Infomotions, Inc.The Moravians in Labrador / Anonymous

Author: Anonymous
Title: The Moravians in Labrador
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): esquimaux; nain; okkak; hopedale; brethren; missionaries; saviour; labrador; jesus; baptized; jans haven; heathen; mission
Contributor(s): Aatto S., 1855-1898 [Translator]
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Rights: GNU General Public License
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Identifier: etext18391
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Title: The Moravians in Labrador

Author: Anonymous

Release Date: May 14, 2006  [eBook #18391]

Language: English

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E-text prepared by a Volunteer, Jeannie Howse, Mark C. Orton,
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      | Transcriber's Notes:                                           |
      |                                                                |
      | The lone Greek word is transliterated and surrounded with +'s  |
      |                                                                |
      | The original images were of very poor quality, some            |
      | punctuation has been inferred.                                 |
      |                                                                |
      | This document was originally published in 1822 and contains    |
      | archaic spelling, as well as a number of obvious typographical |
      | errors which have been corrected. For a complete list of       |
      | corrected words, please see the end of this document.          |
      |                                                                |




From Greenland's icy mountains
The joyful sound proclaim,
Till each remotest nation
Has learnt the Saviour's name.
Waft, waft, ye winds, his story,
And you, ye waters, roll,
Till like a sea of glory,
It spreads from pole to pole.

Printed by J. Ritchie.
Sold by W. Whyte & Co., W. Oliphant, Waugh
& Innes, and J. Lindsay & Co., Edinburgh;
M. Ogle, and W. Collins, Glasgow; Hamilton,
Adams & Co., and J. Nisbet, London.


The present small volume which, in some measure, owes its origin to
the suggestion of that long tried, excellent, and first friend of the
Moravians in Scotland, R. Plenderleath, Esq., and being cordially
approved of by the Rev P. Latrobe, London, though connected with
considerable labour, great part of it having been translated from the
German, has been cheerfully executed, and is intended to promote a
purpose similar to that of the first edition of the Moravians in
Greenland--to aid the subscriptions of some private friends who wish
to communicate occasionally with the Missionaries in Labrador, and
send them a few articles of comfort which the general funds do not
supply. In allusion to this, the following extract from a letter,
addressed to a friend in this city, from one of these devoted men,
will be pleasant to the friends of the missions--"Dear Sister A ----,
You kindly mention that a Society of Christian Ladies was formed in
Edinburgh in aid of the missions in Greenland and Labrador, and had
sent a gift of clothes, for which I beg you will accept of our united
thanks. There are many poor widows and orphans in our Esquimaux
congregations who are in the greatest necessity, to whom any little
article of clothing will be most welcome. When our dear friends send
us any thing of this kind, we always keep it till Christmas, and then
divide them, that they may appear clothed on Christmas night. The
dividing scene is often very affecting, their sobbing and weeping
prevents their expressing _their gratitude_ in words, but one may
easily perceive how deeply they feel their kindness."


Introduction.                                                 Page vii

 Hudson's Bay Company first settle among the Esquimaux.--J.C.
  Erhardt suggests a mission--his letter to the Moravian
  Bishop.--M. Stach consulted.--London merchants undertake the
  scheme--engage Erhardt--its fatal conclusion.--Jans Haven
  employed by the Brethren--encouraged by the British
  Government, sets out on a voyage of discovery--his
  providential arrival at Quirpont--first meeting with the
  Esquimaux--his interesting intercourse--returns to England.
  His second expedition, accompanied by Drachart and other
  missionaries--their proceedings.--Drachart's remarkable
  conversation with the natives--influence of the missionaries
  in preserving peace--their religious communications with the
  savages--the curiosity of the latter--their thievish
  tricks--their kindness to the missionaries--a dreadful
  storm.--Drachart and Haven entertained by an Angekok--his
  incantations--their parting addresses to each other--the
  missionaries return to London.                                    37

 Contests between the colonists and savages revive--Murderous
  skirmish.--Mikak.--Karpik, his conversion and death.--The
  Moravians receive a grant of land on the coast of Labrador--
  resolve to renew the mission--voyage to explore the land.--
  Jans Haven, Drachart, &c., arrive at Labrador--their
  interview with the natives--meet Mikak and Tuglavina--their
  kindness.--Segulliak the sorcerer.--Anxiety of the Esquimaux
  for their remaining among them--ground purchased for a
  settlement--manner of bargaining with the Esquimaux--sail for
  Esquimaux bay--the natives troublesome--the Captain's method
  of checking them.--Conduct of the missionaries--they preach on
  shore.--Conversation with the Esquimaux.--Search out a place
  for a settlement--purchase it of the natives--ceremonies used
  on the occasion--take formal possession. Deputation return to
  England                                                           73

 Preparations for establishing a settlement in Labrador.--A
  love feast.--Missionaries leave London--erect a mission-house
  at Nain---regulations for their intercourse with the
  natives--visited by great numbers--manner of instruction--they
  retire in winter, are visited by the Brethren in their
  houses.--Death of Anauke.--An incantation.--Adventures in
  search of a dead whale.--P.E. Lauritz deputed by the
  conference--visits the missions--his excursion along the
  coast.--A sloop of war arrives to examine the settlement--the
  Captain's report.--Jans Haven's voyage to the north--
  interesting occurrences.--Lauritz leaves Nain--his concluding
  address.--The Brethren propose new settlements--disastrous
  voyage in search of a situation.--Liebisch appointed
  Superintendant.--An Angekok baptized--his address to the
  natives.--Jans Haven commences a new station at Okkak--received
  joyfully by the natives--six Esquimaux baptized--proceedings at
  Nain.--Missionary accompanies the Esquimaux to a
  rein-deer-hunt.--Third settlement--Hopedale founded.--Remarkable
  preservation of the Missionaries.                                 97

 Esquimaux visit the English settlements--pernicious
  consequences--dreadful accident--famine--unexpected supply
  of food and skins.--Emigration from Okkak--missionaries' care
  of the wanderers, who return disappointed.--Terrible tales
  from the south.--Inquirers separated from the heathen.--Popish
  priest attempts to seduce the converts.--Brother Rose inspects
  Hopedale.--Karpik the sorcerer.--Peter's fall.--Visits to
  the south renewed.--Parting address of the brethren.--Epidemic.--
  Death of Daniel--of Esther.--Conversion and peaceful end of
  Tuglavina.--Last days of Mikak.--Indians come to Hopedale.--
  Rose's remarks on the internal state of the missions.--Instances
  of the power of grace among the Esquimaux--striking observation
  of one of the baptized.--Jonathan's letter to the Greenlanders.--
  Affecting confession of Solomon.--Conduct of a young woman
  sought in marriage by a heathen.--State of the settlements at the
  close of the century.--Prospects begin to brighten.--Remarkable
  phenomenon.--Avocations of the missionaries--their trials--
  preservation of their vessels--of their settlements--their
  brotherly love.                                                  154

 Variable appearances of the mission at Nain and Okkak--more
  favourable at Hopedale.--Death of Benjamin.--Spirit of love
  among the converted.--Happy communion and close of the
  year.--Providential escape of the Resolution.--New epoch in
  Labrador.--A remarkable awakening commences at Hopedale--
  meetings--schools.--Letter from a converted Esquimaux to his
  teacher.--Industry of the awakened.--Declension of religion
  at Nain and Okkak.--State of the children at Hopedale.--
  Progress of the adults in knowledge, love, and zeal--instances.--
  Striking conversion of two young Esquimaux, its effects upon
  their countrymen.--Awakening spreads to Nain and to Okkak.--Zeal
  of the converts towards the heathen rouses backsliders.--
  Behaviour of the awakened in sickness, and the prospect of
  death.--Remarkable accessions from the heathen.--The son of a
  sorcerer.                                                        201

 Mutual affection of the Christian Esquimaux and
  Greenlanders--their correspondence--letter from Timothy, a
  baptized Greenlander.--Delight of the Esquimaux in religious
  exercises.--Order of the congregations--distressing events,
  apostasy of Kapik--awful end of Jacob--peaceful end of
  believers--Judith, Joanna.--Revival among the communicants.--A
  feast by a Christian brother to the Esquimaux.--Winter
  arrangements.--Childrens' meetings--schools.--The brethren's
  settlements contrasted with the heathen.--Progress of religion
  at the different stations.--Books printed in the Esquimaux
  language.--Number of the settled Esquimaux.--Epidemic at
  Nain--its consequences.--General view of the mission.            238

 Desire of the heathen to hear the Gospel.--Brethren meditate a
  new settlement--voyage to explore the country.--Quiet course of
  the mission--advantages of their church discipline.--Death of
  Burghardt.--Exertions of the aged survivors.--Schreiber,
  superintendant, arrives.--Anxiety of the native Christians to
  attend the ordinances of religion.--Advantages of the Bible as
  a school-book.--Four missionaries unexpectedly carried to
  England.--Baptized Esquimaux seduced by traders.--Perilous
  voyage of the returning missionaries--striking accident.--
  Schreiber retires from the superintendance--Kohlmeister
  succeeds--his journeyings to Okkak, to Nain.--Stability of
  the work of God at Nain--hopeful deaths--conversion and
  recovery of a young native.--Remarkable preservation of an
  Esquimaux youth.                                                 269

 Fiftieth anniversary of the missionary vessel's first arrival
  in Labrador--jubilee of the mission celebrated at Nain.--
  Summary view of the success of the gospel in Labrador during
  that period.--Instance of maternal affection.--Esquimaux
  contribute to the Bible Society.--British sloop of war,
  Clinker, visits Hopedale.--Captain Martin's testimony to the
  good effect of the brethren's labours--visits Nain and
  Okkak--consequences of his favourable report.                    304

 The Brethren obtain a further grant of land on the east coast
  of Labrador--projected fourth settlement delayed.--Progress of
  the three settlements in the interval.--Instances of wonderful
  preservation--Ephraim--of Conrad, Peter, and Titus.--Report of
  the Superintendant, Kohlmeister, on the general state of the
  Mission.--Letter from Brother and Sister Kmoch, to a friend in
  Edinburgh.--Commencement and progress of Hebron, the fourth
  station.                                                         318



The Moravian Mission in Labrador was attempted under circumstances
scarcely less discouraging than those under which the brethren were
enabled to achieve the moral conquest of Greenland, was attended with
incidents still more romantic, and blest with a success equally
remarkable. But it possesses a peculiar interest to British readers,
having been commenced under the auspices of the British government,
and promising a more extensive influence among tribes with whom
British intercourse is likely to produce a wider and more intimate

The Peninsula of Labrador extends from the 50th to the 61st deg. N.L.
It is somewhat of a triangular form; bounded on the north by Hudson's
Straits, and indented by Ungava Bay; on the east by the northern
ocean; on the south by Canada and the Gulph of St Lawrence; and on
the west by Hudson's and James' Bay, which last coast, by a kind of
anomaly in nomenclature, has been called the East Main, from its
situation to that great inland sea.

The German geographers do not appear to doubt, what some of our own
have called in question, that the discovery and the name of this
Peninsula, at least of its eastern shores, were owing to the
Portuguese, Gaspar Cortereal, who, in the years 1500 and 1501, in an
expedition fitted by the king to discover a western passage to India,
reached the coast of Newfoundland about the 50th deg. N.L., and sailed
northward to nearly the entrance into Hudson's Bay. This tract of
country was originally called after its discoverer, Terra Cortereali,
a name since superseded by that of Terra de Labrador--the land capable
of cultivation. Davis Straits, here about one hundred miles broad,
separates it from Greenland, whose southernmost point, Cape Farewell,
lies in the same degree of latitude, [60 N.L.] with Cape Chudleigh,
the northernmost extremity of Labrador. The Straits of Bellisle run
between it and Newfoundland. The land along the shore is abrupt and
precipitous, indented with many little creeks and vallies, surrounded
by innumerable islands, and rendered extremely dangerous of access
from the multitude of sunken rocks. The interior is mountainous,
intersected by marshes, and abounding with streamlets and lakes.

Detached from the Arctic lands, this country ought to partake in some
degree of the temperate cold regions, but whether owing to the
elevation of its mountains, or the influence of the perpetual fogs
that cover the neighbouring seas, it is as frozen a region as those to
the west of Hudson's Bay; and though it lies some degrees farther
south than Greenland, yet the cold during the long winter is far more
severe, the thermometer being frequently 32 deg. below 0 deg. of Fahrenheit.
Perhaps the immense quantity of drift ice which accumulates on the
eastern shores, and which extends for so many miles out to sea, may
have some influence on the temperature of the climate. The summer, on
the other hand, during the short time that it lasts, is proportionally
warmer, the thermometer rising from 70 deg. to 80 deg. above 0. Vegetation
then proceeds with uncommon rapidity; the shrubs and plants expand as
if by enchantment; and the country assumes the luxuriance and beauty
of a European summer. Forests of pine and larch are scattered over the
country, the trees of sufficient size to be used in building, or to be
sawn into boards; there are also willows, birch, aspen, and alder, in
considerable quantities.

The land animals are the same as those in Greenland. The _rein-deer_,
this beautiful and useful creature, is found in considerable herds,
but has not hitherto been domesticated, being only hunted for its
flesh, which makes an agreeable variety of food; and its skin, which
is an elegant and necessary article of clothing, as the fur is always
richer in proportion to the intensity of the cold, against which it
forms an excellent defence; they are hunted with dogs, and formerly
used to be easily killed with the bow and arrow, but the introduction
of fire arms has proved much more destructive. When hard-pressed, they
soon take to the water, and swim so well that a four oared boat can
scarcely come up with them, but an Esquimaux in his kaiak more readily
overtakes them. _Hares_ are tolerably plenty. The _Arctic fox_ also is
numerous; their skins are used for the purposes of commerce, and their
flesh is esteemed preferable to that of the hare. _Black bears_ are
frequently killed, and are relished as food by the Esquimaux. But the
most formidable among the tribes of these regions is the _Polar bear_,
whose ferocity and courage render him an object of terror even to the
well armed European. The _dog_ is the most useful of the quadrupeds
to the Esquimaux; he bears a strong resemblance to the wolf; is in
height about the size of the Newfoundland, and is well furnished with
a thick hairy coat, peculiarly adapted to the climate. As a hunter,
his scent can trace the seal or the rein-deer at a considerable
distance, and he does not dread, when in packs, to attack even the
white bear itself. His chief value, however, consists in his qualities
as a draught animal; for this he is carefully trained from his
infancy, and undergoes severe and frequent floggings to break him
regularly into the team. He becomes then remarkably submissive, comes
at his master's call, and allows himself quietly to be harnessed to
the sledge. In fastening them care is taken not to let them go
abreast: they are tied by separate thongs, of unequal lengths, to a
horizontal bar on the forepart of the sledge; an old knowing one leads
the way, running ten to twenty paces a head, directed by the driver's
whip, which is often twenty-four feet long, and can only be properly
wielded by an experienced Esquimaux; the other dogs follow like a
flock of sheep, and if one receives a lash, he bites his neighbour,
and the bite goes round. Their strength, and speed, even with an
hungry stomach, is astonishing; and to this they are often subjected,
especially by the heathen, who treat them with little mercy, and force
them to perform hard duty for the small quantity of food they allow
them. Their portion upon a journey consists chiefly in offals, old
skins, entrails, rotten whale flesh, or fins, or whatever else the
Esquimaux himself cannot use; if these run out, or if the master,
whose stomach is not of the most delicate contexture, requires his
dogs' meat, then the poor creatures must go and seek for themselves,
in which case they will swallow almost any thing, so that it is always
necessary to secure the harness over night, if the traveller wishes to
proceed in the morning. The teams vary from three to nine dogs, and
this last number have been known to drag a weight of more than sixteen
hundred pounds, a mile in nine minutes.

Like the Greenlanders the inhabitants of Labrador must draw their
subsistence and their wealth chiefly from the sea; but in this respect
their circumstances are less favourable than the former. Whales are
scarce, and the chief species they take is that denominated the white
fish, of little value in commerce. In pursuing them they have now
adopted the European boat in preference to their own, and those most
frequently employed are six oared, rowed by twelve men. The harpooner
stands in the bow with his harpoon, or iron spear, which is stuck on a
shaft one or two fathoms long, and is provided with a leathern thong
of considerable length, to which are attached from five to ten
bladders of seal skin. If the whale be struck he immediately dives to
the bottom of the sea, where he remains till he is quite exhausted,
when he again comes to the surface of the water to breathe; in the
meanwhile the boat's crew observe all its motions, and are in
readiness with their lances to complete the business, during which,
the person who first struck the fish, falls down on his face in the
fore part of the boat, and prays that Torngak would strengthen the
thongs that they may not break; another of the crew allows his feet to
be bound, as a symbol of what he desires, then attempting to walk,
falls down and exclaims, "Let him be lame!" and a third, if he
observes that the whale is dying, calls out, "Now Torngak is there,
and will help us to kill the fish, and we shall eat his flesh, and
fare sumptuously, and be happy!" But if the whale appears likely to
escape, the first continues lying on his face crying out with
vehemence, "Hear yet, and help us!" If the whale get off, some of
their conjurors inform them that Torngak was not there, or he did not
hear, or he was otherwise employed! Seals are more abundant, and are
the chief dependance of the natives, their flesh serving for food,
their skins for clothes and covering to their tents and boats, and
their blubber for oil or for exchange. Catching the seal was formerly
a tedious and laborious process, but now they are generally taken in
nets, which the natives have adopted from the Europeans.

Salmon and salmon-trout are caught in every creek and inlet; they
remain in the rivers and fresh-water lakes during the winter, and
return to the sea in spring. The Esquimaux about Okkak and Saeglak,
catch them in winter under the ice by spearing. For this purpose they
make two holes in the ice, about eight inches in diameter, and six
feet asunder, in a direction from north to south. The northern hole
they screen from the sun by a bank of snow about four feet in height,
raised in a semi-circle round its southern edge, and form another
similar bank on the north side of the southern hole, sloped in such a
manner as to reflect the rays of the sun into it. The Esquimaux then
lies down, with his face close to the northern aperture, beneath which
the water is strongly illuminated by the sunbeams entering at the
southern. In his left hand he holds a red string, with which he plays
in the water to allure the fish, and in his right, a spear ready to
strike them as they approach; and in this manner, they soon take as
many as they want. The trout on this coast are from twelve to eighteen
inches long, and in August and September so fat, that the Esquimaux
collect from them a sufficient quantity of oil for their lamps. The
great shoals of herrings, which are the staple of the Greenlanders, do
not touch at the shores of Labrador, but they have abundance of cod at
many of their fishing stations, which the missionaries have shown them
the method, and set them the example, of curing for their winter's

Sea-fowl of the duck and goose species frequent the shores of
Labrador, and the islands scattered around it, and afford to the
natives, as they do to the rest of the northern tribes, food, warmth,
and materials for trade. Of the land birds, the large partridge,
[reiper,] or American wild pheasant, is the only one which the
missionaries mention as being used by them as an agreeable variety of
food, when, other resources failing, they have been confined to salted

The peninsula is chiefly inhabited on the coast, where the Moravians
have now four settlements. The natives style themselves _Innuit_,
_i.e._ men; and foreigners, _Kablunat_ or inferior beings. Their
original national name is Karalit, also denoting superiority, and the
term Esquimaux, by which they are now so generally known, was given
them by their neighbours the Indians, in whose language it signifies
"men's raw meat," and probably imports that the Indians were, or it
may be, are cannibals, and devoted their captives for this horrible
repast. In lowness of stature, in their flat features, and dark
colour, they exactly resemble the Greenlanders. Their language is a
dialect of the same tongue, intelligible by both; but from their
intercourse with foreigners, and their adopting some foreign customs,
and becoming possessed of foreign utensils, a number of strange words
have been introduced into each, only the former borrowed Danish or
English phrases, while the latter had learned many French words. Their
dress is nearly similar, being seal-skin coats and breeches, except
the outer garment of the women ends behind in a train that reaches to
the ground, and their boats are sufficiently large to carry their
children if they are mothers--or provisions, or any other packages, if
they are not.

Their winter houses are low, long, ill-constructed huts, inhabited by
several families, and abominably filthy; they are dug deep in the
earth, but the walls above the surface never exceed three feet in
height, the roof is elevated in the middle, and the windows are placed
to look to the south: the entry can only admit a person to crawl in;
on one side of it is placed the kitchen, and on the other the
dog-kennel, but no partition separates the biped from the quadruped
inhabitant. If constrained to travel in winter, or to remain at a
distance from their usual homes, they build houses of snow, which
afford them a tolerably comfortable temporary abode. These habitations
are very ingeniously constructed; they first search out a heap of
firmly frozen snow, next they trace out a circular figure, of whatever
size they think requisite, and then proceed with their long thin
knives, to cut out square slabs, about three feet in length, two in
breadth, and one in thickness, and gradually contracting as they rise,
they form a dome about eight feet high; within, they leave an
elevation all round the walls of about twenty inches, which, when
covered with skins, serves both for a seat and a sleeping place; a
piece of ice serves for a window, and in the evening they close their
door with a board of snow; a lamp suspended from the roof gives light
and heat to the apartment.

When missions were first commenced among the Greenlanders, they had
had but little intercourse with Europeans: it was different when the
brethren visited Labrador--the Esquimaux had been long acquainted with
Europeans, but of the baser sort, and had lost many of the original
features of savage life, without, however, gaining any thing better in
their place. Their communication with these wretches, who disgraced
the term civilized, corrupted their morals, and did not improve their
knowledge, taught them wants, without teaching them how to supply
them, except by theft. When the missionaries latterly came in contact
with Esquimaux, who were previously unacquainted, or but little
acquainted, with white men, they found them comparatively mild and
honest. On a voyage of observation, they landed at Nachrack, and they
report, "We found," say they, "the people here, differing much in
their manners from the people at Saeglak. Their behaviour was modest,
and rather bashful, nor were we assailed by beggars and importunate
intruders. We had no instance of stealing. Thieves are considered by
the Esquimaux in general with abhorrence, and with a thief no one is
willing to trade." Latter voyagers have borne similar testimony to
their brethren still further north; but their honesty seems to have
arisen from the want of temptation; for the same missionaries add: "We
have discovered that this propensity is not altogether wanting in the
northern Esquimaux, who now and then, if they think they can do it
without detection, will make a little free with their neighbour's
property." And a further acquaintance with the natives discovered to
the northern navigators, that first impressions are not always to be
relied upon, for even the fair damsels could slyly secrete pewter
plates, spoons and other valuables in the capacious trunks of their
hose-boots; but those near the European settlements had improved in
wickedness, and got ingrafted on their own vicious propensities new
branches of more vigorous and productive mischief. They were in truth
in a situation peculiarly adapted to shew the power and the necessity
of the gospel for reclaiming the moral wilderness, for in them it had
to overcome the worst vices of barbarous and civilized men.

Their religion too appears to have received no more improvement than
their morals; from their neighbourhood to nominal Christians their
creed remained much the same. They believed that Torngak, under the
figure of an old man, dwelt in the waters, and had the rule over
whales and seals, and that a female demon, Supperguksoak, under the
form of an old woman, resided in the interior, and reigned over the
land animals. But the Angekoks had assumed a secular power, which they
did not possess in Greenland, and exercised at once the office of
priest and a chief, of a sorcerer, a thief, and a murderer. Of this
several examples will be found in the subsequent narrative, as well as
instances of their ridiculous incantations: the females, in some
cases, showed the authority and influence of their husbands. Their
notions of futurity were gross and sensual, the highest enjoyment of
the soul after death, being made to consist in successful hunting and
gluttony; the sorest punishment, in poverty and hunger.

The Esquimaux on the east coast of Labrador, may be divided into two
sections: those in the south, who seldom come farther than
Kangertuksoak, about twenty miles north of Okkak, which lies 57 deg., 20
m. N.L.; and those of the north, who seldom come farther south than
Nachrack 59 deg. --m. Saeglak lies between, and in winter is visited by
both in their sledges. Those in the north still retain the original
native furniture, wooden bowls, and whale-bone water buckets, large
and small lamps and kettles of bastard marble, and are more
unvitiated, therefore more to be depended upon than the others. They
of the south have obtained European pots and kettles of iron,
hatchets, saws, knives and gimlets, woollen cloths, sewing needles,
and various other utensils of iron; they are more treacherous, and
less to be trusted in their dealings.

So long as Newfoundland remained in possession of the French, the
traffic of Europeans with the Esquimaux went little farther than the
bartering of fish hooks, knives, or trifling wares, which they had
brought with them to the fishing for whale fins. But when that Island
fell into the hands of the English, they and the Americans, who
promised themselves great advantages from opening a trade with the
natives, brought with them a more extensive assortment of goods. The
traffic at first was mis-managed. In order to ingratiate themselves
with the savages, the traders both took and allowed greater liberties
than were calculated to preserve mutual good understanding. The
foreigners excited the cupidity of the natives, which, though easily
satisfied at the moment, soon became a constant, increasing, and
insatiable appetite; and when their whale-fins, furs, or blubber were
exhausted, and they could purchase no more of the articles they had
learned to prize, they first quarrelled with those friends who would
not make them presents of what they wanted, and then proceeded by
fraud or force to supply themselves. Having a thorough contempt for
the _Kablunat_, they imagined that they displayed a virtuous and
praiseworthy superiority, when they overreached, deceived, and stole
from them. The traders who entertained similar notions respecting the
Esquimaux, acted in a similar manner, and their intercourse soon
became productive of murders and robberies, in which the numbers and
cunning of the latter enabled them for a time to be the most

A band of Esquimaux from Avertok, a place not far from where the
settlement of Nain at present is, commenced their plundering
expeditions upon system, evincing a depraved ingenuity, converted now
to better objects. They went regularly to the south with whale fins,
which they bought up from their neighbours, and under the pretext of
trading with the Europeans, contrived, either by stratagem or open
violence, to rob them to an extent far beyond the value of what they
pretended to barter; this succeeding for a while, they were joined by
others from various quarters, till they were able to equip a fleet of
boats amounting to eighteen. In 1763, they so infested the straits of
Bellisle, that it was not safe for a fishing vessel to enter them
alone. And so successful were these pirates, that they supplied the
whole coast, not only with iron utensils and European arms, but
likewise with boats, sails, anchors, cords and nets; and boats in
particular were in such plenty, that a good one could have been got
for a few skins, twelve whale-fins, or two or three dogs. The
excesses and cruelties with which these depredations were accompanied,
filled the Europeans and colonists with such extraordinary terror,
that if but the cry of a bird was heard in the night, every one
trembled, and made ready to flee.

The savages preferred stratagem, and to accomplish their purpose did
not hesitate to employ the most insidious treachery. When they
approached Cape Charles, they never ventured farther, till they
reconnoitred during the dark in their kaiaks, and ascertained whether
there were any Europeans on the north side of Chateau Bay; if they
found none, they advanced in the night, or in foggy weather, to the
three islands that lie in the mouth of the bay, whence they, under
cloud of night, examined the bay itself. If they found there only a
few Europeans, whom they supposed they could easily master, they
approached softly so near, that they could stare them in the face, and
then raised a most frightful yell, which commonly terrified the
Europeans thus taken by surprise, and threw them into such confusion,
that they left all, and were glad if they escaped with their lives.
If, however, the Europeans did not allow themselves to be frightened
by the unexpected cry, but received them in a friendly manner, and
made offer to trade, the Esquimaux would agree with seeming
cordiality; and having sent off their boats and families, the men
returned in their kaiaks bringing a few whale-fins to sell, and
entered upon a very amicable-like traffic. This kind of intercourse
they would continue for some days, till, having gained the confidence
of the strangers and thrown them off their guard, then the most
resolute and strongest of the Esquimaux, concealing their long knives
in a secret sheath in their left sleeve, would enter upon a bargain
for some more fins, and while adjusting it with the greatest show of
friendship, each would seize the trader with whom he was dealing, as
if he meant to embrace him, and on a given sign by their leader, would
plunge his knife into his heart. In this manner the whole were cut
off, and their property became the prey of the savages, who, when they
had fairly cleaned Chateau Bay, would set sail to renew their
depredations in other quarters, and if dark and misty weather
favoured, and their force was sufficient, they would even scour the
straits of Bellisle, or roam during the night in search of booty
through the neighbouring islands. Such was the character of the
savages the Moravians were desirous to civilize; how they succeeded,
the following pages will show.



 Hudson's Bay Company first settle among the Esquimaux.--J.C.
   Erhardt suggests a mission--his letter to the Moravian
   Bishop.--M. Stach consulted.--London merchants undertake the
   scheme--engage Erhardt--its fatal conclusion.--Jans Haven
   employed by the Brethren, encouraged by the British Government,
   sets out on a voyage of discovery--his providential arrival at
   Quirpont--first meeting with the Esquimaux--his interesting
   intercourse--returns to England.--His second expedition,
   accompanied by Drachart and other missionaries--their
   proceedings.--Drachart's remarkable conversation with the
   natives--influence of the missionaries in preserving
   peace--their religious communications with the savages--the
   curiosity of the latter--their thievish tricks--their kindness
   to the missionaries--a dreadful storm.--Drachart and Haven
   entertained by an Angekok--his incantations--their parting
   addresses to each other--the missionaries return to London.

When the original Hudson's Bay Company was formed, 1688, for the
purpose of trading in furs with the natives, the instructions they
sent to their factors breathed the most liberal and benevolent
principles. They directed them to use every means in their power to
reclaim the heathen from a state of barbarism, and instil into their
minds the pure lessons of Christianity; and at the same time
admonished them to trade equitably, and take no advantage of their
untutored simplicity. It does not appear that much attention was paid
to either of these injunctions, or if there was, the efforts proved as
abortive as those they made to discover the western passage. The moral
wilderness still remains around their settlements on the East Maine,
while those of the brethren on the opposite coast of Labrador bloom
and blossom as the rose.

The first thought of attempting to establish a missionary settlement
in that quarter among the Esquimaux, originated with a Moravian
brother, John Christian Erhardt, a Dutch pilot. He had in early life
made several voyages to Davis Straits; but in 1749, when sailing under
Captain Grierson in the Irene, the vessel touched at New Hernhut in
Greenland, where he saw the congregation that had been gathered from
among the heathen in that land; and in conversation with the brethren
they told him that they supposed the opposite coast of North America
was peopled by tribes having the same customs and speaking the same
language as the Greenlanders. This statement made a deep impression on
his mind, and during his stay at Hernhaag, 1750, while musing on the
state of that people sitting in the darkness of heathenism, and on how
the light of the gospel might be communicated to them, a description
of the journey undertaken by Henry Ellis, 1746-7, at the desire of the
Hudson's Bay Company, to try to discover a north-west passage,
accidentally fell into his hands. The account there given of these
barbarous regions convinced him that the people were sprung from the
same origin with the Greenlanders, and the methods suggested by Ellis
for their moral improvement enabled him to bring his own scheme to a

In a letter, dated 20th May 1750, addressed to Bishop Johannes de
Watteville, he laid before him his plan for establishing a mission on
that part of the coast between Newfoundland and Hudson's Straits,
which had as yet been but rarely visited by Europeans, and offered
himself to undertake it. "Whoever," says he in this letter, "has seen
our cause in Greenland, and what the Saviour has done to the poor
heathen there, surely his heart and his eyes must overflow with tears
of joy, if he possess any feeling of interest in the happiness of
others: they are indeed sparkling rubies in the golden girdle of our
dear Saviour, as the text for the day speaks, Rev 1 13. And I believe
the Saviour has in these northern waters many such gems that he will
also gather, and set in it to his praise and glory. My heart is much
impressed with the thought of carrying the gospel to the before
mentioned countries and places." "Now, dear Johannes," he concludes,
"thou knowest that I am an old Greenland traveller; I have also an
amazing affection for these northern countries, Indians, and other
barbarians; and it would be a source of the greatest joy if the
Saviour would discover to me that he has chosen me, and would make me
fit for this service. It is not for ease or convenience that I so
earnestly desire it. I think I can say before the Saviour, if this is
of thee thou wilt cause it to prosper, if not, yet it is a good work,
and no one will lose any thing by it."

On purpose to further the prosecution of this object, M. Stach, the
first Greenland missionary, had been recalled to Europe, and in the
year 1752 was sent for to London by Count Zinzendorff, to be consulted
with upon the occasion. Application was at the same time made to the
Hudson's Bay Company, for permission to preach the gospel to the
savages in the neighbourhood of their factories; but this being
refused, probably lest it should interfere with their mercantile
projects, M. Stach returned to found new settlements near the scenes
of his first labours. Meanwhile, three London merchants, but
unconnected with the Hudson's Bay Company, Messrs Nisbet, Grace and
Bell, fitted out a vessel for the coast of Labrador, to trade in oil
and whale fins, and engaged Erhardt, then at Zeist, to act as
supercargo, who, on account of his knowledge of the north seas, of the
trade, and of the language, they judged well qualified for that
office; but they also wished to make some preparation for a missionary
settlement, and four brethren, Golkowsky, Kunz, Post, and Krumm,
volunteered to remain in the country to learn the language, and
endeavour the conversion of the heathen; for this purpose they took
with them a wooden house ready to set up, a boat, various articles of
furniture, and some kitchen garden-seeds.

Count Zinzendorff, who, from former experience, was opposed to mixing
trading transactions with the work of a Christian mission, was not
without doubts as to the issue of this undertaking, he did not however
attempt to prevent it. The vessel on board of which this small society
embarked, named the Hope, reached the south-east coast of Labrador on
the 11th July 1752. The whole is precipitous, and skirted with
numerous barren rocky islands; among these they had to steer their way
under many difficulties, and with the greatest caution, without any
proper chart, in misty weather, and with the sounding line constantly
in their hands. At length they landed, and proceeded in search of the
Esquimaux in order to traffic with them. On the 29th July they made
their first appearance in five kaiaks, which they managed with great
dexterity, and seemed highly delighted with Erhardt, who, from his
knowledge of the Greenlandish, could make himself understood by them.
They exchanged some whale fins for knives. July 31 they came to anchor
55 deg. 31 m. N.L. in a beautiful harbour, surrounded by a wooded high
land, and bounded by meadow grounds, to which, from respect to the
chief owner of the ship, they gave the name of Nisbet's Harbour.

There the brethren, with the assistance of the sailors, brought their
house on shore, and erected it on this pleasant spot--for it was
summer[A]--which they called Hoffenthal, _i.e._ Hopevale; they
received from the ship all that was necessary for the supply of their
present wants, and putting their confidence in the protection of
their heavenly Father, they took up their habitation.

Erhardt, in the mean time, carried on a considerable trade with the
natives, who seemed very desirous to assemble around him, and showed
him particular marks of affection and attachment. Having remained till
the 5th of September, and having seen the brethren, to all appearance,
comfortably settled in their dwelling, the vessel left to proceed
further to the north, for the purpose of completing her cargo, and
Drachart, who had engaged to return to Europe, received in charge the
brethren's letters for their friends, and bade them farewell.

Ten days after, on the 15th, the missionaries, to their astonishment,
perceived the Hope again re-enter Nisbet's Harbour. Upon boarding her,
they learned the painful heart-rending news, that Erhardt, the
captain, ship's clerk, and four sailors, had left the ship in a boat
filled with merchandize, and for one day had conducted a friendly and
gainful traffic with the Esquimaux; but being enticed by the savages,
had consented to repeat their visit, perhaps proceed farther into the
country, or along the coast, and were never seen more. The vessel,
with the remains of the crew, had waited in a state of the most
anxious distressing expectation two days and three nights, in hopes of
their return; but as they never made their appearance, and they had no
other boat to send in quest of them, they were constrained to leave
the district, under the distressing conviction that the natives, who
had been observed lurking behind some of the small islands, had risen
on the unsuspecting party, and murdered them for the sake of their

This intelligence threw the brethren into the greatest perplexity, as
the person on whom the charge of the Hope now devolved pressed them
earnestly to give him their boat, and return with him to Europe,
because, from the loss of his best seamen, without additional hands,
it would be impossible to navigate the ship. Having come thither at
the expense of the merchants, the missionaries could not allow them to
suffer in their temporal concerns; and although they would willingly
have risked their own lives in the cause, they did not see it equally
their duty to risk the lives of others, and the property of the
merchants, on an unknown coast and a tempestuous ocean, and therefore
agreed to comply with the new captain's request. Leaving provisions in
the house, from which they departed with sorrowful hearts, in the
feeble hope that perhaps some of those missing might yet be alive,
and might be able to find their way thither, on the 20th September
they bade adieu to the station, reached St John's, Newfoundland, on
the 31st, and about the latter end of November arrived in London.

An issue so disastrous to an expedition so well planned, which
apparently carried within itself every rational promise of prosperity,
was calculated to throw a damp upon any renewal of missionary
enterprize in that quarter; and it did so with those who imagined that
they themselves could command success, if their projects were
judiciously concerted, and the means sufficiently supplied. It had no
such effect on that eminent servant of God, Count Zinzendorff. When
the mournful accounts of the uncertain fate of Erhardt and his
companions reached that nobleman, he was grieved, yet not
distressed--perplexed, yet not in despair; for he saw much mercy
mingled in the dispensation, and was thankful to God that four
brethren had returned safe. Next year the vessel Hope re-visited the
coast of Labrador, under the command of Captain Goff. He heard that
some dead bodies had been found and buried, and that the missionary
station had been burned, but no further particulars were ever learned.
In this manner ended the first commercial adventure and first mission
to Labrador--enforcing, in a salutary and impressive manner, the
fundamental maxim of the brethren, that worldly speculation ought
never to be joined with Christian enterprize.

Notwithstanding this failure, the brethren did not relinquish the hope
that God would, in some way or other, direct them how to reach these
savages, and there were not wanting men who showed a strong desire to
carry the gospel among them. In particular, Jans Haven, a carpenter,
from the moment he heard that Erhardt had been killed by the
Esquimaux, could never get rid of the powerful impulse, and in his
retirement constantly employed himself with charts and books relating
to the subject, and by every means endeavoured to make himself
acquainted with the inhabitants, customs, climate and situation of

In the year 1758, Haven received a call to assist the Greenland
missionaries in founding the new settlement of Lichtenfels. He then
for the first time told Count Zinzendorff, that during six years he
had cherished the idea of going to Labrador to make known to the
heathen their Creator and Saviour. At first the Count hesitated
whether he should allow him to go to Greenland, but upon
consideration, he thought it would be better for him to proceed
thither; and on taking leave, and giving him his blessing, he said,
"Go first to Greenland and learn the language, and the Saviour will do
the rest." He accordingly went thither, and was honoured, along with
M. Stach, to promote the second settlement in that country.

With all the attachment and love, however, which he soon conceived for
the Greenlanders, his predilection for Labrador never abated, while
his determination to serve the Lord in those regions was ever present
to his mind; and when in 1762 he returned to Germany, he laid his
desire before the Conference at Engen, which at that time had the
direction of the Brethren's Unity, and offered to undertake personally
a voyage of inquiry into these regions. His proposals met with their
most cordial approbation, and he took his departure from Hernhut for
England in the spring of 1764, with the blessing of the congregation.
He travelled on foot through Germany to Holland, and after
encountering numberless difficulties--especially in England from his
want of a knowledge of the language--he arrived in London. His first
intention was to offer himself as a common sailor or ship's carpenter
to the Hudson Bay Company, in order to procure a passage; but the
brethren advised him rather to try and get to Labrador by the way of

After many fruitless attempts, he was eventually introduced, through
the means of James Hutton, Secretary to the Brethren's Unity in
England, to Sir Hugh Palliser, Governor of Newfoundland, and Commodore
of the squadron which sailed annually from England. Sir Hugh received
him very kindly, and took a lively interest in what appeared to him so
praiseworthy an undertaking as the conversion of the heathen; for he
rationally concluded that it would also be most advantageous for
commerce, if the population of that country were instructed and
humanized. He at once promised all his assistance and support, and
even offered to carry Jans Haven out on board his own ship. This the
missionary declined, but requested letters of recommendation to the
government officers at St John's, which were readily granted, and he
set sail with the first vessel for that port. Upon his arrival (May
16th) he lodged at the house of a merchant, who treated him with great
civility, and supported himself by working at his trade as a
carpenter, while he endeavoured to obtain every information possible
respecting the scene of his future labours. In the mean time, his
disinterested love for the work he had engaged in was put to an
eminently trying test. Many persons who heard of his intentions came
to see and converse with him; but instead of endeavouring to
strengthen his hands in his missionary designs, they made him several
advantageous proposals for settling in Newfoundland, where there would
have been no doubt of his speedily realizing a fortune. His heart,
however, was bent on a nobler object. That he did not under-rate the
difficulties he would have to encounter in his arduous work, appears
from a letter written about this time; but he knew likewise where his
strength lay. "Every one here," says he, "paints the Esquimaux in the
most shocking colours; but I think they are men, and the word of the
death of Jesus, which has produced such amazing effects on other
barbarous nations, cannot fail to have an influence also on them."

Immediately upon his arrival in St John's, Newfoundland, the Governor
issued a proclamation, expressive of his approval of the objects of
the mission and of his desire to promote them. "As it would," said he,
"be of the greatest advantage to the trade of His Majesty's dominions
in North America, if a friendly intercourse could be established
between the Esquimaux Indians that inhabit the coasts of Labrador, and
the inhabitants of the colonies; and all attempts hitherto to
accomplish this desirable object having failed--partly, it must be
confessed, owing to the foolish, treacherous and cruel manner in which
some of our people have treated the natives in their traffic with them
on their own coasts--some of them being most deceitfully plundered,
and others barbarously murdered; in consequence of which we have been
brought into the greatest contempt, as if our only design was to lay a
snare to get them extirpated: such flagitious proceedings being
directly opposed to His Majesty's benign and humane disposition, it is
his Royal will and pleasure that these Indians be henceforth treated
with kindness, and encouraged to trade with his Majesty's subjects. In
conformity with these sentiments of our gracious Sovereign, we deem it
necessary to recommend to every possible assistance the bearer of
this, Jans Haven, a member of the Moravian Brethren's Church, who has
formed the laudable design of visiting these coasts, and if possible,
to communicate the knowledge of religion to the poor ignorant heathen,
and also endeavour to remove the prejudices which have prevented them
from having a friendly intercourse with us. And further, we, His
Majesty's Officers, &c. in Council assembled, having conversed with
the said Jans Haven, and being highly satisfied with him, command that
no impediment be thrown in the way of this his attempt, but rather
that every possible friendship and assistance be given him, in order
to promote a happy issue to his most Christian undertaking, as by this
a great service will not only be rendered to the inhabitants of these
colonies, but to His Majesty's subjects in general. Given under our
hand, subscribed and sealed at St John's, 1st July 1764. (Signed) HUGH

Fortified by this proclamation, which secured to the missionary the
protection of the British Government, a protection which the Brethren
have to this day enjoyed, he embarked on board a ship bound for the
north, from which he was transferred to a French shallop engaged in
fishing on the shores of Labrador. When they arrived on the coast,
Haven for the first time saw the Esquimaux rowing about in their
kaiaks, but none were permitted to approach without being fired upon,
so great was the dread these savages had inspired. He landed, however,
24th Aug., near Chateau Bay, 52 degrees N.L.; but the inhabitants
fled at his approach, at least none made their appearance till he left
the shore, when they came in numbers to the beach, which was the
subject of much merriment to the sailors, who made both him and his
object the frequent subjects of their coarse ridicule--the few who
sympathized in his disappointment advised him to return, and refused
further assistance in what they considered so hopeless a cause. At the
same time he was informed that a murderous project was in
contemplation against the natives.

All these things filled his heart with the most pungent sorrow, preyed
upon his mind, and wasted his body--and he cried to the Lord for
relief and help in this distressing situation. Once, when writing down
his heavy mournful cogitations in his journal, the master of the
shallop entered his cabin, and seeing him in tears, inquired whether
he was going to make a complaint to the owners? "No," replied he, "but
I mean to complain of you to God, that he may notice your wicked
conduct on the present occasion, for ye have taken his name in vain,
and ye have mocked his word!" Struck with this address, the captain
entreated his forgiveness, and promised that from henceforth he would
do every thing to promote his design, which he faithfully performed,
and landed him next day at Quirpont or Quiverant, a harbour in an
island, off the north-east extremity of Newfoundland.

Here he landed in a most propitious moment--a number of unprincipled
wretches had arrived, and were holding a council to concert a plan for
destroying the Esquimaux. Instantly the missionary went to them
boldly, showed them the Governor's proclamation, and strongly
remonstrated with them; yet it was not without difficulty that he
persuaded them to lay aside their diabolical design. To this harbour
the natives frequently resorted to trade, or rather more frequently to
steal; and here his first interview took place with the Esquimaux,
which he records in his diary in the following manner: "September 4
1764 was the joyful day I had so long wished for, when one Esquimaux
came into the harbour to see if Captain Galliot was there. While I was
preparing to go to him, he had turned, and was departing to return to
his countrymen, who lay in the mouth of the harbour, with the
intelligence that the Captain had sailed. I called out to him in
Greenlandish that he should come to me, that I had words to say to
him, and that I was his good friend. He was astonished at my speech,
and answered in broken French; but I begged him to speak in his own
language, which I understood, and to bring his countrymen, as I wished
to speak to them also, on which he went to them and cried with a loud
voice, 'Our friend is come!'

"I had hardly put on my Greenland clothes when five of them arrived in
their own boats--I went to meet them, and said, 'I have long desired
to see you.' They replied, 'Here is an _innuit_.' I answered, 'I am
your countryman and friend.' They rejoined, 'Thou art indeed our
countryman!' The joy on both sides was very great, and we continued in
conversation for a considerable time, when at last they invited me to
accompany them to an island about an hour's row from the shore, where
I should find their wives and children, who would give me a cordial
welcome. I well knew that in doing this I put myself entirely in their
power; but conceiving it to be of essential service to our Saviour's
cause that I should venture my life among them, and endeavour to
become better acquainted with their nature, I turned simply to Him,
and said, 'I will go with them in thy name. If they kill me, my work
on earth is done, and I shall live with thee; but if they spare my
life, I will firmly believe that it is thy will that they should hear
and believe thy gospel.'

"The pilot and a sailor who put me ashore, remained in the boat, and
pushed off a little way from the land to see what would become of me.
I was immediately surrounded, and every one seemed anxious to show me
his family. I gave every boy two fish-hooks, and every woman two or
three sewing needles; and after conversing about two hours, left them,
with a promise of soon being with them again. In the afternoon I
returned with the pilot, who wished to trade with them. I begged them
to remain in this place during the night, but not to steal any thing
from our people, and showed the danger of doing this. They said the
Europeans steal also. I answered, if they do so, let me know, and they
shall be punished. I seized every opportunity to say something about
the Saviour, to which they listened with great attention. I then
invited them to visit me next morning, and took leave.

"Next morning accordingly, eighteen Esquimaux came in their boats. I
went out to sea to meet them, and as the French Captain was frightened
at the sight of such a crowd, I only allowed six of them to come ashore
with me, and directed the others to land somewhere else. I now
informed them of Commodore Palliser's proclamation, and of the kind
intentions of the British government towards them, assuring them, that
in future no one should be allowed to do them the least injury, so long
as they themselves behaved properly and peaceably--to all which they
listened with great attention; but when I offered them the written
declaration, which I had received from the Commodore, they shrunk back
terrified, and would not be persuaded to touch it--for they supposed it
a living creature, having seen me speak words from it. I then got into
a boat and went with them again to their families, who received me as
before, with the greatest show of kindness. In the evening, three
French and one English boat arrived full of Esquimaux--the men came
immediately to see me, and requested I would visit them in their tents.
I read to them a letter written by the missionary John Beck, in name of
the Greenlanders; and as I spoke to them of the Saviour's death, they
appeared struck with terror--probably supposing that they were
upbraided with some of their former murders. On which I showed them
that he was a great friend to mankind--but they had no understanding of
spiritual things.

"To my astonishment I spoke to them with much more ease than I
supposed I could have done, and they expressed great affection for me,
insisting always upon my being present at all their trading
transactions with the sailors, to adjust matters between them; 'for,'
said they, 'you are our friend.' When retiring, they entreated me to
come again, and bring my brethren with me.

"On the day after, twenty-six men arrived, and requested me once more
to pay them a visit before my departure. I begged the Captain to lend
me his boat, which he readily did, as he wished to go along with me;
the pilot, surgeon, and six sailors, all well armed, accompanied me.
The captain had dressed himself in his most gaudy apparel, but of this
the Esquimaux took no notice. They asked me if I really intended to
come again next year? I said, Yes, if they did not murder me as they
had my countrymen some years before--they startled, looked to the
ground, and remained silent. I continued, 'I believe you did it
through ignorance, but now that I can speak to you, I hope you will
never do the like again.' They promised unanimously that no one should
ever receive the least injury from them again. I said farther, 'When I
come back I shall tell you things of the greatest importance, of the
God that created you, and that redeemed you; and if you will but
believe on him, then shall we live happy together.' One of them asked
if God dwelt in the sun? I replied, 'God made the sun, and them, and
me, and all things.' Another asked me, if he believed in this Creator,
if he would be more successful in his business? I answered, there was
no doubt of it, if he was diligent in his employment; but that the
future life was of infinitely greater importance than the present, and
_it_, those who believed on him, trusted in him, and lived according
to his will, should enjoy. Some of them begged me to read again the
letter that I had read yesterday; and when I wished to take leave, one
of the chief persons among them, the Angekok Seguliak, took me into
his tent, and embracing and kissing me, said, 'We are timorous now,
but when you come back again we shall meet one another without fear,
dread, or suspicion.' Another came with his drum and began to dance
and sing, repeating often, 'Our friend is come! this makes us glad!'
When he concluded, he asked me to answer him. I sung, while my heart
was touched, this verse in the Greenlandish language, 'Jehovah, Lord
of hosts--the true God--thou art the Creator of all nature--the
Preserver of the world--What was ruined thou hast regained by thy
blood, and by thy blood must sanctify--consecrated to thee we fall at
thy feet.' When I had finished, they said, we are without words to
express our admiration. They took their final departure on the 7th,
but no sooner had they left the harbour than they began to steal. I
offered, if they would give me a boat with four men, to go again and
speak seriously to them, but no one would go with me."

Sir H. Palliser was so well satisfied with the missionary's report,
that he sent him to Britain in the Lark frigate, to concert measures
for carrying his benevolent design into execution. The Board of Trade,
who perceived the immense advantages which would arise from a mission
among these tribes, in promoting peace with the natives, and the
security of the traders, were anxious to see the brethren established
in Labrador; and the Directors of the Unity, under their especial
patronage, in the year 1765, undertook a second voyage of inquiry upon
the coast.

On this expedition Jans Haven was accompanied by Christian Laurentius
Drachart, who had been a Danish missionary in Greenland,[B] John Hill
and Andrew Schlozer (Schliezer.) The British Admiralty accommodated
them with a passage in a public vessel, and they (7th May) sailed from
Spithead, in the Lark, Captain Thomson, the same frigate that had
brought Jans Haven home. He landed them at Cosque, Newfoundland, where
another government vessel, the Niger, received them, and conveyed them
to Chateau Bay, at which place they arrived July 17th; but were there
obliged to separate, the captain, Sir Thomas Adams, having received
instructions to detain some of them, to keep up the friendly
intercourse with the Esquimaux. With these directions, they not
unwillingly complied, their object being to follow the leadings of
Providence, and pursue the line which promised to lead to the greatest
good. Haven and Schliezer therefore proceeded forward, and Drachart
and Hill remained. The two former embarked in a schooner bound for the
north, in order to prosecute their intended exploratory voyages; but
after spending from the 25th of July to the 3d of September, and
reaching the 56th deg. N.L. on the east coast, Labrador, they returned
without having accomplished any thing of importance, not having met
with a single native in any place at which they had landed. The other
two had an opportunity of speaking with hundreds, whom the trade
attracted to their neighbourhood, of which they gave the following
account in their journals: "On the 17th August, we heard that
Esquimaux were coming, and were about twenty English miles off. We
sailed on the 18th, very early, with Sir Thomas, to meet them, and
invited them, in the name of the governor, to Pitt's Harbour.[C] After
some hours we saw the first kaiak. As they approached, the savages
began to call out, in broken French, 'tous camarades oui hu!' which
the sailors answered in the same manner. Drachart allowed the first
shout to pass over; he then took one of them by the hand and said in
Greenlandish, 'Ikinguitigangut,' _i.e._ 'we are friends;' the native
understood, and answered, 'Ikinguitsgenpogui,' 'we are also thy
friends.' We then took some of them into the vessel. A man in a white
woollen coat, said he got it as a keepsake from Jensingoak, _i.e._
Jans Haven, and inquired where he was. At their earnest invitation Mr
Drachart went with them, and found upwards of three hundred assembled,
crying out incessantly, 'We are your friends--be not afraid--we
understand your words--where do you come from?' He answered, 'I have
words to you;' on which the whole adjourned to a green plain without
the camp, and sat down around him. He then told them, 'I come from the
Karalit in East Greenland, where at one time I had a wife, children,
and servants.' When they heard this, they cried out, 'These Karalit
are bad people,' thinking he meant the North Indians; but he said, 'I
come not from the north, I came over the great sea from the Karalit in
the east, of whom you have heard nothing, for it is very long since
they went away from this place. But they have heard of you, and
therefore Jensingoak came last year to visit you, to see if you are
Karalits, and I now see myself that you are; and I am sent to say,
that the Karalits in the east are your friends, that they know the
Creator of all things, who is our Saviour, and they wish you also to
know him.'

"Greatly perplexed at this discourse, the savages made him repeat it
again and again, saying to each other, 'saog?' what does he say? when
an old man undertook to interpret. 'He means,' said he, '_Silla_,'[D]
throwing his hands around his head, and at the same time blowing with
his mouth. 'Yes!' repeated Drachart immediately, 'Silla!--the great
Creator of the world, is our Saviour.' A young man, somewhat
astonished, stepping forward, exclaimed, 'Saviour! what is that? I do
not understand what that means.' Another asked, 'Where is he?'
Drachart then moving his hand in circles around his head, as the old
man had done, said, 'He is every where in Silla, but he became a man,
as we are.' 'Are you a teacher?' asked one. 'Yes, I was in the east,'
replied the missionary. 'Are you an Angekok?' was the next question.
'It may be,' was the cautious response. On which two aged men, with
long beards, coming up to him, said, 'We are Angekoks.' Drachart took
them by the hands, and introduced them to Sir Thomas Adams, who, with
the sailors, had been standing by during the conversation, and told
them, 'This is our captain, who is sent by a greater captain to invite
you to visit him to-morrow.' Sir Thomas then hastened back to Pitt's
harbour, to give an account of this interview to the Commodore, who
had remained there, and we continued our course a few miles farther
north in St Louis Bay, where we remained during the night."

Now scarcely a day escaped without the brethren's having some
intercourse with the Esquimaux, though this was attended with much
difficulty, and many a sleepless night, as, in passing and repassing
to their encampment, they often had nothing but the canopy of heaven
to cover them from the wind and the rain. Sir H. Palliser employed Mr
Drachart as his interpreter in the negociations which followed, for
placing the trade with the Esquimaux on such a footing that all
violence should from that time cease on both sides, and that mutual
confidence might be restored and maintained. He also learned by his
means the chief places of their residence, and their actual
numbers--important points for regulating his future intercourse with
that nation. In these respects, the missionary was unweariedly
diligent, and his efforts were so successful, that, during the whole
time he and his brethren remained, peace and good will was preserved
among all parties.

But at the same time he neglected no opportunity to exhibit the
crucified Jesus, and commend him to the heathen as their Saviour. The
following excerpts from his diary may serve as a specimen:--When he
spake to them of the corruption and depravity of all men, they thought
he only meant the Kablunat, or foreigners, not them, they were good
Karalit. "Have you ever," said he, "any bad thoughts?" "No." "But
when you think we will kill the Kablunat, and take their boats and
their goods, are not these bad thoughts?" "Yes." "Would you not then
wish to be delivered from your bad thoughts, words, and actions?" "We
do not know,"--concluded their catechism.

When the missionary told them that the Greenlanders had been washed
from their sins in the blood of Jesus, they were amazed, and said,
"they must have been very wicked fellows!" and when he spoke to them
of eternal damnation, they supposed it was only the Kablunat that were
sent to hell, (because they did wicked things,--as for them they were
good Karalit.) Having upon one occasion mentioned God to them, they
said, "Thou speakest of Torngarsuk." He then asked them if Torngarsuk
created all things; they answered, "We do not know." But an Angekok
said immediately, "Torngarsuk ajungilak,"--the great spirit is good
and holy; and another added, "Ajuatangilat,"--nothing is impossible to
him; and a third subjoined, "Saimavot,"--he is gracious and merciful.
They, however, could form no idea of what he said to them of a Saviour
and Redeemer; he was obliged to explain that word to them by
parables, when they would ask if this mighty Personage would be their
good friend, for they could conceive of him in no other way than as a
great lord who was to come and deliver them from the Kablunat, and
assist them against the northern Kraler. With the fickleness so
natural to savages, they would listen attentively to the first
instructions, but when it was often repeated, they would say, as both
ancient and modern Athenians, "we know all that already, tell us
something new," or like the Greenlanders, sometimes profess to believe
it, and the next moment declare they neither understood nor cared
about it. With those who had patience, and were so disposed, the
missionary went over every doctrine about which they spoke in a
catechetical way, and endeavoured by short questions, to see if they
comprehended it, and tried to allure them to make further inquiry.

During their whole intercourse, the Esquimaux showed themselves very
friendly, and were particularly glad when they saw Jans Haven again;
some of them recollected many things he had told them the year before,
and praised him for keeping his promise of returning, and others
boasted of the good they had heard of him from their countrymen. The
brethren could go any where among them with the utmost security; but
they were under the necessity of submitting to their curiosity, and
allowing them to handle every thing they saw, even when they perceived
this liberty to be attended with danger; yet even now, such was the
influence of their friendly behaviour, that very little damage was
incurred. In one tent, they searched Drachart's box, and carried every
thing off, taking also his hat along with them. Without uttering any
reproachful complaint, the missionary went to some of the older
people, and said, "Now I have got no hat to skreen me from the sun."
They instantly called to the young men, and desired them to give him
back every thing, which they did with the utmost coolness, and only
requested a knife as a keepsake.

At another time, when they had secretly emptied his box, no sooner did
the chief elders of the tribe perceive the circumstance, than they
called every person belonging to the tent to come before them, and
desired that what had been taken away should be restored; the thief
immediately came forward, and without betraying any consciousness of
having done wrong, threw down what he had taken, saying, "Thou needest
it thyself!"

Though at a great distance, and scattered over a considerable extent
of country, Haven and Drachart were especially anxious to visit them
in their own houses: this they seized every opportunity of doing,
searching them out, and under every difficulty wandering after them.
But they were gratified by the reception they generally met with; for
when they informed them that they intended next year to come and live
among them, the answer uniformly was--"Come and build a house with us,
and live with us; but do not bring Kablunat with you, bring only
Innuit--men as we are, and you are; and Jensingoak shall help us to
build boats, and to repair them; and Drachart shall teach us to read
and write, and we shall live together as friends: then our flints[E]
and harpoons shall no more be used against each other, but against the
seals and rein deer."

A dreadful storm of wind and rain occurred on the 12th September,
which gave rise to some interesting incidents, and appears materially
to have furthered the object of the missionaries, by shewing the
Esquimaux their fearless intrepidity and unsuspecting confidence,
which strongly affected the savages, and greatly increased the
affection and respect in which they before held them. The
missionaries, when attempting to get on board their vessel, were
prevented by the violence of the tempest. Their shallop was driven on
shore and grounded on the rocks. In vain they endeavoured, with the
assistance of the Esquimaux, to get her off: eight of them waded into
the water breast-deep and toiled for upwards of an hour, but could not
move her; meanwhile the vessel went away, and they were left alone
with the natives. Hill and the ship's surgeon endeavoured to follow
the vessel in a small boat, in order to attempt some arrangement; but
just as they had reached her, they were dashed by the waves against
the ship's side and overset, and narrowly escaped with their lives.
Drachart and Haven now betook themselves to the stranded shallop, but
they were destitute of provisions, and the rain fell in torrents. The
Esquimaux, who perceived their wretched situation, came and
represented to them that the boat could not possibly float before the
tide returned in the morning, and invited them to lodge for the night
in their tent, a proposal with which the poor drenched brethren were
glad to comply. Immediately Segulliak, the Angekok, plunged into the
water and brought them successively on his back to the shore; he
afterwards carried them to his tent, caused his wife to procure them
dry garments, and spread a skin on the floor for them to sit and sleep
on. The tent was soon crowded with people, who frequently asked them
if they were not afraid? "We do not know what you intend," answered
they, "but you are our friends, and friends are not afraid of each
other." "We are good Karalits," was the universal rejoinder, "and now
we see you are not Kablunat, but Innuits, and our friends; for you
come to see us without weapons, we will do you no harm." The Esquimaux
then gave the brethren fish, water and some bread they had got from
the sailors, and in about half an hour prepared for rest, Segulliak
kindly covering them with two other skins. The conjurer himself did
not, however, appear inclined for repose: falling into an ecstacy he
first sung with his wives, then muttered some unintelligible jargon,
made strange gestures, blew and foamed at the mouth, twisted his limbs
and body together as if convulsed, throwing himself into every
possible posture; and at intervals emitting the most frightful
shrieks, then again he held his hand on Drachart's face, who was next
him, and concluded the first act of his demoniacal pantomime by
groaning out, "Now is my Torngak come!" Observing Drachart, who was
awake, appear startled when he came near him, as often as he laid his
hand on his face he kissed him. He then lay still for a while as if
dead--after a little began to moan, and at last raised himself up, and
requested that they would kiss him, as that gave him some relief,
after which he sat down and began to sing. The brethren told him they
would sing something better, and accordingly sung some Greenland
hymns--to these the Esquimaux were very attentive, and repeated every
word, observing, "We know only a little of what you say."

Wearied and restless, the brethren lay down, but could not sleep; they
therefore frequently arose and went out of the tent: but Segulliak,
who appeared to view their motions with suspicion, always took care to
go out along with them: in the morning, at his desire, they divided
among his people glass-beads, fish-hooks, sewing needles, &c as
payment for their night's lodging. At parting, Segulliak addressed
them, "You may tell your countrymen in the east that you have slept a
night with me in safety--you are the first foreigners that ever
remained a night in my tent--yet you are not foreigners but men, our
friends, with whom all dread is at an end, for we know each other."
Drachart being taken ill, it was not till the 21st September that the
brethren were able to take their final departure, on which occasion
Jans Haven, when bidding the natives farewell, made them promise that
they would not forget what Drachart had spoken to them. "We shall
now," said he, "see you no more this year; but remember your Creator
and Redeemer, and when we come again next year we shall be happy with
each other--The Saviour be gracious unto you and bless you, Amen!" On
the 30th September the four brethren returned to Newfoundland, and
after a friendly interview with the governor, embarked on board the
Niger, Nov 5th, for England, being again granted a free passage by
government. On the 25th they landed at Plymouth, and reached London on
the 3d of the same month.


[Footnote A: The difference of aspect between a spot in summer, for a
few weeks, and during winter, is altogether extreme.]

[Footnote B: Vide "Moravians in Greenland."]

[Footnote C: Pitt's Bay and St. Louis Bay are creeks quite in the
neighbourhood of Chateau Bay, or York's Harbour.]

[Footnote D: _Silla_ in Greenlandish, signifies sometimes the air,
sometimes the understanding, and sometimes the world, or the
+pneuma+, the soul of the world.]

[Footnote E: A poetical expression for pistols and muskets.]


 Contests between the Colonists and Savages revive--Murderous
   skirmish.--Mikak.--Karpik, his conversion and death.--The
   Moravians receive a grant of land on the coast of
   Labrador--resolve to renew the mission--voyage to explore the
   land.--Jans Haven, Drachart, &c., arrive at Labrador--their
   interview with the natives--meet Mikak and Tuglavina--their
   kindness.--Segulliak the sorcerer.--Anxiety of the Esquimaux for
   their remaining among them--ground purchased for a
   settlement--manner of bargaining with the Esquimaux--sail for
   Esquimaux bay--the natives troublesome--the Captain's method of
   checking them--conduct of the missionaries--they preach on
   shore.--Conversation with the Esquimaux--search out a place for
   a settlement--purchase it of the natives--ceremonies used on the
   occasion--take formal possession.--Deputation return to England.

Various impediments prevented any further negociations with the
government of Great Britain, in regard to establishing a mission among
the Esquimaux, for nearly five years. During this period the English
merchants and the natives on the coast of Labrador were anew involved
in strife and bloodshed. With the missionaries all confidence had left
the country; the colonists had no check, and the savages had no
friend. The mercenary views of the traders were ever leading them to
cheat and deceive these poor untutored unprotected beings, who in
return, deemed retaliation no crime; nor in balancing the amount of
guilt would it be easy to settle which of the parties were most deeply
implicated; the one who gave trifles, or worse--beads or brandy, for
articles of real value; or the other, who secretly pilfered some
useless toys or iron implements, for which in fact they had greatly
overpaid. Both were rogues in their dealings, only the Europeans had
the advantage of superior knowledge, which enabled them to rob with
superior dexterity, and to cloak their knavery under the name of

But at this date--1766-9--the Esquimaux, from their intercourse with
their civilized neighbours, had learned to estimate the value of
European arms and vessels, and they stuck at no method by which they
might possess themselves of them, while the murders which the whites
committed with impunity, led them on every occasion that offered,
eagerly to gratify their cupidity and revenge. They accordingly
watched their opportunity; and in 1768, when the Europeans were off
their guard, killed three men and stole two boats. A battle was the
consequence, when twenty of the savages were left dead on the field,
and four women, two boys and three girls were taken prisoners, and
brought to Newfoundland. Among the women prisoners were MIKAK; one of
the boys was her son; the other, Karpik, about fifteen years of age,
had previously lost his mother, and his father fell in the engagement.
Their own story forms a remarkable episode in the history of the
mission. These three were sent to England, where they were treated
with much kindness.

Mikak, who seems to have been a person of very superior understanding,
was noticed by many of the nobility, and particularly by the Princess
Dowager of Wales, mother to George III; but nothing could overcome her
love for her native land, or erase from her mind the deep sense she
entertained of the sufferings of her kindred. We are not furnished
with the facts of the case, but it appears sufficiently plain, that
from all she saw in England, and during the time of her captivity,
that she discerned and appreciated the immense superiority of the
Europeans over the Esquimaux, and was extremely anxious to return
home, and, if possible, carry with her the means of their
amelioration. Providentially Jans Haven came to England in 1769 for
the purpose of endeavouring to renew the mission, and meeting with
Mikak, she immediately recognised him as an old acquaintance, who had
formerly lodged in her tent, and expressed the most unbounded joy at
meeting with a friend by whom her language was understood. Her first
and constant theme was the condition of her countrymen; and she
incessantly entreated Haven to return to Labrador and endeavour to do
something for their relief. Besides, now that she had a medium of
communication, she never ceased to urge her prayer among those
distinguished personages, by whom she had been patronized, and her
applications had no small influence in paving the way for a renewal of
the mission. Soon after she was sent home in a King's ship, and
rendered essential service to the brethren who followed.

By the especial direction of Sir Hugh Palliser, Karpik was consigned
to the care of Jans Haven for the purpose of being properly educated,
that he might afterwards be employed in the important service of
introducing Christianity, and the peaceful arts of civilized life,
into the savage and inhospitable coasts of Labrador--the Governor
being deeply impressed with a sense of the great benefits to be
derived from a well conducted mission among the wild tribes in the
neighbourhood of the colony, with whom they meant to carry on a safe
or a gainful traffic. Naturally ferocious and untractable, Karpik was
very averse to restraint; and it was not till after the most unwearied
display of disinterested kindness, that Jans succeeded in gaining the
affections of this stubborn boy, and persuading him willingly to
accompany him to his dwelling.

Here, perhaps, the good man's most trying labours began. Karpik
inherited the prejudices of his nation: he had a high opinion of
himself, and despised all others; and when told that God the Creator
of the world desired to make him happy, received the information as a
matter of course, replying to his teacher with a comfortable
self-complacency, "That is right, for I am a good _karaler_!" The
filthiness of his skin had superinduced a cutaneous disorder, which,
when the care and attention of Haven had got removed, he expressed
high delight, but he soon became dissatisfied with the clean plain
clothing in which he was dressed; boys of any rank at that time being
absurdly decorated with ruffles and lace, and such like trumpery; and
as if human folly had wished to caricature its own ridiculous
extravagance, some of the children were even introduced into company
with cocked hats and swords.

Poor Karpik, it seems, caught the infection, and conceived a violent
passion for a hat and coat bedizzened with embroidery; and it is
amusing to remark his wayward ingenuity, when insisting upon being
gratified. On one occasion Jans had remonstrated with him upon the
uselessness of finery, and exhorted him to apply himself to useful
learning; and above all, to seek to know the Lord who dwells in
heaven--"Poor clothes," retorted he instantly, "will not teach me
that! my countrymen, who have poor clothes, die and know nothing of
God. The king has fine clothes, and knows God as well as you, and why
should not I? give me fine clothes, I can still know God and love
him!" Haven told him he had no money to buy him fine clothes--"Then go
to the king," said Karpik, "and get money from him." "Well," replied
the missionary, "we will go; but if the king asks, what has Karpik
learned? can he read, or write, or is he acquainted with the God in
heaven? what shall I say? If I am forced to answer, He has learned
nothing; the king will say, Take him on board the man of war, let him
serve my officers and clean their shoes for seven years, till he has
learned something.--You know how these boys are treated." Karpik
perceived the force of this simple reasoning, fell on the neck of his
instructor, and promised all obedience in future. It was not, however,
till some time after, that eternal things began to make a serious
impression on his mind.

At length he grew thoughtful, and under the powerful conviction of his
wretched state as a sinner, would often exclaim, "Woe is me! I am good
for nothing, I am a miserable creature!" Under these uneasy sensations
he at first felt exasperated, and he wished he had never heard of a
God or of a Bible; but as the truth beamed in upon his soul, he became
calm and peaceful, and manifested a strong desire to be further
instructed. He was in this interesting state of mind, when Haven,
being called away, committed him to the charge of Mr Drachart, who was
then residing at the Brethren's settlement in Yorkshire, under whose
tutilage he made rapid improvement in knowledge; and evidenced, by the
change of his disposition, and his mildness of manner, and simplicity
of conduct, that the gospel had taken powerful hold upon his heart;
and this he evidenced still more clearly, when early called to
grapple with the last enemy.

From the encouraging progress he was making, his friends were fondly
anticipating the time when he should go forth as a zealous missionary
of the Lord Jesus among his benighted countrymen, but their hopes were
suddenly overcast. On September the 22d, he was seized with the small
pox, which, in spite of the best medical assistance, speedily proved
fatal. He bore his distemper with patience, and some of his last
expressions were, "O! Jesus, I come to thee, I have no where else to
go. I am a poor sinner, but thou hast died for me! have mercy upon me!
I cast myself entirely upon thee." The day before his death he was
baptized by Mr Drachart, who, at his own request, made use of the
Greenlandish language in administering the rite. On the 4th October
1769, he expired, the first fruits of Christ's vintage among the
Esquimaux; and although not employed to spread the savour of his name
among his heathen kindred by the living voice, yet he was honoured by
his death to encourage the exertions, and strengthen the faith of
those soldiers of the Lord who were buckling on their armour for the
glorious combat.

Whether the ruinous effects of the state of anarchy, and murderous
contests which prevailed whenever the natives and the Europeans came
in contact, or whether the various memorials with which they had been
for several years annoyed, had most influence, we know not; but the
Board of Trade made a representation early in 1769 to the king,
(George III.) and on the 3d May, the same year, a Privy Council was
summoned to consider of a petition from the Brethren for establishing
a mission on the coast of Labrador. The result of their deliberations
was, "That His Majesty in Council gave, and authorised the Brethren's
Unity, and the Society for the furtherance of the gospel among the
heathen, to take one hundred thousand acres of land (_belonging to the
Esquimaux_,) on the coast of Labrador, where, and in whatever place of
the same was most convenient for their purpose." And the Governor of
Newfoundland was directed to afford the brethren in their settlement
every protection, and to furnish them from the royal stores with fifty
muskets and the necessary ammunition.

Following up this favourable opening, the Moravian Synod, which was
held at Marienborn, resolved to renew the friendly intercourse with
the Esquimaux, and to search out a convenient situation for the
establishment of a mission. In consequence, Jans Haven, Drachart, and
Stephen Jensen, received this in charge; and some other brethren
resolved to take a part in it, and go themselves as sailors in a ship
which a Society of the Brethren in London had fitted out, and which
they resolved should annually visit the coast of Labrador to carry out
supplies of the necessaries of life to the missionaries. They first
made land at a place called Arnitok, an island about six miles from
the spot where Nain now stands; there they found twenty-nine boats
full of Esquimaux, but they behaved in a very unruly manner and with
great insolence, till the report of the great guns, fired over their
heads, frightened them into order; they then showed themselves
friendly, and the missionaries, who understood the language, preached
the gospel to them. After this the two brethren, Haven and Jensen,
traversed the coast unmolested in search of favourable ground for a
settlement; but being unable to find such a spot they set sail again,
and on the 15th July ran into an harbour upon the most eastern point
of the mainland, near Nain, 55 deg. N.L. Here they found many
Esquimaux, and the joy on both sides was greatly heightened, when they
recognised among them several of their old acquaintances, in
particular Segulliak, who said to Jans Haven, "When I first saw your
boat I was afraid, but I no sooner heard that little Jans Haven was
there than all fear departed, and I am very glad to see you again, for
I have a great love to little Jans." He then bound a strap of leather
round Drachart's arm, at the same time saying, "We love thee much!"
and laying his right hand on Drachart's breast, continued, "This band
on thy arm shall from henceforth be a sign that our love shall never
cease. I have not forgot what I heard of the Lord in heaven, and I
long to hear more." Drachart answered, "You may indeed be assured that
I have a great love for you, when I, an old man--he was then in his
sixtieth year--have come again to visit you, that you might hear more
of your Lord in heaven, your Creator, who became a man and died on the
cross for your sins, for mine, and for the sins of the whole world."
The Esquimaux replied, "We will hear the word you have for us!"
Drachart continued, and spoke of the great love of the Creator of all
things, which moved him to come down from heaven to earth, and by his
sufferings and death to redeem us from our sins and eternal
punishment. When the brethren confirmed to the savages what Mikak had
formerly told them, that they intended to settle among them, they
rejoiced like little children, and every one of them gave Jans Haven a
small present.

As Mikak had told them that her relations, who had gone to the south,
anxiously wished to see them, the missionaries sailed on the 19th July
back to Byron's Bay, and sent the Esquimaux boats before them. It was
not long before a kaiak arrived with the father of Mikak, who
instantly coming on board said, "My daughter and her husband are here
on the island before you, and they strongly desire to see and speak
with you." Indeed, scarcely had they cast anchor in the open creek,
when Mikak with her husband Tuglavina, and their son and daughter,
came to them. The man had a white woollen coat, but Mikak herself wore
a finely ornamented dress, trimmed with gold, and embroidered with
gold spangles, which had been presented to her by the Princess Dowager
of Wales, when she was in London, and had on her breast a gold medal
with a likeness of the king. Her father also wore an officer's coat.
Being invited into the cabin to partake of some refreshments, Jans
Haven asked her if she would receive the brethren as her own people.
"You will see," she replied, "how well we will behave, if you will
only come. We will love you as our countrymen, and trade with you
justly, and treat you kindly." On account of the tempestuous weather,
the whole party, amounting to fourteen, were detained during the whole
night on board the vessel. Early next morning they left them, followed
by Messrs Haven and Drachart, who, going from tent to tent, preached
the gospel to them. Mikak acted in the most friendly manner--assuring
her kindred of the brethren's affection for them, and telling them of
all the kindness she had experienced in England, where she had lived
in a great house, and been most liberally treated. The missionaries
being about to take leave, Segulliak came up to Drachart, and renewed
his expressions of attachment; the latter replied, "I do not forget
that five years ago you assured me of your love; and only a few days
since you bound this thong on my arm as a token of your affection, and
by this you have declared that you are willing to hear the word of the
sufferings and death of Jesus." When the others heard this, they all
cried out, "We also are willing to hear." The missionary then
mentioned some particulars of the history of the life and sufferings
of the Saviour, and asked if they would wish, as the Greenlanders
did, to hear something of Jesus everyday? "Yes! yes!" they all
replied. "Then," said Drachart, "if that be the case, we will look out
for a piece of land in Esquimaux Bay, where we may next year build a

Although these good men had received the extensive grant we have
mentioned from His Majesty of England of the Esquimaux country, they
did not consider that that gave them any right to take possession
without the consent of the inhabitants, or without giving them an
equivalent, notwithstanding the settlement was intended solely for
their advantage, and was to communicate to them what was of infinitely
more value than millions of acres in the finest country of the world,
instead of a patch of barren ground on the bleak and inhospitable
coast of Labrador. When they mentioned that they meant to "buy" the
land, the whole crowd, who perfectly understood the term, cried out,
"Good! good! pay us, and take as much land as you please!" Drachart
said, "It is not enough that you be paid for your high rocky mountain;
you may perhaps say in your hearts, when these people come here, we
will kill them, and take their boats and all their valuable
articles." "No! no!" they exclaimed, "we will never kill any more, or
steal any more; we are brethren!" "That gladdens my heart," said
Drachart; "but how shall we buy the land? You have no great chief, and
every one of you will be lord of his land. We will do this: we will
give each of you what will be more useful to you in your fishing than
the land you may give us." "Pay us," they repeated, "pay us, and take
as much land as you please." Drachart and the other brethren then
going from tent to tent, divided among the men, women, and children,
all kinds of tools and fishing tackle, which having done, he produced
a written agreement to which all their names were attached, and
telling them its import, required each to put a mark before his name
with his own hand, that it might be a perpetual memorial of their
having sold the land. When they had done so, he again shewed each his
name with his mark, adding, "In time to come, when yourselves or your
children shall learn to read and write, as the Greenlanders have done,
they will be able to read these names, and they will remember what
they have just now seen and heard." Drachart next informed them, that
when they should return to Esquimaux Bay, after the rein-deer hunt,
they would see four great stones erected with figures on them, which
were called letters, and these would mark out the boundaries of the
land which had been bought from them. The Esquimaux, of whom about one
hundred were present, then gave the brethren their hands, and solemnly
promised to abide by their agreement "as long as the sun shone."

After this sacred transaction the brethren, along with Mikak and her
family, returned to the ship, which set sail the same day for
Esquimaux Bay. On the dangerous passage, Mikak and her husband were of
essential service in directing their course among rocks and islands,
and likewise in trading with the Esquimaux they met with on their way,
and inducing them to receive the brethren favourably, and attend to
their instructions. Notwithstanding, however, the uniform expressions
of love with which the savages everywhere hailed them, the
missionaries found it necessary always to be upon their guard, and use
the utmost circumspection in their intercourse with their new friends,
especially on shipboard, where they behaved with a rude intrusion,
often extremely troublesome, and not always without showing marks of
their natural propensity to thieving; they therefore prohibited more
than five from coming on board at one time to trade, and that only
during the day; and informed them that if any were found in the ship
during the night, they should be treated as thieves; and, to fix the
time allowed for trading more exactly, a cannon was fired at six
o'clock in the morning, and another at the same time in the evening.
Finding that his regulations, however, were not so strictly observed
as he could wish, and the natives becoming rather troublesome, Captain
Mugford, while lying off the Island Amitok, deemed it necessary to
show them that he possessed the power of punishing their misdeeds if
he chose to employ it. He fired several shot from his great guns over
their heads against a high barren rock at no great distance. When the
broken pieces of the rock rolled down threateningly towards them, they
raised a mournful howl in their tents, as if they were about to be
destroyed; but they afterwards behaved more orderly, and not with the
savage wildness they had done before, yet the missionaries were always
obliged to act with firmness and decision, in order to prevent all
approaches to any transgression that it might have been necessary to
punish, or that might have exposed any of the men to danger.

During the voyage, Drachart held a meeting morning and evening, in the
cabin, with the young Esquimaux, who seemed to take great pleasure in
it, and were highly attentive. Some of their expressions were
remarkable. "They wished they had such a desire for the Saviour as a
child has for its parents"--"or a man to hunt the rein-deer, and
obtain his prey."--"They would not cease to think of Jesus' sufferings
and death, but would remember that merciful and generous Saviour who
had died from love to them, and learn to know and love him." In the
evening of the last day of July they cast anchor in the southernmost
corner of Esquimaux Bay, and on the following day entered the harbour
of Nanangoak, in which lay fourteen European and two women's boats,
and on shore fourty-seven tents were pitched. Here Mikak and her
husband had wished to rejoin their countrymen. Before they left the
ship Drachart reminded them of what he had taught them, and
recommended to them every morning when they rose, and every evening
before they went to sleep, to think on the Saviour and his sufferings;
and exhorted them, when any wicked thoughts should arise in their
minds--theft, adultery, or murder, or any other bad thing they had
heard from their youth up from the Angekoks their teachers--that they
should pray to him that he would take them away, adding, "if you thus
turn to Jesus and diligently seek to him, then you will no more
belong to the heathen, but to the Saviour, who will receive you as his
own, and write your names among the faithful." Jans Haven accompanied
them to their friends, who rejoiced to receive them in safety, and
among them Jans found his old acquaintance Seguilliak. Next day
Drachart and Jensen went on shore, when they were immediately
surrounded by a great crowd, who took the missionaries under the arm,
and shook them by the hands, and then conducted them from tent to
tent, where they proclaimed to them the unsearchable riches of Christ.
Mikak invited them into her large tent, and begged they might hold a
meeting in it. Soon upwards of seven hundred Esquimaux were collected
within and around it, to whom Drachart, for the first time, preached
the gospel, and was heard here, as elsewhere, with the utmost apparent
attention. When he had finished, Mikak and her husband began to
testify, in their own simple manner, how the Lord in heaven had become
man, and died for their sins. Supposing that this alluded to their own
murders, some of their countrymen appeared startled, and cried out,
"Ah! that is true, we are sinners, and old murderers; but we will
never more carry concealed knives, either under our arms or under our
clothes; and we shall never have bows and arrows hid in our kaiaks,
because the Lord in heaven has said, Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by
man his blood shall be shed. If we kill Europeans, as we did three
years ago, then we deserve that they should kill us and our
countrymen." But they seemed likewise alarmed lest the boats they had
then taken should be demanded back; but Mikak and her husband
explained that the Europeans did not come to desire them to give back
the boats, but that certainly if they did so any more they would be
punished. "That is good!" they replied "we believe your words, Mikak;
and shall also love the great and powerful chief you saw in London,
and his people, and will trade honourably with them;" and renewed
their protestations of affection for the missionaries, telling them,
"Now we are brethren." Drachart seized the opportunity of explaining
what he meant by brethren:--"Ye have heard that many of the
Greenlanders are our brethren; now you must learn rightly to
understand why we call one another brethren. Hear what the reason
is,--our hearts and the Greenlanders are fast bound together by the
love of Jesus our Saviour, who died on the cross for our sins,
therefore do we call the Greenlanders, and all who are united in the
death of Jesus, our brethren. If you will now be converted to Jesus,
then shall you be such brethren as the Greenlanders are." At a
subsequent meeting, the missionaries informed them that they were
desirous of finding a proper place on which to build a house, as it
was their intention to return next year and settle among them, and
requested their opinion as to where would be the best spot. They told
them there were many good places on the continent which they might
examine and choose for themselves; or if they would prefer an island,
they were welcome to the best; and the old men added, "You may build
and dwell in our country, and do what you will, either on land or
sea--you shall have the same liberty as we have, for you are Innuit,
as we are, and not such Kablunat as the other wicked Europeans."
"Well," replied Drachart, "you and we and the Greenlanders are also as
one family." "Yes," returned the old men, "we are friends and
brethren." "Then, dear men, when you speak thus, do you in your hearts
really think so?" "Yes! yes! you may firmly believe that." The
brethren then proceeded from tent to tent, and distributed gifts, and
obtained the marks of the old men, to the number of sixty-seven, to an
agreement similar to that which they had made with the other
Esquimaux, and the land from Monenguak to Kangerlack being marked out
with four great stones, was given to the brethren for a possession.
The ceremony being concluded, Drachart addressed them thus: "These
signatures will shew to your children, and your children's children,
that you have received us as friends and countrymen, and have given us
the piece of land marked out by these stones, and then your children,
and your children's children, will remember this transaction after
your death, as if you spoke to them, and said, We, your fathers and
grandfathers, called the brethren here for our sakes, and your sakes,
and they have built a good house to meet daily with you, in that you
may hear of the Lord in heaven. Do not forget that we your parents
have given this piece of land for an inheritance to our brethren that
came to us from the east of Greenland; and when you are converted to
Jesus, you must live near the meeting house, love your teachers, and
follow them as the Greenlanders do. Will you," continued he, "tell
your families what you have now heard, as well as what you have now
said? that your wives and children may know." They answered, "That we
will,--and we have already begun to spread it through our country,
and shall continue to do so." The missionary proceeded:--"The Lord,
your and our Saviour, is over all. He is truly here with us--I feel
his presence in my heart; he knoweth all things, and hath heard your
words and mine; he is calling for your hearts--will you now give them
to him? And will you keep to the words you have now said to me?"
"Yes!" cried all the men, and gave him their hands, and some kissed

Having concluded the solemn transactions of the day, the missionaries,
towards evening, returned to the ship, and the next day the Esquimaux
began to set out for their hunting stations. But Tuglavina and his
wife remained some days longer to assist the brethren in seeking out
an island, and then parted with tears on both sides. The missionaries
rewarded them liberally for their services; and they were not
forgetful of the favours they had now and formerly received. Mikak
begged the brethren would take charge of two white fox skins for the
Dowager Princess of Wales, of a black one for the Princess of
Glocester, and two red ones for the Governor Palliser, as
acknowledgments for their kindness.

The place pitched upon by the brethren for their settlement was 56
deg. 36 m. N.L., well supplied with good wood for building, and
numerous rivulets of excellent water, and where ships could
conveniently find an excellent anchorage. The stones they erected were
placed, one on King's point, marked G R III. 1770, the other marked U
F (unitas fratrum,) 1770, and the land was taken possession of in the
name of King George, for behoof of the United Brethren--a very
important process, as it secured the protection of the British
government for the new settlements; the other two stones were marked
and placed in the interior merely as boundary stones. This first
sacred spot was consecrated by thanksgiving and prayer. Amid the
heathen tribes and their rude rocks, the missionaries kneeled down,
and with the deepest expressions of humility, thanked the Lord that he
had thus so far prospered them in their undertaking, had guarded them
through the perils of their journey, and graciously granted them a
resting place. Having thus accomplished the object of their mission,
they returned to England, and reached London 16th November 1770,
blessing and praising the Lord that no evil had befallen them.


 Preparations for establishing a settlement in Labrador.--A love
   feast.--Missionaries leave London--erect a mission-house at
   Nain--regulations for their intercourse with the
   natives--visited by great numbers--manner of instruction--they
   retire in winter, are visited by the Brethren in their
   houses.--Death of Anauke.--An incantation.--Adventures in search
   of a dead whale.--P.E. Lauritz deputed by the conference--visits
   the missions--his excursion along the coast.--A sloop of war
   arrives to examine the settlement--the Captain's report.--Jans
   Haven's voyage to the north--interesting occurrences.--Lauritz
   leaves Nain--his concluding address.--The Brethren propose new
   settlements--disastrous voyage in search of a
   situation.--Liebisch appointed Superintendant.--An Angekok
   baptized--his address to the natives.--Jans Haven commences a
   new station at Okkak--received joyfully by the natives--six
   Esquimaux baptized--proceedings at Nain.--Missionary accompanies
   the Esquimaux to a rein-deer hunt.--Third settlement--Hopedale
   founded.--Remarkable preservation of the Missionaries.

Every thing being now settled for establishing a missionary station
among the Esquimaux, the Brethren were occupied during the winter in
making the necessary preparations for carrying their object into
effect. In this they were essentially aided by the same society who
had sent out the vessel on the previous year, and who, knowing the
difficulty Europeans lay under of procuring the necessaries of life
in that climate, resolved to send out one annually with supplies, and
to preserve the communication, notwithstanding the previous voyage had
been but a losing concern. The number of persons destined for this
arduous undertaking was fourteen, among whom were three married
brethren, Brazen Schneider and Jans Haven, accompanied by Drachart and
seven unmarried missionaries. Brazen, who had gone as a surgeon to
Greenland in 1767, and remained during the winter at one of the
settlements, was appointed superintendant of this mission. Before
leaving London, on May 5th, these devoted men had a meeting in the
Brethren's chapel with the congregation, and a number of other
Christians who felt interested in the undertaking, and with the most
delightful feelings they sat down together to a love feast, at which
the following letter from Mr Drachart to the church was read:

"Dearly beloved Brethren and Sisters,--We are now for the third time
going among the wild Esquimaux; and in their name we thank you for the
assistance you have afforded us in the past year to enable us to
declare among these savages the gospel of the sufferings and death of
Jesus. We thank the Saviour that he has so illuminated your hearts,
that you are as willing to give your wealth, as we are to venture our
lives to promote this cause. We now take our leave, and commend
ourselves to your love and remembrance before the Saviour. He is
indeed near to you, and to us, to help in all our difficulties,--that
our courage may not fail, but that we may look to him. It is his
cause, and he will support us; on him we hope, and on him we rely; and
in his name we venture our lives and all that we have, for he ventured
his life for us. When we think of this our hearts are melted, and we
fall down at his pierced feet, and exclaim, O! Lord Jesus, the little
confidence we have in thee thou hast given us; our goods, our lives,
we have from thee. Thou knowest we venture to go through the great
deep, through rocks and ice, that thy holy name may be glorified among
the Esquimaux. We pray that the angel of thy presence may accompany
the ship out and home again; be with our brethren, give them courage
to proclaim the tidings of thy love, which was stronger than
death--Dear brethren and sisters, the Saviour is present, he certainly
hears us when we join together to call upon him for ourselves and
others The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God be
with you all. Amen."

On the 8th of May they left London in the ship Amity, commanded by
Captain Mugford, and on the 9th August reached the place of their
destination, after a passage of peril and danger. They had constructed
a wooden house while in London, and had been kindly furnished by their
friends with household furniture, and a number of implements for
enabling them to work in carpentry, in iron, and for gardening.

Immediately upon landing they commenced their operations, by
surrounding the spot upon which they had fixed, and to which they gave
the name of Nain, with pallisades, and on the 20th of August laid the
foundation of their wooden house; they soon found their fortification
was unnecessary, as the natives, so far from offering any obstruction,
appeared eager to forward the building, which, on the 22d September,
was so far finished as to be habitable. As on the former occasion, so
on this, the Governor of Newfoundland issued a proclamation in their
favour, declaring the missionaries under the immediate protection of
the British; and at the same time he conveyed to themselves the
strongest assurances of his personal regard for their characters and
wishes for their success, as what would so materially tend to
tranquillize the country.

Among the excellent regulations adopted by the brethren, one, and not
the least important, was, in their transactions with the savages,
while they did them every kind office, to offer them nothing which
might appear in the shape of a bribe to induce them to embrace their
religion: they sometimes built boats for them, and sometimes improved
and repaired those they had, and furnished them with iron pots, and
arrows and lances for seal hunting, but they always required payment,
which the Esquimaux could easily render in whale fins, seals' blubber,
or such other articles as their dexterity could procure. Very soon,
instruments of European manufacture became so necessary, that the
natives were rendered industrious by the desire to possess them, while
they enabled them to render that industry doubly advantageous. In this
traffic the annual visits of the Society's vessel were important, and
the greater part of the barter was carried on through the agent or

More than a hundred Esquimaux, during the summer, planted their tents
round Nain, to whom the missionaries preached the gospel. Of the
manner in which they did this, Drachart tells us in his journal, "My
method," says he, "is first to give a short discourse, and then to ask
a few plain questions which only require a denial or assent; but they
do not always content themselves with this--for instance, if I ask if
they, as poor sinners, would wish to come to the Saviour, some would
say, Yes! we cannot deny that we are poor sinners, and we begin to
reflect upon what we have heard from you about this, and to converse
with one another on the subject. Others will boldly reply, No! we will
not think of it; and a third sort will confess they do not understand
any thing about the matter, but would be glad to know if I had any
knives to sell, for they had whale fins. I then pray to the
Saviour:--Thou hast in Greenland made many stupid minds to understand,
and many cold hearts warm; O do the same here, and bless my weak
discourse that I may not be put to shame, for it is indeed thine own

During the winter the natives retired to other places, the nearest of
which was many miles distant from Nain; individuals, however, came
from time to time to visit the brethren; among these were Mikak,
Tuglavina, and Segulliak, and the brethren returned their visits, as
far as the deep snow and excessive cold would permit. The friendly
reception they met with upon these occasions, and the willingness with
which the heathen heard the word, reconciled the missionaries to the
filth and inconvenience they had to encounter. Of these the following
specimen will enable the reader to form some idea.

About the end of January 1773, the brethren Schneider and Turner
visited Mikak in the island Nintok, at the distance of five and a half
hours from Nain. They found here two houses, each of which contained
twenty persons, the families only separated from each other by skins
stretched out between them. Mikak directed the brethren to an
apartment in one of these houses, to which, when they retired, they
were followed by great numbers of the Esquimaux, who gathered round
them, and heard in silence Schneider preach to them the death of the
Lord, and sing some verses on the same subjects. They here met with a
circumstance which greatly tended to comfort them amid other scenes
which weighed heavily on their spirits. In a division of the house
where they lodged, they found three widows dwelling together, and one
of them informed them that her husband, Anauke, who had died the year
before, had said to her, when she was mourning over him in his last
illness, "Be not grieved for me,--I am going to heaven, to Jesus who
has loved his people so much!" He was one of those who had remained
during the summer near Nain, and whose countenance bore strong marks
of the thief and the murderer, and had appeared at first to have more
than usual savage ferocity in his whole deportment; but it was
remarked that, before he left that vicinity, his very countenance had
changed, and his behaviour had become gentle; but the missionaries had
no decisive proof of his conversion to the Saviour, till they heard,
to their joy, this his dying profession of the faith. His countrymen
called him the man whom the Saviour had taken to himself. This man,
there is every reason to believe, was the first fruits of the mission.

Night is an appropriate time to call on the prince of darkness; and it
is observable that among all the heathen, that season has generally
been devoted to his service in deeds that shunned the light. In the
evening, when the missionaries had laid themselves down to sleep in
Mikak's house, they had another confirmation of this remark. There had
been a dreadful storm during the day, so that the natives had been
prevented from going to seal-catching, they therefore assembled in
her house after nightfall, to entreat her, as she was considered a
powerful sorceress, to make good weather, bring the seals from the
deep, and show the holes in the ice to which they came for air; also
where the greatest number of rein-deer were to be found. All the lamps
were immediately extinguished, and she began with deep sighs, and
groans, and mutterings, to call up Torngak. Sometimes she raised her
voice so loud that the whole house rang. At this signal, the people
began to sing, and to ask one another, what does Torngak say? At
length there was a tremendous crash, as if the whole place had been
falling about their ears, produced, as the missionaries supposed, by
the stroke of a stick on the extended skins. The sorceress then
proceeded to the door, beating with her feet, and uttering strange
sounds, at which some of the more sensible among the worshippers could
not forbear to express their sense of the ridiculous scene by their
laughter. Schneider, who had hitherto been silent, now cried to the
enchantress to cease calling upon Torngak, who was an evil spirit, and
reigned in darkness, and light the lamps again; but some one replied
it was the custom of the country, and proposed they should conclude
with a short song, in which all the company joined, after which they
separated for their resting places before the lamps could be

With a heart greatly touched, and eyes full of tears, the missionaries
early next morning addressed the inmates of the house upon the true
light that is come to enlighten men, and to redeem them from the
spirit of darkness. He entreated them with great earnestness to turn
to the crucified Jesus, and renounce the evil spirit and his works,
and commended them in prayer to the compassionate heart of the

Disinterested exertion, not only to prevent themselves from being
burdensome to those among whom they labour, but to save as much as
possible any unnecessary expense to the churches or societies who send
them out, forms an admirable and a prominent feature in all the
Moravian missionary brethren. They follow the apostolic example, and
minister to their necessities by their own hands, and exhibit a
pattern to their infant establishments, not only of industry to
procure the means of personal livelihood, but to enable them to assist
those improvident heathen by whom they are surrounded, even when their
exertions are attended with danger and repaid by insult; and by these
means they often acquire an influence over the most savage minds,
which it were otherwise difficult to obtain. Of this we have a most
remarkable instance which occurred in the beginning of the present
year. Having received accounts that a dead whale was found at Comfort
Harbour, about seven miles south of Nain, the brethren, Jans Haven,
Lister, Morhardt, and Turner, resolved to go thither, accompanied by
some Esquimaux, in the hope that, by procuring the blubber and the
fins, they might be enabled to contribute somewhat to the support of
the mission, while they would assist the starving natives at this
season in obtaining a supply of provisions; and at the same time, they
would have an opportunity of commending the Saviour to these poor
benighted heathen.

They accordingly set out, under the guidance of an Esquimaux,
Mannmoima, whose house they reached February 17th about mid-day,
where, on account of the stormy weather, they were forced to remain.
"If," says Jans Haven, in his diary, "our European sisters had only
seen us here they would certainly have pitied us. We were forced to
creep on all fours through a low passage several fathoms long to get
into the house, and were glad if we escaped being bitten by the
hungry dogs, who take refuge there in bad weather, and who, as they
lie in the dark, are often trodden upon by the entrant; who, if he
escapes this misfortune, is compelled to undergo the more disgusting
salutation of being licked in the face by these animals, and of
crawling through the filth in which they all mingle. Yet this house,
notwithstanding our senses of seeing and smelling were most woefully
offended, in such frightful weather, was of equal welcome to us as the
greatest palace."

When Haven here began to speak of the Saviour, the Angekoks began to
exercise their enchantments. One man laid himself on his back, and
allowed his left leg to be fastened to his neck by a string like a
bow, while a woman who sat by his side, performed upon it with his
right as if playing on some musical instrument. The lady was then
asked if they might hope for good weather, and if the whale would be
driven away? but the company appeared to be divided; and while some
thought these operations were under the influence of Torngak, others
thought they might be directed by Jesus Christ, and asked the brethren
to pray that there might be good weather, and that the whale might not
be driven away. Haven answered, "We only pray, Lord be gracious to
us, and open the eyes of poor ignorant people, that they may know how
necessary it is for them to be washed in thy blood--but we are assured
that he will do nothing but what is good to us, because he loves us."

Next day, the missionaries, accompanied by eleven Esquimaux, attempted
to reach the whale; but when they were about an hour's distance from
the house, they perceived from a mountain near where the whale lay,
that the ice was broken, and encountered such a violent storm of wind
and snow that they were forced to return; while the frost was so
intense, that often their mouth and nose were frozen to their skin
coats, so that they had to break the ice before they could breathe,
and their eyes were so closed that they had to force them open with
their fingers.

As hunger now began to torment the party, the brethren were exposed to
great anxiety, suffering, and danger, from the perpetual importunity
of the Esquimaux for provisions, which they had no means of supplying,
but which they supposed they were the means of their being deprived of
obtaining. An old man began to cry, "Torngak moves me to say that he
will tell us the cause of this storm, and the breaking of the ice,
and the loss of the whale." "Let us hear," said they. "O! the sinews!
O! the sinews!" replied he.

Rein-deer sinews are what, according to the superstition of the
country, dare not be brought near a whale. But the brethren that
morning had plaited some whale sinew, and fastened the haft of the ax
with which they intended to cut up the whale; and he, supposing that
they had been the sinews of the rein-deer, raised the cry. Being
informed of his mistake, he changed his tone and exclaimed, "O! the
rotten wood! O! the rotten wood!" Rotten wood is expressly forbid to
be burnt in the preparation of food, but Jans Haven had brought some
pieces in a sledge along with the rest of the fuel; the Esquimaux, to
whom the sledge belonged, had carefully picked it out and thrown it
away, and the conjurer was informed that in this also he was mistaken.
He was then called upon to say, as he affirmed that Torngak was there,
how he could be mistaken. With an ingenuity that would have done
credit to a Jesuit, he answered, "There is one present that keeps us
back, he cannot go with us." Every person in the company being
mentioned, he pointed out Jans Haven. Haven immediately rose, and
looking the sorcerer full in the face, prayed to the Saviour to stop
the mouth of that wicked one. Struck with the unexpected intrepidity
of the missionary, and the appeal to a name of which they all had some
knowledge, the Angekok was utterly confounded; he grumbled and foamed,
but could not utter a word. Providentially at this very moment two
persons arrived with intelligence that the whale was lying safe, and
had not been driven away; and Haven, charging the fellow with his
imposture and lies, commanded him not to attempt accompanying them, or
removing from the place where he was. The astonished sorcerer made no
attempt to disobey.

The weather increasing in severity, the Esquimaux, who were confined
to their huts, came to their favourite Jans Haven, saying, "Tell us
about the Saviour." Jans answered and said--"What shall I say? I know
not what to say; I am grieved because I am constrained to hear and see
that the wicked spirit yet dwells within you and robs you of your
senses. He will hold your ears that you may not hear the love the
Saviour has for you, that after death you may dwell with him in utter
darkness. Yet listen to our words and follow us to the Saviour, who
will wash you from your sins in his own blood, that you may live
eternally happy with him, after you have left a world where sorrow
and pleasure are mingled together; where we must suffer hunger, and
thirst, and cold, and wretchedness, and misery, unless we believe in
Jesus, who will preserve us, and keep us, and bring us to be for ever
with himself, where there is no pain, but fulness of joy for
evermore." Still, on the succeeding day, the weather not abating, the
party were detained at the station, which the increasing scarcity of
food rendered now doubly uncomfortable; the brethren were obliged to
be on the watch whenever they eat, lest the Esquimaux should snatch
the scanty morsel from them, which now consisted of only one meal a
day. "One can hardly conceive," say they in their journal, "what we
endured: we had no rest neither night nor day; when we lay down to
sleep and gat warm, we were almost devoured with vermin; when we sat
up during the day, we were almost suffocated with stench and smoke."

At length a sledge, which had been sent off to the whale, returned
laden with fat and flesh, which afforded relief from the pressure of
hunger, "and made," say the missionaries, "all our hearts leap for
joy;" and on the succeeding day, the whole party set off for the
whale. When they reached it they found it of the middling size, about
sixty-four feet long, but covered with ice and snow almost a fathom
deep. The Esquimaux, however, crept into the mouth and cut off what
they wanted from the interior to supply themselves; but the wants of
the brethren were only increased, they could make little use of such
flesh, and they were without wood to dress it, had it been even more
palatable. They had no shelter but a snow-house, which they
constructed with the help of the Esquimaux. The women, however, had
forgotten their lamps, and the brethren had no resource for rendering
their habitation comfortable, but to construct a kind of temporary
lamp from a piece of whale's flesh, into which they cut a hole and put
a piece of moss, and then to kindle it, but the smoke and disagreeable
smell were insupportable; they also suffered greatly from the want of
water, as they could get nothing to drink but ice or snow melted,
which was done in a manner that in other circumstances would have
proved an absolute prohibition against tasting it--the Esquimaux
filled their gloves with snow, or put it in the intestines of the
seals which they had wrapped round them, and the natural heat of the
body reduced into a state of liquifaction--yet even this they were
happy to procure.

Amid these hardships Haven was seized with a violent pain in his side,
which the Esquimaux, who greatly loved him, much lamented, as they
said it was the disease that carried off so many of their countrymen.
Peaceful, however, in the hour of his suffering, the missionary was
enabled to testify to the heathen that death for him had no terrors;
nor was it to be dreaded by those who believed in the Saviour. They
showed their affection by procuring, with much difficulty, a lamp and
some skins on which they placed the invalid, and by the blessing of
God, the heat effected his cure. The brethren now began to try to hew
down the frozen whale, but the want of food had so enfeebled them that
they found themselves wholly unequal to the task, and were forced to
give it up and return home, worn out with the fatigue they had
endured, and without effecting their object.

In the same year, 1773, Paul Eugenus Laritz, from the Elders'
Conference of the Unity, visited the missions. He was accompanied by
John Ludwig Beck, who had spent some years in Greenland with his
father, and learned the language. They came in the ship Amity to
Newfoundland, which they left there for the purpose of fishing, and
proceeded to the coast of Labrador in a shallop or sloop with one
mast, which had been purchased for the use of the mission. On the 20th
of July they arrived at Nain, where the missionaries welcomed them
with tears of joy--the Esquimaux received them with shouting and other
rude expressions of pleasure. Of these, some hundreds, this summer,
had set up their tents around the settlements--many of them strangers
from a distance. In the evening they had a short discourse in the
mission-house, after which the brethren visited them in their tents,
and conversed further with them on what they had heard. The same
evening Laritz gave a short address to the assembled baptized
Esquimaux, and delivered the salutations of the European congregations
to them, Drachart being his interpreter. Then one of the Esquimaux
answered in name of the rest--"We, our wives and children, were
wonderfully glad when we saw the little ship come in; and we thank the
brethren that they have come to us, and brought us so many good words
that we have never heard before. We love all the brethren, and will be
ever their good friends. We will constantly visit them to hear the
good word of Jesus' sufferings. We think on the Saviour; we love him,
and will give up our hearts to him, and renounce all our old
heathenish customs. We agree with the Innuit who live on the east
coast opposite us. We, and our wives and our children, in our houses
and our tents, speak of the Saviour becoming man, of his sufferings
and death. We cannot deny that we are sinners, but we think the
Saviour will be gracious to us." As there was not room in the
mission-house to contain all the Esquimaux, wood was cut down to build
a large meeting-hall. Some appeared deeply impressed by the word of
God, particularly Manamina, his sister Alingana, and Akaplack, who
were received as catechumens.

Soon after Laritz's arrival at Nain, a sloop of war unexpectedly made
its appearance, dispatched by Commodore Shuldam from Newfoundland,
commanded by Lieutenant Cartes, to explore the coast, and to see if
the poor people who had settled there were all still in life. The
Lieutenant stopped some days with the brethren, and expressed his
astonishment and happiness to find them so well accommodated, and on
such good terms with the Esquimaux. He had expected to find dark,
sour, starving fanatics, living in huts of earth, and his
disappointment was therefore the more agreeable. Through Drachart he
told the Esquimaux, that they should go no more to the English
settlements in the south, nor rob and murder. They answered, We have
never either robbed or murdered, since the time we heard of the
Saviour. Robbers and murderers shall be punished as they deserve; and
when we come to the south to get fir-timber, we will bring with us a
letter from the brethren to the gentlemen of Cheteau Bay. The officer
assured them of his love, and said to Drachart, that the great change
in the behaviour of these people appeared to him a miracle of God, who
had begun his work among them.

While Laritz remained at Nain, Jans Haven and James Rhodes took the
vessel which brought him there, and made a voyage on the north coast
to Nachwach, 59 deg. 30 m. N.L. It lasted from the 7th August to the
17th September. They landed at different places, and the Esquimaux
everywhere, who had either before known or heard of Jans Haven,
received him with shouts! He told them what had moved the brethren to
settle in the country, and invited them to come to him. They heard him
with astonishment speak of the great love of the Saviour to men, and
asked if he was an Angekok, as he spoke of such high things as they
never had heard, even from their own prophets? Others asked, why the
Saviour, who made all things, had not before sent some one to tell
their fathers these good news, and now they were gone where they could
hear nothing? Havens answered, that "the times of their ignorance God
had winked at," but that he now shewed mercy to them in sending them
the gospel, and they ought to improve this the day of their
visitation. At Napartok, having declared to the natives the counsel of
God for their salvation, he thus continued: "I hear that there are
quarrels and backbitings among you, and that some even seek the lives
of others; all this proceeds from your not knowing the Saviour." He
then turned to the Angekok, Aweinak, who was a reputed murderer, and
said, "Hear these my words, 'Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man his
blood shall be shed.' Forgive one another, and live as brethren and
sisters in love and fellowship; make no difference between your own
countrymen and those of the north and south." The Angekok promised to
behave better, and begged Haven to repeat his assurance of friendship.
Haven did so, and turning to the by-standers, said, "You hear his
words; forgive him and love him, and if he ever again act wickedly,
let me know." At Arimek, the Esquimaux thanked him for what he had
spoken, and concluded by saying, "Though thou art not big, thou hast
a great soul and a brave spirit."

During an abode of two months at Nain, Laritz received every
information respecting the state of the mission, and having made the
proper arrangements for their further direction, he assembled the
brethren in the mission-house at Nain, and read to them a solemn
farewell address, and left it with them. "From the bottom of my
heart," he begins, "I praise the gracious counsel of our dear Lord
towards the poor and blind nations of the Esquimaux, and I return back
to Europe with a deep impression of it; for though I have as yet only
seen the springing of the seed, yet I feel in my heart a believing
confidence, that in the proper time and hour which the Lord himself
has appointed, a joyful harvest shall appear. Dear brethren and
sisters, as the Lord of his pure grace has placed you in a land,
where, since the creation of the world, his name has not been named or
praised, it seems to me to be more incumbent on you daily to renew the
deep consideration of your call and appointment to the fulfilling his
purposes of grace; for you are not called here, either collectively or
separately, of your own choice, or of the will of men, but of the
counsel of peace in the heart of Jesus. You must therefore have it as
a fixed principle in your hearts, and before your eyes, continually,
that you are sent here to make known among the Esquimaux, the
character of Him who hath called you out of darkness into his
marvellous light. If you are not all able to do this in words, you can
place it before their eyes by a holy walk and conversation, and by
your earnest prayers and supplications be blessed helpers of their
joy. And first of all, as their fellow-servant, I pray that all the
servants of the Lord in this place, who bring the testimony of the
gospel to the poor heathen, may, as often as they with the mouth
praise the Saviour, be baptized with the Spirit and with fire, that
their testimony may appear the power of God, able to make those
blessed who believe it. And I beseech all the brethren to support and
help with their prayers, those of them who shall speak and preach to
the Esquimaux.

"You must not rest satisfied, my dear brethren, with daily meetings,
but you must carefully visit them in their tents and in their houses,
and put them in mind of what they have heard; for this end, all our
dear brethren and sisters must diligently use the gifts and talents
given them to learn the Esquimaux language. Let the joy of the Lord
animate you!--When you perceive the heart of any one awakened by the
Holy Spirit, and in distress fleeing for mercy to the blood of Jesus,
baptize such an one, as the Lord has directed, into his death, in the
name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: there shall be
joy in heaven over such first fruits, and on earth in the church of
Jesus. With respect to the Esquimaux, either as to gifts or European
food, do as we agreed on--neither, on the one side, neglect what
necessity or compassion require; nor, on the other, accustom them to
what would be injurious. When they labour for you, or go messages, pay
them according to the custom of the country; and when you work for
them, and make boats, sails, chests, lamps, arrows and lances, let
them also pay you, that by degrees they may be accustomed to an
orderly domestic life.

"To your little church in the house, I call in the name of Jesus, love
ye with a thorough inward sacred impulse; for God hath from eternity
chosen you to love. Consider this well, that our dear Lord has said,
'By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love
one to another.' You know from what source the apparent want of this
can be supplied; and I am sure, if every one would search out his own
fault, with kindness and benevolence acquitting others, then would you
feel that you loved one another from the heart fervently. Be of one
mind; live in peace, then shall your conferences be kept with much
blessing, and you be subject one to another in the fear of God. No one
will then tenaciously hold his own opinion as the best, or as
infallible, but every one will gladly take advantage of the other's
discernment, and rather follow what is likely to attain the desired
end, than his own private inclination. In the division of your labour
consider yourselves as members of one body--that the eye cannot be
supposed to do what the hand can, and the hand cannot do what the foot
can; and if ye are each of you conscious that you have, according to
the words of our Lord, done what thou couldst, let no one even in his
heart think that one of his brethren has done too little. Whatever the
congregation sends for your support and clothing, receive with
thanksgiving to our Heavenly Father, who has enabled his people to
minister to you in these things: at the same time you must frugally
and faithfully improve every opportunity afforded by providence to
supply your necessary expenses, by working with your own hands, and
his blessing shall certainly accompany your labours.

"Commend us to the Lord, that his inestimable presence may be near us
by sea and by land; and, dearest brethren and sisters, I commend you
to God and the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and
give you an inheritance among them that are sanctified. The God of
love and peace sanctify you wholly, that your whole spirit, soul and
body, may be kept unblameable to the coming of the Lord Jesus; that
then you, with a great number of believing Esquimaux, may appear
before his presence with exceeding joy--'Faithful is he who hath
called you, and also will do it.'"

With this excellent address, the labours of Mr Laritz ended. After
partaking of the communion together, he bid adieu to the brethren on
the 29th September, and went on board the ship Amity, which had come
from Newfoundland, according to appointment, and arrived in London on
the 29th of October.

Circumstances, apparently the most unpropitious, frequently
contribute, in the course of Providence, to promote the most important
and most happy issues. While the brethren at Nain continued with
unwearied diligence to make known the salvation of Christ among the
Esquimaux, they observed with grief, that their deep-rooted heathenish
superstitions, and the violent and gross, but natural evil passions
which they delighted to indulge, and which led to the frequent
perpetration of adultery and murder, obstructed the entrance of the
word of God into their hearts, and had as yet rendered almost all
their labours fruitless. But what particularly distressed them was,
when they saw that the impressions which had been made on some of the
natives on hearing the gospel, while residing in the neighbourhood of
the mission-settlement, were wholly effaced when they removed to a
distance, and associated with their heathen countrymen.

Anxious, therefore, to retain them around their station, the brethren
proposed a method for rendering them comfortable during the winter, by
building a store-house where their provisions might be laid up, so
that the superfluities of summer should supply the wants of winter.
But the savages could not understand the use of refusing to gratify
their present appetites in order to provide for any distant
emergency--they preferred to revel in the plenty of summer, and to
rove to other places in winter in search of food, by which propensity
they were scattered above one hundred and twenty miles along the
coast. Yet, even these wanderers were the means of exciting the
attention of their kindred to the gospel, by telling them of the
strange things they had heard at Nain. It was therefore resolved to
follow the leadings of Providence, and, as soon as possible, to
establish two other missionary settlements, the one towards the north,
the other south of the present.

For this purpose, application was made to the Society of the Brethren
in London, who, entering fully into their views, obtained from the
Privy Council an order granting them liberty to search out and take
possession of land sufficient for their object. A commission was
accordingly sent for the brethren to explore the coast, and Brazen,
Lister, Lehman, and Jans Haven, offered themselves for this service.
On the 5th of August they set out for the north. "But just as we were
setting out," says Jans Haven, "an uncommon horror and trembling
seized me, so that, contrary to my former experience, I was
exceedingly intimidated, and wished rather to stay at home." They
proceeded however, and were every where received in a friendly manner
by the Esquimaux, and invited to settle among them. Their return
justified the presentiment of Jans Haven. Not far from Cape Keglapeit
they had the misfortune to encounter a dreadful storm, and when only
three miles from Nain, their vessel struck on a sunk rock where she
was wrecked.

After a fearful night, about 2 o'clock next morning they attempted to
get at the boat that belonged to their shallop, but through the
violence of the waves it was driven on a rock and almost dashed to
pieces. Brazen and Lehman were drowned, but Haven and Lister, together
with the sailors, succeeded in reaching a barren rock, where they
suffered much from cold and hunger--where they must have perished
miserably had they not providentially got their boat, which was in
tatters, drawn on shore, and with all the woollen clothes and seal
skins they could spare, patched it together. Still it was a wretched
barque, but they had no other resource, and were obliged to venture to
sea in it such as it was. The wind was favourable, and at length they
happily met Manamina in his kaiak, who towed them safely to Nain,
where they arrived on the evening of the 18th of September, truly
thankful to the Lord for his wonderful assistance. "After our return,"
Haven says in the account of his life, "I was overwhelmed with
sorrow--spent days and nights in sighs and tears--thought much of my
whole past life--cried to the Lord for help and forgiveness of all my
many failings, and renewed my vows to devote myself entirely to his
service." The bodies of both the brethren who were drowned were driven
on shore, and afterwards brought to the settlement, where they were
decently interred.

Sad as this catastrophe was, it did not prevent the brethren, in the
year 1775, from undertaking new journies to explore the south and
north coast; nor deter others from offering themselves to supply the
place of those who had perished in the cause. When the accounts of
Brazen's departure reached the Unity Elders' Conference, they
appointed Samuel Liebisch superintendant of the mission, who, on the
16th August, the same year, arrived at Nain with some new assistants
to the mission.

As usual, about the month of November, all the Esquimaux left the
neighbourhood of Nain for their winter places, but towards Christmas
great numbers came on their sledges over the frozen sea to visit the
brethren. Among their visitors was Kingminguse, who had formerly been
an Angekok, but who, by the preaching of the word of God, had
experienced such an apparent change of mind as to give hopes of his
conversion; and, indeed, early next year, on the 19th of February, the
day on which the meeting-hall at Nain was consecrated, he was
baptized as the first fruits of that mission, and received the name of
Peter. Some days before his baptism he told the brethren, "that he had
been an Angekok, and believed what his forefathers said, but now he
believed it no more; that he would give up all his former evil customs
and follow the Lord Jesus, though he should be persecuted by his
countrymen; that he was ignorant, but what the brethren who had come
thither had told him of the Lord who made heaven and earth, who had
become a man, and shed his blood from love to us, had taken fast hold
of his heart--he had rejoiced in it, and would forsake all for it. He
knew but little of the Saviour, but was willing to learn, and placed
his confidence alone on him, because he truly believed he only was
good; and that when the body died the soul went to the place of rest
to be with him, and happy for ever." Shaking hands with every brother,
individually, he promised that he would remain with the congregation
of the believers, to be constantly obedient to his teachers, and walk
worthy of the gospel. In the administration of the ordinance he was
quite overcome, as were also several of the other Esquimaux, who
expressed their wishes likewise to be baptized, which afforded the
missionaries an opportunity of speaking earnestly and affectionately
to them.

Peter, likewise, every where testified to his people his great joy
that he now belonged to the faithful; they viewed him with particular
respect, and listened attentively to his discourse about the Saviour,
which was remarkably urgent and affectionate. For instance, upon one
occasion he expressed himself in the following manner to them: "You
must turn wholly to the Saviour and place your confidence on him
alone, so shall he by his precious blood purify and fill your hearts.
You know that I am baptized, for this I am very thankful; and it would
be well with you would you but learn to know Jesus in time, for we
have no other Saviour either in this world or in the future. If we are
washed in his blood we need no more fear death or darkness, we shall
then come where it is ever light, and where we shall ever see the
Saviour. When we are sick or in pain, we must turn to him, for he hath
born all our sicknesses. He still calls us to come to him; this call
we have never hitherto understood, therefore he has sent the brethren
who know him, to shew our souls the way to him. You know they have
built a house, and ask nothing but to make the Saviour known to our
hearts. We cannot be grateful enough to him who sent them thither,
for it is of the greatest importance to us; and, even those among them
who do not know our language sufficiently to speak to us, pray to him
that we may feel the power of his blood on our hearts. I have learned
sorcery, and I have practised it, but that is the road to the greatest
darkness, and can give no peace to the heart; but he who looks to the
Saviour, and to his wounds, receives peace and joy in his heart, and
that is the only thing of any value in this world." In the following
summer there were above two hundred Esquimaux in thirty-seven tents
near Nain, and they were so assiduous in their attendance on the
meetings, that the new hall could not contain the crowd that anxiously
pressed to hear, and some were entered among the candidates for

Liebisch brought with him a commission for Jans Haven to commence a
new settlement. "I felt," said Haven, "not a little anxiety on this
occasion, knowing the difficulties attending such a commission, but
accepted it in reliance on our Saviour's help." He accordingly,
accompanied by Stephen Jensen, proceeded in an Esquimaux boat to a
little creek, afterwards Okkak, which had been formerly fixed on as a
most eligible spot for a settlement, and purchased from the Esquimaux
a hundred thousand acres, or three German square miles, of land; they
expressing great joy at the prospect of the brethren coming to reside
among them. Stones were placed to mark the boundaries, and the place
taken possession of with the usual formalities. The following was the
mode of expression used by the brethren upon the occasion: "In the
name of our God and Saviour, and under the protection of our gracious
monarch, George III King of England, we take possession of this land
for the purpose of a missionary settlement for the Brethren's Unity,
and the Society for propagating the gospel."

During the following year, [1776,] the brethren were busily employed
in cutting down wood in the forest near Nain, and preparing it for a
dwelling-house at the new station; and so diligent were they in their
work, that in August, when the ship Good Intent arrived from England
with the other necessary articles for building the house, the timber
was all ready to be shipped for Okkak. On the 13th September, Jans
Haven, with his family and three other missionaries who had been
appointed for the new settlement, arrived there, and immediately went
to work and erected their house. "I had," says the devoted Haven,
"the peace in all trying circumstances to cleave to my Saviour, of
whose gracious assistance I had manifold experience. He was with us,
and gave us success in our present enterprise. Having finished the
building of our house, we moved into it; and in our first conference,
were so united by the power of Jesus' grace in brotherly love and
harmony, that we made a covenant with each other to offer soul and
body to the Lord, to serve him without fear, and bear each others'
burdens with a cheerful heart. Nor did we meet with the least
interruption during the whole year, so that I justly count it the
happiest of my life."

This station lies thirty German miles north from Nain, in 58 deg. 20
m. N.L., and is of great consequence both to the European settlers and
the Esquimaux, of whom above three hundred always live near it. There
is a good harbour for ships and boats--a supply of wood and of fresh
water in summer and winter--great quantities of fish, particularly
haddocks--also some whales, but few seals, so that the Esquimaux are
obliged to go to various places at a considerable distance for this
valuable animal, whose skins are among their absolute necessaries for
their tents and clothing. The mission-house is built at the side of a
high mountain, which serves as a protection from the north-west wind.

The natives received the brethren with great joy, and evinced a
pleasing desire to hear the gospel; but it was not till the 29th of
August 1778, that any baptism took place. On this occasion, however,
six adults were received into the church by this holy ordinance, and
several others soon followed. The baptized lived for the greater part
of the winter in the mission-house, where daily meetings were held,
and where they received farther instruction, for which purpose a
larger meeting-hall was built in 1779.

At length at Nain, also, the brethren had the pleasure in the winter
of 1779-80, to see five Esquimaux families, consisting of thirty-seven
souls, come to the resolution of remaining during that season in their
neighbourhood, and the year after their number increased from seventy
to eighty; by this means the brethren were enabled to collect small
congregations at each station, and in the winter at least carefully to
observe their conduct, and to give them regular employment. Meanwhile
the mission work proceeded; they held daily meetings, where the gospel
was preached to the resident Esquimaux and numerous visitors. A school
was opened for children, besides which, the baptized were twice
a-week instructed in writing. A weekly meeting was likewise kept with
the latter for furthering their knowledge on doctrinal points,
particularly on the meaning of the Lord's supper. During the season
when the baptized were necessarily called away from the settlement,
one of the missionaries generally attended them. In the year 1780,
William Turner made two visits of twenty miles each into the interior
of the country from Nain in their company when they went to hunt the
rein-deer, along with a number of the Esquimaux; the first in
February, and then from the 8th of August to the 25th of September.
They travelled over wild mountains between lakes and pools. The
rein-deer, which sometimes passed in large herds, were driven into the
water by the Esquimaux and there killed. In the winter journey, Turner
suffered much from the cold and the want of warm food, and was also
frequently in imminent danger from the snow storms, when the great
drift-heaps collected upon the mountains rolled down in tremendous and
threatening masses like Alpine avalanches. Nor was the summer
expedition free from its dangers and difficulties. The party consisted
of fifty men, who travelled on foot; about a hundred dogs followed,
laden with the baggage that was to be transported over barren
mountains and through morasses; and often, after all their exertions
and deprivations, they got very few rein-deer. The main design of his
journeys too, was but imperfectly obtained, as his people were so very
much occupied in the hunt that they could pay but little attention to
the preaching of the word; and their heathen companions disliked the
presence of a missionary, as it caused those to keep back who believed
in their superstitious customs and practices, and who practised them,
and on whom, according to their notions, the success of the hunt

From the promising appearances of the two settlements, the brethren
now began to think of a third, to be situated south from Nain; and in
July 1779, Schneider, Lister and Jensen went to Arvertok, which Jans
Haven, Lister and Beck had formerly visited, and pitched upon a spot
deemed the most proper for a missionary station. Having purchased the
land from the Esquimaux, and fixed the boundaries, placing stones as
on the former occasion; they then returned to Nain, where the wood was
prepared as for the missionary house at Okkak, and brought to its
destination by the Good Intent, on her arrival from England. In the
meantime, Jans Haven, who had been on a visit to Europe, arrived with
his wife, after having experienced a wonderful escape on their voyage.
When approaching near the coast of Labrador, they discovered an
ice-berg of prodigious extent and height approaching them, and had
scarcely passed it in safety ere it fell to pieces with a tremendous
crash, putting the surrounding sea into the most dreadful agitation
and foam. Had it happened but a few minutes before, they must every
soul have perished in the immense ruin.--All the preparations being
finished, the building was begun in 1782 at the new station, and Jans
Haven was employed as first architect. On the 21st September of that
year it was finished so as to be habitable.

This settlement, which is thirty German miles south of Nain, and lies
in 55 deg. 40 m. N.L., was called Hopedale, in remembrance of those
brethren, who, in 1752, had erected their dwelling a little farther to
the south, at Nisbet's Harbour, and given it this name; the ruins of
which had been discovered in the exploratory voyage, 1775.

The appearance of the ships, which were now annually sent from England
to Labrador, was hailed with joy. They visited all the three
stations, supplied them with necessaries, and made considerable profit
by what they got in exchange. In the interim, the brethren held as
much intercourse as possible together, during summer, by the Esquimaux
boats that sail along the coast, and in winter, by travelling from one
station to another, in sledges drawn by dogs. The land-road was
extremely difficult on account of the steep rocky mountains. The way
over the frozen sea was much more easy and pleasant, but often
extremely dangerous, as, where it is not inclosed and fixed by the
islands, in changeable and stormy weather it is liable to be broken
up, and exposes the travellers to almost inevitable destruction. A
most remarkable interposition of providence in behalf of two of the
brethren, which occurred this year, will illustrate both the danger of
that mode of travelling, and the peculiar protection afforded by God
to those who have devoted their lives to his service. We shall relate
it in the words of the Rev. C.J. Latrobe, Secretary to the mission,
who compiled the narrative from the private journal of one of the

"Brother Samuel Liebisch being at that time entrusted with the general
care of the brethren's missions on the coast of Labrador; the duties
of his office required a visit to Okkak, the most northern of our
settlements, and about one hundred and fifty English miles distant
from Nain, the place where he resided. Brother William Turner being
appointed to accompany him, they left Nain on March the 11th, early in
the morning, with very clear weather, the stars shining with uncommon
lustre. The sledge was driven by the baptized Esquimaux Mark, and
another sledge with Esquimaux joined company. The two sledges
contained five men, one woman, and a child. All were in good spirits,
and appearances being much in their favour, they hoped to reach Okkak
in safety, in two or three days. The track over the frozen sea was in
the best possible order, and they went with ease at the rate of six or
seven miles an hour. After they had passed the islands in the bay of
Nain, they kept at a considerable distance from the coast, both to
gain the smoothest part of the ice, and to weather the high rocky
promontory of Kiglapeit. About eight o'clock they met a sledge with
Esquimaux turning in from the sea. After the usual salutations, the
Esquimaux alighting, held some conversation, as is their general
practice, the result of which was, that some hints were thrown out by
the strange Esquimaux that it might be as well to return. However, as
the missionaries saw no reason whatever for it, and only suspected
that the Esquimaux wished to enjoy the company of their friends a
little longer, they proceeded. After some time their own Esquimaux
hinted that there was a ground-swell under the ice. It was then hardly
perceptible, except on lying down and applying the ear close to the
ice, when a hollow disagreeable grating and roaring noise was heard,
as if ascending from the abyss. The weather remained clear except
toward the east, where a bank of light clouds appeared, interspersed
with some dark streaks; but the wind being strong from the north west,
nothing less than a sudden change of weather was expected.

"The sun had now reached his height, and there was as yet little or no
alteration in the appearance of the sky; but the motion of the sea
under the ice had grown more perceptible, so as rather to alarm the
travellers, and they began to think it prudent to keep closer to the
shore. The ice had cracks and large fissures in many places, some of
which formed chasms of one or two feet wide; but as they are not
uncommon even in its best state, and the dogs easily leap over them,
the sledge following without danger, they are only terrible to new

"As soon as the sun declined towards the west, the wind increased and
rose to a storm, the bank of clouds from the east began to ascend, and
the dark streaks to put themselves in motion against the wind. The
snow was violently driven about by partial whirlwinds, both on the ice
and from off the peaks of the high mountains, and filled the air. At
the same time, the ground-swell had increased so much, that its
effects upon the ice became very extraordinary and alarming. The
sledges, instead of gliding along smoothly upon an even surface,
sometimes ran with violence after the dogs, and shortly after seemed
with difficulty to ascend the rising hill; for the elasticity of so
vast a body of ice of many leagues square, supported by a troubled
sea, though in some places three or four yards in thickness, would in
some degree occasion an undulatory motion, not unlike that of a sheet
of paper accommodating itself to the surface of a rippling stream.
Noises were likewise now distinctly heard in many directions like the
report of cannon, owing to the bursting of the ice at some distance.

"The Esquimaux therefore drove with all haste towards the shore,
intending to take up their night's quarters on the south side of the
Uivak. But as it plainly appeared that the ice would break and
disperse in the open sea, Mark advised to push forward to the north of
Uivak, from whence he hoped the track to Okkak might still remain
entire. To this proposal the company agreed; but when the sledges
approached the coast, the prospect before them was truly terrific--the
ice having broken loose from the rocks, was forced up and down,
grinding and breaking into a thousand pieces against the precipices
with a tremendous noise, which, added to the raging of the wind, and
the snow driving about in the air, deprived the travellers almost of
the power of hearing and seeing any thing distinctly. To make the land
at any risk, was now the only hope left, but it was with the utmost
difficulty, that the frightened dogs could be forced forward--the
whole body of ice sinking frequently below the surface of the rocks,
then rising above it. As the only moment to land was that when it
gained the level of the coast, the attempt was extremely nice and
hazardous. However, by God's mercy, it succeeded; both sledges gained
the shore, and were drawn up the beach with much difficulty.

"The travellers had hardly time to reflect with gratitude to God on
their safety, when that part of the ice from which they had just made
good their landing, burst asunder, and the water, forcing itself from
below, covered and precipitated it into the sea. In an instant, as if
by a signal given, the whole mass of ice, extending for several miles
from the coast, and as far as the eye could reach, began to burst and
to be overwhelmed by the immense waves. The sight was tremendous, and
awfully grand--the large fields of ice, raising themselves out of the
water, striking against each other, and plunging into the deep with a
violence not to be described, and a noise like the discharge of
innumerable batteries of heavy guns. The darkness of the night, the
roaring of the wind and sea, and the dashing of the waves and ice
against the rocks, filled the travellers with sensations of awe and
horror, as almost to deprive them of the power of utterance. They
stood overwhelmed with astonishment at their miraculous escape, and
even the heathen Esquimaux expressed gratitude to God for their

"The Esquimaux now began to build a snow-house, about thirty paces
from the beach; but before they had finished their work, the waves
reached the place where the sledges were secured, and they were with
difficulty saved from being washed into the sea.

"About 9 o'clock all of them crept into the snow-house, thanking God
for this place of refuge; for the wind was piercingly cold, and so
violent, that it required great strength to be able to stand against

"Before they entered their habitation, they could not help once more
turning to the sea, which was now free from ice, and beheld with
horror, mingled with gratitude for their safety, the enormous waves
driving furiously before the wind, like huge castles, and approaching
the shore, where, with dreadful noise, they dashed against the rocks,
foaming, and filling the air with the spray. The whole company now got
their supper; and having sung an evening hymn in the Esquimaux
language, lay down to rest about ten o'clock. They lay so close, that
if any one stirred, his neighbour was roused by it. The Esquimaux were
soon fast asleep, but brother Liebisch could not get any rest, partly
on account of the dreadful roaring of the wind and sea, and partly
owing to a sore throat which gave him great pain. Both missionaries
were also much engaged in their minds in contemplating the dangerous
situation into which they had been brought, and amidst all
thankfulness for their great deliverance from immediate death, could
not but cry unto the Lord for his help in this time of need."

The wakefulness of the missionaries proved the deliverance of the
whole party from sudden destruction. About two o'clock in the morning,
brother Liebisch perceived some salt water to drop from the roof of
the snow-house upon his lips. Though rather alarmed on tasting the
salt, which could not proceed from a common spray, he kept quiet till
the same dropping became more frequently repeated. Just as he was
about to give the alarm, on a sudden a tremendous surf broke close to
the house, discharging a quantity of water into it; a second soon
followed, and earned away the slab of snow placed as a door before the
entrance. The missionaries immediately called aloud to the sleeping
Esquimaux to rise and quit the place. They jumped up in an instant.
One of them with a large knife cut a passage through the side of the
house; and each seizing some part of the baggage, it was thrown out
upon a higher part of the beach, brother Turner assisting the
Esquimaux. Brother Liebisch, and the woman and child, fled to a
neighbouring eminence. The latter was wrapped up by the Esquimaux in a
large skin, and the former took shelter behind a rock, for it was
impossible to stand against the wind, snow and sleet. Scarcely had the
company retreated to the eminence, when an enormous wave carried away
the whole house, but nothing of consequence was lost.

They now found themselves a second time delivered from the most
imminent danger of death; but the remaining part of the night, before
the Esquimaux could seek and find another more safe place for a snow
house, were hours of great trial to mind and body, and filled every
one with painful reflections. Before the day dawned, the Esquimaux cut
a hole into a large drift of snow, to screen the woman and child, and
the two missionaries. Brother Liebisch, however, could not bear the
closeness of the air, and was obliged to sit down at the entrance,
when the Esquimaux covered him with skins to keep him warm, as the
pain in his throat was very great.

As soon as it was light, they built another snow house; and miserable
as such an accommodation is at all times, they were glad and thankful
to creep into it. It was about eight feet square, and six or seven
feet high. They now congratulated each other on their deliverance, but
found themselves in very bad plight. The missionaries had taken but a
small stock of provisions with them, merely sufficient for the short
journey to Okkak. Joel, his wife and child, and Kassigiak the
sorcerer, had nothing at all. They were therefore obliged to divide
the small stock into daily portions, especially as there appeared no
hopes of soon quitting this place, and reaching any dwellings. Only
two ways were left for this purpose--either to attempt the land
passage across the wild and unfrequented mountain Kiglapeit, or to
wait for a new ice-track over the sea, which it might require much
time to form. They therefore resolved to serve out no more than a
biscuit and a half per man per day. But as this would not by any means
satisfy an Esquimaux's stomach, the missionaries offered to give one
of their dogs to be killed for them, on condition that in case
distress obliged them to resort again to that expedient, the next dog
killed should be one of the Esquimaux's team. They replied they should
be glad of it, if they had a kettle to boil the flesh in; but as that
was not the case, they must suffer hunger, for they could not even yet
eat dogs' flesh in its raw state. The missionaries now remained in the
snow-house, and every day endeavoured to boil so much water over their
lamp as might serve them for two dishes of coffee a piece. Through
mercy, they were preserved in good health, and brother Liebisch quite
unexpectedly recovered on the first day of his sore throat. The
Esquimaux also kept up their spirits, and even the rough heathen
Kassigiak declared that it was proper to be thankful that they were
still alive, adding, that if they had remained a very little longer
upon the ice yesterday, all their bones would have been broken to
pieces in a short time. He had however his heels frozen, and suffered
considerable pain. In the evening the missionaries sung an hymn with
the Esquimaux, and continued to do it every morning and evening. The
Lord was present with them, and comforted their hearts by his peace.

Towards noon of the thirteenth, the weather cleared up, and the sea
was soon, as far as the eye could reach, quite freed from ice. Mark
and Joel went up the hills to reconnoitre, and returned with the
disagreeable news that not a morsel of ice was to be seen even from
thence in any direction, and that it had been forced away from the
coast at Naasornak. They were therefore of opinion that nothing could
be done, but force their way across the mountain Kiglapeit. This day
Kassigiak complained much of hunger, probably to obtain from the
missionaries a larger proportion than the common allowance. They
represented to him that they had no more themselves, and reproved him
for his impatience. Whenever the victuals were distributed, he always
swallowed his portion very greedily, and put out his hand for what he
saw the missionaries had left, but was easily kept from any further
attempt by serious reproof. The Esquimaux eat to-day an old sack made
of fish skin, which proved indeed a dry and miserable dish. While they
were at this singular meal, they kept repeating in a low humming tone,
"You was a sack but a little while ago, and now you are food for us."
Towards evening, some flakes of ice were discovered driving towards
the coast, and on the 14th, in the morning, the sea was covered with
them. But the weather was again very stormy, and the Esquimaux could
not quit the snow-house, which made them very low-spirited and
melancholy. Kassigiak suggested that it would be well "to attempt to
make good weather," by which he meant to practise his art as a
sorcerer to make the weather good. The missionaries opposed it, and
told him that his heathenish practices were of no use, but that the
weather would become favourable as soon as it should please God.
Kassigiak then asked, "Whether Jesus could make good weather?" He was
told that to Jesus was given all power in heaven and in earth, upon
which he demanded that he should be applied to. Another time he said,
I shall tell my countrymen at Seglek enough about you, how well you
bear this misfortune. The missionaries replied, "Tell them that in the
midst of this affliction, we placed our only hope and trust in Jesus
Christ, our Saviour, who loves all mankind, and has shed his blood to
redeem them from eternal misery." To-day the Esquimaux began to eat an
old filthy and worn out skin, which had served them for a mattress.

On the 15th the weather continued extremely boisterous, and the
Esquimaux appeared every now and then to sink under disappointment.
But they possess a good quality, namely, a power of going to sleep
when they please, and if need be they will sleep for days and nights

In the evening, the sky became clear and their hope revived. Mark and
Joel went out to reconnoitre, and brought word that the ice had
acquired a considerable degree of solidity, and might soon be fit for
use. The poor dogs had meanwhile fasted for near four days, but now,
in the prospect of a speedy release, the missionaries allowed to each
a few morsels of food. The temperature of the air having been rather
mild, it occasioned a new source of distress; for by the warm
exhalations of the inhabitants, the roof of the snow-house got to be
in a melting state, which occasioned a continual dropping, and by
degrees made every thing soaking wet. The missionaries report, that
they considered this the greatest hardship they had to endure, for
they had not a dry thread about them, nor a dry place to lie down in.

On the 16th the sky cleared, but the fine particles of snow were
driven about like clouds. Joel and Kassigiak resolved to pursue their
journey to Okkak by the way of Nuasornak, and set out with the wind
and snow full in their faces. Mark could not resolve to proceed
farther north, because, in his opinion, the violence of the wind had
driven the ice off the coast at Tikkerarsuk, so as to render it
impossible to land; but he thought he might proceed to the south with
safety, and get round Kiglapeit. The missionaries endeavoured to
persuade him to follow the above mentioned company to Okkak; but it
was in vain, and they did not feel at liberty to insist upon it, not
being sufficiently acquainted with the circumstances. Their present
distress dictated the necessity of venturing something to reach the
habitations of men, and yet they were rather afraid of passing over
the newly frozen sea under Kiglapiet, and could not immediately
determine what to do. Brother Turner, therefore, went again with Mark
to examine the ice, and both seemed satisfied that it would hold. They
therefore came at last to a resolution to return to Nain, and commit
themselves to the protection of the Lord. On the 17th, the wind had
considerably increased with heavy showers of snow and sleet, but they
set off at half-past ten o'clock in the forenoon. Mark ran all the way
round Kiglapiet before the sledge to find a good track, and about one
o'clock, through God's mercy, they were out of danger and reached the
bay. Here they found a good track, upon smooth ice, made a meal of the
remnant of their provisions and got some warm coffee. Thus refreshed,
they resolved to proceed without stopping till they reached Nain,
where they arrived at twelve o'clock at night. The brethren at Nain
rejoiced exceedingly to see them return, for by several hints of the
Esquimaux, who first met them going out to sea, and who then, in their
own obscure way, had endeavoured to warn them of the ground swell, but
had not been attended to, their fellow missionaries, and especially
their wives, had been much terrified. One of these Esquimaux, whose
wife had made some article of dress for brother Liebisch, whom they
called Samuel, addressed sister Liebisch in the following manner:

"I should be glad of the payment for my wife's work." "Wait a little,"
answered she, "and, when my husband returns, he will settle with you,
for I am unacquainted with the bargain made between you." "Samuel and
William," replied the Esquimaux, "will not return any more to Nain."
"How, not return, what makes you say so?" After some pause, the
Esquimaux returned in a low tone, "Samuel and William are no more! all
their bones are broken and in the stomachs of the sharks." Terrified
at this alarming account, sister Liebisch called in the rest of the
family, and the Esquimaux was examined as to his meaning; but his
answer was little less obscure. He seemed so certain of the
destruction of the missionaries, that he was with difficulty prevailed
on to wait some time for their return. He could not believe that they
could have escaped the effects of so furious a tempest, considering
the course they were taking.

It may easily be conceived with what gratitude to God the whole family
at Nain bid them welcome. During the storm, they had considered with
some dread what might be the fate of those brethren, though at Nain
its violence was not felt so much as on a coast unprotected by any
islands. Added to this, the hints of the Esquimaux had considerably
increased their apprehensions for their safety, and their fears began
to get the better of their hopes. All therefore joined most fervently
in praise and thanksgiving to God for their signal deliverance.

In August 1783, Liebisch returned to Europe, and took his place in the
Unity's Elders Conference as a member, and Lister, with some
assistants, exercised the office of superintendant until 1786, when
John Christian Ludwig Rose was appointed to this office.


 Esquimaux visit the English settlements--pernicious
   consequences--dreadful accident--famine--unexpected supply of
   food and skins.--Emigration from Okkak--missionaries' care of the
   wanderers, who return disappointed.--Terrible tales from the
   south.--Inquirers separated from the heathen.--Popish priest
   attempts to seduce the converts.--Brother Rose inspects
   Hopedale.--Karpik the sorcerer.--Peter's fall.--Visits to the
   south renewed.--Parting address of the
   brethren.--Epidemic.--Death of Daniel--of Esther.--Conversion and
   peaceful end of Tuglavina.--Last days of Mikak.--Indians come to
   Hopedale.--Rose's remarks on the internal state of the
   missions.--Instances of the power of grace among the
   Esquimaux--striking observation of one of the
   baptized.--Jonathan's letter to the Greenlanders.--Affecting
   confession of Solomon.--Conduct of a young woman sought in
   marriage by a heathen.--State of the settlements at the close of
   the century.--Prospects begin to brighten.--Remarkable
   phenomenon.--Avocations of the missionaries--their
   trials--preservation of their vessels--of their
   settlements--their brotherly love.

Eleven years had the brethren now laboured for the conversion of the
Esquimaux amidst many difficulties and dangers, when circumstances
occurred which threatened to blast these fair hopes of success. In the
summer of 1782, the Esquimaux, for the first time since missionaries
had settled in the country, visited the English settlements in the
south. Tuglavina had persuaded Abraham, one of the baptized of Nain,
to go with him to Chateau Bay; and when they returned in October, they
reported that the Commander-in-chief had been quite overjoyed to see
baptized Esquimaux, and wished that more of them might come to visit
him, for he also had been baptized, and hoped that his soul after
death would go to heaven. He had reproved Mikak for not being
baptized, and warned then all against murders and adultery. Abraham
had bought a boat and still owed half of the price, yet he and
Tuglavina had each received a present of a musket and powder and ball,
nor had the women been sent empty away; also, while they were there,
they had had plenty to eat, a gratification of no minor importance.

By these splendid accounts of their kind reception, a general desire
was excited among their countrymen to go likewise to the south; and
the next consequence was, insolence and opposition to the missionaries
and teachers. If they were reminded to be sparing of their winter
provisions, they sarcastically replied, by reminding the brethren of
the manner in which Tuglavina and Abraham had been treated by the
"good" Europeans in the south; or if they came into the mission-house
and got nothing to eat, they immediately exclaimed, with the
Europeans in the south we can have plenty to eat. And when one was
turned out from the palasadoes, he angrily remarked, the Europeans
have no palasadoes. By these representations the greater part of the
baptized were seduced and deceived; the brethren with meekness
endeavoured to put them right, reminded them that at their baptism
they had promised to love Jesus only, and to follow him, not to leave
the congregation of the faithful, and to obey their teachers. They
also particularly described the dangers to which they would be exposed
in their journey to the south, and desired them to consider the
impressive warnings the Commander-in-chief had so lately given
them--but all was in vain.

In the following winter, a famine broke out among the Esquimaux in
Nain; their number amounted to eighty-two souls, whereof thirty-five
were baptized and candidates for baptism. All these looked to the
brethren when in want of the necessaries of life, who afforded them
assistance to the utmost of their ability; but received little thanks
for their kindness, for if they did not give them what they thought
enough, they upbraided them with the conduct of the good Europeans in
the south.

On the 4th December a dreadful accident happened at Ankpalluktak,
about six hours distant from Nain. A large mass of snow was
precipitated from a mountain and overwhelmed an Esquimaux winter
house, wherein were thirty persons, young and old. No one could escape
to tell the tale of their disaster or procure assistance; but it
happened, by the merciful providence of God, that Nathaniel, with
another Esquimaux, went to Ankpalluktak to bring Sirmek to Nain; to
their astonishment they found him lying half-frozen, unable either to
stand or walk, yet still alive. They then heard a voice from the midst
of the ruins, by which they perceived there were still some persons
alive beneath the snow; and hastening back to Nain with Sirmek, they
returned with additional hands, and the necessary tools from the
brethren. They soon found that there were more Esquimaux within, and
by great exertion and labour succeeded in extricating nine persons
from the rubbish, but one of them was so much bruised that she died
very soon after. By this visitation twenty-one persons lost their
lives. The Esquimaux were greatly alarmed by it for a little, but the
impression soon wore off, and all was forgotten.

In January and February 1783, the famine increased among the natives,
and the brethren redoubled their endeavours to supply their
necessities, which however appears only to have had the effect of
encouraging their indolence, for so long as they could get food in
this way they would not stir abroad, or make the least exertion to
supply their own wants. If urged to go in search of food, they alleged
that hunger prevented them; "for," said they, "when we go out and
catch nothing it makes us the more hungry." If advised to go and hunt,
they replied, "We have no gun." Yet did not this waywardness tire the
patient benevolence of the missionaries; but, like children of their
Father in heaven, who causeth his sun to rise on the evil and the
good, and sendeth rain on the just and unjust, when the famine had
reached its height, brother Lister sent to Okkak to fetch a sledge
load of dried fish.

Ere they arrived, news was brought that the Esquimaux in the island of
Kerniteksut, two hours distant from Nain, had been so fortunate as to
find a dead whale. On hearing this, the whole inhabitants of the
country hastened to the place to satisfy their hunger; an immense
number of foxes came for the same purpose; these they killed, and thus
the starving natives were supplied both with food and riches, the
skins of these animals forming a principal article of exchange with
the Europeans. But this last occurrence proved that wealth among
savages, as well as in more civilized countries, is not always a
blessing; it renewed anew the desire to go to the south, as the
greater part were now in circumstances to carry merchandize thither,
to barter with the good and kind Europeans. Nothing then was spoken of
but trade in the south, and they could hardly wait for the season to
undertake the journey. When the brethren visited them in the spring,
they treated them with the greatest indifference and even insolence;
the gospel of Jesus found no access to them; and though, through a
certain dread of the missionaries, which they could not cast off, they
were not so outrageously brutal as formerly; yet in secret they
returned to the indulgence of many of their vile practices.

Early in the approaching summer, more than eighty Esquimaux went from
the country round Nain to the south, among whom were nineteen of the
baptized, and even Peter, the first fruits of the mission, accompanied
them. The majority had determined to spend the winter there, and get
plenty to eat, and tobacco, and guns, and powder, and ball, and other
articles which they could not purchase so advantageously from the
brethren. From the country round Okkak too, above an hundred of the
natives went south in four boats, among whom were Luke and his family,
who were baptized.

When the brethren saw that the baptized would not be prevented from
going to the south, though sorely grieved, yet anxious for their
welfare in their ill advised expedition, they gave them a written
certificate, stating that they, the missionaries, had been sent there
by an agreement with the governor of Newfoundland, in the years 1771
and --2; that they had lived in love and concord with the Esquimaux,
and had no cause of complaint against them; that there was no other
reason for their present journey than the invitation of Europeans in
the south; then recommended them to the care and friendly treatment of
the colonists, and concluded by giving a short account of the progress
of the mission since its commencement.

At the new mission station, Hopedale, some beginnings of a stirring
among the heathen were perceived, but the same giddy infatuation which
had seized their countrymen laid hold on them also, and blasted this
pleasing prospect. A boatful of them undertook the voyage to the
south, while the others who remained, had their minds wholly

From this propensity of the Esquimaux to go to the colony, the outward
circumstances of the mission appeared to be in great danger. For as
the wanderers carried considerable quantities of merchandize to the
southern settlements, the home freight of the Society's ship, the
Amity, which consisted of the same articles, was much less this, than
it had been in any former year.

On the 5th of October five families of Arcktok came from Chateau Bay
back to Nain; they now spoke in a very different tone respecting the
"good and kind" Europeans; they had quarrelled with their friends, who
had seized their wives, and afterwards maltreated and threatened to
shoot themselves; while they, probably, had not altogether refrained
from their old thievish practices. The year before, they said, the
people in the south are better than you, they give us plenty to
eat;--now they said, "You are the _Innuit_, our true friends, we will
never leave you more."

The following year, 1784, Tuglavina arrived at Nain on the 6th of
September with three boats, on his return from Chateau Bay--the
accounts which he and others gave of their residence there pierced the
missionaries to their inmost souls. Of the nineteen baptized who went
south five had perished, David, Abraham, Moses, Timothy, and Deborah;
the latter, there was ground to hope, had a blessed departure. David
was drowned in a kaiak on the sea, and on this account, by the counsel
of old Nerkingoak, his sister Killatsiak was ordered to be burnt to
death. Abraham, while striking fire for this purpose, slightly wounded
his finger; but trifling as the hurt appeared, it brought him to his
miserable end. Moses was shot by Tuglavina. Timothy was likewise
assassinated. When Tuglavina touched at Hopedale, being asked, "Where
is Moses?" he coolly answered, "He is lost." "Where is he lost? is he
gone over the sea?" was next asked. "No! I have killed him," answered
the savage. "And wherefore did you kill him?" said they. "Because he
was good for nothing," was the careless reply. It was apparent,
however, that they had been murdered for the sake of their women.
Moses had three baptized wives, who were given or sold to three
northern men; Kathmina was purchased by her brother, Kekluana of
Pitteklaluk, for a great coat, a hatchet, a folding knife, and a
spoon. These conjugal bargains Tuglavina related to brother Lister,
quite unasked and without emotion; indeed his whole appearance was as
if he had been possessed by an evil spirit. The brethren slept none
that night for grief.

By such horrible occurrences the desire of the baptized to travel to
the south was somewhat checked, and the following year only a single
boat went thither. But the colony possessed particular attractions for
the natives; as there they could be supplied with muskets, powder, and
ball, which having learned the use of, had now become absolutely
necessary for them in hunting. The missionaries had, hitherto, doubted
the propriety of arming them with such dangerous weapons; but as they
could no longer be kept from them, they got themselves supplied with
them from England as articles of trade, to prevent, if possible, the
Esquimaux from making this a pretext for emigrating.

Daily observation more and more convinced the brethren of the injury
the baptized and the inquirers had sustained while they continued to
live among their heathen countrymen; the constant incitements to their
superstitious sinful customs, and to their heathenish juggling and
games, they were frequently little able to resist, especially when
their old inclinations were seconded by the calls of affection or
friendship. When, for example, some spell was to be tried on a sick
relative, and any of those who had been taught something of
Christianity opposed it, they were reproached with hating the invalid,
and wishing him dead. Another source of seduction to the half-informed
heathen, was the use which the Angekoks made of the little knowledge
of Christianity which they had obtained. These sorcerers, who are held
in great veneration and dread by the people, and whose atrocities, as
well as their pretended inspirations, render them objects of terror;
when they saw the influence of the missionaries, and felt their own
importance begin to shake, introduced into their incantations the name
of Jesus, whom they acknowledged to be a powerful supernatural being,
inferior only to Torngak--and the believers themselves were apt to
retain and to mix some of their old opinions with their new creed.

To preserve these tender plants from the contagious breath of a
heathen atmosphere, the brethren determined that in future, they
should have fixed habitations adjacent to their own dwelling, and they
erected houses in a substantial fashion not far from the missionary
station, into which they received no Esquimaux except such as
expressed their sincere resolution to renounce heathenism. In Hopedale
they had often experienced the baleful consequences of being in the
neighbourhood of the heathen at Avertok. This was peculiarly evident
from a declaration of some of the baptized who had spent the winter
among them. A meeting was called on the 12th April 1786, to consult
about the subject, when all the men inhabiting the station attended;
it was held in the open air, and as the weather was exceedingly fine,
continued for upwards of three hours. Here the brethren were informed
of the transactions which had taken place the winter before, and one
professed believer thought himself bound to make a confession of the
superstitious and sinful practices in which he had formerly engaged.
As these were among the actions and deeds which ought not so much as
to be named among Christians, the brethren strictly forbade any such
confessions in future, but particularly in public, and before the
heathen; who being strongly addicted to the same abominations, and
unable to distinguish between a penitent confession and an actual
approval, might be hardened in their sins by hearing such narratives,
which they would naturally conclude proceeded from the pleasure the
persons still took in practices they delighted to talk of.

A new trial, of perhaps a more distressing kind, afflicted the
brethren, from an attempt made by a Roman catholic priest to seduce
the baptized and the inquirers, by presenting them with a form of
Christianity which had some appearance to that they saw among the
Moravians, while it permitted an indulgence in those vices which the
doctrines of the latter could not tolerate. A warm and a flattering
invitation sent by a Frenchman named Macko, from Canada, who had an
establishment in the south at Avertok, awakened with redoubled force
the propensity of the Esquimaux to go to the south, though they now
could get shooting materials at the settlements, better, and on more
advantageous terms, than they could there. This Frenchman, who acted
not only as a merchant, but as a Roman catholic priest, made them the
most extravagant promises; and besides, he said he would pray daily
with them to Jesus, and that he had the most beautiful writings--_i.e_.
pictures--of the Saviour. In consequence, a company of thirty-two
persons, and among them fourteen of the baptized, went thither in the
summer of 1787, so that the number of inhabitants in Hopedale was
reduced from fifty-nine to thirty. Macko invited the Esquimaux to
worship God with him; this seemed more pleasant and convenient than to
remain under restraint with the brethren, for there they saw
"Christian" sailors who allowed themselves to follow every species of
sinful dissolute conduct. On their return they said, the Europeans have
meetings yonder as you have, and they have Jesus as you have here.

The repeated distressing accounts from the brethren of the apparently
insurmountable obstacles with which they had to struggle in attempting
the conversion of the heathen, gave occasion to the venerable Bishop
Spangenberg to write an impressive letter to the believing Esquimaux.
This letter was translated into their language, and read to the
baptized and the candidates for baptism at all the stations.

Particularly anxious to root out these heathenish weeds which were
chocking the growth of the good seed, Superintendant Rose, in 1787,
inspected Hopedale, where they appeared most thickly scattered, and
producing the most baneful effects. He spoke to every member of the
congregation separately; and when they had given their assent to the
contents of the letter, he made them, in a fellowship meeting,
solemnly promise to give up their feasts with their heathen
neighbours, and withdraw from the government of Kapik, a powerful
Angekok in Avertok. This sorcerer, whenever he chose, seduced the
Esquimaux to commit the greatest enormities, by threatening to kill
them through the power of Torngak, if they did not obey his commands.
But coming soon after to Hopedale, the missionary spoke seriously with
him, and extorted a reluctant promise from him to renounce his usurped
authority over the believers.

Although the journies to the south were a great hindrance to the
collecting of congregations, yet in all the three settlements some
were almost yearly added to the Christian church by baptism; and the
number of baptized, and candidates for baptism, in the year 1789,
amounted to about eighty. Yet, alas! even with the baptized little
fortitude and growth in grace could be observed--many deviated
grievously from the right path. In Nain, Nathaniel, a baptized
Esquimaux, had taken a baptized woman for a second wife and had gone
with her to the heathen, with whom a plurality of wives is very
common, and is considered as a mark of superiority; he being
considered a great man who possesses two or three wives, and as soon
as any one possesses a European boat he is, according to the opinion
of the country, in circumstances to have at least four helpmates. Even
Peter had so far again sunk into heathenism, that he had taken
several, and among others, a mother and her daughter. Bishop
Spangenberg was so touched with the case of this poor wanderer that he
wrote him, representing the nature of his conduct in the most
affectionate manner, and earnestly exhorting him to return. When the
letter was read to him at Nain, 1779, he said Joseph has spoken pure
truth, and I love him for it; his words are right, but I require the
women for my boat and I cannot send them away. He was again put in
remembrance of the letter in the following year, when he assured the
brethren it had made such an impression on him that he could not sleep
for three nights; but he continued in his evil course of conduct, and
still kept the mother and the daughter among his wives. He went
afterwards to the south, where he remained two or three winters, but
whether he ever obtained repentance must remain a secret till "that

Reports of many horrible murders committed in the north in the year
1790 having reached the brethren, they were not a little comforted by
the remark of an Esquimaux living at one of the settlements, "As many
murders," said he, "would have been committed here if you had not come
and brought us the good word of our Creator becoming our Redeemer, of
his great love to us, and of our duty to love him and our neighbour."

A strong desire to travel to the south became again prevalent among
the Esquimaux in the summer of 1791; they said one could get a large
boat there for a small price, and plenty to eat, as the Europeans
caught the seals in nets and gave away the flesh for nothing, and they
gave them also bread and rum at a low rate, and all this was good for
the _Innuit_. A hundred persons, of whom fifteen were baptized, and
three candidates for baptism, went from Nain and Okkak in eleven
boats. The sad experience of former years had shewn the brethren the
destructive effects that the frequent dispersion, and the constant
intercourse with their heathen countrymen and careless Europeans, had
in bewildering the Esquimaux, and erasing all their religion; they
therefore determined at parting to give them a serious and
affectionate admonition. In this they reminded them that the members
of the congregation, in going away, were departing from what they had
heard of the Saviour, and what they had promised at their baptism, and
from what the ordinance of the holy supper required them to be. That
they--the missionaries--ever since the time of their backsliding, had
never ceased to cry to the Saviour, as they well knew that he was
merciful and gracious, and would again receive repenting sinners; that
though they would not now follow the counsel of their teachers, and
would separate from them, yet it might be, that when they were in
necessity or affliction, they might think on what they had heard of
Jesus, and take refuge in him; and then, though their bodies should
return to the dust, their souls, purchased by his precious blood,
would be saved. One of the baptized replied that he knew all that, and
understood it quite well, but he must be allowed to follow his own
discretion. He promised, however, at parting, that he would continue
to love his teachers--would think on their words, and if he should die
in the south, he would order that his baptized children should be sent
back to the congregation and put under their care.

During the winters 1796 and 1797, an infectious disease visited all
the settlements, a violent cough, accompanied with fever and pleurisy;
it attacked both Europeans and Esquimaux, but proved fatal chiefly to
the latter, and lasted for about two months; at Nain it was so
universal, that when they met together they could not proceed, as the
coughing rendered the service altogether unintelligible. When an
Esquimaux is taken ill, he expects, from any medicine that may be
prescribed, an immediate cure, and if this does not take place grows
dejected; and now, fears at the thoughts of death, which are deeply
rivetted, shewed themselves even in believers. The missionaries were
assiduous in their attendance, and in using every means they possessed
for their cure; but learned, to their inexpressible grief, that the
impatience of some also who had received the gospel, led them to
follow the old superstitious ways of the sorcerers to procure relief,
and this at the very time when they were professing to follow
implicitly the prescriptions of the brethren. They were very cautious,
however, lest it should reach the missionaries' ears; nor do the
latter seem to have been aware of it, till one of the communicants at
Okkak, constrained by uneasiness of mind, confessed the whole with
many tears, saving that he had grievously sinned against the Lord. The
hypocrisy and equivocation which many, of whom they had hoped better
things, evinced, added greatly to the anguish of the missionaries; but
they had great consolation in the death of others, who departed happy
in the faith to their Saviour. Among these was Daniel, a communicant;
he said in his last illness, "All the things I had confidence in are
now in the depths of the sea, my only refuge is the Saviour; all my
thoughts rest on him." The widow Esther, however, deserves particular
notice; she was bred at Kilanok north from Okkak, and when a child
came on a visit to Nain in 1773, where she and her countrymen heard
for the first time the missionaries speak of the Creator and Redeemer
of men; this made a great impression upon her, and though a child, and
surrounded only by the heathen, it constantly occurred to her mind,
"It is he who made all things and knows all things; he, therefore,
knows me and can help me." Often she told the missionaries, that when
she was at Kilanok, she would go out to a mountain and weep and pray
to Jesus, particularly when any thing painful happened to her. After
her father's death a man took her for his third wife, which placed her
in the most painful circumstances, as he was a rude wicked wretch, a
sorcerer, and a murderer. In the year 1787 he died, and she was left
with two children completely destitute, for every one hated them on
his account. Her children were so dreadfully beaten that they both
died in consequence; but though they were thus cruelly treated in her
presence she durst not interfere, as the savages in ridicule
pretended it was the Torngak that bid them, and threatened her also
with death. At last Rebecca, one of the baptized, had compassion on
her in this disconsolate situation, and brought her to Okkak. Here the
missionaries soon perceived such an earnest desire after salvation as
they say they had never before seen in any Esquimaux, though she at
first spoke but little. In 1789, she was baptized, and soon after was
a partaker of the holy supper. She lived in constant communion with
her Saviour, for she had learned to know him as her comforter, her
counsellor and help, and often said, "He is indeed my Father; wherever
I go, and wherever I am, he is with me, and I can tell him every
thing." Esther was the first converted person among the Esquimaux who
continued faithful unto the end, without allowing herself in any thing
sinful, and though often asked in marriage by unbelievers, so far was
she from listening to such proposals, that her reply was, "I would not
disturb my present enjoyment even to marry a believer." For had she
married, she must have gone in summer with the other Esquimaux to the
distant places where they procured their furs and skins, while in her
present state she could always remain at the settlement, and enjoy
the privileges of a Christian church. She learned to read and write,
so that she wrote letters with her own hand to the sisters at Nain. In
June 1792, when she was taken ill, she sweetly repeated, "Whether I
live I am the Saviour's, whether I die I am the Saviour's--living or
dying I am the Saviour's! Yes! he hath bought me with his blood, and
he will take me to himself!" She died after three days illness, aged
thirty years.

About this time the hearts of the missionaries were revived by the
joyful news, that Tuglavina had begun to think about his soul, and
seemed in earnest. This furious savage, by strength, courage, and
activity, had procured a commanding influence among his countrymen;
who so highly dreaded him as a chief, and trembled at his supernatural
powers as an Angekok, that his word was a law; and he had only to
signify to them his pleasure as a revelation from Torngak, when it was
instantly executed. Whoever he pointed out as a victim, his deluded
followers were ready to sacrifice. Besides the numerous murders thus
perpetrated, he committed many with his own hands; nor was there any
method of controlling or bringing him to an account. He had, however,
at first, and upon many occasions, been of essential service to the
mission; and entertained a peculiar respect for the missionaries,
particularly "little Jans," of which a striking instance is narrated
in the journals. At one time, when he returned from the south from
Chateau Bay, where he had purchased a two masted shallop, arms and
ammunition, &c. he presented himself before Haven dressed in an
English officer's old uniform, swaggering with a cocked hat, and sword
by his side. Haven, with a grave aspect looking him in the face,
asked, "What do you want here, Kablunat?" "Do you not know me?"
replied the other, "I am Tuglavina." "Art thou Tuglavina?" retorted
Jans, "then set off this moment, I have nothing to say to you in that
attire; but put on thy own dress, and come again and act like a
rational Esquimaux, and I will speak to you." Tuglavina, confounded,
made no reply, but left the room; and without regarding the pitiful
figure he was about to cut before his countrymen, laid aside his
splendid apparel, resumed his seal skin clothes, and returned to the
missionaries. These holy men, who neglected no opportunity of
representing to him the guilt of his crimes, now pointed out the
atrocity of the murders he had committed, or occasioned, and sharply
reproved him for seducing the baptized to participate with him in his
heathenish abominations. Tuglavina trembled, grew pale, and confessed
he was an horrible sinner; but, like some men who call themselves
Christians, excused himself on the ground of necessity. "I must sin,"
said he, "for Torngak drives me to it." He frequently repeated this
confession of his sins; but dazzled by the respect in which he was
held by his countrymen, it was extremely difficult for him to think of
relinquishing this flattering distinction, and humble himself under
the mighty hand of God. But at length the time came when this once
dreaded chieftain must lose his influence. His bodily vigour began to
decline, and he saw and feared an enemy in every one of those whose
relations he had murdered. He began to grow poor, and his numerous
wives either deserted him or were carried away by force; of the whole
number one only clave to him in his adversity. Amid this extraordinary
change of circumstances conscience awoke, and in his desolate state he
had nothing with which to still its voice--his sins and his evil deeds
stood in array before him, and he resorted to the brethren for
consolation. He declared his resolution now cordially to renounce
heathenism; and in October 1793, was permitted, with his wife and
children, to reside at Nain.

Though he experienced many changes, yet at last the grace of God
triumphed over this great sinner, and he remained firmly opposed to
all the importunities of his friends, who, upon his returning
prosperity, used every artifice to decoy him to another southern
journey. Formerly, when living in the south, he had a dangerous
illness; and, at the request of the governor of Chateau Bay, he had
been baptized by an English minister and got the name of William. On
Christmas-day he was received into the brethren's congregation; and on
the 2d of April 1795, admitted as a communicant to the Lord's table.
His conduct after this, and his expressions of gratitude for the mercy
bestowed on him by the Lord, who had forgiven him his sins and
received him graciously, proved very pleasing and encouraging to the
brethren. But afterwards they perceived, with grief, that he began to
entertain high thoughts of himself, which made them apprehend some
lurking deviation. And so it proved; for being led into temptation, he
conducted himself in such a manner as obliged them to exclude him from
the holy communion. But he soon acknowledged it with deep contrition,
and sought and found forgiveness with the Saviour, and was then
re-admitted to the Lord's supper. He now took every opportunity of
telling his countrymen what Jesus had done for him; "because," said
he, "I am anxious that many more should he converted to him."

On the 29th September 1799, he returned home from a rein-deer hunt
sick of a pleurisy; and the disorder increased on the following day so
much, that all the remedies applied were in vain. From the very first
the brethren suspected that his illness would end in his dissolution,
and mentioned to him their fears without reserve; on which he declared
that he was ready to go to Jesus, and hoped his Saviour would not
despise him. One of the brethren was constantly with him; and, at his
request, sung verses expressive of the change in view, in which he
joined as long as he was able. He frequently testified that he was
happy, and put all his confidence in our Saviour alone; "and we," say
the missionaries, "felt the peace of God attending his sick-bed." He
breathed his last, October 4th, in the most gentle manner, while the
waiting brother was engaged in prayer. "A singular object," says the
missionary diary, "of the mercy of our Saviour, who followed him
through all his perverse and wicked ways with infinite patience and
long-suffering, until at last he drew him to himself. He was sixty
years of age."

Before this Mikak died. She had resided chiefly in the south since the
year 1783, and thus lost the advantage of hearing the gospel, which
she seemed latterly to view with indifference. But on the approach of
death her impressions revived. The last two days of her life she spent
at Nain. Immediately on her arrival, being very ill, she sent to
Brother Burghardt, to request assistance and advice. He found her
extremely weak, and apparently without hopes of recovery. However,
after giving her some medicine, he took occasion to speak seriously
with her concerning the state of her soul, advising her to return to
Jesus Christ as a repentant sinner, who will surely receive all poor
prodigals, if with their hearts they confess their deviations; and he
also reminded her of the promises she had formerly made to devote her
whole heart to him. She assented to the truth of all he said, and
exclaimed, "Ah! I have behaved very bad, and am grieved on that
account; but what shall I do? I cannot find Jesus again!" Brother
Burghardt exhorted her not to desist from crying to him for mercy,
for he came to seek and save the lost, and would not cast her out. In
the following days she seemed to receive these admonitions with
eagerness, and declared that she had not forgotten what she had heard
of her Saviour in former days, nor what she had promised when she
became a candidate for baptism. She departed this life Oct 1; and was
buried in the brethren's burying ground; and they were willing to
entertain the hope that this straying sheep had found mercy at last.

Ever since the brethren had been in Labrador, they had heard the
Esquimaux speak of Indians in the interior, of whom they seemed
greatly afraid; frequently a sudden terror would be diffused among
their tribes, if they discovered any trace of that formidable people
near them. But in the summer of 1798, they were alarmed with the
certain intelligence that five or six of their families had arrived at
a European settlement, at Kippakak, about five or six miles distant
from Hopedale; and in April 1799, some of them for the first time paid
the mission-station a visit. They were a father and son, who came with
the design of buying tobacco from the brethren. They lived with some
Christians of French extraction in the southern settlements, and had
been baptized by a French priest. All the Esquimaux immediately
gathered round the strangers, and eyed them as objects of jealous
curiosity. The old man appeared exceedingly alarmed at this, and was
extremely glad when the brethren invited him and his son into the
mission-house. The latter understood the Esquimaux language and
English; but the father, when any one wished to speak with him,
pointed to his ears, giving them to understand that he could hear
nothing. When food was placed before them they took off their caps and
crossed themselves; and before they went to bed they kneeled down and
repeated a long prayer.

An Esquimaux wished them to lodge in his house, but when they came to
the door they would not enter; the old man began to tremble, and made
signs that they would rather sleep in the bushes. As the brethren
tried to quiet them, the son cried out in the Esquimaux language,
"They are so filthy," and added in English, "We cannot sleep with the
Esquimaux, nor eat out of their dirty vessels. We have been accustomed
to live as cleanly as the Europeans." The brethren, who saw that they
were afraid of the great number of the Esquimaux, but wished to
conceal their terror under the pretence of disgust at their
filthiness, showed them into one of their own workshops, where beds
were quickly prepared.

The following morning they asked them if they knew any thing of the
crucified Jesus, in whose name they had been baptized; and showing
them a picture of the Saviour's crucifixion, told them that he had
suffered thus, and died that they might not everlastingly perish. The
history of Jesus seemed not unknown to them; and they said, that they
would not go down into the fire, but up into glory. As they saw a book
lying on the table, they said, their priests, morning and evening,
read kneeling, from such a book, that all the people listened to them,
and in their meetings they made the sign of the cross. They also said
that a great many Indians lived not far from thence, who, for fear of
the Europeans, never ventured near the coast; that they had no
fire-arms, but used bows and arrows in hunting. They wore a thin
dress, evidently not calculated for a cold climate; their skin was
brown, their hair black, and their features bore a greater resemblance
to the Europeans than the Esquimaux. The morning after, they prepared
to return; and on taking leave, reached over their hands to the
brethren, and said, "You shall in future see more Indians." Since then
the terror of the Esquimaux for the Indians, and their enmity towards
them, have been greatly diminished.

Frederick Burghardt being appointed superintendant of the mission in
room of Rose, who, after twelve years' service, returned to Europe,
the latter, before leaving, transmitted home the following remarks on
the internal state of the mission at the close of the year 1799. "It
is the cause of great pain and grief to me and my sister, and my
spirit often sinks within me, when I see those on whom the greatest
care and faithful labour has been bestowed, so easily fall back to
their heathenish practices; and who, if they are not treated with the
greatest patience and tenderness, would be wholly carried away. In
these cases it always occurs to me, how would the Saviour have acted
with such persons? The hypocrisy that appears in many is abominable,
and could we have received them upon a mere verbal profession of love
to the doctrine of Jesus, we might in a short time have baptized the
whole nation, as far as we could reach. Many would have come here to
live, but we were obliged to prevent them, and many expressed a desire
to be converted, though they felt little interest in the subject, and
did not so much as know what conversion meant. Others, who had
obtained rather more knowledge, and whose relations lived here, would
pretend to be converted, and these we would receive in hope, but they
only proved sources of affliction and sorrow. When I read the reports
of other missions, and reflect on the little fruit of our many years'
labour, how my heart is grieved, and I say, 'Ah! why is the hour of
visitation to the Esquimaux so long delayed!' I expect not this for
any faithful labours of ours--for when I think on them, I can only
pray and entreat the Lord Jesus to forgive our great guilt, our many
errors and mistakes in His service--but HE shall see of the travail of
his soul and shall be satisfied; this makes me many times think, and
why not among the Esquimaux? With all this, however, I am constrained
to render thanks to the Saviour for what he has done in winning souls
for himself even here, for there are a few who have received
forgiveness of sins, who know the Saviour, and live in the enjoyment
of communion with him. O! that this were the case with all the
baptized; it is, however, with the greater part; although, alas! there
are others who do not yet feel heathenish customs to be a burden, and
many that, having tasted the good word of God, have been deceived and
involved in the commission of sin."

Of those who appeared truly converted there are some delightful
examples in the diary of 1799, who evince the power of the grace of
God; though the missionary, under a sense of his own unworthiness,
cried out, "My leanness! my leanness!" It is a practice with the
missionaries, occasionally, to read to the Esquimaux extracts from the
accounts of other missions, particularly those of Greenland, that
nation having so great a resemblance to themselves, in their language,
manners, and way of procuring their livelihood; these generally give
rise to interesting conversations, and draw from the natives some
striking remarks. At Nain, upon an occasion of this kind, one of the
baptized observed, "If we had so far advanced in grace, that our walk
and conversation shone as a light among our heathen countrymen; and if
some who are baptized had not, after their baptism, behaved again as
bad as the heathen themselves, we should soon see an increase of our
number; for the heathen would soon perceive the difference between a
believer and an infidel, and seek to obtain the same happiness, but we
ourselves are in fault." Upon a similar occasion Jonathan--of whom the
missionaries write, "He is, without a particular commission, a
faithful assistant among his nation, and proves useful in averting
much mischief, and in exhorting them to obedience to the
Saviour,"--dictated the following remarkable letter to the believing

"My brethren and sisters, you who live on the other side of the water,
and are baptized, I salute you by these lines, and send my words to
you in the name of Jesus. When I hear your words come forth out of the
written accounts, I ardently desire to be a partaker of your faith;
for whenever these writings are read to us, my heart begins to burn
within me. Of that long period since my baptism, (fifteen years) I can
reckon but about three years during which I have had solid and
constant thoughts towards Jesus; and have begun to enjoy my Saviour's
peace in my heart. I reflect also, that the time of my life in this
world may possibly be soon past, since I begin to grow old. At the
time when I was baptized I was still very ignorant, and for some time
after walked in error and darkness. But now, I cleave with my whole
heart to Jesus, my Lord and God, and weep for desire after him. I
search my heart frequently, and examine my conduct on account of my
sinfulness; for I find myself exceedingly depraved and sinful,
therefore it is my concern that I may never lose sight of him again.
Of myself I am not able to abide faithful; but Jesus my lover will
help and protect me.

"I will relate to you something of my chief wanderings and perverse
ways in which I have lived:--I was not clever enough to have to do
with Satan, and to use sorceries; but I have lived in the sins of the
flesh--from these I have now ceased, for I perceive I should be worse
than a beast if I were to go to the holy communion, to partake of the
body and blood of Jesus, with a heart defiled with such impurities.
Henceforth I could not bear to be separated from my teachers, for I
think thus--Why was Jesus crucified and put to death? Surely for this
cause, because he would atone for me, an exceeding sinful creature.
When I was a poor orphan child, for I have seen neither father nor
mother, then Jesus became my father. As long as I live I will not
forget him, and even in eternity I shall be with Him.

"I sometimes think, if I were with you and beheld your faith, I should
be much more happy and cheerful than I am now; however, though I be
ever so needy--be it so--yet, like Thomas, I will call him my Lord and
my God! This, 'tis true, I cannot do of myself; but when I continue
asking it as a favour he grants it me, and I experience it.

"With respect to my countrymen, I must tell you, that they often
grieve me when they will not follow my advice. I do not say this as if
I fancied myself to be a man of importance, for I will gladly be the
meanest of these before the eyes of Jesus. When I think on my former
resistance and stiff-necked behaviour in the work of conversion, I
could strike myself. It causes deep sorrow and repentance within me,
when I consider that I have been most faithfully instructed by my
teachers for so many years, and yet have been like one that had no
ears to hear. But now, not my ears only are unstopped to hear and
understand the doctrine of Jesus and the hymns we sing, but I feel
that what I hear and learn penetrates into my heart, and since I am
thus inwardly affected, warmed, and enlivened, I am the more
astonished and amazed at the change, when recollecting, that I have
been so hard and callous, that whenever any of my nearest relations
departed this life, being taken from my side by death, I was not able
to weep a tear for them; but now I can shed a flood of tears, both
from a fervent desire of living intimately attached to Jesus, and for
delight and pleasure to think what happiness I should enjoy if
incessantly thus disposed. However, since I am so poor and defective,
I find that I cannot procure it by my own efforts; but I am taught
that I may yet enjoy this constant happiness, by entreating our
Saviour for it to-day, to-morrow, and every day. As long as I am on
this earth, I shall remain like a sick one, and be always apt to
stray; for my heart is naturally untoward and hard as a stone, but
when Jesus softens it, then it becomes truly soft and tender. Ah! that
I had not such corrupted senses! yet, being conscious that I am
constantly in danger on account of my depravity, I am determined
faithfully to attend to the gospel, and to my teachers, to be guided
and advised by them and to follow after righteousness. When I search
my own heart, I still find many things condemnable in the sight of
Jesus, of which I had never thought before. Hear these my poor words
to you in love. JONATHAN."

At Okkak, Solomon, a baptized man, thus complained to the brethren: "I
will now utter words of truth only. I am unhappy because I cannot
regain that state of mind I enjoyed when I was baptized. There is as
it were a dark shadow between me and our Saviour; this is the only
thing that gives me pain at present. I feel, 'tis true, some desire
after Jesus, but I cannot always pray to him. This is, alas, my case,
for whole days together, and yet I cannot live without him. I know,
also, that it was he alone who first saved me from my evil ways, for
neither you nor I could do it!" Here he was so much affected, that he
burst into tears. The missionaries encouraged him, and bid him not
cast away his confidence in Jesus; for since he, according to his own
confession, had bestowed such mercy upon him, he might believe and be
sure, that he would not suffer him to weep in vain for a new
manifestation of his love towards him.

There is not, perhaps, any surer test of a young woman's Christianity
than the choice she makes of an husband; and the missionaries were
highly gratified in this respect, with the conduct of a young girl, a
candidate for baptism. When the winter meetings were resumed, she
expressed her joy, for she was desirous of learning the doctrine of
Jesus, and wished to know and love him more; and she said she was
resolved never again to leave the fellowship of believers. Her
resolution was almost immediately tried; a heathen, from Kivalek,
proposed marriage to her, but she at once declared she would never
take a husband who would lead her astray from God and his people.
Some time after, her parents, Joseph and Justina, came from Okkak to
Nain, to inquire whether Anauke, who seems to have been a rich
Esquimaux, was a candidate for baptism, or had ever spoken to the
missionaries on the subject of conversion; and when informed that he
had not, they said that since their daughter had declared her
attachment to the believers, and her purpose to live with Jesus, they
would never bestow her upon a stranger. On which the missionaries
observe, "Whoever knows the natural dispositions and habits of the
Esquimaux, will, from this instance, see that there is a manifest
influence of the Spirit of God in their hearts, to cause them to act
with such willing conformity to the doctrine of the Scriptures, and
such attention to their souls' welfare."

As the century closed, the prospects of the missionaries brightened,
and they therefore with greater earnestness entreated the prayers of
their brethren. "The more we perceive," say they, "our own
insufficiency, the more we perceive how much we stand in need of the
support and prayers of God's children, in this our important calling,
to win to Christ, souls, harder than the rocks on which they dwell,
and to be melted only by the fire of his love unto death." "We find
every year," was the report from Okkak, "when we receive the various
accounts from our congregations, abundant cause to rejoice over all
the manifold proofs of His grace and faithfulness towards them; and as
to ourselves, we may confidently assert, that his goodness towards us
has been daily new. He has granted us the grace to preach him to the
Esquimaux, both living in our land and elsewhere, as the Saviour of
men, who will have all men to be saved, and come to the knowledge of
the truth, with courage and with joyful hearts, though under a sense
of our own poverty and weakness;" and many heathen, who came hither
from a great distance from the north for the sake of trade, heard it
with attention. There was also a particular awakening among the
baptized, who expressed an ardent desire to be admitted to partake of
the Lord's supper, and they in general acknowledged to the praise of
the Lord, that he had owned their small Esquimaux flock, and blessed
them with his presence. The state of the settlement at Nain was
equally pleasing. "We have had much joy," the missionaries write, "in
observing the course of our small Esquimaux congregation; having
perceived that they are more and more desirous to live in a manner
acceptable to God, and to be cleansed from all those things which
might grieve the Holy Spirit, and be a disgrace to the cause of our
Saviour. In our meetings we frequently experience his gracious
presence, and, more than ever before, felt the true spirit of a
congregation of Jesus, especially during two baptismal transactions we
have had. It proves a great encouragement to us, when we see that
people, who, only a short time ago, hardly knew that there exists a
divine Being, and lived in all manner of sin and abomination, now that
they have learned to know the Saviour, shed tears from a sense of God
in their hearts, and of their fellowship with him as their Redeemer."
Nor was Hopedale less favoured. "We can declare to you with joy," was
the language of missionaries in their letters to England, "that there
has been a manifest work of God and his Spirit upon the souls of the
Esquimaux in the year past. Most of them are in a hopeful state, and
intent upon cleaving to the Lord, that they may partake of the
blessings he has purchased for us by his bitter sufferings and death."

Of four families at Arvertok, not far from Hopedale, consisting of
thirty persons, the greater part were awakened to a concern for their
soul's conversion, by a remarkable appearance in the sky, which was
repeated three times, particularly on the night of January 14th. It
consisted of a vast quantity of inflammable matter in the air, which
seemed to ascend from all parts of the horizon, and then to pour
itself towards the earth, in immense fiery rays and balls. Karpik and
his people, who first saw the phenomenon, ran to Hopedale in the
greatest agitation and amazement, and awakened the Esquimaux there,
with the awful intelligence that the world was at an end. They, upon
suddenly rising from bed, struck with the spectacle, imagined that the
stars were falling from heaven, and that they were the signs which
announced the near approach of the Lord, as he had foretold. Karpik
cried out in agony, "Let us turn with our whole hearts to our
Saviour--this is the hour;" and began to pray aloud to Jesus, to sing
hymns, and to entreat, with the greatest concern, all his household to
unite with him.

These Esquimaux now attended the meetings daily, and evinced by their
conduct a change in their minds; for they were not only anxious
themselves about their eternal concerns, but were desirous that their
children should also regard them. Instead of preventing them as
formerly, they now intreated that they might be allowed to send them
to school, which from this time was well attended by both old and
young. Among the primary objects of the brethren is the instruction of
the youth. Old trees are ill to bend, but the tender sapling is more
easily impressed, and there are peculiar promises to bless the
instruction of children, and to encourage to a patient and proper
performance of a very trying, and not unfrequently a very irksome
task. But while the brethren communicate to their interesting charge
the elements of knowledge, they employ as the grand instrument for
shaping their characters, the word of the gospel of Christ, and
subject their pupils to a moral training, without which, the mere
communication of knowledge, whether sacred or profane, is often a
curse rather than a blessing. So soon as they had attained a
sufficient knowledge of the language, the missionaries composed
elementary books, and for those who were farther advanced they
translated a history of the sufferings of Jesus, which was gratefully
received by those who could read and eagerly listened to by those who
could not.

About three months after this occurrence, Karpik declared that he was
now in his heart convinced that the blood of Jesus could blot out his
exceeding great sins--that he wept daily before him, entreating him to
wipe away his iniquities, and declared that the ardent desire of his
soul was to cleave more closely to the Saviour; that he was resolved
to follow him only, and to give up all connection with the
unbelievers. And he was diligent in speaking to all the strangers who
passed that way, beseeching and exhorting them to turn to the Lord.

When the century closed, after thirty years' labour, the missionaries
at the three different stations had the pleasure of numbering two
hundred and twenty-eight resident Esquimaux under their care, of whom
one hundred and ten were baptized. This involved them in various other
avocations. They had not only to instruct them in matters of religion,
but to teach them habits of industry and of economy and to show them
the example; they induced them to build, and assisted them in
building, substantial houses; they made them tools for working and
implements for fishing[F] and gardening, which last process they had
to superintend and to direct. Besides, they erected and kept in repair
their own dwellings, cultivated their own gardens, fabricated tools
for themselves, and used every exertion to lessen the demand for, or
supply the deficiency of their European food. They had also to collect
and bring home firewood for their domestic purposes--no small labour;
and to fell timber and build boats for the purposes of barter, as they
took nothing gratuitous from the natives, heathen or Christian.

Since the mission commenced, they had, in the mysterious ways of
providence, lost two missionaries by shipwreck; and in 1800, they were
tried with the loss of another, in a yet more distressing manner. One
of their new assistants, Rieman, on the 2d December, had gone out to
hunt alone, and had wandered, but whither was never known, as he never
returned; nor, though diligent search was made for him five successive
days, could any traces be found.

During the period that had elapsed since the foundation of the
mission, they had been repeatedly tried both by pestilence and famine,
but they now found their heavenly Father a ready help in every time of
need. In one season, when the seal-catching had entirely failed, and
the Esquimaux were deprived of the means of subsistence for the
winter, the brethren joined with them in crying aloud to God for help,
and he so directed it, that in a short time two dead whales were
found, which preserved them from starving. The missionary families
depended chiefly upon the supplies from Europe for their healthful
subsistence, and it is an instance of the superintending providence of
a gracious God which these missionaries acknowledged with humble
thankfulness, that the voyages of the vessels which carried their
stores, were never interrupted by storms or enemies. The Amity was
preserved so long as employed in the service, but the very year when
about to quit it on her return home, she was taken by the French, yet
was restored without much detriment. And the Harmony, which had been
purchased to supply her place, had now for more than twenty-six years
traversed the wild and icy ocean, amid sunken rocks and in the sight
of enemies, without accident.[G] The missionary settlements during
this period, had been threatened with an attack from the French. Two
of their ships of war arrived on the coast in 1796, but having landed
at Chateau Bay, after plundering and burning that town and blowing up
the fort, they were mercifully restrained from harming the more
peaceful habitations of the brethren.

In concluding the account of this past century, it is impossible not
to notice the extraordinary spirit of love and of Christian affection
which pervaded the missionaries in Labrador and their brethren in
Europe; they loved each other with pure hearts fervently; and it is
remarkable, and worthy of peculiar observation, that before these
servants of God were honoured to carry the tidings of the gospel to
the heathen, a spirit of love for the brethren, and for all the
members of the body of Christ, was poured out largely upon the
churches at home.

Twenty-six missionaries were employed in Labrador in the year 1800.


[Footnote F: This refers to them making their nets for catching
salmon-trout, of which there are immense numbers. In 1798, in six
nights, 5000 were taken, and in 1799 they got 1800 at one haul.]

[Footnote G: The Brethren's Society in London, now undertook to supply
the missions, and relieved the merchants from a losing concern; they
built the brig Harmony of 133 tons, which made her first voyage, 1787,
under Captain James Fraser, and continued to sail in safety till 1802,
when she was laid aside, and the Resolution was employed.]


 Variable appearances of the mission at Nain and Okkak--more
   favourable at Hopedale.--Death of Benjamin.--Spirit of love
   among the converted.--Happy communion and close of the
   year.--Providential escape of the Resolution.--New epoch in
   Labrador.--A remarkable awakening commences at
   Hopedale--meetings--schools.--Letter from a converted Esquimaux
   to his teacher.--Industry of the awakened.--Declension of
   religion at Nain, and Okkak.--State of the children at
   Hopedale.--Progress of the adults in knowledge, love, and
   zeal--instances.--Striking conversion of two young Esquimaux,
   its effects upon their countrymen.--Awakening spreads to Nain
   and to Okkak.--Zeal of the converts towards the heathen--rouses
   backsliders.--Behaviour of the awakened in sickness, and the
   prospect of death.--Remarkable accessions from the heathen.--The
   son of a sorcerer.

Chequered as life is with joy and grief, there is perhaps no section
of it so much so as that of the missionary. Those in Labrador had, for
thirty years, been going forth weeping and bearing the precious seed;
they were now to perceive it beginning to spring, and to rejoice in
the prospect of bringing back their sheaves. The concern about eternal
things which had been observed the former year at Hopedale, continued
to increase, and appeared evidently a work of Divine grace. At first
only a few individuals found their minds stirred up to seek their
salvation; but in the beginning of the year 1801, a fresh and general
awakening took place. Those who had shewn the greatest enmity to the
gospel now began to form the serious resolution of being converted to
Jesus. In February 1802, a noted sorcerer, Siksigak, and two women,
were admitted candidates for baptism at Nain; and on March 4th, a man
was baptized, and named Isaac.--"This transaction," say the
missionaries, "was distinguished by a most encouraging perception of
the presence of God among us." At Okkak they believed that the Saviour
had granted a particular blessing to their feeble testimony of his
love to sinners, in preaching the word of his cross.

They had at these two last stations, however, much cause for mingling
grief with their joy; for several of those of whom they hoped well
drew back, and some of the baptized even forsook them and returned to
the heathen. "We compare," say they in one of their letters, "our
Esquimaux congregations to an infirmary, in which patients of all
descriptions are to be met with. However, we can plainly discover the
power of God manifested among our people, and upon the whole we have
had more cause for joy than grief. Whoever is acquainted with this
people in their natural and unconverted state, and sees them met
together at the church, attentively listening to the word of God,
tears flowing down the cheeks of many, or beholds a company of
converted Esquimaux surrounding the table of the Lord, and favoured to
enjoy his body and blood sacramentally, under a deep and comfortable
sense of his gracious presence, must stand astonished at the power of
Jesus' love, which is able to melt the hardest heart, and make them
partake of heavenly blessings." 1803 was a year of trial at Okkak;
several of their members were seduced to go south among the heathen,
and the arrival of some Europeans who came to hunt, and took up their
habitation within the bounds of the settlement, caused the brethren
many a heavy hour. An epidemic distemper visited them; but although
many in the time of sickness promised to love the Saviour and seek to
know him, no permanent effect followed; yet they attended the daily
meetings during the passion-week to hear of his sufferings, and seemed
attentive to what they heard, which somewhat encouraged their
teachers, who thus wrote to England, "We do not despair. We believe
that the agonies of Jesus are not in vain, and that the Esquimaux
shall share in the merits of his passion." Nain was similarly
situated--their wine also was mixed with water.

But at Hopedale the work of the Lord went steadily forward; several
were added to the church, and those who departed gave good evidence
that they went to the Saviour, particularly Benjamin, who died of an
inflammatory fever in the month of February. From the first he was
convinced that his dissolution was at hand. Being asked whether he
thought he should go to Jesus, he cheerfully answered in the
affirmative. After some conversation on the subject, the missionary
present sung that verse:--

    "The Saviour's blood and righteousness
    My beauty are--my glorious dress;"

and others of the same import, in which he joined with great fervency
of devotion. He then, of his own accord, began to sing other hymns,
"Christ my rock, my sure defence" "Jesus my Redeemer liveth" "No, my
soul he cannot leave" "Thy blood, thy blood, the deed hath wrought."
Before his departure he was frequently delirious; but even during
this period of his illness, we, and the Esquimaux who visited him,
were delighted and greatly affected by the subjects his spirit seemed
always engaged in. His thoughts were occupied with nothing but Jesus
Christ his Saviour; and he kept repeating the most beautiful and
appropriate texts of Scripture: "This is a true and faithful saying,
and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world
to save sinners." "The blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God,
cleanseth us from all sin;" never failing to add, "Yes! on account of
_my_ sins he shed his blood." He often pronounced with great
earnestness, "Little children abide in Him, that when he shall appear
we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before Him at His
appearing." 1 John ii 28. Nor did he cease, in the midst of his
greatest sufferings, to speak of the love of the Saviour, till he drew
his last breath. He was 40 years of age, and left a widow and two
young children. He had sometimes fallen into deviations, which
occasioned the missionaries many fears and much anxiety about his
perseverance in the faith; but his last illness fully satisfied and
comforted them respecting the state of his soul. And it made a deep
and salutary impression upon the Esquimaux at the station, who
expressed themselves, when speaking of his happy departure, in a
manner which proved it had been sanctified for their real spiritual
benefit and instruction.

When the people returned from their summer occupations, 1803, --4, the
missionaries spoke with each of them, both baptized and unbaptized,
and had the pleasure to find that during their absence, they had been
preserved from falling a prey to the seductions and wicked practices
of the heathen, with whom they had been forced to associate. The
communicants they conversed with, previous to their partaking of the
Lord's supper, afforded them much satisfaction; while they, on the
other hand, expressed their thankfulness for their exhortations, by
which they had been led to forgive and forget old injuries and
quarrels, and to speak freely with each other in love. On this point
their tenderness of conscience was strikingly in contrast with that of
the promiscuous multitudes who rush to the table of the Lord, in the
professing congregations of more civilized lands. Peter observed, that
his mind was not quite at ease respecting the subjects in dispute
between him and others, and that he had better not go to the table of
the Lord with an unreconciled heart. He at the same time spoke humbly
of himself; and added, that he did not wish to grieve the Spirit of
God by indulging anger. One of the women, Brigitta, said, that she was
not quite sure whether she dared approach the Lord's table, feeling
still much uneasiness and displeasure in her mind; but that she would
once more in prayer cry unto our Saviour to help her, and take away
those evil things that separated her from Him. On the day following
she came again to the missionaries, and, with many tears, declared her
thanks to the Lord, that he had delivered her from her perplexing
thoughts, and granted to her his peace in her soul, and therefore
begged to be admitted to the holy communion. On the 3d of December
they partook of this heavenly feast; and it proved a time of
refreshing to them all. The season of Christmas was celebrated with
much blessing, and they rejoiced with thanksgiving in the incarnation
of God our Saviour, this amazing proof of his infinite love to the
lost human race! Again, on the 31st, they were strengthened anew by
participating in the sacred ordinance together, and closed the year
with praise and prayer, thankful to the Lord for the numberless
favours they had experienced, and particularly for his mercy to the
Esquimaux congregation.

This year the brethren had another proof of the kind and watchful
providence of God--their vessel which, on her return home, usually
took advantage of the Hudson Bay ships' convoy from the Orknies to
London, left Hopedale on the 11th of October, and in sixteen days was
within three days' sail of these islands, when strong easterly gales
drove her back and kept her three weeks longer at sea. But these
apparently adverse storms proved, by God's great mercy, the very means
of the hallowed barque's deliverance from the enemy. On the 18th
November she was chased by a French frigate, brought to, and forced to
keep her company; but the sea ran so high that it was impossible for
the frigate to get out a boat to board the Resolution, and continued
so during that night and the following day. The second night proving
extremely dark and boisterous, the Captain set as much sail as the
ship could carry, and before morning was out of sight of the frigate.
But two days after he had the mortification to meet her again, and to
be brought to a second time. Again the Lord interposed in his behalf,
the wind was so violent that the Frenchman could not put out a boat,
and during the following night, the Captain, crowding all sail,
escaped, and saw no more of the enemy.

A new epoch in the Labrador mission commenced in 1804. Amid all the
cheering realities and promising appearances which had hitherto
sustained the spirits of the missionaries, there had been much
hypocrisy, cold-heartedness, self-deceit, backsliding, and apostasy,
among those who formed their congregations; and what was painful
almost beyond conception, even in their church. But now the Lord
appeared in their behalf, and in his adorable procedure, the most
unlikely were the first objects of his awakening grace; and that
station, which for many years had been so barren, that the brethren at
one time had contemplated giving it up as hopeless, was that to which,
in his inscrutable sovereignty, he chose to give the precedence in his
gracious visitation. The beginning of the year had proved very
unfavourable, and the Esquimaux at Hopedale had experienced
considerable distress for want of provisions; but amid all their
difficulties they attended church with cheerful countenances, and some
of them would say, "If we only feel in our hearts the presence of our
Saviour, who has loved us so much, and died and shed his blood that
our sins might be forgiven, we may well be cheerful and contented,
though our outward circumstances are difficult, and we have not much
to eat, for we trust he will care for us in that respect, and we look
to him for help." The behaviour of the people during this time of
trial gave the missionaries much pleasure and encouragement. There was
a general and powerful awakening among them, which first began to be
perceived among some women who were baptized the winter before, but
who appeared to have become cold and lifeless. These were led by the
Spirit of truth, in a particular manner, to a knowledge of their
sinful and depraved hearts. An earnest desire was at the same time
created within them, not only to experience the forgiveness of all
their sins, but to know the crucified Saviour, so often described to
them as their reconciler; and by the testimony of their own hearts and
consciences, to be assured of their interest in Him and his atonement.
Their declarations on this occasion were such, that the missionaries
were quite surprised at the knowledge they had already gained by the
Spirit's light, and not by the instruction of man; and with fervent
thanksgivings to the Saviour they joined frequent prayer, that he
would grant them grace and wisdom to lead these souls, awakened from
death unto life, according to their measure, and in the best manner,
so as to farther their progress on the way to everlasting life.

The first person with whom this delightful and amazing work of grace
began, was a female, and such an atrocious sinner, that she was
abhorred even of the heathen. Hearing a discourse from these words,
"The son of man came to seek and save that which was lost," she was
much struck with it, and asked herself, "Can this be true, that the
Saviour came to save such sinners as me? ah! there are none so wicked
as I!" Wholly absorbed in these thoughts, she remained in the
meeting-hall when the others had left it, unconscious that she was
alone. Then suddenly starting up, she ran to a solitary mountain to
give vent to her full heart, where, falling down upon her knees, she
cried, "O! Jesus, I have heard that thou camest to save the wicked--is
that true? make me also to know it. See I am the most wicked of all,
let me also be delivered and saved--O! forgive me all my sins!" While
she continued fervently praying, she experienced a peace in her heart
she had never felt before, and returned from this exercise so
completely altered that it was evident to every one; her mouth now
overflowed with praises for what her Saviour had done for her soul.

Her change made a deep impression on a moral, intelligent, but
self-righteous unbaptized woman. She could not comprehend how one so
wicked and debased could speak of Jesus with so much joy and praise,
when she, who was so very superior a character, felt nothing of the
kind. On this she became unhappy; she began to perceive her hitherto
supposed righteousness was only a filthy garment, and in an agony, ran
to her she had formerly despised as a sinner, to ask how she could
obtain forgiveness of sin, and love to Jesus. The latter took her by
the hand, and both went to a solitary place, where she prayed that the
Saviour might also shew mercy to her; and now these women got rest to
their souls, and with one mouth declared what great things the Lord
had done for them. Shortly after, two other women joined them, and
these four were of one heart and one mind. Their uncommon spirituality
attracted the notice of the congregation, and they were honoured by
the formalists among them, with the epithet of "enthusiasts," but soon
the Spirit of God was shed abroad on them also, and new life was
infused into the members of the church, and throughout the

In the meetings an extraordinary degree of eagerness and devotion was
perceived--they no longer went to church merely for form's sake, but
from the impulse of their hearts, and to find comfort and enjoyment;
and after the meetings, many came into the house to express their
thankfulness that they now experienced the truth of what was spoken,
and could bear witness of its power; or to request an explanation of
what they yet but partly understood. The schools were diligently
attended, and many of them, especially the men, showed a great desire
to learn to write. Some proceeded so far, though with but little
instruction, as to be able to write a pretty legible hand; a few
copied out the collection of hymns, and several seemed to take a
particular delight in letter writing, of which the following, from
Jonathan to William Turner, formerly a missionary in Labrador, but
then residing at the brethren's settlement at Fulneck in Yorkshire,
may serve as a specimen--Jonathan and his wife Sibylla were the first
Esquimaux baptized at Hopedale. It was dated October 1804----"My
beloved William, First I will tell you, that since we two travelled
together in a boat, and you then spake so much to me about the state
of my soul, I have never forgot your words of instruction. I was a
very bad man at that time, and also when you lived here I walked in
darkness, and continually did that which was bad. After I was baptized
I was not much better, and when I went with you to the holy communion
while you lived here, I had many bad thoughts, of which I very much
repent. But since you left us, I have turned with my whole heart to
Jesus, and all my thoughts and desires are drawn towards him.--Now
that I begin to be old, the feeling of his forgiveness is my only
comfort, and I have nothing which I so much desire after as Him, and
to enjoy His peace in my heart. I will never more leave my teachers. I
can be satisfied no longer with anything but my loved Jesus, therefore
I wish I loved my Saviour more than I do. He loves me much, that I
feel and know, but I am a poor human creature, and know by experience,
that I can do nothing of myself, no, not even love him as I would. I
pray constantly that he would keep me and instruct me, and my heart
feels that when I go daily to him and crave his help, he hears me, and
lets me experience that he is a loving Saviour, ready and willing to
help. I do not forget him when I am in my usual occupations, but my
mind is always craving after Jesus; when I go about with my boat, and
am absent from my brethren, still my soul is taken up with Him. My
wish is, also, that I may have a pleasant grave for my body when I
die," meaning that he might be with believers in their burying ground.
"I love my wife as I ought. When you was here, I was always leading
her into bad things, but now we often speak together, that we will fix
our minds only upon Jesus, and both live only for him, loving and
following him. I am your poor JONATHAN. William! I salute you and your

The awakened Esquimaux were also examples of industry to their
countrymen, and in the years of scarcity, the brethren remarked with
pleasure, that they had a sufficiency, while the heathen were
starving; for with their Christianity, they had not only learned
diligence, but economy and foresight. Nor did they now, as formerly,
depend upon the stores of the missionaries, or tease them for food
after they had wasted their own; but rather suffered hunger, or were
contented with a very scanty meal, while they showed a readiness to
assist them in all their undertakings, in cutting wood, building
houses, or making roads which were found necessary for the convenience
of the station.

While the missionaries in Hopedale were rejoicing in the great mercy
shown to their beloved Esquimaux, the brethren at Nain were mourning
over the sore backslidings of many of their congregation. "We are
sorry to say," are the lamentations of their letter, "that most of our
Esquimaux flock seem to fall very far short of what we might expect,
and the craft and power of Satan is but too often visibly exerted to
pluck up and to destroy the good seed sown into their hearts. We
discovered grievous deviations into which some had fallen last summer,
during their absence from us; and we perceived with pain, that in
difficult occurrences, or in sickness, they are too hasty to listen to
the sorcerers, and take refuge to their legerdemain tricks for help,
rather than call upon our Saviour, and trust to him. Some, however,
are of a different description, and give us good hopes of their being

The brethren at Okkak likewise hung their harps upon the willows. "Our
baptized brethren have not," say they sorrowfully, "been as steady as
they ought. When we spoke with individuals after their return to us,
concerning their spiritual condition, we discovered, to our great
grief, among some of them, offences and wicked practices which had
long been kept secret. We were obliged to advise several rather to
leave us quietly than serve sin in secret, and attempt to deceive us
by their untruths and hypocrisy. With some this produced repentance
and reflection, and they begged to be forgiven and borne with; but two
persons were dismissed, and two excluded from the communion. In
general there was great lukewarmness of heart observed among the
people, and we had but few instances of genuine conversion." They were
also invited by their heathen friends in the north to come and eat
whale-flesh, and all our remonstrances were in vain, for they
answered, "that if they stayed at Okkak they must suffer hunger." An
epidemic disease again visited this settlement, and carried off seven
individuals very suddenly, which struck such terror among the people,
that the greater part of them fled from the place to escape the
contagion; but the missionaries remarked, that neither upon the sick
or the dying, nor upon the healthy, was any salutary effect produced.
The dogs too were attacked with a similar disorder, and many died
along the coast--a serious loss to the Esquimaux.

Meanwhile the awakening at Hopedale continued to go forward, and early
in the summer extended itself to the children. The young, as well as
the old, had been addicted to a gross and loathsome sensuality,
which, although both they and their parents considered as trivial, yet
they kept it carefully concealed from the missionaries. It happened
now, however, that a grandmother, who herself perceived the iniquity
of these depraved practices, caught her grand-daughter repeating some
of the acts for which she had formerly chastised her; but instead of
beating her, she carried her to the missionary to whom she was ordered
to confess every thing. Surprised and horror-struck at the disclosure,
the missionaries immediately spoke to the parents and children, and
with great earnestness and plainness represented to them the
criminality of such doings. To their inexpressible grief they found
that the corruption had extended even to the youngest, and that some
of the parents had concealed, and even now excused their conduct; they
therefore held a special meeting with the parents and children, and
addressing them according to their capacities, warned them in the most
forcible manner of the frightful consequences of these secret sins,
and exhorted all earnestly and affectionately to flee to the
Saviour--throw themselves at his feet--implore his mercy and
forgiveness, and pray to be delivered from the slavery of sin and
Satan. Then kneeling down with the whole company, they entreated the
Saviour to heal the deep wounds they had inflicted on their souls, and
the injury they had done to his cause. Their prayers were heard. A
pungent sorrow for their former sinful lives, was felt and expressed
by old and young; this was followed by a general awakening among the
children, which again had a powerful effect in stirring up the more
advanced to seek a closer union with Christ, and to strive more
earnestly after holiness. Children were now observed to retire to
mountains and to vallies, where, on their knees alone, and in groupes,
they besought the Saviour with tears to have mercy on them, forgive
their sins, and receive them into the number of his children: and many
of the unbaptized little ones showed a great anxiety to be favoured
with that ordinance.--It was a blessed time--all hearts were opened to
attend to the instructions and exhortations brought from the word of
God--all were inflamed with the love of Jesus, and the eagerness to
hear more and more of Him who was the friend of sinners, was

When the Esquimaux returned from their summer places, and settled at
Hopedale for the winter 1804-5, their teachers found, to their great
comfort, that they had not only been preserved from sinful practices,
but that the work of the Holy Ghost, so manifest during the foregoing
winter, especially in the hearts of some of the women, had made
farther progress. They had become better acquainted with the natural
depravity of their own hearts, and the wretched state of a soul
without Christ, which made them cry to him for mercy; and they had
truly experienced grace and the forgiveness of sin in his precious
blood, by which their hearts were filled with joy and comfort in
believing. Out of the abundance of their hearts, therefore, their
mouths spake of the love and power of Jesus, by which a very serious
impression was made on the whole inhabitants of the settlement, and
all longed to be partakers of the same grace. This spark of the Lord's
own kindling spread rapidly; and the missionaries had daily visits,
either from inquirers crying out, what shall we do to be saved? or
from those who had obtained peace, to tell them what the Lord had done
for them. A widow, in reference to a conversation she had with one of
the missionaries the day before, expressed herself thus: "Now I
rejoice that I can again visit the meetings, where I hear of Him who,
notwithstanding all my worthlessness, has _so_ loved me! When we are
assembled, I will ever pray to Jesus that he would put such words in
your mouth as will speak to my heart." Another said, "I am often moved
to tears when I consider what God my Saviour has done for me. I start
back with terror when I reflect upon my former wicked life. I have
been an abominable sinner; and that Jesus should have received me in
mercy, and granted me to believe that his blood can wash away all my
sins, and deliver me from the power of evil, is a favour so great that
I am amazed at it, and sink down with shame and gratitude. I can do
nothing but look to him. I am as one walking upon a smooth sheet of
ice, and obliged at every step to guard against falling. He must
uphold me, and for this my heart is constantly lifted up in prayer to
him." The observation of a third was, "I am convinced that I have
hitherto failed in truly hungering and thirsting after the love of the
Saviour; since my baptism I have been as one standing where the road
is divided." Several others made similar declarations.

While this heavenly flame was in full blaze at Hopedale, two young
Esquimaux, Siksigak and Kapik, arrived there from Nain, February 1805.
Their parents were both baptized; they were as wild as the wildest of
the heathen. The former had separated from his wife, who was
baptized, for some time and meant to convey her back to her mother, to
get rid of an incumbrance, intending to marry another at Nain, who
promised to second him better in his heathenish abominations--to leave
the believers altogether, and along with his companion, to enjoy his
freedom, and live with him in the gratification of every evil lust.
But they were both arrested by the power of the Lord. Siksigak, as
soon as they reached Hopedale, took his wife, Benigna, to her mother,
the widow Rachel's, and pushing her in said, "Never come more in my
sight." He then went to his own mother's house, on entering which he
found the Esquimaux engaged in prayer, as was their custom before they
went to rest; for she had been converted, joined the church, and was
married to a second husband. The family did not allow themselves to be
disturbed by his arrival, and he sat down quite astonished at what he
saw and heard, till prayer was ended, when he informed them for what
purpose he had come. The whole company then began to entreat him most
earnestly not to part from his wife, but rather to turn with his whole
heart to Jesus. The missionaries likewise added their exhortations,
but without avail; he still persisted in his determination. His
relations perceiving that he was immoveably fixed, resorted to prayer;
and, on the following day, they all assembled around him in his
mother's house, kneeled down, and cried unto our Saviour that he would
convert him. The mother expressed herself thus, "O! my Lord Jesus!
behold this is my child, I now give him up to thee! O accept of him,
and suffer him not to be lost forever!"

Such a scene, so unprecedented and so unexpected, had an immediate
effect on the young man; he was filled with concern for his soul's
salvation. He burst from them, and in the greatest distress ran to
brother Kohlmeister's, where Kapik was waiting for him with the
greatest impatience.

Provisions being placed before them, Kohlmeister sat down to write at
a table with his back turned to them. While attempting to eat,
Siksigak repeatedly sighed deeply, and at length began bitterly to
lament his wretched state in disjointed exclamations: "O! how
agonizing the thought! I am so wicked! I am lost!" "What is it? what
do you want?" asked his companion in a rude and angry tone. "O! I am
so wicked! I am lost!" replied the tortured Siksigak. Kohlmeister, who
thought some accident had befallen him, turned round in an
indifferent manner and asked him what is your name? Kapik, supposing
the question addressed to him, answered, "Kapik." "And will you always
continue to be Kapik?" said Kohlmeister. "I will always be Kapik,"
returned the other.[H] "Wilt thou go away then and be quiet?" said the
missionary, sharply. Meanwhile, he was observing Siksigak, who, in his
agony and confusion, was turning the spoon in his hand, and bringing
it to his mouth empty, apparently without knowing what he was about.
Kapik, still more distracted than his companion, threw his spoon from
him and rushed out of the house. He was met at the door by another
missionary who, seeing his wild appearance, asked him, "Will you never
change your life--never be converted?" "I know nothing about
conversion," replied Kapik, and went off in a rage. Coming to his
cousin's where he was to sleep, he found the whole family engaged in
their evening worship, and at the instant he entered, he heard his
relative praying for his conversion. That night he retired silently to

Siksigak, so soon as his companion was gone, broke out, and like one
in despair, paced the room with quick and hurried steps, tearing his
clothes and his hair, and crying aloud, "O! unhappy man! I am so
wicked! I am lost! I am lost!" Kohlmeister now asked him
affectionately who told him that he was so wicked and must be lost?
Siksigak related what had taken place at his mother's, and how her
words had pierced him; and with much compunction ingenuously confessed
the abominations of which he had been guilty, and the sins in which he
had still intended to indulge. The missionary then asked him, whether
he sincerely resolved to amend his life? and being answered in the
affirmative, told him, he had put away his wife, that was a great sin,
wholly contrary to the will of God; and if he would be delivered from
his present agony, he must, in the first place, openly take her back.
"That," cried out Siksigak, "I will gladly do; my wife is good, but I
am bad! very bad!" Immediately he ran to his mother and told her all;
and with such humility, that his countenance indicated the change that
had taken place in his mind, and the begun answer to her prayer. They
then proceeded together to his wife, of whom he begged forgiveness for
all the ill usage she had received from him, and promised, by the
assistance of God, never more to give her cause to complain, if she
would consent to come and live again with him. Agreeably surprised at
so sudden and unlooked for a change, she cheerfully and readily agreed
to return. Siksigak having given this proof of his sincerity, went to
the missionary--for still he had got no rest to his soul; and he
preached to him the Saviour who receiveth sinners, and called upon him
to turn to Jesus and pray to him, though he could say nothing else
but, "Jesus, thou Son of God, have mercy upon me!" He followed this
counsel, and that same night was delivered from all his distress, and
could believe that his sins were forgiven.

Kapik had spent the same night restless and almost hopeless--convinced
that he deserved, and afraid that he would be everlastingly lost. Ere
the morning had scarcely broken he came to Kohlmeister, who presented
to him the same Saviour and Redeemer, who would not reject him, and in
whom he shortly found peace to his soul.

These two now joyfully thanked and praised God their Saviour, who had
redeemed them; and, filled with life and spirit, set out on their
return to Nain, where they testified with boldness of what they had
heard, seen, and experienced at Hopedale. They related to the
missionaries with an ingenuousness and sincerity, which the latter say
they had never before known among Esquimaux, how the Almighty power of
Jesus had awakened them, by giving them a proper sense of the
wickedness of their ways, and caused them to resolve to turn to Him in
truth as their Saviour. Now they began earnestly to declare to their
countrymen the necessity of a thorough conversion of heart,
representing how they ought to believe and acknowledge themselves
sinners, confess and repent of their sins, and flee to Jesus for
pardon and deliverance from the power of sin; for without this, all,
so called conversion, was ineffectual, and no fruits of righteousness
would appear. Some of the baptized received their exhortations in the
true spirit of the Pharisees of old, and in a rage upbraided them,
saying, "Ye wicked and abandoned fellows, will ye speak to us?" "That
we are wicked we well know," was the meek reply; "but yonder, in
Hopedale, we learned that there is a Jesus who came to die for
sinners, who receives such even as we, and saves them."

Their old acquaintance heard them with astonishment--some mocked, and
others hated them for it; but several, who had been admitted members
of the congregation, became gradually convinced, and began to doubt
whether their cold formal Christianity were of the right kind, and
whether they had not been deceiving themselves and others. They came
spontaneously to their teachers, and with tears, and in a manner the
latter had never before witnessed, confessed their sins, wept on
account of the deceit they had so often practised; and declared that
the more they were led to consider their former life, the more deeply
they were convinced of the treachery of their own hearts. The
sensations of the missionaries are thus described by themselves.
"Though we could not but feel pain on account of their former
hypocrisy, our grief was counterbalanced by the joy we felt at the
amazing power of our Saviour's grace, by which their hearts were thus
broken and melted. Our faith and courage, which in some of us was
indeed very weak, revived; and we saw clearly, that with God, nothing
is impossible. Thus the many prayers offered up, and tears shed by
our brethren and sisters in Labrador, on account of the conversion of
the Esquimaux nation, began, after _thirty-four_ years, to shew their
fruit. And we now often encourage each other to pray our Saviour to
give us the needful grace, strength, and gifts to declare the gospel
unto them; and so to fill our hearts with his love, that we may lead
and serve those, his sheep, so as to promote their growth in grace,
and in his love and knowledge." The awakening here, as at Hopedale,
extended to the children. The frequent visits of the Hopedale
Esquimaux were made very useful to the congregation at Nain; many of
whom moved to Hopedale, among whom were Siksigak and Kapik, who wished
to reside where they had been so powerfully laid hold of by the grace
of Jesus; "and," to use their own expressions, "be there thoroughly
converted to Him"--hoping to receive much advice and assistance from
the believers at Hopedale; and being afraid that their old heathen
associates might hinder their progress at Nain; nor could they bear
the thought of remaining longer at a place where they had spent their
former lives in sin, and might again be led into temptation.

By means of these two converts the report of the awakening among the
Hopedale Esquimaux spread to Okkak, and even farther north, creating
a very considerable sensation among the heathen, three families of
whom arrived at that settlement with the avowed determination of
becoming obedient to the gospel, and turning to Jesus with their whole
heart. The schools were also attended with the blessing of God, and
both children and adults made good progress in their learning; and the
missionaries remark, "That it was very edifying to hear them
exercising themselves in their own dwellings, in reading and singing
hymns." Morning and evening prayer, ere the close of the year, had
been set up in every family; and while the melody of praise ascended
from every dwelling, tears of holy gratitude mingled with the
brethren's prayers for the stability and increase of the Redeemer's
kingdom among the Esquimaux. The intercourse between the settlements
became now more frequent, interesting, and profitable; the converted
natives, particularly the sisters, when on these visits, showed such
an ardent desire to describe to their countrymen the love and mercy of
God, which they themselves had so savingly experienced, that they went
about from tent to tent, and particularly to their own sex spoke so
powerfully and movingly of the compassion of Jesus, and his desire to
save them from sin and perdition, that many were convinced of their
dangerous state, and earnestly inquired what they should do to be
saved? The zeal of the newly baptized had often likewise a powerful
effect on the old, in rekindling the dying embers of their profession.
Several of these expressed their surprise at their former
indifference, and seemed to doubt if they had ever truly given
themselves to Jesus; and old and young now declared, weeping, that
their only desire was to obtain peace and rest in their souls, and to
be enabled to live in the undisturbed enjoyment of the Saviour. With
their emotions of love were mixed deep shame and abasement, that they
had not before perceived their true happiness; but by their lifeless
profession, and inconsistent conduct, had crucified the Saviour
afresh, and put him to open shame.

Nor were they less assiduous with the heathen who visited the
settlements, and their love for the truth was manifested in the
gladness they expressed at every new accession to the congregation
from among them, the kindness they showed, and the eagerness with
which they endeavoured to retain them. Some of these new comers, at
Hopedale, having expressed their desire to receive the gospel, and to
submit to the rules of the place, young and old instantly ran to help
them with their baggage, to arrange their little affairs, and
cheerfully built new winter houses for their reception. Another party,
however, refusing to stop, left a man with his wife and child, who
were disinclined to go, wishing, as he said, to be converted. He had
pitched his tent at some distance, but no sooner did the baptized
Esquimaux learn his determination, than they immediately went, took it
down, and set it up in the midst of their own dwellings, with such
demonstrations of welcome, that he exclaimed, he had never met with
any thing like it before; nor could he understand why they should shew
such disinterested love to him, a stranger. In visiting the sick, the
missionaries had much satisfaction; there was now no horror at the
thought of death--no disposition to return to their sorcerers; but
calm, peaceful resignation to the Divine will, or holy joy in the
prospect of soon seeing their Redeemer, face to face. Magdalene, in
the view of departure, said, "I weep not over the pain I feel, though
that is very great, but for joy that my Saviour is near my heart. O
would but Jesus come and take me to himself! I long to go to him, as a
child longs for its parent, to behold him, and to embrace his feet. I
feel no gloom; my heart is filled with joy in believing on him."
Benigna, upon her recovery from a dangerous illness, thus expressed
herself: "I think that it pleased the Lord to afflict so many in our
house with illness, and to restore them again, that he might prove us,
to know whether we could place all our hopes in him, even in
perplexity and pain; and I have now found that he is able, not only to
bring us safe through the most distressing circumstances, but to
establish us more and more in full reliance upon his help alone.
During this illness, the Lord has given me to feel his presence so
sweetly, that if it had been his will, I should have rejoiced to go
and be with him for ever; but since it has pleased him to restore me
to health, my heart is filled with gratitude towards him." Among the
strangers, the power of God was no less wonderfully displayed in
awakening them from the deep sleep of sin and death: they came and
confessed their sins and their crimes, which, though formerly deemed
light matters, now heavily burdened their consciences. "Human nature
shudders and starts back," says the missionary diary, "on hearing the
horrid detail of the abominations practised among the heathen;" and
they themselves would often exclaim, "O! how shocking the way in
which we lived in sin; but we were quite blind, and chained down by
the fetters of Satan; we will serve him no longer, but belong only to

One instance deserves more particular notice, that of a young man
named Angukualak, the son of a most noted sorcerer, Uiverunna. His
parents had instructed him in all the secrets of their art, and his
confession gives at least plausibility to the opinion, that the
influence of Satan is permitted to be sometimes visibly exercised, in
the dark places of the earth, though, while the effects of that
influence are palpable in the perpetration of the grossest vices and
most barbarous cruelty, it is very immaterial whether it assumes a
perceptible form, or merely acts upon the imagination. His own account
to the missionaries, was as follows: "My parents told me, that their
familiar spirit, or Torngak, lived in the water; if I wished to
consult him, I must call upon him, as the spirit of my parents, to
come forth out of the water, and remember this token, that I should
observe, in some part of the house, a vapour ascending, soon after
which, the spirit would appear, and grant what I asked. Some years
ago, when my little brother was very ill, I tried this method for the
first time, and called upon the Torngak, when I really thought I saw
a small vapour arising, and shortly after, the appearance of a man in
a watery habit stood before me. I was filled with horror, my whole
frame shook with fear, and I covered my face with my hands."

His brother recovered, and the impression of this strange occurrence
appears to have been forgotten, when a terrible dream overwhelmed his
mind with anguish and terror. "I thought," to resume his own language,
"I thought I saw a very deep, dark cavern, the descent to which was a
narrow, steep chasm. In this horrible place, I discovered my mother,
my relations, and many others whom I had known, and who had led a very
wicked life upon earth, sitting in great torments, and exhibiting a
dreadful appearance. I was already with my feet slipping down the
chasm; and it seemed as if somebody said to me, 'Unto that dark place
thou must likewise depart!' From that moment I found no rest anywhere,
but having heard that true believers lived at Hopedale, I resolved to
come hither, and with my whole family to be converted to Jesus, that I
may not likewise descend into the place of torment, and be lost for
ever. But alas! I know not how to get released from evil, for I still
feel as if I was bound with the chains of sin."

To this account, the brethren added the following pertinent remark:
"We often hear the Esquimaux relate dreams; and certain it is, that
several of our Esquimaux have been led to very serious reflections, by
occasion of a remarkable, and, perhaps, terrifying dream, and been
convinced of their lost and wretched state. We do not encourage a
belief in the fulfilment of dreams, nor pay any regard to them in
general; but yet we find the words of Scripture true, Job xxxiii.
14-17. 'God speaketh once, yea, twice, but man perceiveth it not. In a
dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men; in
slumberings upon the bed: then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth
their instruction, that he may withdraw them from their purpose.'"

Towards the end of this remarkable year, the missionaries, in their
diary, thus exultingly break forth: "O! that we were able, by words,
to convey to our dear brethren and sisters, some faint idea of our
sensations, and of the joy and gratitude we feel in beholding this
work of the Lord among our dear Esquimaux. Could they but see the
marvellous change wrought in the minds and conduct of some of these
people, who were lately such avowed enemies of the truth, led captive
by Satan at his will, and delighting in the most filthy and
outrageous practices, they would mingle their tears of joy with us. We
now hear backsliders as well as heathen, those who have long heard,
but never believed in the gospel, speaking the same language as those
who have never, till now, heard of a Saviour; all confess themselves
most vile and unworthy, weep over their sins, and cry for mercy
through the atonement of Jesus. Thus, in Labrador also, the word of
the cross is the power of God unto salvation. We regard this gracious
work of the Saviour, as the blossoming of a precious plant, which has
been long germinating in the earth, and on whose growth we have been
waiting with the utmost anxiety;--now that it has at last sprung up,
and is bearing beautiful flowers, may He cause it to prosper and bring
forth fruit unto eternal life!"


[Footnote H: The Esquimaux always receive a new name at baptism, and
most of them have such an abhorrence at the recollection of their
early life as heathens, that it sickens them when any one calls them
by their old Esquimaux names. They regard the days past, in which they
fulfilled the lusts of the flesh, as almost literally a state of


 Mutual affection of the Christian Esquimaux and
   Greenlanders--their correspondence--letter from Timothy, a
   baptized Greenlander.--Delight of the Esquimaux in religious
   exercises.--Order of the congregations--distressing events,
   apostasy of Kapik--awful end of Jacob--peaceful death of
   believers--Judith, Joanna.--Revival among the communicants.--A
   feast by a Christian brother, to the Esquimaux.--Winter
   arrangements.--Childrens' meetings--schools.--The brethren's
   settlements contrasted with the heathen.--Progress of religion
   at the different stations.--Books printed in the Esquimaux
   language.--Number of the settled Esquimaux.--Epidemic at
   Nain--its consequences.--General view of the mission.

Love to all the members of the body of Christ, is the visible token of
the vitality and truth of a Christian profession; and as it rises or
falls, the progress of an individual or a community waxes or wanes. At
this period, the converted Esquimaux felt a lively interest, not only
in their countrymen, but likewise in their fellow-Christians in
Greenland; the affection was reciprocal, and though they had never
seen each other in the flesh, they rejoiced over each other's welfare,
and communicated their feelings in affectionate letters. Jonathan had
dictated an epistle to the baptized Greenlanders, in 1799; the annexed
was from the Christian Greenlander, Timothy, an assistant at
Lichtenfels, in return. "My beloved, ye who live just opposite us, on
the other side of the great water!--You have the same mode of living
that we have; you go out in your kaiaks as we do; you have the same
method of procuring your livelihood as we have; our Saviour has given
you teachers, as he has given us: be thankful to him that they make
known to you his precious words, and all his deeds, which are full of
life and happiness. I have, from my earliest infancy, been instructed
in this blessed doctrine, for I have grown up in the congregation.
When you read this, you may very likely think that I have always lived
to the joy of our Saviour; but, alas, I have been, particularly in my
youth, very often ungrateful towards him who died for me. But when
this was the case, I was never happy, and I found no rest for my soul,
until I cast myself at the feet of Jesus, and implored his
forgiveness; and even now I can do nothing else, when I am distressed
about myself and my great sinfulness. When I am in my kaiak procuring
provisions, or on other occasions alone, and I call to mind that my
Saviour was for my sake nailed to the cross, and suffered for my sins,
which are numberless, I acknowledge myself the chief of sinners; I
then pray to our Saviour with deep abasement, and often with loud
weeping. At such times I feel that he draws nigh, and fills my heart
with such comfort that I am quite melted by his love. This is also the
reason why I make our Saviour my most important object; I cleave to
him as a child does to its mother, and I will never turn away from
Him. Nothing is more profitable to me than the contemplation of his
sufferings. Of this alone I speak to my fellow-men.

"My dear brethren and sisters, I must still tell you that I have been
four times in danger of my life when running in my kaiak, for so often
have I been overset when I was quite alone. When almost suffocated in
the water, I prayed to our Saviour for deliverance. Each time I raised
myself up by means of the bladder, but it was God my Saviour who saved
me from these dangers. In him alone I trust, and provide for myself,
my wife and children with pleasure. Although, as long as I am upon
earth I shall feel my weakness and corruption, yet I go with it all to
our Saviour, as a child does for help to its parent. I pray thus: 'O!
my Jesus! thou lover of my soul, let me feel thy nearness, impress thy
sufferings and death upon my heart, melt it and make it tender through
the power of thy blood, and according to thy good pleasure, make me
well-pleasing unto thee. Thou hast bought me with thy blood, that I
might be saved; throughout my whole life will I rely upon thee, my God
and Redeemer! I will place thee before my heart, as thou for my sake
in agony and sore distress in the garden of Gethsemane wast weighed
down to the ground with my guilt, until sweat mixed with blood, forced
itself through thy body, and fell in great drops to the ground.' At
such times my heart grows warm, and my eyes overflow. This alone is
able to soften our hard hearts--this I experience, and your hearts
cannot be subdued and softened by any thing else. You must go to
Jesus' cross, for there is no other way to happiness.--Take these my
imperfect words to heart, which I write out of love to you, as a
people related to us. Your Jonathan's words which he caused to be
written to us, we have received to our joy; we have not forgotten
them. It is very pleasing to hear such accounts. O that we all, as
one people, might put in practice what our Saviour has commanded in
his word, love him above all things, give him joy by our conduct, and
never again cause him grief. I write to encourage the heathen in your
country, of whom there are still many, to be converted to the Creator.
Let them hear much of his incarnation, sufferings, and death, and
relate it to them when you are with them. Remember us also, and pray
for us to our Saviour. We will also pray for you, and when we do this
we shall also reap those blessings which our Saviour has promised to
those who pray to Him.--I am your brother, TIMOTHY."

Diligence in the improvement of the means of grace, particularly in
not forsaking the assembling of themselves together, is another
evidence of the reality and health of the Christian life in any
community: this awakening bore that stamp also of the genuineness of
its nature; and from the frequency of their meetings, which were
punctually and cheerfully attended by the people, some idea may be
formed of the hungering and thirsting after divine things which marked
the Esquimaux congregations. The order of the different meetings of
the congregation at Hopedale during winter--and in the other
settlements it was pretty much the same--was as follows:--Sunday.
Public service in the fore and afternoon. In the morning the Litany
was read. The children then met. After the afternoon's service the
communicants sung a liturgical hymn, or the candidates for the Lord's
supper held a meeting for instruction.--Monday Evening. All the
baptized had a meeting, when a suitable discourse was delivered to
them. After a short pause, a singing-meeting was held.--This is a
service peculiar to the brethren's church, in which some doctrinal
subject, commonly that contained in the Scripture-text appointed for
the day, is contemplated by singing verses or hymns relating to it, so
as in their connection to form, as it were, a homily on the text,
according to the words of the Apostle, "Speaking to yourselves in
psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs."--Tuesday Evening: A public
meeting, with a discourse.--Wednesday Morning. The children had a
meeting, the one Wednesday for all the children, and the next, for the
baptized only. On the evening, there was a public service, when a
portion of the harmony of the four Evangelists was read and
explained.--Thursday Evening: The same.--Friday. Both the baptized and
the candidates for baptism met, where, after a discourse on the text,
a hymn treating of the Saviour's passion was sung.--On Saturday there
was no service in the church. Besides these meetings, the believing
Esquimaux had the worship of God regularly morning and evening in
their own houses. But the crowning sheaf in this harvest of mercy, was
the permanence of the awakening; the impressions were lasting, not
like a momentary blaze occasioned by some temporary excitement, but a
pure and steady flame, which in a majority increased in brightness,
till it was lost in glory.

Lovely however, and heart-cheering as this delightful period was, it
is not to be imagined that it was a period of unmingled joy; there
were several instances in which strong and violent emotions were
succeeded by coldness, formality, and hypocrisy, and in some cases by
open apostasy, or by unequivocal marks of reprobation. The most
remarkable were Kapik and Jacob; the former had been baptized by the
name of Thomas, and his declarations breathed, or seemed to breathe,
the very essence of a more than ordinary spirituality. "I have no
other desire," said he upon one occasion to the missionaries, "but
Jesus my Saviour, who has had mercy even upon me, the very worst of
men; and I pray, that I may now give him joy, and cleave to him to the
end. Alas! alas! that I have known him so late! Formerly I could not
believe one word of what your predecessors and yourselves told us of
Jesus, and of the necessity of believing on him, and becoming his
property. I only laughed, and mocked, and gave pain and trouble to my
teachers. But how is this? I now believe it all, and our Saviour has
so powerfully drawn my heart towards himself, that I can find no words
to describe what I feel." By this and similar speeches he so far
imposed upon the brethren, that they believed him a humble follower of
the good Shepherd, and a true child of God.

But being attacked, autumn 1806, by a malignant disorder somewhat
resembling the smallpox and measles, which raged in the settlement,
the severe pain he suffered from the virulence of the disorder, as the
irruption in his face struck inward, and assuming a cancerous form
destroyed his upper jaw bone, he became impatient, forsook his
professions of confidence in the Saviour, and sought for help in
heathenish practices, and if he had had opportunity would have
proceeded to greater lengths in these abominations, than ever before.
His behaviour in his family too, had become very oppressive, and all
the kind exhortations, as well as the serious remonstrances of the
missionaries, produced no effect; even after he recovered, he remained
quite hardened. He some years afterwards professed sincere repentance,
but his artifice had been so deep before, that the missionaries could
only say, that nothing was impossible to God.

Jacob came first to the brethren at Nain. He was in the beginning
apparently very earnest in seeking his soul's salvation and was
baptized in 1801. But he afterwards fell into temptation, and again
took refuge in his old practices, playing at the same time the part of
a most consummate hypocrite: being discovered, he was excluded; yet
when his health began to decline, the missionaries waited upon him,
and as they saw him drawing apparently near his end, were the more
earnest in exhorting him to turn to Jesus, who alone could deliver him
from the bondage of sin and Satan. For some time he seemed to attend
to their advice, but his last days and final exit out of the world,
gave sufficient proof that his heart was untouched. As his pains
increased, his impatience increased with them. He demanded with
violent cries that a knife might be given him to stab himself, which
being refused, he called for a rope, and persisted with such
vehemence that his wife and son, wearied out by his constant
shrieking, gave him one, with which he put an end to his own
existence. Lamentable as these awful examples of the deceitfulness and
depravity of the human heart were, yet they operated more powerfully
than many exhortations, in inculcating upon the baptized the solemn
warning, "Let him that standeth take heed lest he fall."

At the same time there wanted not instances of an opposite
description, to prove the reality of God's work, and the power of
divine grace, to recall and establish the deluded wanderer, and to
preserve the humble believer amid the strongest temptations and the
sorest trials; to enable him to maintain a consistent conduct through
life, and to seal the sincerity of his faith by a peaceful, if not a
triumphant death. Early in the year, Judith, a full communicant, died.
She had come to Hopedale with her husband, Tuglavina, and always
conducted herself with great propriety. After his death she married
Abel in 1801, and with him came to live at Hopedale, 1804. When the
awakening took place she was greatly enlivened; but like many of the
old baptized people, who thought themselves converted because they
had some knowledge, and a fluent way of expressing themselves on
religious subjects, she did not at first shew much of the Divine life
in her soul; till by the powerful work of the Holy Ghost she was
brought to see and acknowledge herself an unworthy sinner, and no
better than those who were just then alarmed and brought from darkness
unto light, and from the power of Satan to the living God. Before
partaking for the last time of the Lord's supper, she was much
affected. "I perceive now," said she, "that I am a great sinner, and
am so ashamed that I dare hardly open my lips, for it is clear to me
that I am far behind others in love to our Saviour. It appears as if
he and I were yet strangers to each other, and I can do nothing but
weep for him." Afterwards she became composed, and earnestly longed
after communion with God. In her last illness, however, she showed
much uneasiness of mind, as if something disturbed her peaceful
expectation of dismissal. Brother Kohlmeister, who visited her very
faithfully, encouraged her to look up to Jesus, the author and
finisher of our faith; and on one occasion, particularly, offered up a
most fervent prayer to the Lord that he would remove all her doubts by
a full assurance that her sins were forgiven through the merits of
his precious blood, during which the poor patient and all present
melted into tears, and felt that their prayer was heard and answered.
Then she unbosomed herself to her teachers, and confessed that she had
hitherto concealed some deviations which burdened her conscience, and
which she must make known before she departed. Having done so, she
declared her firm trust that God her Saviour would wash away all her
sins and remember them no more; after which she exclaimed, "Now I am
ready, and will go to Jesus. He will receive me in mercy just as I am,
for he has died for me." She now lay still in the joyful hope of being
soon released. Both the missionaries' wives and Esquimaux sisters
visited her frequently, to whom she declared the happiness of her
soul; and on the night previous to her departure, conversed in a most
edifying manner with those that watched with her of the near prospect
she had of seeing her Saviour face to face. She requested her husband
to bring her clean white dress, which she always wore at the Lord's
supper, and to dress her in it after her decease. Her two youngest
children she earnestly recommended to his care, and that they might be
instructed in the ways of the Lord; and sent a message as her last
will, to the two eldest who live at Nain, that they should remain with
the congregation, and devote their whole hearts to Jesus. When the
sisters took leave of her with a kiss, she exclaimed with joy in her
countenance, "I shall now go to Jesus and kiss his feet, adoring him
for all his love to me, and that he has redeemed me also, a vile
sinner, and called me to eternal life."

Joanna, who died in child-bed, was another example of the faithfulness
and rich mercy of the Redeemer; in the autumn, a wild ignorant savage,
she came to the settlement with her husband Aulak, and when asked what
was her intention in coming--if she wished to be converted? answered,
"That's more than I know. I follow my husband, and as he chooses to
live here, I will live here too!" But soon after she learned to know
what true conversion of heart means, and would not be satisfied with
any thing of a superficial nature. "She cried to the Lord for mercy,
and obtained," says the diary, "real saving faith; it was surprising
to observe how well she comprehended the meaning of the gospel, and in
how clear a light the mystery of the cross of Christ was revealed to
her soul, insomuch that she could apply to herself the sufferings of
Jesus, as meritorious and allsufficient for the remission of sin, and
the sanctification of soul and body. She adored the crucified Jesus in
truth, as her Redeemer, and nothing was so delightful to her, as to
hear of him, and all he had done and suffered, to save her from sin
and destruction. She sought him with earnestness, and found rest for
her soul in his sufferings and death. Her whole walk and conversation,
from the time she joined the church, testified of the new birth which
had taken place within her, and of a total change of heart and
sentiment. Immediately after her delivery, there appeared symptoms of
inward inflammation. She lay still and resigned to the will of the
Lord, and seemed to take no more notice of any thing that was said;
but towards morning, raising herself up in the bed, she exclaimed,
'Jesus is coming, and I am ready to meet him; a very short time will
bring me to him. Jesus' bleeding love is not cold toward those who are
longing for him.' So composed was she, that, observing the place dark,
she desired them to 'trim the lamps, and make the room light and
pleasant,' and when the company present proposed to join in a hymn,
but could not immediately remember a suitable one, she herself pointed
out that hymn of praise, 'Unto the Lamb of God,' at page 92. of the
Hymn book. After it was ended, she fainted, and sunk down upon the
bed; her sight and hearing failed, and she fell gently asleep in
Jesus." During her short Christian career, she had become universally
beloved; and the happy manner in which she left the world, made a deep
impression upon the minds of the Esquimaux, "stronger," say the
missionaries, "than all our words could do."

Previously to the administration of the Lord's Supper, the
missionaries usually have some conversation with the communicants, and
at this time they were greatly refreshed by their simple, artless
declarations. One said, "I am struck with astonishment when I reflect
that Jesus can, and does receive such abominable creatures as I am.
Indeed I am one of the worst, but his love is infinite. He bled and
died for me, that I might be saved. Oh! how often have I crucified him
afresh by my sins, and bid defiance to his mercy. But now he has
forgiven me, and granted me to hunger and thirst after him. I pray to
him continually that he would not forsake me, for I can do nothing of
myself as I ought. The holy communion is, every time that I enjoy it,
more valuable to me, because I feel the power of my Saviour's death,
more than I can express in words." Another: "I have now only one
object, and that is Jesus; may I never more part with him. Since I
have had the favour to partake of his holy body and blood in the
Sacrament, I continually cry to him to keep me under his direction,
and to preserve me from the evil one, for I am indeed weak. He alone
is my strength and refuge."

A peculiar blessing also attended the administration of the ordinance,
not only to those who partook, but to those, likewise, who were
permitted to be spectators. At Nain, in the month of February, when
that holy feast was celebrated, three Esquimaux, Joseph, Lydia, and
Kitura, were present as candidates, and Sarah with a view to
confirmation; the three women were so much affected that they cried
and sobbed aloud, and after the service was concluded were so
overpowered that they could hardly stand, and still continued weeping.
Being brought into the mission-house, when they recovered themselves
they said they were so overcome by a sense of the presence of the Lord
Jesus, that they knew not where they were nor what they did. They wept
on account of their unworthiness, and would now give their whole
hearts to him who died for them. On the following day Sarah came, and
brought all the metal rings with which she had decorated her fingers
after the Esquimaux fashion, and wished to part with them, and
assigned as her reason, that she wished to delight herself in nothing
now but Jesus. Lydia, Louisa, and others followed, and brought their
pearl ornaments to dispose of, as they thought it improper for
Christian women to be gaudily decked out in costly pearls; and this
they did spontaneously, without being spoken to by the missionaries,
who never begin with finding fault with the dress or ornaments of

Before the Esquimaux set out for their fishing or hunting stations,
the members of the church usually partook of a love feast together,
and united in thanksgiving and prayer for the mercies they had
received, and for the continuance of the Divine blessing. Siksigak,
now named Mark, and Joseph, at their return, having been remarkably
successful, treated all the inhabitants of Nain with a meal of seals'
flesh. The entertainment was given in the open air, and Mark opened it
in an edifying manner by singing some verses of a hymn expressive of
thanks to their heavenly Father, for providing for their bodily wants,
in which all the Esquimaux joined most devoutly, exhibiting a very
different scene from the riotous gluttony of the heathen.

After the people reassembled at the end of the season, the winter
arrangements were made. The communicants were divided into classes,
male and female, the former under the care of the missionaries, and
the latter under that of their wives. In their meetings the
conversation was unrestrained and profitable, many little grievances
were done away, and brotherly love promoted. "That of the communicant
sisters," the diary of Dec 11 remarks, "was remarkably lively; their
conversation treated of the great love of the Saviour in dying on the
cross to save them from death, and their own unworthiness to be so
highly favoured as to be permitted to approach unto his table, and
there to feed on him by faith, and to experience the power of his
sufferings and death in the quickening of their souls." They added,
that upon that occasion they sometimes felt a desire to depart out of
the world, to see him face to face, and thank him for his mercy
revealed to them. Mark thus addressed his countrymen: "If we who
belong to this class are with our whole hearts converted to Jesus, and
determine, by his help, to put aside all the old deceitful and evil
ways, and give ourselves up entirely to him, then we shall feel his
power within us. It has been a very painful thing for me to leave my
brethren at Hopedale, but I shall live here with pleasure if I
perceive that we are come together with a view to belong to our
Saviour, and in truth to believe on him, and to become his faithful
followers. I am indeed not fit to teach you, but yet I wished to say
what I hope from your love, and our being bound together in one mind,
to live unto the praise of God. You all know that formerly I led a
very wicked life, but at Hopedale Jesus Christ called me by his
powerful voice, saved me from death, and forgave my sins. As my
conversion to him began at that place, I feel a peculiar attachment to
it." He was heard with great attention, and all exclaimed, "Yes! we
all desire to become such people, over whom Jesus may rejoice, and
pray him to grant us all true conversion."

The children likewise had their meetings, in which they sung hymns and
prayed, during which they were frequently so sensibly affected that
they would burst out into weeping. A boy who gave evidence of being
truly awakened, called upon the missionaries and told them, "We boys
have been sitting together by ourselves and speaking, both of our own
sinfulness and of the mercy we have experienced from our Saviour. At
the close of our conversation we kneeled down and prayed to him in
fellowship, that he would deliver us from all power of sin, during
which my heart grew so warm that I felt it penetrate to my feet"--a
phrase used by the Esquimaux to express great inward joy. "Jesus,"
continued he, "was very near us. I will give him my whole heart as his
property." The schools were diligently attended, both by young and
old, whose improvement in Christian knowledge, and in the facility of
reading, advanced steadily, while several among the scholars evinced a
strong desire to know Jesus, and live to him. But at Okkak in the
following year an unusual emotion appeared among the scholars. One
day, while the teachers were closing the schools as usual by singing a
verse, there arose such an affection of heart, that all melted into
tears, and at last without any direction they all fell on their knees.
The missionary, therefore, who was keeping the school knelt down also,
and was powerfully excited to fervent prayer for these dear little
ones, commending them to the grace of the Saviour, that he would
preserve them from the many snares of Satan, and sanctify and build
them up in the faith. Some of the more advanced youths gave the
missionaries much pleasure by their simplicity and frankness in
speaking of their hearts; two of them--companions--conversing with one
of the brethren, said, "When we are out together hunting we speak of
Jesus and pray to him, and often feel such power and happiness in
thinking of him that we weep for joy. But how is it that we have so
long heard of him, and he is but just now become precious to us?" They
could not explain the phenomenon; but they felt that a long train of
historical proof, or of external evidence, was unnecessary to
establish the authenticity of the gospel-message. "How is it," added
one of them, "that formerly I used to think--It is all fiction! There
is no Jesus! And now I know in truth that Jesus lives and loves me,
and sometimes draws so near to me that I weep for gratitude and
delight. To him I will give myself both soul and body."

In the back ground, at the distance, stand out in horrible and
melancholy contrast the effects of satanic influence on the conduct of
his votaries. The wife of the old sorcerer, Uiverunna, having died,
the old monster seized a poor orphan child, whom they had formerly
adopted, and murdered him; then cut him across all the joints of his
fingers and toes, ripped open his belly, and threw the body naked
into the sea, an offering to appease the wrath of the water-devil he
worshipped, and by whose aid he pretended to work great wonders, but
who now required a greater sacrifice than usual, as he had not saved
his wife's life. But his day of retribution did not long linger.
Having boasted that his Torngak had killed a man, Kullugak's two
wives, who died suddenly within a few hours of each other at Okkak,
where the family had obtained leave to settle, Kullugak, in company
with another Esquimaux, assassinated the poor wretch within eight days
after he had sacrificed the unfortunate infant.

For several succeeding years the progress of the awakening continued
to advance at all the three settlements, both among the heathen by
whom they were visited, and among the residents, while the believers
grew in grace and in the knowledge of the Lord their Saviour; and the
decided nature of the change which had taken place was evidenced by
the professing Esquimaux declining their pernicious intercourse with
the Europeans, while their heathen countrymen, who were determined to
retain the abominations of their forefathers, were as unwilling to
reside among them; so much so, indeed, that the missionaries at
Hopedale, writing to Europe in 1807, remarked, "No heathen families
have lived near us, and it appears as if that old den of Satan at
Avertok would remain unoccupied. Three Europeans lived about half a
day's journey from hence, but as none of our Esquimaux went to them
they did not call here." The report of the brethren in 1809 was:
"Concerning our dear Esquimaux congregation, we may truly and
thankfully declare that we have perceived a continued work of the Holy
Spirit within their souls, leading them to a better acquaintance with
themselves as depraved creatures, who stand in daily need of the
saving grace of our Almighty Saviour. They are earnest in prayer to
him that he would preserve them from falling back into their former
wicked and superstitious courses." The accounts from Nain were to the
same effect: "Our communicants," say they, "have made a perceptible
advance both in the knowledge of themselves as sinners, and of Jesus
as their Saviour. They have been taught to know how needful constant
dependance on, and communion with him is, if they would walk worthy of
their heavenly calling." It is a melancholy and stumbling remark, that
as the converted Esquimaux advanced in knowledge and in decency of
conduct, so in proportion those who formed an intimate connexion with
the Europeans in the south increased in enmity to the word of God, and
to the Saviour's name in particular, declaring they would hear or
listen to nothing about him.

Oral instruction has, from the beginning, been the principal, and most
efficient means, which God has employed in propagating the gospel; but
the written word has been always necessary for establishing and
building up the churches in their most holy faith. Never did Satan
employ a more effectual method for covering the earth with thick
darkness, than by instigating his servants, under pretence of a high
reverence for the holy word, to shut it up from the people; and when
God wills mercy to a nation, he removes all the hindrances which
obstruct its diffusion. As the Esquimaux advanced in their course,
they were furnished, by means of the press, with portions of the
Scriptures as they could be got translated. The brethren, however,
wisely prepared the way for this important work, by translating hymns
and tracts, and a harmony of the Gospels, where any deficiency in the
language could be more easily rectified than in a book, destined to be
left as a permanent legacy to future generations. The joy of the
Esquimaux on receiving the hymn books in 1809, was inexpressibly
great. "We wish," the missionaries write, "our dear brethren had been
present at the distribution, to see the fervent gratitude with which
they were received. They entreated us, with tears, to express their
thankfulness to their fathers and brethren in the east, for this
present." In 1810, they received the Harmony of the Gospels, also
printed by the Brethren's Society in London for the furtherance of the
Gospel, and the Gospel of John and part of Luke, printed at the
expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society, who undertook to
print the other parts as they could be got ready. Meanwhile the
superintendant, Burghardt, finished the translation of the Acts, and
the epistles to the Romans and Ephesians, which were read from the MS
to the Esquimaux congregation, who were highly delighted to hear the
words and exhortations of our Saviour's apostles, and particularly
struck with the character and writings of the apostle Paul. Along with
their activity in the Christian life, the activity of the converted
Esquimaux, in their temporal concerns, increased. The missionaries in
the different settlements had erected saw mills; the Esquimaux, under
their direction, kept them frequently in employment, and built
substantial store-houses for themselves, for preserving their winter's
stores; and when the scarcity of food in their own neighbourhood
obliged them to go to a distance in search of seals or whales, or to
the cod-fishing, their anxiety to return, to enjoy the benefits of
instruction from their teachers, and of communion with their
fellow-Christians, quickened their diligence in their necessary
avocations. At the close of 1810, the number of the inhabitants at the
three settlements amounted to 457, of whom 265 belonged to the
different classes of communicants, baptized and candidates for

Hitherto the settlements, though occasionally visited by the
contagious diseases that periodically afflicted the country, had never
known more than a partial sickness; but in 1811, the small society at
Hopedale suffered severely from an epidemic, which, so far as we are
able to judge from the symptoms mentioned in the diary, quoted below,
bore some distant resemblance to the spasmodic cholera. "On the
evening of the 24th of July, we were all suddenly thrown into the
greatest confusion, by the arrival of a boat, with our people, from
Tikkerarsuk, one of their provision-places in the south:
Mark--formerly Siksigak--was dead, and several others dangerously
ill. When they went out in the morning, they were all in good health,
but were suddenly seized with a nervous affection, which, in a very
short time, terminated fatally; notwithstanding every assistance,
Samuel died in the night. Next morning another boat arrived, and
brought Adam and Isaac, both dead, though they had yesterday been both
fishing in their kaiaks; the four dead bodies were obliged to be
immediately buried, as they quickly showed signs of corruption. The
same evening, Daniel brought in his boat four dying persons; at five
o'clock the younger, Mark, died. On the 26th, early in the morning,
the widow Rebecca, and in the forenoon, young Philip departed; before
twelve o'clock, the bodies became so offensive, that it was necessary
to inter them. All were filled with alarm and terror, but to our
comfort we also remarked submission to the will of the Lord. The sick,
in general, declared they were willing to go to the Saviour when he
should call them; some said they felt their unworthiness to appear
before him, and yet expressed their reliance upon his sufferings as
their only refuge; but from total debility and oppression they could
speak very little: they complained of great weakness, lameness,
blindness, and a feeling of suffocation. At four in the afternoon
little Abel, and in the same tent, the widow Salome, and at six
o'clock old Thomas, (Kapik,) died. 27th, There was little improvement;
besides those who remained ill many more began to complain, and cried
out to us for assistance, so that we knew not where to go or who to
help first. At eleven o'clock the four dead were buried, which made
ten. On the 29th a great many were taken ill; at four in the
afternoon, Magdalene departed comfortable and happy. Father Abel, who
had willingly assisted in burying the dead, followed the same evening.
His wife, Benigna, who had faithfully attended the sick, was prevented
from nursing him, being herself laid up. The dead bodies were laid in
their place of rest next day. We now felt that all of us were more or
less worn out by this great affliction, some of us actually sick, and
none certain but he might be seized the next moment. To add to our
distress, many children were rendered orphans by the loss of both
father and mother, which called forth our sighs to our gracious and
merciful God and Lord for his compassion and assistance, and felt
revived with the hope that he would hear and help us. Some of the sick
began to recover: but on the evening of the 31st the Saviour took
Abel's wife, Benigna, home to her blessed rest, and on the following
morning, August 1, she was laid in her grave; at seven o'clock in the
evening we held a meeting with the Esquimaux, especially with regard
to improve the solemn warning given in that harvest the Lord had
gathered from this church. From conversations held with several of the
sisters on the 12th, we clearly perceived that the removal of so many
of our number had made a deep impression on them, and had brought them
to reflect on the necessity of constantly depending on the Saviour,
and being ever ready to meet him when he shall come to gather them
also into his garner."

But to their great grief the missionaries discovered that this was not
the happy state of all. When the disease abated they learned with the
utmost pain, that some, even of their communicants, in their agony and
terror, had had recourse to their old heathenish practices; and what
was worse, had endeavoured to appease their consciences by attempting
to assimilate them to Old Testament rites imperfectly understood. They
had killed a dog, and cut the ears off many others, that by sprinkling
themselves with the blood of the dog they might prevent death from
approaching them. Under the influence of a fanatical delusion, they
compared this with the offerings of the Jews, and particularly with
the slaying of the Paschal Lamb, and sprinkling the blood on the
lintel and posts of the door. "Our situation we feel very difficult,"
complained the anxious missionaries, "as the enemy uses all his
ingenuity to blind the poor people, and knows how to employ their fear
and distress to harden their hearts, and to prevent them from
discerning their sins and repenting. It appears as if he exerted every
power to destroy this little congregation, but we hope that God will
shortly bruise Satan under our feet, and not allow his attempts to

They found it necessary to exclude several from partaking of the holy
supper, and this severity was the blessed mean of soon bringing them
to repentance and sorrow for their sins. Others who had fainted, but
not fallen in the day of trial, expressed themselves now convinced of
the necessity of watching over their hearts, that they might not be
seduced to seek false comfort or unlawful assistance: they had, during
the time of this awful visitation, as well as they could, kept close
to Jesus and prayed to him; but they were nevertheless troubled with
fearful thoughts--as that they might all perish, and how sad it would
be if their teachers should turn away from them, when there was no one
to come to their assistance, and when they could not help themselves.
But they now saw that they had greatly erred in indulging these hard
thoughts, for Jesus had delivered them in their necessity. They felt
that they ought to be thankful, but they came far short of that
gratitude they owed to him.

Nain and Okkak were mercifully spared this year, and in the grand
object of their labours the brethren had still occasion to bless the
Lord that he graciously owned the preaching of the glad tidings of
salvation, and accompanied it with power and the demonstration of his
Spirit: often was his presence powerfully felt, particularly when,
from time to time, individuals were added to the church by baptism, or
when they partook of the holy sacrament of our Lord's body and blood,
in fellowship together.

The outward circumstances of the missions in Labrador this year were
uncommonly prosperous--they sent to England upwards of 100 tons of
blubber, 2000 seals' skins, and 2750 fox skins.


 Desire of the heathen to hear the Gospel.--Brethren meditate a new
   settlement--voyage to explore the country.--Quiet course of the
   mission--advantages of their church discipline.--Death of
   Burghardt.--Exertions of the aged survivors.--Schreiber,
   superintendant, arrives.--Anxiety of the native Christians to
   attend the ordinances of religion.--Advantages of the Bible as a
   school-book.--Four missionaries unexpectedly carried to
   England.--Baptized Esquimaux seduced by traders.--Perilous
   voyage of the returning missionaries.--striking
   accident.--Schreiber retires from the
   superintendance--Kohlmeister succeeds--his journeyings to Okkak,
   to Nain.--Stability of the work of God at Nain--hopeful
   deaths--conversion and recovery of a young native.--Remarkable
   preservation of an Esquimaux youth.

Ever since the settlement of the brethren on the east coast of
Labrador, scarcely a year had passed, without their being visited by
great numbers of Esquimaux from the north, either for the purposes of
traffic or curiosity; and latterly, to visit their friends and
acquaintances who had become residents. From these strangers, the
missionaries obtained much interesting information respecting the
inhabitants along the coast; they were told that the most considerable
part of the nation dwelt beyond Cape Chudleigh, lat. 60 deg. 17 m.,
called by them Killineck; that accounts of the settlement had reached
them, and that they were desirous of teachers to instruct them in the
good words. When some of these natives were asked by the brethren to
remain and settle with them, they expressed a great inclination to
have done so, but urged as an objection, the difficulty of procuring
food for their families, and requested the missionaries rather to come
to them, where they could be easily able to obtain a comfortable
supply. The brethren, in consequence, had long meditated a new
settlement, and the Society for the furtherance of the Gospel had
repeatedly consulted with them about the best plan for carrying their
wishes into execution. Various obstacles had, however, always
prevented any effectual steps being taken, till, in consequence of
repeated invitations, it became a subject of serious consideration, by
what means a more correct idea of the extent and dwelling places of
the Esquimaux nation might be obtained, and a general wish was
expressed, that one or more of the missionaries would undertake the
perilous task of visiting such places as were reported to contain
more inhabitants than the southern coast, but remained unknown to
European navigators.

When brother Kohlmeister was in Europe, it was arranged with the
Synodal Committee for the management of the missions of the United
Brethren, that an exploratory voyage should be undertaken, for which
Kohlmeister made preparation on his return to Labrador, and on the
17th of June, he and brother Kmoch set out from Okkak. The vessel
engaged for the arduous undertaking, was a two masted shallop, 45 feet
long, 12 broad, and 5 deep, belonging to Jonathan, (vide p. 213) who
also accompanied them as their captain. Jonathan was a man of superior
understanding and skill, possessed of uncommon intrepidity, and looked
up to, at Hopedale, as the chief of his nation. It was therefore no
small sacrifice on his part, to agree to leave, for an indefinite
time, the place where he was so much respected; but he was ready to
forsake all, and enter on an expedition of unknown length and peril,
in the hope that it would be a means of introducing the gospel among
his countrymen. The greater part of the other Esquimaux thought the
voyage impracticable, and an old Angekok predicted that if the
adventurers did not perish in the violent currents that set in round
Cape Chudleigh, they most certainly would never return.

But none of these dark forebodings made any impression on the mind of
Jonathan. When told that the wild heathen would kill him, he generally
answered, "Well we will try, we shall know better when we get there;"
and once, when conversing with the missionaries, who were not
altogether without apprehension, remarked, "When I hear people talking
about the danger of being killed, I think--Jesus went to death out of
love to us; what great matter would it be, if we were to be put to
death in his service, should that be his good pleasure concerning us."
Nor did his conduct belie his profession: under all circumstances,
during the voyage, his firm, cheerful faithfulness, proved honourable
to his character as a true convert. Besides the missionaries, the
expedition consisted of four Esquimaux families from Hopedale, and one
from Okkak, who attended with a skin, or woman's boat, in case of any
accident befalling the shallop, and to be used in landing, as the
larger vessel could never safely be brought close to the shore--in all
eighteen persons.

As they coasted along, they met several Christian Esquimaux, who were
scattered at different summer provision places. At Kangerlualuksoak,
sixty miles north of Okkak, a fishing station, with a fine strand and
excellent harbour, where they rested on the 30th, [Lord's day,] the
missionaries went on shore, and visited the Christian families, whom
they assembled together for public worship. The congregation amounted
to about fifty, including the boat's company. Brother Kohlmeister
addressed them, and expressed his hope that they were all walking
worthy of their Christian profession--presenting a good example to
their heathen neighbours. A number of strangers sat as listeners, and
the missionaries felt their hearts dilate with joy, to hear the
cheerful voices of converted heathen melodiously sounding forth the
praises of God, and giving glory to the name of Jesus their Redeemer,
in a place which had but lately been a den of murderers, and dedicated
by sorcerers to the service of the devil. Proceeding northward, they
soon found their progress obstructed by drift ice, which forced them,
after two days of incessant labour, to seek shelter in the estuary of
a river, Nullatartok, where being blocked up, they went on shore, and
pitched their tents on a beautiful valley, enamelled with potentilla
aurea in full bloom, resembling a European meadow covered with
butter-cups. The river abounded with salmon-trout; and their hunters
killed two rein-deer, a seasonable supply, as they were detained here
twelve days. On the 16th July, they reached Nachvak, where the high
rocky mountains, glowing in the splendour of the morning sun,
presented a most magnificent prospect. About fifty heathen Esquimaux,
who had encamped here, received them with loud shouts and the firing
of muskets, and while they remained, behaved with great modesty,
neither annoying them by impertinent curiosity, nor harassing them by
importunate begging; they also attended their morning and evening
prayers with great silence, and apparent devotion. They heard the
discourses of the missionaries with respectful stillness, but they
listened with much greater eagerness to the exhortations of their own
countrymen. Jonas, a son of Jonathan, addressed them thus: "We were
but lately as ignorant as you are now; we were long unable to
understand the comfortable words of the gospel; we had neither ears to
hear, nor hearts to receive them, till Jesus by his power, opened our
hearts and ears. Now we know what Jesus did for us, and how great the
happiness of those is, who come unto him--love him as their Saviour,
and know that they shall not be lost, when this life is past. Without
this, we live in constant fear of death. You will enjoy the same
happiness, if you turn and believe on Jesus. We are not surprised that
you do not yet understand us. We were once like you, but now we thank
Jesus our Redeemer with tears of joy, that He has revealed himself
unto us." This address, delivered with great energy, produced, at
least, a temporary effect, for one of the leading men of the party,
Onalik, exclaimed, "I am determined to be converted to Jesus;" and
another, Tallagaksoak, made the same declaration, adding, "He would no
longer live among the heathen."

Having spent two days with these people, the expedition proceeded on
their voyage, and passing Nennoktok, were constrained by tempestuous
weather to anchor in Kummaktorvik-bay. Here they met with four
Esquimaux families, of whom John, and Mary his mother, had once been
residents at Okkak, but had left the brethren, and retired to the
heathen; with them Kohlmeister spoke very seriously, representing the
danger of their state as apostates from the faith, but they showed no
symptoms of compunction, and seemed determined to persist in their
ways. When the storm ceased, they resumed their course, and after a
providential escape from shipwreck on a sunken rock, they arrived it
Oppernavik, where they found Uttakyak, a chief of superior
understanding, and of great influence among his countrymen, with his
two wives and youngest brother, waiting to receive them. He had, while
on a voyage to Okkak in 1800, given the brethren particular accounts
of these regions, and as he had learned that the missionaries intended
to take a voyage to Ungava-bay, he had waited during the whole spring
for them, and put up signals on all heights surrounding his tent, that
they might not miss him. Successive storms, and accumulating ice,
prevented the progress of our adventurers till the 1st of August, when
they left their harbour, and entered Ikkerasak, a narrow channel
between Cape Chudleigh Islands, and the continent; it is ten miles in
length, and dangerous from the currents and whirlpools occasioned by
the flowing and ebbing of the tide, but the missionaries passed
through in safety at low water with a fair wind. On quitting the
channel, the coast ran S.S.W. low, with gently sloping hills, and the
sea [Hudson's straits] appeared studded with small islands. Here they
saw the Ungava country at a distance, stretching to the south before

Three skin boats, filled with Esquimaux, came to bid them welcome, and
followed them to Omanek, a small island, where they pitched their
tents; brother Kohlmeister visited them on shore, and explained to
them the design of their voyage: they listened, but could not
comprehend the scope of his discourse; they shouted, however, with
joy, when he told them that he would come and see them in their own
country. Many among them had never seen a European before, and not
content with accurately inspecting them on every side, came close up
to the travellers, and "pawed" them all over.

Dismissing them highly grateful with some trifling presents, the
voyagers proceeded, and on the 7th reached the entering of the great
river Kangerlualuksoak, 140 miles S.S.W. of Cape Chudleigh, lat. 58
deg. 57 m. Sailing up the bay, they found a fine slope or terrace
facing the south, covered with shrubs, from whence a wooded valley
extended to the left, which they fixed upon as the most suitable place
for a settlement. Uttakisk, who had spent more than one winter in the
Ingura country, assured them that there was an ample supply of native
provisions both summer and winter, and that many of the Esquimaux
would resort to them from every quarter, if they were once fairly
settled. And the missionaries were satisfied that Europeans might find
the means of existence, as the place was accessible to ships, and had
wood and water in plenty. Before departing therefore, they set up high
marks of stones on two opposite hills at the entrance of the bay, and
placed a board on the declivity of a hill to the right, on one side of
which they cut G. III. R. and S.U.F.--Georgius III Rex, Societas
Unitatis Fratrum; and on the other, the initials of the missionaries,
with the date of their arrival. This tablet was raised with some
solemnity in presence of Uttakisk and his family, as representatives
of the people of Ungava; and the missionaries informed them, that they
had taken possession of the place, in case they or their brethren
should think proper to settle there, and called all present to bear
witness; they then proclaimed that the name of the river should
henceforth be called George River, after which three vollies were
fired by those on shore, and answered from the boat.--The texts of
Scripture for the day, were very encouraging:--"From the rising of the
sun, even to the going down of the same, my name shall be great among
the Gentiles, saith the Lord of hosts," Mal. ii 1. "At the name of
Jesus every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth,
and things under the earth; and every tongue shall confess that Jesus
Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father," Phil. ii 10, 11.
After the ceremony, pease and bread and beer were distributed among
the Esquimaux, which enabled them to make a splendid feast, and the
day was spent in the most agreeable manner.

Next day [Aug. 13th] they left George River, and after beating about
till the 17th, they cast anchor near a point of land, Kernertut, where
they expected to lie in safety [the whole of the crew, except Jonas
and his children and two boys, had gone on shore in the skin boat;]
but during the night, the wind blew a gale, which increased in
violence till daybreak; the sea rose to a tremendous height, and the
rain fell in torrents. Notwithstanding the shallop had three anchors
out, she was tossed about dreadfully, the sea frequently breaking
quite over her, insomuch that they expected every moment to be
swallowed up in the abyss. Jonathan, and the rest of their company,
were obliged to be passive spectators from the beach, where they
waited the event in silent anguish, looking every moment when the
vessel should break from her moorings, and be driven on the rocks.
About noon, the rope by which the small boat was fastened brake; she
was immediately carried up the bay, and thrown, by the violence of
the surf, on the top of a rock, where she stuck fast, keel upwards.
When the tide turned, the raging of the sea and the wind began to
abate, and Jonathan and the other men, as soon as it was practicable,
came to the assistance of the distressed and worn-out brethren. He was
quite overcome with joy, unable to utter a word; he held out his hand,
and shed tears of gratitude at meeting with them alive, for he had
given them up as irremediably lost. The little boat was brought down
from her pinnacle, to the great surprise of all, without material

Since leaving George's river, the expedition had made little more than
fourteen or fifteen miles, and were at least seventy or eighty, as far
as they could judge, from the river Koksoak, the western boundary of
the Ungava country, which they had fixed upon as the final object of
their voyage. The season was far advanced, and the Esquimaux
represented to them, that if they proceeded farther, it would be
impossible to return to Okkak before winter. In this dilemma, the
missionaries, unable to decide, retired to their hut, and after
weighing all the circumstances maturely, determined to commit their
case to Him in whose name they had entered upon this voyage, and
kneeling down entreated him to hear their prayers in their
embarrassing situation, and to make known to them his will concerning
their future proceedings, whether they should persevere in fulfilling
the whole aim of their voyage, or give up a part and return
home.--"The peace of God," add the missionaries, "which filled our
hearts on this memorable occasion, and the strong conviction wrought
in us both, that we should persevere in his name to fulfil the whole
of our commission, relying without fear on his help and preservation,
no words can describe; but those who believe in the fulfilment of the
gracious promises of Jesus given to his poor followers and disciples,
will understand us when we declare, that we were assured that it was
the will of God our Saviour, that we should not now return and leave
our work unfinished, but proceed to the end of our proposed voyage.
Each of us communicated to his brother the conviction of his
heart--all fears and doubts vanished--and we were filled anew with
courage and willingness to act in obedience to it in the strength of
the Lord." When they made known their determination to Jonathan, and
the reasons which swayed them, he without hesitation replied, "Yes!
that is also my conviction! We will go whither Jesus directs us. He
will bring us safe to our journey's end, and safe home again." With
renewed strength and spirits, the missionaries set forward, and their
companions, who had been wonderfully refreshed and invigorated by
their success among the seals and the rein-deer, willingly followed.
They encountered a severe storm, and escaped many hidden dangers, as
they coasted along a dangerous and unknown shore; but, guided by His
hand in whom they trusted, they had the pleasure of reaching the mouth
of the Koksoak, August 25th, 58 deg. 36 m. N.L. about 700 miles from
Okkak--Cape Chudleigh half way. To the west the country is called by
the natives Assokak, the coast turning again W.N.W. The Koksoak here
is about the breadth of the Thames at Gravesend, and with its various
windings, much resembles that river for twenty-four miles inland. As
they sailed upwards, they were hailed by the natives in their kaiaks,
with "_Innuit, Innuit!_ man, man;" and when they hoisted their colours
there was a general cry of "Kablunat, Kablunat! Europeans! Europeans!"
About one P.M. they cast anchor close to an encampment, containing
fourteen families, some from a distant district called Rivektok. At
first they appeared shy, but upon receiving a few trifling presents
became quite familiar; and as many of them had never seen a European,
walked round them, and inspected them narrowly to see what manner of
animals they were, having previously received some account of them
from Uttakiyok's brother, who had joined them. Proceeding farther up
the river, accompanied by most of the men and some women, they arrived
at a bay, which by the winding of the stream appears like a lake
surrounded on all sides with gently rising grounds, well planted with
woods of moderate size, chiefly birch. Behind the woods are some low
hills. This place they named Unity's Bay.

Here they found another good situation for a missionary settlement--a
fine slope, extending for about half an English mile, bounded on each
extremity by a hill, on both of which they erected high signals.
Juniper, currants, and other berries, were growing in abundance--and
some rivulets of water at no great distance. This spot they named
Pilgerruh, Pilgrim's rest. The view of the interior was in general
flat, with a few low hills and ponds in some places full of wild
geese; the largest trees were not more than eight inches in diameter,
and fifteen or twenty feet high. The Esquimaux informed them that
farther up the trees were larger. The inhabitants were poor, and
miserably equipped in comparison of the Esquimaux near the brethren's
settlement; as those who accompanied the expedition, and who, from
their intercourse with the Europeans, had obtained many conveniences
by barter, and from the teaching of the missionaries had acquired a
knowledge of the gospel. These advantages the latter did not fail to
expatiate upon to their heathen countrymen; and once the brethren met
with Sybilla, Jonathan's wife, surrounded by a company of women under
the shadow of a skin boat, set on edge, exhorting them with great
simplicity and fervour to hear and believe the gospel. Even Uttakiyok
occasionally engaged in advocating the same cause, explained as well
as he could the reason of the Brethren's living in Labrador, and
exclaimed, "My friends, let us all be converted to Jesus." Having
finished their observations on this quarter, the missionaries resolved
to return, as, from the account given by their able and faithful
conductor, Uttakiyok, whose information they had hitherto found
correct, the western coast on the opposite side of the bay was bare
and without any proper landing place, and at this season of the year
uninhabited, the Esquimaux being generally employed in the interior
in hunting the rein-deer; they, therefore, Sept. 1., left the river
and shaped their course homeward. The natives shewed the greatest
reluctance to part with them, and called after them, "Come soon again;
we shall always be wishing to see you." Several of them, and among
these their disinterested friend, Uttakiyok, followed them for some
miles, repeating their entreaties for their speedy return, and
promising to settle beside them when they came. At parting, they
presented Uttakiyok with their skin boat and several useful articles,
as a recompense for the important, essential, and affectionate
services he had rendered them. On the 4th October they reached Okkak
in safety, after an absence of three months and ten days, having
performed a voyage of from twelve to thirteen hundred miles. An
account of their expedition was transmitted home,[I] but circumstances
prevented the mission from being undertaken for several years.

No very remarkable alteration took place at any of the different
stations, during the two succeeding years. The increase of their
number was gradual, and their advance in the Christian course quiet
but perceptible; and at Okkak they had the pleasure of readmitting,
upon their repentance and acknowledgment of their sin, the members
they had been forced to exclude for their misconduct during the past
season; and it is not the least among the mercies of God towards the
brethren, nor one which ought to be passed over in silence, the
benefit which their congregations derive from the kind and judicious,
yet firm administration of church discipline; in a majority of
instances it answers the ends for which it was instituted--the brother
is gained instead of being driven away to associate with the world,
and to nourish a spirit of dislike, if not of hatred, towards those
with whom he was formerly in fellowship--a melancholy consequence when
this ordinance of the Saviour is not attended to in the spirit of

In 1812, the superintendant, Burghardt, was called to his reward; he
had been able to fulfil the duties of his office till within three
days of his departure. He was obliged to take to his bed on the 24th
of July, and had appointed the 28th to confer with his brethren on
various subjects, but when that day came, he was so much exhausted,
that this was found impracticable. He had done with active service
upon earth. He now lay quiet, in peaceful expectation of the happy
moment when his Lord and Master would call him to rest. About three
o'clock in the afternoon, he breathed his last in a most gentle and
peaceful manner, in presence of the family gathered around his bed.
"During this transaction," the missionaries add, in their letter
announcing the event, "a powerful feeling of divine peace prevailed
among us, and many tears were shed by us who are left behind, to
follow the example of this devoted servant of Jesus. He had attained
to the age of seventy nine years."

His removal brought forward, in a very prominent point of view, the
unwearied diligence of the Moravian missionaries, who unite so much
active exertion in temporal affairs, with such devotedness to
spiritual exercises, and, in a pre-eminently apostolic conduct,
exhibit the import of the injunctions, "not slothful in
business,"--"fervent in spirit,"--"serving the Lord." "In consequence
of this vacancy," they continue, "and the age of two others of us, who
are fast approaching their seventieth year, we are not able to do any
great things by manual labour; however, we contrive to perform what is
absolutely requisite, and intend, with the Lord's blessing, to
prepare for the building of a new church, as the present is much too
small, and gone to decay, We thank you for your readiness to assist us
with the necessary help."

Next year, 1813, brother Schreiber arrived to succeed the late
lamented Burghardt as superintendant, and brought with him two
efficient missionaries. The general course of the mission for some
time continued pretty uniform, the meetings were always well attended,
and so great was the desire of the people to be present, that some
came at the hazard of their lives; especially the sisters, who, when
they had no boat of their own, would venture across bays some miles in
breadth, sitting behind their husbands on their narrow kaiaks. The
number of printed books circulated in the congregations, and now
constantly increasing, kept alive the desire to learn to read and
understand the holy Scriptures. The schools were thronged by young and

It has sometimes been asserted that the sacred writings are ill
adapted for school books; that they are above the capacity of
children, and do not possess those attractions which little stories,
extracts from entertaining writers, histories of our own and other
countries present.[J] Without entering upon any argument, it may be
sufficient to remark, that at no time did our native Scotland produce
a more intelligent, acute, and moral race, than that generation which
was educated in schools where the Bible and the Shorter Catechism were
the chief, if not the sole, medium of their instruction. At the
Moravian settlements the same effects flow from a similar mode of
tuition, and the mind that has been early exercised in searching out
the meaning of the Divine Oracles of truth, comes well prepared to
estimate the realities of life, and form a true and correct judgment
upon common topics and matters of daily occurrence: they have been
taught that the present ought to be improved with a reference to the
future, not only in spiritual but in temporal matters, and the natural
consequence is, that the converted Esquimaux and their children become
at once an intelligent and a provident race. So long as they continued
heathen their intellect in general appeared incapable of comprehending
any thing beyond the immediate and grosser cravings of nature, but
now they understood and could converse upon more rational subjects;
then no arguments could induce them, not even their own necessities,
to build store houses, but now they willingly assisted the
missionaries in erecting these buildings for public use, while in some
of the settlements they erected new ones for themselves. Along with
reading, the natives were taught writing and arithmetic, in which many
of them made no inconsiderable proficiency. Yet, notwithstanding all
their care and watchfulness, the brethren were not without their
trials from the members of their congregations, and they, commonly sum
up their accounts of the prosperous state of their people with some
such conclusion as this:--"We must after all confess that much
imperfection is yet seen, and some of those living here are not what
they ought to be. The enemy is not idle, but endeavours to sift those
who believe on Jesus; and we grieve to be obliged to mention, that
even of our communicants there are who have fallen into temptation and
sin. This shall not damp our courage, but we will continue to direct
them to Jesus."

Hitherto little interruption had taken place in the communication
between Labrador and England; the vessel had sailed in safety amid
enemies and storms, and although in some voyages had been in jeopardy,
and in others detained, had always made it out to visit all the
stations; but in 1806 the Jemima was not only prevented from reaching
Hopedale, but carried four of the missionaries on an involuntary trip
to England. The ship arrived at the drift ice on the Labrador coast on
the 16th of July, which Captain Fraser found extending about two
hundred miles from the land, and after attempting to get in first to
Hopedale, then to Nain, and last of all to Okkak, he was at length
completely surrounded by it and in the most imminent danger during six
days and nights, expecting every moment that the ship would be crushed
to pieces, till after very great exertions he got towards the outer
part of the ice. Nevertheless he was still beset with it, and did not
reach Okkak before August 29. The very next day the whole coast, as
far as the eye could reach, was entirely choked up by ice, and after
laying at Okkak nearly three weeks, he was twice forced back by it on
his passage to Nain, which place he did not reach till Sept 22. After
staying the usual time the captain proceeded, Oct 3., from Nain for
Hopedale with fine weather; yet, on account of the lateness of the
season, and a great deal of drift ice, with but little prospect of
reaching that settlement. This circumstance he mentioned to the
brethren at Nain, notwithstanding which, however, Brother Kmoch and
his wife, and two single brethren, Korner and Christensan, who were
going to Hopedale, went on board and they set sail; but the same
evening it came on to blow exceedingly hard, with an immense fall of
snow and very thick weather, so that they could not see the length of
the ship, and being within half a mile of a dangerous reef of rocks,
the captain was obliged to carry a press of sail to clear them, which
he did but just accomplish, for after that the gale increased to such
a degree, the wind being right on shore, that he could not carry sail
any longer, and was obliged to lay the ship to, when the sea broke
often over her, and he was at last forced, seeing every attempt to
reach Hopedale vain, to bear away for England. He again experienced a
gale equal to a hurricane, on the 8th, 9th, and 10th of October,
which, during the evening between the 9th and 10th, was so violent
that the captain expected the vessel would have foundered. She was at
one time struck by a sea that twisted her in such a manner that the
seams on her larboard side opened, and the water gushed into the
cabin and into the mate's birth as if it came from a pump, and every
body at first thought her side was stove in; however the Lord was
pleased to protect every one from harm, nor was the ship very
materially damaged, neither was any thing lost.

Winter set in severely on the Labrador coast, but this proved an
advantage to the missions, as those at Nain were enabled to forward
supplies by sledges to their brethren at Hopedale, who, although
curtailed of some of their comforts, acknowledged with cheerful
thankfulness that they had suffered no essential deprivation. The
Esquimaux were also deprived of their usual supply of food by the
early winter, which prevented them from taking many seals, either by
the net or in kaiaks; but, as not unfrequently happened in their times
of extremity, they were successful in killing a whale, which preserved
from suffering much from famine, and for which they joined their
teachers in returning thanks to their heavenly Father. Their number
was reduced by the death of a venerable brother, Sueb Andersen, who
had served the mission forty years, as well as Christensan, who had
been carried to England; but nevertheless, besides their usual daily
labour, they were able to erect for their own use a building
containing rooms for holding provisions and fuel, and a bakehouse.

Easily contented, however, as they were with their stinted fare, and
pleasantly as they could undergo both privation and manual labour;
they could not see, without the most poignant sorrow, those who had
begun to run well, hindered in their progress, and the greatest
affliction they felt, and the only one which extorted from them a
complaint in this trying season, was the seduction of several of their
congregation. Four traders from the south, with an Esquimaux family in
company, spent that winter in their neighbourhood. They sent European
provisions to the native inhabitants, and invited them to come and
traffic, which proved a great snare, and disturbed the peaceful course
of the congregation; for many of the baptized had lived formerly in
the south, and contracted a taste for European indulgences,
particularly for strong liquors, from which they had been weaned since
their settling at Hopedale; but these propensities revived when
temptation was presented. The brethren spared no pains, by friendly
exhortations and affectionate remonstrances, to avert the calamity,
yet they had the grief to see three families of eighteen persons
desert the station; among whom were six communicants and several
hopeful young people. The women and children wept bitterly at parting,
and even the men seemed affected, but the latter, led captive by the
wiles of the seducer, forced their families to follow. "We cannot
describe," say the missionaries, "the pain we felt in seeing these
poor deluded people running headlong into danger, and we cried to our
Saviour to keep his hand over them in mercy, and not to suffer them to
become a prey to the enemy of their souls."

Kmoch and his wife, and the single brother Korner, who had so
unexpectedly visited England, returned to Labrador in the brig Jemima
in 1817, accompanied by single brother Beck, a descendant of the
Greenland missionary, who in the third generation inherited the same
spirit. Their voyage was perilous, and their preservation afforded a
new display of the mercy of God towards his devoted servants, engaged
to proclaim salvation to the utmost ends of the earth. On the 2d of
June the Jemima left London, and after stopping at the Orkneys, they
reached within 200 miles of the Labrador coast before the 4th of July;
the weather had been remarkably fine, and they were pleasing
themselves with speedily arriving at their destination, when the
ice-birds gave notice of their approaching the ice.[K] Now the wind
shifted, and on the 7th the drift was seen in every direction: for six
days they made several attempts to penetrate through different
openings, but in vain; fields of ice beset the ship on all sides, and
towards the evening of the 13th they discovered an immense ice-berg
approaching. They were sailing before the wind, and just when they
neared it, became enveloped in so thick a fog that they could not see
a yard from the ship, nor use any means to avoid a concussion which
threatened instant ruin. After an hour of helpless anxiety the fog
dispersed, and they perceived that they had providentially passed at a
very short distance. Next morning land was discovered a-head, which
the captain endeavoured to reach, but was forced to seek shelter by
fastening the vessel to a large field of ice three hundred feet in
diameter, elevated about six above the water, and between fifty and
sixty in thickness below. Here they lay with little variation from the
14th to the 20th; when they attempted with a fine breeze to get clear
out. In the evening, the sky lowered, and it grew very dark. At
midnight the passengers were roused by a noise on deck, and hastening
to learn the cause, found they were driving fast towards a huge
ice-mountain, on which they expected every moment to suffer shipwreck.
The night was excessively cold with rain, and the sailors suffered
much before they could again bring the vessel to her moorings. But
this was only the prelude to greater terrors: shortly after mid-day on
the 21st, the wind having risen to a tempest, the missionaries were
alarmed by a tremendous outcry; they instantly ran upon deck, and saw
the ship with the field to which she was fastened, rapidly driving
towards another immense mountain, nor did there appear the smallest
hope of escaping being crushed to pieces between it and the field.
They all cried fervently to the Lord for speedy help in this most
perilous situation--for if they had but touched the mountain they must
have been instantly destroyed. And he heard them: the ship got to such
a distance that the mountain passed between them and the field, but
one of their cables was broken and they lost an anchor; and were left
to the mercy of the storm and the current, in the midst of large
masses of ice from ten to twenty feet thick. The following night was
dreadfully dark and tempestuous, and the howling of the wind, and the
roaring of the ice, as the fields were dashed against each other by
its fury, rendered it truly terrific; while the fragments, as they
were dispersing by the storm, struck violently against the vessel, and
each blow sounded like the harbinger of instant fate. Such shocks were
repeated every five or ten minutes and sometimes oftener; nor was
there any possibility of avoiding them. In this awful situation they
offered up earnest prayers to Him who alone is able to save, and about
six in the morning they were carried into open water not far from the
coast, after having spent ten long hours in a state more easily to be
conceived than described. During the remainder of their voyage they
encountered several heavy gales, and were threatened occasionally with
the gathering ice, and their vessel was leaky, but they happily
arrived at their desired haven in safety. On the 9th of August they
cast anchor at Hopedale.

Amid the trials which the brethren had to encounter, they acknowledge,
with gratitude, the mercies that intervened: they witnessed many
instances of the faithful leading of the Holy Spirit among the
Esquimaux, particularly in the return of many to the good Shepherd,
from whom they had strayed--and during the winter, the station of
Hopedale was preserved from moral contagion by a striking providence.
Some heathen who had set out to seduce their countrymen to go to the
south, were overtaken at sea by a violent storm, which dashed their
large boat in pieces, and being thrown on an unknown desert region,
where no assistance could be obtained, perished miserably by cold and

At the close of 1819, brother Schreiber returned to Europe, and
brother Kohlmeister succeeded him as superintendant of the Labrador
missions, for which he was well adapted, both by his knowledge of the
country and the language. In the former year he had performed a voyage
from Okkak to Nain, very different from that remarkable journey in
1804. The weather was fine and warm, with a gentle favourable breeze,
and the varied scenery was delightful. He doubled the promontory of
the Kiglapeit mountains with the greatest ease, and was wafted through
the narrow channel to Nain, charmed with the verdure that decked the
shores, the woods in foliage, the hills covered with grass, and the
vallies spangled with innumerable flowers. Early next year he visited
Hopedale, and the weather being again fine, he accomplished the
journey in two days. The dogs drew the sledge over the frozen snow
with great rapidity; no English post-horses could have done better. He
had formerly ministered in this settlement, and the inhabitants came
out to some distance to meet, and bid him welcome. "I was deeply
affected," says he, in a letter to Mr Latrobe, "on again entering this
place, in which I had spent so many happy days in the year 1804, when
it pleased the Lord to send forth his Spirit, and awaken in the hearts
of the Esquimaux, that hunger and thirst after righteousness and
salvation, the fruits of which have been so manifest and encouraging
ever since. I was then eye-witness of astonishing proofs of His power
and love, and my heart and spirit revived in the recollection of the
all-conquering and superabounding grace which then prevailed, and by
which he drew all hearts unto himself."

To the continuance and advancement of this blessed work, the brethren
were able to bear joyful testimony in the succeeding year. July 31,
1820, they thus write: "The Lord is graciously pleased to cause his
power to be made manifest in the conversion of sinners, and in the
building up our dear Esquimaux flock in the faith by which we are
saved. This we may truly testify to his praise. The Father draws them
to the Son, and the Holy Spirit leads them in the way of life
everlasting. We find open ears and hearts when we declare to them the
love of Jesus as their Saviour, and his blessing rests upon our feeble
testimony of his atoning death and passion. Many a heart, by nature
hard as the surrounding rocks, has been broken by the divine power of
the word of the cross."

They had, however, to mourn over the loss of three of their most
approved native Esquimaux brethren, in the prime of life; they were
suddenly seized with a mortal illness, which, after a short suffering
of twelve hours, brought them to the grave; but the joyful hope of
seeing their Saviour face to face, and celebrating the praises of his
redeeming love, supported them in their dying moments, and comforted
the hearts of their teachers. Their widows, also, distinguished
themselves by their resignation to the Lord under this severe
dispensation, which rendered them desolate, placing their whole trust
in Him who is the faithful friend of the widow and the fatherless. A
young married man, a candidate for baptism, was seized with the same
complaint, and brought to the brink of the grave. In his extremity, he
complained to one of the missionaries that he had never been truly
converted to Jesus. "O!" exclaimed he, "if but one drop of the
precious atoning blood of Jesus would flow upon my soul to cleanse me
from guilt, that I might be assured in my inward parts, of the
forgiveness of my many sins!" He was baptized on his sickbed--it was
an affecting scene--a sense of the presence of the Lord was felt on
the occasion by all present, by the peace and grace that accompanied
the administration of the ordinance. The answer to the sick penitent's
fervent prayer, seemed like that given to the poor repenting thief on
the cross when he cried, "Lord remember me"--it was immediate. To the
surprise of all, he recovered, and remained an instance of the love of
Jesus, even to the chief of sinners.

A remarkable preservation of another Esquimaux youth, was likewise the
cause of much joy at Hopedale. On the 10th of June, 1819, this lad had
been carried out to sea upon a flake of ice, which separated from the
main mass in a terrible storm, and was given up for lost. He, however,
after having, for some time, been driven about, gained the larger body
of drift ice, and was carried towards an island, on which he landed.
Here he staid about two months. He had only a gun, a small knife, and
a few pieces of cord with him, but neither powder nor shot. Of the
cord he made nooses and caught eider-ducks, by which, and their eggs,
he kept himself alive; in the night, he crept under an overhanging
rock to sleep. At length he discovered a piece of wood floating to the
shore; of this he made an oar, and, getting on a flake of ice, rowed
himself to an island nearer the main land, whence he reached two more
islands nearer still. About the beginning of August, he observed two
boats steering towards the south, and made signals: these were not
noticed by the first, which passed on; but the second approached and
took him in. They were southlanders from Kippolak, with whom he was
obliged to go on to the south, and remain there till the ice was
strong enough to admit of his travelling to Hopedale. He removed
thence to Okkak, where he most unexpectedly arrived, to the
astonishment of all his relations, who received him as one from the
dead. He declared that in his banishment from human society, Jesus had
been his hope and refuge, though the prospect before him was indeed
terrific. While he gave this account of his escape, his eyes
overflowed with tears of joy and gratitude; and at the conclusion of
his narrative, he said to brother Kohlmeister--"Benjamin! I declare to
you that I was never alone; Jesus was always with me, and I will ever
follow Jesus, and belong to him in time and eternity."


[Footnote I: The Journal of the Voyage, illustrated with a map, was
published in a separate form. London, 1814.]

[Footnote J: "The children and young people have given us much
pleasure; they have made good progress in reading, and often speak to
us of the pleasure it affords them to be able to read the Scriptures
at home."--Periodical Accounts, vol. 6 p. 241.]

[Footnote K: This bird is about the size of a starling, black, with
white and yellow spots, flies about a ship chiefly in the night, and
is known by its singular notes, which resemble a loud laugh.]


 Fiftieth anniversary of the missionary vessel's first arrival in
   Labrador--jubilee of the mission celebrated at Nain.--Summary
   view of the success of the gospel in Labrador during that
   period.--Instance of maternal affection.--Esquimaux contribute
   to the Bible Society.--British sloop of war, Clinker, visits
   Hopedale.--Captain Martin's testimony to the good effect of the
   brethren's labours--visits Nain and Okkak--consequences of his
   favourable report.

Fifty years had now elapsed since the first ship arrived at Nain, 9th
August 1771, with missionaries on board for the service of the
Esquimaux, and in the morning of the same day of the same month,
August the 9th, 1820, at eight o'clock, the Harmony cast anchor in the
same bay, bringing stores and provisions for a Christian settlement
containing one hundred and sixty-eight inhabitants, chiefly gathered
from among the heathen, and exercising the habits of civilized life,
instead of roaming the wilds as rude savages, or infesting the seas
as ruthless pirates. The day of the vessel's arrival was always a day
of gladness, as she brought tidings from their Christian friends in
Europe to the missionaries; and good tidings from a far country,
especially when brought to such a secluded spot, were doubly welcome.
That this communication should, notwithstanding all risks, have been
uninterrupted, afforded much subject for thanksgiving, which the
brethren expressed by hymns, and likewise endeavoured to show by some
little external tokens. They hoisted two old small flags and a white
one, on which the sisters had marked, in large figures, the number 50,
surrounded by a wreath of green laurel; their small cannon fired
several shot, which were answered by the ship, and the Esquimaux fired
their pieces as long as their powder lasted. Meanwhile, some tunes of
hymns, expressing thanksgiving to God for his mercies, were played on
wind instruments, which altogether made a good impression on the
Esquimaux, and gave them an idea of a jubilee rejoicing. Brother
Kohlmeister explained to them the meaning of the number 50 on the
flag, and made them understand that it was the fifteenth time that a
ship had come safely to Nain for their sakes, and how it had been
preserved, by the wonder-working hand of God, from all harm in these
dangerous seas, and that this was the cause of these extraordinary
demonstrations of a joyful gratitude; they listened with great
attention, and then exclaimed, "Yes! Jesus is worthy of thanks!" nor
were the sailors unmoved.

Next year, 1821, completed half a century which the brethren had spent
in Labrador, and was celebrated as the jubilee year at the three
settlements. At Nain the commemoration day was the 9th of August, in
all the services of which a spirit of joy and thanksgiving prevailed
throughout the whole congregation. The baptism of two adults tended
much to solemnize the festival. "We praised the Lord," say the
missionaries, "with heart and voice, for all the wonders he has
wrought in behalf of the mission in Labrador during half a century, in
which he has led, preserved, and blessed us abundantly. His mighty arm
has protected us in many dangers, and the preaching of his cross has
been attended with power and the demonstration of his Spirit in many
hearts; and many heathen have been brought in as a reward for the
travail of his soul." An account of the beginning of the mission, and
of all the remarkable incidents and proofs of the mercy and grace of
our Saviour during that period, was read to all the congregations in
their native tongue, and heard with the greatest attention and
surprise. Since the commencement, 48 brethren and 28 sisters had been
employed, and at this time there were 15 brethren and 10 sisters at
the three mission stations of Nain, Okkak and Hopedale. Of the
Esquimaux nation, there had been baptized 392 adults and 388 children;
and at the end of this year, there were residing in the different
settlements, 471 baptized, 45 candidates for baptism, and 68 new
people, making a total of 584 persons. Truly it might be said of the
Esquimaux nation, that for them who sat in the shadow of death, under
the cruel bondage of Satan, God our Saviour wrought deliverance, and
brought many of them into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

Many had, during that period, departed full of hope, and in the
preceding summer, among others, a sister of much worth, Joanna, had
been taken away at Hopedale, under very interesting circumstances.
While on the ice with her daughter, it gave way, and they both fell
in. The mother made great exertions to save her child, and with much
difficulty succeeded, but, her strength failing, she was unable to
extricate herself, and was drowned. She had led a humble, consistent,
and exemplary life, and her last words, when in the act of sinking,
was to commend her departing spirit to the mercy of her Saviour. This
happy year was likewise marked as that on which the Esquimaux received
complete copies of the New Testament in their own language, printed at
the expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and also for the
proof they gave of the value they set upon the Holy Scriptures, by the
desire they express that other nations should enjoy similar advantage.
Having been informed of the nature and aim of the Bible Society, and
of its labours in the distribution of the Scriptures, the Esquimaux of
their own accord, began to collect seals' blubber, as a contribution
towards the expenses of the Society. Some brought whole seals, or half
seals, or pieces, as they could afford it. Others brought portions of
blubber in the name of their children, requesting that their poor
gifts might be accepted. And when they heard that other converted
heathen, even poorer than they, had contributed to spread the word of
God, they exclaimed: "How long have not _we_ heard the pleasant and
comfortable words concerning Jesus Christ our Saviour, and how many
books have _we_ not received, treating of Him, and yet we have never
known and considered whence they come. We have indeed sometimes spoken
together, and observed that these many books given to us without pay,
must cost a great deal somewhere; but we never have before now known,
that even poor people bring their money out of pure love, that we may
get these comfortable words of God. We are indeed poor, but yet might
now and then bring some blubber, that others who are as ignorant as we
were formerly, may receive the same gospel which has been so sweet to
our souls, and thereby be taught to find the way to Jesus and believe
on him." The donations of these poor Esquimaux were accompanied with
expressions of thanks for the favours they had received, and earnest
requests to the Society, that more heathen might be presented with
"that Book, so far more precious than any thing else in the world."

Various hindrances had prevented the formation of a fourth settlement,
and during this interval, the tongue of slander had not been silent.
Mercenary traders had represented to the British authorities, the
brethren's conduct as hostile to the interest of the colony and their
traffic with the natives: but fortunately the authorities were not
disposed to receive implicitly these reports, and the governor of
Newfoundland, Sir Charles Hamilton, dispatched a sloop of war, the
Clinker, Captain William Martin, to examine the coast of Labrador, and
with an express direction to visit the different Moravian stations. He
arrived a few days after the celebration of the jubilee, and the
missionaries, in their diary, give the following account of his visit:

"August 15th, in the afternoon, we received a letter from William
Martin, Esq., commander of a British ship of war, which lay at anchor
four hours from this, informing us that the governor of Newfoundland
had ordered him to take a survey of that part of the coast of Labrador
where the brethren's settlements were situated, and to visit the
settlements. On hearing this, the Captain (Fraser) of the mission
vessel, at present lying at anchor here, sent the pilot in a boat, to
bring the Clinker into the harbour, and at three o'clock P.M. a ship
of war, with three masts and fourteen cannon, anchored in our harbour,
not far from us. Immediately two of us, with Captain Fraser, went on
board to welcome the commander, who repeated his commission, and
conversed with us in the most friendly manner. We expressed our
happiness at his arrival, and invited him on shore to examine
minutely into every thing of which he wished to obtain information. He
accordingly landed in the evening, and came to the mission-house.

"Soon after his arrival, our usual meeting was held with the
Esquimaux, whose good conduct, quietness, and piety, seemed to strike
him; and he afterwards confessed his expectation in this respect had
been greatly exceeded. He asked us several questions--First, What
means we had used to civilize such rude and savage men? We answered
that whatever good he observed in the Esquimaux, was entirely to be
ascribed to the power of the gospel, the preaching of which was the
only purpose of our being here; besides this, we possessed no other
power, nor did we believe any other could deliver savage men,
accustomed to murder, and given up to every vice, from their
detestable habits, and introduce them into the circle of social order.
Nothing but the operation of the Spirit of God on their hearts,
convincing them of the truth of the gospel, and the happiness of true
Christians, could induce them to deny their evil propensities, and
incline them to receive instruction, and walk according to the
commandments of Jesus; it is this, we said, that causes them to live
in peaceful and happy society together.

"He next wished to be informed of the reason of our conduct with
regard to merchandize, as he had heard that we did not wish our
Esquimaux to trade with the Europeans in the south; and when they did
so, if we did not drive them away from our settlements? To this we
replied as follows: 'Nothing is so painful to us, as when any of the
members of our congregation fall back into heathenism, which easily
happens when they go to the south to trade with the Europeans, where
they are exposed to many temptations. On this account we find it
necessary to warn them against such journeys, and if they pay no
attention to these admonitions, intended chiefly for their own
advantage, we cannot regard them as any longer belonging to us. And
our conduct is the same towards those who reside among us, who have
not received the gospel, when we find all our affectionate and serious
exhortations in vain, and they persist in returning thither to trade.
But no Esquimaux is driven away from our settlements on this account,
for he does not sell his merchandize to us alone, but to any person
with whom he chooses to trade. It must, however, be remarked, that
many Esquimaux when pressed by hunger in winter, take refuge with us,
to whom we give every possible assistance; there are also some, who,
during their harvest, save a portion against a time of need, which we
lay up for them, and they receive the full value, when their
necessities require it. Now, when these, regardless of their
obligations to us, take their articles elsewhere to barter, we frankly
tell them our opinion of their conduct, and endeavour to impress their
minds with a sense of their ingratitude, not only to us, but to the
Society in England, who from love to them, sends every year a ship
with the necessary supplies. If any one take offence at our reproofs,
and leave us in anger for the south, we cannot help it, but we are
certain he dare not affirm any such falsehood to the Europeans, as to
say, that he was driven from our settlement because he treated with
them.' Captain Martin replied that he had not the least doubt of what
we said, and was perfectly satisfied, by what he had seen and heard,
that we laboured to promote the best interests of the Esquimaux."

On Sunday, 19th, "All the officers and forty of the crew of the ship
of war, assembled with us in our meeting for public worship, when we
recommended them to the gracious protection of our almighty Lord and
God; and we have much pleasure in being able to say, that, during the
whole time they remained here, their behaviour was as orderly and
friendly as we could have wished. The Captain having lodged a night
with us, at taking leave together with the surgeon, shook us heartily
by the hand, and thanked us for our kind attention, and expressed his
delight at the happy results of our endeavours to improve the
Esquimaux. All the officers likewise bade us farewell in the most
friendly manner, and said they would always reflect with pleasure on
their visit to us. After they went on board Captain Martin sent us a
letter, in which he thus expressed himself: 'My Dear Friends--I cannot
leave this place without expressing my thanks in a few lines to the
worthy brethren who received me in so friendly a manner, and by their
attention rendered my stay here so pleasant. I regret that it has been
so short, but it has been sufficiently long, to convince me that your
labours have been crowned by a blessed success; this must animate you
under many difficulties, to continue to devote yourselves with zeal to
the service of our Lord, your great example. One must be an
eye-witness to judge of the mighty change that has already taken place
in these Esquimaux, both in regard to body and mind. It will give me
the most heart-felt joy, to communicate this to his Excellency, the
governor of St John's, and also to bear testimony in England, to the
happy progress of your labours.' Next day, at 6 A.M. the ship of war
set sail, when we, with our Esquimaux, ascended the height nearest the
shore, and by signs took our last farewell of the crew.

"Continuing her course, the Clinker reached Nain on the 21st, where
Captain Martin behaved in the same friendly manner. He was frequently
on shore at the mission-house, and likewise attended worship in the
church. On the 23d he invited the missionaries aboard, and shewed them
the arrangement in a sloop of war. His vessel was decorated with fifty
flags of different nations, in honour of the commemoration of the
jubilee. The day after, he furnished a feast of boiled pease and
biscuit, for all the Esquimaux living on the missionaries' land, and
was himself present at the entertainment. The Esquimaux sat on pieces
of timber, placed in a square. Before they began their meal, they sang
a hymn, 'Now let us praise the Lord, &c.' and at the close, 'Praise
God for ever.' All of them expressed great thankfulness for this
condescending mark of the Captain's good will; and each of them had a
goodly portion of biscuit left to carry home."

From Nain the Clinker sailed for Hopedale in company with the Harmony,
on board of which were the superintendant Kohlmeister and his wife.
The latter thus speaks of the excursion, which she appears to have
highly enjoyed: "We had the pleasure to sail in company with his sloop
[Captain Martin's] to Hopedale, and had a most agreeable voyage. He
came twice on board the Harmony to pay us a visit. As we approached
Hopedale, the brethren and the Esquimaux not having received any
account of the arrival of the sloop of war, were rather alarmed at its
appearance, but we found means before we cast anchor, to send them
word that all was peace and friendship, upon which the music began to
play a hymn of praise, and the Esquimaux afterwards fired a salute
with their pieces. The sloop answered with the great guns, but the
Esquimaux were determined to have the last word, and went on firing
after the cannon had ceased to roar. It was a calm night without moon,
but the brilliant display of numberless stars, and a glorious Aurora
Borealis, increased the enjoyment. The brethren, Stock and Haller,
coming on board, we could not quit the deck till midnight; sleep was
not thought of. Captain Martin also displayed a number of blue
lights, to the great astonishment and gratification of the Esquimaux."
The Captain having here also given a feast of bread and pease, she
adds, "We were present, and were pleased to hear how the Esquimaux
expressed their thankfulness, and afterwards sung the anthem, 'Glory
to God in the highest,' and 'Hosanna.'" When he had accomplished the
object of his cruise, Captain Martin returned to St John's.

By this extraordinary and friendly visit, the brethren remarked, "the
celebration of the jubilee of the mission acquired a peculiar and new
feature, as we were at the same time assured of the favour of those,
whom God has appointed to rule over us, and may hope in future also to
experience a continuance of that protection we have hitherto enjoyed.
The Lord has also caused his work to be glorified in the sight of
men." But this visit was still further important, as it tended to
accelerate the formation of a fourth settlement.


 The Brethren obtain a further grant of land on the east coast of
   Labrador.--projected fourth settlement delayed.--Progress of the
   three settlements in the interval.--Instances of wonderful
   preservation--Ephraim--of Conrad, Peter, and Titus.--Report of
   the Superintendant, Kohlmeister, on the general state of the
   Mission.--Commencement and progress of Hebron, the fourth

Much as the brethren desired to establish a settlement on the Ungava
country, and anxious as the Esquimaux there were, that they should
reside among them, providential difficulties, as above alluded to,
prevented what appeared so urgent a call from being complied with,
and, in a manner, forced upon the brethren's consideration the
propriety of forming a fourth station on the east coast. They had,
therefore, applied to the British Government for a further grant of
land; and the report of Captain Martin having been so highly
favourable, all obstructions were removed, and next year the order
which had been granted by the Prince Regent in Council, 13th May
1818, securing to them the possession of the coast from Okkak to the
56th deg N.L., including the bays of Napartok, Kangertluksoak, and
Saeglak, was transmitted to Nain through Governor Hamilton,
accompanied by a letter written under his own hand, wishing them every
success in their Christian undertaking. From the great increase of the
population at Okkak, the attention of the missionaries was principally
directed to Kangertluksoak as the fittest place for a new station; as,
in the spring, a great many of their own Esquimaux went thither to
obtain a livelihood, the distance being about sixty miles yet several
years elapsed before they were able to carry their plan into
execution. During this interval, the missionaries had the pleasure of
seeing the work of the Lord continue to prosper in the three
settlements, and a spirit of love spread abroad among their flocks.
"Our Saviour's grace and power," say they, July 1822, "have been made
manifest in young and old, and the word of his cross, sufferings, and
death, performs the same miracles, as in the earliest periods of
Christianity. When we met to celebrate the holy communion, as well as
on the different festival and memorial days of the church, the grace
and presence of our Lord and Saviour revived our hearts and filled us
with joy, and with praise and thanksgiving to him for all the good
which he has done unto this people."--Procuring their food almost
always at the hazard of their lives, instances of wonderful
preservations were not uncommon among the Esquimaux, and their
observations on their deliverances had generally a pious simplicity,
which rendered them extremely pleasant. This year, Ephraim, a
communicant, went with five others to catch seals at the edge of the
ice, about sixty miles from Nain. Being at some distance from his
party, the ice broke under him, and he had only time to grasp the rim
of the hole made in the ice to prevent his sinking under it. In this
situation, hanging over the sea, the cold being intense, his fingers
froze fast to the ice, which helped to support him; for his immediate
cries for assistance were not heard, and he remained for a quarter of
an hour in dreadful suspense. At length, just when his voice failed
him, he was perceived by his companions and his life saved. Though his
fright and anxiety were in the beginning very great, he said, that he
committed himself to our Saviour, and felt resigned to his will; and
when the danger seemed most imminent, help was afforded, for which he
gave thanks to Him who alone could deliver in such distress.

But an interposition of providence, which rescued two Christian
Esquimaux, belonging to the congregation at Hopedale, who were carried
out to sea on a field of ice, and were nine days driven about at the
mercy of the waves, is not the least extraordinary among the many
which occurred. A party of three, Conrad, Peter, and Titus, being
engaged in fishing on the ice, that part on which they were standing
broke loose from the shore, and was driven by a strong south-west wind
out to sea. Conrad having a sledge with him, fastened some seal-skins
and bladders to it to keep him buoyant, and turning it upside down
used it as a raft; in this he paddled a full English mile back to the
firm ice, being commissioned by his companions to procure a boat, and
send it to their assistance. The sea, by God's mercy, being calm, he
reached the shore in safety, but before he could procure the boat, the
field of ice with his two companions on it had drifted nearly out of
sight, and there was no possibility of overtaking it. The size and
strength of the ice was such that it afforded them the means of
building a snow-house upon it, in which they took shelter during the
night, and in rainy weather. They had caught eight seals on the day of
their departure, which afforded them nourishment, though for want of
fuel they could make no fire, but ate the meat raw and drank the
blood. Of their feelings during nine dreadful days of anxiety and
suspense, they wrote the following affecting account. Peter for
himself says, "When on the 4th of June (1824,) we were driven off the
coast upon the field of ice, I was not much alarmed, for I did not
apprehend much danger. At night when we lay down to rest we commended
ourselves in prayer to God our Saviour, and gave up our lives into his
hands, which we always continued to do. On the 5th, as we were
floating pretty near to the point of Tikkerarsuk, I hoped that our
brother Conrad, who had been with us, would come to help us with
kaiaks. We repeatedly thought we heard the report of fire-arms, and
therefore fired off our pieces, but towards evening, we perceived that
we had been mistaken. Now I began to feel great fears about the
preservation of my life, and thinking of my poor family, I wept much.
With many tears I cried fervently to Jesus to save me. I could speak
with him as if he stood by me, and said; 'I pray that I may not be
carried to the other side of the water, nor to the south, nor too far
to the north among the unbelievers, but that my body may have a decent
burial in the earth. O! shew mercy to me, and do thou, the only helper
in need, take care of my poor family!' Then these words occurred to my
mind, 'Hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown,'
which made me shed tears of gratitude and love to our Saviour, like a
child, though at so great a distance from home. I entered our
snow-house weeping, and we both joined in calling upon Jesus for help
and comfort. This we did every morning and evening. On the 6th, in the
morning, finding ourselves carried far away from the land into the
ocean, we again looked for comfort to Jesus, and prayed to him with
many tears to help us, and direct our course. We sung that verse
together, 'O lift up thy countenance upon us,' and these words were
impressed upon my mind, 'I am the good Shepherd, and know my sheep,
and am known of mine.' I felt my unworthiness deeply, and nothing but
the words of Jesus could give me joy. I prayed fervently to him, that
he would give his angels charge over me. I spent the whole day in
prayer, and as I walked about alone, several parts of Scripture
occurred to my recollection, especially the account of my Saviour's
being taken captive. The prayer he offered up for his disciples, John
XVII. was peculiarly precious to me, and gave me great comfort.
Frequently I felt joy in my heart on remembering our Saviour's words,
and that he said to his disciples, 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost.' On the
7th, the fog was so dense that we could not see whither we were
driven. I cried to Jesus, 'O! help,' and his words came sweetly into
my mind, 'Come unto me all ye that are heavy laden, and I will give
you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me, for I am meek and
lowly in heart.' Then I felt comforted. On the 8th, 9th, and 10th, we
could see nothing on account of the fog. I wept, and longed only to
enjoy the inexpressible love of Jesus. I remembered how the apostle
Peter was frightened in the storm, and was comforted by our Saviour.
Thus also he comforted us in our dreadful situation. I cried
continually to him to bring us again to the shore, for the thought of
my poor bereaved family caused many tears to flow from my eyes." At
length, on the 12th, the field of ice on which they were, was driven
nearer the shore, and on the 13th, they reached home by travelling
over the drift.

This year the superintendant, Kohlmeister, who had served the Labrador
mission thirty-four years, was constrained, by his increased
infirmities, and by the severe indisposition both of himself and his
wife, to return to Europe. His last report respecting the state of the
settlements, is therefore too important to be abridged or omitted--it
is as follows: "The work of God in the hearts of our dear Esquimaux,
proceeds in the power of the Spirit, and with rich blessing; and I may
with truth assert, that they grow in grace, and in the love and
knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Their number is
likewise on the increase. The congregation at Okkak, in particular,
obtains a great increase from year to year, by the arrival of heathen
from the coast to the north of the settlement; the number of heathen
Esquimaux in their neighbourhood is indeed decreasing, but Okkak may
yet be called a mission among the heathen. Nain and Hopedale are now
Christian settlements, all the inhabitants being initiated into the
Christian church by holy baptism, except a few children, and no
heathen live in their neighbourhood. Their increase, therefore,
depends upon the rising generation, and upon the accession of persons
coming from a distance to reside among them. On this account the
endeavours of the missionaries, in these two settlements, are
particularly directed to instil into the minds of the youth the
principles and precepts of vital Christianity; and to see to it, that
by the grace of our Saviour, all the souls committed to their care
become more firmly grounded and established in faith and love, and
walk worthy of their high and heavenly calling. This is done by
faithful admonition, accompanied with watchfulness and prayer. The
most efficacious means of promoting their growth in grace, is the
reading of the New Testament, which they have now in their hands
through the generosity of the venerable British and Foreign Bible
Society. They read therein daily in their houses and tents with the
greatest earnestness, delight, and edification. We have, indeed, ever
since the arrival of this most precious gift, observed a great change.
Their understanding of the word of God, and the doctrines which it
contains, has greatly increased; and the influence upon their moral
conduct is manifest, for they now more than ever desire to regulate
their walk and conversation in conformity to truly Christian

"The schools, which are held, with both children and adults, from
November to April, are a most powerful means of forwarding their
improvement in every thing good and profitable for them. Most of the
people attend them with great diligence, and with an earnest desire to
be soon able to read the New Testament for themselves. There are among
the children some of five, and even of four years of age, who read
well. The severest punishment than can be inflicted on a child is to
keep him from school. The new Hymn Book is a truly valuable present.
The whole number of Christian Esquimaux under the care of the
brethren, at present, is 705, old and young."

Excepting that their numbers continued gradually to increase, the
above report may be considered as a correct view of the state of the
Moravian settlements in Labrador for several succeeding years.

Some Ladies in Scotland, who had admired the exertions of the
Moravians in Labrador, had about this time sent as a token of their
Christian affection a small present to the beloved labourers in that
distant inhospitable clime; they were gratified, nearly under the
above date [at the close of 1831,] by the following letter from two
aged servants of the Lord, the venerable missionary Kmoch and his
wife, who, after nearly half a century of active exertion, reluctantly
retired from the heat of the day--it was addressed to a friend in
Edinburgh, and shortly but sweetly corroborates the account of

"The Saviour continues," say they, "to bless his own work in Labrador.
In Okkak, during the last winter, eight adults and thirteen children
were baptized, and six persons are longing for the enjoyment of the
holy supper for the first time. In the harvest of 1830 a malignant
cold and cough raged in Okkak, of which eighteen persons died, but
last winter the weather was very mild. I have been 34 and my wife 19
years in Labrador. I would willingly have remained among our dear
Esquimaux much longer, but old age and sickness are the cause of our
return. The parting with our Esquimaux, and our dear fellow-labourers,
was very affecting."

At length the obstacles in the way of a new settlement began to
dissipate; and in the mean time, to secure possession of the bounds
allotted to them by the British Government, the missionaries, Kmoch
and Sturman, in 1828, erected a block-house twelve feet long and
eight broad, which the summer before had been prepared at Okkak, and
sent to Kangertluksoak by some Esquimaux returning to the north. They
completed the journey on sledges in fifteen hours, of which they
transmitted the following notes--"May 19th, at eight in the evening we
arrived at Apparnaviarsak, in the neighbourhood of Kangertluksoak;
here we found four tents of our Esquimaux, and in three, others of the
Nain people who had resolved the next summer to go to Okkak: all
expressed the greatest joy at our coming, and all frankly reached out
their hands to welcome us. Immediately a tent was erected for us, and
the floor covered with bears' skins. As we had not tasted any thing
warm the whole day, we got some coffee, after which we put our beds in
order--these consist of a sack of rein-deers' skin with the hair
inmost, and a sack of seals' skin drawn over it--it is just large
enough to admit one person, who first slips in his feet, and gradually
inserts the whole body, which, when fairly in, soon gets comfortably
warm. The day after, we invited the Esquimaux to a meeting, when,
after singing a hymn, brother Sturman saluted them in the most
affectionate manner; assured them of our constant remembrance and
prayers; then begged them to consider their present happy
circumstances, and reminded them that but a few years since they were
heathens, living in deplorable ignorance of their Creator and
Redeemer, and without hope of that eternal happiness which he hath
purchased for us. The tears of many shewed the joy of their hearts in
believing. We intimated to them that, during our stay, we would have
prayers morning and evening."

The promontory of Apparnaviarsak, where our Esquimaux were, is joined
to the continent of Kangertluksoak, on which their winter houses were
built. Between the rocks, the ground is everywhere covered with grass,
the snow was already melted, and the young grass began most
beautifully to shoot up. The spring appeared to be much earlier here
than at Okkak, where, at present, every thing was covered with deep
snow; the mountains are not so steep, the land lies lower and nearer
the open sea: but the flat where the houses of the Esquimaux are, is
surrounded by numerous small islands. From the declivity behind, in
many places the open sea can be seen, with the promontory of Saeglak,
the distance to which is only about 5 or 6 hours, with a good sledge
path; consequently, it appeared admirably adapted for a mission
station. Saeglak would afford excellent fishing ground for our
people, should the heathen leave it, which must very soon happen, as
within these last few years, the inhabitants of these parts have
greatly diminished, many of them coming to reside among us. Upon the
whole, from all that we have heard or seen, Kangertluksoak is one of
the best fishing places, and as some remain here the whole year, we
can have the Esquimaux more with us than at any of the other
settlements. There are, however, many other advantages we must give up
here; the nearest forest lies to the south of Nappartok, and is about
eighteen or twenty miles distant, the nearest road by land; by water
it is greater. While we sent the Esquimaux for the frame of our little
house, which lay about half an hour's journey from this, we went to
take a view of the place, near the winter houses of the Esquimaux.
Adjoining these, at a little distance from the beach, we found a plain
sufficiently large for buildings, gardens, &c.; and after we had
examined all the country round the river, we resolved to erect our
little dwelling here, and our Esquimaux having brought the wood, it
was soon erected. All the natives who were present willingly assisted
in laying the foundation with stones, and filling it up with
sand--part of the boards were nailed on the same day. The house stands
on an eminence, in the neighbourhood of a small lake, which the
Esquimaux assured us had water in it during the greater part of the
summer, and probably, by a little labour, it may be formed into a good
reservoir. We continued our building, without intermission, till the
21st, when we finished. On the 22nd we floored the house, prepared the
bed-rooms, fixed a table and bench between two windows, and set up a
little oven. In the evening, brother Kmoch held a meeting to take
leave, and affectionately exhorted our Esquimaux to approve themselves
the children of God under every circumstance, to give themselves up at
all times to be led by the Spirit of the Lord, and faithfully to
follow his admonitions. On the 25th inst. at 3 o'clock, A.M., we set
out on our return, but the newly fallen snow mixing with the water on
the ice, so obstructed our path, that we were nine hours longer on the
way than we were before, but we reached Okkak on the 26th, at three in
the morning, full of gratitude to the Saviour, whose presence had so
comforted us on this visit, and filled us with the joyful conviction,
that he also had left a blessed impression on the Esquimaux.

Preparations were now commenced at the different stations for
forwarding the erection of the new settlement, and early in the year
1829, rafters, boards, and shingles, were transported to
Kangertluksoak from Okkak by sledges, which performed no less than one
hundred and five journies, and seldom spent more than a day upon the
road, the tract having been extraordinarily fine, beyond what the
oldest inhabitant remembered to have seen, and which the brethren
considered as the mark of a kind providence smiling on their new
undertaking. When the frame work of the mission-house was finished, on
the 13th of April brother Mentzel and Beck, with six young Esquimaux,
set out for the spot. On the 8th of July the frame was set up, and on
the 21st it was covered with weather boarding on three sides.

The Society in London in the meantime had not been idle; they had, in
addition to the ordinary vessel, hired a consort, the Oliver, which
they sent out with materials, to enable the missionaries to go on with
their new settlement, named _Hebron_, and which opportunely arrived,
just when the house was made ready to receive, and place the stores
under cover. Another missionary, Ferdinand, arrived with the Harmony
to assist brother Beck. Immediately they commenced unloading the
Oliver, in which they were stoutly assisted by about thirty Esquimaux,
with their wives and children. In less than a week, the whole was
landed, and after consulting with the brethren at Okkak, the resident
missionaries proceeded with their labour: notwithstanding several
interruptions, first by the loss of their assistants for a time, who
went to the rein-deer hunt, and afterwards by a violent storm, which
carried away the scaffolding, and part of their materials, they got so
far finished, that on the 18th of September, one room was habitable,
and they could quit the small and uncomfortable hut, in which they had
hitherto lived. During the winter months their work was suspended, but
in spring, 1831, they recommenced with fresh diligence, and on the 7th
of May, the second story of their house was floored, and likewise
habitable. They had constructed besides some outhouses as cellars and
store houses; and when the vessels from Europe again visited the
settlement in July, bringing a further supply of building materials,
brother Mentzel, who had gone to England and returned in her, was much
surprised to see the premises so far advanced, and thus reported: "Our
dear brethren," says he, "must have laboured diligently to effect what
they have done. It is true every thing is in a rude and unfinished
state; chairs, tables, bedsteads, and the like, have still to be made.
Our fellow traveller, brother Freytag has his bed at present upon a
heap of shavings. The reading table in the temporary church, is a box
set on end, upon which a flat board has been nailed, and the whole is
covered with a piece of coarse cloth, but in due time we hope all will
be in order."

In the course of the winter, nine persons came to reside at the
settlement, professing to enquire for rest to their souls; the
missionaries gladly received them, and directed their attention to our
Saviour's invitation to the weary and heavy laden. Among them an
Esquimaux woman came from Saeglak, and requested leave to reside at
the station; the missionaries informed her that she was welcome to do
so, but that she must give up all heathenish practices. She replied
that for some time past, both her husband and herself had discontinued
these things, and had been long thinking about their conversion, and
therefore they had come to them. About a week after, the husband
himself came, and confirmed what his wife had said. On the 12th of
July three boats' companies arrived from the north, and several of the
Esquimaux paid the brethren a visit, but seemed little disposed to
listen to the gospel. Only one young man remained with his mother.
Many Esquimaux arrived in the following year [1832] for the sake of
trade; but when the brethren advised them to make the salvation of
their soul their chief concern, they all began to offer excuses, yet
on being spoken to about the consequences of death, they did not, as
formerly, treat it with levity; some even appeared thoughtful after
such conversations, and five persons removed from the heathen to the
settlement. Of those who had resided with them for some time, they had
the pleasure, on Easter Sunday, to baptize four adults and one child,
being the first accession to the church at Hebron from among the
heathen. The number of their congregation in August, the date of their
latest accounts, amounted in all, to 162 persons, of whom 72 had
joined from Okkak, and 10 from Nain.

Printed by J. Ritchie, 3. East Adam Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

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