purchase of prints from money specially subscribed for the purpose.

                  [Picture: Exhibition and Lecture Room]

With the view of stimulating public interest in the Photographic Survey,
and of acquainting persons with the scope and methods of photographic
survey work, Mr. L. Stanley Jast, who was then the Chief Librarian of the
Croydon Public Libraries, and the Hon. Curator of the Surrey Photographic
Survey, delivered a public lecture with lantern illustrations to a large
audience at Blackfriars' Hall on 24th January, 1913.  The first
exhibition of photographs illustrative of the work of the survey was
arranged by the City Librarian, and was held in the new Exhibition Room
at the Library during December, 1913.  An illustration of the room, from
a photograph taken during the exhibition, faces this page.  The opening
ceremony was performed by Mr. Russell J. Colman, D.L., J.P., the
President of the Survey, under the presidency of the Lord Mayor of
Norwich (Mr. James Porter) who was accompanied by the Lady Mayoress and
the Sheriff (Mr. C. T. Coller).  The collection of photographs, which
commenced in May, 1913, increased at a rapid rate, and although the work
of the Survey has been practically at a standstill since the beginning of
the war, the collection numbers 1,847 mounted prints and 59 lantern
slides.  The technique of the photographs reaches a very high standard,
the majority of them are platinotypes, and many are of whole-plate size.
The collection will undoubtedly be of service to antiquaries, historians,
architects, geologists, naturalists, photographers, artists, and all
lovers of the beautiful in nature and art, and it will also be of
inestimable value to posterity.


For a long period lectures have been regarded as an important part of the
educational or "extension" work of organised public libraries throughout
the country, but in the case of Norwich lectures were instituted as a
means of promoting the extension of the Library itself.  As soon as the
first stone of the building was laid the Committee in January, 1855,
authorised the Secretary to make arrangements for a course of lectures at
the Bazaar, St. Andrew's Street, in order to promote the objects of the
Library, and by the April meeting lectures had been given by the Rev. A.
B. Power (twice), the Rev. A. Reed, the Rev. J. Compton, the Rev. J.
Gould, Mr. J. Fox (twice), Mr. J. H. Tillett, and Professor Edward
Taylor, of Gresham College.  Charges were made for admission, in aid of
the funds of the library, and the net proceeds amounted to about 10
pounds, the attendances having been "better than usual at lectures in

In October, 1861, a sub-committee was formed to arrange weekly penny
readings, interspersed with lectures, in the large room at the Library on
Thursday evenings, and in April of the following year the Secretary
reported a net balance in hand of 9 pounds : 6 : 0, which sum was spent
on books for the Library.  In September, 1863, the Committee evidently
intended to continue the penny readings, as it was resolved that Mr.
Dowson, a member of the Committee, should have full liberty to make
arrangements for conducting the penny readings during the following
winter session.

A course of popular lectures in connection with the Library by
distinguished scientists was inaugurated by Mr. F. W. Harmer, J.P.,
F.G.S., F.R.Met.Soc., in the year of his mayoralty, 1888.
(Parenthetically it may be remarked that he has the distinction of being
the oldest member of the Public Library Committee, he having served on it
continuously since 1880.)  Hoping to place the scheme on a permanent
basis, Mr. Harmer suggested the appointment of a Committee of the
Corporation to carry out arrangements for a yearly series of similar
lectures on science by distinguished men, under the provisions of the
Gilchrist Trust, and the matter was referred to the Library Committee.
The first of these series, delivered early in 1889 by Sir Robert Ball,
Dr. Lant Carpenter, Dr. Andrew Wilson, Professor Miall, Professor Seeley,
and the Rev. Dr. Dallinger, were "crowned with complete success."  Under
the management of the Committee another course was delivered during the
following winter, when the lecturers were Sir Robert Ball, Dr. Andrew
Wilson, Mr. Louis Fagan, and Mr. Henry Seebohm, and two lectures were
given during the winter of 1890-91, by Sir Robert Ball and Dr. Andrew
Wilson respectively.  Unfortunately, for reasons of economy, these were
supplemented by a series by local gentlemen (which were given in
Blackfriars' Hall), but the result was the reverse of successful, and led
eventually to the abandonment of the original scheme.  Lectures by Sir
Robert Ball and Dr. Andrew Wilson, with others by local gentlemen were
given, however, in the winter of 1892-93, and in the following winter by
Sir Robert Ball, Dr. Andrew Wilson, and Dr. Drinkwater.  No lectures were
given in the winter of 1893-94 as the University Extension Lectures then
inaugurated were regarded as sufficient, but these appealed to a
different class, and never took the place of the others.

In that year the Committee-room was in frequent use by three public
circles of the Norwich Branch of the National Home Reading Union, and by
the Norwich Students' Association, which again used the room in 1894-95.
The National Home Reading Union continued to use the room for several

Lectures organised by the Committee were again revived in 1916 on the
occasion of the Tercentenary of the death of Shakespeare, when the
following lectures were delivered at the Technical Institute, the lecture
room at the Library being too small for the purpose: "Shakespeare as
National Hero," by Sir Sidney Lee, D.Litt., F.B.A.; "Shakespeare and the
English Ideal," {84} by the Dean of Norwich (The Very Rev. H. C.
Beeching, D.D., D.Litt.); "Shakespeare and Music," by Mr. A. Batchelor,
M.A.; "Dramatic Companies in Norwich of Shakespeare's Time," by Mr. L. G.
Bolingbroke; and "The Plant Lore of Shakespeare," by Mr. Edward Peake.
For the first two lectures one shilling was charged for admission, and
the net proceeds were sent to the Jenny Lind Hospital in Norwich (7
pounds : 12 : 6) and the Camps Library (8 pounds : 5 : 6).  The remaining
lectures were free, but collections were taken on behalf of the Camps
Library, and 3 pounds : 19 : 6 was received.

The Shakespeare Tercentenary was also commemorated by an exhibition in
the Reading Room, consisting of books, prints and other material
illustrative of the life and works of Shakespeare.  The prints were
arranged in groups as follows: Portraits, Shakespeare's country,
Contemporaries, Actors, Costume, Music, Pictorial illustrations of
Shakespeare, Elizabethan London, and Shakespeare Memorials.

In connection with the Gray bicentenary, which took place on December
26th, 1916, the Dean of Norwich, who is a member of the Public Library
Committee, delivered a lecture on Thomas Gray at the Technical Institute
on December 15th, when the Deputy Mayor, Alderman H. J. Copeman, J.P.
(Chairman of the Public Library Committee), presided.  A small exhibition
of prints, and works by and about Gray was arranged in the Reading Room.

It is hoped that in future lectures on literary subjects or connected
with classes of books in the Library may be arranged from time to time.


In the annual reports various statistics have been given of the visits to
the News and Reading Rooms, and the number of books issued from the
Lending and Reference Libraries, but as there was no uniform system of
compilation, and the methods employed were not stated, an accurate
statistical comparison between the past and present work of the Library
is impossible.  Suffice it to say that at no time of its history has it
been so well equipped in all directions, and at no time has it stood
higher in public esteem than it does at present.  The old City Library
possesses treasures befitting an old English "City of Churches," and the
present Public Library fulfils the general purposes of a modern
rate-supported Library.  The Lending Library consists of about 18,000
volumes in all departments of knowledge, from which some 6,000 adults and
juveniles borrow about 110,000 volumes annually.  The Reading Room and
News Room contain a careful selection of the leading newspapers, and a
large variety of the best periodicals.  The Reference Library contains
about 24,000 volumes, including sets of the publications of several
learned societies, and is being brought up to date by the purchase of
recent standard works of reference.  The Local Collection, which for
completeness probably equals that of any other county, has a rich store
of material, valuable not only to the antiquary, but to all those who
desire to know something of the literature and art of the county, or its
natural and geological history, or the part played by Norfolk and Norwich
in the general history of England.  Further, the Library, being
encyclopaedic in character, may be regarded as a bureau of information,
and as such it is playing an important part in the educational,
industrial and social life of the City.

        _Printed by Jarrold & Sons_, _Ltd._, _Norwich_, _England_.


{1}  A. Jessopp's Norwich (Diocesan histories), 1884, p. 155.

{2a}  Leland's "Laboryouse Journey and Serche of Johan Leylande for
Englandes Antiquitees," enlarged by John Bale.  1549.

{2b}  London apparently is entitled to claim the distinction of having
established the earliest British library under municipal control.  In an
article in the "Library Association Record," vol. 10, 1908, the late Mr.
E. M. Borrajo, formerly Librarian to the Corporation of the City of
London, wrote: "The citizens of London may fairly claim to be the parent,
in a sense, not only of the National Library, but of every public library
in the country."  He also stated: "The earliest association of a library
with the Guildhall dates from some period anterior to the year 1425, when
it is recorded that the executors of Richard Whittington and William Bury
built the 'new house or library, with the chamber under,' the custody of
which was entrusted to them by the Corporation."  About the year 1549 the
Lord Protector Somerset carried off three cart loads of books from the
Library, and the following year saw its final disappearance.  This
library was a collegiate library and probably opened its doors to
non-collegiate students, who were properly accredited.  In the will of
John Carpenter, proved in 1442, this library is referred to as the
"common library at Guildhall."

{3}  "The Maire of Bristowe is Kalendar by Robert Ricart Towm Clerk of
Bristol, 18 Edward IV."  (Camden Society), 1872, p. v.

{4a}  J. Kirkpatrick's "History of the Religious Orders . . . of Norwich
. . . written about the year 1725."  1845, p. 80.

{4b}  _ib._

{5a}  "Records of the City of Norwich," vol. 2, 1910, p. clxv.

{5b}  F. Blomefield's "Norfolk," vol. 4, 1806, p. 262.

{8}  Depositions . . . Extracts from the Court Books of the City of
Norwich, 1666-1688, ed. by Walter Rye, 1905, p. 130.

{11}  "A New Catalogue of the Books in the Publick Library of the City of
Norwich, in the year 1732," pp. iii-iv.

{13a}  Typewritten copy in the Norwich Public Library (vol. 2 p. 217) of
the manuscript of Mackerell's "History of Norwich," in the possession of
J. H. Gurney, Esq., J.P., F.Z.S., of Keswick Hall, Norwich.

{13b}  Assembly Book, Sept. 21st, 1801.

{13c}  Assembly Book, May 3rd, 1805.

{14}  "Catalogue of the Books belonging to the Public Library and to the
City Library of Norwich," 1825, p. xxvi.

{15a}  "Second Catalogue of the Library of the Norfolk and Norwich
Literary Institution," 1825, p. I.

{15b}  _Norfolk Chronicle_, July 12th, 1856, p. 2.

{15c}  _ib_.

{15d}  _Norfolk Chronicle_ and _Norwich Mercury_, Nov. 22nd, 1856.

{17}  _Norwich Mercury_, March 21st, 1868, p. 3.

{20a}  F. Blomefield's "Norfolk," vol. 3, 1806, p. 366.

{20b}  "Norfolk and Norwich Notes and Queries," First Series, 1896-99, p.

{22}  F. Blomefield's "Norfolk," vol. 3, 1806, p. 414.

{24}  "Dictionary of National Biography," vol. 33, 1893, p. 37.

{25a}  "Letters written by eminent persons in the 17th and 18th
centuries," vol. 2, 1813, p. 104.

{25b}  Mayoralty Court, 9th Jan., 1677/8.

{25c}  Kirkpatrick's "History of the Religious Orders . . . of Norwich,
written about the year 1725," 1845, p. 81.

{35}  It is interesting to note that in the critical part of this work
Raleigh was assisted by the Rev. Robert Burhill, rector of Northwold,
Norfolk, 1622-41.

{38}  In the "Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, Charles I.,
1628-29," p. 188, it is stated that he translated the English Liturgy
into French.

{40}  This is undoubtedly the shelf-mark of the Norwich Public Library.

{43}  John Dury's "The Reformed Librarie-Keeper" (Chicago), 1906, p. 45.

{47}  The Library contains one copy, the Bodleian Library has two copies,
and there is one in the Norfolk and Norwich Library.

{50a}  "Catalogus Librorum in Bibliotheca Norvicensi," 1883.

{50b}  Henry Harrod's "Castles and Convents of Norfolk," 1857, p. 82.

{51}  Kirkpatnck's "History of the Religious Orders . . . of Norwich,
written about the year 1725," 1845, p. 57.

{53a}  Probably purchased with her donation of 20 pounds.

{53b}  Probably purchased with his donation of 5 pounds.

{53c}  This entry is not in the Vellum Book, but is in the Minute Book.

{53d}  Probably purchased with his legacy of 20 pounds.

{54a}  Vellum Book adds: "And other money from many others received with
which four books were purchased."

{54b}  Ten books were purchased with the donations from Brigges, 5
pounds, Wisse, 3 pounds, and Church, 3 pounds.

{55a}  "More than 100 books."--Vellum Book.

{55a}  "Several law books and others."--Vellum Book.

{55a}  The Vellum Book states that he gave "More than three score books."

{55a}  The Minute Book states: Mr. Clayton brought in "History of
Parliament," being the gift of the author.

{59}  This trowel is now in the possession of Miss Lucy Bignold of
Norwich, who has kindly promised to lend it to the Public Library
Committee in connection with an exhibition of books and prints
illustrative of the history and work of the Library, which will be held
on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the opening of the Library.

{70}  Annual Report, 1907-8, pp. 3-4.

{84}  Published in the "Readers' Guide," vol. 5, no. 3, 1916, and
reprinted as a pamphlet.


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