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Title: The Plattsburg Manual
       A Handbook for Military Training

Author: O.O. Ellis and E.B. Garey

Release Date: October 16, 2006 [EBook #19552]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII

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THE

PLATTSBURG MANUAL

A HANDBOOK FOR MILITARY TRAINING

BY

O. O. ELLIS MAJOR, UNITED STATES INFANTRY

AND

E. B. GAREY MAJOR, UNITED STATES INFANTRY

(INSTRUCTORS, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP, 1916) (INSTRUCTORS, OFFICERS'
TRAINING CAMP, FT. MCPHERSON, GA., 1917) (INSTRUCTORS, OFFICERS'
TRAINING CAMP, FT. OGLETHORPE, GA., 1917)

WITH MORE THAN 220 ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK THE CENTURY CO. 1918




Copyright, 1917, by
The Century Co.

Published, March, 1917
Second Edition, March, 1917
Third Edition, April, 1917
Fourth Edition, April, 1917
Fifth Edition, May, 1917
Sixth Edition, May, 1917
Seventh Edition, August, 1917
Eighth Edition. September, 1917
Ninth Edition, January, 1918
Tenth Edition, May, 1918




TO
THOSE FAR-SEEING MEN
WHO INAUGURATED AND ATTENDED THE
FIRST FEDERAL TRAINING CAMP
THIS TEXT IS RESPECTFULLY
DEDICATED




FOREWORD


The Plattsburg Manual, written by Majors Ellis and Garey, will prove
very useful to men who are contemplating military training. It will also
be of great value to those who are undergoing training.

It is full of practical information presented in a simple and direct
manner and gives in detail much data not easily found elsewhere. It is a
useful book, easily understandable by those who have had little or no
military experience.

It will be useful not only at training camps but it will be of very
great value at schools and colleges where military instruction is being
given.

The authors of this book have performed a valuable service, one which
will tend to facilitate and aid very much the development of military
training in this country. In addition to the purely mechanical details
of training the book presents in a very effective and simple manner the
tactical use of troops under various conditions.

In a word it is a useful and sound work and one which can be commended
to those who contemplate a course in military training.

(Signed) Leonard Wood,
Major General U. S. A.

February 27, 1917.




PREFACE


This book is intended to serve as a foundation upon which the military
beginner may build so that he may in time be able to study the technical
service manuals intelligently. It has been written as an elementary
textbook for those who desire to become Reserve Officers, for schools
and colleges, and for those who may be called to the colors.

The authors have commanded companies at Plattsburg, New York, and,
noting the need of such a text, compiled their observations while there.

The average man undergoing military training wants to know as much as
possible about the art and science of war. He wants to acquire a good
knowledge of the principles involved. He is interested in the technique
of movements. He is willing to work for these things, but he often
becomes lost in confusion when he attempts to study the technical
service manuals. He does not know how to select the most important and
omit the less important. The authors have selected from the standard
texts some of the vitally important subjects and principles and have
presented them to the civilian in a simple and plain way.

The first part of the text is for the beginner. It tells him how to
prepare physically for strenuous military work. After assisting him
through the elementary part of his instruction, it presents for his
consideration and study the Officers' Reserve Corps.

The second part, or supplement, is a more technical discussion of those
subjects introduced in the first. It is intended principally for those
who have made excellent progress.




CONTENTS


   I General Advice                                           3
  II Physical Exercise                                       21
 III School of the Soldier                                   28
  IV School of the Squad                                     63
   V School of the Company                                   86
  VI Fire Superiority                                       130
 VII The Service of Security                                136
VIII Attack and Defense                                     144
  IX General Principles of Target Practice                  153
   X Practice March or "Hike"                               159
  XI Officers' Reserve Corps                                169


SUPPLEMENT


   I The Theory of Security                                 221
  II Attack and Defense                                     242
 III Patrolling                                             254
  IV Target Practice                                        260
   V Tent Pitching                                          292
  VI Signals and Codes                                      297
 VII First Aid to the Injured                               309

     Appendixes                                             321

     Index                                                  331




THE PLATTSBURG MANUAL




CHAPTER I

GENERAL ADVICE



The United States is divided geographically into military departments
with a general officer commanding each department. The departments and
their headquarters are as follows:

     (1) The Northeastern Department, with headquarters at Boston,
         Massachusetts.

     (2) The Eastern Department, with headquarters at Governors Island,
         New York.

     (3) The Southeastern Department, with Headquarters at Charleston,
         South Carolina.

     (4) The Central Department, with Headquarters at Chicago, Illinois.

     (5) The Southern Department, with Headquarters at Fort Sam Houston,
         Texas.

     (6) The Western Department, with Headquarters at San Francisco,
         California.

     Overseas    { (7) The Philippine Department, with Headquarters at
     Departments {     Manila.
                 {
                 { (8) The Hawaiian Department, Departments with
                 {     Headquarters at Honolulu, Hawaii.

(For States comprising each department, see Appendix)

If you are a civilian and desire any information in regard to the army,
any training camps, the officers' reserve corps, or any military
legislation or orders affecting you, write to the "Commanding General"
of the Department in which you live. Address your letter to him at his
headquarters.



MAIL


Mail is most often delayed because there is not sufficient information
for the Postmaster on the envelope. The delivery of your mail will be
delayed unless your letters are sent to the company and the regiment to
which you belong. Therefore, prepare, before you reach camp, several
stamped postal cards, addressed to your family and business associates,
containing directions to address all communications to you care of
Company----, Regiment----. As soon as you are assigned to a company and
regiment, fill in these data and mail these postal cards at once. This
should be done by wire in case important mail is expected during the
first week of camp. Mail is delivered to each company as soon as a
complete roll of the organizations can be made out and sent to the
post-office.



INOCULATIONS AND VACCINATION


As soon as you become a member of the army, whether as a private or as
an officer, you will receive the typhoid prophylaxis inoculation and be
vaccinated against smallpox.



WHAT TO BRING


    1. Travel light. Bring only the bare necessities of life with you.
    Don't bring a trunk. Enlisted men (not officers) will be supplied
    with all necessary uniforms and underwear. This includes shoes.

    2. Bring a pair of sneakers, or slippers. They will add greatly to
    your comfort after a long march or hard day's work. A complete
    bathing suit often comes in handy.

    3. Report in uniform if you have one.

    4. The Government will provide you with the necessary shoes.
    However, if you can afford it, buy before you report for duty, a
    pair of regulation tan shoes, larger than you ordinarily wear, and
    break them in well before arrival. Rubber heels are recommended.

    5. Bring your toilet articles (comb, brush, mirror shaving
    equipment, etc.), and a good supply of handkerchiefs, and towels.



WHAT TO DO ON YOUR ARRIVAL


There is a general rule of procedure to follow in reporting for duty at
any post or training camp.

    1. If you receive an order directing you to report for duty at a
    camp or post at a certain specified time, read it carefully, put it
    in a secure place, and, on the day that you are to report for duty
    at the camp or post, present yourself in uniform, if you have one,
    with your order. Be careful not to lose your order or leave it at
    home. Have it in your pocket book.

    2. Upon being assigned to a company, unless you receive orders to
    the contrary, report at once with your baggage to your company
    commander (captain), whom you can easily find when you reach your
    barracks or company street. If you cannot locate your company
    commander, report to the first sergeant.

    3. It is a custom of the service to have an experienced soldier
    explain to a new man exactly where he is to go and what he is to do.
    Feel no embarrassment at being ignorant of your new duties and
    surroundings. The Government does not expect anything of you except
    eagerness to learn and willingness to obey.

    4. After reporting to your company commander or first sergeant, you
    will have a bed assigned to you and you will be issued the property
    and uniforms necessary to your comfort and duties. Check your
    property carefully as it is issued to you. You will have to sign for
    all of it. Look after your property at all times.

    5. After checking your property, make up your bed and arrange neatly
    your personal and issued property on or under your bed or cot.

    6. Spend all your spare time cleaning your rifle and bayonet until
    they satisfy your company commander. Then keep them clean.

    7. Don't leave the company street or barracks on the first day,
    except with the permission of your company commander. Don't ask for
    this permission unless you have a valid reason.



RULES OF CONDUCT FOR CAMP LIFE


The first few days will be easy and profitable if you will read
carefully and adhere to the following plan of procedure:

    1. Get up at the first note of reveille and get quickly into proper
    uniform.

    2. Get within two or three feet of your place in ranks and await the
    sounding of assembly for reveille and then step into ranks.

    3. Stand at attention after the first sergeant commands "Fall In."
    Remember that this command is equivalent to "Company, Attention."

    4. After reveille, make up your bed, arrange neatly your equipment,
    and clean up the ground under and around your cot. The company
    commander will require the beds made up and the equipment arranged
    in a prescribed way.

    5. Wash for breakfast.

    6. Upon returning from breakfast, go at once to the toilet. Next,
    prepare the equipment prescribed to be worn to drill. This is
    especially important when the full pack is prescribed. Assist your
    tent mates in policing the ground in and around your tent.

    7. If you need medical attention give your name to the first
    sergeant at reveille and report to him at his tent upon your return
    from breakfast. Don't wait until you are sick to report to the
    hospital, but go as soon as you feel in the least unwell.

    8. When the first call for drill is blown, put on your equipment,
    inspect your bed and property to see that everything is in order,
    and then go to your place in ranks.

    9. After the morning drill, get ready for dinner. Get a little rest
    at this time if possible.

    10. After dinner a short rest is usually allowed before the
    afternoon drill. Take advantage of this opportunity; get off your
    feet and rest. Be quiet so that your tent mates may rest.

    11. Following the afternoon drill there is a short intermission
    before the ceremony of retreat. During this time take a quick bath,
    shave, get into the proper uniform for retreat, shine your shoes and
    brush your clothes and hat. Be the neatest man in the company.

    12. Supper usually follows retreat.

    13. After supper, you usually have some spare time until taps. The
    Y. M. C. A. generally provides a place supplied with Bibles,
    newspapers, good magazines, and writing material. Don't be ashamed
    to read the Bible. Don't forget to write to the folks back home.

    14. Be in bed with lights out at taps. After taps and before
    reveille, remain silent, thus showing consideration for those who
    are sleeping or trying to sleep.

    15. Consult the company bulletin board at least twice daily. On this
    bulletin board is usually found the following information:

        (a) A list of calls.
        (b) The proper uniform for each formation.
        (c) Schedule of drills.
        (d) Special orders and instructions.

    16. Get all your orders from (a) the bulletin board, (b) the first
    sergeant, (c) the acting noncommissioned officers, (d) the company
    commander. Don't put much faith in rumors.



ADVICE REGARDING HABITS


Your life in camp in regard to food, exercise, hours of sleep,
surroundings, and comforts, will differ greatly from that you lead as a
civilian. You will submit your body to a sudden, severe, physical test.
In order to prepare your body for this change in manner of living and
work, we recommend that for a short time prior to your arrival in camp,
and thereafter, you observe the following suggestions:

     1. Use no alcohol of any kind.

     2. Stop smoking, or at least be temperate in the use of tobacco.

     3. Eat and drink moderately. Chew your food well. It is advisable,
     however, to drink a great deal of cool (not cold) water between
     meals.

     4. Don't eat between meals.

     5. Accustom yourself to regular hours as to sleeping, eating, and
     the morning functions.

     6. Keep away from all soda fountains and soft drink stands.

     7. For at least two weeks prior to your arrival at camp, take
     regularly the exercises described in this book.

Most men are troubled with their feet during the first week of each
camp, usually because they do not observe the following precautions:

     1. If you have ever had trouble with the arches of your feet, wear
        braces for them.

     2. Lace your shoe as tightly as comfort will permit.

     3. Wash the feet daily.

     4. Every morning shake a little talcum powder or "Foot Ease" in
        each shoe.

     5. Each morning put on a fresh pair of socks. Your socks should fit
        the feet so neatly that no wrinkles remain in them and yet not be
        so tight that they bind the foot. Do not wear a sock with a hole in
        it or one that has been darned.

     6. Some men cannot wear light wool socks with comfort. Do not wear
        silk or cotton socks until you have given light wool socks a fair
        trial.

     7. In case of a blister, treat it as directed in Chapter X.

     8. Most of the foot troubles are caused by wearing shoes that do
        not fit properly. If the shoe is too large it rubs blisters, if too
        small it cramps the foot and causes severe pain. Marching several
        hours while carrying about thirty pounds of equipment causes each
        foot to expand at least one half a size in length and
        correspondingly in breadth; hence the size of the shoe you wear in
        the office will be too small for training camp use. If you have
        been living a sedentary life, ask for a pair of shoes larger than
        you ordinarily wear.

     9. In case the tendon in your heel becomes tender, report at once
        to the hospital tent and get it strapped.



A DISCIPLINED SOLDIER


You will be expected to become quickly amenable both mentally and
physically to discipline. A clear conception on your part of what drills
are disciplinary in character and what discipline really is, will help
you to become a disciplined soldier. Drills executed at attention are
disciplinary exercises and are designed to teach precise and soldierly
movements and to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience which
is essential to proper military control. Hence, all corrections should
be given and received in an impersonal manner. Never forget that you
lose your identity as an individual when you step into ranks; you then
become merely a unit of a mass. As soon as you obey properly, promptly,
and, at times, unconsciously, the commands of your officers, as soon as
you can cheerfully give up pleasures and personal privileges that
conflict with the new order of life to which you have submitted, you
will then have become a disciplined man.



DRESS


The uniform you will wear stands for Duty, Honor, and Country. You
should not disgrace it by the way you wear it or by your conduct any
more than you would trample the flag of the United States of America
under foot. You must constantly bear in mind that in our country a
military organization is too often judged by the acts of a few of its
members. When one or two soldiers in uniform conduct themselves in an
ungentlemanly or unmilitary manner to the disgrace of the uniform, the
layman shakes his head and condemns all men wearing that uniform. Hence,
show by the way in which you wear your uniform that you are proud of it;
this can be best accomplished by observing the following rules:

     1. Carry yourself at all times as though you were proud of
        yourself, your uniform, and your country.

     2. Wear your hat so that the brim is parallel to the ground.

     3. Have all buttons fastened.

     4. Never have sleeves rolled up.

     5. Never wear sleeve holders.

     6. Never leave shirt or coat unbuttoned at the throat.

     7. Have leggins and trousers properly laced.

     8. Keep shoes shined.

     9. Always be clean shaved.

    10. Keep head up and shoulders square.

    11. Camp life has a tendency to make one careless as to personal
        cleanliness. Bear this in mind.



SALUTING


The military salute is universal. It is at foundation but a courteous
recognition between two individuals of their common fellowship in the
same honorable profession, the profession of arms. Regulations require
that it be rendered by both the senior and the junior, as bare courtesy
requires between gentlemen in civil life. It is the military equivalent
of the laymen's expressions "Good Morning," or "How do you do?"
Therefore be punctilious about saluting; be proud of the manner in which
you execute your salute, and make it indicative of discipline and good
breeding. Always look at the officer you are saluting. The junior
salutes first. It is very unmilitary to salute with the left hand in a
pocket, or with a cigarette, cigar, or pipe in the mouth. Observe the
following general rules:

     1. Never salute an officer when you are in ranks.

     2. Indoors (in your tent) unarmed, do not salute but stand at
        attention, uncovered, on the entrance of an officer. If he speaks
        to you, then salute.

     3. Indoors, armed, render the prescribed salute, i.e., the rifle
        salute at order arms or at trail.

     4. Outdoors, armed, render the prescribed salute, i.e., the rifle
        salute at right shoulder arms.

     5. Outdoors, unarmed, or armed with side arms, salute with the
        right hand.



ARMY SLANG


The following army slang is universally employed:

     "Bunkie"--the soldier who shares the shelter half or tent of a
     comrade in the field. A bunkie looks after his comrade's property
     in the event the latter is absent.

     "Doughboy"--the infantryman.

     "French leave"--unauthorized absence.

     "Holy Joe"--the chaplain.

     "K.O."--the commanding officer.

     "On the carpet"--a call before the commanding officer for
     admonition.

     "Q.M."--quartermaster.

     "Rookie"--a new recruit.

     "Sand rat"--a soldier on duty in the rifle pit during target
     practice.

     "Top sergeant"--the first sergeant.

     "Come and get it"--the meal is ready to be served.



HOW TO CLEAN A RIFLE AND BAYONET


Get a rag and rub the heavy grease off; then get a soft pine stick,
pointed at one end, and with this point remove the grease from the
cracks, crevices and corners. Clean the bore from the breech. When the
heavy grease has been removed, the metal part of the gun, bore included,
should be covered with a light coating of "3-in-1" oil. Heavy grease can
be removed from the rifle by rubbing it with a rag which has been
saturated with gasoline or coal oil.



FRIENDS


There are a few men in all companies who play, loaf, and who are
constantly in trouble. As the good men in each company will not become
friendly with them, they seek their acquaintances among the new men on
whom they have a baneful influence. We wish to warn you about making
friends too quickly.



FINAL SUGGESTIONS


Don't be profane or tell questionable stories to your bunkies or around
the company. There is a much greater number of silent and unprotesting
men in camp than is generally supposed, to whom this is offensive. Keep
everything on a high plane.




CHAPTER II[1]

Read this chapter as soon as you decide to attend a Camp.



PHYSICAL EXERCISE


The greatest problem you will have to solve will be that of making your
body do the work required. Every one else will be doing exactly what you
are doing, and you have too much pride to want to take even a shorter
step than the man by your side. Some men have to leave the training
camps because they are not in the proper physical condition to go on
with the work. If this chapter is taken as seriously as it should be, it
will be of great help to you.

If you have not a pair of sensible marching shoes (tan, high-tops, no
hooks on them) get a pair. These shoes should be considerably larger
than a pair of office shoes.

Walk to and from your business. Take every opportunity to get out in the
country where the air is pure. Fill your lungs full. Get into the habit
of taking deep breaths now and then. Don't make this a task, but
surround it with pleasantries. Get some delightful companion to walk
with you. Walk vigorously.

Let down on your smoking. Better to leave it alone for a while. You will
enjoy the air. Deep breathing seems to be more natural.

Make it a work for your country. View it in that light. If you are not
going to be called upon to undergo the cruel hardships and physical
strain of some campaigns, your son will be, and you can be of great help
to him by being fit yourself. You and your sons will form the backbone
of America's strength in her next peril.

You will have a great deal of walking after you arrive in camp, possibly
a great deal more than you have ever had, and probably a great deal more
than you expect, even with this word of warning. If you have failed to
provide yourself with proper shoes and socks, great will be the price of
your lack of forethought. You will wince at your own blisters. You will
get no sympathy from any one else. It is the spirit of the camp for each
man to bear his own burdens. So arrive at camp with hardened legs and
broken in shoes. Don't buy shoes with pointed or narrow toes. They
should be broad and airy.

Immediately after you arise in the morning and just before you retire at
night, go through the following exercises for two or three minutes. In a
short time you may want to make it more. No objection. Give it a fair
trial. Be brisk and energetic. Forget, for the time being, what you are
going to get out of it. Give and then give more. The result will take
care of itself.


1st Exercise

Involving practically every important muscle in the body.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2]

From first position spring to second position; instantly return to first
position and continue.

Be light on your feet. Alight on your toes. Begin with a limited number
of times. Day by day increase it a little until you reach a fair number.
Be most moderate at first. Never allow yourself in any exercise to
become greatly fatigued.


2d Exercise

To reduce waist, strengthen back muscles, and become limber.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2]

Assume position No. 1.

Swing to position (No. 2), return at once to No. 1, and continue.

Shoot your head and arms as far through your legs as your conformation
permits.


3rd Exercise

To harden leg muscles and exercise joints.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2]

From position No. 1 come to position No. 2. Return at once to No. 1 and
continue.

Toes turned well out. Body and head erect. Up with a slight spring.
After a little practice, you will have no difficulty with this exercise
in balancing yourself.


4th Exercise

To exercise arms and shoulders and organs of chest and shoulder muscles.

[Illustration: No. 1]

From position No. 1 thrust arms forward to position No. 2, and return at
once to position No. 1.

[Illustration: No. 2]

Vary by thrusting arms downward, sideward and upward. Be moderate at
first. Grow more vigorous with practice.


5th Exercise

[Illustration: No. 1]

To strengthen ankles and insteps.

From position No. 1 rise on the toes to position No. 2, return at once
to position No. 1, and continue.

Go up on your toes as high as you can.

[Illustration: No. 2]




CHAPTER III

SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER

Based on the Infantry Drill Regulations



Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training; hence
the excellence of an organization is judged by its field efficiency.
Your instruction will be progressive in character, and will have as its
ultimate purpose the creation of a company measuring up to a high
standard of field efficiency.

The Preparatory Command, such as Forward, indicates the movement that is
to be executed.

The Command of Execution, such as MARCH, HALT, or ARMS, commences the
execution of the movement.

Preparatory Commands are distinguished by bold face, those of execution
by capitals. As, 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

The average man understands better and learns faster when you show him
how a thing is done. Don't be content with telling him how. Bear this in
mind when you become an instructor.

On account of the absence of the Regular Army on the border, it was not
practical to obtain photographs of regular troops with which to
illustrate this book. The photographs used were taken under the direct
supervision of the authors.



POSITION OF A SOLDIER AT ATTENTION


[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 CORRECT POSITION]

No. 1. Eyes to the front. Hands hang naturally. Rest weight of the body
equally on feet. Feet turned out making angles of 45 deg..

No. 2. Head erect. Shoulders down and back. Chest out. Stomach up. Thumb
along the seams of trousers. Knees straight, not stiff. Heels on line
and together. Do not stiffen the fingers: The mind ought also to be at
attention.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 INCORRECT POSITIONS]

No. 1. Don't gaze about. That's not playing the game. Don't turn your
feet out making an angle of 100 deg..

No. 2. Don't slouch. Hold yourself up. Keep your eyes off the ground.

These are the common errors of beginners.


1. Parade, 2. REST.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 CORRECT POSITION]

No. 1. Clasp hands without constraint in front of center of body. Left
hand uppermost. Fingers joined. Thumb and fore finger right hand clasps
the left thumb.

No. 2. Bend left knee slightly. Right foot is carried 6 inches straight
to the rear.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 INCORRECT POSITIONS]

No. 1. Not looking straight to the front. Right foot not carried
straight to the rear.

No. 2. Leaning back too far. Right foot carried back too far.


1. Hand, 2. SALUTE.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 CORRECT POSITION]

No. 1. Look toward the person saluted.

No. 2. Tip of forefinger right hand touches cap or hat above right eye.
Thumb and forefingers extended and joined. Hand and wrist straight. Palm
to the left.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 INCORRECT POSITIONS OR COMMON ERRORS]

No. 1. Palm of the hand to the front and fingers not joined.

No. 2. Arm held too high. Fingers not perfectly joined.

No. 3. Fingers not extended and joined. Left hand not by side while
salute is being made.

Some beginners forget, while saluting, to remove their pipes,
cigarettes, or cigars from their mouths. This proves clearly that they
are beginners, for trained and experienced men are careful about
military honors and salutes.



THE RESTS


Being at a halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; AT EASE; and 1.
Parade, 2. REST.

At the command fall out, the men may leave the ranks, but are required
to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their former places, at
attention, at the command fall in.

At the command rest, each man keeps one foot in place, but is not
required to preserve silence or immobility.

At the command at ease, each man keeps one foot in place and is required
to preserve silence, but not immobility.


1. Parade, 2. REST. Previously explained.

To resume the attention: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. The men take the
position of the soldier.



EYES RIGHT OR LEFT


1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT.

[Illustration]

At the command right, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed on
the line of eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same rank. At
the command front, turn the head and eyes to the front. Notice the right
file does not turn the eyes to the right.



FACINGS


To the flank: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE.

[Illustration]

Raise slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right, turning
on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of the left
foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. Left face is
executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner.

Right (left) Half Face is executed similarly, facing 45 deg..

To the rear: 1. About, 2. FACE.

Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the rear and
slightly to the left of the left heel without changing the position of
the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the right on the left heel
and right toe; place the right heel by the side of the left. There is no
left about face.



STEPS AND MARCHINGS


All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except right step, begin
with the left foot.

The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured from
heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps per minute.

The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence is
at the rate of 180 steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step by
calling one, two, three, four, or left, right, the instant the left and
right foot, respectively, should be planted.

All steps and marchings and movements involving march are executed in
quick time unless the squad be marching in double time, or double
time be added to the command; in the latter case double time is added
to the preparatory command. Example: 1. Squad right, double time, 2.
MARCH (School of the Squad).



QUICK TIME


Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

At the command forward, shift the weight of the body to the right leg,
left knee straight.

At the command march, move the left foot smartly straight forward 30
inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it without shock;
next, in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as above;
continue the march. The arms swing naturally.

Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double time: 1.
Double time, 2. MARCH.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the
right leg. At the command march, raise the forearms, fingers closed, to
a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run with the
step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging motion to
the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command march, given as either foot
strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step off in
double time.

To resume the quick time: 1. Quick time, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, advance
and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick time, dropping
the hands by the sides.



TO MARK TIME


Being in march: 1. Mark time, 2. MARCH. At the command march, given as
either foot strikes the ground, advance and plant the other foot; bring
up the foot in rear and continue the cadence by alternately raising each
foot about 2 inches and planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command march, raise and plant the feet as
prescribed above. Common errors are to raise the feet several inches and
to run up the cadence, i.e., go too fast.

1. Half step, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double time.

Forward, half step, halt, and mark time may be executed one from the
other in quick or double time. Any step less than the full step (i.e.,
half step, right step, or backward) is apt to be too fast, i.e., greater
than 120 steps a minute.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: 1. Forward, 2.
MARCH.



SIDE STEP


Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Right (left) step, 2. MARCH.

Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring the left
foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed in
double time.

If at order arms, the side step is executed at trail without command.



BACK STEP


Being at a halt or mark time: 1. Backward, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear.

The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed in
double time.

If at order arms, the back step is executed at trail without command.



TO HALT


To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. Squad, 2. HALT.

At the command halt, given as either foot strikes the ground, plant the
other foot as in marching; raise and place the first foot by the side of
the other. If in double time, drop the hands by the sides.



TO MARCH BY THE FLANK


Being in march: 1. By the right (left) flank, 2. MARCH.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2]

The command march must be given when the right foot is on the ground as
shown in No. 1. Then advance and plant the left foot and turn on the
toes to right as shown in No. 2, and step off with the right foot.



TO MARCH TO THE REAR


Being in march: 1. To the rear, 2. MARCH.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2]

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the balls of
both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

The turn is made on the toes as shown.

The command march must be given when the right foot is on the ground.
The left foot is then advanced to the position shown.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four steps
in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the left foot.



CHANGE STEP


Being in march; 1. Change step, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot near
the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the command march
being given as the left foot strikes the ground.



MANUAL OF ARMS


To acquire proficiency in the Manual of Arms, you should practice,
practice, and practice.

Position of order arms standing, i.e., the position of attention under
arms.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 CORRECT POSITION]

No. 1. Arm and hands hang naturally. Right hand holding piece between
thumb and fingers. Butt rests evenly on ground. Barrel to the rear.

No. 2. Toe of the butt on a line with toe of and touching the right
shoe.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions: "By
the Numbers"; all movements divided into motions, are then executed
singly. That is to say, make one motion and then wait until a further
command for another. This is for the purpose of correcting erroneous
positions and giving detailed instructions. We are explaining the manual
by the numbers.

[Illustration: FIRST POSITION OF PRESENT ARMS FROM ORDER ARMS]

Being at order arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. It takes two counts.

At command arms, with the right hand carry the piece in front of the
center of the body. Barrel to the rear and vertical. Grasp it with left
hand at the balance. Left forearm is horizontal and rests against body.
The balance of the piece is approximately the position of the rear
sight.

[Illustration: CORRECT POSITION OF PRESENT ARMS]

At command two, grasp the small of the stock with the right hand.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 No. 3

INCORRECT POSITION OF PRESENT ARMS

These are the common errors made by beginners.]

No. 1. Thumb along barrel.

No. 2. Piece held too low. The front sight will be a little above the
eyes when the left fore arm is horizontal.

No. 3. Piece not vertical; too close to body.



Being at order arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. It takes one count.

[Illustration: CORRECT POSITION OF PORT ARMS]

At the command ARMS, with the right hand raise and throw the piece
diagonally across the body, grasp it smartly with both hands; the right;
palm down, at the small of stock; the left, palm up, at the balance;
barrel up, sloping to the left and crossing opposite the junction of the
neck with the left shoulder; right forearm horizontal; left forearm
resting against the body. The rifle is held in a vertical plane parallel
to the front.

In executing this movement, it is a common error with beginners to raise
the piece as though it weighed much more than it does. No part of the
body should move except the arms, in coming to "port arms" from "order
arms."

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 INCORRECT POSITIONS OF PORT ARMS]

No. 1. Arms held away from side.

No. 2. Piece held too low and too close to body.

No. 3. Piece held too high and not in a vertical plane parallel to the
body.

Being at present arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. It is executed in one count. At
the command arms, carry the piece diagonally across the body and take
the position of "port arms."

Being at port arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. It is executed in one count. At
the command arms, carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the
center of the body and take the position of present arms.

Being at present or port arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS. It is executed in two
counts.

[Illustration: NEXT TO THE LAST POSITION OF ORDER ARMS]

At the command arms, let go with the right hand; lower and carry the
piece to the right with the left hand; regrasp it with the right hand
just above the lower band; let go with the left hand and take the
position shown here, which is the next to the last position in coming to
the order. The left hand should be above and near the right, steadying
the gun, fingers extended and joined, forearm and wrist straight and
inclined downward. Barrel to the rear. All the fingers of the right hand
grasp the gun. Butt about 3 inches from the ground.

Being in the above position, at the command Two, lower the piece gently
to the ground with the right hand, drop the left hand quickly by the
side, and take the position of order arms.

The common errors are to slam the gun down on the ground and to drop the
left hand by the side in a slow and indifferent manner.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 INCORRECT POSITIONS]

Common errors in the next to the last positions of order arms.

No. 1. Thumb is up. Gun too far from the ground.

No. 2. Gun too near to ground. Thumb is up. Butt of gun too far to the
right.

No. 3. Gun held too high and too far away from body.

Being at order arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. It is executed in three
counts.

At the command arms, with the right hand raise and throw the piece
diagonally across the body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt,
and at the same time grasp the heel between the first two fingers as
shown. Note the position of the first two fingers of right hand.

[Illustration: THE FIRST POSITION OF RIGHT SHOULDER ARMS FROM THE ORDER]

At the command two, without changing the grasp of the right hand, place
the piece on the right shoulder, right elbow near the side, the piece in
a vertical plane perpendicular to the front; carry the left hand, thumb
and fingers extended and joined, to the small of the stock, wrist
straight and elbow down. Barrel up, and inclined at an angle of about
45 deg. from the horizontal. Trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder,
tip of forefinger touching the cocking piece. Right fore arm horizontal.

[Illustration: NEXT TO THE LAST POSITION OF RIGHT SHOULDER ARMS]

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 No. 3  COMMON ERRORS IN THE NEXT TO THE LAST
POSITION OF RIGHT SHOULDER ARMS]

No. 1. Right arms not by side. Left arm too high. Remember that the left
arm rests on the chest. This is very commonly confused with the rifle
salute.

No. 2. Thumb is up. Butt of rifle carried to the right.

No. 3. Trigger guard not against shoulder. Butt held too low. Hand not
straight.

[Illustration: CORRECT POSITION OF RIGHT SHOULDER ARMS]

At the command three, drop the left hand by the side.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 No. 3

INCORRECT POSITION OF RIGHT SHOULDER ARMS]

No. 1. Right arm not by side. Right forearm not horizontal.

No. 2. Heel of gun too far to left.

No. 3. Trigger guard not against shoulder. Butt held too low.

Being at right shoulder Arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS. It is executed in 3
counts.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the gun diagonally across the
body, to the position shown here.

At the command two, lower the gun and assume the next to the last
position of order arms. At the command three, come to the order arms.

The common errors in this movement are to move the head to the left and
to throw the gun too far to the front.

[Illustration]

Being at port arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. It is executed in three
counts.

At the command arms, change the right hand to the butt.

At the command two and three, come to the right shoulder as from order
arms.

Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. It is executed in two
counts.

At the command arms, press the butt down quickly and throw the piece to
the diagonal position across the body with the left hand grasping it at
the balance; the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt.

At the command two, change the right hand to the small of the stock.

Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. It is executed in
three counts.

At the command arms, execute port arms. (This requires two counts.) At
the command three, execute present arms.

Being at present arms: 1. Right shoulder, 2. ARMS. It is executed in
four counts.

At the command arms, execute port arms. At the command two, three, four,
execute right shoulder arms as from port arms.

Being at port arms: 1. Left shoulder, 2. ARMS. It is executed in two
counts.

[Illustration: THE NEXT TO THE LAST POSITION OF THE LEFT SHOULDER ARMS]

At the command ARMS, carry the piece with the right hand and place it on
the left shoulder; at the same time grasp the butt with the left hand,
heel between first and second fingers. Thumb and fingers of right hand
closed on the stock. Barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the
shoulder.

[Illustration: No. 1 No. 2 No.3

COMMON ERRORS IN THE NEXT TO THE LAST POSITION OF LEFT SHOULDER ARMS]

No. 1. Right arm too high. Butt too high.

No. 2. Butt too close to center of body. Not grasping gun correctly with
fingers of left hand.

No. 3. Right arm too high. Butt too high.

At the command two, drop the right hand by the side.

[Illustration: THE CORRECT POSITION OF LEFT SHOULDER ARMS]

The incorrect positions are usually the same as are found in the right
shoulder arms, and as illustrated here.

[Illustration]

Being at left shoulder arms: 1. Port, 2. ARMS. It is executed in two
counts.

At the command arms, grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of
the stock.

At the command two, carry the piece, with the right hand to the position
of port arms, regrasp it with the left.

Left shoulder arms may be ordered from the order, right shoulder or
present, or the reverse. At the command arms, execute port arms and
continue to the position ordered.

Being at order arms: 1. Parade, 2. REST. It is executed in one count.

At the command rest, carry muzzle in front of the center of the body,
barrel to the left. Grasp piece with the left hand just below the
stacking swivel, and with the right hand below and against the left.
Left knee slightly bent. Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the
rear.

[Illustration: CORRECT POSITION OF PARADE REST]

Being at parade rest: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. Executed in one count.

At the command attention (it is a custom of the service to execute the
movement at the last syllable of the command), resume the order, the
left hand quitting the piece opposite the right hip.

Being at order arms: 1. Trail, 2. ARMS.

At the command arms, raise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and
incline the muzzle forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about
30 deg. with the vertical.

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to others, the piece
may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered until the piece is
horizontal; a similar position in the left hand may be used.

[Illustration: CORRECT POSITION OF TRAIL ARMS

Being at trail arms: 1. Order, 2. ARMS.

At the command arms, lower the gun with the right hand and resume the
order.]

Being at right shoulder arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE. It is executed in two
counts.

At the command salute, carry the left hand smartly to the small of the
stock, forearm horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers joined,
forefinger touching end of cocking piece. Look toward the person
saluted. At the command two, drop the hand by the side; turn the head
and eyes to the front.

[Illustration: THE CORRECT POSITION OF RIFLE SALUTE, BEING AT RIGHT
SHOULDER ARMS.]

[Illustration: COMMON ERRORS IN RIFLE SALUTE AT RIGHT SHOULDER ARMS.

No. 1. Left elbow too low. Forearm should be horizontal.

No. 2. Left elbow too high. Fingers not extended and joined.]

Being at order or trail arms: 1. Rifle, 2. SALUTE.

At the command salute, carry the left hand smartly to the right side,
palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger
against piece near the muzzle; look toward the person saluted. At the
command two, drop the left hand by the side; turn the head and eyes to
the front.

[Illustration: RIFLE SALUTE BEING AT ORDER ARMS]

[Illustration: COMMON ERRORS IN RIFLE SALUTE AT ORDER OR TRAIL ARMS

No. 1. Fingers not extended and joined.

No. 2. Fingers not joined. Gun held too high.]

Being at order arms: 1. Fix, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: execute parade rest;
grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand toward the body;
draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the barrel, glancing at
the muzzle; resume the order.

If the bayonet is carried on the haversack: draw the bayonet with the
left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner.

Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest;
grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing the
spring with the forefinger of the right hand; raise the bayonet until
the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece; drop the
point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and, glancing at
the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm
and the body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the
order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet
from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the
most convenient manner.

If marching or laying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most
expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original
position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity but
not in cadence.

Exercises for instruction in bayonet combat are prescribed in the Manual
for Bayonet Exercise.

Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS.

At the command arms, take the position of port arms; at the command two,
seize the bolt handle with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand,
turn the handle up, draw the bolt back, and glance at the chamber.
Having found the chamber empty, or having emptied it, raise the head and
eyes to the front. Keep your right hand on the bolt.

[Illustration: INSPECTION ARMS]

It is a very common error to change the position of the piece while
drawing the bolt back. Guard against this.

Being at inspection arms: 1. Order (or right shoulder, or port), 2.
ARMS.

At the preparatory command (i.e., at the command order), push the bolt
forward, turn the handle down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms.
At the command arms, complete the movement ordered.



TO DISMISS THE SQUAD


Being at a halt: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 5.
DISMISSED.

Make a point of becoming sufficiently familiar with the different parts
of the rifle to obey the following general rules governing the manual.

The following rules govern the carrying of the piece:

First. the piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber or
the magazine except when specifically ordered. When so loaded, or
supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with
the safety lock turned to the "safe." At all other times it is carried
unlocked with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately
inspected at the commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Order (right
shoulder, port), 4. ARMS.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed and
placed in the belt.

Third. The cut-off is kept turned "off" except when cartridges are
actually used.

Fourth. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on guard,
or for combat.

Fifth. Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. Fall
out, rest, and at ease are executed as without arms. On resuming
attention the position of order arms is taken.

Sixth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is
brought to the right shoulder at the command march, the three motions
corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be executed at
the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the words at
trail; as, 1. At trail, forward, 2. MARCH; the trail is taken at the
command march.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or
distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece
to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.

Seventh. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution of
the order begins when the halt is completed.

Eighth. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without arms.

The following rules govern the execution of the manual of arms:

First. In all positions of the left hand at the balance (center of
gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps the piece; the sling is
included in the grasp of the hand.

Second. In all positions of the piece, "diagonally across the body" the
position of the piece, left arm and hand are the same as in port arms.

Third. In resuming the order from any position in the manual, the motion
next to the last concludes with the butt of the piece about 3 inches
from the ground, barrel to the rear, the left hand above and near the
right, steadying the piece, fingers extended and joined, forearm and
wrist straight and inclining downward, all fingers of the right hand
grasping the piece. To complete the order, lower the piece gently to the
ground with the right hand, drop the left quickly by the side, and take
the position of order arms.

Allowing the piece to drop through the right hand to the ground, or
other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in executing the
manual, is prohibited.

Fourth. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; the recruits
are first required to give their whole attention to the details of the
motions, the cadence being gradually acquired as they become accustomed
to handling their pieces. The instructor may require them to count aloud
in cadence with the motions.

Fifth. The manual is taught at a halt and the movements are, for the
purpose of instruction, divided into motions and executed in detail; in
this case the command of execution determines the prompt execution of
the first motion, and the commands, two, three, four, that of the
other motions.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions: By
the numbers; all movements divided into motions are then executed as
above explained until he cautions: Without the numbers; or commands
movements other than those in the manual of arms.

Sixth. Whenever circumstances require, the regular positions of the
manual of arms and the firings may be ordered without regard to the
previous position of the piece.

Under exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle may be
carried in any manner directed.




CHAPTER IV

SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD

Based on the Infantry Drill Regulations



CLOSE ORDER DRILLS


For several days after reporting you will undergo many hours of close
order drill. You will ask yourself, "Why is all this mental and physical
strain necessary when these exercises are not used in battle?" The
answer is: they are disciplinary exercises and are designed to inculcate
that prompt and subconscious obedience which is essential to proper
military control and to teach you precise and soldierly movements;
hence, they are executed at attention.



DEFINITIONS


Deploy. To extend the front. A squad deploys when it goes "As
skirmishers." A company likewise deploys when it goes from column into
line.

File. Two men, the front rank man and the corresponding man in the
rear rank. The front rank man is the file leader. A file which has no
rear rank man is a blank file.

Interval. Space between elements of the same line. The interval
between men in ranks is 4 inches and is measured from elbow to elbow. It
is to get this interval that each man is required to raise his arm when
the company is formed.

Distance. Space between elements in the direction of depth. It is
measured from the back of the man in front to the breast of the man in
rear. The rear rank when in line or column is 40 inches from the front
rank.

The guide of a squad in line is right unless otherwise announced.

The guide of a squad deployed, (i.e., skirmishers) is center unless
otherwise announced.



TO FORM THE SQUAD


To form the squad the instructor places himself 3 paces in front of
where the center is to be and commands: Fall in.

The men assemble at attention, pieces at the order, and are arranged by
the corporal in double rank, as nearly as practicable in order of height
from right to left, each man dropping his left hand as soon as the man
on his left has his interval. The rear rank forms with distance of 40
inches.

The instructor then commands: Count off.

At this command all except the right file execute eyes right, and
beginning on the right, the men in each rank count one, two, three,
four--one, two, three, four; each man turns his head and eyes to the
front as he counts.

Pieces are then inspected.

[Illustration]

The purpose of putting the left hand on the hip is to get enough elbow
room. A man should have sufficient space to operate his piece. These
four-inch intervals give it to him.

[Illustration]

Note the space between elbows (interval) is 4 inches. The space between
the front and rear rank (distance) is 40 inches, and is measured from
the back of the man in front to the breast of the man in the rear.



ALIGNMENTS


To align the squad, the base file or files having been established: 1.
Right (left), 2. DRESS, 3. FRONT.

At the command dress, all men place the left hand upon the hip (whether
dressing to the right or left); each man, except the base file, when on
or near the new lines executes eyes right, and, taking steps of 2 or 3
inches, places himself so that his right arm rests lightly against the
elbow of the man on his right (vice versa in left dressing), and so that
his eyes and shoulders are in line with those of the men on his right,
and also that each man can see the eyes of at least two men on his
right.

[Illustration]

The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the right flank
and orders up or back such men as may be in the rear, or in advance, of
the line; only the men designated move.

At the command front, given when the ranks are aligned, each man turns
his head and eyes to the front and drops his left hand by his side.

There are in dressing a number of common errors that we should try to
avoid. Don't jab the man on your left with your elbow. If you are not on
the line, move your feet. Don't lean forward or backward. Be sure to
touch gently the man on your right with your right arm. Be certain to
keep your left elbow forced well to the front. This is a little
uncomfortable at first, but unless we do this our arms will not measure
the 4 inches correctly. Don't hump up the left shoulder, and don't turn
the shoulders to the right. Keep fingers of left hand extended and
joined.

We want to place especial stress on the importance of three movements
in the school of the squad. When you have thoroughly mastered these
three, you will have a splendid basis for the remainder of the School of
the Squad, the full value of which you will later appreciate. These are:
Squad right, Squad right about, and Right turn.

The first line drawing in this chapter shows correct proportions of
interval and distance. To save space and for convenience, the drawings
hereafter are made without regard to proportions (intervals and
distances).



First Movement


SQUAD RIGHT

Being in line, to turn and march: 1. Squad right (left), 2. MARCH.

In this movement many instructors have recruit squads step off on the
7th count. When the drill progresses the squad should step off on the
5th count.

[Illustration: This is what we have

This is what we want]

At the command march, No. 1 in the front rank faces to the right in
marching and marks time; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank turn 45
degrees to the right (right oblique), place themselves abreast (on the
same line) of No. 1 and mark time.

Now it is difficult quickly to understand the movements of the rear
rank. Give them a lot of study and don't go on until you are certain
that you understand.

[Illustration: This is the way it is done.]

No. 3 moves straight to the front.

No. 2 follows No. 3.

No. 1 follows No. 2.

When they (Nos. 3, 2 and 1) arrive in rear of their file leaders, (Nos.
3, 2 and 1, front rank) they face to the right in marching and mark
time.

No. 4 of the rear rank moves straight to the front four paces, and
places himself abreast of No. 3, rear rank.

When No. 4, front rank, and No. 4, rear rank, are on the line, (and the
remainder of the squad must glance toward them to see when that is
true), the whole squad moves forward without further command.

Note that we have said that No. 1 front rank marks time. We see that he
becomes, temporarily, an immovable pivot for his squad. We, therefore,
call him a fixed pivot.

Had the command been squad left, instead of squad right, No. 4 would
have been the fixed pivot instead of No. 1.

Being in line, to turn and halt: 1. Squad right (left), 2. MARCH, 3.
Squad, 4. HALT.

The turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding case except that all
men, on arriving on the new line, mark time until the command halt is
given, when all halt.

Whenever the third command (i.e., squad) is given means that the command
halt is to follow. This is caution to the squad to prepare to halt. The
command halt should be given as No. 4 arrives on the line.



Second Movement


SQUAD RIGHT ABOUT

Being in line, to turn about and march: 1. Squad right (left) about, 2.
MARCH.

[Illustration:

This is what we have

This is what we want]

At the command march, the front rank twice executes Squad right,
initiating (starting) the second Squad right when No. 4 has arrived on
the line. That much is very simple.

The rear rank has a harder task. Let us have the front and rear rank
execute the movement separately:

[Illustration]

The rear rank is to take its place on the dotted line a b.

No. 3 rear rank moves straight to the front until in prolongation of
the line to be occupied by the rear rank.

No. 2 follows No. 3.

No. 1 follows No. 2.

When No. 3 arrives on the line to be occupied by the rear rank he
changes direction to the right; he moves in the new direction until in
rear of No. 3, front rank, when Nos. 3, 2, and 1, rear rank, are in rear
of Nos. 3, 2, and 1, front rank, (i.e., when they are in rear of their
front rank men), they face to the right in marching and mark time. No. 4
marches on the left of No. 3 to his new position. As he arrives on the
line, both ranks execute forward march without command, For the
remainder of the squad to know when No. 4 front and rear rank have
arrived on the line, they glance to see. The squad should step off on
the 9th count.



Third Movement


RIGHT TURN

Being in line: 1. Right (left) turn, 2. MARCH.

[Illustration: THIS IS THE WAY IT IS DONE]

At the command march, No. 1 front rank faces to the right in marching
and takes the half step. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 front rank right oblique
(turn 45 degrees to the right) until opposite their places in line, then
execute a second right oblique and take the half step on arriving
abreast of the pivot man. When No. 4 arrives on the line Nos. 1, 2, 3,
and 4 take the full step without further command. (To know when No. 4
arrives on the line it is necessary to glance in his direction.) Full
step on the 7th count.

The rear rank executes the movement in the same way and turns on the
same ground as the front rank. The rear rank, therefore, moves forward
at the command march, or continues to move forward, if already marching,
until it arrives at the place where the front turned, when it turns.

Note that the squad turns on No. 1 front rank but that he does not
remain in his position even temporarily, as in squad right; he is,
therefore, called the moving pivot. No. 4 is called the marching flank.

Had the command been left turn, No. 4 would have been the moving pivot,
and No. 1 the marching flank.

Knowing the three above movements, we are prepared for the following:

Being in line at a halt: 1. Take interval, 2. To the right (left), 3.
MARCH, 4. Squad, 5. HALT.

[Illustration: BEING IN THIS FORMATION]

At the command to the right (left), the rear rank men march backward
four steps (15 inches each step) and halt.

[Illustration: LIKE THIS

Note that the actual distance from the front rank to the rear rank is
now 40 plus 4x15 inches, i.e., 100 inches.]

At the command march, all face to the right and No. 1 front and rear
rank step off. No. 2, front and rear rank, follow No. 1, front and rear
rank, at a distance of four paces. Likewise with the other numbers.

[Illustration: Like this, when No. 1 front and rear rank have gained
four paces distance.]

At the command halt, given when No. 3 is three paces distant from No. 4,
all halt and face to the front.

[Illustration: The squad looks like this when the movement is
completed.]

Being at intervals: 1. Assemble, to the right, (left), 2. MARCH.

At the command march, No. 1 front rank stands fast. No. 1 rear rank
closes to 40 inches. The other men face to the right, close by the
shortest line, and face to the front.

[Illustration]

Being in line at a halt: 1. Take distance, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.

At the command march, No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to the
front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the
rear rank, in the order named, move straight to the front, each stepping
off so as to follow the preceding man at four paces. The command halt is
given when all have their distances.

In case more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the movement
as above. The guide of each rank of numbers is right.

[Illustration]

The front rank men should walk straight to the front and their rear rank
men should cover them accurately.

Being at distances, to assemble the squad: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.

No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other numbers move forward to
their proper places in line.



THE OBLIQUE MARCH


For the instruction of recruits, the squad being in column or correctly
aligned, the instructor causes the squad to face half right (or half
left), points out to the men their relative positions, and explains that
these are to be maintained in the oblique march.

1. Right (left) oblique, 2. MARCH.

Each man steps off in a direction 45 degrees to the right of his
original front. He preserves his relative position, keeping his
shoulders parallel to those of the guide (the man on the right front of
the line or column), and so regulates his steps that the ranks remain
parallel to their original front.

At the command halt, the men halt faced to the front.

To resume the original direction: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

[Illustration]

The men half face to the left in marching and then move straight to the
front.

If at half step or mark time while obliquing, the oblique march is
resumed by the commands: 1. Oblique, 2. MARCH.


TO FOLLOW THE CORPORAL

Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad without unnecessary
commands, the corporal places himself in front of it and commands:
FOLLOW ME.

If in line or skirmish line, No. 2 of the front rank follows in the
track of the corporal at about 3 paces; the other men conform to the
movements of No. 2, guiding on him and maintaining their relative
positions.

If in column, the head of the column follows the corporal.

[Illustration]

Note that No. 4 rear rank takes the place of the corporal when the
corporal is in front of the squad. This a general rule. When any front
rank man is absent his rear rank man steps up in the front rank. When
the squad is following the corporal No. 4 rear rank remains blank (i.e.,
No. 3 does not step to the left and cover No. 4).



TO DEPLOY AS SKIRMISHERS


Being in any formation, assembled: 1. As skirmishers, 2. MARCH.

The corporal places himself in front of the squad, if not already there.
Moving at a run, the men place themselves abreast of the corporal at
half-pace intervals. Nos. 1 and 2 on his right, Nos. 3 and 4 on his
left, rear-rank men on the right of their file leaders, extra men on the
left of No. 4; all then conform to the corporal's gait.

There is a rule of thumb that must be remembered. The rear-rank man is
always on the right of his file leader.

A common error is for beginners to execute the movement at a slow trot
which a run is required.

When the squad is acting alone, skirmish line is similarly formed on No.
2 of the front rank, who stands fast or continues the march, as the case
may be; the corporal places himself in front of the squad when advancing
and in rear when halted.

When deployed as skirmishers, the men march at ease, pieces at the trail
unless otherwise ordered.

The corporal is the guide when in the line; otherwise No. 2 front rank
is the guide. The guide is center.

The normal interval between skirmishers is one-half pace, resulting
practically in one man per yard of front. The front of a squad thus
deployed as skirmishers is about 10 paces.

[Illustration: SQUAD DEPLOYED ON CORPORAL

THIS IS THE WAY IT IS DONE]

The common error is to keep an interval of a very few inches when 15
inches are required.



TO INCREASE OR DIMINISH INTERVALS


If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than the normal
interval; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase or decrease the
interval: 1. As skirmishers, (so many) paces, 2. MARCH.

Intervals are taken at the indicated number of paces. If already
deployed, the men move by the flank or away from the guide.

The above command is used but very little.



THE ASSEMBLY


Being deployed: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.

The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper places.

If the corporal continues to advance, the men move in double time, form,
and follow him.

The assembly while marching to the rear is not executed.

     Note. It will be better for the beginner to let the remainder of
     this chapter go for awhile. Your instructor will explain all of the
     following points in a way that will be easier for you than for you
     to try to work them out alone. They will come up in the first
     month's work and will be explained and shown as you go along. As
     you become more proficient we advise you, then, to take up the
     remainder of the chapter.

If standing: KNEEL.

Half face to the right; carry the right toe about 1 foot to the left
rear of the left heel; kneel on the right knee, sitting as nearly as
possible on the right heel; left forearm across left thigh; piece
remains in position of order arms, right hand grasping it above the
lower hand.

If standing or kneeling: LIE DOWN.

Kneel, but with right knee against left heel; carry back the left foot
and lie flat on the belly, inclining body about 35 degrees to the
right; piece horizontal, barrel up, muzzle off the ground and pointed to
the front; elbows on the ground; left hand at the balance, right hand
grasping the small of the stock opposite the neck. This is the position
of order arms, lying down.

If kneeling or lying down: RISE.

If kneeling, stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked by the
left heel.

If lying down, raise body on both knees; stand up, faced to the front,
on the ground marked by the knees.

If lying down: KNEEL.

Raise the body on both knees; take the position of kneel.

In double rank, the positions of kneeling and lying down are ordinarily
used only for the better utilization of cover.

When deployed as skirmishers, a sitting position may be taken in lieu of
the kneeling position.



LOADINGS AND FIRINGS


The commands for loading and firing are the same whether standing,
kneeling, or lying down. The firings are always executed at a halt.

When kneeling or lying down in double rank, the rear rank does not load,
aim, or fire.

The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for loading.

Loadings are executed in line and skirmish line only.

Pieces, having been ordered loaded, are kept loaded without command
until the command unload, or inspection arms, fresh clips being
inserted when the magazine is exhausted.

The aiming point or target is carefully pointed out. This may be done
before or after announcing the sight setting. Both are indicated before
giving the command for firing, but may be omitted when the target
appears suddenly and is unmistakable; in such case battle sight is used
if no sight setting is announced.

The target or aiming point having been designated and the sight setting
announced, such designation or announcement need not be repeated until a
change of either or both is necessary.

Troops are trained to continue their fire upon the aiming point or
target designated, and at the sight setting announced, until a change is
ordered.

If the men are not already in the position of load, that position is
taken at the announcement of the sight setting; if the announcement is
omitted, the position is taken at the first command for firing.

When deployed, the use of the sling as an aid to accurate firing is
discretionary with each man.



TO LOAD


Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. With dummy (blank or ball)
cartridges, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half right
and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such position
as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the body;
raises, or lowers, the piece and drops it into the left hand at the
balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height of
the breast, and turns the cut-off up. With the right hand, he turns and
draws the bolt back, takes a loaded clip and inserts the end in the clip
slots, places the thumb on the powder space of the top cartridge, the
fingers extending around the piece and tips resting on the magazine
floor plate; forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down
with the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home,
turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to the "safe" and carries
the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear rank man moves to the
right front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the right
of his front rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front
rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as neatly
as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting the
elbows are supported by the knees; if lying down, the left hand steadies
and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on
the ground, the muzzle off the ground.



STACK AND TAKE ARMS


The subject of stack and take arms is less important than the rest of
this chapter. It is difficult to be learned from a book. Your company
commander will explain it to you. It is given here to serve as a
reference.

Being in line at a halt: STACK ARMS.

Each even number of the front rank grasps his piece with the left hand
at the upper band and rests the butt between his feet, barrel to the
front, muzzle inclined slightly to the front and opposite the center of
the interval on his right, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking
swivel; each even number of the rear rank then passes his piece, barrel
to the rear, to his file leader, who grasps it between the bands with
his right hand and throws the butt about two feet in advance of that of
his own piece and opposite the right of the interval, the right hand
slipping to the upper band, the thumb and forefinger raising the
stacking swivel, which he engages with that of his own piece; each odd
number of the front rank raises his piece with the right hand, carries
it well forward, barrel to the front; the left hand, guiding the
stacking swivel, engages the lower hook of the swivel of his own piece
with the free hook of that of the even number of the rear rank; he then
turns the barrel outward into the angle formed by the other two pieces
and lowers the butt to the ground, to the right of and against the toe
of his right shoe.

The stacks made, the loose pieces are laid on them by the even numbers
of the front rank.

When each man has finished handling pieces, he takes the position of the
soldier.

Being in line behind the stacks: TAKE ARMS.

The loose pieces are returned by the even numbers of the front rank;
each even number of the front rank grasps his own piece with the left
hand, the piece of his rear-rank man with his right hand, grasping both
between the bands; each odd number of the front rank grasps his piece in
the same way with the right hand, disengages it by raising the butt from
the ground and then, turning the piece to the right, detaches it from
the stack; each even number of the front rank disengages and detaches
his piece by turning it to the left, and then passes the piece of his
rear-rank man to him, and all resume the order.

Should any squad have Nos. 2 and 3 blank files, No. 1 rear rank takes
the place of No. 2 rear rank in making and breaking the stack; the
stacks made or broken, he resumes his post.

Pieces not used in making the stack are termed loose pieces.

Pieces are never stacked with the bayonet fixed.




CHAPTER V

SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY

Based on the Infantry Drill Regulations


The company in line is formed in double rank with the men arranged, as
far as practicable, according to height from right to left, the tallest
on the right.

The original division into squads is effected by the command: Count off.
The squads, successively from the right, count off as in the School of
the Squad, corporals placing themselves as No. 4 of the front rank.

At the formation of the company the platoons or squads are numbered
consecutively from right to left, and these designations do not change.

For convenience in giving commands and for reference, the designations,
right, center, left, when in line, and leading, center, rear, when
in column, are applied to platoons or squads. These designations,
right, center, left, when in line, and leading, center, rear, when
in column, are applied to the actual right, left, center, head, or rear,
in whatever direction the company may be facing. The center squad is
the middle or right middle squad of the company. If there are an even
number of squads in the company, for instance eight, the center squad
would be the fourth.

The designation "So-and-so's" squad or platoon may also be used.

[Illustration: This is exactly the same as the photograph. It
shows the correct position of every man in the company. man for man.]

During battle, these assignments are not changed; vacancies are filled
by non-commissioned officers of the platoon, or by the nearest available
officers or non-commissioned officers arriving with reinforcing troops.



CLOSE ORDER


In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward the side
of the guide.

Men in the line of file closers do not execute loadings and firings.



TO FORM THE COMPANY


At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes position 6
paces in front of where the center of the company is to be, faces it,
draws saber, and commands: Fall in.

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the front,
where the right of the company is to rest, and at such point that the
center of the company will be 6 paces from and opposite the first
sergeant; the squads form in their proper places on the left of the
right guide, superintended by the other sergeants, who then take their
posts.

The first sergeant commands: Report. Remaining in position at the order,
the squad leaders, in succession from the right, salute and report: All
present; or Private(s)---- absent. The first sergeant does not return
the salutes of the squad leaders; he then commands: 1. Inspection, 2.
ARMS, 3. Order, 4. ARMS, faces about, salutes the captain, reports:
Sir, all present or accounted for, or the names of the unauthorized
absentees, and without command, takes his post.

If the company cannot be formed by squads, the first sergeant commands:
1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Right shoulder, 4. ARMS, and calls the roll.
Each man, as his name is called, answers here and executes order arms.
The sergeant then effects the division into squads and reports the
company as prescribed above.

The captain places himself 12 paces in front of the center of, and
facing, the company in time to receive the report of the first sergeant,
whose salute he returns, and then draws saber.

The lieutenants take their posts when the first sergeant has reported,
and draw saber with the captain.

Generally in camp the saber is not worn. The officers and first
sergeants carry pistols. The hand salute is rendered when so armed.

In the School of the Squad we gave three movements that formed the basis
of the squad drill. There are six movements in the School of the Company
that should be thoroughly understood. When the beginner knows these he
will have no difficulty with the remainder of the close order.



1ST MOVEMENT ON THE FIXED PIVOT


Being in line, to turn the company: 1. Company right (left), 2. MARCH,
3. Company, 4. HALT; or, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.

[Illustration: SHOWING MOVEMENT HALF COMPLETED]

Notice that the part of the company which has not completed the movement
is perpendicular to the part that has. The common error is for the rear
rank to oblique before marching four paces to the front.

At the second command the right-flank man in the front rank faces to the
right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank men, oblique to
the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time; in the
rear rank the third man from the right, followed in column by the second
and first, moves straight to the front until in rear of his front-rank
man, when all face to the right in marching and mark time; the remaining
men of the rear rank move straight to the front 4 paces, oblique to the
right, place themselves abreast of the third man, cover their file
leaders, and mark time; the right guide steps back, takes post on the
flank and marks time.

The fourth command is given when the last man is 1 pace in rear of the
new line.

The command Halt may be given at any time after the movement begins;
only those halt who are in the new position. Each of the others halts
upon arriving on the line, aligns himself to the right, and executes
front without command.

The difference between this movement and squad right is slight. The rear
rank acts a little differently, and the company waits for the command to
move forward. The idea is exactly the same.



2D MOVEMENT ON THE MOVING PIVOT


Being in line, to change direction: 1. Right (left) turn, 2. MARCH, 3:
Forward, 4. MARCH.

Executed as described in the School of the Squad, except that the men do
not glance toward the marching flank and that all take the full step at
the fourth command. The right guide is the pivot of the front rank. Each
rear-rank man obliques on the same ground as his file leader.

[Illustration: THIRD MOVEMENT TO CHANGE FROM LINE TO COLUMN AND
MOVE FORWARD]

Being in line, to form column of squads and move forward: 1. Right
(left) by squads, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the right squad marches forward; the remainder
of the company executes squads right, column left, and follows the
right squad. The right guide, when he has posted himself in front of the
right squad, takes four short steps, then resumes the full steps; the
right squad conforms.

A common error is for the guide to forget to take the four short steps.

[Illustration: The diagram shows the movement completed]

Keep dressed accurately on the side of the guide. (He is always on the
side opposite from the file closers This is a rule of thumb that should
be memorized at once.) The guide in every squad should keep 40 inches
from the man in front. So many new men forget about the 40 inches. They
usually take a little over 30. When the company is moved into line there
is of course a jam. Hold your head up. Don't look down to the ground.
You will be in the formation more than any other. Try to keep the
following cautions in mind: The leading men of the company should have
four inches interval. Better to have too much than too little if
mistakes are to be insisted upon. Keep the pieces in the correct
positions at right shoulder and then have heads and rifles in a bee
line. When the movement is completed the company will be in the
formation shown in the drawing.



FOURTH MOVEMENT COLUMN RIGHT


Being in column of squads, to change direction: 1. Column right (left),
2. MARCH.

At the second command the front rank of the leading squad turns to the
right on moving pivot as in the School of the Squad; the other ranks,
without command, turn successively on the same ground and in similar
manner.

[Illustration]

It is a very common error for the pivot man to take too short a step and
thereby cause a jam. Bear this in mind. Another very common error is for
the flank man (or men) to take a very long step. This is caused by the
pivot man's forgetting to glance and see when the flank man arrives on
the line, before he takes the full step. Another common error is to get
out of column while making this movement. Bear this in mind and walk
straight to the turning point.

[Illustration: THIS SHOWS THE COMPANY IN COLUMN OF SQUADS, CORRECT
POSITION]

[Illustration: THIS SHOWS THE COMMON ERRORS]

Now we come to the last two movements. They cause more trouble than any
others.



FIFTH MOVEMENT ON RIGHT (LEFT) INTO LINE


Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on right or left: 1.
On right (left) into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

(On right [left] into line, means turn in the direction that is on your
right and get into line. You have to be in column before the movement is
begun.)

Let us first consider the company in column of squads.

[Illustration]

At the captain's command on right into line, the corporal of the leading
squad commands right turn. The corporals of all the remaining squads, if
halted, command forward, if marching they caution their squads to
continue the march. At the captain's command march, the leading squad
turns to the right on a moving pivot. The remaining squads march
straight to the front.

Each corporal commands right turn before arriving opposite the right of
his squads place in line. When the front rank of his squad has arrived
opposite that place he gives the command march.

The command halt is given when the leading squad has advanced the
desired distance in the new direction. Only the leading squad halts. The
corporal then commands right dress.

The remaining corporals before arrival on the line, command, squad, and
add the command halt just before the right front rank reaches the line.
Then, they, command right dress.

The captain then dresses the company and commands front.

If executed in double time the leading squad marches in double time
until halted.

Now let us consider the company in columns of platoons. See
illustration on next page.

At the captain's command on right into line, the leader of the first
platoon commands right turn, the leaders of the rear platoons, if
halted, command forward; if marching, they caution their platoons to
continue the march. The first platoon executes the right turn at the
captain's command march. Having completed the turn the platoon commander
gives the command, forward, MARCH.

[Illustration]

The remaining platoon commanders give right turn, MARCH, when opposite
their places, and the command, forward, MARCH, when the turn has been
completed.

When the leading platoon has advanced the desired distance the captain
gives the command, company, HALT. At the command company, the leading
platoon leader gives the command, platoon. His platoon only halts at the
captain's command, halt. The platoon leader then gives the command,
right dress, and takes his post in the file closers. The remaining
platoons are successively halted and dressed by their leader. The
captain gives the command FRONT.



SIXTH MOVEMENT RIGHT FRONT INTO LINE


Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line to the front: 1.
Right (left) front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

(Right [left] front into line means move to the right of the front and
get into line. It is necessary to be in column to begin this movement.)

Let us first consider the company in column of squads. At the captain's
command, right front into line, the corporal of the leading squad, if
halted, commands forward; if marching, he cautions his squad, continue
the march. The corporals of the remaining squads command right oblique.
At the command march, the leading squad moves forward. The remaining
squads oblique as indicated. The command halt is given when the leading
squad has advanced the desired distance; its corporal then commands left
dress.

The remaining corporals command forward, MARCH, when opposite their
places in the line. They halt and dress their squads on the line
established by the leading squad.

When the company is in column of platoons the movement is executed in
the same manner and by the same commands except the word platoon is
substituted for squad. The Captain gives the command FRONT.

[Illustration]

Being in line, to form column of platoons, or the reverse: 1. Platoons
right (left), 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT; or, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.

[Illustration]

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Before forming line the captain sees that the guides on the flank toward
which the movement is to be executed are covering. This is effected by
previously announcing the guide to that flank.

The two common errors are: 1. First, the pivot man takes a short step
instead of marking time. Second, (being in line), the pivot men of the
platoons forget that they are the pivots and therefore do not execute
the command when ordered.

[Illustration]

The following illustration shows the side view of a platoon. Note the
common errors: No. 1 rear rank is closed up to about twenty inches. He
is looking down at the heels of his front rank file (man). Rifles are
improperly held. Some men in the rear rank have more than forty inches
distance from their front rank men.

Being in line, to form column of squads, or the reverse; or, being in
line of platoons, to form column of platoons, or the reverse: 1. Squads
right (left), 2. MARCH; or, 1. Squads right (left), 2. MARCH, 3.
Company, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

[Illustration]

If the company or platoons be formed in line toward the side of the file
closers they dart through the column and take posts in rear of the
company at the second command. If the column of squads be formed from
line, the file closers take posts on the pivot flank, abreast of and 4
inches from the nearest flank.

Being in column of platoons, to change direction: 1. Column right
(left), 2. MARCH.

At the first command the leader of the leading platoon commands: Right
turn. At the command march the leading platoon turns to the right on
moving pivot; its leader commands: Forward, 2. MARCH, on completion of
the turn. Rear platoons march squarely up to the turning point of the
leading platoon and turn at the command of their leaders. When each
platoon has completed its turn, the leader commands forward, MARCH.

[Illustration]

Being in column of squads, to form line of platoons or the reverse: 1.
Platoons, column right (left), 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Being in line, to form column of squads and then change direction. 1.
Squads left (right), column right (left), 2. MARCH.

[Illustration: The dotted line shows the company in line before the new
movement is begun.

This shows the movement half completed.]

The left squad initiates (begins) The column right as soon as it has
completed the squad left.]

Being in line, to form line of platoons: 1. Squads left (right),
platoons, column left (right), 2.

[Illustration: LINE OF PLATOONS]

MARCH; or, 1. Platoons, right (left) by squads, 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company in the preceding
paragraph.



FACING OR MARCHING TO THE REAR


Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons or squads, to
face or march to the rear: 1. Squads right (left) about, 2. MARCH; or,
1. Squads right (left) about, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company is in line of platoons, or in column of squads, the file
closers turn about toward the column, and take their posts; if in line,
each darts through the nearest interval between squads.

To march to the rear for a few paces: 1. About, 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4.
MARCH.

If in line, the guides place themselves in the rear rank, now in front
rank; the file closers, on facing about, maintain their relative
positions. No other movement is executed until the line is faced to the
original front.

Being in column of squads to form column of platoons, or being in line
of platoons, to form the company in line: 1. Platoons, right (left)
front into line, 2. MARCH, 3. Company, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. If forming column
of platoons, platoon leaders verify the alignment before taking their
posts; the captain commands front when the alignments have been
verified.

When front into line is executed in double time the commands for
halting and aligning are omitted and the guide is toward the side of the
first unit in line.



ROUTE STEP AND AT EASE


The column of squads is the habitual column of route, but route step
and at ease are applicable to any marching formation.

To march at route step: 1. Route step, 2. MARCH. Sabers are carried at
will or in the scabbard; the men carry their pieces at will, keeping the
muzzles elevated; they are not required to preserve silence, nor to keep
the step. The ranks cover and preserve their distance. If halted from
route step, the men stand at rest.

To march at ease: 1. At ease, 2. MARCH.

The company marches as in route step, except that silence is preserved
when hated, the men remain at ease.

Marching at route step or at ease: 1. Company, 2. ATTENTION.

At the command attention the pieces are brought to the right shoulder
and the cadenced step in quick time is resumed.



RULES FOR GUIDES


A guide is a noncommissioned officer or a private upon whom the company
regulates its march.

It is not difficult for an inexperienced man learn, with a little
practice, the duties and the correct positions of a guide. Remember the
rule of thumb, The guide and the file closers are on the opposite
flanks when the company is in column of squads. In squads right about
it would be ridiculous for the file closers to move from one flank to
another. Guides are permitted and supposed look around to see if they
are in their proper places; most new men are timid about this.

The following general rules and examples will help you:

The guide of a company or platoon in line is right, unless otherwise
announced.

The guide of a company or platoon in column of squads is toward the side
of the guide, who places himself on the side of the company away from
the file closers.

The guide of a deployed line (a skirmish line) is always center unless
otherwise announced.


EXAMPLES

Suppose the company to be in line.

In executing:

    1. Squads right. The guides go to the left flank.

    2. Right by squads. The guides go to the left flank.

    3. Squads left. The guides go to the right flank.

    4. Left by squads. The guides go to the right flank.

If the company is in column of squads and the command is either squads
right or left about, the guides simply remember to remain on the flank
opposite from the file closers. It is very easy to see that a world of
confusion would be caused by the file closers attempting to move to the
opposite flank during squads right or left about. If the guides are in
doubt look to see where the file closers are and then apply the rule of
thumb: File closers and guides are always on opposite flanks.


TO DIMINISH THE FRONT OF A COLUMN OF SQUADS

Being in column of squads: 1. Right (left) by twos, 2. MARCH.

At the command march all files except the two right files on the leading
squad execute "in Place Halt"; the two left files of the leading squads
oblique to the right when disengaged and follow the right files at the
shortest practicable distance. The remaining squads follow successively
in like manner.

Being in column of squads or twos:

1. Right (left) by file, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, all files execute "In Place Halt," except the
right file of the leading two or squad. The left file or files of the
leading two or squad oblique successively to the right when disengaged
and each follows the file on its right at the shortest practicable
distance. The remaining twos or squads follow successively in like
manner.

[Illustration: RIGHT BY TWOS]

Being in column of files or twos, to form column of squads; or, being in
column of files, to form column of twos: 1. Squads (twos), right (left)
front into line, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the leading file or files halt and come to order
arms. The remainder of the squad, or twos, obliques to the right and
halts on line with the leading file or files. The remaining squads or
twos close up and successively form in rear of the first in like manner.

The movement described in this paragraph will be ordered right or left,
so as to restore the files to their normal relative positions in column
of twos or in column of squads.

[Illustration: RIGHT BY FILE]

The movements prescribed in the three preceding paragraphs are difficult
of execution at attention and have no value as disciplinary exercises.

[Illustration: Executing twos left front into line.

Executing squads left front into line.]

Marching by twos or files can not be executed without serious delay and
waste of road space. Every reasonable precaution will be taken to
obviate the necessity for these formations.

The remainder of chapter on close order drill, School of the Company,
is in general for those above the grade of private, therefore, unless we
are perfectly clear in what we have had so far, let us not go too deeply
into these special features until we have more experience.

The captain is responsible for the theoretical and practical instruction
of his officers and noncommissioned officers, not only in the duties of
their respective grades, but in those of the next higher grades.

If the left squad contains less than six men, it is either increased to
that number by transfers from other squads or is broken up and its
members assigned to other squads and posted in the line of file closers.
These squad organizations are maintained, by transfers if necessary,
until the company becomes so reduced in numbers as to necessitate a new
division into squads. No squad will contain less than six men.

The company is further divided into two, three, or four platoons, each
consisting of not less than two nor more than four squads. In garrison
or ceremonies the strength of platoons may exceed four squads.

Platoons are assigned to the lieutenants and noncom-missioned officers,
in order of rank, as follows: 1, right; 2, left; 3, center (right
center); 4, left center.

The noncommissioned officers next in rank are assigned as guides, one
to each platoon. If sergeants still remain, they are assigned to
platoons as additional guides. When the platoon is deployed, its guide,
or guides, accompany the platoon leader.

The first sergeant is never assigned as a guide. When not commanding a
platoon, he is posted as a file closer opposite the third file from the
outer flank of the first platoon; and when the company is deployed he
accompanies the captain.

Musicians, when required to play, are at the head of the column. When
the company is deployed, they accompany the captain.

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute the manual
of arms during the drill unless especially excused, when they remain at
the order. During ceremonies they execute all movements.

In taking intervals and distances, unless otherwise directed, the
right and left guides, at the first command, place themselves in the
line of file closers, and, with them, take a distance of 4 paces from
the rear rank. In taking intervals, at the command march, the file
closers face to the flank and each steps off with the file nearest him.
In assembling the guides and file closers resume their positions in
line.

Being in line at a halt, the captain directs the first sergeant, dismiss
the company. The officers fall out; the first sergeant places himself
faced to the front, 3 paces to the front and 2 paces from the nearest
flank of the company, salutes, faces toward opposite flank of the
company, and commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Port, 4. ARMS, 3.
DISMISSED.

The alignments are executed as prescribed in the School of the Squad,
the guide being established instead of the flank file. The rear-rank man
of the flank file keeps his head and eyes to the front and covers his
file leader.

At each alignment the captain places himself in prolongation of the
line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which the dress is made,
verifies the alignment, and commands: FRONT.

Platoon leaders take a like position when required to verify alignments.



EXTENDED ORDER DRILLS


As soon as your progress in close order is sufficiently advanced, you
will be given extended order drill, which will teach you the formations
used in battle, and how a firing line is controlled. They are executed
at ease.

We should know the meaning of the two following terms: Base and Deploy.

Base. The element on which a movement is regulated. In company drill
it is usually the right or left; leading, rear, or center squad.

Deploy. To extend the front. The company deploys when it executes as
skirmishers.

There are really only two conditions that we must consider in this
drill. The movements are very easy to

[Illustration]

understand, but they require a lot of practice to prevent confusion.

First Case. Let us take the company in line at a halt. It is desired
to form a skirmish line to the front. 1. As skirmishers, guide right
(left or center), 2. MARCH.

At the preparatory command (i.e., as skirmishers, guide right) all the
corporals, except the corporal of the first squad, give the command, by
the left flank, the corporal of the first squad gives the command, as
skirmishers.

At the command march, all squads, except the first squad, move to the
left, and when they have their proper intervals they are deployed to the
right (left) and on the line of the base squad by the corporals giving
the commands: As skirmishers, 2. MARCH. The corporal of the first squad
deploys his squad as soon as he has sufficient room (interval).

That's all there is to the first movement with some slight
modifications.

Of course if the command had been as skirmishers, guide left, the base
squad would have been the left or fourteenth Squad instead of the first
squad, for when we speak of the right or left of a company, in the
deployments, the company being in line, we mean the right or left squads
of the company.

Another modification: Suppose the command had been as skirmishers, guide
center. In that case the base squad would be the center or seventh
squad. The base (seventh) squad deploys without moving to the right or
left. There is only one thing for the first six squads to do and that is
to move to the right. There is only one thing for the last seven squads
to do and that to move to the left.

We have considered the company so far to be at a halt; suppose that it
had been moving forward. The corporal of the base squad deploys his
squad as soon as he has sufficient interval, and then continues straight
to the front until the command: 1. Company, 2. HALT, is given by the
captain. The other corporals move their squads to the left front (or
right front), by commanding their squads, Follow me. They conduct their
squads on the shortest and easiest route to their places in the line and
then deploy their squads as they arrive in the general line.

[Illustration]

The corporals should remember that they are not to step out from their
squads to conduct them to their proper places until the captain has
given the command march.

The corporals often fail to take sufficient intervals thus causing a
jam.

The company being at a halt, the corporals should remember to give by
the right or left flank instead of right or left face.



SECOND CASE


Now suppose the company is in column of squads at a halt. It is desired
to form a skirmish line to the front: 1. As skirmishers, guide right
(left), 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the corporal of the first, or leading squad,
deploys his squad without advancing. All of the other corporals move to
the left front and deploy their squads on the line formed by the first
squad. At the preparatory command the corporals command, follow me, and
at the command MARCH, they step in front of their squads and conduct
them to their places.

Had the command been as skirmishers, guide left, of course all except
the leading squad would have moved to the right. For when the company is
in column of squads, as skirmishers, guide right means that the first or
leading squad is to be the right of the skirmish line. If left, instead
of right is given that simply means that the leading or base squad is to
be the left of the skirmish line.

Now we come to the last variation. It is difficult for the new man. The
command as skirmishers, guide center, the company being in column of
squads, simply means that the center squad is to be the base squad. All
other squads are to regulate their movements on the base squad as in all
other cases.

This is a peculiar case and for it the authorities have adopted a rule
of thumb. All squads in front of the base squad go to the right, those
in rear to the left. That's all there is to it. But that must be
remembered. Corporals will conduct their squads to their proper places
by the shortest and easiest routes.

We will use a platoon of four squads to illustrate the idea.

[Illustration]

Note that the leading corporal turns his squad well to the right rear
and then to the left.

We have assumed the company to be at a halt; suppose it is moving
forward. In that case the base squad simply continues moving forward
after it has deployed until the captain gives the command halt. The
other corporals conduct their squads by the shortest routes to their
proper places and deploy them on the general line.

[Illustration]

When the company, while moving, is deployed, it is a common error for
squads in rear of the base squad to take long and fast steps and come up
on the line of the base squad. This should not be done unless the
command double time is given. In which case all the squads take up the
double time, except the base squad.


Extended Order

RULES FOR DEPLOYMENTS

The command guide right (left or center) indicates the base squad for
the deployment; if in line it designates the actual right (left or
center) squad; if in column the command guide right (left) designates
the leading squad, and the command guide center designates the center
squad. After the deployment is completed, the guide is always center
without command, unless otherwise ordered.

At the preparatory command for forming skirmish line, from either column
of squads or line, each squad leader (except the leader of the base
squad, when his squad does not advance) cautions his squad, follow me or
by the right (left) flank, as the case may be; at the command march, he
steps in front of his squad and leads it to its place in line.

Having given the command for forming skirmish line, the captain, if
necessary, indicates to the corporal of the base squad the point on
which the squad is to march; the corporal habitually looks to the
captain for such directions.

The base squad is deployed as soon as it has sufficient interval. The
other squads are deployed as they arrive on the general line; each
corporal halts in his place in line and commands or signals, as
skirmishers march; the squad deploys and halts abreast of him.

If tactical considerations demand it, the squad is deployed before
arriving on the line.

Deployed lines preserve a general alignment toward the guide. Within
their respective fronts, individuals or units march so as best to secure
or to facilitate the advance but the general and orderly progress of
the whole is paramount.

On halting, a deployed line faces to the front (direction of the enemy)
in all cases and takes advantage of cover, the men lying down if
necessary.

The company in line or column of squads may be deployed in an oblique
direction by the same commands. The captain points out the desired
direction; the corporal of the base squad moves in the direction
indicated; the other corporals conform.

To form skirmish line to the flank or rear the line or the column of
squads is turned by squads to the flank or rear and then deployed as
described.

The intervals between men are increased or decreased as described in the
School of the Squad, adding to the preparatory command, guide right
(left or center), if necessary.



THE ASSEMBLY


The captain takes his post in front of, or designates, the element on
which the company is to assemble and commands: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.

If in skirmish line the men move promptly toward the designated point
and the company is re-formed in line. If assembled by platoons, these
are conducted to the designated point by platoon leaders, and the
company is reformed in line.

Platoons may be assembled by the command: 1. Platoons, assemble, 2.
MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

One or more platoons may be assembled by the command: 1. Such
platoon(s), assemble, 2. MARCH.

Executed by the designated platoon or platoons as described for the
company.

Wherever it is necessary in campaign to deploy troops there is often so
much noise and confusion that it is impossible for the officers and
noncommissioned officers to make themselves heard. Signals must be used
instead of verbal commands.



WHISTLE SIGNALS


There are only two kinds of whistle signals; a short last and a long
blast. A short blast means pay attention, or look out for a signal or
command.

A long blast means stop firing for a minute (suspend firing).



THE ADVANCE


The advance of a company into an engagement whether for attack or
defense) is conducted in close order, preferably column of squads, until
the probability of encountering hostile fire makes it advisable to
deploy. After deployment, and before opening fire, the advance of the
company may be continued in skirmish line or other suitable formations,
depending upon circumstances. The advance may often be facilitated, or
better advantage taken of cover, or losses reduced by the employment of
the platoon or squad columns or by the use of a succession of thin
lines. The selection of the method to be used is made by the captain or
major, the choice depending upon conditions arising during the progress
of the advance. If the deployment is found to be premature, it will
generally be best to assemble the company and proceed in close order.

Patrols are used to provide the necessary security against surprise.

Being in skirmish line: 1. Platoon columns, 2. MARCH.

[Illustration: SHOWING HOW PLATOON COLUMNS ARE FORMED]

The platoon leaders move forward through the center of their respective
platoons: men to the right of the platoon leader march to the left and
follow him in file; those to the left march in like manner to the right;
each platoon leader thus conducts the march of his platoon in double
column of files; platoon guides follow in the

[Illustration: SQUAD COLUMN]

rear of their respective platoons to insure prompt and orderly execution
of the advance.

[Illustration: SQUAD COLUMNS]

Being in skirmish line: 1. Squad columns, 2. MARCH. See preceding
page.

Each squad leader moves to the front; the members of each squad oblique
toward and follow their squad leader in single file at easy marching
distances.

Platoon columns are profitably used where the ground is so difficult
or cover is so limited as to make it desirable to take advantage of the
few favorable routes; no two platoons should march within the area of
burst of a single shrapnel (ordinarily about 20 yards wide). Squad
columns are of value principally in facilitating the advance over rough
or brush-grown ground; they afford no material advantage in securing
cover.

To deploy platoon or squad columns: 1. As skirmishers, 2. MARCH.

Skirmishers move to the right or left front and successively place
themselves in their original positions on the line.

[Illustration: PLATOON COLUMNS]

Being in platoon or squad columns: 1. Assemble, 2. MARCH.

The platoon or squad leaders signal assemble. The men of each platoon or
squad, as the case may be, advance and, moving to the right and left,
take their proper places in line, each unit assembling on the leading
element of the column and reforming in line. The platoon or squad
leaders conduct their units toward the element or point indicated by the
captain, and to their places in line; the company is reformed in line.

[Illustration: Assembled on the first or right squad.]

[Illustration]

Being in skirmish line, to advance by a succession of thin lines: 1.
(Such numbers), forward, 2. MARCH.

The captain points out in advance the selected position in front of the
line occupied. The designated number of each squad moves to the front;
the line thus formed preserves the original intervals as nearly as
practicable; when this line has advanced a suitable distance (generally
from 100 to 250 yards, depending upon the terrain and the character of
the hostile fire), a second is sent forward by similar commands, and so
on at irregular distances until the whole line has advanced. Upon
arriving at the indicated position, the first line is halted. Successive
lines, upon arriving, halt on line with the first and the men take their
proper places in the skirmish line.

The first line is led by the platoon leader of the right platoon, the
second by the guide of the right platoon, and so on in order from right
to left, by the officers and non-commissioned officers in the file
closers.

The advance is conducted in quick time unless conditions demand a faster
gait.

The company having arrived at the indicated position, a further advance
by the same means may be advisable.

The advance in a succession of thin lines is used to cross a wide
stretch swept, or likely to be swept, by artillery fire or heavy,
long-range rifle fire which cannot profitably be returned. Its purpose
is the building up a strong skirmish line preparatory to engaging in a
fire fight. This method of advancing results in serious (though
temporary) loss of control over the company. Its advantage lies in the
fact that it offers a less definite target, hence is less likely to draw
fire.

The above are suggestions. Other and better formations may be devised to
fit particular cases. The best formation is the one which advances the
line farthest with the least loss of men, time, and control.



FIELD EXERCISES


These exercises, as well as combat exercises, are for instruction in
duties incident to campaign. To receive the maximum benefit from them
you must know the assumed situation of each exercise.



THE FIRE ATTACK


The principles governing the advance of the firing line in attack are
considered in the chapters on Attack and Defense.

When it becomes impracticable for the company to advance as a whole by
ordinary means, it advances by rushes.

Being in skirmish line: 1. By platoon (two platoons, squad, four men,
etc.) from the right (left), 2. RUSH.

The platoon leader on the indicated flank carefully arranges the details
for a prompt and vigorous execution of the rush and puts it into effect
as soon as practicable. If necessary, he designates the leader for the
indicated fraction. When about to rush, he causes the men of the
fraction to cease firing and to hold themselves flat, but in readiness
to spring forward instantly. The leader of the rush (at the signal of
the platoon leader, if the latter be not the leader of the rush)
commands: Follow me, and running at top speed, leads the fraction to the
new line, where he halts it and causes it to open fire. The leader of
the rush selects the new line if it has not been previously designated.

The first fraction having established itself on the new line, the next
like fraction is sent forward by its platoon leader, without further
command of the captain, and so on, successively, until the entire
company is on the line established by the first rush.

If two or more platoons are ordered to rush, the senior platoon leader
takes charge of them, and the junior (or juniors) carries out the wishes
of the senior.

A part of the line having advanced, the captain may increase or decrease
the size of the fractions to complete the movement.

When the company forms a part of the firing line, the rush of the
company as a whole is conducted by the captain, as described for a
platoon in the preceding paragraph. The captain leads the rush; platoon
leaders lead their respective platoons, platoon guides follow the line
to insure prompt and orderly execution of the advance.

When the foregoing method of rushing, by running, becomes impracticable,
any method of advance that brings the attack closer to the enemy, such
as crawling, should be employed.

Quibbling over minor details shows a failure to grasp the big ideas.




CHAPTER VI

FIRE SUPERIORITY



Do not study this chapter until you begin your extended order drills.

If the authors of this text were requested to select for you the most
important of all information that you will receive during your
instruction at a training camp, they would advise you to take home that
contained in this chapter. If you have learned fully so much you will
have done well. If you have failed to comprehend as much as this, you
will have returned to your homes lacking in important knowledge.

If you are on the battle-field and propose to crush the other side
(defeat the enemy), you have got to do one thing: you have got to make
your rifle fire better than his, and you have got to keep it better.

The proposition is this: The enemy is on the defense. He is in a
number-one, first-class trench. It is constructed with steel, concrete,
and sandbags. It has all the improvements that science can devise. Your
business is to attack and crush the enemy. How can you advance over
exposed ground against such a position? The man behind all those modern
improvements has got to stick his head up more or less when he fires. If
the volume and rate and accuracy of your fire is greater than his, he
will grow timid about the matter. His fire will become less effective.
That is to say, he cannot have fire superiority. When your side has fire
superiority, it not only can advance upon such a position but it can do
so without ruinous losses, and with hope of success.

To obtain this fire superiority it is necessary to produce a heavier
volume of accurate fire than your opponent can produce. We can get a
proper conception of the ideas involved by imagining two firemen in a
fight armed with hose. One has a larger hose and a greater water
pressure than the other. All else being equal, we can foresee clearly
who will be the victor and who will be defeated. The more water one
throws into the other's face, the less accurate and effective will the
other's aim become. This is equally true with bullets. Put a man on the
target range, where no danger whatsoever is involved, and he may fire
with a nice degree of accuracy. Put him on the battle-field with a great
number of bullets whizzing around his head, and he must be a trained
veteran to fire with the same accuracy. This is true simply because we
have been made that way.

The volume and accuracy of fire depend upon several considerations: (a)
Of primary importance is the number of rifles employed. Let us imagine a
battle-line one mile long. It is obvious that we cannot have one man
firing behind another. We don't want to destroy our own men. They must,
therefore, be placed side by side. Each man must have sufficient room to
operate his rifle. Experience tells us that we must not have more than
one man per yard. We thus see that our battle-line of a mile can only
have about eighteen hundred rifles. (b) The rate of fire affects its
volume; an excessive rate reduces its accuracy. If you were hunting
tigers, you can easily imagine where one well-aimed and well-timed shot
could be of more use to you and more harm to the tiger than half a dozen
shots fired too rapidly. (c) If the target is large, is clear (can be
easily seen), and is but a short distance from you, your fire, for
reasons that do not require explanations, can be more rapid. Greater
density increases the effect. Suppose a hundred deer were grazing on a
hill; you would be more likely to kill some deer than if only a half
dozen were there. (d) The position of the target influences the effect
of fire. Suppose that ten men were lined up in a row against a wall and
that it is your business to kill the lot with a rifle. If you are in
front of them, ten shots at least will be required. But it is possible
for you to take a position in prolongation of the line (on its flank)
and kill the entire number with one bullet. (This also illustrates the
extreme vulnerability of flanks.)

What are the important steps that must be taken if you are going to get
this fire superiority? 1st, Fire Direction. 2d, Fire Control. 3d, Fire
Discipline.



FIRE DIRECTION


A company that cannot start firing or stop firing, that cannot fire
faster or slower, that cannot distribute equally its fire over an
opposing target, that cannot switch its fire from one place to another
and make bull's-eyes, would be as unsuccessful in battle to-day as
Harvard's football team would be, without practice, in its final game
with Yale. The team work in no department of athletics is as necessary
or vital as that of a military force, the teamwork of a military
machine. The first is a sport, a limited time being involved. The second
is a question of life and death to the nation.

It requires a nice and cool judgment, under actual conditions of war, to
point out and distribute properly the target to the different groups, to
find the exact range, and give all these instructions (directions) that
will be necessary to produce an effective fire upon the enemy. Who is
responsible for giving these instructions (fire direction), and exactly
what are all the conditions that must be fulfilled in order that each
individual on the firing line may know exactly where and how to fire?

The captain (company commander) is responsible for all. In the military
world there is no such thing as shifting responsibilities. The commander
assumes full responsibility, whether things go right or wrong. He must
handle his job through his subordinates (platoon leaders). 1st, He
points out the target to his platoon leaders. 2d, He assigns a part of
the target to each platoon, in such a manner that the entire target
(objective) will be covered (fired upon). 3d, He determines and gives
the men the distance to the objective (range). 4th, He indicates the
kind of fire to be employed (that is, whether each man will fire as he
pleases, fire five shots and then stop, et cetera). 5th, He indicates
when the company is to commence firing. 6th, Thereafter the captain
observes what effect his company's fire is producing, and corrects
flagrant (material) errors. He prevents the exhaustion of his ammunition
and distributes such extra ammunition as may be received from the rear.



FIRE CONTROL


We have just described what the captain directs. Now we must put his
directions (orders) into effect. This is done through his platoon
leaders, assisted by the platoon guides and the corporals. 1st, The
platoon leaders point out and describe their part of the objective
(target) to the corporals. 2d, They assign a particular part of the
objective to each corporal with the view of covering equally with the
fire the entire objective. 3d, They announce the range (distance to the
objective) to their platoons. 4th, If any part of the line cannot see
the objective, the platoon leaders must make the changes so that it can
see, or so that its fire will be effective. 5th, They order their
platoons to open fire at the proper time. Thereafter they observe the
target and make any necessary changes to keep the fire effective, i.e.,
fire fast or slow, according to the necessity, and are on the alert for
any commands or signals from the captain.

The platoon guides do one thing only: they watch the firing line and
check every breach of fire discipline. (See "Fire Discipline," below.)

The corporals have four distinct duties. 1st, They transmit the commands
and signals to their squads when necessary. 2d, They observe the conduct
of their squads and abate excitement. 3d, They do all in their power to
enforce discipline. 4th, They participate in the firing.



FIRE DISCIPLINE


Now we come to the individual private on the firing line. All of the
above measures for efficiency will come to but little unless the man
with the gun can understand and do what he is directed to do. This
training is called Fire Discipline.

Fire Discipline implies, besides a habit of obedience, a control of the
rifle by the soldier (the result of training), which will enable him in
action to make hits instead of misses. It embraces: 1st, Taking
advantage of the ground. 2d, Care in setting the sight and delivery of
fire. 3d, Constant attention to the orders of the leaders, and careful
observation of the enemy. 4th, An increase of fire when the target is
favorable, and a cessation of fire when the enemy disappears. 5th,
Economy of ammunition.


Summary

Fire Direction is the issuance of instructions regarding the firing.

Fire Control is the explanation of these instructions through the
platoon leaders.

Fire Discipline is the quality which enables the soldier to submit to
control and fire efficiently under all conditions.




CHAPTER VII

THE SERVICE OF SECURITY



"Security" has the same meaning in the military world as elsewhere. We
properly think of the security of our persons, our property, our
families in connection with the term. In the military world the family,
or community, being so much larger, the word "security" acquires
additional dignity.

A husband and father provides for the protection of his family whether
at home or abroad. So does the military commander for his command,
whether it is an army or a squad; whether it is in camp, on the march,
in battle, advancing upon or retreating from the enemy. The end desired
is the same in all cases. A study of all the measures adopted by the
successful generals in history shows that the means are not very
different.

A body of troops in camp is protected (made secure) by the use of groups
placed between the enemy and the camp. We were told by a bee expert in
Arizona that a limited number of bees remained in the vicinity of the
hive. They were quick to observe and resist (the two great duties of an
outpost) any intruder.

Suppose that you are in a part of the jungles of Borneo where wild
Mohammedan tribes still exist, that you have had a strenuous day's
march, and it is time for you to halt and camp for the night. If you are
a thoughtful and experienced hunter you will pitch your camp where its
protection will be least difficult. A few wild men may severely punish
you for a lack of judgment in the matter. They may probably spring from
a weak and unexpected quarter when the occasion is least favorable for
you. And unless the members of your camp know that you have exercised
wise discretion, and that there are proper measures for their security,
they will be unable to obtain the needed repose for the following day's
work. From this we can see the important business (function) of an
outpost.

As a father would interpose himself between his wife and children and an
attacking bulldog, so would a military commander provide a similar
protection for his camp. We see from this one of the big duties of an
outpost commander, i.e., especial attention should be devoted to the
direction from which the enemy (bulldog) is coming or is thought to be
coming, and a probably less degree of attention to other points.

Consider yourself a member of General Sherman's army during its march
from the North on Atlanta. You are to camp for the night on a very open
piece of ground. You do not know where the enemy is, but you believe
that he is somewhere south of you. The troops are tired. They have had a
long, hard march. Let us suppose it is your duty to provide the security
of the main body for the night. General Sherman has given you a certain
number of men for this purpose. Just how would you go about it?

Regardless of other considerations, it is imperative that your own main
force be not surprised or caught off guard by any contingency, however
exceptional. To secure this immunity, it is necessary to send men or
groups of men in the direction of the probable advance of the enemy,
anti to arrange these men or groups of men so that they can be of
assistance to each other. This we call forming an outpost.

It may be possible to have a line of protection extending around the
entire camp. It must be extended and arranged so as to keep the enemy so
far away from our main body that he cannot observe our numbers or our
position. The enemy must not be permitted to approach close enough to
the main body to annoy or surprise it. Experience shows that all of this
is best accomplished by placing: 1st, some groups or line of groups
farthest from our main body and closest to the enemy in order to
observe, to report the movements of the enemy, and, when necessary, to
make a temporary resistance; 2d, a line of resistance ("supporting
groups") called "supports" upon which the first line can retire before,
being swamped by superior numbers; 3d, large groups, or line of groups
("line of reserves"), so located that they may go to the assistance of
the second line in case of necessity. Such arrangements may be
illustrated by the following diagram.

[Illustration:


PLATE SHOWING THE MAIN IDEAS INVOLVED IN SECURITY

                                  Danger zone
                                    Cavalry

           Danger zone                 ----              Danger zone
                                 ---          ---
           Cavalry          --           __        --        Cavalry
                      --        --       --      --
                        /      --                --     \
                      /      /         ___          \     \
                     +     /      ----     ----       \    +
                     ^    +     /               \      +
                    /     ^    +  +-----------+  +
                   /       \      | MAIN BODY |  ^
                  /         \     +-----------+   \
Line of observation.  \                 Line of reserves -
Occupied by small      \                to move forward to
groups. Drive back      \               help line of supports.
enemy patrols.           \
                              Line of supports on line of resistance.
                                 Rallying point for small groups in front.

Note that distances from the line of observation to the main body
increase as the groups increase in size. The reserves are the largest
groups. The groups on the Line of observation are the smallest.

It is most important to note that the groups are placed according to
the conditions and circumstances of the particular case. Don't follow
any blind rules. Your judgment must tell you when to place this group
here and not to place that group there. Have as few men on such duty as
practicable.

If a swamp, or a large body of water here, very small groups will
afford the necessary security.

If a forest, or steep hills here, very small parties will afford the
necessary security.

Assume that we want to afford security for our main body from any
especially dangerous sector such as ABC. Our cavalry is in front of our
first line and in touch with the enemy. The danger zone represents the
direction from which the enemy is expected.]

This plan must be modified according to the particular case. Let us
suppose that we are camping by a large body of water, or that we are
surrounded by mountains. We can easily imagine where we could change
the above general plan so as to give adequate protection and at the same
time lessen the number of men detailed for security. We must never
forget that men are generally tired when they arrive in camp, and that
we should make their work as light as circumstances permit. It requires
a nice judgment to choose the correct number for security.

We should know the names of these groups. Farthest away is the line that
sees, and reports what it sees, but can offer only a limited resistance.
This is called the "line of observation" or the "line of outguards." In
rear of the line of outguards we have larger groups placed at greater
distances. These are called "supports." This is the line that fights.
This is the line that makes extensive preparations for fighting (or
resisting). It is called the "line of supports" or the "line of
resistance."[2] We have one farther and last line of groups which is
still larger and occupies still greater distances than the two we have
just discussed. This is the safety valve and is called the "reserve," or
the "line of reserves." This is the line that gives a sound factor of
safety. It will only be called upon in cases of emergency and may
therefore generally enjoy a considerable degree of repose. But it and
the line of supports combined must have sufficient strength to delay the
enemy, in case of a general attack, long enough for our main body to
form for battle.

Let us look at the line of outguards for further important
considerations and distinctions. The enemy's movements and operations
should ordinarily be expected where there are for him least
difficulties. Large (dangerous) bodies of troops find trouble in
marshes, thick forests, steep mountainous country. They avoid these
obstacles as much as possible, selecting open country, solid soil,
strong bridges, and good roads. Here is where large and strong groups in
opposition are necessary. Small and unimportant groups (or no groups at
all) should be placed where the enemy's advance is exceptionally
difficult. Finally, there will be places between these last two extremes
that require just an average amount of attention, that is to say,
require groups of medium strength.

The groups that are largest and are used at the important places where
danger is most expected, are called "Pickets." (These consist of from
two squads of eight men each to eight squads.) The least important
groups are called "Cossack Posts." (These consist of four men, usually a
noncommissioned officer and three privates.) The groups of average
importance are called "Sentry Squads." (These consist of eight men, a
corporal and seven privates.)

Having discussed in broad terms the security of troops in camp, we are
prepared to consider their security while either advancing upon or
retreating from the enemy. In either case groups are placed between our
main body and the actual or supposed position of the hostile troops.
When we are advancing upon an enemy our advanced groups constitute what
we term the "advance guard." If we are retreating from the enemy, our
rear groups compose the "rear guard." The main general ideas of an
advance guard are illustrated by the husband who takes his wife and
family to his house after an evening's absence. The house is dark and
without occupants. The wife and children are apprehensive of danger. The
husband goes first, turns on the light, and searches for any indications
of an enemy. He looks, if desirable, in the closets and under the beds.
If there is any one that may harm his family it is his duty to find out
and dispose of him.

In the advance guard we have exactly the same general scheme as with
outposts. Far advanced to the front (and often to the sides or flanks)
we have small groups (called, when considered collectively, the "advance
party") whose business it is to inform us of the presence of the enemy.
Next we have a large group ("support") to assist these small and rather
helpless ones in advance in case of difficulty. And last we have a still
larger group ("reserve") that may be called upon in great emergencies.

We should fully understand that all these groups are out to accomplish
several ends, but their one great and ultimate object should be to push
on ahead of the main body so that it may be secure and its march
uninterrupted. To accomplish this it is desirable to get all possible
information about the enemy; it is also desirable to keep him from
getting any information about your own troops.

The ideas are nearly the same with rear guards. Note this important
difference: if, in an advance upon the enemy, your advance guard should
suddenly be fired upon, your main body would (temporarily) halt. If, in
a retreat, your rear guard is halted by the enemy's fire, your main body
would normally be marching farther from it. In the first case assistance
is near at hand. In the second it is withdrawing. The rear guard in a
retreat should therefore be a little larger than in an advance. It must
be able to extricate itself from any situation however difficult or it
loses its usefulness. Its commander should have a cool, level head. To
delay the enemy and thus assist the main body to escape is his mission.
For him to remain too long in a good position might endanger not only
his safety but that of the main body as well.




CHAPTER VIII

ATTACK AND DEFENSE



The European War has demonstrated more clearly than ever before two
points in attack and defense. First, no people, or group of people, can
claim a monopoly on bravery. They all move forward and give up their
lives with the same utter abandon. Courage being equal, the advantage
goes to him in the attack who possesses superior leaders, greater
training, and better equipment. Second, a man's training and courage,
his clear eye and steady nerve, his soul's blood and iron, constitute a
better defense than steel and concrete.

A soldier has little business attacking or defending anything in this
day unless he is an athlete, unless he is skilled in the technique of
manoeuver, unless he is a good shot, unless he knows the value of many
features of the terrain (which means the nature of the country--its
hills, rivers, mountains, depressions, etc.--considered from a military
point of view), unless he is disciplined to a splendid degree, and
unless his training has imbued him with an irresistible desire to push
forward, to get at his opponent. Assuming, at least, as much as this, we
are prepared to consider the subject of the attack (the offensive).

To have your troops superior in number, condition, training, equipment,
and morale to that of your enemy; to be at the right place, at the right
time, and there to deliver a smashing, terrific blow--this is the
greatest principle of the attack. And history shows that victory goes
more often to him who attacks.

Initiative in war is no less valuable than in business life. Become at
once imbued with the desire to put "the other fellow" on the defensive.
That makes him somewhat dependent upon your own actions. That gives you
opportunities to fool him that he does not so fully enjoy. Your
commander can elect to attack any point of the defensive line. Your dead
and wounded--always a demoralizing element--are left behind. Your target
is stationary. Your side is closing in. The enemy is straining every
nerve to fire faster and more effectively, and still your side is
closing in. There is the thrill of motion.

To attack, you will usually require a greater number of troops than the
defense. Why so? Because you will be more exposed. You will have to move
forward, however dangerous the ground. Your enemy, for his protection,
will be certain to utilize and improve every advantage of cover. Your
losses will be greater. You should have a greater number of reserves to
fill the depleted ranks. If the defensive can maintain a better
(superior) fire, that is to say, a fire that kills and wounds a greater
number than the opposing fire (this we call fire superiority), he will
stop the advance of the attacking force unless that force is so superior
in numbers that it can send forward reinforcements after reinforcements
as an ocean sends shoreward its series of waves.

Suppose that you were in command of a group of men and that you were
ordered to attack. Just what principal points should you weigh? First,
you should avail yourself of every opportunity to obtain all information
of military value, such as the enemy's strength, his position, and
intentions. For this you would have to send out groups of reconnoitering
patrols exceptionally skilled in woodcraft, or trained to gather
information. As soon as such information as is available is reported to
you, you should at once begin the consideration of all the important
elements that affect your problem. You must not lose sight of what you
were sent out to do (your mission). Consider how this and that fact bear
upon your course of action (estimate the situation). For instance: the
enemy's force is reported to be greatly inferior to your own. He is out
of supplies. He is greatly fatigued with forced marches. His morale is
shattered on account of recent and frequent reverses. His camp is
disorganized. It is poorly guarded. Certain roads are in fine condition.
Others are very poor. Your troops are in splendid shape and excellent
spirits. They believe that they can crush the enemy and want to attack.
As you easily see, all such points have great significance in sizing up
the case (estimating the situation).

Having estimated the situation, you should investigate and consider all
possible courses of attack that are open to you. Don't ask any advice
from any one. Select the course that appears to offer the greatest
chance of success. Make up your mind what you are going to do (come to a
decision).

Having come to a decision, stick to it, right or wrong. Your next and
final thing to do is to put your decision into action. To do that, give
your subordinates the information they should possess; tell them what
you are going to do and how you are going to do it; i.e., issue your
orders.

A study of the orders of successful generals in history teaches us that
we will be greatly aided in issuing them, if we will observe a system.
We understand an order more easily and quickly if it conforms to some
plan with which we are familiar.

In order to give your group an opportunity to act with a greater degree
of teamwork, and intelligence in case of an emergency, it is necessary
to give it data (information) concerning the enemy. Your men should know
where there are friendly troops. Now tell them what you are going to do
(your plan), whether it be to attack, retire, or assume the defensive.
And then order the execution of that plan by assigning to each group its
task. Next tell (direct) what is to be done with the wagons (trains),
and last, state where you may be found at any time in case of need or
where messages may be sent to you.

Having issued the order, let us now observe the progress of the attack.
You are probably three or four thousand yards from the enemy. His
position is invisible. His artillery has opened fire. Your artillery is
replying. The troops must advance cautiously over exposed ground. They
are not firing. They are not deployed for action (in battle line). They
are waiting to get within as short a distance of the enemy's line as
possible, for their ammunition is limited; and after troops are actually
launched in the attack, control over them, for ordinary purposes, is
practically lost. The farther from the enemy the attack is launched, the
longer the exposure to their fire and the greater the number of
casualties, so the leaders of the different groups are taking advantage
of all the accidents of the ground, of all cover in advancing. They are
using one formation here, another there, with a view to minimizing the
losses and reaching an advantageous position as soon as possible where
they can open an effective fire on the enemy.

Now the enemy's fire is severe. Casualties are becoming heavy. The men
are growing restless. It is necessary to return the fire. Fire
superiority should be gained at once. Don't move forward until you gain
it. If difficult to gain, use every means at your disposal. When you
have it, keep it. Part of your men can advance when your side has fire
superiority. The remainder of the firing line should fire faster to
maintain that superiority. If you lose fire superiority, regain it. If
necessary, troops from the rear will generally be sent forward.

Now you are approaching the point where the charge is to be made.
Bayonets are fixed; not all at one time, for that would affect the
advantage that you possess with your fire. Groups that have been held
back in support are advanced. These are to be used at decisive moments.
They are held well in hand. The firing line is lost in noise and
confusion. Not so the supports; control is exercised over them. If they
are not used in the attack they can be used to great advantage to
complete the discomfort of the enemy after the clash (shock).

There is at last, if the enemy remains in his position, the clash.
Bayonet against bayonet, man against man, nerve against nerve. Apply the
great principle of attack and decide for yourself who the victor will
be. If successful, then organize your men and prepare for the pursuit or
for the return (counter attack) of the enemy.

Now you are to handle groups on the defense. You must bear in mind that
there are two kinds of defense: first, where you do nothing but defend
(passive defense); second, where you defend, but temporarily, with the
idea of attacking the enemy as soon as a favorable opportunity arises
(active defense). Let us assume that you have been ordered by superior
authority to locate and prepare a definite position to check the advance
of an enemy. Just what main points should you bear in mind? Suppose you
have found an ideal position; what conditions should it fulfil? You
should be able to see the enemy long before he arrives at your position.
Intervening objects and trees would make that impossible. You should be
hidden from his view. The ends of your lines (your flanks) should rest,
if possible, on ground easy to defend; for instance, a high mountain, a
large body of water, or an impassable swamp. A few acres of ground will
not hold tens of thousands of men. Therefore the extent of the ground
must be suitable for the size of your group (force or command). It would
be of great advantage to have such cover that one group (for instance, a
support) could move from this position to that without danger of being
fired upon or observed. A wise general has plans for any contingency. He
is either going to win or he is not going to win. If he loses, he should
have a means of escape (retreat). In selecting his position he should
place it where the enemy must attack or give up his mission. Verdun had
to be attacked before the advance on Paris from the east was
practicable.

In defense there is a generous allowance of advantages. Usually you have
time to select and prepare your position. By preparing a position we
mean, you can dig trenches, destroy intervening objects that obstruct
the view of what you should see, construct obstacles that will embarrass
the enemy in his advance, estimate (or determine) distances to important
places. You have opportunities for collecting ammunition, arranging
wires for communication, establishing stations for the wounded. Troops
in motion are easier to see. You are not called upon for as much
physical strain as the attacking troops. You are less fatigued. Your
machine guns are better concealed and the gunners know the ranges better
than those of the attack.

But it is most distressing to a man on the defense to see the enemy,
regardless of everything he can do, advance step by step. He begins to
question within himself the efficacy of his fire, which is to doubt his
own ability. The more he questions and worries, the less effective his
aim becomes. His comrades are dead and wounded about him. Their cries of
distress are heard above the noise and confusion of battle. He becomes
less methodical and deliberate in his actions. His shooting becomes high
and wild. This becomes generally true. The attacking force gains fire
superiority.

Suppose that it is actually your business to construct a defensive
position. Just how will you assign the tasks? What are the important
things to be done at first, and what, if time is pressing, may with
least hardship be omitted? You would first cut down trees, blow up
buildings, destroy crops that prevented you from seeing in any direction
of danger. Next you should provide protection (concealment and cover),
so that there will be as few casualties as possible. Then do what is in
your power to make it most difficult for the enemy to arrive at your
position; i.e., construct some barbwire fences (entanglements) that he
will be unable to cross. Have your expert range finders determine and
make notes of the distances to important points from which the enemy
must advance. Next, dig ditches (trenches) so that your groups (supports
or reserves) may pass from one point to another without danger. Now
take steps to protect your most vital and vulnerable points, your
flanks. Have them so strong, if practicable, that the enemy will leave
them alone. Assign to each group of men a section of the ground to
defend. Having done these important things, then go about those things
that will make you more comfortable in the trenches.




CHAPTER IX

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TARGET PRACTICE



The most thrilling experience you will have at a training camp will
probably come when you step up to the firing line on the target range to
fire your first shot. The great majority of new men grow pale, become
nervous, lose their calm and poise, while they are on the firing line.
This is a fact, not a theory. And this loss of nerve is not confined to
the new man. Any shot, however old and experienced, will tell you that
he fully understands what we have just described.

To become a good shot, we must solve a mental condition that corresponds
in a way to that of beginners in golf. And we must master some details
in technique.

We should know something about the machine (rifle) we are to operate. We
must know what the sights are and how to use them. We should know how
those men most successful in the science and art of shooting hold the
rifle under different conditions, how they adjust their slings, how they
prepare (blacken) their sights and care for their rifles, what practice
and preparation they take, and what bits of advice they have to offer.

The primitive man had no means of accurately aiming his crude devices to
throw stones. But in this day and age we have. The modern rifle is one
of the most perfect pieces of scientific machinery in the world. Very
shortly after you arrive in camp your captain will explain to you its
sights and how they are adjusted. lie has a sighting bar for that
purpose. It will take you only a few minutes to grasp the subject when
you have a rifle in your hands, and your instructor is pointing out and
explaining just what you should know. On paper it seems to be hard.

Now you will want to learn how to load your piece (rifle), work your
bolt, and squeeze the trigger. Simple as these points may seem, you will
have something to learn after you have been at it ten years. Practise!
practise! practise! Sit on your bunk and work your bolt ten thousand
times before you go on the range. Get in the habit of doing it quickly.
Learn to keep your piece at your shoulder while you pull the bolt back
and push it home. Learn to make the fewest possible motions of your body
in working it. To pull a bolt back and push it forward seems to be a
simple thing to do. It is simple. But when you are actually firing at
the target, experience tells you that you will have more trouble and a
greater collection of hard luck stories to amuse your friends with than
you ever imagined possible, unless you have had plenty of practice.

To squeeze a trigger seems to be a simple thing to do. It is simple. But
after you have been squeezing triggers for twenty years you will have
something more to learn about it. Ninety-five per cent. of the failures
on the target range in the training camps come from not squeezing the
trigger properly. You can't learn how to squeeze it on paper. You have
got to practise. Every time you work your bolt, squeeze your trigger.
Get in some extra "squeezes." You will find that your whole muscular and
nervous system will need to be coordinated and harmonized. After you
have been long about it you will find an extreme delicacy in its
operation. You will find that it requires a great deal more than a
finger. All the muscles of your hand and arm will be required. We cannot
overemphasize the importance of squeezing your trigger. When you learn
to do this without jumping (flinching), without moving an eyelash, you
are making progress and are prepared for more advanced work.

Why do you suppose we have "gallery practice," i.e., practice with a
greatly reduced charge of powder? Simply to determine and correct your
errors. We assume that you have normal sight and that you are in fair
physical condition. Suppose that you make a perfect score. What
conditions must you fulfil? 1st, You must aim in exactly the same way
every time. 2d, At the instant of firing your body must be in perfect
repose. 3d, You must squeeze your trigger properly (without a jerk).

You could not aim exactly the same way every time unless you understood
your sights and unless you could see them plainly. You will be told to
blacken them. Many forget and fail to do this. They do not fully realize
that the sights are much easier to see when blackened, and that
therefore the chances of hitting the bull's-eye are much greater.
There`s no more luck in shooting than there is in solving a problem in
geometry, or in a game of billiards. It`s all practice, nerve, and
science.

Your body cannot be in repose at the instant you fire unless you have
your sling properly adjusted, unless you are reasonably comfortable (not
constrained), and unless you, temporarily, stop breathing. Your body
must be, for an instant, a vise. Any trivial thing such as a puff of
wind, a jerk of the trigger, or a noise near you, will ordinarily change
your hold and throw you off the bull's-eye.

Suppose you are making a poor score. What is the trouble? In the first
place don't blame it on the rifle or the ammunition. Assume full
responsibility yourself. You are the responsible party. Practise a great
deal and see if you can locate the fault. If you cannot, your captain
will assist you.

When we go from gallery practice to the target range, where we fire the
service rifle with the service charge, we find a great difference in the
recoil of the rifle and in the sound. The good Lord has made our muscles
and nervous system to react automatically at danger or anything
connected with it. That is probably why we shudder and close our eyes
when a door is slammed very near to us. But sound, unless we get too
close, does not hurt any one, and we should steel our nerves to
remember that fact when we are firing. We also know that there is going
to be a certain amount of recoil of the rifle. But if you will hold your
sling as you have been instructed, if you will provide yourself with
proper elbow and shoulder padding, the authors of this text assure you
that you will experience no pain or harm from the recoil. It is their
judgment that if you are healthy and can see and will go on the range
with your jaws set to fire with anything like your gallery practice
coolness, and calmness, you will qualify. Your greatest stumbling block
will be your rapid fire. This is where you fire a definite number of
shots in a limited time. And this is where you will experience the
extreme amount of nervousness.

When you return from firing your first score at rapid fire, and have had
time to think calmly over your actions, you will probably realize that
your nerves were pitched up in G and that you did a number of foolish
things. You should realize that you are not an exceptional man.
Ninety-nine out of every hundred normal, virile men are more or less
nervous when they first step up for rapid fire. Practice and will power
are the correctives.

Let us suppose that you have ten shots to fire in two minutes. If you
fire your ten shots in one minute it is plain that you return unused one
minute given to you. This minute may have been of great use to you in
getting closer to the bull's-eye. If you fire at the rate of ten shots
in three minutes, it is plain that when your two minutes shall have
expired you have missed the opportunity of firing four times at the
bull's-eye.

Get one of your bunkies to go back of your tent and time you. Then swap
about and you hold the watch for him. Try to make of yourself a machine
that finishes the ten shots just before the time expires.

And here is a little rule of thumb we want you to bear constantly in
mind while you are having rapid fire: Load your piece quickly, but aim
and squeeze your trigger deliberately. Keep cool.

The best shot in the company is the man who practises the most.




CHAPTER X

PRACTICE MARCH OR "HIKE"



The manoeuver practice march will be the most instructive, the most
pleasant, and one of the hardest periods of your service. You will
return from it proud of the hardships you have undergone and capable of
speaking with authority on many practical matters pertaining to
soldiering. You will be able to amuse yourself and your friends with
reminiscences of the many incidents which you will never forget. It is
during the practice march that you will put into practical use the
tactical principles and battle formations of which, up to that time, you
will have heard at lectures, or which you will have executed in a
mechanical manner at drill. You will return from each march with a
knowledge of many practical points on camp sanitation, of the pleasures
and hardships incident to manoeuver warfare, and of the manner in which a
soldier adapts himself to changing conditions, all of which cannot be
learned from books or lectures.

The practice march demands a large expenditure of physical and mental
energy; however, the hardships are greatly exaggerated by the old
soldiers. To make up a set of equipment, to assist in cleaning up camp
and loading trucks, to march and fight for a distance of ten or twelve
miles while carrying a heavy pack on the back and a nine-pound gun on
the shoulder, and upon reaching camp to pitch your tent, make up your
bed, do some fatigue work, and probably some guard duty in addition, all
in one day, is a hard physical strain on the average man. By obeying
implicitly the advice of your company commander, you will greatly lessen
the hardships incident to a practice march, and by disobeying it you
may possibly undergo the mortification of having to drop out of ranks
and be jeered at by the passing column. The following suggestions, if
followed implicitly, will lessen the hardship of the "hike."



MARCHING RULES


1. Adjust your equipment, if necessary, at the first halt.

2. Do not leave the column without the express permission of your
company company commander.

3. Keep in your proper place in the column.

4. keep forty inches from the man in front of you.



HALTS


Halts are made for the purpose of resting. Take advantage of the
opportunity by sitting down at once along the side of the road near the
place where your squad will form when the march is resumed. Remain
seated until the command to fall in is given.

Sit down in such a way that you do not support the weight of the pack on
your shoulders while resting. Don't go wandering off into people's
yards or orchards. Relax as completely as possible. Get into place
immediately when the signal is given.



CAMPING


Two men tent together--the front rank man and his rear rank file. Alter
pitching your tent, get inside and level off the ground. Cut a drain
around the tent to carry the water off; this should be done even in
pleasant weather. In case you do not trench your tent and a sudden rain
comes, your blankets may get wet and you will probably lose some
much-needed rest and sleep. If the tent pins will not stay in the
ground, cut some small sticks to a length of about twelve inches and use
them as tent pins.



PREPARING YOUR BED


After you have pitched your tent, get some hay, grass, straw, or leaves
and cover the floor. Place one poncho on this, then one or two blankets
on top of the poncho to sleep on, and use the remaining blankets as
cover. Spread the other poncho over the tent. Many men are careless
about making a comfortable bed. You will be rewarded with large
dividends if you are zealous in making yourself comfortable. Arrange
your equipment at the rear just under the small triangle. Get your meat
can, knife, fork, spoon, and tin cup out where they will be handy.



MAKING UP YOUR PACK


Immediately after reveille, take down your tent and make up your pack.
Place your extra blankets on the pile with those of the other members of
your squad. Make up your surplus kit bundle and put it in the surplus
kit bag.



WATER


Fill your canteen each evening, as the water wagons sometimes do not
reach camp before the morning march is commenced. Excessive water
drinking on the march is the besetting sin of the inexperienced soldier.
One swallow of water calls for another. Soon your canteen is empty. Your
stomach feels uncomfortable. You are still thirsty. If it is necessary
to replace some of the water of the body which is lost by perspiration,
and this is often necessary, first gargle out the mouth and throat and
spit the water out; then take a swallow or two, but be careful not to
drink to excess. Injudicious and excessive water drinking fills the
hospital ambulances and auto trucks with men who should be in ranks. One
half a canteen of water is sufficient for you on any march you will have
to make. After you arrive in camp and have cooled off a little, drink as
much water as you desire, but do so slowly.



CARE OF THE FEET


The infantryman's feet are his means of transportation. If you care for
them properly, you will be rewarded.

1. Wash and dry the feet carefully and put on clean socks as soon as
practicable after getting into camp.

2. Wash out the socks you have been wearing and hang them out to dry.

3. Do not wear socks with holes in them if you can possibly avoid it.
Should a hole begin to cause rubbing, turn the sock inside out or change
it to the other foot.

4. Just as soon as you decide to attend a training camp or join the
colors, cut your toe nails square across the ends so they will not grow
in.

5. In case of any foot trouble that you cannot relieve, report to the
surgeon at once. Don't wait until you cannot march before reporting.

6. A Treatment for Blisters. Be careful not to tear off the skin
covering the blister. Heat the point of a needle until it is red hot and
when it cools insert it under the live skin a little distance away from
the blister. Push it through to the under side of the bruised skin or
blister and then press out the water. To protect the blister, grease a
small piece of chamois with vaseline and place it so that it covers the
blister and extends over on the solid skin surrounding it. Then place a
piece of oxide adhesive tape over the chamois. This method allows the
protective covering to be removed without rupturing the skin over the
blister and protects the new tender and sensitive skin so that the
weight can be rested upon the foot without causing severe pain. One man
in each squad should be provided with a needle, adhesive tape, a bottle
of vaseline, and a piece of chamois for the common use of the squad.

7. Shoes.

    a. Be sure they fit your feet. The business shoe you wear at the
    office won't do for marching when, with the additional weight you
    carry, your foot spreads in breadth and extends in length; hence
    your marching shoes should be longer and broader than your business
    shoes. This is a very important item and should not be neglected. If
    your shoes are too large, blisters will result; if too small, your
    foot will be cramped, and every step will be painful.

    b. Break your shoes in prior to the practice march.

    c. Keep your shoes well oiled so they will be soft and pliable and
    keep out water.

    d. If your shoes get wet on the inside heat some small pebbles (not
    so hot as to burn leather) and keep them inside the shoes until dry.



CAMP SANITATION

In camp you are really your brother's keeper. It is the duty of every
man to keep the camp clean, sanitary, and livable. Constantly bear in
mind that a great number of men are living together in a very small
area; that food is being prepared in the open; that there are no sewers;
and that the ground or dust and streams must not be polluted. Obey
conscientiously and diligently the following rules:

1. Don't take food to your tent.

2. Use the latrines that are provided.

3. When possible bathe each day as soon as practicable after you arrive
at camp.

4. Don't throw food or fruit peeling on the ground.

5. Dispose of any food you cannot eat by burning in the kitchen
incinerator.

6. Keep away from the kitchen and cooks.

7. Don't dip your cup in the drinking water receptacle. Use the dipper
provided for that purpose.

8. If sick, report to a surgeon.

9. Don't litter up the camp with paper.

10. Get your drinking water and bathe at the authorized places. The camp
commander always designates different places for cooking and drinking
water, for watering the animals, for bathing and washing clothes.

11. On leaving camp the ground should be in better condition than when
you arrived. All sinks, latrines, ditches, and holes are filled and the
earth stamped down; all combustibles that have no value should be burned
and noncombustible matter either buried or piled so it can be carted
away.

12. All deposits in the rears should be covered with earth.


MISCELLANEOUS

1. Take great pains each morning to make a neat, small and solid pack
and strap it up securely.

2. Don't put your pack on until ordered to do so by your company
commander or first sergeant.

3. Get your pack properly adjusted.

4. Don't take your equipment off during the halts allowed for resting.

5. Don't eat anything or patronize the soft drink stand during a march.

6. Retire early and get a good night's rest.

7. Use only heavy or light wool socks and see that they fit perfectly.
If you cannot wear wool socks, try cotton and then silk socks.

8. Don't overeat or overdrink.

9. A light pair of sneakers or canvas tennis shoes are serviceable for
camp wear in the afternoons and are restful to the feet.

10. Each morning sprinkle a little talcum powder or footease in the
shoes.

11. Keep the bowels functioning properly. Should you become constipated,
report to the doctor for medicine before you begin to feel badly.

12. Clean your mess kit immediately after each meal.

13. Respect the property of others.


EQUIPMENT

During the hike your equipment for living will be limited to: (1) your
pack (things that you carry on your back), (2) a few authorized articles
which are placed in a squad laundry bag (called a surplus kit), and (3)
a blanket roll.

Contents of the Pack

1 bacon can.
1 condiment can.
1 blanket.
1 poncho.
1 shelter half (one-half of a small tent)
5 small tent pins.
1 tooth brush.
1 comb and any other toilet articles desired.
1 cake of soap.
1 or 2 towels.
1 extra suit of underwear.
1 pair socks.
1 pair shoe strings.


Contents of Surplus Kit

1 pair of breeches.
1 suit of underwear.
1 shirt, olive drab.
1 shoe laces.
2 pair of socks.
1 pair of shoes (tan).

Any other article that may be prescribed by the company commander.

The surplus kit of each man will be made up into a neat, compact bundle,
tied with a string (use a shoe string for the purpose), and tagged with
the owner's name. These individual kits will be packed in a laundry bag,
called "surplus kit bag," tagged, one for each squad.

     Contents of Blanket Roll

     1. Extra blankets.

     2. One ramrod for each squad.

     3. Any other articles that may be prescribed by the company
     commander.

Each squad makes these extra blankets, etc., into a long roll which is
called the "squad blanket roll." A tag is tied to it, showing to what
regiment, company, and squad it belongs.


Notes

1. The bacon can is a convenient place to carry a small face towel,
shaving outfit, and other small toilet articles.

2. Keep your soap in a soap box.

3. Each squad should have its own cleaning material which should be tied
into a small package and carried in the surplus kit bag.

4. Interest in a hike or a manoeuver will be stimulated if at least one
member of each squad has a map showing all the camp sites and route of
march.

5. One man in each squad should be provided with a small bottle of
iodine, some absorbent cotton and adhesive tape for the common use of
the squad. This saves time for the surgeon and men in caring for minor
injuries, scratches, etc.



ESPRIT DE CORPS


Have too much esprit de corps to complain of the length of the march, or
to kick about the dust on the road. Be self-controlled. Don't boast of
your ability to march on forever. Such remarks are depressing to a tired
comrade who is not as physically strong as you.




CHAPTER XI

OFFICERS' RESERVE CORPS



To make it possible to fill the gaps made in the Regular Army, by the
heavy loss of commissioned officers which is inevitable in time of war
and to make it possible to train large volunteer armies which are called
into existence when war is imminent or actually upon the country, the
Government has provided for an Officers' Reserve Corps.

It is, indeed, a patriotic and far-sighted act on the part of a citizen
to become a reserve officer, for, by so doing, he will increase his
measure of usefulness for the time when his country will need him most
and when he will, if he is a real, virile man, desire to be of the
utmost service to his country.

The President alone is authorized to appoint officers in the Reserve
Corps. Each officer must be physically, mentally, and morally qualified
to hold his commission. The highest rank in the reserve corps will be
that of major.

Age limits for appointment in the line of the Reserve Corps:

2nd Lieutenants must be under 32 years of age.

1st Lieutenants must be under 36 years of age.

Captains must be under 40 years of age.

Majors must be under 45 years of age.

Any citizen who thinks that he has the necessary qualifications and
desires to become a reserve officer should apply to the Commanding
General of the Department wherein he resides for an application blank
and all information pertaining thereto.

You must undergo a course of training in camp. We advise you in the
strongest terms to go to camp as soon as possible. There are no short
cuts in the military business. The most efficient instruction under the
most ideal conditions with the most competent officers, will be found
only in camp.



GENERAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE OFFICERS' RESERVE CORPS


An officer in the Reserve Corps cannot, without his consent, be called
into service in a lower grade than that held by him in the Reserve
Corps.

When a Reserve Officer reaches the age limit fixed for appointment or
reappointment in the grade in which commissioned, he will be honorably
discharged from the service of the United States and he will be entitled
to retain his official title, and, on occasions of ceremony, to wear the
uniform of the highest grade he held in the Reserve Corps. The preceding
provisions as to ages of officers do not apply to the appointment or
reappointment of officers of the Quartermaster, Engineer, Ordnance,
Signal, Judge Advocate, and Medical Sections of the Reserve Corps.

A commission in the Reserve Corps will cover a period of five years,
except as provided in the preceding paragraph, unless sooner terminated
in the discretion of the President. An officer may be recommissioned,
either in the same or a higher grade for successive periods of five
years, subject to examination and age limits.

To become eligible for appointment as an officer of the Officers'
Reserve Corps a man must be not less than twenty-one years of age and
must be a citizen of the United States.



THE OFFICERS' RESERVE CORPS IN WAR


In time of actual or threatened hostilities the President can order
officers of the Reserve Corps to temporary duty with the Regular Army,
or as officers at recruiting rendezvous and depots, or on such duty as
he may prescribe. An officer thus called into service receives the same
pay and allowances as an officer of the same rank in the Regular Army.
When thus called out Reserve Officers may be promoted in rank to
vacancies in volunteer organizations. Retired officers of the Officers'
Reserve Corps are not entitled to retired pay but are entitled to
pensions for disability incurred in line of duty and while in active
service. When called out for active service an officer in the Reserve
Corps will be required to obey the laws and regulations for the
government of the Army of the United States in so far as they are
applicable to officers whose permanent retention in the military service
is not contemplated.



THE OFFICERS' RESERVE CORPS IN PEACE


During peace the Secretary of War can order any Reserve Officer to duty
for instruction for a period not to exceed fifteen days in any one
calendar year. While so serving, an officer will receive the pay and
allowance of his grade in the Regular Army. This period of service may
be extended with the consent of the Reserve Officer. By thus extending
such periods of instruction a Reserve Officer may, at the conclusion
thereof, be examined for promotion to the next higher grade.



EXAMINATIONS


Each applicant for a commission in the Reserve Corps will be given a
rigid physical examination. Make certain that you can pass such an
examination. Go to your family physician and get him to examine you.

The examinations for Reserve Corps commissions are for the purpose of
ascertaining the practical ability of the applicant. The record of all
the service and training the applicant has had at training camps is
considered as part of the examination.

Those desiring to enter the Officers' Reserve Corps may elect any of the
following sections:

 1. Infantry Officers' Reserve Corps.
 2. Cavalry Officers' Reserve Corps.
 3. Field Artillery Officers' Reserve Corps.
 4. Coast Artillery Officers' Reserve Corps.
 5. Medical (to include the reserve officers of the Medical Corps, Dental
    Corps, and Veterinary Corps) Officers' Reserve Corps.
 6. Adjutant General's Officers' Reserve Corps.
 7. Judge Advocate General's Officers' Reserve Corps.
 8. Inspector General's Officers' Reserve Corps.
 9. Quartermaster Officers' Reserve Corps.
10. Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps.
11. Ordnance Officers' Reserve Corps.
12. Signal Officers' Reserve Corps.



REPORTS TO BE MADE


Officers in the Officers' Reserve Corps are required to report at once
to the Adjutant General of the Department in which they live or to the
heads of the Staff Corps or Departments to which they may belong of any
permanent change of address. If a change of address to any other
department is involved the adjutant of each department should be
notified.



THE RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS


The President is authorized to establish and maintain in civil
educational institutions a Reserve Officers' Training Corps which shall
consist of senior and junior divisions.



SENIOR DIVISION


A senior division of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps may be
established at any university and college requiring of its students four
years of collegiate study for a degree, and at essentially military
schools which, as a result of annual inspection of such institutions by
the War Department, are especially designated as qualified to establish
a unit of the senior division. Authorities of the former (universities
and colleges not essentially military) must establish and maintain a two
years' elective or compulsory course of military training, as a minimum,
for its physically fit male students. This course, when entered upon,
must in the case of such students be a prerequisite for graduation.

When any member of this senior division has completed two academic years
of service in that division; has been selected by the president of the
institution and by its professor of military science and tactics (who
must be an army officer); has made a written agreement to continue in
the Reserve Officers' Training Corps for the remainder of his course in
the institution, devoting five hours per week to the military training
prescribed by the Secretary of War; has also made a written agreement to
pursue the courses in training camps (one camp of not more than six
weeks' duration each year) prescribed by the Secretary of War)--when he
has fulfilled all these conditions, he may be given, at the expense of
the United States, a money commutation of subsistence at a rate not
exceeding the cost of the garrison (army) ration during the remainder of
his service in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps. This will amount to
about thirty cents a day. This provision applies only to the senior
division.



JUNIOR DIVISION


A junior division of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps may be
established at any institution to which an army officer has been
detailed as the professor of military science and tactics, and which
cannot meet the necessary requirements for the senior division. In this
case the Government does not give a commutation of subsistence and the
students are not asked to obligate themselves as in the senior division.



TO ENTER THE RESERVE OFFICERS' CORPS


The President is authorized, under such regulations as he may prescribe,
to appoint in the Officers' Reserve Corps any graduate of the senior
division of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, who shall have
satisfactorily completed the two-year course of training (five hours a
week), incident to receiving a commutation of rations; also any graduate
of the junior division who shall have satisfactorily completed the
courses of military training prescribed for students of the senior
divisions, referred to in the first part of this paragraph, and shall
have participated in such practical instruction, subsequent to
graduation, as the Secretary of War shall have prescribed. They must be
twenty-one years of age and must make written agreement under oath to
serve the United States for ten years.

Any physically fit male citizen of the United States, between the ages
of twenty-one and twenty-seven years, who graduated prior to June 22,
1916, from any educational institution at which an officer of the Army
was detailed as professor of military science and tactics, and who,
while a student at such institution, completed courses of military
training substantially equivalent to those prescribed for the senior
division of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, may, after
satisfactorily completing such additional practical military training as
the Secretary of War shall prescribe, be eligible for appointment to the
Officers' Reserve Corps.

The President can appoint and commission, as a temporary second
lieutenant of the Regular Army in time of peace, for the purpose of
instruction and for a period not to exceed six months, any Reserve
Officer who was appointed in the manner described in the two preceding
paragraphs. A temporary second lieutenant will receive the allowance
authorized by law for that grade and pay at the rate of $100 a month. He
will be attached to a unit of the Regular Army for duty and training. At
the end of the six months he will revert to the status of a Reserve
Officer.



DEPARTMENT COMMANDER'S REPORT


At the end of each calendar year department commanders and chiefs of
staff corps and departments compile lists of members of the Officers'
Reserve Corps under their command, showing:

    (a) Name, rank, age, and address.
    (b) Amount of instruction received.
    (c) Progress made.
    (d) Efficiency of officer.
    (e) Recommendation.

A copy of these lists will be forwarded to the Adjutant General of the
Army.

The remainder of this chapter boils down to an irreducible minimum some
of the most important subjects with which a Reserve Officer or an
applicant for a commission in the Officers' Reserve Corps should be
familiar. It emphasizes those things with which a reserve officer should
at once become familiar.[A] It merely opens up a broad field of study
for a reserve officer and at the same time can be used as a place of
reference.



THE LAND FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES


You now are, or expect to become, a member of the land forces of the
United States. Of what do the land forces of the United States consist?
They consist of the Regular Army, the Volunteer Army, the Officers'
Reserve Corps, the Enlisted Reserve Corps, the National Army, the
National Guard in the service of the United States and such other land
forces as Congress may authorize.

The land forces are grouped under two general heads:

    (1) The Mobile Army.
    (2) The Coast Artillery.

"The Mobile Army. The mobile army is primarily organized for offensive
operations against an enemy, and on this account requires the maximum
degree of mobility." (Field Service Regulations.) It consists of:

    Infantry.
    Field Artillery.
    Cavalry.
    Engineers.
    Signal Corps Troops.

"The Coast Artillery. The coast artillery is charged with the care and
use of the fixed and movable elements of the land and coast
fortifications." (Field Service Regulations.)

The President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the
Army. He exercises his command through the Secretary of War. The Chief
of Staff acts as military adviser to the Secretary of War. He puts into
effect the Administration's wishes.

For the purpose of equipping, inspecting, directing, and administering
to the Army, there are the following corps and departments:

     (1) General Staff Corps.
     (2) Adjutant General's Department.
     (3) Inspector General's Department.
     (4) Judge Advocate General's Department.
     (5) Quartermaster Corps.
     (6) Medical Department.
     (7) Ordnance Department.
     (8) Bureau of Insular Affairs.
     (9) Signal Corps.
    (10) Engineer Corps.

The following are the grades of rank and commands of officers and
noncommissioned officers:

 (1) General                                     Commands: Armies.
 (2) Lieutenant-General                          Commands: Field Army.
 (3) Major-General                               Commands: Division.
 (4) Brigadier-General                           Commands: Brigade.
 (5) Colonel                                     Commands: Regiment.
 (6) Lieutenant-Colonel                          Second in command in a Regiment.
 (7) Major                                       Commands: Battalion.
 (8) Captain                                     Commands: Company.
 (9) First Lieutenant                            Commands: Platoon.
(10) Second Lieutenant                           Commands: Platoon.
(11) Veterinarian                                He has no command.
(12) Cadet at United States Military Academy     He has no command.
(13) Sergeant-Major (Regimental)                 He has no command.
(14) Ordnance Sergeant                           He has no command.
(15) Quartermaster Sergeant                      He has no command.
(16) Sergeant-Major (Battalion)                  He has no command.
(17) First Sergeant                              Commands: Platoon.
(18) Sergeant                                    Commands: Sometimes a Platoon.
(19) Corporal                                    Commands: Squad.



ARTICLES OF WAR


The Army is governed by the Articles of War, which can be found in the
Army Regulations. Any laws, orders, et cetera, pertaining to the Army
must not violate directly or indirectly any of the Articles of War. It
is therefore desirable that each Reserve Officer know where to find them
and become, in a general way, familiar with them.



GENERAL ADVICE


To become a first-class drillmaster is desirable and necessary. But,
being one, you are not to be intrusted with the command of troops in the
field unless you have gone much farther than that. To become an
excellent drillmaster means simply that you have mastered a detail. In
order to become one you should bear this in mind: You cannot teach a man
how to do a thing unless you know that thing yourself. If you don't know
your drill, don't try to "bluff" your men. Burn the midnight oil, or
remain a private.



MILITARY CORRESPONDENCE


An official letter should refer to one subject only.

In writing to the War Department address your letter to "The Adjutant
General of the Army, Washington, D. C."

The United States (including colonies) is divided into the following
departments:

     (1) The Northeastern Department, with Headquarters at Boston,
     Massachusetts.

     (2) The Eastern Department, with headquarters at Governors Island,
     New York.

     (3) The Southeastern Department, with Headquarters at Charleston,
     South Carolina.

     (4) The Central Department, with Headquarters at Chicago, Illinois.

     (5) The Southern Department, with Headquarters at Fort Sam Houston,
     Texas.

     (6) The Western Department, with Headquarters at San Francisco,
     California.

     (7) The Philippine Department, with Headquarters at Manila. P. I.

     (8) The Hawaiian Department, with Headquarters at Honolulu, Hawaii.

You will be in one of these departments. Address your communication to
"The Commanding General" at his department headquarters.

Answer all official communications promptly. This is important. Letters
must be written, folded, signed as prescribed by the War Department.
Models illustrating the system are furnished by the Adjutant General's
office, Washington, D. C. "Ind." is the abbreviation for indorsement.


(Correspondence Model)

     COMPANY B, 40TH INFANTRY, Fort William H. Seward, Alaska, July
     19, 1916.

     From: The Commanding Officer, Co. B, 40th Inf.

     To: The Adjutant General of the Army (Through military channels.)

     Subject: Philippine campaign badge, Corporal John Doe.

     Inclosed are lists in duplicate of the enlisted men of Company B,
     40th infantry, entitled to the Philippine campaign badge.

John A. Brown,
Capt., 40th Inf.

1st Ind.

Hq. Ft. William H. Seward, Alaska, July 19th, 1916.--
To the Comdg. Gen., Western Department, San Francisco, California.

A. F. R.,
Brig.-Gen., Comdg.

     2d Ind.

(Incl. is the abbreviation for inclosure.)

(Stamp) Rec'd Western Department, July 30, 1916.



(Note. This correspondence is not complete but it illustrates how to
write a military letter and indorsement.)



USE OF THE COMBINED ARMS


Every efficient officer must realize the possibilities and limitations
of his own arm of the service as well as the possibilities and
limitations of the other arms. Each arm of the service is necessary and
important. A proper understanding of the use of the combined arms is as
essential to success in battle as cooeperation between the different
members of a football team is to its success. Don't "knock" any arm but
the one you are in, and don't knock that unless you are willing to admit
you are not man enough to improve it.



INFANTRY


"The infantry is the principal and most important arm, which is charged
with the main work on the field of battle and it usually decides the
final issue of the combat." (Field Service Regulations.) The role (duty
or job) of the infantry, whether offensive or defensive, is the role of
the entire force. If it fails, all fail. When properly supported by
artillery, trained infantrymen armed with rifles, bayonets, and the will
to put the enemy out of action, will settle all issues.



ARTILLERY


The chief duty of the artillery is to support the infantry. It does this
in three ways: 1st, By firing at the hostile infantry. 2d, By putting
out of action the hostile artillery so that it cannot fire at the
infantry. 3d, By demolishing the obstacles in front of the enemy's
works. It smothers the enemy with a curtain of fire, so that the
infantry can move forward without ruinous losses. Cooeperation with the
infantry is essential. If the infantry is defeated the artillery covers
its withdrawal; if the infantry is successful the artillery moves
forward and assists in reaping the full reward of victory by firing on
the fleeing enemy. The present European War has greatly increased the
prestige and importance of this arm of the service. The amount of
artillery on the Western front and the amount of ammunition consumed
daily is appalling.



CAVALRY


This very important arm is the eye with which the general sees for many
miles to the front and flank. In an advance it pushes ahead, combs the
country for the enemy, disperses his cavalry, and thus protects the
infantry in the rear. It locates the enemy, and occupies his attention
until the infantry comes up. It protects the flanks and rear of the
infantry and artillery during the fight. If needed, it joins in the
fight. If the infantry is defeated it covers the withdrawal, and if the
infantry wins it pursues and pounces upon the enemy.



MACHINE GUNS


Before the present European War, machine guns were classified as
emergency weapons. It was not believed that they could remain long in
action, because they would soon be silenced by hostile fire (artillery
and infantry). It was recommended, therefore, that a favorable
opportunity be awaited before opening fire which was to be delivered
with their utmost effectiveness. They were believed to possess very
limited possibilities in an attacking line, hut as being most valuable
in defensive works where protection and concealment could be found.

During this war they have lost, as a defensive weapon, no prestige. They
have also proved of great value to the attacking side. They are being
made light and portable to accompany the firing line in an attack. The
supply of ammunition alone limits the number that can be used.

Each side in the present war has used them by the thousands with
effectiveness. Machine guns are more worthy of consideration to-day than
heretofore.



BOMBS AND HAND GRENADES


The present European War has revived the use of hand grenades and bombs.
A certain number of soldiers in each British and French battalion are
trained as grenade throwers. Their principal weapon is a bucket or bag
of grenades or bombs. They operate not only from trenches but accompany
the firing line in an attack and dispose of sheltered or isolated group
of the enemy by smothering their position with a shower of hand grenades
or bombs.

These weapons are in the first stages of development in this country.
They offer to the service practically a virgin field of opportunities.
Some Reserve Officers might make a specialty of this subject and assist
in its development.



NIGHT OPERATIONS


"By employing night operations troops make use of the cover of darkness
to minimize losses from hostile fire, to escape observation, to gain
time." (Infantry Drill Regulations.) They are dangerous because control
is difficult and confusion is frequently unavoidable. Only trained
troops should be used, and the formation must be simple. Don't attempt
anything complicated.

Observe the following suggestions. For an attack or offensive movement:

    (1) Study by daylight and after dark, if possible, the ground you are
        to cross.

    (2) Make careful preparations with secrecy.

    (3) Avoid fire action. Pieces should not be loaded. Rely on the
        bayonet.

    (4) Give each unit a definite objective and direction. Avoid collision.

    (5) Have each man wear a distinctive badge. (For instance, a white band
        on one arm.)

If on the defensive and you expect a night attack, place obstacles in
front of your position, heavily patrol your front, fix bayonets, move up
your supports, open fire as soon as results may be expected, and
illuminate the foreground.



OBSTACLES


The main object in placing obstacles in front of a defensive position is
to delay the enemy while he is under the defenders' fire, and thus make
his advance as difficult as possible. To accomplish this result they
must be so placed that the enemy must cross them. They must not
interfere with the defenders' view or fire; they must not be easily
destroyed by artillery fire; they must not afford concealment to the
enemy; and they must be so made that they will not obstruct a counter
attack on the part of the defenders. The present war has demonstrated
that the barb wire entanglement fulfils more of these requirements than
any other form of obstacle.--See Engineer Department's "Manual on Field
Fortifications" on how to construct obstacles.



MEETING ENGAGEMENTS


When two hostile forces suddenly meet we have what is termed a "meeting
engagement." Very little or no reconnaissance is possible. There is an
absence of trenches. Both sides deploy rapidly. The smaller the force
the more frequently will it fight a meeting engagement. Therefore, it is
of the utmost importance to junior officers. A great advantage will
accrue to the side which can deploy the faster. The leader who has
intuition, initiative, who can make a quick decision and is willing to
take a long chance, will have a great advantage.



WITHDRAWAL FROM ACTION


"The withdrawal of a defeated force can generally be effected only at a
heavy cost." (Infantry Drill Regulations.) When a withdrawal is
necessary, make every possible effort to place distance and a rear guard
between you and the enemy. Have one part of your line withdraw under
protection of the fire of the other part and so on. Reorganize your
command as soon as possible.



INTRENCHMENTS


"Ordinarily infantry intrenches itself whenever it is compelled to halt
for a considerable time in the presence of the enemy." (Infantry Drill
Regulations.) Trenches are constructed with a view of giving cover which
will diminish losses, but they must not be so built or placed as to
interfere with the free use of the rifle. A good field of fire is the
first consideration. The construction of a trench is simple, but the
location of it is difficult. If possible, trenches are laid out in
company lengths.

Intrenchments usually take the following form:

(1) Hasty Cover. Constructed by troops with the tools they carry on
their person. It is a shallow trench with a parapet at least three feet
thick and one foot high. It furnishes cover against rifle fire, but
scarcely any against shrapnel.

(2) Fire Trench. It should be deep and narrow with the parapet flat
and concealed. While in it, the troops fire at the enemy; hence the name
fire trench.

Usual forms of fire trenches are as shown in the following illustration:

[Illustration]

(3) Support Trenches. The supports sleep and live in these trenches;
hence they are covered. The cover (roof) must be thick enough to afford
protection from high angle artillery fire. It is placed as near the fire
trench as possible.

(4) Approach Trenches. These connect fire trenches with the support
trenches and the support trenches with any trenches in rear where
natural covered communication is impracticable.

[Illustration: CROSS SECTION OF A SUPPORT TRENCH AND DUGOUT]

[Illustration: A SECTION OF A FORWARD ENTRENCHED ZONE

OTHERS ARE IN REAR]

They are zig-zagged to escape being enfiladed. (That is, to prevent one
explosion from doing too much damage in a single trench.) During an
engagement, troops by using these trenches can go safely to the help
of the troops in the fire trenches. They are usually deep and narrow.

(5) Intermediate Trenches. They are constructed in rear of the support
trenches when the ground renders it possible to offer a stubborn
resistance between the support and the reserve trenches. They are
constructed like fire trenches.

(6) Reserve Trenches. Constructed like the fire trenches and occupied
by the local reserves who live in deep dug-outs. The intermediate and
reserve trenches are often merged into the support trenches. All are
protected by barbwire entanglements. No set plan of trenches can be
used. The topographical features of the ground must govern.



MILITARY MAPS


Definition. "A military map is a drawing made to represent some
section of the country, showing the features that are of military
importance, such as roads, bridges, streams, houses, and hills. The map
must be so drawn that you can tell the distance between any two points,
the heights of the hills, and the relative positions of everything
shown." (Field Service Regulations.)

In the field the military maps are supplemented by sketches, or field
maps, prepared from day to day. For facility in reading, military maps
are made according to a uniform system of scales and contour intervals
as follows:

Road Sketches. Three inches on the map is equal to 1 mile on the
ground, contour intervals of 20 feet.

Position and Outpost Sketches. Six inches on the map arc equal to 1
mile on the ground, contour intervals of 10 feet.

Manoeuver or War Game Maps. Twelve inches on the map are equal to 1
mile on the ground, contour intervals of 5 feet.

Large Strategical maps for Extended Manoeuvers. One inch on the map is
equal to 1 mile on the ground, contour intervals of 60 feet.

Every officer in the Reserve Corps should be able to read a military map
and make a road, an outpost, and a position sketch.



BAYONET


Importance of the Bayonet. The infantry soldier is armed with a
bayonet. He relies mainly on fire action to disable the enemy, but he
should know that it is often necessary for him to cross bayonets with
the enemy. Therefore he must be instructed in the use of the rifle and
the bayonet in hand-to-hand encounters. The present European War is
demonstrating the importance of this instruction. If you did not receive
instruction in bayonet fighting at a federal training camp, it was not
because it is unimportant, but because there was no available time to
give it. Any Reserve Officer can well afford to specialize in this
work.



AMMUNITION


An infantry soldier goes into battle carrying 220 rounds of rifle
ammunition. He habitually carries in his belt 100 rounds and when a
fight is imminent he gets 120 rounds (2 bandoliers) from his combat
train. He keeps 30 rounds in the right pocket section of his belt to be
expended only when ordered by an officer.

A cavalryman goes into battle carrying 150 rounds of rifle ammunition
and 40 rounds of pistol ammunition. He habitually carries in his belt 90
rounds of rifle and 20 rounds of pistol ammunition. When about to go
into a fight he gets 60 rounds of rifle and 20 rounds of pistol
ammunition from his combat train.

All officers must train their men to economize in the use of ammunition.
Train service, even by rail for ammunition, would be inadequate if this
were not done.



TRANSPORTATION


Organization commanders are responsible for all unauthorized material or
supplies that may be put on their wagons. You should therefore become
acquainted with the transportation attached to the smaller
organizations. The wagons that carry your ammunition are called the
Combat Train. The wagons that carry your authorized baggage, kitchen
equipment, and food are called the Field Train.



THE RATION


A ration is the allowance (money) for the subsistence of one person for
one day. It is based on the cost of a fixed amount of certain foods
(such as meat, potatoes, bread, etc.) necessary for a workingman. As the
cost of food in the different sections of the country varies, so does
the cost of the ration. There are several kinds of ration based on what
the soldier is doing and the climate he is in. If you are ever in
command of a company, whether in the field or in barracks, one of your
most important duties will be to supervise the cooking and messing of
your company. You should, therefore, become familiar with the following
rations:

(1) Garrison rations. Used by troops in garrison and during peace and
on manoeuvers.

(2) Reserve ration. Carried on the person and in the trains.

(3) Field ration. The ration prescribed by the commander of a field
force.

(4) Travel ration. Used when traveling.

(5) Emergency ration. Used by troops on an active campaign in an
emergency.

(6) Filipino ration. For use of Filipino Scouts.



PROPERTY


In the absence of regulations on the subject, each Reserve Officer
should own a good watch, a pair of field glasses, a compass, and a note
book.



GUARD DUTY


Guards are used in camp or garrison to preserve order, to protect
property, and to enforce police regulations. The commander of the guard
is an officer or non-commissioned officer. He performs his duties under
the supervision of the officer of the day. A sentinel is on post two
hours out of every six. And a tour of guard duty is twenty-four hours.
As guard duty is of such utmost importance, and laxity, or failure to
perform it properly, is very severely punished, the duties of all
connected with it are clearly prescribed in the Guard Manual.

Orders for sentinels are divided into two classes, general and special.
Each should be memorized. Special orders relate to particular posts and
duties. General orders apply to all sentinels and are as follows:

"(1) To take charge of this post and all government property in view.

"(2) To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert
and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing.

"(3) To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.

"(4) To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guard house
than my own.

"(5) To quit my post only when properly relieved.

"(6) To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentinel who relieves me all
orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day, and officers and
noncommissioned officers of the guard only.

"(7) To talk to no one except in line of duty.

"(8) In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm.

"(9) To allow no one to commit a nuisance on or near my post.

"(10) In any case not covered by instructions to call the corporal of
the guard.

"(11) To be especially watchful at night, and, during the time for
challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post, and to allow
no one to pass without proper authority." (Guard Manual.)



SALUTING


Saluting distance is that within which recognition is easy. In general
it does not exceed thirty paces.

A junior, who is mounted, dismounts before addressing a senior who is
dismounted. If the senior is mounted the junior does not dismount when
addressing him.

A junior officer walks or rides on the left of his senior.

     National Anthem. Whenever the National Anthem is played at any
     place when persons belonging to the military service are present
     all officers and enlisted men not in formation should stand at
     attention facing toward the music (except at retreat, when they
     should face toward the flag). If in uniform, covered, they shall
     salute at the first note of the anthem, retaining the position of
     salute until the last note of the anthem. If uncovered, stand at
     attention but do not salute. If not in uniform and covered they
     shall uncover at the first note of the anthem, holding the
     headdress opposite the left shoulder and so remain until its close,
     except that in inclement weather the headdress may be slightly
     raised.

     The same rules apply when to the color or to the standard is
     sounded as when the National Anthem is played.

     When played by an Army band, the National Anthem shall be played
     through without repetition of any part not required to be repeated
     to make it complete.

     The same marks of respect prescribed for observance during the
     playing of the National Anthem of the United States shall be shown
     toward the national anthem of any other country when played upon
     official occasions.

Colors or Standards. Colors are the national and regimental flags of
foot troops. Standards are the national and regimental flags of cavalry
or field artillery. When passing colors or standards, uncased (not in a
waterproof case), the prescribed salute must always be rendered. By the
prescribed salute is meant, if unarmed or armed with a saber which is
sheathed, the "hand salute"; if armed with a drawn saber, the "present
saber". If you, wearing civilian dress, pass them, uncover and hold the
headdress opposite the left shoulder with the right hand.



BOOKS[3]


We recommend that all officers, non-commissioned officers and all
privates who propose to work for advancement read the following books.
All can probably be obtained from the Adjutant General of the Army,
Washington, D. C. Any other military books (desired can be purchased
from the United States Infantry Association, Union Trust Building,
Washington, D. C.

(1) "The Military Policy of the United States," by Gen. E. Upton.

(2) "The Guard Manual, United States Army."

(3) "The Field Service Regulations, United States Army."

(4) The Drill Regulations of the arm of the service to which you are
assigned.

(5) "Non-commissioned Officers' Manual" (War Department Publication).

(6) "First Aid to the Sick and Injured" (War Department Publication).

(7) "Army Regulations" (to be used as a book of reference when needed).

(8) "Small Arms Firing Regulations" (War Department Publication).

(9) "A Manual for Courts-Martial, U. S. Army."

It is highly desirable for every Reserve Officer to place his name on
the mailing list at the Army Service School, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
This costs about $1 a year and in return the officer receives much
valuable information. Write to the Secretary for any further information
desired on this subject.



FIELD ORDERS


Field orders, whether written or oral, should follow a certain form.
This decreases the probability of any vital part being left out and
increases the probability of the receiver or reader understanding it.

In the following form for an advance, note the order in which the
paragraphs occur. This is very important.



FOR AN ADVANCE


Field Orders                                   (Title)
No. ----                                         (Place)
(Reference to map used)                          (Date and Hour)

                     (1) (Information of enemy and of our
Troops                    supporting troops)
                     (2) (Plan of commander)

(a) Independent      (3) (a) (Instructions for independent
    Cavalry:                  cavalry-place and time of departure,
  (Commander)                 roads or country to be
  (Troops)                    covered, special mission)

(b) Advance Guard:       (b) (Instructions for advance
  (Commander)                     guard-place and time of departure,
                                  or distance at which it is to
  (Troops)                        precede the main body, route,
                                  special mission)
(c) Main Body--in order  (c) (Instructions for main body--distance
   of march:                  at which it is to follow
  (Commander)                 the advance guard, or place and
                              time of departure)

(d) Right (left) Flank   (d) (Instructions for flank guard--place
  Guard:                      and time of departure,
  (Commander)                 route, special mission)
    (Troops)

(e) Signal Troops:       (e) (Instructions for signal troops--lines
  (Commander)                 of information to be established,
                              special mission)

                         (x) (Instructions for outpost--when
                              relieved subsequent duties)

                     (4)  (Instructions for field train--escort,
                           distance in rear of column, or destination
                           when different from that of main body, if
                           disposition not previously covered in
                           "Orders")

                          (Instructions for sanitary, ammunition,
                           supply and engineer trains when necessary)

                     (5) (Place of commander or where messages may be
                          sent)

                     (How and to whom issued)

                                        (Authentication)

Notice in particular that the first thing in the body of the order is
the information of the enemy and of supporting or friendly troops; 2d,
the plan; 3d, the detailed instruction for executing the plan; 4th, the
order to field train; 5th, the place where the commander can be found.

All orders, whether for a retreat, an attack, a defense, the
establishment of an outpost and so on, should take this general form.



A MODEL ORDER FOR AN ADVANCE


Field Orders                          "Hq. 1st Brigade, 1st Division,
  No. 6                                     Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,
Three inch Leavenworth                           20 Aug. '08, 8 P. M.
  Map                         (1) Two regiments of hostile infantry
  Troops                      are reported to have occupied Valley
(a) Advance Guard:            Falls late this afternoon, en route for
  Major A.                    Easton. Small hostile cavalry patrols
1st Bn & 8 mtd. orderlies,    were seen two miles east of Valley
  1st Inf.                    Falls at 6 P. M. to-day.
1st. Plat. Tr. A.             The remainder of our division is expected
  7th Cavalry                 to reach Fort Leavenworth
(b) Main Body----in order     to-morrow.
  of March:                   (2) This brigade (less the 3d Inf.
  Colonel B.                  which has been directed to hold the
1st. Inf. (less 1st Bn.)      Missouri river crossing at Fort Leavenworth)
2d Infantry                   will march to-morrow to
  Detachment  3d F.           Easton to hold the crossings of the
  Hosp.                       Big Stranger creek.

(3) (a) The advance guard will clear D at 5-15 A. M., marching
via the E--G--Atchison Pike--1--74--78--80--Q--R--Easton road.
Patrols will be sent via Lowemont to reconnoiter the crossings of
the Big Stranger near Millwood and via Mount Olivet to reconnoiter
those near 114.

(b) The main body will follow at a distance of about 700 yards.

(4) The baggage train (less that of the 3d Inf.), escorted by
one squad, 2d Inf., will start from D at 6-15 A. M. and follow to
P where it will await further orders.

(5) Reports will reach the brigade commander at the head of
the main body.

By command of Brig.-Gen. X:
  Y,
  Adjt. Gen."

Copies by Adjutant to Col. B. 1st Inf.
                      Col. C. 2d Inf.
                      Col. D. 3d Inf.
                      Maj. A. 1st Inf.
                      Capt. E. Tr. A 7th Cav.
                      Capt. F. Hospital Corps.



GENERAL IDEAS AND RULES FOR SOLVING MILITARY PROBLEMS


The cave man knocked over his foe with a rude club. The operation is
greatly refined to-day. The technique of war changes with the ages, but
human nature remains the same. Whether with grenade or gas, from
submarine or aeroplane, a man after all possible woe and suffering is no
more than killed. Human nature will submit to losses in battle up to a
certain point, after that the frailties are asserted. The instinct of
self-preservation dominates. Organization and discipline and reason are
dissipated. A condition ensues similar to that which we have in theaters
during fires.

Napoleon's success as a military leader was due to his knowledge of men
and how to handle them, common sense, and in a lesser degree to what he
learned from books. Upon such a basis the young managers of industrial
concerns would be most valuable material from which to select and train
successful military leaders. They know men, and it is necessary to
possess a world of common sense to acquire any such knowledge. Many of
those elements that make success in a military man are exactly the same
as those that make a man successful anywhere. A president of a
university, a lawyer or banker or merchant or engineer, has exactly the
same kind of daily problems to solve, and requires much the same talents
as those possessed by a military leader.

Since success in battle is the thing at which we are driving in all
military training, it is common sense to prepare a machine that will do
the business. Every officer and noncommissioned officer has got to know
how to play the game. A good private makes a good corporal, a good
corporal makes a good sergeant, a good sergeant makes a good
lieutenant--a good colonel makes a good brigadier general--all exactly
as in civil life.

Prussia has had her greatest military success when she devoted her
energies to manoeuvers and to the solution of tactical problems. Her
defeats and humiliations have come when she has neglected this work. And
there's nothing mysterious about the way Prussia or Napoleon or anybody
else has solved their military problems. No occult forces are involved,
any more than there is in building a canal or hunting tigers. The real
general is, in a sense, a postgraduate hunter, or an advanced,
all-American quarterback.

One phase of the military work is significant and should cause
reflection. The punishment for errors in war is very severe. A leader
who makes mistakes may not only pay for them with his own blood but
others too may suffer with him. In war we must obey our leaders whether
they are right or wrong. How great, do you suppose, are those hordes
that have been sacrificed on history's battlefields to the goddess of
ignorance?

Napoleon says in one of his maxims, "Read and reread the campaigns of
Alexander, Caesar, Gustavus Adolphus, Turrenne, Eugene, and Frederick;
take them for your model; that is the only way of becoming a great
captain, to obtain the secrets of the art of war." To read more
intelligently such history we should know something about solving
problems in minor tactics. We must know how to solve such problems if we
are to master our duties as officers.

Whether, as general or corporal, you are solving a problem on a map or
on the ground, your methods will be, in principle, the same. In the
former case your soldiers understand thoroughly all orders and do
exactly as directed. In the latter case your soldiers are human. They
get tired and sick. They go in the wrong directions and get lost
sometimes. One forgets, another is late, and the third misinterprets an
order, etc.

Here is the common-sense way in which an all-American quarterback
performs his duties. He studies carefully the opposing team (enemy) by
reports beforehand and on the field of the contest, to determine his
weak and strong points. The latter he wishes to avoid in directing his
attack. He considers his position on the field, the wind and weather, if
raining, etc., and then his different plays to hit the weaker parts of
the opposing line with the advantages and disadvantages of each. To his
well-trained mind all this is done in a flash, but the logic and causes
and effects of action are none the less present. This quarterback has
analyzed the conditions of his problems, he has figured out what he is
up against; that is to say, he has estimated the situation.

He is now ready for a decision. He determines where he is going to
strike and with what kind of a play he will do it.

He gives a signal, 44--11--17--5. That is to say, he issues his orders.

That is exactly the way a military man, whether he be a corporal or a
general, goes about handling a problem, whether on paper or on the
ground. When he goes into battle he finds the only difference is that
the problem is complicated by bullets and excitement.

Don't think that you are going to learn to solve problems from books
alone, any more than you can learn to play tennis or build bridges on
paper. You have got to get out into the country and work with actual
troops. But first study map problems. Come to a decision slowly until
you have had considerable practice, then write out your order with no
guides or references. Then check yourself up. Common sense and simple
plans are the safest guides.

To frame a suitable field order you must make an estimate of the
situation, culminating in a decision upon a definite plan of action. You
must then actually draft or word the orders which will carry your
decision into effect.



THE LOGICAL WAY TO ESTIMATE THE SITUATION


1st. Consider exactly what you are to do, i.e., your mission as set
forth in the orders or instructions under which you are acting or as
deduced by you from your knowledge of the situation.

2d. Consider all available information of the enemy. What is his
strength? How is he situated? What is he going to do? etc.

3d. Consider all conditions affecting your own troops. What advantages
in numbers and position have you over the enemy? What is their morale?
etc.

4th. Consider the terrain in so far as it affects the situation.

5th. Consider the various plans of action open to you and decide upon
the one that will best enable you to accomplish your mission (carry out
your task); that is to say, come to a decision.

It is now necessary to express that decision in the form of an order as
the quarterback did in giving the signal, 44--11--17--5.

To enable the will of the commander to be quickly understood, and to
secure prompt cooeperation among his subordinates, field orders are
required to follow a general form.

Under the stress and strain of an engagement there are many causes of
excitement. Unless we have trained ourselves to act along certain lines
in issuing orders, we may forget some important considerations. We have
known people of superb intelligence to do poorly before a large audience
simply from lack of training and experience.



CORRECT PROCEDURE IN GIVING THE MAIN PART OF A FIELD ORDER


1st. Give the information of the enemy and of our own supporting
troops (i.e., those who may come to our assistance in case of need) to
your subordinates that will give them a clear understanding of the
problem and enable them intelligently to cooperate with you.

2d. Now state what you are going to do. That is to say, give your
plan.

3d. Next, how you are going to put that plan into effect. That is, the
assignment of duties to each subordinate.

4th. Give instructions for the ammunition trains, stations for the
slightly wounded, etc.

5th. State where you can be found or where messages may be sent.



SOME GENERAL HINTS


Clear and decisive orders are the logical result of definite and sure
decisions. To guage[B] a man's caliber read his orders.

You must not be hazy and indefinite in your order. You must be clear and
definite. Be careful about your phrasing and expressions. An order
should be like a cablegram: convey every idea but contain no unnecessary
words.

Don't break up the squads or platoons or the companies. Keep the
tactical units together as much as possible.

It is marvelous how many mistakes can occur on the battlefield. Attempt
a complicated plan and its failure is reasonably assured. Have your plan
simple. The enveloping attack is the best. That is to say, have your
line longer than the enemy's so that you can attack one of his flanks.
He knows this quite as well as you and he will endeavor to perform the
same operation upon you. The leader, all else being equal, who has the
wit to out-manoeuver the other will win the engagement.

As a rule, an affirmative form of expression is used. Such an order as:
"The supply train will not accompany the division," is defective,
because the gist of the order depends upon the single word "not."

Write your order so it can be read. Don't go about it as though you were
a doctor writing a prescription. Things will go wrong if you do. You
will find some of your troops moving in the wrong direction when you
need them badly.

Be brief. Short sentences are good. They are clear. Conjectures,
expectations, and reasons for measures adopted are weak. They do not
inspire confidence. They should be avoided.

Accept the entire responsibility of your command. If things go wrong,
it's your fault. Correct them. A large number of military men make it
their particular business to find faults in others, with scarcely a
thought for their own. Don't join this club. Reverse the matter.

Avoid such expressions as "attempt to capture," "try to hold," "as far
as possible," "as well as you can," etc. Tell a man what he is to do.
Don't divide any responsibility with any one.

Officers and men of all ranks and grades are given a certain
independence in the execution of the tasks to which they are assigned
and are expected to show initiative in meeting the different situations
as they arise. Every individual, from the highest commander to the
lowest private, must always remember that inaction and neglect of
opportunities will warrant severe censure. Do something that will help
carry out the plans of your commander. The Japanese regulations caution
their commanders to avoid inaction and hesitation.

If you were hunting tigers and permitted a wounded one to move to your
rear and spring upon you, unaware of its presence, you would probably
pay a heavy price for not being on the alert. For a military leader to
be caught unawares is unpardonable.

Napoleon said in another of his maxims: "if the enemy's army were to
appear on my front, or on my right or left, what would I do?" If the
question is difficult for the commander to answer, his troops are not
only poorly placed but are poorly led.

Don't let your force be divided up into detachments and roam all over
the country. This is a very common error with beginners. Avoid
dispersion. Keep your troops together.

You cannot fire on the battlefield with the same accuracy as you do on
the target range. Fear dilates the pupil of the eye. Men cannot shoot
well when they are under great excitement. Don't count on killing too
many of the enemy with a carload of ammunition.

Never forget that Fire Superiority is the thing that wins battles. If
you let the other fellow get it and keep it, he's going to win, not you.

Don't trespass upon the province of a subordinate. He will handle his
job if you will handle yours.

Remember that your flanks are just as vulnerable as the enemy's. He has
his eyes on your flanks just as much as you are observing and
considering his own.

Keep cool about starting the action. Don't put all your men in before
you understand thoroughly the condition confronting you. Hold a large
part of your force out as supports and reserves until you know
definitely the enemy's position.

Don't get killed unless necessary; your usefulness to the State comes to
an end when that occurs. Take advantage of cover, hug the ground. Learn
what is good and what is poor cover.

It is a common fault to forget about the service of information once the
action has begun. Keep up your patrolling. Keep yourself posted on what
the enemy is about. Otherwise he may have some unpleasant surprise for
you.

Be particularly careful about details of time and place. Regulate your
watch by the time kept at headquarters.

When you've got the enemy on the run don't let up for an instant. Pursue
him without mercy. Turn his retreat into a rout. Capture or destroy his
forces.

Scarcely any of these things we are telling you are new. They are as old
as war itself. The boxer of a thousand years from now may know a little
more about the technique of the game, but the essentials will not
change. To wear the champion's belt, he will have to suffer some lusty
blows and be able himself to deliver some more powerful. There will be
no easy road to the title. So it is with all wars.



SUMMARY


We recommend that each officer become familiar with the following
summary:

     "1. Avoid combats that offer no chance of victory or other valuable
     results.

     "2. Make every effort for the success of the general plan and avoid
     spectacular plays that have no bearing on the general result.

     "3. Have a definite plan and carry it out vigorously. Do not
     vacillate.

     "4. Do not attempt complicated manoeuvers.

     "5. Keep the command in hand; avoid undue extension and dispersion.

     "6. Study the ground and direct the advance in such a way as to
     take advantage of all available cover and thereby diminish losses.

     "7. Never deploy until the purpose and the proper direction are
     known.

     "8. Deploy enough men for the immediate task in hand; hold out the
     rest and avoid undue haste in committing them to the action.

     "9. Flanks must be protected either by reserves, fortifications, or
     the terrain.

     "10. In a decisive action, gain and keep fire superiority.

     "11. Keep up reconnaissance.

     "12. Use the reserve, but not until needed or a very favorable
     opportunity for its use presents itself. Keep some reserve as long
     as practicable.

     "13. Do not hesitate to sacrifice the command if the result is
     worth the cost.

     "14. Spare the command all unnecessary hardship and exertion."


     --Infantry Drill Regulations.



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION


For convenience, military information is considered under two heads,
namely (1) that collected in time of peace by the body of army experts
in Washington called the General Staff; and (2) that obtained by troops
in the field after war has begun. The former relates to general
conditions such as the geography, resources, and military strength of
the various nations, information necessary to enable the General Staff
to act intelligently in the event of war. The latter relates to more
local and detailed conditions out on the firing line.

For a general to act intelligently he must possess information of the
position, strength, dispositions, intentions, etc., of his opponent.
This may be obtained from a number of sources--adjoining troops,
inhabitants, newspapers, letters, telegraph files, prisoners, deserters,
spies, maps, but mostly from information-gathering groups, called
reconnoitering patrols. When the available maps do not show all the
military features of the country, officers and soldiers must go on ahead
and make maps that do.



INTELLIGENCE SECTION GENERAL STAFF


There is a special committee of the Great General Staff called the
Intelligence Section, whose business it is to weigh and classify all
information sent to it. Members of this committee are placed on duty
with large organizations (for instance, a division, a field army, etc.).



ASSUMPTION OF THE ENEMY


When reliable information of the enemy cannot be obtained, it must be
assumed that he has sense and will act with excellent judgment.



FALSE INFORMATION


Unless instructions have been given to spread false information, all
persons connected with the military service are forbidden to discuss the
military situation, plans, movements, etc., with, or in the presence of,
civilians of any age, sex or nationality.



FIRE


There are three kinds of fire:

(1) Volley Fire. Every one fires at the command FIRE. It is used at
funerals and occasionally in the first part of an action when the enemy
presents a large, compact target.

(2) Fire At Will. In this each soldier fires, loads, and fires again
independently of the others. He fires fast or slow as the occasion
demands.

(3) Clip Fire. The soldier stops firing when he has finished his clip
of five cartridges. This assists in preventing an undue expenditure of
ammunition and in abating excitement.



THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INDEPENDENT AND DIVISIONAL CAVALRY


The main difficulty in seeing the distinction between Independent and
Divisional Cavalry consists in our forgetting that we have different
kinds of organizations in the army as well as we have anywhere else. Let
us clearly understand this:

(1) An Infantry Division is composed of nine regiments of infantry, two
of artillery, and one of cavalry.

(2) A Cavalry Division is composed of nine regiments of cavalry, one
regiment of horse artillery, and no infantry.

The cavalry attached to an Infantry Division is, in general, called
Divisional Cavalry. It operates at but comparatively short distances
from its division, its duties being of a somewhat local nature.

The Independent Cavalry, because it can move so rapidly, is sent far in
advance (thirty, forty, or even fifty or more miles) of the main army to
obtain general information, such as the approximate strength and
location of the enemy's forces. The Division Commander, since he is so
far away from the Commanding General of the army in rear, and since he
has broad general duties to perform, must of necessity have broad powers
and, in general, be permitted to act as the occasion demands. He is,
therefore, said to act independently, and his cavalry is called
Independent Cavalry.



THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS


Strategy is generalship in its broadest conception. A strategist
conceives and projects campaigns. He determines where armies and navies
are to be sent. He is not concerned with the handling or manoeuvers of
armies and fleets. He turns over those details to tacticians. He is the
master mind, far removed, generally, from the battle line, who picks up
an army or fleet here, and puts it there.

Tactics is the act and science of disposing (arranging) armies and
fleets in order for battle. A tactical commander (tactician) solves
local details.

Strategy pertains to conception, to policy; tactics, to technique.

The great General Staff in Washington inaugurates the problems to be
solved (strategy), and details commanders (tacticians) to solve them.



EMPLOYMENT OF AIR CRAFT ON AND NEAR THE FIRING LINE IN THE THEATER OF
OPERATION


Airplanes will move far out, perhaps hundreds of miles, in front of our
most advanced cavalry for the purpose of gathering general information
of large bodies of the enemy's forces. This is called Strategical
Reconnaissance. Other airplanes do more local scouting. They go but
comparatively short distances from the firing line for the purpose of
determining the location of trenches, supports, reserves, artillery
positions, etc. This is called tactical reconnaissance. They give their
artillery commanders information as to where their projectiles are
falling.

During siege operations (as in Europe, where some trenches have remained
in about the same place for long periods) photographers go up in
airplanes each morning and photograph the enemy's trench lines. Blue
prints are made of these lines. By comparing these with the lines of the
previous day it is easy to determine the changes that have been made
during the night.

Other airplanes are detailed for the purpose of combat. They prevent
opposing airplanes from gathering information.



THE BIG IDEAS OF MARCHES


For marches to be entirely successful three conditions must be
fulfilled: (1) the troops must get there; (2) they must get there on
time; (3) and they must get there in good condition.

Now suppose that you were ordered to conduct the march of a company of
green men for a distance of 200 miles, just how would you solve the
problem?

Before starting, very careful preparations should be made. Your men
should be in good physical condition; they must be given so much work
that they are athletes.

Keep these points in mind:

1. Always have, when possible, the comfort of your men in mind. Their
work in carrying a load of nearly forty pounds and marching around
fifteen miles a day will be hard enough. Don't give them any extra
hardships.

2. Make the conditions of the march pleasant. Encourage the men to laugh
and sing.

3. Use wagons, automobiles, etc., to carry heavy loads (burdens)
whenever possible.

4. It is a custom of the service to help a man who may not be strong
physically but who is straining every nerve to get there. Be the first
to volunteer to carry for him his rifle or part of his burden.

5. Look out especially for the feet of your men and the hoofs of your
animals.

6. On long marches one day in seven should be a day of rest and
recreation.

7. Never take an extremely hard and long (forced) march unless
imperative.

8. As a rule troops pay no compliments on the march. They have enough to
do without that.

9. Let the object to be accomplished determine the general conduct of
the march (the time of starting, the rate, length of march, halts, etc.)



SHELTER


When troops are sheltered under canvas (in tents), they are in camp.
When they are resting on the ground without tents (for instance, on the
firing line the night before or during a battle), they are in what is
called bivouac. When they occupy buildings in towns or villages, or huts
especially erected, they are in cantonment. When they are assigned to
public (such as post-offices, town halls, court houses, hotels, etc.) or
private buildings they are said to be billeted.



SELECTION OF A CAMPING GROUND


Suppose that you were sent on ahead of troops on the march to select a
camp ground for them, what big ideas should you bear in mind.

1. The ground should be large enough for the troops without crowding. In
case of rain it should be easily drained. And there should be no
stagnant water near (say, within 300 yards).

2. There should be plenty of pure water.

3. There should be good roads around.

4. Wood, grass, forage, and supplies for the men and animals must be at
hand or obtainable. Closely cropped turf with sandy or gravelly subsoil
is best.

Let us not forget that good old-fashioned guide, common sense. Men are
as human in camp as elsewhere. In hot weather shade trees are desirable.
In cold weather ground sloping to the south, with woods to break the
winds is fine.

Avoid old camp grounds, marshy ground, and places where mosquitoes are
plentiful.



ADVICE TO OFFICERS


A company of infantry is composed of three officers and one hundred and
fifty non-commissioned officers and privates. What a shame to have a
private the mental and moral superior of those above him!

The average American makes a first-rate soldier. He wants his officers
to be efficient and high-toned leaders. It thrills him to have their
actions pitched in a high key. He wants to be well instructed. He wants
to be led with tact and diplomacy. He wants them to be neat, to dress
immaculately, and to be military in bearing. He wants to feel that
there is no favoritism; that justice prevails.

Be stern in discipline. Exact nothing less than the best in a man.
Tolerate no slovenliness. Deal laziness a sharp rebuke. The great
majority of your men are doing their level best. Let them know that this
is what you expect, but at the same time you appreciate them for it.

When a thing is wrong, say so. Explain the correct method. Do so calmly
and efficiently. You have made worse mistakes yourself. Your men did not
want to make the mistake. They did so from ignorance. It is possible
that you have not made the matter clear to them, or the fault is yours
not theirs.

Don't be too intimate with your men. Experience has proven that you
cannot fraternize with an enlisted man one minute and then punish him
for misconduct the next.

When you discipline a man, first make him see his error from your point
of view, and then, reprimand him or decide on his punishment in an
absolutely impersonal manner.

Grow impatient, become excited, and irritable, rebuke too severely an
uninstructed man who has made a small, unintentional mistake, use any
words unworthy of your position--and you demonstrate clearly to your men
your unworthiness to hold your office.

When there is peace and harmony and efficiency in your organization, you
are responsible for it. When there are grumblings, lack of enthusiasm
and esprit-de-corps, be honest and sensible and see if you are also
not responsible for it. No matter how badly things are going at drill,
never lose your temper with the company.

When things are going well, let your men feel that you are proud of
them. A company should be like a good football team: every man in it
right behind the captain.



A FINAL WORD


Now it is proper to consider your relation to your immediate superiors.
You have no business commanding unless you have first learned how to
obey. The finer the training and caliber of an officer, the more
sensitive is he to the wishes of his commanding officer, however,
informally they may be expressed.

The ideal officer is a Christian gentleman who has no task too small to
faithfully perform, whose country's welfare is above his own, ready for
any sacrifice great or small; whose thoughtfulness and efficiency last
twenty-four hours a day, whose relations with his superiors are based on
modesty, cheerfulness, and loyalty.

A message from the Father and Mother whose son is to serve under you:

"I want my boy to do his bit. I want him to willingly submit to all
sacrifices. I don't limit them. I expect him to become efficient. I
expect him to obey orders. That means all orders. Wrong orders as well
as right orders.

But I want him to have a fighting chance. I don't want him to serve
under an inefficient officer who is playing to the galleries; who is in
the habit of doing things wrong instead of right. If the worst should
come, I want my boy to perish for a good cause. I don't want there to be
any blunders about it.

In willingly placing my boy under your orders, I charge you with a
sacred task. I charge you to lead him efficiently."




SUPPLEMENT

ADVANCE WORK




SUPPLEMENT

CHAPTER I

THE THEORY OF SECURITY

(Copied from the Field Service Regulations)

GENERAL PRINCIPLES


Security embraces all those measures taken by a command to protect
itself from observation, annoyance, or surprise by the enemy.

Ordinarily this security is provided in part by cavalry. But as a
command is not always preceded by cavalry, and as this cavalry can not
always prevent sudden incursions of the enemy or discover his patrols,
additional security becomes necessary. This is obtained by covering the
immediate front of the command with detachments.

On the march these detachments are called advance, flank, or rear
guards; in camp or bivouac they are called outposts.

The object of the former is to facilitate the movement of the main body
and to protect it from surprise and observation; the object of the
latter is to secure the camp or bivouac against surprise and to prevent
an attack upon it before the troops can prepare to resist.

On the march these detachments facilitate the advance of the main body
by promptly driving off small bodies of the enemy who seek to harass or
delay it; by removing obstacles from the line of advance; by repairing
roads, bridges, etc., thus enabling the main body to advance
uninterruptedly in convenient marching formations.

They protect the main body by preventing the enemy from firing into it
when in close formation; by holding the enemy and enabling the main body
to deploy before coming under effective fire; by preventing its size and
condition being observed by the enemy; and, in retreat, by gaining time
for it to make its escape or to reorganize its forces.

As the principal duty of these bodies is the same, viz., that of
protecting the main body, there is a general similarity in the
formations assumed by them. There is (1) the cavalry covering the front;
next, (2) a group, or line of groups, in observation; then (3) the
support, or line of supports, whose duty is to furnish the observation
groups, and check the enemy pending the arrival of reinforcements; still
farther in rear is (4) the reserve.

An advance or flank guard commander marches well to the front, and, from
time to time, orders such additional reconnaissance or makes such
changes in his dispositions as the circumstances of the case demand.

In large commands troops from all arms are generally detailed, the
proportion from each being determined by the tactical situation; but
commanders detail no more troops than the situation actually requires,
as an excessive amount of such duty rapidly impairs the efficiency of a
command. As a general rule troops detailed on the service of security
vary in strength from one twentieth to one third of the entire command,
but seldom exceed the latter. When practicable, the integrity of
tactical units is preserved.

In mixed commands infantry usually forms the greater part of the troops
detailed to the service of security. Cavalry is assigned to that duty
whenever advantage can be taken of its superior mobility. The kind and
amount of artillery are determined by circumstances.

The field trains of troops on this duty generally remain with the field
train of the command, but if conditions permit they may join their
organizations.

Troops on the service of security pay no compliments; individuals salute
when they address, or are addressed by, a superior officer.



ADVANCE GUARDS


An advance guard is a detachment of the main body which precedes and
covers it on the march.

Its duties are:

(1) To guard against surprise and furnish information by reconnoitering
to the front and flanks.

(2) To push back small parties of the enemy and prevent their observing,
firing upon, or delaying the main body.

(3) To check the enemy's advance in force long enough to permit the main
body to prepare for action.

(4) When the enemy is encountered on the defensive, to seize a good
position and locate his lines, care being taken not to bring on a
general engagement unless the advance-guard commander is empowered to do
so.

(5) To remove obstacles, repair the road, and favor in every way
possible the steady march of the column.



STRENGTH AND COMPOSITION


Subject to variation according to the situation, one twentieth to one
third of a command may be assumed as a suitable strength for the advance
guard. The larger the force, the larger in proportion is the advance
guard, for a large command takes relatively longer to prepare for action
than a small one. In large commands it is usually composed of all arms,
the proportions depending on the nature of the work, character of the
country, etc.



DISTANCE FROM THE MAIN BODY


While the distance between these two bodies should be great enough to
prevent needless interruptions in the march of the main body, and to
give the latter time to deploy should the enemy be encountered, it
should never be so great that timely support of the advance guard
becomes impracticable.

[Illustration: PLATE SHOWING the IDEAS INVOLVED IN an ADVANCE GUARD

As you go from the point to the main body note that the distances are
greater as the groups become larger. Larger groups require more time and
space, when getting ready for action, than small groups. A very
important thing to remember in connection with this plate is that you
have only such groups in an advance guard as are necessary to insure
protection for the main body.]



DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS


An advance-guard order generally describes the following distribution of
troops:

    Advance cavalry.
    Support.
    Reserve.

The manner in which the advance-guard cavalry is employed depends upon
the situation. Its proper place is in the direction of the enemy, and
generally all or the greater part is used as advance cavalry. If weak in
numbers, it may be assigned to the support.


ADVANCE CAVALRY

The advance cavalry is that part of the advance-guard cavalry preceding
the support. It reconnoiters far enough to the front and flanks to guard
the column against surprise by artillery fire, and to enable timely
information to be sent to the advance-guard commander.


SUPPORT

Following the advance cavalry is the support, varying in strength from
one fourth to one half of the advance guard. In mixed commands it
consists of infantry, to which engineers may be attached. If there is no
advance cavalry, some cavalry should be attached to the support for
reconnoitering duty.

As the support moves out it sends forward an advance party several
hundred yards, the distance varying with the terrain and the size of the
command.

The advance party supplements the work of the advance cavalry,
reconnoitering to the front and flanks to guard the support against
surprise by effective rifle fire. The patrol preceding the advance party
on the line of march is called the point, and is commanded by an officer
or an experienced noncommissioned officer.

With the advance cavalry in front but little reconnoitering by infantry
is necessary, and the advance party is relatively small--one eighth to
one third of the support. If there is no advance cavalry, the advance
party is made stronger (about one half of the support) and the flanks
are guarded, if necessary, by additional patrols sent out from the
support and even from the reserve.

The support commander ordinarily marches with the advance party, but
goes wherever needed. He sees that the proper road is followed; that
guides are left in towns and at crossroads; that necessary repairs are
made to roads, bridges, etc., and that information of the enemy or
affecting the march is promptly transmitted to the advance-guard
commander. He endeavors promptly to verify information of the enemy.



RESERVE


The reserve follows the support at several hundred yards' distance. It
consists of the remainder of the infantry and engineers, the artillery,
and the ambulance company. The artillery usually marches near the head
of the reserve, the engineers (with bridge train, if any) and special
troops at the rear.



RECONNAISSANCE


In conducting the reconnaissance the patrols are, as a rule, small--from
two to six men. If additional protection is necessary, a flank guard
covers the threatened flank. The flanking patrols, whether of the
advance cavalry or advance party, are sent out to examine the country
wherever the enemy might be concealed. If the nature of the terrain
permits, these patrols march across country or along roads and trails
paralleling the march of the column. For cavalry patrols this is often
possible; but with infantry patrols and even with those that are
mounted, reconnaissance is generally best done by sending the patrols to
high places along the line of march to overlook the country and examine
the danger points. These patrols report or signal the results of their
observations and, unless they have other instructions, join their units
by the most practicable routes, other patrols being sent out as the
march proceeds and as the nature of the country required.

Deserters, suspicious characters, and bearers of flags of truce, the
latter blindfolded, are taken to the advance-guard commander.

Civilians are not permitted to precede the advance guard.

Communication between the fractions of an advance guard and between the
advance guard and main body is maintained by wire, messenger service, or
signals.



ADVANCE GUARD OF A SMALL COMMAND


In forming the advance guard of a command smaller than a brigade, the
foregoing distribution is modified, depending upon the situation. A
company or troop usually sends forward only a point, a battalion or
squadron, an advance party; but a battalion or squadron at war strength
should put a company or troop in the advance guard and a regiment should
put a battalion or squadron, if an enemy is liable to be met. Whenever
the advance guard is less than a battalion, there is no reserve.



REAR GUARDS


The rear guard is charged with the important duty of covering the
retreat.

When a commander decides to retreat, he issues the necessary order.
During a retreat the outpost for the night usually forms the rear guard
of the following day.



STRENGTH AND COMPOSITION


The strength of a rear guard depends upon the nature of the country and
the strength and character of the pursuing force. It can not, like the
advance guard, count on the support of the main body.

Machine guns are especially useful in the passage of defiles and in
covering the crossings of rivers.

Engineers and ambulance companies are usually assigned to rear guards.

The troops of a rear guard are selected from those that have had
previous local successes, or have suffered little loss and are
comparatively fresh.



DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS


The proximity and conduct of the enemy control, to a large extent, the
formation of a rear guard. When it is not necessary to withdraw in
deployed lines, the greater part of the rear guard marches on the road
in column of route, taking up a formation resembling that of an advanced
guard faced to the rear. The distribution of troops is therefore similar
to that of an advance guard, namely:

    Reserve.
    Support.
    Rear cavalry.

The rear cavalry is that portion of the rear-guard cavalry following the
support. The support, as in an advance guard, is divided into two parts;
that part nearest the enemy is called the rear party and marches with a
rear point.



DISTANCES


The distance of the rear guard from the main body and between the
fractions of the rear guard are about the same as in the case of an
advance guard. If marching at night, the rear guard draws nearer the
main body.



REAR GUARD OF AN ADVANCING FORCE


If there is a possibility that the rear of the column may be attacked, a
rear guard of suitable strength and composition is provided, its conduct
is practically the same as that of the rear guard of a retreating force.
It generally marches in rear of the trains, those organizations
following the combatant troops without distance.



OUTPOSTS


The size and disposition of the outpost will depend upon many
circumstances, such as the size of the whole command, the proximity of
the enemy and the situation with respect to him, the nature of the
terrain, etc.

A suitable strength may vary from a very small fraction to one third of
the whole force. For a single company in bivouac a few sentinels and
patrols will suffice; for a large command a more elaborate outpost
system must be provided. It should be no stronger than is consistent
with reasonable security.

The most economical protection is furnished by keeping close contact
with the enemy by means of outpost patrols, in conjunction with
resisting detachments on the avenues of approach.

The outpost should be composed of complete organizations.

The positions held by the subdivisions of the outpost should generally
be prepared for defense, but conditions may render this unnecessary.

Troops on outpost keep concealed as much as is consistent with the
proper performance of their duties; especially do they avoid appearing
on the sky line.



COMPOSITION


A mixed outpost is composed principally of infantry. The infantry is
charged with the duty of local observation, especially at night and with
resisting the enemy long enough for the main body to prepare for action.
The cavalry is charged with the duty of reconnaissance, and is very
useful in open country during the day. If the infantry has been severely
taxed by marching or fighting, a large part of the outpost may be
temporarily formed of cavalry.

Artillery is useful to outposts when its fire can sweep defiles or large
open spaces and when it commands positions that might be occupied by
hostile artillery. The guns are carefully concealed or protected and are
usually withdrawn at night.

Machine guns are useful to command approaches and check sudden advances
of the enemy.

The field trains of troops on outpost duty generally join their
organizations; if an engagement is probable, they may be held in rear.



DISTRIBUTION OF OUTPOST TROOPS


The outpost will generally be divided into four parts. These, in order
from the main body, are the reserve, the line of supports, the line of
outguards, and the advance cavalry.

[Illustration: PLATE SHOWING THE IDEAS INVOLVED IN AN OUTPOST]

The distance separating these parts, and their distance from the main
body, will depend upon the object sought, the nature of the terrain, and
the size of the command. There can be no uniformity in the distance
between supports and reserve, nor between outguards and supports, even
in the same outpost. The avenues of approach and the important features
of the terrain will largely control their exact positions.

The outpost of a small force should ordinarily hold the enemy beyond
effective rifle range of the main body until the latter can deploy. For
the same purpose the outpost of a large force should hold the enemy
beyond the artillery range.

The reserve constitutes the main body of the outpost and is held at some
central point from which it can readily support the troops in front or
hold a rallying position on which they may retire. The reserve may be
omitted when the outpost consists of less than two companies.

The reserve may comprise one-fourth to two-thirds of the strength of the
outpost.

The supports constitute a line of resisting and supporting detachments,
varying in size from a half company to a battalion. They furnish the
line of outguards.

The supports are numbered consecutively from right to left. They are
placed at the more important points on the outpost line, usually in the
line on which resistance is to be made in case of attack.

As a general rule, roads exercise the greatest influence on the location
of supports, and a support will generally be placed on or near a road.
The section which it is to cover should be clearly defined by means of
tangible lines on the ground and should be such that the support is
centrally located therein.

The outguards constitute the line of small detachments farthest to the
front and nearest to the enemy. For convenience they are classified as
pickets, sentry squads, and cossack posts. They are numbered
consecutively from right to left in each support.

A picket is a group consisting of two or more squads, ordinarily not
exceeding half a company, posted in the line of outguards to cover a
given sector. It furnishes patrols and one or more sentinels, double
sentinels, sentry squads, or cossack posts for observation.

Pickets are placed at the more important points in the line of
outguards, such as road forks. The strength of each depends upon the
number of small groups required to observe properly its sector.

A sentry squad is a squad posted in observation at an indicated point.
It posts a double sentinel in observation, the remaining men resting
near by and furnishing the reliefs of sentinels. In some cases it may be
required to furnish a patrol.

A cossack post consists of four men. It is an observation group similar
to a sentry squad, but employs a single sentinel.

At night it will sometimes be advisable to place some of the outguards
or their sentinels in a position different from that which they occupy
in the day time. In such case the ground should be carefully studied
before dark and the change made at dusk. However, a change in the
position of the outguard will be exceptional.

Sentinels are generally used singly in daytime, but at night double
sentinels will be required in most cases. Sentinels furnished by
cossack posts or sentry squads are kept near their group. Those
furnished by pickets may be as far as 100 yards away.

Every sentinel should be able to communicate readily with the body to
which he belongs.

Sentinel posts are numbered consecutively from right to left in each
outguard. Sentry squads and cossack posts furnished by pickets are
counted as sentinel posts.

By day, cavalry reconnoiters in advance of the line of observation. At
night, however, that the horses may have needed rest and because the
work can be done better by infantry, the greater part of the cavalry is
usually withdrawn in rear of the supports, generally joining the
reserve, small detachments being assigned to the supports for patrolling
at a distance.

With efficient cavalry in front, the work of the infantry on the line of
observation is reduced to a minimum.

General instructions for the advance cavalry are given by the outpost
commander, but details are left to the subordinate.

Instead of using outguards along the entire front of observation, part
of this front may be covered by patrols only. These should be used to
cover such sections of the front as can be crossed by the enemy only
with difficulty and over which he is not likely to attempt a crossing
after dark.

In daylight much of the local patrolling may be dispensed with if the
country can be seen from the posts of the sentinels. However, patrols
should frequently be pushed well to the front unless the ground in that
direction is exceptionally open.

Patrols or sentinels must be the first troops which the enemy meets, and
each body in rear must have time to prepare for the blow. These bodies
cause as much delay as possible without sacrificing themselves, and
gradually retire to the line where the outpost is to make its
resistance.

Patrols must be used to keep up connection between the parts of the
outpost except when, during daylight, certain fractions or groups are
mutually visible. After dark this connection must be maintained
throughout the outpost except where the larger subdivisions are provided
with wire communication.

In addition to ordinary outguards, the outpost commander may detail from
the reserve one or more detached posts to cover roads or areas not in
the general line assigned to the supports.

In like manner the commander of the whole force may order detached posts
to be sent from the main body to cover important roads or localities not
included in the outpost line.

The number and strength of detached posts are reduced to the absolute
needs of the situation.



ESTABLISHING THE OUTPOST


The outpost is posted as quickly as possible, so that the troops can the
sooner obtain rest. Until the leading outpost troops are able to assume
their duties, temporary protection, known as the march outpost, is
furnished by the nearest available troops.

The halt order of the commander, besides giving the necessary
information and assigning camp sites to the parts of the command,
details the troops to constitute the outpost, assigns a commander
therefor, designates the general line to be occupied, and, when
practicable, points out the position to be held in case of attack.

The outpost commander, upon receipt of this order, should issue the
outpost order with the least practicable delay. In large commands it may
often be necessary to give the order from the map, but usually the
outpost commander will have to make some preliminary reconnaissance,
unless he has an accurate and detailed map.

The order gives such available information of the situation as is
necessary to the complete and proper guidance of subordinates;
designates the troops to constitute the supports; assigns their location
and the sector each is to cover; provides for the necessary detached
posts; indicates any special reconnaissance that is to be made; orders
the location and disposition of the reserve; disposes of the train if
same is ordered to join the outpost; and informs subordinates where
information will be sent.

After issuing the initial orders, the outpost commander inspects the
outpost, orders the necessary changes or additions, and sends his
superior a report of his dispositions.

The reserve is marched to its post by its commander, who then sends out
such detachments as have been ordered and places the rest in camp or
bivouac, over which at least one sentinel should be posted. Connection
must be maintained with the main body, the supports, and nearby detached
posts.

The supports march to their posts, using the necessary covering
detachments when in advance of the march outpost. A support commander's
order should fully explain the situation to subordinates, or to the
entire command, if it be small. It should detail the troops for the
different outguards and, when necessary, define the sector each is to
cover. It should provide the necessary sentinels at the post of support,
the patrols to be sent therefrom, and should arrange for the necessary
intrenching. Connection should be maintained with the adjoining supports
and with the outguards furnished by the supports.

In posting his command the support commander must seek to cover his
sector in such manner that the enemy cannot reach, in dangerous numbers
and unobserved, the position of the support or pass by it within the
sector intrusted to the support. On the other hand, he must economize
men on observation and patrol duty, for these duties are unusually
fatiguing. He must practise the greatest economy of men consistent with
the requirements of practical security.

As soon as the posting of the support is completed, its commander
carefully inspects the dispositions and corrects defects, if any, and
reports the disposition of his support, including the patrolling
ordered, to the outpost commander. This report is preferably made by
means of a sketch.

Each outguard is marched by its commander to its assigned station, and
especially in the case of a picket, is covered by the necessary
patrolling to prevent surprise.

Having reached the position, the commander explains the situation to his
men and establishes reliefs for each sentinel, and, if possible, for
each patrol to be furnished. Besides these sentinels and patrols, a
picket must have a sentinel at its post.

The commander then posts the sentinels and points out to them the
principal features, such as towns, roads, and streams and gives their
names. He gives the direction and location of the enemy, if known, and
of adjoining parts of the outpost.

He gives to patrols the same information and the necessary orders as to
their routes and the frequency with which the same shall be covered.
Each patrol should go over its route once before dark.

Every picket should maintain connection by patrols with outguard on its
right and left. Each commander will take precaution to conceal his
outguard and will generally strengthen his position by intrenching.



RELIEVING THE OUTPOST


Evening and shortly before dawn are hours of special danger. The enemy
may attack late in the day in order to establish himself on captured
ground by intrenching during the night; or he may send forward troops
under cover of darkness in order to make a strong attack at early dawn.
Special precaution is therefore taken at those hours by holding the
outpost in readiness, and by sending patrols in advance of the line of
observation. If a new outpost is to be established in the morning, it
should arrive at the outpost position at daybreak, thus doubling the
outpost strength at that hour.




CHAPTER II

ATTACK AND DEFENSE



Combat is divided into two general classes, the offensive (attack) and
the defensive.



THE THEORY OF ATTACK


Decisive results are obtained only by the offensive. Aggressiveness wins
battles. If you want to thrash a man go after him; don't wait for him to
come to you. When attacking use every available man. Have every man in
the proper place at the proper time and in a physical and moral
condition to do his utmost.



ADVANTAGES OF THE ATTACK


(1) You can elect the point of attack while the defender must be
prepared to resist at all points.

(2) The fact that you are advancing in spite of the defender's fire
stimulates you and depresses the enemy.

(3) You leave your dead behind while the defender must fight among his
fallen comrades, which is demoralizing.

(4) You usually are conscious of the fact that you have more men on your
side than the defender. You have more rifles on the line than the
enemy.

(5) Your fire is usually more efficacious than that of your opponent
because it is usually converging while his is diverging.

These advantages alone will not necessarily insure success, but fire
superiority, if gained and maintained, does insure success. By gaining
and maintaining fire superiority you remove all doubt as to the final
outcome of the attack.



DIFFERENT KINDS OF ATTACK


The most usual kinds of attack are:

Frontal Attack. This attack is delivered directly against the front of
the enemy. It offers little opportunity to bring more rifles against the
enemy than he can bring against you. Decisive results can only be
expected when your force is larger than your opponent's or when his is
unduly extended. It is a dangerous and costly method of attacking.

Enveloping Attack. Cover the front of the enemy with sufficient force
to hold his attention and, with the rest of your command, strike a flank
more or less obliquely. Since your line is now longer than his, and you
have more rifles in action your fire is converging while that of your
enemy is diverging. Never attempt the envelopment of both flanks unless
you greatly outnumber your enemy. Cooeperation between the frontal and
enveloping attack is essential to success. The fraction of the command
that envelops the enemy is generally larger than that part in his front.
A wide turning movement is not an enveloping movement. It is dangerous
because your troops are separated and can be defeated in detail. In an
enveloping movement your line will usually be continuous; it simply
overlaps and envelops the enemy. An enveloping attack will nearly always
result locally in a frontal attack, for it will meet the enemy's
reserve. Let us repeat: do not attempt a wide turning movement. Your
forces will be separated, they may not be able to assist each other, and
can be defeated in detail. The tendency of a beginner is to attempt a
wide turning movement. The error of dispersion is then committed.



THE ACTUAL ATTACK


Deployment. To deploy means to extend the front. When does a column
extend its front or prepare to fight? When open terrain, which will
probably expose the troops to hostile artillery fire, is reached. This
place may be two or more miles from the enemy. What is done? Strong
patrols are sent out to clear the foreground of the enemy's patrol. The
plan of the attack is inaugurated. Extra ammunition is issued. Each
organization is assigned its task. The organizations in the firing lines
are assigned objectives and move out, followed by local supports and
reserves. Don't understand that they go "as skirmishers." They usually
march in column of squads. Strong combat patrols are sent out to protect
each flank. This is very important even with small commands.



ADVANCING THE ATTACK


It is now necessary to advance the attack to a point where the rifle is
effective, so the attacking line can gain fire superiority. The attack
which halts to open fire at extreme range (over 1200 yards) is not
likely to ever reach its destination (the enemy). Effort should be made
to arrive within 800 yards of the enemy before opening fire. How can
this be done? How can we pass over a mile or more of ground, swept or
likely to be swept, first by the enemy's artillery fire and finally by
rifle fire? Answer.--By using all the cover the terrain offers (escape
the enemy's view), by using inconspicuous formations, by using such
formations as to minimize the effect of the enemy's fire. Discipline at
this stage of the attack is essential. Each company in the firing line
will probably start its advance upon its objective in column of squads,
but taking advantage of all cover. If thick underbrush is found, squad
columns would probably be used. If the enemy's artillery fire becomes
too effective platoon columns or thin lines are used, dependent upon
terrain, cover and the time element. Every opportunity is taken to
assemble the companies and continue the advance in column of squads when
cover is available. The supports, following the firing line, adopt the
same methods to advance as the firing line. In this stage of the attack
your own artillery will he assisting you by replying to the enemy's
artillery and infantry fire that is directed at you.



THE FIRE ATTACK


The fire attack commences when the infantry in the firing line first
opens fire and it usually ends with the charge. A charge is sometimes
not necessary because the enemy withdraws from his position. The fire
attack does not start until the firing line cannot advance without
ruinous and demoralizing losses. It should not be over 1200 yards from
the enemy. At this time fire superiority must be gained. This may
necessitate a steady, accurate fire for many hours. For this purpose the
commander puts more men on the firing line than the enemy and then some
more if necessary. Local supports are used if required. Having gained
fire superiority, the advance by rushes commences, but each rush must
leave behind or have in front of it enough rifles to maintain fire
superiority. This determines the size of the rush. You cannot lose this
fire superiority and advance; and once it is lost, hours may be required
to regain it. The number of men in each rush will usually decrease as
the enemy's position is approached. If the firing line is stopped, if
fire superiority is lost and cannot be regained, the firing line
intrenches and holds on until darkness or until a favorable turn in the
situation develops. It is suicidal to turn back. During the advance,
supports move up as close to the firing line as cover will permit,
adopting those formations best suited to keep down losses. They may be
as close as fifty yards to the firing line. They should not be as far as
500 yards in rear of it.



THE CHARGE


There can be no rule to tell you when to charge. It may be from 25 to
400 yards. The common sense (tactical instinct) of the senior ranking
officer on the firing line must tell him the psychological moment to
order the charge. That moment will be when your fire has broken down the
enemy's fire, broken his resistance, and destroyed his morale. The
artillery increases its range. The firing line and remaining supports
fix bayonets. The former increases the rate of fire, the latter rush
forward under the protection of this fire, join the firing line and give
it the necessary impetus. Together they rush at the enemy's position. No
restraint is placed upon their ardor. Confidence in their ability to use
the bayonet gives the charging troops the promise of success. If the
charge is successful, the nearest formed bodies are sent instantly in
pursuit and under cover of them the commands are reorganized, order
restored, and arrangements made to resist a counter attack. If the
charge is unsuccessful the artillery or any formed troops in rear cover
the withdrawal.



THE THEORY OF THE DEFENSIVE


The defensive is divided into the purely passive defense and the active
defense.

The passive defense seeks merely to delay the enemy. The results can
never be other than negative. It is usually for the purpose of gaining
time and most frequently used by a rear guard. Since the idea of taking
up the offensive is absent, no strong reserves are held out for a
counter attack; the firing line is as strong as possible from the first;
every advantage is taken of obstacles, natural or artificial. The flanks
must be made secure.

The active defense seeks to attack the other side at some stage of the
engagement. It seeks to win and only the offensive wins. It is often
necessary for a commander to assume the defensive (active) either
voluntarily, in order to gain time, or to secure some advantage over the
enemy; or involuntarily, as in a meeting engagement where the enemy gets
a start in deployment for action or where the enemy's attack is
impetuous and without sufficient preparation. In either case the
defensive force contents itself with parrying the blows of the enemy,
while gathering and arranging its strength, looking and waiting for the
right place and time to deliver a decisive blow which is called the
counter attack. Hence, a counter attack is the offensive movement of an
active defense. Its success greatly depends on being delivered with
vigor and at the proper time. It may be delivered in two ways:
1st--straight to the front against a weak point in the attacking line,
or 2nd--by launching the reserves against the enemy's flank after he is
fully committed to the attack. The latter method offers the greatest
chances for success and the most effective results.



ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE DEFENSIVE


The defense has the following advantages over the attack:

(1) Troops attacking afford a better target than the troops on the
defensive.

(2) A larger amount of ammunition is usually available.

(3) The men can shoot better because they are not fatigued by advancing.

(4) Losses will be less if good cover is secured.



DISADVANTAGES OF THE DEFENSE


(1) The defender surrenders the advantage of the initiative as the
attacker can elect the point of attack and the defender must be prepared
at all points.

(2) The defender must fight amidst his dead and wounded which is
depressing.

(3) The defender, seeing the enemy continually advancing, becomes
conscious of his inability to stop him. This is depressing to the
defender and is injurious to his morale.



REQUISITES OF A GOOD DEFENSIVE POSITION


If you were looking for a good defensive position, what points would you
have in mind and of these points, which would be the most important? The
requisites to be sought in a good defensive position are:

     "(1) A clear field of fire up to the effective range of the
     artillery.

     "(2) Flanks that are naturally secure or that can be made so by the
     use of the reserves.

     "(3) Extent of ground suitable to the strength of the force to
     occupy it.

     "(4) Effective cover and concealment for the troops, especially
     reserves.

     "(5) Good communications throughout the position.

     "(6) Good lines of retreat."


     --Field Service Regulations.

All of these advantages will seldom if ever be found in the position
selected. The one should be taken which conforms closest to the
description, but you should bear in mind that a good field of fire and
effective cover, in the order named, are the most important requisites.
In tracing the lines for the trenches, avoid salients (a hill, spur,
woods, etc., that juts out from the general line in the direction of the
enemy). Avoid placing the fire trench on the skyline. Locate it on or
below the military crest. [The crest from which you can see all the
ground to the front.]



PREPARING A DEFENSIVE POSITION


Now let us suppose ourselves as part of a battalion that is to occupy a
defensive position. What would probably be done? How and in what order
would it be done? What would the major do? He would decide upon the kind
of defense (active or passive) to offer, and then find a suitable
defensive position in harmony with his plans. He would determine
exactly where the firing and other trenches are to be dug. He would
then call up the company commanders and issue his defense order in which
the task of each company would be made clear. Those to occupy the firing
line would each be assigned a sector of ground to the front to defend
and a corresponding section of the fire trench to construct. The
supports would construct their trenches and the communicating trenches.
He would, if necessary, issue the necessary orders to protect the front
and flanks by sending out patrols. He would indicate how the position is
to be strengthened and make arrangements for distributing the extra
ammunition. If time is a serious consideration, the major would direct
the work to be done in the order of its importance, which is ordinarily
as follows:

(1) Clearing of foreground to improve the field of fire and construction
of fire trench.

(2) Head or overhead cover concealment.

(3) Placing obstacles and recording ranges.

(4) Cover trenches for supports and local reserves.

(5) Communicating trenches.

(6) Widening and deepening of trench; interior conveniences.

Now having cleared the foreground, dug the trenches, recorded ranges to
the important objects in each sector, etc., the position can be
occupied. The citizen ordinarily pictures the firing trench full of
soldiers when he is told the trenches are occupied. Not so. Patrols
would be operating well to the front to give timely warning to one or
two sentinels in each company fire trench of the approach of the enemy.
These sentinels would in turn inform the company which would probably be
resting in the trenches in the rear.



THE ACTUAL DEFENSE


Let us suppose now that our battalion, occupying this defensive
position, is a part of a larger force which is supported by artillery.
You see small objects one and a half to two miles to your front. You
know they are the enemy's troops because your artillery is firing at
them and your combat patrols are being driven in. Your entire company
has moved to its fire trench. You have plenty of ammunition, you know
exactly the range.

What happens? You open fire on the enemy at probably the extreme range
of 2000 yards. Only the hostile artillery can return this fire until
the enemy's firing line closes to within 1200 yards of your position.
While an attacking force is thus approaching you may inflict very
serious losses upon it. But it cannot stop, however serious its losses,
beyond 1200 yards; for we have seen that, if it stops advancing in order
to fire, it will probably never arrive at your position. When within
1200 yards the enemy will build up a strong rifle fire against you and
not attempt to advance until he has gained fire superiority. It is your
business not to let him get fire superiority, and if he does do so to
take it away from him when he withdraws parts of his rifles to advance
by rushing. Fight each rush. If your defense is active and you
permanently stop the enemy's advance by gaining fire superiority, and he
cannot regain it, even though he uses up his supports, his firing line
will become confused and demoralized and it will be the psychological
time for the proper commander to launch his counter attack. On the other
hand, if you cannot stop his advance, fix bayonets (firing line and
remaining supports) when he fixes bayonets and meet his charge in front
of your trench. All your supports will be moved up to assist you in
opposing the charge. If you are unsuccessful in the bayonet fight or
forced to retire from your trenches during the fire fight your
artillery, cavalry and any formed reserves in the rear will cover your
withdrawal, which, if possible, should be made straight to the rear, one
part covering the withdrawal of the other part, and so on. Reorganize at
the first opportunity.




CHAPTER III

PATROLLING



Everything else being equal the army that possesses the most accurate
information about the enemy will win. Military history recites the fact
that almost every important battle has been either lost or won because
of information or lack of information that one side had or did not have
of the other side. It is by the use of patrols that the most valuable
information of the enemy is usually obtained.

There are many kinds of patrols, but it is with reconnoitering or
information seeking patrols that this chapter deals.



DUTIES OF A PATROL


Each reconnoitering patrol is given a certain mission (duty) to perform.
The name, "reconnoitering," meaning to survey, to view, indicates that
its first duty is to get information, and information is always greatly
increased in value if the enemy does not know it has been obtained.
Having obtained valuable information, its next duty is to send this
information to the officer sending out the patrol.



STRENGTH


The strength of the patrol will generally depend on its mission and on
the number of messages that it will probably send back. The larger the
patrol the greater the probability of the enemy seeing it. On the other
hand, if it is too small, it will not have sufficient members to send in
important information and continue operations. Captain Waldron in his
book, "Scouting and Patrolling," recommends a patrol of a leader and six
selected men for ordinary reconnaissance. This number makes it possible
for the patrol leader to place a man out on each flank, a man in
advance, two to remain with him and one to remain in the rear as the
get-away man. The officer who sends out the patrol determines its
strength.



COMMANDER


The leader should be an officer or a noncommissioned officer. He must
have good judgment, be cool, be quick in making a decision, be strong in
physique, have initiative, and be brave, but not to the extent of
rashness. Besides his regular equipment he should have a good pair of
field glasses, a compass, a watch, wire cutters, pencils, a message
book, and a map of the country.



INSTRUCTIONS


The officer sending out a patrol should give it instructions on the
following points:

1. Information of the enemy and of friendly supporting troops.

2. The mission of the patrol. This will include the general direction in
which it is to go.

3. How long the patrol is to remain out.

4. Where messages are to be sent.



PREPARATION


Before going out the patrol commander will make a careful inspection of
the members of his patrol in order to see:

1. That the members are in a suitable condition for the duty to be
performed. (Not drunk, sick, lame, having a bad cough, etc.)

2. That each man is properly armed and has the requisite amount of
ammunition.

3. That the accoutrement is so arranged that it will not rattle or
glisten in the sunlight.

4. That no man has anything about him that will afford the enemy
valuable information in the event of capture.

At the conclusion of this inspection he will, in the presence of the
officer sending out the patrol, go over his orders, giving his men all
the information that he has of the enemy and his own troops; state the
duty (mission) of the patrol so that all may know what they are going to
accomplish, and he will follow this with a statement of his general plan
for carrying it out. He will designate an assembly point should the
patrol be dispersed. He will designate a second in command should he be
disabled.


FORMATION

[Illustration: SUGGESTED FORMATIONS FOR PATROLS]

It is impossible to lay down any hard-and-fast rule governing the
formation and conduct of the operations of a patrol. Each situation will
have to be worked out by itself. The patrol should assume the general
formation of a column of troops on the march; that is, it will have an
advance guard, a main body, flankers and a rear guard. These several
elements may each be represented by only one man.



CONDUCT OF THE PATROL


In communicating with each other for ordinary purposes the members of
the patrol use signals agreed upon before the start. For this purpose
each man must constantly keep within sight and hearing distance of the
leader. A patrol moves cautiously, taking advantage of all available
cover, seeking in every way to see without being seen. It halts
frequently to listen and make careful observations of its surroundings.
Except at night a patrol should not move on roads. Villages and
inhabited places should not as a rule be entered. During the daytime it
seeks high ground from which it can scan the country and at night it
seeks a position from which the sky line can be observed.



ENCOUNTERING THE ENEMY


If a small hostile patrol is encountered it is generally better to
remain in concealment and let it pass than to attack. The noise of a
fight may be heard by the enemy, the presence of the patrol therefore
indicated, and the enemy will take further precautions to oppose its
operations. If the patrol is suddenly attacked or surprised by a
superior force, the patrol should at once scatter in all directions and
the members make their way back to the last place designated as a
meeting place and then after reuniting continue the reconnaissance.
When a patrol fights it does so resolutely. Courage and coolness may
bring about success when adverse conditions are encountered.



RETURNING


A patrol can never be certain that the enemy's patrols are not operating
in its rear. Hence in returning, it is necessary to observe the usual
precautions. If the patrol has eluded the enemy, it is best to return
over a route other than that over which the start was made. If a patrol,
after having accomplished its mission, is being pursued, it is well,
especially when near its own lines, to engage the pursuing troops so as
to give warning of its approach to the outpost line. Under the
conditions just mentioned, except the patrol is a great distance from
its outpost line, it may be necessary as a last resort to have the
patrol scatter and each man return individually.




CHAPTER IV

TARGET PRACTICE



Military shooting or target practice is very different from shotgun
shooting, or even the kind of shooting required of a large-game hunter;
therefore we should begin with the most elementary instruction and
drills, if proficiency is to be obtained. Our "Small Arms Firing
Regulations" says, "The sole purpose of rifle training for the soldier
is to make of him a good shot under war conditions."

Proficient shots are made off the range and not on it. By this we mean
that the preliminary instruction you will receive before you go on the
range will be of more benefit to you than the actual firing for record.
Indeed, firing on the range will only test your ability to put into use
the many points covered by your preliminary instruction. Therefore, if
you are to become a proficient shot, maintain your interest and
enthusiasm at its highest pitch during the preliminary instruction.

Your preliminary instructions will probably become so tedious and
tiresome that you will lose sight of their objects. Each preliminary
instruction has its own and different purpose, and you will not receive
the maximum benefit from them unless you realize this.

This chapter will first explain briefly the purpose of each preliminary
drill, and then give the essential things to be remembered when actually
firing on the range.



PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTION


Your preliminary instructions and their purposes are as follows:

1. Nomenclature of the Rifle. The word nomenclature means the
vocabulary of names or technical terms which are appropriate to any
particular topic. In this case the topic is the rifle. This instruction
will be a few lectures or talks by your company officers on the rifle.
You should become familiar with the parts of the rifle indicated in the
following illustration:

[Illustration]

2. Sighting Drills.

Purpose.

(a) To explain the different kinds of sight.

(b) To show how to align the sights properly on the bull's-eye.

(c) To discover and demonstrate errors in sighting.

(d) To teach uniformity in sighting.

There are two kinds of sights on the rear sight leaf, the open and peep
sight. The open sight is the semi-circular notch a-b-c shown in the
diagram below; the peep sight is the small hold "d" just below the open
sight.

[Illustration: a, b, c--open sight

d--peep sight]

The sighting drills will visually illustrate the following kinds of
sights.

a--Normal Sight. This is the sight most frequently used. The following
illustration is the normal sight when the open sight notch is used.

[Illustration: The figure i-k-l-m is the front sight B-L-M-C the rear
sight notch.]

When the open sight is used the above diagram shows the correct
alignments of the rear sight notch, front sight and the bull's-eye. The
following features should be noticed:

1st. The front.sight (i-k-l-m) is exactly in the center of the rear
sight notch (B-L-M-C), if it is in the right or left part of this notch
the rifle will shoot to the right or left of the point aimed at.

2d. There is a thin strip of white seen between the top of the front
sight and the bull's-eye. (The Marine Corps and many army officers do
not see this strip of white. The method of aiming given and illustrated
in this book is the same as found in the Firing Regulations for the
Army.)

3d. The top of the front sight should just touch an imaginary line
connecting the shoulder at C with that at B. (This is most important.)

4th. The aim is taken at the bottom of the bull's-eye and not at the top
or center.

b--Fine Sight. The following illustration shows a fine sight which
should never be used:

[Illustration]

This sight causes the rifle to shoot too low because not enough front
sight is seen. Correspondingly, if more front sight is seen than
illustrated in the normal sights, the rifle shoots high.

c--Normal Sight. The following illustration shows the normal sight
when the peep sight is used.

[Illustration]

The above illustration shows the correct alignment of the peep sight,
front sight, and the bull's-eye. The following features should be
noticed:

1st. The top of the front sight and not the bull's-eye is focused in the
center of the peep sight.

2d. There is a thin strip of white between the top of the front sight
and the bottom of the bull's-eye.

3. Position and Aiming Drills.

Purpose: To so educate the muscles of the arms and body that the gun,
during the act of aiming, shall be held without restraint and during the
operation of firing shall not be deflected from the target by any
convulsion or improper movement of the trigger finger or of the body,
arms or hands. These drills must be taken daily, if they are to be of
the maximum benefit. If you are enthusiastic about rifle shooting, and
these drills are not give[C] to you, ask your company commander to show
them to you, as they can be executed to advantage at odd times.

4. Deflection and Elevation Correction Drills.

Purpose. To show you how to raise or lower your rear sight, change your
windage to the right or left, and note the effect on the striking point
of the bullet in each case. In general terms these drills teach you:

(1) What to do when you are firing too high or low. (Elevation Drill.)

(2) What to do when you are firing to the right or left of the target.
(Deflection Drill.)

The assumption is in each case that the gun is properly aimed the
instant it is fired.

Thoroughly to grasp every phase of the Elevation and Deflection Drills,
it is best that you become familiarized with the dimensions of the
following targets and the ranges at which each is used. It is not
intended that you shall retain all these figures in your mind.



SLOW FIRE TARGETS


[Illustration: TARGET A]

This target is used during slow fire at 200 and 300 yards.

[Illustration: TARGET B]

This target is used during slow fire at 500 and 600 yards.



RAPID FIRE TARGET


[Illustration: TARGET D]

This target is always used with the battle sight at 200, 300, and 500
yards rapid fire. Battle sight is the position of the rear sight when
the leaf is laid down, which is the habitual position of the rear sight
leaf at drill. It is an open sight, and corresponds to an elevation of
547 yards.



WINDAGE


The rear sight is set on a movable base so that it can be moved to the
right or left and the aiming point shifted accordingly in order to
counteract the effect of the wind on the bullet.

General Rule. To shift the striking point of the bullet to the left
move the rear sight to the left. And, of course, the reverse holds true
when it is moved to the right.

A Specific Rule. One point of windage moves the striking point of the
bullet 4 inches for every 100 yards you are distant from the target.
(One point of windage at 200 yards causes the bullet to strike 8 inches
to the right or left of the line of aim; one point at 300 yards causes a
12-inch deflection of the bullet; one point at 500 yards a 20-inch
deflection, and so on.)



ELEVATION


General rule for changing the elevation after hitting the target: A
change of elevation either up or down, of 100 yards on your rear sight,
will raise or lower your bullet in inches on the target equal to the
square of your distance in yards from the target. I.e., a change of 100
yards in elevation on the rear sight leaf while firing at the 200-yard
range raises or lowers the striking point of the bullet at the target 4
inches. A similar change while firing at the 300-yard range raises or
lowers the striking point of the bullet 9 inches, at the 400-yard range
it would be 16 inches, at the 500-yard range 25 inches, and so on.

The following illustrations are self-explanatory in regard to windage
and elevation changes and should be diligently studied during
preliminary instruction. The effect of windage changes (given in points)
will be found at the bottom of each target, while the effect of
elevation changes (given in yards) will be found to the left of each
target.

[Illustration: TARGET A, 6' x 4'

TARGET B, 6' x 6']

The above system of indicating the windage and elevation on each target
is used in the United States Marine Corps score book. Each man at
Plattsburg, in 1916, was supplied with one of these score books. If used
at the firing point they greatly simplify sight adjustments, besides
containing other very useful information on shooting.

5. Gallery Practise. Purpose

1. To note errors in the position of the man while he is in the act of
firing and call his attention to them after he has fired.

2. To give instruction in squeezing the trigger properly.

3. To stimulate and maintain interest.

4. Offers a check on what the man has absorbed from the other
preliminary drills.

Fire just as much on the gallery range as you company commander will
permit. You cannot fire too much. Every shot you fire should teach you a
lesson on some point connected with the art of shooting.



SLOW FIRE


Following satisfactory gallery practise scores the men go on the range
for known distance practice. Here the army rifle is fired with service
charges at known ranges; first, for instruction if time permits, and
then for record. To obtain satisfactory results the firer must perform
correctly five essential things, namely:

     1. Hold the rifle on the mark.

     2. Aim properly.

     3. Squeeze the trigger properly.

     4. Call the shot.

     5. Make the proper sight adjustment.

They will be briefly and separately discussed:

1. Holding. Unless the rifle is held steadily the bullet will not hit
the desired mark. The firer must be able to hold the rifle steadily in
the three positions, kneeling, sitting. lying down. Holding is a
question of the proper body position, use of the sling, and practice.

Body Position. The position of the firer must be comfortable. You may,
at first, feel constrained or cramped in the different positions but by
continued practice the muscles and joints will become so supple and
pliable that you can easily assume the correct position. Each man who is
trying for a high score should utilize all available time to this end.
The following photographs illustrate the correct and incorrect
positions:

[Illustration: No. 1

CORRECT SITTING POSITION]

No. 1. Notice the position of the elbows. They are advanced past the
knees so that the flat muscles on the back of the arms, above the
elbows, rest against the legs. Notice the position of the right thumb
and aiming eye; also sling. To assume this position correctly, it is
necessary that you lean well forward. Avoid the tendency of getting the
feet too far apart.

[Illustration: No. 2.

CORRECT SITTING POSITION]

No. 2. Notice The proper manner of working the bolt during rapid fire.
Keep your gun at the shoulder while loading. Turn the gun to right and
down a little. Don't make any unnecessary motions'

[Illustration: INCORRECT SITTING POSITION]

No. 1. Left elbow is resting on knee cap. No support to steady right
arm. Eye too far from rear sight. Lip is against stock. (This causes
sore lips.) Thumb around stock. Sling on outside of arm.

No. 2. This shows the common error of lowering the gun from the shoulder
to load it during rapid fire.

[Illustration: CORRECT KNEELING POSITION]

No. 1. Correct kneeling position. Notice that the back of the left arm
(not elbow) is resting on knee.

Notice that the firer is sitting well down on the right leg. This is
essential.

[Illustration: INCORRECT KNEELING POSITION]

No. 1. Thumb is around small of stock. Eye too far from rear sight. The
gun is turned (canted) to the right. The sharp point of the elbow is
resting on the knee which has a tendency to make the position an
unsteady one.

No. 2. The improper manner of loading the gun during rapid fire. He has
lowered the gun from his shoulder to load it, which is "a time-killing"
proposition.

[Illustration: CORRECT PRONE POSITION]

No. 1. Notice the right eye. Notice that the left arm is well under the
gun. Notice where the gun is pressed against the shoulder. Notice
position of right thumb.

No. 2 Notice position of left arm. Notice the pressure of the sling
against the left arm.

No. 3 Notice the correct position of the legs and feet. Notice that the
toes are turned out.

[Illustration: INCORRECT PRONE POSITION]

No. 1. Gun is canted to the right. Sling is on the outside of the arm.
Right thumb is across small of stock which is the cause of bruises and
sore lips. Left elbow not well under. Eye too far from rear sight piece.

No. 2. Legs not straight. Gun canted to right. Left elbow not well under
gun.

No. 3. Legs are in an improper position. Body is twisted to the left.

Sling. Your ability to hold the rifle steadily in any required
position will be greatly increased by the proper adjustment and use of
the sling. Indeed, you cannot hope to hold the rifle steadily unless the
sling is properly used. The following photographs illustrate the correct
way to get into the sling.

[Illustration: No. 1.]

No. 1. Notice that the left arm is slipped in between the sling and the
gun from the left side. It is then run through the sling from the right
side of same. Notice how gun is held against leg. Notice that the muzzle
of the gun is pointing up, not down. The bolt should be drawn back while
you get into the sling. This is to avoid accidents. Notice that the
sight leaf is down.

[Illustration: No. 2]

No. 2. Notice that the sling has been slipped up and over the large
muscles of the upper arm. Also the left hand after being run through the
sling is grasping the gun to that the sling is to the right.

By turning back now to the photographs illustrating the correct body
positions you will see how the sling is used.

2. Aiming. An error of one one-hundredth of an inch in the amount of
front sight seen, at the instant the gun is fired, will cause you to
completely miss a man 500 yards away. Hence, the eye must be trained
unless the firer has at all times a mental picture of how the sights and
the bull's-eye look when properly aligned. You should acquire this
mental picture during your aiming exercises and by the time you go on
the range you should have the eye so trained that you will focus it
properly on your sights and target without mental effort.

3. Trigger Squeeze. If you convulsively jerk the trigger to discharge
the rifle, you disturb your hold and aim and the mark is missed; this
is the recruit's most common error. To properly squeeze trigger observe
the following suggestions:

(a) As you place your rifle to the shoulder, take up the loose play in
the trigger (called the creep).

(b) When the gun is properly aimed, don't endeavor at that particular
moment to fire it but be content to apply additional pressure to the
trigger and then hold this pressure until the gun is again steady and
properly aimed when a little more pressure is added and so on until the
gun is discharged. By using this system, the firer does not know the
exact instant the gun is to go off and the common faults, namely,
flinching and jerking the trigger are unconsciously avoided.

(c) Fill lungs full, that is take a deep breath, let a little out, and
then stop breathing to fire.

4. Calling the Shot. If the aiming eye is open when the gun is
discharged, the firer should know at what part of the target the gun was
aimed at that instant, and he should announce this fact to his coach or
in the absence of a coach make a mental note of it. If the bullet struck
the target at the point where the gun was aimed the instant of
discharge, no sight correction is necessary; on the other hand, if the
bullet did not strike the target at the point where the gun was aimed
the instant of discharge, the sights are probably improperly adjusted
and should be changed as indicated in the following paragraph on sight
adjustment.

5. Sight Adjustment. If, after firing two or more shots, you find
that, in each case, there is a constant error between where the bullet
hits the target and the place where you called the shot, your sights
should be readjusted in accordance with your preliminary elevation and
deflection drills. When you decide to change your sight adjustment don't
be timid and deal in half measures but apply a sufficient correction so
that the rifle will hit where the shot is called. The inexperienced man
has a tendency to change his sights after each shot. Avoid this
tendency.



RAPID FIRE


In rapid fire the battle sight is always used; the firing is against
time and at a field target (Target D), and from ranges 200, 300, and
sometimes 500 yards.

The battle sight corresponds to an elevation of 547 yards, which makes
it necessary for the firer at the 200 and 300 yard ranges to aim at a
point about 2-1/2 feet below the part of the target that it is desired
to hit. Prior to record firing each man should determine these aiming
points by slow fire, at ranges 200 and 300 yards, using the battle
sight.

There is one golden rule that must be followed if you are to get a good
score at rapid fire: You must use the minimum time possible in loading
and the maximum time possible for aiming and squeezing the trigger. To
be more specific, this means work your bolt quickly but aim and squeeze
your trigger slowly.



HINTS ON RAPID FIRE


1. When you go to the firing point get two clips of cartridges, one to
be used at the command load and the extra one is placed in the belt.

2. See that your cut-off is up.

3. When the target first appears drop quickly into the required position
for firing. A great deal of time is usually lost by the firer squirming
around trying to get into a comfortable position.

4. Don't hurry your first or last shot. These are the two shots that are
usually bad.

5. If your second clip jams or breaks, turn the cut-off up, load and
fire each cartridge separately.

6. Leave the gun at your shoulder while working the bolt.

7. Be careful to fire on your own target.

8. If a cartridge fails to fire, it is very probably because the bolt is
not all the way down; therefore recock the gun (pull the firing pin
back), make certain the bolt is down, and fire again.

9. As soon as the targets disappear cease firing, come to Inspection
Arms, examine your rifle for unfired cartridges.



GENERAL HINTS AND CAUTIONS


1. Don't be afraid of the kick; it is more imaginary than real when the
sling is properly used, your shoulder properly padded, and the gun
properly held.

2. Rest your cheek, not your jaw bone, lightly against the small of the
stock.

3. Rest your right thumb along the right side of the stock and not on
top of it.

4. Blacken both front and rear sights, adjust and place your arm in the
sling, and if possible set your sights while you are waiting your turn
to go to the firing point.

5. Approach and leave the firing point with your bolt drawn back. This
is to prevent accidents.

6. When not actually aiming, have your bolt drawn back.

7. Never attempt to force the bolt into the gun in case of a jam, but
ask a coach to fix it for you.

8. Don't allow the muzzle to touch the ground.

9. Don't rub your eyes while at the firing point.

10. When not actually aiming, rest the eyes by shading them or looking
at something green.

11. Clean the bore of your rifle before and after firing. After firing
it should be cleaned daily, until a rag run through it will not be
soiled.

12. Clean the rifle from the breech.

13. Zero of rifle. Every rifle, owing to slight inequalities of boring,
sights, and the personal errors of the firer, shoots differently. When
you have ascertained its (rifle) and your own peculiar errors and you
know where to set your sights to counteract these constant errors, you
have determined what is commonly termed the zero of your rifle. To
illustrate, if you were shooting on a perfectly calm day (which is
essential) at the target from the 500-yard range, and you found that you
required one half a point left windage in order to hit the bull's-eye
when no wind is blowing, the zero of your rifle for that range would be
one half a point left windage.



CARE OF THE RIFLE


Keep the metal part of your rifle covered with a thin coating of light
oil; "3-in-1" oil is ordinarily used. This is especially important in
damp weather.

Always clean the bore from the breech. This avoids injuring the muzzle.
The pull through (a string found in the oiler and thong case) is only
used in the field.

After the rifle is fired the bore is covered with an acid which, if left
in the bore, will eat into the metal and pit it. To avoid this, swab out
the barrel as soon as possible after firing with Hoppe's "Powder
Solvent, No. 9" which can be purchased at the camp stores. If this
powder solvent is not available, dissolve some soda in water and use it.
When the barrel is clean, dry it out thoroughly by running several dry
rags through it. Next run several rags, saturated in oil, through the
barrel, this for the purpose of oiling the bore and preventing rust.
This process of cleaning should be repeated for at least three
successive days following the firing of the rifle.

The metal fouling, caused by the pealing off in the bore of the jacket
of the bullet, can only be removed by an application of an ammonia
solution which should not be used by an inexperienced man.



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION


The Bayonet. The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting of
three principal parts, viz., the blade, the guard, and the grip. The
weight of a bayonet is 1 pound.

[Illustration]

Captain B. A. Dixon, retired, has compiled the following interesting
data about our military rifle and ammunition:

"Name. United States Rifle (commonly known as the Springfield).

"Cost. $14.40 without the bayonet.

"Barrel. 24.006 inches in length. The muzzle is rounded to protect the
rifling. Any injury here would allow gases to escape around the sides of
the bullet and destroy its accuracy.

"On the top in rear of the front sight is stamped the Ordnance
escutcheon, the initials of the place of manufacture, and the month and
year.

"Caliber. .30-thirty hundredths of an inch. Caliber is the interior
diameter of the barrel measured between the lands.

"Grooves. The four spiral channels within the bore of the rifle
sometimes called rifling. They are .004 inches deep and are three times
as wide as the lands.

"Lands. The four raised spaces in the bore of the rifle between the
grooves. These lands grip the bullet as it passes through the bore and
rotate it to the right about the longer axis. This rotation serves to
prevent tumbling and keeps the bullet accurately on its course. This
spinning of the bullet also causes it to drift slightly to the right as
it passes through the air. The same effect is produced by throwing a
baseball with a twist.

"Twist. The spiral formed by the grooves in the barrel of the piece.
The twist is uniform and to the right, one turn in ten inches.

"Length. The rifle without bayonet is 43.212 inches long. With bayonet
it is 59.212 inches long.

"Manufacture. The United States Rifle is manufactured by the
Government at Springfield Armory, Massachusetts, and Rock Island
Arsenal, Illinois.

"Rear Sight Leaf. Graduated from 100 to 2850 yards. The odd range is
on the right branch of the leaf, the even on the left. Note that the
line corresponding to a range is below a numeral.

"Battle sight is the position of the rear sight in which the leaf is
laid down. The slide should be drawn all the way hack to secure full
advantage of the windage. It corresponds to a range of 547 yards.

"Rounds. The rifle will hold six cartridges. Five are carried in the
magazine and one in the chamber.

"Stock. Made of walnut wood.

"Oiler and Thong Case. Furnished for every alternate rifle and is
carried in butt of the stock. In one section is a supply of oil, in the
other a thong and brush for cleaning the bore. In cleaning by this
method draw the brush or rag from the muzzle toward the breech.

"Weight. 8.69 pounds without bayonet. Bayonet weighs 1 pound.


"AMMUNITION

"Cost. About three and one-half cents per cartridge.

"Bullet. Has a core of lead and tin composition inclosed in a jacket
of cupro-nickel. The jacket being tough enables the lands in the bore to
grip the bullet without rupturing and to rotate it while passing through
the barrel. A lead bullet unjacketed would strip and pass through
without rotating. It weighs 150 grains and is pointed to offer less
resistance to the air.

"Case. Made of brass. The government ammunition is manufactured at
Frankford Arsenal, Pennsylvania.

"Powder. Pyrocellulose. The grains are cylindrical, single,
perforated, and graphited. Normal charge is 47-50 grains. Pressure
developed in the chamber is 51,000 pounds per square inch.

"Penetration. This bullet will penetrate the following materials to
depth stated at range of 100 yards: Moist sand, 14.02 inches; loam,
17.46 inches; oak, 31.18 inches; brick wall, 5.5 inches; steel plate, .4
inch. Dry sand is the best stop. The bullet will penetrate 6.88 inches
of it at 100 yards and 13.12 inches at 500 yards.

"Range. Maximum range, 4891.6 yards, about 2-3/4 miles) with the
muzzle elevated 45 degrees. The time of flight 38.058 seconds.

"Velocity. About 2700 feet per second at 70 degrees F.

"Weight. A complete cartridge weighs 395.5 grains depending on amount
of water. It is waterproof."



ESTIMATING DISTANCE


Suppose you are out hunting, and that you see a big buck on a distant
hill. Suppose that it is exactly 600 yards distant from you, that you
are an expert shot, and that you set your sights at 400 yards and fire.
Will you hit the deer or not? You must know how to guess accurately the
distance to a deer, or a man, or anything else, if you propose to have
any reasonable hope of hitting it.

The art of estimating distances with the eye can be improved by
practice. When you are in ranks, observe continually your surroundings.
Call attention to and make estimates of the distances to all the
prominent objects in view. Others near you will become interested, and
the interest will soon spread to the entire company. It will be
necessary for the objects to be pointed out to those interested. This in
itself is a difficult thing to do. To be able quickly to see distant
objects that are being pointed out is a military accomplishment which
all soldiers should possess and which comes only with practice.



METHODS OF ESTIMATING DISTANCES BY THE EYE


1. Decide that the object cannot be more than a certain distance away,
or less than a certain distance. Keep the estimate within the closest
possible limits and take the mean of the two estimates as the range. For
instance, that deer cannot be over 800 yards away and not less than 400
yards. Your estimated distance is 600 yards.

2. Select a point which you think is the middle point of the distance,
estimate the distance to this middle point, and double your estimate to
get your range. Do the same thing with half the distance, if the object
is very far away.

3. Estimate the distance along a parallel line, such as a telephone line
or a railroad having on it a well-defined length with which you are
familiar.

4. Take the mean of several estimates made by several well-instructed
men. This method is used in battle, but is not applicable to instruction
or during tests.


1. Preliminary Instruction

To estimate distances by the eye with accuracy, it is first necessary
that you become familiar with the appearance of the most convenient unit
of length, namely 100 yards. Stake off a distance of 100 yards.
Subdivide this 100 yards into four 25-yard divisions. Pace off the
entire distance several times, and you will soon become familiar with
the appearance of 100 yards. Next, take a distance more than 100 yards
and compare it mentally with your unit of measure (100 yards) and make
your estimate. Verify this estimate by pacing the distance. Do this once
a day for several months, and you may become highly skilled in the art
of estimating distances.


2. Preliminary Instruction

If you know how a soldier, or group of soldiers, looks at the different
ranges, it will often assist you in quickly making an accurate estimate
of the distance. In order to acquire skill in estimating distances by
this method one must have special exercises designated to demonstrate
the clearness with which details of clothing, movement of the limbs,
etc., can be observed at the different ranges. Have a squad march away
from you to a distance of 1,200 yards. Then have it approach you and
halt every 100 yards. Each time the squad halts make a mental note of
the distance, and then observe carefully its appearance, the clearness
with which you can see the clothing, movements of the limbs, etc.



APPEARANCE OF OBJECTS


Become familiar with the effect which the varying conditions of light,
background, etc., have upon the apparent distance of the object. Don't
be content to memorize the following data, but go after the underlying
reason in each case.

Objects seem nearer than they actually are:

1. When the object is seen in a bright light.

2. When the color of the object contrasts sharply with the color of the
background.

3. When looking over water, snow, or a uniform surface like a wheat
field.

4. When looking from a height downward.

5. In clear atmosphere of high altitudes, as in Arizona and New Mexico.

Objects seem more distant than they actually are:

1. When looking over a depression in the ground (across a canyon).

2. When there is a poor light (very cloudy day) or a fog.

3. When only a part of the object can be seen.

4. When looking from low ground upward toward higher ground.



ESTIMATING DISTANCES BY SOUND


Sound travels at the rate of about 366 yards a second. Therefore,
multiply the number of seconds intervening between the flash of the gun
and the report of the same by 366, and the product will be the distance
in yards to the gun.



RANGE-FINDING INSTRUMENT


Each company is equipped with a range-finding instrument. All company
officers and sergeants should be proficient in using it. The accuracy of
this instrument will greatly depend upon the skill of the user, and the
visibility of the objective.



TRIAL SHOTS OR VOLLEYS


"If the ground is so dry and dusty that the fall of the bullets is
visible through a glass or with the naked eye, a method of determining
the distance is afforded by using a number of trial shots or volleys.
The method of using trial volleys is as follows: The sights are raised
for the estimated range and one volley is fired. If this appears to hit
but little short of the mark, an increase of elevation of 100 yards will
be used for the next volley. When the object is enclosed between two
volleys, a mean of the elevation will be adopted as the correct range.
The range may be obtained from a near-by battery or machine gun. This is
the best method when available."--Small Arms Firing Manual.



ESTIMATING DISTANCE TEST


This test is usually held after the record firing on the range has been
completed. No distance used in this test will be less than 547 yards
(battle sight range) or more than 1200 yards, which is considered the
extreme range for effective fire of individuals or a small command.
Should a soldier fail three times to make the necessary percentage in
these tests, his rifle qualification will be reduced one grade. For the
specific conditions governing this test, see Small Arms Firing Manual.



RANGE FINDERS


Five or six enlisted men, selected by the company

[Illustration: This shows the path of the bullet (Line of Trajectory) of
the 1917 Rifle (Enfield).

The Line of Aim, we see, connects the eye, the rear sight, the front
sight and the bottom part of the target. It is a straight line.

We see that the Line of Trajectory crosses the Line of Aim at two
points. The distance between these points is 452 yards. Therefore, 452
yards is the Battle Sight Range for the 1917 Rifle.]

To hit the target squarely when it is 200 yards away, the
Line of Aim must be under it, as shown in the diagram.]

[Illustration: THE 1917 RIFLE (ENFIELD)]

commander from those most skilled, will be designated as "Range
Finders." These men are practised in estimating distance throughout the
year. Their practice will be on varied ground and at distances up to
2000 yards. These men assist the company commander when the company is
on the defensive, in estimating the distances to the prominent objects
in view before the action commences; and at other times when the company
commander needs their assistance.




CHAPTER V

TENT PITCHING



On the hike the camp will be laid out daily in advance by a staff
officer. The company being halted and in line, the company commander
gives the order: FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.

The first sergeant and right guide fall in on the right of the company.
The blank files in the squads have to be filled by men from the file
closers, and the remaining guides and file closers form on the left
flank or at such places as may be designated by the company commander.
The company commander next gives the order: 1. Take interval, 2. To the
left, 3. MARCH, 4. Company, 5. HALT.

At the second command (to the left) the rear rank men march backward
four steps of fifteen inches each and then halt.

At the command MARCH, all face to the left and the leading man of each
rank steps off. The remaining men step off in succession, each following
the preceding man at four paces. The rear rank men march abreast of
their file leaders.

The company commander gives the command HALT when all have gained their
intervals. At this command all halt and face to the front, dressing to
the right. The more quickly you dress and establish the line of tents,
the more quickly you will be relieved of those heavy packs. This is the
time to brace up and give the company commander your support by giving
him your attention. If you cover in file accurately as you take interval
you will often be accurately aligned upon halting.

The next command is: PITCH TENTS. At this command each man steps off
obliquely to the right with the right foot (about thirty inches) and
lays his rifle on the ground, butt to the rear and near the toe of the
right foot, muzzle to the front, barrel to the left. He then steps back
to his original position. During this process of "grounding" the rifle,
the front rank man must keep his left foot strictly in its position.
Each front rank man then draws his bayonet from the scabbard and sticks
it in the ground by the outside of his right heel. Now in order to
insure the bayonet being properly aligned, thus producing a straight
line of tents, the company officers (first and second lieutenants),
sometimes are required to align the line of bayonets while the men are
unslinging and opening their equipment. The equipment is then unslung
and laid on the ground. The packs are opened and the shelter half and
pins removed therefrom. Each man spreads his shelter half, small
triangle to the rear, on the ground that the tent is to occupy, the
rear-rank man's shelter half being on the right. Then the front-and
rear-rank men button the halves together, the rear-rank man's half on
top. The guy loops at each end of the lower half are then passed
through the button holes provided in the lower and upper halves; next
the whipped end of the guy rope is passed through both guy loops and
secured; this is done at both ends of the tent, the rear-rank man
working at the rear and the front-rank man at the front.

Each front-rank man then inserts the muzzle of his rifle under the
front end of the tent and holds the rifle upright, sling to the front,
heel of the butt on the ground beside the bayonet. The rear-rank man
comes to the front of the tent and pins down the two front corners on
the line of bayonets, stretching the sides of the tent taut. He then
inserts a pin in the loop of the front guy rope and drives it in the
ground at such a distance in front of the rifle as to hold the rope
taut. Then both men proceeding to the rear of the tent, each pins down a
corner, stretching the sides and rear of the tent taut before driving
the pin in. The rear-rank man next inserts an intrenching tool or a
bayonet, in its scabbard, under the rear end of the tent, the front rank
man pegging down the end of the guy rope. The rest of the pins are then
driven by both men, the rear-rank man working on the right.

The front flaps of the tent are not fastened down, but thrown back on
the tent.

In pitching the tent, it is absolutely necessary that the front-and
rear-rank men work together. Team work is essential.

When the camp site is small, it is necessary that each

[Illustration: Arrangement of Field Equipment in Shelter Tent

Elevation]

company pitch its tents in two lines facing each other.

The following illustration shows the arrangement of the articles of the
equipment when they are laid out for inspection. During the inspection,
each man stands at attention in front of the corner pin of his own
shelter half on a line with the front guy rope pin, unless ordered to
the contrary.

[Illustration: PLAN]




CHAPTER VI

SIGNALS AND CODES


1. GENERAL SERVICE CODE. (INTERNATIONAL MORSE CODE.)

Used for visual (except semaphore) and sound signaling, radio
telegraphy, on cables using siphon recorders, in communication with the
Navy, and in intra-field artillery buzzer communication.

    A                                . -
    B                                - . . .
    C                                - . - .
    D                                - . .
    E                                .
    F                                . . - .
    G                                - - .
    H                                . . . .
    I                                . .
    J                                . - - -
    K                                - . -
    L                                . - . .
    M                                - -
    N                                - .
    O                                - - -
    P                                . - - .
    Q                                - - . -
    R                                . - .
    S                                . . .
    T                                -
    U                                . . -
    V                                . . . -
    W                                . - -
    X                                - . . -
    Y                                - . - -
    Z                                - - . .


                    NUMERALS

    1                                . - - - -
    2                                . . - - -
    3                                . . . - -
    4                                . . . . -
    5                                . . . . .
    6                                - . . . .
    7                                - - . . .
    8                                - - - . .
    9                                - - - - .
    0                                - - - - -


                  PUNCTUATION

    Period                           . . . . . .
    Comma                            . - . - . -
    Interrogation                    . . - - . .
    Hyphen or dash                   - . . . . -
    Parentheses
      (before and after the words)   - . - - . -
    Quotation mark
      (beginning and ending)         . - . . - .
    Exclamation                      - - . . - -
    Apostrophe                       . - - - - .
    Semicolon                        - . - . - .
    Colon                            - - - . . .
    Bar indicating fraction          - . . - .
    Underline (before and after
    the word or words it is
    wished to underline)             . . - - . -
    Double dash (between preamble and address,
      between address and body of message, between
      body of message and signature, and
      immediately before a fraction) - . . . -
    Cross                            . - . - .

Note.--Numerals and punctuations must be spelled out in the ardois, as
they require more than four elements, which is the limit of the ardois
keyboard.

The position is with the flag or other appliance held vertically, the
signalman directly facing station with which it is desired to
communicate. The "dot" is to the right of sender, embracing an arc of
90 deg., starting with the vertical and returning to it. The "dash" is a
similar motion to left. "Front" is downward directly in front and
instantly returned to vertical; it indicates a pause or conclusion.

[Illustration: CONVENTIONAL FLAG SIGNALS]

For communication between the firing line and the reserve or commander
in rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps codes) are prescribed and
should be memorized. In transmission, their concealment from the enemy's
view should be insured. In the absence of signal flags, the head dress
or other substitute may be used.

Letter of   If signaled from the      If signaled from the
Alphabet    rear to the firing line   firing line to the rear

A M                Ammunition going forward       Ammunition required


C C C              Charge (mandatory at all      Am about to charge if no
                   times)                        instructions to the
                                                 contrary

C F                Cease firing                  Cease firing

D T                Double time or "rush"         Double time or "rush" or
                                                 hurry

F                  Commence firing               Commence firing

F L                Artillery fire is causing     Artillery fire is causing
                   us losses                     us losses

G                  Move forward                  Preparing to move forward

H H H              Halt                          Halt

K                  Negative                      Negative

L T                Left                          Left

O                  What is the (R. N., etc.?)    What is the (R. N., etc.?)

(Ardois and        Interrogatory                 Interrogatory
semaphore
only)

. . - - . .        What is the (R. N., etc.?)    What is the (R. N., etc.?)

(All methods       Interrogatory                 Interrogatory
but ardois
and semaphore)

P                  Affirmative                   Affirmative

R                  Acknowledgment                Acknowledgment

R N                Range                         Range

R T                Right                         Right

S S S              Support going forward         Support needed

T                  Target                        Target

[Illustration: TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE]



ARM SIGNALS


The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals either arm
may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing line "repeat
back" at once to prevent misunderstanding.

[Illustration: Forward]

Forward, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold the
arm horizontally, thrusting it in the direction of march.

This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.

[Illustration: Halt: Arm held stationary. Double Time: Arm moved up and
down several times.]

HALT. Carry the hand to the shoulder. Thrust the hand upward and hold
the arm vertically.

Double time, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust the
hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

[Illustration: Squads Right]

Squads right, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it
to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times between
the vertical and horizontal positions.

[Illustration: Squads Left]

Squads left, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it
downward to the side and swing it several times between the downward and
horizontal positions.

[Illustration: To the rear

Squads Right About]

Squads right about, MARCH (if in close order) or, To the rear, MARCH (if
in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above the head; carry it
laterally downward to the side, and swing it several times between the
vertical and downward positions.

[Illustration: Change direction]

Change direction or Column right (left), MARCH. The hand on the side
toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across the
body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a
horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction.

[Illustration: As Skirmishers]

As skirmishers, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.

[Illustration: As Skirmishers Guide Center]

As skirmishers, guide center, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until
horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical, and return
to the horizontal; repeat several times.

[Illustration: As Skirmishers Guide right]

As skirmishers, guide right (left), MARCH. Raise both arms laterally
until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in the
horizontal position; swing the other upward until vertical, and return
it to the horizontal; repeat several times.

[Illustration: Assemble]

Assemble, MARCH. Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and
describe horizontal circles.

[Illustration: To announce range Battle sight]

Range or Change Elevation. To announce range, extend the arm toward the
leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist closed; by keeping
the fist closed battle sight is indicated;

[Illustration: Range 300 Or increase by 300]

by opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number
equal to the hundreds of yards;

[Illustration: Add 50]

to add 50 yards describe a short horizontal line with forefinger.

[Illustration: Decrease by 500]

To change elevation, indicate the amount of increase or decrease by
fingers as above; point upward to indicate increase and downward to
indicate decrease.

[Illustration: What range are you using or: What is the range]

What range are you using? or What is the range? Extend the arms toward
the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting on the
other hand, fist closed.

[Illustration: Are you ready or: I am ready]

Are you ready? or I am ready. Raise the hand, fingers extended and
joined, palm toward the person addressed.

[Illustration: Commence Firing]

Commence firing. Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm down,
several times through a horizontal arc in front of the body.

Fire faster. Execute rapidly the signal "Commence firing."

Fire slower. Execute slowly the signal "Commence firing."

[Illustration: To swing cone of fire to right]

Swing the cone of fire to the right, or left. Extend the arm in full
length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing the arm to right
(left), and point in the direction of the new target.

Fix bayonet. Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix bayonet."

[Illustration: Suspend firing. For Cease firing--Swing arm up and down
several times.]

Suspend firing. Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal
position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.

Cease firing. Raise the forearm as in suspend firing and swing it up and
down several times in front of the face.

[Illustration: Platoon]

Platoon. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; describe
small circles with the hand.

[Illustration: Squad]

Squad. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing the
hand up and down from the wrist.

Rush. Same as double time.

Use of the platoon and squad signals. The signals platoon and squad are
intended primarily for communication between the captain and his platoon
leaders. The signal platoon or squad indicates that the platoon
commander is to cause the signal which follows to be executed by platoon
or squad.

You will observe that in no case is the right hand or the left hand
specified. The officer may either face the company or have his back
toward it.




CHAPTER VII

FIRST AID TO THE INJURED



In the army, as in civilian life, you are very often your brother's
keeper, as well as your own. Doctors cannot accompany a scout, a patrol,
or the firing line. They are seldom present when a man falls overboard.
When a soldier on the firing line is wounded, he may remain for several
hours where he falls. He, or his comrade, bandages the wound. Suppose
you are wounded, bitten by a snake, etc., what would you do? You may
have to give a practical answer to these questions at some time during
your life.

This chapter tells you what to do and what not to do in case of the most
frequent disabling accidents that may befall a soldier or a civilian.
Ask your mother, father, older brothers, and sisters to read it. Part of
it is for them.



FIRST-AID PACKET


Each soldier carries on his belt a first-aid packet. This packet
contains two perfectly pure bandages and a couple of safety pins. It
should be air tight. Examine yours every week and if the seal is
defective, ask your captain for a new packet.



CAUTIONS


1. Act quickly but quietly. Be calm and quiet. Don't lose your head.

2. Make the injured party sit or lie down.

3. See the injury clearly before treating it. Send for a doctor if the
wound is serious.

4. Do not remove more clothing than is necessary to examine the injury.
Always rip, or, if you cannot rip, cut the clothes from the injured
part. Don't pull the clothes off.

5. Give alcoholic stimulants cautiously and slowly, and only when the
patient feels weak or drowsy. Hot coffee or tea will often suffice when
obtainable.

6. Keep from the patient all persons not actually needed to assist you.

7. Do not touch a wound with your fingers. If the wound is dirty,
remove the dirt as well as possible, with the first-aid bandage.

8. Don't pour into the wound any water from your canteen for the
purpose of washing it out or washing the blood from around the wound.
Water often contains germs and the skin around the wound may be dirty.
If water is poured into the wound it carries or washes into the same
these germs and dirt, and the wound will become infected.

9. Heat and moisture increases the activity of the germ of infection.
Therefore keep the wound cool and dry.

10. If the blood is scarlet in color and appears in spurts, send at
once for a doctor and then take the necessary measures (apply a
tourniquet) to stop the flow of blood.

11. If the patient loses consciousness, it will probably be because
insufficient blood is reaching the brain. Lower your patient's head and
give all your attention to stopping the bleeding.



BULLET WOUND


If you receive a bullet wound, don't get excited or lose your head. A
bullet wound in the muscle or soft parts of the body causes little pain
and, if properly dressed, heals in about two to three weeks. Protect the
openings where the bullet entered and came out with the bandages found
in the first-aid packet. Don't touch the wound with your fingers.
Remove sufficient clothing to see the wounds. Then, and not before, open
the first-aid packet and carefully unfold (open) the compress (pad found
in the middle of each bandage) and place it over the wound and wrap the
ends of the bandage fairly tight around the limb and fasten with the
safety pin. If one compress is not large enough to cover the entire
wound, use the second bandage. This bandaging will stop ordinary
bleeding. Such a dressing may be all that is needed for several days. It
is better to leave a wound undressed than to dress it carelessly or
ignorantly, so that the dressing must be removed.



STOPPING BLEEDING


If the blood is dark blue and the stream is continuous, a vein has been
punctured which, in itself, is not ordinarily dangerous. The bandaging
of such a wound will usually stop the flow of blood. Bandage firmly.
Remember all wounds bleed a little, but that, as a rule, this bleeding
will stop in a few minutes if the patient remains quiet.

If the blood is bright red and appears in spurts, an artery has been
punctured, and the flow of blood must be stopped or the patient will
bleed to death. To do this, apply a pressure to the artery at some point
between the wound and the heart. Press the artery against the bone. This
can usually be done for a short time with the fingers. However it will
usually he necessary to use an improvised tourniquet. Tie the bandage of
the first-aid packet around the limb so that the compress (pad) will
press the artery against the bone. Slip under the compress and over the
artery a small stone. Pass a stick under the bandage and turn the stick
around slowly until the slack is taken up and the bleeding stops. Then
tie the stick as shown in the illustration.

[Illustration]

After the tourniquet has been in place for an hour, loosen it and if no
blood flows allow it to remain loose. If it again bleeds tighten it
quickly and loosen again at the end of an hour.

The following illustrations, show the usual places where tourniquets are
applied or where pressure can be applied to the arteries with the thumb:

[Illustration: WOUND IN SHOULDER]

[Illustration: WOUND IN ARM]

[Illustration: WOUND IN HEAD]

[Illustration: WOUND IN LEG]



BROKEN BONE (FRACTURE)


The next injury you must know is a broken bone. You will usually know
when an arm or leg is broken by the way the arm or leg is held, for the
wounded man loses control over the limb. Suppose your comrade breaks his
leg or arm. What would you do? Straighten the limb gently, pulling upon
the end of it quietly and firmly so that the two ends of the broken bone
will not overlap. Next, retain the limb in its straightened position by
such splints and other material as the boot of a carbine, a piece of
board, a piece of tin gutter. Pad the material you use. Tie it to the
broken limb as shown in the following illustrations. Never place a
bandage over the fracture. See Illustration.

[Illustration: BROKEN ARM]

[Illustration: BROKEN LEG]

[Illustration: BROKEN LEG]



DROWNING


Being under water for over four or five minutes is generally fatal,
but, unless you know the body has been submerged a long time, make an
attempt to restore life. Don't get disheartened and give up, if you see
no signs of life after a few minutes' work. Work on the body for at
least an hour.

Your comrade's lifeless body has just been pulled out of the water. What
do you do? You are alone.

1. Don't waste time in removing his clothes.

2. Reach your finger in his mouth and straighten out his tongue.

3. Lay him on his stomach; then straddle him; reach both arms under his
stomach; raise his hips two feet from the ground and jostle him. This
drains the water from the stomach and lungs.

[Illustration: PRESSURE EXERTED]

4. Lay him on his stomach; turn his head to one side so his nose and
mouth do not touch the ground; extend his arms beyond his head (see
illustration); locate his lowest (12th) rib; place hand, finger, and
thumb closed (see illustration) on body so that the little finger curls
over the 12th rib; hold your arms and wrists straight and lean forward
slowly so the weight of the upper part of your body will be brought to
bear gradually upon your comrade's ribs (see illustration); let this
pressure continue for about three seconds; then remove it suddenly by
removing the hands. Apply this pressure at the rate of from 12 to 15
times a minute.

[Illustration: PRESSURE RELAXED]

5. Do not attempt to give him any kind of liquids while he is
unconscious.

6. Apply warm blankets as soon as possible.

7. Never say "He is dead"--Work on his body for at least an hour.



SUNSTROKE--(THE SKIN IS HOT)


A sunstroke is accompanied by the following symptoms: headache,
dizziness, sense of oppression, nausea, colored vision, and often the
patient becomes insensible. The muscles are relaxed, face flushed, skin
hot, pulse rapid, and the temperature rises. The breathing is labored.

Treatment: Reduce the temperature as rapidly as possible, with ice or
cold water; get the patient in the shade. Loosen clothing.



HEAT EXHAUSTION--(THE SKIN IS COOL)


Symptoms: Nausea, a staggering gait, pulse is weak, and the patient
may quickly become unconscious. The skin is cool. This condition is
dangerous.

Treatment: Rub the limbs vigorously. Give stimulants; apply heat.



BURNS


Do not pull the clothing from the burnt part, but rip or cut it off. Do
not break the blisters or prick them even if large.

Treatment: Protect it quickly with a mixture of equal parts of linseed
or olive oil and water.



FREEZING AND FROSTBITE


Symptom: The part frozen appears white or bluish and is cold.

Treatment: Raise the temperature of the frozen member slowly by
rubbing it with snow or ice and water, in a cool place. Don't go near a
fire.



FAINTING


Symptom: Loss of consciousness. It is usually the result of severe
bleeding or exhaustion from fatigue. This condition is rarely dangerous.

Treatment: Lay the patient on his back, head a little lower than rest
of body, arms by side, feet extended. Rub the limbs. Sprinkle water on
the face and give stimulants if necessary.



POISONING


Treatment: Send for a doctor at once. Empty the stomach and bowels.
Give two tablespoons full of mustard and warm water or a tablespoon full
of salt in a glass of water to produce vomiting. Then give a purgative.
Tickle throat with finger or feather in case mustard or salt are not
procurable. After the poison has been evacuated, give stimulants and
apply heat and rubbing externally.



SNAKE BITE


In snake bites the poison acts quickly.

Treatment: Apply a tourniquet between the wound and the heart so as to
stop the circulation and prevent the system from absorbing the poison.
Get out your knife and make a couple of cross cuts through the wound so
it will bleed freely. Then suck the poison from the wound and spit the
poison out. If your lips are lacerated there is danger in this method
but it is your duty to take this chance in order to save your comrade's
life. After sucking out the wound, heat your knife and burn it out.



STOMACH WOUNDS


Send for a doctor. Lie perfectly quiet. Don't lose your head and don't
attempt to crawl to help or to stir around. Place a clean piece of cloth
over the wound and keep it constantly wet with a solution of salt water.
If the wound is in the stomach, it is better to lie perfectly quiet on
the battle field for a day or two until found than to crawl to
assistance.



CHAFING



Treatment: Keep parts dry, use talcum powders and keep parts separated
by a layer of absorbent cotton.



EXTINGUISHING BURNING CLOTHES


Treatment: Lie down on the floor and roll up as tightly as possible in
a rug blanket, etc., leaving only the head out. If nothing can be
obtained in which to wrap yourself, lie down and roll over slowly and at
the same time beat out the fire with your hands. Flames shoot upward.
In order to get them away from the head, lie down. Don't run, it only
fans the flames.

If another person's clothing catches fire, throw him to the ground and
smother the fire as just described.



GAS


Most of the gas used on the battlefield today is deadly. When a gas
shell explodes there are two kinds of men: Quick men and Dead men.
The quick men put on their gas masks, which contain chemicals that
neutralize the poisonous air.

Treatment: When a man is slightly gassed don't allow him to move
around or to remove his mask. Have him lie down and rest. Loosen his
clothes around his neck and chest so he can breathe freely. Keep him
warm. When the gas has been removed from the trench, take off his mask
and give spirits of ammonia.




APPENDIX



TABLES OF ORGANIZATION

(For Reference Only)


    INFANTRY COMPANY

    Commissioned Officers

    Captain.                                                           1
    1st Lieutenant.                                                    1
    2nd Lieutenant.                                                    1
                          --
    Total                                                              3


    Enlisted Strength

    1st Sergeant.                                                      1
    Mess Sergeant.                                                     1
    Supply Sergeant.                                                   1
    Sergeants.                                                         8
    Corporals.                                                        17
    Cooks.                                                             3
    Buglers.                                                           2
    Mechanics.                                                         2
    Privates, 1st class.                                              28
    Privates.                                                         87
                         ---
    Total                                                            150



INFANTRY BATTALION


Four companies of infantry. (There are three battalions in a regiment of
infantry.)




INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS, 1911



FOR USE WITH THE

UNITED STATES RIFLE, MODEL, 1917 (ENFIELD)


For troops armed with the United States rifle, Model 1917 (Enfield), the
alternative paragraphs published herewith will govern.

By order of the Security of War:

    HUGH L. SCOTT,
    Major General, Chief of Staff.

    Official:
    H. P. McCAIN, The Adjutant General.

The following rules govern the carrying of the piece

First. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber or
the magazine except when specially odered. When so loaded, or supposed
to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with the safety
lock turned to the "Safe." At all other times it is carried unlocked,
with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately
inspected at the commands: 1. INSPECTION, 2. ARMS, 3. ORDER
(Right shoulder, port), 4. ARMS.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed and
placed in the belt.

Third. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on guard, or
for combat.

Fourth. Fall in is executed with the piece at order arms. Fall out,
rest, and at ease are executed as without arms. On resuming
attention the position of order arms is taken.

Fifth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is
brought to the right shoulder at the command MARCH, the three motions
corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be executed at
the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the words at
trail; as 1. AT TRAIL, FORWARD, 2. MARCH. The trail is taken at the
command MARCH.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or
distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece
to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.

Sixth. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution of
the order begins when the halt is completed.

Seventh. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without arms.

Being at order arms: 1. UNFIX, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest;
grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing the
spring with the forefinger of the left hand; raise the bayonet until the
handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece; drop the point
to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and, glancing at the
scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and
the body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet
from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the
most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most
expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original
position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but
not in cadence.

Being at inspection arms; 1. ORDER (Right shoulder, port), 2. ARMS.

At the preparatory command press the follower down with the fingers of
the left hand, then push the bolt forward just enough to engage the
follower, raise the fingers of the left hand, push the bolt forward,
turn the handle down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the
command ARMS, complete the movement ordered.



TO LOAD


Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. WITH DUMMY (Blank or ball)
CARTRIDGES, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front rank man or skirmisher faces half right
and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such position
as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the body; raises
or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at the balance, left
thumb extended along the stock and the muzzle at the height of the
breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a
loaded clip and inserts the ends in the clip slots, places the thumb on
the powder space of the top cartridge, the fingers extending around the
piece and tips resting on the magazine floor plate; forces the
cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with the thumb; without
removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home, turning down the handle; turns
the safety lock to the "Safe" and carries the hand to the small of the
stock. Each rear rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar
position opposite the interval to the right of his front rank man,
muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly
as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting, the
elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left hand steadies
and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on
the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down) are
designated as that of load.

For purposes of simulated firing, 1. SIMULATE, 2. LOAD, raise the
bolt handle as in the preceding paragraph, draw the bolt back until the
cocking piece engages, then close the bole, and turn the bolt handle
down.

The recruits are first taught to simulate loading and firing; after a
few lessons dummy cartridges are used. Later blank cartridges may be
used.



TO UNLOAD


Unload: Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move
the bolt alternately backward and forward until all the cartridges are
ejected. After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed by
pressing the follower down with the fingers of the left hand, to engage
it under the bolt, and then thrusting the bolt home. The trigger is
pulled. The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the
belt and the piece is brought to the order.

To continue the firing: 1. AIM, 2. SQUAD, 3. FIRE.

Each command is executed as previously explained. Load is executed by
drawing back and thrusting home the bolt with the right hand, leaving
the safety lock at the "Ready."

Cease firing: Firing stops; pieces are loaded and locked; the sights
are laid down and the piece is brought to the order. Cease firing is
used for long pauses to prepare for changes of position or to steady the
men.



COMPANY INSPECTION


Being in line at a halt: 1. OPEN RANKS, 2. MARCH.

At the command march the front rank executes right dress; the rear
rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, and execute
right dress; the lieutenants pass around their respective flanks and
take post, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of the center of their
respective platoons. The captain aligns the front rank, rear rank, and
file closers, takes post 3 paces in front of the right guide, facing to
the left, and commands:

3. FRONT, 4. PREPARE FOR INSPECTION.

At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the captain returns
saber and inspects them, after which they face about, order saber, and
stand at ease; upon the completion of the inspection they carry saber,
face about, and order saber. The captain may direct the lieutenants to
accompany or assist hint, in which case they return saber and, at the
close of the inspection, resume their posts in front of the company,
draw and carry saber.

Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the right of
the company. Each man, as the captain approaches him, executes
inspection arms.

The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand just below
the lower band, the man dropping his hands; the captain inspects the
piece, and, with the hand and piece in the same position as in receiving
it, handsit back to the man, who takes it with the left hand at the
balance and executes order arms.

As the captain returns the piece the next man executes inspection
arms, and so on through the company.

Should the piece be inspected without handling, each man executes order
arms as soon as the captain passes to the next man.

The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left to right in
rear of each rank and of the line of file closers.

When approached by the captain the first sergeant executes inspection
saber. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute inspection pistol
by drawing the pistol from the holster and holding it diagonally across
the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in front of the neck, muzzle pointing
up and to the left. The pistol is returned to the holster as soon as the
captain passes.

Upon completion of the inspection the captain takes post facing to the
left in front of the right guide and on line with the lieutenants and
commands: 1. CLOSE RANKS, 2. MARCH.

At the command march the lieutenants resume their posts in line; the
rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file leader; the
file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank.




INFORMATION FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES ARMED WITH RIFLES, MODEL 1898.



War Department,
Office of the Chief of Staff,
Washington, December 2, 1911.

The Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, have been prepared for the use of
troops armed with the United States magazine rifle, model 1903. For the
guidance of organizations armed with the United States magazine rifle,
model 1898, the following alternative paragraphs are published and will
be considered as substitute paragraphs for the corresponding paragraphs
in the text.

By order of the Secretary of War:

Leonard Wood,
Major General, Chief of Staff.



RULES GOVERNING THE CARRYING OF THE PIECE.


Third. The cut-off is kept turned down, except when using the magazine.

Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Take the position of
parade rest, grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand,
press the spring with the forefinger of the left hand, raise the bayonet
until the handle is about 6 inches above the muzzle of the piece, drop
the point to the left, back of hand toward the body, and, glancing at
the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm
and body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet
from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the
most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most
expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original
position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but
not in cadence.



Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS.

At the second command, take the position of port arms (TWO). With the
right hand open the magazine gate, turn the bolt handle up, draw the
bolt back and glance at the magazine and chamber. Having found them
empty, or having emptied them, raise the head and eyes to the front.



Being at inspection arms: 1. Order (Right shoulder, port), 2.
ARMS.

At the preparatory command, push the bolt forward, turn the handle down,
close the magazine gate, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the
command arms, complete the movement ordered.



Pieces being loaded and in the position of load, to execute other
movements with the pieces loaded: 1. Lock, 2. PIECES.

At the command Pieces turn the safety lock fully to the right.

The safety lock is said to be at the "ready" when turned to the left,
and at the "safe" when turned to the right.

The cut-off is said to be "on" when turned up and "off" when turned
down.



Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. With dummy (blank or ball)
cartridges, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half right
and carries the right foot to the right, about one foot, to such
position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the
body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at the
balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height of
the breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes
a cartridge between the thumb and first two fingers and places it in the
receiver; places palm of the hand against the back of the bolt handle;
thrusts the bolt home with a quick motion, turning down the handle, and
carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear-rank man moves to
the right front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the
right of his front-rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the
front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly
as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting the position of the piece is similar; if kneeling
the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting the elbows are
supported by the knees. If lying down the left hand steadies and
supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the
ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down) are
designated as that of load.


FILL MAGAZINE.

Take the position of load, if not already there, open the gate of the
magazine with the right thumb, take five cartridges from the box or
belt, and place them, with the bullets to the front, in the magazine,
turning the barrel slightly to the left to facilitate the insertion of
the cartridges; close the gate and carry the right hand to the small of
the stock.

To load from the magazine the command From magazine will be given
preceding that of LOAD; the cut-off will be turned up on coming to
the position of load.

To resume loading from the belt the command From belt will be given
preceding the command LOAD; the cut-off will be turned down on
coming to the position of load.

The commands from magazine and from belt, indicating the change in
the manner of loading, will not be repeated in subsequent commands.

The words from belt apply to cartridge box as well as belt.

In loading from the magazine care should be taken to push the bolt fully
forward and turn the handle down before drawing the bolt back, as
otherwise the extractor will not catch the cartridge in the chamber, and
jamming will occur with the cartridge following.

To fire from the magazine, the command MAGAZINE FIRE may be given at
any time. The cut-off is turned up and an increased rate of fire is
executed. After the magazine is exhausted the cut-off is turned down and
the firing continued, loading from the belt.

Magazine fire is employed only when, in the opinion of the platoon
leader or company commander, the maximum rate of fire becomes necessary.


UNLOAD.

All take the position of load, turn the cut-off up, if not already
there, turn the safety lock to the left, and alternately open and close
the chamber until all the cartridges are ejected. After the last
cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed and the trigger pulled. The
cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the box or belt,
and the piece brought to the order.


CLIP FIRE.

Turn the cut-off up: fire at will (reloading from the magazine) until
the cartridges in the piece are exhausted; turn the cut-off down; fill
magazine; reload and take the position of suspend firing.


CEASE FIRING.

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of
load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cartridge is
drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the trigger is pulled, sights are
laid down, and the piece is brought to the order.

Cease firing is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of
position or to steady the men.




INDEX



About face, 34

Advance, company, 121, 122
  during attack, 148, 245, 246
  methods of, 126-129
  rear guard during, 231
  under cover, 245

Advance cavalry, 226

Advance guard, 142, 221
  communication with, 228, 229
  distance from main body of, 224
  distribution of, 226
  duties of, 143, 223, 224
  strength of, 224
  supports to, 226, 227

Age limits for reserve officers, 169, 170

Aiming rifle, 277

Air planes, military value of, 213

Alignments, 66, 67
  in company movements, 88, 106, 112
  in skirmish drill, 119

Ammunition, 191
  data on U. S. Army, 285, 286

Appointments to officers' reserve corps, 169, 170, 175, 176

Arm signals, 302-308

Arms, manual of, 40-62

Arms of the service, cooeperation of, 182

Army departments, 178, 323, 324

Army organization tables, 321-324

Army slang, 19, 20

Articles of War, 179

Artillery, 183, 232, 322, 323
  organization of, 322, 323

Assembling, position of guides and file-closers in, 111

Assembly of company, 88, 120, 125
  of platoons, 120, 121
  of squad, 75

At ease, 32, 33
  march, 106

Attack, advantages of, 145, 242, 243
  deployment for, 244
  enveloping, 243, 244
  fire superiority in, 148, 207, 246
  frontal, 243
  initiative in, 145, 206
  night, 185, 186
  patrols in, 244, 252
  plan of, 147
  progress of, 147, 148, 149, 207, 246, 247
  rules for, 208, 209
  turning movement in, 243, 244

Attention, 29
  from route step, 106
  under arms, 40


Back step, 37

Backward march, 37

Bandaging, first-aid, 310-313

Barbwire, use of, 151, 186

Base squad in extended order drills, 112-119

Battle-field conditions, 130, 131, 207

Bayonet, 283
  importance of, 190

Bed-making on practice marches, 161

Billeting, 215

Bivouac, 215

Blanket roll, 167, 168

Bleeding, treatment for, 311-313

Blisters, treatment for, 163

Bombs, 184, 185

Broken bone, treatment for, 313, 314

Bullet wound, treatment for, 311

Burning clothes, extinguishing, 319, 320

Burns, treatment for, 317


Camp, arrival at, 11-13
  conduct in, 13-15
  equipment in, 11
  inspection of, 296
  guard duty in, 192-194
  habits in, 15, 16, 17
  security in, 137-139
  mail regulations in, 10
  sanitation, 164, 165

Camping ground, selection of, 215, 216

Camping on practice marches, 161, 292

Camps, Federal training, 10

Cantonment, 213

Captain, responsibility of, 110, 133

Cavalry, 183, 184
  advance, 226, 212
  ammunition for, 191

Cavalry division, composition of, 211
  squadron, organization of, 323
  troop organization of, 321, 322

Chafing, treatment for, 319

Change step, 39

Charge during attack, 247

Clip fire, 211

Close order drills, 63, 88

Clothing, 11

Coast artillery, 178

Colors, saluting, 195

Column, diminishing front of, 108, 109
  of platoons, change of direction for, 102, 103
  formation from column of squads, 105, 106
  from line of, 100-102
  of route, 106
  of squads, change of direction for, 94, 103
  formation from line of, 93, 94, 102, 103

Combat patrols, 244, 252
  train, 191

Commands, 28
  in company skirmish drill, 114
  to company, 86, 96-100

Communicating trenches, 188

Company, advance of, 121-129
  alignment in, 88, 106, 112
  assembly of, 88, 120
  dismissing the, 111, 112
  dressing, 92, 97, 99, 112
  facing, 105
  file closers in, 108
  file formation in, 108, 109
  formation into columns, 100-102
  front into line, 99, 100, 106
  guide in, 106, 107, 108
  in line, from line of platoons, 105, 106
  inspection arms in, 88, 89
  march at ease, 106
  to rear, 105
  movement on fixed pivot in, 89-93
  on moving pivot in, 93-96
  intervals in, 93
  platoons in, 110
  position of men in, 87
  roll call in, 87
  route step, 106
  skirmish drills in, 114-120
  squads in, 86

Conduct, rules of, 13-15

Cooeperation of arms of the service, 182

Corporals, duties on firing line of, 134, 135
  in company movement, 96, 97, 99, 100
  in skirmish drill, 77, 78, 115-117

Cossack posts, 141, 235

Counter attack, 248, 253

Counting off, 64, 86

Cover, advance under, 245
  detachments, duties of, 221, 222
  strength of, 223
  trenches, 188


Day patrol, 236, 237

Defense, advantages of, 150, 249
  fire superiority in, 252
  orders for, 251
  passive and active, 149, 247, 248
  position for, 130, 249, 250
  preparations for, 150-152, 250-252
  use of obstacles in, 186
Deflection in rifle drill, 263, 267, 268

Deployment for attack, 244
  rules for, 118-120

Diminishing the front of column of squads, 108, 109

Discipline, value of, 17, 63, 216, 217

Distances, taking, 64, 111

Division commander, 212

Divisional cavalry, 211

Double time march, 36

Dress, 17, 18

Drills, close order, 63, 88
  extended order, 112
  rifle, 261-269
  value of, 17, 63, 180

Drowning, treatment for, 314-316

Duties of advance and rear guards, 143
  of captain in battle, 133
  of corporals in battle, 134, 135
  of platoon leaders in battle, 134
  of reserve officers, 171


Elevation, in rifle drill, 263, 268, 269

Emergency ration, 192

Equipment for first-aid, 309
  inspection of, 295, 296
  on arrival at camp, 11
  on practice marches, 166-168

Estimating distance, 286-291

Estimating the situation, 146, 203, 204

Examination to enter Officers' Reserve Corps, 170, 172

Exercises, preparatory, 23, 27

Extended order drills, 112

Eyes front, 33
  right, 33


Facing, company, 105
  on skirmish line, 190

Facings, 34

Fainting, treatment for, 318

Fall in, 33

Fall out, 32

Feet, care of the, 14, 162

Federal training camps, 10

Field artillery, organization of, 322, 323
  exercises, 127
  orders, 147, 196-199, 204-206
  ration, 192
  train, 191

File, in squad, 63
  formation from column, 108, 109

File-closer, sergeant as, 111
  in close order, 88
  position in column of, 102, 107
  position in company of, 92, 108
  position in company facing of, 105
  regulation of intervals by, 111

Filipino ration, 192

Fire attack, 127-129, 246
  at will, 211
  control, 134
  direction, 132-134
  discipline, 135
  kinds of, 211
  superiority in attack, 246
    in defense, 252
  trenches, 188

Firing, conditions for effective, 131, 132, 134, 207
  positions for, 271-275
  line, advance of, 148, 245, 246
  practice, advice on, 271-282

First-aid packet, 309

Fix bayonet, from order, 58

Flag signals, 299-301

Flank guard, 221
  march, 38

Following corporal, 77, 78, 115, 116, 117, 119

Forward march, 35

Fracture, treatment for, 313, 314

Freezing and frost-bite, treatment for, 317, 318


Gallery practice, 155, 270, 328

Garrison ration, 192

Guard duty, 192-194

Guide, distance regulation by, 92, 111
  duties of, 106, 107
  in column formation, 107
  in company assembly, 88, 111
  in company facing, 105
  in company pivot movements, 91-94, 101
  in line or column formation, 101, 106
  in skirmish drill, 114-116
  in squad movements, 107, 108
  of deployed line, 107

Guides, execution of manual arms by, 111
  officers as, 106, 110, 111


Habits, 15, 16, 17

Half step march, 36, 37

Halt, 38
  during practice marches, 160
  in company movement, 97, 99

Hand grenades, 184, 185
  salute, 31, 32

Hardships of practice marches, 159

Hasty cover trenches, 188

Heat exhaustion, treatment for, 317


Independent cavalry, 212

Infantry, 182
  ammunition for, 191
  battalion, organization of, 323
  company, organization of, 321
  division, composition of, 211

Information concerning enemy, 146, 207, 209, 210, 254

Initiative, value of, 145, 206

Injuries, first-aid treatment for, 310, 311

Inspection arms, from order, 59
  in company, 88, 89

Inspection of camp equipment, 296
  of outpost, 239, 240
  of patrol, 256

Instruction to officers, 172, 173, 176

Intelligence Section, 210

Intervals, in company movements, 93
  in skirmish line, 78, 79
  in squad, 63, 65, 79, 80
  taking, 111

Intrenchments, 187, 251


Kneeling, 80, 81
  position for firing, 273


Left shoulder arms, from port, 51, 53

Lieutenant, appointment from Officers' Reserve of, 176
  assignments of, 110

Light artillery battalion, organization of, 323

Line formation to front, from column, company, 99, 100
  to right, from column, company, 96-9

Line of observation, 140, 236
  of out guards, 140
  of platoons, from column of squads, 103
    from line, 103, 104
  of resistance, 140
  of reserves, 138, 140

List of Reserve officers, 176, 177

Loading and firing in squad, 81, 82, 83

Lying down, 80


Machine guns, 184, 229, 232

Mail, in camp, 10

Manoeuver maps, 190

Manual of arms, 40, 62

Maps, military use of, 189, 190, 210

March to rear, company, 105

Marches, conditions for successful, 213-215

Marches, practice, 159
  see also, Practice marches

Marching rules, 160

Marchings, 35-39
  in squad, 68, 77

Mark time, 36

Meeting engagements, 186, 187

Military correspondence, 180-182
  information, collection of, 146, 207, 209, 210, 213, 254
  maps, 189, 190, 210

Military problems, 199-202
  training in colleges, 173-176

Mission, 146

Mobile Army, 177, 178

Movements in column, in company, 102-105
  in line, in company, 96-100
  on pivot, in company, 89-96

Musicians, position in column of, 111


Napoleon as military leader, 199, 201, 206

Nervousness in firing, 153, 157

Night operations, 185, 186
  patrol, 236

Non commissioned officers, 106, 110, 111, 179


Observation, line of, 140, 236

Oblique march, 76, 77

Obstacles, removal of, for defense, 151
  use of, in defense, 186

Officers, advice to, 216-218
  grades and commands of, 179

Officers' Reserve Corps, see also Reserve officers,

Officers' Reserve Corps, eligibility for, 169-172, 175, 176
  pay in, 171, 174, 176
  purpose of, 169
  sections of, 72, 173

Order arms, from inspection, 59
  from port, 45
  from present, 45
  from right shoulder, 50
  from trail, 55

Out guards, precautions for, 240
  line of, 140, 234, 235
  posting of, 240

Outpost, composition of, 232
  distance from main body of, 233
  distribution of troops of, 232-237
  formation of, 138, 237-240
  importance of, 187, 221
  inspection of, 239, 240
  placing of, 138, 141, 234, 239
  relieving the, 241
  strength of, 140, 231
  supports to, 138, 140, 234
  orders, 238
  reserves, 234
  sentinels, 235, 236, 237, 239
  sketches, 190

Outposts, inter-communication between, 237


Packs on practice marches, 162, 167

Parade rest, 30
  from order, 54

Patrol, 228, 229
  combat, 244, 252
  duties of, 237, 240, 254
  formation for, 257, 258
  instructions to, 255, 256
  meeting enemy, 258, 259
  posting of, 240
  preparation for, 256, 257
  return of, 259
  strength of, 255
  cautions, 258, 259
  commander of, 255

Pay in Officers' Reserve Corps, 171, 174, 176

Picket sentinel, 240

Pickets, 141, 235
  posting of, 240

Platoon columns, advance by, 122, 124
  leaders, duties on firing line of, 134

Platoons, assembly of, 120, 121
  commands to, 96-100
  squads in, 110

Poisoning, treatment for, 318

Port arms, from left shoulder, 54
  from order, 43, 44
  from present, 45
  from right shoulder, 50

Positions for rifle practice, 271-275

Practice marches, camping on, 161, 164, 165, 292
  care of feet on, 162-164
  equipment for, 166-168
  hardships of, 159, 160
  value of, 159
  water drinking on, 162

Present arms, from order, 41, 42
  from port, 45
  from right shoulder, 51

Prone position for firing, 274, 275

Property for Reserve officers, 192


Quick time march, 36


Range finders, 151, 289, 290, 291

Rapid fire practice, 157, 158, 279, 280, 328, 329
  target, 267

Ration, 191, 192

Reading list for Reserve officers, 195, 196

Rear, march to the, 39

Rear guard, 142, 221
  composition of, 229, 230
  distance from main force of, 230
  distribution of, 230
  duties of, 143, 229
  strength of, 229
  of advancing force, 231

Reconnaissance, 228, 229, 254, 213

Reconnoitering patrols, duties of, 210, 254

Relations between officers and men, 216-218

Reserve officers, see also Officers' Reserve Corps

Reserve officers, active service of, 171
  appointment of, 169, 170, 172, 175, 176
  department report on, 176, 177
  instruction to, 172, 173-175
  pay of, 171, 174, 176
  promotion of, 171
  property of, 192
  reading list for, 195, 196
  Training Camps, 173-175

Reserve ration, 192

Reserves, during advance, 142
  line of, 138, 140
  placing of, 239
  to support party, 227, 228

Resistance, line of, 140

Rests, 32, 33, 54
  during marches, 160, 161

Rifle, care of, 20, 282
  control of, 135
  data on U. S. Army, 283-285
  drills, 261-269
  holding, 270, 271
  knowledge of, 153, 154
  nomenclature of, 261
  recoil of, 156, 157
  rules for carrying, 60-62
  salute, from order, 57
    from right shoulder, 55, 56
    from trail, 57
  sights, 154-156, 261-264
  sling of, 276
  practice, 271-282

Right dress, 66, 67
  face, 34
  step march, 37
  turn in company movement, 97, 99

Right shoulder arms, from order, 46-49
  from port, 50
  from present, 51

Road sketches, 190

Roll call in company, 89

Route step, company, 106


Salutes, 31, 32, 56

Saluting, 18, 19, 194, 195
  at retreat, 194, 195
  colors, 195

Security, during advance, 141
  in camp, 137-139
  on march, 221-223

Semaphore signals, 301

Sentinel posts, 235, 236

Sentinels, duties of, 193, 194
  posting of, 240

Sentry squads, 141, 235

Sergeants in company movements, 88, 89, 111

Shelter, for troops on march, 215
  tents, 292

Shoes, walking, 16, 21, 22, 164

Shot, calling, 278

Side step, 37

Sighting, 261-264, 278, 279

Signal Corps code, 299-301

Signals, arm, 302-308
  flag, 299-301
  general service code for, 297, 298
  semaphore, 301

Sitting position for firing, 271, 272

Skirmish drill, base squad in, 112-119
    guide in, 114-116
    in squad, 78-83
  line, advance of, 126, 127
    from column, 116-118
    from company line, 114-116
    on oblique, 120
    to the flank, 120
    to the rear, 120

Skirmishes in advance, 124

Slow fire practice, 270, 271, 328, 329
  targets, 266

Small pox inoculation, 11

Snake bite, treatment for, 318, 319

Squad, alignment of, 66, 67
  formation of, 64
  assembly of, 75
  deploy of, 63
  dismissal of, 59, 60
  distance in, 64
  halt, 69
  number of men in, 110
  right, 68
  right about, 70
  right turn, 71, 72
  skirmish drill in, 78-83
  blanket roll, 168
  columns, 124
  file, 63
  intervals, 63, 65, 79, 80
  leaders in company movements, 88
  marchings, 68-77

Squads, in column movements, 102-105
  in company, 86
  commands to, 96-100

Stack arms, 84

Steps, 35-39

Stomach wounds, treatment for, 319

Strategical maps, 190
  reconnaissance, 213

Strategy, 212

Sunstroke, treatment for, 317

Supports, posting of, 239
  during advance, 142
  in attack, 149
  to advance guard, 226, 227
  to outposts, 138, 140, 234

Surplus kit bag, 167


Tactical reconnaissance, 213

Tactics, 212

Take arms, 85

Taking intervals and distances, 111

Target practice, 156, 157, 328, 329

Team work in firing, 133

Tent pitching, 161, 293, 294

Tents, shelter, 292

Term of service for Reserve officers, 170, 171, 175

Tourniquet, use of, 312, 313, 318

Trail arms, from order, 55

Training camps, Federal, 10
  Corps for officers, 173-175

Transportation, 191

Travel ration, 192

Trenches, 151, 187-189, 251
  occupation of, 251, 252

Trigger squeeze, 277, 278

Turn on fixed pivot from line, company, 89-93
  on moving pivot to change direction, company, 93-96

Turning movement in attack, 243, 244

Typhoid inoculation, 10, 11


Unfix bayonet, from order, 58

Uniforms, 17, 18

U. S. Army, ammunition, data on, 285, 286
  organization tables for, 321-323
    rifle, data on, 283-285
  land forces, 177, 178
  military departments, 9, 10, 180, 181, 323, 324, 325

Volley fire, 211


Walking, importance of, 21, 22

War strength tables, 326, 327

Water drinking on practice marches, 162

War game maps, 190

Whistle signals, 121

Windage, 267, 269

Withdrawal from action, 187, 253

Wounds, first-aid treatment for, 310, 311, 319




FOOTNOTES


[1] These exercises are selected from those commonly given by Major H.
J. Koehler, United States Army.

[2] The line of supports and the line of resistance need not necessarily
be the same.

[3] Some government publications can be obtained at no cost from the
Superintendent of Public Documents, Washington, D. C.




TRANSCRIBER NOTES


[A] Changed "familar" to "familiar".

[B] Changed "gage" to "guage".

[C] Changed "give" to "given".





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