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Author: Potts, Thomas
Title: Discovery of Witches The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
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Title: Discovery of Witches
       The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster


Author: Thomas Potts

Editor: James Crossley

Release Date: April 25, 2006  [eBook #18253]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-646-US (US-ASCII)


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Remains Historical & Literary Connected with the Palatine Counties
of Lancaster and Chester

Published by the Chetham Society.

Vol. VI.

Printed for the Chetham Society.
M.DCCC.XLV.



[Illustration: THE CHETHAM SOCIETY]



Council.

EDWARD HOLME, ESQ., M.D., PRESIDENT.
REV. RICHARD PARKINSON, B.D., CANON OF MANCHESTER, VICE-PRESIDENT.
THE HON. & VERY REV. WILLIAM HERBERT, DEAN OF MANCHESTER.
GEORGE ORMEROD, ESQ., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., SEDBURY PARK.
SAMUEL HIBBERT WARE, ESQ., M.D., F.R.S.E., EDINBURGH.
REV. THOMAS CORSER, M.A.
REV. GEORGE DUGARD, M.A.
REV. C.G. HULTON, M.A.
REV. J. PICCOPE, M.A.
REV. F.R. RAINES, M.A., F.S.A., MILNROW PARSONAGE, NEAR ROCHDALE.
JAMES CROSSLEY, ESQ.
JAMES HEYWOOD, ESQ., F.R.S.
WILLIAM LANGTON, ESQ., TREASURER.
WILLIAM FLEMING, ESQ., M.D., HON. SECRETARY.

[Illustration]




POTTS'S DISCOVERY OF WITCHES

In the County of Lancaster,

Reprinted from the Original Edition of 1613.

With an Introduction and Notes, by JAMES CROSSLEY, ESQ.







Printed for the Chetham Society.
M.DCC.XLV.
Manchester:
Printed by Charles Simms and Co.





INTRODUCTION.


Were not every chapter of the history of the human mind too precious
an inheritance to be willingly relinquished,--for appalling as its
contents may be, the value of the materials it may furnish may be
inestimable,--we might otherwise be tempted to wish that the miserable
record in which the excesses occasioned by the witch mania are
narrated, could be struck out of its pages, and for ever cancelled.
Most assuredly, he, who is content to take the fine exaggeration of
the author of _Hydriotaphia_ as a serious and literal truth, and who
believes with him that "man is a glorious animal," must not go to the
chapter which contains that record for his evidences and proofs. If he
should be in search of materials for humiliation and abasement, he
will find in the history of witchcraft in this country, from the
beginning to the end of the seventeenth century, large and abundant
materials, whether it affects the species or the individual. In truth,
human nature is never seen in worse colours than in that dark and
dismal review. Childhood, without any of its engaging properties,
appears prematurely artful, wicked and cruel[1]; woman, the victim of
a wretched and debasing bigotry, has yet so little of the feminine
adjuncts, that the fountains of our sympathies are almost closed; and
man, tyrannizing over the sex he was bound to protect, in its helpless
destitution and enfeebled decline, seems lost in prejudice and
superstition and only strong in oppression. If we turn from the common
herd to the luminaries of the age, to those whose works are the
landmarks of literature and science, the reference is equally
disappointing;--

    "The sun itself is dark
    And silent as the moon
    Hid in her vacant interlunar cave."

[Footnote 1: Take, as an instance, the children of Mr. Throgmorton, of
Warbois, for bewitching whom, Mother Samuels, her husband, and
daughter, suffered in 1593. No veteran professors "in the art of
ingeniously tormenting" could have administered the question with more
consummate skill than these little incarnate fiends, till the poor old
woman was actually induced, from their confident asseverations and
plausible counterfeiting, to believe at last that she had been a witch
all her life without knowing it. She made a confession, following the
story which they had prompted, on their assurances that it was the
only means to restore them, and then was hanged upon that confession,
to which she adhered on the scaffold. Few tracts present a more vivid
picture of manners than that in which the account of this case of
witchcraft is contained. It is perhaps the rarest of the English
tracts relating to witchcraft, and is entitled "The most strange and
admirable Discoverie of the three Witches of Warboys, arraigned,
convicted, and executed at the last Assizes at Huntingdon, for the
bewitching of the five daughters of Robert Throckmorton, Esquire, and
divers other persons with sundrie Devilish and grievous torments. And
also for the bewitching to Death of the Lady Crumwell, the like hath
not been heard of in this age. London, Printed by the Widdowe Orwin
for Thomas Man and John Winnington, and are to be sold in Paternoster
Rowe at the Signe of the Talbot." 1593, 4to. My copy was Brand's, and
formed Lot 8224 in his Sale Catalogue.]

We find the illustrious author of the Novum Organon sacrificing to
courtly suppleness his philosophic truth, and gravely prescribing the
ingredients for a witches' ointment;[2]--Raleigh, adopting miserable
fallacies at second hand, without subjecting them to the crucible of
his acute and vigorous understanding;[3]--Selden, maintaining that
crimes of the imagination may be punished with death;[4]--The detector
of Vulgar Errors, and the most humane of physicians,[5] giving the
casting weight to the vacillating bigotry of Sir Matthew
Hale;[6]--Hobbes, ever sceptical, penetrating and sagacious, yet here
paralyzed, and shrinking from the subject as if afraid to touch
it;[7]--The adventurous explorer, who sounded the depths and channels
of the "Intellectual System" along all the "wide watered" shores of
antiquity, running after witches to hear them recite the Common Prayer
and the Creed, as a rational test of guilt or innocence;[8]--The
gentle spirit of Dr. Henry More, girding on the armour of persecution,
and rousing itself from a Platonic reverie on the Divine Life, to
assume the hood and cloak of a familiar of the Inquisition;[9]--and
the patient and enquiring Boyle, putting aside for a while his
searches for the grand Magisterium, and listening, as if spell-bound,
with gratified attention to stories of witches at Oxford, and devils
at Mascon.[10] Nor is it from a retrospect of our own intellectual
progress only that we find how capricious, how intermitting, and how
little privileged to great names or high intellects, or even to those
minds which seemed to possess the very qualifications which would
operate as conductors, are those illuminating gleams of common sense
which shoot athwart the gloom, and aid a nation on its tardy progress
to wisdom, humanity, and justice. If on the Continent there were, in
the sixteenth century, two men from whom an exposure of the
absurdities of the system of witchcraft might have been naturally and
rationally expected, and who seem to stand out prominently from the
crowd as predestined to that honourable and salutary office, those two
men were John Bodin[11] and Thomas Erastus.[12] The former a
lawyer--much exercised in the affairs of men--whose learning was not
merely umbratic--whose knowledge of history was most philosophic and
exact--of piercing penetration and sagacity--tolerant--liberal
minded--disposed to take no proposition upon trust, but to canvass and
examine every thing for himself, and who had large views of human
nature and society--in fact, the Montesquieu of the seventeenth
century. The other, a physician and professor, sage, judicious,
incredulous,

     "The scourge of impostors, the terror of quacks,"

who had routed irrecoverably empiricism in almost every
shape--Paracelsians--Astrologers--Alchemists--Rosicrucians--and who
weighed and scrutinized and analyzed every conclusion, from
excommunication and the power of the keys to the revolutions of comets
and their supposed effects on empires, and all with perfect
fearlessness and intuitive insight into the weak points of an
argument. Yet, alas! for human infirmity. Bodin threw all the weight
of his reasoning and learning and vivacity into the scale of the witch
supporters, and made the "hell-broth boil and bubble" anew, and
increased the witch _furor_ to downright fanaticism, by the
publication of his _Demo-manie_,[13] a work in which

    "Learning, blinded first and then beguiled,
    Looks dark as ignorance, as frenzy wild;"

but which it is impossible to read without being carried along by the
force of mind and power of combination which the author manifests, and
without feeling how much ingenious sophistry can perform to mitigate
and soften the most startling absurdity. His contemporary, Erastus,
after all his victories on the field of imposition, was foiled by the
subject of witchcraft at last. This was his pet delusion--almost the
only one he cared not to discard--like the dying miser's last
reserve:--

    ---- "My manor, sir? he cried;
    Not that, I cannot part with that,--and died."

[Footnote 2: Lord Bacon thinks (see his _Sylva Sylvarum_) that
soporiferous medicines "are likeliest" for this purpose, such as
henbane, hemlock, mandrake, moonshade, tobacco, opium, saffron, poplar
leaves, &c.]

[Footnote 3: See his _History of the World_.]

[Footnote 4: See his _Table Talk_, section "_Witches_."]

[Footnote 5: Sir Thomas Browne's evidence at the trial of Amy Duny and
Rose Cullender at Bury St. Edmunds in 1664, is too well known to need
an extract from the frequently reprinted report of the case. To adopt
the words of an able writer, (_Retros. Review_, vol. v. p. 118,) "this
trial is the only place in which we ever meet with the name of Sir
Thomas Browne without pleasurable associations."]

[Footnote 6: Those who wish to have presented to them a faithful
likeness of Sir Matthew Hale must not consult Burnet or Baxter, for
that great judge, like Sir Epicure Mammon, sought "for his meet
flatterers the gravest of divines," but will not fail to find it in
the pages of Roger North, who has depicted his character with a
strength and accuracy of outline which no Vandyck or Lely of biography
ever surpassed. Would that we could exchange some of those "faultless
monsters" with which that fascinating department of literature too
much abounds, for a few more such instantly recognised specimens of
true but erring and unequal humanity, which are as rare as they are
precious. In the unabridged life of Lord Guildford by Roger North,
which, with his own most interesting and yet unpublished
autobiography, are in my possession in his autograph, are found some
additional touches which confirm the general accuracy of the portrait
he has sketched of Hale in the work which has been printed. (Vide
North's _Life of Lord Guildford_, by Roscoe, vol. i. p. 119.)]

[Footnote 7: See his _Dialogue on the Common Laws of England_.]

[Footnote 8: Dr. Cudworth was the friend whom More refers to without
naming, _Collections of Relations_, p. 336, edit. 1726, 8vo.]

[Footnote 9: There is no name in this catalogue that excites more
poignant regret than that of Dr. Henry More. So exalted was his
character, so serene and admirable his temper, so full of harmony his
whole intellectual constitution, that, irradiated at once by all the
lights of religion and philosophy, and with clearer glimpses of the
land of vision and the glories behind the veil than perhaps uninspired
mortality ever partook of before, he seems to have reached as near to
the full standard of perfection as it is possible for frail and feeble
humanity to attain. Dr. Outram said that he looked upon Dr. More as
the holiest person upon the face of the earth; and the sceptical
Hobbes, who never dealt in compliment, observed, "That if his own
philosophy were not true, he knew of none that he should sooner like
than More's of Cambridge." His biographer, Ward, concludes his life in
the following glowing terms:--"Thus lived and died the eminent Dr.
More: thus set this bright and illustrious star, vanishing by degrees
out of our sight after, to the surprise and admiration of many, (like
that which was observed in Cassiopeia's chair,) it had illuminated, as
it were, both worlds so long at once." At the lapse of many years I
have not forgotten the impassioned fondness with which the late and
most lamented Robert Southey dwelt upon the memory of the Cambridge
Plato, or the delight with which he greeted some works of his
favourite author which I was fortunate enough to point out to him,
with which he had not been previously acquainted. The sad reverse of
the picture will he seen by those who consult the folio of More's
philosophical works and Glanville's _Sadducismus Triumphatus_, the
greatest part of which is derived from More's _Collections_. His
hallucinations on the subject of witchcraft, from which none of the
English writers of the Platonic school were exempt, are the more
extraordinary, as a sister error, judicial astrology, met in More with
its most able oppugner. His tract, which has excited much less
attention than its merit deserves, (I have not been able to trace a
single quotation from it in any author during the last century,) is
entitled "Tetractys Anti-astrologica, or a Confutation of Astrology."
Lond. 1681, 4to. I may mention while on the subject of More, that the
second and most valuable part of the memoir of him by Ward, his
devoted admirer and pupil, which was never printed, is in my
possession, in manuscript.]

[Footnote 10: See Boyle's letter on the subject of the latter, in the
5th vol. of the folio edition of his works.]

[Footnote 11: I have always considered the conclusion of Bodin's book,
_De Republica_, the accumulative grandeur of which is even heightened
in Knolles's admirable English translation, as the finest peroration
to be found in any work on government. Those who are fortunate enough
to possess a copy of his interdicted _Examination of Religions_, the
title of which is, "Colloquium heptaplomeres de abditis sublimium
rerum arcanis, libris 6 digestum," which was never printed, and of
which very few MSS. copies are in existence, are well aware how little
he felt himself shackled in the spirit of examination which he carried
into the most sacred subjects by any respect for popular notions or
received systems or great authorities. My MS. copy of this
extraordinary work, which came from Heber's Collection, is contained
in two rather thick folio volumes.]

[Footnote 12: Few authors are better deserving of an extended
biography, a desideratum which, in an age characterised by its want of
literary research, is not likely to be soon supplied, than Thomas
Erastus, whose theological, philosophical, and medical celebrity
entitle him to rank with the greatest men of his century. At present
we have to collect all that is known of his life from various
scattered and contradictory sources. John Webster, in his _Displaying
of Supposed Witchcraft_, contrary to the usual candour and fairness of
his judgments, speaks slightingly of Erastus. There was, however, a
sufficient reason for this. Erastus had shown up the empiricism of
Webster's idol Paracelsus, and was in great disfavour with the writers
of the Anti-Galenic school.]

[Footnote 13: I cannot concur with Mr. Hallam in the extremely low
estimate he forms of the literary merit of Bodin's _Demomanie_, which
he does not seem to have examined with the care and impartiality which
he seldom is deficient in. Like all Bodin's works, it has a spirit
peculiarly his own, and is, in my opinion, one of the most
entertaining books to be found in the circle of Demonology.]

In his treatise _De Lamiis_, published in 1577, 8vo., he defends
nearly all the absurdities of the system with a blind zealotry which
in such a man is very remarkable. His book has accordingly taken its
place on the same shelf with Sprenger, Remigius, Delrio, and De
Lancre, and deserves insertion only in a list which has yet to be made
out, and which if accurately compiled would be a literary curiosity,
of the singularly illogical books of singularly able reasoners.
What was left unaccomplished by the centurions of literature came
ultimately from the strangest of all possible quarters; from the
study of an humble pupil of the transmuter of metals and prince
of mountebanks and quacks--the expounder of Reuchlin _de verbo
mirifico_, and lecturer in the unknown tongues--the follower of
Trismegistus--cursed with bell, book and candle, by every decorous
Church in Christendom--the redoubted Cornelius Agrippa; who, if he
left not to his pupil Wierus the secret of the philosopher's stone or
grand elixir, seems to have communicated a treasure perhaps equally
rare and not less precious, the faculty of seeing a truth which should
open the eyes of bigotry and dispel the mists of superstition, which
should stop the persecution of the helpless and stay the call for
blood. If, in working out this virgin ore from the mine, he has
produced it mixed up with the _scoria_ of his master's _Occult
Philosophy_; if he gives us catalogues of devils and spirits, with
whose acquaintance we could have dispensed; if he pleads the great
truth faintly, inconsistently, imperfectly, and is evidently unaware
of the strength of the weapons he wields; these deductions do not the
less entitle Wierus to take his place in the first rank of Humanity's
honoured professors, the true philanthropists and noble benefactors of
mankind.

In our own country, it may be curious and edifying to observe to whom
we mainly owe those enlightened views on this subject, which might
have been expected to proceed in their natural channel, but for which
we look in vain, from the "triumphant heirs of universal praise," the
recognized guides of public opinion, whose fame sheds such a lustre on
our annals,--the Bacons, the Raleighs, the Seldens, the Cudworths, and
the Boyles.

The strangely assorted and rather grotesque band to whom we are
principally indebted for a vindication of outraged common sense and
insulted humanity in this instance, and whose vigorous exposition of
the absurdities of the prevailing system, in combination with other
lights and sources of intelligence, led at last to its being
universally abandoned, consists of four individuals--on any of whom a
literary Pharisee would look down with supercilious scorn:--a country
gentleman, devoted to husbandry, and deep in platforms of hop
gardens,[14]--a baronet, whose name for upwards of a century has been
used as a synonyme for incurable political bigotry,[15]--a little,
crooked, and now forgotten man, who died, as his biographer tells us,
"distracted, occasioned by a deep conceit of his own parts, and by a
continual bibbing of strong and high tasted liquors,"[16]--and last,
but not least assuredly, of one who was by turns a fanatical preacher
and an obscure practitioner of physic, and who passed his old age at
Clitheroe in Lancashire in attempting to transmute metals and discover
the philosopher's stone.[17] So strange a band of Apostles of reason
may occasion a smile; it deserves, at all events, a little more
particular consideration before we address ourselves to the short
narration which may be deemed necessary as an introduction to the
republication which follows.

Of the first of the number, Reginald or Reynold Scot, it is to be
regretted that more particulars are not known. Nearly the whole are
contained in the following information afforded by Anthony a Wood,
_Athenae._, vol. i. p. 297; from which it appears that he took to
"solid reading" at a crisis of life when it is generally thrown aside.
"Reynolde Scot, a younger son of Sir John Scot, of Scot's Hall, near
to Smeeth, in Kent, by his wife, daughter of Reynolde Pimp, of Pimp's
Court, Knight, was born in that county, and at about 17 years of age
was sent to Oxon, particularly as it seems to Hart Hall, where several
of his countrymen and name studied in the latter end of K. Henry
VIII. and the reign of Edward VI., &c. Afterwards he retired to his
native country, without the honour of a Degree, and settled at Smeeth,
where he found great encouragement in his studies from his kinsman,
Sir Thomas Scot. _About which time, taking to him a wife, he gave
himself up solely to solid reading_, to the perusing of obscure
authors that had, by the generality of scholars, been neglected, and
at times of leisure to husbandry and gardening. He died in September
or October in 1599, and was buried among his ancestors, in the church
at Smeeth before mentioned." Retired as his life and obscure as his
death might be, he is one whose name will be remembered as long as
vigorous sense, flowing from the "wells of English undefiled," hearty
and radiant humour, and sterling patriotism, are considered as
deserving of commemoration. His _Discoverie of Witchcraft_, first
published in 1584, is indeed a treat to him who wishes to study the
idioms, manners, opinions, and superstitions of the reign of
Elizabeth. Its entire title deserves to be given:--

"_The discouerie of witchcraft, wherein the lewde dealing of witches
and witchmongers is notablie detected, the knauerie of coniurors, the
impietie of inchantors, the follie of soothsaiers, the impudent
falshood of cousenors, the infidelitie of atheists, the pestilent
practises of Pythonists, the curiositie of figurecasters, the vanitie
of dreamers, the beggerlie art of Alcumystrie, the abhomination of
idolatrie, the horrible art of poisoning, the vertue and power of
naturall magike, and all the conueiances of Legierdemaine and iuggling
are deciphered: and many other things opened, which haue long lien
hidden, howbeit verie necessarie to be knowne. Heerevnto is added a
treatise vpon the nature and substance of spirits and diuels, &c: all
latelie written by Reginald Scot Esquire._ 1 John, 4, 1. _Beleeue not
euerie spirit but trie the spirits, whether they are of God; for many
false prophets are gone out into the world, &c._ 1584."

[Footnote 14: Reginald Scot.]

[Footnote 15: Sir R. Filmer.]

[Footnote 16: John Wagstaffe.]

[Footnote 17: John Webster.]

This title is sufficient to show that he gives no quarter to the
delusion he undertakes to expose, and though he does not deny that
there may be witches in the abstract, (to have done so would have left
him a preacher without an audience,) yet he guards so cautiously
against any practical application of that principle, and battles so
vigorously against the error which assimilated the witches of modern
times to the witches of Scripture, and, denying the validity of the
confessions of those convicted, throws such discredit and ridicule
upon the whole system, that the popular belief cannot but have
received a severe shock from the publication of his work.[18] By an
extraordinary elevation of good sense, he managed, not only to see
through the absurdities of witchcraft, but likewise of other errors
which long maintained their hold upon the learned as well as the
vulgar. Indeed, if not generally more enlightened, he was, in some
respects, more emancipated from delusion than even his great
successor, the learned and sagacious Webster, who, a century after,
clung still to alchemy which Reginald Scot had ridiculed and exposed.
Yet with all its strong points and broad humour, it is undeniable that
_The Discoverie of Witchcraft_ only scotched the snake instead of
killing it; and that its effect was any thing but final and complete.
Inveterate error is seldom prostrated by a blow from one hand, and
truth seems to be a tree which cannot be forced by planting it before
its time. There was something, too, in the book itself which militated
against its entire acceptance by the public. It is intended to form a
little Encyclopaedia of the different arts of imposition practised in
Scot's time; and in order to illustrate the various tricks and modes
of cozenage, he gives us so many charms and diagrams and conjurations,
to say nothing of an inventory of seventy-nine devils and spirits, and
their several seignories and degrees, that the _Occult Philosophy_ of
Cornelius Agrippa himself looks scarcely less appalling, at first
sight, than the _Discoverie_. This gave some colour to the declamation
of the author's opponents, who held him up as Wierus had been
represented before him, as if he were as deeply dipped in diabolical
practises as any of those whom he defended. Atheist and Sadducee, if
not very wizard himself, were the terms in which his name was
generally mentioned, and as such, the royal author of the _Demonology_
anathematizes him with great unction and very edifying horror. Against
the papists, the satire of Scot had been almost as much directed as
against what he calls the "witch-mongers," so that that very powerful
party were to a man opposed to him. Vigorous, therefore, as was his
onslaught, its effect soon passed by; and when on the accession of
James, the statute which so long disgraced our penal code was enacted,
as the adulatory tribute of all parties, against which no honest voice
was raised, to the known opinions of the monarch, Scot became too
unfashionable to be seen on the tables of the great or in the
libraries of the learned. If he were noticed, it was only to be
traduced as a sciolist, (imperitus dialecticae et aliarum bonarum
artium, says Dr. Reynolds,) and to be exposed for imagined lapses in
scholarship in an age when for a writer not to be a scholar, was like
a traveller journeying without a passport. Meric Casaubon, who
carried all the prejudices of the time of James the first into the
reign of Charles the second, but who, though overshadowed by the fame
of his father, was no unworthy scion of that incomparable stock, at
the same time that he denounces Scot as illiterate, will only
acknowledge to having met with him "at friends houses" and
"booksellers shops," as if his work were one which would bring
contamination to a scholar's library. Scot was certainly not a scholar
in the sense in which the term is applied to the Scaligers, Casaubons,
and Vossius's, though he would have been considered a prodigy of
reading in these days of superficial acquisition. But he had original
gifts far transcending scholarship. He had a manly, straightforward,
vigorous understanding, which, united with an honest integrity of
purpose, kept him right when greater men went wrong. How invaluable a
phalanx would the battalion of folios which the reign of James the
first produced now afford us, if the admirable mother-wit and
single-minded sincerity of Reginald Scot could only have vivified and
informed them.[19]

[Footnote 18: In the epistle to his kinsman Sir Thomas Scot, prefixed
to his _Discoverie_, he observes:--

"I see among other malefactors manie poore old women conuented before
you for working of miracles, other wise called witchcraft, and
therefore I thought you also a meet person to whom I might commend my
booke."--And he then proceeds, in the following spirited and gallant
strain, to run his course against the Dagon of popular superstition:--

"I therefore (at this time) doo onelie desire you to consider of my
report, concerning the euidence that is commonlie brought before you
against them. See first whether the euidence be not friuolous, &
whether the proofs brought against them be not incredible, consisting
of ghesses, presumptions, & impossibilities contrarie to reason,
scripture, and nature. See also what persons complaine vpon them,
whether they be not of the basest, the vnwisest, & most faithles kind
of people. Also may it please you to waie what accusations and crimes
they laie to their charge, namelie: She was at my house of late, she
would haue had a pot of milke, she departed in a chafe bicause she had
it not, she railed, she curssed, she mumbled and whispered, and
finallie she said she would be euen with me: and soone after my child,
my cow, my sow, or my pullet died, or was strangelie taken. Naie (if
it please your Worship) I haue further proofe: I was with a wise
woman, and she told me I had an ill neighbour, & that she would come
to my house yer it were long, and so did she; and that she had a marke
aboue hir waste, & so had she: and God forgiue me, my stomach hath
gone against hir a great while. Hir mother before hir was counted a
witch, she hath beene beaten and scratched by the face till bloud was
drawne vpon hir, bicause she hath beene suspected, & afterwards some
of those persons were said to amend. These are the certeinties that I
heare in their euidences.

"_Note also how easilie they may be brought to confesse that which
they neuer did, nor lieth in the power of man to doo_: and then see
whether I haue cause to write as I doo. Further, if you shall see that
infidelitie, poperie, and manie other manifest heresies be backed and
shouldered, and their professors animated and hartened, by yeelding to
creatures such infinit power as is wrested out of Gods hand, and
attributed to witches: finallie, if you shall perceiue that I haue
faithfullie and trulie deliuered and set downe the condition and state
of the witch, and also of the witchmonger, and haue confuted by reason
and lawe, and by the word of God it selfe, all mine aduersaries
obiections and arguments: then let me haue your countenance against
them that maliciouslie oppose themselues against me.

"_My greatest aduersaries are yoong ignorance and old custome._ For
what follie soeuer tract of time hath fostered, it is so
superstitiouslie pursued of some, as though no error could be
acquainted with custome. But if the lawe of nations would ioine with
such custome, to the maintenance of ignorance, and to the suppressing
of knowledge; the ciuilest countrie in the world would soone become
barbarous, &c. For as knowledge and time discouereth errors, so dooth
superstition and ignorance in time breed them."

The passage which I next quote, is a further specimen of the
impressive and even eloquent earnestness with which he pleads his
cause:--

"In the meane time, I would wish them to know that if neither the
estimation of Gods omnipotencie, nor the tenor of his word, nor the
doubtfulnes or rather the impossibilitie of the case, nor the small
proofes brought against them, nor the rigor executed vpon them, nor
the pitie that should be in a christian heart, nor yet their
simplicitie, impotencie, or age may suffice to suppresse the rage or
rigor wherewith they are oppressed; yet the consideration of their sex
or kind ought to mooue some mitigation of their punishment. For if
nature (as Plinie reporteth) haue taught a lion not to deale so
roughlie with a woman as with a man, bicause she is in bodie the
weaker vessell, and in hart more inclined to pitie (which Ieremie in
his lamentations seemeth to confirme) what should a man doo in this
case, for whome a woman was created as an helpe and comfort vnto him?
In so much as, euen in the lawe of nature, it is a greater offense to
slea a woman than a man: not bicause a man is not the more excellent
creature, but bicause a woman is the weaker vessell. And therefore
among all modest and honest persons it is thought a shame to offer
violence or iniurie to a woman: in which respect Virgil saith, _Nullum
memorabile nomen foeminea in poena est_.

"God that knoweth my heart is witnes, and you that read my booke shall
see, that my drift and purpose in this enterprise tendeth onelie to
these respects. First, that the glorie and power of God be not so
abridged and abased, as to be thrust into the hand or lip of a lewd
old woman: whereby the worke of the Creator should be attributed to
the power of a creature. Secondlie, that the religion of the gospell
may be seene to stand without such peeuish trumperie. Thirdlie, that
lawfull fauour and christian compassion be rather vsed towards these
poore soules, than rigor and extremitie. Bicause they, which are
commonlie accused of witchcraft, are the least sufficient of all other
persons to speake for themselues; as hauing the most base and simple
education of all others; the extremitie of their age giuing them leaue
to dote, their pouertie to beg, their wrongs to chide and threaten (as
being void of anie other waie of reuenge) their humor melancholicall
to be full of imaginations, from whence cheefelie proceedeth the
vanitie of their confessions; as that they can transforme themselues
and others into apes, owles, asses, dogs, cats, &c: that they can flie
in the aire, kill children with charmes, hinder the comming of butter,
&c.

"And for so much as the mightie helpe themselues together, and the
poore widowes crie, though it reach to heauen, is scarse heard here
vpon earth: I thought good (according to my poore abilitie) to make
intercession, that some part of common rigor, and some points of
hastie iudgement may be aduised vpon. For the world is now at that
stay (as Brentius in a most godlie sermon in these words affirmeth)
that euen as when the heathen persecuted the christians, if anie were
accused to beleeue in Christ, the common people cried _Ad leonem_: so
now, if anie woman, be she neuer so honest, be accused of witchcraft,
they crie _Ad ignem_."]

[Footnote 19: In the intervening period between the publication of
Soot's work and the advertisement of Filmer, several books came out on
the subject of witchcraft. Amongst them it is right to notice "A
Dialogue concerning Witches and Witchcraft, by George Giffard,
Minister of God's Word in Maldon," 1593, 4to. This tract, which has
been reprinted by the Percy Society, is not free from the leading
fallacies which infected the reasonings of almost all the writers on
witchcraft. It is, nevertheless, exceedingly entertaining, and well
deserves a perusal, if only as transmitting to us, in their full
freshness, the racy colloquialisms of the age of Elizabeth. It is to
be hoped that the other works of Giffard, all of which are deserving
of attention, independently of their theological interest, as
specimens of pure and sterling English, may appear in a collected
form. The next tract requiring notice is "The Trial of Witchcraft, by
John Cotta," 1616, 4to, of which a second and enlarged edition was
published in 1624. Cotta, who was a physician of great eminence and
experience, residing at Northampton, has supplied in this very able,
learned, and vigorous treatise, a groundwork which, if pursued to its
just results, for he writes very cautiously and guardedly, and rather
hints at his conclusions than follows them out, would have sufficed to
have overthrown many of the positions of the supporters of the system
of witchcraft. His work has a strong scholastic tinge, and is not
without occasional obscurity; and on these accounts probably produced
no very extensive impression at the time. He wrote two other
tracts--1. "Discovery of the Dangers of ignorant practisers of Physick
in England," 1612, 4to; 2. "Cotta contra Antonium, or An Ant-Anthony,"
Oxford, 1623, 4to; the latter of which, a keen satire against the
chymists' aurum potabile, is exceedingly rare. Both are intrinsically
valuable and interesting, and written with great vigour of style, and
are full of curious illustrations derived from his extensive medical
practice. I cannot conclude this note without adverting to Gaule's
amusing little work, ("Select Cases of Conscience touching Witches and
Witchcraft, by John Gaule, Preacher of the Word at Great Haughton, in
the county of Huntingdon," 1646, 24mo.) which gives us all the
casuistry applicable to witchcraft. We can almost forgive Gaule's
fundamental errors on the general question, for the courage and spirit
with which he battled with the villainous witchfinder, Hopkins, who
wanted sorely to make an example of him, to the terror of all
gainsayers of the sovereign power of this examiner-general of witches.
Gaule proved himself to be an overmatch for the itinerating
inquisitor, and so effectually attacked, battled with, and exposed
him, as to render him quite harmless in future. The minister of Great
Haughton was made of different metal to the "old reading parson
Lewis," or Lowes, to whose fate Baxter refers with such nonchalance.
As the only clergyman of the Church of England, that I am aware of,
who was executed for witchcraft, Lewis's case is sufficiently
interesting to merit some notice. Stearne's (vide his _Confirmation of
Witchcraft_, p. 23,) account of it, which I have not seen quoted
before, is as follows:--

"Thus was Parson Lowis taken, who had been a Minister, (as I have
heard) in one Parish above forty yeares, in Suffolke, before he was
condemned, but had been indited for a common imbarriter, and for
Witchcraft, above thirty yeares before, and the grand Jury (as I have
heard) found the bill for a common imbarriter, who now, after he was
found with the markes, in his confession, he confessed, that in pride
of heart, to be equall, or rather above God, the Devill tooke
advantage of him, and hee covenanted with the Devill, and sealed it
with his bloud, and had three Familiars or spirits, which sucked on
the markes found upon his body, and did much harme, both by Sea and
Land, especially by Sea, for he confessed, that he being at Lungarfort
in Suffolke, where he preached, as he walked upon the wall, or workes
there, he saw a great saile of Ships passe by, and that as they were
sailing by, one of his three Impes, namely his yellow one, forthwith
appeared to him, and asked him what hee should doe, and he bade it goe
and sinke such a Ship, and shewed his Impe a new Ship, amongst the
middle of the rest (as I remember) one that belonged to Ipswich, so he
confessed the Impe went forthwith away, and he stood still, and viewed
the Ships on the Sea as they were a sayling, and perceived that Ship
immediately, to be in more trouble and danger then the rest; for he
said, the water was more boystrous neere that then the rest, tumbling
up and down with waves, as if water had been boyled in a pot, and
soone after (he said) in a short time it sanke directly downe into the
Sea, as he stood and viewed it, when all the rest sayled away in
safety, there he confessed, he made fourteen widdowes in one quarter
of an houre. Then Mr. Hopkin, as he told me (for he tooke his
Confession) asked him, if it did not grieve him to see so many men
cast away, in a short time, and that he should be the cause of so many
poore widdowes on a suddaine, but he swore by his maker, no, he was
joyfull to see what power his Impes had, and so likewise confessed
many other mischiefes, and had a charme to keep him out of Goale, and
hanging, as he paraphrased it himselfe, but therein the Devill
deceived him; for he was hanged, that Michaelmas time 1645. at Burie
Saint Edmunds, but he made a very farre larger confession, which I
have heard hath been printed: but if it were so, it was neither of Mr.
Hopkins doing nor mine owne; for we never printed anything untill
now."

Hutchinson gives the explanation of this confession. What can be more
atrocious than the whole story, which is yet but the common story of
witch confessions?

"_Adv._ Then did not he confess this before the Commissioners, at the
Time of his Tryal?

"_Clerg._ No, but maintained his Innocence stoutly, and challenged
them to make Proof of such Things as they laid to his Charge. I had
this from a Person of Credit, who was then in Court, and heard his
Tryal. I may add, that tho' his Case is remembered better than others
that suffered, yet I never heard any one speak of him, but with great
Compassion, because of his Age and Character, and their Belief of his
Innocence: And when he came to his Execution, because he would have
Christian Burial, he read the Office himself, and that way committed
his own Body to the Ground, in sure and certain Hope of the
Resurrection to eternal Life.

"In the Notes upon those Verses that I quoted out of Hudibras, it is
said, that he had been a painful Preacher for many Years, I may add
for Fifty, for so long he had been Vicar of Brandeston in the County
of Suffolk, as appears by the Time of his Institution. That I might
know the present Sense of the Chief Inhabitants of that Place, I wrote
to Mr. Wilson, the Incumbent of that Town, and by his Means received
the following Letter from Mr. Rivett, a worthy Gentleman who lived
lately in the same Place, and whose Father lived there before him.

"'SIR,

"'In Answer to your Request concerning Mr. Lowes, my Father was always
of the opinion, that Mr. Lowes suffered wrongfully, and hath often
said, that he did believe, he was no more a Wizzard than he was. I
have heard it from them that watched with him, that _they kept him
awake several Nights together, and run him backwards and forwards
about the Room, until he was out of Breath: Then they rested him a
little, and then ran him again: And thus they did for several Days and
Nights together, till he was weary of his Life, and was scarce
sensible of what he said or did_. They swam him at Framlingham, but
that was no true Rule to try him by; for they put in honest People at
the same Time, and they swam as well as he."]

After the lapse of another half century, and at the very period when
the persecution against witches waxed hotter, and the public
prejudice had become only more inveterate, from the ingredient of
fanaticism having been largely thrown in as a stimulant, another ally
to the cause of compassion and common sense started up, in the person
of one whose name has rounded many a period and given point to many
an invective. To find the proscribed author of the _Patriarcha_
purging with "euphrasy and rue" the eyes of the dispensers of justice,
and shouldering the crowd to obtain for reason a fair and impartial
hearing, is indeed like meeting with Saul among the prophets. If there
be one name which has been doomed to run the gauntlet, and against
which every pert and insolent political declaimer has had his fling,
it is that of this unfortunate writer; yet in his short but masterly
and unanswerable "Advertisement to the Jurymen of England, touching
Witches, together with a difference between an English and Hebrew
Witch," first published in 1653, 4to., he has addressed himself so
cogently and decisively to the main fallacy of the arguments in favour
of witchcraft which rested their force on Scripture misunderstood, and
has so pertinently and popularly urged the points to be considered,
that his tract must have had the greatest weight on the class to whom
his reasoning was principally addressed, and on whose fiat the fates
of his unhappy clients may be said to have hung. For this good
service, reason and common sense owe Sir Robert Filmer a debt which
does not yet appear to have been paid. The verdict of proscription
against him was pronounced by the most incompetent and superficial aera
of our literature, and no friendly appellant has yet moved the court
of posterity for its reversal. Yet without entering upon the theory of
the patriarchal scheme, which after all, perhaps, was not so
irrational as may be supposed, or discussing on an occasion like the
present the conflicting theories of government, it may be allowable to
express a doubt whether even the famous author of the "Essay on the
Human Understanding," to whose culminating star the decadence of the
rival intelligence is attributable, can be shewn to have been as much
in advance of his generation in the time of king William, as from the
tract on witchcraft, and another written on a different subject, but
with equally enlightened views,[20] Sir Robert Filmer manifestly
appears to have outrun his at the period of the usurpation.[21]

[Footnote 20: I allude to his little tract on Usury.]

[Footnote 21: Between the period of the publication of Filmer's
Advertisement and the appearance of Wagstaffe's work, a tract was
published too important in this controversy to be passed over without
notice. It is entitled _A Candle in the Dark, or a Treatise concerning
the Nature of Witches and Witchcraft; being Advice to Judges,
Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, and Grand Jurymen, what to do before
they passe sentence on such as are arraigned for their lives as
Witches. By Thomas Ady, M.A. London, printed for R.J., to be sold by
Thomas Newberry, at the Three Lions in Cornhill, by the Exchange,
1656_, 4to. Ady, of whom, unfortunately, nothing is known, presses the
arguments against the witchmongers and witchfinders with unanswerable
force. In fact, this tract comprises the quintessence of all that had
been urged against the popular system, and his "Candle" was truly a
burning and a shining light. His Dedication is too curious to be
omitted:--

"To the Prince of the Kings of the Earth. It is the manner of men, O
heavenly King, to dedicate their books to some great men, thereby to
have their works protected and countenanced among them; but thou only
art able, by thy holy Spirit of Truth, to defend thy Truth, and to
make it take impression in the heart and understanding of men. Unto
thee alone do I dedicate this work, entreating thy Most High Majesty
to grant, that whoever shall open this book, thy holy Spirit may so
possess their understanding, as that the Spirit of errour may depart
from them, and that they may read and try thy Truth by the touchstone
of thy Truth, the holy Scriptures; and finding that Truth, may embrace
it and forsake their darksome inventions of Antichrist, that have
deluded and defiled the nations now and in former ages. Enlighten the
world, thou that art the Light of the World, and let darkness be no
more in the world, now or in any future age; but make all people to
walk as children of the Light for ever; and destroy Antichrist, that
hath deceived the nations, and save us the residue by thyself alone;
and let not Satan any more delude us, for the Truth is thine for
ever." He then puts his "Dilemma that cannot be answered by
Witchmongers." It is too long to quote, but it is a dilemma that would
pose the stoutest Coryphaeus of the party to whom he addressed
himself.]

The next champion in this unpopular cause, John Wagstaffe, who
published "The Question of Witchcraft Debated," 1669, 12mo,[22] was,
as A. a Wood informs us, "the son of John Wagstaffe, citizen of
London, descended from those of his name of Hasland Hall, in
Derbyshire, was born in Cheapside, within the city of London, became a
commoner of Oriel College in the latter end of 1649, took the degrees
in Arts, and applied himself to the study of politics and other
learning. At length, being raised from an academical life to the
inheritance of Hasland, by the death of an uncle, who died without
male issue, he spent his life afterwards in single estate." His death
took place in 1677. The Oxford historian, who had little reverence for
new lights, and never loses an opportunity of girding at those whose
weights and measures were not according to the current and only
authentic standard, has left no very flattering account of his person.
"He was a little crooked man, and of a despicable presence. He was
laughed at by the boys of this University, because, as they said, he
himself looked like a little wizard." Small as might be his stature,
and questionable the shape in which he appeared, he might still have
taken up the boast of the author of the _Religio Medici_: "Men that
look upon my outside do err in my altitude, for I am above Atlas's
shoulders." None but a large-souled and kindly-affectioned man, whose
intellect was as comprehensive as his feelings were benevolent, could
have produced the excellent little treatise which claims him as its
author. The following is the lofty and memorable peroration in which
he sums up the strength of his cause:--

"I cannot think without trembling and horror on the vast numbers of
people that in several ages and several countries have been sacrificed
unto this idol, Opinion. Thousands, ten thousands, are upon record to
have been slain, and many of them not with simple deaths, but horrid,
exquisite tortures. And yet, how many are there more who have
undergone the same fate, of whom we have no memorial extant. Since,
therefore, the opinion of witchcraft is a mere stranger unto
Scripture, and wholly alien from true religion; since it is ridiculous
by asserting fables and impossibilities; since it appears, when duly
considered, to be all bloody and full of dangerous consequence unto
the lives and safety of men; I hope that with this my Discourse,
opposing an absurd and pernicious error, I can not at all disoblige
any sober, unbiassed person; especially if he be of such ingenuity as
to have freed himself from a slavish subjection unto those prejudicial
opinions which custom and education do with too much tyranny
impose.--If the doctrine of witchcraft should be carried up to a
height, and the inquisition after it should be intrusted in the hands
of ambitious, covetous and malicious men, it would prove of far more
fatal consequence unto the lives and safety of mankind, than that
ancient, heathenish custom of sacrificing men unto idol gods; insomuch
that we stand in need of another Hercules Liberator, who, as the
former freed the world from human sacrifice, should, in like manner,
travel from country to country, and by his all-commanding authority,
free it from _this euil and base custom of torturing people to confess
themselves witches, and burning them after extorted confessions_.
Surely the blood of men ought not to be so cheap, nor so easily to be
shed by those who, under the name of God, do gratifie exorbitant
passions and selfish ends; for without question, under this side
heaven, there is nothing so sacred as the life of man; for the
preservation whereof all policies and forms of government, all laws
and magistrates are most especially ordained. Wherefore I presume that
this Discourse of mine, attempting to prove the vanity and
impossibility of witchcraft, is so far from any deserved censure and
blame, that it rather deserves commendation and praise, if I can in
the least measure contribute to the saving of the lives of men."

[Footnote 22: I have not seen his earlier work, "Historical
Reflections on the Bishop of Rome, &c." Oxford, 1660, 4to. If it be
written with any portion of the power evinced in his "Question of
Witchcraft Debated," the ridicule with which Wood says it was received
by the wits of the university, and the oblivion into which it
subsequently fell, were both equally undeserved.]

Wagstaffe was answered by Meric Casaubon in his treatise "Of Credulity
and Incredulity in Things Divine and Spiritual," 1670, 12mo; and if
his reply be altogether inconclusive, it cannot be denied to be, as
indeed every thing of Meric Casaubon's writing was, learned,
discursive and entertaining. He observes of Wagstaffe:--

"He doth make some show of a scholar and a man of some learning, but
whether he doth acquit himself as a gentleman (which I hear he is) in
it, I shall leave to others to judge." This is surely the first time
that a belief in witchcraft was ever made a test of gentlemanly
propriety.

Two years before the trial, which is the subject of the following
republication, took place, the hamlet of Thornton, in the parish of
Coxwold, in the adjoining county of York, gave birth to one who was
destined so utterly to demolish the unstable and already shaken and
tottering structure which Bodin, Delrio, and their followers had set
up, as not to leave one stone of that unhallowed edifice remaining
upon another. Of the various course of life of John Webster, the
author of "The Displaying of supposed Witchcraft," his travels,
troubles, and persecutions; of the experience he had had in restless
youth and in unsettled manhood of religion under various forms,
amongst religionists of almost every denomination; and of those
profound and wide-ranging researches in every art and science in which
his vigorous intellect delighted, and by which it was in declining age
enlightened, sobered and composed; it is much to be regretted that we
have not his own narrative, written in the calm evening of his days,
when he walked the slopes of Pendle, from where,

            "Through shadow dimly seen
    Rose Clid'row's castle grey;"[23]

when, to use his own expressions, he lived a "solitary and sedentary
life, _mihi et musis_, having more converse with the dead than the
living, that is, more with books than with men." The facts for his
biography are scanty and meagre, and are rather collected by inference
from his works, than from any other source. He was born at Thornton on
the 3rd of February, 1610. From a passing notice of A. a Wood, and an
incidental allusion in his own works, he may be presumed to have
passed some time at Cambridge, though with what views, or at what
period of his life, is uncertain. He was ordained Presbyter by Dr.
Morton, when Bishop of Durham, who was, it will be recollected, the
sagacious prelate by whom the frauds of the boy of Bilson were
detected. In the year 1634, Webster was curate of Kildwick in Craven,
and while in that cure the scene occurred which he has so vividly
sketched in the passage after quoted, and which supplied the hint, and
laid the foundation, for the work which has perpetuated his fame. How
long he continued in this cure we know not: but, if one authority may
be relied on, he was Master of the Free Grammar School at Clitheroe in
1643. To this foundation he may be considered as a great benefactor,
for, from information supplied from a manuscript source, I find that
he recovered for its use, with considerable trouble and no small
personal charge, an income of about L60. per annum, which had been
given to the school, but was illegally diverted and withheld. From
this period there is a blank in his biography for about ten years.
Most probably his life was rambling and desultory. He speaks of
himself as having been about that time a chaplain in the army. His
first two works, published in 1653 and 1654, "The Saints' Guide," and
"The Judgment Set and the Books Opened,"[24] show that in the
interval he had deserted the Established Church, and, probably, after
some of those restless fluctuations of belief to which men of his
ardent temperament are subject, settled at last in a wilder sort of
Independency, which he eulogizes as "unmanacling the simple and pure
light of the Gospel from the chains and fetters of cold and dead
formality, and of restrictive and compulsory power." His language in
these two works is more assimilated to that of the Seekers or Quakers,
which it resembles in the cloudy mysteriousness of its phraseology,
than that of the more rational and sober writers of the Independent
school. Amongst the dregs of fanaticism of which they consist, the
reader will look in vain for any germ or promise of future excellence
or distinction as an author. It would seem that he preached the
sermons contained in "The Judgment Set and Books Opened" at the church
of All-Hallows, Lombard-street, at which he must have been for some
time the officiating minister, and where the amusing incident, in
which Webster was concerned, narrated by Wood, which had many a
parallel in those times, no doubt occurred. "On the 12th of Oct.,
1653," says the author of the _Athenae._,[25] "he (_i.e._ William
Erbury) with John Webster, sometimes a Cambridge scholar, endeavoured
to knock down learning and the ministry both together, in a
disputation that they then had against two ministers in a church in
Lombard-street, in London. Erbury then declared that the wisest
ministers and purest churches were at that time befool'd, confounded,
and defil'd, by reason of learning. Another while he said, that the
ministry were monsters, beasts, asses, greedy dogs, false prophets;
and that they are the Beast with seven heads and ten horns. The same
person also spoke out and said that Babylon is the Church in her
ministers, and that the Great Whore is the Church in her worship, &c.;
so that with him there was an end of ministers and churches and
ordinations altogether. While these things were babbled to and fro,
the multitude being of various opinions, began to mutter, and many to
cry out, and immediately it came to a meeting or tumult, (call it
which you please,) _wherein the women bore away the Bell, but lost
some of them their kerchiefs_: and the dispute being hot, there was
more danger of pulling down the church than the ministry."[26]

[Footnote 23: "Poems, by the Rev. R. Parkinson, Canon of Manchester,"
1845, 12mo. (Hunter's Song.) A most pleasing volume of a very
accomplished author. Long may he survive to add honours to the ancient
stock of which he has given so interesting an account, by well-earned
trophies gathered from the fair fields of literature and theology, and
by a most exemplary discharge of the appropriate duties of his own
sacred profession.]

[Footnote 24: "_The Saints' Guide, or Christ the Rule and Ruler of
Saints. Manifested by way of Positions, Consectaries, and Queries.
Wherein is contained the Efficacy of Acquired Knowledge; the Rule of
Christians; the Mission and Maintenance of Ministers; and the Power of
Magistrates in Spiritual Things. By John Webster, late Chaplain in the
Army._" London, 1653, 4to.

"_The Judgement Set, and the Bookes Opened. Religion Tried whether it
be of God or of men. The Lord cometh to visit his own, For the time is
come that Judgement must begin at the House of God._

              { _The Sheep from the Goats_,
_To separate_ {          _and_
              { _The Precious from the Vile._

_And to discover the Blasphemy of those that say_,

           { _Apostles_, }           { _Found Lyars_,
           { _Teachers_, }           { _Deceivers_,
_They are_ { _Alive_,    } _but are_ { _Dead_,
           { _Rich_,     }           { _Poore, blind, naked_,
           { _Jewes_,    }           { _The Synagogue of Satan._

_In severall Sermons at Alhallows Lumbard-street, By John Webster, A
servant of Christ and his Church. Micah 3. 5. &c. Thus saith the Lord,
concerning the Prophets that make my people erre, that bite with their
teeth, and cry peace: and he that putteth not into their mouths, they
prepare war against him: Therefore night shall be upon them, that they
shall not have a vision, &c. The Sun shall goe down over the prophets,
and the Day shall be dark. Their seers shall be ashamed, and the
Deviners confounded: yea, they shall All cover their lips, for there
is no answer of God._" London, 1654. 4to.]

[Footnote 25: _Athen. Oxon._, Vol. ii., p. 175. Edit. 1721.]

[Footnote 26: Old Anthony chronicles this battle of the kerchiefs with
a sly humour very different from his usual solemn matter-of-fact
style.]

Of Erbury who, being originally in holy orders and a beneficed
clergyman, deserted the Established Church and ran into all the
excesses of Antinomianism, Webster was a great admirer, and has in a
preface, hitherto unnoticed, prefixed to a scarce tract of Erbury's,
entitled "The great Earthquake, or Fall of all the Churches,"
published in 1654, 4to, left a sketch of his opinions and character,
in which his defence is undertaken with great zeal and no small
ingenuity. One of his apologist's conclusions most of Erbury's readers
will find no difficulty in assenting to, "the world is not ripe for
such discoveries as our author held forth." The verses which are
appended to this sketch, characterizing Erbury--

                    "As him
    Who did the saintship sever
    From the opinion; this fails, that shall never,
    Chymist of Truth and Gospel;"--

are, also, evidently Webster's, and their quality is not such as to
make us unreasonably impatient for any further manifestations of his
poetical skill. In the year 1654 he published another tract of
singular interest and curiosity, in which he attacks the Universities
and the received system of education there, always with vigour and
various learning, and frequently with success. It is entitled
"Academiarum Examen, or the Examination of Academies; wherein is
discussed and examined the matter, method, and customes of academick
and scholastic learning, and the insufficiency thereof discovered and
laid open; as also some expedients proposed for the reforming of
schools, and the perfecting and promoting of all kind of science;
offered to the judgment of all those that love the proficiencie of
arts and sciences and the advancement of learning. By Jo. Webster. In
moribus et institutis academiarum, collegiorum et similium conventium
quo ad doctorum hominum sedes et operas mutuas destinata sunt, omnia
progressui scientiarum in ulterius adversa inveniri. Franc. Bacon de
Verulamio lib. de cogitat. et vis. pag. mihi. 14. London: Printed for
Giles Calvert, and are to be sold at the sign of the Black
Spread-Eagle, at the west end of Paul's. 1654." 4to. In this tract,
which, like some other attacks upon the seats of learning, displays
more power in objection than in substitution, in pulling down than in
building up again, he shews the same fondness for the philosophers of
the Hermetic school, for Paracelsus, Dee, Fludd and Van Helmont, and
the same adhesion to planetary sigils, astrology, and the doctrine of
sympathies and primaeval signatures, which is perceptible in the
deliberate performance of his old age. Of himself he observes: "I owe
little to the advantages of those things called the goods of fortune,
but most (next under the goodness of God) to industry: however, I am a
free born Englishman, a citizen of the world and a seeker of
knowledge, and am willing to teach what I know, and learn what I know
not." No one can read the _Academiarum Examen_ without feeling that it
is the production of a vigorous and powerful mind, which had "tasted,"
and that not scantily, of the "sweet fruit of far fetched and dear
bought science." Yet it still remains a literary problem rather
difficult of solution, how a performance so clear, well digested, and
rational, could proceed, and that contemporaneously, from the same
author as the cloudy and fanatical "Judgment Set and Books Opened." On
behalf of the Universities, answerers started up in the persons of
Ward and Wilkins, both afterwards bishops, and the part taken by the
first of them in the controversy was considered of sufficient
importance to form matter of commemoration in his monumental
inscription. Two opponents so famous, might almost seem to threaten
extinction to one, of whom it could only be said, that he had been an
obscure country schoolmaster, and whose acquirements, whatever they
were, were mainly the result of his own unassisted study. In the joint
answer, the title of which is "Vindiciae Academiarum, containing some
briefe animadversions upon Mr. Webster's book entitled the
'Examination of Academies,' together with an appendix concerning what
Mr. Hobbes and Mr. Dell have published in this argument, Oxford,
1654," 4to., there is no want of bitterness nor of controversial
skill, but though, particularly in the limited arena of the prescribed
course of academical study, the knowledge displayed in it is more
exact, there is neither visible in it the same power of mind, nor the
same breadth of views, nor even the same variety of learning, as is
conspicuous in the original tract. This, with the two fanatical pieces
which Webster published contemporaneously with it, were entirely
unknown to his biographer, Dr. Whitaker, who has ceded him a place
amongst the distinguished natives and residents of the parish of
Whalley, in the full confidence "that there is no puritanical taint in
his writings, and that his taste had evidently been formed upon better
models.[27]" Had these early theological and literary delinquencies
of the physician of Clitheroe been communicated to his historian, it
may be questioned whether the portals of his provincial temple of fame
would have opened to receive so heinous a transgressor. But Dr.
Whitaker's deduction would have been perhaps perfectly warrantable,
had Webster left no remains but his _History of Metals_, and
_Displaying of Witchcraft_--so little do an author's latest works
afford a clue to the character of his earliest. From 1654 to 1671,
when he published his _History of Metals_, little is known of
Webster's course of life. He appears to have retired into the country
and devoted himself to medical practice and study, and to have taken
up his residence in or near Clitheroe. He complains, that in the year
1658 all his books and papers were taken from him, an abstraction
which, so far as his manuscripts are concerned, posterity is not
called upon to lament, if they all resembled his _Judgment Set and
Books Opened_. But his capacious and acute understanding was gradually
unfolding new resources, supplying the defects, and overcoming the
disadvantages of his imperfect education and desultory and irregular
studies, while his matured and enlightened judgment had abandoned and
discarded the fanatical pravities and erroneous tenets, which his
ardent enthusiasm had too hastily imbibed. When he again became a
candidate for the honours of authorship, it was evident that he knew
well how to apply those quarries of learning into which, during his
long recess, he had been digging so indefatigably, to furnish
materials for solid and durable structures, rising in honourable and
gratifying contrast to the fabrics which had preceded them. In 1671
came forth his "Metallographia, or History of Metals,"[28] in which
all that recondite learning and extensive observation could bring
together, on a subject which experiment had scarcely yet placed upon a
rational basis, is collected. He styles himself on the Title page,
"Practitioner in Physic and Chirurgery." In 1677, he published his
great work. Its Title is "The Displaying of supposed Witchcraft.
Wherein is affirmed that there are many sorts of Deceivers and
Impostors. And Divers persons under a passive Delusion of Melancholy
and Fancy. But that there is a Corporeal League made betwixt the Devil
and the Witch, Or that he sucks on the Witches Body, has Carnal
Copulation, or that Witches are turned into Cats, Dogs, raise
Tempests, or the like, is utterly denied and disproved. Wherein also
is handled, the Existence of Angels and Spirits, the truth of
Apparitions, the Nature of Astral and Sydereal Spirits, the force of
Charms and Philters; with other abstruse matters. By John Webster,
Practitioner in Physic. Falsae etenim opiniones Hominum praeoccupantes,
non solum surdos, sed et caecos faciunt, ita ut videre nequeant, quae
aliis perspicua apparent. Galen, lib. 8. de Comp. Med. London, Printed
by J.M. and are to be sold by the Booksellers in London. 1677," (fol.)
In this memorable book he exhausts the subject, as far as it is
possible to do so, by powerful ridicule, cogent arguments, and the
most various and well applied learning, leaving to Hutchinson, and
others who have since followed in his track, little further necessary
than to reproduce his facts and reasonings in a more popular, it can
scarcely be said, in a more effective, form.[29] Those who love
literary parallels may compare Webster, as he appears in this his
last and most characteristic performance, with two famous medical
contemporaries, Sir Thomas Browne, and Thomas Bartholinus the Dane,
whom he strongly resembled in the character of his mind, in the
complexion and variety of his studies, in grave simplicity, in
exactness of observation, in general philosophical incredulity with
some startling reserves, in elaborate and massive ratiocination, and
in the enthusiasm, subdued but not extinguished, which gives zest to
his speculations and poignancy and colouring to his style. He who
seeks to measure great men in their strength and in their weakness,
and what operation of literary analysis is more instructive or
delightful, will find ample employment for collation and comparison
in this extraordinary book, in which, keen as is the penetration
displayed on almost every subject of imposition and delusion, he
appears still to cling, with the obstinacy of a veteran, to some of
the darling Dalilahs of his youth, "to the admirable and
soul-ravishing knowledge of the three great Hypostatical principles of
nature, salt, sulphur, and mercury," and, _proh pudor!_ to alchemy and
astrology--and those seraphic doctors and professors, Crollius,
Libavius, and Van Helmont. He closed his literary performances with
this noble fabric of logic and learning, not the less striking, and
scarcely less useful, because it is chequered by some of the mosaic
work of human imperfection,--a performance which may be said to have
grown up under the umbrage of Pendle, and which he might have
bequeathed to its future Demdikes and Chattox's as an amulet of
irresistible power.[30]

[Footnote 27: What would Dr. Whitaker have thought of the following
explosion, in which Webster sounds the tocsin with a vehemence and
vigour which no Macbriar or Kettledrumle of the period could have
surpassed. The extract is from his _Judgment Set and Books Opened_:--

"All those that claim an Ordination by Man, or from Man, that speak
from the Spirit of the World, from Wit, Learning and Humane Reason,
who Preach for Hire, and make Merchandize of the Souls of Men; I
witness they are all Baal's Priests and Idol-Shepherds, who destroy
the Sheep, and are Theives and Robbers, who came not in by the Door of
the Sheep-fold, but climbed up another way, and _are the Magicians,
Sorcerers, Inchanters, Soothsayers, Necromancers, and Consulters with
Familiar Spirits, which the Lord will cut off out of the Land_, so
that his People shall have no more Soothsayers; and as Jannes and
Jambres resisted Moses, so do these resist the Truth; Men of corrupt
Minds, reprobate concerning the Faith; but they shall proceed no
farther, for their Folly shall be manifest to all Men, as theirs also
was. Woe unto them, for they have gone in the way of Cain, and ran
greedily after the Errors of Balaam, for Reward, and Perished in the
Gainsaying of Core. These are Spots in your Feasts of Charity, when
they Feast with you, feeding themselves without fear: Clouds they are
without Water, carried of Winds; Trees, whose Fruit withered, without
Fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the Roots: Raging Waves of the Sea,
foaming out their own Shame, wandring Stars, to whom is reserved the
blackness of Darkness for ever."]

[Footnote 28: "_Metallographia: or, An History of Metals. Wherein is
declared the signs of Ores and Minerals both before and after digging,
the causes and manner of their generations, their kinds, sorts and
differences; with the description of sundry new Metals or Semi-Metals,
and many other things pertaining to Mineral knowledge. As also, the
handling and shewing of their Vegetability, and the discussion of the
most difficult Questions belonging to Mystical Chymistry, as of the
Philosophers Gold, their Mercury, the Liquor Alkahest, Aurum potabile,
and such like. Gathered forth of the most approved Authors that have
written in Greek, Latine, or High Dutch; With some Observations and
Discoveries of the Author himself. By John Webster, Practitioner in
Physick and Chirurgery. Qui principia naturalia in seipso ignoraverit,
hic jam multum remotus est ab arte nostra, quoniam non habet radicem
veram supra quam intentionem suam fundet. Geber. Sum. perfect. l. c.
i. p. 21._

    _Sed non ante datur telluris operta subire,
    Auricomos quam quis discerpserit arbore foetus._
                                       _Virg._ AEneid. l. 6.

_London, Printed by A.C. for Walter Kettilby at the Bishops-Head in
Duck-lane, 1671, 4to._"]

[Footnote 29: Dr. Whitaker's assertion, that Webster was "neglected
alike by the wise and unwise," seems to be a mere _gratis dictum_. The
age of folios was rapidly passing away; but few folios of the period
appear to have been more generally read, if we are to judge at least
from its being frequently mentioned and quoted, than Webster's
_Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft_. The same able writer's "Doubt
whether Sir Matthew Hale ever read Webster's _Discovery of Supposed
Witchcraft_," might easily have been satisfied by a reference to any
common life of that great judge, which would have shown the historian
of Whalley that Hale died before the book was published. Nor is Dr.
Whitaker correct in stating that all tradition of Webster is now lost
in the neighbourhood where he resided. The following anecdote, which
would have delighted him, I had from an old inhabitant of Burnley, to
whom it had been handed down by his grandfather:--In the days of
Webster's fanaticism, during the usurpation, he is stated, in the
zealous crusade then so common against superstitious relics, to have
headed a party by whom the three venerable crosses, now set up in the
churchyard of Whalley, commonly called the Crosses of Paulinus, and
supposed to be coeval with the first preaching of Christianity in the
North of England, were removed and taken away from their site and
appropriated as a boundary fence for some adjoining fields. After the
Restoration, and when his religious views had become sobered and
settled, he is said, in an eager desire to atone for the desecration
of which he had been guilty, to have purchased the crosses from the
person who was then in possession of them, and to have been at the
cost of re-erecting them on their present site, from which no
sacrilegious hand will, I trust, ever again remove them. It is further
said, that Webster's favourite and regular walk, in the latter part of
his life, till his infirmities rendered him unable to take exercise of
any kind, was to the remains of Whalley Abbey; and that a path along
the banks of the stream which glides by those most picturesque and
pleasing ruins, was long called "Webster's Walk." If this tradition be
founded in fact, and I give it as I received it, John Webster, of
Clitheroe, if not identical, as Mr. Collier has contended, with the
dramatic poet of that name, must have felt something assimilated in
spirit to the fine inspiration of those noble lines of the latter:--

         "I do love these ancient ruins.
    We never tread upon them but we set
    Our foot upon some reverend history;
    And, questionless, here in this open court,
    Which now lies naked to the injuries
    Of stormy weather, some men lie interred that
    Lov'd the Church so well and gave so largely to't,
    They thought it should have canopied their bones
    Till doomsday: but all things have their end.
    Churches and cities, which have diseases like to men,
    Must have like death that we have."]

[Footnote 30: Webster's death took place on the 18th June, 1682. He
left an extensive library, composed principally of chemical,
hermetical, and philosophical works, of which the MSS. catalogue is
now in the possession of my friend, the Rev. T. Corser. I have two
books which appear to have at one time formed part of his collection,
from having his favourite signature, Johannes Hyphantes, in his
autograph, on the title pages. Before I conclude with Webster, I ought
perhaps to observe, that in the valuable edition of the works of
Webster, the dramatic poet, published by the Rev. A. Dyce, that most
accurate and judicious editor has proved indisputably, by an elaborate
argument, that the John Webster, the writer of the _Examen
Academiarum_, and John Webster, the author of the _Displaying of
Supposed Witchcraft_, were one and the same person, who was not
identical with the dramatic writer of the same name. Mr. Dyce does
not, however, appear to have been aware, that the identity of the
author of the _Examen Academiarum_ and the writer on witchcraft is
distinctly stated by Dr. Henry More, in his _Praefatio Generalissima_,
to the Latin edition of his works, whose testimony being that of a
contemporary, who was, like Webster, "a Cambridge scholar," may
perhaps be considered sufficient, without resorting to internal and
circumstantial evidence. The inscription on Webster's monument in the
chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, at Clitheroe, is too characteristic and
curious to be omitted. I give it entire:--

    "_Qui hanc figuram intelligunt
    Me etiam intellexisse, intelligent._

    [Illustration]

    _Hic jacet ignotus mundo, mersusque tumultu
    Invidiae, semper mens tamen aequa fuit,
    Multa tulit veterum ut sciret secreta sophorum
    Ac tandem vires noverit ignis aquae._

       *       *       *       *       *

    _Johannes Hyphantes sive Webster,
    In villa Spinosa supermontana, in
    Parochia silvae cuculatae, in agro
    Eboracensi, natus 1610 Feb. 3,
    Ergastulum animae deposuit 1682, Junii 18,
    Annoq. aetatis suae 72 currente._

    _Sicq. peroravit moriens mundo huic valedicens,
    Aurea pax vivis, requies aeterna sepultis._"]

But it is necessary to proceed from the authors on witchcraft to that
extraordinary case which forms the subject of the present
republication, and which first gave to Pendle its title to be
considered as the Hartz Forest of England.

The Forest of Pendle is a portion of the greater one of
Blackburnshire, and is so called from the celebrated mountain of that
name, over the declivity of which it extends and stretches in a long
but interrupted descent of five miles, to the water of Pendle, a
barren and dreary tract. Dr. Whitaker observes of this and the
neighbouring forests, and the remark even yet holds good, "that they
still bear the marks of original barrenness, and recent cultivation;
that they are still distinguished from the ancient freehold tracts
around them, by want of old houses, old woods, high fences; (for these
were forbidden by the forest laws;) by peculiarities of dialect and
manners in their inhabitants; and lastly, by a general air of poverty
which all the opulence of manufactures cannot remove." He considers
that "at an uncertain period during the occupancy of the Lacies, the
first principle of population" (in these forests) commenced; it was
found that these wilds, bleak and barren as they were, might be
occupied to some advantage in breeding young and depasturing lean
"cattle, which were afterwards fattened in the lower domains.
_Vaccaries_, or great upland pastures, were laid out for this purpose;
_booths_ or mansions erected upon them for the residence of herdsmen;
and at the same time that herds of deer were permitted to range at
large as heretofore, _lawnds_, by which are meant parks within a
forest, were inclosed, in order to chase them with greater facility,
or, by confinement, to produce fatter venison. Of these lawnds Pendle
had new and old lawnd, with the contiguous park of Ightenhill."

In the early part of the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of this
district must have been, with few exceptions, a wretchedly poor and
uncultivated race, having little communication with the occupants of
the more fertile regions around them, and in whose minds superstition,
even yet unextinguished, must have had absolute and uncontrollable
domination. Under the disenchanting influence of steam, manufactures,
and projected rail-roads, still much of the old character of its
population remains. _Hodie manent vestigia ruris._ The "parting
genius" of superstition still clings to the hoary hill tops and rugged
slopes and mossy water sides, along which the old forest stretched its
length, and the voices of ancestral tradition are still heard to speak
from the depth of its quiet hollows, and along the course of its
gurgling streams. He who visits Pendle[31] will yet find that charms
are generally resorted to amongst the lower classes; that there are
hares which, in their persuasion, never can be caught, and which
survive only to baffle and confound the huntsman; that each small
hamlet has its peculiar and gifted personage, whom it is dangerous to
offend; that the wise man and wise woman (the white witches of our
ancestors) still continue their investigations of truth, undisturbed
by the rural police or the progress of the schoolmaster; that each
locality has its haunted house; that apparitions still walk their
ghostly rounds--and little would his reputation for piety avail that
clergyman in the eyes of his parishioners who should refuse to lay
those "extravagant and erring spirits," when requested, by those due
liturgic ceremonies which the orthodoxy of tradition requires.

[Footnote 31: It was my good fortune to visit this wizard-haunted spot
within the last few weeks, in company with the able and zealous
Archdeacon[A] within whose ecclesiastical cure it is comprized, and to
whose singularly accurate knowledge of this district, and courteous
communication of much valuable information regarding it, I hold myself
greatly indebted. Following, with unequal steps, such a guide,
accompanied, likewise, by an excellent Canon of the Church[B] with all
the "armamentaria coeli" at command against the powers of darkness,
and a lay auxiliary[C], whose friendly converse would make the
roughest journey appear smooth, I need scarcely say, I passed through

                          "The forest wyde,
    Whose hideous horror and sad trembling sownd
    Full griesly seem'd,"

unscathed by the old lords of the soil, and needed not Mengus's Fuga,
Fustis et Flagellum Daemonum, as a triple coat of mail.]

[Footnote A: The Venerable the Archdeacon of Manchester, the Rev. John
Rushton, who is also the Incumbent of New Church, in Pendle.]

[Footnote B: The Rev. Canon Parkinson.]

[Footnote C: J.B. Wanklyn, Esq.]

In the early part of the reign of James the first, and at the period
when his execrable statute against witchcraft might have been
sharpening its appetite by a temporary fast for the full meal of blood
by which it was eventually glutted,--for as yet it could count no
recorded victims,--two wretched old women with their families resided
in the Forest of Pendle. Their names were Elizabeth Southernes and Ann
Whittle, better known, perhaps, in the chronicles of witchcraft, by
the appellations of Old Demdike and Old Chattox.[32] Both had
attained, or had reached the verge of the advanced age of eighty, were
evidently in a state of extreme poverty, subsisting with their
families by occasional employment, by mendicancy, but principally,
perhaps, by the assumption of that unlawful power, which commerce with
spirits of evil was supposed to procure, and of which their sex, life,
appearance, and peculiarities, might seem to the prejudiced
neighbourhood in the Forest to render them not unsuitable
depositaries. In both, perhaps, some vindictive wish, which appeared
to have been gratified nearly as soon as uttered, or some one of those
curious coincidences which no individual's life is without, led to an
impression which time, habit, and general recognition would gradually
deepen into full conviction, that each really possessed the powers
which witchcraft was believed to confer. Whether it be with witches as
it is said to be with a much maligned branch of a certain profession,
that it needs two of its members in a district to make its exercise
profitable, it is not for me to say; but it is seldom found that
competition is accompanied by any very amicable feeling in the
competitors, or by a disposition to underrate the value of the
merchandize which each has to offer for sale. Accordingly, great was
the rivalry, constant the feuds, and unintermitting the respective
criminations of the Erictho and Canidia of Pendle,[33] who had opened
shops for the vending of similar contraband commodities, and were
called upon to decry each other's stock, as well as to magnify their
own. Each "gave her little senate laws," and had her own party (or
tail, according to modern phraseology) in the Forest. Some looked up
to and patronized one, and some the other. If old Demdike could boast
that she had Tibb as a familiar, old Chattox was not without her
Fancy. If the former had skill in waxen images, the latter could dig
up the scalps of the dead, and make their teeth serviceable to her
unhallowed purposes. In the anxiety which each felt to outvie the
other, and to secure the greater share of the general custom of a not
very extended or very lucrative market, each would wish to be
represented as more death-dealing, destructive, and powerful than her
neighbour; and she who could number up the most goodly assortment of
damage done to man and beast, whether real or not was quite
immaterial, as long as the draught was spiced and flavoured to suit
the general taste, stood the best chance of obtaining a monopoly. It
is a curious fact, that the son-in-law of one of these two
individuals, and whose wife was herself executed as a witch, paid to
the other a yearly rent,[34] on an express covenant that she should
exempt him from her charms and witchcrafts. Where the possession of a
commission from the powers of darkness was thus eagerly and
ostentatiously paraded, every death, the cause of which was not
perfectly obvious, whether it ended in a sudden termination or a slow
and gradual decline, would be placed to the general account of one of
the two (to use Master Potts's description,) "agents for the devil in
those parts," as the party responsible for these unclaimed dividends
of mortality. Did a cow go mad, or was a horse unaccountably afflicted
with the staggers, the same solution was always at hand to clear
negligence and save the trouble of inquiry; and so far from modestly
disclaiming these atrocities, the only struggle on the parts of
Mothers Demdike and Chattox would be which should first appropriate
them. And in all this it must not be forgotten that their own
credulity was at least as great as the credulity of their neighbours,
and that each had the power in question was so much an admitted point,
that she had long ceased, in all probability, to entertain any doubts
on the subject. With this general conviction on one hand, and a
sincere persuasion on the other, it would be surprising if, in the
course of a few years, the scandalous chronicle of Pendle had not
accumulated a _corpus delicti_ against them, which only required that
"_one of his Majesties Justices in these parts, a very religious
honest gentleman, painful in the service of his country_," should work
the materials into shape, and make "the gruel thick and slab."

[Footnote 32: The Archdeacon of Manchester suggests that this is
merely a corruption of Chadwick or Chadwicks, and not, as explained in
the Note, p. 19, from her chattering as she went along.]

[Footnote 33: These bickerings were no doubt exasperated by the
robbery committed upon old Demdike and Alizon Device, which is
detailed in the examinations, some of the _opima spolia_ abstracted on
which occasion she detected on the person of old Chattox's daughter.]

[Footnote 34: Of an aghendole of meal. Since writing the Note, p. 23,
I am indebted to Miss Clegg, of Hallfoot, near Clitheroe, for
information as to the exact quantity contained in an aghendole, which
is eight pounds. This measure, she informs me, is still in use in
Little Harwood, in the district of Pendle. The Archdeacon of
Manchester considers that an aghendole, or more properly, as generally
pronounced, a nackendole, is a kneading-dole, the quantity of meal,
&c. usually taken for kneading at one time. There can be no doubt that
this is the correct derivation.]

Such a man was soon found in the representative of the old family of
the Nowels of Read, who, desirous of signalizing himself as an active
and stirring justice, took up the case of these self-accusing
culprits, for both made confessions when examined before him, with a
vigour worthy of a better cause. On the 2nd April, 1612, he committed
old Demdike, old Chattox, Alizon Device, and Anne Redfern to
Lancaster, to take their trial at the next assizes for various murders
and witchcrafts. "Here," says the faithful chronicler, Master Potts,
"they had not stayed a weeke, when their children and friendes being
abroad at libertie, laboured a speciall meeting at Malking Tower[35]
in the Forrest of Pendle, vpon Good-fryday, within a weeke after they
were committed, of all the most dangerous, wicked, and damnable
witches in the county farre and neere. Vpon Good-fryday they met,
according to solemne appoyntment, solemnized this great festiuall day
according to their former order, with great cheare, merry company, and
much conference. In the end, in this great assemblie it was decreed
that M. Covell, [he was the gaoler of Lancaster Castle,] by reason of
his Office, shall be slaine before the next Assises, the Castle at
Lancaster to be blown up," &c., &c. This witches' convention, so
historically famous, we unquestionably owe to the "painful justice"
whose scent after witches and plots entitled him to a promotion which
he did not obtain. An overt act so alarming and so indisputable, at
once threw the country, far and near, into the greatest
ferment--_furiis surrexit Etruria justis_--while it supplied an
admirable _locus in quo_ for tracing those whose retiring habits had
prevented their propensities to witchcraft from being generally known
to their intimate friends and connexions. The witness by whose
evidence this legend was principally supported, was Jennet Device, a
child about nine years old, and grand-daughter of old Demdike. A more
dangerous tool in the hands of an unscrupulous evidence-compeller,
being at once intelligent, cunning and pliant, than the child proved
herself, it would not have been easy to have discovered. A foundation
being now laid capable of embracing any body of confederates, the
indefatigable justice proceeded in his inquiries, and in the end,
Elizabeth Device the daughter of old Demdike, James Device her son,
Alice Nutter, Katherine Hewitt, John Bulcock, Jane Bulcock, with some
others, were committed for trial at Lancaster. The very curious report
of that trial is contained in the work now republished, which was
compiled under the superintendence of the judges who presided, by
Master Thomas Potts, clerk in court, and present at the trial. His
report, notwithstanding its prolixity and its many repetitions, it has
been thought advisable to publish entire, and the reprint which
follows is as near a fac-simile as possible of the original tract.

[Footnote 35: Baines confounds Malking-Tower with Hoar-stones, a place
rendered famous by the second case of pretended witchcraft in 1633,
but at some distance from the first-named spot, the residence of
Mother Demdike, which lies in the township of Barrowford. The witch's
mansion--

           "Where that same wicked wight
    Her dwelling had--
    Dark, doleful, dreary, like a greedy grave
    That still for carrion carcases doth crave,
    On top whereof ay dwelt the ghastly owle,
    Shrieking his baleful note, which ever drave
    Far from that haunt all other cheerful fowl,
    And all about it wandering ghosts did wail and howle"--

is now, alas! no more. It stood in a field a little elevated, on a
brow above the building at present called Malking-Tower. The site of
the house or cottage is still distinctly traceable, and fragments of
the plaster are yet to be found imbedded in the boundary wall of the
field. The old road to Gisburne ran almost close to it. It commanded a
most extensive prospect in front, in the direction of Alkincoates,
Colne, and the Yorkshire moors; while in another direction the vast
range of Pendle, nearly intercepted, gloomed in sullen majesty. At the
period when Mother Demdike was in being, Malking-Tower would be at
some distance from any other habitation; its occupier, as the vulgar
would opine--

    "So choosing solitarie to abide
    Far from all neighbours, that her devilish deedes
    And hellish arts from people she might hide,
    And hurt far off unknown whomever she envide."]

It is rather strange that Dr. Whitaker, to whom local superstitions
were always matters of the strongest interest, and welcome as manna to
the sojourners in the wilderness,[36] should have been ignorant, not
merely of Master Potts's discovery, but even of the fact of this trial
of the witches in 1612. It is equally singular that Sir Walter Scott
should have forgotten, when writing his letters on Demonology and
Witchcraft, that he had republished this tract, somewhat inaccurately,
but with rather a long introduction and notes, in the third volume of
his edition of the Somers Tracts, which appeared in 1810. He mentions
Potts's _Discoverie_, in the amusing but very inaccurate and imperfect
historical sketch referred to,[37] as a curious and rare book, which
he had then for the first time obtained a sight of. What could have
been his meaning in referring his readers, for an account of Mother
Demdike and a description of Malking Tower, to "Mr. Roby's Antiquities
of Lancaster," that apocryphal historian having given no such account
or description, and having published no such work, it is rather
difficult to conjecture.

[Footnote 36: In a scarce little book, "The Triumph of Sovereign
Grace, or a Brand plucked out of the Fire, by David Crosly, Minister,
Manchester," 1743, 12mo., which I owe to the kindness of the very able
historian of Cheshire, George Ormerod, Esq., Dr. Whitaker, to whom the
volume formerly belonged, has been at the pains of chronicling the
superstitions connected with a family, ranking amongst the more
opulent yeomen of Cliviger, of the name of Briercliffe, on the
execution of one of whom for murder the tract was published. The
Briercliffe's, from the curious anecdotes which the Doctor gives with
great unction, appear to have been one of those gloomy and fated
races, dogged by some unassuageable Nemesis, in which crime and horror
are transmitted from generation to generation with as much certainty
as the family features and name.]

[Footnote 37: We yet want a full, elaborate, and satisfactory history
of witchcraft. Hutchinson's is the only account we have which enters
at all at length into the detail of the various cases; but his
materials were generally collected from common sources, and he
confines himself principally to English cases. The European history of
witchcraft embraces so wide a field, and requires for its just
completion a research so various, that there is little probability, I
fear, of this _desideratum_ being speedily supplied.]

With all his habitual tautology and grave absurdity, Master Potts is,
nevertheless, a faithful and accurate chronicler, and we owe his
memory somewhat for furnishing us with so elaborate a report of what
took place on this trial, and giving us, "in their own country terms,"
the examinations of the witnesses, which contain much which throws
light on the manners and language of the times, and nearly all that is
necessary to enable us to form a judgment on the proceedings. It will
be observed that he follows with great exactness the course pursued in
court, in opening the case and recapitulating the evidence separately
against each prisoner, so as most graphically to place before us the
whole scene as it occurred. The part in which he is felt to be most
deficient, is in the want of some further account of the prisoners
convicted, from the trial up to the time of their execution. To Master
Potts, a man of legal forms and ceremonies, the entire interest in the
case seems to have come in and gone out with the judge's trumpets.

As most of the points in the trial which appeared to require
observation, have been adverted to in the notes which follow the
reprint, it is not considered necessary to enter into any analysis or
review of the evidence adduced at the trial, which presents such a
miserable mockery of justice. Mother Demdike, it will be seen, died in
prison before the trial came on. Of the Pendle witches four, namely
Old Chattox, Elizabeth Device, James Device, and Alizon Device, had
all made confessions, and had little chance, therefore, of escaping
condemnation. They were all found guilty; and with them were
convicted, Anne Redfern, Alice Nutter, Katherine Hewitt, John
Bulcock, and Jane Bulcock, who were all of Pendle or its
neighbourhood, and who maintained their innocence and refused to make
any confession. They were executed, along with the first-mentioned
four and Isabel Robey, who was of Windle, in the parish of Prescot,
and had been found guilty of similar practises, the day after the
trial, viz. on the 18th of August, 1612, "at the common place of
execution near to Lancaster."

The main interest in reviewing this miserable band of victims will be
felt to centre in Alice Nutter.[38] Wealthy, well conducted, well
connected, and placed probably on an equality with most of the
neighbouring families and the magistrate before whom she was brought,
and by whom she was committed, she deserves to be distinguished from
the companions with whom she suffered, and to attract an attention
which has never yet been directed towards her.[39] That Jennet Device,
on whose evidence she was convicted, was instructed to accuse her by
her own nearest relatives, to whom "superfluous lagged the veteran on
the stage," and that the magistrate, Roger Nowell, entered actively as
a confederate into the conspiracy from a grudge entertained against
her on account of a long disputed boundary, are allegations which
tradition has preserved, but the truth or falsehood of which, at this
distance of time, it is scarcely possible satisfactorily to examine.
With such a witness, however, as Jennet Device, and such an admirable
engine as the meeting at Malking-Tower, the guests at which she could
multiply _ad libitum_, doling out the _plaat_, as Titus Oates would
call it, by such instalments, and in such fragmentary portions, as
would conduce to an easy digestion of the whole, the wonder seems not
to be, that one unfortunate victim of a higher class should have
perished in the meshes of artful and complicated villainy, but that
its ramifications were not more extensive, and still more fatal and
destructive. From one so capable of taking a hint as the little
precocious prodigy of wickedness, in whose examination, Potts tells
us, "_Mr. Nowell took such great paines_," a very summary deliverance
might be expected from troublesome neighbours, or still more
troublesome relatives; and if, by a leading question, she could only
be induced to marshal them in their allotted places at the witches'
imaginary banquet, there was little doubt of their taking their
station at a place of meeting where the sad realities of life were
only to be encountered, "the common place of execution near to
Lancaster."

[Footnote 38: The explorer of Pendle will find the mansion of Alice
Nutter, Rough Lee, still standing. It is impossible to look at it,
recollecting the circumstances of her case, without being strongly
interested. It is a very substantial, and rather a fine specimen of
the houses of the inferior gentry in the time of James the first, and
is now divided into cottages. On one of the side walls is an
inscription, almost entirely obliterated, which contained the date of
the building and the initials of the name of its first owner. At a
little distance from Rough Lee, pursuing the course of the stream, he
will find the foundations of an ancient mill, and the millstones still
unremoved, though the building itself has been pulled down long ago.
This was, doubtless, the mill of Richard Baldwin, the miller, who, as
stated in Old Demdike's confession, ejected her and Alizon Device her
daughter, from his land so contumeliously; immediately after which her
"Spirit or divell called Tibb appeared, and sayd Revenge thee of him."
Greenhead, the residence of Robert Nutter, one of the reputed victims
of the prisoners tried on this occasion, is at some distance from
Rough Lee, and is yet in good preservation, and occupied as a
farmhouse.]

[Footnote 39: The instances are very few in England in which the
statute of James the first was brought to bear against any but the
lowest classes of the people. Indeed, there are not many attempts
reported to attack the rich and powerful with weapons derived from its
provisions. One of such attempts, which did not, like that against
Alice Nutter, prove successful, is narrated in a curious and scarce
pamphlet, which I have now before me, with this title--"Wonderful News
from the North, or a true Relation of the sad and grievous Torments
inflicted upon the Bodies of three children of Mr. George Muschamp,
late of the County of Northumberland, by Witchcraft, and how
miraculously it pleased God to strengthen them and to deliver them; as
also the prosecution of the say'd Witches, as by Oaths and their own
Confessions will appear, and by the Indictment found by the Jury
against one of them at the Sessions of the Peace held at Alnwick, the
24th day of April, 1650. London, printed by T.H., and are to be sold
by Richard Harper at his Shop in Smithfield. 1650," 4to. This was
evidently a diabolical plot, in which these children were made the
puppets, and which was got up to accomplish the destruction of a
person of condition, Mrs. Dorothy Swinnow, the wife of Colonel
Swinnow, of Chatton, in Northumberland, and from which she had great
difficulty in escaping.]

The trial of the Samlesbury witches, Jennet Bierley, Ellen Bierley,
and Jane Southworth, forms a curious episode in Potts's _Discoverie_.
A Priest or Jesuit, of the name of Thomson, _alias_ Southworth, had
tutored the principal evidence, Grace Sowerbuts, a girl of the age of
fourteen, but who had not the same instinctive genius for perjury as
Jennet Device, to accuse the three persons above mentioned of having
bewitched her; "so that," as the indictment runs, "by means thereof
her body wasted and consumed." "The chief object," says Sir Walter
Scott, "in this imposture, was doubtless the advantage and promotion
of the Catholic cause, as the patient would have been in due time
exorcised and the fiend dispossessed, by the same priest who had
taught her to counterfeit the fits. Revenge against the women, who had
become proselytes to the Church of England, was probably an additional
motive." But the imposture broke down, from the inability of the
principal witness to support the scheme of deception. Unsuccessful,
however, as it proved, the time was well chosen, the groundwork
excellently laid, the evidence industriously got up, and it must ever
deserve a prominent place in the history--a history, how delightful
when it shall be written in the spirit of philosophy and with due
application of research--of human fraud and imposture.

We can only speculate, of course, on such an occasion, but perhaps no
trial is recorded as having taken place, with the results of which
every body, the parties convicted only excepted, was, in all
probability, better pleased or satisfied, than at this witch trial at
Lancaster in 1612. The mob would be delighted with a pageant, always
acceptable, in the execution of ten witches; and still more, that one
of them was of a rank superior to their own;--the judge had no doubt,
in his opinion, avoided each horn of the dilemma--the abomination
mentioned in Scripture--punishing the innocent or letting the guilty
go free--by tracking guilt with well breathed sagacity, and
unravelling imposture with unerring skill;--a Jesuit had been
unkennelled, a spectacle as gratifying to a serious Protestant in
those days, as running down a fox to a thorough sportsman;--a plot had
been discovered which might have made Lancaster Castle "to topple on
its warders" and "slope its head to its foundations," and Master
Cowell, who had held so many inquests, to vanish without leaving
anything in his own person whereon an inquest could be holden;--a
pestilent nest of incorrigible witches had been dug out and rooted up,
and Pendle Hill placed under sanatory regulations;--and last, and not
least, as affording matter of pride and exultation to every loyal
subject, a commentary had at last been collected for two texts, which
had long called for some such support without finding it, King James's
_Demonology_, and his statute against witchcraft. When the
_Discoverie_ of Master Potts, with its rich treasury of illustrative
evidence, came to hand, would not the monarch be the happiest man in
his dominions!

Twenty years after the publication of the tract now reprinted, Pendle
Forest again became the scene of pretended witchcrafts; and from
various circumstances, the trial which took place then (in 1633) has
acquired even greater notoriety than the one which preceded it, though
no Master Potts could be found to transmit a report of the proceedings
in the second case, a deficiency which is greatly to be lamented. The
particulars are substantially comprised in the following examination,
which is given from the copy in Whitaker's _Whalley_, p. 213, which,
on comparison, is unquestionably more accurate than the other two
versions, in Webster, p. 347, and Baines's _Lancashire_, vol. i. p.
604:[40]--

[Footnote 40: The copy in Baines is from the Harl. MSS., cod. 6854,
fo. 26 _b_, and though inserted in his history as more correct than
that in Whitaker's Whalley, is so disfigured by errors, particularly
in the names of persons and places, as to be utterly unintelligible.
From what source Whitaker derived his transcript does not appear; for
the confession of Margaret Johnson he cites Dodsworth MSS. in Bodleian
Lib., vol. 61, p. 47.]


"THE EXAMINATION OF EDMUND ROBINSON,

"Son of _Edm. Robinson_, of _Pendle_ forest, mason,[41] taken at
_Padiham_ before _Richard Shuttleworth_[42] and _John Starkie_,[43]
Esqs. two of his majesty's justices of the peace, within the county of
_Lancaster_, 10th of February, A.D. 1633.

[Footnote 41: "The informer was one Edmund Robinson (yet living at the
writing hereof, and commonly known by the name of Ned of Roughs) whose
Father was by trade a Waller, and but a poor Man, and they finding
that they were believed and had incouragement by the adjoyning
Magistrates, and the persons being committed to prison or bound over
to the next Assizes, the boy, his Father and some others besides did
make a practice to go from Church to Church that the Boy might reveal
and discover Witches, pretending that there was a great number at the
pretended meeting whose faces he could know, and by that means they
got a good living, that in a short space the Father bought a Cow or
two, when he had none before. And it came to pass that this said Boy
was brought into the Church of Kildwick a large parish Church, where I
(being then Curate there) was preaching in the afternoon, and was set
upon a stall (he being but about ten or eleven years old) to look
about him, which moved some little disturbance in the Congregation for
a while. And after prayers I inquiring what the matter was, the people
told me that it was the Boy that discovered Witches, upon which I went
to the house where he was to stay all night, where I found him, and
two very unlikely persons that did conduct him, and manage the
business; I desired to have some discourse with the Boy in private,
but that they utterly refused; then in the presence of a great many
people, I took the Boy near me, and said: Good Boy tell me truly, and
in earnest, did thou see and hear such strange things of the meeting
of Witches, as is reported by many that thou dost relate, or did not
some person teach thee to say such things of thy self? But the two men
not giving the Boy leave to answer, did pluck him from me, and said he
had been examined by two able Justices of the Peace, and they did
never ask him such a question, to whom I replied, the persons accused
had therefore the more wrong."--Webster's _Displaying of Witchcraft_,
p. 276.]

[Footnote 42: This was Richard Shuttleworth of Gawthorp, Esq., who
married the daughter and heiress of R. Fleetwood, Esq., of Barton, and
died June 1669, aged 82.]

[Footnote 43: John Starkie, Esq., of the family of Starkie of
Huntroyd, the same probably who was sheriff of Lancashire 9 Charles I,
and one of the seven demoniacs at Cleworth in the year 1595, on whose
evidence Hartley was hanged for witchcraft. Having commenced so early,
he must by this time have qualified himself, if he only improved the
advantages of his Cleworth education, to take the chair and proceed as
professor, in all matters appertaining to witchcraft.]

"Who informeth upon oath, (beeinge examined concerninge the greate
meetings of the witches) and saith, that upon All-saints day last
past, hee, this informer, beeinge with one _Henry Parker_, a neare
doore neighbor to him in _Wheatley-lane_,[44] desyred the said
_Parker_ to give him leave to get some bulloes,[45] which hee did. In
which tyme of gettinge bulloes, hee sawe two greyhounds, viz. a blacke
and a browne one, came runninge over the next field towards him, he
verily thinkinge the one of them to bee Mr. _Nutters_,[46] and the
other to bee Mr. _Robinsons_,[47] the said Mr. _Nutter_ and Mr.
_Robinson_ havinge then such like. And the said greyhounds came to him
and fawned on him, they havinge about theire necks either of them a
coller, and to either of which collers was tyed a stringe, which
collers as this informer affirmeth did shine like gould, and hee
thinkinge that some either of Mr. _Nutter's_ or Mr. _Robinson's_
family should have followed them: but seeinge noe body to followe
them, he tooke the said greyhounds thinkinge to hunt with them, and
presently a hare did rise very neare before him, at the sight whereof
he cryed, loo, loo, but the dogges would not run. Whereupon beeinge
very angry, he tooke them, and with the strings that were at theire
collers tyed either of them to a little bush on the next hedge, and
with a rod that hee had in his hand, hee bett them. And in stede of
the blacke greyhound, one _Dickonson_ wife stoode up (a neighb^r.)
whom this informer knoweth, and in steade of the browne greyhound a
little boy whom this informer knoweth not. At which sight this
informer beeinge affraid indevoured to run away: but beeinge stayed by
the woman, viz. by _Dickonson's_ wife, shee put her hand into her
pocket, and pulled out a peace of silver much like to a faire
shillinge, and offered to give him to hould his tongue, and not to
tell, whiche hee refused, sayinge, nay thou art a witch; Whereupon
shee put her hand into her pocket againe, and pulled out a stringe
like unto a bridle[48] that gingled, which shee put upon the litle
boyes heade that stood up in the browne greyhounds steade; whereupon
the said boy stood up a white horse. Then immediately the said
_Dickonson_ wife tooke this informer before her upon the said horse,
and carried him to a new house called _Hoarestones_,[49] beinge about
a quarter of a mile off, whither, when they were comme, there were
divers persons about the doore, and hee sawe divers others cominge
rideinge upon horses of severall colours towards the said house, which
tyed theire horses to a hedge neare to the sed house; and which
persons went into the sed house, to the number of threescore or
thereabouts, as this informer thinketh, where they had a fyer and
meate roastinge, and some other meate stirringe in the house, whereof
a yonge woman whom hee this informer knoweth not, gave him flesh and
breade upon a trencher, and drinke in a glasse, which, after the first
taste, hee refused, and would have noe more, and said it was nought.
And presently after, seeinge diverse of the company goinge to a barn
neare adioyneinge,[50] hee followed after, and there he sawe sixe of
them kneelinge, and pullinge at sixe severall roapes which were
fastened or tyed to ye toppe of the house; at or with which pullinge
came then in this informers sight flesh smoakeinge, butter in lumps,
and milke as it were syleinge[51] from the said roapes, all which fell
into basons whiche were placed under the saide roapes. And after that
these sixe had done, there came other sixe which did likewise, and
duringe all the tyme of theire so pullinge, they made such foule faces
that feared[52] this informer, soe as hee was glad to steale out and
run home, whom, when they wanted, some of theire company came runninge
after him neare to a place in a high way, called Boggard-hole,[53]
where this informer met two horsemen, at the sight whereof the sed
persons left followinge him, and the foremost of which persons yt
followed him, hee knoweth to bee one _Loynd_ wife, which said wife,
together with one _Dickonson_ wife, and one _Jenet Davies_[54] he hath
seene at severall tymes in a croft or close adioninge to his fathers
house, whiche put him in a greate feare. And further, this informer
saith, upon Thursday after New Yeares day last past, he sawe the sed
_Loynd_ wife sittinge upon a crosse peece of wood, beeinge within the
chimney of his father's dwellinge house, and hee callinge to her,
said, come downe thou _Loynd_ wife, and immediately the sed _Loynd_
wife went up out of his sight. And further, this informer saith, yt
after hee was comme from ye company aforesed to his father's house,
beeinge towards eveninge, his father bad him goe fetch home two kyne
to seale,[55] and in the way, in a field called the Ollers, hee
chanced to hap upon a boy, who began to quarrell with him, and they
fought soe together till this informer had his eares made very bloody
by fightinge, and lookinge downe, hee sawe the boy had a cloven foote,
at which sight hee was affraid, and ran away from him to seeke the
kyne. And in the way hee sawe a light like a lanthorne, towards which
he made hast, supposinge it to bee carried by some of Mr. _Robinson's_
people: But when hee came to the place, hee onley found a woman
standinge on a bridge, whom, when hee sawe her, he knewe to bee
_Loynd_ wife, and knowinge her, he turned backe againe, and immediatly
hee met with ye aforesed boy, from whom he offered to run, which boy
gave him a blow on the back which caus'd him to cry. And hee farther
saith, yt when hee was in the barne, he sawe three women take three
pictures from off the beame, in the which pictures many thornes, or
such like things sticked, and yt _Loynd_ wife tooke one of the said
pictures downe, but thother two women yt tooke thother two pictures
downe hee knoweth not.[56] And beeinge further asked, what persons
were at ye meeteinge aforesed, hee nominated these persons hereafter
mentioned, viz. _Dickonson_ wife, _Henry Priestley_ wife and her sone,
_Alice Hargreaves_ widdowe, _Jennet Davies_, _Wm. Davies_, uxor.
_Hen. Jacks_ and her sone _John_, _James Hargreaves_ of _Marsden_,
_Miles_ wife of _Dicks_, _James_ wife, _Saunders_ sicut credit,
_Lawrence_ wife of _Saunders_, _Loynd_ wife, _Buys_ wife of
_Barrowford_, one _Holgate_ and his wife sicut credit, _Little Robin_
wife of _Leonard's_, of the _West Cloase_.[57]

[Footnote 44: Wheatley-lane is still a place of note in Pendle.]

[Footnote 45: Wild plums.]

[Footnote 46: It would seem as if a case of witchcraft in Pendle,
without a Nutter in some way connected with it, could not occur.]

[Footnote 47: What Mr. Robinson is intended does not appear. It was a
common name in Pendle. It is, however, a curious fact, that a family
of this name, _with the alias of Swyer_, (see Potts, confession of
Elizabeth Device,) is even now, or very recently was, to be met with
in Pendle, of whom the John Robinson, _alias_ Swyer, one of the
supposed victims of Witchcraft, was probably an ancestor. There are
few instances of an _alias_ being similarly transmitted in families
for upwards of two centuries.]

[Footnote 48: Mother Dickenson, as Sir Walter Scott remarks, brings to
mind the magician Queen in the Arabian Tales.]

[Footnote 49: This house is still standing, and though it has
undergone some modernizations, has every appearance of having been
built about this period.]

[Footnote 50: The old barn, so famous as the scene of these exploits,
is no longer extant. A more modern and very substantial one has now
been erected on its site.]

[Footnote 51: Syleing, from the verb sile or syle, to strain, to pass
through a strainer. See Jamieson, under "sile."]

[Footnote 52: Frightened.]

[Footnote 53: Boggard Hole lies in a hollow, near to Hoarstones, and
is still known by that name.]

[Footnote 54: "It is the sport to see the engineer hoist with his own
petar." Her old occupation as witness having got into other hands,
Janet or Jennet Davies, or Device, for the person spoken of appears to
be the same with the grand-daughter of Old Demdike, on whose evidence
three members of her family were executed, has now to take her place
amongst the witnessed against.]

[Footnote 55: Seale, from sele, _s._ a yoke for binding cattle in the
stall. Sal (A.S.) denotes "a collar or bond." Somner. Sile (Isl.)
seems to bear the very same sense with our sele, being exp. a ligament
of leather by which cattle and other things are bound. Vide Jamieson,
under "sele."]

[Footnote 56: Heywood and Broome, in their play, "The late Lancashire
Witches," 1634, 4to, follow the terms of this deposition very closely.
It is very probable that they had seen and conversed with the boy, to
whom, when taken up to London, there was a great resort of company.
The Lancashire dialect, as given in this play, and by no means
unfaithfully, was perhaps derived from conversations with some of the
actors in this drama of real life, a drama quite as extraordinary as
any that Heywood's imagination ever bodied forth from the world of
fiction.

"_Enter Boy with a switch._

_Boy._ Now I have gathered Bullies, and fild my bellie pretty well,
i'le goe see some sport. There are gentlemen coursing in the medow
hard by; and 'tis a game that I love better than going to Schoole ten
to one.

_Enter an invisible spirit. J. Adson[D] with a brace of greyhounds._

What have we here a brace of Greyhounds broke loose from their
masters: it must needs be so, for they have both their Collers and
slippes about their neckes. Now I looke better upon them, me thinks I
should know them, and so I do: these are Mr. Robinsons dogges, that
dwels some two miles off, i'le take them up, and lead them home to
their master; it may be something in my way, for he is as liberall a
gentleman, as any is in our countrie, Come Hector, come. Now if I c'ud
but start a Hare by the way, kill her, and carry her home to my
supper, I should thinke I had made a better afternoones worke of it
than gathering of bullies. Come poore curres along with me.

_Exit._"

       *       *       *       *       *

"_Enter Boy with the Greyhounds._

A Hare, a Hare, halloe, halloe, the Divell take these curres, will
they not stir, halloe, halloe, there, there, there, what are they
growne so lither and so lazie? Are Mr. Robinsons dogges turn'd tykes
with a wanion? the Hare is yet in sight, halloe, halloe, mary hang you
for a couple of mungrils (if you were worth hanging,) and have you
serv'd me thus? nay then ile serve you with the like sauce, you shall
to the next bush, there will I tie you, and use you like a couple of
curs as you are, and though not lash you, yet lash you whilest my
switch will hold, nay since you have left your speed, ile see if I can
put spirit into you, and put you in remembrance what halloe, halloe
meanes.

_As he beats them, there appeared before him Gooddy_ Dickison, _and
the Boy upon the dogs, going in._

Now blesse me heaven, one of the Greyhounds turn'd into a woman, the
other into a boy! The lad I never saw before, but her I know well; it
is my gammer _Dickison_.

_G. Dick._ Sirah, you have serv'd me well to swindge me thus. You yong
rogue, you have vs'd me like a dog.

_Boy._ When you had put your self into a dogs skin, I pray how c'ud I
help it; but gammer are not you a Witch? if you bee, I beg upon my
knees you will not hurt me.

_Dickis._ Stand up my boie, for thou shalt have no harme,
Be silent, speake of nothing thou hast seene.
And here's a shilling for thee.

_Boy._ Ile have none of your money, gammer, because you are a Witch;
and now she is out of her foure leg'd shape, ile see if with my two
legs I can out-run her.

_Dickis._ Nay sirra, though you be yong, and I old, you are not so
nimble, nor I so lame, but I can overtake you.

_Boy._ But Gammer what do you meane to do with me
Now you have me?

_Dickis._ To hugge thee, stroke thee, and embrace thee thus,
And teach thee twentie thousand prety things,
So thou tell no tales; and boy this night
Thou must along with me to a brave feast.

_Boy._ Not I gammer indeed la, I dare not stay out late,
My father is a fell man, and if I bee out long, will both
chide and beat me.

_Dickis._ Not sirra, then perforce thou shalt along,
This bridle helps me still at need,
And shall provide us of a steed.
Now sirra, take your shape and be
Prepar'd to hurrie him and me.

_Exit._

Now looke and tell mee wher's the lad become.

_Boy._ The boy is vanisht, and I can see nothing in his stead
But a white horse readie sadled and bridled.

_Dickis._ And thats the horse we must bestride,
On which both thou and I must ride,
Thou boy before and I behinde,
The earth we tread not, but the winde,
For we must progresse through the aire,
And I will bring thee to such fare
As thou ne're saw'st, up and away,
For now no longer we can stay.

_She catches him up, and turning round._

_Boy._ Help, help.

_Exit._"

       *       *       *       *       *

"_Rob._ What place is this? it looks like an old barne: ile peep in at
some cranny or other, and try if I can see what they are doing. Such a
bevy of beldames did I never behold; and cramming like so many
Cormorants: Marry choke you with a mischiefe.

_Gooddy Dickison._ Whoope, whurre, heres a sturre,
Never a cat, never a curre,
But that we must have this demurre.

_Mal._ A second course.

_Mrs. Gen._ Pull, and pull hard
For all that hath lately him prepar'd
For the great wedding feast.

_Mall._ As chiefe
Of Doughtyes Surloine of rost Beefe.

_All._ Ha, ha, ha.

_Meg._ 'Tis come, 'tis come.

_Mawd._ Where hath it all this while beene?

_Meg._ Some
Delay hath kept it, now 'tis here,
For bottles next of wine and beere,
The Merchants cellers they shall pay for't.

_Mrs. Gener._ Well,
What sod or rost meat more, pray tell.

_Good. Dick._ Pul for the Poultry, Foule, and Fish,
For emptie shall not be a dish.

_Robin._ A pox take them, must only they feed upon hot meat, and I
upon nothing but cold sallads.

_Mrs. Gener._ This meat is tedious, now some Farie,
Fetch what belongs unto the Dairie,

_Mal._ Thats Butter, Milk, Whey, Curds and Cheese,
Wee nothing by the bargaine leese.

_All._ Ha, ha, ha.

_Goody Dickison._ Boy, theres meat for you.

_Boy._ Thanke you.

_Gooddy Dickis._ And drinke too.

_Meg._ What Beast was by thee hither rid?

_Mawd._ A Badger nab.

_Meg._ And I bestrid
A Porcupine that never prickt.

_Mal._ The dull sides of a Beare I kickt.
I know how you rid, Lady Nan.

_Mrs. Gen._ Ha, ha, ha, upon the knave my man.

_Rob._ A murrein take you, I am sure my hoofes payd for't.

_Boy._ Meat lie there, for thou hast no taste, and drinke there, for
thou hast no relish, for in neither of them is there either salt or
savour.

_All._ Pull for the posset, pull.

_Robin._ The brides posset on my life, nay if they come to their
spoone meat once, I hope theil breake up their feast presently.

_Mrs. Gen._ So those that are our waiters nere,
Take hence this Wedding cheere.
We will be lively all,
And make this barn our hall.

_Gooddy Dick._ You our Familiers, come.
In speech let all be dumbe,
And to close up our Feast,
To welcome every gest
A merry round let's daunce.

_Meg._ Some Musicke then ith aire
Whilest thus by paire and paire,
We nimbly foot it; strike.

_Musick._

_Mal._ We are obeyd.

_Sprite._ And we hels ministers shall lend our aid.

_Dance and Song together. In the time of which the Boy speakes._

_Boy._ Now whilest they are in their jollitie, and do not mind me, ile
steale away, and shift for my selfe, though I lose my life for't.

_Exit._"

       *       *       *       *       *

"_Dought._ He came to thee like a Boy thou sayest, about thine own
bignesse?

_Boy._ Yes Sir, and he asked me where I dwelt, and what my name was.

_Dough._ Ah Rogue!

_Boy._ But it was in a quarrelsome way; Whereupon I was as stout, and
ask'd him who made him an examiner?

_Dough._ Ah good Boy.

_Mil._ In that he was my Sonne.

_Boy._ He told me he would know or beat it out of me,
And I told him he should not, and bid him doe his worst;
And to't we went.

_Dough._ In that he was my sonne againe, ha boy; I see him at it now.

_Boy._ We fought a quarter of an houre, till his sharpe nailes made my
eares bleed.

_Dough._ O the grand Divell pare 'em.

_Boy._ I wondred to finde him so strong in my hands, seeming but of
mine owne age and bignesse, till I looking downe, perceived he had
clubb'd cloven feet like Oxe feet; but his face was as young as mine.

_Dought._ A pox, but by his feet, he may be the Club-footed
Horse-coursers father, for all his young lookes.

_Boy._ But I was afraid of his feet, and ran from him towards a light
that I saw, and when I came to it, it was one of the Witches in white
upon a Bridge, that scar'd me backe againe, and then met me the Boy
againe, and he strucke me and layd mee for dead.

_Mil._ Till I wondring at his stay, went out and found him in the
Trance; since which time, he has beene haunted and frighted with
Goblins, 40 times; and never durst tell any thing (as I sayd) because
the Hags had so threatned him till in his sicknes he revealed it to
his mother.

_Dough._ And she told no body but folkes on't. Well Gossip Gretty, as
thou art a Miller, and a close thiefe, now let us keepe it as close as
we may till we take 'hem, and see them handsomly hanged o'the way: Ha
my little Cuffe-divell, thou art a made man. Come, away with me.

_Exeunt._"

Heywood and Broome's _Late Lancashire Witches_, Acts 2 and 3.]

[Footnote D: _Sic in orig._]

[Footnote 57: These names are thus given in Baines's Transcript:--

"Dickensons
Henrie Priestleyes wife and his ladd
Alice Hargrave, widdowe
Jane Davies (als. Jennet Device)
William Davies
The wife of Henrie Offep and her sonnes
John and Myles
The wife of Duckers
James Hargrave of Maresden
Loyards wife
James wife
Sanders wife, And as hee beleeveth
Lawnes wife
Sander Pynes wife of Baraford
One Foolegate and his wife
And Leonards of the West Close."

And thus in Webster:--

"Dickensons Wife, Henry Priestleys Wife, and his Lad, Alice Hargreene
Widow, Jane Davies, William Davies, and the Wife of Henry Fackes, and
her Sons John and Miles, the Wife of ---- Denneries, James Hargreene
of Marsdead, Loynd's Wife, one James his Wife, Saunders his Wife, and
Saunders himself _sicut credit_, one Laurence his Wife, one Saunder
Pyn's Wife of Barraford, one Holgate and his Wife of Leonards of the
West close."]

"_Edmund Robinson_ of _Pendle_, father of ye sd _Edmunde Robinson_,
the aforesaid informer, upon oath saith, that upon _All Saints' Day_,
he sent his sone, the aforesed informer, to fetch home two kyne to
seale, and saith yt hee thought his sone stayed longer than he should
have done, went to seeke him, and in seekinge him, heard him cry very
pittifully, and found him soe afraid and distracted, yt hee neither
knew his father, nor did know where he was, and so continued very
neare a quarter of an hower before he came to himselfe,[58] and he
tould this informer, his father, all the particular passages yt are
before declared in the said _Edmund Robinson_, his sone's
information."

[Footnote 58: The learned "practitioner in physick," Mr. William
Drage, in his "Treatise of Diseases from Witchcraft," published Lond.
1668, 4to. p. 22, recommends "birch" in such cases, "as a specifical
medicine, antipathetical to demons." One can only lament that this
valuable remedy was not vigorously applied in the present instance, as
well as in most others in which these juvenile sufferers appear. I
doubt whether, in the whole Materia Medica, a more powerful
_Lamia-fuge_ could have been discovered, or one which would have been
more universally successful, if applied perseveringly, whenever the
suspicious symptoms recurred. The following is, however, Drage's great
panacea in these cases, a mode of treatment which must have been
vastly popular, judging from its extensive adoption in all parts of
the country: "_Punish the witch, threaten to hang her if she helps not
the sick, scratch her and fetch blood. When she is cast into prison
the sick are some time delivered, some time he or she (they are most
females, most old women, and most poor,) must transfer the disease to
other persons, sometimes to a dog, or horse, or cow, &c. Threaten her
and beat her to remove it._"--Drage, p. 23.]

The name of Margaret Johnson does not appear in Edmund Robinson's
examination. Whether accused or not, the opportunity was too alluring
to be lost by a personage full of matter, being like old Mause
Headrigg, "as a bottle that lacketh vent," and too desirous of
notoriety, to let slip such an occasion. She made, on the 2nd of March
following, before the same justices who had taken Robinson's
examination, the following confession, which must have been considered
a most instructive one by those who were in search of some short _vade
mecum_ of the statistics of witchcraft in Pendle:--


"THE CONFESSION OF MARGARET JOHNSON.

"That betwixt seaven and eight yeares since, shee beeinge in her owne
house in _Marsden_, in a greate passion of anger and discontent, and
withall pressed with some want, there appeared unto her a spirit or
devill in ye proportion or similitude of a man, apparrelled in a suite
of blacke, tyed about with silk points, who offered yt if shee would
give him her soule hee would supply all her wants, and bringe to her
whatsoever shee did neede. And at her appointment would in revenge
either kill or hurt whom or what shee desyred, weare it man or beast.
And saith, yt after a solicitation or two shee contracted and
covenanted with ye said devill for her soule. And yt ye said devill or
spirit badde her call him by the name of _Mamilian_. And when shee
would have him to doe any thinge for her, call in _Mamilian_, and hee
would bee ready to doe her will. And saith, yt in all her talke or
conference shee calleth her said devill, _Mamil_ my God. Shee further
saith, yt ye said _Mamilian_, her devill, (by her consent) did abuse
and defile her body by comittinge wicked uncleannesse together. And
saith, yt shee was not at the greate meetings at _Hoarestones_, at the
forest of _Pendle_, upon All-Saints Day, where ----. But saith yt shee
was at a second meetinge ye Sunday next after All-Saints Day, at the
place aforesaid; where there was at yt tyme between 30 and 40 witches,
who did all ride to the said meetinge, and the end of theire said
meeting was to consult for the killinge and hurtinge of men and
beasts. And yt besides theire particular familiars or spirits, there
was one greate or grand devill or spirit more eminent than the rest.
And if any desyre to have a greate and more wonderfull devill, whereby
they may have more power to hurt, they may have one such. And sayth,
yt such witches as have sharp bones given them by the devill to pricke
them, have no pappes or dugges whereon theire devill may sucke, but
theire devill receiveth bloud from the place, pricked with the bone.
And they are more grand witches than any yt have marks. Shee allsoe
saith, yt if a witch have but one marke, shee hath but one spirit, if
two then two spirits, if three yet but two spirits. And saith, yt
theire spirits usually have knowledge of theire bodies. And being
desyred to name such as shee knewe to be witches, shee named, &c.[59]
And if they would torment a man, they bid theire spirit goe and tormt.
him in any particular place. And yt Good-Friday is one constant day
for a yearely generall meetinge of witches. And yt on Good-Friday
last, they had a meetinge neare _Pendle_ water syde. Shee alsoe saith,
that men witches usually have women spirits, and women witches men
spirits. And theire devill or spirit gives them notice of theire
meetinge, and tells them the place where it must bee. And saith, if
they desyre to be in any place upon a sodaine, theire devill or spirit
will upon a rodde, dogge, or any thinge els, presently convey them
thither: yea, into any roome of a man's house. But shee saith it is
not the substance of theire bodies, but theire spirit assumeth such
form and shape as goe into such roomes. Shee alsoe saith, yt ye devill
(after he begins to sucke) will make a pappe or dugge in a short tyme,
and the matter which hee sucks is blood. And saith yt theire devills
can cause foule weather and storms, and soe did at theire meetings.
Shee alsoe saith yt when her devill did come to sucke her pappe, hee
usually came to her in ye liknes of a cat, sometymes of one colour and
sometymes of an other. And yt since this trouble befell her, her
spirit hath left her, and shee never sawe him since."

[Footnote 59: The omission here is thus supplied in Baines's
Transcript; but the actual names are scarcely to be recognised, from
the clerical errors of the copy:--

"One Pickerne and his wife both of Wyndwall,
Rawson of Clore and his wife
Duffice wife of Clore by the water side
Cartmell the wife of Clore
And Jane of the hedgend in Maresden."]

On the evidence contained in these examinations several persons were
committed for trial at Lancaster, and seventeen, on being tried at the
ensuing assizes, were found guilty by the jury. The judge before whom
the trial took place was, however, more sagacious and enlightened than
his predecessors, Bromley and Altham. He respited the execution of the
prisoners; and on the case being reported to the king in council, the
Bishop of Chester, Dr. Bridgman, was required to investigate the
circumstances. The inquiry was instituted at Chester, and four of the
convicted witches, namely, Margaret Johnson, Frances Dickonson, Mary
Spencer, and the wife of one of the Hargreaves's, were sent to London,
and examined, first by the king's physicians and surgeons, and
afterwards by Charles the first in person.

"A stranger scene" to quote Dr. Whitaker's concluding paragraph "can
scarcely be conceived; and it is not easy to imagine whether the
untaught manners, rude dialect, and uncouth appearance of these poor
foresters, would more astonish the king; or his dignity of person and
manners, together with the splendid scene with which they were
surrounded, would overwhelm them. The end, however, of the business
was, that strong presumptions appeared of the boy having been suborned
to accuse them falsely, and they were accordingly dismissed. The boy
afterwards confessed that he was suborned."[60]

[Footnote 60: Webster gives the sequel of this curious case of
imposture:--"Four of them, to wit Margaret Johnson, Francis Dicconson,
Mary Spenser, and Hargraves Wife, were sent for up to London, and were
viewed and examined by his Majesties Physicians and Chirurgeons, and
after by his Majesty and the Council, and no cause of guilt appearing
but great presumptions of the boys being suborned to accuse them
falsely. Therefore it was resolved to separate the boy from his
Father, they having both followed the women up to London, they were
both taken and put into several prisons asunder. Whereupon shortly
after the Boy confessed that he was taught and suborned to devise, and
feign those things against them, and had persevered in that wickedness
by the counsel of his Father, and some others, whom envy, revenge and
hope of gain had prompted on to that devillish design and villany; and
he also confessed, that upon that day when he said that they met at
the aforesaid house or barn, he was that very day a mile off, getting
Plums in his Neighbours Orchard. And that this is a most certain
truth, there are many persons yet living, of sufficient reputation and
integrity, that can avouch and testifie the same; and besides, what I
write is the most of it true, upon my own knowledge, and the whole I
have had from his own mouth."--_Displaying of Witchcraft_, p. 277.]

In Dr. Whitaker's astonishment that Margaret Johnson should make the
confession she appears to have done, in a clear case of imposture, few
of his readers will be disposed to participate, who are at all
conversant with the trials of reputed witches in this country.
Confessions were so common on those occasions, that there is, I
believe, not a single instance of any great number of persons being
convicted of witchcraft at one time, some of whom did not make a
confession of guilt. Nor is there anything extraordinary in that
circumstance, when it is remembered that many of them sincerely
believed in the existence of the powers attributed to them; and
others, aged and of weak understanding, were, in a measure, coerced by
the strong persuasion of their guilt, which all around them
manifested, into an acquiescence in the truth of the accusation. In
many cases the confessions were made in the hope, and no doubt with
the promise, seldom performed, that a respite from punishment would be
eventually granted. In other instances, there is as little doubt, that
they were the final results of irritation, agony, and despair.[61] The
confessions are generally composed of "such stuff as dreams are made
of," and what they report to have occurred, might either proceed, when
there was no intention to fabricate, from intertwining the fantastic
threads which sometimes stream upon the waking senses from the land of
shadows, or be caused by those ocular hallucinations of which medical
science has supplied full and satisfactory solution. There is no
argument which so long maintained its ground in support of witchcraft
as that which was founded on the confessions referred to. It was the
last plank clung to by many a witch-believing lawyer and divine. And
yet there is none which will less bear critical scrutiny and
examination, or the fallacy of which can more easily be shown, if any
particular reported confession is taken as a test and subjected to a
searching analysis and inquiry.

[Footnote 61: The confession in the "Amber Witch" is a true picture,
drawn from the life. What is there, indeed, unlike truth in that
wonderful fiction?]

It is said that we owe to the grave and saturnine Monarch, who
extended his pardon to the seventeen convicted in 1633, that happy
generalisation of the term, which appropriates honourably to the sex
in Lancashire the designation denoting the fancied crime of a few
miserable victims of superstition. That gentle sex will never
repudiate a title bestowed by one, little given to the playful sports
of fancy, whose sorrows and unhappy fate have never wanted their
commiseration, and who distinguished himself on this memorable
occasion, at a period when

        "'twas the time's plague
    That madmen led the blind,"

--in days when philosophy stumbled and murder arrayed itself in the
robes of justice--by an enlightened exercise of the kingly prerogative
of mercy. Proceeding from such a fountain of honour, and purified by
such an appropriation, the title of witch has long lost its original
opprobrium in the County Palatine, and survives only to call forth the
gayest and most delightful associations. In process of time even the
term _witchfinder_ may lose the stains which have adhered to it from
the atrocities of Hopkins, and may be adopted by general usage, as a
sort of companion phrase, to signify the fortunate individual, who, by
an union with a Lancashire witch, has just asserted his indefeasible
title to be considered as the happiest of men.

J.C.




THE
WONDERFVLL
DISCOVERIE OF
WITCHES, &c.




THE
WONDERFVLL
DISCOVERIE OF
WITCHES IN THE COVNTIE
OF LANCASTER.

With the Arraignement and Triall of
Nineteene notorious WITCHES, at the Assizes and
generall Gaole deliuerie, holden at the Castle of
LANCASTER, _vpon Munday, the seuenteenth_
_of August last_,
1612.

Before Sir IAMES ALTHAM, and
Sir EDWARD BROMLEY, Knights; BARONS of his
Maiesties Court of EXCHEQVER: And Iustices
_of Assize_, Oyer _and_ Terminor, _and generall_
Gaole deliuerie in the circuit of the
_North Parts._

Together with the Arraignement and Triall of IENNET
PRESTON, _at the Assizes holden at the Castle of Yorke_,
_the seuen and twentieth day of Iulie last past_,
with her Execution for the murther
of Master LISTER
_by Witchcraft._

Published and set forth by commandement of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assize in the North Parts.

_By_ THOMAS POTTS _Esquier._

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON,
Printed by _W. Stansby_ for _John Barnes_, dwelling neare
Holborne Conduit. 1613.


[Illustration: decoration]

TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE,
_THOMAS_, LORD
KNYVET, BARON OF ESCRICK[A1]
in the Countie of Yorke, my very honorable
_good Lord and Master._

AND
TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE
_AND VERTVOVS LADIE, THE_
_Ladie_ ELIZABETH KNYVET _his Wife, my_
honorable good Ladie and
MISTRIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

RIGHT HONORABLE,

_Let it stand (I beseech you) with your fauours whom profession of
the same true Religion towards God, and so great loue hath vnited
together in one, Jointly to accept the Protection and Patronage of
these my labours, which not their owne worth hath encouraged, but your
Worthinesse hath enforced me to consecrate vnto your Honours._

_To you (Right Honourable my very good Lord) of Right doe they belong:
for to whom shall I rather present their first fruits of my learning
then to your Lordship: who nourished then both mee and them, when
there was scarce any being to mee or them? And whose iust and vpright
carriage of causes, whose zeale to Justice and Honourable curtesie to
all men, have purchased you a Reuerend and worthie Respect of all men
in all partes of this Kingdome, where you are knowne. And to your good
Ladiship they doe of great right belong likewise; Whose Religion,
Iustice, and Honourable admittance of my Vnworthie Seruice to your
Ladiship do challenge at my handes the vttermost of what euer I may
bee able to performe._

_Here is nothing of my own act worthie to bee commended to your
Honours, it is the worke, of those Reuerend Magistrates, His Maiesties
Iustices of Assizes in the North partes, and no more then a Particular
Declaration of the proceedings of Iustice in those partes. Here shall
you behold the Iustice of this Land, truely administred_, PROEMIUM &
POENAM, _Mercie and Iudgement, freely and indifferently bestowed and
inflicted; And aboue all thinges to bee remembred, the excellent care
of these Iudges in the Triall of offendors._

_It hath pleased them out of their respect to mee to impose this worke
vpon mee, and according to my vnderstanding, I haue taken paines to
finish, and now confirmed by their Iudgement to publish the same, for
the benefit of my Countrie. That the example of these conuicted vpon
their owne Examinations, Confessions, and Euidence at the Barre, may
worke good in others, Rather by with-holding them from, then
imboldening them to, the Atchieuing such desperate actes as these or
the like._

_These are some part of the fruits of my time spent in the Seruice of
my Countrie, Since by your Graue and Reuerend Counsell (my Good Lord)
I reduced my wauering and wandring thoughts to a more quiet harbour of
repose._

_If it please your Honours to giue them your Honourable respect, the
world may iudge them the more worthie of acceptance, to whose various
censures they are now exposed._

_God of Heauen whose eies are on them that feare him, to bee their
Protector and guide, behold your Honours with the eye of fauor, be
euermore your strong hold, and your great reward, and blesse you with
blessings in this life, Externall and Internall, Temporall and
Spirituall, and with Eternall happines in the World to come: to which
I commend your Honours; And rest both now and euer, From my Lodging
in Chancerie Lane, the sixteenth of Nouember 1612._

Your Honours

humbly deuoted

Seruant,

_Thomas Potts._

       *       *       *       *       *

Vpon the Arraignement and triall of these Witches at the last
Assizes and Generall Gaole-deliuerie, holden at Lancaster, wee found
such apparent matters against them, that we thought it necessarie to
publish them to the World, and thereupon imposed the labour of this
Worke vpon this Gentleman, by reason of his place, being a Clerke at
that time in Court, imploied in the Arraignement and triall of them.

_Ja. Altham._

_Edw. Bromley._[A2]

       *       *       *       *       *

_After he had taken great paines to finish it, I tooke vpon mee to
reuise and correct it, that nothing might passe but matter of Fact,
apparant against them by record. It is very little he hath inserted,
and that necessarie, to shew what their offences were, what people,
and of what condition they were: The whole proceedings and Euidence
against them, I finde vpon examination carefully set forth, and truely
reported, and iudge the worke fit and worthie to be published._

Edward Bromley.[A3]

       *       *       *       *       *

     Gentle Reader, although the care of this Gentleman the
     Author, was great to examine and publish this his worke
     perfect according to the Honorable testimonie of the Iudges,
     yet some faults are committed by me in the Printing, and yet
     not many, being a worke done in such great haste, at the end
     of a Tearme, which I pray you, with your fauour to excuse.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration]


[Illustration: decoration]

A particular Declaration of
the most barberous and damnable Practises, Murthers,
wicked and diuelish Conspiracies, practized
_and executed by the most dangerous and malitious_
Witch _Elizabeth Sowthernes_ alias _Demdike_,
of the Forrest of _Pendle_ in the Countie of
_Lancaster_ Widdow, who died in the
Castle at _Lancaster_ before she
came to receiue her tryall.

Though publique iustice hath passed at these Assises vpon the
Capitall offendours, and after the Arraignement & tryall of them,
Iudgement being giuen, due and timely Execution succeeded; which doth
import and giue the greatest satisfaction that can be, to all men; yet
because vpon the caryage, and euent of this businesse, the Eyes of all
the partes of _Lancashire_, and other Counties in the North partes
thereunto adioyning were bent: And so infinite a multitude came to the
Arraignement & tryall of these Witches at _Lancaster_, the number of
them being knowen to exceed all others at any time heretofore, at one
time to be indicted, arraigned, and receiue their tryall,[B_a_]
especially for so many Murders, Conspiracies, Charmes, Meetinges,
hellish and damnable practises, so apparant vpon their owne
examinations & confessions. These my honourable & worthy Lords, the
Iudges of Assise, vpon great consideration, thought it necessarie &
profitable, to publish to the whole world, their most barbarous and
damnable practises, with the direct proceedinges of the Court against
them, aswell for that there doe passe diuers vncertaine reportes and
relations of such Euidences, as was publiquely giuen against them at
their Arraignement. As for that diuers came to prosecute against many
of them that were not found guiltie, and so rest very discontented,
and not satisfied. As also for that it is necessary for men to know
and vnderstande the meanes whereby they worke their mischiefe, the
hidden misteries of their diuelish and wicked Inchauntmentes, Charmes,
and Sorceries, the better to preuent and auoyde the danger that may
ensue. And lastly, who were the principall authors and actors in this
late woefull and lamentable _Tragedie_, wherein so much Blood was
spilt.

Therefore I pray you giue me leaue, (with your patience and fauour,)
before I proceed to the Indictment, Arraignement, and Tryall of such
as were prisoners in the Castle, to lay open the life and death of
this damnable and malicious Witch, of so long continuance (old
_Demdike_) of whom our whole businesse hath such dependence, that
without the particular Declaration and Record of her Euidence, with
the circumstaunces, wee shall neuer bring any thing to good
perfection: for from this Sincke of villanie and mischiefe, haue all
the rest proceeded; as you shall haue them in order.

She was a very old woman, about the age of Fourescore[B_b_] yeares,
and had been a Witch for fiftie yeares. Shee dwelt in the Forrest of
_Pendle_, a vaste place, fitte for her profession: What shee committed
in her time, no man knowes.

Thus liued shee securely for many yeares, brought vp her owne
Children, instructed her Graund-children, and tooke great care and
paines to bring them to be Witches. Shee was a generall agent for the
Deuill in all these partes: no man escaped her, or her Furies, that
euer gaue them any occasion of offence, or denyed them any thing they
stood need of: And certaine it is, no man neere them, was secure or
free from danger.

But God, who had in his diuine prouidence prouided to cut them off,
and roote them out of the Commonwealth, so disposed aboue, that the
Iustices of those partes, vnderstanding by a generall charme and
muttering, the great and vniuersall resort to _Maulking Tower_, the
common opinion, with the report of these suspected people, the
complaint of the Kinges subiectes for the losse of their Children,
Friendes, Goodes, and Cattle, (as there could not be so great Fire
without some Smoake,) sent for some of the Countrey, and tooke great
paynes to enquire after their proceedinges, and courses of life.

In the end, _Roger Nowell_ Esquire,[B2_a_] one of his Maiesties
Iustices in these partes, a very religious honest Gentleman, painefull
in the seruice of his Countrey: whose fame for this great seruice to
his Countrey, shall liue after him, tooke vpon him to enter into the
particular examination of these suspected persons: And to the honour
of God, and the great comfort of all his Countrey, made such a
discouery of them in order, as the like hath not been heard of: which
for your better satisfaction, I haue heere placed in order against
her, as they are vpon Record, amongst the Recordes of the _Crowne_ at
_Lancaster_, certified by M. _Nowell_, and others.


[Illustration: decoration]

The voluntarie Confession
and Examination of _Elizabeth Sowtherns_ alias
_Demdike_, taken at the Fence in the Forrest
of _Pendle_ in the Countie
of _Lancaster._

The second day of Aprill, _Annoq; Regni Regis Iacobi Anggliae,
&c. Decimo, et Scotiae, Quadragesimo quinto;_
Before _Roger Nowell_ of _Reade_ Esquire, one of his
Maiesties Iustices of the peace within
the sayd Countie, _Viz._

The said _Elizabeth Sowtherns_ confesseth, and sayth; That about
twentie yeares past, as she was comming homeward from begging, there
met her this Examinate neere vnto a Stonepit in _Gouldshey_,[B2_b_1]
in the sayd Forrest of _Pendle_, a Spirit or Deuill in the shape of a
Boy, the one halfe of his Coate blacke, and the other browne, who bade
this Examinate stay, saying to her, that if she would giue him her
Soule, she should haue any thing that she would request. Wherevpon
this Examinat demaunded his name? and the Spirit answered, his name
was _Tibb_:[B2_b_2] and so this Examinate in hope of such gaine as was
promised by the sayd Deuill or _Tibb_, was contented to giue her Soule
to the said Spirit: And for the space of fiue or sixe yeares next
after, the sayd Spirit or Deuill appeared at sundry times vnto her
this Examinate about _Day-light_ Gate,[B2_b_3] alwayes bidding her
stay, and asking her this Examinate what she would haue or doe? To
whom this Examinate replyed, Nay nothing: for she this Examinate said,
she wanted nothing yet. And so about the end of the said sixe yeares,
vpon a Sabboth day in the morning, this Examinate hauing a litle Child
vpon her knee, and she being in a slumber, the sayd Spirit appeared
vnto her in the likenes of a browne Dogg, forcing himselfe to her
knee, to get blood vnder her left Arme: and she being without any
apparrell sauing her Smocke, the said Deuill did get blood vnder her
left arme.[B3_a_1] And this Examinate awaking, sayd, _Iesus saue my
Child_; but had no power, nor could not say, _Iesus saue her selfe_:
wherevpon the Browne Dogge vanished out of this Examinats sight: after
which, this Examinate was almost starke madd for the space of eight
weekes.

And vpon her examination, she further confesseth, and saith. That a
little before Christmas last, this Examinates Daughter hauing been to
helpe _Richard Baldwyns_ Folkes at the Mill: This Examinates Daughter
did bid her this Examinate goe to the sayd _Baldwyns_ house, and aske
him some thing for her helping of his Folkes at the Mill, (as
aforesaid:) and in this Examinates going to the said _Baldwyns_ house,
and neere to the sayd house, she mette with the said _Richard
Baldwyn_; Which _Baldwyn_ sayd to this Examinate, and the said _Alizon
Deuice_[B3_a_3] (who at that time ledde this Examinate, being blinde)
get out of my ground Whores and Witches, I will burne the one of you,
and hang the other.[B3_a_2] To whom this Examinate answered: I care
not for thee, hang thy selfe: Presently wherevpon, at this Examinates
going ouer the next hedge, the said Spirit or Diuell called _Tibb_,
appeared vnto this Examinat, and sayd, _Reuenge thee of him_. To whom,
this Examinate sayd againe to the said Spirit. _Revenge thee eyther of
him, or his._ And so the said Spirit vanished out of her sight, and
she neuer saw him since.

And further this Examinate confesseth, and sayth, that the speediest
way to take a mans life away by Witchcraft, is to make a Picture of
Clay,[B3_b_] like vnto the shape of the person whom they meane to
kill, & dry it thorowly: and when they would haue them to be ill in
any one place more then an other; then take a Thorne or Pinne, and
pricke it in that part of the Picture you would so haue to be ill: and
when you would haue any part of the Body to consume away, then take
that part of the Picture, and burne it. And when they would haue the
whole body to consume away, then take the remnant of the sayd Picture,
and burne it: and so therevpon by that meanes, the body shall die.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Confession and Examination
of Anne Whittle _alias_ Chattox, being
Prisoner at _Lancaster_; taken the 19 day of May,
_Annoq; Regni Regis Iacobi Angliae, Decimo:
ac Scotie Quadragesimo quinto_; Before
_William Sandes_ Maior of the Borrough
towne of _Lancaster._

_Iames Anderton_ of _Clayton_, one of his Maiesties Iustices
of Peace within the same County, and _Thomas
Cowell_ one of his Maiesties Coroners in
the sayd Countie of Lancaster,
_Viz._

First, the sayd _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, sayth, that about
foureteene yeares past she entered, through the wicked perswasions and
counsell of _Elizabeth Southerns_, alias _Demdike_, and was seduced to
condescend & agree to become subiect vnto that diuelish abhominable
profession of Witchcraft: Soone after which, the Deuill appeared vnto
her in the liknes of a Man, about midnight, at the house of the sayd
_Demdike_: and therevpon the sayd _Demdike_ and shee, went foorth of
the said house vnto him; wherevpon the said wicked Spirit mooued this
Examinate, that she would become his Subiect, and giue her Soule vnto
him: the which at first, she refused to assent vnto; but after, by the
great perswasions made by the sayd _Demdike_, shee yeelded to be at
his commaundement and appoyntment: wherevpon the sayd wicked Spirit
then sayd vnto her, that hee must haue one part of her body for him to
sucke vpon; the which shee denyed then to graunt vnto him; and withall
asked him, what part of her body hee would haue for that vse; who
said, hee would haue a place of her right side neere to her ribbes,
for him to sucke vpon: whereunto shee assented.

And she further sayth, that at the same time, there was a thing in the
likenes of a spotted Bitch, that came with the sayd Spirit vnto the
sayd _Demdike_, which then did speake vnto her in this Examinates
hearing, and sayd, that she should haue Gould, Siluer, and worldly
Wealth, at her will.[B4_b_1] And at the same time she saith, there was
victuals, _viz._ Flesh, Butter, Cheese, Bread, and Drinke, and bidde
them eate enough. And after their eating, the Deuill called _Fancie_,
and the other Spirit calling himselfe _Tibbe_, carried the remnant
away: And she sayeth, that although they did eate, they were neuer the
fuller, nor better for the same; and that at their said Banquet, the
said Spirits gaue them light to see what they did, although they
neyther had fire nor Candle light; and that they were both shee
Spirites, and Diuels.

And being further examined how many sundry Person haue been bewitched
to death, and by whom they were so bewitched: She sayth, that one
_Robert Nuter_, late of the _Greene-head_ in _Pendle_, was bewitched
by this Examinate, the said _Demdike_, and Widdow _Lomshawe_, (late of
_Burneley_) now deceased.

And she further sayth, that the said _Demdike_ shewed her, that she
had bewitched to death, _Richard Ashton_, Sonne of _Richard Ashton_ of
_Downeham_ Esquire.[B4_b_2]

       *       *       *       *       *

The Examination of Alizon
Deuice, of the Forrest of Pendle, in the County
of _Lancaster_ Spinster, taken at _Reade_ in the said
Countie of _Lancaster_, the xiij. day of
March, _Anno Regni Jacobi Angliae, &c._
_Nono: et Scotiae xlv._

Before _Roger Nowell_ of _Reade_ aforesayd Esquire, one of
his Maiesties Iustices of the Peace within the sayd
Countie, against _Elizabeth Sowtherns_, alias
_Demdike_ her Graund-mother.
_Viz._

The sayd _Alizon Deuice_ sayth, that about two yeares agon, her
Graund-mother (called _Elizabeth Sowtherns_, alias old _Demdike_) did
sundry times in going or walking togeather as they went begging,
perswade and aduise this Examinate to let a Deuill or Familiar appeare
vnto her; and that shee this Examinate, would let him sucke at some
part of her, and shee might haue, and doe what shee would.

And she further sayth, that one _Iohn Nutter_ of the _Bulhole_ in
_Pendle_ aforesaid, had a Cow which was sicke, & requested this
examinats Grand-mother to amend the said Cow; and her said
Graund-mother said she would, and so her said Graund-mother about ten
of the clocke in the night, desired this examinate to lead her foorth;
which this Examinate did, being then blind: and her Graund-mother did
remaine about halfe an houre foorth: and this Examinates sister did
fetch her in againe; but what she did when she was so foorth, this
Examinate cannot tell. But the next morning this Examinate heard that
the sayd Cow was dead. And this Examinate verily thinketh, that her
sayd Graund-mother did bewitch the sayd Cow to death.

And further, this Examinate sayth, that about two yeares agon, this
Examinate hauing gotten a Piggin full[C_b_] of blew Milke by begging,
brought it into the house of her Graund-mother, where (this Examinate
going foorth presently, and staying about halfe an houre) there was
Butter to the quantity of a quarterne of a pound in the said milke,
and the quantitie of the said milke still remayning; and her
Graund-mother had no Butter in the house when this Examinate went
foorth: duering which time, this Examinates Graund-mother still lay in
her bed.

And further this Examinate sayth, that _Richard Baldwin_ of _Weethead_
within the Forrest of _Pendle_, about 2. yeeres agoe, fell out with
this Examinates Graund-mother, & so would not let her come vpon his
Land: and about foure or fiue dayes then next after, her said
Graund-mother did request this Examinate to lead her foorth about ten
of the clocke in the night: which this Examinate accordingly did, and
she stayed foorth then about an houre, and this Examinates sister
fetched her in againe. And this Examinate heard the next morning, that
a woman Child of the sayd _Richard Baldwins_ was fallen sicke; and as
this Examinate did then heare, the sayd Child did languish afterwards
by the space of a yeare, or thereaboutes, and dyed: And this Examinate
verily thinketh, that her said Graund-mother did bewitch the sayd
Child to death.

And further, this Examinate sayth, that she heard her sayd
Graund-mother say presently after her falling out with the sayd
_Baldwin_, shee would pray for the sayd _Baldwin_ both still and
loude: and this Examinate heard her cursse the sayd _Baldwin_ sundry
times.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Examination of _Iames Deuice_ of the Forrest of
_Pendle_, in the Countie of _Lancaster_ Labourer, taken the
27. day of April, _Annoq; Regni Regis Iacobi, Angliae, &c._
_Decimo: ac Scotie Quadragesimo quinto_: Before
_Roger Nowell and Nicholas Banister, Esq._[C2_a_]
two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace within
the sayd Countie.

The sayd Examinate _Iames Deuice_ sayth, that about a month agoe,
as this Examinate was comming towards his Mothers house, and at
day-gate of the same night, [Sidenote: _Euening_] this Examinate mette
a browne Dogge comming from his Graund-mothers house, about tenne
Roodes distant from the same house: and about two or three nights
after, that this Examinate heard a voyce of a great number of Children
screiking and crying pittifully, about day-light gate; and likewise,
about ten Roodes distant of this Examinates sayd Graund-mothers house.
And about fiue nights then next following, presently after daylight,
within 20. Roodes of the sayd _Elizabeth Sowtherns_ house, he heard a
foule yelling like vnto a great number of Cattes: but what they were,
this Examinate cannot tell. And he further sayth, that about three
nights after that, about midnight of the same, there came a thing, and
lay vpon him very heauily about an houre, and went then from him out
of his Chamber window, coloured blacke, and about the bignesse of a
Hare or Catte. And he further sayth, that about _S. Peter's_ day last,
one _Henry Bullocke_ came to the sayd _Elizabeth Sowtherns_ house, and
sayd, that her Graund-child _Alizon Deuice_, had bewitched a Child of
his, and desired her that she would goe with him to his house; which
accordingly she did: And therevpon she the said _Alizon_ fell downe on
her knees, & asked the said _Bullocke_ forgiuenes, and confessed to
him, that she had bewitched the said child, as this Examinate heard
his said sister confesse vnto him this Examinate.


[Illustration: decoration]

The Examination of Elizabeth
Deuice, Daughter of old Demdike, taken
at _Read_ before _Roger Nowell_ Esquire, one of
his Maiesties Iustices of Peace within the
Countie of _Lancaster_ the xxx. day
of March, _Annoq; Regni Jacobi_
_Decimo, ac Scotie xlv._

The sayd _Elizabeth Deuice_ the Examinate, sayth, that the sayd
_Elizabeth Sowtherns_, alias _Demdike_, hath had a place on her left
side by the space of fourty yeares, in such sort, as was to be seene
at this Examinates Examination taking, at this present time.

Heere this worthy Iustice M. _Nowell_, out of these particular
Examinations, or rather Accusations, finding matter to proceed; and
hauing now before him old _Demdike_, old _Chattox_, _Alizon Deuice_,
and _Redferne_ both old and young, _Reos confitentes, et Accusantes
Inuicem_. About the second of Aprill last past, committed and sent
them away to the Castle at _Lancaster_, there to remaine vntill the
comming of the Kinges Maiesties Iustices of Assise, then to receiue
their tryall.

But heere they had not stayed a weeke, when their Children and
Friendes being abroad at libertie, laboured a speciall meeting at
_Malking Tower_ in the Forrest of _Pendle_,[C3_a_] vpon Good-fryday,
within a weeke after they were committed, of all the most dangerous,
wicked, and damnable Witches in the County farre and neere. Vpon
Good-fryday they met, according to solemne appoyntment, solemnized
this great Feastiuall day according to their former order, with great
cheare, merry company, and much conference.

In the end, in this great Assemblie, it was decreed M. _Couell_ by
reason of his Office, shall be slaine before the next Assises: The
Castle of _Lancaster_ to be blowen vp, and ayde and assistance to be
sent to kill M. _Lister_, with his old Enemie and wicked Neighbour
_Iennet Preston_; with some other such like practices: as vpon their
Arraignement and Tryall, are particularly set foorth, and giuen in
euidence against them.

This was not so secret, but some notice of it came to M. _Nowell_, and
by his great paines taken in the Examination of _Iennet Deuice_, al
their practises are now made knowen. Their purpose to kill M.
_Couell_, and blow vp the Castle, is preuented. All their Murders,
Witchcraftes, Inchauntments, Charmes, & Sorceries, are discouered; and
euen in the middest of their consultations, they are all confounded,
and arrested by Gods Iustice: brought before M. _Nowell_, and M.
_Bannester_, vpon their voluntary confessions, Examinations, and other
Euidence accused, and so by them committed to the Castle: So as now
both old and young, haue taken vp their lodgings with M. _Couell_,
vntill the next Assises, expecting their Tryall and deliuerance,
according to the Lawes prouided for such like.

In the meane time, M. _Nowell_ hauing knowledge by this discouery of
their meeting at _Malkeing Tower_, and their resolution to execute
mischiefe, takes great paines to apprehend such as were at libertie,
and prepared Euidence against all such as were in question for
Witches.

Afterwardes sendes some of these Examinations, to the Assises at
Yorke, to be giuen in Evidence against _Iennet Preston_, who for the
murder of M. _Lister_, is condemned and executed.

The Circuite of the North partes being now almost ended.


The 16. of August.

Vpon Sunday in the after noone, my honorable Lords the Iudges of
Assise, came from _Kendall_ to _Lancaster_.

Wherevpon M. _Couell_, presented vnto their Lordships a Calender,
conteyning the Names of the Prisoners committed to his charge, which
were to receiue their Tryall at the Assises: Out of which, we are
onely to deale with the proceedings against Witches, which were as
followeth.

_Viz._

The Names of the
Witches committed to the
Castle of _Lancaster_.


_Elizabeth Sowtherns._ } Who dyed before
     alias             }     shee
_Old Demdike._         } came to her tryall.

_Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox._
_Elizabeth Deuice_, Daughter of old _Demdike._
_Iames Deuice_, Sonne of _Elizabeth Deuice._
_Anne Readfearne_, Daughter of _Anne Chattox._
_Alice Nutter._
_Katherine Hewytte._
_Iohn Bulcocke._
_Iane Bulcocke._
_Alizon Deuice_, Daughter of _Elizabeth Deuice._
_Isabell Robey._
_Magaret Pearson._


The Witches of Salmesbury.

_Iennet Bierley._  }  { _Elizabeth Astley._
_Elen Bierley._    }  { _Alice Gray._
_Iane Southworth._ }  { _Isabell Sidegraues._
_Iohn Ramesden._   }  { _Lawrence Haye._

The next day, being Monday, the 17. of August, were the Assises holden
in the Castle of _Lancaster_, as followeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

Placita Coronae.

[Sidenote: _Lanc. fss._]

_Deliberatio Gaolae Domini Regis Castri fui Lancasstr. ac
Prisonarior[=u] in eadem existent. Tenta apud Lancastr. in com.
Lancastr. Die Lunae, Decimo septimo die Augusti, Anno Regni Domini
nostri Iacobi dei gratia Anglicae, Franciae, et Hiberniae, Regis fidei
defensoris; Decimo: et Scotiae Quadragesimo sexto; Coram Iacobo Altham
Milit. vno Baronum Scaccarij Domini Regis, et Edwardo Bromley Milit.
altero Baronum eiusdem Scaccarij Domini Regis: ac Iustic. dicti Domini
Regis apud Lancastr._

Vpon the Tewesday in the after noone, the Iudges according to the
course and order, deuided them selues, where vpon my Lord _Bromley_,
one of his Maiesties Iudges of Assise comming into the Hall to
proceede with the Pleaes of the Crowne, & the Arraignement and Tryall
of Prisoners, commaunded a generall Proclamation, that all Iustices of
Peace that had taken any Recognisaunces, or Examinations of Prisoners,
should make Returne of them: And all such as were bound to prosecute
Indictmentes, and giue Euidence against Witches, should proceede, and
giue attendance: For hee now intended to proceede to the Arraignement
and Tryall of Witches.

After which, the Court being set, M. Sherieffe was commaunded to
present his Prisoners before his Lordship, and prepare a sufficient
Iurie of Gentlemen for life and death. But heere we want old
_Demdike_, who dyed in the Castle before she came to her
tryall.[C4_b_]

Heere you may not expect the exact order of the Assises, with the
Proclamations, and other solemnities belonging to so great a Court of
Iustice; but the proceedinges against the Witches, who are now vpon
their deliuerance here in order as they came to the Barre, with the
particular poyntes of Euidence against them: which is the labour and
worke we now intend (by Gods grace) to performe as we may, to your
generall contentment.

Wherevpon, the first of all these, _Anne Whittle_, alias
_Chattox_,[D_b_] was brought to the Barre: against whom wee are now
ready to proceed.


[Illustration: decoration]

The Arraignement and
Tryall of Anne Whittle, _alias_ Chattox,
of the Forrest of _Pendle_, in the Countie
of _Lancaster_, Widdow;
about the age of Fourescore
yeares, or thereaboutes.

_Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox._

If in this damnable course of life, and offences, more horrible and
odious, then any man is able to expresse: any man lyuing could lament
the estate of any such like vpon earth: The example of this poore
creature, would haue moued pittie, in respect of her great contrition
and repentance, after she was committed to the Castle at _Lancaster_,
vntill the comming of his Maiesties Iudges of Assise. But such was the
nature of her offences, & the multitude of her crying sinnes, as it
tooke away all sense of humanity. And the repetition of her hellish
practises, and Reuenge; being the chiefest thinges wherein she alwayes
tooke great delight, togeather with a particular declaration of the
Murders shee had committed, layde open to the world, and giuen in
Euidence against her at the time of her Arraignement and Tryall; as
certainely it did beget contempt in the Audience, and such as she
neuer offended.

This _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, was a very old withered spent
and decreped creature, her sight almost gone: A dangerous Witch, of
very long continuance; alwayes opposite to old _Demdike_: For whom the
one fauoured, the other hated deadly: [Sidenote: _Her owne
examination_] and how they enuie and accuse one an other, in their
Examinations, may appeare.

In her Witchcraft, alwayes more ready to doe mischiefe to mens goods,
then themselues. Her lippes euer chattering and walking:[D2_a_1] but
no man knew what. She liued in the Forrest of _Pendle_, amongst this
wicked company of dangerous Witches. Yet in her Examination and
Confession, she dealt alwayes very plainely and truely: for vpon a
speciall occasion being oftentimes examined in open Court, shee was
neuer found to vary, but alwayes to agree in one, and the selfe same
thing.

I place her in order, next to that wicked fire-brand of mischiefe, old
_Demdike_, because from these two, sprung all the rest in
order:[D2_a_2] and were the Children and Friendes, of these two
notorious Witches.

Many thinges in the discouery of them, shall be very worthy your
obseruation. As the times and occasions to execute their mischiefe.
And this in generall: the Spirit could neuer hurt, till they gaue
consent.

And, but that it is my charge, to set foorth a particular Declaration
of the Euidence against them, vpon their Arraignement and Tryall; with
their Diuelish practises, consultations, meetings, and murders
committed by them, in such sort, as they were giuen in Euidence
against them; for the which, I shall haue matter vpon Record. I could
make a large Comentarie of them: But it is my humble duety, to obserue
the Charge and Commaundement of these my Honorable good Lordes the
Iudges of Assise, and not to exceed the limits of my Commission.
Wherefore I shall now bring this auncient Witch, to the due course of
her Tryall, in order. _viz._


Indictment.

This _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, of the Forrest of _Pendle_ in
the Countie of _Lancaster_ Widdow, being Indicted, for that shee
feloniously had practised, vsed, and exercised diuers wicked and
diuelish Artes called Witchcraftes, Inchauntmentes, Charmes, and
Sorceries, in and vpon one _Robert Nutter_ of _Greenehead_, in the
Forrest of _Pendle_, in the Countie of _Lanc_: and by force of the
same Witchcraft, feloniously the sayd _Robert Nutter_ had killed,
_Contra Pacem, &c._ Being at the Barre, was arraigned.

To this Indictment, vpon her Arraignement, shee pleaded, Not guiltie:
and for the tryall of her life, put her selfe vpon God and her
Country.

Wherevpon my Lord _Bromley_ commaunded M. Sheriffe of the County of
_Lancaster_ in open Court, to returne a Iurie of worthy sufficient
Gentlemen of vnderstanding, to passe betweene our soueraigne Lord the
Kinges Maiestie, and her, and others the Prisoners, vpon their liues
and deathes; as hereafter follow in order: who were afterwardes
sworne, according to the forme and order of the Court, the Prisoners
being admitted to their lawfull challenges.

Which being done, and the Prisoner at the Barre readie to receiue her
Tryall: M. _Nowell_, being the best instructed of any man, of all the
particular poyntes of Euidence against her, and her fellowes, hauing
taken great paynes in the proceedinges against her and her fellowes;
Humbly prayed, her owne voluntary Confession and Examination taken
before him, when she was apprehended and committed to the Castle of
_Lancaster_ for Witchcraft; might openly be published against her:
which hereafter followeth. _Viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

The voluntary Confession and Examination of
_Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, taken at the _Fence_ in the
Forrest of _Pendle_, in the Countie of _Lancaster_;
Before _Roger Nowell Esq_, one of the
Kinges Maiesties Iustices of Peace
in the Countie of Lancaster.
Viz.

The sayd _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, vpon her Examination,
voluntarily confesseth, and sayth, That about foureteene or fifteene
yeares agoe, a thing like a Christian man for foure yeares togeather,
did sundry times come to this Examinate, and requested this Examinate
to giue him her Soule: And in the end, this Examinate was contented to
giue him her sayd Soule, shee being then in her owne house, in the
Forrest of _Pendle_; wherevpon the Deuill then in the shape of a Man,
sayd to this Examinate: Thou shalt want nothing; and be reuenged of
whom thou list. And the Deuill then further commaunded this
Examinate, to call him by the name of _Fancie_;[D3_a_] and when she
wanted any thing, or would be reuenged of any, call on _Fancie_, and
he would be ready. And the sayd Spirit or Deuill, did appeare vnto her
not long after, in mans likenesse, and would haue had this Examinate
to haue consented, that he might hurt the wife of _Richard Baldwin_ of
_Pendle_;[D3_b_1] But this Examinate would not then consent vnto him:
For which cause, the sayd Deuill would then haue bitten her by the
arme; and so vanished away, for that time.

And this Examinate further sayth, that _Robert Nutter_[D3_b_2] did
desire her Daughter one _Redfearns_ wife, to haue his pleasure of her,
being then in _Redfearns_ house: but the sayd _Redfearns_ wife denyed
the sayd _Robert_; wherevpon the sayd _Robert_ seeming to be greatly
displeased therewith, in a great anger tooke his Horse, and went away,
saying in a great rage, that if euer the Ground came to him, shee
should neuer dwell vpon his Land. Wherevpon this Examinate called
_Fancie_ to her; who came to her in the likenesse of a Man in a
parcell of Ground called, _The Laund_; asking this Examinate, what
shee would haue him to doe? And this Examinate bade him goe reuenge
her of the sayd _Robert Nutter_. After which time, the sayd _Robert
Nutter_ liued about a quarter of a yeare, and then dyed.

And this Examinate further sayth, that _Elizabeth Nutter_, wife to old
_Robert Nutter_, did request this Examinate, and _Loomeshaws_ wife of
_Burley_, and one _Iane Boothman_, of the same, who are now both dead,
(which time of request, was before that _Robert Nutter_ desired the
company of _Redfearns_ wife) to get young _Robert Nutter_ his death,
if they could; all being togeather then at that time, to that end,
that if _Robert_ were dead, then the Women their Coosens might haue
the Land: By whose perswasion, they all consented vnto it. After which
time, this Examinates Sonne in law _Thomas Redfearne_, did perswade
this Examinate, not to kill or hurt the sayd _Robert Nutter_; for
which perswasion, the sayd _Loomeshaws_ Wife, had like to haue killed
the sayd _Redfearne_, but that one M. _Baldwyn_ (the late
Schoole-maister at _Coulne_) did by his learning, stay the sayd
_Loomeshaws_ wife, and therefore had a Capon from _Redfearne_.[D4_a_]

And this Examinate further sayth, that she thinketh the sayd
_Loomeshaws_ wife, and _Iane Boothman_, did what they could to kill
the sayd _Robert Nutter_, as well as this Examinate did.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ ELIZABETH
SOTHERNES, alias OLD DEMBDIKE: _taken at
the Fence in the Forrest of Pendle in the Countie of Lancaster,
the day and yeare aforesaid._

Before,

ROGER NOWEL _Esquire, one of the Kings Maiesties
Iustices of Peace in the said Countie, against_ ANNE
WHITTLE, alias CHATTOX.

The said _Elizabeth Southernes_ saith vpon her Examination, that
about halfe a yeare before _Robert Nutter_ died, as this Examinate
thinketh, this Examinate went to the house of _Thomas Redfearne_,
which was about Mid-sommer, as this Examinate remembreth it. And there
within three yards of the East end of the said house, shee saw the
said _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, and _Anne Redferne_ wife of the
said _Thomas Redferne_, and Daughter of the said _Anne Whittle_, alias
_Chattox_: the one on the one side of the Ditch, and the other on the
other: and two Pictures of Clay or Marle lying by them: and the third
Picture the said _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, was making: and the
said _Anne Redferne_ her said Daughter, wrought her Clay or Marle to
make the third picture withall. And this Examinate passing by them,
the said Spirit, called _Tibb_, in the shape of a black Cat, appeared
vnto her this Examinate, and said, turne back againe, and doe as they
doe: To whom this Examinate said, what are they doing? whereunto the
said Spirit said; they are making three Pictures: whereupon she asked
whose pictures they were? whereunto the said Spirit said; they are
the pictures of _Christopher Nutter_, _Robert Nutter_, and _Marie_,
wife of the said _Robert Nutter_: But this Examinate denying to goe
back to helpe them to make the Pictures aforesaid; the said Spirit
seeming to be angrie, therefore shoue or pushed this Examinate into
the ditch, and so shed the Milke which this Examinate had in a Can or
Kit: and so thereupon the Spirit at that time vanished out of this
Examinates sight: But presently after that, the said Spirit appeared
to this Examinate againe in the shape of a Hare, and so went with her
about a quarter of a mile, but said nothing to this Examinate, nor
shee to it.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and euidence of_ IAMES
ROBINSON,[E_b_1] _taken the day and yeare aforesaid._

Before

ROGER NOWEL _Esquire aforesaid, against_ ANNE
WHITTLE, alias CHATTOX, _Prisoner at the Barre
as followeth._ viz.

The said Examinate saith, that about sixe yeares agoe, _Anne
Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, was hired by this Examinates wife to card
wooll;[E_b_2] and so vpon a Friday and Saturday, shee came and carded
wooll with this Examinates wife, and so the Munday then next after
shee came likewise to card: and this Examinates wife hauing newly
tunned drinke into Stands, which stood by the said _Anne Whittle_,
alias _Chattox_: and the said _Ann Whittle_ taking a Dish or Cup, and
drawing drinke seuerall times: and so neuer after that time, for some
eight or nine weekes, they could haue any drinke, but spoiled, and as
this Examinate thinketh was by the meanes of the said _Chattox_. And
further he saith, that the said _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, and
_Anne Redferne_ her said Daughter, are commonly reputed and reported
to bee Witches. And hee also saith, that about some eighteene yeares
agoe, he dwelled with one _Robert Nutter_ the elder, of Pendle
aforesaid. And that yong _Robert Nutter_, who dwelled with his
Grand-father, in the Sommer time, he fell sicke, and in his said
sicknesse hee did seuerall times complaine, that hee had harme by
them: and this Examinate asking him what hee meant by that word
_Them_, He said, that he verily thought that the said _Anne Whittle_,
alias _Chattox_, and the said _Redfernes_ wife, had bewitched him: and
the said _Robert Nutter_ shortly after, being to goe with his then
Master, called Sir _Richard Shattleworth_,[E2_a_] into Wales, this
Examinate heard him say before his then going, vnto the said _Thomas
Redferne_, that if euer he came againe he would get his Father to put
the said _Redferne_ out of his house, or he himselfe would pull it
downe; to whom the said _Redferne_ replyed, saying; when you come back
againe you will be in a better minde: but he neuer came back againe,
but died before Candlemas in Cheshire, as he was comming homeward.

Since the voluntarie confession and examination of a Witch, doth
exceede all other euidence, I spare to trouble you with a multitude of
Examinations, or Depositions of any other witnesses, by reason this
bloudie fact, for the Murder of _Robert Nutter_, vpon so small an
occasion, as to threaten to take away his owne land from such as were
not worthie to inhabite or dwell vpon it, is now made by that which
you haue alreadie heard, so apparant, as no indifferent man will
question it, or rest vnsatisfied: I shall now proceede to set forth
vnto you the rest of her actions, remaining vpon Record. And how
dangerous it was for any man to liue neere these people, to giue them
any occasion of offence, I leaue it to your good consideration.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and voluntarie Confession
of_ ANNE WHITTLE, alias CHATTOX, _taken
at the Fence in the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie
of Lancaster, the second day of Aprill_, Anno Regni
Regis IACOBI ANGLIAE, Franciae, & Hiberniae, decimo
& Scotiae xlv.

Before

ROGER NOWEL, _Esquire, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Peace within the Countie of Lancaster._

She the said Examinate saith, That shee was sent for by the wife of
_Iohn Moore_, to helpe drinke that was forspoken or bewitched: at
which time shee vsed this Prayer for the amending of it, _viz._

    _A Charme._[E2_b_]

    _Three Biters hast thou bitten,
      The Hart, ill Eye, ill Tonge:
    Three bitter shall be thy Boote,
      Father, Sonne, and Holy Ghost
        a Gods name,
    Fiue Pater-nosters, fiue Auies,
      and a Creede,
    In worship of fiue wounds
      of our Lord._

After which time that this Examinate had vsed these prayers, and
amended her drinke, the said _Moores_ wife did chide this Examinate,
and was grieued at her.

And thereupon this Examinate called for her Deuill _Fancie_, and bad
him goe bite a browne Cow of the said _Moores_ by the head, and make
the Cow goe madde: and the Deuill then, in the likenesse of a browne
Dogge, went to the said Cow, and bit her: which Cow went madde
accordingly, and died within six weekes next after, or thereabouts.

Also this Examinate saith, That she perceiuing _Anthonie Nutter_ of
Pendle to fauour _Elizabeth Sothernes_, alias _Dembdike_,[E3_a_1] she,
this Examinate, called _Fancie_ to her, (who appeared like a man) and
bad him goe kill a Cow of the said _Anthonies_; which the said Deuill
did, and that Cow died also.

And further this Examinate saith, That the Deuill, or _Fancie_, hath
taken most of her sight away from her. And further this Examinate
saith, That in Summer last, saue one, the said Deuill, or _Fancie_,
came vpon this Examinate in the night time: and at diuerse and sundry
times in the likenesse of a Beare, gaping as though he would haue
wearied this Examinate.[E3_a_2] And the last time of all shee, this
Examinate, saw him, was vpon Thursday last yeare but one, next before
Midsummer day, in the euening, like a Beare, and this Examinate would
not then speake vnto him, for the which the said Deuill pulled this
Examinate downe.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE,[E3_b_]
_sonne of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE, _taken the seuen and
twentieth day of Aprill_, Annoq; Reg. Regis IACOBI
Angliae, &c. Decimo ac Scotiae xlv.

Before

ROGER NOWEL and NICHOLAS BANISTER,
_Esquires, two of his Maiesties Iustices of the Peace within
the said Countie._ viz.

And further saith, That twelue yeares agoe, the said _Anne Chattox_
at a Buriall at the new Church in Pendle, did take three scalpes of
people, which had been buried, and then cast out of a graue, as she
the said _Chattox_ told this Examinate; and tooke eight teeth out of
the said Scalpes, whereof she kept foure to her selfe, and gaue other
foure to the said _Demdike_, this Examinates Grand-mother: which foure
teeth now shewed to this Examinate, are the foure teeth that the said
_Chattox_ gaue to his said Grand-mother, as aforesaid; which said
teeth haue euer since beene kept, vntill now found by the said _Henry
Hargreiues_ & this Examinate, at the West-end of this Examinates
Grand-mothers house, and there buried in the earth, and a Picture of
Clay there likewise found by them, about halfe a yard ouer in the
earth, where the said teeth lay, which said picture so found was
almost withered away, and was the Picture of _Anne_, _Anthony Nutters_
daughter; as this Examinates Grand-mother told him.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ ALLIZON DEVICE
_daughter of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE: _Taken at
Reade, in the Countie of Lancaster, the thirtieth day of
March_, Annoq; Reg. Regis IACOBI nunc Angliae,
&c. Decimo, & Scotiae Quadragesimo quinto.

Before

ROGER NOWEL _of Reade aforesaid, Esquire, one
of his Maiesties Iustices of the Peace, within the said
Countie._

This Examinate saith, that about eleuen yeares agoe, this Examinate
and her mother had their firehouse broken,[E4_a_] and all, or the most
part of their linnen clothes, & halfe a peck of cut oat-meale, and a
quantitie of meale gone, all which was worth twentie shillings, or
aboue: and vpon a Sunday then next after, this Examinate did take a
band and a coife, parcell of the goods aforesaid, vpon the daughter of
_Anne Whittle, alias Chattox_, and claimed them to be parcell of the
goods stolne, as aforesaid.

And this Examinate further saith, That her father, called _Iohn
Deuice_, being afraid, that the said _Anne Chattox_ should doe him or
his goods any hurt by Witchcraft; did couenant with the said _Anne_,
that if she would hurt neither of them, she should yearely haue one
Aghen-dole of meale;[E4_b_1] which meale was yearely paid, vntill the
yeare which her father died in, which was about eleuen yeares since:
Her father vpon his then-death-bed, taking it that the said _Anne
Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, did bewitch him to death, because the said
meale was not paid the last yeare.

And she also saith, That about two yeares agone, this Examinate being
in the house of _Anthony Nutter_ of Pendle aforesaid, and being then
in company with _Anne Nutter_, daughter of the said _Anthony_: the
said _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, came into the said _Anthony
Nutters_ house, and seeing this Examinate, and the said _Anne Nutter_
laughing, and saying, that they laughed at her the said _Chattox_:
well said then (sayes _Anne Chattox_) I will be meet with the one of
you. And vpon the next day after, she the said _Anne Nutter_ fell
sicke, and within three weekes after died. And further, this Examinate
saith, That about two yeares agoe, she, this Examinate, hath heard,
That the said _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, was suspected for
bewitching the drinke of _Iohn Moore_ of Higham Gentleman:[E4_b_2] and
not long after, shee this Examinate heard the said _Chattox_ say, that
she would meet with the said _Iohn Moore_, or his.[E4_b_3] Whereupon a
child of the said _Iohn Moores_, called _Iohn_, fell sick, and
languished about halfe a yeare, and then died: during which
languishing, this Examinate saw the said _Chattox_ sitting in her owne
garden, and a picture of Clay like vnto a child in her Apron; which
this Examinate espying, the said _Anne Chattox_ would haue hidde with
her Apron: and this Examinate declaring the same to her mother, her
mother thought it was the picture of the said _Iohn Moores_ childe.

And she this Examinate further saith, That about sixe or seuen yeares
agoe, the said _Chattox_ did fall out with one _Hugh Moore_ of Pendle,
as aforesaid, about certaine cattell of the said _Moores_, which the
said _Moore_ did charge the said _Chattox_ to haue bewitched: for
which the said _Chattox_ did curse and worry the said _Moore_, and
said she would be Reuenged of the said _Moore_: whereupon the said
_Moore_ presently fell sicke, and languished about halfe a yeare, and
then died. Which _Moore_ vpon his death-bed said, that the said
_Chattox_ had bewitched him to death. And she further saith, That
about sixe yeares agoe, a daughter of the said _Anne Chattox_, called
_Elizabeth_, hauing been at the house of _Iohn Nutter_ of the
Bull-hole, to begge or get a dish full of milke, which she had, and
brought to her mother, who was about a fields breadth of the said
_Nutters_ house, which her said mother _Anne Chattox_ tooke and put
into a Kan, and did charne[F_a_1] the same with two stickes acrosse in
the same field: whereupon the said _Iohn Nutters_ sonne came vnto her,
the said _Chattox_, and misliking her doings, put the said Kan and
milke ouer with his foot; and the morning next after, a Cow of the
said _Iohn Nutters_ fell sicke, and so languished three or foure
dayes, and then died.

In the end being openly charged with all this in open Court; with
weeping teares she humbly acknowledged them to be true,[F_a_2] and
cried out vnto God for Mercy and forgiuenesse of her sinnes, and
humbly prayed my Lord to be mercifull vnto _Anne Redfearne_ her
daughter, of whose life and condition you shall heare more vpon her
Arraignement and Triall: whereupon shee being taken away, _Elizabeth
Deuice_ comes now to receiue her Triall being the next in order, of
whom you shall heare at large.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE
(_Daughter of_ ELIZABETH SOTHERNES,
alias OLD DEMBDIKE) _late wife of_ IO. DEVICE,
_of the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster, widow,
for Witchcraft; Vpon Tuesday the eighteenth of August,
at the Assises and generall Gaole-Deliuerie holden at
Lancaster_

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assise at Lancaster._

_Elizabeth Deuice._

O Barbarous and inhumane Monster, beyond example; so farre from
sensible vnderstanding of thy owne miserie, as to bring thy owne
naturall children into mischiefe and bondage; and thy selfe to be a
witnesse vpon the Gallowes, to see thy owne children, by thy deuillish
instructions hatcht vp in Villanie and Witchcraft, to suffer with
thee, euen in the beginning of their time, a shamefull and vntimely
Death. Too much (so it be true) cannot be said or written of her. Such
was her life and condition: that euen at the Barre, when shee came to
receiue her Triall (where the least sparke of Grace or modestie would
haue procured fauour, or moued pitie) she was not able to containe her
selfe within the limits of any order or gouernment: but exclaiming, in
very outragious manner crying out against her owne children, and such
as came to prosecute Indictments & Euidence for the Kings Maiestie
against her, for the death of their Children, Friends, and Kinsfolkes,
whome cruelly and bloudily, by her Enchauntments, Charmes, and
Sorceries she had murthered and cut off; sparing no man with fearefull
execrable curses and banning:[F2_b_] Such in generall was the common
opinion of the Countrey where she dwelt, in the Forrest of Pendle (a
place fit for people of such condition) that no man neere her, neither
his wife, children, goods, or cattell should be secure or free from
danger.

This _Elizabeth Deuice_ was the daughter of _Elizabeth Sothernes_, old
_Dembdike_, a malicious, wicked, and dangerous Witch for fiftie
yeares, as appeareth by Record: and how much longer, the Deuill and
shee knew best with whome shee made her couenant.

It is very certaine, that amongst all these Witches there was not a
more dangerous and deuillish Witch to execute mischiefe, hauing old
_Dembdike_, her mother, to assist her; _Iames Deuice_ and _Alizon
Deuice_, her owne naturall children, all prouided with Spirits, vpon
any occasion of offence readie to assist her.

Vpon her Examination, although Master _Nowel_ was very circumspect,
and exceeding carefull in dealing with her, yet she would confesse
nothing, vntill it pleased God to raise vp a yong maid, _Iennet
Deuice_, her owne daughter, about the age of nine yeares (a witnesse
vnexpected) to discouer all their Practises, Meetings, Consultations,
Murthers, Charmes, and Villanies: such, and in such sort, as I may
iustly say of them, as a reuerend and learned Iudge of this Kingdome
speaketh of the greatest Treason that euer was in this Kingdome, _Quis
haec posteris sic narrare poterit, vt facta non ficta esse videantur?_
That when these things shall be related to Posteritie, they will be
reputed matters fained, not done.

And then knowing, that both _Iennet Deuice_, her daughter, _Iames
Deuice_, her sonne, and _Alizon Deuice_, with others, had accused her
and layed open all things, in their Examinations taken before Master
_Nowel_, and although she were their owne naturall mother, yet they
did not spare to accuse her of euery particular fact, which in her
time she had committed, to their knowledge; she made a very liberall
and voluntarie Confession, as hereafter shall be giuen in euidence
against her, vpon her Arraignment and Triall.

This _Elizabeth Deuice_ being at libertie, after Old _Dembdike_ her
mother, _Alizon Deuice_, her daughter, and old _Chattocks_ were
committed to the Castle of Lancaster for Witchcraft; laboured not a
little to procure a solemne meeting at Malkyn-Tower of the Graund
Witches of the Counties of Lancaster and Yorke, being yet vnsuspected
and vntaken, to consult of some speedie course for the deliuerance of
their friends, the Witches at Lancaster, and for the putting in
execution of some other deuillish practises of Murther and Mischiefe:
as vpon the Arraignement and Triall of _Iames Deuice_, her sonne,
shall hereafter in euery particular point appeare at large against
her.


The first Indictment.

This _Elizabeth Deuice_, late the wife of _Iohn Deuice_, of the
Forrest of Pendle in the Countie of Lancaster Widdow, being indicted,
for that shee felloniously had practized, vsed, and exercised diuers
wicked and deuillish Arts, called _Witch-crafts_, _Inchantments_,
_Charmes_, and _Sorceries_, in, and vpon one _Iohn Robinson_, alias
_Swyer_: and by force of the same felloniously, the said _Iohn
Robinson_, alias _Swyer_, had killed. _Contra pacem, &c._ being at the
Barre was arraigned.


2. Indictment.

The said _Elizabeth Deuice_ was the second time indicted in the same
manner and forme, for the death of _Iames Robinson_, by Witch-craft.
_Contra pacem, &c._


3. Indictment.

The said _Elizabeth Deuice_, was the third time with others, _viz._
_Alice Nutter_, and _Elizabeth Sothernes_, alias _Old-Dembdike_, her
Grand-mother, Indicted in the same manner and forme, for the death of
_Henrie Mytton_. _Contra pacem, &c._

To these three seuerall Indictments vpon her Arraignement, shee
pleaded not guiltie; and for the tryall of her life, put her selfe
vpon God and her Countrie.

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and death, stand charged
to finde, whether shee bee guiltie of them, or any of them.

Whereupon there was openly read, and giuen in euidence against her,
for the Kings Majestie, her owne voluntarie Confession and
Examination, when shee was apprehended, taken, and committed to the
Castle of Lancaster by M. _Nowel_, and M. _Bannester_, two of his
Maiesties Iustices of Peace in the same Countie. _viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and voluntarie Confession
of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE, _taken at the house of_
IAMES WILSEY _of the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie
of Lancaster, the seuen and twentieth day of Aprill:
Anno Reg._ IACOBI, _Angl. &c. decimo, & Scotiae_ xlv.

Before

ROGER NOWEL, _and_ NICHOLAS BANNESTER,
_Esquires; two of his Maiesties Iustices of the Peace
within the same Countie._ viz.

The said _Elizabeth Deuice_, Mother of the said
_Iames_, being examined, confesseth and saith.

That at the third time her Spirit,[F4_a_] the Spirit _Ball_,
appeared to her in the shape of a browne Dogge, at, or in her Mothers
house in Pendle Forrest aforesaid: about foure yeares agoe the said
Spirit bidde this Examinate make a picture of Clay after the said
_Iohn Robinson_, alias _Swyer_, which this Examinate did make
accordingly at the West end of her said Mothers house, and dryed the
same picture with the fire and crumbled all the same picture away
within a weeke or thereabouts, and about a weeke after the Picture
was crumbled or mulled away; the said _Robinson_ dyed.

The reason wherefore shee this Examinate did so bewitch the said
_Robinson_ to death, was: for that the said _Robinson_ had chidden and
becalled this Examinate, for hauing a Bastard-child with one _Seller_.

And this Examinate further saith and confesseth, that shee did bewitch
the said _Iames Robinson_ to death, as in the said _Iennet Deuice_ her
examination is confessed.

And further shee saith, and confesseth, that shee with the wife of
_Richard Nutter_, and this Examinates said Mother, ioyned altogether,
and did bewitch the said _Henrie Mytton_ to death.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_ IENNET
DEVICE, _Daughter of the said_ ELIZABETH
DEVICE, _late Wife of_ IOHN DEVICE, _of the
Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster._

Against

ELIZABETH DEVICE _her Mother, Prisoner at the
Barre vpon her Arraignement and Triall._ viz.

The said _Iennet Deuice_, being a yong Maide, about the age of nine
yeares,[F4_b_] and commanded to stand vp to giue euidence against her
Mother, Prisoner at the Barre: Her Mother, according to her accustomed
manner, outragiously cursing, cryed out against the child in such
fearefull manner, as all the Court did not a little wonder at her, and
so amazed the child, as with weeping teares shee cryed out vnto my
Lord the Iudge, and told him, shee was not able to speake in the
presence of her Mother.

This odious Witch was branded with a preposterous marke in Nature,
euen from her birth, which was her left eye, standing lower then the
other; the one looking downe, the other looking vp, so strangely
deformed, as the best that were present in that Honorable assembly,
and great Audience, did affirme, they had not often seene the like.

No intreatie, promise of fauour, or other respect, could put her to
silence, thinking by this her outragious cursing and threatning of the
child, to inforce her to denie that which she had formerly confessed
against her Mother, before M. _Nowel_: Forswearing and denying her
owne voluntarie confession, which you haue heard, giuen in euidence
against her at large, and so for want of further euidence to escape
that, which the Iustice of the Law had prouided as a condigne
punishment for the innocent bloud shee had spilt, and her wicked and
deuillish course of life.

In the end, when no meanes would serue, his Lordship commanded the
Prisoner to be taken away, and the Maide to bee set vpon the Table in
the presence of the whole Court, who deliuered her euidence in that
Honorable assembly, to the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and death,
as followeth. _viz._

_Iennet Deuice_, Daughter of _Elizabeth Deuice_, late Wife of _Iohn
Deuice_, of the Forrest of Pendle aforesaid Widdow, confesseth and
saith, that her said Mother is a Witch, and that this shee knoweth to
be true; for, that shee had seene her Spirit sundrie times come vnto
her said Mother in her owne house, called _Malking-Tower_, in the
likenesse of a browne Dogge, which shee called _Ball_; and at one time
amongst others, the said _Ball_ did aske this Examinates Mother what
she would haue him to doe: and this Examinates Mother answered, that
she would haue the said _Ball_ to helpe her to kill _Iohn Robinson_ of
_Barley_, alias _Swyer_: by helpe of which said _Ball_, the said
_Swyer_ was killed by witch-craft accordingly; and that this
Examinates Mother hath continued a Witch for these three or foure
yeares last past. And further, this Examinate confesseth, that about a
yeare after, this Examinates Mother called for the said _Ball_, who
appeared as aforesaid, asking this Examinates Mother what shee would
haue done, who said, that shee would haue him to kill _Iames
Robinson_, alias _Swyer_, of Barlow aforesaid, Brother to the said
_Iohn_: whereunto _Ball_ answered, hee would doe it; and about three
weekes after, the said _Iames_ dyed.

And this Examinate also saith, that one other time shee was present,
when her said Mother did call for the _Ball_, [Sidenote: Her Spirit.]
who appeared in manner as aforesaid, and asked this Examinates Mother
what shee would haue him to doe, whereunto this Examinates Mother then
said shee would haue him to kill one _Mitton_ of the Rough-Lee,
whereupon the said _Ball_ said, he would doe it, and so vanished away,
and about three weekes after, the said _Mitton_ likewise dyed.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE,
_sonne of the said_ ELIZABETH DEVICE: _Taken the
seuen and twentieth day of Aprill_, Annoq; Reg. Regis
IACOBI Angliae, &c. Decimo ac Scociae, xlv.

Before

ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER,
_Esquires, two of his Maiesties Iustices of the Peace, within
the said Countie._ viz.

The said _Iames Deuice_ being examined, saith, That he heard his
Grand-mother say, about a yeare agoe, That his mother called
_Elizabeth Deuice_, and others, had killed one _Henry Mitton_ of the
Rough-Lee aforesaid, by Witchcraft. The reason wherefore he was so
killed, was for that this Examinates said Grand-mother _Old Demdike_,
had asked the said _Mitton_ a penny; and he denying her thereof,
thereupon she procured his death, as aforesaid.

And he, this Examinate also saith, That about three yeares agoe, this
Examinate being in his Grand-mothers house, with his said mother;
there came a thing in shape of a browne dogge, which his mother called
_Ball_, who spake to this Examinates mother, in the sight and hearing
of this Examinate, and bad her make a Picture of Clay like vnto _Iohn
Robinson_, alias _Swyer_, and drie it hard, and then crumble it by
little and little; and as the said Picture should crumble or mull
away, so should the said _Io. Robinson_ alias _Swyer_ his body decay
and weare away. And within two or three dayes after, the Picture shall
so all be wasted, and mulled away; so then the said _Iohn Robinson_
should die presently. Vpon the agreement betwixt the said dogge and
this Examinates mother; the said dogge suddenly vanished out of this
Examinates sight. And the next day, this Examinate saw his said mother
take Clay at the West end of her said house, and make a Picture of it
after the said _Robinson_, and brought into her house, and dried it
some two dayes: and about two dayes after the drying thereof, this
Examinates said mother fell on crumbling the said Picture of Clay,
euery day some, for some three weekes together; and within two dayes
after all was crumbled or mulled away, the said _Iohn Robinson_ died.

Being demanded by the Court, what answere shee could giue to the
particular points of the Euidence against her, for the death of these
seuerall persons; Impudently shee denied them, crying out against her
children, and the rest of the Witnesses against her.

But because I haue charged her to be the principall Agent, to procure
a solemne meeting at _Malking-Tower_ of the Grand-witches, to consult
of some speedy course for the deliuerance of her mother, _Old
Demdike_, her daughter, and other Witches at Lancaster: the speedie
Execution of Master _Couell_, who little suspected or deserued any
such practise or villany against him: The blowing up of the Castle,
with diuers other wicked and diuellish practises and murthers; I shall
make it apparant vnto you, by the particular Examinations and Euidence
of her owne children, such as were present at the time of their
Consultation, together with her owne Examination and Confession,
amongst the Records of the Crowne at Lancaster, as hereafter
followeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The voluntary Confession and Examination
of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE, _taken at the house of_
IAMES WILSEY, _of the Forrest of Pendle, in the
Countie of Lancaster, the seuen and twentieth day of Aprill_,
Annoq: Reg. Regis IACOBI Angliae, &c. Decimo,
& Scotiae Quadragesimo quinto.

Before

ROGER NOWEL and NICHOLAS BANISTER,
_Esquires, two of his Maiesties Iustices of the Peace within
the same Countie._ viz.

The said _Elizabeth Deuice_ being further Examined, confesseth that
vpon Good-Friday last, there dined at this Examinates house, called
_Malking-Tower_, those which she hath said are Witches, and doth
verily think them to be Witches: and their names are those whom _Iames
Deuice_ hath formerly spoken of to be there. And she further saith,
that there was also at her said mothers house, at the day and time
aforesaid, two women of Burneley Parish, whose names the wife of
_Richard Nutter_ doth know. And there was likewise there one _Anne
Crouckshey_[G3_a_] of Marsden: And shee also confesseth, in all things
touching the Christening of the Spirit, and the killing of Master
_Lister_ of Westbie, as the said _Iames Deuice_ hath before confessed;
but denieth of any talke was amongst them the said Witches, to her now
remembrance, at the said meeting together, touching the killing of the
Gaoler, or the blowing vp of Lancaster Castle.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_ IENNET
DEVICE, _Daughter of the said_ ELIZABETH
DEVICE, _late Wife of_ IOHN DEVICE, _of the
Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster._

Against

ELIZABETH DEVICE, _her Mother, Prisoner at the
Barre, vpon her Arraignement and Triall_, viz.

The said _Iennet Deuice_ saith, That vpon Good Friday last there
was about twentie persons[G3_b_1] (whereof onely two were men, to this
Examinates remembrance) at her said Grandmothers house, called
Malking-Tower aforesaid, about twelue of the clocke: all which persons
this Examinates said mother told her, were Witches, and that they came
to giue a name to _Alizon Deuice_ Spirit, or Familiar, sister to this
Examinate, and now prisoner at Lancaster. And also this Examinate
saith, That the persons aforesaid had to their dinners Beefe, Bacon,
and roasted Mutton; which Mutton (as this Examinates said brother
said) was of a Wether of _Christopher Swyers_ of Barley: which Wether
was brought in the night before into this Examinates mothers house by
the said _Iames Deuice_, this Examinates said brother: and in this
Examinates sight killed and eaten, as aforesaid. And shee further
saith, That shee knoweth the names of sixe of the said Witches, _viz._
the wife of _Hugh Hargraues_ vnder Pendle, _Christopher Howgate_ of
Pendle, vnckle to this Examinate, and _Elizabeth_ his wife, and _Dicke
Miles_ his wife of the Rough-Lee; _Christopher Iackes_ of
Thorny-holme, and his wife:[G3_b_2] and the names of the residue shee
this Examinate doth not know, sauing that this Examinates mother and
brother were both there. And lastly, she this Examinate confesseth and
saith, That her mother hath taught her two prayers: the one to cure
the bewitched, and the other to get drinke; both which particularly
appeare.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_ IAMES
DEVICE, _sonne of the said_ ELIZABETH DEVICE,
_late wife of_ IOHN DEVICE, _of the Forrest of
Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster._

Against

ELIZABETH DEVICE, _his Mother, prisoner at the
Barre, vpon her Arraignement and Triall_, viz.

The said _Iames Deuice_ saith, That on Good-Friday last, about
twelue of the clocke in the day time, there dined in this Examinates
said mothers house, at Malking-Tower, a number of persons, whereof
three were men, with this Examinate, and the rest women; and that they
met there for three causes following (as this Examinates said mother
told this Examinate) The first was, for the naming of the Spirit,
which _Alizon Deuice_, now prisoner at Lancaster, had: But did not
name him, because shee was not there.[G4_a_] The second was, for the
deliuerie of his said Grandmother, olde _Dembdike_; this Examinates
said sister _Allizon_; the said _Anne Chattox_, and her daughter
_Redferne_; killing the Gaoler at Lancaster; and before the next
Assises to blow vp the Castle there: and to that end the aforesaid
prisoners might by that time make an escape, and get away. All which
this Examinate then heard them conferre of.

And he also sayth, That the names of the said Witches as were on
Good-Friday at this Examinates said Grandmothers house, and now this
Examinates owne mothers, for so many of them as hee did know, were
these, _viz._ The wife of _Hugh Hargreiues_ of Burley; the wife of
_Christopher Bulcock_, of the Mosse end, and _Iohn_ her sonne; the
mother of _Myles Nutter_; _Elizabeth_, the wife of _Christopher
Hargreiues_, of Thurniholme; _Christopher Howgate_, and _Elizabeth_,
his wife; _Alice Graye_ of Coulne, and one _Mould-heeles_ wife, of the
same: and this Examinate, and his Mother. And this Examinate further
sayth, That all the Witches went out of the said House in their owne
shapes and likenesses. And they all, by that they were forth of the
dores, gotten on Horsebacke, like vnto Foales, some of one colour,
some of another; and _Prestons_ wife was the last: and when shee got
on Horsebacke, they all presently vanished out of this Examinates
sight. And before their said parting away, they all appointed to meete
at the said _Prestons_ wiues [Sidenote: _Executed at Yorke the last
Assises._] house that day twelue-moneths; at which time the said
_Prestons_ wife promised to make them a great Feast. And if they had
occasion to meete in the meane time, then should warning be giuen,
that they all should meete vpon _Romleyes_ Moore.[G4_b_]

And there they parted, with resolution to execute their deuillish and
bloudie practises, for the deliuerance of their friends, vntill they
came to meete here, where their power and strength was gone. And now
finding her Meanes was gone, shee cried out for Mercie. Whereupon shee
being taken away, the next in order was her sonne _Iames Deuice_, whom
shee and her Mother, old _Dembdike_, brought to act his part in this
wofull Tragedie.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ IAMES DEVICE,
_Sonne of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE, _of the Forrest of
Pendle, within the Countie of Lancaster aforesaid, Laborer,
for Witchcraft; Vpon Tuesday the eighteenth of August,
at the Assises and generall Gaole-Deliuerie holden at
Lancaster_

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assise at Lancaster._

_James Deuice._

This wicked and miserable Wretch, whether by practise, or meanes,
to bring himselfe to some vntimely death, and thereby to auoide his
Tryall by his Countrey, and iust iudgement of the Law; or ashamed to
bee openly charged with so many deuillish practises, and so much
innocent bloud as hee had spilt; or by reason of his Imprisonment so
long time before his Tryall (which was with more fauour,
commiseration, and reliefe then hee deserued) I know not: But being
brought forth to the Barre, to receiue his Triall before this worthie
Iudge, and so Honourable and Worshipfull an Assembly of Iustices for
this seruice, was so insensible, weake, and vnable in all thinges, as
he could neither speake, heare, or stand, but was holden vp[H2_a_1]
when hee was brought to the place of his Arraignement, to receiue his
triall.

This _Iames Deuice_ of the Forrest of Pendle, being brought to the
Barre, was there according to the forme, order, and course, Indicted
and Arraigned; for that hee Felloniously had practised, vsed, and
exercised diuers wicked and deuillish Arts, called _Witch-crafts_,
_Inchauntments_, _Charmes_, and _Sorceries_, in, and vpon one _Anne
Towneley_, wife of _Henrie Towneley_ of the Carre,[H2_a_2] in the
Countie of Lancaster Gentleman, and her by force of the same,
felloniously had killed. _Contra pacem, &c._

The said _Iames Deuice_ was the second time Indicted and Arraigned in
the same manner and forme, for the death of _Iohn Duckworth_, by
witch-craft. _Contra pacem, &c._

To these two seuerall Indictments vpon his Arraignment, he pleaded not
guiltie, and for the triall of his life put himselfe vpon God and his
Countrie.

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and death stand charged
to finde, whether he be guiltie of these, or either of them.

Whereupon Master _Nowel_ humbly prayed Master _Towneley_ might be
called,[H2_a_3] who attended to prosecute and giue euidence against
him for the King's Majestie, and that the particular Examinations
taken before him and others, might be openly published & read in
Court,[H2_a_4] in the hearing of the Prisoner.

But because it were infinite to bring him to his particular Triall for
euery offence, which hee hath committed in his time, and euery
practice wherein he hath had his hand: I shall proceede in order with
the Euidence remayning vpon Record against him, amongst the Records of
the Crowne; both how, and in what sort hee came to be a witch: and
shew you what apparant proofe there is to charge him with the death of
these two seuerall persons, for the which hee now standeth vpon his
triall for al the rest of his deuillish practises, incantantions,
murders, charmes, sorceries, meetings to consult with Witches, to
execute mischiefe (take them as they are against him vpon Record:)
Enough, I doubt not. For these with the course of his life will serue
his turne to deliuer you from the danger of him that neuer tooke
felicitie in any things, but in reuenge, bloud, & mischiefe with
crying out vnto God for vengeance; which hath now at the length
brought him to the place where hee standes to receiue his Triall with
more honor, fauour, and respect, then such a Monster in Nature doth
deserue; And I doubt not, but in due time by the Iustice of the Law,
to an vntimely and shamefull death.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE,
_sonne of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE, _of the Forrest of
Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster, Labourer. Taken the
seuen and twentieth day of Aprill, Annoq; Reg. Regis_
IACOBI, _Angliae, &c._ x^o. _& Scotiae Quadragesimo quinto._

Before

ROGER NOWEL, _and_ NICHOLAS BANNESTER,
_Esquires: two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace
within the said Countie._

He saith, that vpon Sheare Thursday[H3_a_] was two yeares, his
Grand-Mother _Elizabeth Sothernes_, alias _Dembdike_, did bid him this
Examinate goe to the Church to receiue the Communion (the next day
after being Good Friday) and then not to eate the Bread the Minister
gaue him, but to bring it and deliuer it to such a thing as should
meet him in his way homewards: Notwithstanding her perswasions, this
Examinate did eate the Bread: and so in his comming homeward some
fortie roodes off the said Church, there met him a thing in the shape
of a Hare, who spoke vnto this Examinate, and asked him whether hee
had brought the Bread that his Grand-mother had bidden him, or no?
whereupon this Examinate answered, hee had not: and thereupon the said
thing threatned to pull this Examinate in peeces, and so this
Examinate thereupon marked himselfe to God, and so the said thing
vanished out of this Examinates sight. And within some foure daies
after that, there appeared in this Examinates sight, hard by the new
Church in Pendle, a thing like vnto a browne _Dogge_, who asked this
Examinate to giue him his Soule, and he should be reuenged of any whom
hee would: whereunto this Examinate answered, that his Soule was not
his to giue, but was his _Sauiour Iesus Christs_, but as much as was
in him this Examinate to giue, he was contented he should haue it.

And within two or three daies after, this Examinate went to the
Carre-Hall, and vpon some speeches betwixt Mistris _Towneley_ and this
Examinate; Shee charging this Examinate and his said mother, to haue
stolne some Turues of hers, badde him packe the doores: and withall as
he went forth of the doore, the said Mistris _Towneley_ gaue him a
knock betweene the shoulders: and about a day or two after that, there
appeared vnto this Examinate in his way, a thing like vnto a black
dog, who put this Examinate in minde of the said Mistris _Towneleyes_
falling out with him this Examinate; who bad this Examinate make a
Picture of Clay, like vnto the said Mistris _Towneley_: and that this
Examinate with the helpe of his Spirit (who then euer after bidde this
Examinate to call it _Dandy_) would kill or destroy the said Mistris
_Towneley_: and so the said dogge vanished out of this Examinates
sight. And the next morning after, this Examinate tooke Clay, and made
a Picture of the said Mistris _Towneley_, and dried it the same night
by the fire: and within a day after, hee, this Examinate began to
crumble the said Picture, euery day some, for the space of a weeke:
and within two daies after all was crumbled away; the said Mistris
_Towneley_ died.

And hee further saith, That in Lent last one _Iohn Duckworth_ of the
Lawnde, promised this Examinate an old shirt: and within a fortnight
after, this Examinate went to the said _Duckworthes_ house, and
demanded the said old shirt: but the said _Duckworth_ denied him
thereof. And going out of the said house, the said Spirit _Dandy_
appeared vnto this Examinate, and said, Thou didst touch the said
_Duckworth_; whereunto this Examinate answered, he did not touch him:
yes (said the Spirit againe) thou didst touch him, and therfore I haue
power of him: whereupon this Examinate ioyned with the said Spirit,
and then wished the said Spirit to kill the said _Duckworth_: and
within one weeke, then next after, _Duckworth_ died.

This voluntary Confession and Examination of his owne, containing in
it selfe matter sufficient in Law to charge him, and to proue his
offences, contained in the two seuerall Indictments, was sufficient to
satisfie the Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and Death, that he is
guiltie of them, and either of them: yet my Lord _Bromley_ commanded,
for their better satisfaction, that the Witnesses present in Court
against any of the Prisoners, should be examined openly, _viua voce_,
that the Prisoner might both heare and answere to euery particular
point of their Euidence; notwithstanding any of their Examinations
taken before any of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace within the said
Countie.

Herein do but obserue the wonderfull work of God; to raise vp a young
Infant, the very sister of the Prisoner, _Iennet Deuice_, to discouer,
iustifie and proue these things against him, at the time of his
Arraignement and Triall, as hereafter followeth. _viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_ IENNET
DEVICE _daughter of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE,
_late wife of_ IOHN DEVICE _of the Forrest of Pendle,
in the Countie of Lancaster._

Against

IAMES DEVICE, _Prisoner at the Barre, vpon his Arraignement
and Triall._ viz.

Being examined in open Court, she saith, That her brother _Iames
Device_, the Prisoner at the Barre, hath beene a Witch for the space
of three yeares: about the beginning of which time, there appeared
vnto him, in this Examinates mothers house, a Black-Dogge, which
[Sidenote: _Dandy._] her said brother called _Dandy_. And further,
this Examinate confesseth, & saith: That her said brother about a
twelue month since, in the presence of this Examinate, and in the
house aforesaid, called for the said _Dandy_, who thereupon appeared:
asking this Examinates brother what he would haue him to doe. This
Examinates brother then said, he would haue him to helpe him to kill
old Mistris _Towneley_ of the Carre: whereunto the said _Dandy_
answered, and said, That her said brother should haue his best helpe
for the doing of the same; and that her said brother, and the said
_Dandy_, did both in this Examinates hearing, say, they would make
away the said Mistris _Towneley_. And about a weeke after, this
Examinate comming to the Carre-Hall, saw the said Mistris _Towneley_
in the Kitchin there, nothing well: whereupon it came into this
Examinates minde, that her said brother, by the help of _Dandy_, had
brought the said Mistris _Towneley_ into the state she then was in.

Which Examinat, although she were but very yong, yet it was wonderfull
to the Court, in so great a Presence and Audience, with what modestie,
gouernement, and vnderstanding, shee deliuered this Euidence against
the Prisoner at the Barre, being her owne naturall brother, which he
himselfe could not deny, but there acknowledged in euery particular to
be iust and true.

But behold a little further, for here this bloudy Monster did not stay
his hands: for besides his wicked and diuellish Spels, practises,
meetings to consult of murder and mischiefe, which (by Gods grace)
hereafter shall follow in order against him; there is yet more bloud
to be laid vnto his charge. For although he were but yong, and in the
beginning of his Time, yet was he carefull to obserue his Instructions
from _Old Demdike_ his Grand-mother, and _Elizabeth Deuice_ his
mother, in so much that no time should passe since his first entrance
into that damnable Arte and exercise of Witchcrafts, Inchantments,
Charmes and Sorceries, without mischiefe or murder. Neither should any
man vpon the least occasion of offence giuen vnto him, escape his
hands, without some danger. For these particulars were no sooner giuen
in Euidence against him, when he was againe Indicted and Arraigned for
the murder of these two. _viz._

_Iames Deuice_ of the Forrest of Pendle aforesaid, in the Countie of
Lancaster, Labourer, the third time Indicted and Arraigned for the
death of _Iohn Hargraues_ of Gould-shey-booth, in the Countie of
Lancaster, by Witchcraft, as aforesaid. _Contra &c._

To this Inditement vpon his Arraignement he pleaded thereunto not
guiltie: and for his Triall put himselfe vpon God and his Countrey,
&c.

_Iames Deuice_ of the Forrest of Pendle aforesaid, in the County of
Lancaster, Labourer, the fourth time Indicted and Arraigned for the
death of _Blaze Hargreues_ of Higham, in the Countie of Lancaster, by
Witchcraft, as aforesaid. _Contra Pacem_, &c.

To this Indictment vpon his Arraignement, he pleaded thereunto not
guiltie; and for the Triall of his life, put himselfe vpon God and the
Countrey. &c.

Hereupon _Iennet Deuice_ produced, sworne and examined, as a witnesse
on his Maiesties behalfe, against the said _Iames Deuice_, was
examined in open Court, as followeth. _viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_ IENNET
DEVICE _aforesaid._

Against

IAMES DEVICE, _her brother, Prisoner at the Barre,
vpon his Arraignement and Triall._ viz.

Being sworne and examined in open Court, she saith, That her
brother _Iames Deuice_ hath beene a Witch for the space of three
yeares: about the beginning of which time, there appeared vnto him, in
this Examinates mothers house, a Blacke-Dogge, which her said brother
called _Dandy_, which _Dandy_ did aske her said brother what he would
haue him to doe, whereunto he answered, hee would haue him to kill
_Iohn Hargreiues_, of Gold-shey-booth: whereunto _Dandy_ answered that
he would doe it: since which time the said _Iohn_ is dead.

And at another time this Examinate confesseth and saith, That her said
brother did call the said _Dandy_: who thereupon appeared in the said
house, asking this Examinates brother what hee would haue him to doe:
whereupon this Examinates said brother said, he would haue him to kill
_Blaze Hargreiues_ of Higham: whereupon _Dandy_ answered, hee should
haue his best helpe, and so vanished away: and shee saith, that since
that time the said _Hargreiues_ is dead; but how long after, this
Examinate doth not now remember.

All which things, when he heard his sister vpon her Oath affirme,
knowing them in his conscience to bee iust and true, slenderly denyed
them, and thereupon insisted.

To this Examination were diuerse witnesses examined in open Court
_viua voce_, concerning the death of the parties, in such manner and
forme, and at such time as the said _Iennet Deuice_ in her Euidence
hath formerly declared to the Court.

     Which is all, and I doubt not but matter sufficient in Law
     to charge him with, for the death of these parties.

For the proofe of his Practises, Charmes, Meetings at Malking-Tower,
to consult with Witches to execute mischiefe, Master _Nowel_ humbly
prayed, his owne Examination, taken and certified, might openly be
read; and the rest in order, as they remaine vpon Record amongst the
Records of the Crowne at Lancaster: as hereafter followeth, _viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE,
_Sonne of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE, _of the Forrest
of Pendle: Taken the seuen and twentieth day of
Aprill aforesaid_,

Before

ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER
_Esquires, two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace within
the said Countie_, viz.

And being examined, he further saith, That vpon Sheare-Thursday
last, in the euening, he this Examinate stole a Wether from _Iohn
Robinson_ of Barley, and brought it to his Grand-mothers house, old
_Dembdike_, and there killed it: and that vpon the day following,
being Good-Friday, about twelue of the clocke in the day time, there
dined in this Examinates mothers house a number of persons, whereof
three were men, with this Examinate, and the rest women; and that they
met there for three Causes following, as this Examinates said Mother
told this Examinate.

1 The first was, for the naming of the Spirit which _Alizon Deuice_,
now prisoner at Lancaster, had, but did not name him, because she was
not there.

2 The second Cause was, for the deliuerie of his said Grand-mother;
this Examinates said sister _Alizon_; the said _Anne Chattox_, and her
daughter _Redferne_; killing the Gaoler at Lancaster; and before the
next Assises to blow vp the Castle there, to the end the aforesaid
persons might by that meanes make an escape & get away; all which this
Examinate then heard them conferre of.

3 And the third Cause was, for that there was a woman dwelling in
Gisborne Parish, who came into this Examinates said Grandmothers
house, who there came and craued assistance of the rest of them that
were then there, for the killing of Master _Lister_ of Westby, because
(as shee then said) he had borne malice vnto her, and had thought to
haue put her away at the last Assises at Yorke, but could not: and
this Examinate heard the said woman say, That her power was not strong
ynough to doe it her selfe, being now lesse then before time it had
beene.

And also, that the said _Iennet Preston_ had a Spirit with her like
vnto a white Foale, with a blacke spot in the forhead.

And he also saith, That the names of the said Witches as were on
Good-Friday at this Examinates said Grand-mothers house, & now this
Examinates owne mothers, for so many of them as he did know, were
these, _viz._ the wife of _Hugh Hargreiues_ of Barley; the wife of
_Christopher Bulcock_ of the Mosse end, and _Iohn_ her sonne; the
mother of _Myles Nutter_; _Elizabeth_, the wife of _Christopher
Hargreiues_, of Thurniholme; _Christopher Howgate_, and _Elizabeth_,
his wife; _Alice Graye_ of Coulne, and one _Mould-heeles_ wife, of the
same: and this Examinate, and his Mother. And this Examinate further
saith, That all the said Witches went out of the said House in their
owne shapes and likenesses. And they all, by that they were forth of
the dores, were gotten on Horsebacke, like vnto Foales, some of one
colour, some of another; and _Prestons_ wife was the last: and when
shee got on Horsebacke, they all presently vanished out of this
Examinates sight. And before their said parting away, they all
appointed to meete at the said _Prestons_ wiues house that day
twelue-moneths; at which time the said _Prestons_ wife promised to
make them a great Feast. And if they had occasion to meete in the
meane time, then should warning be giuen, that they all should meete
vpon _Romleyes_ Moore.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_ IENNET
DEVICE.

Against

IAMES DEVICE _her said Brother, Prisoner at the
Barre, vpon his Arraignement and Triall: Taken before_
ROGER NOWEL, _and_ NICHOLAS BANNESTER
_Esquires: two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace
within the said Countie._ viz.

Shee saith, that vpon Good-Friday last there was about twentie
persons, whereof only two were men, to this Examinates remembrance, at
her said Grand-mothers house, called _Malking-Tower_ aforesaid, about
twelue of the clock: all which persons this Examinates said Mother
told her were Witches, and that they came to giue a name to _Alizon
Deuice_ Spirit or Familiar, Sister to this Examinate, and now
Prisoner, in the Castle of Lancaster: And also this Examinate saith,
that the persons aforesaid had to their Dinners, Beefe, Bacon, and
rosted Mutton, which Mutton, as this Examinates said brother said, was
of a Weather of _Robinsons_ of Barley: which Weather was brought in
the night before into this Examinates mothers house, by the said
_Iames Deuice_ this Examinates said brother, and in this Examinates
sight killed, and eaten, as aforesaid: And shee further saith, that
shee knoweth the names of sixe of the said Witches, _viz._ the wife of
the said _Hugh Hargreiues_, vnder Pendle: _Christopher Howget_, of
Pendle, Vncle to this Examinate: and _Dick Miles_ wife, of the
Rough-Lee: _Christopher Iacks_, of Thorny-holme, and his Wife: and the
names of the residue shee this Examinate doth not know, sauing that
this Examinates Mother and Brother were both there.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ ELIZABETH
DEVICE, _Mother of the said_ IAMES DEVICE, _of
the Forrest of Pendle, taken the seuen and twentieth day of
Aprill aforesaid._

Before

ROGER NOWEL, _and_ NICHOLAS BANNESTER
_Esquires; as aforesaid._ viz.

Being examined, the said _Elizabeth_ saith and confesseth, that
vpon Good-Friday last there dined at this Examinates house, those
which she hath said to be Witches, and doth verily thinke them to bee
Witches, and their names are those, whom _Iames Deuice_ hath formerly
spoken of to be there.

And shee also confesseth in all things touching the Christning of her
Spirit, and the killing of Master _Lister_ of Westby, as the said
_Iames Deuice_ confesseth. But denieth that any talke was amongst
th[=e] the said Witches, to her now remembrance, at the said meeting
together, touching the killing of the Gaoler at Lancaster; blowing vp
of the Castle, thereby to deliuer old _Dembdike_ her Mother; _Alizon
Deuice_ her Daughter, and other Prisoners, committed to the said
Castle for Witchcraft.

     After all these things opened, and deliuered in euidence
     against him; Master _Couil_, who hath the custodie of the
     Gaole at Lancaster, hauing taken great paines with him
     during the time of his imprisonment, to procure him to
     discouer his practizes, and such other Witches as he knew to
     bee dangerous: Humbly prayed the fauour of the Court that
     his voluntarie confession to M. _Anderton_, M. _Sands_ the
     Major of Lancaster, M. _Couel_, and others, might openly bee
     published and declared in Court.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The voluntarie confession and declaration
of_ IAMES DEVICE, _Prisoner in the Castle at Lancaster._

Before

WILLIAM SANDS, _Maior of Lancaster_, IAMES
ANDERTON, _Esquire, one of his Maiesties Iustices of
Peace within the Countie of Lancaster: And_ THOMAS
COVEL, _Gentleman, one of his Maiesties Coroners in the
same Countie._ viz.

_Iames Deuice_, Prisoner in the Castle at Lancaster, saith, That
his said Spirit _Dandie_, being very earnest with him to giue him his
soule, He answered, he would giue him that part thereof that was his
owne to giue: and thereupon the said Spirit said, hee was aboue CHRIST
IESVS, and therefore hee must absolutely giue him his Soule: and that
done, hee would giue him power to reuenge himselfe against any whom he
disliked.

And he further saith, that the said Spirit did appeare vnto him after
sundrie times, in the likenesse of a Dogge, and at euery time most
earnestly perswaded him to giue him his Soule absolutely: who answered
as before, that he would giue him his owne part and no further. And
hee saith, that at the last time that the said Spirit was with him,
which was the Tuesday next before his apprehension; when as hee could
not preuaile with him to haue his Soule absolutely granted vnto him,
as aforesaid; the said Spirit departed from him, then giuing a most
fearefull crie and yell, and withall caused a great flash of fire to
shew about him: which said Spirit did neuer after trouble this
Examinate.

     _William Sands_,
     _James Anderton._
     _Tho. Couel, Coroner._

The said _Iennet Deuice_, his Sister, in the very end of her
Examination against the said _Iames Deuice_, confesseth and saith,
that her Mother taught her two Prayers: the one to get drinke, which
was this. _viz._

     _Crucifixus hoc signum vitam
     Eternam._ Amen.

And shee further saith, That her Brother _Iames Deuice_, the Prisoner
at the Barre, hath confessed to her this Examinate, that he by this
Prayer hath gotten drinke: and that within an houre after the saying
the said Prayer, drinke hath come into the house after a very strange
manner. And the other Prayer, the said _Iames Deuice_ affirmed, would
cure one bewitched, which shee recited as followeth. _viz._

    _A Charme._[K_b_1]

    _Vpon Good-Friday, I will fast while I may
    Vntill I heare them knell
    Our Lords owne Bell,
    Lord in his messe
    With his twelue Apostles good,
    What hath he in his hand
    Ligh in leath wand:[K_b_2]
    What hath he in his other hand?
    Heauens doore key,
    Open, open Heauen doore keyes,
    Steck, steck hell doore.
    Let Crizum child
    Goe to it Mother mild,[K_b_3]
    What is yonder that casts a light so farrandly,[K_b_4]
    Mine owne deare Sonne that's naild to the Tree.
    He is naild sore by the heart and hand,
    And holy harne Panne,
    Well is that man
    That Fryday spell can,
    His Childe to learne;
    A Crosse of Blew, and another of Red,
    As good Lord was to the Roode._
    Gabriel _laid him downe to sleepe
    Vpon the ground of holy weepe:[K2_a_1]
    Good Lord came walking by,
    Sleep'st thou, wak'st thou_ Gabriel,
    _No Lord I am sted with sticke and stake,
    That I can neither sleepe nor wake:
    Rise vp_ Gabriel _and goe with me,
    The stick nor the stake shall neuer deere thee.[K2_a_2]
    Sweete Iesus our Lord, Amen._
                                   _Iames Deuice._

What can be said more of this painfull Steward, that was so carefull
to prouide Mutton against this Feast and solemne meeting at
_Malking-Tower_, of this hellish and diuellish band of Witches, (the
like whereof hath not been heard of) then hath beene openly published
and declared against him at the Barre, vpon his Arraignement and
Triall: wherein it pleased God to raise vp Witnesses beyond
expectation to conuince him; besides his owne particular Examinations,
which being shewed and read vnto him; he acknowledged to be iust and
true. And what I promised to set forth against him, in the beginning
of his Arraignment and Triall, I doubt not but therein I haue
satisfied your expectation at large, wherein I haue beene very sparing
to charge him with any thing, but with sufficient matter of Record and
Euidence, able to satisfie the consciences of the Gentlemen of the
Iury of Life and Death; to whose good consideration I leaue him, with
the perpetuall Badge and Brand of as dangerous and malicious a Witch,
as euer liued in these parts of Lancashire, of his time: and spotted
with as much Innocent bloud, as euer any Witch of his yeares.

After all these proceedings, by direction of his Lordship, were their
seuerall Examinations, subscribed by euery one of them in particular,
shewed vnto them at the time of their Triall, & acknowledged by th[=e]
to be true, deliuered to the gentlemen of the Iury of Life & Death,
for the better satisfaction of their consciences: after due
consideration of which said seuerall examinations, confessions, and
voluntary declarations, as well of themselues as of their children,
friends and confederates, The Gentlemen deliuered vp their Verdict
against the Prisoners, as followeth. _viz._


_The Verdict of Life and Death._

Who found _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, _Elizabeth Deuice_, and
_Iames Deuice_, guiltie of the seuerall murthers by Witchcraft,
contained in the Indictments against them, and euery of them.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE WITCHES OF
SALMESBVRY.[K3_a_]

_The Arraignement and Triall of_ IENNET
BIERLEY ELLEN BIERLEY, _and_ IANE
SOVTHWORTH _of Salmesbury, in the County of
Lancaster; for Witchcraft vpon the bodie of_ GRACE
SOWERBVTS, _vpon Wednesday the nineteenth of
August: At the Assises and generall Gaole-deliuery,
holden at Lancaster._

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assize at Lancaster: as hereafter followeth._
viz.

     _Iennet Bierley._
     _Ellen Bierley._
     _Iane Southworth._

Thus haue we for a time left the Graund Witches of the Forrest of
Pendle, to the good consideration of a verie sufficient Iury of worthy
Gentlemen of their Co[=u]trey. We are now come to the famous Witches
of Salmesbury, as the Countrey called them, who by such a subtill
practise and conspiracie of a Seminarie Priest,[K3_b_1] or, as the
best in this Honorable Assembly thinke, a Iesuite, whereof this
Countie of Lancaster hath good store,[K3_b_2] who by reason of the
generall entertainement they find, and great maintenance they haue,
resort hither, being farre from the Eye of Iustice, and therefore,
_Procul a fulmine_; are now brought to the Barre, to receiue their
Triall, and such a young witnesse prepared and instructed to giue
Euidence against them, that it must be the Act of GOD that must be the
means to discouer their Practises and Murthers, and by an infant: but
how and in what sort Almightie GOD deliuered them from the stroake of
Death, when the Axe was layd to the Tree, and made frustrate the
practise of this bloudie Butcher, it shall appeare vnto you vpon their
Arraignement and Triall, whereunto they are now come.

Master _Thomas Couel_, who hath the charge of the prisoners in the
Castle at Lancaster, was commaunded to bring forth the said

     _Jennet Bierley_,
     _Ellen Bierley_,
     _Jane Southworth_,

to the Barre to receiue their Triall.


Indictment.

The said _Iennet Bierley_, _Ellen Bierley_, and _Iane Southworth_
of Salmesbury, in the Countie of Lancaster, being indicted, for that
they and euery of them felloniously had practised, exercised, and vsed
diuerse deuillish and wicked Arts, called _Witchcrafts_,
_Inchauntments_, _Charmes_, and _Sorceries_, in and vpon one _Grace
Sowerbuts_: so that by meanes thereof her bodie wasted and consumed,
_Contra formam Statuti &c. Et Contra Pacem dicti Domini Regis Coronam
& dignitatem &c._

To this Indictment vpon their Arraignement, they pleaded
_Not-Guiltie_; and for the Triall of their liues put themselues vpon
GOD and their Countrey.

Whereupon Master Sheriffe of the Countie of Lancaster, by direction of
the Court, made returne of a very sufficient Iurie to passe betweene
the Kings Maiestie and them, vpon their liues and deaths, with such
others as follow in order.

The Prisoners being now at the Barre vpon their Triall, _Grace
Sowerbutts_, the daughter of _Thomas Sowerbutts_, about the age of
foureteene yeares, was produced to giue Euidence for the Kings
Maiestie against them: who standing vp, she was commaunded to point
out the Prisoners, which shee did, and said as followeth, _viz_

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_
GRACE SOWERBVTTS, _daughter of_ THOMAS
SOWERBVTTS, _of Salmesbury, in the Countie of
Lancaster Husband-man, vpon her Oath_,

Against

IENNET BIERLEY, ELLEN BIERLEY, _and_
IANE SOVTHWORTH, _prisoners at the Barre, vpon
their Arraignement and Triall_, viz.

The said _Grace Sowerbutts_ vpon her oath saith, That for the space
of some yeares now last past shee hath beene haunted and vexed with
some women, who haue vsed to come to her: which women, shee sayth,
were _Iennet Bierley_, this Informers Grand-mother; _Ellen Bierley_,
wife to _Henry Bierley_; _Iane Southworth_, late the wife of _Iohn
Southworth_, and one _Old Doewife_, all of Salmesburie aforesaid. And
shee saith, That now lately those foure women did violently draw her
by the haire of the head, and layd her on the toppe of a Hay-mowe, in
the said _Henry Bierleyes_ Barne. And shee saith further, That not
long after the said _Iennet Bierley_ did meete this Examinate neere
vnto the place where shee dwellleth, and first appeared in her owne
likenesse, and after that in the likenesse of a blacke Dogge, and as
this Examinate did goe ouer a Style, shee picked her off:[K4_b_]
howbeit shee saith shee had no hurt then, but rose againe, and went to
her Aunts in Osbaldeston, and returned backe againe to her Fathers
house the same night, being fetched home by her father. And she saith,
That in her way home-wards shee did then tell her Father, how shee
had beene dealt withall both then and at sundry times before that; and
before that time she neuer told any bodie thereof: and being examined
why she did not, she sayth, she could not speake thereof, though she
desired so to doe. And she further sayth, That vpon Saterday, being
the fourth of this instant Aprill, shee this Examinate going towards
Salmesbury bote, to meete her mother, comming from Preston, shee saw
the said _Iennet Bierley_, who met this Examinate at a place called
the Two Brigges, first in her owne shape, and afterwardes in the
likenesse of a blacke Dogge, with two legges, which Dogge went close
by the left side of this Examinate, till they came to a Pitte of
Water, and then the said Dogge spake, and persuaded this Examinate to
drowne her selfe there, saying, it was a faire and an easie death:
Whereupon this Examinate thought there came one to her in a white
sheete, and carried her away from the said Pitte, vpon the comming
whereof the said blacke Dogge departed away; and shortly after the
said white thing departed also: And after this Examinate had gone
further on her way, about the length of two or three Fields, the said
blacke Dogge did meete her againe, and going on her left side, as
aforesaid, did carrie her into a Barne of one _Hugh Walshmans_,[L_a_]
neere there by, and layed her vpon the Barne-floore, and couered this
Examinate with Straw on her bodie, and Haye on her head, and the Dogge
it selfe lay on the toppe of the said Straw, but how long the said
Dogge lay there, this Examinate cannot tell, nor how long her selfe
lay there: for shee sayth, That vpon her lying downe there, as
aforesaid, her Speech and Senses were taken from her: and the first
time shee knew where shee was, shee was layed vpon a bedde in the said
_Walshmans_ house, which (as shee hath since beene told) was vpon the
Monday at night following: and shee was also told, That shee was found
and taken from the place where shee first lay, by some of her friends,
and carried into the said _Walshmans_ house, within a few houres after
shee was layed in the Barne, as aforesaid. And shee further sayth,
That vpon the day following, being Tuesday, neere night of the same
day, shee this Examinate was fetched by her Father and Mother from the
said _Walshmans_ house to her Fathers house. And shee saith, That at
the place before specified, called the Two Brigges, the said _Iennet
Bierley_ and _Ellen Bierley_ did appeare vnto her in their owne
shapes: whereupon this Examinate fell downe, and after that was not
able to speake, or goe, till the Friday following: during which time,
as she lay in her Fathers house, the said _Iennet Bierley_ and _Ellen
Bierley_ did once appeare vnto her in their owne shapes, but they did
nothing vnto her then, neither did shee euer see them since. And shee
further sayth, That a good while before all this, this Examinate did
goe with the said _Iennet Bierley_, her Grand-mother, and the said
_Ellen Bierley_ her Aunt, at the bidding of her said Grand-mother, to
the house of one _Thomas Walshman_, in Salmesbury aforesaid. And
comming thither in the night, when all the house-hold was a-bed, the
doores being shut, the said _Iennet Bierley_ did open them, but this
Examinate knoweth not how: and beeing come into the said house, this
Examinate and the said _Ellen Bierley_ stayed there, and the said
_Iennet Bierley_ went into the Chamber where the said _Walshman_ and
his wife lay, & from thence brought a little child,[L2_a_1] which this
Examinate thinketh was in bed with it Father and Mother: and after the
said _Iennet Bierley_ had set her downe by the fire, with the said
child, shee did thrust a naile into the nauell of the said child: and
afterwards did take a pen and put it in at the said place, and did
suck there a good space, and afterwards laid the child in bed againe:
and then the said _Iennet_ and the said _Ellen_ returned to their owne
houses, and this Examinate with them. And shee thinketh that neither
the said _Thomas Walshman_, nor his wife knew that the said child was
taken out of the bed from them. And shee saith also, that the said
child did not crie when it was hurt, as aforesaid: But shee saith,
that shee thinketh that the said child did thenceforth languish, and
not long after dyed. And after the death of the said child; the next
night after the buriall thereof, the said _Iennet Bierley_ & _Ellen
Bierley_, taking this Examinate with them, went to Salmesburie Church,
and there did take vp the said child, and the said _Iennet_ did carrie
it out of the Church-yard in her armes, and then did put it in her lap
and carryed it home to her owne house, and hauing it there did boile
some therof in a Pot, and some did broile on the coales, of both which
the said _Iennet_ & _Ellen_ did eate, and would haue had this
Examinate and one _Grace Bierley_, Daughter of the said _Ellen_, to
haue eaten with them, but they refused so to doe: And afterwards the
said _Iennet_ & _Ellen_ did seethe the bones of the said child in a
pot, & with the Fat that came out of the said bones, they said they
would annoint themselues,[L2_a_2] that thereby they might sometimes
change themselues into other shapes. And after all this being done,
they said they would lay the bones againe in the graue the next night
following, but whether they did so or not, this Examinate knoweth not:
Neither doth shee know how they got it out of the graue at the first
taking of it vp. And being further sworne and examined, she deposeth &
saith, that about halfe a yeare agoe, the said _Iennet Bierley_,
_Ellen Bierley_, _Iane Southworth_, and this Examinate (who went by
the appointment of the said _Iennet_ her Grand mother) did meete at a
place called Red banck, vpon the North side of the water of Ribble,
euery Thursday and Sonday at night by the space of a fortnight, and at
the water side there came vnto them, as they went thether, foure black
things, going vpright, and yet not like men in the face: which foure
did carrie the said three women and this Examinate ouer the Water, and
when they came to the said Red Banck they found some thing there which
they did eate. But this Examinate saith, shee neuer saw such meate;
and therefore shee durst not eate thereof, although her said Grand
mother did bidde her eate. And after they had eaten, the said three
Women and this Examinate danced, euery one of them with one of the
blacke things aforesaid, and after their dancing the said black things
did pull downe the said three Women, and did abuse their bodies, as
this Examinate thinketh, for shee saith, that the black thing that was
with her, did abuse her bodie.

The said Examinate further saith vpon her Oth, That about ten dayes
after her Examination taken at Blackborne, shee this Examinate being
then come to her Fathers house againe, after shee had beene certaine
dayes at her Vnckles house in Houghton: _Iane Southworth_ widow, did
meet this Examinate at her Fathers house dore and did carrie her into
the loft,[L3_a_] and there did lay her vppon the floore, where shee
was shortly found by her Father and brought downe, and laid in a bed,
as afterwards shee was told: for shee saith, that from the first
meeting of the said _Iane Southworth_, shee this Examinate had her
speech and senses taken from her. But the next day shee saith, shee
came somewhat to her selfe, and then the said Widow _Southworth_ came
againe to this Examinate to her bed-side, and tooke her out of bed,
and said to this Examinate, that shee did her no harme the other time,
in respect of that shee now would after doe to her, and thereupon put
her vpon a hey-stack, standing some three or foure yards high from the
earth, where shee was found after great search made, by a neighbours
Wife neare dwelling, and then laid in her bedde againe, where she
remained speechlesse and senselesse as before, by the space of two or
three daies: And being recouered, within a weeke after shee saith,
that the said _Iane Southworth_ did come againe to this Examinate at
her fathers house and did take her away, and laid her in a ditch neare
to the house vpon her face, and left her there, where shee was found
shortly after, and laid vpon a bedde, but had not her senses againe of
a day & a night, or thereabouts. And shee further saith, That vpon
Tuesday last before the taking of this her Examination, the said _Iane
Southworth_ came to this Examinates Fathers house, and finding this
Examinate without the doore, tooke her and carried her into the Barne,
and thrust her head amongst a companie of boords that were there
standing, where shee was shortly after found and laid in a bedde, and
remained in her old fit till the Thursday at night following.

And being further examined touching her being at Red-bancke, shee
saith, That the three women, by her before named, were carried backe
againe ouer Ribble, by the same blacke things that carried them
thither; and saith that at their said meeting in the Red-bancke, there
did come also diuers other women, and did meete them there, some old,
some yong, which this Examinate thinketh did dwell vpon the North-side
of Ribble, because she saw them not come ouer the Water: but this
Examinate knew none of them, neither did she see them eat or dance, or
doe anything else that the rest did, sauing that they were there and
looked on.

These particular points of Euidence being thus vrged against the
Prisoners: the father of this _Grace Sowerbutts_ prayed that _Thomas
Walshman_, whose childe they are charged to murther, might be examined
as a witnes vpon his oath, for the Kings Maiestie, against the
Prisoners at the Barre: who vpon this strange deuised accusation,
deliuered by this impudent wench, were in opinion of many of that
great Audience guilty of this bloudie murther, and more worthy to die
then any of these Witches.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_
THOMAS WALSHMAN, _of Salmesbury, in the
Countie of Lancaster, Yeoman._

Against

IENNET BIERLEY, ELLEN BIERLEY, _and_
IANE SOVTHWORTH, _Prisoners at the Barre, vpon
their Arraignement and Triall, as followeth._ viz.

The said Examinate, _Thomas Walshman_, vpon his oath saith, That hee
had a childe died about Lent was twelue-month, who had beene sicke by
the space of a fortnight or three weekes, and was afterwards buried in
Salmesburie Church: which childe when it died was about a yeare old;
But how it came to the death of it, this Examinate knoweth not. And he
further saith, that about the fifteenth of Aprill last, or
thereabouts, the said _Grace Sowerbutts_ was found in this Examinates
fathers Barne, laid vnder a little hay and straw, and from thence was
carried into this Examinates house, and there laid till the Monday at
night following: during which time shee did not speak, but lay as if
she had beene dead.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IOHN SINGLETON:
_Taken at Salmesbury, in the Countie of Lancaster,
the seuenth day of August_: Anno Reg. Regis IACOBI
Angliae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, Fidei Defensor. &c.
Decimo & Scotiae, xlvj.

Before

ROBERT HOVLDEN,[L4_b_1] _Esquire, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Peace in the County of Lancaster._

Against

IENNET BIERLEY, ELLEN BIERLEY, _and_
IANE SOVTHWORTH, _which hereafter followeth._

The said Examinate vpon his oath saith, That hee hath often heard
his old Master, Sir _Iohn Southworth_[L4_b_2] Knight, now deceased,
say, touching the late wife of _Iohn Southworth_, now in the Gaole,
for suspition of Witchcraft: That the said wife was as he thought an
euill woman, and a Witch: and he said that he was sorry for her
husband, that was his kinsman, for he thought she would kill him. And
this Examinate further saith, That the said Sir _Iohn Southworth_ in
his comming or going betweene his owne house at Salmesbury, and the
Towne of Preston, did for the most part forbeare to passe by the
house, where the said wife dwelled, though it was his nearest and best
way; and rode another way, only for feare of the said wife, as this
Examinate verily thinketh.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ WILLIAM
ALKER _of Salmesbury, in the Countie of Lancaster,
Yeoman: Taken the fifteenth day of Aprill_, Anno Reg.
Regis IACOBI, Angliae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, Decimo
& Scotiae, quadragesimo quinto.

Before

ROBERT HOVLDEN, _one of his Maiesties Iustices
of Peace in the County of Lancaster: Against_ IENNET
BIERLEY, ELLEN BIERLEY, _and_ IANE BIERLEY,
_which hereafter followeth._ viz.

The said Examinate vpon his oath saith, That hee hath seene the
said Sir _Iohn Southworth_ shunne to meet the said wife of _Iohn
Southworth_, now Prisoner in the Gaole, when he came neere where she
was. And hath heard the said Sir _Iohn Southworth_ say, that he liked
her not, and that he doubted she would bewitch him.

Here was likewise _Thomas Sowerbutts_, father of _Grace Sowerbutts_,
examined vpon his oath, and many other witnesses to little purpose:
who being examined by the Court, could depose little against them: But
the finding of the wench vpon the hay in her counterfeit fits:
wherfore I leaue to trouble you with the particular declaration of
their Euidence against the Prisoners, In respect there was not any one
witnes able to charge them with one direct matter of Witchcraft; nor
proue any thing for the murther of the childe.

Herein, before we come to the particular declaration of that wicked
and damnable practise of this Iesuite or Seminary, I shall commend
vnto your examination and iudgement some points of her Euidence,
wherein you shal see what impossibilities are in this accusati[=o]
brought to this perfection, by the great care and paines of this
officious Doctor, Master _Thompson_ or _Southworth_, who commonly
worketh vpon the Feminine disposition, being more Passiue then Actiue.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The particular points of the Euidence_[M1_b_] _of_ GRACE SOWERBUTTS,
_viz._

Euidence.

     _That for the space of some yeares she hath been haunted
     and vexed with some women, who haue vsed to come to her._

The Iesuite forgot to instruct his Scholler how long it is since she
was tormented: it seemes it is long since he read the old Badge of a
Lyer, _Oportet mendacem esse memorem_. He knowes not how long it is
since they came to church, after which time they began to practise
Witchcraft. It is a likely thing the Torment and Panges of Witchcraft
can be forgotten; and therefore no time can be set downe.

     _Shee saith that now lately these foure women did violently
     draw her by the haire of the head, and lay her on the top of
     a Hay-mow._

Heere they vse great violence to her, whome in another place they make
choise to be of their counsell, to go with them to the house of
_Walshman_ to murther the childe. This courtesie deserues no discouery
of so foule a Fact.

     _Not long after, the said_ Iennet Bierley _did meet this
     Examinate neere vnto the place where she dwelled, and first
     appeared in her owne likenesse, and after that in the
     likenesse of a blacke Dogge._

_Vno & eodem tempore_, shee transformed her selfe into a Dogge. I
would know by what meanes any Priest can maintaine this point of
Euidence.

     _And as shee went ouer a Style, shee picked her ouer, but
     had no hurt._

This is as likely to be true as the rest, to throw a child downe from
the toppe of a House, and neuer hurt her great toe.

     _She rose againe; had no hurt, went to her Aunt, and
     returned backe againe to her Fathers house, being fetched
     home._

I pray you obserue these contrarieties, in order as they are placed,
to accuse the Prisoners.

     _Saterday the fourth of this instant Aprill._

Which was about the very day the Witches of the Forrest of Pendle were
sent to Lancaster. Now was the time for the Seminarie to instruct,
accuse, and call into question these poore women: for the wrinkles of
an old wiues face is good euidence to the Iurie against a Witch.[M2_a_]
And how often will the common people say (_Her eyes are sunke in her
head_, GOD _blesse vs from her._) But old _Chattox_ had
_Fancie_,[M2_b_] besides her withered face, to accuse her.

     _This Examinate did goe with the said_ Iennet Bierley _her
     Grand-mother, and_ Ellen Bierley _her Aunt, to the house of_
     Walshman, _in the night-time, to murther a Child in strange
     manner._

This of all the rest is impossible, to make her of their counsell, to
doe murther, whome so cruelly and barbarously they pursue from day to
day, and torment her. The Witches of the Forrest of Pendle were neuer
so cruell nor barbarous.

     _And shee also saith, the Child cried not when it was hurt._

All this time the Child was asleepe, or the Child was of an
extraordinarie patience, _o inauditum facinus_!

     _After they had eaten, the said three women and this
     Examinate daunced euery one of them with one of the Blacke
     things: and after, the Blacke things abused the said women._

Here is good Euidence to take away their liues. This is more proper
for the Legend of Lyes, then the Euidence of a witnesse vpon Oath,
before a reuerend and learned Iudge, able to conceiue this Villanie,
and finde out the practise. Here is the Religious act of a Priest, but
behold the euent of it.

     _She describes the foure Blacke things to goe vpright, but
     not like Men in the face._

The Seminarie mistakes the face for the feete: For _Chattox_ and all
her fellow Witches agree, the Deuill is clouen-footed: but _Fancie_
had a very good face, and was a very proper Man.

     _About tenne dayes after her Examination taken at
     Black-borne, then she was tormented._

Still he pursues his Proiect: for hearing his Scholler had done well,
he laboured she might doe more in this nature. But notwithstanding,
many things are layd to be in the times when they were Papists: yet
the Priest neuer tooke paines to discouer them, nor instruct his
Scholler, vntill they came to Church. Then all this was the Act of
GOD, to raise a child to open all things, and then to difcouer his
plotted Tragedie. Yet in this great discouerie, the Seminarie forgot
to deuise a Spirit for them.

And for _Thomas Walshman_, vpon his Oath he sayth, That his Childe had
beene sicke by the space of a fortnight, or three weekes, before it
died. And _Grace Sowerbutts_ saith, they tooke it out of the bedde,
strucke a nayle into the Nauell, sucked bloud, layd it downe againe;
and after, tooke it out of the Graue, with all the rest, as you haue
heard. How these two agree, you may, vpon view of their Euidence, the
better conceiue, and be able to judge.

How well this proiect, to take away the liues of three innocent poore
creatures by practise and villanie; to induce a young Scholler to
commit periurie, to accuse her owne Grand-mother, Aunt, &c. agrees
either with the Title of a Iesuite, or the dutie of a Religious
Priest, who should rather professe Sinceritie and Innocencie, then
practise Trecherie: But this was lawfull; for they are Heretikes
accursed, to leaue the companie of Priests; to frequent Churches,
heare the word of GOD preached, and professe Religion sincerely.

But by the course of Times and Accidents, wise men obserue, that very
seldome hath any mischieuous attempt beene vnder-taken without the
direction or assistance of a Iesuit, or Seminarie Priest.

Who did not condemne these Women vpon this euidence, and hold them
guiltie of this so foule and horrible murder? But Almightie God, who
in his prouidence had prouided meanes for their deliuerance, although
the Priest by the help of the Deuill, had prouided false witnesses to
accuse them; yet GOD had prepared and placed in the Seate of Iustice,
an vpright Iudge to sit in Iudgement vpon their liues, who after he
had heard all the euidence at large against the Prisoners for the
Kings Majestie, demanded of them what answere they could make. They
humbly vpon their knees with weeping teares, desired him for Gods
cause to examine _Grace Sowerbuts_, who set her on, or by whose meanes
this accusation came against them.

Immediately the countenance of this _Grace Sowerbuts_ changed: The
witnesses being behinde, began to quarrell and accuse one an other. In
the end his Lordship examined the Girle, who could not for her life
make any direct answere, but strangely amazed, told him, shee was put
to a Master to learne, but he told her nothing of this.

But here as his Lordships care and paines was great to discouer the
practises of these odious Witches of the Forrest of Pendle, and other
places, now vpon their triall before him: So was he desirous to
discouer this damnable practise, to accuse these poore Women, and
bring their liues in danger, and thereby to deliuer the innocent.

And as he openly deliuered it vpon the Bench, in the hearing of this
great Audience: That if a Priest or Iesuit had a hand in one end of
it, there would appeare to bee knauerie, and practise in the other end
of it. And that it might the better appeare to the whole World,
examined _Thomas Sowerbuts_, what Master taught his daughter: in
generall termes, he denyed all.

The Wench had nothing to say, but her Master told her nothing of this.
In the end, some that were present told his Lordship the truth, and
the Prisoners informed him how shee went to learne with one _Thompson_
a Seminarie Priest, who had instructed and taught her this accusation
against them, because they were once obstinate Papists, and now came
to Church. Here is the discouerie of this Priest, and of his whole
practise. Still this fire encreased more and more, and one witnesse
accusing an other, all things were laid open at large.

In the end his Lordship tooke away the Girle from her Father, and
committed her to M. _Leigh_, a very religious Preacher,[M4_a_] and M.
_Chisnal_, two Iustices of the Peace, to be carefully examined. Who
tooke great paines to examine her of euery particular point: In the
end they came into the Court, and there deliuered this Examination as
followeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ GRACE SOWERBVTS,
_of Salmesburie, in the Countie of Lancaster, Spinster:
Taken vpon Wednesday the 19. of August 1612.
Annoq; Reg. Regis_, IACOBI _Angliae, Franciae, & Hiberniae,
Fidei Defensoris, &c. decimo & Scotiae_, xlvi.

Before

WILLIAM LEIGH, _and_ EDWARD CHISNAL,
_Esquires; two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace in the same
Countie: At the Assizes and generall Gaole deliuerie, holden
at Lancaster._

By

_Direction of Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one
of his Maiesties Iustices of Assize at Lancaster._

Being demanded whether the accusation shee laid vppon her
Grand-mother, _Iennet Bierley_, _Ellen Bierley_, and _Iane
Southworth_, of Witchcraft, _viz._ of the killing of the child of
_Thomas Walshman_, with a naile in the Nauell, the boyling, eating,
and oyling, thereby to transforme themselues into diuers shapes, was
true; Shee doth vtterly denie the same; or that euer shee saw any such
practises done by them.

Shee further saith, that one Master _Thompson_, which she taketh to be
Master _Christopher Southworth_, to whom shee was sent to learne her
prayers, did perswade, counsell, and aduise her, to deale as formerly
hath beene said against her said Grand-mother, Aunt, and _Southworths_
wife.

And further shee confesseth and saith, that shee neuer did know, or
saw any Deuils, nor any other Visions, as formerly by her hath beene
alleaged and informed.

Also shee confesseth and saith, That shee was not throwne or cast vpon
the Henne-ruffe, and Hay-mow in the Barne, but that shee went vp vpon
the Mow her selfe by the wall side.

Being further demanded whether shee euer was at the Church, shee
saith, shee was not, but promised her after to goe to the Church, and
that very willingly.

     _Signum_ [Symbol: Maltese cross] Grace Sowerbuts.

     _William Leigh._

     _Edward Chisnal._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IENNET BIERLEY,
ELLEN BIERLEY, _and_ IANE SOVTHWORTH,
_of Salmesburie, in the Countie of Lancaster,
Taken vpon Wednesday the nineteenth of August_ 1612.
_Annoq; Reg. Regis_, IACOBI _Angliae, Franciae, & Hiberniae,
Fidei Defensoris, &c. decimo & Scotiae_, xlvi.

Before

WILLIAM LEIGH, _and_ EDWARD CHISNAL,
_Esquires; two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace in the same
Countie: At the Assizes and generall Gaole deliuerie, holden
at Lancaster._

By

_Direction of Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one
of his Maiesties Iustices of Assize at Lancaster._

_Iennet Bierley_ being demanded what shee knoweth, or hath heard,
how _Grace Sowerbuts_ was brought to _Christopher Southworth_, Priest;
shee answereth, that shee was brought to M. _Singletons_ house by her
owne Mother, where the said Priest was, and that shee further heard
her said Mother say, after her Daughter had been in her fit, that shee
should be brought vnto her Master, meaning the said Priest.

And shee further saith, that shee thinketh it was by and through the
Counsell of the said M. _Thomson_, alias _Southworth_, Priest, That
_Grace Sowerbuts_ her Grand-child accused her of Witchcraft, and of
such practises as shee is accused of: and thinketh further, the cause
why the said _Thompson_, alias _Southworth_ Priest, should practise
with the Wench to doe it was, for that shee went to the Church.

_Iane Southworth_ saith shee saw Master _Thompson_, alias
_Southworth_, the Priest, a month or sixe weekes before she was
committed to the Gaole; and had conference with him in a place called
Barne-hey-lane, where and when shee challenged him for slandering her
to bee a Witch: whereunto he answered, that what he had heard thereof,
he heard from her mother and her Aunt: yet she, this Examinate,
thinketh in her heart it was by his procurement, and is moued so to
thinke, for that shee would not be disswaded from the Church.

_Ellen Bierley_ saith, Shee saw Master _Thompson_, alias _Southworth_,
sixe or eight weeks before she was committed, and thinketh the said
Priest was the practiser with _Grace Sowerbutts_, to accuse her of
Witchcraft, and knoweth no cause why he should so doe, but because she
goeth to the Church.

     _Signum_, [Symbol: Maltese cross] Iennet Bierley.

     _Signum_, L Iane Southworth.

     _Signum_, [Symbol: Greek Phi] Ellen Bierley.

     _William Leigh._

     _Edward Chisnall._

These Examinations being taken, they were brought into the Court, and
there openly in the presence of this great Audience published, and
declared to the Iurie of Life and Death; and thereupon the Gentlemen
of their Iury required to consider of them. For although they stood
vpon their Triall, for matter of Fact of Witchcraft, Murther, and much
more of the like nature: yet in respect all their Accusations did
appeare to bee practise: they were now to consider of them, and to
acquit them. Thus were these poore Innocent creatures, by the great
care and paines of this honorable Iudge, deliuered from the danger of
this conspiracie; this bloudie practise of the Priest laid open: of
whose fact I may lawfully say; _Etiam si ego tacuero clamabunt
lapides_.

These are but ordinary with Priests and Iesuites: no respect of Bloud,
kindred, or friendship, can moue them to forbeare their Conspiracies:
for when he had laboured treacherously to seduce and conuert them, and
yet could doe no good; then deuised he this meanes.

_God of his great mercie deliuer vs all from them and their damnable
conspiracies: and when any of his Maiesties subiects, so free and
innocent as these, shall come in question, grant them as honorable a
Triall, as Reuerend and worthy a Iudge to sit in Iudgement vpon them;
and in the end as speedie a deliuerance. And for that which I haue
heard of them; seene with my eyes, and taken paines to Reade of them:
My humble prayer shall be to God Almightie._ Vt Conuertantur ne
pereant. Aut confundantur ne noceant.

To conclude, because the discourse of these three women of Salmesbury
hath beene long and troublesome to you; it is heere placed amongst
the Witches, by special order and commandement, to set forth to the
World the practise and conspiracie of this bloudy Butcher. And because
I haue presented to your view a Kalender in the Frontispice of this
Booke, of twentie notorious Witches: I shall shew you their
deliuerance in order, as they came to their Arraignement and Triall
euery day, and as the Gentlemen of euery Iury for life and death stood
charged with them.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ ANNE REDFERNE,[N3_b_]
_Daughter of_ ANNE WHITTLE, _alias_ CHATTOX,
_of the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster, for
Witchcraft; vpon Wednesday the nineteenth of August,
at the Assises and Generall Gaole-deliuerie, holden at
Lancaster_,

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assise at Lancaster._

_Anne Redferne._

Svch is the horror of Murther, and the crying sinne of Bloud, that
it will neuer bee satisfied but with Bloud. So fell it out with this
miserable creature, _Anne Redferne_, the daughter of _Anne Whittle_,
alias _Chattox_: who, as shee was her Mother, and brought her into the
World, so was she the meanes to bring her into this danger, and in the
end to her Execution, for much Bloud spilt, and many other mischiefes
done.

For vpon Tuesday night (although you heare little of her at the
Arraignement and Triall of old _Chattox_, her Mother) yet was shee
arraigned for the murther of _Robert Nutter_, and others: and by the
fauour and mercifull consideration of the Iurie, the Euidence being
not very pregnant against her, she was acquited, and found Not
guiltie.

Such was her condition and course of life, as had she liued, she would
haue beene very dangerous: for in making pictures of Clay, she was
more cunning then any: But the innocent bloud yet vnsatisfied, and
crying out vnto GOD for satisfaction and reuenge; the crie of his
people (to deliuer them from the danger of such horrible and bloudie
executioners, and from her wicked and damnable practises) hath now
againe brought her to a second Triall, where you shall heare what wee
haue vpon Record against her.

This _Anne Redferne_, prisoner in the Castle at Lancaster, being
brought to the Barre, before the great Seat of Iustice, was there,
according to the former order and course, indicted and arraigned, for
that she felloniously had practised, exercised, and vsed her deuillish
and wicked Arts, called _Witchcrafts_, _Inchauntments_, _Charmes_, and
_Sorceries_, in and vpon one _Christopher Nutter_, and him the said
_Christopher Nutter_, by force of the same Witchcrafts, felloniously
did kill and murther, _Contra formam Statuti &c. Et Contra Pacem &c._

Vpon her Arraignement to this Indictment, she pleaded _Not-Guiltie_;
and for the triall of her life put her selfe vpon GOD and the
Countrey.

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and Death stand charged
with her as with others.

     _The Euidence against_ Anne Redferne, _Prisoner at the
     Barre._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ ELIZABETH
SOTHERNES, alias OLD DEMBDIKE, _taken at the
Fence, in the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster,
the second day of Aprill_, Anno Reg. Regis IACOBI,
Angliae, &c. decimo, & Scotiae xlv.

Against

ANNE REDFERNE (_the daughter of_ ANNE WHITTLE,
alias CHATTOX) _Prisoner at the Barre:_

Before

ROGER NOWEL _of Reade, Esquire, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Peace within the said Countie._

This Examinate saith, That about halfe a yeare before _Robert
Nutter_ died, as this Examinate thinketh, this Examinate went to the
house of _Thomas Redferne_, which was about Midsummer, as shee this
Examinate now remembreth it: and there, within three yards of the East
end of the said house, shee saw the said _Anne Whittle_ and _Anne
Redferne_, wife of the said _Thomas Redferne_, and daughter of the
said _Anne Whittle_, the one on the one side of a Ditch, and the other
on the other side, and two pictures of Clay or Marle lying by them,
and the third picture the said _Anne Whittle_ was making. And the said
_Anne Redferne_, her said daughter, wrought her Clay or Marle to make
the third picture withall. And this Examinate passing by them, a
Spirit, called _Tibbe_, in the shape of a blacke Cat, appeared vnto
her this Examinate and said, Turne backe againe, and doe as they doe.
To whom this Examinate said, What are they doing? Whereunto the said
Spirit said, They are making three pictures: whereupon shee asked,
whose pictures they were? whereunto the said Spirit said, They are the
pictures of _Christopher Nutter_, _Robert Nutter_, and _Mary_, wife of
the said _Robert Nutter_. But this Examinate denying to goe backe to
helpe them to make the pictures aforesaid, the said Spirit seeming to
be angrie therefore, shot or pushed this Examinate into the Ditch; and
so shedde the milke which this Examinate had in a Kanne, or Kitt; and
so thereupon the Spirit at that time vanished out of this Examinates
sight. But presently after that, the said Spirit appeared vnto this
Examinate again in the shape of a Hare, and so went with her about a
quarter of a myle, but said nothing vnto her this Examinate, nor shee
to it.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ MARGARET
CROOKE

Against

_the said_ ANNE REDFERNE: _Taken the day and
yeare aforesaid_,

Before

ROGER NOWEL _aforesaid, Esquire, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of the Peace in the Countie of Lancaster._

This Examinate, sworne & examined vpon her oath, sayth, That about
eighteene or nineteene yeares agoe, this Examinates brother, called
_Robert Nutter_, about Whitsontide the same yeare, meeting with the
said _Anne Redferne_, vpon some speeches betweene them they fell out,
as this Examinats said brother told this Examinat: and within some
weeke, or fort-night, then next after, this Examinats said brother
fell sicke, and so languished vntill about Candlemas then next after,
and then died. In which time of his sicknesse, he did a hundred times
at the least say, That the said _Anne Redferne_ and her associates had
bewitched him to death. And this Examinate further saith, That this
Examinates Father, called _Christopher Nutter_, about Maudlintide next
after following fell sicke, and so languished, vntill Michaelmas then
next after, and then died: during which time of his sicknesse, hee did
sundry times say, That hee was bewitched; but named no bodie that
should doe the same.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IOHN NVTTER,
_of Higham Booth, in the Forrest of Pendle, in the
Countie of Lancaster, yeoman_,

Against

_the said_ ANNE REDFERNE: _Taken the day and yeare
aforesaid_,

Before

ROGER NOWEL _Esquire, one of his Maiesties Iustices
of Peace in the Countie of Lancaster._

This Examinate, sworne and examined vpon his oath, sayth, That in
or about Christmas, some eighteene or nineteene yeares agoe, this
Examinat comming from Burnley with _Christopher Nutter_ and _Robert
Nutter_, this Examinates Father and Brother, this Examinate heard his
said Brother then say vnto his said Father these words, or to this
effect. _Father, I am sure I am bewitched by the_ Chattox, Anne
Chattox, _and_ Anne Redferne _her daughter, I pray you cause them to
bee layed in Lancaster Castle:_ Whereunto this Examinates Father
answered, Thou art a foolish Ladde, it is not so, it is thy
miscarriage. Then this Examinates Brother weeping, said; nay, I am
sure that I am bewitched by them, and if euer I come againe (for hee
was readie to goe to Sir _Richard Shuttleworths_, then his Master) I
will procure them to bee laid where they shall be glad to bite Lice in
two with their teeth.

Hereupon _Anne Whittle_, alias _Chattox_, her Mother, was brought
forth to bee examined, who confessed the making of the pictures of
Clay, and in the end cried out very heartily to God to forgiue her
sinnes, and vpon her knees intreated for this _Redferne_, her
daughter.

Here was likewise many witnesses examined vpon oth _Viua voce_, who
charged her with many strange practises, and declared the death of the
parties, all in such sort, and about the time in the Examinations
formerly mentioned.

All men that knew her affirmed, shee was more dangerous then her
Mother, for shee made all or most of the Pictures of Clay, that were
made or found at any time.

Wherefore I leaue her to make good vse of the little time she hath to
repent in: but no meanes could moue her to repentance, for as shee
liued, so shee dyed.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE,
_taken the day and yeare afore-said._

Before

ROGER NOWEL, _and_ NICHOLAS BANNESTER,
_Esquires: two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace
within the said Countie of Lancaster._ viz.

The said Examinate vpon his oath saith, That about two yeares agoe,
hee this Examinate saw three Pictures of Clay, of halfe a yard long,
at the end of _Redfernes_ house, which _Redferne_ had one of the
Pictures in his hand, _Marie_ his daughter had another in her hand,
and the said _Redfernes_ wife, [Sidenote: _Anne Redferne the Witch._]
now prisoner at Lancaster, had an other Picture in her hand, which
Picture she the said _Redfernes_ wife, was then crumbling, but whose
Pictures they were, this Examinate cannot tell. And at his returning
backe againe, some ten Roods off them there appeared vnto him this
Examinate a thing like a Hare, which spit fire at him this Examinate.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ ALICE NUTTER,
_of the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster, for
Witch-craft; upon Wednesday the nineteenth of August,
at the Assizes and generall Gaole deliuerie, holden at
Lancaster._

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one of his
Maiesties Iustices of Assize at Lancaster._

_Alice Nutter._[O3_a_]

The two degrees of persons which chiefly practise Witch-craft, are
such, as are in great miserie and pouertie, for such the Deuill
allures to follow him, by promising great riches, and worldly
commoditie; Others, though rich, yet burne in a desperate desire of
Reuenge; Hee allures them by promises, to get their turne satisfied to
their hearts contentment, as in the whole proceedings against old
_Chattox_: the examinations of old _Dembdike_; and her children, there
was not one of them, but have declared the like, when the Deuill first
assaulted them.

But to attempt this woman in that sort, the Diuel had small meanes:
For it is certaine she was a rich woman; had a great estate, and
children of good hope: in the common opinion of the world, of good
temper, free from enuy or malice; yet whether by the meanes of the
rest of the Witches, or some vnfortunate occasion, shee was drawne to
fall to this wicked course of life, I know not: but hither shee is now
come to receiue her Triall, both for Murder, and many other vilde and
damnable practises.

Great was the care and paines of his Lordship, to make triall of the
Innocencie of this woman, as shall appeare vnto you vpon the
Examination of _Iennet Deuice_, in open Court, at the time of her
Arraignement and Triall; by an extraordinary meanes of Triall, to
marke her out from the rest.

It is very certaine she was of the Grand-counsell at Malking-Tower
vpon Good-Friday, and was there present, which was a very great
argument to condemne her.

This _Alice Nutter_, Prisoner in the Castle at Lancaster: Being
brought to the Barre before the Great Seat of Iustice; was there
according to the former order and course Indicted and Arraigned, for
that she felloniously had practised, exercised, and vsed her diuellish
and wicked Arts, called _Witchcrafts_, _Inchantments_, _Charmes_ and
_Sorceries_, in and vpon _Henry Mitton_: and him the said _Henry
Mitton_, by force of the same Witchcrafts, felloniously did kill and
murther. _Contra formam Statuti_, &c. _Et Contra Pacem_, &c.

Vpon her Arraignement, to this Indictment shee pleaded not guiltie;
and for the triall of her life, put her selfe vpon God and the
Countrey.

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iury of life and death stand charged
with her, as with others.

     _The Euidence against_ Alice Nutter _Prisoner
     at the Barre._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE
_sonne of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE: _Taken the seuen
and twentieth day of Aprill_: Anno Reg. Regis IACOBI
Angliae, Franciae, & Hiberniae, Fidei Defensor. &c.
Decimo & Scotiae, xlvj.

Before

ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER, _two of his Maiesties Iustices of
Peace in the Countie of Lancaster. Against Alice Nutter._

The said Examinate saith vpon his oath, That hee heard his
Grand-mother say, about a yeare ago, that his mother, called
_Elizabeth Deuice_, and his Grand-mother, and the wife of _Richard
Nutter_, [Sidenote: _Alice Nutter_ the Prisoner.] of the Rough-Lee
aforesaid, had killed one _Henry Mitton_, of the Rough-Lee aforesaid,
by Witchcraft. The reason wherefore he was so killed, was for that
this Examinats said Grand-mother had asked the said _Mitton_ a penny:
and hee denying her thereof; thereupon shee procured his death as
aforesaid.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ ELIZABETH
DEVICE, _mother of the said_ IAMES DEVICE.

Against

ALICE NVTTER, _wife of_ RICHARD NVTTER,
_Prisoner at the Barre, vpon her Arraignement and
Triall._

Before

ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER,
_Esquires, the day and yeare aforesaid._

This Examinate vpon her oath confesseth, and saith, That she, with
the wife of _Richard Nutter_, called _Alice Nutter_, Prisoner at the
Barre; and this Examinates said mother, _Elizabeth Sotherne_, alias
_Old Demdike_; ioyned altogether, and bewitched the said _Henry
Mitton_ to death.

This Examinate further saith, That vpon Good-friday last, there dined
at this examinats house two women of Burneley Parish, whose names the
said _Richard Nutters_ wife, _Alice Nutter_, now Prisoner at the
Barre, doth know.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE
_aforesaid._

Against

_The said_ ALICE NVTTER, _the daye and yeare aforesaid._

The said Examinate vpon his oath saith, That vpon Good-Friday about
twelue of the clocke in the day time, there dined in this Examinats
said mothers house, a number of persons, whereof three were men, with
this Examinate, and the rest women: and that they mette there for
these three causes following, as this Examinats said mother told this
Examinate.

The first was for the naming of the Spirit, which _Alizon Deuice_, now
Prisoner at Lancaster, had, but did not name him, because she was not
there.

The second cause was, for the deliuerie of his said Grand-mother; this
Examinates said sister, _Alizon_; the said _Anne Chattox_, and her
daughter _Redferne_; killing the Gaoler at Lancaster, and before the
next Assizes to blow vp the Castle there; to the end that the foresaid
Prisoners might by that meanes make an escape, and get away: all which
this Examinate then heard them conferre of.

And he also saith, The names of such Witches as were on Good-Friday at
this Examinats said Grand-mothers house, and now this Examinates owne
mothers, for so many of them as he doth know, were amongst others,
_Alice Nutter_, mother of _Myles Nutter_, now Prisoner at the Barre.
And this Examinate further saith, That all the said Witches went out
of the said house in their owne shapes and likenesses; and they all,
by that time they were forth of the doores, were gotten on
horse-backe, like vnto Foales, some of one colour, and some of
another; and _Prestons_ wife was the last: and when shee got on
horse-back, they all presently vanished out of this Examinates sight:
and before their said parting away, they all appointed to meete at the
said _Prestons_ wifes house that day twelue month, at which time the
said _Prestons_ wife promised to make them a great feast: and if they
had occasion to meete in the meane time, then should warning be giuen
to meet up[=o] Romleys Moore.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_
IENNET DEVICE, _daughter of_ ELIZABETH
DEVICE.

Against

ALICE NVTTER, _Prisoner at the Barre._

The said Examinate saith, That on Good-Friday last, there was about
20. persons, whereof only two were men (to this Examinates
remembrance) at her said Grand-mothers house at Malking-Tower, about
twelue of the clock; all which persons, this Examinats said mother
tould her, were Witches. And she further saith, she knoweth the names
of six of them, _viz._ the wife of _Hugh Hargreiues_ vnder Pendle,
_Christopher Howgate_ of Pendle, Vncle to this Examinat and
_Elizabeth_ his wife; and _Dick Myles_ wife of the Rough-Lee,
_Christopher Iacks_ of Thorniholme, and his wife; and the names of the
residue, she this Examinate doth not know.

After these Examinations were openly read, his Lordship being very
suspitious of the accusation of this yong wench _Iennet Deuice_,
commanded one to take her away into the vpper Hall, intending in the
meane time to make Triall of her Euidence, and the Accusation
especially against this woman, who is charged to haue beene at
Malking-Tower, at this great meeting. Master _Couel_ was commanded to
set all his prisoners by themselues, and betwixt euery Witch another
Prisoner, and some other strange women amongst them, so as no man
could iudge the one from the other: and these being set in order
before the Court from the prisoners, then was the Wench _Iennet
Deuice_ commaunded to be brought into the Court: and being set before
my Lord, he tooke great paines to examine her of euery particular
Point, What women were at Malking-Tower vpon Good-Friday? How she knew
them? What were the names of any of them? And how she knew them to be
such as she named?

In the end being examined by my Lord,[P2_a_1] Whether she knew them
that were there by their faces, if she saw them? she told my Lord she
should: whereupon in the presence of this great Audience, in open
Court, she went and tooke _Alice Nutter_, this prisoner, by the hand,
and accused her to be one: and told her in what place shee sat at the
Feast at Malking-Tower, at the great assembly of the Witches, and who
sat next her: what conference they had, and all the rest of their
proceedings at large, without any manner of contrarietie.

Being demaunded further by his Lordship, Whether she knew _Iohan a
Style_?[P2_a_2] she alledged, she knew no such wom[=a] to be there,
neither did she euer heare her name.

This could be no forged or false Accusation, but the very Act of GOD
to discouer her.

Thus was no meanes left to doe her all indifferent fauour, but it was
vsed to saue her life; and to this shee could giue no answere.

But nothing would serue: for old _Dembdike_, old _Chattox_, and
others, had charged her with innocent bloud, which cries out for
Reuenge, and will be satisfied. And therefore Almightie GOD, in his
Iustice, hath cut her off.

And here I leaue her, vntill shee come to her Execution, where you
shall heare shee died very impenitent; insomuch as her owne children
were neuer able to moue her to confesse any particular offence, or
declare any thing, euen in _Articulo Mortis_: which was a very
fearefull thing to all that were present, who knew shee was guiltie.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ KATHERINE HEWIT,
_Wife of_ IOHN HEWIT, _alias_ MOVLD-HEELES,[P3_a_]
_of Coulne, in the Countie of Lancaster Clothier, for
Witchcraft; vpon Wednesday the nineteenth of August,
at the Assises and Generall Gaole-deliuerie, holden at
Lancaster_,

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assise at Lancaster._

_Katherine Hewit._

Who but Witches can be proofes, and so witnesses of the doings of
Witches? since all their Meetings, Conspiracies, Practises, and
Murthers, are the workes of Darkenesse: But to discouer this wicked
_Furie_, GOD hath not only raised meanes beyond expectation, by the
voluntarie Confession and Accusation of all that are gone before, to
accuse this Witch (being Witches, and thereby witnesses of her doings)
but after they were committed, by meanes of a Child, to discouer her
to be one, and a Principall in that wicked assembly at Malking-Tower,
to deuise such a damnable course for the deliuerance of their friends
at Lancaster, as to kill the Gaoler, and blow vp the Castle, wherein
the Deuill did but labour to assemble them together, and so being
knowne to send them all one way: And herein I shall commend vnto your
good consideration the wonderfull meanes to condemne these parties,
that liued in the world, free from suspition of any such offences, as
are proued against them: And thereby the more dangerous, that in the
successe we may lawfully say, the very Finger of God did point th[=e]
out. And she that neuer saw them, but in that meeting, did accuse
them, and by their faces discouer them.

This _Katherine Hewyt_, Prisoner in the Castle at Lancaster, being
brought to the Barre before the great Seate of Iustice, was there
according to the former order and course Indicted and Arraigned, for
that she felloniously had practized, exercised, and vsed her Deuillish
and wicked Arts, called _Witch-crafts_, _Inchantments_, _Charmes_, and
_Sorceries_, in, and vpon _Anne Foulds_; and the same _Anne Foulds_,
by force of the same witch-craft, felloniously did kill and murder.
_Contra formam Statuti, &c. Et contra Pacem dicti Domini Regis, &c._

Vpon her Arraignement to this Indictment, shee pleaded not guiltie;
And for the triall of her life put her selfe vpon God and her
Countrie.

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and death, stand charged
with her as with others.

     _The Euidence against_ Katherine Hewyt,
     _Prisoner at the Barre._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE,
_Sonne of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE, _taken the seuen and
twentieth day of Aprill_, Anno Reg. Regis IACOBI, Angliae,
Franciae, & Hiberniae, decimo, et Scotiae quadragesimo
quarto.

Before

ROGER NOWEL, _and_ NICHOLAS BANNESTER,
_Esquires; two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace,
in the Countie of Lancaster._

Against

KATHERINE HEWYT, _alias_ MOVLD-HEELES
_of Colne._ viz.

This Examinate saith, that vpon Good-Friday last, about twelue of
the Clock in the day time, there dined at this Examinates Mothers
house a number of persons: And hee also saith, that they were Witches;
and that the names of the said Witches, that were there, for so many
of them as he did know, were amongst others _Katherine Hewyt_, wife of
_Iohn Hewyt_, alias _Mould-heeles_, of Colne, in the Countie of
Lancaster Clothier; And that the said Witch, called _Katherine Hewyt_,
alias _Mould-heeles_, and one _Alice Gray_, did confesse amongst the
said Witches at their meeting at _Malkin-Tower_ aforesaid, that they
had killed _Foulds_ wifes child, called _Anne Foulds_, of
Colne:[P4_a_1] And also said, that they had then in hanck a
child[P4_a_2] of _Michael Hartleys_ of Colne.

And this Examinate further saith, that all the said Witches went out
of the said house in their own shapes and likenesses, and by that time
they were gotten forth of the doores, they were gotten on Horse-back
like vnto foales, some of one colour, some of an other, and the said
_Prestons_ wife was the last: And when she got on Horse-back, they all
presently vanished out of this Examinates sight. And before their said
parting away they all appointed to meete at the said _Prestons_ wifes
house that day twelue Moneths: at which time the said _Prestons_ wife
promised to make them a great feast, and if they had occasion to meete
in the meane time, then should warning be giuen that they all should
meet vpon Romlesmoore.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_ ELIZABETH
DEVICE, _Mother of the said_ IAMES
DEVICE.

Against

KATHERINE HEWYT, _alias_ MOVLD-HEELES,
_Prisoner at the Barre vpon her Arraignement and Triall,
taken the day and yeare aforesaid._ viz.

This Examinate vpon her oath confesseth, that vpon Good-Friday last
there dyned at this Examinates house, which she hath said are Witches,
and verily thinketh to bee Witches, such as the said _Iames Deuice_
hath formerly spoken of: amongst which was _Katherine Hewyt_, alias
_Mould-heeles_, now Prisoner at the Barre: and shee also saith, that
at their meeting on Good-Friday at _Malkin-Tower_ aforesaid, the said
_Katherine Hewyt_, alias _Mould-heeles_, and _Anne Gray_, did
confesse, they had killed a child of _Foulds_ of Colne, called _Anne
Foulds_, and had gotten hold of another.

And shee further saith, the said _Katherine Hewyt_ with all the rest,
there gaue her consent with the said _Prestons_ wife for the murder of
Master _Lister_.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_
IENNET DEVICE,

Against

KATHERINE HEWYT, _alias_ MOVLD-HEELES,
_Prisoner at the Barre._

The said Examinate saith, That vpon Good-Friday last, there was
about twentie persons, whereof two were men to this Examinates
remembrance, at her said Grand-mothers house, called _Malkin-Tower_
aforesaid, about twelue of the clock: All which persons this
Examinates said mother told her were Witches, and that shee knoweth
the names of sixe of the said Witches.

Then was the said _Iennet Deuice_ commanded by his Lordship, to finde
and point out the said _Katherine Hewyt_, alias _Mould-heeles_,
amongst all the rest of the said Women, whereupon shee went and tooke
the said _Katherine Hewyt_ by the hand: Accused her to bee one, and
told her in what place shee sate at the feast at _Malkin-Tower_, at
the great Assembly of the Witches, and who sate next her; what
conference they had, and all the rest of their proceedings at large,
without any manner of contrarietie: Being demanded further by his
Lordship, whether _Ioane a Downe_ were at that Feast, and meeting, or
no? shee alleaged shee knew no such woman to be there, neither did
shee euer heare her name.

If this were not an Honorable meanes to trie the accusation against
them, let all the World vpon due examination giue iudgement of it. And
here I leaue her the last of this companie, to the Verdict of the
Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and death, as hereafter shall appeare.

Heere the Iurie of Life and Death, hauing spent the most part of the
day, in due consideration of their offences, Returned into the Court
to deliuer vp their Verdict against them, as followeth.

_The Verdict of Life and
Death._

Who vpon their Oathes found _Iennet Bierley_, _Ellen Bierley_, and
_Iane Southworth_, not guiltie of the offence of Witch-craft,
conteyned in the Indictment against them.

_Anne Redferne_, guiltie of the fellonie & murder, conteyned in the
Indictment against her.

_Alice Nutter_, guiltie of the fellonie and murder conteyned in the
Indictment against her.

And

_Katherine Hewyt_, guiltie of the fellonie & murder conteyned in the
Indictment against her.

Whereupon Master _Couell_ was commanded by the Court to take away the
Prisoners Conuicted, and to bring forth _Iohn Bulcocke_, _Iane
Bulcocke_ his mother,[Q2_a_] and _Alizon Deuice_, Prisoners in the
Castle at Lancaster, to receiue their Trialls.

Who were brought to their Arraignement and Triall as hereafter
followeth.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ IOHN BVLCOCK,
_and_ IANE BVLCOCK _his mother, wife of_ CHRISTOPHER
BVLCOCK, _of the Mosse-end, in the Countie
of Lancaster, for Witch-craft: vpon Wednesday in the
after-noone, the nineteenth of August, 1612. At the Assizes
and generall Gaole deliuery, holden at Lancaster._

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY, _Knight, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assizes at Lancaster._

_John Bulcock_,
and
_Jane Bulcock_ his mother.

If there were nothing to charge these Prisoners withall, whom now
you may behold vpon their Arraignement and Triall but their poasting
in haste to the great Assembly at Malking-Tower, there to aduise and
consult amongst the Witches, what were to bee done to set at liberty
the Witches in the Castle at Lancaster: Ioyne with _Iennet Preston_
for the murder of Master _Lister_; and such like wicked & diuellish
practises: It were sufficient to accuse them for Witches, & to bring
their liues to a lawfull Triall. But amongst all the Witches in this
company, there is not a more fearefull and diuellish Act committed,
and voluntarily confessed by any of them, comparable to this, vnder
the degree of Murder: which impudently now (at the Barre hauing
formerly confessed;)[Q3_a_1] they forsweare, swearing they were neuer
at the great assembly at Malking Tower; although the very Witches that
were present in that action with them, iustifie, maintaine, and sweare
the same to be true against them: Crying out in very violent &
outragious manner, euen to the gallowes,[Q3_a_2] where they died
impenitent for any thing we know, because they died silent in the
particulars. These of all others were the most desperate wretches
(void of all feare or grace) in all this Packe; Their offences not
much inferiour to Murther: for which you shall heare what matter of
Record wee haue against them; and whether they be worthie to continue,
we leaue it to the good consideration of the Iury.

The said _Iohn Bulcock_, and _Iane Bulcock_ his mother, Prisoners in
the Castle at Lancaster, being brought to the Barre before the great
Seat of Iustice: were there according to the former order and course
Indicted and Arraigned, for that they felloniously had practised,
exercised and vfed their diuellish & wicked Arts, called
_Witchcrafts_, _Inchantments_, _Charmes_ and _Sorceries_, in and vpon
the body of _Iennet Deane_: so as the body of the said _Iennet Deane_,
by force of the said Witchcrafts, wasted and consumed; and after she,
the said _Iennet_, became madde. _Contra formam Statuti_, &c. _Et
Contra pacem_, &c.

Vpon their Arraignement, to this Indictment they pleaded not guiltie;
and for the triall of their liues put themselues vpon God and their
Countrey.

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and Death stand charged
with them as with others.

     _The Euidence against_ Iohn Bulcock, _and_ Jane
     Bulcock _his mother, Prisoners at the Barre._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE
_taken the seuen and twentieth day of Aprill aforesaid._

Before

ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER,
_Esquires, two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace in
the Countie of Lancaster._

Against

IOHN BVLCOCK _and_ IANE BVLCOCK _his mother._

This Examinate saith, That vpon Good-Friday, about twelue of the
clocke in the day time, there dined in this Examinates said Mothers
house a number of persons, whereof three were men with this Examinate,
and the rest women, and that they met there for these three causes
following, as this Examinates said mother told this Examinate. The
first was, for the naming of the Spirit which _Allison Deuice_, now
prisoner at Lancaster had, but did not name him, because shee was not
there. The second cause was, for the deliuerie of his said
Grand-mother; this Examinates said sister _Allison_; the said _Anne
Chattox_, and her daughter _Redferne_, killing the Gaoler at
Lancaster, and before the next Assises to blow vp the Castle there, to
that end the aforesaid prisoners might by that meanes make an escape,
and get away: All which this Examinate then heard them conferre of.

And he also sayth, That the names of such said Witches as were on
Good-Friday at this Examinates said Grand-mothers house, and now this
Examinates owne mothers, for so many of them as hee did know, were
these, _viz._ _Iane Bulcock_, wife of _Christopher Bulcock_, of the
Mosse end, and _Iohn_ her sonne amongst others, &c.

And this Examinate further saith, That all the said Witches went out
of the said house in their own shapes and likenesses: and they all, by
that they were forth of the dores, were gotten on horse-backe, like
vnto Foales, some of one colour, and some of another, and _Prestons_
wife was the last: and when shee got on horse-backe, they all
presently vanished out of this Examinates sight.

And further he saith, That the said _Iohn Bulcock_ and _Iane_ his said
Mother, did confesse vpon Good-Friday last at the said Malking-Tower,
in the hearing of this Examinate, That they had bewitched, at the
new-field Edge in Yorkeshire, a woman called _Iennet_, wife of _Iohn
Deyne_, besides, her reason; and the said Womans name so bewitched, he
did not heare them speake of. And this Examinate further saith, That
at the said Feast at Malking-Tower this Examinate heard them all giue
their consents to put the said Master _Thomas Lister_ of Westby[Q4_a_]
to death. And after Master _Lister_ should be made away by
Witch-craft, then all the said Witches gaue their consents to ioyne
all together, to hanck Master _Leonard Lister_, when he should come
to dwell at the Cow-gill, and so put him to death.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ ELIZABETH
DEVICE, _Taken the day and yeare aforesaid_,

Before

ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER,
_Esquires, two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace in
the Countie of Lancaster._

Against

IOHN BVLCOCK, _and_ IANE BVLCOCK, _his
mother._

This Examinate saith vpon her oath, That she doth verily thinke,
that the said _Bulcockes_ wife doth know of some Witches to bee about
Padyham and Burnley.[Q4_b_]

And shee further saith, That at the said meeting at Malking-Tower, as
aforesaid, _Katherine Hewyt_ and _Iohn Bulcock_, with all the rest
then there, gaue their consents, with the said _Prestons_ wife, for
the killing of the said Master _Lister_.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_
IENNET DEVICE

Against

IOHN BVLCOCKE _and_ IANE _his mother, prisoners
at the Barre._

The said Examinate saith, That vpon Good-Friday last there was
about twentie persons, whereof two were men, to this Examinates
remembrance, at her said Grand-mothers house, called Malking-Tower
aforesaid: all which persons, this Examinates said mother told her
were Witches, and that she knoweth the names of sixe of the said
Witches.

Then was the said _Iennet Deuice_ commaunded by his Lordship to finde
and point out the said _Iohn Bulcock_ and _Iane Bulcock_ amongst all
the rest; whereupon shee went and tooke _Iane Bulcock_ by the hand,
accused her to be one, and told her in what place shee sat at the
Feast at Malking-Tower, at the great Assembly of the Witches; and who
sat next her: and accused the said _Iohn Bulcock_ to turne the Spitt
there;[R_a_] what conference they had, and all the rest of their
proceedings at large, without any manner of contrarietie.

Shee further told his Lordship, there was a woman that came out of
Craven to that Great Feast at Malking-Tower, but shee could not finde
her out amongst all those women.

       *       *       *       *       *

Pp The names of the Witches at the
_Great Assembly and Feast at_
Malking-Tower, _viz._ vpon Good-Friday
last, 1612.[R1_b_]

_Elizabeth Deuice._

_Alice Nutter._

_Katherine Hewit_, alias
  _Mould-heeles._

_John Bulcock._

_Jane Bulcock._

_Alice Graie._

_Jennet Hargraues._

_Elizabeth Hargraues._

_Christopher Howgate._
  Sonne to old _Dembdike_.

_Christopher Hargraues._

_Grace Hay_, of Padiham.

_Anne Crunckshey_, of Marchden.

_Elizabeth Howgate._

_Jennet Preston_, Executed at Yorke
for the Murder of Master _Lister_,

With many more, which being bound ouer to appeare at the last Assizes,
are since that time fled to saue themselues.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ ALIZON DEVICE,
_Daughter of_ ELIZABETH DEVICE, _within the Forrest
of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster aforesaid, for
Witch-craft._

_Alizon Deuice._

Behold, aboue all the rest, this lamentable spectacle of a poore
distressed Pedler, how miserably hee was tormented, and what
punishment hee endured for a small offence, by the wicked and damnable
practise of this odious Witch, first instructed therein by old
_Dembdike_ her Grand-mother, of whose life and death with her good
conditions, I haue written at large before in the beginning of this
worke, out of her owne Examinations and other Records, now remayning
with the Clarke of the Crowne at Lancaster: And by her Mother brought
vp in this detestable course of life; wherein I pray you obserue but
the manner and course of it in order, euen to the last period at her
Execution, for this horrible fact, able to terrifie and astonish any
man liuing.

This _Alizon Deuice_, Prisoner in the Castle of Lancaster, being
brought to the Barre before the great Seat of Iustice, was there
according to the former order and course indicted and arraigned, for
that shee felloniously had practised, exercised, and vsed her
Deuillish and wicked Arts, called _Witch-crafts_, _Inchantments_,
_Charmes_, and _Sorceries_, in, and vpon one _Iohn Law_, a
Petti-chapman, and him had lamed; so that his bodie wasted and
consumed, &c. _Contra formam Statuti, &c. Et contra pacem dicti Domini
Regis, Coronam & Dignitatem, &c._

Vpon the Arraignement, The poore Pedler, by name _Iohn Law_, being in
the Castle about the Moot-hall, attending to be called, not well able
to goe or stand, being led thether by his poore sonne _Abraham Law_:
My Lord _Gerrard_[R3_a_] moued the Court to call the poore Pedler, who
was there readie, and had attended all the Assizes, to giue euidence
for the Kings Majestie against the said _Alizon Deuice_, Prisoner at
the Barre, euen now vpon her Triall. The Prisoner being at the Barre,
& now beholding the Pedler, deformed by her Witch-craft, and
transformed beyond the course of Nature, appeared to giue euidence
against her; hauing not yet pleaded to her Indictment, saw it was in
vaine to denie it, or stand vpon her justification: Shee humbly vpon
her knees at the Barre with weeping teares, prayed the Court to heare
her.

Whereupon my Lord _Bromley_ commanded shee should bee brought out from
the Prisoners neare vnto the Court, and there on her knees, shee
humbly asked forgiuenesse for her offence: And being required to make
an open declaration or confession of her offence: Shee confessed as
followeth. _viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Confession of_ ALIZON DEVICE,
_Prisoner at the Barre: published and declared at time
of her Arraignement and Triall in open Court._

She saith, That about two yeares agone, her Grand-mother, called
_Elizabeth Sothernes_, alias _Dembdike_, did (sundry times in going or
walking together, as they went begging) perswade and aduise this
Examinate to let a Diuell or a Familiar appeare to her, and that shee,
this Examinate would let him suck at some part of her; and she might
haue and doe what shee would. And so not long after these perswasions,
this Examinate being walking towards the Rough-Lee, in a Close of one
_Iohn Robinsons_, there appeared vnto her a thing like vnto a Blacke
Dogge: speaking vnto her, this Examinate, and desiring her to giue him
her Soule, and he would giue her power to doe any thing shee would:
whereupon this Examinate being therewithall inticed, and setting her
downe; the said Blacke-Dogge did with his mouth (as this Examinate
then thought) sucke at her breast, a little below her Paps, which
place did remain blew halfe a yeare next after: which said
Blacke-Dogge did not appeare to this Examinate, vntill the eighteenth
day of March last: at which time this Examinate met with a Pedler on
the high-way, called Colne-field, neere vnto Colne: and this Examinate
demanded of the said Pedler to buy some pinnes of him; but the said
Pedler sturdily answered this Examinate that he would not loose his
Packe; and so this Examinate parting with him: presently there
appeared to this Examinate the Blacke-Dogge, which appeared vnto her
as before: which Black Dogge spake vnto this Examinate in English,
saying; What wouldst thou haue me to do vnto yonder man? to whom this
Examinate said, What canst thou do at him? and the Dogge answered
againe, I can lame him: whereupon this Examinat answered, and said to
the said Black Dogge, Lame him: and before the Pedler was gone fortie
Roddes further, he fell downe Lame: and this Examinate then went after
the said Pedler; and in a house about the distance aforesaid, he was
lying Lame: and so this Examinate went begging in Trawden Forrest that
day, and came home at night: and about fiue daies next after, the said
Black-Dogge did appeare to this Examinate, as she was going a begging,
in a Cloase neere the New-Church in Pendle, and spake againe to her,
saying; Stay and speake with me; but this Examinate would not:
Sithence which time this Examinat neuer saw him.

     _Which agreeth_ verbatim _with her owne Examination taken
     at_ Reade, _in the Countie of Lancaster, the thirtieth day
     of March, before Master_ Nowel, _when she was apprehended
     and taken._

My Lord _Bromley_, and all the whole Court not a little wondering,
as they had good cause, at this liberall and voluntarie confession of
the Witch; which is not ordinary with people of their condition and
qualitie: and beholding also the poore distressed Pedler, standing by,
commanded him vpon his oath to declare the manner how, and in what
sort he was handled; how he came to be lame, and so to be deformed;
who deposed vpon his oath, as followeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Euidence of_ IOHN LAW,
_Pettie Chapman, vpon his Oath:_

Against

ALIZON DEVICE, _Prisoner at the Barre._

He deposeth and saith, That about the eighteenth of March last
past, hee being a Pedler, went with his Packe of wares at his backe
thorow Colne-field: where vnluckily he met with _Alizon Deuice_, now
Prisoner at the Barre, who was very earnest with him for pinnes, but
he would giue her none: whereupon she seemed to be very angry; and
when hee was past her, hee fell downe lame in great extremitie; and
afterwards by meanes got into an Ale-house in Colne, neere vnto the
place where hee was first bewitched: and as hee lay there in great
paine, not able to stirre either hand or foote; he saw a great
Black-Dogge stand by him, with very fearefull firie eyes, great teeth,
and a terrible countenance, looking him in the face; whereat he was
very sore afraid: and immediately after came in the said _Alizon
Deuice_, who staid not long there, but looked on him, and went away.

After which time hee was tormented both day and night with the said
_Alizon Deuice_; and so continued lame, not able to trauell or take
paines euer since that time: which with weeping teares in great
passion turned to the Prisoner; in the hearing of all the Court hee
said to her, _This thou knowest to be too true_: and thereupon she
humblie acknowledged the same, and cried out to God to forgiue her;
and vpon her knees with weeping teares, humbly prayed him to forgiue
her that wicked offence; which he very freely and voluntarily did.

Hereupon Master _Nowel_ standing vp, humbly prayed the fauour of the
Court, in respect this Fact of Witchcraft was more eminent and
apparant than the rest, that for the better satisfaction of the
Audience, the Examination of _Abraham Law_ might be read in Court.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ ABRAHAM
LAW, _of Hallifax, in the Countie of Yorke, Cloth-dier,
taken vpon oath the thirtieth day of March, 1612._

Before

ROGER NOWEL, _Esquire, aforesaid._

Being sworne and examined, saith, That vpon Saturday last saue one,
being the one and twentieth day of this instant March, he, this
Examinate was sent for, by a letter that came from his father, that he
should come to his father, _Iohn Law_, who then lay in Colne
speechlesse, and had the left-side lamed all saue his eye: and when
this Examinate came to his father, his said father had something
recouered his speech, and did complaine that hee was pricked with
Kniues, Elsons and Sickles,[S_a_] and that the same hurt was done vnto
him at Colne-field, presently after that _Alizon Deuice_ had offered
to buy some pinnes of him, and she had no money to pay for them
withall; but as this Examinates father told this Examinate, he gaue
her some pinnes. And this Examinate further saith, That he heard his
said father say, that the hurt he had in his lamenesse was done vnto
him by the said _Alizon Deuice_, by Witchcraft. And this Examinate
further saith, that hee heard his said Father further say, that the
said _Alizon Deuice_ did lie vpon him and trouble him. And this
Examinate seeing his said Father so tormented with the said _Alizon_
and with one other olde woman, whome this Examinates Father did not
know as it seemed: This Examinate made search after the said _Alizon_,
and hauing found her, brought her to his said Father yesterday being
the nine and twenteth of this instant March: whose said Father in the
hearing of this Examinate and diuers others did charge the said
_Alizon_ to haue bewitched him, which the said _Alizon_
confessing[S_b_] did aske this Examinates said Father forgiuenesse
vpon her knees for the same; whereupon this Examinates Father
accordingly did forgiue her. Which Examination in open Court vpon his
oath hee iustified to be true.

Whereupon it was there affirmed to the Court that this _Iohn Law_ the
Pedler, before his vnfortunate meeting with this Witch, was a verie
able sufficient stout man of Bodie, and a goodly man of Stature. But
by this Deuillish art of _Witch-craft_ his head is drawne awrie, his
Eyes and face deformed, His speech not well to bee vnderstood; his
Thighes and Legges starcke lame: his Armes lame especially the left
side, his handes lame and turned out of their course, his Bodie able
to indure no trauell: and thus remaineth at this present time.

The Prisoner being examined by the Court whether shee could helpe the
poore Pedler to his former strength and health, she answered she could
not, and so did many of the rest of the Witches: But shee, with
others, affirmed, That if old _Dembdike_ had liued, shee could and
would haue helped him out of that great miserie, which so long he hath
endured for so small an offence, as you haue heard.

These things being thus openly published against her, and she knowing
her selfe to be guiltie of euery particular, humbly acknowledged the
Indictment against her to be true, and that she was guiltie of the
offence therein contained, and that she had iustly deserued death for
that and many other such like: whereupon she was carried away, vntill
she should come to the Barre to receiue her judgement of death.

Oh, who was present at this lamentable spectacle, that was not moued
with pitie to behold it!

Hereupon my Lord _Gerard_, Sir _Richard Houghton_, and others, who
much pitied the poore Pedler, At the entreatie of my Lord _Bromley_
the Iudge, promised some present course should be taken for his
reliefe and maintenance; being now discharged and sent away.

But here I may not let her passe; for that I find some thing more vpon
Record to charge her withall: for although she were but a young Witch,
of a yeares standing, and thereunto induced by _Dembdike_ her
Grand-mother, as you haue formerly heard, yet she was spotted with
innocent bloud among the rest: for in one part of the Examination of
_Iames Deuice_, her brother, he deposeth as followeth, _viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IAMES DEVICE,
_brother to the said_ ALIZON DEVICE: _Taken
vpon Oath_

Before

ROGER NOWEL _Esquire, aforesaid, the thirtieth day
of March, 1612._

_Iames Deuice_, of the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie of
Lancaster, Labourer, sworne and examined, sayth, That about _Saint
Peters_ day last one _Henry Bulcock_ came to the house of _Elizabeth
Sothernes_, alias _Dembdike_, Grand-mother to this Examinate, and
said, That the said _Alizon Deuice_ had bewitched a Child of his, and
desired her, that shee would goe with him to his house: which
accordingly shee did: and thereupon shee the said _Alizon_ fell downe
on her knees, and asked the said _Bulcock_ forgiuenesse; and confessed
to him, that she had bewitched the said Child, as this Examinate heard
his said sister confesse vnto him this Examinate.

And although shee were neuer indicted for this offence, yet being
matter vpon Record, I thought it conuenient to joyne it vnto her
former Fact.

Here the Iurie of Life and Death hauing spent the most part of the
day in due consideration of their offences, returned into the Court to
deliuer up their Verdict against them, as followeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Verdict of Life
and Death._

Who vpon their Oathes found _Iohn Bulcock_ and _Iane Bulcock_ his
mother, not guiltie of the Felonie by Witch-craft, contained in the
Indictment against them.

_Alizon Deuice_ conuicted vpon her owne Confession.

Whereupon Master _Couel_ was commaunded by the Court to take away the
Prisoners conuicted, and to bring forth _Margaret Pearson_,[S3_b_] and
_Isabell Robey_, Prisoners in the Castle at Lancaster, to receiue
their Triall.

Who were brought to their Arraignement and Trialls, as hereafter
followeth, _viz._


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ MARGARET PEARSON
_of Paddiham, in the Countie of Lancaster, for
Witchcraft; the nineteenth of August, 1612. at the
Assises and Generall Gaole-deliuerie, holden at Lancaster_,

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY _Knight, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assise at Lancaster._

_Margaret Pearson._

Thus farre haue I proceeded in hope your patience will endure the
end of this discourse, which craues time, and were better not begunne
at all, then not perfected.

This _Margaret Pearson_ was the wife of _Edward Pearson_ of Paddiham,
in the Countie of Lancaster; little inferiour in her wicked and
malicious course of life to any that hath gone before her: A very
dangerous Witch of long continuance, generally suspected and feared in
all parts of the Countrie, and of all good people neare her, and not
without great cause: For whosoeuer gaue her any iust occasion of
offence, shee tormented with great miserie, or cut off their
children, goods, or friends.

This wicked and vngodly Witch reuenged her furie vpon goods, so that
euery one neare her sustained great losse. I place her in the end of
these notorious Witches, by reason her iudgement is of an other
Nature, according to her offence; yet had not the fauour and mercie of
the Iurie beene more than her desert, you had found her next to old
_Dembdike_; for this is the third time shee is come to receiue her
Triall; one time for murder by Witch-craft; an other time for
bewitching a Neighbour; now for goods.

     How long shee hath been a Witch, the Deuill and shee knows
     best.

The Accusations, Depositions, and particular Examinations vpon Record
against her are infinite, and were able to fill a large Volume; But
since shee is now only to receiue her Triall for this last offence. I
shall proceede against her in order, and set forth what matter we haue
vpon Record, to charge her withall.

This _Margaret Pearson_, Prisoner in the Castle at Lancaster: Being
brought to the Barre before the great Seat of Iustice; was there
according to the course and order of the Law Indicted and Arraigned,
for that shee had practised, exercised, and vsed her diuellish and
wicked Arts, called _Witchcrafts_, _Inchantments_, _Charmes_ and
_Sorceries_, and one Mare of the goods and Chattels of one _Dodgeson_
of Padiham, in the Countie of Lancaster, wickedly, maliciously, and
voluntarily did kill. _Contra formam Statuti, &c. Et Contra pacem
dicti Domini Regis. &c._

Vpon her Arraignement to this Indictment, shee pleaded not guiltie;
And for the triall of her offence put her selfe vpon God and her
Countrie.

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of her offence and death, stand
charged with her as with others.

     _The Euidence against_ Margaret Pearson,
     _Prisoner at the Barre._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_
ANNE WHITTLE, _alias_ CHATTOX.

Against

MARGARET PEARSON, _Prisoner at the Barre._

The said _Anne Chattox_ being examined saith, That the wife of one
_Pearson_ of Paddiham, is a very euill Woman, and confessed to this
Examinate, that shee is a Witch, and hath a Spirit which came to her
the first time in likenesse of a Man, and clouen footed, and that shee
the said _Pearsons_ wife hath done very much harme to one _Dodgesons_
goods, who came in at a loope-hole into the said _Dodgesons_ Stable,
and shee and her Spirit together did sit vpon his Horse or Mare,
vntill the said Horse or Mare died. And likewise, that shee the said
_Pearsons_ wife did confesse vnto her this Examinate, that shee
bewitched vnto death one _Childers_ wife, and her Daughter, and that
shee the said _Pearsons_ wife is as ill as shee.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IENNET BOOTH,
_of Paddiham, in the Countie of Lancaster, the ninth day
of August 1612._

Before

NICHOLAS BANNESTER, _Esquire; one of his
Maiesties Iustices of Peace in the Countie of Lancaster._

_Iennet_, the wife of _Iames Booth_, of Paddiham, vpon her oath
saith, That the Friday next after, the said _Pearsons_ wife, was
committed to the Gaole at Lancaster, this Examinate was carding in the
said _Pearsons_ house, hauing a little child with her, and willed the
said _Margerie_ to giue her a little Milke, to make her said child a
little meat, who fetcht this Examinate some, and put it in a pan; this
examinat meaning to set it on the fire, found the said fire very ill,
and taking vp a stick that lay by her, and brake it in three or foure
peeces, and laid vpon the coales to kindle the same, then set the pan
and milke on the fire: and when the milke was boild to this Examinates
content, she tooke the pan wherein the milke was, off the said fire,
and with all, vnder the bottome of the same, there came a Toade, or a
thing very like a Toade, and to this Examinates thinking came out of
the fire, together with the said Pan, and vnder the bottome of the
same, and that the said _Margerie_ did carrie the said Toade out of
the said house in a paire of tonges;[T_a_] But what shee the said
_Margerie_ did therewith, this Examinate knoweth not.

After this were diuers witnesses examined against her in open Court,
_viua voce_, to proue the death of the Mare, and diuers other vild
and odious practises by her committed, who vpon their Examinations
made it so apparant to the Iurie as there was no question; But because
the fact is of no great importance, in respect her life is not in
question by this Indictment, and the Depositions and examinations are
many, I leaue to trouble you with any more of them, for being found
guiltie of this offence, the penaltie of the Law is as much as her
good Neighbours doe require, which is to be deliuered from the
companie of such a dangerous, wicked, and malicious Witch.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ ISABEL ROBEY
_in the Countie of Lancaster, for Witch-craft: vpon Wednesday
the nineteenth of August, 1612. At the Assizes and generall
Goale-deliuery, holden at Lancaster._

Before

_Sir_ EDWARD BROMLEY, _Knight, one of his Maiesties
Iustices of Assizes at Lancaster._

_Isabel Robey._[T2_a_1]

Thus at one time may you behold Witches of all sorts from many
places in this Countie of Lancaster which now may lawfully bee said to
abound asmuch in Witches of diuers kindes as Seminaries, Iesuites, and
Papists.[T2_a_2] Here then is the last that came to act her part in
this lamentable and wofull Tragedie, wherein his Maiestie hath lost so
many Subjects, Mothers their Children, Fathers their Friends, and
Kinsfolkes[T2_a_3] the like whereof hath not beene set forth in any
age. What hath the Kings Maiestie written and published in his
_Daemonologie_, by way of premonition and preuention, which hath not
here by the first or last beene executed, put in practise or
discouered? What Witches haue euer vpon their Arraignement and Trial
made such open liberall and voluntarie declarations of their liues,
and such confessions of their offences: The manner of their attempts
and their bloudie practises, their meetings, consultations and what
not? Therefore I shall now conclude with this _Isabel Robey_ who is
now come to her triall.

This _Isabel Robey_ Prisoner in the Castle at Lancaster being brought
to the Barre before the great Seat of Iustice was there according to
the former order and course Indicted and Arraigned, for that shee
Felloniously had practised, exercised and vsed her Deuilish and wicked
Artes called _Witchcrafts_, _Inchantments_, _Charmes and Sorceries_.

Vpon her Arraignment to this Indictment she pleaded not guiltie, and
for the triall of her life, put her selfe vpon God and her Countrie.

So as now the Gentlemen of the Iurie of life and death stand charged
with her as with others.

     _The Euidence against_ Isabel Robey
     _Prisoner at the Barre._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ PETER CHADDOCK
_of Windle, in the Countie of Lancaster: Taken at
Windle aforesaid, the 12. day of Iuly 1612._ Anno Reg.
Regis IACOBI, Angliae, &c. decimo, & Scotiae xlv.

Before

_Sir_ THOMAS GERRARD _Knight, and Barronet. One
of his Maiesties Iustices of the Peace within the said
Countie._

The said Examinate vpon his Oath saith, That before his Marriage
hee heard say that the said _Isabel Robey_ was not pleased that hee
should marrie his now wife: whereupon this Examinate called the said
_Isabel_ Witch, and said that hee did not care for her. Then within
two dayes next after this Examinate was sore pained in his bones: And
this Examinate hauing occasion to meete Master _Iohn Hawarden_ at
Peaseley Crosse, wished one _Thomas Lyon_ to goe thither with him,
which they both did so; but as they came home-wards, they both were in
euill case. But within a short time after, this Examinate and the said
_Thomas Lyon_ were both very well amended.

And this Examinate further saith, that about foure yeares last past,
his now wife was angrie with the said _Isabel_, shee then being in his
house, and his said Wife thereupon went out of the house, and
presently after that the said _Isabel_ went likewise out of the house
not well pleased, as this Examinate then did thinke, and presently
after vpon the same day, this Examinate with his said wife working in
the Hay, a paine and a starknesse fell into the necke of this Examinat
which grieued him very sore; wherup[=o] this Examinat sent to one
_Iames_ a Glouer, which then dwelt in Windle, and desired him to pray
for him, and within foure or fiue dayes next after this Examinate did
mend very well. Neuerthelesse this Examinate during the same time was
very sore pained, and so thirstie withall, and hot within his body,
that hee would haue giuen any thing hee had, to haue slaked his
thirst, hauing drinke enough in the house, and yet could not drinke
vntill the time that the said _Iames_ the Glouer came to him, and this
Examinate then said before the said Glouer, I would to God that I
could drinke, where upon the said Glouer said to this Examinate, take
that drinke, and in the name of the _Father_, the _Sonne_, and the
_Holy Ghost_, drinke it, saying; The Deuill and Witches are not able
to preuaile against GOD and his Word, whereupon this Examinate then
tooke the glasse of drinke, and did drinke it all, and afterwards
mended very well, and so did continue in good health, vntill our Ladie
day in Lent was twelue moneth or thereabouts, since which time this
Examinate saith, that hee hath beene sore pained with great warch in
his bones,[T3_b_] and all his limmes, and so yet continueth, and this
Examinate further saith, that his said warch and paine came to him
rather by meanes of the said _Isabel Robey_, then otherwise, as he
verily thinketh.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IANE WILKINSON,
_Wife of_ FRANCIS WILKINSON, _of Windle aforesaid:
Taken before the said Sir_ THOMAS GERRARD,
_Knight and Barronet, the day and place aforesaid.
Against the said_ ISABEL ROBEY.

The said Examinate vpon her oath saith, that vpon a time the said
_Isabel Robey_ asked her milke, and shee denied to giue her any: And
afterwards shee met the said _Isabel_, whereupon this Examinate waxed
afraid of her, and was then presently sick, and so pained that shee
could not stand, and the next day after this Examinate going to
Warrington, was suddenly pinched on her Thigh as shee thought, with
foure fingers & a Thumbe twice together, and thereupon was sicke, in
so much as shee could not get home but on horse-backe, yet soone after
shee did mend.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ MARGARET
LYON _wife of_ THOMAS LYON _the yonger, of
Windle aforesaid: Taken before the said Sir_ THOMAS
GERRARD, _Knight and Barronet, the day and place aforesaid.
Against the said_ ISABEL ROBEY.

The said _Margaret Lyon_ vpon her Oath saith, that vpon a time
_Isabel Robey_ came into her house and said that _Peter Chaddock_
should neuer mend vntill he had asked her forgiuenesse; and that shee
knew hee would neuer doe: whereupon this Examinate said, how doe you
know that, for he is a true Christian, and hee would aske all the
world forgiuenesse? then the said _Isabel_ said, that is all one, for
hee will neuer aske me forgiuenesse, therefore hee shall neuer mend;
And this Examinate further saith, that shee being in the house of the
said _Peter Chaddock_, the wife of the said _Peter_, who is
God-Daughter of the said _Isabel_, and hath in times past vsed her
companie much, did affirme, that the said _Peter_ was now satisfied,
that the said _Isabel Robey_ was no Witch, by sending to one
_Halseworths_, which they call a wiseman,[T4_b_1] and the wife of the
said _Peter_ then said, to abide vpon it,[T4_b_2] I thinke that my
Husband will neuer mend vntill hee haue asked her forgiuenesse, choose
him whether hee will bee angrie or pleased, for this is my opinion: to
which he answered, when he did need to aske her forgiuenesse, he
would, but hee thought hee did not need, for any thing hee knew: and
yet this Examinate further saith, That the said _Peter Chaddock_ had
very often told her, that he was very afraid that the said _Isabel_
had done him much hurt; and that he being fearefull to meete her, he
hath turned backe at such time as he did meet her alone, which the
said _Isabel_ hath since then affirmed to be true, saying, that hee
the said _Peter_ did turne againe when he met her in the Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ MARGARET
PARRE _wife of_ HVGH PARRE _of Windle aforesaid,
Taken before the said Sir_ THOMAS GERARD
_Knight and Baronet, the day and place aforesaid. Against
the said_ ISABEL ROBEY.

The said Examinate vpon her oath saith, that vpon a time, the said
_Isabel Robey_ came to her house, and this Examinate asked her how
_Peter Chaddock_ did, And the said _Isabel_ answered shee knew not,
for shee went not to see, and then this Examinate asked her how _Iane
Wilkinson_ did, for that she had beene lately sicke and suspected to
haue beene bewitched: then the said _Isabel_ said twice together, I
haue bewitched her too: and then this Examinate said that shee trusted
shee could blesse her selfe from all Witches and defied them; and then
the said _Isabel_ said twice together, would you defie me? &
afterwards the said _Isabel_ went away not well pleased.

Here the Gentlemen of the last Iurie of Life and Death hauing taken
great paines, the time being farre spent, and the number of the
Prisoners great, returned into the Court to deliuer vp their Verdict
against them as followeth. _viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Verdict of Life and
Death._

Who vpon their Oathes found the said _Isabel Robey_ guiltie of the
Fellonie by Witch-craft, contained in the Indictment against her. And
_Margaret Pearson_ guiltie of the offence by Witch-craft, contained in
the Indictment against her.

Whereupon Master _Couell_ was commaunded by the Court in the
afternoone to bring forth all the Prisoners that stood Conuicted, to
receiue their Iudgment of Life and Death.

For his Lordship now intended to proceed to a finall dispatch of the
Pleas of the Crowne. And heere endeth the Arraignement and Triall of
the Witches at Lancaster.

Thus at the length haue we brought to perfection this intended
Discouery of Witches, with the Arraignement and Triall of euery one of
them in order, by the helpe of Almightie God, and this Reuerend Iudge;
the Lanterne from whom I haue received light to direct me in this
course to the end. And as in the beginning, I presented vnto their
view a Kalender containing the names of all the witches: So now I
shall present vnto you in the conclusion and end, such as stand
conuicted, and come to the Barre to receiue the iudgement of the Law
for their offences, and the proceedings of the Court against such as
were acquitted, and found not guiltie: with the religious Exhortation
of this Honorable Iudge, as eminent in gifts and graces, as in place
and preeminence, which I may lawfully affirme without base flattery
(the canker of all honest and worthie minds) drew the eyes and
reuerend respect of all that great Audience present, to heare their
Iudgement, and the end of these proceedings.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Prisoners being brought to the Barre._

The Court commanded three solemne Proclamations for silence, vntill
Iudgement for Life and Death were giuen.

Whereupon I presented to his Lordship the names of the Prisoners in
order, which were now to receiue their Iudgement.

       *       *       *       *       *

Pp The names of the Prisoners at the
_Barre to receiue their Judgement_
of Life and Death.

_Anne Whittle_, alias
_Chattox._

_Elizabeth Deuice._

_James Deuice._

_Anne Redferne._

_Alice Nutter._

_Katherine Hewet_,

_John Bulcock._

_Jane Bulcock._

_Alizon Deuice._

_Isabel Robey._


[Illustration: decoration]

THE IVDGEMENT
OF THE RIGHT HONORABLE
Sir EDWARD BROMLEY, Knight, one
_of his Maiesties Iustices of Assize at Lancaster
vpon the Witches conuicted_,
as followeth.

_There is no man aliue more vnwilling to pronounce this wofull and
heauy Iudgement against you, then my selfe: and if it were possible, I
would to God this cup might passe from me. But since it is otherwise
prouided, that after all proceedings of the Law, there must be a
Iudgement; and the Execution of that Iudgement must succeed and follow
in due time: I pray you haue patience to receiue that which the Law
doth lay vpon you. You of all people haue the least cause to
complaine: since in the Triall of your liues there hath beene great
care and paines taken, and much time spent: and very few or none of
you, but stand conuicted vpon your owne voluntarie confessions and
Examinations_, Ex ore proprio. _Few Witnesses examined against you,
but such as were present, and parties in your Assemblies. Nay I may
further affirme, What persons of your nature and condition, euer were
Arraigned and Tried with more solemnitie, had more libertie giuen to
pleade or answere to euerie particular point of Euidence against you?
In conclusion such hath beene the generall care of all, that had to
deale with you, that you haue neither cause to be offended in the
proceedings of the Iustices, that first tooke paines in these
businesses, nor with the Court that hath had great care to giue
nothing in euidence against you, but matter of fact; Sufficient matter
vpon Record, and not to induce or leade the Iurie to finde any one of
you guiltie vpon matter of suspition or presumption, nor with the
witnesses who haue beene tried, as it were in the fire: Nay, you
cannot denie but must confesse what extraordinarie meanes hath beene
vsed to make triall of their euidence, and to discouer the least
intended practice in any one of them, to touch your liues vniustly._

_As you stand simply (your offences and bloudie practises not
considered) your fall would rather moue compassion, then exasperate
any man. For whom would not the ruine of so many poore creatures at
one time, touch, as in apparance simple, and of little vnderstanding?_

_But the bloud of those innocent children, and others his Maiesties
Subiects, whom cruelly and barbarously you haue murdered, and cut off,
with all the rest of your offences, hath cryed out vnto the Lord
against you, and sollicited for satisfaction and reuenge, and that
hath brought this heauie iudgement vpon you at this time._

_It is therefore now time no longer wilfully to striue, both against
the prouidence of God, and the Iustice of the Land: the more you
labour to acquit your selues, the more euident and apparant you make
your offences to the World. And vnpossible it is that they shall
either prosper or continue in this World, or receiue reward in the
next, that are stained with so much innocent bloud._

_The worst then I wish to you, standing at the Barre conuicted, to
receiue your Iudgement, is, Remorse, and true Repentance, for the
safegard of your Soules, and after, an humble, penitent, and heartie
acknowledgement of your grieuous sinnes and offences committed both
against_ GOD _and Man._

_First, yeeld humble and heartie thankes to Almightie_ GOD _for taking
hold of you in your beginning, and making stay of your intended
bloudie practises (although_ GOD _knowes there is too much done
alreadie) which would in time have cast so great a weight of Iudgement
vpon your Soules._

_Then praise_ GOD _that it pleased him not to surprize or strike you
suddenly, euen in the execution of your bloudie Murthers, and in the
middest of your wicked practises, but hath giuen you time, and takes
you away by a iudiciall course and triall of the Law._

_Last of all, craue pardon of the World, and especially of all such as
you haue iustly offended, either by tormenting themselues, children,
or friends, murder of their kinsfolks, or losse of any their goods._

_And for leauing to future times the president of so many barbarous
and bloudie murders, with such meetings, practises, consultations, and
meanes to execute reuenge, being the greatest part of your comfort in
all your actions, which may instruct others to hold the like course,
or fall in the like sort:_

_It only remaines I pronounce the Iudgement of the Court against you
by the Kings authoritie, which is;_ You shall all goe from hence to
the Castle, from whence you came; from thence you shall bee carried to
the place of Execution for this Countie: where your bodies shall bee
hanged vntill you be dead; AND GOD HAVE MERCIE VPON YOVR SOVLES; For
your comfort in this world I shall commend a learned and worthie
Preacher to instruct you, and prepare you, for an other World: All I
can doe for you is to pray for your Repentance in this World, for the
satisfaction of many; And forgiuenesse in the next world, for sauing
of your Soules. And God graunt you may make good vse of the time you
haue in this world, to his glorie and your owne comfort.


_Margaret Pearson._

The Iudgement of the Court against you, is, You shall stand vpon
the Pillarie in open Market, at _Clitheroe_, _Paddiham_, _Whalley_,
and _Lancaster_, foure Market dayes, with a Paper vpon your head, in
great Letters, declaring your offence, and there you shall confesse
your offence, and after to remaine in Prison for one yeare without
Baile, and after to be bound with good Sureties, to be of the good
behauiour.

       *       *       *       *       *

_To the Prisoners found not guiltie_
by the IVRIES.

_Elizabeth Astley._
_John Ramsden._
_Alice Gray._
_Isabel Sidegraues._
_Lawrence Hay._[X_a_]

_To you that are found not guiltie, and are by the Law to bee
acquited, presume no further of your Innocencie then you haue just
cause: for although it pleased God out of his Mercie, to spare you at
this time, yet without question there are amongst you, that are as
deepe in this Action, as any of them that are condemned to die for
their offences: The time is now for you to forsake the Deuill:
Remember how, and in what sort hee hath dealt with all of you: make
good vse of this great mercie and fauour: and pray unto God you fall
not againe: For great is your happinesse to haue time in this World,
to prepare your selues against the day when you shall appeare before
the Great Iudge of all._

_Notwithstanding, the iudgement of the Court, is_, You shall all enter
Recognizances with good sufficient Suerties, to appeare at the next
Assizes at Lancaster, and in the meane time to be of the good
behauiour. All I can say to you:

_Jennet Bierley_,

_Ellen Bierley_,

_Jane Southworth_, is, That GOD hath deliuered you beyond expectation,
I pray GOD you may vse this mercie and fauour well; and take heed you
fall not hereafter: And so the Court doth order you shall be
deliuered.

What more can bee written or published of the proceedings of this
honourable Court: but to conclude with the Execution of the
Witches,[X_b_] who were executed the next day following at the common
place of Execution, neare vnto Lancaster. Yet in the end giue mee
leaue to intreate some fauour that haue beene afraid to speake vntill
my worke were finished. If I haue omitted any thing materiall, or
published any thing imperfect, excuse me for that I haue done: It was
a worke imposed vpon me by the Iudges, in respect I was so wel
instructed in euery particular. In hast I haue vndertaken to finish it
in a busie Tearme amongst my other imploiments.

My charge was to publish the proceedings of Iustice, and matter of
Fact, wherein I wanted libertie to write what I would, and am limited
to set forth nothing against them, but matter vpon Record, euen in
their owne Countrie tearmes, which may seeme strange. And this I hope
will giue good satisfaction to such as vnderstand how to iudge of a
businesse of this nature. Such as haue no other imploiment but to
question other mens Actions, I leaue them to censure what they please,
It is no part of my profession to publish any thing in print, neither
can I paint in extraordinarie tearmes.[X2_a_] But if this discouerie
may serue for your instruction, I shall thinke my selfe very happie in
this Seruice, and so leaue it to your generall censure.

    _Da veniam Ignoto non displicuisse meretur,
            Festinat studys qui placuisse tibi._

[Illustration: decoration]

       *       *       *       *       *

_THE_
ARRAIGNEMENT
AND TRIALL OF
IENNET PRESTON, OF
GISBORNE IN CRAVEN,
in the Countie of Yorke.

At the Assises and Generall Gaole-_Deliuerie_
_holden at the Castle of Yorke_
in the Countie of Yorke, the xxvij. day of
Iuly last past, _Anno Regni Regis_ IACOBI
_Angliae, &c. Decimo, & Scotiae
quadragesimo quinto._

Before

_Sir_ IAMES ALTHAM _Knight, one_
of the Barons of his Maiesties Court of Exchequer;
and Sir EDWARD BROMLEY Knight, another of
_the Barons of his Maiesties Court of Exchequer;_
his Maiesties Iustices of Assise, Oyer and Terminer,
_and generall Gaole-Deliuerie, in the Circuit
of the North-parts._

[Illustration: decoration]

LONDON.

Printed by W. STANSBY for IOHN BARNES, and
are to be sold at his Shoppe neere Holborne
Conduit. 1612.


[Illustration: decoration]

THE ARRAIGNMENT
_and Triall of_ IENNET PRESTON
_of Gisborne in Crauen, in the Countie of Yorke, at
the Assises and generall Gaole-deliuerie, holden at the
Castle of Yorke, in the Countie of Yorke, the seuen and
twentieth day of Iuly last past._ Anno Regni Regis Iacobi
Angliae &c. Decimo & Scotiae xlvj.

_Jennet Preston._

Many haue vndertaken to write great discourses of Witches and many
more dispute and speake of them. And it were not much if as many wrote
of them as could write at al, to set forth to the world the particular
Rites and Secrets of their vnlawfull Artes, with their infinite and
wonderfull practises which many men little feare till they seaze vpon
them. As by this late wonderfull discouerie of Witches in the Countie
of Lancaster may appeare, wherein I find such apparant matter to
satisfie the World, how dangerous and malitious a Witch this _Iennet
Preston_ was, How vnfit to liue, hauing once so great mercie extended
to her: And againe to reuiue her practises, and returne to her former
course of life; that I thinke it necessarie not to let the memorie of
her life and death die with her; But to place her next to her fellowes
and to set forth the Arraignement Triall and Conviction of her, with
her offences for which she was condemned and executed.

And although shee died for her offence before the rest, I yet can
afford her no better place then in the end of this Booke in respect
the proceedings was in an other Countie;

You that were husband to this _Iennet Preston_; her friends and
kinsfolkes, who haue not beene sparing to deuise so scandalous a
slander out of the malice of your hearts, as that shee was maliciously
prosecuted by Master _Lister_ and others; Her life vniustly taken away
by practise; and that (euen at the Gallowes where shee died impenitent
and void of all feare or grace) she died an Innocent woman, because
she would confesse nothing: You I say may not hold it strange, though
at this time, being not only moued in conscience, but directed, for
example sake, with that which I haue to report of her, I suffer you
not to wander any further, but with this short discourse oppose your
idle conceipts able to seduce others: And by Charmes of Imputations
and slander, laid vpon the Iustice of the Land, to cleare her that was
iustly condemned and executed for her offence; That this _Iennet
Preston_ was for many yeares well thought of and esteemed by Master
_Lister_ who afterwards died for it Had free accesse to his house,
kind respect and entertainment; nothing denied her she stood in need
of. Which of you that dwelleth neare them in Crauen but can and will
witnesse it? which might haue incouraged a Woman of any good condition
to haue runne a better course.

The fauour and goodnesse of this Gentleman Master _Lister_ now liuing,
at his first entrance after the death of his Father extended towards
her, and the reliefe she had at all times, with many other fauours
that succeeded from time to time, are so palpable and euident to all
men as no man can denie them. These were sufficient motiues to haue
perswaded her from the murder of so good a friend.

But such was her execrable Ingratitude, as euen this grace and
goodnesse was the cause of his miserable and vntimely death. And euen
in the beginning of his greatest fauours extended to her, began shee
to worke this mischiefe, according to the course of all Witches.

This _Iennet Preston_, whose Arraignment and Triall, with the
particular Euidence against her I am now to set forth vnto you, one
that liued at Gisborne in Crauen, in the Countie of Yorke, neare
Master _Lister_ of Westbie, against whom she practised much mischiefe;
for hauing cut off _Thomas Lister_ Esquire, father to this gentleman
now liuing,[Y_a_1] shee reuenged her selfe vpon his sonne: who in
short time receiued great losse in his goods and cattell by her
meanes.

These things in time did beget suspition, and at the Assizes and
Generall Gaole deliuerie holden at the Castle of Yorke in Lent last
past, before my Lord _Bromley_, shee was Indicted and Arraigned for
the murder of a Child of one _Dodg-sonnes_,[Y_a_2] but by the fauour
and mercifull consideration of the Iurie thereof acquited.

But this fauour and mercie was no sooner extended towardes her, and
shee set at libertie, But shee began to practise the utter ruine and
ouerthrow of the name and bloud of this Gentleman.

And the better to execute her mischiefe and wicked intent, within
foure dayes after her deliuerance out of the Castle at Yorke, went to
the great Assembly of Witches at _Malking-Tower_ vpon Good-friday
last: to praye aide and helpe, for the murder of Master _Lister_, in
respect he had prosecuted against her at the same Assizes.

Which it pleased God in his mercie to discouer, and in the end,
howsoeuer he had blinded her, as he did the King of AEgypt and his
Instruments, for the brighter euidence of his own powerfull glory: Yet
by a Iudiciall course and triall of the Law, cut her off, and so
deliuered his people from the danger of her Deuilish and wicked
practises: which you shall heare against her, at her Arraignement and
Triall, which I shall now set forth to you in order as it was
performed, with the wonderfull signes and tokens of GOD, to satisfie
the Iurie to finde her guiltie of this bloudie murther, committed
foure yeares since.

       *       *       *       *       *

Indictment.

This _Iennet Preston_ being Prisoner in the Castle at Yorke, and
indicted, for that shee felloniously had practised, vsed, and
exercised diuerse wicked and deuillish Arts, called Witchcrafts,
Inchauntments, Charmes, and Sorceries, in and vpon one _Thomas Lister_
of Westby in Crauen, in the Countie of Yorke Esquire, and by force of
the same Witchcraft felloniously the said _Thomas Lister_ had killed,
_Contra Pacem &c._ beeing at the Barre, was arraigned.

To this Indictment vpon her Arraignement, shee pleaded not guiltie,
and for the Triall of her life put her selfe vpon GOD and her
Countrey.

Whereupon my Lord _Altham_ commaunded Master Sheriffe of the Countie
of Yorke, in open Court to returne a Iurie of sufficient Gentlemen of
vnderstanding, to passe betweene our Soueraigne Lord the Kings
Majestie and her, and others the Prisoners, vpon their liues and
deaths; who were afterwards sworne, according to the forme and order
of the Court, the prisoner being admitted to her lawfull challenge.

Which being done, and the Prisoner at the Barre to receiue her Tryall,
Master _Heyber_,[Y2_a_] one of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace in the
same County, hauing taken great paines in the proceedings against her;
and being best instructed of any man of all the particular points of
Euidence against her, humbly prayed, the witnesses hereafter following
might be examined against her, and the seuerall Examinations, taken
before Master _Nowel_, and certified, might openly bee published
against her; which hereafter follow in order, _viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Euidence for the Kings Maiestie_

Against

IENNET PRESTON, _Prisoner at the Barre._

Hereupon were diuerse Examinations taken and read openly against
her, to induce and satisfie the Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and
Death, to finde she was a Witch; and many other circumstances for the
death of M. _Lister_. In the end _Anne Robinson_ and others were both
examined, who vpon their Oathes declared against her, That M. _Lister_
lying in great extremitie, vpon his death bedde, cried out vnto them
that stood about him; that _Iennet Preston_ was in the house, looke
where shee is, take hold of her: for Gods sake shut the doores, and
take her, shee cannot escape away. Looke about for her, and lay hold
on her, for shee is in the house: and so cryed very often in his great
paines, to them that came to visit him during his sicknesse.


_Anne Robinson_,

and

_Thomas Lister_,

Being examined further, they both gaue this in euidence against her,
That when Master _Lister_ lay vpon his death-bedde, hee cryed out in
great extremitie; _Iennet Preston_ lyes heauie vpon me, _Prestons_
wife lies heauie vpon me; helpe me, helpe me: and so departed, crying
out against her.

These, with many other witnesses, were further examined, and deposed,
That _Iennet Preston_, the Prisoner at the Barre, being brought to M.
_Lister_ after hee was dead, & layd out to be wound vp in his
winding-sheet, the said _Iennet Preston_ comming to touch the dead
corpes, they bled fresh bloud presently,[Y3_a_] in the presence of all
that were there present: Which hath euer beene held a great argument
to induce a Iurie to hold him guiltie that shall be accused of
Murther, and hath seldome, or neuer, fayled in the Tryall.

But these were not alone: for this wicked and bloud-thirstie Witch was
no sooner deliuered at the Assises holden at Yorke in Lent last past,
being indicted, arraigned, and by the fauor and mercie of the Iurie
found not guiltie, for the murther of a Child by Witch-craft: but vpon
the Friday following, beeing Good-Friday, shee rode in hast to the
great meeting at Malking-Tower, and there prayed aide for the murther
of M. _Thomas Lister:_ as at large shall appeare, by the seuerall
Examinations hereafter following; sent to these Assises from Master
_Nowel_ and other his Maiesties Iustices of Peace in the Countie of
Lancaster, to be giuen in euidence against her, vpon her Triall,
_viz._

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination and Euidence of_
IAMES DEVICE, _of the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie
of Lancaster, Labourer, taken at the house of_ IAMES
WILSEY, _of the Forrest of Pendle in the Countie of
Lancaster, the seuen and twentieth day of Aprill_, Anno
Reg. Regis IACOBI Angliae, &c. Decimo ac Scotiae
quadragesimo quinto.

Before

ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER,
_Esquires, two of his Maiesties Iustices of the Peace
within the Countie of Lancaster_, viz.

This Examinate saith, That vpon Good-Friday last about twelue of
the clocke in the day-time, there dined in this Examinates said
mothers house a number of persons, whereof three were men, with this
Examinate, and the rest women: and that they met there for these three
causes following (as this Examinates said mother told this Examinate):
First was for the naming of the Spirit, which _Alizon Deuice_, now
Prisoner at Lancaster, had, but did not name him, because shee was not
there. The second cause was for the deliuery of his said Grand-mother,
this Examinates said sister _Alizon_, the said _Anne Chattox_, and her
daughter _Redferne_: Killing the Gaoler at Lancaster; and before the
next Assizes to blow vp the Castle there; to that end the aforesaid
Prisoners might by that meanes make an escape and get away. All which
this Examinate then heard them conferre of. And the third cause was,
for that there was a woman dwelling in Gilburne Parish, who came into
this Examinates said Grand-mothers house, who there came, and craued
assistance of the rest of them that were then there, for the killing
of Master _Lister_ of Westby: because, as she then said, he had borne
malice vnto her, and had thought to haue put her away at the last
Assizes at Yorke; but could not. And then this Examinat heard the said
woman say, that her power was not strong enough to doe it her selfe,
being now lesse then before time it had beene.

And he also further saith, that the said _Prestons_ wife had a Spirit
with her like unto a white Foale, with a blacke-spot in the forehead.
And further, this Examinat saith, That since the said meeting, as
aforesaid, this Examinate hath beene brought to the wife of one
_Preston_ in Gisburne Parish aforesaid, by _Henry Hargreiues_ of
Goldshey, to see whether shee was the woman that came amongst the said
Witches, on the said last Good-Friday, to craue their aide and
assistance for the killing of the said Master _Lister_: and hauing had
full view of her; hee this Examinate confesseth, That shee was the
selfe-same woman which came amongst the said Witches on the said last
Good-Friday, for their aide for the killing of the said Master
_Lister_; and that brought the Spirit with her, in the shape of a
White Foale, as aforesaid.

And this Examinate further saith, That all the said Witches went out
of the said house in their owne shapes and likenesses, and they all,
by that they were forth of the doores, were gotten on horse-backe like
vnto Foales, some of one colour, some of another, and _Prestons_ wife
was the last; and when she got on horse-backe, they all presently
vanished out of this Examinats sight: and before their said parting
away, they all appointed to meete at the said _Prestons_ wifes house
that day twelue-month; at which time the said _Prestons_ wife
promised to make them a great feast; and if they had occasion to meet
in the meane time, then should warning bee giuen that they all should
meete vpon Romles-Moore. And this Examinate further saith, That at the
said feast at Malking-Tower, this Examinat heard them all giue their
consents to put the said Master _Thomas Lister_ of Westby to death:
and after Master _Lister_ should be made away by Witchcraft, then al
the said Witches gaue their consents to ioyne altogether to hancke
Master _Leonard Lister_,[Z_a_] when he should come to dwell at the
Sowgill, and so put him to death.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ HENRIE HARGREIVES
_of Goldshey-booth, in the Forrest of
Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster Yeoman, taken the
fifth day of May_, Anno Reg. Regis IACOBI Angliae,
&c. Decimo, ac Scociae quadragesimo quinto.

Before

ROGER NOWEL, NICHOLAS BANNESTER,
_and_ ROBERT HOLDEN, _Esquires; three of his
Maiesties Iustices of Peace within the said Countie._

This Examinat vpon his oath saith, That _Anne Whittle_, alias
_Chattox_, confessed vnto him, that she knoweth one _Prestons_ wife
neere Gisburne, and that the said _Prestons_ wife should haue beene at
the said feast, vpon the said Good-Friday, and that shee was an ill
woman, and had done Master _Lister_ of Westby great hurt.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ ELIZABETH
DEVICE, _mother of_ IAMES DEVICE, _taken before_
ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER,
_Esquires, the day and yeare aforesaid_, viz.

The said _Elizabeth Deuice_ vpon her Examination confesseth, That
vpon Good-Friday last, there dined at this Examinats house, which she
hath said are Witches, and doth verily thinke them to be Witches; and
their names are those whom _Iames Deuice_ hath formerly spoken of to
be there.

She also confesseth in all things touching the killing of Master
_Lister_ of Westby, as the said _Iames Deuice_ hath before confessed.

And the said _Elizabeth Deuice_ also further saith, That at the said
meeting at Malking-Tower, as aforesaid, the said _Katherine Hewyt_ and
_Iohn Bulcock_, with all the rest then there, gaue their consents,
with the said _Prestons_ wife, for the killing of the said Master
_Lister_. And for the killing of the said Master _Leonard Lister_, she
this Examinate saith in all things, as the said _Iames Deuice_ hath
before confessed in his Examination.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Examination of_ IENNET DEVICE,
_daughter of_ ELIZABETH _late wife of_ IOHN
DEVICE, _of the Forrest of Pendle, in the Countie of Lancaster,
about the age of nine yeares or thereabouts, taken
the day and yeare aboue-said:_

Before

ROGER NOWEL _and_ NICHOLAS BANESTER,
_Esquires, two of his Maiesties Iustices of Peace in
the Countie of Lancaster._

The said Examinate vpon her Examination saith, that vpon Good-friday
last there was about twenty persons, whereof only two were men, to
this Examinats remembrance, at her said Grand-mothers house, called
Malking-Tower aforesaid, about twelue of the clocke: all which
persons, this Examinates said mother told her were Witches, and that
she knoweth the names of diuers of the said Witches.

       *       *       *       *       *

After all these Examinations, Confessions, and Euidence, deliuered
in open Court against her, His Lordship commanded the Iurie to obserue
the particular circumstances;[Z2_a_] first, Master _Lister_ in his
great extremitie, to complaine hee saw her, and requested them that
were by him to lay hold on her.

After he cried out shee lay heauie vpon him, euen at the time of his
death.

But the Conclusion is of more consequence then all the rest, that
_Iennet Preston_ being brought to the dead corps, they bled freshly.
And after her deliuerance in Lent, it is proued shee rode vpon a white
Foale, and was present in the great assembly at _Malkin Tower_ with
the Witches, to intreat and pray for aide of them, to kill Master
_Lister_, now liuing, for that he had prosequuted against her.

And against these people you may not expect such direct euidence,
since all their workes are the workes of darkenesse, no witnesses are
present to accuse them, therefore I pray God direct your consciences.

After the Gentlemen of the Iurie of Life and Death had spent the most
part of the day, in consideration of the euidence against her, they
returned into the Court and deliuered vp their Verdict of Life and
Death.

       *       *       *       *       *

_The Verdict of Life and Death._

Who found _Iennet Preston_ guiltie of the fellonie and murder by
Witch-craft of _Thomas Lister_, Esquire; conteyned in the Indictment
against her, &c.

Afterwards, according to the course and order of the Lawes, his
Lordship pronounced Iudgement against her to bee hanged for her
offence. And so the Court arose.

       *       *       *       *       *

Here was the wonderfull discouerie of this _Iennet Preston_, who
for so many yeares had liued at Gisborne in Crauen, neare Master
_Lister_: one thing more I shall adde to all these particular
Examinations, and euidence of witnesses, which I saw, and was present
in the Court at Lancaster, when it was done at the Assizes holden in
August following.

My Lord _Bromley_ being very suspicious of the accusation of _Iennet
Deuice_, the little Wench, commanded her to looke vpon the Prisoners
that were present, and declare which of them were present at _Malkin
Tower_, at the great assembly of Witches vpon Good-Friday last: shee
looked vpon and tooke many by the handes, and accused them to be
there, and when shee had accused all that were there present, shee
told his Lordship there was a Woman that came out of Crauen that was
amongst the Witches at that Feast, but shee saw her not amongst the
Prisoners at the Barre.

What a singular note was this of a Child, amongst many to misse her,
that before that time was hanged for her offence, which shee would
neuer confesse or declare at her death? here was present old _Preston_
her husband, who then cried out and went away: being fully satisfied
his wife had Iustice, and was worthie of death.

To conclude then this present discourse, I heartilie desire you, my
louing Friends and Countrie-men, for whose particular instructions
this is added to the former of the wonderfull discouerie of Witches in
the Countie of Lancaster: And for whose particular satisfaction this
is published; Awake in time, and suffer not your selues to be thus
assaulted.

Consider how barbarously this Gentleman hath been dealt withall; and
especially you that hereafter shall passe vpon any Iuries of Life and
Death, let not your conniuence, or rather foolish pittie, spare such
as these, to exequute farther mischiefe.

Remember that shee was no sooner set at libertie, but shee plotted the
ruine and ouerthrow of this Gentleman, and his whole Familie.

Expect not, as this reuerend and learned Iudge saith, such apparent
proofe against them, as against others, since all their workes, are
the workes of darkenesse: and vnlesse it please Almightie God to raise
witnesses to accuse them, who is able to condemne them?

Forget not the bloud that cries out vnto God for reuenge, bring it not
vpon your owne heads.

Neither doe I vrge this any farther, then with this, that I would
alwaies intreat you to remember, that it is as great a crime (as
_Salomon_ sayth, _Prov._ 17.) to condemne the innocent, as to let the
guiltie escape free.

Looke not vpon things strangely alledged, but iudiciously consider
what is justly proued against them.

And that as well all you that were witnesses, present at the
Arraignement and Triall of her, as all other strangers, to whome this
Discourse shall come, may take example by this Gentlemen to prosecute
these hellish Furies to their end:[Z3_b_1] labor to root them out of
the Commonwealth, for the common good of your Countrey. The greatest
mercie extended to them, is soone forgotten.

GOD graunt vs the long and prosperous cotinuance of these Honorable
and Reuerend Iudges, vnder whose Gouernment we liue in these North
parts: for we may say, that GOD Almightie hath singled them out, and
set him on his Seat, for the defence of Iustice.

And for this great deliuerance, let vs all pray to GOD Almightie, that
the memorie of these worthie Iudges may bee blessed to all
Posterities.[Z3_b_2]


_FINIS._




NOTES.


[The references are to the alphabetical letters or signatures at the
bottom of each page: _a_ is intended for the first and _b_ the second
page, marked with such letter or signature.]

[Transcriber's Note: In the original text, a single note reference
sometimes applies to more than one note. For clarity's sake, in this
e-text a number has been added to the end of such references to
distinguish among the notes.]


DEDICATION. "_The Right Honorable Thomas Lord Knyvet._"] Sir Thomas
Knivet, or Knyvet, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to James the First,
was afterwards created Baron of Escricke, in the county of York. He it
was who was intrusted to search the vaults under the Parliament House,
and who discovered the thirty-six barrels of gunpowder, and
apprehended Guido Fawkes, who declared to him, that if he had happened
to be within the house when he took him, as he was immediately before,
he would not have failed to blow him up, house and all. (Howell's
_State Trials_, vol. ii., p. 202.) His courage and conduct on this
occasion seem to have recommended him to the especial favour of James.
Dying without issue, the title of Lord Howard of Escrick was conferred
on Sir Edward Howard, son of Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, who had
married the eldest daughter and co-heir of Sir H. Knivet; and, having
been enjoyed successively by his two sons, ended in his grandson
Charles, in the beginning of the last century. It must be admitted
that the writer has chosen his patron very felicitously. Who so fit to
have the book dedicated to him as one who had acted so conspicuous a
part on the memorable occasion at Westminster? The blowing up of
Lancaster Castle and good Mr. Covel, by the conclave of witches at
Malkin's Tower, was no discreditable imitation of the grand
metropolitan drama on provincial boards.

A 2. FIRST IMPRIMATUR. "_Ja. Altham, Edw. Bromley._"] These two judges
were Barons of the Court of Exchequer, but neither of them seems to
have left a name extraordinarily distinguished for legal learning.
Altham was one of the assistants named in the commission for the trial
of the Countess of Somerset for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury in
1616. Bromley appears, from incidental notices contained in the diary
of Nicholas Assheton, (see Whitaker's _Whalley_, third edition, page
300,) and other sources, to have frequently taken the northern
circuit. He was not of the family of Lord Chancellor Bromley, but of
another stock.

A 3. SECOND IMPRIMATUR: "_Edward Bromley. I took upon mee to reuise
and correct it._"] This revision by the judge who presided at the
trial gives a singular and unique value and authority to the work. We
have no other report of any witch trial which has an equal stamp of
authenticity. How many of the rhetorical flourishes interspersed in
the book are the property of Thomas Potts, Esquier, and how many are
the interpolation of the "excellent care" of the worthy Baron, it is
scarcely worth while to investigate. Certainly never were judge and
clerk more admirably paired. The _Shallow_ on the bench was well
reflected in the _Master Slender_ below.

B _a_. "_The number of them being knowen to exceed all others at any
time heretofore at one time to be indicted, arraigned, and receiue
their tryall._"] Probably this was the case, at least in England; but
a greater number had been convicted before, even in this country, at
one time, than were found guilty on this occasion, as it appears from
Scot, (_Discovery of Witchcraft_, page 543, edition 1584,) that
seventeen or eighteen witches were condemned at once, at St. Osith, in
Essex, in 1576, of whom an account was written by Brian Darcy, with
the names and colours of their spirits.

B _b_. "_She was a very old woman, about the age of fourescore._"] Dr.
Henry More would have styled old Demdike "An eximious example of
Moses, his Mecassephah, the word which he uses in that law,--Thou
shalt not suffer a witch to live." Margaret Agar and Julian Cox, (see
Glanvill's _Collection of Relations_, p. 135, edition 1682,) on whom
he dwells with such delighted interest, were very inferior subjects to
what, in his hands, Elizabeth Sothernes would have made. They had
neither of them the finishing attribute of blindness, so fearful in a
witch, to complete the sketch; nor such a fine foreground for the
painting as the forest of Pendle presented; nor the advantage, for
grouping, of a family of descendants in which witchcraft might be
transmitted to the third generation.

B 2 _a_. "_Roger Nowell, Esquire._"] This busy and mischievous
personage who resided at Read Hall, in the immediate neighbourhood of
Pendle, was sheriff of Lancashire in 1610. He married Katherine,
daughter of John Murton, of Murton, and was buried at Whalley, January
31st, 1623. He was of the same family as Alexander Nowell, the Dean of
St. Paul's, and Lawrence Nowell, the restorer of Saxon literature in
England; and tarnished a name which they had rendered memorable, by
becoming, apparently, an eager and willing instrument in that wicked
persecution which resulted in the present trial. His ill-directed
activity seems to have fanned the dormant embers into a blaze, and to
have given aim and consistency to the whole scheme of oppression. From
this man was descended, in the female line, one whose merits might
atone for a whole generation of Roger Nowells, the truly noble-minded
and evangelical Reginald Heber.

B 2 _b_ 1. "_Gouldshey_,"] so commonly pronounced, but more properly
Goldshaw, or Goldshaw Booth.

B 2 _b_ 2. "_The spirit answered, his name was Tibb._"] Bernard, who
is learned in the nomenclature of familiar spirits, gives, in his
_Guide to Grand Jurymen_, 1630, 12mo, the following list of the names
of the more celebrated familiars of English witches. "Such as I have
read of are these: Mephistophiles, Lucifer, Little Lord, Fimodes,
David, Jude, Little Robin, Smacke, Litefoote, Nonsuch, Lunch,
Makeshift, Swash, Pluck, Blue, Catch, White, Callico, Hardname, Tibb,
Hiff, Ball, Puss, Rutterkin, Dicke, Prettie, Grissil, and Jacke." In
the confession of Isabel Gowdie, a famous Scotch witch, (in
_Pitcairne's Trials_, vol. iii. page 614,) we have the following
catalogue of attendant spirits, rather, it must be confessed, a
formidable band. "The names of our Divellis, that waited upon us, ar
thes: first, Robert the Jakis; Sanderis, the Read Roaver; Thomas the
Fearie; Swain, the Roaring Lion; Thieffe of Hell; Wait upon Hirself;
Mak Hectour; Robert the Rule; Hendrie Laing; and Rorie. We would ken
them all, on by on, from utheris. Some of theim apeirit in sadd dunn,
som in grasse-grein, som in sea-grein, and some in yallow." Archbishop
Harsnet, in his admirable _Declaration of Popish Impostures, under the
pretence of casting out Devils_, 1605, 4to, a work unsurpassed for
rich humour and caustic wit, clothed in good old idiomatic English,
has a chapter "on the strange names of these devils," in which he
observes, (p. 46,) "It is not amiss that you be acquainted with these
extravagant names of devils, least meeting them otherwise by chance
you mistake them for the names of tapsters, or juglers." Certainly,
some of the names he marshalls in array smell strongly of the tavern.
These are some of them: Pippin, Philpot, Modu, Soforce, Hilco,
Smolkin, Hillio, Hiaclito, Lustie Huffe-cap, Killico, Hob, Frateretto,
Fliberdigibbet, Hoberdidance, Tocobatto, and Lustie Jollie Jenkin.

B 2 _b_ 3. "_About Day-light Gate._"] Day-light Gate, i.e. Evening,
the down gate of daylight. See _Promptuarium Parvulorum_, (edited by
Way for the Camden Society,) page 188, "Gate down, or downe gate of
the Sunne or any other planet."--Occasus. Palgrave gives, "At the
sonne gate downe; sur le soleil couchant."

B 3 _a_ 1. "_The said Deuill did get blood vnder her left arme._"] It
would seem (see Elizabeth Device's Examination afterwards) as if some
preliminary search were made, in the case of this poor old woman, for
the marks which were supposed to come by the sucking or drawing of the
Spirit or Familiar. Most probably her confession was the result of
this and other means of annoyance and torture employed in the usual
unscrupulous manner, upon a blind woman of eighty. Of those marks
supposed to be produced by the sucking of the Spirit or Familiar, the
most curious and scientific (if the word may be applied to such a
subject) account will be found in a very scarce tract, which seems to
have been unknown to the writers on witchcraft. Its title is "A
Confirmation and Discovery of Witchcraft, containing these several
particulars; That there are Witches called bad Witches, and Witches
untruly called good or white Witches, and what manner of people they
be, and how they may be knowne, with many particulars thereunto
tending. Together with the Confessions of many of those executed since
May, 1645, in the several Counties hereafter mentioned. As also some
objections Answered. By John Stearne, now of Lawshall, neere Burie
Saint Edmunds in Suffolke, sometimes of Manningtree in Essex. Prov.
xvii. 15, He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the
just, even they both are an abomination to the Lord. Deut. xiii. 14,
Thou shall therefore enquire, and make search, and aske diligently
whether it be truth and the thing certaine. London, Printed by William
Wilson, dwelling in Little Saint Bartholomews, neere Smithfield, 1648,
pages 61, besides preface." Stearne, in whom Remigius and De Lancre
would have recognized a congenial soul, had a sort of joint commission
with Hopkins, as Witch-finder, and tells us (see address to Reader)
that he had been in part an agent in finding out or discovering about
200 witches in Essex, Suffolk, Northamptonshire, Huntingtonshire,
Bedfordshire, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and the Isle of Ely. He deals
with the subject undoubtedly like a man whose extensive experience and
practice had enabled him to reduce the matter to a complete system.
(See his account of their marks, pp. 43 to 50.) He might, like John
Kincaid in Tranent, (see Pitcairne's _Criminal Trials_, vol. iii. p.
599,) have assumed the right of Common Pricker, i.e. Searcher for the
devil's marks, and had his own tests, which were infallible. He
complains, good man, "that in many places I never received penny as
yet, nor any am like, notwithstanding I have hands for satisfaction,
except I should sue; [he should have sued by all means, we might then
have had his bill of particulars, which would have been curious;] but
many rather fall upon me for what hath been received, but I hope such
suits will be disannulled, and that where I have been out of moneys
for Towns in charges and otherwise such course will be taken that I
may be satisfied and paid with reason." He was doubtless well
deserving of a recompense, and his neighbours were much to blame if he
did not receive a full and ample one. Of the latter end of his
coadjutor, Hopkins, whom Sir Walter Scott (see Somers's Tracts, vol.
iii. p. 97, edit. 1810,) and several other writers represent as
ultimately executed himself for witchcraft, he gives a very different,
and no doubt more correct account; which, singularly enough, has
hitherto remained entirely unnoticed. "He died peaceably at
Manningtree, after a long sicknesse of a consumption, as many of his
generation had done before him, without any trouble of conscience for
what he had done, as was falsely reported of him. He was the son of a
godly minister, and therefore, without doubt, within the Covenant."
Were not the interests of truth too sacred to be compromised, it might
seem almost a pity to demolish that merited and delightful retribution
which Butler's lines have immortalized.

B 3 _a_ 2. "_I will burne the one of you and hang the other._"] The
following extracts from that fine old play, "The Witch of Edmonton,"
bear a strong resemblance to the scene described in the text. Mother
Sawyer, in whom the milk of human kindness is turned to gall by
destitution, imbittered by relentless outrage and insult, and who,
driven out of the pale of human fellowship, is thrown upon strange and
fearful allies, would almost appear to be the counterpart of Mother
Demdike. The weird sisters of our transcendant bard are wild and
wonderful creations, but have no close relationship to the plain old
traditional witch of our ancestors, which is nowhere represented by
our dramatic writers with faithfulness and truth except in the Witch
of Edmonton:--

_Enter_ ELIZABETH SAWYER, _gathering sticks._

_Saw._ And why on me? why should the envious world
Throw all their scandalous malice upon me?
'Cause I am poor, deform'd, and ignorant,
And like a bow buckled and bent together,
By some more strong in mischiefs than myself,
Must I for that be made a common sink,
For all the filth and rubbish of men's tongues
To fall and run into? Some call me Witch,
And being ignorant of myself, they go
About to teach me how to be one; urging,
That my bad tongue (by their bad usage made so)
Forespeaks their cattle, doth bewitch their corn,
Themselves, their servants, and their babes at nurse.
This they enforce upon me; and in part
Make me to credit it; and here comes one
Of my chief adversaries.

_Enter_ Old BANKS.

_Banks._ Out, out upon thee, witch!

_Saw._ Dost call me witch?

_Banks._ I do, witch, I do; and worse I would, knew I a name more
hateful. What makest thou upon my ground?

_Saw._ Gather a few rotten sticks to warm me.

_Banks._ Down with them when I bid thee, quickly; I'll make thy bones
rattle in thy skin else.

_Saw._ You won't, churl, cut-throat, miser!--there they be; [_Throws
them down._] would they stuck across thy throat, thy bowels, thy maw,
thy midriff.

_Banks._ Say'st thou me so, hag? Out of my ground! [_Beats her._

_Saw._ Dost strike me, slave, curmudgeon! Now thy bones aches, thy
joints cramps, and convulsions stretch and crack thy sinews!

_Banks._ Cursing, thou hag! take that, and that. [_Beats her, and
exit._

_Saw._ Strike, do!--and wither'd may that hand and arm
Whose blows have lamed me, drop from the rotten trunk!
Abuse me! beat me! call me hag and witch!
What is the name? where, and by what art learn'd,
What spells, what charms or invocations?
May the thing call'd Familiar be purchased?

       *       *       *       *       *

_Saw._ Still vex'd! still tortured! that curmudgeon Banks
Is ground of all my scandal; I am shunn'd
And hated like a sickness; made a scorn
To all degrees and sexes. I have heard old beldams
Talk of familiars in the shape of mice,
Rats, ferrets, weasels, and I wot not what,
That have appear'd, and suck'd, some say, their blood;
But by what means they came acquainted with them,
I am now ignorant. Would some power, good or bad,
Instruct me which way I might be revenged
Upon this churl, I'd go out of myself,
And give this fury leave to dwell within
This ruin'd cottage, ready to fall with age!
Abjure all goodness, be at hate with prayer,
And study curses, imprecations,
Blasphemous speeches, oaths, detested oaths,
Or anything that's ill; so I might work
Revenge upon this miser, this black cur,
That barks and bites, and sucks the very blood
Of me, and of my credit. 'Tis all one,
To be a witch, as to be counted one:
Vengeance, shame, ruin light upon that canker!

_Enter a_ Black Dog.

_Dog._ Ho! have I found thee cursing? now thou art
Mine own.

_Saw._ Thine! what art thou?

_Dog._ He thou hast so often
Importuned to appear to thee, the devil.

_Saw._ Bless me! the devil!

_Dog._ Come, do not fear; I love thee much too well
To hurt or fright thee; if I seem terrible,
It is to such as hate me. I have found
Thy love unfeign'd; have seen and pitied
Thy open wrongs, and come, out of my love,
To give thee just revenge against thy foes.

_Saw._ May I believe thee?

_Dog._ To confirm't, command me
Do any mischief unto man or beast.
And I'll effect it, on condition
That, uncompell'd, thou make a deed of gift
Of soul and body to me.

_Saw._ Out, alas!
My soul and body?

_Dog._ And that instantly,
And seal it with thy blood: if thou deniest,
I'll tear thy body in a thousand pieces.

_Saw._ I know not where to seek relief: but shall I,
After such covenants seal'd, see full revenge
On all that wrong me?

_Dog._ Ha, ha! silly woman!
The devil is no liar to such as he loves--
Didst ever know or hear the devil a liar
To such as he affects?

_Saw._ Then I am thine; at least so much of me
As I can call mine own--

_Dog._ Equivocations?
Art mine or no? speak, or I'll tear--

_Saw._ All thine.

_Dog._ Seal't with thy blood.

[_She pricks her arm, which he sucks.--Thunder and lightning._

See! now I dare call thee mine!
For proof, command me: instantly I'll run
To any mischief; goodness can I none.

_Saw._ And I desire as little. There's an old churl,
One Banks--

_Dog._ That wrong'd thee: he lamed thee, call'd thee witch.

_Saw._ The same; first upon him I'd be revenged.

_Dog._ Thou shalt; do but name how?

_Saw._ Go, touch his life.

_Dog._ I cannot.

_Saw._ Hast thou not vow'd? Go, kill the slave!

_Dog._ I will not.

_Saw._ I'll cancel then my gift.

_Dog._ Ha, ha!

_Saw._ Dost laugh!
Why wilt not kill him?

_Dog._ Fool, because I cannot.
Though we have power, know, it is circumscribed,
And tied in limits: though he be curst to thee,
Yet of himself, he is loving to the world,
And charitable to the poor; now men, that,
As he, love goodness, though in smallest measure,
Live without compass of our reach: his cattle
And corn I'll kill and mildew; but his life
(Until I take him, as I late found thee,
Cursing and swearing) I have no power to touch.

_Saw._ Work on his corn and cattle then.

_Dog._ I shall.
The WITCH OF EDMONTON shall see his fall.

_Ford's Plays_, edit. 1839, p. 190.

B 3 _a_. "_Alizon Device._"] Device is merely the common name Davies
spelled as pronounced in the neighbourhood of Pendle.

B 3 _b_. "_Is to make a picture of clay._"]

_Hecate._ What death is't you desire for Almachildes?

_Duchess._ A sudden and a subtle.

_Hecate._ Then I've fitted you.
Here be the gifts of both; sudden and subtle:
His picture made in wax and gently molten
By a blue fire kindled with dead men's eyes
Will waste him by degrees.

_Duchess._ In what time, prithee?

_Hecate._ Perhaps in a moon's progress.

_Middleton's Witch_, edit. 1778, p. 100.

None of the offices in the Witches rubric had higher classical warrant
than this method, a favourite one, it appears, of Mother Demdike, but
in which Anne Redfern had the greatest skill of any of these Pendle
witches, of victimizing by moulding and afterwards pricking or burning
figures of clay representing the individual whose life was aimed at.
Horace, Lib. i. Sat. 8, mentions both waxen and woollen images--

     Lanea et effigies erat altera cerea, &c.

And it appears from Tacitus, that the death of Germanicus was supposed
to have been sought by similar practices. By such a Simulachrum, or
image, the person was supposed to be devoted to the infernal deities.
According to the Platonists, the effect produced arose from the
operation of the sympathy and synergy of the Spiritus Mundanus, (which
Plotinus calls [Greek: ton megan goeta] [Transcriber's Note: typo "t"
for "ton" in original Greek], the grand magician,) such as they resolve
the effect of the weaponsalve and other magnetic cures into. The
following is the Note in Brand on this part of witchcraft:--

     King James, in his "Daemonology," book ii., chap. 5, tells
     us, that "the Devil teacheth how to make pictures of wax or
     clay, that, by roasting thereof, the persons that they bear
     the name of may be continually melted or dried away by
     continual sickness."

     See Servius on the 8th Eclogue of Virgil; Theocritus, Idyll,
     ii., 22; Hudibras, part II., canto ii., l. 351.

     Ovid says:

     "Devovet absentes, simulachraque cerea figit
     Et miserum tenues in jecur urget acus."
                    _Heroid._ Ep. vi., l. 91.

     See also "Grafton's Chronicle," p. 587, where it is laid to
     the charge (among others) of Roger Bolinbrook, a cunning
     necromancer, and Margery Jordane, the cunning Witch of Eye,
     that they, at the request of Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester,
     had devised an image of wax, representing the king, (Henry
     the Sixth,) which by their sorcery a little and a little
     consumed; intending thereby in conclusion to waste and
     destroy the king's person. Shakspeare mentions this, Henry
     VI., P. II., act i., sc. 4.

     It appears, from Strype's "Annals of the Reformation,", vol.
     i., p. 8, under anno 1558, that Bishop Jewel, preaching
     before the queen, said, "It may please your grace to
     understand that witches and sorcerers within these few last
     years are marvellously increased within your grace's realm.
     Your grace's subjects pine away, even unto the death; their
     colour fadeth, their flesh rotteth, their speech is
     benumbed, their senses are bereft. I pray God they never
     practise _further than upon the subject_." "This," Strype
     adds, "I make no doubt was the occasion of bringing in a
     bill, the next parliament, for making enchantments and
     witchcraft felony." One of the bishop's strong expressions
     is, "_These eyes have seen_ most evident and manifest marks
     of their wickedness."

     It appears from the same work, vol. iv., p. 6, sub anno
     1589, that "one Mrs. Dier had practised conjuration against
     the queen, to work some mischief to her majesty; for which
     she was brought into question: and accordingly her words and
     doings were sent to Popham, the queen's attorney, and
     Egerton, her solicitor, by Walsingham, the secretary, and
     Sir Thomas Heneage, her vice-chamberlain, for their
     judgment, whose opinion was that Mrs. Dier was not within
     the compass of the statute touching witchcraft, for that she
     did no act, and spake certain lewd speeches tending to that
     purpose, but neither set figure nor made pictures." _Ibid._,
     vol. ii., p. 545, sub anno 1578, Strype says: "Whether it
     were the effect of magic, or proceeded from some natural
     cause, but the queen was in some part of this year under
     excessive anguish _by pains of her teeth_, insomuch that she
     took no rest for divers nights, and endured very great
     torment night and day."

     Andrews, in his "Continuation of Henry's History of Great
     Britain," 4to, p. 93, tells us, speaking of Ferdinand, Earl
     of Derby, who in the reign of Queen Elizabeth died by
     poison, "The credulity of the age attributed his death to
     witchcraft. The disease was odd, and operated as a perpetual
     emetic; and a _waxen image, with hair like that of the
     unfortunate earl_, found in his chamber, reduced every
     suspicion to certainty."

     "The wife of Marshal d'Ancre was apprehended, imprisoned,
     and beheaded for a witch, upon a surmise that she had
     inchanted the queen to dote upon her husband; and they say
     the young king's picture was found in her closet, in virgin
     wax, with one leg melted away. When asked by her judges what
     spells she had made use of to gain so powerful an ascendancy
     over the queen, she replied, 'that ascendancy only which
     strong minds ever gain over weak ones.'" Seward's "Anecdotes
     of some Distinguished Persons," &c., vol. ii., p. 215.

     Blagrave, in his "Astrological Practice of Physick," p. 89,
     observes that "the way which the witches usually take for to
     afflict man or beast in this kind is, as I conceive, done by
     image or model, made in the likeness of that man or beast
     they intend to work mischief upon, and by the subtlety of
     the devil made at such hours and times when it shall work
     most powerfully upon them, by thorn, pin, or needle, pricked
     into that limb or member of the body afflicted."

     This is farther illustrated by a passage in one of Daniel's
     Sonnets:

     "The slie inchanter, when to work his will
     And secret wrong on some forspoken wight,
     Frames waxe, in forme to represent aright
     The poore unwitting wretch he meanes to kill,
     And prickes the image, framed by magick's skill,
     Whereby to vex the partie day and night."
         _Son. 10; from Poems and Sonnets annexed to "Astrophil
              and Stella_," 4to, 1591.

     Again, in "Diaria, or the Excellent Conceitful Sonnets of
     H.C.," (Henry Constable,) 1594:

     "Witches, which some murther do intend,
     Doe make a picture, and doe shoote at it;
     And in that part where they the picture hit,
     The parties self doth languish to his end."
                                  _Decad. II., Son. ii._

     Coles, in his "Art of Simpling," &c., p. 66, says that
     witches "take likewise the roots of mandrake, according to
     some, or, as I rather suppose, the _roots of briony_, which
     simple folke take for the true mandrake, and make thereof an
     ugly image, by which they represent the person on whom they
     intend to exercise their witchcraft." He tells us, _ibid._,
     p. 26, "Some plants have roots with a number of threads,
     like beards, as mandrakes, whereof witches and impostors
     make an ugly image, giving it the form of the face at the
     top of the root, and leave those strings to make a broad
     beard down to the feet."--_Brand's Antiquities_, vol. iii.
     p. 9.

Ben Johnson has not forgotten this superstition in his learned and
fanciful _Masque of Queens_, in which so much of the lore of
witchcraft is embodied. There are few finer things in English poetry
than his 3rd Charm:--

    The owl is abroad, the bat, and the toad,
      And so is the cat-a-mountain,
    The ant and the mole sit both in a hole,
      And the frog peeps out o' the fountain;
    The dogs they do bay, and the timbrels play,
      The spindle is now a turning;
    The moon it is red, and the stars are fled,
      But all the sky is a burning:
    The ditch is made, and our nails the spade,
      _With pictures full, of wax and of wool;
    Their livers I stick, with needles quick;_
      There lacks but the blood, to make up the flood.
      Quickly, dame, then bring your part in,
      Spur, spur upon little Martin,
      Merrily, merrily, make him sail,
      A worm in his mouth, and a thorn in his tail,
      Fire above, and fire below,
      With a whip in your hand, to make him go.
             _Ben Johnson's Works, by Gifford_, vol. vii. p. 121.

Meric Casaubon, who is always an amusing writer, and whose works,
notwithstanding his appetite for the wonderful, do not merit the total
oblivion into which they have fallen, is very angry with Jerome
Cardan, an author not generally given to scepticism, for the
hesitation he displays on the subject of these waxen images:--

     I know some who question not the power of devils or witches;
     yet in this particular are not satisfied how such a thing
     can be. For there is no relation or sympathy in nature,
     (saith one, who hath written not many years ago,) between a
     man and his effigies, that upon the pricking of the one the
     other should grow sick. It is upon another occasion that he
     speaks it; but his exception reacheth this example equally.
     A wonder to me he should so argue, who in many things hath
     very well confuted the incredulity of others, though in some
     things too credulous himself. If we must believe nothing but
     what we can reduce to natural, or, to speak more properly,
     (for I myself believe the devil doth very little, but by
     nature, though to us unknown,) manifest causes, he doth
     overthrow his own grounds, and leaves us but very little of
     magical operations to believe. But of all men, Cardan had
     least reason to except against this kind of magick as
     ridiculous or incredible, who himself is so full of
     incredible stories in that kind, upon his own credit alone,
     that they had need to be of very easie belief that believe
     him, especially when they know (whereof more afterwards)
     what manner of man he was. But I dare say, that from Plato's
     time, who, among other appurtenances of magic, doth mention
     these, [Greek: kerina mimemata] [Transcriber's Note: typo
     "mimkmata" for "mimemata" in original Greek] that is, as
     Ovid doth call them, _Simulachra cerea_, or as Horace,
     _cereas imagines_, (who also in another place more
     particularly describes them,) there is not any particular
     rite belonging to that art more fully attested by histories
     of all ages than this is. Besides, who doth not know that
     it is the devil's fashion (we shall meet with it afterwards
     again) to amuse his servants and vassals with many rites and
     ceremonies, which have certainly no ground in nature, no
     relation or sympathy to the thing, as for other reasons, so
     to make them believe, they have a great hand in the
     production of such and such effects; when, God knows, many
     times all that they do, though taught and instructed by him,
     is nothing at all to the purpose, and he, in very deed, is
     the only agent, by means which he doth give them no account
     of. Bodinus, in his preface to his "Daemonology," relateth,
     that three waxen images, whereof one of Queen Elizabeth's,
     of glorious memory, and two other, _Reginae proximorum_, of
     two courtiers, of greatest authority under the queen, were
     found in the house of a priest at Islington, a magician, or
     so reputed, to take away their lives. This he doth repeat
     again in his second book, chap. 8, but more particularly
     that it was in the year of the Lord 1578, and that Legatus
     Angliae and many Frenchmen did divulge it so; but withal, in
     both places he doth add, that the business was then under
     trial, and not yet perfectly known. I do not trust my
     memory: I know my age and my infirmities. Cambden, I am
     sure, I have read; and read again; but neither in him, nor
     in Bishop Carleton's "Thankful Remembrancer," do I remember
     any such thing. Others may, perchance. Yet, in the year
     1576, I read in both of some pictures, representing some
     that would have kill'd that glorious queen with a motto,
     _Quorsum haec, alio properantibus!_ which pictures were made
     by some of the conspiracy for their incouragement; but
     intercepted, and showed, they say, to the queen. Did the
     time agree, it is possible these pictures might be the
     ground of those mistaken, if mistaken, waxen images, which I
     desire to be taught by others who can give a better
     account.--_Casaubon's (M.) Treatise, proving Spirits,
     Witches, and Supernatural Operations_, 1672. 12mo., p. 92.

In Scotland this practice was in high favour with witches, both in
ancient and modern times. The lamentable story of poor King Duff, as
related by Hector Boethius, a story which has blanched the cheek and
spoiled the rest of many a youthful reader, is too well known to need
extracting. Even so late as 1676, Sir George Maxwell, of Pollock, (See
Scott's _Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft_, p. 323,) apparently a
man of melancholy and valetudinarian habits, believed himself
bewitched to death by six witches, one man and five women, who were
leagued for the purpose of tormenting a clay image in his likeness.
Five of the accused were executed, and the sixth only escaped on
account of extreme youth.

Isabel Gowdie, the famous Scotch witch before referred to, in her
confessions gives a very particular account of the mode in which these
images were manufactured. It is curious, and worth quoting:--

     _Johne Taylor_ and _Janet Breadhead_, his wyff, in
     Bellnakeith, _Bessie Wilsone_, in Aulderne, and _Margret
     Wilsone_, spows to _Donald Callam_ in Aulderne, and I, maid
     an pictur of clay, to distroy _the Laird of Parkis_
     meall[62] children. _Johne Taylor_ browght hom the clay, in
     his plaid newk;[63] his wyff brak it verie small, lyk
     meall,[64] and sifted it with a siew,[65] and powred in
     water among it, in _the Divellis_ nam, and vrought it werie
     sore, lyk rye-bowt;[66] and maid of it a pictur of _the
     Lairdis_ sones. It haid all the pairtis and merkis of a
     child, such as heid, eyes, nose, handis, foot, mowth, and
     little lippes. It wanted no mark of a child; and the handis
     of it folded down by its sydes. It was lyk a pow,[67] or a
     flain gryce.[68] We laid the face of it to the fyre, till it
     strakned;[69] and a cleir fyre round abowt it, till it ves
     read lyk a cole.[70] After that, we wold rest it now and
     then; each other day[71] ther wold be an piece of it weill
     rosten. _The Laird of Parkis_ heall maill children by it ar
     to suffer, if it be not gotten and brokin, als weill as thes
     that ar borne and dead alreadie. It ves still putt in and
     taken out of the fyre, in _the Divellis_ name. It wes hung
     wp wpon an knag. It is yet in _Johne Taylor's_ hows, and it
     hes a cradle of clay abowt it. Onlie _Johne Taylor_ and his
     wyff, _Janet Breadhead_, _Bessie_ and _Margret Wilsones_ in
     Aulderne, and _Margret Brodie_, thair, and I, were onlie at
     the making of it. All the multitud of our number of WITCHES,
     of all the COEVENS, kent[72] all of it, at owr nixt meitting
     after it was maid.

     The wordis which we spak, quhan we maid the pictur, for
     distroyeing of _the Laird of Parkis_ meall-children, wer
     thus:

     'IN THE DIVELLIS nam, we powr in this water
         among this mowld (meall,)[73]
     For lang duyning and ill heall;
     We putt it into the fyre,
     That it mey be brunt both stik and stowre.
     It salbe brunt, with owr will,
     As any stikle[74] wpon a kill.'

     THE DIVELL taught ws the wordis; and quhan ve haid learned
     them, we all fell downe wpon owr bare kneyis, and owr hair
     abowt owr eyes, and owr handis lifted wp, looking steadfast
     wpon THE DIVELL, still saying the wordis thryse ower, till
     it wes maid. And then, in THE DIVELLIS nam, we did put it
     in, in the midst of the fyre. Efter it had skrukned[75] a
     little before the fyre, and quhan it ves read lyk a coale,
     we took it owt in THE DIVELLIS nam. Till it be broken, it
     will be the deathe of all the meall children that _the Laird
     of Park_ will ewer get. Cast it ower an Kirk, it will not
     brak quhill[76] it be broken with an aix, or som such lyk
     thing, be a man's handis. If it be not broken, it will last
     an hundreth yeir. It hes ane cradle about it of clay, to
     preserue it from skaith;[77] and it wes rosten each vther
     day, at the fyr; som tymes on pairt of it, som tymes an
     vther pairt of it; it vold be a litle wat with water, and
     then rosten. The bairn vold be brunt and rosten, ewin as it
     ves by ws.--_Pitcairne's Criminal Trials_, Vol. iii. pp. 605
     and 612.

[Footnote 62: Male.]

[Footnote 63: In the nook, or corner, of his plaid.]

[Footnote 64: Pounded, or powdered it, like meal.]

[Footnote 65: To make the plaster fine, and free from earthy
particles.]

[Footnote 66: Probably a sort of stir-about, or hasty-pudding, made of
rye-flour.]

[Footnote 67: In another deposition it is thus expressed, 'lyk a _pow
or feadge_.' A _feadge_ was a sort of _scone_, or roll, of a pretty
large size. Perhaps this term signifies, as large as the quantity of
dough or paste necessary for making this kind of bread.]

[Footnote 68: A flayed sucking pig, after being scalded and scraped.]

[Footnote 69: Shrivelled with the heat.]

[Footnote 70: Red like a coal.]

[Footnote 71: Each alternate day.]

[Footnote 72: Knew.]

[Footnote 73: It is written _meall_ in the other Confession; and the
metre (such as it is) requires this liberty. _Mowld_ signifies 'earth'
or 'dust.']

[Footnote 74: Stubble.]

[Footnote 75: Parched; shrivelled.]

[Footnote 76: Until.]

[Footnote 77: Harm; injury.]

B 4 _b_ 1. "_And sayd that she should haue gould, siluer, and worldly
wealth at her will._"] These familiars, to use Warburton's expression,
always promised with the lavishness of a young courtier, and performed
with the indifference of an old one. Nothing seems to puzzle Dr. Dee
more, in the long and confidential intercourse he carried on so many
years with his spirits, than to account for the great scarcity of
specie they seemed to be afflicted with, and the unsatisfactory and
unfurnished state of their exchequer. Bills, to be sure, they gave at
long dates; but these constantly required renewing, and were never
honoured at last. Any application for present relief, in good current
coin of the realm, was invariably followed by what Meric Casaubon very
significantly calls "sermonlike stuff." The learned professor in
witchery, John Stearne, seems to fix six shillings as the maximum of
money payment at one time which in all his experience he had detected
between witches and their familiars. He was examining Joan Ruccalver,
of Powstead, in Suffolk, who had been promised by her spirit that she
should never want meat, drink, clothes, or money. "Then I asked her
whether they brought her any money or no; and she said sometimes four
shillings at a time, and sometimes six shillings at a time; but that
is but seldom, _for I never knew any that had any money before_,
except of Clarke's wife, of Manningtree, who confessed the same, and
showed some, which, she said, her impe brought her, which was proper
money." Confirmation, page 27. Judging from the anxiety which this
worthy displays to be "satisfied and paid with reason" for his
itinerant labours, such a scanty and penurious supply would soon have
disgusted him, if he had been witch, instead of witch-finder.

B 4 _b_ 2. "_She had bewitched to death Richard Ashton, sonne of
Richard Ashton, of Downeham, Esquire._"] Richard Assheton, (as the
name is more properly spelled,) thus done to death by witchcraft, was
the son of Richard Assheton, of Downham, an old manor house, the scite
of which is now supplied by a modern structure, which Dr. Whitaker
thinks, in point of situation, has no equal in the parish of Whalley.
Richard, the son, married Isabel, daughter and heiress of Mr. Hancock,
of Pendleton Hall, and died without offspring. The family estate
accordingly descended to the younger brother, Nicholas Assheton, whose
diary for part of the year 1617 and part of the year following is
given, page 303 of Whitaker's _History of Whalley_, edition 1818, and
is a most valuable record of the habits, pursuits, and course of life
of a Lancashire country gentleman of that period. It well deserves
detaching in a separate publication, and illustrating with a more
expanded commentary.

C _b_. "_Piggin full._"] Piggin is properly a sort of bowl, or pail,
with one of the staves much longer than the rest, made for a handle,
to lade water by, and used especially in brewhouses to measure out the
liquor with.

C 2 _a_. "_Nicholas Banister._"] Dr. Whitaker, in the pedigree of the
Banisters, of Altham, (genealogy was, it is well known, one of the
vulnerable parts of this Achilles of topography,) erroneously states
this Nicholas Banister to have been buried at Altham, December 7,
1611. It appears, however, from a deed, an inspection of which I owe
to the kindness of my friend, Dr. Fleming, that his will was dated the
15th August, 1612. In all probability he did not die for some years
after that date. He married, first, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of
Richard Elston, of Brockall, Esq.; and, second, Catherine, daughter of
Edmund Ashton, of Chaderton, Esq. The manor house of Altham, for more
than five centuries the residence of this ancient family, stands, to
use Dr. Whitaker's words, upon a gentle elevation on the western side
of the river Calder, commanding a low and fertile domain. It has been
surrounded, according to the prudence or jealousy of the feudal times,
with a very deep quadrangular moat, which must have included all the
apparatus of the farm.

C 3 _a_. "_At Malking Tower, in the forrest of Pendle._"] Malkin Tower
was the habitation of Mother Demdike, the situation of which is
preserved, for the structure no longer exists, by local tradition.
Malkin is the Scotch or north country word for hare, as this animal
was one into which witches were supposed to be fond of transforming
themselves. Malkin Tower is, in fact, the Witches' Tower. The term is
used in the following passage in Morison's _Poems_, p. 7, which bears
upon the above explanation:--

    "Or tell the pranks o' winter's nights,
    How Satan blazes uncouth lights;
    Or how he does a core convene
    Upon a witch-frequented green,
    Wi' spells and cauntrips hellish rantin',
    Like mawkins thro' the fields they're janting."

C 4 _b_. "_We want old Demdike, who dyed in the castle before she came
to her tryall._"] Worn out most probably with her imprisonment, she
having been committed in April, and the cruelties she had undergone,
both before and after her commitment. Master Nowell and Master Potts
both _wanted_ her, we may readily conceive, to fill up the miserable
pageant; but she was gone where the wicked cease from troubling, and
the weary are at rest. With the exception of Alice Nutter, in whom
interest is excited from very different grounds, Mother Demdike
attracts attention in a higher degree than any other of these Pendle
witches. She was, beyond dispute, the Erictho of Pendle. Mother
Chattox was but second in rank. There is something fearfully intense
in the expression of the former,--blind, on the last verge of the
extreme limit of human existence, and mother of a line of
witches,--"that she would pray for the said Baldwin, both still and
loud." She is introduced in Shadwell's play, the _Lancashire Witches_,
1682, as a _persona dramatis_, along with Mother Dickinson and Mother
Hargrave, two of the witches convicted in 1633, but without any regard
to the characteristic circumstances under which she appears in the
present narrative. The following invocation, which is put into her
mouth, is rather a favourable specimen of that play, certainly not one
of the worst of Shadwell's, in which there are many vigorous strokes,
with an alloy of coarseness not unusual in his works, and some
powerful conceptions of character:

    Come, sisters, come, why do you stay?
    Our business will not brook delay;
    The owl is flown from the hollow oak,
    From lakes and bogs the toads do croak;
    The foxes bark, the screech-owl screams,
    Wolves howl, bats fly, and the faint beams
    Of glow-worms light grows bright a-pace;
    The stars are fled, the moon hides her face.
    The spindle now is turning round,
    Mandrakes are groaning under ground:
    I'th' hole i'th' ditch (our nails have made)
    Now all our images are laid,
    Of wax and wooll, which we must prick,
    With needles urging to the quick.
    Into the hole I'le poure a flood
    Of black lambs bloud, to make all good.
    The lamb with nails and teeth wee'l tear.
    Come, where's the sacrifice? appear.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Oyntment for flying here I have,
    Of childrens fat, stoln from the grave:
    The juice of smallage, and night-shade,
    Of poplar leaves, and aconite, made
    With these.
    The aromatic reed I boyl,
    With water-parsnip and cinquefoil;
    With store of soot, and add to that
    The reeking blood of many a bat.
             _Lancashire Witches_, pp. 10, 41.

One of the peculiarities of Shadwell's play is the introduction of the
Lancashire dialect, which he makes his clown Clod speak. The subjoined
extract may perhaps amuse my readers. Collier would have enjoyed it:

     _Clod._ An yeow been a mon Ay'st talk wy ye a bit, yeow mun
     tack a care o your sells, the plecs haunted with Buggarts,
     and Witches, one of 'em took my Condle and Lanthorn out of
     my hont, and flew along wy it; and another Set me o top o'th
     tree, where I feel dawn now, Ay ha well neegh brocken my
     theegh.

     _Doubt._ The fellows mad, I neither understand his words,
     nor his Sence, prethee how far is it to Whalley?

     _Clod._ Why yeow are quite besaid th' road mon, yeow
     Shoulden a gon dawn th' bonk by _Thomas_ o _Georges_, and
     then ee'n at yate, and turn'd dawn th' Lone, and left the
     Steepo o'th reeght hont.

     _Bell._ Prithee don't tell us what we should have done, but
     how far is it to Whalley?

     _Clod._ Why marry four mail and a bit.

     _Doubt._ Wee'l give thee an Angel and show us the way
     thither.

     _Clod._ Marry thats Whaint. I canno see my hont, haw con Ay
     show yeow to Whalley to neeght.

     _Bell._ Canst thou show us to any house where we may have
     Shelter and Lodging to night? we are Gentlemen and
     strangers, and will pay you well for't.

     _Clod._ Ay byr Lady con I, th' best ludging and diet too in
     aw Lancashire. Yonder at th' hough where yeow seen th'
     leeghts there.

     _Doubt._ Whose house is that?

     _Clod._ Why what a pox, where han yeow lived? why yeow are
     Strongers indeed! why, 'tis Sir _Yedard Harfourts_, he Keeps
     oppen hawse to all Gentry, yeou'st be welcome to him by day
     and by neeght he's Lord of aw here abauts.

     _Bell._ My Mistresses Father, Luck if it be thy will, have
     at my _Isabella_, Canst thou guide us thither?

     _Clod._ Ay, Ay, there's a pawer of Company there naw, Sir
     _Jeffery Shaklehead_, and the Knight his Son, and Doughter.

     _Doubt._ Lucky above my wishes, O my dear _Theodosia_, how
     my heart leaps at her! prethee guide us thither, wee'l pay
     thee well.

     _Clod._ Come on, I am e'n breed aut o my sences, I was ne'er
     so freeghtened sin I was born, give me your
     hont.--_Lancashire Witches_, p. 14.

D _b_. "_Ann Whittle, alias Chattox._"] Chattox, from her continually
chattering.

D 2 _a_ 1. "_Her lippes euer chattering and walking._"] Walking,
_i.e._, working. Old Chattox might have sat to Archbishop Harsnet for
her portrait. What can exceed the force and graphic truth, the
searching wit and sarcasm, of the picture he sketches in 1605?

     Out of these is shaped vs the true _Idoea_ of a Witch, an
     old weather-beaten Croane, hauing her chinne, & her knees
     meeting for age, walking like a bow leaning on a shaft,
     hollow eyed, vntoothed, furrowed on her face, hauing her
     lips trembling with the palsie, going mumbling in the
     streetes, one that hath forgott[=e] her _pater noster_, and
     hath yet a shrewd tongue in her head, to call a drab, a
     drab. If shee haue learned of an olde wife in a chimnies
     end: _Pax, max, fax_, for a spel: or can say Sir _Iohn of
     Grantams_ curse, for the Millers Eeles, that were stolne:
     All you that haue stolne the Millers Eeles, _Laudate dominum
     de coelis_: And all they that haue consented thereto,
     _benedicamus domino_: Why then ho, beware, looke about you
     my neighbours; if any of you haue a sheepe sicke of the
     giddies, or an hogge of the mumps, or an horse of the
     staggers, or a knauish boy of the schoole, or an idle girle
     of the wheele, or a young drab of the sullens, and hath not
     fat enough for her porredge, nor her father, and mother,
     butter enough for their bread; and she haue a little helpe
     of the _Mother_, _Epilepsie_, or _Cramp_, to teach her role
     her eyes, wrie her mouth, gnash her teeth, startle with her
     body, holde her armes and hands stiffe, make anticke faces,
     grine, mow, and mop like an Ape, tumble like a Hedge-hogge,
     and can mutter out two or three words of gibridg, as _obus,
     bobus_: and then with-all old mother _Nobs_ hath called her
     by chaunce, idle young huswife, or bid the deuill scratch
     her, then no doubt but mother _Nobs_ is the Witch: the young
     girle is Owle-blasted, and possessed: and it goes hard but
     ye shall haue some idle adle, giddie, lymphaticall,
     illuminate dotrel, who being out of credite, learning,
     sobriety, honesty, and wit, will take this holy aduantage,
     to raise the ruines of his desperate decayed name, and for
     his better glory wil be-pray the iugling drab, and cast out
     _Mopp_ the deuil.

     They that haue their braines baited, and their fancies
     distempered with the imaginations, and apprehensions of
     Witches, Coniurers, and Fayries, and all that Lymphatical
     _Chimaera_: I finde to be marshalled in one of these fiue
     rankes, children, fooles, women, cowards, sick, or blacke,
     melancholicke, discomposed wits. The Scythians being a
     warlike Nation (as _Plutarch_ reports) neuer saw any
     visions.--_Harsnet's Declaration_, p. 136.

D 2 _a_ 2. "_From these two sprung all the rest in order._"] The
descent from these two rival witch stocks, between which a deadly feud
and animosity prevailed, which led to the destruction of both
families, is shewn as follows:

         Elizabeth Sothernes,
         alias Old Demdike,
         died in prison in 1612,
         about 80 years old.
       1        |                   2
       ------------------------------
       |                            |
Christopher = Eliz.   Elizabeth, executed = John Device, or
Howgate. Both of      at Lancaster,       | Davies, supposed
them were reputed     1612.               | to have been bewitched
to be at the witches                      | to death,
meeting on Good                           | by Widow Chattox,
Friday, 1612, but                         | because he had not
were not indicted.                        | paid her his yearly
Perhaps they were                         | aghen dole of meal.
the "one Holgate                          |
and his wife" mentioned                   |
amongst the                               |
witches in 1633.                          |
          1                    2          |                 3
          ---------------------------------------------------
          |                    |                            |
     James Device, or      Alizon, executed        Jennet, 9 years old
     Davies, executed at   at Lancaster in 1612.   in 1612, and an evidence
     Lancaster in 1612.                            in the present
                                                   trial. Condemned
                                                   herself, along with
                                                   16 other persons,
                                                   for witchcraft, in
                                                   1633, when she appears
                                                   to have been
                                                   unmarried, but not
                                                   executed.

Anne Whittle, alias
Chattox, executed
at Lancaster, 1612,
about 80 years old.
       |
Anne, executed = Thomas Redferne.
in 1612.       |
               |
             Mary.

D 3 _a_. "_Commaunded this examinate to call him by the name of
Fancie._"] The fittest name for a familiar she could possibly have
chosen. Sir Walter Scott (_Letters on Demonology_, p. 242)
unaccountably speaks of Fancie as a female devil. Master Potts would
have told him, (see M 2 _b_,) "that Fancie had a very good face, and
was a very proper man."

D 3 _b_ 1. "_The wife of Richard Baldwin, of Pendle._"] Richard
Baldwin was the miller who accosted Old Dembdike so unceremoniously.

D 3 _b_ 2. "_Robert Nutter._"] The family of the Nutters, of Pendle,
bore a great share in the proceedings referred to in this trial. It
seems to have been a family of note amongst the inferior gentry or
yeomanry of the forest. A Nutter held courts for many years about this
period, as deputy steward at Clitheroe. (See Whitaker's _Whalley_, p.
307.) Three of the name are stated in the evidence to have been killed
by witchcraft, Christopher Nutter, Robert Nutter, and Anne, the
daughter of Anthony Nutter; and one of the unfortunate persons
convicted is Alice Nutter. The branch to which Robert belonged is
shewn in the following table:

Robert Nutter, the elder, = Elizabeth, who is reputed
of Pendle, called old     | to have employed Anne
Robert Nutter.            | Chattox, Loomeshaw's
                          | wife, and Jane Boothman
                          | to bewitch to death young
                          | Robert Nutter, that other
                          | relations might inherit.
                          |
                    Christopher, reputed
                    to have died of witchcraft
                    about 18 years before.
                          |
    1                     |           2                  3
    ------------------------------------------------------
    |                                 |                  |
Robert, of Greenhead, = Mary   John, of Higham       Margaret = Crooke
in Pendle, a retainer          Booth.                    |
of Sir Richard                 |                         |
Shuttleworth,                  ---------------------------
reputed to have been           gave evidence at the trial.
bewitched to death
18 or 19 years
before the trial
took place.

D 4 _a_. "_One Mr. Baldwyn (the late Schoole-maister at Coulne) did by
his learning, stay the sayd Loomeshaws wife, and therefore had a Capon
from Redfearne._"] I regret that I can give no account of this learned
Theban, who appears to have stayed the plague, and who taught at the
school at which Archbishop Tillotson was afterwards educated. He well
deserved his capon. Had he continued at Colne up to the time of this
trial, he might perhaps, on the same easy terms, have kept the powers
of darkness in check, and prevented some imputed crimes which cost ten
unfortunates their lives.

E _b_ 1. "_Iames Robinson._"] Baines, in his _History of Lancashire_,
vol. i. p. 605, speaks of Edmund Robinson, the father of the boy on
whose evidence the witches were convicted in 1633, as if he had been a
witness at the present trial; which is probably a mistake for this
James Robinson, as no Edmund Robinson appears amongst the witnessses
whose depositions are given.

E _b_ 2. "_Anne Whittle alias Chattox was hired by this examinates
wife to card wooll._"] She seems to have been by occupation a carder
of wool, and to have filled up the intervals, when she had no
employment, by mendicancy.

E 2 _a_. "_Sir Richard Shuttleworth._"} Of the family of the
Shuttleworths of Gawthorp, "where they resided" Whitaker observes, "in
the condition of inferior gentry till the lucrative profession of the
law raised them, in the reign of Elizabeth, to the rank of knighthood
and an estate proportioned to its demands." Sir Richard was
Sergeant-at-law, and Chief Justice of Chester, 31st Elizabeth, and
died without issue about 1600.

E 2 _b_. "_A Charme._"] Evidently in so corrupted a state as to bid
defiance to any attempt at elucidation.

E 3 _a_ 1. "_Perceiuing Anthonie Nutter of Pendle to fauour Elizabeth
Sothernes alias Dembdike._"] The Sothernes and Davies's and the
Whittles and Redfernes were the Montagus and Capulets of Pendle. The
poor cottager whose drink was forsepoken or bewitched, or whose cow
went mad, and who in his attempt to propitiate one of the rival powers
offended the other, would naturally exclaim from the innermost
recesses of his heart, "A plague on both your houses."

E 3 _a_ 2. "_Gaping as though he would haue wearied this Examinate._"]
Wearied for worried.

E 3 _b_. "_Examination of Iames Device._"] This is a very curious
examination. The production of the four teeth and figure of clay dug
up at the west-end of Malkin Tower would look like a "damning witness"
to the two horror-struck justices and the assembled concourse at Read,
who did not perhaps consider how easily such evidences may be
furnished, and how readily they who hide may find. The incident
deposed to at the burial at the New Church in Pendle is a wild and
striking one.

E 4 _a_. "_About eleuen yeares agoe, this Examinate and her mother had
their firehouse broken._"] The inference intended is, that Whittle's
family committed the robbery from Old Demdike's house. This was, in
all probability, the origin of their feuds. The abstraction of the
coif and band, tempting articles to the young daughter of Old Chattox,
not destitute, if we may judge from one occurrence deposed to, of
personal attractions, may be said to have convulsed Lancashire from
the Leven to the Mersey,--to have caused a sensation, the shock of
which, after more than two centuries, has scarcely yet subsided, and
to have actually given a new name to the fair sex.

E 4 _b_ 1. "_One Aghen-dole of meale._"] This Aghen-dole, a word
still, I believe, in use for a particular measure of any article, was,
I presume, a kind of witches' black mail. My friend, the Rev. Canon
Parkinson, informs me that Aghen-dole, sometimes pronounced
Acken-dole, signifies an half-measure of anything, from
half-hand-dole. Mr. Halliwell has omitted it in his Glossary, now in
progress.

E 4 _b_ 2. "_Iohn Moore of Higham, Gentleman._"] Sir Jonas Moore, of
whom an account is contained in Whitaker's _Whalley_, p. 479, and whom
he characterizes as a sanguine projector, was born in Pendle Forest,
and was probably of this family.

E 4 _b_ 3. "_She would meet with the said Iohn Moore, or his._"] i.e.
She would be equal with him.

F _a_ 1. "_Charne._"] i.e. Charm.

F _a_ 2. "_With weeping teares she humbly acknowledged them to be
true._"] She seems to have confessed in the hope of saving her
daughter, Anne Redfern. But from such a judge as Sir Edward Bromley,
mercy was as little to be expected as common sense from his "faithful
chronicler," Thomas Potts.

F 2 _b_. "_Sparing no man with fearefull execrable curses and
banning._"] Nothing seems to shock the nerves of these witch
historiographers so much as the utter want of decorum and propriety
exhibited by these unhappy creatures in giving vent to these indignant
outbreaks, which a sense of the wicked injustice of their fate, and
seeing their own offspring brought up in evidence against them,
through the most detestable acts, and by the basest subornation, would
naturally extort from minds even of iron mould. If ever Lear's or
Timon's power of malediction could be justifiably called into
exercise, it would be against such a tribunal and such witnesses as
they had generally to encounter.

F 4 _a_. "_That at the third time her Spirit._"] Something seems to be
wanting here, as she does not state what occurred at the two previous
interviews. The learned judge may have exercised a sound discretion in
this omission, as the particulars might be of a nature unfit for
publication. The present tract is, undoubtedly, remarkably free from
those disgusting details of which similar reports are generally full
to overflowing.

F 4 _b_. "_The said Iennet Deuice, being a yong Maide, about the age
of nine yeares._"] This child must have been admirably trained, (some
Master Thomson might have been near at hand to instruct her,) or must
have had great natural capacity for deception. She made an excellent
witness on this occasion. What became of her after the wholesale
extinction of her family, to which she was so mainly instrumental, is
not now known. In all likelihood she dragged on a miserable existence,
a forlorn outcast, pointed at by the hand of scorn, or avoided with
looks of horror in the wilds of Pendle. As if some retributive
punishment awaited her, she is reported to have been the Jennet Davies
who was condemned in 1633, on the evidence of Edmund Robinson the
younger, with Mother Dickenson and others, but not executed. Her
confession, if she made one at the second trial, might not have been
unsimilar to that of Alexander Sussums, of Melford in Suffolk, who,
Hearne tells us, confessed "that he had things which did draw those
marks I found upon him, but said he could not help it, for that all
his kinred were naught. Then I asked him how it was possible they
could suck without his consent. He said he did consent to that. Then I
asked him again why he should do it when as God was so merciful
towards him, as I then told him of, being a man whom I had been
formerly acquainted withal, as having lived in town. He answered
again, he could not help it, for that all his generation was naught;
and so told me _his mother and aunt were hanged, his grandmother burnt
for witchcraft, and ten others of them questioned and hanged_. This
man is yet living, notwithstanding he confessed the sucking of such
things above sixteen years together."--_Confirmation_, p. 36.

G 3 _a_. "_Anne Crouckshey._"] Anne Cronkshaw.

G 3 _b_ 1. "_Vpon Good Friday last there was about twentie persons._"]
This meeting, if not a witches' Sabbath, was a close approximation to
one. On the subject of the Sabbath, or periodical meeting of witches,
De Lancre is the leading authority. He who is curious cannot do better
than consult this great hierophant, (his work is entitled Tableau de
l'Inconstance des mauvais Anges et Demons. Paris, 1613, 4to.) whose
knowledge and experience well qualified him to have been constituted
the Itinerant Master of Ceremonies, an officer who, he assures us,
was never wanting on such occasions. In that singular book, _The
History of Monsieur Oufle_, p. 288, (English Translation, 1711, 8vo.)
are collected from various sources all the ceremonies and
circumstances attending the holding the Sabbath. It appears that
non-attendance invariably incurred a penalty, which is computed upon
the average at the eighth part of a crown, or in French currency at
ten sous--that, though the contrary has been maintained by many grave
authors, egress and ingress by the chimney (De Lancre had depositions
without number, he tells us, _vide_ p. 114, on this important head,)
was not a matter of solemn obligation, but was an open question--that
no grass ever grows upon the place where the Sabbath is kept; which is
accounted for by the circumstance of its being trodden by so many of
those whose feet are constitutionally hot, and therefore being burnt
up and consequently very barren--that two devils of note preside on
the occasion, the great negro, who is called Master Leonard, and a
little devil, whom Master Leonard sometimes substitutes in his place
as temporary vice-president; his name is Master John Mullin. (De
Lancre, p. 126.) With regard to a very important point, the bill of
fare, great difference of opinion exists: some maintaining that every
delicacy of the season, to use the newspaper phrase, is provided;
others stoutly asserting that nothing is served up but toads, the
flesh of hanged criminals, dead carcases fresh buried taken out of
Churchyards, flesh of unbaptized infants, or beasts which died of
themselves--that they never eat with salt, and that their bread is of
black millet. (De Lancre, pp. 104, 105.) In this diversity of opinion
I can only suggest, that difference of climate, habit, and fashion,
might possibly have its weight, and render a very different larder
necessary for the witches of Pendle and those of Gascony or Lorrain.
The fare of the former on this occasion appears to have been of a very
substantial and satisfactory kind, "beef, bacon, and roasted mutton:"
the old saying so often quoted by the discontented masters of
households applying emphatically in this case:--

     "God sends us good meat, but the devil sends cooks."

We find in the present report no mention made of the

     "Dance and provencal song"

which formed one great accompaniment of the orgies of the southern
witches. Bodin's authority is express, that each, the oldest not
excused, was expected to perform a coranto, and great attention was
paid to the regularity of the steps. We owe to him the discovery,
which is not recorded in any annals of dancing I have met with, that
the lavolta, a dance not dissimilar, according to his description, to
the polka of the present day, was brought out of Italy into France by
the witches at their festive meetings. Of the language spoken at these
meetings, De Lancre favours us with a specimen, valuable, like the
Punic fragment in the Poenolus, for its being the only one of the
kind. _In nomine patrica araguenco petrica agora, agora, Valentia
jouando goure gaiti goustia._ As it passes my skill, I can only
commend it to the especial notice of Mr. Borrow against his next
journey into Spain. What was spoken at Malkin Tower was, doubtless, a
dialect not yet obsolete, and which Tummus and Meary would have had no
difficulty in comprehending. On the subject of these witches'
Sabbaths, Dr. Ferriar remarks, in his curious and agreeable _Essay on
Popular Illusions_, (see _Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and
Philosophical Society_, vol. iii., p. 68,) a sketch which it is much
to be regretted that he did not subsequently expand and revise, and
publish in a separate form:--

     The solemn meetings of witches are supposed to be put beyond
     all doubt by the numerous confessions of criminals, who have
     described their ceremonies, named the times and places of
     meeting, and the persons present, and who have agreed in
     their relations, though separately delivered.[78] But I
     would observe, first, that the circumstances told of those
     festivals are ridiculous and incredible in themselves; for
     they are represented as gloomy and horrible, yet with a
     mixture of childish and extravagant fancies, more likely to
     disgust and alienate than to conciliate the minds of the
     guests. They have every appearance of uneasy dreams;
     sometimes the devil and his subjects _say mass_, sometimes
     he _preaches_ to them, more commonly he was seen in the form
     of a black goat, surrounded by imps in a thousand frightful
     shapes; but none of these forms are _new_, they all resemble
     known quadrupeds or reptiles. Secondly, I observe, that
     there is direct proof furnished even by demonologists, that
     all these supposed journies and entertainments are nothing
     more than dreams. Persons accused of witchcraft have been
     repeatedly watched, about the time which they had fixed for
     the meeting; they have been seen to anoint themselves with
     soporific compositions, after which they fell into profound
     sleep, and on awaking, several hours afterwards, they have
     related their journey through the air, their amusement at
     the festival, and have named the persons whom they saw
     there. In the instance told by Hoffman, the dreamer was
     chained to the floor. Common sense would rest satisfied
     here, but the enthusiasm of demonology has invented more
     than one theory to get rid of these untoward facts. Dr.
     Henry More, as was formerly mentioned, believed that the
     astral spirit only was carried away: other demonologists
     imagined that the witch was really removed to the place of
     meeting, but that a cacodemon was left in her room, as an
     [Greek: eidolon], to delude the spectators. Thirdly, some
     stories of the festivals are evidently tricks. Such is that
     related by Bodinus, with much gravity: a man is found in a
     gentleman's cellar, and apprehended as a thief; he declares
     his wife had brought him thither to a witch-meeting, and on
     his pronouncing the name of God, she and all her companions
     had vanished, and left him inclosed. His wife is immediately
     seized, on this righteous evidence, and hanged, with several
     other persons, named as present at the meeting.

[Footnote 78: There is a grave relation, in Delrio, of a witch being
shot flying, by a Spanish centinel, at the bridge of Nieulet, near
Calais, after that place was taken by the Spaniards. The soldier saw a
black cloud advancing rapidly, from which voices issued: when it came
near, he fired into it; immediately a witch dropped. This is
_undoubted proof_ of the meetings!--_Disq. Mag._, p. 708.]

G 3 _b_ 2. "_Christopher Iackes, of Thorny-holme, and his wife._"]
This would appear to be Christopher Hargreaves, called here
Christopher Jackes, for o' or of Jack, according to the Lancashire
mode of forming patronymics.

G 4 _a_. "_The first was, for the naming of the Spirit, which Alizon
Deuice, now Prisoner at Lancaster, had: But did not name him, because
shee was not there._"] Gaule says, speaking of the ceremonies at the
witches' solemn meetings: "If the witch be outwardly Christian,
baptism must be renounced, and the party must be rebaptized in the
Devil's name, and a new name is also imposed by him; and here must be
godfathers too, for the Devil takes them not to be so adult as to
promise and vow for themselves." (_Cases of Conscience touching
Witches_, page 59. 1646, 12mo.) But Gaule does not mention any naming
or baptism of spirits and familiars on such occasions.

G 4 _b_. "_Romleyes Moore._"] Romilly's or Rumbles Moor, a wild and
mountainous range in Craven, not unaptly selected for a meeting on a
special emergency of a conclave of witches.

H 2 _a_ 1. "_Was so insensible, weake, and vnable in all thinges, as
he could neither speake, heare, or stand, but was holden vp._"]
Pitiable, truly, was the situation of this unhappy wretch. Brought out
from the restraint of a long imprisonment, before and during which he
had, as we may conjecture, been subjected to every inhumanity, in a
state more dead than alive, into a court which must have looked like
one living mass, with every eye lit up with horror, and curses, not
loud but deep, muttered with harmonious concord from the mouths of
every spectator.

H 2 _a_ 2. "_Anne Towneley, wife of Henrie Townely, of the Carre._"]
Would this be Anne, the daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Catterall,
of Catterall and Little Mitton, Esq., who married Henry Townley, the
son of Lawrence Townley? (See Whitaker's _Whalley_, p. 396.) The
Townleys of Barnside and Carr were a branch of the Townleys, of
Townley. Barnside, or Barnsete, is an ancient mansion in the township
of Colne, which, Whitaker observes, was abandoned by the family, for
the warmer situation of Carr, about the middle of the last century.

H 2 _a_ 3. "_Master Nowel humbly prayed Master Towneley might be
called._"] It is to be regretted we have no copy of the _viva voce_
examination of Mr. Townley, the husband of the lady whose life was
said to have been taken away by witchcraft. The examinations given in
this tract are altogether those of persons in a humble rank of life.
The contrast between their evidence and that of an individual
occupying the position of the descendant of one of the oldest families
in the neighbourhood, with considerable landed possessions, might have
been amusing and instructive.

H 2 _a_ 4. "_Master Nowell humbly prayed, that the particular
examinations taken before him and others might be openly published and
read in court._"] This kind of evidence, the witnesses being in court,
and capable of being examined, would not be received at the present
day. At that time a greater laxity prevailed.

H 3 _a_. "_Sheare Thursday._"] The Thursday before Easter, and so
called, for that, in the old Fathers' days, the people would that day,
"shave their hedes, and clypp their berdes, and pool their heedes, and
so make them honest against Easter Day."--_Brand's Popular
Antiquities_, vol. i., p. 83, edition 1841.

K _b_ 1. "_A Charme._"] Sinclair, in his _Satan's Invisible World
Discovered_, informs us, that "At night, in the time of popery, when
folks went to bed, they believed the repetition of this following
prayer was effectual to preserve them from danger, and the house too.

    "Who sains the house the night,
    They that sains it ilka night.
    Saint Bryde and her brate,
    Saint Colme and his hat,
    Saint Michael and his spear,
    Keep this house from the weir;
    From running thief,
    And burning thief;
    And from and ill Rea,
    That be the gate can gae;
    And from an ill weight,
    That be the gate can light
    Nine reeds about the house;
    Keep it all the night,
    What is that, what I see
    So red, so bright, beyond the sea?
    'Tis he was pierc'd through the hands,
    Through the feet, through the throat,
    Through the tongue;
    Through the liver and the lung.
    Well is them that well may
    Fast on Good-friday."

which lines are not unlike some of those in the present "charme,"
which, evidently much corrupted by recitation, is a very singular and
interesting string of fragments handed down from times long anterior
to the Reformation, when they had been employed as armour of proof by
the credulous vulgar against the Robin Goodfellows, urchins, elves,
hags, and fairies of earlier superstition. I regret that I cannot
throw more light upon it. The concluding lines are not deficient in
poetical spirit.

K _b_ 2. "_Ligh in leath wand._"] Leath is no doubt lithe, flexible.
What "ligh in" is intended for, unless it be lykinge, which the
_Promptorium Parvulorum_ (_vide_ part i. p. 304) explains by lusty, or
craske, _Delicativus_, crassus, I am unable to conjecture. It is
clear, that the wand in one hand is to steck, _i.e._ stake, or fasten,
the latch of hell door, while the key in his other hand is to open
heaven's lock.

K _b_ 3. "_Let Crizum child goe to it Mother mild._"] The chrisom,
according to the usual explanation, was a white cloth placed upon the
head of an infant at baptism, when the chrism, or sacred oil of the
Romish Church, was used in that sacrament. If the child died within a
month of its birth, that cloth was used as a shroud; and children so
dying were called chrisoms in the old bills of mortality.

K _b_ 4. "_A light so farrandly._"] Farrandly, or farrantly, a word
still in use in Lancashire, and which is equivalent to fair, likely,
or handsome. (See _Lancashire Dialect and Glossary_.) "Harne panne,"
_i.e._, cranium.--_Promptorium Parvulorum_, p. 237.

K 2 _a_ 1. "_Vpon the ground of holy weepe._"] I know not how to
explain this, unless it mean the ground of holy weeping, _i.e._, the
Garden of Gethsemane.

K 2 _a_ 2. "_Shall neuer deere thee._"] The word to dere, or hurt,
says Mr. Way, _Promptorium Parvulorum_, p. 119, is commonly used by
Chaucer and most other writers until the sixteenth century:

    "Fyr he schal hym nevyr dere."
                     _Coeur de Lion_, 1638.

Fabyan observes, under the year 1194, "So fast besyed this good Kyng
Richarde to vex and dere the infydelys of Sury." Palsgrave gives, "To
dere or hurte a noye nuire, I wyll never dere you by my good wyll."
Ang. Sax., [Anglo-Saxon: derian] _nocere_, [Anglo-Saxon: derung]
_laesio_.

K 3 _a_. "_The Witches of Salmesbvry._"] Or, more properly,
Samlesbury. This wicked attempt on the part of this priest, or Jesuit,
Thompson, _alias_ Southworth, to murder the three persons whose trial
is next reported, by suborning a child of the family to accuse them of
what, in the excited state of the public mind at the time, was almost
certain to consign them to a public execution, has few parallels in
the annals of atrocity. The plot was defeated, and the lives of the
persons accused, Jennet Bierley, Ellen Bierley, and Jane Southworth,
saved, by no sagacity of the judge or wisdom of the jury, but by the
effect of one simple question, wrung from the intended victims on the
verge of anticipated condemnation, and which, natural as it might
appear, was one the felicity of which Garrow or Erskine might have
envied. It demolished, like Ithuriel's spear, the whole fabric of
imposture, and laid it open even to the comprehension of Sir Edward
Bromley and Master Thomas Potts. This was a case which well deserved
Archbishop Harsnet for its historian. His vein of irony, which Swift
or Echard never surpassed, and the scorching invective of which he was
so consummate a master, would have been well employed in handing down
to posterity a scene of villainy to which the frauds of Somers and the
stratagems of Weston were mere child's play. We might then have had,
from the most enlightened man of his age, a commentary on the statute
1st James First, which would have neutralized its mischief, and spared
a hecatomb of victims. His resistless ridicule would, perhaps, have
accomplished at once what was slowly and with difficulty brought about
by the arguments of Scot and Webster, the establishment of the Royal
Society, and a century's growth of intelligence and knowledge.

K 3 _b_ 1. "_A Seminarie Priest._"] Of this Thompson, _alias_
Southworth, I find no account in Dodd's _Catholic Church History_. A
John Southworth is noticed, vol. iii. p. 303, who is described as of
an ancient family in Lancashire, and who was executed at Tyburn, June
28th, 1655. His dying speech is to be found in the same volume, p.
360. The interval of time, as well as the difference of surname,
excludes the presumption of his being identical with the person
referred to in the text, the hero of this extraordinary conspiracy,
and who was probably of the family of Sir John Southworth, after
mentioned.

K 3 _b_ 2. "_A Iesuite, whereof this Countie of Lancaster hath good
store._"] Lancashire was, about this period, the great hot-bed of
Popish recusants. From the very curious list of recusants given
(Baines's _Lancashire_, vol. i. p. 541,) it would seem that Samlesbury
was one of their strongholds:--

     James Cowper a seminarie prieste receipted releived and
     mainteined att the lodge of Sir John Southworthe in
     Samlesburie Parke by Mr. Tho: Southworthe, one of the
     younger sonnes of the said Sir John. And att the howse of
     John Warde dwellinge in Samlesburie Park syde. And the said
     Prieste sayeth Masse att the said lodge and att the said
     Wards howse. Whether resorte, Mr. Sowthworthe, Mres. An
     Sowthworthe, John Walmesley servante to Sir John
     Southworthe, Tho. Southworthe dwellinge in the Parke, John
     Gerrerde, servante to Sir John Southworthe, John Singleton,
     John Wrighte, James Sherples iunior, John Warde of
     Samlesburie, John Warde of Medler thelder, Henrie Potter of
     Medler, John Gouldon of Winwicke, Thomas Gouldon of the
     same, Roberte Anderton of Samlesburie and John Sherples of
     Stanleyhurst in Samlesburie.--_Baines's Lancashire_, vol. i.
     p. 543.

     Att the lodge in Samlesburie Parke there be masses daylie
     and Seminaries dyuerse Resorte thither as James Cowpe,
     Harrisson Bell and such like, The like vnlawfull meetings
     are made daylie att the howse of John Warde by the Parke
     syde of Samlesburie all wiche matters, masses, resorte to
     Masses, receipting of Seminaries wilbe Justifyed by Mr. Adam
     Sowtheworthe Thomas Sherples and John Osbaldston.--_Ibid._,
     p. 544.

K 4 _b_. "_Picked her off._"] Threw her off.

L _a_. "_Hugh Walshmans._"] The wife of Hugh Walshman, of Samlesbury,
is mentioned in the list of recusants; Baines, vol. i. p. 544.

L 2 _a_ 1. "_Brought a little child._"] The evidence against the
Pendle witches exhibits meagreness and poverty of imagination compared
with the accumulated horrors with which the Jesuit, fresh, it may be,
from Bodin and Delrio, made his "fire burn and cauldron bubble." With
respect to this old story of the magical use made of the corpses of
infants, Ben Jonson, in a note on

    "I had a dagger: what did I with that?
    Killed an infant to have his fat;"

tells us with great gravity:

     Their killing of infants is common, both for confection of
     their ointment (whereto one ingredient is the fat boiled, as
     I have shewed before out of Paracelsus and Porta) as also
     out of a lust to do murder. _Sprenger in Mal. Malefic._
     reports that a witch, a midwife in the diocese of Basil,
     confessed to have killed above forty infants (ever as they
     were new born, with pricking them in the brain with a
     needle) which she had offered to the devil. See the story of
     the three witches in _Rem. Daemonola lib. cap._ 3, about the
     end of the chapter. And M. Phillippo Ludwigus Elich _Quaest._
     8. And that it is no new rite, read the practice of Canidia,
     _Epod. Horat. lib. ode_ 5, and Lucan, _lib._ 6, whose
     admirable verses I can never be weary to  transcribe:--

     Nec cessant a caede manus, si sanguine vivo
     Est opus, erumpat jugulo qui primus aperto.
     Nec refugit caedes, vivum si sacra cruorem
     Extaque funereae poscunt trepidantia mensae.
     Vulnere si ventris, non qua natura vocabat,
     Extrahitur partus calidus ponendus in aris;
     Et quoties saevis opus est, et fortibus umbris
     Ipsa facit maneis. Hominum mors omnis in usu est.

     _Ben Johnson's Works, by Gifford_, vol. vii. p. 130.

L 2 _a_ 2. "_They said they would annoint themselues._"] Ben Jonson
informs us:

     When they are to be transported from place to place, they
     use to anoint themselves, and sometimes the things they ride
     on. Beside Apul. testimony, see these later, _Remig.
     Daemonolatriae lib._ 1. _cap._ 14. _Delrio, Disquis. Mag. l._
     2. _quaest._ 16. _Bodin Daemonoman. lib._ 2 _c._ 14. _Barthol.
     de Spina. quaest. de Strigib. Phillippo Ludwigus Elich.
     quaest._ 10. _Paracelsus in magn. et occul. Philosophia_,
     teacheth the confection. _Unguentum ex carne recens natorum
     infantium, in pulmenti, forma coctum, et cum herbis
     somniferis, quales sunt Papaver, Solanum, Cicuta_, &c. And
     _Giov. Bapti. Porta, lib._ 2. _Mag. Natur. cap._ 16.--_Ben
     Jonson's Works by Gifford_, vol. vii. p. 119.

L 3 _a_. "_Did carrie her into the loft._"] There is something in this
strange tissue of incoherencies, for knavery has little variety, which
forcibly reminds us of the inventions of Elizabeth Canning, who ought
to have lived in the days when witchcraft was part of the popular
creed. What an admirable witch poor old Mary Squires would have made,
and how brilliantly would her persecutor have shone in the days of the
Baxters and Glanvilles, who acquitted herself so creditably in those
of the Fieldings and the Hills.

L 4 _b_ 1. "_Robert Hovlden, Esquire._"] This individual would be of
the ancient family of Holden, of Holden, the last male heir of which
died without issue, 1792. (See Whitaker's _Whalley_, 418.)

L 4 _b_ 2. "_Sir John Southworth._"] In this family the manor of
Samlesbury remained for three hundred and fifty years. This was,
probably, the John (for the pedigree contained in Whitaker's
_Whalley_, p. 430, does not give the clearest light on the subject)
who married Jane, daughter of Sir Richard Sherburne, of Stonyhurst,
and who took a great lead amongst the Catholics of Lancashire. What
was the degree of relationship between Sir John and the husband of the
accused, Jane Southworth, there is nothing in the descent to show.
Family bickering might have a share, as well as superstition, in the
opinion he entertained, "that she was an evil woman." Of the old hall
at Samlesbury, the residence of the Southworths, a most interesting
account will be found in Whitaker's _Whalley_, p. 431. He considers
the centre of very high antiquity, probably not later than Edward III;
and observes, "There is about the house a profusion and bulk of oak
that must almost have laid prostrate a forest to erect it."

M 1 _b_. "_The particular points of the Evidence._"] What a waste of
ingenuity Master Potts displays in this recapitulation, where he is
merely slaying the slain, and where his wisdom was not needed. Had he
applied it to the service of the Pendle witches, he would have found
still grosser contrarieties, and as great absurdity. But in that case,
there was no horror of Popery to sharpen his faculties, or Jesuit in
the background to call his humanity into play.

M 2 _a_. "_The wrinkles of an old wiues face is good euidence to the
Iurie against a Witch._"] _Si sic omnia!_ For once the worthy clerk in
court has a lucid interval, and speaks the language of common sense.

M 2 _b_. "_But old Chattox had Fancie._"] A great truth, though Master
Potts might not be aware of the extent of it.

M 4 _a_. "_M. Leigh, a very religious Preacher._"] Parson of Standish,
a man memorable in his day. He published several pieces, amongst
others the two following: 1. "The Drumme of Devotion," by W. Leigh, of
Standish, 1613.--2. "News of a Prodigious Monster in Aldington, in the
Parish of Standish, in Lancashire," 1613, 4to, which show him to have
been an adept in the science of title-making. He was one of the tutors
of Prince Henry, and was great-grandfather of Dr. Leigh, author of the
_History of Lancashire_.

N 3 _b_. "_The Arraignment and Triall of Anne Redferne._"] This poor
woman seems to have been regularly hunted to death by her prosecutors,
who pursued her with all the dogged pertinacity of blood-hounds.
Neither the imploring appeal for mercy, in her case, from her wretched
mother, who did not ask for any in her own, nor the want of even the
shadow of a ground for the charge, had the slightest effect upon the
besotted prejudices of the judge and jury. Acquitted on one
indictment, she is now put on her trial on another; the imputed crime
being her having caused the death of a person, who did not even accuse
her of being accessory to it, nearly eighteen years before, by
witchcraft; the only evidence, true or false, being, that she had been
seen, about the same period, making figures of clay or marl. Her real
offence, it may well be conjectured, was her having rejected the
improper advances of the ill-conditioned young man whose death she was
first indicted for procuring, and to which circumstance the rancour of
his relations, the prosecutors, may evidently be traced. It is
gratifying to know that she had firmness of mind to persist in the
declaration of her innocence to the last.

O 3 _a_. "_Alice Nutter._"] We now come to a person of a different
description from any of those who have preceded as parties accused,
and on whose fate some extraordinary mystery seems to hang. Alice
Nutter was not, like the others, a miserable mendicant, but was a lady
of large possessions, of a respectable family, and with children whose
position appears to have been such as, it might have been expected,
would have afforded her the means of escaping the fate which overtook
her humbler companions.

    "I knew her a good woman and well bred,
    Of an unquestion'd carriage, well reputed
    Amongst her neighbours, reckoned with the best."
                               _Heywood's Lancashire Witches._

She is described as the wife of Richard Nutter of the Rough Lee, and
mother of Miles Nutter, who were in all likelihood nearly related to
the other Nutters whose descent has been given. The tradition is, that
she was closely connected by relationship or marriage with Eleanor
Nutter, the daughter of Ellis Nutter of Pendle Forest, the grandmother
of Archbishop Tillotson. That she was the victim of a foul and
atrocious conspiracy, in which the movers were some of her own family,
there seems no reason to doubt. The anxiety of her children to induce
her to confess may possibly have originated in no impure or sinister
motive, but it is difficult altogether to dismiss from the mind the
suspicion that her wealth was her great misfortune; and that to secure
it within their grasp her own household were passive, if not active,
agents in her destruction. Any thing more childish or absurd than the
evidence against her--as, for instance, that she joyned in killing
Henry Mitton because he refused a penny to Old Demdike--it would not
be easy, even from the records of witch trials, to produce. As regards
Alice Nutter, Potts is singularly meagre, and it is to be lamented
that the deficiency of information cannot at present be supplied.
Almost the only fact he furnishes us with is, that she died
maintaining her innocence. It would have been most interesting to have
had the means of ascertaining how she conducted herself at her trial
and after her condemnation; and how she met the iniquitous injustice
of her fate, sharpened, as it must have been, by the additional
bitterness of the insults and execrations of the blind and infuriated
populace at her execution. It is far from improbable that some of the
correspondence now deposited in the family archives in the county
hitherto unpublished may ultimately furnish these particulars.

Alice Nutter was doubtless the original of the story of which Heywood
availed himself in _The Late Lancashire Witches_, 1634, 4to, which is
frequently noticed by the writers of the 17th century--that the wife
of a Lancashire country gentleman had been detected in practising
witchcraft and unlawful arts, and condemned and executed. In that play
there can be little hesitation in ascribing to Heywood the scenes in
which Mr. Generous and his wife are the interlocutors, and to Broome,
Heywood's coadjutor, the subordinate and farcical portions. It is a
very unequal performance, but not destitute of those fine touches,
which Heywood is never without, in the characters of English country
gentlemen and the pathos of domestic tragedy. The following scene,
which I am tempted to extract, though very inferior to the noble ones
in his _Woman Killed by Kindness_, between Mr. and Mrs. Frankford,
which it somewhat resembles in character, is not unworthy of this
great and truly national dramatic writer:--

MR. GENEROUS. WIFE. ROBIN, _a groom._

_Gen._ My blood is turn'd to ice, and all my vitals
Have ceas'd their working. Dull stupidity
Surpriseth me at once, and hath arrested
That vigorous agitation, which till now
Exprest a life within me. I, methinks,
Am a meer marble statue, and no man.
Unweave my age, O time, to my first thread;
Let me lose fifty years, in ignorance spent;
That, being made an infant once again,
I may begin to know. What, or where am I,
To be thus lost in wonder?

_Wife._ Sir.

_Gen._ Amazement still pursues me, how am I chang'd,
Or brought ere I can understand myself
Into this new world!

_Rob._ You will believe no witches?

_Gen._ This makes me believe all, aye, anything;
And that myself am nothing. Prithee, Robin,
Lay me to myself open; what art thou,
Or this new transform'd creature?

_Rob._ I am Robin;
And this your wife, my mistress.

_Gen._ Tell me, the earth
Shall leave its seat, and mount to kiss the moon;
Or that the moon, enamour'd of the earth,
Shall leave her sphere, to stoop to us thus low.
What, what's this in my hand, that at an instant
Can from a four-legg'd creature make a thing
So like a wife!

_Rob._ A bridle; a jugling bridle, Sir.

_Gen._ A bridle! Hence, enchantment.
A viper were more safe within my hand,
Than this charm'd engine.--
A witch! my wife a witch!
The more I strive to unwind
Myself from this meander, I the more
Therein am intricated. Prithee, woman,
Art thou a witch?

_Wife._ It cannot be denied,
I am such a curst creature.

_Gen._ Keep aloof:
And do not come too near me. O my trust;
Have I, since first I understood myself,
Been of my soul so chary, still to study
What best was for its health, to renounce all
The works of that black fiend with my best force;
And hath that serpent twined me so about,
That I must lie so often and so long
With a devil in my bosom?

_Wife._ Pardon, Sir. [_She looks down._]

_Gen._ Pardon! can such a thing as that be hoped?
Lift up thine eyes, lost woman, to yon hills;
It must be thence expected: look not down
Unto that horrid dwelling, which thou hast sought
At such dear rate to purchase. Prithee, tell me,
(For now I can believe) art thou a witch?

_Wife._ I am.

_Gen._ With that word I am thunderstruck,
And know not what to answer; yet resolve me.
Hast thou made any contract with that fiend,
The enemy of mankind?

_Wife._ O I have.

_Gen._ What? and how far?

_Wife._ I have promis'd him my soul.

_Gen._ Ten thousand times better thy body had
Been promis'd to the stake; aye, and mine too,
To have suffer'd with thee in a hedge of flames,
Than such a compact ever had been made. Oh--
Resolve me, how far doth that contract stretch?

_Wife._ What interest in this Soul myself could claim,
I freely gave him; but his part that made it
I still reserve, not being mine to give.

_Gen._ O cunning devil: foolish woman, know,
Where he can claim but the least little part,
He will usurp the whole. Thou'rt a lost woman.

_Wife._ I hope, not so.

_Gen._ Why, hast thou any hope?

_Wife._ Yes, sir, I have.

_Gen._ Make it appear to me.

_Wife._ I hope I never bargain'd for that fire,
Further than penitent tears have power to quench.

_Gen._ I would see some of them.

_Wife._ You behold them now
(If you look on me with charitable eyes)
Tinctur'd in blood, blood issuing from the heart.
Sir, I am sorry; when I look towards heaven,
I beg a gracious pardon; when on you,
Methinks your native goodness should not be
Less pitiful than they; 'gainst both I have err'd;
From both I beg atonement.

_Gen._ May I presume 't?

_Wife._ I kneel to both your mercies.

_Gen._ Knowest thou what
A witch is?

_Wife._ Alas, none better;
Or after mature recollection can be
More sad to think on 't.

_Gen._ Tell me, are those tears
As full of true hearted penitence,
As mine of sorrow to behold what state,
What desperate state, thou'rt fain in?

_Wife._ Sir, they are.

_Gen._ Rise; and, as I do you, so heaven pardon me;
We all offend, but from such falling off
Defend us! Well, I do remember, wife,
When I first took thee, 'twas _for good and bad_:
O change thy bad to good, that I may keep thee
(As then we past our faiths) 'till Death us sever.
O woman, thou hast need to weep thyself
Into a fountain, such a penitent spring
As may have power to quench invisible flames;
In which my eyes shall aid: too little, all.
                               _Late Lancashire Witches, Act 4._

P 2 _a_ 1. "_Being examined by my Lord._"] She had evidently learned
her lesson well; but this was, with all submission to his Lordship, if
adopted as a test, a mighty poor one. Jennet Device must have known
well the persons of the parties she accused, and who were now upon
their trial, as they were all her near neighbours.

P 2 _a_ 2. "_Whether she knew Iohan a Style?_"] His Lordship's
introduction of this apocryphal legal personage on such an occasion is
very amusing. Had he studied Littleton and Perkins a little less, and
given some attention to the Lancashire dialect, and some also to the
study of that great book, in which even a judge may find valuable
matter, the book of human nature, he might have been more successfull
in his examination. Jack's o' Dick's o' Harry's would have been more
likely to have been recognised as a veritable person of this world by
Jennet Device, than such a name as Johan a Style; which, though very
familiar at Westminster, would scarcely have its prototype at Pendle.
But Jennet Device, young as she was, in natural shrewdness was far
more than a match for his lordship.

P 3 _a_. "_Katherine Hewit, alias Movld-heeles._"] Of this person, who
comes next in the list of witches, our information is very scanty. She
was not of Pendle, but of Colne; and as her husband is described as a
"clothier," may be presumed to have been in rather better
circumstances than Elizabeth Southernes or Anne Whittle's families.
She made no confession.

P 4 _a_ 1. "_Anne Foulds of Colne. Michael Hartleys of Colne._"] Folds
and Hartley are still the names of families at and in the
neighbourhood of Colne.

P 4 _a_ 2. "_Had then in hanck a child._"] The meaning of this term is
clear, the origin rather dubious. It may come from the Scotch word,
_to hanck_, i.e. to have in holdfast or secure, vide Jamieson's Scotch
Dictionary, tit. hanck, or from handkill, to murder, vide Jamieson,
under that word; or lastly, may be metaphorically used, from hanck,
also signifying a skein of yarn or worsted which is tied or trussed
up.

Q 2 _a_. "_Iohn Bulcocke, Iane Bulcocke his mother._"] The condition
of these persons is not stated. It may be conjectured that they were
of the lowest class.

Q 3 _a_ 1. "_At the Barre hauing formerly confessed._"] Why is not
their confession given?

Q 3 _a_ 2. "_Crying out in very violent and outrageous manner, even to
the gallowes._"] The latter end of these unfortunate people was
perhaps similar to that of Isobel Crawford, executed in Scotland the
year after for witchcraft, who, on being sentenced, openly denied all
her former confessions, and died without any sign of repentance,
offering repeated interruption to the minister in his prayer, and
refusing to pardon the executioner.

Q 4 _a_. "_Master Thomas Lister of Westby._"] See note on p. Y _a_.

Q 4 _b_. "_The said Bulcockes wife doth know of some Witches to bee
about Padyham and Burnley._"] Precious evidence this to put the lives
of two poor creatures into jeopardy.

R _a_. "_Accused the said Iohn Bulcock to turne the Spitt there._"]
What a fact this would have been for De Lancre. With all his accurate
statistics on the subject of the witches' Sabbath, he was not aware
that a turnspit was a necessary officer on such occasions, as well as
a master of ceremonies. This artful and well instructed jade, Jennet
Device, must have borne especial malice against John Bulcock.

R 1 _b_. "_The names of the Witches at the Great Assembly and Feast at
Malking-Tower, viz. vpon Good-Friday last, 1612._"] In this list of
fourteen individuals, Master Potts has omitted "the painful steward so
careful to provide mutton," James Device, who made up the number to
fifteen. Of these persons seven were not indicted: Jennet Hargraves,
the wife of Hugh Hargraves, of Barley under Pendle; Elizabeth
Hargraves, the wife of Christopher Hargraves; Christopher Howgate, the
son of Old Demdike; Christopher Hargraves, who is described as of
Thurniholme, or Thornholme, and as Christopher o' Jacks, and was
husband of Elizabeth Hargraves; Grace Hay, of Padiham; Anne Crunkshey,
of Marchden, or more properly, Cronkshaw of Marsden; and Elizabeth
Howgate, the wife of Christopher Howgate. The two Howgates were, it
may be, the "one Holgate and his wife," mentioned in Robinson's
deposition in 1633. Alice Graie, or Gray, included in the list, was
indicted, though no copy of the indictment is afforded by Potts, and,
singular as it may seem, acquitted. Richard Miles' wife, of the Rough
Lee, stated to have been present in some of the depositions, (G 3
_b_,) was, beyond doubt, Alice Nutter, so called as the wife of
Richard and mother of Miles Nutter.

It may afford matter for speculation, whether any real meeting took
place of any of the persons above enumerated, which gave occasion for
the monstrous versions of the witnesses at this trial. It is far from
unlikely, that on the apprehension and commitment of Old Demdike, Old
Chattox, Alizon Device, and Anne Redfern to Lancaster, a meeting would
take place of their near relations, and others who might attend from
curiosity, or from its being rumoured that they were themselves
implicated by the confessions of those apprehended, and who by such
attendance sealed their dooms. In all similar fabrications there is
generally some slight foundation of fact, some scintilla of homely
truth, from which, like the inverted apex of a pyramid, the
disproportioned fabric expands. It is possible that, from the simple
occurrence of an unusual attendance at Malking Tower on Good Friday,
not unnatural under the circumstances, some of the witnesses, ignorant
and easily persuaded, might be afterwards led to believe in the
existence of those monstrous superadditions with which the convention
was afterwards clothed. However this may be, there must have been at
hand for working up the materials into a plausible form, some drill
sergeant of evidence behind the curtain, who had his own interest to
serve or revenge to gratify. The two particulars in the narrative that
one feels least disposed to question, are, that James Device stole a
wether from John Robinson of Barley, to provide a family dinner on
Good Friday, and that when the meat was roasted John Bulcock performed
the humble, but very necessary, duty of turning the spit.

R 3 _a_. "_My Lord Gerrard._"] Thomas Gerard, son and heir of Sir
Gilbert Gerard, Master of the Robes 23d Elizabeth, was raised to the
peerage by the title of Lord Gerard of Gerard's Bromley, in
Staffordshire, 1603. He died 1618.

S _a_. "_Kniues, Elsons, and Sickles._" In the _Promptorium
Parvulorum_, p. 138, to Elsyn (elsyng^k) Sibula, Mr. Way appends this
note: "This word occurs in the Gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth,
Arund. MS. 220, where a buckled girdle is described:--

    "Een isy doyt le hardiloun ([thorn character]e tunnge)
    Passer par tru de subiloun (a bore of an alsene.)

"An elsyne,--acus, subula. Cath. Ang. Sibula, an elsyn, an alle or a
bodkyn. ORTUS. In the inventory of the goods of a merchant at
Newcastle, A.D. 1571, occur, 'vj. doss' elsen heftes, 12_d_; 1 clowte
and 1/2 a C elsen blades, viij_s_. viij_d_; xiij. clowtes of talier,
needles, &c.' Wills and Inventories published by the Surtees Society,
l. 361. The term is derived from the French _alene_; elson for
cordwayners, alesne. Palsg. In Yorkshire and some other parts of
England an awl is still called an elsen."

S _b_. "_Which the said Alizon confessing._"] In the case of this
paralytic pedlar, John Law, his mishap could scarcely be called such,
as it would for the remainder of his life, be an all-sufficient
stock-in-trade for him, and popular wonder and sympathy, without the
judge's interposition, would provide for his relief and maintenance.
The near apparent connection and correspondence of the _damnum
minatum_ and _damnum secutum_, in this instance, imposed upon this
unfortunate woman, as it had done upon many others, and gave to her
confession an earnestness which would appear to the unenlightened
spectator to spring only from reality and truth.

S 3 _b_. "_Margaret Pearson._"] This Padiham witch fared better than
her neighbours, being sentenced only to the pillory. Nothing affords a
stronger proof of the vindictive pertinacity with which these
prosecutions were carried on than the fact of this old and helpless
creature being put on her trial three several times upon such evidence
as follows. Chattox, like many other persons in her situation, was
disposed to have as many companions in punishment, crime or no crime,
as she could compass, and denounced her accordingly: "The said
Pearson's wife is as ill as shee."

T _a_. "_The said Margerie did carrie the said Toade out of the said
house in a paire of tonges._"] This toad was disposed of more easily
than that of Julian Cox, as to which see Glanvil's _Collection of
Relations_, p. 192:--

     Another witness swore, that as he passed by Cox her door,
     she was taking a pipe of tobacco upon the threshold of her
     door, and invited him to come in and take a pipe, which he
     did. And as he was talking Julian said to him, Neighbour,
     look what a pretty thing there is. He look't down, and there
     was a monstrous great toad betwixt his leggs, staring him in
     the face. He endeavoured to kill it by spurning it, but
     could not hit it. Whereupon Julian bad him forbear, and it
     would do him no hurt. But he threw down his pipe and went
     home, (which was about two miles off of Julian Cox her
     house,) and told his family what had happened, and that he
     believed it was one of Julian Cox her devils. After, he was
     taking a pipe of tobacco at home, and the same toad appeared
     betwixt his leggs. He took the toad out to kill it, and to
     his thinking cut it in several pieces, but returning to his
     pipe, the toad still appeared. He endeavoured to burn it,
     but could not. At length he took a switch and beat it. The
     toad ran several times about the room to avoid him he still
     pursuing it with correction. At length the toad cryed and
     vanish't, and he was never after troubled with it.

Dr. More's comment on the circumstance is written with all the
seriousness so important a part of a witch's supellex deserves. He
commences defending the huntsman, who swore that he hunted a hare, and
when he came to take it up, he found it to be Julian Cox:

     Those half-witted people thought he swore false, I suppose
     because they imagined that what he told implied that Julian
     Cox was turned into an hare. Which she was not, nor did his
     report imply any such real metamorphosis of her body, but
     that these ludicrous daemons exhibited to the sight of this
     huntsman and his doggs the shape of an Hare, one of them
     turning himself into such a form, and others hurrying on the
     body of Julian near the same place, and at the same
     swiftness, but interposing betwixt that hare-like spectre
     and her body, modifying the air so that the scene there, to
     the beholders sight, was as if nothing but air were there,
     and a shew of earth perpetually suited to that where the
     hare passed. As I have heard of some painters that have
     drawn the sky in an huge large landskip, so lively that the
     birds have flown against it, thinking it free air, and so
     have fallen down. And if painters and juglers by the tricks
     of legerdemain can do such strange feats to the deceiving of
     the sight, it is no wonder that these airy invisible spirits
     as far surpass them in all such praestigious doings as the
     air surpasses the earth for subtilty.

     And the like praestigiae may be in the toad. It might be a
     real toad (though actuated and guided by a daemon) which was
     cut in pieces, and that also which was whipt about, and at
     last snatcht out of sight (as if it had vanished) by these
     aerial hocus-pocus's. And if some juglers have tricks to
     take hot coals into their mouth without hurt, certainly it
     is not surprising that some small attempt did not suffice to
     burn that toad. That such a toad, sent by a witch and
     crawling up the body of the man of the house as he sate by
     the fire's side, was overmastered by him and his wife
     together, and burnt in the fire; I have heard credibly
     reported by one of the Isle of Ely. _Of these daemoniack
     vermin, I have heard other stories also, as of a rat that
     followed a man some score of miles trudging through thick
     and thin along with him._ So little difficulty is there in
     that of the toad.--_Glanvil's Collection of Relations_, p.
     200.

T 2 _a_ 1. "_Isabel Robey._" This person was of Windle, in the parish
of Prescot, a considerable distance from Pendle. The Gerards were
lords of the manor of Windle. Sir Thomas Gerard, before whom the
examinations were taken, was created baronet, 22nd May, 9th James I.;
and thrice married. From him the present Sir John Gerard, of New Hall,
near Warrington, is descended. Sir Thomas was determined that the
hundred of West Derby should have its witch as well as the other parts
of the county. A more melancholy tissue of absurd and incoherent
accusations than those against this last of the prisoners convicted on
this occasion, it would not be easy to find; who was hanged, for all
that appears, because one person was suddenly "pinched on her thigh,
as she thought, with four fingers and a thumb," and because another
was "sore pained with a great warch in his bones."

T 2 _a_ 2. "_This Countie of Lancaster, which now may lawfully bee
said to abound asmuch in Witches of diuers kindes as Seminaries,
Iesuites, and Papists._"] Truly, the county palatine was in sad case,
according to Master Potts's account. If the crop of each of these was
over abundant, it was from no fault of the learned judges, who, in
their commissions of _Oyer and Terminer_, subjected it pretty
liberally to the pruning-hook of the executioner.

T 2 _a_ 3. "_This lamentable and wofull Tragedie, wherein his Maiestie
hath lost so many Subjects, Mothers their Children, Fathers their
Friends and Kinsfolk._" The Lancashire bill of mortality, under the
head witchcraft, so far as it can be collected from this tract, will
run thus:--

 1. Robert Nutter, of Greenhead, in Pendle.
 2. Richard Assheton, son of Richard Assheton, of Downham, Esquire.
 3. Child of Richard Baldwin, of Wheethead, within the forest of Pendle.
 4. John Device, or Davies, of Pendle.
 5. Anne Nutter, daughter of Anthony Nutter, of Pendle.
 6. Child of John Moore, of Higham.
 7. Hugh Moore, of Pendle.
 8. John Robinson, _alias_ Swyer.
 9. James Robinson.
10. Henry Mytton, of the Rough Lee.
11. Anne Townley, wife of Henry Townley, of the Carr, gentleman.
12. John Duckworth.
13. John Hargraves, of Goldshaw Booth.
14. Blaze Hargraves, of Higham.
15. Christopher Nutter.
16. Anne Folds, of Colne.

Sixteen persons reported dead of this common epidemic, besides a
countless number with pains and "starkness in their limbs," and "a
great warch in their bones!" No wonder that Doctors Bromley and Potts
thought active treatment necessary, with a decided preference for
hemp, as the leading specific.

T 3 _b_. "_With great warch in his bones._"] Warch is a word well
known and still used in this sense, _i.e._, pain, in Lancashire.

T 4 _b_ 1. "_The said Peter was now satisfied that the said Isabel
Robey was no Witch, by sending to one Halseworths, which they call a
wiseman._"] I honour the memory of this Halsworth, or Houldsworth, as
I suppose it should be spelled, for he was indeed a wise man in days
when wisdom was an extremely scarce commodity.

T 4 _b_ 2. "_To abide vpon it._"] _i.e._, my abiding opinion is.

X _a_. "_Elizabeth Astley, John Ramsden, Alice Gray, Isabel
Sidegraues, Lawrence Hay._"] The specific charges against these
persons, with the exception of Alice Gray, do not appear, nor is it
said where their places of residence were. Alice Gray was reputed to
have been at the meeting of witches at Malkin's Tower, and to her the
judge refers, perhaps, in particular, when he says, "Without question,
there are amongst you that are as deepe in this action as any of them
that are condemned to die for their offences."

X _b_. "_The Execution of the Witches._"] We could have dispensed with
many of the flowers of rhetoric with which the pages of this discovery
are strewed, if Master Potts would have favoured us with a plain,
unvarnished account of what occurred at this execution. It is here, in
the most interesting point of all, that his narrative, in other
respects so full and abundant, stops short, and seems curtailed of its
just proportions. The "learned and worthy preacher," to whom the
prisoners were commended by the judge, was probably Mr. William Leigh,
of Standish, before mentioned. Amongst his papers or correspondence,
if they should happen to have been preserved, some account may
eventually be found of the sad closing scene of these melancholy
victims of superstition.

X 2 _a_. "_Neither can I paint in extraordinarie tearmes._"] The
worthy clerk is too modest. He is a great painter, the Tintoretto of
witchcraft.

Y _a_ 1. "_Hauing cut off Thomas Lister, Esquire, father to this
gentleman now liuing._"] Thomas Lister, of Westby, ancestor of the
Listers, Lords Ribblesdale, married Jane, daughter of John Greenacres,
Esquire, of Worston, county of Lancaster, and was buried at Gisburn,
February 8th, 1607. His son, Thomas Lister, referred to as the
"gentleman now living," married Jane, daughter of Thomas Heber, Esq.,
of Marton, after mentioned, and was buried at Gisburn, July 10th,
1619.

Y _a_ 2. "_Was Indicted and Arraigned for the murder of a Child of one
Dodg-sonnes._"] One acquittal was no protection to these unhappy
creatures. It caused only additional exasperation, and, sooner or
later, they were brought within what Donne calls "the hungry statutes'
gaping jaws." Whether superstition or malice prompted this
prosecution, on the part of Mr. Lister, it is difficult to say. Some
grudge he entertained, or cause of offence he had taken up against
this Jennet Preston, might be her death warrant in those days, when it
was penal for a woman to be old, helpless, ugly, and poor. She was not
so fortunate as the females tried at York, nine years afterwards, for
bewitching the children of Edward Fairfax, of Fuyston, in the forest
of Knaresborough, to whom we owe the only English translation of Tasso
worthy of the name. These females, six in number, were indicted at two
successive assizes, and every effort was made by the

    "Prevailing poet! whose undoubting mind
    Believed the magic wonders which he sung,"

to procure their conviction. Never was a more unequal contest. On the
one side was a relentless antagonist, armed with wealth, influence,
learning, and accomplishments, and whose family connections gave him
an unlimited power in the county; and on the other, six helpless
persons, whose sex, age, and poverty were almost sufficient for their
condemnation, without any evidence at all. Yet, owing to the
magnanimous firmness of the judge, whose name, deserving of immortal
honour, I regret has not been preserved, these efforts were
frustrated, and the women accused delivered from the gulph which
yawned before them. The disappointment he experienced in this
instance, in being defrauded, as he thought, of a conviction for
which he had strained every nerve and sinew, and in not being allowed
to render the forest of Knaresborough as famous as that of Pendle,
cast a gloom of despondency over the remaining days of this admirable
poet, who has left a narration of the whole transaction, of most
singular interest and curiosity, yet unpublished. The MSS. now in my
possession, and which came from Mr. Bright's collection, consists of
seventy-eight closely-written folio pages. It is entitled "A Discourse
of Witchcraft, as it was enacted in the family of Mr. Edward Fairfax,
of Fuystone, coun. Ebor, 1621." From page 78 to 144 are a series of
ninety-three most extraordinary and spirited sketches, made with the
pen, of the witches, devils, monsters, and apparitions referred to in
the narrative.

Y 2 _a_. "_Master Heyber._"] This was Thomas Hayber, or Heber, of
Marton, in Craven, Esquire, who was buried at Marton, 7th February,
1633. He was the ancestor of Bishop Reginald Heber and the late
Richard Heber, Esq.

Y 3 _a_. "_The said Iennet Preston comming to touch the dead corpes,
they bled fresh bloud presently._"] On the popular superstition of
touching the corpse of a murdered person, as an ordeal or test for the
discovery of the innocence or guilt of suspected murderers, the reader
cannot better be referred than to the very learned and elaborate essay
in Pitcairne's _Criminal Trials_, vol. iii. p. 182-189. Amongst the
authors there quoted, Webster is omitted, who, (see _Displaying of
supposed Witchcraft_, p. 304,) discusses the point at considerable
length, and with an earnest and implicit faith singularly at variance
with his enlightened scepticism in other matters. But there were
regions of superstition in which even this Sampson of logic became
imbecile and powerless. The rationale of the bleeding of a murdered
corpse at the touch of the murderer is given by Sir Kenelm Digby with
his usual force and spirit:

     To this cause, peradventure, may be reduced the strange
     effect which is frequently seen in England, when, _at the
     approach of the Murderer, the slain body suddenly bleedeth
     afresh_. For certainly the Souls of them that are
     treacherously murdered by surprise, use to leaue their
     bodies with extreme unwillingness, and with vehement
     indignation against them that force them to so unprovided
     and abhorred a passage! That Soul, then, to wreak its evil
     talent against the hated Murderer, and to draw a just and
     desired revenge upon his head, would do all it can to
     manifest the author of the fact! To _speak_ it cannot--for
     in itself it wanteth the organs of voice; and those it is
     parted from are now grown too heavy, and are too benummed,
     for to give motion unto: Yet some change it desireth to
     make in the body, which it hath so vehement inclination to;
     and therefore is the aptest for it to work upon. It must
     then endeavour to cause a motion in the subtilest and most
     fluid parts (and consequently the most moveable ones) of it.
     This can be nothing but THE BLOOD, which then being
     violently moved, _must needs gush out at those places where
     it findeth issue_!

In the two following Scotch cases of witchcraft, this test was
resorted to. The first was that of

     MARIOUN PEEBLES,[79] _alias_ Pardone, spouse to SWENE, in
     Hildiswick, who was, on March 22, 1644, sentenced to be
     strangled at a stake, and burnt to ashes, at _the Hill of
     Berrie_, for WITCHCRAFT and MURDER. Marion and her husband
     having 'ane deadlie and venefical malice in her heart'
     against Edward Halero in Overure, and being determined 'to
     destroy and put him down,' being 'transformed in the lyknes
     of ane pellack-quhaill, (the Devill changing her spirit,
     quhilk fled in the same quhaill,') and the said Edward and
     other four individuals being in a fishing-boat, coming from
     the Sea, at the North-banks of Hildiswick, 'on ane fair
     morning, did cum under the said boat, and overturnit her
     with ease, and drowned and devoired thame in the sey, right
     at the shore, when there wis na danger wtherwayis.' The
     bodies of Halero and another of these hapless fishermen
     having been found, Marion and Swene 'wir sent for, and
     brought to see thame, and to lay thair hands on thame, ...
     dayis after said death and away-casting, quhaire thair bluid
     was evanished and desolved, from every natural cours or
     caus, shine, and run; the said umquhill Edward _bled at the
     collir-bain or craig-bane_, and the said ...,[80] _in the
     hand and fingers, gushing out bluid thairat_, to the great
     admiration of the beholders--and revelation of the judgement
     of the Almytie! And by which lyk occasionis and miraculous
     works of God, made manifest in Murders and the Murderers;
     whereby, be many frequent occasiones brought to light, and
     the Murderers, be the said proof brought to judgment,
     conuict and condemned, not only in this Kingdom, also this
     countrie, but lykwayis in maist forrin Christiane Kingdomis;
     and be so manie frequent precedentis and practising of and
     tuitching Murderis and Murdereris, notourlie known: So, the
     forsaid Murder and Witchcraft of the saidis persons, with
     the rest of their companions, through your said Husband's
     deed, art, part, rad,[81] and counsall, is manifest and
     cleir to all, not onlie through and by the foirsaid
     precedentis of your malice, wicked and malishes[82]
     practises, by Witchcraft, Confessionis, and Declarationis of
     the said umquill Janet Fraser, Witch, revealed to her, as
     said is, and quha wis desyrit by him to concur and assist
     with you to the doing thereof; but lykways _be the
     declaration and revelation of the justice and judgementis of
     God, through the said issuing of bluid from the bodies_!'
     &c.

     A similar and very remarkable instance is related in the
     following Triall: In the Dittay of CHRISTIAN WILSON, alias
     _the Lanthorne_,[83] accused of Murder, Witchcraft, &c.,
     (which is founded upon the examinations of James Wilson,
     Abraham Macmillan, William Crichton, and Fyfe and George
     Erskine, &c. led before Sir William Murray of Newtoun, and
     other Commissioners, at Dalkeith, Jun. 14, 1661,) it is
     stated, that 'Ther being enimitie betuixt the said
     Christiane and Alexander Wilsone, her brother, and shoe
     having often tymes threatned him, at length, about 7 or 8
     monthes since, altho' the said Alexander was sene that day
     of his death, at three houres afternoone, in good health,
     walking about his bussnesse and office; yitt, at fyve howres
     in that same night, he was fownd dead, lying in his owne
     howse, naked as he was borne, with his face torne and rent,
     without any appearance of a spot of blood either wpon his
     bodie or neigh to it. And altho' many of the neiboures in
     the toune (Dalkeith) come into his howse to see the dead
     corpe, yitt shoe newar offered to come, howbeit her dwelling
     was nixt adjacent thairto; nor had shoe so much as any
     seiming greiff for his death. Bot the Minister and
     Bailliffes of the towne, taking great suspitione of her, in
     respect of her cairiage comand it that shoe showld be
     browght in; bot when shoe come, shoe come trembling all the
     way to the howse--bot _shoe refuised to come nigh_ THE CORPS
     _or to_ TUITCH _it_ saying, that shoe "nevir tuitched a dead
     corpe in her lyfe!" Bot being arnestly desyred by the
     Minister, Bailliffes, and hir brother's friends who was
     killed, that shoe wold "bot _tuitch the corpes softlie_,"
     shoe granted to doe it--but before shoe did it, the Sone
     being shyning in at the howse, shoe exprest her selfe thus,
     humbly desyring, that "as the Lord made the Sone to shyne
     and give light into that howse, that also _he wald give
     light to discovering of that Murder_!" And with these words,
     shoe TUITCHEING _the wound of the dead man, verie saftlie_,
     it being whyte and cleane, without any spot of blod or the
     lyke!--yitt IMEDIATLY, _whill her fingers was wpon it_, THE
     BLOOD RUSHED OWT OF IT, to the great admiratioune[84] of all
     the behoulders, who tooke it for _discoverie of the Murder_,
     according to her owne prayers.--For ther was ane great lumpe
     of flesh taken out of his cheik, so smowthlie, as no rasor
     in the world cowld have made so ticht ane incisioune, wpon
     flesh, or cheis--and ther wes no blood at all in the
     wownd--nor did it at all blead, altho' that many persones
     befor had tuitched it, whill[85] shoe did tuitche it! And
     the howse being searched all over, for the shirt of the dead
     man, yitt it cowld not be found; and altho' the howse was
     full of people all that night, ever vatching the corpes;[86]
     neither did any of them tuitch him that night--which is
     probable[87]--yitt, in the morneing, his shirt was fownd
     tyed fast abowt his neck, as a brechame,[88] non knowing how
     this come to pass! And this Cristian did immediatlie
     transport all her owne goods owt of her own howse into her
     dowghter's, purposing to flie away--bot was therwpon
     apprehendit and imprisoned.'--_Pitcairn's Criminal Trials_,
     vol. iii. p. 194.

[Footnote 79: See Dr. Hibbert's "History of Orkney," &c., to which
this remarkable Trial is appended.]

[Footnote 80: The name left blank.]

[Footnote 81: Rede; advice.]

[Footnote 82: Malicious.]

[Footnote 83: The name given at her baptism by the Devil. From
"Collection of Original Documents," belonging to the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland, MS. As a specimen of the other charges, take
the following: "Williame Richardsone, in Dalkeith, haiving felled ane
hen of the said Cristianes with ane stone, and wpone her sight thereof
did imediatly threatne him, and with ane frowneing countenance told
him, that he 'should newer cast ane vther stone!' And imediatly the
said Williame fell into ane franicie and madnes, and tooke his bed,
and newer rose agane, but died within a few dayes: And in the tyme of
his sicknes, he always cryed owt, that the said Cristiane was present
befor him, in the likeness of ane grey catt! And some tyme eftir his
death, James Richardsone, nephew to the said Williame, being a boy
playing in the said Cristiane her yaird, and be calling her Lantherne,
shoe threatned, that, if he held not his peace, shoe sowld cause him
to die the death his nephew (uncle) died of!' Whairby it would appeare
that shoe tooke wpon hir his nepheas (uncle's) death."]

[Footnote 84: Wonder; amazement.]

[Footnote 85: Until. That is, many previous trials had been made of
other persons suspected, or of those who were near neighbours, perhaps
living at enmity with the deceased, who had voluntarily offered
themselves to this solemn ordeal, or had been called upon thus
publicly to attest their innocence of his blood.]

[Footnote 86: Holding the lyke-wake.]

[Footnote 87: Can be proved, by testimony or probation.]

[Footnote 88: The large collar which goes about a draught-horse's
neck.]

Z _a_. "_Master Leonard Lister._"] This Leonard Lister was the brother
of Master Thomas Lister, for whose murder Jennet Preston was indicted;
and married Ann, daughter of ---- Loftus, of Coverham Abbey, county of
York.

Z 2 _a_. "_His Lordship commanded the Iurie to obserue the particular
circumstances._"] The judge in this case was Altham, who seems even to
have been more superstitious, bigotted, and narrow-minded than his
brother in commission, Bromley. Fenner, who tried the witches of
Warbois, and Archer, before whom the trial of Julian Cox took place,
are the only judges I can meet with, quite on a level with this
learned baron in grovelling absurdity, upon whom "Jennet Preston would
lay heavy at the time of his death," whether she had so lain upon Mr.
Thomas Lister or not, if bigotry, habit, and custom did not render him
seared and callous to conscience and pity.

Z 3 _b_ 1. "_Take example by this Gentlemen to prosecute these hellish
Furies to their end._"] It is marvellous that Potts does not, like
Delrio, recommend the rack to be applied to witches "in moderation,
and according to the regulations of Pope Pius the Third, and so as not
to cripple the criminal for life." Not that this learned Jesuit is
much averse to simple dislocations occasioned by the rack. These, he
thinks, cannot be avoided in the press of business. He is rather
opposed, though in this he speaks doubtfully and with submission to
authority, to those tortures which fracture the bones or lacerate the
tendons. Verily, the Catholic and the Protestant author might have
shaken hands; they were, beyond dispute, _poene Gemelli_.

Z 3 _b_ 2. "_Posterities._"] Master Potts, of the particulars of whose
life nothing is known, made, as far as can be discovered, no further
attempt to acquire fame in the character of an author. No subject so
interesting probably again occurred, as that which had diversified his
legal pursuits "in his lodgings in Chancery-lane," from the pleasing
recollections associated with his Summer Circuit of 1612. He was not,
however, the only person of the name of Pott, or Potts, who
distinguished himself in the field of Witchcraft. The author of the
following tract, in my possession, might have garnished it with
various flowers from the work now reprinted, if he had been aware of
such a repository: "Pott (Joh. Henr.) De nefando Lamiarum cum Diabolo
coitu." 4to. Lond. 1689. The other celebrated cases of supposed
witchcraft occurring in the county of Lancaster, besides those
connected with the foregoing republication, are, the extraordinary one
of Ferdinand, Earl of Derby, who died at Latham in 1594, for which the
reader is referred to Camden's _Annals of Elizabeth_, years 1593,
1594; Kennet, 2. 574, 580; or Pennant's _Tour from Downing to Alston
Moor_, p. 29;--the case of Edmund Hartley, hanged at Lancaster in
1597, for bewitching some members of the family of Mr. Starkie, of
Cleworth, which will be fully considered in the proposed republication
of the Chetham Society, which gives the history of that event;--and
lastly, that of a person of the name of Utley, (Whitaker, p. 528;
Baines, vol. i. p. 604,) who was hanged at Lancaster about 1630, for
having bewitched to death Richard, the son of Ralph Assheton, Esq.,
Lord of Middleton, of whose trial, unfortunately, no report is in
existence. Webster also mentions two supposed witches as having been
put to death at Lancaster, within eighteen years before his
_Displaying of supposed Witchcraft_ was published; and which
occurrence, not referred to by any other historian, must therefore
have taken place about the year 1654.


Manchester:
Printed by Charles Simms and Co.

       *       *       *       *       *

Chetham Society

[Illustration]

FOR THE PUBLICATION OF

HISTORICAL AND LITERARY REMAINS

CONNECTED WITH THE PALATINE COUNTIES OF

LANCASTER & CHESTER.

       *       *       *       *       *

Patrons.

The Right Honourable The EARL OF DERBY.
The Right Honourable The EARL OF BALCARRES.
The Right Honourable The EARL OF WILTON.
The Right Honourable The EARL OF BURLINGTON.
The Right Honourable the EARL GROSVENOR.
The Right Honourable LORD FRANCIS EGERTON, M.P.
The Right Honourable LORD STANLEY.
The Right Reverend The Lord BISHOP OF CHESTER.
The Right Reverend The Lord BISHOP OF ELY.
The Right Reverend The Lord BISHOP OF NORWICH.
The Right Reverend The Lord BISHOP OF CHICHESTER.
The Right Honourable LORD DELAMERE.
The Right Honourable LORD DE TABLEY.
The Right Honourable LORD SKELMERSDALE.
The Right Honourable SIR ROBERT PEEL, BART., M.P.
SIR PHILIP DE MALPAS GREY EGERTON, BART., M.P.
GEORGE CORNWALL LEGH, ESQ., M.P.
JOHN WILSON PATTEN, ESQ., M.P.

Council.

EDWARD HOLME, M.D., _President._
Rev. RICHARD PARKINSON, B.D., Canon of Manchester, _Vice-President._
The Hon. and Very Rev. WILLIAM HERBERT, Dean of Manchester.
GEORGE ORMEROD, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S.
SAM. HIBBERT WARE, M.D. F.R.S.E.
REV. THOMAS CORSER, M.A.
REV. GEORGE DUGARD, M.A.
REV. C.G. HULTON, M.A.
Rev. J. PICCOPE, M.A.
Rev. F.R. RAINES, M.A., F.S.A.
JAMES CROSSLEY.
JAMES HEYWOOD, F.R.S.

_Treasurer._
WILLIAM LANGTON.

_Hon. Secretary._
WILLIAM FLEMING, M.D.

       *       *       *       *       *

RULES OF THE CHETHAM SOCIETY.

1. That the Society shall be limited to three hundred and fifty
members.

2. That the Society shall consist of members being subscribers of one
pound annually, such subscription to be paid in advance, on or before
the day of general meeting in each year. The first general meeting to
be held on the 23rd day of March, 1843, and the general meeting in
each year afterwards on the 1st day of March, unless it should fall on
a Sunday, when some other day is to be named by the Council.

3. That the affairs of the Society be conducted by a Council,
consisting of a permanent President and Vice-President, and twelve
other members, including a Treasurer and Secretary, all of whom, with
the exception of the President and Vice-President, shall be elected at
the general meeting of the Society.

4. That any member may compound for his future subscriptions, by the
payment of ten pounds.

5. That the accounts of the receipts and expenditure of the Society be
audited annually, by three auditors, to be elected at the general
meeting; and that any member who shall be one year in arrear of his
subscription, shall no longer be considered as belonging to the
Society.

6. That every member not in arrear of his annual subscription, be
entitled to a copy of each of the works published by the Society.

7. That twenty copies of each work shall be allowed to the Editor of
the same, in addition to the one to which he may be entitled as a
member.

       *       *       *       *       *

LIST OF MEMBERS

FOR THE YEAR 1844.

Ackers, James, M.P., Heath House, Ludlow
Addey, H.M., Liverpool
Ainsworth, Ralph F., M.D., Manchester
Ainsworth, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Hartford Hall, Cheshire
Ainsworth, W.H., Kensal Manor House, Harrow-road, London
Alexander, Edward N., F.S.A., Halifax
Allen, Rev. John Taylor, M.A., Stradbrooke Vicarage, Suffolk
Ambery, Charles, Manchester
Armstrong, Thomas, Higher Broughton, Manchester
Ashton, John, Warrington
Atherton, Miss, Kersal Cell, near Manchester
Atherton, James, Swinton House, near Manchester
Atkinson, F.R., Pendleton, near Manchester
Atkinson, William, Weaste, near Manchester

Balcarres, The Earl of, Haigh Hall, near Wigan
Baldwin, Rev. John, M.A., Dalton, near Ulverstone
Bannerman, Alexander, Didsbury, near Manchester
Bannerman, Henry, Burnage, near Manchester
Bannerman, John, Swinton, near Manchester
Bardsley, Samuel Argent, M.D., Green Heys, near Manchester
Barker, John, Manchester
Barker, Thomas, Oldham
Barratt, James, Jun., Manchester
Barrow, Miss, Green Bank, near Manchester
Barrow, Rev. Andrew, President of Stonyhurst College, near Blackburn
Barrow, Peter, Manchester
Bartlemore, William, Castleton Hall, Rochdale
Barton, John, Manchester
Barton, R.W., Springwood, near Manchester
Barton, Samuel, Didsbury, Manchester
Barton, Thomas, Manchester
Bayne, Rev. Thos. Vere, M.A., Broughton, Manchester
Beamont, William, Warrington
Beard, Rev. John R., D.D., Stony Knolls, near Manchester
Beardoe, James, Manchester
Beever, James F., Manchester
Bellairs, Rev. H.W., M.A., London
Bentley, Rev. T.R., M.A., Manchester
Birley, Hugh Hornby, Broom House, near Manchester
Birley, Hugh, Didsbury, near Manchester
Birley, Richard, Manchester
Birley, Thos. H., Manchester
Bohn, Henry G., London
Booth, Benjamin W., Manchester
Booth, John, Barton-upon-Irwell
Booth, William, Manchester
Boothman, Thomas, Ardwick, near Manchester
Botfield, Beriah, M.P., Norton Hall, Northamptonshire
Bower, George, London
Brackenbury, Ralph, Manchester
Bradbury, Charles, Salford
Bradshaw, John, Weaste House, near Manchester
Brooke, Edward, Manchester
Brooks, Samuel, Manchester
Broome, William, Manchester
Brown, Robert, Preston
Buckley, Edmund, M.P., Ardwick, near Manchester
Buckley, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Old Trafford, near Manchester
Buckley, Nathaniel, F.L.S., Rochdale
Burlington, The Earl of, Holkar Hall

Calvert, Robert, Salford
Cardwell, Rev. Edward, D.D., Principal of St. Alban's Hall and Camden
  Professor, Oxford
Cardwell, Edward, M.P., M.A., Regent's Park, London
Chadwick, Elias, M.A., Swinton Hall, near Manchester
Chesshyre, Mrs., Pendleton, near Manchester
Chester, The Bishop of
Chichester, The Bishop of
Chippindall, John, Chetham Hill, near Manchester
Clare, Peter, F.R.A.S., Manchester
Clarke, George, Crumpsall, near Manchester
Clayton, Japheth, Pendleton, near Manchester
Clifton, Rev. R.C., M.A., Canon of Manchester
Consterdine, James, Manchester
Cook, Thomas, Gorse Field, Pendleton, near Manchester
Cooper, William, Manchester
Corser, George, Whitchurch, Shropshire
Corser, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Stand, near Manchester
Cottam, S.E., F.R.A.S., Manchester
Coulthart, John Ross, Ashton-under-Lyne
Crook, Thomas A., Rochdale
Cross, William Assheton, Redscar, near Preston
Crossley, George, Manchester
Crossley, James, Manchester
Crossley, John, M.A., Scaitcliffe House, Todmorden
Currer, Miss Richardson, Eshton Hall, near Skipton

Daniel, George, Manchester
Darbishire, Samuel D., Manchester
Darwell, James, Manchester
Darwell, Thomas, Manchester
Davies, John, M.W.S., Manchester
Dawes, Matthew, F.G.S., Westbrooke, near Bolton
Dearden, James, The Orchard, Rochdale
Dearden, Thomas Ferrand, Rochdale
Delamere, The Lord, Vale Royal, near Northwich
Derby, The Earl of, Knowsley
Dilke, C.W., London
Dinham, Thomas, Manchester
Driver, Richard, Manchester
Dugard, Rev. George, M.A., Birch, near Manchester
Dyson, T.J., Tower, London

Earle, Richard, Edenhurst, near Prescott
Eccles, William, Wigan
Egerton, The Lord Francis, M.P., Worsley Hall
Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Grey, Bart., M.P., Oulton Park,
  Tarporley
Egerton, Wilbraham, Tatton Park
Ely, The Bishop of
Eyton, J.W.K., F.S.A. L. & E., Elgin Villa, Leamington

Faulkner, George, Manchester
Feilden, Joseph, Witton, near Blackburn
Fenton, James, Jun., Lymm Hall, Cheshire
Fernley, John, Manchester
Ffarrington, J. Nowell, Worden, near Chorley
Ffrance, Thomas Robert Wilson, Rawcliffe Hall, Garstang
Fleming, Thomas, Pendleton, near Manchester
Fleming, William, M.D., Ditto
Fletcher, John, Haulgh, near Bolton
Fletcher, Samuel, Broomfield, near Manchester
Fletcher, Samuel, Ardwick, near Manchester
Flintoff, Thomas, Manchester
Ford, Henry, Manchester
Fraser, James W., Manchester
Frere, W.E., Rottingdean, Sussex

Gardner, Thomas, Worcester College, Oxford
Garner, J.G., Manchester
Garnett, William James, Quernmore Park, Lancaster
Germon, Rev. Nicholas, M.A., High Master, Free Grammar School,
  Manchester
Gibb, William, Manchester
Gladstone, Robertson, Liverpool
Gladstone, Robert, Withington, near Manchester
Gordon, Hunter, Manchester
Gould, John, Manchester
Grant, Daniel, Manchester
Grave, Joseph, Manchester
Gray, Benjamin, B.A., Trinity Coll. Cambridge
Gray, James, Manchester
Greaves, John, Irlam Hall, near Manchester
Greenall, G., Walton Hall, near Warrington
Grey, The Hon. William Booth
Grosvenor, The Earl
Grundy, George, Chetham Fold, near Manchester

Hadfield, George, Manchester
Hailstone, Edward, F.S.A., Horton Hall, Bradford, Yorkshire
Hardman, Henry, Bury, Lancashire
Hardy, William, Manchester
Hargreaves, George J., Hulme, Manchester
Harland, John, Manchester
Harrison, William, Brearey, Isle of Man
Harter, James Collier, Broughton Hall, near Manchester
Harter, William, Hope Hall, near Manchester
Hately, Isaiah, Manchester
Hatton, James, Richmond House, near Manchester
Hawkins, Edward, F.R.S., F.S.A., F.L.S., British Museum, London
Heelis, Stephen, Manchester
Henshaw, William, Manchester
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. Wm., Dean of Manchester
Heron, Rev. George, M.A., Carrington, Cheshire
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., Claremont, near Manchester
Heywood, James, F.R.S., F.G.S., Acresfield, near Manchester
Heywood, John Pemberton, near Liverpool
Heywood, Thomas, F.S.A., Hope End, Ledbury, Herefordshire
Heywood, Thomas, Pendleton, near Manchester
Heyworth, Lawrence, Oakwood, near Stockport
Hibbert, Mrs., Salford
Hickson, Charles, Manchester
Hinde, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Winwick, Warrington
Hoare, G.M., The Lodge, Morden, Surrey
Hoare, P.R., Kelsey Park, Beckenham, Kent
Holden, Thomas, Summerfield, Bolton
Holden, Thomas, Rochdale
Holme, Edward, M.D., Manchester
Hughes, William, Old Trafford, near Manchester
Hulme, Davenport, M.D., Manchester
Hulme, Hamlet, Medlock Vale, Manchester
Hulton, Rev. A.H., M.A., Ashton-under-Lyne
Hulton, Rev. C.G., M.A., Chetham College, Manchester
Hulton, H.T., Manchester
Hulton, W.A., Preston
Hunter, Rev. Joseph, F.S.A., London

Jackson, H.B., Manchester
Jackson, Joseph, Ardwick, near Manchester
Jacson, Charles R., Barton Lodge, Preston
James, Rev. J.G., M.A., Habergham Eaves, near Burnley
James, Paul Moon, Summerville, near Manchester
Jemmett, William Thomas, Manchester
Johnson, W.R., Manchester
Johnson, Rev. W.W., M.A., Manchester
Jones, Jos., Jun., Hathershaw, Oldham
Jones, W., Manchester
Jordan, Joseph, Manchester
Kay, James, Turton Tower, Bolton
Kay, Samuel, Manchester
Kelsall, Strettle, Manchester
Kendrick, James, M.D., F.L.S., Warrington
Kennedy, John, Ardwick House, near Manchester
Ker, George Portland, Salford
Kershaw, James, Green Heys, near Manchester
Kidd, Rev. W.J., M.A., Didsbury, near Manchester

Langton, William, Manchester
Larden, Rev. G.E., M.A., Brotherton Vicarage, Yorkshire
Leeming, W.B., Salford
Legh, G. Cornwall, M.P., F.G.S., High Legh, Cheshire
Legh, Rev. Peter, M.A., Newton in Makerfield
Leigh, Rev. Edward Trafford, M.A., Cheadle, Cheshire
Leigh, Henry, Moorfield Cottage, Worsley
Leresche, J.H., Manchester
Lloyd, William Horton, F.S.A., L.S., Park-square, London
Lloyd, Edward Jeremiah, Oldfield House, Altringham
Lomas, Edward, Manchester
Lomax, Robert, Harwood, near Bolton
Love, Benjamin, Manchester
Lowndes, William, Egremont, Liverpool
Loyd, Edward, Green Hill, Manchester
Lycett, W.E., Manchester
Lyon, Edmund, M.D., Manchester
Lyon, Thomas, Appleton Hall, Warrington

McClure, William, Peel Cottage, Eccles
McFarlane, John, Manchester
McKenzie, John Whitefoord, Edinburgh
McVicar, John, Manchester
Mann, Robert, Manchester
Marc, E.R. Le, School Lodge, Cheshire
Markland, J.H., F.R.S., F.S.A., Bath
Markland, Thomas, Mab Field, near Manchester
Marsden, G.E., Manchester
Marsden, William, Manchester
Marsh, John Fitchett, Warrington
Marshall, Miss, Ardwick, near Manchester
Marshall, William, Penwortham Hall, Preston
Marshall, Frederick Earnshaw, Ditto
Marshall, John, Ditto
Mason, Thomas, Copt Hewick, near Ripon
Master, Rev. Robert M., M.A., Burnley
Maude, Daniel, M.A., Salford
Millar, Thomas, Green Heys, near Manchester
Molyneux, Edward, Chetham Hill, Manchester
Monk, John, Manchester
Moore, John, F.L.S., Cornbrook, near Manchester
Mosley, Sir Oswald, Bart., Rolleston Hall, Staffordshire
Murray, James, Manchester

Nield, William, Mayfield, Manchester
Nelson, George, Manchester
Neville, James, Beardwood, near Blackburn
Newall, Mrs. Robert, Littleborough, near Rochdale
Newall, W.N., Wellington Lodge, Littleborough
Newbery, Henry, Manchester
Nicholson, William, Thelwall Hall, Warrington
Norris, Edward, Manchester
Norwich, The Bishop of

Ormerod, George, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., Sedbury Park,
  Gloucestershire
Ormerod, George Wareing, M.A., F.G.S., Manchester
Ormerod, Henry Mere, Manchester
Owen, John, Manchester

Parkinson, Rev. Richard, B.D., Canon of Manchester
Patten, J. Wilson, M.P., Bank Hall, Warrington
Pedley, Rev. J.T., M.A., Peakirk-cum-Glinton, Market Deeping
Peel, Sir Robert, Bart., M.P., Drayton Manor
Peel, George, Brookfield, Cheadle
Peel, Joseph, Singleton Brook, near Manchester
Peet, Thomas, Manchester
Pegge, John, Newton Heath, near Manchester
Percival, Stanley, Liverpool
Philips, Mark, M.P., The Park, Manchester
Philippi, Frederick Theod., Belfield Hall, near Rochdale
Phillips, Shakspeare, Barlow Hall, near Manchester
Phillipps, Sir Thomas, Bart., Middle Hill, Worcestershire
Piccope, Rev. John, M.A., Farndon, Cheshire
Pickford, Thomas, Mayfield, Manchester
Pickford, Thomas E., Manchester
Pierpoint, Benjamin, Warrington
Pilkington, George, Manchester
Pilling, Charles R., Caius College, Cambridge
Plant, George, Manchester
Pooley, Edward, Manchester
Pooley, John, Hulme, near Manchester
Porrett, Robert, Tower, London
Prescott, J.C., Summerville, near Manchester
Price, John Thomas, Manchester

Radford, Thomas, M.D., Higher Broughton, near Manchester
Raffles, Rev. Thomas, D.D., LL.D., Liverpool
Raikes, Rev. Henry, M.A., Hon. Can., and Chancellor of Chester
Raines, Rev. F.R., M.A., F.S.A., Milnrow Parsonage, Rochdale
Reiss, Leopold, High Field, near Manchester
Rickards, Charles H., Manchester
Ridgway, Mrs., Ridgemont, near Bolton
Ridgway, John Withenshaw, Manchester
Robson, John, Warrington
Roberts, W.J., Liverpool
Roby, John, M.R.S.L., Rochdale
Royds, Albert Hudson, Rochdale

Samuels, John, Manchester
Sattersfield, Joshua, Manchester
Scholes, Thomas Seddon, High Bank, near Manchester
Schuster, Leo, Weaste, near Manchester
Sharp, John, Lancaster
Sharp, Robert C., Bramall Hall, Cheshire
Sharp, Thomas B., Manchester
Sharp, William, Lancaster
Sharp, William, London
Simms, Charles S., Manchester
Simms, George, Manchester
Skaife, John, Blackburn
Skelmersdale, The Lord, Lathom House
Smith, Rev. Jeremiah, D.D., Leamington
Smith, Junius, Strangeways Hall, Manchester
Smith, J.R., Old Compton-street, London
Sowler, R.S., Manchester
Sowler, Thomas, Manchester
Spear, John, Manchester
Standish, W.J., Duxbury Hall, Chorley
Stanley, The Lord, Knowsley
Sudlow, John, Jun., Manchester
Swain, Charles, M.R.S.L., Cheetwood Priory, near Manchester
Swanwick, Josh. W., Hollins Vale, Bury, Lancashire

Tabley, The Lord De, Tabley, Cheshire
Tattershall, Rev. Thomas, D.D., Liverpool
Tatton, Thos., Withenshaw, Cheshire
Tayler, Rev. John James, B.A., Manchester
Taylor, Thomas Frederick, Wigan
Teale, Josh., Salford
Thomson, James, Manchester
Thorley, George, Manchester
Thorpe, Robert, Manchester
Tobin, Rev. John, M.A., Liscard, Cheshire
Townend, John, Polygon, Manchester
Townend, Thomas, Polygon, Manchester
Turnbull, W.B., D.D., Edinburgh
Turner, Samuel, F.R.S, F.S.A., F.G.S., Liverpool
Turner, Thomas, Manchester

Vitre, Edward Denis De, M.D., Lancaster

Walker, John, Weaste, near Manchester
Walker, Samuel, Prospect Hill, Pendleton
Wanklyn, J.B., Salford
Wanklyn, James H., Crumpsall House, near Manchester
Warburton, R.E.E., Arley Hall, near Northwich
Ware, Samuel Hibbert, M.D., F.R.S.E., Edinburgh
Wareing, Ralph, Manchester
Westhead, Joshua P., Manchester
Whitehead, James, Manchester
Whitelegg, Rev. William, M.A., Hulme, near Manchester
Whitmore, Edward, Jun., Manchester
Whitmore, Henry, Manchester
Wilson, William James, Manchester
Wilton, The Earl of, Heaton House
Winter, Gilbert, Stocks, near Manchester
Worthington, Edward, Manchester
Wray, Rev. Cecil Daniel, M.A., Canon of Manchester
Wright, Rev. Henry, M.A., Mottram, St. Andrew's, near Macclesfield
Wroe, Thomas, Manchester

Yates, Joseph B., West Dingle, Liverpool
Yates, Richard, Manchester

       *       *       *       *       *

WORKS PUBLISHED BY THE CHETHAM SOCIETY FOR THE YEAR 1843.

Brereton's Travels.

The Lancashire Civil War Tracts.

Chester's Triumph in Honor of her Prince.

       *       *       *       *       *

WORKS IN THE PRESS.

Pott's Discovery of Witches in the County of Lancaster, from the
edition of 1613.

The Life of the Rev. Adam Martindale, Vicar of Rostherne, in Cheshire,
from the MS. in the British Museum. (4239 Ascough's Catalogue.)

Dee's Compendious Rehearsal, and other Autobiographical Tracts, not
included in the recent Publication of the Camden Society edited by Mr.
Halliwell, with his Collected correspondence.

Iter Lancastrense, by Dr. Richard James; an English Poem, written in
1636, containing a Metrical Account of some of the Principal Families
and Mansions in Lancashire; from the unpublished MS. in the Bodleian
Library, Oxford.

       *       *       *       *       *

WORKS SUGGESTED FOR PUBLICATION.

Selections from the Unpublished Correspondence of the Rev. John
Whittaker, Author of the History of Manchester, and other Works.

More's (George) Discourse concerning the Possession and Dispossession
of Seven Persons in one Family in Lancashire, from a Manuscript
formerly belonging to Thoresby, and which gives a much fuller Account
of that Transaction than the Printed Tract of 1600; with a
Bibliographical and Critical Review of the Tracts in the Darrel
Controversy.

A Selection of the most Curious Papers and Tracts relating to the
Pretender's Stay in Manchester in 1745, in Print and Manuscript.

Proceedings of the Presbyterian Classis of Manchester and the
Neighbourhood, from 1646 to 1660, from an Unpublished Manuscript.

Catalogue of the Alchemical Library of John Webster, of Clitheroe,
from a Manuscript in the Rev. T. Corser's possession; with a fuller
Life of him, and List of his Works, than has yet appeared.

Correspondence between Samuel Hartlib (the Friend of Milton), and Dr.
Worthington, of Jesus College, Cambridge (a native of Manchester),
from 1655 to 1661, on various Literary Subjects.

"Antiquities concerning Cheshire," by Randall Minshull, written A.D.
1591, from a MS. in the Gough Collection.

Register of the Lancaster Priory, from a MS. (No. 3764) in the
Harleian Collection.

Selections from the Visitations of Lancashire in 1533, 1567, and 1613,
in the Herald's College, British Museum, Bodleian, and Caius College
Libraries.

Selections from Dodsworth's MSS. in the Bodleian Library, Randal
Holmes's Collections for Lancashire and Cheshire (MSS. Harleian), and
Warburton's Collections for Cheshire (MSS. Lansdown).

Annales Cestrienses, or Chronicle of St. Werburgh, from the MS. in the
British Museum.

A Reprint of Henry Bradshaw's Life and History of St. Werburgh, from
the very rare 4to of 1521, printed by Pynson.

The Letters and Correspondence of Sir William Brereton, from the
original MSS., in 5 vols. folio, in the British Museum.

A Poem, by Laurence Bostock, on the subject of the Saxon and Norman
Earls of Chester.

Bishop Gastrell's Notitia Cestriensis, on the subject of the
Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the Diocese of Chester, from the
original MS.

History of the Earldom of Chester, collected by Archbishop Parker,
entitled De Successione Comitum Cestriae a Hugone Lupo ad Johannem
Scoticum, from the original MS. in Ben'et College Library, Cambridge.

Volume of Funeral Certificates of Lancashire and Cheshire.

Volume of Early Lancashire and Cheshire Wills.

A Selection of Papers relating to the Rebellion of 1715, including
Clarke's Journal of the March of the Rebels from Carlisle to Preston.

A Memoir of the Chetham Family, from original documents.

The Diary of the Rev. Henry Newcome, M.A., from the original MS. in
the possession of his descendant, the Rev. Thomas Newcome, M.A.,
Rector of Shenley, Herts.

Lucianus Monacus de laude Cestrie, a Latin MS. of the 13th century,
descriptive of the walls, gates, &c., of the City of Chester, formerly
belonging to Thomas Allen, DD., and now in the Bodleian Library,
Oxford.

Richard Robinson's Golden Mirrour, Bk. lett. 4to. Lond., 1580.
Containing Poems on the Etymology of the names of several Cheshire
Families; from the exceedingly rare copy formerly in the collection of
Richard Heber, Esq., (see Cat. pt. iv. 2413,) and now in the British
Museum.

A volume of the early Ballad Poetry of Lancashire.

The Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey.

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