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Author: Swinton, William, 1833-1892
Title: New Word-Analysis Or, School Etymology of English Derivative Words
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Title: New Word-Analysis
       Or, School Etymology of English Derivative Words

Author: William Swinton

Release Date: September 22, 2006 [EBook #19346]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII

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NEW WORD-ANALYSIS:

OR,

SCHOOL ETYMOLOGY OF ENGLISH DERIVATIVE WORDS.

_WITH PRACTICAL EXERCISES_

IN

SPELLING, ANALYZING, DEFINING, SYNONYMS, AND
THE USE OF WORDS.

BY WILLIAM SWINTON,

GOLD MEDALIST FOR TEXT-BOOKS, PARIS EXPOSITION, 1878; AND AUTHOR OF
"SWINTON'S GEOGRAPHIES," "OUTLINES OF THE WORLD'S
HISTORY," "LANGUAGE SERIES," ETC.

NEW YORK .:. CINCINNATI .:. CHICAGO

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY


_Copyright_, 1879,

BY WILLIAM SWINTON




PREFACE.


The present text-book is a new-modeling and rewriting of Swinton's
_Word-Analysis_, first published in 1871. It has grown out of a large
amount of testimony to the effect that the older book, while valuable as a
manual of methods, in the hands of teachers, is deficient in practice-work
for pupils.

This testimony dictated a double procedure: first, to retain the old
_methods_; secondly, to add an adequate amount of new _matter_.

Accordingly, in the present manual, the few Latin roots and derivatives,
with the exercises thereon, have been retained--under "Part II.: The Latin
Element"--as simply a _method of study_.[1] There have then been added, in
"Division II.: Abbreviated Latin Derivatives," no fewer than two hundred
and twenty Latin root-words with their most important English offshoots. In
order to concentrate into the limited available space so large an amount of
new matter, it was requisite to devise a novel mode of indicating the
English derivatives. What this mode is, teachers will see in the section,
pages 50-104. The author trusts that it will prove well suited to
class-room work, and in many other ways interesting and valuable: should it
not, a good deal of labor, both of the lamp and of the file, will have been
misplaced.

To one matter of detail in connection with the Latin and Greek derivatives,
the author wishes to call special attention: the Latin and the Greek roots
are, as key-words, given in this book in the form of the _present
infinitive_,--the present indicative and the supine being, of course,
added. For this there is one sufficient justification, to wit: that the
present infinitive is the form in which a Latin or a Greek root is always
given in Webster and other received lexicographic authorities. It is a
curious fact, that, in all the school etymologies, the present indicative
should have been given as the root, and is explicable only from the
accident that it is the key-form in the Latin dictionaries. The change into
conformity with our English dictionaries needs no defense, and will
probably hereafter be imitated by all authors of school etymologies.

In this compilation the author has followed, in the main, the last edition
of Webster's Unabridged, the etymologies in which carry the authoritative
sanction of Dr. Mahn; but reference has constantly been had to the works of
Wedgwood, Latham, and Haldeman, as also to the "English Etymology" of Dr.
James Douglass, to whom the author is specially indebted in the Greek and
Anglo-Saxon sections.

W.S.

NEW YORK, 1879.




CONTENTS.


  PART I.

  INTRODUCTION.                                                 PAGE

    I. ELEMENTS OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY                          1
   II. ETYMOLOGICAL CLASSES OF WORDS                               5
  III. PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES                                       5
   IV. RULES OF SPELLING USED IN FORMING DERIVATIVE WORDS          6


  PART II.

  THE LATIN ELEMENT.
    I. LATIN PREFIXES                                              9
   II. LATIN SUFFIXES                                             12
  III. DIRECTIONS IN THE STUDY OF LATIN DERIVATIVES               21
       LATIN ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES                        23
           DIVISION  I. METHOD OF STUDY                           23
           DIVISION II. ABBREVIATED LATIN DERIVATIVES             50


  PART III.

  THE GREEK ELEMENT.

    I. GREEK PREFIXES                                            105
   II. GREEK ALPHABET                                            106
       GREEK ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES                       107
          DIVISION  I. PRINCIPAL GREEK ROOTS                     107
          DIVISION II. ADDITIONAL GREEK ROOTS AND THEIR
                         DERIVATIVES                             120


  PART IV.

  THE ANGLO-SAXON ELEMENT.
    I. ANGLO-SAXON PREFIXES                                      125
   II. ANGLO-SAXON SUFFIXES                                      125
       ANGLO-SAXON ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES                 127
        SPECIMENS OF ANGLO-SAXON                                 132
        SPECIMENS OF SEMI-SAXON AND EARLY ENGLISH                135
        ANGLO-SAXON ELEMENT IN MODERN ENGLISH                    136


  PART V.

  MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIVES.
    I. WORDS DERIVED FROM THE NAMES OF PERSONS                   142
        1. NOUNS                                                 142
        2. ADJECTIVES                                            144
   II. WORDS DERIVED FROM THE NAMES OF PLACES                    146
  III. ETYMOLOGY OF WORDS USED IN THE PRINCIPAL SCHOOL STUDIES   149
        1. TERMS IN GEOGRAPHY                                    149
        2. TERMS IN GRAMMAR                                      150
        3. TERMS IN ARITHMETIC                                   154




WORD-ANALYSIS.




PART I.--INTRODUCTION.


I.--ELEMENTS OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY.

1. ETYMOLOGY[2] is the study which treats of the derivation of words,--that
is, of their structure and history.

2. ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY, or word-analysis, treats of the derivation of English
words.

3. The VOCABULARY[3] of a language is the whole body of words in that
language. Hence the English vocabulary consists of all the words in the
English language.

    I. The complete study of any language comprises two distinct
    inquiries,--the study of the _grammar_ of the language, and the study
    of its _vocabulary_. Word-analysis has to do exclusively with the
    vocabulary.

    II. The term "etymology" as used in grammar must be carefully
    distinguished from "etymology" in the sense of word-analysis.
    Grammatical etymology treats solely of the grammatical changes in
    words, and does not concern itself with their derivation; historical
    etymology treats of the structure, composition, and history of words.
    Thus the relation of _loves, loving, loved_ to the verb _love_ is a
    matter of grammatical etymology; but the relation of _lover, lovely_,
    or _loveliness_ to _love_ is a matter of historical etymology.

    III. The English vocabulary is very extensive, as is shown by the fact
    that in Webster's Unabridged Dictionary there are nearly 100,000 words.
    But it should be observed that 3,000 or 4,000 serve all the ordinary
    purposes of oral and written communication. The Old Testament contains
    5,642 words; Milton uses about 8,000; and Shakespeare, whose vocabulary
    is more extensive than that of any other English writer, employs no
    more than 15,000 words.

4. The PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS of the English vocabulary are words of
Anglo-Saxon and of Latin or _French-Latin_ origin.

5. ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest form of English. The whole of the grammar of
our language, and the most largely used part of its vocabulary, are
Anglo-Saxon.

    I. Anglo-Saxon belongs to the Low German[4] division of the Teutonic
    stock of languages. Its relations to the other languages of Europe--all
    of which are classed together as the Aryan, or Indo-European family of
    languages--may be seen from the following table:--

               / CELTIC STOCK..........................as Welsh, Gaelic.
               | SLAVONIC STOCK........................as Russian.
    INDO-      |                / Greek    / Italian.
    EUROPEAN  <  CLASSIC STOCK  \ Latin   <  Spanish.
    FAMILY.    |                           \ French, etc.
               |                / Scandinavian:.......as Swedish.
               | TEUTONIC STOCK<          / High Ger:.as Modern German.
               \                \ German <
                                          \ Low Ger....as Anglo-Saxon.


   II. The term "Anglo-Saxon" is derived from the names _Angles_ and
   _Saxons_, two North German tribes who, in the fifth century A.D.,
   invaded Britain, conquered the native Britons, and possessed themselves
   of the land, which they called England, that is, Angle-land. The Britons
   spoke a Celtic language, best represented by modern Welsh. Some British
   words were adopted into Anglo-Saxon, and still continue in our language.

6. The LATIN element in the English vocabulary consists of a large number
of words of Latin origin, adopted directly into English at various periods.

    The principal periods, during which Latin words were brought directly
    into English are:--

    1. At the introduction of Christianity into England by the Latin
    Catholic missionaries, A.D. 596.

    2. At the revival of classical learning in the sixteenth century.

    3. By modern writers.

7. The FRENCH-LATIN element in the English language consists of French
words, first largely introduced into English by the Norman-French who
conquered England in the eleventh century, A.D.

    I. French, like Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, is substantially
    Latin, but Latin considerably altered by loss of grammatical forms and
    by other changes. This language the Norman-French invaders brought with
    them into England, and they continued to use it for more than two
    centuries after the Conquest. Yet, as they were not so numerous as the
    native population, the old Anglo-Saxon finally prevailed, though with
    an immense infusion of French words.

    II. French-Latin words--that is, Latin words introduced through the
    French--can often be readily distinguished by their being more changed
    in form than the Latin terms directly introduced into our language.
    Thus--

    LATIN.        FRENCH.       ENGLISH.

    inimi'cus     ennemi        enemy
    pop'ulus      peuple        people
    se'nior       sire          sir

8. OTHER ELEMENTS.--In addition to its primary constituents--namely, the
Anglo-Saxon, Latin, and French-Latin--the English vocabulary contains a
large number of Greek derivatives and a considerable number of Italian,
Spanish, and Portuguese words, besides various terms derived from
miscellaneous sources.

    The following are examples of words taken from miscellaneous sources;
    that is, from sources other than Anglo-Saxon, Latin, French-Latin, and
    Greek:--

    _Hebrew_: amen, cherub, jubilee, leviathan, manna, sabbath, seraph.

    _Arabic_: admiral, alcohol, algebra, assassin, camphor, caravan,
    chemistry, cipher, coffee, elixir, gazelle, lemon, magazine, nabob,
    sultan.

    _Turkish_: bey, chibouk, chouse, janissary, kiosk, tulip.

    _Persian_: azure, bazaar, checkmate, chess, cimeter, demijohn, dervise,
    orange, paradise, pasha, turban.

    _Hindustani_: calico, jungle, pariah, punch, rupee, shampoo, toddy.

    _Malay_: a-muck, bamboo, bantam, gamboge, gong, gutta-percha, mango.

    _Chinese_: nankeen, tea.

    _Polynesian_: kangaroo, taboo, tattoo.

    _American Indian_: maize, moccasin, pemmican, potato, tobacco,
    tomahawk, tomato, wigwam.

    _Celtic_: bard, bran, brat, cradle, clan, druid, pony, whiskey.

    _Scandinavian_: by-law, clown, dregs, fellow, glade, hustings, kidnap,
    plough.

    _Dutch, or Hollandish_: block, boom, bowsprit, reef, skates, sloop,
    yacht.

    _Italian_: canto, cupola, gondola, grotto, lava, opera, piano, regatta,
    soprano, stucco, vista.

    _Spanish_: armada, cargo, cigar, desperado, flotilla, grandee,
    mosquito, mulatto, punctilio, sherry, sierra.

    _Portuguese_: caste, commodore, fetish, mandarin, palaver.

9. PROPORTIONS.--On an examination of passages selected from modern English
authors, it is found that of every hundred words sixty are of Anglo-Saxon
origin, thirty of Latin, five of Greek, and all the other sources combined
furnish the remaining five.

    By actual count, there are more words of classical than of Anglo-Saxon
    origin in the English vocabulary,--probably two and a half times as
    many of the former as of the latter. But Anglo-Saxon words are so much
    more employed--owing to the constant repetition of conjunctions,
    prepositions, adverbs, auxiliaries, etc. (all of Anglo-Saxon
    origin)--that in any page of even the most Latinized writer they
    greatly preponderate. In the Bible, and in Shakespeare's vocabulary,
    they are in the proportion of ninety per cent. For specimens showing
    Anglo-Saxon words, see p. 136.


II.--ETYMOLOGICAL CLASSES OF WORDS.

10. CLASSES BY ORIGIN.--With respect to their origin, words are divided
into two classes,--primitive words and derivative words.

11. A PRIMITIVE word, or root, is one that cannot be reduced to a more
simple form in the language to which it is native: as, _man, good, run_.

12. A DERIVATIVE word is one made up of a root and one or more _formative
elements_: as, man_ly_, good_ness_, run_ner_.

The formative elements are called prefixes and suffixes. (See Sec.Sec. 16, 17.)

13. BY COMPOSITION.--With respect to their composition, words are divided
into two classes,--simple and compound words.

14. A SIMPLE word consists of a single significant term: as, _school,
master, rain, bow_.

15. A COMPOUND word is one made up of two or more simple words united: as,
_school-master, rainbow_.

    In some compound words the constituent parts are joined by the hyphen
    as _school-master_; in others the parts coalesce and the compound forms
    a single (though not a _simple_) word, as _rainbow_.

III.--PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.

16. A prefix is a significant syllable or word placed before and joined
with a word to modify its meaning: as, unsafe = _not_ safe; remove = move
_back_; circumnavigate = sail _around_.

17. A suffix is a significant syllable or syllables placed after and joined
with a word to modify its meaning: as, safeLY = in a safe _manner_; movABLE
= that may be moved; navIGATION = _act_ of sailing.

The word _affix_ signifies either a prefix or a suffix; and the verb _to
affix_ means to join a prefix or a suffix to a root-word.


EXERCISE.

Tell whether the following words are primitive or derivative, and also
whether simple or compound:--

  1  grace
  2  sign
  3  design
  4  midshipman
  5  wash
  6  sea
  7  workman
  8  love
  9  lovely
  10  white
  11  childhood
  12  kingdom
  13  rub
  14  music
  15  musician
  16  music-teacher
  17  footstep
  18  glad
  19  redness
  20  school
  21  fire
  22  watch-key
  23  give
  24  forget
  25  iron
  26  hardihood
  27  young
  28  right
  29  ploughman
  30  day-star
  31  large
  32  truthful
  33  manliness
  34  milkmaid
  35  gentleman
  36  sailor
  37  steamboat
  38  wooden
  39  rich
  40  hilly
  41  coachman
  42  warm
  43  sign-post
  44  greenish
  45  friend
  46  friendly
  47  reform
  48  whalebone
  49  quiet
  50  quietude
  51  gardener
  52  form
  53  formal
  54  classmate
  55  trust
  56  trustworthy
  57  penknife
  58  brightness
  59  grammarian
  60  unfetter


IV.--RULES OF SPELLING USED IN FORMING DERIVATIVE WORDS.

Rule 1.--_Final "e" followed by a Vowel._

Final _e_ of a primitive word is dropped on taking a suffix beginning with
a vowel: as, blame + able = blamable; guide + ance = guidance; come + ing =
coming; force + ible = forcible; obscure + ity = obscurity.

    EXCEPTION 1.--Words ending in _ge_ or _ce_ usually retain the _e_
    before a suffix beginning with _a_ or _o_, for the reason that _c_ and
    _g_ would have the hard sound if the _e_ were dropped: as, peace + able
    = peaceable; change + able = changeable; courage + ous = courageous.

    EXCEPTION 2.--Words ending in _oe_ retain the _e_ to preserve the sound
    of the root: as, shoe + ing = shoeing; hoe + ing = hoeing. The _e_ is
    retained in a few words to prevent their being confounded with similar
    words: as, singe + ing = singeing (to prevent its being confounded with
    singing).

Rule II.--_Final "e" followed by a Consonant._

Final _e_ of a primitive word is retained on taking a suffix beginning with
a consonant: as, pale + ness = paleness; large + ly = largely.

    EXCEPTION 1.--When the final _e_ is preceded by a vowel, it is
    sometimes omitted; as, due + ly = duly; true + ly = truly; whole + ly =
    wholly.

    EXCEPTION 2.--A few words ending in _e_ drop the _e_ before a suffix
    beginning with a consonant: as, judge + ment = judgment; lodge + ment =
    lodgment; abridge + ment = abridgment.

Rule III.--_Final "y" preceded by a Consonant._

Final _y_ of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, is generally
changed into _i_ on the addition of a suffix.

    EXCEPTION 1.--Before _ing_ or _ish_, the final _y_ is retained to
    prevent the doubling of the _i_: as, pity + ing = pitying.

    EXCEPTION 2.--Words ending in _ie_ and dropping the _e_, by Rule I.
    change the _i_ into _y_ to prevent the doubling of the _i_: as, die +
    ing = dying; lie + ing = lying.

    EXCEPTION 3.--Final _y_ is sometimes changed into _e_: as, duty + ous =
    duteous; beauty + ous = beauteous.

Rule IV.--_Final "y" preceded by a Vowel._

Final _y_ of a primitive word, when preceded by a vowel, should not be
changed into an _i_ before a suffix: as, joy + less = joyless.

Rule V.--_Doubling._

Monosyllables and other words accented on the last syllable, when they end
with a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, or by a vowel after
_qu_, double their final letter before a suffix beginning with a vowel: as,
rob + ed = robbed; fop + ish = foppish; squat + er = squatter; prefer' +
ing = prefer'ring.

    EXCEPTIONS.--_X_ final, being equivalent to _ks_, is never doubled; and
    when the derivative does not retain the accent of the root, the final
    consonant is not always doubled: as, prefer' + ence = pref'erence.

Rule VI.--_No Doubling._

A final consonant, when it is not preceded by a single vowel, or when the
accent is not on the last syllable, should remain single before an
additional syllable: as, toil + ing = tolling; cheat + ed = cheated; murmur
+ ing = murmuring.




PART II.--THE LATIN ELEMENT.


I.--LATIN PREFIXES.

Prefix.    Signification.    Example.           Definition.

A-                           a-vert             to turn _from_.
ab-        = _from_          ab-solve           to release _from_.
abs-                         abs-tain           to hold _from_.

AD-                          ad-here            to stick _to_.
a-                           a-gree             to be pleasing _to_.
ac-                          ac-cede            to yield _to_.
af-                          af-fix             to fix _to_.
ag-                          ag-grieve          to give pain _to_.
al-        = _to_            al-ly              to bind _to_.
an-                          an-nex             to tie _to_.
ap-                          ap-pend            to hang _to_.
ar-                          ar-rive            to reach _to_.
as-                          as-sent            to yield _to_.

NOTE.--The forms AC-, AF-, etc., are euphonic variations of AD-, and follow
generally the rule that the final consonant of the prefix assimilates to
the initial letter of the root.

AM-        = _around_        am-putate          to cut _around_.
amb-                         amb-ient           going _around_.

ANTE-      = _before_        ante-cedent        going _before_.
anti-                        anti-cipate        to take _before_.

BI-        = _two_ or        bi-ped             a _two_-footed animal.
bis-         _twice_         bis-cuit           _twice_ cooked.

CIRCUM-    = _around_        circum-navigate    to sail _around_.
circu-                       circu-it           journey _around_.

CON-                         con-vene           to come _together_.
co-                          co-equal           equal _with_.
co-        = _with_ or       co-gnate           born _together_.
col-         _together_      col-loquy          a speaking _with_ another.
com-                         com-pose           to put _together_.
cor-                         cor-relative       relative _with_.

NOTE.--The forms CO-, COL-, COM-, and COR-, are euphonic variations of
CON-.

CONTRA-                      contra-dict        to speak _against_
contro-    = _against_       contro-vert        to turn _against_
counter-                     counter-mand       to order _against_

DE-        = _down_ or       de-pose;           to put _down_;
             _off_           de-fend            fend _off_.

DIS-         _asunder_       dis-pel            to drive _asunder_.
di-        = _apart_         di-vert            to turn _apart_.
dif-         _opposite of_   dif-fer            to bear _apart_; disagree.

NOTE.--The forms DI- and DIF- are euphonic forms of DIS-; DIF- is used
before a root beginning with a vowel.

EX-                          ex-clude           to shut _out_.
e-         = _out_ or        e-ject             to cast _out_.
ec-          _from_          ec-centric         _from_ the center.
ef-                          ef-flux            a flowing _out_.

NOTE.--E-, EC-, and EF- are euphonic variations of EX-. When prefixed to
the name of an office, EX- denotes that the person formerly held the office
named: as, _ex_-mayor, the former mayor.

EXTRA-     = _beyond_        extra-ordinary     _beyond_ ordinary.

IN-        (in nouns and     in-clude           to shut _in_.
il-          verbs)          il-luminate        to throw light _on_.
im-        = _in, into, on_  im-port            to carry _in_.
ir-                          ir-rigate          to pour water _on_.
en-, em-                     en-force           to force _on_.

NOTE.--The forms IL-, IM-, and IR- are euphonic variations of IN-. The
forms EN- and EM- are of French origin.

IN-        (in adjectives    in-sane            _not_ sane.
i(n)         and nouns.)     i-gnoble           _not_ noble.
il-        = _not_           il-legal           _not_ legal.
im-                          im-mature          _not_ mature.
ir-                          ir-regular         _not_ regular.

INTER-     = _between_ or    inter-cede         to go _between_.
intel-       _among_         intel-ligent       choosing _between_.

INTRA-     = _inside of_     intra-mural        _inside of_ the walls.

INTRO-     = _within, into_  intro-duce         to lead _into_

JUXTA-     = _near_          juxta-position     a placing _near_

NON-       = _not_           non-combatant      _not_ fighting.

NOTE.--A hyphen is generally, though not always, placed between _non-_ and
the root.

OB-                          ob-ject            to throw _against_.
o-           _in the way_,   o-mit              to leave _out_.
oc-        = _against_,      oc-cur             to run _against_;
             or _out_                           hence, to happen.
of-                          of-fend            to strike _against_.
op-                          op-pose            to put one's self
                                                _against_.

PER-       = _through_,      per-vade;          to pass _through_;
pel-         _thoroughly_    per-fect           _thoroughly_ made.
                             pel-lucid          _thoroughly_ clear.

NOTE.--Standing alone, PER- signifies _by_: as, _per annum_, _by_ the year.

POST-      = _after_,        post-script        written _after_.
             _behind_

PRE-       = _before_        pre-cede           to go _before_.

PRETER-    = _beyond_        preter-natural     _beyond_ nature.

PRO          _for_,          pro-noun           _for_ a noun.
           = _forth_, or     pro-pose           to put _forth_.
             _forward_

NOTE.--In a few instances PRO- is changed into PUR-, as _pur_pose; into
POR-, as _por_tray; and into POL-, as _pol_lute.

RE-        = _back_ or       re-pel             to drive _back_.
red-         _anew_          red-eem            to buy _back_.

RETRO-     = _backwards_     retro-grade        going _backwards_.

SE-        = _aside_,        se-cede            to go _apart_.
             _apart_

SINE-      = _without_       sine-cure          _without_ care.

SUB-                         sub-scribe         to write _under_.
suc-                         suc-ceed           to follow _after_.
suf-                         suf-fer            to _undergo_.
sug-       = _under_ or      sug-gest           to bring to mind from
             _after_                            _under_.
sum-                         sum-mon            to hint from _under_.
sup-                         sup-port           to bear by being _under_.
sus-                         sus-tain           to _under_-hold.

NOTE.--The euphonic variations SUC-, SUF-, SUG-, SUM-, SUP-, result from
assimilating the _b_ of SUB- to the initial letter of the root. In
"sustain" SUS- is a contraction of _subs-_ for _sub-_.

SUBTER-    = _under_ or      subter-fuge        a flying _under_.
             _beneath_

SUPER-     = _above_ or      super-natural      _above_ nature.
             _over_          super-vise         to _over_-see.

NOTE.--In derivatives through the French, SUPER- takes the form SUR-, as
_sur-_vey, to look over.

TRANS-       _through_,      trans-gress        to step _beyond_.
tra-       = _over_,         tra-verse          to pass _over_.
             or _beyond_

ULTRA-     = _beyond_, or    ultra-montane      _beyond_ the mountain
             _extremely_                          (the Alps).
                             ultra-conservativ  _extremely_ conservative.


II.--LATIN SUFFIXES.

SUFFIX.   SIGNIFICATION.      EXAMPLE.           DEFINITION.


-ABLE     = _that may be_;    cur-able           _that may be_ cured.
-ible       _fit to be_       possi-ble          _that may be_ done.
-ble                          solu-ble           _that may be_ dissolved.

-AC         _relating to_     cardi-ac           _relating to_ the heart.
          = or                demoni-ac          _like_ a demon.
            _resembling_

NOTE.--The suffix -AC is found only in Latin derivatives of Greek origin.

-ACEOUS     _of_;             sapon-aceous       _having the quality of_
          = _having the_                         soap.
-acious     _quality of_      cap-acious         _having the quality of_
                                                 holding much.

            _condition of_    celib-acy          _condition of being_
-ACY      = _being_;                             single.
            _office of_       cur-acy            _office of_ a curate.

-AGE        _act_,            marri-age          _act of_ marrying.
          = _condition_, or   vassal-age         _condition of_ a vassal.
            _collection of_   foli-age           _collection of_ leaves.

NOTE.--The suffix -AGE is found only in French-Latin derivatives.

             adj.             ment-al            _relating to_ the mind.
-AL       = _relating to_     remov-al           _the act of_ removing.
            n. _the act of_;  capit-al           _that which_ forms the
            _that which_                         head of a column.

-AN         adj. _relating    hum-an             _relating to_ mankind.
-ane          to_             hum-ane            _befitting_ a man.
          = or _befitting_    artis-an           _one who_ follows a trade.
            n. _one who_

-ANCE       _state or_        vigil-ance         _state of being_ watchful.
-ancy     = _quality_         eleg-ance          _quality of being_
            _of being_                           elegant.

-ANT      = adj. _being_      vigil-ant          _being_ watchful.
            n. _one who_      assist-ant         _one who_ assists.

-AR       = _relating to;     lun-ar             _relating to_ the moon.
            like_             circul-ar          _like_ a circle.

            adj. _relating    epistol-ary        _relating to_ a letter.
-ARY          to_             mission-ary        _one who is_ sent out.
          = n. _one who_;     avi-ary            _a place where_ birds
            _place where_                        are kept.

            n. _one who is_   deleg-ate          _one who is_ sent by
            adj. _having_                          others.
-ATE      = _the quality of_  accur-ate          _having the quality of_
            v. _to perform_                        accuracy.
            _the act of_,     navig-ate          _to perform the act of_
            or _cause_                             sailing.

-CLE      = _minute_          vesi-cle           a _minute_ vessel.
-cule                         animal-cule        a _minute_ animal.

-EE       = _one to whom_     refer-ee           _one to whom_ something
                                                 is referred.

NOTE.--This suffix is found only in words of French-Latin origin.

-EER                          engin-eer          _one who_ has charge of
          = _one who_                              an engine.
-ier                          brigad-ier         _one who_ has charge of
                                                   a brigade.

NOTE.--These suffixes are found only in words of French-Latin origin.

-ENE      = _having relation  terr-ene           _having relation to_ the
            to_                                  earth.

-ENCE       _state of being_  pres-ence          _state of being_ present.
-ency     = or _quality of_   tend-ency          _quality of_ tending
                                                 towards.

-ENT        n. _one who_      stud-ent           _one who_ studies.
          = or _which_        equival-ent        _being_ equal to,
            adj. _being_                         equal_ing_.
            or _-ing_

-ESCENCE  = _state of         conval-escence     _state of becoming_ well.
            becoming_

-ESCENT   = _becoming_        conval-escent      _becoming_ well.

-ESS      = _female_          lion-ess           a _female_ lion.

NOTE.--This suffix is used only in words of French-Latin origin.

-FEROUS   = _producing_       coni-ferous        _producing_ cones.

-FIC      = _making,          sopori-fic         _causing_ sleep.
            causing_

-FICE     = _something done_  arti-fice          _something done_ with
            or _made_                              art.

-FY       = _to make_         forti-fy           _to make_ strong.

                              rust-ic            _one who_ has countrified
-IC         n. _one who_                           manners.

-ical     = adj. _like_,      hero-ic            _like_ a hero.
            _made of_,        metall-ic          _made of_ metal.
            _relating to_     histor-ical        _relating to_ history.

NOTE.--These suffixes are found only in Latin words of Greek origin,
namely, adjectives in -IKOS. In words belonging to chemistry derivatives in
-IC denote the acid containing most oxygen, when more than one is formed:
as _nitric_ acid.

-ICE      _that which_        just-ice           _that which_ is just.

-ICS      _the science of_    mathemat-ics       _the science of_ quantity.
-IC                           arithmet-ic        _the science of_ number.

NOTE.--These suffixes are found only in Latin words of Greek origin.

-ID       = _being_ or        acr-id; flu-id     _being_ bitter; flow_ing_.
            _-ing_

_-ile_    = _relating to_;    puer-ile           _relating to_ a boy.
            _apt for_         docile             _apt for_ being taught.

-INE      = _relating to;     femin-ine          _relating to_ a woman.
            like_             alkal-ine          _like_ an alkali.

            _the act of,_     expuls-ion         _the act of_ expelling.
-ION      = _state of         corrupt-ion        _state of being_ corrupt.
            being_,           frict-ion          rubb_ing_.
            or _-ing_

-ISH      = _to make_         publ-ish           _to make_ public.

-ISE      = _to render_, or   fertil-ize         _to render_ fertile.
-ize        _perform the act
              of_

NOTE.--The suffix -ISE, -IZE, is of French origin, and is freely added to
Latin roots in forming English derivatives.

-ISM      = _state or act     hero-ism           _state of_ a hero.
            of_; _idiom_      Gallic-ism         a French _idiom_.

NOTE.--This suffix, except when signifying an idiom, is found only in words
of Greek origin.

            _one who_         art-ist            _one who practices_
-IST      = _practices_ or                       an art.
            _is devoted to_   botan-ist          _one who is devoted to_
                                                 botany.

-ITE      = n. _one who is_   favor-ite          _one who is_ favored.
-yte        adj. _being_      defin-ite          _being_ well defined.
                              prosel-yte         _one who is_ brought
                                                   over.

NOTE.--The form -YTE is found only in words of Greek origin.

-ITY      = _state or         security           _state of being_ secure.
-ty         quality_          ability            _quality of being_ able.
            _of being_        liber-ty           _state of being_ free.

            n. _one who is_
-IVE      = or _that which_   capt-ive           _one who is_ taken.
            adj. _having_     cohes-ive          _having power_ to stick.
            _the power_
            _or quality_

-IX       = _feminine_        testatr-ix         a _woman_ who leaves
                                                 a will.

IZE       (See ISE.)

-MENT       _state of being_  excite-ment        _state of being_ excited.
          = or _act of_;      induce-ment        _that which_ induces.
            _that which_

-MONY       _state or_        matri-mony         _state of_ marriage.
          = _quality of_;     testi-mony         _that which_ is testified.
            _that which_

            _one who_;        audit-or           _one who_ hears.
-OR       = _that which_;     mot-or             _that which_ moves.
            _quality of_      err-or             _quality of_ erring.

            adj. _fitted_ or  preparat-ory       _fitted_ to prepare.
-ORY      = _relating to_
            n. _place         armor-y            _place where_ arms are
              where_;                              kept.
            _that which_

-OSE      = _abounding in_    verb-ose           _abounding in_ words.
-ous                          popul-ous          _abounding in_ people.

-TUDE     = _condition or_    servi-tude         _condition of_ a slave.
            _quality of_      forti-tude         _quality of_ being brave.

-TY       (See -ITY.)

-ULE      = _minute_          glob-ule           a _minute_ globe.

-ULENT    = _abounding in_    op-ulent           _abounding in_ wealth.

-URE      = _act or state     depart-ure         _act of_ departing.
            of_;              creat-ure          _that which_ is created.
            _that which_

CLASSIFIED REVIEW OF LATIN SUFFIXES, WITH GENERIC DEFINITIONS.

                 -an     -ent
                 -ant    -ier
                 -ary    -ist    = _one who_ (_agent_); _that which._
                 -ate    -ive
                 -eer    -or

                 -ate    -ite    = _one who is_ (_recipient_); _that
                 -ee     -ive      which is._

                 -acy    -ism
                 -age    -ity
                 -ance   -ment
NOUN SUFFIXES    -ancy   -mony   = _state; condition; quality; act._
                 -ate    -tude
                 -ence   -ty
                 -ency   -ure
                 -ion

                 -ary            = _place where._
                 -ory

                 -cle
                 -cule           = _diminutives._
                 -ule

II.

            -ac      -ic
            -al      -ical
            -an      -id      = _relating to; like; being_.
            -ar      -ile
            -ary     -ine
            -ent     -ory

            -ate
            -ose              = _abounding in; having the quality_.
            -ous

ADJECTIVE   -able    -ible    = _that may be_.
SUFFIXES.   -ble     -ile

            -ive              = _having power_.

            -ferous           = _causing_ or _producing_.
            -fic

            -aceous           = _of; having the quality_.
            -acious

            -escent           = _becoming_.

III.

                 -ate
VERB SUFFIXES    -fy     = _to make; render; perform an act_.
                 -ise
                 -ize


EXERCISE.

I.

a. Write and define nouns denoting the agent (one who or that which) from
the following:--

1. Nouns.

MODEL: _art + ist = artist, one who practices an art._[5]

  1  art
  2  cash
  3  humor
  4  history
  5  vision
  6  tribute
  7  cure
  8  engine
  9  auction
  10  cannon
  11  flute
  12  drug
  13  tragedy
  14  mutiny
  15  grammar
  16  credit
  17  note
  18  method
  19  music
  20  flower (_flor_-)

2. Verbs.

  1  profess
  2  descend
  3  act
  4  imitate
  5  preside
  6  solicit
  7  visit
  8  defend
  9  survey
  10  oppose (_oppon_-)

3. Adjectives.

  1  adverse
  2  secret
  3  potent
  4  private

b. Write and define nouns denoting the recipient (one who is or that which)
from the following:--

  1  assign
  2  bedlam
  3  _captum_ (taken)
  4  devote
  5  favor
  6  lease
  7  _natus_ (born)
  8  patent
  9  refer
  10  relate

c. Write and define nouns denoting state, condition, quality, or act, from
the following:--

1. Nouns.

  1  _magistr_ate
  2  parent
  3  cure
  4  _priv_ate
  5  pilgrim
  6  hero
  7  despot
  8  judge
  9  vassal
  10  vandal

2. Verbs.

  1  conspire
  2  marry
  3  forbear
  4  repent
  5  ply
  6  abase
  7  excel
  8  prosper
  9  enjoy
  10  accompany
  11  depart
  12  abound
  13  abhor
  14  compose
  15  deride (_deris_-)

3. Adjectives.

  1  _accur_ate
  2  _delic_ate
  3  _dist_ant
  4  _excell_ent
  5  _curr_ent
  6  parallel
  7  prompt (_i_-)
  8  similar
  9  docile
  10  moist

d. Write and define nouns denoting place WHERE from the following words:--

  1  grain
  2  deposit
  3  penitent
  4  arm
  5  observe

e. Write and define nouns expressing diminutives of the following nouns:--

  1  part
  2  globe
  3  animal
  4  verse
  5  _corpus_ (body)

II.

a. Write and define adjectives denoting relating to, like, or being, from
the following nouns:--

  1  parent
  2  nation
  3  fate
  4  elegy
  5  demon
  6  republic
  7  Rome
  8  Europe
  9  Persia
  10  presbytery
  11  globule
  12  _luna_ (the moon)
  13  _oculus_ (the eye)
  14  consul
  15  _sol_ (the sun)
  16  planet
  17  moment
  18  element
  19  second
  20  parliament
  21  honor
  22  poet
  23  despot
  24  majesty
  25  ocean
  26  metal
  27  nonsense
  28  astronomy
  29  botany
  30  period
  31  tragedy
  32  _ferv_or
  33  _splend_or
  34  infant
  35  _puer_ (a boy)
  36  _canis_ (a dog)
  37  _felis_ (a cat)
  38  promise
  39  access
  40  transit

b. Write and define adjectives denoting abounding in, having the quality
of, from the following nouns:--

  1  passion
  2  temper
  3  _oper_- (work)
  4  fortune
  5  _popul_- (people)
  6  affection
  7  _aqua_- (water)
  8  verb (a word)
  9  beauty
  10  courage
  11  plenty
  12  envy
  13  victory
  14  joy
  15  globe

c. Write and define adjectives denoting that may be, or having the power,
from the following verbs:--

  1  blame
  2  allow
  3  move
  4  admit (_miss_-)
  5  collect
  6  abuse
  7  _aud_- (hear)
  8  divide (_vis_-)
  9  vary
  10  _ara_- (plough)

Write and define the following adjectives denoting--

(_causing_ or _producing_) 1 terror, 2 _sopor_- (sleep), 3 _flor_ (a
flower), 4 _pestis_ (a plague); (_having the quality of_) 5 _farina_
(meal), 6 crust, 7 _argilla_ (clay), (_becoming_), 8 effervesce.

III.

Write and define verbs denoting to make, render, or perform the act of,
from the following words:--

  1 authentic
  2  person
  3  captive
  4 _anima_ (life)
  5 _melior_ (better)
  6 ample
  7 just
  8 _sanctus_ (holy)
  9 pan
  10 false
  11 _facilis_ (easy)
  12 _magnus_(great)
  13 equal
  14 fertile
  15 legal

III.--DIRECTIONS IN THE STUDY OF LATIN DERIVATIVES.

1. A LATIN PRIMITIVE, or root, is a Latin word from which a certain number
of English derivative words is formed. Thus the Latin verb _du'cere_, to
draw or lead, is a Latin primitive or root, and from it are formed _educe_,
_education_, _deduction_, _ductile_, _reproductive_, and several hundred
other English words.

2. LATIN ROOTS consist chiefly of verbs, nouns, and adjectives.

3. ENGLISH DERIVATIVES from Latin words are generally formed not from the
root itself but from a part of the root called the _radical_. Thus, in the
word "education," the _root-word_ is _ducere_, but the _radical_ is DUC-
(education = e + DUC + ate + ion).

4. A RADICAL is a word or a part of a word used in forming English
derivatives.

5. Sometimes several radicals from the same root-word are used, the
different radicals being taken from different grammatical forms of the
root-word.

6. VERB-RADICALS are formed principally from two parts of the verb,--the
first person singular of the present indicative, and a part called the
_supine_, which is a verbal noun corresponding to the English infinitive in
-ing. Thus:--

  _1st pers. sing. pres. ind._    duco (I draw)
  _Root_                          DUC-
  _Derivative_                    _educe_
  _Supine_                        ductum (drawing, or to draw)
  _Root_                          DUCT-
  _Derivative_                    _ductile_

I. In giving a Latin verb-primitive in this book three "principal parts" of
the verb will be given, namely: (1) The present infinitive, (2) the first
person singular of the present indicative, and (3) the supine--the second
and the third parts because from them radicals are obtained, and the
infinitive because this is the part used in naming a verb in a general way.
Thus as we say that _loved_, _loving_, etc., are parts of the verb "to
love," so we say that _a'mo_ (present ind.) and _ama'tum_ (supine) are
parts of the verb _ama're_.

II. It should be noted that it is incorrect to translate _amo_, _amatum_,
by "to love," since neither of these words is in the infinitive mood, which
is _amare_. The indication of the Latin infinitive will be found of great
utility, as it is the part by which a Latin verb is referred to in the
Dictionary.

7. NOUN-RADICALS and ADJECTIVE RADICALS are formed from the nominative and
from the genitive (or possessive) case of words belonging to these parts of
speech. Thus:--

NOM. CASE.                              ROOT.       DERIVATIVE.
iter (a journey)                        ITER-.      re_iter_ate

GEN. CASE.                              ROOT        DERIVATIVE.
itineris (of a journey)                 ITINER-     _itiner_ant
felicis (nom. _felix_, happy)           FELIC-      _felic_ity

    NOTE.--These explanations of the mode of forming radicals are given by
    way of general information; but this book presupposes and requires no
    knowledge of Latin, since in every group of English derivatives from
    Latin, not only the root-words in their several parts, but the
    _radicals actually used_ in word-formation, are given.

Pronunciation of Latin Words.

1. Every word in Latin must have as many syllables as it has vowels or
diphthongs: as _miles_ (= _mi'les_).

2. _C_ is pronounced like _k_ before _a_, _o_, _u_; and like _s_ before
_e_, _i_, _y_, and the diphthongs _ae_ and _oe_: as _cado_, pronounced
_ka'do_; _cedo_, pronounced _se'do_.

3. _G_ is pronounced hard before _a_, _o_, _u_, and soft like _j_ before
_e_, _i_, _y_, _ae_, _oe_: as _gusto_, in which _g_ is pronounced as in
_August_; _gero_, pronounced _je'ro_.

4. A consonant between two vowels must be joined to the latter: as _bene_,
pronounced _be'ne_.

5. Two consonants in the middle of a word must be divided: as _mille_,
pronounced _mil'le_.

6. The diphthongs _ae_ and _oe_ are sounded like _e_: as _caedo_, pronounced
_ce'do_.

7. Words of two syllables are accented on the first: as _ager_, pronounced
_a'jer_.

8. When a word of more than one syllable ends in _a_, the _a_ should be
sounded like _ah_: as _musa_, pronounced _mu'sah_.

9. _T_, _s_, and _c_, before _ia_, _ie_, _ii_, _io_, _iu_, and _eu_,
preceded immediately by the accent, in Latin words as in English, change
into _sh_ and _zh_: as _fa'cio_, pronounced _fa'sheo_; _san'cio_,
pronounced _san'sheo_; _spa'tium_, pronounced _spa'sheum_.

    NOTE.--According to the Roman method of pronouncing Latin, the vowels
    _a_, _e_, _i_, _o_, _u_ are pronounced as in _baa_, _bait_, _beet_,
    _boat_, _boot_; _ae_, _au_, _ei_, _oe_ as in _aisle_, _our_, _eight_,
    _oil_; _c_ always like _k_; _g_ as in _get_; _j_ as _y_ in _yes_; _t_
    as in _until_; _v_ as _w_. See any Latin grammar.




LATIN ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES.


DIVISION I.--METHOD OF STUDY.


1. AG'ERE: a'go, ac'tum, _to do_, _to drive_.

Radicals: AG- and ACT-.

1. ACT, _v._ ANALYSIS: from _actum_ by dropping the termination _um_.
DEFINITION: to do, to perform. The _noun_ "act" is formed in the same way.
DEFINITION: a thing done, a deed or performance.

2. AC'TION: act + ion = the act of doing: hence, a thing done.

3. ACT'IVE: act + ive = having the quality of acting: hence, busy,
constantly engaged in action.

4. ACT'OR: act + or = one who acts: hence, (1) one who takes part in
anything done; (2) a stage player.

5. A'GENT: ag + ent = one who acts: hence, one who acts or transacts
business for another.

6. AG'ILE: ag + ile = apt to act: hence, nimble, brisk.

7. CO'GENT: from Latin _cogens_, _cogentis_, pres. part, of _cog'ere_ (=
_co + agere_, to impel), having the quality of impelling: hence, urgent,
forcible.

8. ENACT': en + act = to put in act: hence, to decree.

9. TRANSACT': trans + act = to drive through: hence, to perform.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What two parts of speech is "act"?--Write a sentence containing this
word as a verb; another as a noun.--Give a synonym of "act." _Ans.
Deed._--From what is "deed" derived? _Ans._ From the word _do_--hence,
literally, something _done_.--Give the distinction between "act" and
"deed." _Ans_. "Act" is a _single_ action; "deed" is a _voluntary_ action:
thus--"The _action_ which was praised as a good _deed_ was but an _act_ of
necessity."

(2.) Define "action" in oratory; "action" in law.--Combine and define in +
action.

(3.) Combine and define in + active; active + ity; in + active + ity.--What
is the _negative_ of "active"? _Ans. Inactive_.--What is the _contrary_ of
"active"? _Ans. Passive_.

(4.) Write a sentence containing "actor" in each of its two senses. MODEL:
"Washington and Greene were prominent _actors_ in the war of the
Revolution." "David Garrick, the famous English _actor_, was born in
1716."--What is the feminine of "actor" in the sense of stage player?

(6.) Combine and define agile + ity.--What is the distinction between
"active" and "agile"? _Ans_. "Active" implies readiness to act in general;
"agile" denotes a readiness to move the _limbs_.--Give two synonyms of
"agile." _Ans. Brisk_, _nimble_.--Give the opposite of "agile." _Ans.
Sluggish_, _inert_.

(7.) Explain what is meant by a "_cogent_ argument."--What would be the
contrary of a _cogent_ argument?

(8.) Combine and define enact + ment.--What is meant by the "_enacting_
clause" of a legislative bill?--Write a sentence containing the word
"enact." MODEL: "The British Parliament _enacted_ the stamp-law in 1765."

(9.) Combine and define transact + ion.--What derivative from "perform" is
a synonym of "transaction"?


2. ALIE'NUS, _another_, _foreign_.

Radical: ALIEN-.

1. AL'IEN: from _alienus_ by dropping the termination _us_. DEFINITION: a
foreigner, one owing allegiance to another country than that in which he is
living.

2. AL'IENATE: alien + ate = to cause something to be transferred to
another: hence, (1) to transfer title or property to another; (2) to
estrange, to withdraw.

3. INAL'IENABLE: in + alien + able = that may not be given to another.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Combine and define alien + age.--Can an alien be elected President of
the United States? [See the Constitution, Article II. Sec. I. Clause
5.]--What is the word which expresses the process by which a person is
changed from an _alien_ to a _citizen_?

(2.) Combine and define alienate + ion.--Give a synonym of "alienate" in
its _second_ sense. _Ans._ To _estrange_.--What is meant by saying that
"the oppressive measures of the British government gradually _alienated_
the American colonies from the mother country"?

(3.) Quote a passage from the Declaration of Independence containing the
word "inalienable."


3. AMA'RE, _to love_, AMI'CUS, _a friend_.

Radicals: AM- and AMIC-.

1. A'MIABLE: am(i) + able = fit to be loved.

    OBS.--The Latin adjective is _amabilis_, from which the English
    derivative adjective would be _amable_; but it has taken the form
    am_i_able.

2. AM'ITY: am + ity = the state of being a friend: hence, friendship;
good-will.

3. AM'ICABLE: amic + able = disposed to be a friend: hence, friendly;
peaceable.

4. INIM'ICAL: through Lat. adj. _inimi'cus_, enemy: hence, inimic(us) + al
= inimical, relating to an enemy.

5. AMATEUR': adopted through French _amateur_, from Latin _amator_, a
lover: hence, one who cultivates an art from taste or attachment, without
pursuing it professionally.


EXERCISE.

(1). What word is a synonym of "amiable"? _Ans. Lovable_.--Show how they
are exact synonyms.--Write a sentence containing the word "amiable." MODEL:
"The _amiable_ qualities of Joseph Warren caused his death to be deeply
regretted by all Americans."--What noun can you form from "amiable,"
meaning the quality of being amiable?--What is the negative of "amiable"?
_Ans. Unamiable_.--The contrary? _Ans. Hateful_.

(2.) Give a word that is nearly a synonym of "amity." _Ans.
Friendship._--State the distinction between these words. _Ans._
"Friendship" applies more particularly to individuals; "amity" to societies
or nations.--Write a sentence containing the word "amity." MODEL: "The
Plymouth colonists in 1621 made a treaty of _amity_ with the
Indians."--What is the opposite of "amity"?

(3.) Give a synonym of "amicable." _Ans. Friendly_.--Which is the stronger?
_Ans. Friendly_.--Why? _Ans._ "Friendly" implies a positive feeling of
regard; "amicable" denotes merely the absence of discord.--Write a sentence
containing the word "amicable." MODEL: "In 1871 commissioners appointed by
the United States and Great Britain made an _amicable_ settlement of the
Alabama difficulties."

(4.) What is the noun corresponding to the adjective "inimical"? _Ans.
Enemy_.--Give its origin. _Ans._ It comes from the Latin _inimicus_, an
enemy, through the French _ennemi_.--What preposition does "inimical" take
after it? _Ans._ The preposition _to_--thus, "_inimical_ to health," "to
welfare," etc.

(5.) What is meant by an _amateur_ painter? an _amateur_ musician?


4. AN'IMUS, _mind_, _passion_; AN'IMA, _life_.

Radical: ANIM-.

1. AN'IMAL: from Lat. n. _anima_ through the Latin _animal_: literally,
something having life.

2. ANIMAL'CULE: animal + cule = a minute animal: hence, an animal that can
be seen only by the microscope.

3. AN'IMATE, _v._: anim + ate = to make alive: hence, to stimulate, or
infuse courage.

4. ANIMOS'ITY: anim + ose + ity = the quality of being (ity) full of (ose)
passion: hence, violent hatred.

5. UNANIM'ITY: un (from _unus_, one) + anim + ity = the state of being of
one mind: hence, agreement.

6. REAN'IMATE: re + anim + ate = to make alive again: hence, to infuse
fresh vigor.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Write a sentence containing the word "animal." MODEL: "Modern science
has not yet been able to determine satisfactorily the distinction between
an _animal_ and a vegetable."

(2.) What is the plural of "animalcule"? _Ans. Animalcules_ or
_animalculae_.--Write a sentence containing this word.

(3.) What other part of speech than a verb is "animate"?--What is the
negative of the adjective "animate?" _Ans. Inanimate._--Define it.--Combine
and define animate + ion.--Explain what is meant by an "_animated_
discussion."

(4.) Give two synonyms of "animosity."

(5.) What is the literal meaning of "unanimity"? If people are of _one
mind_, is not this "unanimity"?--What is the adjective corresponding to the
noun "unanimity"?--What is the _opposite_ of "unanimity"?--Write a sentence
containing the word "unanimity."

(6.) Compare the verbs "animate" and "reanimate," and state the
signification of each.--Has "reanimate" any other than its literal
meaning?--Write a sentence containing this word in its figurative sense.
MODEL: "The inspiring words of Lawrence, 'Don't give up the ship!'
_reanimated_ the courage of the American sailors."--What does "_animated_
conversation" mean?


5. AN'NUS, _a year_.

Radical: ANN-.

1. AN'NALS: from _annus_, through Lat. adj. _annalis_, pertaining to the
year: hence, a record of things done from year to year.

2. AN'NUAL: through _annuus_ (annu + al), relating to a year: hence, yearly
or performed in a year.

3. ANNU'ITY: through Fr. n. _annuite_ = a sum of money payable yearly.

4. MILLEN'NIUM: Lat. n. _millennium_ (from _annus_ and _mille_, a
thousand), a thousand years.

5. PEREN'NIAL: through Lat. adj. _perennis_ (compounded of _per_ and
_annus_), throughout the year: hence, lasting; perpetual.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Give a synonym of "annals." _Ans. History._--What is the distinction
between "annals" and "history"? _Ans._ "Annals" denotes a mere
chronological account of events from year to year; "history," in addition
to a narrative of events, inquires into the causes of events.--Write a
sentence containing the word "annals," or explain the following sentence:
"The _annals_ of the Egyptians and Hindoos contain many incredible
statements."

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "annual."

(4.) Write a sentence containing the word "millennium."

(5.) What is the meaning of a "_perennial_ plant" in botany? _Ans._ A plant
continuing more than two years.--Give the contrary of "perennial." _Ans.
Fleeting, short-lived._


6. ARS, ar'tis, _art, skill._

Radical: ART-.

1. ART: from _artis_ by dropping the termination _is_. DEFINITION: 1.
cunning--thus, an animal practices _art_ in escaping from his pursuers; 2.
skill or dexterity--thus, a man may be said to have the _art_ of managing
his business; 3. a system of rules or a profession--as the _art_ of
building; 4. creative genius as seen in painting, sculpture, etc., which
are called the "fine arts."

2. ART'IST: art + ist = one who practices an art: hence, a person who
occupies himself with one of the fine arts.

    OBS.--A painter is called an artist; but a blacksmith could not
    properly be so called. The French word _artiste_ is sometimes used to
    denote one who has great skill in some profession, even if it is not
    one of the fine arts: thus a great genius in cookery might be called an
    _artiste_.

3. AR'TISAN: through Fr. n. _artisan_, one who practices an art: hence, one
who practices one of the mechanic arts; a workman, or operative.

4. ART'FUL: art + ful = full of art: hence, crafty, cunning.

5. ART'LESS: art + less = without art: hence, free from cunning, simple,
ingenuous.

6. AR'TIFICE: through Lat. n. _artificium_, something made (_fa'cere_, to
make) by art: hence, an artful contrivance or stratagem.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What is the particular meaning of "art" in the sentence from
Shakespeare, "There is no _art_ to read the mind's construction in the
face"?

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "artist."--Would it be proper to
call a famous hair-dresser an _artist_?--What might he be called?--Combine
and define artist + ic + al + ly.--What is the negative of "artistic"?

(3.) What is the distinction between an "artist" and an "artisan"?

(5.) Give a synonym of "artless." _Ans. Ingenuous, natural._--Give the
opposite of "artless." _Ans. Wily._--Combine and define artless + ly;
artless + ness.

(6.) Give a synonym of "artifice."--Combine artifice + er.--Does
"artificer" mean one who practices artifice?--Write a sentence containing
this word.--Combine and define artifice + ial; artifice + al + ity. Give
the opposite of "artificial."


7. AUDI'RE: au'dio, audi'tum, _to hear_.

Radicals: AUDI-, and AUDIT-.

1. AU'DIBLE: audi + ble = that may be heard.

2. AU'DIENCE: audi + ence = literally, the condition of hearing: hence, an
assemblage of hearers, an _auditory_.

3. AU'DIT: from _audit(um)_ = to hear a statement: hence, to examine
accounts.

4. AU'DITOR: audit + or = one who hears, a hearer.

    OBS.--This word has a secondary meaning, namely: an officer who
    examines accounts.

5. OBE'DIENT: through _obediens, obedient(is)_, the present participle of
_obedire_ (compounded of _ob_, towards, and _audire_): literally, giving
ear to: hence, complying with the wishes of another.


EXERCISE.

(1.) "Audible" means that can be heard: what prefix would you affix to it
to form a word denoting what can _not_ be heard?--What is the adverb from
the adjective "audible"?--Write a sentence containing this word.

(2.) What is meant when you read in history of a king's giving _audience_?

(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "audit." MODEL--"The committee
which had to _audit_ the accounts of Arnold discovered great frauds."--How
do you spell the past tense of "audit"?--Why is the _t_ not doubled?

(5.) What is the _noun_ corresponding to the adjective "obedient"?--What is
the _verb_ corresponding to these words?--Combine and define dis +
obedient.


8. CA'PUT, cap'itis, _the head_.

Radical: CAPIT-.

1. CAP'ITAL, _a._ and _n._: capit + al = relating to the _head_: hence,
chief, principal, first in importance. DEFINITION: as an adjective it
means, (1) principal; (2) great, important; (3) punishable with death;--as
a noun it means, (1) the metropolis or seat of government; (2) stock in
trade.

2. CAPITA'TION: capit + ate + ion = the act of causing heads to be counted:
hence, (1) a numbering of persons; (2) a tax upon each head or person.

3. DECAP'ITATE: de + capit + ate = to cause the head to be taken off; to
behead.

4. PREC'IPICE: through Lat. n. _praecipitium_: literally, a headlong
descent.

5. PRECIP'ITATE: from Lat. adj. _praecipit(is)_, head foremost. DEFINITION:
(1) (_as a verb_) to throw headlong, to press with eagerness, to hasten;
(2) (_as an adjective_) headlong, hasty.


EXERCISE.

(1). Write a sentence containing "capital" as an adjective.--Write a
sentence containing this word as a noun, in the sense of _city_.--Write a
sentence containing "capital" in the sense of _stock_.--Is the _capital_ of
a state or country necessarily the metropolis or chief city of that state
or country?--What is the _capital_ of New York state?--What is the
_metropolis_ of New York State?

(3) Combine and define decapitate + ion.--Can you name an English king who
was _decapitated_?--Can you name a French king who was _decapitated_?

(4) What as the meaning of "precipice" in the line, "Swift down the
_precipice_ of time it goes"?

(5) Combine and define precipitate + ly.--Write a sentence containing the
adjective "precipitate". MODEL: "Fabius, the Roman general, is noted for
never having made any _precipitate_ movements."--Explain the meaning of the
verb "precipitate" in the following sentences. "At the battle of Waterloo
Wellington _precipitated_ the conflict, because he knew Napoleon's army was
divided", "The Romans were wont to _precipitate_ criminals from the
Tarpeian rock."


9. CI'VIS, _a citizen_.

Radical: CIV-.

1. CIV'IC: civ + ic = relating to a citizen or to the affairs or honors of
a city.

    OBS.--The "_civic_ crown" in Roman times was a garland of oak-leaves
    and acorns bestowed on a soldier who had saved the life of a citizen in
    battle.

2. CIV'IL: Lat adj. _civilis_, meaning (1) belonging to a citizen, (2) of
the state, political, (3) polite.

3. CIV'ILIZE: civil + ize = to make a savage people into a community having
a government, or political organization; hence, to reclaim from a barbarous
state.

4. CIVILIZA'TION: civil + ize + ate + ion = the state of being civilized.

5. CIVIL'IAN: civil + (i)an = one whose pursuits are those of civil
life--not a soldier.


EXERCISE.

(2.) "What is the ordinary signification of "civil"?--Give a synonym of
this word.--Is there any difference between "civil" and "polite"? _Ans._
"Polite" expresses more than "civil," for it is possible to be "civil"
without being "polite."--What word would denote the opposite of "civil" in
the sense of "polite"?--Combine and define civil + ity.--Do you say
_un_civility or _in_civility, to denote the negative of "civility"?--Give a
synonym of "uncivil." _Ans. Boorish._--Give another synonym.

(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "civilize."--Give a participial
adjective from this word.--What compound word expresses _half_
civilized?--What word denotes a state of society between savage and
civilized?

(4.) Give two synonyms of "civilization." _Ans. Culture, refinement._--What
is the meaning of the word "civilization" in the sentence: "The ancient
Hindoos and Egyptians had attained a considerable degree of
_civilization_"?--Compose a sentence of your own, using this word.


10. COR, cor'dis, _the heart_.

Radical: CORD-.

1. CORE: from _cor_ = the heart: hence, the inner part of a thing.

2. COR'DIAL, _a._: cord + (i)al = having the quality of the heart: hence,
hearty, sincere. The _noun_ "cordial" means literally something having the
quality of acting on the heart: hence, a stimulating medicine, and in a
figurative sense, something cheering.

3. CON'CORD: con + cord = heart _with (con)_ heart: hence, unity of
sentiment, harmony.

    OBS.--_Concord_ in music is harmony of sound.

4. DIS'CORD: dis + cord = heart _apart from (dis)_ heart: hence,
disagreement, want of harmony.

5. RECORD': through Lat. v. _recordari_, to remember (literally, to get by
_heart_): hence, to register.

6. COUR'AGE: through Fr. n. _courage_: literally, _heartiness_: hence,
bravery, intrepidity.

    OBS.--The heart is accounted the seat of bravery: hence, the derivative
    sense of courage.


EXERCISE.

(1.) "The quince was rotten at the _core_"; "The preacher touched the
_core_ of the subject": in which of these sentences is "core" used in its
_literal_, in which in its _figurative_, sense?

(2.) What is the Anglo-Saxon synonym of the adjective "cordial"?--Would you
say a "_cordial_ laugh" or a "_hearty_ laugh"?--What is the opposite of
"cordial"?--Combine and define cordial + ly: cordial + ity.--Write a
sentence containing the _noun_ "cordial" in its figurative sense. MODEL:
"Washington's victory at Trenton was like a _cordial_ to the flagging
spirits of the American army."

(3.) Give a synonym of "concord." _Ans. Accord._--Supply the proper word:
"In your view of this matter, I am in (_accord?_ or _concord?_) with you."
"There should be ---- among friends." "The man who is not moved by ---- of
sweet sounds."

(4.) What is the connection in meaning between "discord" in music and among
brethren?--Give a synonym of this word. _Ans. Strife._--State the
distinction. _Ans._ "Strife" is the stronger: where there is "strife" there
must be "discord," but there may be "discord" without "strife"; "discord"
consists most in the feeling, "strife" in the outward action.

(5.) What part of speech is "record'"?--When the accent is placed on the
first syllable (rec'ord) what part of speech does it become?--Combine and
define record + er; un + record + ed.

(6.) "Courage" is the same as having a stout--what?--Give a synonym. _Ans.
Fortitude._--State the distinction. _Ans._ "Courage" enables us to meet
danger; "fortitude" gives us strength to endure pain.--Would you say "the
Indian shows _courage_ when he endures torment without flinching"?--Would
you say "The three hundred under Leonidas displayed _fortitude_ in opposing
the entire Persian army"?--What is the contrary of "courage"?--Combine and
define courage + ous; courage + ous + ly.


11. COR'PUS, cor'poris, _the body_.

Radical: CORPOR-.

1. COR'PORAL: corpor + al = relating to the _body_.

    OBS.--The noun "corporal," meaning a petty officer, is not derived from
    _corpus_: it comes from the French _caporal_, of which it is a
    corruption.

2. COR'PORATE: corpor + ate = made into a body: hence, united into a body
or corporation.

3. INCOR'PORATE: in + corpor + ate = to make into a body: hence, (1) to
form into a legal body; (2) to unite one substance with another.

4. CORPORA'TION: corpor + ate + ion = that which is made into a body:
hence, a body politic, authorized by law to act as one person.

5. COR'PULENT: through Lat. adj. _corpulentus_, fleshy: hence, stout in
body, fleshy.

6. COR'PUSCLE: corpus + cle = a diminutive body; hence, a minute particle
of matter.

7. CORPS: [pronounced _core_] through Fr. n. _corps_, a body. DEFINITION:
(1) a body of troops; (2) a body of individuals engaged in some one
profession.

8. CORPSE: through Fr. n. _corps_, the body; that is, _only_ the body--the
spirit being departed: hence, the dead body of a human being.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Give two synonyms of "corporal." _Ans. Corporeal_ and
_bodily_.--What is the distinction between "corporal" and "corporeal"?
_Ans._ "Corporal" means pertaining to the body; "corporeal" signifies
material, as opposed to spiritual.--Would you say a _corporal_ or a
_corporeal_ substance? _corporal_ or _corporeal_ punishment? Would you say
_corporal_ strength or _bodily_ strength?

(3.) Write a sentence containing the verb "incorporate" in its _first_
sense. MODEL: "The London company which settled Virginia was _incorporated_
in 1606, and received a charter from King James I."

(4.) Write a sentence containing the word "corporation." [Find out by what
corporation Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled, and write a sentence
about that.]

(5.) What noun is there corresponding to the adjective "corpulent" and
synonymous with "stoutness"?--Give two synonyms of "corpulent." _Ans._
_Stout_, _lusty_.--What is the distinction? _Ans._ "Corpulent" means fat;
"stout" and "lusty" denote a strong frame.

(6.) What is meant by an "army _corps_"? _Ans_. A body of from twenty to
forty thousand soldiers, forming several brigades and divisions.

(7.) How is the plural of corps spelled? _Ans. Corps._ How pronounced?
_Ans. Cores._--What is meant by the "diplomatic _corps_"?

(8.) What other form of the word "corpse" is used? _Ans_. The form _corse_
is sometimes used in poetry; as in the poem on the Burial of Sir John
Moore:

  "Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,
  As his _corse_ to the ramparts we hurried."


12. CRED'ERE: cre'do, cred'itum, _to believe_.

Radicals: CRED- and CREDIT-.

1. CREED: from the word _credo_, "I believe," at the beginning of the
Apostles' Creed: hence, a summary of Christian belief.

2. CRED'IBLE: cred + ible = that may be believed: hence, worthy of belief.

3. CRED'IT: from credit(um) = belief, trust: hence, (1) faith; (2)
reputation; (3) trust given or received.

4. CRED'ULOUS: through the Lat. adj. _credulus_, easy of belief: credul +
ous = abounding in belief: hence, believing easily.

5. DISCRED'IT: dis + credit = to _dis_believe.


EXERCISE.

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "credible." MODEL: "When the King
of Siam was told that in Europe the water at certain seasons could be
walked on, he declared that the statement was not _credible_."--What single
word will express _not credible_?--Combine and define credible + ity.--Give
a synonym of "credible." _Ans. Trustworthy._--State the distinction. _Ans_.
"Credible" is generally applied to things, as "_credible_ testimony";
"trustworthy" to persons, as "a _trustworthy_ witness."

(3.) What is the meaning of _credit_ in the passage,

  "John Gilpin was a citizen
  Of _credit_ and renown"?

Give a synonym of this word. _Ans. Trust._--What is the distinction? _Ans_.
"Trust" looks forward; "credit" looks back--we _credit_ what has happened;
we _trust_ what is to happen.--What other part of speech than a noun is
"credit"?--Combine and define credit + ed.--Why is the _t_ not doubled?

(4.) What is the meaning of "credulous" in the passage,

  "So glistened the dire snake, and into fraud
  Led Eve, our _credulous_ mother"?--MILTON.

What noun corresponding to the adjective "credulous" will express the
quality of believing too easily?--What is the negative of
"credulous"?--What is the distinction between "incredible" and
"incredulous"?--Which applies to persons? which to things?

(5.) To what two parts of speech does "discredit" belong?--Write a sentence
containing this word as a _noun_; another as a _verb_.


13. CUR'RERE: cur'ro, cur'sum, _to run_.

Radicals used: CURR- and CURS-.

1. CUR'RENT, a.: curr + ent = running: hence, (1) passing from person to
person, as a "_current_ report"; (2) now in progress, as the "_current_
month."

2. CUR'RENCY: curr + ency = the state of passing from person to person, as
"the report obtained _currency_": hence circulation.

    OBS.--As applied to money, it means that it is in circulation or
    passing from hand to hand, as a representative of value.

3. CUR'SORY: curs + ory = runn_ing_ or pass_ing_: hence, hasty.

4. EXCUR'SION: ex + curs + ion = the act of running out: hence, an
expedition or jaunt.

5. INCUR'SION: in + curs + ion = the act of running in: hence, an invasion.

6. PRECUR'SOR: pre + curs + or = one who runs before: hence a forerunner.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What other part of speech than an adjective is "current"?--What is now
the _current_ year?

(2.) Why are there two r's in "currency"? _Ans_. Because there are two in
the root _currere_.--Give a synonym of this word in the sense of "money."
_Ans._ The "circulating medium."--What was the "currency" of the Indians in
early times?--Compose a sentence using this word.

(3.) When a speaker says that he will cast a "_cursory_ glance" at a
subject, what does he mean?--Combine and define cursory + ly.

(4.) Is "excursion" usually employed to denote an expedition in a friendly
or a hostile sense?

(5.) Is "incursion" usually employed to denote an expedition in a friendly
or a hostile sense?--Give a synonym. _Ans. Invasion._--Which implies a
hasty expedition?--Compose a sentence containing the word _incursion_.
MODEL: "The Parthians were long famed for their rapid _incursions_ into the
territory of their enemies."

(6.) What is meant by saying that John the Baptist was the _precursor_ of
Christ?--What is meant by saying that black clouds are the _precursor_ of a
storm?


14. DIG'NUS, _worthy_.

Radical: DIGN-.

1. DIG'NIFY: dign + (_i_)fy = to make of worth: hence, to advance to honor.

2. DIG'NITY: dign + ity = the state of being of worth: hence, behavior
fitted to inspire respect.

3. INDIG'NITY: in + dign + ity = the act of treating a person in an
unworthy (_indignus_) manner: hence, insult, contumely.

4. CONDIGN': con + dign = very worthy: hence, merited, deserved.

    OBS.--The prefix _con_ is here merely intensive.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What participial adjective is formed from the verb "dignify"? _Ans.
Dignified._--Give a stronger word. _Ans. Majestic._--Give a word which
denotes the same thing carried to excess and becoming ridiculous. _Ans.
Pompous._

(2.) Can you mention a character in American history remarkable for the
dignity of his behavior?--Compose a sentence containing this word.

(3.) Give the plural of "indignity."--What is meant by saying that
"indignities were heaped on" a person?

(4.) How is the word "condign" now most frequently employed? _Ans._ In
connection with punishment: thus we speak of "_condign_ punishment,"
meaning richly deserved punishment.


15. DOCE'RE: do'ceo, doc'tum, _to teach_.

Radicals: DOC- and DOCT-.

1. DOC'ILE: doc + ile = that may be taught: hence, teachable.

2. DOC'TOR: doct + or = one who teaches: hence, one who has taken the
highest degree in a university authorizing him to practice and teach.

4. DOC'TRINE: through Lat. n. _doctrina_, something taught; hence, a
principle taught as part of a system of belief.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Combine and define docile + ity.--Give the opposite of "docile." _Ans.
Indocile._--Mention an animal that is very docile.--Mention one remarkable
for its want of docility.

(2.) What is meant by "_Doctor_ of Medicine"?--Give the abbreviation.--What
does LL.D. mean? _Ans._ It stands for the words _legum doctor_, doctor of
laws: the double L marks the plural of the Latin noun.

(3.) Give two synonyms of "doctrine." _Ans. Precept, tenet._--What does
"tenet" literally mean? _Ans._ Something _held_--from Lat. v. _tenere_, to
hold.--Combine and define doctrine + al.


16. DOM'INUS, _a master or lord_.

Radical: DOMIN-.

1. DOMIN'ION: domin + ion = the act of exercising mastery: hence, (1) rule;
(2) a territory ruled over.

2. DOM'INANT: domin + ant = relating to lordship or mastery: hence,
prevailing.

3. DOMINEER': through Fr. v. _dominer_; literally, to "_lord_ it" over one:
hence, to rule with insolence.

4. PREDOM'INATE: pre + domin + ate = to cause one to be master _before_
another: hence, to be superior, to rule.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What is meant by saying that "in 1776 the United Colonies threw off
the _dominion_ of Great Britain"?

(2.) What is meant by the "_dominant_ party"? a "_dominant_ race"?

(3.) Compose a sentence containing the word "domineer." MODEL: "The
blustering tyrant, Sir Edmund Andros, _domineered_ for several years over
the New England colonies; but his misrule came to an end in 1688 with the
accession of King William."

(4.) "The Republicans at present _predominate_ in Mexico": what does this
mean?


17. FI'NIS, _an end or limit_.

Radical: FIN-.

1. FI'NITE: fin + ite = having the quality of coming to an end: hence,
limited in quantity or degree.

2. FIN'ISH: through Fr. v. _finir_; literally, to bring to an end: hence,
to complete.

3. INFIN'ITY: in + fin + ity = the state of having no limit: hence,
unlimited extent of time, space, or quantity.

4. DEFINE': through Fr. v. _definer_; literally, to bring a thing down to
its limits: hence, to determine with precision.

5. CONFINE': con + fine; literally, to bring within limits or bounds:
hence, to restrain.

6. AFFIN'ITY: af (a form of prefix _ad_) + fin + ity = close agreement.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What is meant by saying that "the human faculties are _finite_"?

(2.) What is the opposite of "finite"?--Give a synonym. _Ans.
Limited._--What participial adjective is formed from the verb to
"finish"?--What is meant by a "_finished_ gentleman"?

(3.) Give a synonym of "infinity." _Ans. Boundlessness._--"The microscope
reveals the fact that each drop of water contains an _infinity_ of
animalculae." What is the sense of _infinity_ as used in this sentence?

(4.) Combine define + ite; in + define + ite.--Analyze the word
"definition."--Compose a sentence containing the word "define."

(5.) Combine and define confine + ment.--What other part of speech than a
verb is "confine"? _Ans._ A noun.--Write a sentence containing the word
"confines."

(6.) Find in the dictionary the meaning of "chemical _affinity_."


18. FLU'ERE: flu'o, flux'um, _to flow_.

Radicals: FLU- and FLUX-.

1. FLUX: from flux_um_ = a flowing.

2. FLU'ENT: flu + ent = having the quality of flowing. Used in reference to
language it means _flowing_ speech: hence, voluble.

3. FLU'ID, _n._: flu + id = Flow_ing_: hence, anything that flows.

4. FLU'ENCY: flu + ency = state of flowing (in reference to language).

5. AF'FLUENCE: af (form of _ad_) + flu + ence = a flowing _to_: hence, an
abundant supply, as of thought, words, money, etc.

6. CON'FLUENCE: con + flu + ence = a flowing together: hence, (1) the
flowing together of two or more streams; (2) an assemblage, a union.

7. IN'FLUX: in + flux = a flowing in or into.

8. SUPER'FLUOUS: super + flu + ous = having the quality of _over_flowing:
hence, needless, excessive.


EXERCISE.

(2.) What is meant by a "fluent" speaker?--What word would denote a speaker
who is the reverse of "fluent"?

(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "fluid."

(4.) What is meant by "fluency" of style?

(5.) What is the ordinary use of the word "affluence"? An "_affluence_ of
ideas," means what?

(6.) Compose a sentence containing the word "confluence." MODEL: "New York
City stands at the ---- of two streams."

(8.) Mention a noun corresponding to the adjective "superfluous."--Compose
a sentence containing the word "superfluous."--What is its opposite? _Ans.
Scanty, meager._


19. GREX, gre'gis, _a flock or herd_.

Radical: GREG-.

1. AG'GREGATE, _v._: ag (for _ad_) + greg + ate = to cause to be brought
into a flock: hence, to gather, to assemble.

2. EGRE'GIOUS: e + greg + (i)ous, through Lat. adj. _egre'gius_, chosen
from the herd: hence, remarkable.

    OBS.--Its present use is in association with inferiority.

3. CON'GREGATE: con + greg + ate = to perform the act of flocking together:
hence, to assemble.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What other part of speech than a verb is "aggregate"?--Why is this
word spelled with a double _g_?

(2.) Combine and define egregious + ly.--What does an "_egregious_ blunder"
mean?--Compose a sentence containing the word "egregious."

(3.) Why is it incorrect to speak of congregating _together_?--Combine and
define congregate + ion.


20. I'RE: e'o, i'tum, _to go_.

Radical: IT-.

1. AMBI'TION: amb (around) + it + ion = the act of going around.
DEFINITION: an eager desire for superiority or power.

    OBS.--This meaning arose from the habit of candidates for office in
    Rome _going around_ to solicit votes: hence, aspiration for office, and
    finally, aspiration in general.

2. INI'TIAL, _a._: in + it + (i)al = pertaining to the _in_going: hence,
marking the commencement.

3. INI'TIATE: in + it + (i)ate = to cause one to go in: hence, to
introduce, to commence.

4. SEDI'TION: sed (_aside_) + it + ion = the act of going _aside_; that is,
going to a separate and insurrectionary party.

5. TRANS'IT: trans + it = a passing across: hence, (1) the act of passing;
(2) the line of passage; (3) a term in astronomy.

6. TRAN'SITORY: trans + it + ory = pass_ing_ over: hence, brief, fleeting.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Compose a sentence containing the word "ambition." MODEL: "Napoleon's
_ambition_ was his own greatness; Washington's, the greatness of his
country."--What is meant by "military ambition"? "political ambition"?
"literary ambition"?--What adjective means _possessing ambition_?--Combine
and define un + ambitious.

(2.) What is the opposite of "initial"? _Ans. Final, closing._--What part
of speech is "initial" besides an adjective?--What is meant by "initials"?

(3.) What is meant by saying that "the campaign of 1775 was _initiated_ by
an attack on the British in Boston"?--Give the opposite of "initiate" in
the sense of "commence."

(4.) Give a synonym of "sedition." _Ans. Insurrection._--Give
another.--Compose a sentence containing this word.

(5.) Explain what is meant by goods "in _transit_."--Explain what is meant
by the "Nicaragua _transit_."--When you speak of the _transit_ of Venus,"
you are using a term in what science?

(6.) Give a synonym of "transitory."--Give its opposite. _Ans. Permanent,
abiding._


21. LA'PIS, lap'idis, _a stone_.

Radical: LAPID-.

1. LAP'IDARY: lapid + ary = one who works in stone: hence, one who cuts,
polishes, and engraves precious stones.

2. DILAP'IDATED: di + lapid + ate + ed = put into the condition of a
building in which the stones are falling apart: hence, fallen into ruin,
decayed.

3. DILAPIDA'TION: di + lapid + ate + ion = the state (of a building) in
which the stones are falling apart: hence, demolition, decay.


EXERCISE.

Use the word "lapidary" in a sentence. MODEL: "When Queen Victoria wanted
the Koh-i-noor to be recut, she sent it to a famous _lapidary_ in Holland."

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "dilapidated." MODEL: "At
Newport, Rhode Island, there stands a _dilapidated_ mill, which some
writers have foolishly believed to be a tower built by Norsemen in the
twelfth century."--If we should speak of a "_dilapidated_ fortune," would
the word be used in its literal meaning or in a figurative sense?

(3.) Give two synonyms of "dilapidation." _Ans. Ruin, decay._


22. LEX, le'gis, _a law or rule_.

Radical: LEG-.

1. LE'GAL: leg + al = relating to the law; lawful.

2. ILLE'GAL: il (for _in_, not) + leg + al = not legal: hence, unlawful.

3. LEG'ISLATE: from _legis_ + _latum_ (from Lat. v. _fer're, latum_, to
bring), to bring forward: hence, to make or pass laws.

4. LEGIT'IMATE: through Lat. adj. _legitimus_, lawful; legitim (us) + ate =
made lawful: hence, in accordance with established law.

5. PRIV'ILEGE: Lat. adj. _privus_, private; literally, a law passed for the
benefit of a private individual: hence, a franchise, prerogative, or right.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Point out the different senses of "legal" in the two expressions, "the
_legal_ profession" and "a _legal_ right."--Combine and define legal +
ize.

(2.) Give an Anglo-Saxon synonym of "illegal." _Ans. Unlawful._--Show that
they are synonyms. _Ans_. il (_in_) = un; _leg_ = law; and al =
ful.--Compose a sentence containing the word "illegal."--Combine and define
illegal + ity.

(3.) What noun derived from "legislate" means the law-making
power?--Combine and define legislate + ion; legislate + ive.

(4.) Give the negative of "legitimate."

(5.) What is the plural of "privilege"?--Define the meaning of this word in
the passage,--

      "He claims his _privilege_, and says 't is fit
       Nothing should be the judge of wit, but wit."


23. LIT'ERA, _a letter_.

Radical: LITER-.

1. LIT'ERAL: liter + al = relating to the letter of a thing; that is, exact
to the letter.

2. LIT'ERARY: liter + ary = pertaining to _letters_ or learning.

3. OBLITERATE: ob + liter + ate = to cause letters to be rubbed out: hence,
to rub out, in general.

4. LIT'ERATURE: through Lat. n. _literatura_ = the collective body of
literary works.

5. ILLIT'ERATE: il (for _in_, not) + liter + ate = of the nature of one who
does not know his letters.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Define what is meant by a "_literal_ translation."

(2.) Give a synonymous expression for a "literary man."--Compose a sentence
containing the terms "literary society."

(3.) Give a synonym of "obliterate" in its literal meaning. _Ans._ To
_erase_.--If we should speak of _obliterating_ the memory of a wrong,
would the word be used in its primary or its derivative sense?

(4.) "When we speak of English "literature" what is meant?--Can you mention
a great poem in Greek "literature"?--Compose a sentence containing the word
"literature."

(5.) Give a synonym of "illiterate." _Ans. Unlearned_.--What is the
opposite of "illiterate"? _Ans. Learned_.


24. MORS, mortis, _death_.

Radical: MORT-.

1. MOR'TAL: mort + a = relating to death.

2. MOR'TIFY: mort + ify = literally, to cause to die: hence, (1) to destroy
vital functions; (2) to humble.

3. IMMOR'TALIZE: im (for _in_, not) + mort + al + ize = to make not subject
to death: hence, to perpetuate.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What does Shakespeare mean by the expression to "shuffle off this
_mortal_ coil"?--Combine and define mortal + ity.--What is the opposite of
"mortal"?--Give a synonym. _Ans. Deathless_.

(2.) State the two meanings of "mortify."--What noun is derived from this
verb? _Ans. Mortification_.--When a surgeon speaks of "mortification"
setting in, what does he mean?--What is meant by "mortification" when we
say that the British felt great _mortification_ at the recapture of Stony
Point by General Anthony Wayne?

(3.) Compose a sentence containing the word "immortalize." MODEL: "Milton
_immortalized_ his name by the production of Paradise Lost."


25. NOR'MA, _a rule_.

Radical: NORM-.

1. NOR'MAL: norm + al = according to rule.

2. ENOR'MOUS: e + norm + ous = having the quality of being out of all rule:
hence, excessive, huge.

3. ENOR'MITY: e + norm + ity = the state of being out of all rule: hence,
an excessive degree--generally used in regard to bad qualities.

4. ABNOR'MAL: ab + norm + al = having the quality of being _away_ from the
usual rule: hence, unnatural.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What is meant by the expression, "the _normal_ condition of
things"?--"What is the meaning of the term a "_normal_ school"? _Ans._ It
means a school whose methods of instruction are to serve as a model for
imitation; a school for the education of teachers.

(2.) Give a synonym of "enormous." _Ans. Immense_.--Give another.--"What is
meant by "_enormous_ strength"? an "_enormous_ crime?"--Combine and define
enormous + ly.

(3.) Illustrate the meaning of the word "enormity" by a sentence.


26. OR'DO, or'dinis, _order_.

Radical: ORDIN-.

1. OR'DINARY: ordin + ary = relating to the usual order of things.

2. EXTRAOR'DINARY: extra + ordin + ary = beyond ordinary.

3. INOR'DINATE: in + ordin + ate = having the quality of not being within
the usual order of things: hence, excessive.

4. SUBOR'DINATE: sub + ordin + ate = having the quality of being under the
usual order: hence, inferior, secondary.

5. OR'DINANCE: ordin + ance = that which is according to order: hence, a
law.

6. INSUBORDINA'TION: in + sub + ordin + ate + ion = the state of not being
under the usual order of things: hence, disobedience to lawful authority.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What is meant by "_ordinary_ language"? an "_ordinary_ man"?

(2.) Combine and define extraordinary + ly.--Compose a sentence using the
word "extraordinary."--Give a synonym of "extraordinary." _Ans. Unusual._

(3.) Explain what is meant by saying that General Charles Lee had
"_inordinate_ vanity."--Is "inordinate" used with reference to
praiseworthy things?

(4.) What part of speech other than an adjective is "subordinate"?--What is
meant by "a _subordinate_"?--What does "subordinate" mean in the sentence,
"We must _subordinate_ our wishes to the rules of morality"?--Combine and
define subordinate + ion.

(5.) What does the expression "the _ordinances_ of the Common Council of
the City of New York" mean?

(6.) Compose a sentence containing the word "insubordination."--Give the
opposite of "insubordination"? _Ans. Subordination, obedience._


27. PARS, par'tis, _a part or share_.

Radical: PART-.

1. PART: from part_is_ = a share.

2. PAR'TICLE: part + (_i_)cle = a small part.

3. PAR'TIAL: part + (_i_)al = relating to a part rather than the whole:
hence, inclined to favor one party or person or thing.

4. PAR'TY: through Fr. n. _partie_: a set of persons (that is, a part of
the people) engaged in some design.

5. PAR'TISAN: through Fr. n. _partisan_ = a party man.

6. DEPART': de + part = to take one's self away from one part to another.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What part of speech is "part" besides a noun?--Write a sentence
containing this word as a noun; another as a verb.

(2.) Point out the connection of meaning between "particle" and
"particular." _Ans_. "Particular"' means taking note of the minute parts or
_particles_ of a given subject.

(3.) What is the negative of "partial"? _Ans. Impartial._--Define it.

(4.) Explain what is meant by a "political _party_."

(6.) Combine and define depart + ure.


28. PES, pe'dis, _a foot_.

Radical: PED-.

1. PED'AL: ped + al = an instrument made to be moved by the foot.

2. BI'PED: bi + ped = a two-footed animal.

3. QUAD'RUPED: quadru + ped = a four-footed animal. (_Quadru_, from
_quatuor_, four.)

4. PED'DLER: literally, a trader who travels on foot.

5. EXPEDITE': ex + ped + ite (_ite_, equivalent to _ate_) = literally, to
free the feet from entanglement: hence, to hasten.

6. EXPEDI'TION: ex + ped + ite + ion = the act of expediting: hence, (1)
the quality of being expeditious, promptness; (2) a sending forth for the
execution of some object of importance.

7. IMPED'IMENT: through Lat. n. _impedimentum_; literally, something which
_impedes_ or entangles the feet: hence, an obstacle, an obstruction.


EXERCISE.

(2.) Make up a sentence containing the word "biped."

(3.) Make up a sentence containing the word "quadruped."

(4.) What is the English verb from which "peddler" comes?--In what other
way is "peddler" sometimes spelled? _Ans._ It is sometimes spelled with but
one _d_--thus, _pedler_.

(5.) "To expedite the growth of plants": what does that mean?--Give the
opposite of "expedite." _Ans._ To _retard_.

(6.) Point out the double sense of the word "expedition" in the following
sentences: "With winged _expedition_, swift as lightning."--_Milton_. "The
_expedition_ of Cortez miserably failed."--_Prescott._

(7.) Compose a sentence containing the word "impediment."--What is meant by
"_impediment_ of speech"?--Is the word here used in its literal or its
figurative sense?


29. RUM'PERE: rum'po, rup'tum, _to break_.

Radical: RUPT-.

1. RUP'TURE: rupt + ure = the act of breaking with another; that is, a
_breach_ of friendly relations.

2. ERUP'TION: e + rupt + ion = the act of breaking or bursting out.

3. ABRUPT': ab + rupt = broken off short: hence, having a sudden
termination.

4. CORRUPT': cor (for _con_) + rupt = thoroughly broken up: hence,
decomposed, depraved.

5. INTERRUPT': inter + rupt = to break in between: hence, to hinder.

6. BANK'RUPT: literally, one who is bank-broken, who cannot pay his debts,
an insolvent debtor.


EXERCISE.

(1.) What other part of speech than a noun is "rupture"? _Ans._ A
verb.--Compose one sentence using the word as a verb, the other as a
noun.--What does the "_rupture_ of a blood vessel" mean? Is this the
literal sense of the word?--The "_rupture_ of friendly relations" between
Maine and Massachusetts: is this its literal or its figurative sense?

(2.) Compose a sentence containing the word "eruption."

(3.) Combine and define abrupt + ness; abrupt + ly.--When we speak of an
"_abrupt_ manner," what is meant?--When we speak of an "_abrupt_ descent,"
what is meant?

(4.) Explain what is meant by "corrupt principles"; a "_corrupt_
judge."--Combine and define corrupt + ion; corrupt + ible; in + corrupt +
ible.--What other part of speech than an adjective is "corrupt"?--What part
of speech is it in the sentence "evil communications _corrupt_ good
manners"?


30. TEM'PUS, tem'poris, _time_.

Radical: TEMPOR-.

1. TEM'PORAL: tempor + al = relating to time: hence, not everlasting.

2. TEM'PORARY: tempor + ary = lasting only for a brief time.

3. CONTEM'PORARY: con + tempor + ary = one who lives in the same time with
another.

4. TEM'PERANCE: through Fr. n. _temperance_; literal meaning, the state of
being _well timed_ as to one's habits: hence, moderation.

5. EXTEMPORA'NEOUS: ex + temporane(us) + ous = produced at the time.

6. TEM'PORIZE: tempor + ize = to do as the times do: hence, to yield to the
current of opinion.


EXERCISE.

(1.) Give the opposite of "temporal." _Ans. Eternal._ Illustrate these two
words by a sentence from the Bible. _Ans._ "The things which are seen are
_temporal_; but the things which are not seen are _eternal_."

(2.) Give the opposite of "temporary." _Ans. Permanent._--What is meant by
the "_temporary_ government of a city"?--Give a synonym of "temporary."
_Ans. Transitory._--Would you say that man is a "_temporary_ being" or a
"_transitory_ being"?

(3.) Compose a sentence illustrating the use of the word
"contemporary."--What adjective corresponds to this adjective?

(4.) State the distinction between "temperance" and "abstinence."--Write a
sentence showing the use of the two words.

(5.) What is meant by an "_extemporaneous_ speech?"

(6.) What is one who _temporizes_ sometimes called? _Ans_. A _time_-server.


DIVISION II.--ABBREVIATED LATIN DERIVATIVES.

    NOTE--In Division II, the English derivatives from Latin roots are
    given in abbreviated form, and are arranged in paragraphs under the
    particular _radicals_, from which the several groups of derivatives are
    formed. The radicals are printed at the left in bold-face type--thus.,
    ACR-, ACERB-, etc. Derivatives not obviously connected with the Latin
    roots are given in the last paragraph of each section. Pupils are
    required to unite the prefixes and suffixes with the radicals, thus
    forming the English derivatives, which may be given either orally or in
    writing. Only difficult definitions are appended: in the case of words
    not defined, pupils may be required to form the definition by reference
    to the signification of the radicals and the formative elements, thus,
    acr + id = acrid, being bitter, acr + id + ity = state of being bitter,
    bitterness.


1. A'CER, a'cris, _sharp_; Acer'bus, _bitter_; Ac'idus, _sour_; Ace'tum,
_vinegar_.

ACR: -id, -idity; ac'rimony (Lat. n. _acrimo'nia_, sharpness of temper);
acrimo'nious.

ACERB: -ity; exac'erbate, _to render bitter_; exacerba'tion.

ACID: ac'id; -ify, -ity; acid'ulate (Lat. adj. _acid'ulus_, slightly sour);
acid'ulous; subac'id, _slightly acid_.

ACET: -ate, _a certain salt; _-ic, _pertaining to a certain acid; _-ify,
-ification, -ose, -ous.


2. AE'DES, _a house_.

ED: ed'ify; edifica'tion; ed'ifice (Lat. n. _edifi'cium_, a large
building); e'dile (Lat. n. _aedi'lis_, a Roman magistrate who had charge of
buildings).


3. AE'QUUS, _equal_: AEqua'lis, _equal, just_.

EQU: -able, -ation, -ator, -atorial, -ity, -itable; ad'equate (Lat. v.
_adequa're_, _adequa'tum_, to make equal); inadequacy; inad'equate;
iniq'uity (Lat. n. _iniq'uitas_, want of equal or just dealing);
iniq'uitous.

EQUAL: e'qual (n., v., adj.), -ity, -ize; co-e'qual; une'qual.


4. AE'VUM, _an age_; AEter'nitas, _eternal_.

EV: co-e'val; longevity (Lat. adj. _lon'gus_, long); prime'val (Lat. adj.
_pri'mus_, first).

ETERN: -al, -ity, -ize; co-eter'nal.


5. A'GER, a'gri, _a field, land_.

AGRI: agra'rian (Lat. adj. _agrarius_, relating to land); agra'rianism;
ag'riculture (Lat. n. _cultu'ra_, cultivation), agricult'ural,
agricult'urist.

Per'egrinate (Lat. v. _peregrina'ri_, to travel in foreign lands);
peregrina'tion; pil'grim (Fr. n. _pelerin_, a wanderer); pil'grimage.

AGERE, to do. (See p. 23.)


6. AL'ERE: a'lo, al'itum _or_ al'tum, _to nourish_; ALES'CERE:
ales'co _to grow up_.

AL: al'iment (Lat. n. _alimen'tum_, nourishment); alimen'tary; al'imony
(Lat. n. _alimo'ma_, allowance made to a divorced wife for her support).

ALIT: coali'tion (-ist).

ALESC: coalesce' (-ence, -ent).

ALIENUS. (See p. 25.)


7. AL'TER, _another_; Alter'nus, _one after another_.

ALTER: al'ter, -ation, -ative (a medicine producing a change); unal'tered;
alterca'tion (Lat. n. _alterca'tio_, a contention).

ALTERN: -ate, -ation, -ative; subal'tern, _a subordinate officer_.

AMARE; AMICUS. (See p. 25.)

ANIMUS; ANIMA. (See p. 26.)

ANNUS. (See p. 27.)


8. ANTI'QUUS, _old, ancient_.

ANTIQU: -ary, -arian, -ated, -ity; antique' (Fr. adj. _antique_), _old,
ancient_.


9. AP'TUS, _fit, suitable_.

APT: apt, -itude, -ly, -ness; adapt' (-able, -ation, -or).


10. A'QUA, _water_.

AQUE: -duct (_du'cere_, to lead); a'queous; suba'queous; terra'queous (Lat.
n. _terra_, land); aquat'ic (Lat. adj. _aquat'icus_, relating to water);
aqua'rium (Lat. n. _aqua'rium_, a reservoir of water), _a tank for
water-plants and animals_.


11. AR'BITER, ar'bitri, _a judge or umpire_.

ARBITER: ar'biter, _a judge or umpire_.

ARBITR: -ary, -ate, -ation, -ator; arbit'rament (Lat. n. _arbitramen'tum_,
decision).


12. AR'BOR, ar'boris, _a tree_.

ARBOR: ar'bor, _a lattice-work covered with vines, etc., a bower_; -et, _a
little tree_; -ist, -escent, -(e)ous; arbore'tum, _a place where specimens
of trees are cultivated_; arboricult'ure (-ist).


13. AR'MA, _arms, weapons_.

ARM: arm (n. and v.); arms, _weapons_; -or, _defensive weapons_; ar'morer;
ar'mory; armo'rial, _belonging to the escutcheon or coat of arms of a
family_; ar'mistice (_sis'tere_, to cause to stand still); disarm';
unarmed'.

Arma'da (Span, n.), _a naval warlike force_; ar'my (Fr. n _armee_);
ar'mament (Lat. n. _armamen'ta_, utensils); armadil'lo (Span, n.), _an
animal armed with a bony shell_.

ARS. (See page 28.)


14. ARTIC'ULUS, _a little joint_.

ARTICUL: -ate (v., to utter in distinctly _jointed_ syllables), -ate (adj.
formed with joints), -ation; inartic'ulate; ar'ticle (Fr. n. _article_).


15. AS'PER, _rough_.

ASPER: -ate, -ity; exas'perate; exas'peration.

AUDIRE. (See page 29.)


16. AUGE'RE: au'geo, auc'tum, _to increase_.

AUG: augment' (v.); augmentation.

AUCT: -ion, _a sale in which the price is increased by bidders_; -ioneer.
Author (Lat. n. _auc'tor_, one who increases knowledge); author'ity;
au'thorize; auxil'iary (Lat. n. _auxil'ium_, help).


17. A'VIS, _a bird_; Au'gur, Aus'pex, aus'picis, _a soothsayer_.

AUGUR: au'gur (n.), _one who foretells future events by observing the_
_flight of birds_, (v.) _to foretell_; au'gury, _an omen_; inau'gurate, _to
invest with an office by solemn rites_; inaugura'tion; inau'gural.

AUSPICI: -ous, _favorable_; inauspi'cious; aus'pices.


18. BAR'BARUS, _savage, uncivilized_.

BARBAR: -ian (n. and adj.), -ic, -ism, -ity, -ize, -ous.


19. BIS, _twice or two_.

BI: bi'ennial (Lat. n. _an'nus_, a year); big'amy (Greek n. _gamos_,
marriage); bil'lion (Lat. n. _mil'lio_, a million; literally, twice a
million); bipar'tite (Lat. n. _pars, par'tis_, a part); bi'ped (Lat. n.
_pes, pe'dis_, foot); bis'cuit (Fr. v. _cuit_, cooked); bisect' (Lat. v.
_sec'tum_, cut); bi'valve (Lat. n. _val'vae_, folding-doors); bi'nary (Lat.
adj. _bi'ni_, two by two); binoc'ular (Lat. n. _oc'ulus_, the eye);
combine'; combina'tion.


20. BO'NIS, _good_; Be'ne, _well_.

BONUS: bonus (something to the _good_ of a person in addition to
compensation), bounty (Fr. n. _bonte_, kindness); boun'teous; boun'tiful.

BENE: ben'efice (Lat. v. _fac'ere, fac'tum_, to do), literally, _a benefit,
an ecclesiastical living_; benef'icence; benef'icent; benefi'cial;
ben'efit; benefac'tion; benefac'tor; benedic'tion (Lat. v. _dic'ere,
dic'tum_, to say); benev'olence (Lat. v. _vel'le_, to will).

EXERCISE.

_In this and the following exercises, tell the roots of the words printed
in italic_: The _equator_ divides the globe into two _equal_ parts. Good
_agriculturists_ read _agricultural_ papers. In the _primeval_ ages the
_longevity_ of man was very great. The _pilgrims_ have gone on a
_pilgrimage_ to the Holy Land. The _subaltern_ had no _alternative_ but to
obey. To remove the stain a powerful _acid_ must be used. The _alimony_
which had hitherto been allowed was no longer considered _adequate_. The
discourse, though learned, was not _edifying_. God is an _eternal_ and
unchangeable being. The handsome _edifice_ was burned to the ground. The
plants and animals in the _aquarium_ were brought from abroad. Though the
style is _antiquated_, it is not inelegant. The _arbitrary_ proceedings of
the British Parliament _exasperated_ the Americans. God is the _bountiful_
Giver of all good. The President made a short _inaugural_ address. By
_combined_ effort success is sure. One of Scott's novels is called The
_Antiquary_. It is _barbarous_ needlessly to destroy life. George Peabody
was noted for his _benevolence_. The Romans were famous for their great
_aqueducts_.


21. CAD'ERE: ca'do, ca'sum, _to fall_.

CAD: -ence, _a falling of the voice_; cascade' (Fr. n.); deca'dence.

CIDE: ac'cident; coincide' (con + in); coin'cidence; decid'uous; in'cident;
oc'cident, _the place of the falling or setting sun, the west_.

CASE: case, _the state in which a thing happens or falls to be_; casual
(Lat. n. _ca'sus_, a fall); cas'ualty; cas'uist, _one who studies cases of
conscience_; cas'uistry; occa'sion.

Chance (Fr. v. _choir_, to fall), _something that befalls without apparent
cause_; decay (Fr. v. _dechoir_, to fall away).


22. CAED'ERE: cae'do, cae'sum, _to cut, to kill_.

CIDE: decide', _to cut off discussion, to determine_; frat'ricide, _the
killing of a brother_ (Lat. n. _fra'ter_, a brother); hom'icide (_ho'mo_, a
man); infan'ticide (_in'fans_, an infant); mat'ricide (_ma'ter_, a mother);
par'ricide (_pa'ter_, a father); reg'icide (_rex, re'gis_, a king);
su'icide (Lat. pro. _sui_, one's self).

CISE: con-, ex-, pre-; concise'ness; decis'ion; deci'sive; excis'ion,
incis'ion; inci'sor; precis'ion.


23. CAL'CULUS, _a pebble_.

CALCUL: -able (literally, that may be counted by the help of pebbles
anciently used in reckoning), -ate, -ation, -ator; incal'culable;
miscal'culate.


24. CANDE'RE: can'deo, can'ditum, _to be white, to shine
(literally, to burn, to glow)_; Can'didus, _white_.

CAND: -id, _fair, sincere_; -or, _openness, sincerity_; incandes'cent.

CAN'DID: -ate (in Rome aspirants for office wore _white_ robes).

Cen'ser, _a vessel in which incense is burned_; in'cense (n.), _perfume
given off by fire_; incense' (v.), _to inflame with anger_; incen'diary
(Lat. n. _incen'dium_, a fire); can'dle (Lat. _cande'la_, a _white_ light
made of wax); chand'ler (literally a maker or seller of candles);
chandelier'; candel'abra.


25. CAN'ERE: ca'no, can'tum, _to sing_; Fr chanter, _to sing_.

CANT: cant, _hypocritical sing-song speech_; canta'ta, _a poem set to
music_; can'ticle; can'ticles, _the Song of Solomon_; can'to, _division of
a poem_; discant'; incanta'tion, _enchantment_; recant', literally, _to
sing back, to retract_.

CHANT: chant; chant'er; chan'ticleer; chant'ry; enchant'.

Ac'cent (Lat. _ad._ and _cantus_, a song), literally, _a modulation of the
voice_; accentua'tion; precen'tor (Lat. v. _praecan'ere_, to sing before).


26. CAP'ERE: ca'pio, cap'tum, _to take_.

CAP: -able, -ability; inca'pable.

CIP: antic'ipate; eman'cipate (Lat. n. _ma'nus_, hand), literally, _to take
away from the hand of an owner, to free_; incip'ient; munic'ipal (Lat. n.
_municip'ium_, a free town; _mu'nia_, official duties, and _cap'ere_, to
take); partic'ipate (Lat. n. _pars, par'tis_, a part); par'ticiple; prince
(Lat. n. _prin'ceps_,--Lat. adj. _pri'mus_, first: hence, taking the
_first_ place or lead); prin'cipal; prin'ciple; recip'ient; rec'ipe
(imperative of _recip'ere_; literally, "take thou," being the first word of
a medical prescription).

CEIVE (Fr. root = cap- or cip-): conceive'; deceive'; perceive'; receive'.

CAPT: -ive, -ivate, -ivity, -or, -ure.

CEPT: accept' (-able, -ance, -ation); concep'tion; decep'tion; decep'tive;
except' (-ion, -ionable); incep'tion; incep'tive; intercept'; pre'cept;
precep'tor; recep'tacle; recep'tion; suscep'tible.

CEIT (Fr. root = capt- or cept-): conceit'; deceit'; receipt'.

Capa'cious (Lat. adj. _ca'pax_, _capa'cis_, able to hold: hence large);
capac'itate; capac'ity; incapac'itate.

CAPUT. (See page 30.)


27. CA'RO, carnis, _flesh_.

CARN: -age, _slaughter_; -al, -ation, _the flesh-colored flower_;
incar'nate; incarna'tion.

Carne'lian (Lat. adj. _car'neus_, fleshy), _a flesh-colored stone_;
car'nival (Lat. v. _vale_, farewell), _a festival preceding Lent_;
carniv'orous (Lat. v. _vora're_, to eat); char'nel (Fr. adj. _charnel_,
containing flesh).


28. CAU'SA, _a cause_.

CAUS: -al, -ation, -ative; cause (Fr. n. _cause_), n. and v.

Accuse' (Fr. v. _accuser_, to bring a charge against), -ative, -ation, -er;
excuse' (Fr. v. _excuser_, to absolve); excus'able; rec'usant (Lat. v.
_recusa're_, to refuse).


29. CAVE'RE: ca'veo, cautum, _to beware_.

CAUT: -ion, -ious; incau'tious; precaution.

Ca'veat (3d per. sing. present subjunctive = let him beware), _an
intimation to stop proceedings_.


30. CA'VUS, _hollow_.

CAV: -ity; concav'ity; ex'cavate.

Cave (Fr. n. _cave_), literally, _a hollow, empty space_; con'cave (Lat.
adj. _conca'vus_, arched); cav'il (Lat. n. _cavil'la_, a jest).


31. CED'ERE: ce'do, ces'sum, _to go, to yield_.

CEDE: cede; accede'; antece'dent; concede'; precede'; recede'; secede';
unprecedented.

CEED: ex-, pro-, sub- (suc-).

CESS: -ation, -ion; ab'scess, _a collection of matter gone away, or
collected in a cavity_; ac'cess; acces'sible; acces'sion; acces'sory;
conces'sion; excess'; exces'sive; interces'sion; interces'sor; preces'sion;
proc'ess; proces'sion; recess'; seces'sion; success' (-ful, -ion, -ive).


32. CENSE'RE: cen'seo, cen'sum, _to weigh, to estimate, to tax_.

CENS: -or, -ure; censo'rious; cen'surable; recen'sion.

Cen'sus (Lat. n. _census_, an estimate).


33. CEN'TRUM, _the middle point_.

CENTR: -al, -ical; centrif'ugal (Lat. v. _fu'gere_, to flee); centrip'etal
(Lat. v. _pet'ere_, to seek); concen'trate; concentra'tion; concen'tric;
eccen'tric; eccentric'ity.

Cen'ter or cen'tre (Fr. n. _centre_), n. and v.; cen'tered.


34. CEN'TUM, _a hundred_.

CENT: cent; cent'age; cen'tenary (Lat. adj. _centena'rius_); centena'rian;
centen'nial (Lat. n. _an'nus_, a year); cen'tigrade (Lat. n. _gra'dus_, a
degree); cen'tipede (Lat. n. _pes_, _pe'dis_, the foot); cen'tuple (Lat.
adj. _centu'plex_, hundredfold); centu'rion (Lat. n. _centu'rio_, a captain
of a hundred); cent'ury (Lat. n. _centu'ria_, a hundred years);
percent'age.


35. CER'NERE: cer'no, cre'tum, _to sift, to see, to judge_; Discrimen,
discrim'inis, _distinction_.

CERN: con-, de-, dis-; unconcern'; discern'er, discern'ible, discern'ment.

CRET: decre'tal, _a book of decrees_; discre'tion; discre'tionary;
excre'tion; se'cret; sec'retary.

DISCRIMIN: -ate, -ation; indiscrim'inate.

Decree' (Fr. n. _decret_); discreet' (Fr. adj. _discret_); discrete'
(literally, sifted apart), _separate_.


36. CERTA'RE: cer'to, certa'tum, _to contend, to vie_.

CERT: con'cert (n.); concert' (v.); disconcert'; preconcert'.


37. CIN'GERE: cin'go, cinc'tum, _to gird_.

CINCT: cinct'ure; pre'cinct; succinct', literally, _girded or tucked up,
compressed, concise_; succinct'ness.


38. CIR'CUS, _a circle_; cir'culus, _a little circle_.

CIRC: cir'cus, _an open space for sports_; cir'clet.

CIRCUL: -ar, -ate, -ation, -atory.

Cir'cle (Fr. n. _cercle_); encir'cle; sem'icircle.


39. CITA'RE: ci'to, cita'tum, _to stir up, to rouse_.

CITE: cite, _to summon or quote_; excite' (-able, -ability, -ment); incite'
(-ment); recite' (-al); resus'citate (Lat. v. _suscita're_, to raise).

CITAT: cita'tion; recita'tion; recitative', _a species of musical
recitation_.

CIVIS. (See p. 31.)


40. CLAMA'RE: cla'mo, clama'tum, _to cry out, to shout_; Clam'or,
_a loud cry_.

CLAIM: claim (v. and n., to demand; a demand), ac-, de-, dis-, ex-, pro-,
re-; claim'ant; reclaim'a'ble.

CLAMAT: acclama'tion; declama'tion; declam'atory; exclama'tion;
exclam'atory; proclama'tion; reclama'tion.

CLAMOR: clam'or (v. and n.), -er, -ous.

EXERCISE.

The _decay_ of the tree was caused by the _incisions_ which had
_accidentally_ been made in the bark. The _captives_ will be set at
liberty, but the _precise_ time of their _emancipation_ has not been fixed.
The harbor is _capacious_, and can _receive_ vessels of the largest size.
The merits of the _candidates_ were _discriminated_ with great _candor_. We
were _enchanted_ with the _carnival_ at Rome. This _recitation_ is
satisfactory. Have you ever seen a _centigrade_ thermometer? Nothing is so
_successful_ as _success_. The number of _concentric circles_ in the trunk
marked the age of the tree. No _censer_ round our altar beams. The heat
being _excessive_, we took shelter in the _recesses_ of a _cave_.
_Precision_ is the _principal_ quality of good writing. Franklin's father
was a tallow _chandler_. Last _century_ there was great _carnage_ in
America. _Infanticide_ is much practiced in China. The _proclamation_ was
widely _circulated_. The president was _inaugurated_ on the 4th of March.
The _census_ is taken every ten years. _Conceit_ is worse than
_eccentricity_. Have you filed your _caveat_?


41. CLAU'DERE: clau'do, clau'sum, _to shut, to close_.

CLUD: conclude'; exclude'; include'; preclude'; seclude'.

CLUS: conclu'sion; conclu'sive; exclu'sion; exclu'sive; recluse';
seclu'sion.

CLOSE: close (v., n., adj.); clos'et; close'ness; inclose' (-ure); enclose'
(-ure).

Clause (Fr. n. _clause_); clois'ter (old Fr. n. _cloistre_).


42. CLINA'RE: cli'no, clina'tum, _to bend_; Cli'vus, _a slope or hill_.

CLINAT: inclina'tion.

CLINE: de-, in-, re-.

CLIV: accliv'ity; decliv'ity; procliv'ity.


43. COL'ERE: co'lo, cul'tum, _to till, to cultivate_ (_Low Lat._
Cultiva're, _to cultivate_).

CULT: cult'ure (Lat. n. _cultu'ra_, a cultivation); ag'riculture (Lat. n.
_a'ger_, a field); arboricult'ure (Lat. n. _ar'bor_, a tree); flor'iculture
(Lat. n. _flos_, _flo'ris_, a flower); hor'ticulture (Lat. n. _hor'tus_, a
garden); ausculta'tion (Lat. n. _ausculta'tio_, a listening; hence, a test
of the lungs).

CULTIV: -ate, -ation, -ator.

Col'ony (Lat. n. _colo'nia_, a settlement); colo'nial; col'onist;
col'onize.

COR. (See page 32.)

CORPUS. (See page 33.)

CREDERE. (See page 35.)


44. CREA'RE: cre'o, crea'tum, _to create_.

CREAT: -ion, -ive, -or, -ure; create' (pro-, re-).


45. CRES'CERE: cres'co, cre'tum, _to grow_.

CRESC: cres'cent; excres'cence; decrease'; increase'.

CRET: accre'tion; con'crete; concre'tion.

Accrue' (Fr. n. _accrue_, increase); in'crement (Lat. n. _incremen'tum_,
increase); recruit' (Fr. v. _recroitre_, _recru_, to grow again).


46. CRUX, cru'cis, _a cross_.

CRUC: cru'cial (Fr. adj. _cruciale_, as if bringing to the cross: hence,
severe); cru'cible (a chemist's melting-pot--Lat. n. _crucib'ulum_--marked
in old times with a cross); cru'ciform (Lat. n. _for'ma_, a shape);
cru'cify (Lat. v. _fig'ere_, _fix'um_, to fix); crucifix'ion;
excru'ciating.

Cross (Fr. n. _croix_); cro'sier (Fr. n. _crosier_); cruise (Dan. v.
_kruisen_, to move crosswise or in a zigzag); crusade' (Fr. n. _croisade_,
in the Middle Ages, an expedition to the Holy Land made under the banner of
the cross); crusad'er.


47. CUBA'RE: cu'bo (_in compos, _cumbo__), cub'itum, _to lie down_.

CUB: in'cubate; incuba'tion; in'cubator.

CUMB: incum'bency; incum'bent; procum'bent; recum'bency; recum'bent;
succumb' (sub-); superincum'bent.

Cu'bit (Lat. n. _cub'itus_, the elbow, because it serves for leaning upon);
in'cubus (Lat. n. _in'cubus_), the nightmare.


48. CU'RA, _care_.

CUR: -able, -ate, -ative, -ator; ac'curate; ac'curacy; inac'curate;
proc'urator.

Cu'rious; prox'y (contracted from _proc'uracy_). _authority to act for
another_; secure' (Lat. adj. _secu'rus_, from _se_ for _si'ne_, without,
and _cu'ra_, care); secu'rity; insecure'; si'necure (Lat. prep. _si'ne_,
without--an office without duties).

CURRERE. (See page 36.)


49. DA'RE: do, da'tum, _to give_.

DAT: date (originally the time at which a public document was
given--_da'tum_); da'ta (Lat. plural of _da'tum_), _facts or truths given
or admitted_; da'tive.

DIT: addi'tion; condi'tion; ed'it (-ion, -or); perdi'tion; tradi'tion;
extradi'tion.

Add (Lat. v. _ad'dere_, to give or put to); adden'dum (pl. adden'da),
_something to be added_.


50. DEBE'RE: de'beo, deb'itum, _to owe_.

DEBT: debt; debt'or; indebt'ed; deb'it (n. and v.).


51. DE'CEM, _ten_; Dec'imus, _the tenth_.

DECEM: Decem'ber (formerly the _tenth_ month); decem'virate (Lat. n. _vir_,
a man), _a body of ten magistrates_; decen'nial (Lat. n. _an'nus_, a year).

DECIM: dec'imal; dec'imate; duodec'imo (Lat. adj. _duodec'imus_, twelfth),
_a book having twelve leaves to a sheet_.


52. DENS, den'tis, _a tooth_.

DENT: dent, _to notch_; den'tal; den'tifrice (Lat. v. _frica're_, to rub);
den'tist; denti'tion (Lat. n. _denti'tio_, a cutting of the teeth);
eden'tate (Lat. adj. _edenta'tus_, toothless); indent'; indent'ure;
tri'dent (Lat. adj. _tres_, three), _Neptune's three-pronged scepter_;
dan'delion (Fr. _dent-de-lion_, the lion's tooth), _a plant_.


53. DE'US, _a God_; Divi'nus, _relating to God, divine_.

DE: de'ify; de'ism; de'ist; deist'ical; de'ity.

DIVIN: divine'; divina'tion (Lat. n. _divina'tio_, a foretelling the aid of
the gods); divin'ity.


54. DIC'ERE: di'co, dio'tum, _to say_.

DICT: dic'tate; dicta'tor; dictatorial; dic'tion; dic'tionary (Lat. n.
_dictiona'rium_, a word-book); dic'tum (pl. dic'ta), _positive opinion_;
addict' (Lat. v. _addic'ere_, to devote); benedic'tion (Lat. adv. _be'ne_,
well); contradict'; e'dict; indict' (Lat. v. _indic'ere_, to proclaim), _to
charge with a crime_; indict'ment; in'terdict; jurid'ic (Lat. n. _jus_,
_ju'ris_, justice), _relating to the distribution of justice_; maledic'tion
(Lat. adv. _ma'le_, ill); predict'; predic'tion; valedic'tory (Lat. v.
_va'le_, farewell); ver'dict (Lat. adj. _ve'rus_, true).

Dit'to, _n_. (Ital. n. _det'to_, a word), _the aforesaid thing_; indite'
(Lat. v. _indic'ere_, to dictate), _to compose_.


55. DI'ES, _a day_; _French_ jour, _a day_.

DIES: di'al; di'ary; di'et; diur'nal (Lat. adj. _diur'nus_, daily);
merid'ian (Lat. n. _merid'ies_ = _me'dius di'es_, midday); merid'ional;
quotid'ian (Lat. adj. _quotidia'nus_, daily).

JOUR: jour'nal; jour'nalist; jour'ney; adjourn'; adjourn'ment; so'journ;
so'journer.

DIGNUS (See page 37.)


56. DIVID'ERE: div'ido, divi'sum, _to divide, to separate_.

DIVID: divide'; div'idend; subdivide'; individ'ual, literally, _one not to
be divided, a single person_.

DIVIS: -ible, -ibility, -ion, -or.

Device' (Fr. n. _devis_, something imagined or devised); devise' (Fr. v.
_deviser_, to form a plan).

DOCERE. (See page 38.)


57. DOLE'RE: do'leo, doli'tum, _to grieve_.

Dole'ful; do'lor; dol'orous; condole'; condo'lence; in'dolent (literally,
not grieving or caring), _lazy_.

DOMINUS. (See page 38.)


58. DU'CERE: du'co, duc'tum, _to lead, to bring forward_.

DUC: adduce'; conduce'; condu'cive; deduce'; educe'; ed'ucate; educa'tion;
induce'; induce'ment; introduce'; produce'; reduce'; redu'cible; seduce';
superinduce'; traduce'; tradu'cer.

DUCT: abduc'tion; duc'tile (-ity); conduct' (-or); deduct' (-ion, -ive);
induct' (-ion, -ive); introduc'tion; introduc'tory; prod'uct (-ion, -ive);
reduc'tion; seduc'tion; seduc'tive; aq'ueduct (Lat. n. _a'qua_, water);
vi'aduct (Lat. n. _vi'a_, a road); con'duit (Fr. n. _conduit_), a channel
for conveying water.


59. DU'O, _two_.

DU: du'al; du'el (-ist); duet'; du'plicate (Lat. v. _plica're_, to fold) ;
dupli'city (Lat. n. _duplic'itas_, double dealing).

Dubi'ety (Lat. n. _dubi'etas_, uncertainty); du'bious (Lat. adj. _du'bius_,
uncertain); indu'bitable (Lat. v. _dubita're_, to doubt); doub'le (Fr. adj.
_double_, twofold); doubt (Fr. n. _doubt_), -ful, -less ; undoubt'ed.


60. DU'RUS, _hard, lasting_; DURA'RE: du'ro, dura'tum, _to last_.

DUR: -able, -ableness, -ability, -ance, _state of being held hard and
fast_; duresse, _hardship, constraint_; endure' (-ance); ob'duracy.

DURAT: dura'tion ; in'durate, _to grow hard_; indura'tion; ob'duracy.

EXERCISE.

When the speech, was _concluded_ loud acclamation _arose_. In many parts of
the _colony_ much of the waste land has been _reclaimed_, and
_agricultural_ operations now _receive_ the due attention of the
_colonists_. The patient declined to undergo _auscultation_. Fishing is a
healthful _recreation_. Many of the _crusaders_ were inspired with great
courage. _Security_ was offered, but it was not _accepted_. The _incumbent_
could not stand the _crucial_ test, and hence _succumbed_. A _curious
excrescence_ was cut from the tree. To Neptune with his _trident_ the
Greeks ascribed _divine_ power. A French _journalist_ has been _indicted_.
The _valedictory_ was pronounced in _December_. What is the difference
between _addition_ and _division_? We may easily _predict_ the ruin of an
_indolent debtor_. How many _maledictions_ are heaped on _dentists_! The
_reduction_ of the public _debt_ is desirable. The prisoner was _doleful_
because he was in _duresse_ vile. An educated man is known by his
_accurate_ use of language. The _dandelion_ is a _productive_ plant. The
_pilgrims received_ the priest's _benediction_ before setting out on their
_journey_. The _decimal_ system _conduces_ to the saving of time.


61. EM'ERE: E'MO, EMP'TUM, to buy or take.

EMPT: exempt' (-ion); per'emptory (Lat. adj. _perempto'rius_, wholly taken
away), _decisive_, _final_; pre-empt'; pre-emp'tion, _the right of buying
before others_; redemp'tion.

Redeem' (Lat. v. _redim'ere_, to buy back); redeem'er; prompt (Lat. adj.
_promp'tus_ = _pro-emp'tus_, taken out; hence, ready); prompt'er;
prompt'itude; prompt'ness; impromp'tu (Lat. _in promp'tu_, in readiness).


62. ERRA'RE: er'ro, erra'tum, _to wander_.

ERR: err, -ant, -antry; er'ror (Lat. n. _er'ror_); erro'neous (Lat. adj.
_erro'neus_, erring).

ERRAT: errat'ic; erra'tum (pl. er'rata), _a mistake in printing_;
aberra'tion.


63. ES'SE, _to be_; en, en'tis, _being_.

ENT: ab'sent (-ee); ab'sence; en'tity; nonen'tity; omnipres'ent (Lat. adj.
_om'nis_, all); pres'ent (-ation, -ly); represent' (-ation, -ative);
misrepresent'.

Es'sence (Lat. n. _essen'tia_, being); essen'tial; quintes'sence (Lat. adj.
_quin'tus_, fifth), _the highest essence; in'terest_ (3d pers. sing. pres.
indic. of _interes'se_ = it interests or is of interest); disin'terested.


64. FA'CERE: fa'cio, fac'tum, _to do or make_; _French_ Faire.

FAC: face'tious (Lat. adj. _face'tus_, merry); fac'ile (Lat. adj.
_fa'cilis_, easily done); facil'ity; facil'itate; fac'ulty (Lat. n.
_facul'tas_, power, ability); fac-sim'ile (Lat. adj. _sim'ilis_, like),
literally, _make like_, _an exact copy_; facto'tum (Lat. adj. _to'tum_, the
whole; literally, do the whole), _a servant of all work_.

FIC: ben'efice (see _bene_); def'icit (literally, it is wanting), _a lack_;
defi'ciency; defi'cient; dif'ficult (Lat. adj. _diffic'ilis_, arduous);
ef'ficacy (Lat. adj. _ef'ficax_, _effica'cis_, powerful); effi'cient,
_causing effects_; of'fice (Lat. n. _offic'ium_, a duty); of'ficer;
offi'cial; offi'cious; profi'cient; suffice', literally, _to make up what
is wanting_; suffi'cient.

FACT: fact; fac'tor; fac'tion, _a party acting in opposition_; fac'tious;
facti'tious (Lat. adj. _facti'tius_, artificial); benefac'tor; manufacture
(Lat. n. _ma'nus_, the hand).

FECT: affect' (-ation, -ion); disaffec'tion; confec'tion, literally, _made_
_with sugar_ (-er); defect' (-ion, -ive); effect' (-ive); effect'ual;
infect' (-ion); infec'tious; per'fect, literally, _thoroughly made_ (-ion);
imper'fect (-ion); refec'tion; refec'tory.

FAIRE (past participle _fait_): fash'ion (Fr. n. _facon_, the make or form
of a thing); fea'sible (Old Fr. _faisible_, that may be done); feat;
affair'; coun'terfeit, literally, _to make again_, _to imitate_; for'feit,
(Fr. v. _forfaire_, to misdo), _to lose by some fault_; sur'feit, v., _to
overdo in the way of eating_.


65. FAL'LERE: fal'lo, fal'sum, _to deceive_; _French_ Faillir, _to fall
short or do amiss_.

FALL: fal'lacy; falla'cious; fal'lible; fallibil'ity; infal'lible.

FALS: false (-hood, -ify); falset'to (Ital. n. = a false or artificial
voice).

FAIL: fail'ure; fault (Old Fr. n. _faulte_); fault'y; fal'ter; default'
(-er).


66. FA'NUM, _a temple_.

FAN: fane; fanat'ic (Lat. adj. _fanat'icus_, literally, one inspired by
divinity--the god of the fane), _a wild enthusiast_; fanat'ical;
fanat'icism; profane', v. (literally, to be before or outside of the
temple), _to desecrate_; profane', adj., _unholy_; profana'tion;
profan'ity.


67. FA'RI, fa'tus, _to speak_.

FAT: fate, -al, -ality, -alism, -alist; pref'atory.

Affable (Lat. adj. _affab'ilis_, easy to be spoken to); affabil'ity;
inef'fable; in'fant (Lat. participle, _in'fans_, _infan'tis_, literally,
not speaking) (-ile, -ine); in'fancy; nefa'rious (Lat. adj. _nefa'rius_,
impious); pref'ace (Fr. n. _preface_), _something spoken or written by way
of introduction_.


68. FATE'RI: fa'teor, fas'sus (_in comp._ fes'sus), _to acknowledge, to
show_.

FESS: confess' (-ion, -ional, -or); profess' (-ion, -ional, -or).


69. FELIX, feli'cis, _happy_.

FELIC: -ity, -itous; infeli'city; feli'citate, _to make happy by
congratulation_.


70. FEN'DERE: fen'do, fen'sum, _to keep off, to strike_.[6]

FEND: fend (-er); defend' (-er, -ant); offend' (-er).

FENS: defense' (-ible, -ive); offense' (-ive); fence (n. and v.,
abbreviated from defence);[7] fencer; fencing.


71. FER'RE: fe'ro, la'tum, _to bear, to carry_.

FER: fer'tile (Lat. adj. _fer'tilis_, bearing, fruitful); fertil'ity;
fer'tilize; circum'ference, literally, _a measure carried around anything_;
confer', _to consult_; con'ference; defer'; def'erence; deferen'tial;
dif'fer (-ence, -ent); infer' (-ence); of'fer; prefer' (-able, -ence,
-ment); prof'fer; refer' (-ee, -ence); suf'fer (-ance, -able, -er);
transfer' (-able, -ence); conif'erous (Lat. n. _co'nus_, a cone);
florif'erous (Lat. n. _flos_, _flo'ris_, a flower); fructif'erous (Lat. n.
_fruc'tus_, fruit); Lu'cifer (Lat. n. _lux_, _lucis_, light), _the morning
or evening star, Satan_; pestif'erous (Lat. n. _pes'tis_, pest, plague).

LAT: ab'lative (literally, carrying away; the sixth case of Latin nouns);
collate' (-ion); dilate' (-ory); elate'; ob'late, _flattened at the poles_;
obla'tion, _an offering_; prel'ate; prel'acy; pro'late, _elongated at the
poles_; relate' (-ion, -ive); correla'tion; correl'ative; super'lative;
translate' (-ion); delay' (= dis + lat, through old Fr. verb _delayer_, to
put off).


72. FERVE'RE: fer'veo, _to boil_; Fermen'tum, _leaven_.

FERV: -ent, -ency, -id, -or; effervesce', _to bubble or froth up_;
efferves'cence.

FERMENT: fer'ment, -ation.


73. FES'TUS, _joyful, merry_.

FEST: -al, -ival, -ive, -ivity; feast (Old Fr. _feste_, a joyous meal);
fete (modern Fr. equivalent of _feast_), _a festival_; festoon (Fr. n.
_feston_, originally an ornament for a festival).


74. FID'ERE: fi'do, _to trust_; Fi'des, _faith_; Fide'lis, _trusty_.

FID: confide' (-ant, -ence, -ent, -ential); dif'fidence; dif'fident;
per'fidy (per = through and hence _away from_ good faith); perfid'ious.

FIDEL: fidel'ity; in'fidel; infidel'ity.

Fe'alty (Old Fr. n. _fealte_ = Lat. _fidel'itas_), _loy'alty_; fidu'cial
(Lat. n. _fidu'cia_, trust); fidu'ciary; affi'ance, _to pledge faith_, _to
betroth_; affida'vit (Low Lat., signifying, literally, he made oath), _a
declaration on oath_; defy' (Fr. v. _defier_, originally, to dissolve the
bond of allegiance; hence, to disown, to challenge, to brave).


75. FI'GERE: fi'go, fix'um, _to join, fix, pierce_.

FIX: affix'; cru'cifix (Lat. n. _crux_, _cru'cis_, a cross); cru'cify;
fix'ture; post'fix; pre'fix; suf'fix (n., literally, something fixed below
or on; hence, appended); transfix', _to pierce through_.


76. FIN'GERE: fin'go, fic'tum, _to form, to feign_; Figu'ra, _a shape_.

FICT: fic'tion; ficti'tious.

FIGUR: fig'ure; figura'tion; configura'tion; disfig'ure; prefig'ure;
transfig'ure.

Feign (Fr. v. _feindre_, _feignant_, to pretend); feint (_feint_, past
part. of _feindre_); ef'figy (Lat. n. _effig'ies_, an image or likeness);
fig'ment (Lat. n. _figmen'tum_, an invention).

FINIS. (See page 40).


77. FIR'MUS, _strong, stable_.

FIRM: firm; firm'ness; infirm' (-ary, -ity); fir'mament, originally, _firm
foundation_; affirm' (-ation, -ative); confirm' (-ation, -ative).


78. FLAM'MA, _a stream of fire_.

FLAM: flame; inflame' (-able, -ation, -atory).

Flambeau' (Fr. n. _flambeau_ from v. _flamber_, to blaze); flamin'go (Span.
n. _flamenco_), _a bird of a flaming red color_.

EXERCISE.

Age does not always _exempt_ one from _faults_. _Peremptory _orders were
given that all the princes should be _present_ at the _diet_. Many
_beneficial_ results must come from the _introduction_ of drawing into the
public schools. The lady is _affable_ and _perfectly_ free from
_affectation_. The field is _fertile_ and _produces_ abundant crops. The
_professor's_ lecture _related_ to _edentate_ animals. Men sometimes
_feign_ a _fealty_ they do not feel. The lady _professed_ that her
_felicity_ was ineffable. The King seized a _flambeau_ with zeal to
destroy. It is a _nefarious_ act to make a _false affidavit_. _Fanaticism_
is often _infectious_. The _confirmed offender_ had issued many
_counterfeits_. Dickens gives us the _quintessence_ of the _facetious_. In
_figure_ the earth is an _oblate_ spheroid.


79. FLEC'TERE: flec'to, flex'um, _to bend_.

FLECT: deflect' (-ion); inflect' (-ion) ; reflect' (-ion, -ive, -or).

FLEX: -ible, -ile, -ion, -or (a muscle that bends a joint), -ure;
flex'-uous; flex'uose; cir'cumflex; re'flex.


80. FLOS, flo'ris, _a flower_.

FLOR: -al, -et, -id, -ist; Flo'ra, _the goddess of flowers_; flor'iculture
(Lat. n. _cultu'ra_, cultivation); florif'erous (Lat. v. _fer're_, to
bear); flor'in (originally, a Florentine coin with a lily on it); flour
(literally, the _flower_ or choicest part of wheat); flow'er (-et, -y);
flour'ish (Lat. v. _flores'cere_, to begin to blossom, to prosper);
efflores'cence; efflores'cent.

FLUERE. (See page 41.)


81. FOE'DUS, foed'eris, _a league or treaty_.

FEDER: fed'eral; fed'eralist (in the United States a member of the party
that favored a strong league of the States); fed'erate; confed'erate;
confed'eracy; confedera'tion.


82. FO'LIUM, _a leaf_.

FOLI: -aceous, -age, -ate; fo'lio (ablative case of _fo'lium_, a leaf), _a
book made of sheets folded once_; exfo'liate, _to come off in scales_;
foil, _a thin leaf of metal_; tre'foil, _a plant with three (tres) leaves_;
cinque'foil (Fr. _cinque_, five).


83. FOR'MA, _shape, form_.

FORM: form (-al, -ality); conform' (-able, -ation, -ity); deform' (-ity);
inform' (-ant, -er, -ation); perform' (-ance, -er); reform' (-ation,
-atory, -er); transform' (-ation); for'mula (Lat. n. _for'mula_, pl.
_for'mulae_, a little form, a model); for'mulate; mul'tiform (Lat. adj.
_mul'tus_, many); u'niform (Lat. adj. _u'nus_, one).


84. FOR'TIS, _strong_.

FORT: fort; for'tress, _a fortified place_; for'tify; fortifica'tion;
for'titude; com'fort, n., _something that strengthens or cheers_ (-able,
-er, -less); discom'fort; effort, _a putting forth of one's strength_;
force (Fr. n. _force_, strength); for'cible; enforce' (-ment); reinforce'
(-ment).


85. FRAN'GERE: fran'go, frac'tum, _to break_; Fra'gilis, _easily
broken_.

FRANG, FRING: fran'gible (-ibility); infran'gible; infringe' (-ment);
refran'gible.

FRACT: frac'tion; frac'tious; fract'ure; infract' (-ion); refract' (-ion,
-ory).

Fra'gile; frag'ment; frail (old Fr. ad; _fraile_ = Lat. _fra'gilis_);
frail'ty.


86. FRA'TER, fra'tris, _a brother_; Frater'nus, _brotherly_.

FRATR: frat'ricide (Lat. v. _caed'ere_, to kill).

FRATERN: -al, -ity, -ize; confrater'nity.

Fri'ar (Fr. n. _frere_, a brother); fri'ary.


87. FRONS, fron'tis, _the forehead_.

FRONT: front (-age, -al, -less, -let); affront'; confront'; effront'ery;
fron'tier (Fr. n. _frontiere_); front'ispiece (Lat. n. _frontispi'cium_,
from _frons_ and _spic'ere_, to view; literally, that which is seen in
front).


88 FRU'OR: fruc'tus, _to enjoy_; Fru'ges, _corn_; French Fruit, _fruit_.

FRUCT: -ify, -ification; fructif'erous (Lat. v. _fer're_, to bear).

FRUG: -al, -ality; frugif'erous (Lat. v. _fer're_, to bear).

FRUIT: fruit; fruit'erer; fruit'ful; frui'tion.


89. FU'GERE: fu'gio, fu'gitum, _to flee_.

FUG: fuga'cious; centrif'ugal (Lat. n. _cen'trum_, the center); feb'rifuge
(Lat. n. _fe'bris_, fever); fugue (Lat. n. _fu'ga_, a flight), _a musical
composition_; ref'uge (-ee); sub'terfuge; ver'mifuge (Lat. n. _ver'mis_, a
worm).

FUGIT: fu'gitive (adj. and n.).


90. FU'MUS, _smoke_.

FUM: fume; fu'mid; fumif'erous (Lat. v. _fer're_, to bear), _producing
smoke_; fu'matory, _a plant with bitter leaves_; per'fume (-er, -ery).

Fu'migate (Lat. v. _fumiga're_, _fumiga'tum_, to smoke), _to disinfect_;
fumiga'tion; fu'migatory.


91. FUN'DERE: fun'do, fu'sum, _to pour_.

FUND: refund'; found (Fr. v. _fondre_ = Lat. _fun'dere_), _to form by
pouring into a mould_ (-er, -ery); confound' (Fr. v. _confondre_,
literally, to pour together; hence, to confuse).

FUS: fuse (-ible, -ion); confuse' (-ion); diffuse' (-ion, -ive); effuse'
(-ion, -ive); infuse' (-ion); profuse' (-ion); refuse' (-al); suffuse'
(-ion); transfuse' (-ion).


92. GER'ERE: ge'ro, ges'tum, _to bear or carry_.

GER: ger'und, _a Latin verbal noun_; bellig'erent (Lat. n. _bel'lum_, war);
con'geries (Lat. n. _conge'ries_, a collection); vicege'rent (Lat. _vi'ce_,
in place of), _one bearing rule in place of another_.

GEST: gest'ure; gestic'ulate (Lat. n. _gestic'ulus_, a mimic gesture);
gesticula'tion; congest' (-ion, -ive); digest', literally, _to carry
apart_: hence, _to dissolve food in the stomach_ (-ible, -ion, -ive);
suggest', literally, _to bear into the mind from below_, that is,
_indirectly_ (-ion, -ive); reg'ister (Lat. v. _reger'ere_, to carry back,
to record); reg'istrar; registra'tion; reg'istry.


93. GIG'NERE: gig'no, gen'itum, _to beget_; Gens, gen'tis, _a clan or
nation_, Ge'nus, gen'eris, _a kind_.

GENIT: gen'itive, _a case of Latin nouns_; congen'ital, _born with one_;
primogen'itor (Lat. adj. _pri'mus_, first), _an ancestor_; primogen'iture,
_ state of being first born_; progen'itor, _an ancestor_.

GENT: genteel' (Lat. adj. _genti'lis_, pertaining to the same clan; hence,
of good family or birth); gentil'ity; gen'tle (_genti'lis_, of good birth),
_mild, refined_; gen'try (contracted from gentlery), _a class in English
society_; gen'tile, _belonging to a nation other than the Jewish_.

GENER: gen'eral (-ity, -ize); gen'erate (Lat. _genera're, genera'tum_, to
produce); genera'tion; regenera'tion; gener'ic; gen'erous; generos'ity;
con'gener, _of the same kind_; degen'erate, _to fall off from the original
kind_; degen'eracy.

Gen'der (Fr. n. _genre_ = Lat. _ge'nus, gen'eris_), _the kind of a noun as
regards the sex of the object_; gen'ial (Lat. adj. _genia'lis_, cheerful);
gen'ius (Lat. n. _ge'nius_, originally, the divine nature innate in
everything); gen'uine (Lat. adj. _genui'nus_, literally, proceeding from
the original stock; hence, natural, true); ge'nus, a kind including many
species; engen'der (Fr. v. _engendrer_, to beget); ingen'ious (Lat. adj.
_ingenio'sus_, acute, clever); ingen'uous (Lat. adj. _ingen'uus_, frank,
sincere).


94. GRA'DI: gra'dior, gres'sus, _to walk_.

GRAD: grada'tion; gra'dient (_gra'diens, gradien'tis_, pres. part. of v.
_gradi_), _rate of ascent, grade_; grad'ual (Lat. n. _gradus_, a step);
grad'uate; degrade' (-ation); ingre'dient (Lat. part. _ingre'diens_,
entering); ret'rograde.

GRESS: aggres'sion; aggres'sive; con'gress (-ional); digress' (-ion);
e'gress; in'gress; prog'ress (-ion, -ive); retrogres'sion; transgress'
(-ion, -or).

Grade (Fr. n. _grade_ = Lat. _gra'dus_, degree or rank); degree' (Fr. n.
_degre_ = _de_ + _gradus_).


95. GRA'TUS, thankful, _pleasing_.

GRAT: grate'ful; gra'tis (Lat. _gra'tiis_, by favor, for nothing)
grat'itude; gratu'ity; gratu'itous; grat'ify (-ication); congrat'ulate
(-ion, -ory); ingra'tiate.

Grace (Fr. _grace_ = Lat. _gra'tia_, favor, grace); grace'ful; gra'cious;
grace'less; disgrace'; agree' (Fr. v. _agreer_, to receive kindly), -able,
-ment; disagree'.


96. GRA'VIS, _heavy_.

GRAV: _grave_, literally, _heavy_: hence, _serious_; grav'ity;
gravita'tion; ag'gravate (-ion).

Grief (Fr. _grief_ = Lat. _gra'vis_), literally, _heaviness of spirit,
sorrow_; grieve; griev'ance; griev'ous.

GREX. (See page 41.)


97. HABE'RE: ha'beo, hab'itum, _to have or hold_; HABITA'RE,
hab'ito, habita'tum, _to use frequently, to dwell_.

HABIT: habit'ual; habit'uate; hab'itude; hab'itable; hab'itat, _the natural
abode of an animal or a plant_; habita'tion; cohab'it; inhab'it (-able,
-ant).

HIBIT: exhib'it, literally, _to hold out, to show_ (-ion, -or); inhib'it
(-ion); prohib'it (-ion, -ory).

Hab'it (Lat. _hab'itus_, state or dress); habil'iment (Fr. n.
_habillement_, from v. _habiller_, to dress); a'ble (Lat. adj. _hab'ilis_,
literally, that may be easily held or managed; hence, apt, skillful.)


98. HAERE'RE: hae'reo, hae'sum, _to stick_.

HER: adhere' (-ency, -ent); cohere' (-ence, -ency, -ent); inhere' (-ent).

HES: adhe'sion; adhe'sive; cohe'sion; cohe'sive.

Hes'itate (Lat. v. _haesita're, haesita'ium, _to be at a stand, to doubt);
hes'itancy ; hesita'tion.


99. HAERES, haere'dis, _an heir or heiress_; French Heriter, _to be heir
to_.

HERED: hered'itary, _descending to heirs_.

HERIT: her'itable ; her'itage ; inher'it (-ance); disinher'it.

Heir (Old Fr. _heir_ = Lat. _hae'res_); heir'ess; heir'loom (Anglo-Saxon
_geloma_, goods).


100. HO'MO, hom'inis, _a man_; Huma'nus, _human_.

HOM: hom'age (Fr. _hommage_, literally, acknowledgment by a _man_ or vassal
to his feudal lord); homicide (Lat. v. _caed'ere_, to kill)

HUMAN: hu'man, _belonging to a man_; humane', _having the feelings proper
to a man, kind_; human'ity; hu'manize; inhu'man.

EXERCISE.

_Floral devices_ were tastefully _introduced_. The _friar_ gives himself to
_reflection_, and does not care a _florin_ for worldly pleasures. The tree
is covered with _foliage_, but bears no _fruit_. The rights of the
_fraternity_ have been _infringed_. The metal was _fused_ in iron pans. By
the law of _primogeniture_ the eldest son will _succeed_ to the estate.
_Congress_ met, and a _general_ of the army was chosen president. The
_gradient_ is _gentle_, and the _access_ easy. The _reform_ of the
_refractory_ was in the highest _degree genuine_. We _received_ our
_frugal_ meal with _gratitude_. Many of the _inhabitants_ perished in the
_flames_. Hamilton and Jay were leading _federalists_. To err is _human_;
to forgive, _divine_. The boy _gesticulated_ violently, but it was a mere
_subterfuge_. Your words _infuse comfort_ into my heart. May one not be
_human_ without being _humane_? Do you know the _difference_ between the
_genitive_ and the _ablative case_?


101. HU'MUS, _the earth_; Hu'milis, _on the ground, lowly_.

HUM: exhume' (-ation); inhume.

HUMIL: humil'ity; humil'iate (-ion); hum'ble (Fr. adj. _humble_ = Lat.
_hu'milis_).

IRE. (See page 41.)


102. JA'CERE: ja'cio, jac'tum, _to throw or cast_.

JECT: ab'ject; ad'jective; conject'ure (-al); deject'ed; dejec'tion; eject'
(-ion, -ment); inject' (-ion); interject' (-ion); object' (-ion, -ionable,
-ive, -or); project' (-ile, -ion, -or); reject' (-ion); subject' (-ion,
-ive); traject'ory.

Ejac'ulate (Lat. v. _ejacula're, ejacula'tum_, to hurl or throw);
ejacula'tion; ejac'ulatory; jet (Fr. v. _jeter = ja'cere_); jet'ty; jut.


103. JUN'GERE: jun'go, junc'tum, _to join_; Ju'gum, _a yoke_.

JUNCT: junc'tion; junct'ure, _a point of time made critical by a joining of
circumstances_; ad'junct; conjunc'tion; conjunc'tive; disjunc'tion;
disjunc'tive; injunc'tion; subjunc'tive (literally, joined subordinately to
something else).

JUG: con'jugal, _relating to marriage; _conjugate (-ion); sub'jugate
(-ion).

Join (Fr. v. _joindre_ = Lat. _jun'gere_); adjoin'; conjoin'; disjoin';
enjoin'; rejoin'; subjoin'; joint (Fr. part, _joint_ = Lat. _junc'tum_);
joint'ure, _property settled on a wife_, _to be enjoyed after her husband's
death_; jun'ta (Spanish _junta_ = Lat. _junc'tus_, joined), _a grand
council of state in Spain; _jun'to (Span, _junt_), _a body of men united
for some secret intrigue_.


104. JURA'RE: ju'ro, jura'tum, _to swear_.

JUR: ju'ry; ju'ror; abjure'; adjure'; conjure'; con'jure, _to effect
something as if by an oath of magic_; con'jurer; per'jure, _to forswear_;
per'jurer; per'jury.


105. JUS, ju'ris, _right law_; Jus'tus, _lawful_; Ju'dex, ju'dicis,
_a judge_.

JUR: jurid'ical (Lat. v. _dica're_, to pronounce), _relating to the
administration of justice_; jurisdic'tion, _legal authority_;
jurispru'dence, _science of law_; ju'rist; in'jure; in'jury.

JUST: just; jus'tice; justi'ciary; jus'tify; justifica'tion.

JUDIC: ju'dicature, _profession of a judge_; judi'cious, _according to
sound judgment_; prej'udice, n., _judgment formed beforehand_;
prejudi'cial; judge (Fr. n. _juge_ = Lat. _ju'dex_); judg'ment; prejudge'.


106. LE'GERE: le'go, lec'tum, _to gather, to read_.

LEG: le'gend (originally, stories of saints to be read--_legen'da_--in
church); leg'endary; leg'ible; le'gion (originally, a body of troops
_gathered_ or levied--_le'gio_); el'egance; el'egant; sac'rilege
(originally, the gathering or stealing of something sacred--_sa'crum_).

LIG: dil'igent (originally, esteeming highly; hence, assiduous): el'igible;
intel'ligible; intel'ligence; intel'ligent; neg'ligent (literally,
not--_neg_ = _nec_ = not--picking up).

LECT: lect'ure (-er); collect' (-ion, -ive, -or); recollect' (-ion);
eclec'tic (Greek _ec_ = _ex_) ; elect' (-ion, -or, -oral); in'tellect;
neglect'; predilec'tion, _a liking for_; select' (-ion) ; les'son (Fr. n.
_lecon_ = Lat. _lec'tio_, a reading).


107. LEVA'RE: le'vo, leva'tum, _to raise_; Le'vis, _easily raised, light_;
_French_ Lever, _to rise or raise_.

LEV: lev'ity; levita'tion; alle'viate (-ion); el'evate (-ion); rel'evant,
literally, _raising up_: hence, _pertinent, applicable_; rel'evancy;
irrel'evant.

LEVER: leav'en (Fr. _levain_, yeast); Levant', literally, _the place of the
rising sun--the countries near the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea_;
lev'ee; le'ver (-age); lev'y.

LEX. (See page 43.)


108. LI'BER, _free_.

LIBER: -al, -ality, -alize, -ate, -ator, -ty.

Deliv'er (Fr. v. _delivrer_ = Lat. _delibera're_, to set free);
deliv'erance; deliv'ery.

LITERA. (See page 43.)


109. LO'CUS: _a place_.

LOC: -al, -ality, -alize, -ate; locomo'tive (Lat. v. _move're_, to move);
al'locate; col'locate (-ion); dis'locate (-ion).


110. LO'QUI: lo'quor, locu'tus, _to speak_.

LOQU: loqua'cious ; loqua'city ; col'loquy; collo'quial ; el'oquent;
magnil'oquent (Lat. adj. _mag'nus_, big, pompous); ob'loquy; solil'oquy
(Lat. adj. _so'lus_, alone); ventril'oquist (Lat. n. _ven'ter_, the
stomach).

LOCUT: circumlocu'tion; elocu'tion; interloc'utor.


111. LU'DERE: lu'do, lu'sum, _to play or deceive_.

LUD: lu'dicrous (Lat. adj. _lu'dicrus_, sportive, laughable); allude',
literally, _to play at, to refer to indirectly_; delude'; elude'; prelude'.

LUS: allu'sion; collu'sion; delu'sion; delu'sive; illu'sion; prelu'sive;
prelu'sory.


112. LUX, lu'cis, _light_; Lu'men, lu'minis, _light_.

LUC: Lu'cifer (Lat. v. _fer're_, to bear); lu'cid; elu'cidate;
translu'cent.

LUMIN: lu'minary; lu'minous; illu'minate; illu'mine.


113. MAG'NUS, _great_; Ma'jor, _greater_; Magis'ter, _master_.

MAGN: magnanim'ity (Lat. n. _an'imus_, soul); mag'nate, _a man of rank_;
mag'nify (-er); magnif'icent (Lat. v. _fac'ere_, to make), _showing
grandeur_; mag'nitude.

MAJ: maj'esty (-ic); ma'jor (-ity); may'or; may'oralty.

MAGISTER: mag'istrate; mag'istracy; magiste'rial; mas'ter (Old Fr.
_maistre_ = Lat. _magis'ter); _mis'tress (Old Fr. _maistresse_ = Lat
_magis'tra_, fem. of _magis'ter_).


114. MA'NUS, _the hand_; _French_ Main, _the hand_.

MAN: man'acle (Lat. n. _man'ica_, a fetter); manip'ulate, _to work with the
hand_ (-ion, -or); man'ual; manufact'ure (Lat. v. _fac'ere_, to make);
manufac'tory; manumit' (Lat. v. _mit'tere_, to send); man'uscript (Lat. v.
_scrib'ere, scrip'tum_, to write); amanuen'sis (= _ab_ + _ma'nus), one who
does handwriting for another_; eman'cipate (Lat. v. _cap'ere_, to take);
quadru'manous (Lat. _quatuor_, four).

MAIN: man'ner (Fr. n. _maniere_, originally, the mode in which a thing is
_handled_); maneu'ver (Fr. n. _manoeuvre_, literally, hand work; Fr. n.
_oeuvre = o'pus_, work); manure', _v_. (contracted from Fr. _manoeuvrer_,
to cultivate by manual labor).


115. MA'RE, _the sea_.

Marine' (Lat. adj. _mari'nus_, pertaining to the sea); mar'iner; mar'itime
(Lat. adj. _mariti'mus_ = _mari'nus_); submarine'; transmarine';
ultramarine'; mermaid (Fr. n. _mer_ = Lat. _ma're_).


116. ME'DIUS, _the middle_.

Mediae'val (Lat. n. _ae'vum_, age), _relating to the Middle Ages_; me'diate
(-ion, -or); me'diocre (Lat. adj. _medio'cris_, middling; hence inferior);
medioc'rity; Mediterra'nean (Lat. n. _ter'ra_, land); me'dium (Lat. n.
_me'dium_, the middle) ; imme'diate (prefix _in_ = not), _with nothing
intervening_; interme'diate.


117. MENINIS'SE: mem'ini, _to remember_; Me'mor, _mindful_; MEMORA'RE
mem'oro, memora'tum, _to remember, to mention_.

MEMINISSE: memen'to (imper. mood; literally, _remember thou), a reminder, a
memorial_.

MEMOR: mem'orable; memoran'dum (Lat. _memoran'dus_, p. part. of
_memora're_; literally, something to be remembered); commem'orate (-ion,
-ive); mem'ory (Lat. n. _memo'ria_); memo'rial (-ize); immemo'rial.

Mem'oir (Fr. n. _memoire_ = Lat. _memoran'dum_); men'tion (Fr. n. _mention_
= Lat. _men'tio_, a speaking of); remem'ber (Old Fr. v. _remembrer = Lat.
remem'orare_); remem'brance; remem'brancer; reminis'cence (Fr. n.
_reminiscence_, from Lat. v. _reminis'ci_, to recall to mind).


118. MENS, men'tis, _the mind_.

MENT: men'tal; dement'ed; demen'tia, _insanity_; ve'hement (Lat. adj.
_ve'hemens = ve_, not, and _mens_; literally, not reasonable), _furious,
ardent_.

EXERCISE.

We _reject_ insincere _homage_. When the body was _exhumed_ the _jury
decided_ that poison had been administered. _Legendary_ stories were
_related_ by the _friar_. The _lessons_ were _selected_ with _intelligence.
Levity_ and _gravity_ are _different_ qualities. The _mayor's_ speech was
more _ludicrous_ than _facetious_. The _magistrate_ claimed _jurisdiction_
in the _locality_. We heard Hamlet's _soliloquy_ finely _delivered_. Do you
_recollect_ the _magnificent_ lines at the beginning of "Paradise Lost"?
The _lecturer_ was _lucid_ in his _allusions_. In _mediaeval_ times _homage_
was exacted of all vassals. The _mariners maneuvered_ beautifully. Your
_magnificent donation_ will be _gratefully remembered_. The _mermaid_ is a
mere _delusion. Illegible manuscript_ is a _decided nuisance_. The eastern
part of the _Mediterranean_ is called the _Levant_. Franklin's _memoirs_
are very interesting.


119. MER'CES, _hire_; Merx, mer'cis, _merchandise_.

MERC: mer'cantile (Lat. part. _mer'cans, mercan'tis_); mer'cenary (Lat.
adj. _mercena'rius_); mer'cer (Fr. n. _mercier_), _one who deals in silks
and woolens_; mer'chant (Lat. part, _mer'cans_); mer'chandise; com'merce
(Fr. n. _commerce_); commer'cial; mar'ket (Lat. n. _merca'tus_, a place of
public traffic).


120. MER'GERE: mer'go, mer'sum, _to dip, to sink_.

MERG: merge; emerge'; emer'gency, _that which arises suddenly_; submerge'.

MERS: emer'sion; immerse'.


121. MIGRA'RE: migro, migra'tum, _to remove_.

MIGR: em'igrant (Lat. part. _mi'grans, migran'tis_).

MIGRAT: mi'grate (-ion, -ory); em'igrate (-ion); im'migrate (-ion);
transmigra'tion, _the passage of the soul into another body after death_.


122. MI'LES, mil'itis, _a soldier_.

MILIT: -ary, -ant; mil'itate, _to act against_; mili'tia, _enrolled
soldiers not in a standing army_.


123. MINE'RE: min'eo, min'itum, _to hang over_.

MIN. em'inent (Lat. part, _em'inens, _standing out); em'inence ; im'minent,
literally, _threatening to fall_; pre-em'inent; pre-em'inence; prom'inent;
prom'inence; superem'inent.


124. MINU'ERE: min'uo, minu'tum, _to lessen_; Mi'nor, _less_;
Mi'nus, _less_.

MINUT: minute'; minu'tiae (pl. of Lat. n. _minu'tia_, a very small object);
min'uend (Lat. part, _minuen'dus_, to be lessened); min'uet (Fr. n.
_minuet_ = Lat. adj. _minu'tus, _small), _a dance of small steps_;
dimin'ish (Lat. v. _diminu'ere_, to lessen); diminu'tion; dimin'utive.

MINOR: mi'nor, _n_. and a.; minor'ity.

MINUS: mi'nus (Lat. adj. comp. deg., less); min'imum (Lat. adj. super,
deg., least); min'im.


125. MINIS'TER, _a servant or attendant_.

MINISTER: min'ister ; ministe'rial; min'istry ; admin'ister;
administra'tion; admin'istrative; administra'tor.


126. MIRA'RI: mi'ror, mira'tus, _to wonder_.

MIR: admire' (-able, -ation); mir'acle (Lat. n. _mirac'ulum_, a wonderful
thing); mirac'ulous.

Mirage' (Fr. n. _mirage_, a reflection); mir'ror (Fr. n. _miroir_, from v.
_mirer_, to view).


127. MISCE'RE: mis'ceo, mix'tum, _to mingle_.

MISC: mis'cellany; miscella'neous; promis'cuous.

MIXT: mix; mixt'ure; admixt'ure; intermix'.


128. MI'SER, _wretched_.

MISER: mi'ser (-able); mis'ery; commis'erate (-ion).


129. MIT'TERE: mit'to, mis'sum, _to send or cast_.

MIT: admit' (-ance); commit' (-ee, -ment); demit'; emit'; intermit' (-ent);
manumit' (Lat. n. _manus_, the hand), _to release from slavery_; omit';
permit'; pretermit'; remit' (-ance); submit'; transmit'; mit'timus (Lat.
_we send_), _a warrant of commitment to prison_.

MISS: mis'sile; mis'sion (-ary); admis'sible; admis'sion; com'missary, _an
officer who furnishes provisions for an army_; commissa'riat; commis'sion
(-er); com'promise; demise', _death_; em'issary; intermis'sion; omis'sion;
permis'sion; premise'; prem'ises; prom'ise (-ory); remiss' (-ion);
submis'sion; submis'sive; transmis'sion; transmis'sible.


130. MODERA'RI: mod'eror, modera'tus, _to keep within bounds_;
Mo'dus, _a measure or manner_.

MODERAT: mod'erate (-ion, -or); immod'erate.

MOD: mode; mood; mod'ify (-able, -er); modifica'tion; accom'modate (-ion);
commode' (Lat. adj. _com'modus_, convenient). _a small sideboard_;
commo'dious, literally, _measured with_; commod'ity, literally, _a
convenience_; incommode'; mod'ern (Lat. adv. _mo'do_, lately, just now);
mod'ernize; mod'ulate (Lat. n. _mod'ulus_, a measuring of tones);
modula'tion.


131. MONE'RE: mo'neo, mon'itum, _to remind, to warn_.

MON: admon'ish; mon'ument (Lat. n. _monumen'tum_); premon'ish; sum'mon
(Lat. v. _summone're_ = _sub_ + _mone're_, to remind privily), _to call by
authority_.

MONIT: mon'itor (-ial); admoni'tion; admon'itory; premoni'tion;
premon'itory.


132. MONS, mon'tis, _a mountain_.

MOUNT: mount, n. _a high hill_; v. _to rise or ascend_; moun'tain (-eer,
-ous); mount'ebank (It. n. _banco_, a bench); amount'; dismount';
par'amount (Fr. _par_ = Lat. _per_, exceedingly), _of the highest
importance_; prom'ontory (literally, the _fore_-part or projecting part of
a mountain); remount'; surmount' (-able); tan'tamount (Lat. adj. _tan'tus_,
so much); ultramon'tane (literally, beyond the Alps; i. e. on the Italian
side).


133. MONSTRA'RE: mon'stro, monstra'tum, _to point out, to show_.

MONSTR: mon'ster; mon'strous; monstros'ity; mus'ter, literally, _to show
up_, _to display_.

MONSTRAT: dem'onstrate (-able, -ion, -ive); remon'strate; remon'strance.


134. MORDE'RE: mor'deo, mor'sum, _to bite_.

MORD: mor'dant, _biting_, _serving to fix colors_; morda'cious (Lat. adj.
_mor'dax_, _morda'cis_, biting), _severe_, _sarcastic_.

MORS: mor'sel, literally, _a little bite_; remorse', _the biting of
conscience_ (-ful, -less).

MORS. (See page 44.)


135. MOS, mo'ris, _manner, custom_; _pl._ Mo'res, _manners or morals_.

MOR: mor'al (ist, -ity, -ize); immor'al (-ity); demor'alize (-ation).


136. MOVE'RE: mo'veo, mo'tum, _to move_.

MOV: move (-able, -er, -ment); remove' (-able, -al).

MOT: (-ive, -or); commo'tion; emo'tion (-al); locomo'tion (Lat. n.
_lo'cus_; a place); promote' (-er, -ion); remote' (-ness).

Mob (Lat. adj. _mob'ilis_, easily moved); mo'bile (-ity); momen'tum, _the
force of a moving body_, _impetus_.


137. MUL'TUS, multi, _many, much_.

MULTI: mul'titude; multitu'dinous; multifa'rious; mul'tiform; mul'tiple
(Lat. adj. _mul'tiplus_ for _mul'tiplex_, manifold); mul'tiply (Lat. adj.
_mul'tiplex_); mul'tiplicate (-ion); multiplic'ity.


138. MU'NUS, mu'neris, _a gift, a service_.

MUN. munic'ipal (Lat. n. _municip'ium_, a free town), _pertaining to a
corporation_; municipal'ity; munif'icent; munif'icence; com'mon (Lat. adj.
_commu'nis_ = _con_ + _munus_; literally, ready to be of service);
commune', _v._ literally, _to share (discourse) in common_; commun'ion,
commu'nity; com'munism; com'munist; commun'icate (-ion, -ive);
commu'nicant; excommu'nicate; immu'nity (_in_ + _munus_; literally, absence
of service).

MUNER: remunerate (-ion, -ive).


139. MUTA'RE: mu'to, muta'tum, _to change_.

MUT: mu'table (-ity); immu'table; commute'; transmute' (-able).

MUTAT: muta'tion; commutation; transmuta'tion.


140. NAS'CI: nas'cor, _na'tus, to be born, to grow_; Natu'ra, _nature_.

NASC: nas'cent, _growing_; renaissance' (a style of decorative art
_revived_ by Raphael).

NAT: na'tal; na'tion, originally, _a distinct race or stock_ (-al, -ality,
-ize); interna'tional; na'tive (-ity); cog'nate; in'nate.

NATUR: nat'ural (-ist, -ize, -ization); preternat'ural; supernat'ural.


141. NA'VIS, _a ship_.

NAV: nave, _the middle or body of a church_; na'val; na'vy; nau'tical (Lat.
adj. _nau'ticus_, from _nauta_ or _nav'ita_, a sailor); nav'igate (Lat. v.
_naviga're_ = _na'vis_ + _ag'ere_); nav'igable; naviga'tion; nav'igator;
circumnavigate.


142. NEC'TERE: nec'to, nex'um, _to tie or bind_.

NECT: connect' (-ion, -ive); disconnect' (-ion).

NEX: annex'; annexation.

EXERCISE.

The _administration_ of affairs is in the hands of her _majesty's
ministers_. A _miscellaneous collection_ of goods was sold on _commission_.
The _merchant remitted_ the money called for in the _emergency_. The
_suggestion_ to _modify_ the plan was _tantamount_ to its _rejection_. Do
you _admire_ Bunker Hill _Monument_? A _miser_ is an object of
_commiseration_ to all who know him. _Remuneration_ will be allowed
according to the _amount_ of labor. The _major_ has been _promoted_ to the
rank of colonel. All who were _connected_ with the _movement_ were
_excommunicated_. As the _annexed_ territory is chiefly _maritime_ it will
greatly _increase_ the _commerce_ of the _nation_. The _monitor admonished_
the pupils with great _gentleness_. The _committee_ said the _master_ had
done his work in an _admirable_ manner. The _Pilgrim_ Fathers _emigrated_
to this country in 1620. A _minute missile moved_ towards us. What is the
_subjunctive mood_ or _mode_? A _multitude_ of _communists_ appeared in
Paris.


143. NEGA'RE: ne'go, nega'tum, _to deny_.

NEGAT: nega'tion; neg'ative; ab'negate (-ion); ren'egade, _an apostate_.

Deny' (Fr. v. _denier_ = Lat. _de_ + _nega're_, to contradict); deni'al;
undeni'able.


144. NEU'TER, neu'trum, _neither of the two_.

NEUTR: neu'ter; neu'tral (-ity, -ize).


145. NOCE'RE: no'ceo, no'citum, _to hurt_.

NOC: no'cent, _hurtful_; in'nocent; in'nocence; innoc'uous.

Nox'ious (Lat. adj. _nox'ius_, hurtful); obnox'ious; nui'sance (Fr. v.
_nuire_ = Lat. _noce're_).


146. NO'MEN, nom'inis, _a name_.

NOMEN: nomenclat'ure, _a list of technical names_; cogno'men, _a surname_.

NOMIN: nom'inal; nom'inate (-ion, -ive); nominee'; denom'inate (-ion, -or);
ig'nominy (Lat. _i(n)_ + _gnomen_, old form of _nomen_, a deprivation of
one's good name); ignomin'ious.

Noun (Fr. n. _nom_ = Lat. _no'men_); pro'noun; misno'mer (Old Fr. _mes_ =
wrong, and _nommer_, to name), _a wrong name_.

NORMA. (See page 45.)


147. NOS'CERE: nos'co, no'tum, _to know_; No'ta, _a mark_.

NOT: note (-able, -ary, -ice, -ify, -ion); no'ticeable; notifica'tion;
noto'rious (Lat. adj. _noto'rius_, making known), _known in a bad sense_;
notori'ety; an'notate (-ion); denote'.

No'ble (Lat. adj. _no'bilis_, deserving to be known); noblesse' (Fr. n.
_noblesse_ = Lat. _nobil'itas_); nobil'ity; enno'ble; igno'ble (Lat. prefix
_i(n)_ + _gnobilis_, old form of _nobilis_); cog'nizance (Old Fr.
_cognizance_ = Lat. _cognoscen'tia_, notice or knowledge), _judicial
observation_; connoisseur' (Fr. n. _connoisseur_, a critical judge);
incog'nito (Italian _incognito_, from Lat. part. _incog'nitus_, unknown),
_unknown, in disguise_; rec'ognize (Lat. _re_, again, and _cognos'cere_, to
know); recog'nizance, _a term in law_; recogni'tion; reconnoi'ter (Fr. v.
reconnoitre), _to survey, to examine_.


148. NO'VUS, _new_.

NOV: in'novate (-ion, -or); ren'ovate (-ion, -or).

Nov'el (Lat. adj. _novel'lus_, diminutive of _no'vus_); adj. _something
new, out of the usual course_; n., literally, _a story new and out of the
usual course_; nov'elist; nov'elty; nov'ice, _a beginner_; novi'tiate,
_time of being a novice_.


149. NU'MERUS, _a number_.

NUMER: (-al, -ate, -ation, -ator, -ic, -ical, -ous); enu'merate (Lat. v.
_enumera're_, _enumera'tum_, to count or tell of), _to reckon up singly_;
enumera'tion; innu'merable (= _in_ + _nu'mer_ + _able_, that may not be
counted); supernu'merary, _one above the necessary number_; num'ber (Old
Fr. n. _numbre_ = Lat. _nu'merus_).


150. NUNCIA'RE: nuncio, nuncia'tum, _to announce_; Nun'cius, _a
messenger_.

NUNCIAT: enun'ciate, _to utter_ (-ion); denuncia'tion; pronuncia'tion;
renuncia'tion, _disavowal, relinquishment_.

Nun'cio (Sp. n. _nuncio_ = Lat. _nun'cius), a messenger from the Pope_;
announce' (Fr. v. _annoncer_ = Lat. _ad_ + _nuncia're_), _to proclaim_;
announce'ment; denounce' (Fr. v. _denoncer_ = Lat. _de_ + _nuncia're_), _to
accuse publicly_; pronounce' (Fr. v. _prononcer_ = Lat. _pro_ +
_nuncia're_); pronounce'able; renounce' (Fr. v. _renoncer_ = Lat. _re_ +
_nuncia're_), _to disclaim_; renounce'ment.


151. NUTRI'RE: nu'trio, nutri'tum, _to nourish_.

NUTRI: nu'triment, _that which nourishes_; nutri'tion; nutri'tious;
nu'tritive.

Nour'ish (Fr. v. _nourrir_ = Lat. _nutri'ere_); nurse (Fr. v. _nourrice_; a
nurse); nur'sery; nurs'ling, _a little one who is nursed_; nurt'ure.


152. O'PUS, op'eris, _a work or deed_; OPERA'RI, opera'tus, _to work_.

OPER: operose, _requiring labor_, _tedious_.

OPERAT: operate (-ion, -ive, -or); co-operate (-ion, -ive, -or).

Op'era (It. _op'era_ = _opera_, pains, pl. of _o'pus_), _a musical drama_;
operat'ic.

ORDO. (See page 45.)


153. PAN'DERE: pan'do, pan'sum, _and_ pas'sum, _to spread_; Pas'sus,
_a step_.

PAND: expand', _to spread out_.

PANS: expanse' (-ion, -ive).

PASS: pass; pass'able, _that may be passed_, _tolerable_; pas'sage;
com'pass, v. _to stretch round_; encom'pass; surpass'; tres'pass (_tres_ =
_trans_), _to pass beyond due bounds_.

Pace (Fr. n. _pas_ = Lat. _pas'sus_); pas'senger (Old Eng. _passager_);
pass'over, _a Jewish festival_;[8] pass'port (= pass + port, literally, a
permission to leave a port or to sail into it.)


154. PAR, _equal_.

PAR: par'ity; dispar'ity; dispar'age, _to injure by comparison of
unequals_; dispar'agement.

Pair (Fr. adj. _paire_ = Lat. _par_), _two of a kind_; peer (Old Fr. _peer_
or _pair_ = Lat. _par_), _an equal_, _a nobleman_; peer'age; peer'less;
compeer'; non'pareil (Fr. _non_, not, and _pareil_, equal), _a peerless
thing or person_.


155. PARA'RE. pa'ro, para'tum, _to make ready, to prepare_; SEPARA'RE:
sep'aro, separa'tum, _to separate_.

PARAT: compar'ative; prepara'tion; prepar'atory; repara'tion.

SEPAR: sep'arate, literally, _to prepare aside_: hence, _to disjoin_;
separa'tion; sep'arable; insep'arable.

Parade' (Fr. n. _parade_, literally, a parrying), _military display_; pare
(Fr. v. _parer_, to pare or ward off); par'ry (Fr. v. _parer_, to ward
off); appara'tus (Lat. _appara'tus_ = _ad_ + _paratus_, literally,
something prepared for a purpose); appar'el (Fr. n. _appareil_,
preparation); compare' (Fr. v. _comparer_ = Lat. _compara're_), _to set
things together to see how far they resemble each other_; prepare' (Fr. v.
_preparer_ = Lat. _prepara're_); repair' (Fr. v. _reparer_ = Lat.
_repara're_), literally, _to prepare again_, hence, _to restore after
injury_; irrep'arable; sev'er (Old Fr. v. _sevrer_ = Lat. _separa're_), _to
render asunder_; sev'eral (Old Fr. adj. _several_ = Lat. _separa'lis_,
separate); sev'erance; dissev'er.

PARS. (See page 46.)


156. PAT'ER, pa'tris, _a father_; Pa'tria, _one's native country_.

Pater'nal (Lat. adj. _pater'nus_, pertaining to a father); pater'nity (Lat.
n. _pater'nitas_, Fr. _paternite_), _fathership_; patri'cian (Lat. adj.
_patri'cius_, from _pa'tres_, fathers or senators), _a Roman nobleman_;
pat'rimony (Lat. n. _patrimo'nium_), _an estate inherited from one's
ancestors_; pa'tron (Lat. n. _patro'nus_, a protector), _one who
countenances or supports_; pat'ronage; pat'ronize; pat'tern (Fr. n.
_pattern_, something to be copied), _a model_; expatriate, _to banish_;
expatria'tion.


157. PA'TI: pa'tior, pas'sus, _to bear, to suffer_.

PATI: pa'tient; pa'tience; impa'tient; compat'ible, _consistent with_;
compat'ibility; incompat'ible.

PASS: pas'sion, _strong agitation of the mind_; pas'sive; impas'sive,
_insensible_; compas'sion, _sympathy_; compas'sionate.


158. PEL'LERE; pel'lo, pul'sum, _to drive_.

PEL (com-, dis-, ex-, im-, pro-, re-).

PULS: pulse, _the beating of an artery as blood is driven through it_;
pul'sate; pulsa'tion; compul'sion; compul'sory; expul'sion; propul'sion;
repulse'; repul'sive.


159. PENDE'RE; pen'deo, pen'sum, _to hang_.

PEND: pen'dant, _a long, narrow flag_; pend'ing, _not decided, during_;
append'; append'age; depend' (-ant, -ent, -ence); independ'ent;
independ'ence; suspend'.

PENS: pen'sile, _hanging_; suspense'(-ion).

Pen'dulous (Lat. adj. _pen'dulus_, hanging); pen'dulum (Lat. adj.
_pen'dulus)_; appen'dix (Lat. n. _appen'dix_, an addition).


160. PEN'DERE: pen'do, pen'sum, _to weigh, to pay_.

PEND: com'pend (contraction of compendium); compen'dium (Lat. n.
_compen'dium_, that which is weighed, saved, shortened) ; compen'dious
(Lat. adj. _compendio'sus_, brief, succinct); expend'; expen'diture ;
sti'pend (Lat. n. _stipen'dium_, literally, the pay of soldiers);
stipendiary.

PENS: pen'sive, _thoughtful_; pen'sion, _an allowance for past services_
(-eer); com'pensate (-ion); dispense', _to deal out_ (-ary); dispensa'tion;
indispen'sable; expense' (-ive); rec'ompense.

PES. (See page 47.)


161. PET'ERE: pe'to, peti'tum, _to attack, to seek_.

PET: centrip'etal (Lat. n. _cen'trum_, center); compete'; com'petent, _fit,
suitable_; com'petence, _sufficiency_; incom'petent.

PETIT: peti'tion, _a request_ (-er); compet'itor; compet'itive ;
repeti'tion.

Pet'ulant (Fr. adj. _petulant_, fretful); ap'petite (Fr. n. _appetit_), _a
seeking for hunger_; impet'uous (Lat. adj. _impetuo'sus_, vehement);
impetuos'ity; im'petus (Lat. n. _im'petus_, a shock); repeat' (Fr. v.
_repeter_ = Lat. _repet'ere_).

EXERCISE

_Numerous objections_ were _submitted_ against the _innovations_ about to
be _introduced_. The _obnoxious_ articles have been _removed_. The
_nominee_ by his _ludicrous_ speech _neutralized_ all that his friends did
for him. _Part_ of the _apparatus prepared_ for the _occasion_ was damaged
in _transmission_. The _patronage_ of the _nobility_ and _gentry connected_
with the neighborhood was asked. Many _parts_ of the _edifice_ are highly
_ornate_. Christ had _compassion_ on the _multitude_, for they had been a
long time without food. The _petitioner's application_ for a _pension_ was
not _repeated_. How can an _acid_ be _neutralized_? The _renegade_ was
brought to _ignominy_. The _prince_ was travelling _incognito_. The young
lady seems _pensive_ rather than _petulant_. Here is a new _edition_ of the
_novel_, with _annotations_ by the _author_. The _opera_ seems to be well
_patronized_ this winter. Webster had a _compendious mode_ of stating great
truths. What is meant by _centripetal motion_? What is the _difference_
between the _numerator_ and the _denominator_?


162. PLEC'TERE: plec'to, plex'um, _to twist_; PLICA'RE: pli'co,
plica'tum, _and_ plic'itum, _to fold_.

PLEX: com'plex (literally, twisted together); complex'ion; complex'ity;
perplex' (literally, to twist thoroughly--_per_: hence, to puzzle or
embarrass); perplex'ity.

PLIC: ap'plicable (-ity); ap'plicant; ex'plicable.

PLICAT: applica'tion; com'plicate (-ion); du'plicate; im'plicate (-ion);
replica'tion, _an answer in law_; sup'plicate, _to entreat earnestly_;
supplica'tion.

PLICIT: explic'it (literally, out-folded; hence, distinctly stated);
implic'it, _implied_.

Ply (Fr. v. _plier_ = Lat. _plica're_), _to work diligently_; pli'able,
_easily bent_; pli'ant; pli'ancy; accom'plice, _an associate in crime_;
apply' (Old Fr. _applier_ = Lat. _applica're_); appli'ance, _the thing
applied_; comply' (Fr. v. _plier_), _to fold with_: hence, _to conform or
assent_; compli'ance; display' (Old Fr. v. _desployer_, to unfold); doub'le
(Fr. adj. _double_ = Lat. _du'plex_, twofold); du'plex; duplic'ity (Lat. n.
_duplic'itas_, from _du'plex_, double); employ' (Fr. v. _employer_ = Lat.
_implica're_), _to keep at work_; employe; employ'er; employ'ment; exploit'
(Fr. n. _exploit_ = Lat. _explic'itum_, literally, something unfolded, set
forth: hence, a deed, an achievement); imply', literally, _to infold_:
hence _to involve_, _to signify_; mul'tiply (Fr. v. _multiplier_ = Lat.
_mul'tus_ much, many); quad'ruple (Lat. _qua'tuor_, four); reply' (Old Fr.
v. _replier_ = Lat. _replica're_, to answer); sim'ple (Lat. _simplex_, gen.
_simplicis_), _not compounded_, _artless_; sim'pleton (compare It.
_simplicione_, a silly person); simplic'ity (Lat. n. _simplic'itas_);
sim'plify; sup'ple (Fr. adj. _souple_ = Lat. _sup'plex_, bending the knee,
from _sub_ and _plica're_); sup'pliant (literally, bending the knees under,
kneeling down); treb'le (Old Fr. adj. _treble_ = Lat. _tri'plex_,
threefold); trip'le (Lat. _tri'plex_); trip'let, _three lines rhyming
alternately_.


163. PON'ERE: po'no, pos'itum, _to place_.

PON: compo'nent, _forming a compound_; depone', _to bear testimony_;
depo'nent; oppo'nent; postpone' (-ment).

POSIT: posi'tion; pos'itive; pos'itivism, _a system of philosophy_;
pos'itivist, _a believer in the positive philosophy_; ap'posite, _adapted
to_; compos'ite, _compound_; composi'tion; compos'itor; decomposi'tion;
depos'it (-ary, -ion, -ory); deposi'tion, _the giving testimony under
oath_; exposi'tion; expos'itor; imposi'tion; interposi'tion;
juxtaposi'tion; op'posite (-ion); preposi'tion; proposi'tion; supposi'tion;
suppositi'tious; transposi'tion.

Pose (Fr. v. _poser_ = Lat. _pon'ere_), _to bring to a stand by questions_;
post; post'age; post'ure (Fr. n. _posture_ = Lat. _positu'ra_, position);
compose' (Fr. v. _composer_ = Lat. _compon'ere_); compos'ure; com'pound
(Lat. v. _compon'ere_); com'post, _a mixture_, _a manure_; depot' (Fr. n.
_depot_ = Lat. _depos'itum_); dispose' (Fr. v. _disposer_); dispo'sal;
expose' (Fr. v. _exposer_); expos'ure; impose' (Fr. v. _imposer_); im'post,
_a tax placed on imported goods_; impos'tor, _one guilty of fraud_;
impost'ure; interpose'; oppose'; propose'; prov'ost (Old Fr. _provost_,
from Lat _praepos'itus_, placed before, a chief), _the principal of a
college_; pur'pose (Old Fr. n. _purpos_, _propos_ = Lat. _propos'itum_),
_an end set before one_; repose' (Fr. v. _reposer_); suppose' (Fr. v.
_supposer_); transpose' (Fr. v. _transposer_).


164. PORTA'RE: por'to, porta'tum, _to carry_.

PORT: port'able; por'ter (-age); deport'ment; export' (-ation, -er);
im'port (-ance, -ant, -er); pur'port, _design_; report' (-er); support';
insupport'able; transport' (-ation).

Portfo'lio (Lat. n. _fo'lium_, a leaf); portman'teau (Fr. n. _manteau_, a
cloak); importune' (Lat. adj. _importu'nus_, unseasonable); import'unate;
importu'nity; op'portune (Lat. adj. _opportu'nus_, literally, at or before
the port or harbor: hence, seasonable); opportu'nity; inop'portune.


165. POS'SE, _to be able_; Po'tens, poten'tis, _powerful, mighty_.

POSSE: pos'sible (Lat. adj. _possib'ilis_); possibil'ity; impos'sible.

POTENT: po'tent; po'tency; po'tentate; poten'tial; im'potent; omnip'otent
(Lat. adj. _om'nis_, all); plenipoten'tiary (Lat. adj. _ple'nus_, full).


166. PREHEN'DERE: prohen'do, prehen'sum, _to lay hold of, to
seize_.

PREHEND: apprehend'; comprehend'; reprehend'.

PREHENS: prehen'sile; apprehen'sion; apprehen'sive; comprehen'sible;
comprehen'sion; comprehen'sive; reprehen'sible.

Appren'tice (Old Fr. n. _apprentis_, from v. _apprendre_, to learn);
apprise' (Fr. v. _apprendre_, part. _appris_, to inform); comprise' (Fr. v.
_comprendre, compris_), _to include_; en'terprise (Fr. n. _entrepise_,
something undertaken); impreg'nable (Fr. adj. _imprenable_, not to be
taken); pris'on (Fr. n. _prison_); prize (Fr. n. _prise_, something taken,
from _prendre, pris_, to take); reprieve' (Old Fr. v. _repreuver_, to
condemn), _to grant a respite_; repri'sal; surprise'.


167. PREM'ERE: pre'mo, pres'sum, _to press_.

PRESS: press (-ure); compress' (-ible); depress' (-ion); express' (-ion,
-ive); impress' (-ion, -ive, -ment); irrepres'sible; oppress' ('-ion, -ive,
-or); repress' (-ion, -ive); suppress' (-ion).

Print (abbreviated from _imprint_, from Old Fr. v. _preindre_ = Lat.
_prem'ere_); im'print, _the name of the publisher and the title page of a
book_; imprima'tur (Lat. _let it be printed_), originally, _a license to
print a book, the imprint of a publisher_.


168. PRI'MUS, _first_; Prin'ceps, prin'cipis, _chief, original_.

PRIM: prime; pri'mate, _the highest dignitary of a church_; pri'macy;
prim'ary; primer; prime'val (Lat. n. _ae'vum_, an age); prim'itive;
primogen'itor (Lat. n. _gen'itor_, a begetter); primogeniture (Lat. n.
_genitu'ra_, a begetting), _the exclusive right of inheritance which in
English law belongs to the eldest son or daughter_; primor'dial (Lat. v.
_ordi'ri_, to begin), _existing from the beginning_; prim'rose (Lat. n.
_ro'sa_); prin'cess; prince (Fr. n. _prince_ = Lat. _prin'ceps_);
prin'cipal ; prin'ciple.

Pre'mier (Fr. adj. _premier_, first), _the prime minister_; pri'or (Lat.
adj. _prior_, former); pri'oress, _the female superior of a convent_;
pri'ory, _a convent_; prior'ity, _state of being first_; pris'tine (Lat.
adj. _pristi'nus_, primitive), _original, ancient_.


169. PROBA'RE: pro'bo, proba'tum, _to try, to prove_.

PROB: prob'able, _likely, credible_; probabil'ity; improb'able; pro'bate,
_the proof of a will_; proba'tion, _the act of trying_; proba'tioner;
proba'tionary; probe, _to try by an instrument_; prob'ity, _tried
integrity_; approba'tion, _commendation_; rep'robate (adj. literally,
proved against), _base, condemned_.

Prove (Old Fr. _prover_, New Fr. _prouver_ = Lat. _proba're_); proof (Old
Fr. n. _prove_ = Lat. _pro'ba_, proof); approve' (Fr. v. _approuver_ = Lat.
_approba're_); approv'al; disapprove'; improve', (-ment); reprove';
reproof'.


170. PUN'GERE: pun'go, punc'tum, _to prick_; Punc'tum, _a point_.

PUNG: pun'gent; pun'gency; expunge', _to mark out_.

PUNCT: punctil'io (Sp. _punctillo_, from Lat. _punc'tum_, a point), _a nice
point of exactness in conduct_, etc.; punctil'ious; punct'ual (-ity);
punct'uate (-ion); punct'ure; compunc'tion, _remorse_.

Punch (abbreviated from _puncheon_, from Lat. n. _punc'tio_, a pricking),
_an instrument for cutting holes_; point (Fr. n. _pointe_ = Lat.
_punc'tum)_; poign'ant (Fr. part. _poignant_, stinging); pon'iard (Fr. n.
_poignard_), _a small dagger_.


171. PUTA'RE: pu'to, puta'tum, _to think, to prune, to count or reckon_.

PUT: compute' (-able, -ation); depute' (Lat. v. _deputa're_, to allot), _to
empower to act_; dep'uty; dispute' (-ant); indis'putable; impute'
(literally, to reckon in), _to charge_; repute'; disrepute' (-able).

PUTAT: pu'tative, _supposed_; am'putate, _to cut off the limb from an
animal_; deputa'tion; imputa'tion; reputa'tion.

Count (Fr. v. _compter_ = Lat. computa're); account'; discount'; recount'.


172. RAP'ERE: ra'pio, rap'tum, _to seize suddenly, to snatch or hurry
away_.

RAP: rapa'cious (Lat. adj. _ra'pax, rapa'cis_, greedy); rapac'ity; rap'id
(Lat. adj. _rap'idus_, swift); rapid'ity; rap'ids; rap'ine (Lat. n.
_rapi'na_, robbery).

RAPT: rapt, _transported_; rapt'ure (-ous); enrapt'ure; surrepti'tious
(Lat. v. _surrip'ere, surrep'tum_, to take away secretly), _done by
stealth_.

Rav'age (Fr. v. _ravager_ = to lay waste); rav'ish (Fr. v. _ravir_ = Lat.
_rap'ere_).


173. REG'ERE: re'go, rec'tum, _to rule_; Rec'tus, _straight_.

REG: re'gent; re'gency; reg'imen (Lat. n. _reg'imen_, that by which one
guides or governs anything); reg'iment (Lat. n. _regimen'tum_); re'gion
(Lat. _re'gio, regio'nis_, a region); cor'rigible (Lat. v. _corrig'ere_ =
_con_ + _reg'ere_); incor'rigible.

RECT: rec'tify; rec'titude; rec'tor (-ory); correct' (Lat. v. _corrig'ere_
= _con_ + _reg'ere), to remove faults_; direct' (-ion, -or, -ory); erect';
insurrec'tion; resurrec'tion.

Re'gal (Lat. n. _rex, re'gis_, a king); rega'lia; reg'icide (Lat. v.
_caed'ere_, to kill); reg'ular (Lat. n. _reg'ula_, a rule); reg'ulate; realm
(Old Fr. _realme_, from Lat. adj. _rega'lis_, royal); reign (Fr. n. _regne_
= Lat. _reg'num); _corrigen'da (sing. _corrigen'dum_), _things to be
corrected_; dress (Fr. v. _dresser_ = Lat _dirig'ere_); address' (Fr. v.
_adresser_, to direct); redress' (Fr. v. _redresser_ = Lat. _re_ +
_dirig'ere), to rectify, to repair_; source (Fr. n. _source_, from Lat.
_sur'gere_, to spring up); surge; insur'gent (Lat. v. _insur'gere_).


174. RI'VUS, _a river_.

RIV: ri'val (Lat. n. _riva'lis_, one who used a brook in common with
another); ri'valry ; outri'val; riv'ulet (Lat. n. _riv'ulus_, diminutive of
_ri'vus_); derive' (literally, to receive as from a source); deriva'tion;
deriv'ative.


175. ROGA'RE: ro'go, roga'tum, _to ask_.

ROG: ar'rogant, _proud, overbearing_; ar'rogance; prorogue' (Fr. v.
_proroger_ = Lat. _proroga're_).

ROGAT: ab'rogate; _to repeal_; ar'rogate, _to assume_; arroga'tion;
derog'atory, _detracting_; inter'rogate (-ion, -ive, -ory); prerog'ative
(literally, that is asked before others for an opinion: hence, preference),
_exclusive or peculiar right or privilege_; proroga'tion, _prolonga'tion_;
superer'ogate (Lat. _super_ + _eroga're_, to spend or pay out over and
above), _to do more than is necessary_; supereroga'tion.


176. RUM'PERE: rum'po, rup'tum, _to break_.

RUPT: rupt'ure, _to part violently_; abrupt' (-ly, -ness); bank'rupt (It.
n. _banco_, a merchant's place of business); bank'ruptcy; corrupt' (-ible,
-ion); disrup'tion; erup'tion ; interrupt' (-ion); irrup'tion; irrup'tive.


177. SA'CER, sa'cri, _holy_.

SACR: sac'rament (Lat. n. _sacramen'tum_, an oath, a sacred thing); sa'cred
(orignally, past p. of Old Eng. v. _sacre_, to consecrate); sac'rifice
(Lat. v. _fac'ere_, to make); sac'rilege (literally, that steals--properly
gathers, picks up, _leg'ere_--sacred things); sac'ristan (Low Lat.
_sacrista'nus)_, a church officer.

SECR: (in comp.) con'secrate (-ion); des'ecrate (-ion); ex'ecrate (-ion);
ex'ecrable; sacerdo'tal (Lat. n. _sacer'dos, sacerdo'tis_, priest),
_pertaining to the priesthood_.


178. SA'LUS, salu'tis, _health_; Sal'vus, _safe_.

SALUT: sal'utary, _promoting health_; salu'tatory, _giving salutation_;
salute' (-ion).

SALV: sal'vage, _reward for saving goods_; sal'vo, _a volley_; salva'tion.

Safe (through Old Fr. _salf_ or _sauf_); safe'ty; save; sav'ior salu'brious
(Lat. adj. _salu'bris_, health-giving); salu'brity.


179. SCAN'DERE: scan'do (_in comp._ scen'do), scan'dum (_in comp._
scen'sum), _to climb_.

SCEND: ascend' (-ant, -ency); descend' (-ant); condescend' (-ing);
transcend' (-ent) ; transcendental.

SCENS: ascen'sion ; ascent'; condescen'sion.


180. SCRIB'ERE: scri'bo, scrip'tum, _to write_.

SCRIB: ascribe', _to impute to_; circumscribe', _to draw a line around, to
limit_; describe'; inscribe'; prescribe', _to order or appoint_;
pro-scribe' (literally, to write forth), _to interdict_; subscribe';
superscribe'; transcribe'.

SCRIPT: script, _type in imitation of handwriting_; script'ure;
ascrip'tion; con'script, _one taken by lot and enrolled for military
service_; conscrip'tion; descrip'tion; inscrip'tion; man'uscript (see
_manus_); post'script; prescrip'tion; proscription; subscription;
superscrip'tion; tran'script.

Scribe (Fr. n. _scribe_); scrib'ble ; escritoire'.


181. SECA'RE: se'co, sec'tum, _to cut_.

SEC: se'cant (Lat. pres. p. _se'cans_, _secan'tis_), _a line that cuts
another_.

SECT: sect (literally, a body of persons separated from others by peculiar
doctrines); secta'rian (-ism); sec'tion (-al); bisect' (Lat. _bis_, two);
dissect' (-ion); in'sect (literally, an animal whose body is apparently cut
in the middle); insectiv'orous (Lat. v. _vora're_, to feed); intersect'
(-ion); venesec'tion (Lat. n. _vena_, a vein).

Seg'ment (Lat. n. _segmen'tum), a part cut off_.


182. SEDE'RE: se'deo (_in comp._ se'do), ses'sum, _to sit_.

SED: sed'entary (Lat. adj. _sedenta'rius_, accustomed to sit); sed'iment
(Lat. n. _sedimen'tum_, a settling or sinking down); sedimen'tary;
sed'ulous (Lat. adj. _sed'ulus_, sitting close to an employment);
supersede'.

SID: assid'uous; assidu'ity; insid'ious (literally, sitting in wait
against); preside' (literally, to sit before or over); pres'ident;
presidence; reside' (-ence); res'idue; resid'uary; subside'; subsidiary.

SESS: ses'sion (-al); assess' (literally, to sit by or near a person or
thing); assess'ment; assess'or; possess' (Lat. v. _possid'ere, posses'sum_,
to sit upon: hence, to occupy in person, to have or hold); posses'sion;
possess'or; posses'sive; prepossess', _to take possession of beforehand, to
prejudice_.


183. SENTI'RE: sen'tio, sen'sum, _to feel, to think_.

SENT: scent (Old English _sent_), _odor_; sen'tence (Lat. n. _senten'tia_);
senten'tious (Lat. adj. _sententio'sus_, full of thought); sentiment (Fr.
n. _sentiment_); sentimen'tal; assent', _to agree to_; consent' (literally,
to think or feel together), _to acquiesce, to permit_; dissent' (-er);
dissen'tient; presen'timent; resent' (literally, to feel back), _to take
ill_; resent'ment.

SENS: sense (-less, -ation, -ible, -itive); insen'sate; non'sense; sen'sual
(Lat. adj. _sensua'lis_); sen'sualist ; sen'suous.


184. SE'QUI: se'quor, secu'tus, _to follow_.

SEQU: se'quence, _order of succession_; consequent; con'sequence;
consequential; ob'sequies, _formal rites_; obse'quious (literally,
following in the way of another), _meanly condescending_; sub'sequent
(-ly).

SECUT: consec'utive; persecute (-ion, -or); pros'ecute (-ion).

Se'quel (Lat. n. _seque'la_, that which follows); sue (Old Fr. v. _suire_,
New Fr. _suivre = se'qui), to follow at law_; suit; suit'able; suit'or;
suite (Fr. n. _suite_), _a train or set_; ensue' (Fr. v. _ensuivre_, to
follow, to result from); pursue' (Fr. v. _poursuivre_, to follow hard, to
chase); pursu'ance; pursu'ant; pursuit'; pur'suivant, _a state messenger_;
ex'ecute (Fr. v. _executer_ = Lat. _ex'sequi_); execu'tion; exec'utor;
exec'utrix.


185. SERVA'RE: ser'vo, serva'tum, _to save, to keep, to bind_.

SERV: conserve'; observe' (-able, -ance); preserve' (-er); reserve';
unreserved'.

SERVAT: conserv'ative; conserv'atory; observ'ation; observ'atory;
preserva'tion; preserv'ative; reserva'tion.

Res'ervoir (Fr. n. _reservoir_ = Lat. _reservato'rium_, a place where
anything is kept in store).

EXERCISE.

The puzzle is _complicated_ and _displays_ much _ingenuity_ on the _part_
of the inventor. A _reply_ may be _explicit_ without showing _duplicity_.
It was urged that the _election_ of _delegates_ be _postponed_. The
_portmanteau_ containing _important_ papers was left at the _merchant's
office_. An _impostor_ is sure to show _opposition_ to the course of
_justice_. Coleridge holds that it is _possible_ to _apprehend_ a truth
without _comprehending_ it. The _bankrupt_ was so _arrogant_ that his
_creditors_ were not _disposed_ to be lenient with him. Most of the
questions _proposed_ by the _rector_ were answered in the _negative_. What
is the origin of the word _derivation_? The _region_ is _described_ as
healthful. The _manuscript_ was _transcribed_ and _subscribed_ by the
_author_. It is _salutary_ to be _rivals_ in all worthy _ambitions_.


186. SIG'NUM, _a sign_.

SIGN: sign; sig'nal (-ize); sig'net; sig'nify; signif'icant; signif'icance;
significa'tion; assign' (Lat. v. _assigna're_, to designate); assignee';
consign' (Lat. v. _consigna're_, to seal) _to intrust to another_;
consign'ment; coun'tersign, _to sign what has already been signed by
another_; design', _to plan_; design'er; des'ignate, _to name_, _to point
out_; designa'tion; en'sign, _the officer who carries the flag of a
regiment_; insig'nia, _badges of office_; resign' (-ation); sig'nature
(Lat. n. _signatu'ra_, a sign or stamp).


187. SIM'ILIS, _like_.

SIMIL: sim'ilar (-ity); sim'i-le, _a formal likening or comparison_;
simil'itude; verisimil'itude (Lat. adj. _ve'rus_, true); dissim'ilar;
assim'ilate; fac-sim'ile (Lat. _v. fac'ere_, to make), an exact copy;
sim'ulate (Lat. v. _simula're_, _simula'tum_, to make like).

Dissimula'tion (Lat. v. _dissimula're_, _dissimula'tum_, to feign);
dissem'ble (Fr. v. _dissembler_ = Lat. _dissimula're_); resem'ble (Fr. v.
_ressembler_).


188. SIS'TERE: sisto, sta'tum, _to cause to stand, to stand_.

SIST: assist' (-ance, -ant); consist' (-ent, -ency); desist'; exist' (for
ex-sist), _to stand out_: hence, _to be, to live_; exist'ence; co-exist';
pre-exist'; insist', _to stand upon, to urge firmly_; persist' (-ent,
-ence); resist' (-ance, -ible); subsist (-ence).


189. SOL'VERE: sol'vo, solu'tum, _to loosen_.

SOLV: solve (-able, -ent, -ency); absolve'; dissolve'; resolve'.

SOLUT: solu'tion; ab'solute (-ion); dis'solute (-ion); res'olute (-ion).

Sol'uble (Lat. adj. _solu'bilis_); solubil'ity.


190. SPEC'ERE _or_ SPIC'ERE: Spe'cio _or_ spi'cio, spec'tum, _to behold_;
Spe'cies, _a kind_.

SPIC: aus'pices (literally, omens drawn from the inspection of birds);
auspi'cious; conspic'uous (Lat. adj. _conspic'uus_, wholly visible);
conspicu'ity; des'picable (Lat. _despicab'ilis_, deserving to be despised);
perspic'uous (Lat. adj. _perspic'uus_, that may be seen through);
perspicu'ity; suspi'cion; suspi'cious.

SPECT: as'pect; cir'cumspect (-ion); expect' (-ant, -ation); inspect'
(-ion, -or); perspec'tive; pros'pect (-ive); prospec'tus (Lat. n.
_prospec'tus_, a view forward); respect' (literally, to look again: hence,
to esteem or regard); respect'able; respect'ful; re'tro-spect (-ive);
suspect'.

SPECIES: spe'cies; spe'cial (-ist, -ity, -ize); spe'cie; spec'ify (-ic,
-ication); spe'cious, _showy_.

Spec'imen (Lat. n. _spec'imen_, a sample); spec'tacle (Lat. n.
_spectac'ulum_, anything presented to view); specta'tor (Lat. n.
_specta'tor_, a beholder); spec'ter (Lat. n. _spec'trum_, an image);
spec'tral; spec'trum (pl. spec'tra), _an image_; spec'troscope (Gr. v.
_skopein_, to view), _an instrument for analysing light_; spec'ulate (Lat.
n. _spec'ula_, a lookout), _to contemplate_, _to traffic for great profit_;
specula'tion; spec'ulative.


191. SPIRA'RE: spi'ro, spira'tum, _to breathe_; Spir'itus, _breath,
spirit_.

SPIR: spir'acle, _a breathing pore_; aspire' (-ant); conspire' (-acy);
expire'; expir'ing; inspire'; perspire'; respire'; transpire'.

SPIRAT: aspira'tion; as'pirate; conspir'ator; inspira'tion; perspira'tion;
respira'tion; respir'atory.

SPIRITUS: spir'it; spir'itual (-ity); spir'ituous.

Sprightly (spright, a contraction of spirit); sprite (a contraction of
spirit).


192. SPONDE'RE: spon'deo, spon'sum, _to promise_.

SPOND: correspond', _to answer one to another_; correspond'ence;
correspond'ent; despond' (literally, to promise away: hence, to give up, to
despond); despond'ency; respond'.

SPONS: spon'sor, _a surety_; response' (-ible, -ibility, -ive);
irrespon'sible.

Spouse (Old Fr. n. _espous_, _espouse_ = Lat. _spon'sus_, _spon'sa_);
espouse' (Old Fr. v. _espouser_ = Lat. _sponsa're_, to betroth, from
_spondere_).


193. STA'RE: sto, sta'tum (_in comp._ sti'tum, _to stand; pres. part._
stans, stan'tis, _standing_); SIS'TERE: sis'to, sta'tum, _to
cause to stand_; STATU'ERE: stat'uo, statu'tum, _to station,
to fix, to place_.

STANT: cir'cumstance (from part. _circumstans'_, _circumstan'tis_, through
Lat. n. _circumstan'tia_, Fr. _circonstance_), _the condition of things
surrounding or attending an event_; circumstan'tial; circumstan'tiate;
con'stant; con'stancy ; dis'tant (literally, standing asunder: hence,
remote, reserved); dis'tance; ex'tant; in'stant; instanta'neous;
transubstan'tiate, _to change to another substance_.

STAT: state; sta'tion (-ary, -er, -ery); state'ly; state'ment; states'man;
stat'ue (-ary); stat'ure.

STIT: supersti'tion (literally, a standing over, as if awe-struck);
supersti'tious.

STATUT: stat'ute (-ory).

STITU: con'stitute (literally, to set or station together: hence, to
establish, to make); constitu'tion (-al); constituent; constit'uency;
des'titute (literally, put from or away: hence, forsaken, in want of);
in'stitute (literally, to place into: hence, to found, to commence);
restitu'tion; sub'stitute (-ion).

Sta'ble; (Lat. adj. _stab'ilis_, standing firmly); stab'lish; estab'lish
(-ment); stay, literally, _to keep standing_; ar'mistice (Lat. n. _ar'ma_,
arms), _a temporary stand-still of war_; arrest' (Old Fr. _arrester_ = Lat.
_ad_ + _restare_, to stay back, to remain); contrast' (Lat. _contra_ +
_sta're_, to stand against); inter'stice; ob'stacle; ob'stinate; sol'stice
(Lat. n. _sol_, the sun).


194. STRIN'GERE: strin'go, stric'tum, _to bind; to draw tight_.

STRING: strin'gent; astrin'gent; astrin'gency.

STRICT: strict (-ness, -ure); dis'trict, _a defined portion of a country_;
restrict' (-ion).

Strain (Old Fr. _straindre_ = Lat. _strin'gere_); constrain'; dis-train';
restrain'; restraint'.


195. STRU'ERE: stru'o, struc'tum, _to build, to place in order_.

STRUCT: struct'ure; construct' (-ion, -ive); destruct'ible; destruc'tion;
instruct' (-ion,-ive,-or); obstruct'(-ion); superstruct'ure.

Con'strue; destroy'; in'strument (Lat. n. _instrumen'tum_);
instrumental'ity.


196. SU'MERE: su'mo, sump'tum, _to take_; Sump'tus, _cost, expense_.

SUM: assume'; consume' (-er); presume'; resume'.

SUMPT: sumpt'uous (Lat. adj. _sumptuo'sus_, expensive); sumpt'uary,
_relating to expense_; assumption; consumption; consump'tive; presump'tion;
presump'tive; presump'tuous.


197. TAN'GERE: tan'go, tac'tum, _to touch_.

TANG: tan'gent, _a straight line which touches a circle or curve_;
tan'gible.

TACT: tact, _peculiar faculty or skill_; con'tact; intact'.

Attain' (Fr. v. _attaindre_, to reach); attain'able; conta'gion,
_communication of disease by contact or touch_; contam'inate, _to defile,
to infect_; contig'uous; contin'gent.

TEMPUS. (See page 48.)


198. TEN'DERE: ten'do, ten'sum _or_ ten'tum, _to stretch_.

TEND: tend, _to aim at, take care of_; tend'ency; attend' (-ance, -ant);
contend'; distend'; extend'; intend' (literally, to stretch to), _to
purpose, to design_; portend' (literally, to stretch forward), _to presage,
to betoken_; pretend' (literally, to stretch forth), _to affect, feel_;
subtend', _to extend under_; superintend' (-ence, -ent).

TENS: tense (adj.), _stretched_; ten'sion; intense' (-ify); osten'sible
(Lat. v. _osten'dere_, to stretch out or spread before one), _apparent_;
pretense'.

TENT: tent, literally, _a shelter of stretched canvas_; tentac'ula, _the
feelers of certain animals_; atten'tion; atten'tive; conten'tion;
conten'tious; extent'; intent' (-ion); ostenta'tion; ostenta'tious;
por'tent, _an ill omen_.


199. TENE'RE: ten'eo, ten'tum, _to hold_; _French_ Tenir (_radical_ tain),
_to hold_.

TEN: ten'able; ten'ant, _one who holds property under another_; ten'antry;
ten'ement; ten'et (Lat. _tenet_, literally, "he holds"), _a doctrine held
as true_; ten'ure.

TIN (in compos.): ab'stinent; ab'stinence; continent; incon'tinent;
per'tinent; imper'tinent.

TENT: content' (-ment); contents'; discontent'; deten'tion; reten'tion;
reten'tive; sus'tenance.

TAIN: abstain'; appertain'; contain'; detain'; entertain' (-ment);
pertain'; retain' (-er); sustain'.

Tena'cious (Lat. adj. _te'nax, tena'cis_, holding firmly); tenac'ity;
appur'tenance, _that which belongs to something else_; contin'ue (Fr. v.
_continuer_ = Lat. _contine're_); contin'ual; contin'uance; continua'tion;
continu'ity; discontin'ue; coun'tenance (literally, the contents of a body:
hence, of a face); lieuten'ant (Fr. n. _lieu_, a place); maintain' (Fr. n.
_main_, the hand), literally, _to hold by the hand_: hence, _to support, to
uphold_; main'tenance; pertina'cious; pertinac'ity; ret'inue, _a train of
attendants_.


200. TER'RA, _the earth_.

TERR: ter'race (Fr. n. _terrasse_); terra'queous (Lat. n. _a'qua_, water);
terres'trial; ter'ritory (-al); ter'rier, _a small dog that goes into the
ground after burrowing animals_; Mediterra'nean (Lat. n. _me'dius_,
middle); subterra'nean.

Inter, _to put in the earth, to bury_; inter'ment; disinter'.


201. TES'TIS, _a witness_.

TEST: tes'tify; attest' (-ation); contest'; detest' (-able); protest'
(-ation, -ant); prot'estantism.

Tes'tament (Lat. n. _testamen'tum_, a will); testamen'tary; testa'tor;
tes'timony (-al); intes'tate, _not having left a will_.


202. TOR'QUERE: tor'queo, tor'tum, _to twist_.

TORT: tort'ure; contort' (-ion); distort' (-ion); extort' (-ion, -ionate);
retort'.

Tor'tuous (Lat. adj. _tortuo'sus_, very twisted); tortuos'ity; torment'
(Lat. n. _tormen'tum_, extreme pain).


203. TRA'HERE: tra'ho, trac'tum, _to draw_; _Fr._ Trair, _past part._
Trait.

TRACT: tract (-able, -ile, -ion); ab'stract (-ion); attract' (-ion, -ive);
contract' (-ile, -or); detract'; distract'; extract' (-ion, -or);
protract'; retract' (-ion); subtract' (-ion).

Trace (Fr. n. _trace_); track (Old Fr. n. _trac_); train; trait; treat
(-ise, -ment, -y).


204. TRIBU'ERE: trib'uo, tribu'tum, _to allot, to give_.

TRIBUT: trib'ute (-ary); attrib'ute; contribute (-ion); distrib'ute (-ion,
-ive); retribu'tion; retrib'utive.


205. TRU'DERE: tru'do, tru'sum, _to thrust_.

TRUD: detrude', _to thrust down_; extrude'; intrude' (-er); obtrude';
protrude'.

TRUS: abstruse' (literally, thrust away: hence, difficult to be
understood); intru'sion; intru'sive; obtru'sive; protru'sion.


206. TU'ERE: tu'eor, tu'itus _or_ tu'tus, _to watch_.

TUIT: tui'tion, _instruction_; intui'tion, _the act or power of the mind by
which it at once perceives the truth of a thing without argument_;
intu'itive.

TUT: tu'tor; tuto'rial; tu'torage.


207. UN'DA, _a wave_.

UND: abun'dance, literally, condition of overflowing--(_abunda're_, to
overflow); abun'dant; superabundant; inun'date (-ion); redun'dant
(literally, running back or over: hence, exceeding what is necessary);
redundance; redun'dancy.

Un'dulate (Lat. n. _un'dula_, a little wave); undula'tion; un'dulatory;
abound'; superabound'; redound' (Old Fr. v. _redonder_ = Lat. _redunda're_,
to roll back as a wave or flood).


208. U'TI: u'tor, u'sus, _to use_.

UT: uten'sil (Lat. n. _uten'sile_, something that may be used); util'ity
(Lat. n. _util'itas_, usefulness); u'tilize.

US: use (-able, -age, -ful, -less); us'ual (Lat. adj. _usua'lis_, of
frequent use); u'sury, _illegal interest paid for the use of money_;
u'surer; abuse' (-ive); disabuse'.


209. VAD'ERE: va'do, va'sum, _to go_.

VAD: evade'; invade'; pervade'.

VAS: eva'sion; inva'sion; perva'sive.


210. VALE'RE: valeo, vali'tum, _to be strong, to be of value_; Val'idus,
_strong_; Va'le, _farewell_.

VAL: valedic'tory, _bidding farewell_; valetudina'rian (Lat. n.
_valetu'do_, state of health), _a person in ill-health_; val'iant, _brave_,
_heroic_; val'or (-ous); val'ue (-able, -ation, -ator); convales'cent,
_regaining health_; equiv'alent (Lat. adj. _e'quus_, equal); prev'alent,
_very common or general_; prevalence.

VAIL: (Fr. radical): avail' (-able); prevail'.

VALID: val'id; valid'ity; in'valid.


211. VENI'RE: ve'nio, ven'tum, _to come, to go_.

VENT: vent'ure, literally, _something gone upon_; vent'uresome; ad'vent;
adventi'tious, _accidental, casual_; advent'ure (-ous); circumvent';
contraven'tion; con'vent, _a monastery, a nunnery_; conven'ticle, _a place
of assembly_; conven'tion (-al); event'(-ful); event'ual; invent'
(literally, to come upon), _to find out, to contrive_; inven'tion;
invent'ive; invent'or; interven'tion; peradvent'ure; prevent' (-ion, -ive).

Av'enue (Fr. n. _avenue_, an approach to); contravene'; convene';
conven'ient (Lat. pres. part, _conve'niens, convenien'tis_, literally,
coming together), _suitable_; conven'ience; cov'enant _an agreement between
two parties_; intervene'; rev'enue; supervene', _to come upon, to happen_.


212. VER'BUM, _a word_.

VERB: verb (-al, -ally, -ose, -osity); ad'verb; prov'erb.

Verba'tim (Lat. adv. _verba'tim_, word for word); ver'biage (Fr. n.
_verbiage_, wordiness).


213. VER'TERE: ver'to, ver'sum, _to turn_.

VERT: advert'; inadver'tent (literally, not turning the mind to),
_heedless_; ad'vertise, _to turn public attention to_; adver'tisement;
animadvert' (Lat. n. _an'imus_, the mind), _to turn the mind to, to
censure_; avert'; controvert', _to oppose_; convert', _to change into
another form or state_; divert'; invert', literally, _to turn the outside
in_; pervert', _to turn from the true purpose_; retrovert'; revert';
subvert'.

VERS: adverse' (-ary, -ity); animadver'sion; anniver'sary, _the yearly_
(Lat. n. _an'nus_, a year) _celebration of an event_; averse', _having a
dislike to_; aver'sion; con'troversy; converse' (-ant, -ation);
conver'sion; diverse' (-ify, -ion, -ity); ob'verse; perverse' (-ity);
retrover'sion; reverse' (-al, -ion); subver'sion; subversive;
tergiversa'tion (Lat. n. _ter'gum_, the back), _a subterfuge_; transverse',
_lying or being across_; u'niverse (Lat. adj. _u'nus_, one), _the system of
created things_; univer'sal (-ist); univer'sity, _a universal school in
which are taught all branches of learning_.

Verse (Lat. n. _ver'sus_, a furrow), _a line in poetry_; ver'sify;
versifica'tion; ver'sion, _that which is turned from one language into
another, a statement_; ver'satile (Lat. adj. _versat'ilis_, turning with
ease); vertex (pl. ver'tices), _the summit_; vertical; vertebra (pl.
ver'tebrae); ver'tebrate; ver'tigo; vor'tex (Lat. n. _vor'tex_, a
whirlpool); divorce' (Fr. n. _divorce), a separation_.


214. VE'RUS, _true_; Ve'rax, vera'cis, _veracious_.

VER: ver'dict (Lat. n. _dic'tum_, a saying), _the decision of a jury_;
ver'ify, _to prove to be true; _verifica'tion; ver'ity (Lat. n. _ver'itas_,
truth); ver'itable; verisim'ilar, _truth-like_; verisimil'itude; aver', _to
declare truer_; aver'ment; ver'ily; ver'y.

VERAC: v'era'cious; verac'ity.


215. VI'A, _a way_.

VIA: vi'aduct (Lat. v. _du'cere, duc'tum_, to lead); viat'icum (Lat. n.
_viat'icum_, literally, traveling money), _the sacrament administered to a
dying person_; de'viate (-ion); de'vious; ob'viate, _to meet in the way, to
remove_; ob'vious; per'vious, _affording a passage through_; imper'vious.

Voy'age (Fr. n. _voyage_); convoy', _to escort_; en'voy (Fr. v. _envoyer_,
to send), _one sent on a special mission_; triv'ial (Lat. n. _triv'ium_, a
cross road), _trifling_; trivial'ity.


216. VIDE'RE: vi'deo, vi'sum, _to see_.

VID: ev'ident, _clearly seen; _ev'idence; invid'ious, literally, _looking
against_: hence, _likely to provoke envy_; provide', _to look out for, to
supply_; prov'idence; prov'ident.

VIS: vis'ible; vis'ion (-ary); advise'; advis'able, _expedient_;
im'provise, _to compose and recite without premeditation_; provis'ion;
revise' (-al, -ion); supervis'ion; supervis'or.

View (Fr. v. _voir_, to see, _vu_, seen); review'; in'terview; vis'age (Fr.
n. _visage_, the countenance); vis'it (-ant, -or, -ation); vis'or, _part of
a helmet perforated to see through; _vis'ta (It. n. _vista_, sight), _a
prospect as seen through an avenue of trees _; advice'; en'vy (Fr. n.
_envie_ = Lat. _invid'ia_, from _invide're_, to see against); in'voice (It.
n. _avviso_, notice), _a priced list of goods_; peruse' (Lat. v.
_pervide're, pervi'sum_, to look through); provi'so, _a stipulation_;
pru'dent (Lat. adj. _pru'dens _from _prov'idens_); pru'dence; purvey', _to
look out for in the way of buying provisions_; purvey'or; survey' (-or).


217. VIN'CERE: vin'co, vic'tum, _to conquer_.

VINC: vin'cible; invin'cible; convince'; evince', _to show clearly_

VICT: vic'tor; vic'tory (-ous); convict', _to prove guilty of crime_;
evict', _to dispossess_; evic'tion.

Vanquish (Fr. v. _vaincre, vaincu_ = Lat. _vin'cere_); prov'ince (Fr. n.
_province_ = Lat. _provin'cia_, literally, a conquered country).


218. VOCA'RE: vo'co, voca'tum, _to call_; Vox, vo'cis, _the voice_.

VOCAT: voca'tion, literally, _calling, occupation_; voc'ative, _the case of
a noun in which the subject is called, or addressed_; ad'vocate _to plead
for_; convoca'tion, _an assembly, a meeting_; equivocate (Lat. adj.
_e'quus_, equal), _to use words of doubtful meaning_; equivoca'tion;
evoca'tion, _act of calling forth_; invoca'tion; provoca'tion;
provo'cative; revoca'tion.

VOC: vo'cable (Lat. n. _vocab'ulum_, that which is sounded with the voice),
_a word_; vocab'ulary; vo'cal (-ist, -ize); vociferate, _to cry with a loud
voice_; ad'vocacy, _a pleading for, a defense_; irrev'ocable.

Voice (Fr. n. _voix_ = Lat. _vox), sound uttered by the mouth_; vouch, _to
call out, or affirm strongly_; vow'el (Fr. n. _vouelle_, a voice-sound);
advow'son, _right of perpetual calling to a benefice_; convoke', _to call
together_; evoke'; invoke'; revoke'.


219. VOL'VERE: vol'vo, volu'tum, _to roll_.

VOLV: circumvolve'; convolve', _to roll together_; devolve'; evolve';
involve'; revolve' (-ion, -ionist).

VOLUT: circumvolu'tion; evolu'tion; revolution (-ary, -ist, -ize).

Vol'ume (Lat. n. _volu'men_, a roll, or inscribed parchment sheet rolled
up), _a single book_; volute', _a kind of rolled or spiral scroll_;
vol'uble, literally, _rolling easily_: hence, _having great fluency of
speech_; convol'vulus, _a genus of twining plants_; revolt'.


220. VUL'GUS, _the common people_.

VULG: vul'gar; vul'garism; vulgar'ity; vul'gate, _a Latin version of the
Scriptures_.

Divulge', _to make known something before kept secret_; divulge'ment;
promulgate (-ion).





PART III.--THE GREEK ELEMENT.


I.--GREEK PREFIXES.

PREFIX  SIGNIFICATION.      EXAMPLE.              DEFINITION


a-      = _without_;        a-pathy               state of being _without_
an-       _not_             an-omalous              feeling.
                                                  _not_ similar.

amphi-  = _around_;         amphi-theater         place for seeing all
          _both_            amphi-bious             _around_.
                                                  living in _both_ land and
                                                    water.

ana-    = _back_,           ana-logy              reasoning _back_.
          _throughout_      ana-lysis             loosening _throughout_.

anti-   = _against_;        anti-pathy            a feeling _against_.
ant-      _opposite_        ant-arctic            _opposite_ the Arctic.

apo-    = _away_;           apo-stle              one sent _out_.
ap-       _out_             ap-helion             _away_ from the sun.

cata-   = _down_ or         cata-ract             a rushing _down_.
cat-      _against_         cat-arrh              a  flowing _down_.

dia-    = _through_ or      dia-meter             measure _through_ the
          _across_          dia-logue               center.
                                                  speaking _across_ (from
                                                    one another).

dis-    = _two_,            dis-syllable          word of _two_ syllables.
di-       _double_          di-lemma              a _double_ assumption.

dys-    = _ill_             dys-pepsia            _ill_ digestion.

ec-     = _out of_          ec-centric            _out of_ the center.
ex-                         ex-odies              an _outgoing_.

Note--EX- is used before a root beginning with a vowel.

en-     = _in_ or           en-ergy               power _in_ one.
em-       _on_              em-phasis             stress _on_.

epi-    = _upon_;           epi-dermis            skin _upon_ skin.
ep-       _for_             ep-hemeral            lasting _for_ a day.

Note--EP- is used before a root beginning with a vowel or a _h_ aspirate

eu-     = _well_ or         eu-phonic             sounding _well_.
ev-       _good_            ev-angel              _good_ news.

hemi-   = _half_            hemi-sphere           _half_ a sphere

hyper-  = _over_ or         hyper-critical        _over_-critical.
          _beyond_          hyper-borean          _beyond_ the North.

hypo-   = _under_           hypo-thesis           a placing _under_ (= Lat.
                                                    supposition.)

meta-   = _beyond_;         meta-physics          science _beyond_ physics.
met-      _transference_    met-onymy             _transference_ of name.

para-   = _by the_          par-helion            mock sun _by the side of_
par-      _side of_                                 the real.

peri-   = around            peri-meter            the measure _around_
                                                    anything.

pro-    = before            pro-gramme            something written
                                                    _before_.

pros-   = to                pros-elyte            one coming _to_ a new
                                                    religion.

syn-      _with_            syn-thesis            placing _together_.
sy-     = or                sy-stem               part _with_ part.
syl-      _together_        syl-lable             letters taken _together_.
sym-                        sym-pathy             feeling _together_.

NOTE.--The form SY- is used before _s_; SYL- before _l_, SYM- before _b, p_
or _m_.


II.--GREEK ALPHABET.

[Greek: A a]             a                        _Alpha._
[Greek: B b *]           b                        _Beta._
[Greek: G g]             g                        _Gamma._
[Greek: D d]             d                        _Delta._
[Greek: E e]             e as in _met_            _Epsilon._
[Greek: Z z]             z                        _Zeta._
[Greek: E e]             e as in _me_             _Eta._
[Greek: Th th *]         th                       _Theta._
[Greek: I i]             i                        _Iota_
[Greek: K k]             k                        _Kappa._
[Greek: L l]             l                        _Lambda._
[Greek: M m]             m                        _Mu._
[Greek: N n]             n                        _Nu._
[Greek: X x]             x                        _Xi._
[Greek: O o]             o as in _not_            _Omicron._
[Greek: P p *]           p                        _Pi_
[Greek: R r]             r                        _Rho._
[Greek: S s, s] final    s                        _Sigma._
[Greek: T t]             t                        _Tau._
[Greek: U u]             u, or y                  _Upsilon._
[Greek: Ph ph]           ph                       _Phi._
[Greek: Ch ch]           ch                       _Chi._
[Greek: Ps ps]           ps                       _Psi._
[Greek: O o]             o as in _no_             _Omega._

Pronunciation of Greek Words.

_Gamma_ has always the hard sound of _g_, as in _give_.

_Kappa_ is represented by _c_ in English words, although in Greek it has
but one sound, that of our _k_.

_Upsilon_ is represented by _y_ in English words; in Greek it has always
the sound of _u_ in mute.

_Chi_ is represented in English by _ch_ having the sound of _k_; as in
_chronic_.

In Greek words, as in Latin, there are always as many syllables as there
are vowels and diphthongs.

An inverted comma placed over a letter denotes that the sound of our _h_
precedes that letter.


GREEK ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES.

DIVISION I.--PRINCIPAL GREEK ROOTS.


1. A'ER, _the air_.

A'ERATE, _to combine with air; to mix with carbonic acid_.

A-E'RIAL, _belonging to the air_.

A'ERIFORM, _having the form of air_.

A'EROLITE (Gr. n. _lith'os_, a stone), _a meteoric stone_.

A'ERONAUT (Gr. n. _nau'tes_, a sailor), _a balloonist_.

AEROSTA'TION, _aerial navigation_.

AIR, _the atmosphere; a melody; the bearing of a person_.

AIR'Y, _open to the air; gay, sprightly_.


2. AG'EIN, _to lead_.

APAGO'GE, _a leading away; an indirect argument_

DEM'AGOGUE (Gr. n. _de'mos_, the people), _a misleader of the people_.

PARAGO'GE (literally, a leading or extension beyond), _the addition of a
letter or syllable to the end of a word_.

PED'AGOGUE (Gr. n. _pais_, a child), _a schoolmaster; a pedantic person_..

SYN'AGOGUE, _a Jewish place of worship_.


3. A'GON, a contest.

AG'ONY, _extreme pain_.

AG'ONIZE, _to be in agony_.

ANTAG'ONISM, _direct opposition_.

ANTAG'ONIST, _or_ ANTAGONIS'TIC, _contending against_.


4. ANG'ELLEIN, _to bring tidings_; ANG'ELLOS, _a messenger_.

AN'GEL, _a spiritual messenger_.

ANGEL'IC, _relating to an angel_.

ARCHAN'GEL (Gr. prefix _archi-_, chief), _an angel of the highest order_.

EVAN'GEL (Gr. prefix _eu_, well), _good tidings; the gospel_.

EVAN'GELIST, _one of the writers of the four gospels_.


5. AR'CHE, _beginning, government, chief_.

AN'ARCHY, _want of government_.

AR'CHITECT (Gr. n. _tek'ton_, workman), literally, _a chief builder, one
who devises plans for buildings_.

AR'CHIVES, _records_.

HEP'TARCHY (Gr. _hepta_, seven), _a sevenfold government_.

HI'ERARCHY (Gr. adj. _hi'eros_, sacred), _dominion in sacred things; a
sacred body of rulers_.

MON'ARCH (Gr. adj. _mon'os_, alone), _one who rules alone, a sovereign_.

MON'ARCHY, _government by one person, a kingdom_.

OLIGARCHY (Gr. adj. _ol'igos_, few), _government by a few, an aristocracy_.

PA'TRIARCH (Gr. n. _pat'er_, a father), _the father and ruler of a family_.

PATRIAR'CHAL, _relating to patriarchs_.


6. AS'TRON, _a star_.

AS'TERISK, _a mark like a star (*) used to refer to a note, and sometimes
to mark an omission of words_.

AS'TEROID (Gr. adj. _ei'dos_, like), _one of the numerous small planets
between Mars and Jupiter_.

AS'TRAL, _belonging to the stars_.

ASTROL'OGY, _the pretended science of foretelling events by the stars_.

ASTRON'OMY (Gr. n. _nom'os_, a law), _the science that treats of the
stars_.

ASTRON'OMER, _one skilled in astronomy_.

DISAS'TER, _calamity, misfortune_.

DISAS'TROUS, _unlucky; calamitous_.


7. AU'TOS, _one's self_.

AUTOBIOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _bi'os_, life, _graph'ein_, to write), _the life of
a person written by himself_.

AU'TOCRAT (Gr. n. _krat'os_, power), _an absolute ruler_.

AUTOCRAT'IC, _like an autocrat_.

AU'TOGRAPH, _one's own handwriting_.

AUTOM'ATON (Gr. _mema'otes_, striving after), _a self-acting machine_.

AUTHEN'TIC, _genuine, true_.

AUTHENTIC'ITY, _genuineness_.


8. BAL'LEIN, _to throw or cast_.

EM'BLEM, _a representation; a type_.

EMBLEMAT'ICAL, _containing an emblem_.

HYPER'BOLE, _a figure of speech which represents things greater or less
than they are_.

PAR'ABLE, _a story which illustrates some fact or doctrine_.

PARAB'OLA, _one of the conic sections_.

PROB'LEM, _a question proposed for solution_.

SYM'BOL, _a sign; a representation_.

SYMBOLICAL, _representing by signs_.


9. BAP'TEIN, _to wash, to dip_.

BAP'TISM, _a Christian sacrament, in the observance of which the individual
is sprinkled with or immersed in water_.

BAPTIZE', _to sprinkle with or immerse in water_.

BAPTISMAL, _pertaining to baptism: as baptismal vows_.

BAP'TIST, _one who approves only of baptism by immersion_.

ANABAP'TIST, _one who believes that only adults should be baptized_.

CATABAP'TIST, _one opposed to baptism_.

PEDOBAP'TISM (Gr. _pais_, _paidos_, a child), _infant baptism_.


10. CHRON'OS, time.

CHRON'IC, _lasting a long time_; _periodical_.

CHRON'ICLE, _a record of events in the order of time_; _a history recording
facts in order of time_.

CHRONOL'OGY, _the science of computing the dates of past events_.

CHRONOM'ETER (Gr. n. _me'tron_, a measure), _an instrument for measuring
time_.

ANACH'RONISM, _an error in computing time_.

SYN'CHRONAL, SYN'CHRONOUS, _existing at the same time_.


11. GRAM'MA, _a letter_

GRAM'MAR, _the science of language_.

GRAMMA'RIAN, _one skilled in or who teaches grammar_.

GRAMMAT'ICAL, _according to the rules of grammar_.

AN'AGRAM, _the change of one word into another by transposing the letters_.

DI'AGRAM, _a writing or drawing made for illustration_.

EP'IGRAM, _a short poem ending with a witty thought_.

MON'OGRAM (Gr. adj. _mon'os_, alone), _a character composed of several
letters interwoven_.

PRO'GRAMME, _order of any entertainment_.

TEL'EGRAM (Gr. _te'le_, at a distance), _a message sent by telegraph_.


12. GRAPH'EIN, _to write_.

GRAPH'IC, _well delineated; giving vivid description_.

AU'TOGRAPH. See _au'tos_.

BIOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _bi'os_, life), _the history of a life_.

CALIG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. _kal'os_, beautiful), _beautiful writing_.

GEOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _ge_, the earth), _a description of the earth_.

HISTORIOG'RAPHER (Gr. n. _histo'ria_, history), _one appointed to write
history_.

HOL'OGRAPH (Gr. adj. _hol'os_, whole), _a deed or will wholly written by
the grantor or testator_.

LEXICOG'RAPHER (Gr. n. _lex'icon_, a dictionary), _the compiler of a
dictionary_.

LITH'OGRAPH (Gr. n. _lith'os_, a stone), _an impression of a drawing made
on stone_.

LITHOG'RAPHY, _the art of writing on and taking impressions from stone_.

ORTHOG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. _or'thos_, correct), _the correct spelling of
words_.

PHO'NOGRAPH (Gr. n. _pho'ne_, sound), _an instrument for the mechanical
registration and reproduction of audible sounds_.

PHONOG'RAPHY, _a system of short hand; the art of constructing or of using
the phonograph_.

PHOTOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _phos, phot'os_, light), _the art of producing
pictures by light_.

STENOG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. _sten'os_, narrow), _the art of writing in
short-hand_.

TEL'EGRAPH (Gr. _te'le_, at a distance), _an apparatus for conveying
intelligence to a distance by means of electricity_.

TOPOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _top'os_, a place), _the description of a particular
place_.

TYPOGRAPHY (Gr. n. _tu'pos_, a type), _the art or operation of printing_.


13. HOD'OS, _a way_.

EP'ISODE, _an incidental story introduced into a poem or narrative_.

EX'ODUS, _departure from a place; the second book of the Old Testament_.

METH'OD, _order, system, way, manner_.

METH'ODIST, _the followers of John Wesley_. (The name has reference to the
strictness of the rules of this sect of Christians).

PE'RIOD (Gr. n. _period'os_, a passage round), _the time in which anything
is performed; a kind of sentence; a punctuation mark_.

SYN'OD, _a meeting of ecclesiastics_.


14. HU'DOR, _water_.

HY'DRA, _a water-snake; a fabulous monster serpent slain by Hercules_.

HYDRAN'GEA, _a genus of plants remarkable for their absorption of water_.

HY'DRANT, _a water-plug_.

HYDRAU'LIC (Gr. n. _au'los_, a pipe), _relating to the motion of water
through pipes; worked by water_.

HYDRAU'LICS, _the science which treats of fluids in motion_.

HYDROCEPH'ALUS (Gr. n. _keph'ale_, the head), _dropsy of the head_.

HY'DROGEN (Gr. v. _gen'ein_, to beget), _a gas which with oxygen produces
water_.

HYDROG'RAPHY, _the art of maritime surveying and mapping_.

HYDROP'ATHY (Gr. n. _path'os_, feeling), _the water-cure_.

HYDROPHO'BIA (Gr. n. _phob'os_, fear), literally, _dread of water; canine
madness_.

HY'DROPSY, _a collection of water in the body_. ("Dropsy" is a contraction
of _hydropsy_).

HYDROSTAT'ICS, _the science which treats of fluids at rest_.


15. KRAT'OS, _rule, government, strength_.

ARISTOC'RACY (Gr. adj. _aris'tos_, best), _government by nobles_.

ARIS'TOCRAT, _one who favors aristocracy_.

AU'TOCRAT. See _au'tos_.

DEMOC'RACY (Gr. n. _de'mos_, the people), _government by the people_.

DEM'OCRAT, _one who upholds democracy; in the United States, a member of
the democratic party_.

THEOC'RACY, _government of a state by divine direction, as the ancient
Jewish state_.


16. LOG'OS, _speech, ratio, description, science_.

LOG'IC, _the science and art of reasoning_.

LOGI'CIAN, _one skilled in logic_.

LOG'ARITHMS (Gr. n. _arith'mos_, number), _a class of numbers that abridge
arithmetical calculations_.

ANAL'OGY, _a resemblance of ratios_.

AP'OLOGUE, _a moral fable_.

APOL'OGY, _a defense, an excuse_.

CAT'ALOGUE, _a list of names in order_.

CHRONOL'OGY. (See _chronos_.)

CONCHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _kon'chos_, a shell), _the science of shells_.

DEC'ALOGUE (Gr. _dek'a_, ten), _the ten commandments_.

DOXOL'OGY (Gr. n. _doxa_, glory), _a hymn expressing glory to God_.

EC'LOGUE, _a pastoral poem_.

ENTOMOL'OGY (Gr. n. _ento'ma_, insects, and v. _tem'nein_, to cut), _the
natural history of insects_.

EP'ILOGUE, _a short poem or speech at the end of a play_.

ETYMOL'OGY (Gr. _et'umon_, true source), _a part of grammar; the science of
the derivation of words_.

EU'LOGY, _praise, commendation_.

GENEAL'OGY (Gr. n. _gen'os_, birth), _history of the descent of families_.

GEOL'OGY (Gr. n. _ge_, the earth), _the science which treats of the
internal structure of the earth_.

MINERAL'OGY, _the science of minerals_.

MYTHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _mu'thos_, a fable), _a system or science of fables_.

ORNITHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _or'nis, or'nithos_, a bird), _the natural history of
birds_.

PATHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _path'os_, suffering), _that part of medicine which
treats of the causes and nature of diseases_.

PHILOL'OGY (Gr. _phil'os_, loving, fond of), _the science which treats of
languages_.

PHRENOL'OGY (Gr. n. _phren_, the mind), _the art of reading the mind from
the form of the skull_.

PHYSIOL'OGY (Gr. n. _phu'sis_, nature), _the science which treats of the
organism of plants and animals_.

PRO'LOGUE, _verses recited as introductory to a play_.

PSYCHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _psu'che_, the soul), _mental philosophy; doctrine of
man's spiritual nature_.

SYL'LOGISM, _a form of reasoning consisting of three propositions_.

TAUTOL'OGY (Gr. _tau'to_, the same), _a repetition of the same idea in
different words_.

TECHNOL'OGY (Gr. n. _tech'ne_, art), _a description of the arts_.

THEOL'OGY. See _theos_.

TOXICOL'OGY (Gr. n. _tox'icon_, poison) _the science which treats of
poisons and their effects_.

ZOOL'OGY (Gr. n. _zo'on_, an animal), _that part of natural history which
treats of animals_.


17. MET'RON _a measure_.

ME'TER, _arrangement of poetical feet; a measure of length_.

MET'RIC, _denoting measurement_.

MET'RICAL, _pertaining to meter_.

ANEMOM'ETER (Gr. n. _an'emos_, the wind), _an instrument measuring the
force and velocity of the wind_.

BAROM'ETER (Gr. n. _ba'ros_, weight), _an instrument that indicates changes
in the weather_.

DIAM'ETER, _measure through anything_.

GEOM'ETRY (Gr. n. _ge_, the earth), _a branch of mathematics_.

HEXAM'ETER (Gr. _hex_, six), _a line of six poetic feet_.

HYDROM'ETER (Gr. n. _hu'dor_, water), _an instrument for determining the
specific gravities of liquids_.

HYGROM'ETER (Gr. adj. _hu'gros_, wet), _an instrument for measuring the
degree of moisture of the atmosphere_.

PENTAM'ETER (Gr. _pen'te_, five), _a line of five poetic feet_.

PERIM'ETER, _the external boundary of a body or figure_.

SYM'METRY, _the proportion or harmony of parts_.

THERMOM'ETER (Gr. adj. _ther'mos_, warm), _an instrument for measuring the
heat of bodies_.

TRIGONOM'ETRY (Gr. n. _trigo'non_, a triangle), _a branch of mathematics_.


18. MON'OS, _sole, alone_.

MON'ACHISM, _the condition of monks; a monastic life_.

MON'AD, _something ultimate and indivisible_.

MON'ASTERY, _a house of religious retirement_.

MONK (Gr. n. _mon'achos_), _a religious recluse_.

MONOG'AMY (Gr. n. _gam'os_, MARRIAGE), _the marriage of one wife only_.

MON'OLOGUE (Gr. n. _log'os_), _a speech uttered by a person alone_.

MONOMA'NIA (Gr. n. _ma'nia_, madness), _madness confined to one subject_.

MONOP'OLY (Gr. v. pol'ein, to sell), _the sole power of selling anything_.

MONOSYL'LABLE, _a word of one syllable_.

MON'OTHEISM (Gr. n. _the'os_, God), _the belief in the existence of only
one God_.

MON'OTONE, _uniformity of tone_.

MONOT'ONY, _sameness of sound; want of variety_.


19. O'DE, _a song_.

ODE, _a lyric poem_.

MEL'ODY (Gr. n. _mel'os_, a song), _an agreeable succession of musical
sounds_.

PAR'ODY, _the alteration of the works of an author to another subject_.

PROS'ODY, _the study of versification_.

PSAL'MODY, _the practice of singing psalms_.

TRAG'EDY (Gr. n. _trag'os_, a goat[9]), _a dramatic representation of a sad
or calamitous event_.

EXERCISE.

The _periods_ of _astronomy_ go far beyond any _chronology_. The
_phonograph_ and the _telegraph_ are both American inventions. By the aid
of a _diagram_ the _problem_ was readily solved. Dr. Holmes, the _Autocrat_
of the Breakfast Table, has written many _parodies_. In the struggle
between _monarchy_ and _democracy_ Mexico has often been in a state of
_anarchy_. His _antagonist_ suffered great _agony_ from the _disaster_ that
occurred. The _eulogy_ pronounced on the great _zooelogist_ Agassiz was well
deserved. What is the _etymological_ distinction between _geography_ and
_geology_? The _aeronaut_ took with him a _barometer_, a _thermometer_, and
a _chronometer_. I owe you an _apology_ for not better knowing your
_genealogy. Typography_ has been well called "the art preservative of all
the arts." Who is called the great American _lexicographer? Tautology_ is
to be avoided by all who make any pretence to _grammar_. One may be a
_democrat_ without being a _demagogue_. You cannot be an _architect_
without knowing _geometry. Zoology_ shows that there is great _symmetry_ in
the structure of animals. The pretensions of _astrology_ are now dissipated
into thin _air_. Many persons skilled in _physiology_ do not believe in
hydropathy. Longfellow's "Evangeline" is written in _hexameter_, and
Milton's "Paradise Lost" in _pentameter_.


20. ON'OMA, _a name_.

ANON'YMOUS, _without a name_.

METON'YMY, _a rhetorical figure in which one word is put for another_.

ON'OMATOPOE'IA, _the forming of words whose sound suggests the sense_.

PARON'YMOUS, _of like derivation_.

PATRONYM'IC (Gr. n. _pat'er_, a father), _a name derived from a parent or
ancestor_.

PSEU'DONYM (Gr. adj. _pseu'des_, false), _a fictitious name_.

SYN'ONYM, _a word having the same meaning as another in the same language_.


21. PAN, PANTOS, _all; whole_.

PANACE'A (Gr. v. _ak'eomai_, I cure), _a universal cure_.

PAN'CREAS (Gr. n. _kre'as_, flesh), _a fleshy gland situated at the bottom
of the stomach_.

PAN'DECT, _a treatise which combines the whole of any science_.

PANEGYR'IC (Gr. n. _ag'ora_, an assembly), _an oration in praise of some
person or event_.

PAN'OPLY (Gr. n. _hop'la_, armor), _a complete suit of armor_.

PANORA'MA (Gr. n. _hor'ama_, a sight or view), _a large picture gradually
unrolled before an assembly_.

PAN'THEISM (Gr. n. _the'os_, God), _the doctrine that nature is God_.

PAN'THEON, _a temple dedicated to all the gods_.

PAN'TOMIME, _a scene or representation in dumb show_.


22. PA'THOS, _suffering, feeling_.

PATHET'IC, _affecting the emotions_.

PATHOL'OGY, _the science of diseases_.

ALLOP'ATHY, _a mode of medical practice_.

ANTIP'ATHY, _dislike, aversion_.

AP'ATHY, _want of feeling_.

HOMEOP'ATHY, _a mode of medical practice_.

HYDROP'ATHY. See _hudor_.

SYM'PATHY, _fellow-feeling_.


23. PHIL'OS, _a friend, a lover_.

PHILADEL'PHIA (Gr. n. _adel'phos_, a brother), literally, _the city of
brotherly love_.

PHILANTHROPY (Gr. n. _anthro'pos_, a man), _love of mankind_.

PHILHARMON'IC (Gr. n. _harmo'nia_, harmony), _loving harmony or music_.

PHILOS'OPHY (Gr. n. _sophi'a_, wisdom), _the general laws or principles
belonging to any department of knowledge_.

PHILOS'OPHER, _one versed in philosophy or science_.

PHILOSOPH'IC, PHILOSOPH'ICAL, _relating to philosophy_.


24. PHA'NEIN, _to cause to appear_; PHANTA'SIA, _an image, an idea_.

DIAPH'ANOUS, _translucent_.

EPIPH'ANY, _the festival commemorative of the manifestation of Christ by
the star of Bethlehem_.

FAN'CY, _a pleasing image; a conceit or whim_.

FAN'CIFUL, _full of fancy; abounding in wild images_.

FANTA'SIA, _a musical composition avowedly not governed by the ordinary
musical rules_.

PHAN'TOM, _a specter, an apparation_.

PHASE, _an appearance_.

PHENOM'ENON, _anything presented to the senses by experiment or
observation; an unusual appearance_.

SYC'OPHANT (Gr. n. _sukon_, a fig, and, literally, an informer against
stealers of figs), _a mean flatterer_.


25. PHO'NE, _a sound_.

PHONET'IC, PHON'IC _according to sound_.

EU'PHONY, _an agreeable sound of words_.

SYM'PHONY, _harmony of mingled sounds; a musical composition for a full
band of instruments_.


26. PHOS, PHOTOS, _light_.

PHOS'PHORUS (Gr. v. _pherein_, to bear), _a substance resembling wax,
highly inflammable, and luminous in the dark_.

PHOS'PHATE, _a salt of phosphoric acid_.

PHOSPHORES'CENT, _luminous in the dark_.

PHOSPHOR'IC, _relating to or obtained from phosphorus_.

PHOTOG'RAPHY. See _graphein_.


27. PHU'SIS, _nature_.

PHYS'IC, _medicines_.

PHYS'ICAL, _natural; material; relating to the body_.

PHYSI'CIAN, _one skilled in the art of healing_.

PHYS'ICIST, _a student of nature_.

PHYS'ICS, _natural philosophy_.

PHYSIOG'NOMY (Gr. n. _gno'mon_, a judge), _the art of discerning the
character of the mind from the features of the face; the particular cast of
features or countenance_.

PHYSIOL'OGY. See _logos_.

METAPHYS'ICS, literally, _after or beyond physics_; hence, _the science of
mind_.

METAPHYSI'CIAN, _one versed in metaphysics_.


28. POL'IS, _a city_.

POLICE', _the body of officers employed to secure the good order of a
city_.

POL'ICY, _the art or manner of governing a nation or conducting public
affairs; prudence_.

POL'ITIC, _wise, expedient_.

POLIT'ICAL, _relating to politics_.

POLITI'CIAN, _one devoted to politics_.

POL'ITICS, _the art or science of government; struggle of parties_.

POL'ITY, _the constitution of civil government_.

ACROP'OLIS (Gr. adj. _ak'ros_, high), _a citadel_.

COSMOP'OLITE (Gr. n. _kos'mos_, the world), _a citizen of the world_.

METROP'OLIS (Gr. n. _me'ter_, a mother), _the chief city of a country_.

NECROP'OLIS (Gr. adj. _nek'ros_, dead), _a burial-place; a city of the
dead_.


29. RHE'O, _I flow, I speak_.

RHET'ORIC, _the art of composition; the science of oratory_.

RHETORI'CIAN, _one skilled in rhetoric_.

RHEU'MATISM, _a disease of the limbs_ (so called because the ancients
supposed it to arise from a deflection of the humors).

RES'IN, _a gum which flows from certain trees_.

CATARRH', _a discharge of fluid from the nose caused by cold in the head_.

DIARRHOE'A, _purging_.

HEM'ORRHAGE (Gr. n. _haima_, blood), _a flowing of blood_.


30. SKOP'EIN, _to see, to watch_.

SCOPE, _space, aim, intention_.

BISH'OP (Gr. n. _epis'kopos_, overseer), _a clergyman who has charge of a
diocese_.

EPIS'COPACY, _church government by bishops_.

EPIS'COPAL, _relating to episcopacy_.

KALEI'DOSCOPE (Gr. adj. _kal'os_, beautiful), _an optical instrument in
which we see an endless variety of beautiful patterns by simple change of
position_.

MI'CROSCOPE (Gr. adj. _mik'ros_, small), _an instrument for examining small
objects_.

MICROS'COPIST, _one skilled in the use of the microscope_.

STETH'OSCOPE (Gr. n. _steth'os_, the breast), _an instrument for examining
the state of the chest by sound_.

TEL'ESCOPE (Gr. _te'le_, afar off), _an instrument for viewing objects far
off_.


31. TAK'TOS, _arranged_; TAX'IS, _arrangement_.

TAC'TICS, _the evolution, maneuvers, etc., of military and naval forces_;
_the science or art which relates to these_.

TACTI'CIAN, _one skilled in tactics_.

SYN'TAX, _the arrangement of words into sentences_.

SYNTAC'TICAL, _relating to syntax_.

TAX'IDERMY (Gr. n. _der'ma_, skin), _the art of preparing and arranging the
skins of animals in their natural appearance_.

TAX'IDERMIST, _one skilled in taxidermy_.


32. TECH'NE, _art_.

TECH'NICAL, _relating to an art or profession_.

TECHNICAL'ITY, _a technical expression_; _that which is technical_.

TECHNOL'OGY, _a treatise on or description of the arts_.

TECHNOL'OGIST, _one skilled in technology_.

POLYTECH'NIC (Gr. adj. _pol'us_, many), _comprising many arts_.

PYR'OTECHNY (Gr. n. _pur_, fire), _the art of making fireworks_.


33. THE'OS, _God_.

THE'ISM, _belief in the existence of a God_.

THEO'CRACY. (See _kratos_.)

THEO'LOGY. (See _logos_.)

APOTHEO'SIS, _glorification, deification_.

A'THEISM, _disbelief in the existence of God_.

A'THEIST, _one who does not believe in the existence of God_.

ENTHU'SIASM, _heat of imagination_; _ardent zeal_.

PAN'THEISM. (See _pan_.)

POL'YTHEISM (Gr. adj. _polus_, many), _the doctrine of a plurality of
Gods_.


34. TITH'ENI, _to place, to set_.

THEME, _a subject set forth for discussion_.

THE'SIS, _a proposition set forth for discussion_.

ANATH'EMA, _an ecclesiastical curse_.

ANTITHESIS, _opposition or contrast in words or deeds_.

HYPOTH'ESIS, _a supposition_.

PAREN'THESIS, _something inserted in a sentence which is complete without
it_.

SYN'THESIS, _a putting together, as opposed to analysis_.


35. TON'OS, _tension, tone_.

TONE, _tension, vigor, sound_.

TON'IC, adj. _increasing tension or vigor_; n. _a medicine which increases
strength_.

TUNE, _a series of musical notes on a particular key_.

ATTUNE', _to make musical_; _to make one sound agree with another_.

BAR'YTONE (Gr. adj. _ba'rus_, heavy), _a male voice_.

DIATON'IC, _proceeding by tones and semitones_.

IN'TONATE, _to sound; to modulate the voice_.

INTONE', _to give forth a slow, protracted sound_.

SEM'ITONE, _half a tone_.


REVIEW EXERCISE ON GREEK DERIVATIVES.

1. Derivation of "antithesis"?--Compose an example of an antithesis.--Point
out the antithesis in the following:--

  "The prodigal robs his heir; the miser robs himself."
  "A wit with dunces and a dunce with wits."
  "Though deep, yet clear, though gentle, yet not dull,
  Strong without rage, without o'erflowing, full."

2. Derivation of "hypothesis."--Give an adjective formed from this
noun.--What Latin derivative corresponds literally to "hypothesis"? _Ans.
Supposition_.--Show this. _Ans._ Supposition is composed of sub = hypo
(under), and position (from _ponere_, to place) = thesis, a placing--What
adjective from "supposition" would correspond to "hypothetical"? _Ans.
Supposititious._

3. Derivation of "parenthesis"?--Compose a parenthetical sentence.

4. What is the opposite of "synthesis"?--Give the distinction _Ans.
Analysis_ is taking apart, _synthesis_ is putting together--What adjective
is derived from the noun "synthesis"?

5. What adjective is formed from "demagogue"? _Ans. Demagogic_ or
_demagogical_--Define it--Compose a sentence containing the word
"demagogue". MODEL: "Aaron Burr, to gain popularity, practiced the arts of
a _demagogue_."

6. What adjective is formed from "pedagogue"? _Ans. Pedagogic_--What would
the "_pedagogic_ art" mean?--Is "pedagogue" usually employed in a
complimentary sense?--Give a synonym of "pedagogue" in its literal sense.

7. Derivation of "anarchy"?--Compose a sentence containing this word.
MODEL: "Many of the South American States have long been cursed by
_anarchy_."

8. What adjective is formed from "monarchy"? _Ans. Monarchical_--Define
it.--Can you mention a country at present ruled by a monarchical
government?--What is the ruler of a monarchy called?

9. Compose a sentence containing the word "oligarchy". MODEL: "During the
Middle Ages some of the Italian republics, as Genoa and Venice, were under
the rule of an _oligarchy_."

10. From what root is "democracy" derived?--What adjective is formed from
"democracy"?--Is Russia at present a _democracy_?--Can you mention any
ancient governments that for a time were democracies?

11. What adjective is formed fiom "aristocracy"?--What noun will denote one
who believes in aristocracy? _Ans. Aristocrat_--What does "aristocrat"
ordinarily mean? _Ans._ A proud or haughty person who holds himself above
the common people.

12. What is the etymology of "thermometer"?

13. Illustrate the meaning of "chronometer" by using it in a sentence.

14. What adjective is formed from "diameter"? _Ans. Diametrical_--What
adverb is formed from "diametrical"?--What is meant by the expression
"_diametrically_ opposed"?

15. What science was the forerunner of astronomy? _Ans. Astrology_--Give
the derivative of this word.--What word denotes one who is skilled in
astronomy?--Form an adjective from "astronomy."--Compose a sentence
containing the word "astronomy." MODEL: "The three great founders of
_astronomy_ are Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton."

16. From what root is "telescope" derived?--Combine and define telescop +
ic.--Compose a sentence using the word "telescope."

17. From what root is "microscope" derived?--Combine and define microscop +
ic.--What single word denotes microscopic animals? _Ans.
Animalculae_.--Compose a sentence containing the word "microscope." MODEL:
"As the telescope reveals the infinitely distant, so the _microscope_
reveals the infinitely little."

18. Compose a sentence containing the word "antipathy." MODEL: "That we
sometimes have antipathies which we cannot explain is well illustrated in
the lines:

  'The reason why I cannot tell,
  I do not like you, Dr. Fell.'"

19. What adjective is formed from "apathy"?

20. Derivation of "sympathy"?--Give a synonym of this Greek derivative.
_Ans. Compassion_.--Show why they are literal synonyms. _Ans._ Sym = con or
com, and pathy = passion; hence, compassion = sympathy.--Give an English
derivative expressing the same thing. _Ans. Fellow-feeling._

21. From what two roots is "autocrat" derived?--Form an adjective from
"autocrat."--Who is the present "autocrat of all the Russias"?--Could the
Queen of England be called an _autocrat_?--Why not?

22. Compose a sentence containing the word "autograph." MODEL: "There are
only two or three _autographs_ of Shakespeare in existence."

23. Derivation of "automaton"?--Illustrate the signification of the word by
a sentence.

24. What word would denote a remedy for "all the ills that flesh is heir
to"?--Compose a sentence containing the word "panacea."

25. Derivation of "panoply"?--In the following sentence is "panoply" used
in a literal or a figurative sense? "We had need to take the Christian
_panoply_, to put on the whole armor of God."

26. From what two roots is "pantheism" derived?--What word is used to
denote one who believes in pantheism?

27. Can you mention an ancient religion in which there were many
gods?--Each divinity might have its own temple; but what name would
designate a temple dedicated to _all_ the gods?

28. Give an adjective formed from the word "panorama."--Compose a sentence
using the word "panorama."

29. What is the derivative of "eulogy"?--Illustrate its meaning by a
sentence.--Form an adjective from "eulogy."

30. What is the etymology of "pseudonym"?--Give an example of a pseudonym.

DIVISION II.--ADDITIONAL GREEK ROOTS AND THEIR
DERIVATIVES.

ACH'OS, _pain_--ache, headache.
AINIG'MA, _a riddle_--enigma.
AK'ME, _a point_--acme.
AKOU'EIN, _to hear_--acoustics.
AK'ROS, _high_--_acropolis (polis)._
ALLEL'ON, _each other_--parallel, parallelogram.
AN'ER, _a man_--Andrew, Alexander.
AN'THOS, _a flower_--anther, anthology, polyanthus.
ANTHRO'POS, _a man_--anthropology, anthropophagi, misanthrope,
    philanthropist, philanthropy.
ARK'TOS, _a bear_--arctic, antarctic.
AR'GOS, _idle_--lethargy, lethargic.
ARIS'TOS, _best_--aristocrat _(kratos)_, aristocracy, aristocratic.
ARITH'MOS, _number_--arithmetic, arithmetician, logarithm, logarithmic.
ARO'MA, _spice, odor_--aromatic.
ARTE'RIA, _a bloodvessel_--artery, arterial.
ASK'EIN, _to discipline_--ascetic, asceticism.
ASPHAL'TOS, _pitch_--asphalt.
ATH'LOS, _a contest_--athlete, athletic.
AT'MOS, _vapor, smoke_--atmosphere, atmospheric.
AU'LOS, _a pipe_--hydraulic.

BAL'SAMON, _balsam_--balm, embalm.
BA'ROS, _weight_--barometer, barytes.
BA'SIS, _the bottom_--base, baseless, basement, basis.
BIB'LION, _a book_--bible, biblical.
BI'OS, _life_--biography, biology.
BO'TANE, _a plant_--botanic, botanical, botanist, botany.
BRON'CHOS, _the throat_--bronchial, bronchitis.
BUS'SOS, _bottom_--abyss.

CHA'LUPS, _steel_--chalybeate.
CHARAS'SEIN, _to stamp_--character, characterize, characteristic.
CHA'RIS, _grace_--eucharist.
CHEIR, _the hand_--surgeon (short for _chirurgeon_), surgical.
CHLO'ROS, _green_--chloride, chlorine
CHOL'E, _bile_--choler, cholera, choleraic, melancholy.
CHOR'DE, _a string_--chord, cord, cordage.
CHRIS'TOS, _anointed_--chrism, Christ, Christian, Christmas, Christendom,
    antichrist.
CHRO'MA, _color_--chromatic, chrome, chromic, chromotype, achromatic.
CHRU'SOS, _gold_--chrysalis, chrysolite.
CHU'LOS, _the milky juice formed by digestion_--chyle, chylifaction.
CHU'MOS, _juice_--chyme, chemist, chemistry, alchemy, alchemist.

DAI'MON, _a spirit_--demon, demoniac, demonology.
DE'MOS, _the people_--demagogue, democracy, democrat, endemic, epidemic.
DEN'DRON, _a tree_--dendrology, rhododendron.
DER'MA, _the skin_--epidermis.
DES'POTES, _a ruler_--despot, despotic, despotism.
DIAI'TA, _manner of life_--diet, dietary, dietetic.
DIDO'NI, _to give_--dose, antidote, anecdote.
DOG'MA, _an opinion_--dogma, dogmatic, dogmatize, dogmatism.
DOX'A, _an opinion, glory_--doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox.
DRAM'A, _a stage-play_--drama, dramatic, dramatist.
DROM'OS, _a course_--dromedary, hippodrome.
DRUS, _an oak_--dryad.
DUNA'THAI, _to be able_--dynamics, dynamical, dynasty.
DUS, _ill, wrong_--dysentery (_entera_, the bowels), dyspepsia (_peptein_,
    to digest).

EKKLE'SIA, _the church_--ecclesiastes, ecclesiastic, ecclesiastical.
E'CHEIN, _to sound_--echo, catechise, catechism, catechumen.
EKLEI'PEIN, _to fail_--eclipse, ecliptic.
ELEK'TRON, _amber_--electric, electricity, electrify, electrotype.
EM'EIN, _to vomit_--emetic.
EP'OS, _a word_--epic, orthoepy.
ER'EMOS, _desert, solitary_--hermit, hermitage.
ER'GON, _a work_--energy, energetic, surgeon (_cheir_, the hand).
ETH'NOS, _a nation_--ethnic, ethnical, ethnography, ethnology.
ETH'OS, _custom, manner_--ethics, ethical.
EU, _good, well_--eulogy, eulogize, euphony, evangelical.

GAM'OS, _marriage_--bigamy, polygamy, misogamist.
GAS'TER, _the stomach_--gastric, gastronomy.
GE, _the earth_--geography, geology, geological, geometry, George, apogee,
    perigee.
GEN'NAEIN, _to produce_--genealogy, genesis, heterogeneous, homogeneous,
    hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen.
GIGNOS'KEIN, _to know_--diagnosis, diagnostic, prognosticate.
GLOS'SA, GLOT'TA, _the tongue_--glossary, glottis, polyglot.
GLU'PHEIN, _to carve_--hieroglyphics.
GNO'MON, _an indicator_--gnomon, physiognomy (_phusis_).
GO'NIA, _a corner_--diagonal, heptagon, hexagon, octagon, trigonometry.
GUM'NOS, _naked_--gymnasium, gymnast, gymnastics.

HAI'REIN, _to take or choose_--heresy, heretic, heretical.
HARMO'NIA, _a fitting together_--harmony, harmonious, harmonize, harmonium.
HEK'ATON, _a hundred_--hecatomb.
HE'LIOS, _the sun_--heliotrope, aphelion, perihelion.
HE'MERA, _a day_--ephemeral.
HEP'TA, _seven_--heptagon, heptarchy.
HE'ROS, _a hero_--hero, heroic, heroine, heroism.
HET'EROS, _another, unlike_--heterodox, heterodoxy, heterogeneous.
HEX, _six_--hexagon, hexangular.
HI'EROS, _sacred_--hierarchy, hieroglyphics (_glyphein_, to carve).
HIP'POS, _a horse_--hippodrome, hippopotamus, Philip, philippic.
HOL'OS, _all_--holocaust, holograph, catholic, catholicity.
HOM'OS, _like, the same_--homogeneous (_gennaein_, to produce).
HOR'OS, _a boundary_--horizon, aphorism.
HU'MEN, _the god of marriage_--hymeneal.
HUM'NOS, _a song of praise_--hymn, hymnal, hynmology.

ICH'THUS, _a fish_--ichthyology.
ID'EA, _a form or pattern_--idea, ideal.
ID'IOS, _peculiar_--idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot, idiotic.
IS'OS, _equal_--isothermal.

KAI'EIN, _to burn_--caustic, cauterize, holocaust (_holos_, whole).
KA'KOS, _bad_--cacophony.
KA'LOS, _beautiful_--caligraphy, calotype, kaleidoscope (_skopein_).
KAL'UPTEIN, _to conceal_--apocalypse.
KAN'ON, _a rule_--canon, canonical, canonize.
KAR'DIA, _the heart_--cardiac, pericardium.
KEN'OS, _empty_--cenotaph.
KEPH'ALE, _the head_--acephalous, hydrocephalus (_hydor_).
KER'AS, _a horn_--rhinoceros.
KLE'ROS, _a portion_--clergy, clerical, clerk, clerkship.
KLI'MAX, _a ladder_--climax.
KLI'NEIN, _to bend_--clinical, recline.
KO'MOS, _a merry feast_--comedy, (_ode_), comedian, comic, encomium.
KO'NEIN, _to serve_--deacon, deaconship, diaconal, diaconate.
KO'NOS, Lat. CONUS, _a cone_--cone, conic, conical, coniferous, coniform.
KOP'TEIN, _to cut_--coppice, copse, syncope.
KOS'MOS, _the world_--cosmography, cosmopolitan.
KRI'TES, _a judge_--crisis, criterion, critic, critical, criticism,
    hypocrite.
KRUP'TEIN, _to conceal_--crypt, apocrypha.
KRUSTAL'LOS, _ice_--crystal, crystallize.
KUK'LOS, _a circle_--cycle, encyclical, cyclops, cyclades, encyclopedia.
KULIN'DROS, _a roller_--cylinder.

LAM'BANEIN, _to take_--syllable, dissyllable, polysyllable.
LAM'PEIN, _to shine_--lamp.
LA'OS, _the people_--layman, laity.
LATREI'A, _worship_--idolatry, heliolatry.
LITH'OS, _a stone_--litharge, lithograph, aerolite.
LU'EIN, _to loosen_--analysis, paralysis, paralytic, palsy.

MAN'IA, _madness_--mania, maniac.
MAR'TUR, _a witness_--martyr, martyrdom, martyrology.
MEL'AS, _black_--melancholy, Melanesia.
ME'TER, _a mother_--metropolis.
MIK'ROS, _small_--microcosm, microscope, microscopic.
MI'MOS, _an imitator_--mimic, mimicry, pantomime.
MOR'PHE, _shape_--amorphous, metamorphosis.
MU'RIAS, _ten thousand_--myriad.
MU'THOS, _a fable_--myth, mythology.

NAR'KE, _torpor_--narcissus, narcotic.
NAUS, _a ship_--nausea, nauseate, nautical, nautilus, aeronaut.
NEK'ROS, _dead_--necropolis.
NE'SOS, _an island_--Polynesia.
NOM'OS, _a law_--astronomy, Deuteronomy, economy (_oikos_, a house),
    economic.

OL'IGOS, _few_--oligarchy (_arche_).
OR'PHANOS, _deserted_--orphan, orphanage.
OR'THOS, _right, straight_--orthodox, orthoepy, orthography.

PAIDEI'A, _instruction_--cyclopaedia.
PAIS, _a child_--pedagogue, pedant, pedantic, pedobaptist.
PAP'AS, Lat. PAPA, _a father_--papacy, pope, popedom, popery.
PARADEI'SOS, _a pleasant garden_--paradise.
PAT'EIN, _to walk_--peripatetic.
PEN'TE, _five_--pentagon, pentecost.
PET'RA, _a rock_--Peter, petrescent, petrify, petroleum, saltpeter.
PHOB'OS, _fear_--hydrophobia (_hudor_, water).
PHRA'SIS, _speech_--phrase, phraseology, paraphrase.
PHREN, _the mind_--phrenology, frantic, frenzy.
PHU'TON, _a plant_--zoophyte.
PLA'NAEIN, _to wander_--planet, planetary.
PLAS'SEIN, _to mould_--plaster, plastic.
PLEU'RA, _the side_--pleurisy.
PNEU'MA, _breath_, _spirit_--pneumatic.
PO'LEIN, _to sell_--bibliopolist, monopoly, monopolize.
POL'US, _many_--polygamy, polyglot, polysyllable, polytechnic.
POR'OS, _a passage_--pore, porosity, porous, emporium.
POT'AMOS, _a river_--hippopotamus.
POUS, _the foot_--antipodes, polypus, tripod.
PRAS'SEIN, _to do_--practice, practical, practitioner, impracticable.
PRESBU'TEROS, _elder_--presbytery, presbyterian, presbyterianism.
PRO'TOS, _first_--protomartyr.
PSAL'LEIN, _to touch_, _to sing_--psalm, psalmist, psalmody, psalter.
PUR, _fire_--pyramid, pyrotechny.

RHIN, _the nose_--rhinoceros.
RHOD'ON, _a rose _--rhododendron.

SARX, _flesh_--sarcasm, sarcastic, sarcophagus.
SCHED'E, _a sheet_--schedule.
SCHE'MA, _a plan_--scheme.
SCHIS'MA, _a division_--schism, schismatic.
SIT'OS, _corn_--parasite, parasitical.
SKAN'DALON, _disgrace_--scandal, scandalous, scandalize, slander,
    slanderous.
SKEPTES'THAI, _to consider_--sceptic, sceptical, scepticism.
SKEP'TRON, _an emblem of office_--scepter.
SOPH'IA, _wisdom_--sophist, sophistry, philosopher (_philos_), philosophy.
SPHAI'RA, _a globe_--sphere, spherical, spheroid, hemisphere.
STAL'AEIN, _to drop_--stalactite, stalagmite.
STEL'LEIN, _to send_--apostle, apostolic, epistle, epistolary.
STEN'OS, _narrow_--stenography.
STHEN'OS, _strength_--calisthenics.
STIG'MA, _a mark_--stigma, stigmatize.
STRAT'OS, _an army_--stratagem, strategy, strategist.
STROPH'E, _a turning_--apostrophe, catastrophe.

TA'PHOS, _a tomb_--epitaph, cenotaph.
TAU'TO, _the same_--tautology.
TEK'TON, _a builder_--architect.
TE'LE, _far off_--telegraph, telescope.
TEM'NEIN, _to cut_--atom, anatomy, anatomist.
TET'RA, _four_--tetragon, tetrarch.
THER'ME, _heat_--thermal.
THRON'OS, _a throne_--throne, enthrone.
TOP'OS, _a place_--topography.
TREP'EIN, _to turn_--trope, tropic, tropical, heliotrope.
TU'POS, _a stamp_--type, typography, prototype.
TURAN'NOS, _a ruler_--tyrant, tyrannical, tyrannize, tyranny.

ZEIN, _to boil_--zeal, zealous.
ZEPHU'ROS, _the west wind_--zephyr.
ZO'ON, _an animal_--zodiac, zoology, zoological, zooephyte.




PART IV.--THE ANGLO-SAXON ELEMENT.


I.--ANGLO-SAXON PREFIXES.

A--(corrupted from A.-S. _on_) signifies _in_, _on_, _at_: as abed, aboard,
aside, aback; and gives the adverbial form to adjectives, as in aloud,
aboard.

BE--gives a transitive signification, as in bespeak. It is sometimes
intensive, as in bestir, and converts an adjective into a verb, as in
bedim. _Be_, as a form of _by_, also denotes proximity, as in beside: as
bystander.

FOR[10]--means privation, or opposition: as forbear, forbid, forget.

FORE--_before_: as foretell, forebode.

MIS--_error_, _wrongness_: as mistake, misstate, misinform.

N--has a negative signification, as in many languages: thus, never,
neither, none.

OFF--from offspring.

OUT--_beyond_: as outdo, outlaw.

OVER--_above_: as overhang, overflow, overturn.

TO--in to-day, to-morrow.

UN--_not_, _the reverse_: as, unskilled, unlearned.

UNDER--_beneath_: as undermine.

WITH--_against_ (German _wider_): as withstand.


II.--ANGLO-SAXON SUFFIXES.

AR, ARD, ER, YER, STER[11]--signifying _agent_ or _doer_; as in beggar,
drunkard, beginner, lawyer, spinster. _Er_ forms verbs of adjectives, as
lower, from low, and also forms the comparatives of adjectives.

ESS, as in songstress, is borrowed from the French.

DOM, SHIP, RIC, WIC--from _dom_, judgment; _ship_, shape or condition;
_ric_, _rice_, power; _wic_, a dwelling--signify state, condition, quality,
etc., as in kingdom, friendship, bishopric, Berwick.

EL, KIN (= _chen_, German), LET (from French), LING, OCK--have a
_diminutive_ effect, as in manikin, streamlet, youngling, hillock,
cockerel.

EN--adjective termination, as wooden, from wood; it also converts
adjectives into verbs, as deepen from deep.

FOLD--from _fealdan_, to fold; a numeral termination, like _ple_, from the
Latin _plico_, I fold.

FUL--full; truthful.

HOOD, NESS--of uncertain derivation, signify state, etc., as in priesthood,
righteousness.

ISH--_isc_ (Saxon), _isch_ (German), denotes a quality; like rakish,
knavish, churlish, Danish. _Ish_ is also employed as a
diminutive--blackish.

LESS--_loss_: as penniless, hopeless.

LIKE and LY--_like_; _lic_ (A.-S.): as warlike, manly.

SOME--_sum_ (A.-S.), _sam_ (German), lonesome, handsome.

TEEN--ten, as in fourteen.

TY--from _tig_ (A.-S ), ten; _zig_ (German), as in six-_ty_. _Teen_ adds
ten--_ty_ multiplies by ten.

WARD--_weard_, _waerts_ (German), _versus_ (Latin), against, direction,
towards; downward, eastward.

WISE--_wisa_, manner; likewise.

Y--_ig_, an adjective termination; _dreorig_ (A.-S.), dreary.


ANGLO-SAXON ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES.

The pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon is much nearer to that of modern German or
the Continental pronunciation of Latin than of modern English.

The letters of the alphabet wanting in Anglo-Saxon are: _j_, _k_, _q_, _v_,
and _z_. _K_ is commonly represented by _c_; thus, _cyning_ (king) is
pronounced _kining_; _cyrtel_, _kirtle_; _qu_ is represented by _cw_, as
_cwic_, _quick_; _cwen_, _queen_; _cwellan_, to _quell_; _th_ is
represented by two peculiar characters, one of which in its reduced form
resembles _y_, as in _ye olden times_, where _ye_ should be pronounced
_the_, and not _ye_, as is often ignorantly done.

Long vowels should be carefully distinguished from short vowels. Long
vowels are _a_ as _far_, _ae_ as in _fare_, _e_ as in _they_, _i_ as in
_pique_, _o_ as in _bone_, _u_ as in _rule_, _y_ as in _i_ (nearly). Short
vowels are _a_ as in _fast_, _ae_ as in _man_, _e_ as in _men_, _i_ as in
_pin_, _o_ as in _God_, _u_ as in _full_, _y_ as in _i_ (nearly).

In the diphthongs _ea_, _eo_, and _ie_, the first element receives the
stress; the second is pronounced very lightly.

There are no silent letters in Anglo-Saxon as in modern English. The vowel
of every syllable is pronounced, and in difficult combinations of
consonants, as in _hlud_, loud, _cniht_, knight, _cnif_, knife, each
consonant has its distinct sound.

_E_ before _a_ and _o_ has the sound of _y_ as a consonant; _i_ before _e_
and _u_ has the same sound: thus, _Earl_ = _yarl_; _eow_ = _you_; _iett_ =
_yett_; and _iugoth_ = _yugoth_, youth.

AC, _an oak_--oak, oaken.
ACSIAN, _to inquire_--ask.
AECER, _a field_--acre, acreage.
AER, _before_--early, ere, erelong, erst.
AFT, _hind-part_--after, abaft.
AGAN, _to have_--owe, own, owner, ought, disown.
ARISAN, _to arise_--raise, rise, rouse.

BACAN, _to bake_--baker, bakery, bakehouse, batch.
BAEC, _back_--backbite, backslide, backward, aback.
BAELG, _a bag_.
BALD, _bold, brave_--bold, boldness.
BANA, _death_--bane, baneful, henbane.
BANC, _a bank or raised place_--bank, banker, bankrupt, bankruptcy, bench,
    embankment.
BEACNIAN, _to beckon_--beck, beckon, beacon.
BELLAN, _to roar_--bawl, bellow.
BEORGAN, _to protect_--borough, borrow, burgh, burglar, burrow, harbinger,
    harbor, berth.
BEORHT, _bright_--bright.
BERAN, _to bear, to bring forth_--barrow, bear, bier, birth.
BIDAN, _to wait_--abide.
BIDDAN, _to pray_, _to bid_--bid, bidding, bead, beadsman, beadle, forbid,
    unbidden.
BINDAN, _to bind_--band, bond, bondage, bundle.
BLAEC, _pale_--bleach, bleacher, bleak, bleakness.
BLAWAN, _to blow_--blade, bladder, blast, blaze, blazon, blister, blossom,
    blow, blush, bluster.
BLETSIAN, _to bless_--bless, blessing.
BRAD, _broad_--broad, breadth, board, aboard.
BRECAN, _to break_--bray (_to pound_), breach, breaker, breakfast, brink,
    broken.
BREOST, _the breast_--breast, breastplate, breastwork, abreast.
BREOWAN, _to brew_--brew, brewer, brewery.
BRUCAN, _to use_--broker, brokerage, brook (_to endure_).
BUAN, _to cultivate_--boor, boorish, neighbor, neighborhood.
BUGAN, _to bow or bend_--bay, bight, bough, bow, buxom, elbow.
BYLDAN, _to design_, _to make_--build, builder, building.
BYRNAN, _to burn_--brand, brandish, brandy, brimstone, brown, brunt,
    auburn, firebrand.

CAELAN, _to cool_--chill, chilblain.
CEAPIAN, _to buy_--cheap, cheapen, cheapness, chaffer, chapman.
CENNAN, _to produce_--kin, kind, kindness, kindred, akin, mankind.
CEORL, _a churl_--carle, churlish.
CLAENE, _clean_--clean, cleanly, cleanliness, cleanse, unclean.
CLATH, _cloth_--clothe, clothier, clothing, clad, unclad.
CLEOFAN, _to cleave_; CLIFIAN, _to adhere_--cleaver, cliff, clover, club.
CNAFA, _a boy_--knave, knavery.
CNAWAN, _to know_--knowledge, acknowledge, foreknow, unknown.
CNYLL, _a loud noise_--knell.
CNYTTAN, _to knit_--knitting, knot, knotty, net, network.
CRACIAN, _to crack_; CEARCIAN, _to creak_--crack, crackle, creak, cricket,
    croak, screech, shriek.
CUMAN, _to come_--comely, comeliness, become, overcome, welcome.
CUNNAN, _to know_, _to be powerful_--can, con, cunning, keen.
CWELLAN, _to slay_--kill, quell.

DAEG, _a day_--dawn, daylight, day-star, daisy = day's eye.
DAEL, _a part_--deal, dole, ordeal.
DEMAN, _to think_--deem.
DEOR, _a wild animal_--deer.
DEORE, _dusky or black_--dark, darken, darkly, darkness.
DIC, _a dyke_--dig, ditch, ditcher.
DISC, _a plate_--desk, disc, dish.
DOM, _judgment_--doom, doomsday.
DON, _to do_--doer, deed, undo.
DRAGAN, _to draw_--drag, draggle, drain, draught, draughtsman, draw, dray.
DRIFAN, _to drive_--drift, driver, drove.
DRIGAN, _to dry_--drysalter, drought, drug (originally _dried plants_),
    druggist.
DRINCAN, _to suck in_--drench, drink, drunk, drunkard, drunken.
DRYPAN, _to drip or drop_--drip, drop, droop, dribble, drivel.
DWINAN, _to pine_--dwindle, dwine.
DYN, _a noise_--din, dun.

EAGE, _the eye_--eye, eyeball, eye-bright, eyelid.
EALD, _old_--alderman, earl.
EFEN, _just_--even, evenness.
ERIAN, _to plough_, _to ear_--earth, earthy, earthquake.

FAEGER, _bright_--fair, fairness.
FAER, _fear_--fearful, fearless.
FARAN, _to go_--fare, farewell, ferry, ford, seafaring, wayfarer.
FEDAN, _to feed_--feed, feeder, fodder, food, father, fatherly.
FEOND, _an enemy_--fiend, fiendish.
FLEOGAN, _to fly_--flag, flake, fledge, flee, flicker, flight.
FLEOTAN, _to float_--float, fleet.
FLOWAN, _to flow_--flood, flow.
FOLGIAN, _to go after_--follow.
FON, _to seize _--fang, finger.
FOT, _the foot_--foot, fetter, fetlock.
FREON, _to love_--free, freedom, friend, friendship.
FRETAN, _to gnaw_--fret, fretful.
FUGEL, _a bird_--fowl, fowler, fowling-piece.
FUL, _unclean_--filth, filthy, foul, fulsome.
FULLIAN, _to whiten_--full (_to scour and thicken cloth in a mill_),
    fuller, fuller's-earth.
FYR, _fire_--fiery, fireworks, bonfire.

GABBAN, _to mock_--gabble, gibe, gibberish, jabber.
GALAN, _to sing_--nightingale.
GANGAN, _to go_--gang, gangway.
GAST, _a ghost_--gas, ghastly, ghost, ghostly, aghast.
GEARD, _an enclosure _--garden, orchard, yard.
GEOTAN, _to pour_--gush, gut.
GEREFA, _a governor_--grieve (_an overseer_), sheriff, sheriffdom.
GETAN, _to get_--get, beget, begotten, forget, forgetful.
GIFAN, _to give_--give, gift, forgive, forgiveness, misgive, unforgiven.
GLOWAN, _to glow_--glow, glowing.
GOD, _good_--gospel, gossip.
GRAES, _grass_--grass, graze, grazier.
GRAFAN, _to dig_--grave, graver, graft, groove, grove, grub, engrave.
GRAPIAN, _to grapple_; GRIPAN, _to gripe_; GROPIAN, _to grope_--grapple,
    grapnel, gripe, grope, group, grovel.
GREOT, _dust_--gritty, groats.
GROWAN, _to grow_--grow, growth.
GRUND, _the ground_--ground, groundless, groundsel, groundwork.

HABBAN, _to have_--have, haft, behave, behavior, misbehave.
HAEGE, _a hedge_--haw, hawthorn.
HAEL, _sound_, _whole_--hail, hale, heal, health, healthful, healthy, holy,
    holiness, whole, wholesome.
HAM, _a dwelling_--hamlet, home, homely, homeliness.
HANGIAN, _to hang_--hang, hanger, hinge, unhinge, overhang.
HAT, _heat_--heat, heater, hot.
HEALDAN, _to hold_--halt, halter, hilt, hold, behold, uphold, upholsterer,
    withhold.
HEARD, _hard_--harden, hardihood, hardship, hardware, hardy.
HEBBAN, _to lift_--heap, heave, heaven, heavy, upheaval.
HEDAN, _to heed_--heed, heedful, heedfulness, heedless, heedlessness.
HEORTE, _the heart_--hearten, heartless, hearty, heartburn, heart's-ease,
    dishearten.
HLAF, _bread_--loaf.
HLEAPAN, _to leap_--leap, overleap, elope, elopement.
HOL, _a hole_--hole, hold (_of a ship_), hollow, hollowness.
HRISTLAN, _to make quick sounds_--rustle, rustling.
HUNTIAN, _to rush_--hunt, hunter, huntsman.
HUS, _house_--housewife, husband, hustings.
HWEORFAN, _to turn_--swerve, wharf.
HYRAN, _to hear_--hear, hearer, hearsay.

LAEDAN, _to lead_--lead, leader, loadstar, loadstone, mislead.
LAEFAN, _to leave_--left, eleven, twelve.
LAERAN, _to teach_--learn, learner, learning, lore, unlearned.
LANG, _long_--long, length, lengthen, lengthy, linger.
LECGAN, _to lay_--lay, layer, lair, law, lawful, lawless, lea, ledge,
    ledger, lie, low, lowly, outlaw.
LEOFIAN, LYBBAN, _to live_--live, lively, livelihood, livelong, alive,
    outlive.
LEOHT, _light_--lighten, lightsome, lighthouse, enlighten.
LIC, _like_--like, likely, likelihood, likeness, likewise, unlike.
LOCIAN, _to stretch forward_--look.
LOMA, _utensils_, _furniture_--loom, hand-loom, power-loom.
LOSIAN, _to lose_--lose, loser, loss.
LUF, _love_; LUFIAN, _to love_--lover, lovely, loveliness, lief, beloved,
    unlovely.
LYFAN, _to permit_--leave (_permission_), belief, believe, believer,
    misbelieve.
LYFT, _the air_--loft, lofty, aloft.

MACIAN, _to make_--make, maker, match, matchless, mate, inmate.
MAENGAN, _to mix_--among, mingle, commingle, intermingle, mongrel.
MAGAN, _to be able_--may, might, mighty, main, mainland, dismay.
MEARC, _a boundary_--mark, marksman, marches, remark.
METAN, _to measure_--meet, meeting, meet (_fit_), meetness.
MUND, _a defence_--mound.
MURNAN, _to murmur_--mourn, mourner, mournful.
MYND, _the mind_--mind, mindful, mindfulness, remind.

NAES, _a nose_--naze, ness.
NAMA, _a name_--name, nameless, namesake, misname.
NEAD, _need_--need, needful, needless, needs, needy.
NEAH, _nigh_--near, next, neighbor.
NIHT, _night_--night, nightfall, nightless, nightmare, nightshade.

OGA, _dread_--ugly, ugliness.

PAETH, _a path_--pathless, pathway, footpath.
PLEGAN, _to exercise_, _to sport_--play, player, playful, playmate.

RAECAN, _to reach_--reach, overreach, rack, rack-rent.
RAEDAN, _to read_--read, readable, reader, reading, riddle.
READ, _red_--red, redden, ruddy.
REAFIAN, _to seize_--bereave, bereavement, raven, ravenous, rive, rob,
    robber, robbery, rove, rover.
RECAN, _to heed_--reck, reckless, recklessness, reckon, reckoning.
RIDAN, _to ride_--ride, rider, road, roadster, roadstead.
RINNAN, _to run_--run, runner, runaway, outrun.
RIPAN, _to reap_--reap, reaper, ripe, ripen, ripeness, unripe.
RUH, _rough_--rough, roughness.

SAEGAN, _to say_--say, saying, hearsay, unsay.
SAR, _painful_--sore, soreness, sorrow, sorrowful, sorry.
SCACAN, _to shake_--shake, shaky, shock, shocking.
SCEADAN, _to shade_--shade, shady, shadow, shed (_a covered enclosure_).
SCEDAN, _to scatter_, _to shed_--shed (_to spill_), watershed.
SCEOFAN, _to push_--shove, shovel, scuffle, shuffle, sheaf.
SCEOTAN, _to shoot_--shoot, shot, sheet, shut, shutter, shuttle, overshoot,
    undershot, upshot.
SCERAN, _to cut_--scar, scarf, score, share, sharp, shear, sheriff, shire.
SCINAN, _to shine_--sheen, outshine, moonshine, sunshine.
SCREOPAN, _to creak_--scrape, scraper, swap, scrap-book.
SCROB, _a bush_--shrub, shrubbery.
SCYPPAN, _to form_--shape, shapeless, landscape.
SELLAN, _to give_--sale, sell, sold.
SEON, _to see_--see, seer, sight, foresee, oversee, unsightly, gaze.
SETTAN, _to set_; SITTAN, _to sit_--set, setter, settle, settler,
    settlement, set, beset, onset, outset, upset.
SIDE, _side_--side, sideboard, aside, beside, inside, outside, upside.
SINGAN, _to sing_--sing, singer, song.
SLAEC, _slack_--slack, slackness, slow, sloth, slothful, sluggard, sluggish.
SLEAN, _to slay_--slay, slaughter, sledge (_a heavy hammer_).
SLIDAN, _to slide_--slide, sled, sledge.
SLIPAN, _to glide_--slip, slipper, slippery, slipshod.
SMITAN, _to smite_--smite, smiter, smith, smithy.
SNICAN, _to creep_--snake, sneak.
SOCC, _a shoe_--sock, socket.
SOFT, _soft_--soften, softly, softness.
SOTH, _true_--sooth, soothsayer.
SPECAN, _to speak_--speak, speaker, speech, bespeak.
SPELL, _a message_--spell (_discourse_), gospel.
SPINNAN, _to spin_--spinner, spider.
STAN, _a stone_--stony, stoneware.
STANDAN, _to stand_--standard, understand, understanding, withstand.
STEALL, _a place_--stall, forestall, install, pedestal.
STEORFAN, _to die_--starve, starvation, starveling.
STICIAN, _to stick_--stake, stick, stickle, stickleback, sting, stitch,
    stock, stockade, stocking.
STIGAN, _to ascend_--stair, staircase, stile, stirrup, sty.
STRECCAN, _to stretch_--stretch, stretcher, straight, straighten,
    straightness, outstretch, overstretch.
STYRAN, _to steer_--steer, steerage, steersman, stern (_the hind part of a
    ship_), astern.
STYRIAN, _to stir_--stir, bestir.
SUR, _sour_--sour, sourish, sourness, sorrel, surly, surliness.
SWERIAN, _to swear_--swear, swearer, forswear, answer, unanswered.
SWET, _sweet_--sweet, sweetbread, sweeten, sweetmeat, sweetness.

TAECAN, _to show, to teach_--teach, teachable, teacher.
TELLAN, _to count_--tell, teller, tale, talk, talkative, foretell.
THINCAN, _to seem_; pret. thuh-te, _methinks_, _methought_.
THRINGAN, _to press_--throng.
THYR, _dry_--thirst, thirsty.
TREOWE, _true_--true, truth, truthful, truism, trust, trustee, trustworthy,
    trusty.
TWA, _two_--twice, twine, twist, between, entwine.
TYRNAN, _to turn_--turn, turner, turncoat, turnkey, turnpike, overturn,
    return, upturn.

WACAN, _to awake_--wake, wakeful, waken, wait, watch, watchful,
    watchfulness, watchman.
WARNIAN, _to defend_, _to beware_--warn, warning, warrant, wary, weir,
    aware, beware.
WEARM, _glowing_--warm, warmth.
WEGAN, _to move_--wag, waggle, wain, wave, way, wayfarer, weigh, weight,
    weighty.
WEORDH, _worth_--worth, worthy, worship, worshipper, unworthy.
WERIAN, _to cover_--wear, wearable, weary, wearisome.
WINNAN, _to labor_--win, won.
WITAN, _to know_--wise, wisdom, wizard, wit, witness, witty.
WRINGAN, _to twist_--wrangle, wrench, wriggle, wring, wrinkle.
WRITHAN, _to twist_--wrath, wrathful, wroth, wreath, wreathe, wry, wryneck,
    wrong.
WUNIAN, _to dwell_--wont, wonted.
WYRM, _a worm, a serpent_--worm.

Specimens of Anglo-Saxon, and the same literally
translated into Modern English.


_EXTRACT FROM CAEDMON'S PARAPHRASE._

_Caedmon: died about 680._

Nu we sceolan herian                 | Now we shall praise
heofon-rices weard,                  | the guardian of heaven,
metodes mihte,                       | the might of the creator,
and his mod-ge-thonc,                | and his mind's thought,
wera wuldor-faeder!                   | the glory-father of men!
swa he wundra ge-hwaes,               | how he of all wonders,
ece dryhten,                         | the eternal lord,
oord onstealde.                      | formed the beginning.
He aerest ge-sceop                    | He first created
ylda bearnum                         | for the children of men
heofon to hrofe,                     | heaven as a roof,
halig scyppend!                      | the holy creator!
tha middan-geard                     | them the world
mon-cynnes weard,                    | the guardian of mankind
ece dryhten,                         | the eternal lord,
aefter teode,                         | produced afterwards,
firum foldan,                        | the earth for men,
frea aelmihtig!                       | the almighty master!

_PASSAGE REPEATED BY BEDE ON HIS DEATH-BED._

_Bede: died 735._

For tham ned-fere                    | Before the necessary journey
neni wirtheth                        | no one becomes
thances suotera                      | more prudent in thought
thonne him thearf sy,                | than is needful to him,
to ge-hicgeune                       | to search out
er his heonon-gange                  | before his going hence
hwet his gaste                       | what to his spirit
godes othe yveles                    | of good or of evil
efter deathe heonon                  | after his death hence
demed weorthe.                       | will be judged.

_EXTRACT FROM THE SAXON CHRONICLE--Tenth Century._

Tha feng AElfred AEthelwulfing to      | Then took Alfred, son of Ethelwulf
West-Seaxna rice; and thaes ymb aenne  | to the West Saxon's kingdom; and
monath gefeaht AElfred cyning with    | that after one month fought Alfred
ealne thone here lytle werode aet     | king against all the army with a
Wiltoune, and hine lange on daeg      | little band at Wilton, and them long
geflymde, and tha Deniscan ahton     | during the day routed and then the
wael-stowe geweald. And thaes geares   | Danes obtained of the battle-field
wurdon nigon folcgefeoht gefohten    | possession. And this year were nine
with thone here on tham cyne-rice be | great battles fought with the army
suthan Temese, butan tham the him    | in the kingdom to the south of the
AElfred, and ealdormen, and cyninges  | Thames, besides those in which
thegnas oft rada onridon the man na  | Alfred, and the alder-men, and the
ne rimde. And thaes geares waeron      | king's thanes oft inrode--against
of-slegene nigon eorlas, and an      | which one nothing accounted. And
cyning; and thy geare namon          | this year were slain nine earls and
West-Seaxan frith with thone here.   | one king; and this year made the
                                     | West-Saxons peace with the army.

_EXTRACT FROM THE SAXON GOSPELS--Eleventh Century._

LUCAE, Cap. I. v. 5-10.               | LUKE, Chap. I. v. 5-10.
                                     |
5. On Herodes dagum Iudea cyninges,  | 5. In the days of Herod the king of
waes sum sacerd on naman Zacharias, of| Judea, there was a certain priest by
Abian tune: and his wif waes of       | name Zacharias, of the course of
Aarones dohtrum, and hyre nama waes   | Abia: and his wife was of the
Elizabeth.                           | daughters of Aaron, and her name was
                                     | Elizabeth.

6. Sothlice hig waeron butu rihtwise  | 6. And they were both righteous
beforan Gode, gangende on eallum his | before God, walking in all the
bebodum and rihtwisnessum, butan     | commandments and ordinances of the
wrohte.                              | Lord without blame.

7. And hig naefdon nan bearn, fortham | 7. And they had no child, because
the Elizabeth waes unberende; and hig | that Elizabeth was barren; and they
on heora dagum butu forth-eodon.     | in her days were both of great age.

8. Sothlice waes geworden tha         | 8. And it befell that when Zacharias
Zacharias hys sacerdhades breac on   | should do the office of the
his gewrixles endebyrdnesse beforan  | priesthood in the order of his
Gode,                                | course before God,

9. AEfter gewunan thaes sacerdhades    | 9. After the custom of the
hlotes, he eode that he his offrunge | priesthood he went forth by lot, to
sette, tha he on Godes tempel eode.  | burn incense when he into God's
                                     | temple went.

10. Eall werod thaes folces waes ute   | 10. And all the multitude of the
gebiddende on thaere offrunge timan.  | people were without praying at the
                                     | time of incense.

_THE LORD'S PRAYER._

Faeder ure, thu the eart on heofenum; | Father our, thou who art in heaven;
si thin nama gehalgod; to-becume thin| be thine name hallowed; let come
rice; geweordhe thin willa on        | thine kingdom; let be done thine
eorthan, swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge| will on earth, so as in the heavens.
daeghwamlican hlaf syle us to-daeg; and| Our also daily bread give thou us
forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we     | to-day; and forgive thou to us our
forgidfadh urum gyltendum; and ne    | debts, so as we forgive our debtors;
gelaede thu us on costnunge, ac alys  | and not lead thou us into
us of yfle, etc.                     | temptations, but deliver thou us
                                     | from evil, etc.

SPECIMENS OF SEMI-SAXON AND EARLY ENGLISH.

_EXTRACT FROM THE BRUT OF LAYAMON--About 1180._

He nom tha Englisca boc              | He took the English book
Tha makede Seint Beda;               | That Saint Bede made;
An other he nom on Latin,            | Another he took in Latin,
Tha makede Seinte Albin,             | That Saint Albin made,
And the feire Austin,                | And the fair Austin,
The fulluht broute hider in.         | That baptism brought hither in.
Boc he nom the thridde,              | The third book he took,
Leide ther amidden,                  | _And_ laid there in midst,
Tha makede a Frenchis clerc,         | That made a French clerk,
Wace was ihoten,                     | Wace was _he_ called,
The wel couthe writen,               | That well could write,
And he hoc yef thare aethelen        | And he it gave to the noble
Allienor, the wes Henries quene,     | Eleanor, that was Henry's Queen,
Thes heyes kinges.                   | The high king's.

_EXTRACT FROM A CHARTER OF HENRY III.--1258._

Henry, thurg Gode's fultome, King on | Henry, through God's support, King
Engleneloande, Lhoaverd on Yrloand,  | of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of
Duk on Norman, on Acquitain, Earl on | Normandy, of Acquitain, Earl of
Anjou, send I greting, to alle hise  | Anjou, sends greeting to all his
holde, ilaerde and ilewede on         | subjects, learned and unlearned, of
Huntindonnschiere. Thaet witen ge wel | Huntingdonshire. This know ye well
alle, haet we willen and unnen thaet   | all, that we will and grant what our
ure raedesmen alle, other the moare   | counsellors all, or the more part of
del of heom, thaet beoth ichosen thurg| them, that be chosen through us and
us and thurg thaet loandes-folk on ure| through the landfolk of our kingdom,
kineriche, habbith idon, and schullen| have done, and shall do, to the
don in the worthnes of God, and ure  | honor of God, and our allegiance,
treowthe, for the freme of the       | for the good of the land, etc.
loande, etc.                         |

Anglo-Saxon Element in Modern English.

That the young student may be made aware of the extent of the employment of
Anglo-Saxon in our present language, and that he may have some clue to
direct him to a knowledge of the Saxon words, the following extracts,
embracing a great proportion of these words, are submitted to his
attention. The words not Teutonic are marked in _Italics_.

MILTON.

    Of man's first _disobedience_, and the _fruit_
  Of that forbidden tree, whose _mortal taste_
  Brought death into the world, and all our woe,
  With loss of _Eden_, till one greater man
  _Restore_ us and _regain_ the blissful seat--
  Sing, heavenly _Muse_.

    With thee _conversing_, I forget all time,
  All _seasons_, and their _change_; all _please_ alike.
  Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet,
  With _charm_ of earliest birds; _pleasant_ the sun
  When first on this _delightful_ land he spreads
  His _orient_ beams on _herb_, tree, _fruit_, and _flower_,
  Glistering with dew; _fragrant_ the _fertile_ earth,
  After soft showers; and sweet the coming on
  Of _grateful_ evening mild; then _silent_ night
  With this her _solemn_ bird, and this fair moon,
  And these the _gems_ of heaven, her starry _train_.

SHAKESPEARE.

    To be, or not to be, that is the _question_;
  Whether 't is _nobler_ in the mind to _suffer_
  The stings and arrows of _outrageous fortune_,
  Or to take _arms_ against a sea of _troubles_,
  And, by _opposing_, end them? To die, to sleep;
  No more;--and by a sleep to say we end
  The heart_ache_ and the thousand _natural_ shocks
  That flesh is _heir_ to! 't were a _consummation_
  _Devoutly_ to be wished. To die; to sleep;
  To sleep?--_perchance_ to dream!

    All the world's a _stage_,
  And all the men and women _merely_ players.
  They have their _exits_ and their _entrances_,
  And one man in his time plays many _parts_;
  His _acts_ being seven _ages_. At first the _infant_,
  Mewling and puking in his _nurse's arms_.
  And then the whining _school_-boy, with his _satchel_
  And shining morning _face_, creeping like snail
  Unwillingly to _school_. And then the lover,
  Sighing like _furnace_, with a woeful _ballad_
  Made to his _mistress'_ eyebrow. Then a _soldier_,
  Full of _strange_ oaths, and bearded like the _pard_,
  _Jealous_ in _honour_, _sudden_ and quick in _quarrel_;
  Seeking the bubble _reputation_
  Even in the _cannon's_ mouth.

TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE.

In the beginning God _created_ the heaven and the earth. And the earth was
without _form_, and _void_; and darkness was upon the _face_ of the deep:
and the _Spirit_ of God _moved_ upon the _face_ of the waters. And God
said, Let there be light; and there was light. And God saw the light, that
it was good; and God _divided_ the light from the darkness. And God called
the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the
morning were the first day.--_Genesis_ i. 1-6.

And it came to _pass_, that when _Isaac_ was old, and his eyes were dim, so
that he could not see, he called _Esau_, his eldest son, and said unto him,
My son. And he said unto him, Behold, here am I. And he said, Behold now, I
am old, I know not the day of my death. Now therefore take, I _pray_ thee,
thy weapons, thy _quiver_ and thy bow, and go out to the field, and take me
some _venison_; and make me _savoury_ meat, such as I love, and bring it to
me, that I may eat; that my soul may bless thee before I die. And _Rebekah_
heard when _Isaac_ spake to _Esau_ his son. And _Esau_ went to the field to
hunt for _venison_, and to bring it. And _Rebekah_ spake unto _Jacob_ her
son, saying, Behold, I heard thy father speak unto _Esau_ thy brother,
saying, Bring me _venison_, and make me _savoury_ meat, that I may eat, and
bless thee before the Lord before my death.--_Genesis_ xxvii. 1-7.

THOMSON.

    These as they _change_, Almighty Father! these
  Are but the _varied_ God. The _rolling_ year
  Is full of thee. Forth in the _pleasing_ spring
  Thy _beauty_ walks, thy _tenderness_ and love.
  Wide flush the fields; the softening _air_ is _balm_;
  _Echo_ the _mountains round_; the _forest_ smiles;
  And every _sense_ and every heart is _joy_.
  Then comes thy _glory_ in the summer months,
  With light and heat _refulgent_. Then thy sun
  Shoots full _perfection_ through the swelling year.

ADDISON.

I was yesterday, about sunset, walking in the open fields, till the night
_insensibly_ fell upon me. I at first _amused_ myself with all the richness
and _variety_ of _colours_ which _appeared_ in the western _parts_ of
heaven. In _proportion_ as they _faded_ away and went out, _several_ stars
and _planets appeared_, one after another, till the whole _firmament_ was
in a glow. The blueness of the _ether_ was _exceedingly_ heightened and
enlivened by the _season_ of the year.

YOUNG.

  Let _Indians_, and the _gay_, like _Indians_, fond
  Of feathered _fopperies_, the sun _adore_:
  Darkness has more _divinity_ for me;
  It strikes thought inward; it drives back the soul
  To settle on herself, our _point supreme_.
  There lies our _theater_: there sits our _judge_.
  Darkness the _curtain_ drops o'er life's dull _scene_:
  'T is the kind hand of _Providence_ stretched out
  'Twixt man and _vanity_; 't is _reason's reign_,
  And _virtue's_ too; these _tutelary_ shades
  Are man's _asylum_ from the _tainted_ throng.
  Night is the good man's friend, and guardian too.
  It no less _rescues virtue_, than _inspires_.

SWIFT.

Wisdom is a fox, who, after long hunting, will at last _cost_ you the
_pains_ to dig out. 'T is a cheese, which by how much the richer has the
thicker, homelier, and the _coarser coat_; and whereof, to a _judicious
palate_, the _maggots_ are the best. 'Tis a _sack posset_, wherein the
deeper you go on you will find it sweeter. But then, lastly, 'tis a nut,
which, unless you choose with _judgment_, may _cost_ you a tooth, and _pay_
you with nothing but a worm.

HUME.

The _beauties_ of her _person_ and _graces_ of her _air combined_ to make
her the most _amiable_ of women; and the _charms_ of her _address_ and
_conversation aided_ the _impression_ which her lovely _figure_ made on the
heart of all beholders. _Ambitious_ and _active_ in her _temper_, yet
_inclined_ to _cheerfulness_ and _society_; of a lofty _spirit_, _constant_
and even _vehement_ in her _purpose_, yet _politic, gentle_, and _affable_,
in her _demeanor_, she _seemed_ to _par_take only so much of the _male
virtues_ as to _render_ her _estimable_, without _relinquishing_ those soft
_graces_ which _compose_ the _proper ornament_ of her _sex_.

GIBBON.

In the _second century_ of the _Christian era_, the _empire_ of _Rome
comprehended_ the fairest _part_ of the earth, and the most _civilized
portion_ of mankind. The _frontiers_ of that _extensive monarchy_ were
guarded by _ancient renown_, and _disciplined valour_. The _gentle_ but
_powerful influence_ of laws and _manners_ had _gradually cemented_ the
_union_ of the _provinces_. Their _peaceful inhabitants enjoyed_ and
_abused_ the _advantages_ of wealth and _luxury_. The _image_ of a free
_constitution_ was _preserved_ with _decent reverence_.

JOHNSON.

Of _genius_, that _power_ which _constitutes_ a _poet_; that _quality_
without which _judgment_ is cold, and knowledge is _inert_; that _energy_
which _collects_, _combines_, _amplifies_, and _animates_; the
_superiority_ must, with some _hesitation_, be _allowed_ to Dryden. It is
not to be _inferred_ that of this _poetical vigor Pope_ had only a little,
_because_ Dryden had more; for every other writer since Milton must give
_place_ to _Pope_; and even of Dryden it must be said, that if he has
brighter _paragraphs_, he has not better _poems_.

BYRON.

  _Ancient_ of days! _august Athena!_ where,
  Where are thy men of might--thy _grand_ in soul?
  Gone--glimmering through the dream of things that were.
  First in the race that led to _Glory's goal_,
  They won, and _passed_ away. Is this the whole?
  A _school_-boy's tale--the wonder of an _hour_!
  The warrior's-weapon and the _sophist's stole_
  Are sought in _vain_, and o'er each _mouldering_ tower,
  Dim with the mist of years, gray flits the shade of _power_.

SIR WALTER SCOTT.

  The way was long, the wind was cold,
  The _Minstrel_ was _infirm_ and old;
  His withered cheek and _tresses_ gray
  _Seemed_ to have known a better day;
  The harp, his _sole remaining joy_,
  Was carried by an _orphan_ boy.
  The last of all the bards was he
  Who sung of border _chivalry_;
  For, well-a-day! their _dale_ was fled;
  His _tune_ful brethren all were dead;
  And he, _neglected_ and _oppressed_,
  Wished to be with them and at rest.

WORDSWORTH.

  Ah! little doth the young one dream,
  When full of play and childish cares,
  What _power_ is in his wildest scream,
  Heard by his mother unawares!
  He knows it not, he cannot guess;
  Years to a mother bring _distress_;
  But do not make her love the less.

  My son, if thou be _humbled_, _poor_,
  Hopeless of _honor_ and of _gain_,
  Oh! do not dread thy mother's door;
  Think not of me with _grief_ and _pain_.
  I now can see with better eyes;
  And worldly _grandeur_ I _despise_,
  And _Fortune_ with her gifts and lies.

TENNYSON.

  Not wholly in the busy world, nor _quite_
  Beyond it, blooms the garden that I love.
  News from the humming _city_ comes to it
  In _sound_ of _funeral_ or of _marriage_ bells;
  And sitting muffled in dark leaves you hear
  The windy clanging of the winter clock;
  Although between it and the garden lies
  A _league_ of grass, washed by a slow broad stream,
  That, stirred with _languid pulses_ of the oar,
  Waves all its lazy _lilies_, and creeps on,
  Barge laden, to three _arches_ of a bridge,
  _Crowned_ with the _minster-towers_.




PART V.--MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIVES.


I.--WORDS DERIVED FROM THE NAMES OF PERSONS.

1.--NOUNS.

AT'LAS, _a collection of maps bound together_: "Atlas," a fabled giant who,
according to the Greek notion bore the earth upon his shoulders.

ACAD'EMY, _a superior grade school, a society of learned men_: "Academus,"
a Greek in whose garden near Athens Plato taught.

AMMO'NIA, _the pungent matter of smelling salts_: "Jupiter Ammon," near
whose temple in Libya it was originally obtained.

BAC'CHANAL, _one who indulges in drunken revels_: "Bacchus," the god of
wine.

BOW'IE KNIFE, _an American weapon_: Colonel "Bowie," the inventor.

BRAGGADO'CIO, _a vain boaster_: "Braggadochio," a boastful character in
Spenser's Faery Queen.

BUD'DHISM, _a wide-spread Asiatic religion_: "Buddha," a Hindoo sage who
lived about 1000 B.C.

CAL'VINISM, _the doctrines of Calvin_: "Calvin," a Swiss theologian of the
16th century.

CAMEL'LIA, _a genus of evergreen shrubs_: "Camelli," a Spaniard who brought
them from Asia.

CICERO'NE (sis e-ro'ne or chi che-ro'-ne), _a guide_: "Cicero," the Roman
orator.

CINCHO'NA, _Peruvian bark_: Countess "Cinchona," wife of a Spanish governor
of Peru (17th century). By means of this medicine she was cured of an
intermittent fever, and after her return to Spain she aided in the
diffusion of the remedy.

DAGUERRE'OTYPE, _a picture produced on a metal plate_: "Daguerre," the
inventor (1789-1851).

DAHL'IA, _a garden plant_: "Dahl," a Swedish botanist.

DUNCE, _a dull, slow-witted person_: "Duns Scotus," a subtle philosopher of
the 13th century. His method of reasoning was very popular in the schools
during the Middle Ages, and a very skillful hair-splitter was called a
Dunse; but at last, through the influence of the antagonists of the
philosopher, the word passed into a term of reproach.

EP'ICURE, _one fond of good living_: "Epicurus," a Greek philosopher who
was said to teach that pleasure is the chief good.

FAH'RENHEIT, _a thermometer that marks the freezing-point of water at_ 32 deg.
(which is different from both the centigrade and the Reaumur thermometer):
"Fahrenheit," the inventor.

FUCHSIA (fu'si-a), _a genus of flowering plants_: "Leonard Fuchs," a German
botanist of the 16th century.

GAL'VANISM, _a branch of the science of electricity_: "Galvani," an Italian
physician, its discoverer.

GEN'TIAN, _a medicinal root_: "Gentian," king of Illyria, who is said to
have first experienced the virtues of the plant.

GOB'ELIN, _a rich tapestry_: "Jehan Gobeelen," a Flemish dyer.

GUILLOTINE', _an instrument for beheading_: "Guillotin," who invented and
brought it into use at the time of the French Revolution, last century.

HY'GIENE, _the principles and rules of health_: "Hygeia," the goddess of
health in classical mythology.

JES'UIT, _a member of the Society of Jesus, formed by Ignatius Loyola in_
1534: "Jesus."

LYNCH, _to punish without the usual forms of law_: said to be from "Lynch,"
a Virginia farmer, who took the law into his own hands.

MACAD'AMIZE, _to cover a road with small broken stones_: "Macadam," the
inventor.

MAGNO'LIA, _a species of trees found in the southern parts of the United
States_: "Magnol," a French botanist.

MEN'TOR, _a faithful monitor_: "Mentor," the counselor of Telemachus.

MOR'PHIA, _the narcotic principle of opium_: "Morpheus," the god of sleep.

NE'GUS, _a mixture of wine, water, and sugar_: Colonel "Negus," who
introduced its use in the time of Queen Anne.

OR'RERY, _an apparatus for showing the motions, etc., of the heavenly
bodies_: the Earl of "Orrery," for whom one of the first was made.

PALLA'DIUM, _something that affords effectual defense, protection, and
safety_: Greek "palla'dion," an image of "Pallas Athene," which was kept
hidden and secret, and was revered as a pledge of the safety of the town
where it was lodged.

PAN'IC, _a sudden fright_: "Pan," the god of shepherds, who is said to have
caused alarm by his wild screams and appearance.

PE'ONY, _a plant of the genus_ PAEONIA, _having beautiful showy flowers_:
"Paeon," its discoverer.

PET'REL, _an ocean bird_: diminutive of Peter, probably so called in
allusion to "St. Peter's" walking on the sea.

PHA'ETON, _an open carriage_: "Phaethon," the fabled son of Phoebus or the
Sun, whose chariot he attempted to drive.

PINCH'BECK, _an alloy of copper and zinc resembling gold_: said to be from
one "Pinchbeck," the inventor.

QUAS'SIA, _a bitter wood used as a tonic_: "Quassy," a negro who discovered
its qualities.

RODOMONTADE', _vainbluster_: "Rodomonte," a boasting hero who figures in
Ariosto's poem of the _Orlando Furioso_.

SILHOUETTE (sil oo et'), _the outline of an object filled in with black
color_: "Silhouette" (see Webster).

TAN'TALIZE, _to torment or tease_: "Tantalus," according to the poets, an
ancient king of Phrygia, who was made to stand up to the chin in water with
fruit hanging over his head, but from whom both receded when he wished to
partake.

TYPHOON', _a violent hurricane which occurs in the Chinese seas_: "Typhon,"
a fabled giant who was taught to produce them.

VOLCA'NO, _a burning mountain_: "Vulcan," the god of fire.


2.--ADJECTIVES.

AMER'ICAN, _relating to America_: from "Amerigo (Latin, _Americus_)
Vespucci"--contemporary of Columbus.

A'RIAN, _relating to Arius_: a theologian of the 4th century who denied the
divinity of Christ.

ARISTOTE'LIAN, _relating to the deductive method of reasoning set forth by
Aristotle_: a Greek philosopher of the 4th century B.C.

ARMIN'IAN, _relating to Arminius_: a Dutch theologian of the 16th century,
who opposed the doctrines of Calvin.

BACO'NIAN, _relating to the inductive method of reasoning set forth by
Bacon_: an English philosopher of the 17th century.

CARTE'SIAN, _relating to the philosophy of Descartes_: a French philosopher
of the 17th century.

CE'REAL, _relating to grain_: from "Ceres"--the Roman goddess of corn and
tillage.

COPER'NICAN, _relating to Copernicus_: a German philosopher of the 16th
century, who taught the theory of the solar system now received, and called
the _Copernican system_.

ELIZ'ABETHAN, _relating to the times of Queen Elizabeth of England_:
(1558-1603).

EO'LIAN, _relating to the wind_: from "AEolus"--the god of the winds in
classic mythology.

ERAS'TIAN, _relating to Erastus_:--a German theologian of the 16th century,
who maintained that the Church is wholly dependent on the State for support
or authority.

ESCULA'PIAN, _relating to the healing art_: from "Esculapius"--the god of
the healing art among the Greeks.

GOR'DIAN, _intricate, complicated, difficult_: from "Gordius"--king of
Phrygia who tied a knot which could not be untied.

HERCULE'AN, _very large and strong_: from "Hercules"--a hero of antiquity
celebrated for his strength.

HERMET'IC, _relating to Hermes_--the fabled inventor of alchemy; adv.,
HERMETICALLY, _in a perfectly close manner_.

HUDIBRAS'TIC, _in the manner of the satirical poem called Hudibras_, by
Samuel Butler (1612-1680).

JO'VIAL, _gay, merry_: from "Jupiter" (Jovis),--the planet of that name
having in the Middle Ages been supposed to make those who were born under
it of a joyous temper.

LINNAE'AN, _relating to Linnaeus_--the celebrated Swedish botanist.

LU'THERAN, _relating to the doctrines of Luther_--a German religious
teacher of the 16th century.

MACHIAVEL'IAN, _cunning and sinister in politics_: from "Machiaveli"--an
Italian writer of the 15th century.

MERCU'RIAL, _active, sprightly_--having the qualities fabled to belong to
the god "Mercury."

MOSA'IC, _relating to Moses, his writings or his time_.

NEWTO'NIAN, _relating to Sir Isaac Newton and his philosophy_.

PINDAR'IC, _after the style and manner of Pindar_--a lyric poet of Greece.

PLATON'IC, _relating to the opinions or the school of Plato_,--a
philosopher of Greece, in the 4th century B.C.

PLUTON'IC, _relating to the interior of the earth, or to the Plutonic
theory in geology of the formation of certain rocks by fire_: from
"Pluto"--in classic mythology, the god of the infernal regions.

PROCRUS'TEAN, _relating to or resembling the mode of torture employed by
Procrustes_--a celebrated highwayman of ancient Attica, who tied his
victims upon an iron bed, and, as the case required, either stretched out
or cut off their legs to adapt them to its length.

PROME'THEAN, _relating to Prometheus_--a god fabled by the ancient poets to
have formed men from clay and to have given them life by means of fire
stolen from heaven, at which Jupiter, being angry, sent Mercury to bind him
to Mount Caucasus, and place a vulture to prey upon his liver.

QUIXOT'IC, _absolutely romantic, like Don Quixote_--described by Cervantes,
a Spanish writer of the 16th century.

SATUR'NIAN, _distinguished for purity, integrity, and simplicity_; _golden,
happy_: from "Saturn"--one of the gods of antiquity whose age or reign,
from the mildness and wisdom of his government, was called the _golden
age_.

SOCRAT'IC, _relating to the philosophy or the method of teaching of
Socrates_--the celebrated philosopher of Greece (468-399 B.C.).

STENTO'RIAN, _very loud or powerful, resembling the voice of Stentor_--a
Greek herald, spoken of by Homer, having a very loud voice.

THES'PIAN, _relating to tragic action_: from "Thespis"--the founder of the
Greek drama.

TITAN'IC, _enormous in size and strength_: from the "Titans"--fabled giants
in classic mythology.

UTO'PIAN, _ideal, fanciful, chimerical_: from "Utopia"--an imaginary
island, represented by Sir Thomas More, in a work called "Utopia," as
enjoying the greatest perfection in politics laws, and society.

VOLTA'IC, _relating to voltaism or voltaic electricity_: from "Volta"--who
first devised apparatus for developing electric currents by chemical
action.


II.--WORDS DERIVED FROM THE NAMES OF PLACES.

AG'ATE, _a precious stone_: "Achates," a river in Sicily where it is found.

AL'ABASTER, _a variety of soft marble_: "Alabastrum," in Egypt, where it is
found.

AR'RAS, _tapestry_: "Arras," in France, where it is manufactured.

ARTE'SIAN, _applied to wells made by boring into the earth till the
instrument reaches water which flows from internal pressure_: "Artois"
(anciently called Artesium), in France, where many of such wells have been
made.

AT'TIC, _marked by such qualities as characterized the Athenians, as
delicate wit, purity of style, elegance, etc._: "Attica," the country of
the Athenians.

BAN'TAM, _a small domestic fowl_: "Bantam," in Java, whence it was brought.

BARB, _a Barbary horse_: "Barbary," in Africa.

BAY'ONET, _a dagger fixed on the end of a musket_: "Bayonne," in France,
where it was invented, in 1679.

BEDLAM, _a lunatic asylum_: "Bethlehem," a monastery in London, afterwards
used as an asylum for lunatics.

BUR'GUNDY, _a French wine_: "Burgundy," where it is made.

CAL'ICO, _a kind of cotton cloth_: "Calicut," in India, where it was first
manufactured.

CANA'RY, _a wine and a bird_: the "Canary" Islands.

CAN'TER, _an easy gallop_: "Canterbury," in allusion to the easy pace at
which the pilgrims used to ride thither.

CAR'RONADE, _a short cannon_: "Carron," in Scotland, where it was first
made.

CASH'MERE, _a rich shawl, from the wool of the Thibet goat_: "Cashmere,"
the country where first made.

CHALCED'ONY, _a variety of uncrystalized quartz_: "Chalcedon," in Asia
Minor, where obtained.

CHAMPAGNE', _a wine_: "Champagne," in France, where produced.

CHER'RY, _a red stoned fruit_: "Cerasus" (now Kheresoun), in Pontus, Asia
Minor, whence the tree was imported into Italy.

CHEST'NUT, _a fruit_: "Castanea," in Macedonia, whence it was introduced
into Europe.

COG'NAC, _a kind of French brandy_: "Cognac," in France, where extensively
made.

COP'PER, _a metal_: "Cyprus," once celebrated for its rich mines of the
metal.

CORD'WAINER, _a worker in cordwain, or cordovan, a Spanish leather_:
"Cordova," in Spain.

CURACOA', _a liquor or cordial flavored with orange peel_: the island of
"Curacoa," where it was first made.

CUR'RANT, _a small dried grape_: "Corinth," in Greece, of which "currant"
is a corruption.

DAM'ASK, _figured linen or silk_: "Damascus," in Syria, where first made.

DAM'SON, _a small black plum_: (shortened from "Damascene") Damascus.

DELF, _a kind of earthenware_: "Delft," in Holland, where it was orignally
made.

DI'APER, _a figured linen cloth, used for towels, napkins, etc._: "Ypres,"
in Flanders, where originally manufactured.

DIM'ITY, _a figured cotton cloth_: "Damietta," in Egypt.

GAMBOGE', _a yellow resin used as a paint_: "Cambodia, where it is
obtained.

GING'HAM, _cotton cloth, made of yarn dyed before woven_: "Guincamp," in
France, where it was first made.

GUIN'EA, _an English gold coin of the value of twenty-one shillings_:
"Guinea," whence the gold was obtained out of which it was first struck.

GYP'SY, _one of a wandering race_: old English "Gyptian," from "Egypt,"
whence the race was supposed to have originated.

HOL'LAND, _a kind of linen cloth_: "Holland," where first made.

HOL'LANDS, _a spirit flavored with juniper berries_: "Holland," where it is
extensively produced..

IN'DIGO, _a blue dye_: "India".

JAL'AP, _a cathartic medicine_: "Jalapa," in Mexico, whence it was first
imported in 1610.

JET, _a mineral used for ornament_: "Gagates," a river in Asia Minor,
whence it was obtained.

LAN'DAU, LAN'DAULET, _a kind of carriage opening at the top_: "Landau," a
town in Germany.

MADEI'RA, _a wine_: "Madeira," where produced.

MAGNE'SIA, _a primitive earth_: "Magnesia," in Thessaly.

MAG'NET, _the loadstone, or Magnesian stone_.

MALM'SEY, _a wine_: "Malvasia," in the Morea.

MAR'SALA, _a wine_: "Marsala," in Sicily.

MEAN'DER, _to flow in a winding course_: "Meander," a winding river in Asia
Minor.

MIL'LINER, _one who makes ladies' bonnets, etc._: "Milan," in Italy.

MOROC'CO, _a fine kind of leather_: "Morocco," in Africa, where it was
originally made.

NANKEEN', _a buff-colored cloth_: "Nankin," in China, where first made.

PHEAS'ANT, _a bird whose flesh is highly valued as food_: "Phasis," a river
in Asia Minor, whence it was brought to Europe.

PIS'TOL, _a small hand gun_: "Pistoja," in Italy, where first made.

PORT, _a wine_: "Oporto," in Portugal, whence extensively shipped.

SARDINE', _a small Mediterranean fish, of the herring family_: "Sardinia"
around whose coasts the fish abounds.

SAUTERNE', _a wine_: "Sauterne," in France, where produced.

SHER'RY, _a wine_: "Xeres," in Spain, where it is largely manufactured.

SPAN'IEL, _a dog of remarkable sagacity_: "Hispaniola," now Hayti, where
originally found.

TAR'IFF, _a list of duties or customs to be paid on goods imported or
exported_: from an Arabic word, _tarif_, information.

TO'PAZ, _a precious stone_: "Topazos," an island in the Red Sea, where it
is found.

TRIP'OLI, _a fine grained earth used in polishing stones_: "Tripoli," in
Africa, where originally obtained.

TURQUOIS', _a bluish-green stone_: "Turkey," whence it was originally
brought.

WORST'ED, _well-twisted yarn, spun of long-staple wool_: "Worsted," a
village in Norfolk, England, where first made.


III.--ETYMOLOGY OF WORDS USED IN THE PRINCIPAL
SCHOOL STUDIES.

1.--TERMS IN GEOGRAPHY.

ANTARC'TIC: Gr. _anti_, opposite, and _arktos_, a bear. See _arctic_.

ARCHIPEL'AGO: Gr. _archi_, chief, and _pelagos_, sea, originally applied to
the AEgean Sea, which is studded with numerous islands.

ARC'TIC: Gr. _arktikos_, from _arktos_, a bear and a northern constellation
so called.

ATLAN'TIC: Lat. _Atlanticus_, from "Atlas," a fabled Titan who was
condemned to bear heaven on his head and hands.

AX'IS: Lat. _axis_, an axletree.

BAR'BAROUS: Gr. _barbaros_, foreign.

BAY: Fr. _baie_, from Lat. _baia_, an inlet.

CAN'CER: Lat. _cancer_, a crab (the name of one of the signs of the
zodiac).

CAPE: Fr. _cap_, from Lat. _caput_, head.

CAP'ITAL: Lat. _capitalis_, from _caput_, head.

CAP'RICORN: Lat. _caper_, goat, and _cornu_, horn (the name of one of the
signs of the zodiac).

CAR'DINAL: adj Lat. _cardinalis_, from _cardo, cardinis_, a hinge.

CHAN'NEL: Lat. _canalis_, from _canna_, a reed or pipe.

CIR'CLE: Lat. _circus_, from Gr. _kirkos_, a ring.

CIRCUM'FERENCE: Lat. _circum_, around, and _ferre_, to bear.

CIT'Y: Fr. _cite_, from Lat. _civitas_, a state or community.

CIV'ILIZED: Lat. _civilis_, pertaining to an organized community.

CLI'MATE: Gr. _klima, klimatos_, slope, the supposed slope of the earth
from the Equator to the poles.

COAST: Old Fr. _coste_ (New Fr. _cote_), from Lat. _costa_, rib, side.

CON'FLUENCE: Lat. _con_, together, and _fluere_, to flow.

CON'TINENT: Lat. _con_, together, and _tenere_, to hold.

CON'TOUR: Lat. _con_, together, and _tornus_, a lathe.

COUN'TY: Fr. _comte_, from Lat. _comitatus_, governed by a count.

DEGREE': Lat. _de_, and _gradus_, a step

DIAM'ETER: Gr. _dia_, through, and _metron_, measure.

EQUA'TOR: Lat. _equus_, equal.

ES'TUARY: Lat. _aestuare_, to boil up, or be furious, the reference being to
the commotion made by the meeting of a river-current and the tide.

FRIG'ID: Lat. _frigidus_, from _frigere_, to be cold.

GEOG'RAPHY: Gr. _ge_, the earth, and _graphe_, a description.

GLOBE: Lat. _globus_, a round body.

GULF: Fr. _golfe_, from Gr. _kolpos_, bosom, bay.

HAR'BOR: Anglo-Saxon, _hereberga_, from _beorgan_, to shelter.

HEM'ISPHERE: Gr. _hemi_, half, and _sphaira_, sphere.

HORI'ZON: Gr. _horizein_, to bound.

IN'DIAN (ocean): India.

ISTH'MUS: Gr. _isthmos_, a neck.

LAKE: Lat. _lacus_, a lake.

LAT'ITUDE: Lat. _latitudo_, from _latus_, broad.

LON'GITUDE: Lat. _longitudo_, from _longus_, long.

MERID'IAN: Lat. _meridies_ (= _medius_, middle, and _dies_, day), noon.

METROP'OLIS: Gr. _meter_, mother, and _polis_, city.

MON'ARCHY: Gr. _monarches_, from _monos_, alone, and _archein_, to rule.

MOUN'TAIN: Fr. _montagne_, from Lat. _mons_, _montis_, a mountain.

OB'LATE: Lat. _oblatus_ (_ob_ and past part. of _ferre_, to bring), brought
forward.

O'CEAN: Gr. _okeanus_, from _okus_, rapid, and _nacin_, to flow.

PACIF'IC: Lat. _pacificus_, from _pax_, _pacis_, peace, and _facere_, to
make.

PAR'ALLEL: Gr. _para_, beside, and _allelon_, of one another.

PENIN'SULA: Lat. _penes_, almost, and _insula_, island.

PHYS'ICAL: Gr. _physis_ (_phusis_), nature.

PLAIN: Lat. _planus_, flat.

PLANE: Lat. _planus_, flat.

POLE: Gr. _polos_, a pivot.

POLIT'ICAL: Gr. _polis_, a city or state.

PROM'ONTORY: Lat. _pro_, before, and _mons_, _montis_, a mountain.

RELIEF': Fr. _relever_, from Lat. _relevare_, to raise.

REPUB'LIC: Lat. _res_, an affair, and _publica_, public: that is, a
_commonwealth_.

RIV'ER: Fr. _riviere_, from Lat. _ripa_, a shore or bank.

SAV'AGE: Fr. _sauvage_, from Lat. _silva_, a wood.

SEA: Anglo-Saxon, _sae_, the sea.

SOCI'ETY: Lat. _societas_, from _socius_, a companion.


2.--TERMS IN GRAMMAR.

AD'JECTIVE, Lat. _adjectivus_, from _ad_ and _jacere_, to add to: _a word
joined to a noun or pronoun to limit or describe its meaning_.

AD'JUNCT, Lat. _adjunctus_, from _ad_ and _jungere_, to join to: _a
modifier or subordinate element of a sentence_.

AD'VERB, Lat. _adverbium_, from _ad_, to, and _verbum_, word, verb: _a word
used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb_.

ANAL'YSIS, Gr. _analusis_, from _ana_ and _luein_, to unloose, to resolve
into its elements: _the separation of a sentence into its constituent
elements_.

ANTECE'DENT, Lat. _antecedens_, pres. part. of _antecedere_, to go before:
_the noun or pronoun represented by a relative pronoun_.

APPOSI'TION, Lat. _appositio_, from _ad_, to, and _ponere_, to place
beside: _the state of two nouns put in the same case without a connecting
word between them_.

AR'TICLE, Lat. _articulus_, a little joint: _one of the three words_, a,
an, _or_ the.

AUXIL'IARY, Lat. _auxiliaris_, from _auxilium_, help, aid: _a verb used to
assist in conjugating other verbs_.

CASE, Lat. _casus_, from _cadere_, to fall, to happen: _a grammatical form
denoting the relation of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the
sentence_.

CLAUSE, Lat. _claudere_, _clausum_, to shut: _a dependent proposition
introduced by a connective_.

COMPAR'ISON, Lat. _comparatio_, from _comparare_, to liken to: _a variation
in the form of an adjective or adverb to express degrees of quantity or
quality_.

COM'PLEMENT, Lat. _complementum_, from _con_ and _plere_, to fill fully:
_the word or words required to complete the predication of a transitive
verb_.

COM'PLEX (sentence), Lat. _complexus_, from _con_ and _plectere_, to twist
around: _a sentence consisting of one independent proposition and one or
more clauses_.

COM'POUND (sentence), Lat. _componere_ (= _con_ and _ponere_), to put
together: _a sentence consisting of two or more independent propositions_.

CONJUGA'TION, Lat. _conjugatio_, from _con_ and _jugare_, to join together:
_the systematic arrangement of a verb according to its various grammatical
forms_.

CONJUNCTION, Lat. _conjunctio_, from _con_ and _jungere_, to join together:
_a word used to connect sentences or the elements of sentences_.

DECLEN'SION, Lat. _declinatio_, from _declinare_, to lean or incline: _the
process of giving in regular order the cases and numbers of a noun or
pronoun_.

ELLIP'SIS, Gr. _elleipsis_, a leaving or defect: _the omission of a word or
words necessary to complete the grammatical structure of the sentence_.

ETYMOL'OGY, Gr. _etumologia_, from _etumon_, the true literal sense of a
word, and _logos_, a discourse: _that division of grammar which treats of
the classification and grammatical forms of words_.

FEM'ININE (gender), Lat. _femininus_, from _femina_, woman: _the gender of
a noun denoting a person of the female sex_.

GEN'DER, Lat. _genus_, _generis_, kind: _a grammatical form expressing the
sex or non-sex of an object named by a noun_.

GRAM'MAR, Gr. _gramma_, a letter, through Fr. _grammaire_: the science of
language.

IMPER'ATIVE (mood), Lat. _imperativus_, from _imperare_, to command: _the
mood of a verb used in the statement of a command or request_.

INDIC'ATIVE (mood), Lat. _indicativus_, from _indicare_, to proclaim: _the
mood of a verb used in the statement of a fact, or of a matter taken as a
fact_.

INFLEC'TION, Lat. _inflexio_, from _inflectere_, to bend in: _a change in
the ending of a word_.

INTERJEC'TION, Lat. _interjectio_, from _inter_ and _jacere_, to throw
between: _a word which expresses an emotion, but which does not enter into
the construction of the sentence_.

INTRAN'SITIVE (verb), Lat. _intransitivus_ = _in_, not, and _transitivus_,
from _trans_ and _ire_, _itum_, to go beyond: _a verb that denotes a state
or condition, or an action not terminating on an object_.

MAS'CULINE (gender), Lat. _masculus_, male: _the gender of a noun
describing a person of the male sex_.

MODE. See _mood_.

MOOD, Lat. _modus_, through Fr. _mode_, manner: _a grammatical form
denoting the style of predication_.

NEU'TER (gender), Lat. _neuter_, neither: _the gender of a noun denoting an
object without life_.

NOM'INATIVE (case), Lat. _nominativus_, from _nomen_, a name: _that form
which a noun has when it is the subject of a verb_.

NOUN, Lat. _nomen_, a name, through Fr. _nom_: _a name-word, the name of
anything_.

NUM'BER, Lat. _numerus_, through Fr. _nombre_, number: _a grammatical form
expressing one or more than one of the objects named by a noun or pronoun_.

OB'JECT, Lat. _ob_ and _jacere_, to set before: _that toward which an
activity is directed or is considered to be directed_.

OBJEC'TIVE (case), Lat. _objectivus_, from _ob_ and _jacere_: _the case
which follows a transitive verb or a preposition_.

PARSE, Lat. _pars_, a part: _to point out the several parts of speech in a
sentence and their relation to one another_.

PAR'TICIPLE, Lat. _participium_, from _pars_, part, and _capere_, to take,
to share: _a verbal adjective, a word which shares or participates in the
nature both of the verb and of the adjective_.

PER'SON, Lat. _persona_, the part taken by a performer: _a grammatical form
which shows whether the speaker is meant, the person spoken to, or the
person spoken of_.

PHRASE, Gr. _phrasis_, a brief expression, from _phrazein_, to speak: _a
combination of related words forming an element of a sentence_.

PLE'ONASM, Gr. _pleonasmos_, from _pleion_, more: _the use of more words to
express an idea than are necessary_.

PLU'RAL (number), Lat. _pluralis_, from _plus_, _pluris_, more: _the number
which designates more than one_.

POSSESS'IVE (case), Lat. _possessivus_, from _possidere_, to own: _that
form which a noun or pronoun has in order to denote ownership or
possession_.

POTEN'TIAL (mood), Lat. _potens_, _potentis_, being able: _the mood of a
verb used in the statement of something possible or contingent_.

PREDICATE, Lat. _praedicatum_, from _prae_ and _dicare_, to proclaim: _the
word or words in a proposition which express what is affirmed of the
subject_.

PREPOSI'TION, Lat. _praepositio_, from _prae_ and _ponere_, to put before: _a
connective word expressing a relation of meaning between a noun or pronoun
and some other word_.

PRO'NOUN, Lat. _pronomen_, from _pro_, for, and _nomen_, a noun: _a word
used instead of a noun._

PROP'OSITION, Lat. _propositio_, from _proponere_ (_pro_ and _ponere_), to
put forth: _the combination of a subject with a predicate_.

REL'ATIVE (pronoun), Lat. _relativus_, from _re_ and _ferre_, _latus_, to
bear back: _a pronoun that refers to an antecedent noun or pronoun_.

SEN'TENCE, Lat. _sententia_, from _sentire_, to think: _a combination of
words expressing a complete thought_.

SIM'PLE (sentence), Lat. _simplex_, from _sine_, without, and _plica_,
fold: _a sentence having but one subject and one predicate_.

SUB'JECT, Lat. _subjectus_, from _sub_ and _jacere_, to place under: _that
of which something is predicated_.

SUBJUNC'TIVE (mood), Lat. _subjunctivus_, from _sub_ and _jungere_, to
subjoin: _the mood used in the statement of something merely thought of_.

SYN'TAX, Gr. _suntaxis_, from _sun_, together, and _taxis_, arrangement:
_that division of grammar which treats of the relations of words in
sentences_.

TENSE, Lat. _tempus_, time, through Fr. _temps_: _a grammatical form of the
verb denoting the time of the action or event_.

TRAN'SITIVE, Lat. _transitivus_, from _trans_ and _ire_, _itum_, to pass
over: _a verb that denotes an action terminating on some object_.

VERB, Lat. _verbum_, a word: _a word that predicates action or being_.

VOICE, Lat. _vox_, _vocis_, voice, through Fr. _voix_: _a grammatical form
of the transitive verb, expressing whether the subject names the actor or
the recipient of the action_.


3.--TERMS IN ARITHMETIC.

ADDI'TION, Lat. _additio_, from _addere_, to add.

AL'IQUOT, Lat. _aliquot_, some.

ARITH'METIC, Gr. adj. _arithmetike_, numerical, from n. _arithmos_, number.

AVOIRDUPOIS', Fr. _avoir du pois_, to have [a fixed or standard] weight.

CANCELLA'TION, Lat. _cancellatio_, from _cancellare_, to make like a
lattice (_cancelli_), to strike or cross out.

CENT, Lat. _centum_, a hundred.

CI'PHER, Arabic _sifrun_, empty, zero.

CUBE, Gr. _kubos_, a cubical die.

DEC'IMAL, Lat. _decimus_, tenth, from _decem_, ten.

DENOM'INATOR, Lat. _denominare_, from _de_ and _nominare_ (_nomen_, a
name), to call by name.

DIG'IT, Lat. _digitus_, a finger.

DIV'IDEND, Lat. _dividendus_, to be divided, from _dividere_, to divide.

DIVIS'ION, Lat. _divisio_, from _dividere_, to divide.

DIVI'SOR, Sp. _divisor_, that which divides, from Lat. _dividere_, to
divide.

DOL'LAR, Ger. _thaler_, an abbreviation of _Joachimsthaler_, i.e. a piece
of money first coined, about 1518, in the valley (_thal_) of _St. Joachim_,
in Bohemia.

EQUA'TION, Lat. _aequatio_, from _aequus_, equal.

EXPO'NENT, Lat. _exponens_, pres. part. of _exponere_, to set forth (= _ex_
and _ponere_).

FAC'TOR, Lat. _factor_, that which does something, from _facere_, _factum_,
to do or make.

FIG'URE, Lat. _figura_, shape, from _fingere_, to form or shape.

FRAC'TION, Lat. _fractio_, from _frangere_, to break.

IN'TEGER, Lat. _integer_, untouched, whole.

IN'TEREST, Lat. _interest_ = it interests, is of interest (3d per. sing.
pres. indic. of _interesse_, to be between, to be of importance).

MIN'UEND, Lat. _minuendus_, to be diminished, from _minuere_, to lessen.

MUL'TIPLE, Lat. _multiplex_, from _multus_, much, and _plicare_, to fold.

MUL'TIPLY, MULTIPLICATION, etc. See _multiple_.

NAUGHT, Anglo-Sax. _nawhit_, from _ne_, not, and _awiht_ or _auht_, aught,
anything.

NOTA'TION, Lat. _notatio_, from _notare_, to mark (_nota_, a mark).

NUMERA'TION, Lat. _numeratio_, from _numerus_, a number.

QUO'TIENT, Lat. _quoties_, how often, how many times, from _quot_, how
many.

SUBTRACTION, Lat. _subtractio_, from _sub_ and _trahere_, to draw from
under.

U'NIT, Lat. _unus_, one.

ZE'RO, Arabic _cifrun_, empty, cipher.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTES.

[1] To teachers who are unacquainted with the original _Word-Analysis_, the
following extract from the Preface to that work may not be out of place:--

"The treatment of the Latin derivatives in Part II. presents a new and
important feature, to wit: the systematic analysis of the structure and
organism of derivative words, together with the statement of their primary
meaning in such form that the pupil inevitably perceives its relation with
the root, and in fact _makes_ its primary meaning by the very process of
analyzing the word into its primitive and its modifying prefix or suffix.
It presents, also, a marked improvement in the method of approaching the
definition,--a method by which the definition is seen to _grow out of_ the
primary meaning, and by which the analytic faculty of the pupil is
exercised in tracing the transition from the primary meaning to the
secondary and figurative meanings,--thus converting what is ordinarily a
matter of rote into an agreeable exercise of the thinking faculty. Another
point of novelty in the method of treatment is presented in the copious
practical exercises on the _use of words_. The experienced instructor very
well knows that pupils may memorize endless lists of terms and definitions
without having any realization of the actual living power of words. Such a
realization can only be gained by _using_ the word,--by turning it over in
a variety of ways, and by throwing upon it the side-lights of its synonym
and contrasted word. The method of thus utilizing English derivatives gives
a study which possesses at once _simplicity_ and _fruitfulness_,--the two
desiderata of an instrument of elementary discipline."

[2] "Etymology," Greek _et'umon_, the true literal sense of a word
according to its derivation, and _log'os_, a discourse.

[3] "Vocabulary," Latin _vocabula'rium_, a stock of words; from _vox,
vocis_, a voice, a word.

[4] By the _Low_ German languages are meant those spoken in the low, flat
countries of North Germany, along the coast of the North Sea (as Dutch, the
language of Holland); and they are so called in contradistinction to _High_
German, or German proper.

[5] For the full definition, reference should be had to a dictionary; but
in the present exercise the literal or etymological signification may
suffice.

[6] _Fen'do_, _fen'dere_, is used in Latin only in composition.

[7] Another mode of spelling _defense_.

[8] From _pass_ and _over_, a feast of the Jews instituted to commemorate
the providential escape of the Jews to Egypt, when God, smiting the
first-born of the Egyptians _passed over_ the houses of the Israelites,
which were marked with the blood of the paschal lamb.

[9] For the explanation of the etymology see Webster's _Unabridged_.

[10] _For_ is different from _fore_, and corresponds to the German _ver_,
different from _vor_.

_A_, _be_, _for_, _ge_, are often indifferently prefixed to verbs,
especially to perfect tenses and perfect participles, as well as to verbal
nouns.--BOSWORTH.

[11] _Ster_ was the Anglo-Saxon feminine termination. Females once
conducted the work of brewing, baking, etc., hence brewster, baxter; these
words were afterwards applied to men when they undertook the same work.
_Ster_ is now used in depreciating, as in trickster, youngster.






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