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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume
XXI, 1624, by Various

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Title: The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XXI, 1624
       Explorations By Early Navigators, Descriptions Of The
       Islands And Their Peoples, Their History And Records Of
       The Catholic Missions, As Related In Contemporaneous Books
       And Manuscripts, Showing The Political, Economic, Commercial
       And Religious Conditions Of Those Islands From Their
       Earliest Relations With European Nations To The Close Of
       The Nineteenth Century

Author: Various

Editor: Emma Helen Blair

Release Date: July 4, 2005 [EBook #16203]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS ***




Produced by Jeroen Hellingman and the PG Distributed Proofreaders Team








				   The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898

   Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and
   their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions,
	as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the
   political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those
   islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the
					close of the nineteenth century,

							Volume XXI, 1624



 Edited and annotated by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson
  with historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord
								Bourne.









CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXI



    Preface      9
    Documents of 1624

            Ecclesiastical affairs of the Philippines. Miguel Garcia
            Serrano, and others; 1574-1624      19
            Conflict between civil and religious authorities in
            Manila. [Unsigned and undated; 1624?]      79
            Seminary for Japanese missionaries. Alvaro de Messa y Lugo,
            and others; Manila, July 23-August 5      84
            Extract from letter to Felipe IV. Miguel Garcia Serrano;
            Manila, August 15      95
            Royal orders regarding the religious. Felipe IV; Madrid,
            August-December      98

    Early Recollect missions in the Philippines. Andres de San Nicolas,
    Luis de Jesus, and Juan de la Concepcion. (Extracts from their
    respective works, covering the history of the missions to the
    year 1624.)      111
    Bibliographical Data      319




ILLUSTRATIONS



    Title-page of _Historia general de los religiosos descalzos
    ... del gran padre ... San Augustin_, by Andres de San Nicolas
    (Madrid, 1664); photographic facsimile from copy in library of
    Edward E. Ayer, Chicago.      109
    Title-pages (the first engraved) to _Historia general de los
    religiosos descalzos ... del gran padre ... San Augustin_, by
    Luis de Jesus, Augustinian Recollect (Madrid, 1681); photographic
    facsimiles from copy in library of Edward E. Ayer, Chicago.
    187, 189
    Title-page of volume iv of _Historia general de Philipinas_,
    by Juan de la Concepcion, Augustinian Recollect (Manila, 1788);
    photographic facsimile from copy in library of Harvard University.
    261




PREFACE


This volume, dated 1624, is entirely devoted to religious matters,
ecclesiastical or missionary in their scope. The current documents
for that year are concerned with conflicts between the diocesan
authorities and the religious orders, and between the civil and
religious authorities in Manila; the defeat by the Audiencia of the
late Governor Fajardo's attempt to found a seminary for the training
of Japanese missionaries to be sent to labor in their own country;
and efforts by the Spanish government to check the assumptions of
the religious orders. Then follows a historical account of the early
Recollect missions in the islands, down to the year 1624, compiled
from the works of Andres San Nicolas, Luis de Jesus, and Juan de
la Concepcion.

A document entitled "Ecclesiastical affairs in the Philippines"
contains letters, decrees, etc., bearing on this subject, dated from
1574 to 1624. Instructions to Gomez Perez Dasmarinas (1574) jealously
restrict to the crown or its officials all exercise of the royal
patronage; and give minute details of the course to be pursued by
the governor and the provincials of the religious orders in matters
where that right is involved. This is followed by various official
documents issued in the controversy between Archbishop Serrano and the
religious orders (1622-24) regarding the right claimed for archbishop
and bishops to exercise the same jurisdiction and authority over the
religious of the orders, when charged with the care of souls, as over
the secular clergy. Serrano fortifies his position by various royal
decrees and papal bulls. These documents show that much laxity has
prevailed in selecting missionaries for the Indians, some of these
teachers not even knowing the language of the natives to whom they
minister; also that the friars claim even greater authority over
their parishioners than that exercised by the archbishop and bishops
in whose dioceses their missions are located. On June 20, 1622, the
archbishop begins his official visit in the parish of Dilao (near
Manila); and his edict announcing this calls upon the people of the
parish to bring to him any complaints or information that they may
have regarding any fault, illegal act, or neglect of duty in their
cura or parish priest. Fray Alonso de Valdemoro was then in charge
of the Dilao mission; refusing to obey the archbishop's commands,
he is excommunicated by the latter, and sentenced to imprisonment in
a monastery. But the Audiencia refuse to support the archbishop, who
accordingly writes a letter to the king complaining of the resistance
made by the friars. Felipe IV, in a decree dated August 14, 1622,
orders that the missions in the Philippines shall be subject to
the provisions of another decree (issued June 22 of the same year)
promulgated for the missions in Nueva Espana. This provides that
the same procedure be followed therein as in the missions of Peru;
that the missions remain in charge of the orders, but that hereafter
the religious be not placed in charge of missions; that they shall
be subject to the archbishop in matters pertaining to the churches
and the care of souls, but that anything relating to the personal
character of such priest shall be privately referred to his superior
in the order, who shall try and correct him.

An unsigned and undated document (1624?) gives an interesting account
of a conflict between the civil and religious authorities in Manila
over the question of a criminal's right to asylum in a church. It
is decided, at least for the time, in favor of the ecclesiastical
authorities.

At the death of Governor Fajardo (July 11, 1624) the Audiencia take
charge of the government. One of their first measures is to revoke
the grant made not long before by Fajardo of certain monopolies
to a seminary founded by him for educating Christian Japanese to
go as ordained missionaries to their own country. The members of
the Audiencia claim that this was an ill-timed act, in view of the
persecution of Christians in Japan, and the edicts of its ruler
expelling Spaniards from his realm, and forbidding his subjects to
trade with them. Moreover, the seminary building is being erected in
a place selected in violation of a royal decree, and which has been
arbitrarily seized from its owners; and the monopolies granted are
a grievance and injury to many persons, especially to the Indians
who reside near Manila. The Audiencia accordingly revoke these,
and order that the seminary building be demolished; and they issue
a royal decree in accordance with this decision.

In a letter dated August 15, 1624, Archbishop Serrano advises the
king either to give more power and authority to the Audiencia, or
to suppress it. In the latter part of the same year the king issues
some decrees affecting the religious in the islands. The first
(dated August 30) cites earlier decrees regulating the privileges
and jurisdiction of the religious, and orders that these be strictly
observed. In a letter to the archbishop of Manila (dated October 8),
Felipe gives some directions regarding the religious orders. A letter
(dated November 27) to the Dominican provincial enumerates various
abuses practiced toward the Indians by the friars of that order,
and directs him to see that these be corrected.

An interesting chapter of ecclesiastical history is provided in the
accounts of the early Recollect missions in the islands. These are
selected from the printed works here named: _Historia general de
los religiosos descalzos del orden de San Avgvstin_, by Andres de
San Nicolas (Madrid, 1664), and the second part of the same work, by
Luis de Jesus (Madrid, 1681); and _Historia general de Philipinas_,
by Juan de la Concepcion (Manila, 1788). From all these books we
select, as has been already announced, only such portions as closely
concern our subject, and such as contain information of special value,
or which is otherwise not accessible.

From San Nicolas's work we take his account of the foundation of the
Recollect missions in the islands. This is begun in May, 1605, by Fray
Joan de San Jeronimo, who sets out with thirteen other religious;
they arrive at Cebu on May 10, 1606, one of the missionaries having
died on the voyage. After a brief description of Luzon and Manila,
the writer recounts the entrance of the Recollects into that city,
their hospitable reception from all, and their establishment in a
house of their own outside the walls. After some of the fathers have
learned the Tagal language, they begin their missionary labors at
Mariveles, not far from Manila, whose native inhabitants are unusually
brutal and ferocious. A brief outline of the customs and beliefs of
these people is presented, which, although slight, is valuable as
being another original source of ethnological information about the
Filipino peoples--the early Recollect missionaries, like Chirino and
his co-laborers, having gone among wild Indians who had had little
acquaintance with the Spaniards; and their observations are therefore
of natural and primitive conditions among the natives.

The missionaries first sent to Mariveles soon die from hardship,
privation, and penances; but others at once volunteer to take
their places. Rodrigo de San Miguel is the first of these to go;
and he, with others, accomplishes a wonderful work among the fierce
Zambales. Details of the labors of each, and of marvelous escapes from
death, are related. At Masinglo a convent is founded by Andres del
Espiritu Santo, which becomes a center of missionary work for a large
district. The missionaries are kept under strict rule and discipline,
that their self-abnegation and frugal mode of life may emphasize
their preaching; and regulations are laid down for their missionary
work and their relations with the Indians. The main residence of the
Recollects is, after some years, removed within the walls of Manila;
and a handsome building is erected for it, and endowed, by a pious
citizen. Some notable images in its church are described.

Attempts being made, in both Rome and Spain, to suppress the new
order of Augustinian Recollects, various testimonies to the value of
their work, and to their piety and zeal, are furnished by various
officials, both civil and ecclesiastical; and in connection with
these is a statement of the scope and character of the occupations
and services of the Recollects, in both peace and war. Convents are
founded by these missionaries at Bolinao and Cigayan. At the latter
place, one of the fathers is slain by an Indian, and the church is
burned by the revolting natives; but the indefatigable missionaries
return to the unpromising field, again subdue the wild Indians, and
restore what these had destroyed. Another residence is established at
Cavite, which accomplishes great good among the seamen who live there.

The history of the discalced Augustinians is continued by Luis de
Jesus. In 1621 the reformed branch of the Augustinians is erected
into a congregation independent of the original order. In that year
a convent of the discalced is founded in Cebu, and, through the
generosity of their benefactor Ribera, another at Calumpan, outside
the walls of Manila; the latter serves as a quiet retreat for the
fathers, to the benefit of both their physical and spiritual health,
and under its care is placed the village of Sampaloc. In it is kept
a miraculous image of the Virgin. In 1622 the Recollects begin to
evangelize Mindanao, of which island there is a brief description,
with more detailed ones of certain curious birds and animals found
there, and of the customs and beliefs of the natives. Their government
is simply the tyranny of the strong over the weak, a condition of
oppression and cruelty and wretchedness. Slavery, formerly a common
practice among them, has been broken up where the missionaries have
introduced the Christian religion. In 1609 the natives of Caraga
are subdued by the Spaniards, as also in 1613 a revolt by them is
quelled; and finally (1622) the Recollects carry the gospel among
them. The missionaries do much to subdue these fierce savages, and
make many converts--notable among whom is a powerful chief named
Inuc, whose example is followed by many. A flourishing mission has
also been established on the river of Butuan, where had formerly
been a Christian mission, now abandoned. Detailed accounts are
given of the labors and dangers which the fathers undergo, and of
certain conversions. Our historian does the same for the missions in
Calamianes and Cuyo. It may be noted that the Recollect missionaries
vigorously pursued the same policy as that of the Jesuits in forming
"reductions" or mission villages of their converts. Various miraculous
events in the experience of the missionaries are related, especially
the exorcism of certain demons who attempted to drive the Spanish
soldiers out of the country. Another mission is opened on the Cagayan
River in Misamis, northern Mindanao; the fathers meet great trials and
hardships, but finally succeed in converting the leading headman on
the river, with many of his followers. They are greatly aided in this
by the successful revolt of these Indians against the Mahometan chief
Corralat, in which they ask and receive the assistance of the Spanish
troops stationed at Tandag. From the records of the provincial chapter
held at Manila in 1650 is compiled a list of the Recollect convents
in Mindanao and Calamianes, with the number of families attached to
each. The writer goes on to relate some of the trials, hardships,
and dangers experienced by the Recollect missionaries in their work,
several being martyrs to their zeal. In 1624 is held the first chapter
meeting of the new Recollect province of Filipinas; Fray Onofre de
la Madre de Dios is chosen provincial, and certain regulations for
the conduct of the religious of the order there are adopted.

With these earlier narratives may be compared that of Juan de la
Concepcion, in his _Historia_ (vols. iv and v), which contains some
matter additional to the others, although his account is largely drawn
from these. The Recollects, like the Jesuits, form "reductions" of
their scattered converts, in order to carry on their instruction more
advantageously. The difficulties between the observantine and reformed
branches of the Augustinian order are recounted with some fulness. A
singular epidemic of demoniacal obsession at Cavite is dispelled by
the religious services held at the new Recollect church there. At the
request of the bishop of Cebu, the discalced Augustinians extend their
work--a reenforcement of missionaries having arrived from Spain--to
the Visayan Islands and to Mindanao (1622); some account of their
successes in the latter region is given. They also push forward into
the Calamianes Islands and Paragua (1622). Of these islands the writer
presents an interesting account, describing their principal products
and natural resources, as well as the character and religious beliefs
of the natives. Among these people, unusually brutal and fierce, go
the undaunted Recollects, and soon establish flourishing missions,
collecting the people in "reductions." Then they send to Manila a
request that Spanish soldiers come and take possession of Paragua,
which is done. The missions spread farther, and a large part of the
island is subdued to the Christian faith and the crown of Spain.


_The Editors_

October, 1904.






DOCUMENTS OF 1624


    Ecclesiastical affairs of the Philippines. Miguel Garcia Serrano,
    and others; 1574-1624.
    Conflict between civil and religious authorities in
    Manila. [Unsigned and undated; 1624?]
    Seminary for Japanese missionaries.  Alvaro de Messa y Lugo,
    and others; July 23-August 5.
    Extract from letter to Felipe IV. Miguel Garcia Serrano; August 15.
    Royal orders regarding the religious. Felipe IV; August-December.



_Sources_: The first of these documents is obtained from Pastells's
edition of Celin's _Labor evangelica_, iii, pp. 674-697; the second,
from the Ventura del Arco MSS. (Ayer library), i, pp. 515-523; the
others, from the Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla--save the second
of the "Royal orders," from the "Cedulario Indico" of the Archivo
Historico Nacional, Madrid.

_Translations_: The third document is translated by Robert W. Haight;
the second part of the fifth, by Arthur B. Myrick, of Harvard
University; the remainder, by James A. Robertson.





ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS OF THE PHILIPPINES

_Royal Instructions to Gomez Perez Dasmarinas Regarding Ecclesiastical
Affairs_


The King. To Gomez Perez Dasmarinas, my governor and captain-general
of the Philipinas Islands, or the person or persons in charge of
their government: I ordered a decree of various articles to be given
to my viceroy of Nueva Espana, in regard to what was to be done and
observed in that country for the preservation of my patronage, as is
contained at length in the said decree, whose tenor is as follows:

"The King. To our viceroy of Nueva Espana, or the person or persons
who shall, for the time being, be exercising the government of that
country: As you know, the right of the ecclesiastical patronage belongs
to us throughout the realm of the Yndias--both because of having
discovered and acquired that new world, and erected there and endowed
the churches and monasteries at our own cost, or at the cost of our
ancestors, the Catholic Sovereigns; and because it was conceded to us
by bulls of the most holy pontiffs, conceded of their own accord. For
its conservation, and that of the right that we have to it, we order
and command that the said right of patronage be always preserved for
us and our royal crown, singly and _in solidum_, throughout all the
realm of the Yndias, without any derogation therefrom, either in whole
or in part; and that we shall not concede the right of patronage by
any favor or reward that we or the kings our successors may confer.

"Further, no person or persons, or ecclesiastical or secular
communities, or church or monastery, shall be able to exercise the
right of patronage by custom privilege, or any other title, unless it
be the person who shall exercise it in our name, and with our authority
and power; and no person, whether secular or ecclesiastical, and no
order, convent, or religious community, of whatever state, condition,
rank, and preeminence he or they may be, shall for any occasion and
cause whatever, judicially or extra-judicially, dare to meddle in any
matter touching my royal patronage, to injure us in it--to appoint
to any church, benefice, or ecclesiastical office, or to be accepted
if he shall have been appointed--in all the realm of the Indias,
without our presentation, or that of the person to whom we commit
it by law or by letters-patent. He who shall do the contrary, if he
be a secular person, shall incur the loss of the concessions that
shall have been made to him by us in all the realm of the Indias,
shall be unable to hold and obtain others, and shall be exiled
perpetually from all our kingdoms and seigniories; and if he shall
be an ecclesiastical person, he shall be considered as a foreigner,
and exiled from all our kingdoms, and shall not be able to hold or
obtain any benefice or ecclesiastical office, and shall incur the other
penalties established against such by laws of these my kingdoms. And
our viceroys, audiencias, and royal justices shall proceed with all
severity against those who thus shall infringe or violate our right of
patronage; and they shall proceed officially, either at the petition
of our fiscals, or at that of any party who demands it; and in the
execution of it great diligence shall be exercised.

"We desire and order that no cathedral church, parish church,
monastery, hospital, votive church, or any other pious or religious
establishment be erected, founded, or constructed, without our
express consent for it, or that of the person who shall exercise our
authority; and further, that no archbishopric, bishopric, dignidad,
canonry, racion, media-racion, rectorial or simple benefice, or any
other ecclesiastical or religious benefice or office, be instituted,
or appointment to it be made, without our consent or presentation,
or that of the person who shall exercise our authority; and such
presentation or consent shall be in writing, in the ordinary manner.

"The archbishoprics and bishoprics shall be appointed by our
presentation, made to our very holy father [_i.e._, the Roman pontiff]
who shall be at that time, as has been done hitherto.

"The dignidades, canonries, racions and media-racions of all the
cathedral churches of the Indias shall be filled by presentation made
by our royal warrant, given by our royal Council of the Indias, and
signed by our name, by virtue of which the archbishop or bishop of
the church where the said dignidad, canonry, or racion shall be shall
grant to him collation and canonical installation, which shall also be
in writing, sealed with his seal and signed with his hand. Without the
said presentation, title, collation, and canonical installation, in
writing, he shall not be given possession of such dignidad, canonry,
racion, or media-racion; neither shall he accept the benefits and
emoluments of it, under the penalties contained in the laws against
those who violate our royal patronage.

"If in any of the cathedral churches of the Yndias there should
not be four beneficiaries--at least resident, and appointed by
our presentation and warrant and the canonical installation of the
prelate--because of the other prebends being vacant, or if appointments
to them have been made because the beneficiaries are absent (even
though it be for a legitimate reason) for more than eight months,
until we present them the prelate shall elect four seculars to fill
out the term of those who shall have been appointed as residents,
choosing them from the most capable and competent that shall offer,
or who can be found, so that they may serve in the choir, the altar,
the church, and as curas, if that should be necessary in the said
church, in place of the vacant or absent prebendaries, as above
stated. He shall assign them an adequate salary, as we have ordered
at the account of the vacant or absent prebendaries; and the said
provision shall not be permanent, but removable at will [_ad nutum_],
and those appointed shall not occupy the seat of the beneficiary in
the choir, nor enter or have a vote in the cabildo. If the cathedral
church has four or more beneficiaries, the prelates shall not take it
upon themselves to appoint any prebendaries, or to provide a substitute
in such post, whether for those that become vacant, or for those whose
incumbents may be absent, unless they shall give us notice, so that we
may make the presentations or take such measures as may be advisable.

"No prelate, even though he have an authentic relation and information
that we have presented any person to a dignidad, canonry, racion,
or any other benefice, shall grant him collation or canonical
installation, or shall order that he be given possession of it, unless
our original warrant of the said presentation be first presented;
and our viceroys or audiencias shall not meddle by making them receive
such persons without the said presentation.

"After the original warrant of our presentation has been presented,
appointment and canonical installation shall be made without any delay;
and order will be given to assign to him the emoluments, unless
there is some legitimate objection against the person presented,
and one which can be proved. If there is no legitimate objection,
or if any such be alleged that shall not be proved, and the prelate
should delay the appointment, installation, and possession, he shall
be obliged to pay to such person the emoluments and incomes, costs,
and interests, that shall have been incurred by him.

"It is our desire that, in the presentations that shall be made for
dignidades, canonries and prebends in the cathedral churches of the
Yndias, lettered men be preferred to those who are not, and those who
shall have served in cathedral churches of these same kingdoms and
who shall have had most experience in the choir and divine worship,
to those who shall not have served in cathedral churches.

"At least in the districts where it can be conveniently done, a
graduate jurist in general study shall be presented for a doctoral
canonicate, and another lettered theological graduate in general study
for another magistral canonicate, who shall have the pulpit with the
obligations that doctoral and magistral canons have in these kingdoms.

"Another lettered theologue approved by general study shall be
presented to read the lesson of the holy scriptures, and another
lettered jurist theologue for the canonicate of penitence, in
accordance with the established decrees of the holy council of
Trent. The said four canonries shall be of the number of those of
the erection of the Church.

"We will and order that all the benefices, whether sinecures or
curacies, secular and regular, and the ecclesiastical offices that
become vacant, or that, as they are new, must be filled, throughout
the realm of the Yndias, in whatever diocese it may be, besides those
that are provided in the cathedral churches, as stated above, shall,
in order that they may be filled with less delay, and that our royal
patronage may be preserved in them, be filled in the following manner:

"When a benefice (whether a sinecure or a curacy), or the
administration of any hospital or a sacristy or churchwardenship, or
the stewardship of a hospital, or any other benefice or ecclesiastical
office, shall become vacant, or when it has to be filled for the first
time: the prelate shall order a written proclamation to be posted
in the cathedral church, or in the church, hospital, or monastery
where such benefice or office is to be filled, with the suitable
limit, so that those who desire to compete for it may enter the
lists. From all those who thus compete, and from all the others whom
the prelate shall believe to be suitable persons for such office or
benefice, after having examined them and after having informed himself
concerning their morals and ability, he shall choose two persons from
them--those whom, in the sight of God and his conscience, he shall
judge most suitable for such office or benefice. The nomination
of the two thus named shall be presented to our viceroy or to the
president of our royal Audiencia; or to the person who, in our name,
shall exercise the superior government of the province where such
benefice or office shall become vacant or must be filled, so that he
may select one from the two appointees. He shall send that selection
to the prelate, so that the latter in accordance with it, and by
virtue of that presentation, may grant the appointment, collation,
and canonical installation--by way of commission and not by perpetual
title, but removable at will by the person who shall have presented
them in our name, together with the prelate. And should there be
no more than one person who desires to compete for such benefice or
office, or the prelate shall not find more than one person whom he
desires to receive the nomination to it, he shall send the name to our
viceroy, president, or governor, as above stated, so that the latter
may present him. Then by virtue of such presentation, the prelate
shall make the appointment in the form above directed. But it is
our desire and will that when the presentation shall be made by us,
and we shall expressly state in our presentation that the collation
and canonical installation shall be by title and not by commission,
those presented by us be always preferred to those presented by our
viceroys, presidents, or governors, in the form above mentioned.

"And in the repartimientos and villages of Indians, and in other
places where there shall be no benefice or any regulations for
electing one, or any form of appointing a secular or religious to
administer sacraments and teach the doctrine, providing it in the
form above directed, the prelate--after posting a proclamation, so
that if there shall be any ecclesiastical or religious person, or any
other of good morals and education who may go to teach the doctrine
at such village--from those who shall compete, or from other persons
whom he shall deem most suitable and fitting, shall elect two, after
informing himself of their competency and good character. He shall
send the nomination to our viceroy, president, or governor who shall
reside in the province, so that the latter may present one of the two
thus nominated by the prelate. If there shall be no more than one,
by virtue of that presentation the prelate shall appoint him to the
mission, giving him installation, as he has to teach the doctrine. He
shall order to be given to such person the emoluments that are to be
given to ministers or missions, and shall order the encomenderos and
other persons, under the penalties and censures that he shall deem
suitable, not to annoy or disturb such person in the exercise of his
duty and the teaching of the Christian doctrine; on the contrary,
they shall give him all protection and aid for it. That appointment
shall be made removable at the will of the person who shall have
appointed him in our name, and that of the prelate.

"We also will and order that the religious orders observe and maintain
the right of patronage in the following form.

"First: No general, commissary-general, visitor, provincial, or any
other superior of the religious orders, shall go to the realm of the
Yndias, without first showing in our royal Council of the Indias the
powers that he bears and giving us relation of them; and without the
Council giving him our decree and permission so that he may go, and
a warrant so that our viceroys, audiencias, justices, and our other
vassals may admit and receive him to the exercise of his office,
and give him all protection and aid in it.

"Any provincial, visitor, prior, guardian, or other high official,
who may be elected and nominated in the realm of the Yndias shall,
before being admitted to exercise his office, inform our viceroy,
president, Audiencia, or governor who shall have in charge the
supreme government of such province, and shall show him his patent
of nomination and election, so that the latter may give him the
protection and aid necessary for the exercise and use of his office.

"The provincials of all the orders who are established in the
Yndias, each one of them, shall always keep a list ready of all the
monasteries and chief residences [maintained there by his orders]
and of the members [resident in each] that fall in his province,
and of all the religious in the province--noting each one of them by
name, together with a report of his age and qualifications, and the
office or ministry in which each one is occupied. He shall give that
annually to our viceroy, Audiencia, or governor, or the person who
shall have charge of the supreme government in the province, adding to
or removing from the list the religious who shall be superfluous and
those who shall be needed. Our viceroy, Audiencia, or governor, shall
keep those general lists which shall thus be given, for himself, and in
order that he may inform us by report of the religious that there are,
and those of whom there is need of provision, by each fleet sent out.

"The provincials of the orders, each one of them shall make a list of
all the religious who are occupied in teaching the Christian doctrine
to the Indians, and the administration of sacraments, and the offices
of curas in the villages of the chief monasteries. They shall give such
list once a year to our viceroy, Audiencia, or governor, who shall
give it to the diocesan prelate, so that he may know and understand
what persons are occupied in the administration of sacraments and
the office of curas and the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and who are
in charge of the souls for whom he is responsible; and in order that
what is or must be provided may be apparent to him, and from whom he
has to require account of the said souls, and to whom he must commit
what is to be done for the welfare of those souls.

"Whenever the provincials have to provide any religious for instruction
or for the administration of sacraments, or remove any who shall
have been appointed, they shall give notice thereof to our viceroy,
president, Audiencia, or governor who shall exercise the supreme
government of the province, and to the prelate; and they shall not
remove any one who shall have been appointed, until another shall
have been appointed in his place, observing the above order.

"We desire, in the presentations and appointments of all the prelacies,
dignidades, and ecclesiastical offices and benefices, that those
most deserving, and who shall have been engaged longer and to better
profit in the conversion of the Indians, and in instructing them
in the Christian doctrine, and in the administration of sacraments,
shall be presented and appointed. Therefore we strictly charge the
diocesan prelates, and those superiors of the religious orders, and
we order our viceroys, presidents, audiencias, and governors, that
in the nominations, presentations, and appointments that they shall
have to make there, as is said, in conformity [with this decree],
they shall always prefer, in the first place, those who shall have
been occupied, by life and example, in the conversion of the Indians,
and in instruction and in administering the sacraments, and those who
shall know the language of the Indians whom they have to instruct;
and, in the second place, those who shall be the sons of Spaniards
and who shall have served us in those regions.

"In order that we may better make the presentation that shall
become necessary of prelacies, dignidades, prebends, and the other
ecclesiastical offices and benefices, we ask and charge the said
diocesan prelates and the provincials of the religious orders, and we
order our viceroys, presidents, audiencias, and governors, each one
of them, separately and distinctly by himself, without communicating
one with another, to make a list of all the dignidades, benefices,
missions, and ecclesiastical offices in his province, noting those
of them that are vacant, and those that are filled. Likewise they
shall make a list of all the ecclesiastical and religious persons,
and of the sons of citizens and Spaniards who are studying for
the purpose of becoming ecclesiastics, and of the good character,
learning, competency and qualities of each one, stating clearly his
good parts and also his defects, and declaring, so that prelacies,
dignidades, benefices, and ecclesiastical offices shall be suitably
filled, both those that shall be at present found vacant, and those
that shall become vacant hereafter. Those relations shall be sent us
closed and sealed, in each fleet, and in different ships; and what
shall be deemed advisable to add to or to suppress from the preceding
ones that shall have been sent before, shall be added or suppressed;
so that no fleet shall sail without its relation. We charge the
consciences of one and all straitly with this matter.

"In order that we may not be deceived by those who come or send
to petition us to present them to some dignidad, benefice, or
ecclesiastical office, we desire, and it is our will, that he who
shall thus come or send appear before our viceroy, or before the
president and Audiencia, or before the one who shall have charge of
the supreme government of the province; and, declaring his petition,
the viceroy, Audiencia, or governor shall make the relation officially,
with information concerning his standing, learning, morals, competency,
and other details. After it is made, he shall send it separately
from those persons. Likewise the approval of their prelate shall be
obtained, and warning is given that those who come to petition for a
dignidad, benefice, or ecclesiastical office without such investigation
shall not be received.

"We desire and it is our will that no person can hold, obtain, or
occupy two dignidades, or ecclesiastical benefices in the provinces
of the Yndias, either in the same or in different churches. Therefore
we order that if any one shall be presented by us for any dignidad,
benefice, or office, he shall renounce what he shall have held
previously, before his collation and appointment.

"If the one presented by us does not present himself, within the
time contained in the presentation, to the prelate who must make
the appointment and canonical installation, after the expiration of
the said time the presentation shall be void, and no appointment and
canonical installation can be made by virtue of it.

"Inasmuch as it is our will that the above-contained be observed
and obeyed, for we believe that such procedure is expedient for the
service of God and for our own, I order you to examine the above,
and to observe and obey it, and cause it to be observed and obeyed
in all those provinces and villages, and their churches, _in toto_,
and exactly as is contained and declared, for what time shall be our
will. You shall accomplish and fulfil it, in the ways that shall appear
most advisable to you. You shall take for this purpose such measures
and precautions as shall be advisable, in virtue of this my decree; and
I give you for that complete authority in legal form. Accordingly we
request and charge the very reverend father in Christ, the archbishop
of that city, and member of our Council, and the reverend fathers
in Christ, the archbishop of Nueva Espana, the venerable deans
and cabildo of the cathedral churches of that country, and all the
curas, beneficiaries, sacristans, and other ecclesiastical persons,
the venerable and devout fathers provincial, guardians, priors,
and other religious of the orders of St. Dominic, St. Augustine,
St. Francis, and of all the other orders, that in what pertains to,
and is incumbent on them, they observe and obey this decree, acting in
harmony with you, for all that shall be advisable. Given in San Lorenzo
el Real, June first, one thousand five hundred and seventy-four.


_I The King_
By order of his Majesty:
_Antonio de Eraso_"


I order you to examine the said decree, and its sections
above-incorporated, and you shall observe and obey it, and cause it
to be observed and obeyed _in toto_, as is contained and declared
in it and in each one of its sections, as if it were given for those
islands and directed to you. I charge the reverend father in Christ,
the bishop of those islands, the venerable dean and cabildo of
the cathedral church of the islands, all the curas, beneficiaries,
sacristans, and other ecclesiastical persons, and the venerable and
devout fathers provincial, guardians, priors, and other religious of
the orders of St. Dominic, St. Augustine, St. Francis, and all the
other orders, that in what pertains to, and is incumbent on them,
they observe and obey it, acting in harmony with you in every way
that may be advisable and necessary. Given in San Lorenzo, September
thirteen, one thousand five hundred and eighty-nine. [1]

_I The King_
By order of the king our sovereign:
_Joan de Ibarra_
Signed by the Council.


[The litigation between the prelate and the religious orders originated
from the visitation of the village of Dilao (which belonged to the
ministry of the Franciscan fathers), commenced by Archbishop Miguel
Garcia Serrano, June 24, 1624, [2] with the dictation by him of the
following:] [3]


_Act_. In the village of Quiapo, which is near the city of Manila, on
the twenty-second day of the month of June, one thousand six hundred
and twenty-two, his Excellency, Don Fray Miguel Garcia y Serrano,
archbishop of these Philipinas Islands, member of his Majesty's
council, etc., declared that, inasmuch as the eleventh chapter
of the twenty-fifth session of the holy council of Trent rules and
orders that the religious who exercise the duties of curas of souls be
immediately subject, in regard to such duties and in all that pertains
to the administration of the sacraments, to the jurisdiction, visit,
and correction of the bishop in whose diocese they minister; and that
no one, even though he be _admovibilis ad nutum_, can exercise the
said office of cura without having obtained beforehand the consent
and examination of the bishop or his vicar, etc., [4] which is
ordered to be strictly observed and obeyed, both by the bishops and
the superiors of the religious, and by the religious themselves, by
the twenty-second chapter following, notwithstanding any privileges,
constitutions, rules, customs, rights, and others _non obstantibus_,
etc.; besides which, his Holiness Gregory Fourteenth, by his brief
which was obtained at the instance of his Majesty, under date of Roma,
April 18, one thousand five hundred and ninety-one, charges and orders
the archbishop of these islands to visit the missions and the religious
in them. [5]

All of the above is ordered to be observed and obeyed in these islands
by decrees of his Majesty, under date of June first, five hundred
and eighty-five; December twenty-one, five hundred and ninety-five;
and November fourteen, one thousand six hundred and three. [6]
In conformity with these decrees, his most illustrious Lordship,
wishing to observe what his Holiness and his Majesty have ordered,
as it is a matter very advisable and necessary for the service of God
our Lord and that of his Majesty, and the welfare and increase of the
conversion, teaching, and instruction of the natives of these islands,
notified the very reverend fathers-provincial in Christ of the sacred
orders of St. Dominic and St. Augustine, and the commissaries of that
of St. Francis, of these islands, by means of an order signed by his
most illustrious Lordship, which was given to them in the first part
of April of this current year, so that, understanding it, the matter
might be facilitated and observed on the part of the said orders,
with the good-will and exactness that is proper, and which they have
always had in obeying and observing the orders of the holy apostolic
see, and those of his Majesty. And inasmuch as it is advisable that
there be no more delay in the above, his most illustrious Lordship
intends to go to visit the mission of the natives of the village of
Dilao, outside the walls of the city of Manila, which is in charge
of the Order of St. Francis, on the day of St. John the Baptist. He
has advised the father guardian of the said convent thereof, in order
that the Indians of the said convent may be assembled in the church at
the hour of high mass, and so that all other necessary arrangements
be made for making the said visit. His Lordship ordered the above
to be set down as an act, together with the copy of the brief of his
Holiness Gregory Fourteenth, and of his Majesty's decrees, of which
mention is made above; and he signed the same.


_Fray Miguel_, archbishop.

Before me:

_Licentiate Alonso Ramirez_


In the town of Quiapo, on the twenty-fourth day of the month of June,
one thousand six hundred and twenty-two, the illustrious lord Don
Fray Miguel Garcia Serrano, archbishop of the Philipinas, member
of his Majesty's council, etc., declared that he ordered--and he
did so order--that that notification that his illustrious Lordship
ordered to be made and that he made, to the superiors of the religious
orders--namely, the order mentioned in the act of the twenty-second of
this month, which was made on account of the visitation of Dilao--be
filed with the [records of the] said visitation, which is to be begun
on this said day, of the said mission and ministry of Dilao. Thus
did he decree and order.


_Fray Miguel_, archbishop.

Before me:

_Licentiate Alonso Ramirez_


Very reverend fathers in Christ, the provincials of the holy orders of
these Philipinas Islands: Being obliged to carry out the ordinance and
mandate of the holy council of Trent and the decrees of his Majesty in
regard to the examination and visitation which I have to make of the
religious who are administering the missions of natives in my diocese,
I deemed it advisable, in order to attain my object better, to inform
your Paternities of it before beginning it--so that, understanding
the matter, it might be facilitated and observed by your Paternities
with the good-will and exactness that are proper, and which you have
always displayed in obeying and observing the mandates of the holy
apostolic see and those of his Majesty.

As your Paternities know, chapter 11 of the 25th session of the holy
council of Trent, _De regularibus et monialibus_, rules and orders
that the religious who exercise the duties of curas of souls be
immediately subject as regards such duties, and in everything that
pertains to the administration of sacraments, to the jurisdiction,
visit, and correction of the bishop in whose diocese they administer;
and that no one, though he be _amovilibis ad nutum_, may exercise
the said duty of cura without first having obtained the consent of,
and been examined by, the bishop or his vicar, etc. Both the bishops
and the superiors of the religious, and the religious themselves,
are strictly ordered to observe and fulfil the above, as ordered by
article 22 following, notwithstanding any privileges, regulations,
rules, customs, and rights, and others _non obstantibus_, etc.

This decree then, of the holy council of Trent, has two parts--one in
which it is ordered that the said religious be immediately subject
in regard to curas, and in all that pertains to the administration
of sacraments, to the jurisdiction, visit, and correction of the
bishops; and the other that, before being admitted to the said duty,
they must obtain the consent of, and be examined by, the bishops or
their vicars. There has never been any innovation in the first; for,
although the second part had the innovation that appears in two briefs
issued by his Holiness Pius V--one in general for all Christendom,
which he conceded at the instance of the mendicant orders, under date
of Roma, July 17, 1567, in the second year of his pontificate, whose
beginning is, _Etsi mendicantium ordines_; and the other a special
one for the Yndias, at the instance of his Majesty, under date of
Roma, of March 26, of the same year--in those briefs there was no
innovation in regard to the first part. On the contrary, in the brief
of his Holiness Gregory XIV which his Majesty sent to these islands,
and which was obtained at his instance, under date of Roma, April 18,
1591, the first year in which he commits to the archbishop of Manila
the adjustment and restitution of what the conquistadors and other
persons had in charge among the Indians, and prohibits religious from
going from a pacified district to convert one unpacified, without the
permission of the bishops, there is a clause of the following tenor
...: _Praeteria cum praecipuum munus Episcoporum sit proprias oves
per se ipsos pascere et visitare_. [7]

In regard to the second part of the two things ordered by the holy
council--that is, that the religious, before they can exercise the
duties of the care of souls, must first get the consent of, and be
examined by, the bishops or their vicars--that order also appears
today in its entire force and vigor. For although it is true that his
Holiness Pius V reserved the said religious from the said permission
and examination, by the two privileges above mentioned, afterward
his Holiness Gregory XIII reduced these and all the other favors and
concessions given to the mendicant orders by Pius V to the terms of
law and the holy council of Trent, as appears by his _motu proprio_
given at Roma, on the kalends of March, 1573, the first year of his
pontificate, whose beginning is _In tanta rerum_, etc., and which
father Fray Manuel Rodriguez inserted in the book that he published
concerning the privileges of the orders, [8] in number 38 of those
of that same supreme pontiff.

Although it is true that it is stated in the memorial which the Order
of St. Francis in Nueva Espana presented regarding the substance
of the privileges of the mendicant orders in the Yndias, at the
provincial council that was convened in Mexico in the year 1585,
at the instance of the same council (as is mentioned by father Fray
Juan Baptista, of the said order, in the second part of his book of
advice for confessors), that the said revocation had no effect, because
the cardinal protectors of the orders immediately appealed from it,
asking his Holiness to suspend the said _motu proprio_ and that it
be not promulgated; and that his Holiness agreed to it, and that,
accordingly, no account was taken of it--it appears that no attention
must be paid to that, for the said memorial has no further proof or
authority than the certification of Father Master Veracruz, who was in
Sevilla when the _motu proprio_ of Gregory XIII was issued, and because
Father Manuel Rodriguez, of the same Order of St. Francis, affirms
the contrary--who some years later, while residing in Salamanca, where
there was more notice of it than in the Yndias, published his books of
"questions concerning the regulars," as appears in article 7, question
8, of the first volume, [9] as well as in other places. With the same
agrees father Fray Alonso de Vega, in his conclusion, chapter 62,
case 4, _Questio de confessione_, and it appears by the declarations
of the holy congregation of the cardinals, which Marcilla reports
in article 20, of section 25, _de regularibus_, and in article 15,
of section 13, _de reformatione_, [10] besides others, by which it is
manifest that it is a privilege that his Majesty obtained for what he
then judged advisable for the proper government of the churches of the
Yndias, and the greater increase of their Christianity. It ought not,
nor can it, be understood to be to the prejudice of the privileges
that the holy apostolic see has conceded to the kings of Espana for
the same purpose, such as that of Alexander VI, in his bull of the
concession or confirmation of the Indias, as follows: _Hortamur vos
quamplurimum ... et infra sit--insuper mandamus vobis in virtute
sanctae obedientiae (sicut etiam pollicemini) et non dubitamus pro
vestra maxima devotione et regia magnanimitate vos esse facturos,
ad terras firmas et insulis praedictas, viros probos...._ [11]

And Adrian VI, in his _Omnimodo_, as follows: _Dum tamen sint tales
sufficientiae ..._ and of the right of the royal patronage. [12]

And since it is now his Majesty's will that the fitness and approval
of the said religious in regard to curas must be to the satisfaction
of the bishops, which he says to be thus advisable for the discharge
of his royal conscience and that of the said bishops, it is clear
that we are bound to fulfil it as a command of the holy apostolic see.

The above is in respect to the mandates of his Holiness. Coming to
that which is ordered in this regard by the decrees of his Majesty,
it appears that his Majesty having despatched his royal decree on the
sixth of December, 1585, that if there were any capable clergy they
should be preferred, in the benefices and missions of the Indians
to the religious who held them, and who should have held them, by
virtue of another royal decree of May twenty-five, of five hundred
and eighty-five, his Majesty gave notice to the Order of St. Francis,
of Nueva Espana, that he had ordered the suspension for the time being
of the execution of this decree; and that the said missions be held,
as hitherto, by the orders and religious; that there be no innovation
in the manner of presentation and appointment; that the bishops
in their own persons (these are the words of the royal decree),
without committing it to any others, shall visit the churches of
the missions, where the said religious may be, and in the missions
inspect the most holy sacrament, the baptismal font, the building of
the said churches, and the service of divine worship; and that they
also visit the religious who should reside in the said missions,
and correct them in matters concerning curas.

That royal decree is in the book of advice to confessors of Indians
which father Fray Juan Baptista, of the Order of St. Francis, published
in Mexico, in the year six hundred; it is on folio 380. On folio
259, it contains what the provincials of the orders of St. Dominic,
St. Francis, and St. Augustine, of the province of Mexico, answered
to it on the twenty-eighth of November, of the said year, 585. That
answer was to accept the said missions _non ex votis charitatis_,
but with the obligation of _in se et justitia_; and in regard to
being visited, they say that, inasmuch as the obstacles of their
disturbance and relaxation of discipline were always to be found,
which induced the apostolic see to exempt them from the visits of
the ordinaries--which obstacles would be more and greater in the
Yndias, if authority were given for it--they would not refuse the
reverence, respect, and submission due to the bishops, as prelates
and shepherds of the Church of God. They said that they were under
greater obligations to them than to any one else, and would respect
them and receive them into their convents with proper reverence,
as they had always done; and that, obeying what his Majesty ordered,
they would be very glad to have them visit in their churches the most
holy sacrament, the baptismal font, and what concerns it; but in all
matters outside the above-mentioned, they petitioned his Majesty not
to give the bishops authority or entrance, for that would mean the
perpetual disquiet and ruin of their order.

But as for that which the said orders of Nueva Espana declared in that
reply, namely, that the obstacles of disturbance and relaxed discipline
were bound to follow the visits of the bishops, for which the apostolic
see was induced to exempt them from their jurisdiction; nevertheless,
it will be considered that a very different reason will be found
to prevail in this case in respect to which, as regards religious
from whom visits are exempted, they have their special rules and
regulations, which are peculiar to each order. Both for that reason,
and because their institute, life, and government is of the cloister,
and they have no administration, dominion, and jurisdiction over
persons of the world, it was most advisable to give them superiors
who had been reared in the same life, customs, and rules of religion,
since, moreover, their profession was simply that of religious.

But the ministry of the care of souls that the religious exercise
is not of the cloister, nor does it depend on their special rule or
institute; nor in regard to such are they at all different from the
secular curas, both touching the religious ministers themselves,
and touching the persons who are ministered to, whose spiritual
government is in charge of the bishops.

And since it is a fact that the religious who accepts an executorship
is obliged to give a strict account of it to the bishop--nor does
he fulfil his duty by giving it to his superior, if it is a matter
with which the deceased entrusted him, who made election and a
confidant of him--with very much greater reason ought an account of
the administration of the souls that are immediately in charge of
the same bishop be given to him; and although in proof of that many
other arguments might be adduced, none will be so effective and so
conclusive as to consider that while there were, as is true, so many
so aged, learned, grave, and holy religious of all the orders present
in the holy council of Trent, who propounded as many difficulties
and obstacles as they could offer, yet the holy council decreed and
ordered as we have seen.

In conformity with that, notwithstanding the said reply which the
orders of Nueva Espana gave to the decree of his Majesty, the orders
of his Majesty in regard to the said visits seem to have been obeyed,
for ten years after another royal decree was despatched, which the
said father, Fray Juan Baptista, mentions on folio 396 of the said
book, as follows:

"The King. Reverend father in Christ, bishop of the city of Antequera,
of the valley of Huajaca, of Nueva Espana, and member of my council:
Inasmuch as I have heard that the religious who reside in those
regions, busied in the instruction and conversion of the Indians, give
out that it is a cause of great disquiet and uneasiness to them for you
to send to visit them, in regard to curacies, by clerics or religious
of other orders; and as it is advisable to avoid all occasions that
may divert them from their chief end, especially since (as they say)
it is contrary to their institutes, and is the occasion of their
living disconsolate, and that they are molested: I request and charge
you that when you are unable to visit in person the missions of that
bishopric--in accordance with the order in my decree of June first,
one thousand five hundred and eighty-five, [13] where this matter is
discussed at greater length--for the said visits of religious who shall
be in those missions, in regard to matters of curacies, of the most
holy sacrament, of the baptismal font, of the building of churches, and
all else concerning them, and the divine worship, you send religious
of the same orders. Consequently, where there are Dominican friars,
a friar of the same order shall be sent as visitor; and the same shall
be observed with Augustinians, Franciscans, and those of the Order of
Mercy, and of the Society. That shall be observed for the cases and in
the manner contained in the above-mentioned decree. Given in Madrid,
December twenty-one, one thousand five hundred and ninety-five. [14]


[_I The King_]

By order of the king our sovereign:

_Juan de Ybarra_"


But since it was not expressed in the said royal decree of the year 585
that the religious who should administer the benefices and missions
of the Indians should first be examined and approved by the bishops;
and since the remedy for the public excesses of the said religious
should be limited to the bishops in the decree, if there should be any
excesses even in respect to curacies--the bishops proceeding in this,
not in the form ruled by the said article II, of section 25, of the
holy council, but by that which is declared in article 14, of the
same section: his Majesty afterward decided, for considerations that
satisfied him, that the authority and jurisdiction of the bishops in
regard to the above be extended further, as the holy council rules;
and accordingly, on November 14, one thousand six hundred and three,
he despatched his royal decree for the metropolitan churches of the
Indias, one of which he sent to the archbishop of these islands,
which is of the following tenor:

"The King. Very reverend father in Christ, archbishop of the city
of Manila of the Philipinas Islands, and member of my council:
Notwithstanding that it is very carefully ordered that the ministers
who are appointed to the missions of the Indians, both seculars
and friars, must know the language of the Indians whom they have to
instruct and teach; that they shall have the qualifications that are
required for the duties of the curacies that they have to perform;
and that the religious missionaries be visited by the secular prelates
in regard to the curacies: I have been informed that it is not obeyed
as is advisable; that the prelates do not exercise the care that is
advisable in examining the said religious missionaries, in order to
satisfy you that they are competent and that they thoroughly understand
the language of those whom they are going to teach; and that many of
their omissions and excesses in the administration of the sacraments
and the exercise of the duties of curas are not remedied in the
visitations. That is a great obstacle, and consequently the Indians
suffer considerably in the spiritual and temporal. I have heard that
their superiors are less careful in this, and in the choice of the
persons, than they ought to be. And inasmuch as it is advisable for
the service of God our Lord and for mine, and for the welfare of the
Indians, that the ministers of instruction be such as are required
for this ministry, and that they know the Indians' language, I charge
you strictly that, in accordance with what is decreed and ordained,
you do not permit or allow, in the missions in charge of the orders
in the district of that archbishopric, any religious to come to
perform the duties of cura or to exercise that duty, unless he shall
first be examined and approved by you or by the person who shall be
appointed by you for that purpose, in order to satisfy yourself that
he has the necessary ability, and that he knows the language of the
Chinese or Indians whom he has to instruct. Those whom you shall find,
in the visits that you shall make, who have not the competency, good
qualities, and good example that are requisite, and who do not know
sufficiently the language of the Indians whom they are to instruct,
you shall remove; and you shall advise their superiors, so that they
may appoint others who have the necessary qualifications, in which
they also must be examined. You shall advise me of all that you do
in this matter. Given in San Lorenzo, November fourteen, one thousand
six hundred and three.

_I The King_

By order of the king our sovereign:

_Juan de Ybarra_"


With the above royal decree was despatched another to the royal
Audiencia, in which its observance and fulfilment is ordered and
charged; and another to the same archbishop, which only contains the
statement that he is strictly charged with its fulfilment. [15] His
Majesty says in it that it is advisable to do this for the relief
of his royal conscience and that of the archbishop himself. Those
decrees having arrived in the ships that came in the year six hundred
and five, Don Fray Miguel de Benavides, archbishop at that time, as
soon as he received them, presented all three in the royal meeting
held on the second of June, of the said year, and they were obeyed
and ordered to be fulfilled. But as the said archbishop died within
two months, he could not carry them out; and consequently they were
left unobserved, because the cabildo succeeded to the government of
the vacant see. Afterward, Archbishop Don Diego Vazquez de Mercado,
either because he knew nothing about them, or because he was so
far prevented by his age and infirmity (as all know), did not put
them into practice. At his death, Don Fray Diego de Arce, bishop
of Zibu, governed this archbishopric; but he did not know of the
said decrees. But as they have come to my notice, and since we are
obliged, both myself and your Paternities, to observe and obey what
his Holiness and his Majesty order in regard to this, as above stated,
we cannot excuse ourselves from immediately putting it into execution.

We shall not be able to delay the observance of the said royal decree,
by saying that since twenty years have passed since its issue,
without having given it a beginning, it will be well to await his
Majesty's will once more; for, besides that things are today in the
same condition as then, it appears that his Majesty, having heard that
the said royal decree was not being observed in Nueva Espana, either
because the bishops had no knowledge of it, or for other reasons,
gave it again to the viceroy, Marquis de Guadalcazar, under date of
November nineteen, six hundred and eighteen, in which, inserting word
for word the first decree above mentioned of November fourteen, six
hundred and three, he orders it to be obeyed in the following words:

"And inasmuch as it is my intention and will that what I have ordained
and ordered in regard to the above be strictly observed and executed,
I order you to examine the said my decree which is here incorporated,
and to observe and obey it _in toto_, according to its contents
and declarations, just as if I were talking with you, and it were
directed to you. Such is my will, notwithstanding that in the lapse
of time, and with the claims of the prelates and missionaries,
it has been winked at or another custom introduced, which shall,
under no circumstance, be in any manner allowed. Given in Madrid,
November nineteen, one thousand six hundred and eighteen.

_I The King_

By order of the king our sovereign:

_Pedro de Ledesma_"


And the archbishop of Mexico having reported to his Majesty that the
above decree of his Majesty of six hundred and eighteen had not been
shown by the viceroy, although he had had it in his possession for some
time, his Majesty despatched other new decrees to the said viceroy and
archbishop, under date of February eighteen and August twenty-five,
six hundred and twenty, in which, he again orders them to observe and
obey the said first decree to the said archbishop, in these words:
"And since your person is authorized, not only by the council of Trent,
but by the declaration of the cardinals, and by common law, to proceed
to the visit for the reformation of all the missionaries, both seculars
and regulars, you shall endeavor to relieve your conscience and mine."

Consequently, neither of us will by any means satisfy our obligations,
if we neglect to carry out the commands of his Holiness and of his
Majesty in this regard, so that we may report to his Majesty in the
first ships that his royal will has been fulfilled.

From the above, and from the jurisdiction and authority conceded
to the bishops over their sheep by the sacred canons, councils, and
briefs of the holy apostolic see, it is manifest with what want of
reason and foundation has been the assertion and declaration made
three or four times by Father Pedro de San Pablo, provincial of the
Order of St. Francis, in the royal courts about one month ago, while
reporting a suit of the fiscals of the missions of the Indians--namely,
that the provincials of the orders of these islands, and the regular
ministers of the Yndias, had more jurisdiction and power, by virtue
of their privileges, over the Indians in regard to matters concerning
the ministry of their missions than had the bishops and archbishops
in whose dioceses the said missions are located. That appears to be
a universal sentiment and practice of the said religious, by what we
have experienced in the course of the visitation to the Indians of
our archbishopric that we have as yet made. Given in Manila, March
twenty-nine, one thousand six hundred and twenty-two. [16]

_Fray Miguel_, archbishop.

[On April two and three, Don Gabriel de Mujica, the archbishopric's
secretary, delivered in person a similar copy of the above
notifications to [each of] the fathers-provincial--namely, Fray Juan
Henrriquez, Augustinian; Fray Miguel Ruiz, Dominican; Fray Cristobal
de Santa Ana, commissary visitor of St. Francis. On June 20, the
archbishop began his visits through the parish of Dilao, causing an
edict of the following tenor to be published from the pulpit during
high mass.]

We, Don Fray Diego Garcia Serrano, by the grace of God and the
holy apostolic see, archbishop of the Philipinas, member of his
Majesty's council, etc.: To you, the faithful Christians, citizens,
dwellers, residents, and inhabitants of the village of Dilao, which
is administered by the Order of St. Francis, of whatever state, rank,
and preeminence you may be, greeting in our Lord Jesus Christ. We
cause you to know that the holy fathers, inspired personally by the
Holy Spirit in their sacred councils, piously and rightly ordered and
commanded that all the prelates and pastors of the universal Church
be obliged, in person or through their visitors, to make annually
a general visit and investigation of their subordinates and clergy,
both seculars and regulars, who have in charge the administration of
souls. This shall include the offices that they hold, in curacies
and in churches, hermitages, hospitals, and confraternities, all
which should be directed to the spiritual welfare of souls--which
consists in being, through the grace of God, our Lord, separated
from sins, especially public and disgraceful sins, which offend His
[Divine] Majesty so greatly. In order to fulfil this our obligation,
we admonish and order that those of you who shall know or who shall
have heard anything said concerning the father cura, your minister, who
has charge of you in the matter of the administration of sacraments,
or of any other person, which cannot or ought not to be tolerated
by the citizens and inhabitants of this said village of Dilao, of
whatever nation and rank he be, shall tell and declare it to us;
especially if he shall have committed what will be mentioned and
related to you later in this edict, in whole or in part, or any other
thing similar to it. You shall declare and manifest the same before
us within the three days first following after this our letter and
edict shall be declared and read to you.

First, if you know or have heard said whether the said father cura N.,
your minister, has been remiss and negligent in the administration
of the holy sacraments of baptism, penance, the eucharist, extreme
unction, and matrimony.

_Item_: Whether anyone has died without holy baptism through his
neglect and carelessness, or without confession, communion, or
extreme unction.

_Item_: If you know whether the said your minister has not said mass
for you on every Sunday or feast that is observed; or whether he has
made any signal omission in this; and whether he preaches and teaches
the Christian doctrine to you, as he is obliged.

_Item_: Whether the administration of the holy sacraments takes place
with the reverence and propriety that is fitting; whether he has
married anyone before daybreak, or without the admonitions ordered by
the holy council, or without the notification of our vicars, and their
permission having preceded, in the cases in which it ought to be made
and asked for; and whether the baptisms that have taken place have been
in the baptismal font of the church, with all respect and reverence.

_Item_: If you know whether the said your minister keeps the tariff
of the fees--both those which pertain to him and those that pertain
to singers, fiscals, and sacristans--written and placed openly
where all may read it, so that they may know what they have to pay;
or whether he has forced the natives to give more alms than they owe
or are willing to give for marriages, baptisms, or burials, whether
in money or in other things.

_Item_: Whether the said your minister is careful to execute the pious
foundations and the wills of his parishioners; or whether these have
failed to be observed through his fault.

_Item_: Whether the said your minister is careful to register his
parishioners, both natives and those of other nations, at the time of
Lent; and whether he has confessed them during that time, or tried
to confess them; and whether he has, after Lent, made any effort to
ascertain whether they fulfilled their duties to the church according
to their obligation.

_Item_: If you know whether the said your minister has concealed any
public or notorious sin of his parishioners, that has come to his
notice, and has not endeavored to have it remedied by the persons
who can remedy it.

_Item_: If you know whether the said your minister has not looked
after the property of the church, the silver, and ornaments, and
everything belonging to it; and whether any property has been lost
by his carelessness and negligence.

_Item_: If you know whether the said minister, in the public sins
that have come to his notice and that he has punished, has condemned
the sinners to pecuniary fines, or something of value, such as wax,
cloth, or other things; and whether he has failed to apply the said
fines to those to whom they belong, in accordance with his Holiness's
brief and his Majesty's decrees.

_Item_: If you know whether the fiscals have performed their duty
poorly; or whether they live in sin, or are dishonest, or they conceal
sins or concubinage; or whether they receive bribes; or whether with
their authority as fiscal they have annoyed the Indians, or have
taken rice, fowls, or other things at a less price; or whether they
have imposed any tax under pretext of alms for the church, by their
authority that they possess as ministers of it; or whether they have
taken more fees than belong to them by our tariffs.

_Item_: If you know whether the choristers and sacristans have
likewise taken larger fees than are assigned them by our said tariffs,
for burials, funeral honors, and other things that belong to them;
and whether, when any poor man has died who has not the wherewithal
to pay the fees, they have refused to bury him unless they are paid,
or unless they receive pledges that they demand before burying him.

_Item_: If you know whether there are any apostates of our holy
Catholic faith; or who practice any evil worship; or who possess or
read books of it.

_Item_: Whether there are any who are living in public concubinage,
or as whoremongers; or who keep in their houses slave women, or other
women or men of evil life, in order to commit sins.

_Item_: Whether there are any who have not confessed, or fulfilled
the precept of the church, according to their obligation; or whether
there are any who have eaten meat unnecessarily during Lent on the
fast of Friday or the four ember days.

_Item_: Whether there are any married twice while the first husbands
or wives are living, or who are married to relatives in the degree
prohibited, without dispensation from him who can give it.

_Item_: If you know whether there are any usurers who loan money at
usury and interest; or who sell on credit at a dearer price than the
things are worth when cash is paid; or who buy at a less price in order
to give the money advanced with the imposition or fraud and usury.

_Item_: If you know whether there are any, either of you natives,
or of any other nation, either men or women, who are sorcerers, or
witches, or magicians; or those who pray to the devil, or who cast
any kind of lots, whether to discover theft, or to ascertain other
things by enchantments and witchcraft.

And inasmuch as the above evil is a very great offense and disservice
to God our Lord; and as it is advisable to remedy that herein
contained that has been committed: we order, exhort, and admonish
all the citizens, dwellers, residents, and inhabitants of this said
village of Dilao [to make known these things], within the said term of
three days--under penalty that, if they know it and do not declare it,
they shall, if it be proved, be punished most severely.

Given in this village of Dilao, June twenty-four, one thousand six
hundred and twenty-two.


_Fray Miguel_, archbishop.
By order of the bishop, my master:
_Licentiate Alonso Ramirez_


[While the archbishop was proclaiming the visitation in the church
of the above village, father Fray Jose Fonte, secretary of father
commissary Fray Cristobal de Santa Ana, presented to him the following
petition.]

Fray Christoval de Santa Ana, preacher and commissary visitor of
the discalced Franciscans of this province of San Gregorio, etc.: I
declare that, as I have been informed that your Lordship intends to
visit the missions and their ministers of the said my order in this
archbishopric--which is not only an innovation, and a thing not done
by the other archbishops, the predecessors of your most illustrious
Lordship, but also contrary to the ordinance of the brief of his
Holiness Pius V, despatched in Roma, March twenty-four, one thousand
five hundred and sixty-seven, in which, notwithstanding the ordinance
of the holy council of Trent, authority is given to the religious who
are occupied in the conversion of, and preaching to, the Indians,
to perform the office of curas and administer the holy sacraments,
with subordination to the superiors of their order, and exemption
from the bishops and ordinary judges--accordingly the said my order
receives violence and injury from your Lordship's endeavor. [17]

I petition and entreat you, in observance of the ordinance of his
Holiness, to preserve the said ministers and the said my order in their
exemption and privileges; if this be not done, I protest that I shall
make use of the other powers conceded to my order by the apostolic see,
and the remedies that belong to it by law. I petition justice, etc.

_Fray Christoval de Santa Ana_, commissary-visitor.

... His Lordship having seen the said petition and having noted the
brief of his Holiness and its contents, declared: That besides that
the said brief is revoked by a _motu proprio_ of his Holiness Gregory
XIII, under date of Roma, on the kalends of March, of the year five
hundred and seventy-three, by which are revoked all concessions and
privileges that his Holiness Pius V conceded to the religious of the
mendicant orders, reducing them to the terms of the law and of the holy
council of Trent, even in case that the brief of his Holiness Pius
V, which has been read, is not comprehended in the said revocation,
his Holiness Pius V did not make any innovation in the rulings of
the holy council in regard to the religious who administer souls
being immediately subject as far as such ministers are concerned,
and in everything that pertains to the administration of sacraments,
to the jurisdiction, visit, and correction of the bishop in whose
diocese they minister. For, as is evident by the said brief, his
Holiness was requested, at the instance of his Majesty, to be pleased
to decree concerning as many things as had been ordered in the holy
council of Trent; namely: first, that marriages should not be allowed
to be celebrated except in the presence of the parish priest or by his
permission; second, that the religious could not preach without the
permission of the bishop; third, that they could not hear confessions
without having been examined by the ordinary; fourth, that the bishops
could erect new parishes in places very far apart. [18]

And in regard to the fact that the religious were exercising the
duties of parish priests in the Yndias, it was necessary to provide
relief in the above four things. His Holiness, in accordance with that
petition and request, decides the first three points in favor of the
said religious, so that, having been examined and approved by their
superiors, in the form ordered by the said brief, the permission of
the ordinaries was not necessary in order to exercise their offices;
and then his Holiness, immediately providing for the fourth, orders
that there be no innovation by the ordinaries in the custom followed
before. Consequently, his Holiness decided in this regard that, if
it were the custom before the council for the ordinaries to erect new
parishes in the missions administered by the religious of the Yndias,
his Holiness orders that that custom be retained; and if not, that
there be no innovation; and that the said brief does not treat of
other things. Consequently, his Lordship orders that the visitation
that he has commenced be continued; and he made declaration to that
effect through the interpreter, Christoval de Vera. Thus did he decree
and order, and he affixed his signature.


_Fray Miguel_, archbishop.
Before me:
_Licentiate Alonso Ramirez_


[Father Fray Alonso de Valdemoro, definitor of the province of
San Gregorio, was then president and minister of the mission and
ministry of Dilao. In consequence of the aforesaid, the archbishop
having ordered him to open the sacristy, in order to inspect the holy
sacrament, and to examine the adornment that was there, he said that
he could not do it. Notwithstanding that reply, the prelate ordered
him once more to open the sacristy, where the most holy sacrament was
kept, in order that he might proceed with the said visit, "which he
was to obey immediately under penalty of the greater excommunication,
_latae sententiae ipso facto incurrenaa_, and four years' suspension
from the office of the ministry of souls." The father minister, having
been informed of the act, insisted on his reply, basing his action
on the pontifical privileges of his order. In respect to the royal
decrees, he said that he was obeying them, but that it was necessary
that they should be communicated to his own regular superior, who
had the right of answering them; "and consequently, that in virtue
of the said briefs, by which he is exempt from the jurisdiction of
the bishops in regard to the ministry and visit that his Excellency
intends to make; and by law, inasmuch as he is not the archbishop's
sheep or subject, the said excommunication ... does not oblige or
bind him. Accordingly, let his most illustrious Lordship determine
that matter with his superior, whom the said father is bound to obey;
and, while this matter is not clear, he does not consider as harmful
the penalties and censures imposed by his Excellency. He affixed
his signature, witnesses being Captain Gregorio de Galarca, Alferez
Antonio de Viana, and Don Melchor de Valdes, and many other persons.

_Fray Alonso de Valdemoro_, definitor.

Before me, and I attest it:

_Licentiate Alonso Ramirez_"


Thereupon the archbishop ordered his notary to read the act passed
on the twenty-second of the same month, "in which is discussed the
right of his Excellency to make this visitation. Together with it
the archbishop ordered the clause of the brief of Gregory Fourteenth
to be read and communicated to him, which treats of this visitation
and the decrees of his Majesty which are in these acts, so that the
said father should not pretend ignorance of it. Thus did he order,
and he affixed his signature.

_Fray Miguel_, archbishop."

The definitor responded "that in consideration of the fact that when
his Holiness concedes any indult, and orders any new mandate, he is
seen to address himself, as is his constant custom, to the chief men,
to whom it pertains to carry out any new mandate, the same law extends
to the decrees sent by his Majesty, which are directed to the chief
persons, to whom it pertains to answer the said decrees and mandates
of his Holiness. Consequently, as it does not appear that his prelate
and superior, to whom it pertains to receive and answer the said
decrees and clauses of the said brief that have been communicated
to him, has been notified of them; and as it is not apparent to him
from the said reply: he cannot make any innovation until such time as
the will of his superior, with whom those matters must be discussed,
is known to him...."

Having received that reply, the archbishop "declared the said father,
Fray Alonso de Valdemoro, to have incurred the penalty of greater
excommunication and of suspension from his office as minister, which
is imposed on him; and that, as such excommunicate, he was deprived
of what excommunication deprives one; and in order that he might
not allege or pretend ignorance, this declaration, stating that he
has incurred the censures imposed, is to be read and communicated
to him...."

Having heard the act, Father Valdemoro replied: "that, in consideration
of the replies that he has given, and his protestation against the
violence that his Excellency has exercised toward his order, and the
lack of summons, [19] which are an intrinsic right in excommunication,
he does not consider himself as such excommunicate, until information
has been given to his superior, as he has said, and in the meantime
he does not consider himself injured...."

After the aforesaid, Father Valdemoro took part in a procession,
in which the image of our Lady of Guidance was carried to the city,
so that the Lord might be pleased, through her intervention, to
bring safely to port the ships that were to anchor that year in
Cavite from Acapulco. The ecclesiastical fiscal was informed of it,
and he informed the provisor and vicar-general of it. At that time
the latter was the canon and treasurer, Don Juan Cevicos. He ordered
the father to leave the procession, and by the archbishop's order
he opened an official inquiry, in order to investigate the offense,
and to punish it according to law, "as the said father is a parish
priest and minister for souls in the said mission of Dilao, and the
said offense is dependent on the visit which his said Excellency is
making on him as such minister, inasmuch as he is, in that regard,
under his Lordship's jurisdiction and subject to him...."

The investigation ended on June 26 of the said year. In it the
depositions were taken of Licentiate Juan de Arguijo, ecclesiastical
fiscal of the archbishop; Don Alonso Garcia de Leon, canon; Licentiate
Jeronimo Rodriguez Lujan, presbyter; Miguel Calderon, presbyter; and
Alferez Francisco del Castillo, chief constable of the archbishop. The
archbishop ordered that the father minister of Dilao be arrested,
"and placed as a prisoner in one of the convents--that of St. Dominic,
or St. Augustine, or the Society of Jesus, or St. Nicolas of the
Recollects of this city--the one which the said father should
select. That convent the archbishop assigns to him as a prison and
place of confinement; and he is ordered not to break it under penalty
of greater excommunication, _latae senteniae ipso facto incurrenda_, and
suspension from active and passive vote for three years. And in order
that the said imprisonment might be effective, and not be hindered
by the religious of the said order, the royal aid shall be petitioned
through this royal Audiencia, to whom it rightly belongs to give that
aid, in order that they may fulfil the decrees of the holy council of
Trent, and a royal decree given for this purpose, under date of San
Lorenzo, November fourteen, six hundred and three, directed to this
royal Audiencia, and another royal decree of the same date directed
to the archbishop of these islands, in which they are ordered to make
effectual the said visit, as such is advisable for the relief of the
consciences of his Majesty and of the said archbishop...."

The Audiencia having been asked for aid on June 27, declared on July
4, that "there was no occasion at the present time for imparting to
the archbishop of these islands the royal aid asked in his name...."

While the above was happening, one Sunday, June 26, papers were
seen to be posted on the doors of the cathedral and convents of
Manila. They were signed by father Fray Pedro de Muriel, by order
of the judge conservator appointed to prevent the said visit. He
was father Fray Tomas Villar, rector of the college of St. Dominic,
by virtue of two briefs of Pius V: the first given March 24, 1567;
and the second September 23, 1571 _Universis et singulis venerabilibus
fratribus_. He had accepted his charge one day before the said posters
were put up. In those posters, Don Juan Cevicos was declared to have
incurred the excommunication of the canon _si quis suadente diabolo_,
for having taken Father Valdemoro from the procession the twenty-fourth
of the same month.

The matter being communicated to the archbishop, "he summoned the
said conservator to immediately refrain from proceeding in the said
causes, under penalty of incurring the penalties established by law;
besides which he would proceed to punish the scandal caused in this
community by his having affixed decrees in which the said provisor
was said to be excommunicated."

Father Villar replied, declaring his charge as apostolic judge
conservator, and that, as such, "he must proceed in the said
cause. Accordingly, he petitions and requests his Lordship to cease
to proceed in the said visit, that he has intended to make in the
said mission of Dilao; and that he send all that has been written
and done to the said judge conservator; and if not, the latter will
proceed to what is advisable, in accordance with law. In respect to the
provisor, through his having incurred that contained in the said canon,
_si quis suadente_, he ordered that he be proclaimed in the public
parts of this city as excommunicated, so that all may know of it,
and that no person remove, or cause to be removed, the said posters,
under penalty of greater excommunication, _ipso facto incurrenda_ ... "

In view of the aforesaid, and considering that the Audiencia gave
no support to the archbishop, so that he might prosecute the said
visit that he had begun, he insisted no further on it. But "so that
the aforesaid might be apparent to his Majesty, and that the latter
might provide what relief he pleased, the archbishop ordered--and
he did so order--a testimony to be sent to the royal Council of the
Yndias of all that had been done, and that the briefs mentioned in
this act be sent also ... "

At the same time he wrote the following letter to his Majesty:]

Sire.

Finding myself obliged, both by the holy council of Trent and a brief
of his Holiness Gregory Fourteenth, and by the restraining decrees of
your Majesty, in regard to the visiting of the religious missionaries
by the bishops--respecting curacies, and that they do not exercise
such office without being examined beforehand in the language of
the natives that they administer--I determined to carry out so holy
mandates, from which so many blessings must result to the service of
God and that of your Majesty. Accordingly, having declared my purpose
to the superiors of the said orders, three months before beginning the
said visit, by means of a letter or notification which I gave them,
in which I cited the passages of the said holy council, the brief of
his Holiness, and the decrees of your Majesty, they responded to me
orally, saying that they had an indult from his Holiness, Pius Fifth,
in order that they might not be visited in matters touching curas
and ministers of souls; and that the bishops had no jurisdiction
over their ministries. I began, in fulfilment of the aforesaid,
the visitation on the twenty-fourth of the past month of June, at a
ministry in charge of the Order of St. Francis, in the suburbs of
Manila. Proceeding to the visit, I found so much resistance from
the religious missionaries, both on reading the edict, and when I
happened to request them to open the sacristy in order to inspect the
casket of the most holy sacrament, that it was necessary to order that
under censure, and that was not sufficient to make them agree to my
request. Accordingly, I declared and announced that the minister of
that mission was excommunicated. For the time being I contented myself
with that effort, with which, in order to avoid scandal, I returned
home, with the intention of asking aid from this royal Audiencia.

But the said minister regarded the ecclesiastical censures and his
prelate as of so little moment, that his subsequent action was just
as if he had not been excommunicated and denounced. In a general
procession that this cathedral made to the chapel of Nuestra Senora
de Guia, for the happy arrival of the ships that we were awaiting
from Nueva Espana, in which were the royal Audiencia, cabildo, city,
and orders--all aware of the event of the previous day, for even the
most secret thing is known in a city so small--all were universally
scandalized. Consequently, my provisor, in order to avoid that scandal,
was obliged to order the said minister to leave the procession, and not
to furnish the bad example that he was setting by showing contempt for
ecclesiastical censures. As he refused to leave, the provisor removed
him from the procession, ordering the fiscal of this archbishopric
to follow him until he ejected him from the procession. As it was a
matter that concerns, and is dependent on, the visit, all the orders
were so angry over it that, speaking through the mouth of the Order of
St. Francis, they elected as judge conservator a friar of St. Dominic,
the rector of this college of Manila, in order to avoid any further
attempts in the said visit to the ministries of the orders. The judge
conservator, without informing me of any apostolic letter or brief of
his Holiness pertaining to the said conservatorship, posted decrees
next day in the churches and public places, declaring the said provisor
as excommunicated and as fallen into the penalties of the clause _si
quis suadente Diabolo_ ... I continued to prosecute the cause of the
visit, and, having found the said minister guilty, I requested aid in
order to proceed against him, and, until he should become obedient,
to keep him confined in one of these convents of Manila.

The royal Audiencia voted that there was at present no occasion
for the said aid. Thereupon I issued an act, in which I abandoned
the visit until I could give an account to your Majesty--to whom
I enclose a testimony of everything with this letter, and with it
another testimony of the act of the royal Audiencia in regard to the
case against my provisor, whom the judge conservator tried to arrest,
and for which he requested aid, which the auditors refused him.

I have written your Majesty this relation in order to comply with your
orders to inform you of what should be done in this, and so that you
may see the freedom with which the religious proceed in this country,
confident that they are the greatest part of the community; and that
having, as they do, so great influence in all these provinces which
they administer, they must succeed with whatever they undertake,
even creating a judge conservator, contrary to the ruling of the holy
council and the royal will of your Majesty. That is so true that they
proclaimed in Manila that if the archbishop proceeded with the visit,
they would place him on the list as excommunicated, and would not
absolve him until he should go to their convent of St. Dominic to
beg absolution. I might easily have proceeded with the visit, Sire,
but I preferred to be chidden as remiss, than not to have those great
scandals muzzled which were represented to me to be inevitable if
I went to law with these religious. And speaking with all truth, it
seems to them a case of less value than that any Indian or Spaniard
should imagine that there is any power in these kingdoms greater than
their own. May God preserve the very Catholic person of your Majesty,
with the increase of new kingdoms and the happiness of those that
you possess, as Christendom has need, and as we your Majesty's humble
vassals and chaplains desire.

Manila, August first, one thousand six hundred and twenty-two. [20]


_Fray Miguel Garcia Serrano_, archbishop of Manila.


_Regulations concerning the visits of religious_

The King. Inasmuch as I have considered it advisable to order to be
given, and gave, one of my decrees of the following tenor:

"The King. Inasmuch as there have been many differences in regard
to the manner in which the religious of the mendicant orders who
have missions of Indians in their charge in Nueva Espana, are to
be visited by their prelates, and whether it is advisable that they
possess missions; and inasmuch as various decrees have been despatched,
some of which have been carried out, but others, because of finding
some trouble in the execution, have not been observed; and desiring
to end those quarrels and establish the form most advisable for the
service of God and for mine: I ordered that, the papers that treat of
that matter having been collected, what had been done in that matter
be examined in an assembly of ministers and other experienced and
educated persons. The assembly having conferred on the matter, and
advised me of their opinion, I have considered it best to determine
and order, as I do by this present, that, for the present, and until
I order otherwise, the said missions remain to, and be continued by,
the religious as hitherto; and there shall under no consideration be
any innovation in that matter; and the assignment and removal of the
religious who are curas, whenever it may be necessary, shall be made
by my viceroy of those provinces, in my name, the latter observing
in those appointments and promotions the form, together with the
conditions and circumstances, with which it is done in the kingdoms
of Piru; and it is my will that the religious be not admitted to the
exercise or to the service of the said missions, or that they receive
the emoluments of them in any other manner. I also order that the
archbishop of those provinces may visit the said religious in what
refers to the ministry of curas and to nothing else--inspecting the
churches, the sacraments, the chrism, the confraternities, their alms,
and everything pertaining to the mere administration of the holy
sacraments and the said ministry of curas. He shall go to make the
visit in his own person, or shall assign or send for this duty such
persons as he shall choose and find satisfactory, to those districts
where he cannot go in person, or where there is no occasion for his
aid. He shall employ correction and punishment whenever necessary,
strictly within the limits and exercise of curas as above stated, and
nothing further. In respect to personal transgressions in the morals
and lives of such religious curas, the latter shall not remain subject
to the said archbishops and bishops, so that these may punish them
through the visits, even though under pretext that they are curas;
but, on having notice of such matters, they shall, without writing
or drawing up processes, secretly advise their regular superiors of
such persons, so that the latter may correct the wrong. In case that
the latter should not do this, then the former might make use of the
authority given them by the holy council of Trent, in the manner and
in the cases when they can and ought to act in regard to religious
who are not curas. In this instance I order that they have recourse to
the said my viceroy, who shall appoint them and who can remove them,
to represent to him the causes, so that it may be done as has been
and is done in Piru. And inasmuch as the said religious, in regard
to the jurisdiction, are not endeavoring to acquire any right for
the perpetuity of the said missions; and since by the aforesaid the
ordinary jurisdiction is not annulled in cases that conform to law
and to the holy council of Trent: it pertains to the superiors to
try the causes of the religious. That must and shall be understood,
without any prejudice to the ordinary jurisdiction and the right of
my patronage. I order all the above to be thus observed and executed
inviolably by my viceroy, archbishop, bishops of Nueva Espana and
all other persons whom its fulfilment concerns, notwithstanding any
other orders whatever that may exist to the contrary. Such I revoke
and declare null and void. Given in Madrid, June twenty-two, one
thousand six hundred and twenty-four.


_I The King_

_Juan Ruiz de Contreras_"


And in behalf of the archbishop of the metropolitan church of the
city of Manila in the Philipinas Islands, I have been requested to
be pleased to declare whether the decree of November fourteen of the
former year six hundred and three is to be observed in those islands,
in regard to the manner in which the said religious missionaries
are to be visited; or whether the visit is to be exercised with the
limitation and in the form contained in the new decree which was given
to Nueva Espana. The matter having been examined in my royal Council
of the Indias, I have considered it fitting to give the present. By
it I order that everything contained in the decree herein inserted
be observed and obeyed by my governor, archbishop, and bishops of
those islands, and by all other persons whom it concerns, exactly
as is contained in it, for such is my will. Given in Madrid, August
fourteen, one thousand six hundred and twenty-four. [21]


_I The King_

By order of the king our sovereign:

_Juan Ruiz de Contreras_





CONFLICT BETWEEN CIVIL AND RELIGIOUS AUTHORITIES


_Case that happened in Manila in the year 1623, in regard to a fugitive
who was taken from the church_


Juan Soto de Vega, whom justice was prosecuting for having stolen
a large sum of money from the ship which was coming from Mejico to
Filipinas, had taken refuge in the asylum [_sagrado_] of the cathedral
of Manila. Desirous of escaping from the prosecution of the secular
tribunal, he tried to get to Eastern or Portuguese Yndia in the month
of December. He begged permission from the provisor and vicar-general,
Don Pedro Monrroy, that he might be taken from the cathedral and kept
in the ecclesiastical prison; and they actually kept him there, but
with guards and in confinement, until the Portuguese boats left for
Yndia. Then they returned him to the cathedral, where he remained for
the space of eight months, until an auditor took him violently from
the church on the fifth of September, 1623, and took him to the public
prison. There he, in company with another auditor, tortured Juan de
la Vega until they broke his arm, which caused a great public scandal.

The provisor began to take steps in defense of the ecclesiastical
immunity. He demanded the criminal, and publicly declared the auditors
to be excommunicated, threatening to place them under interdict, unless
they would return the prisoner to the church. After the time-limit had
expired, the interdict was imposed. The auditors, on the other hand,
despatched a letter and a second letter to the provisor charging him
to lift the censures and interdict, under penalty of banishment and a
fine of 2,000 ducados, unless he did that in the time-limit that they
assigned him. As he did not fulfil the command, they despatched the
court constable, with soldiers, to look for the provisor in order to
arrest him. They registered all the house of the archbishop, and the
house of the provisor himself, sequestered his goods, broke off the
locks of the cupboards and writing-desks, and ransacked his papers, but
did not find him, for he had hidden in the convent of the Augustinians.

The archbishop (against whom the proceedings were directed), seconded
by the public opinion, which was contrary to the auditors, summoned
Doctor Don Juan de Renteria, bishop of Nueva Segovia (who was then
in Manila), and various religious, prebendaries, and lawyers, and
assembled or formed a council to discuss what ought to be done in such
a case. The opinion of all was that the auditors were legitimately
excommunicated, and the interdict rightly imposed; and that the
ecclesiastical immunity ought to be sustained, and satisfaction
demanded for the scandal by returning the fugitive to the church.

While that meeting was being held, the auditors despatched a royal
mandate, which they said was given by Don Felipe, to the archbishop,
ordering him not to retain Don Pedro de Monrroy as provisor, as he
was exiled from the kingdoms, to absolve the excommunicated, and lift
the interdict--under penalty, if he did not do so, of banishment
and a fine of 2,000 ducados. The archbishop replied, demanding a
testimony of the cause and the corresponding acts [of the Audiencia],
in order to determine what he should do. But the auditors sent him
another royal decree, warning him that he would be considered to have
incurred the said penalties if he did not immediately lift the censures
and interdict. Since the archbishop held firm, the auditors sent the
chief court constable, together with the actuary of the Audiencia and
thirty pikemen under command of an adjutant, at four in the afternoon
on that same day, in order to take charge of the episcopal residence,
with orders not to permit any one to leave it or anything to be taken
from it.

At this juncture, the rector of the Jesuit college and others advised
the archbishop to raise the censures _ad reincidentiam_ [_i.e._,
"until a repetition of the offense"], and the interdict for one week,
since they thought that the auditors would return the prisoner. That
was done, and the archbishop requested the opinion in writing of the
orders and learned persons, which they gave him--with the exception
of the Dominicans, who excused themselves. The archbishop, seeing
that the auditors not only did not do what was promised, but even
issued another decree to arrest and expel the provisor, called another
meeting, at which the Dominicans had no part. In that meeting it was
decided to defend the ecclesiastical immunity, and that two individuals
of the assembly should go to talk with the auditors in the name of
the assembly, and notify them that the prisoner must be returned, or
else the archbishop could not raise the censures or interdict. Two
Jesuits went, and the auditors replied to them that they would not
desist or turn back. The interdict was immediately imposed again,
and the auditors were publicly declared to be excommunicated.

A Jesuit, who was a friend to the governor, advised him to take a
hand in the matter in order to cut short such scandals. The result
was that the governor decided to see the archbishop at the residence
of the Society, in order to discuss the most suitable method. The
interview was held, but without result. Another interview had the
same result. Meanwhile it was decided to appoint two arbitrators,
one from each side. Doctor Jolo was appointed for the auditors, and
Father Juan de Bueras, [22] rector of the residence of the Society
of Jesus, for the archbishop. They agreed that the prisoner should
be returned to the episcopal prison, and that each side should desist
from their claim in what was accomplished.

When the time came to execute the agreement of the arbitrators, the
auditors put difficulties in the way. But, since at the same time
it happened that the provisor, as commissary of the holy crusade,
had drawn up acts against the auditors for the violation of his
house and tribunal, against which there was no recourse by force in
these islands; and since, on the other hand, the governor demanded
from them the record of all that had been done (separating himself
from them, as not being a lawyer) in order to inform the king:
they resolved to form an assembly without the governor, and voted
that the prisoner should be returned to the ecclesiastical prison,
while the ecclesiastical judge was investigating whether the church
was protecting him, which was what the archbishop claimed.

The victorious provisor left the residence of the Society, and with
great pomp, and, accompanied by a mass of people and by his ministers,
drew the prisoner from the public prison and took him to his own. The
interdict was raised, to the chime of the bells of all the churches.

The auditors begged to be absolved in their houses, but the archbishop
refused, saying that since the scandal had been public, the absolution
also must be so. However, absolution was given in his house to one
who was sick and who was less culpable; as well as to another by the
influence of the Dominicans, who obtained that it be given him by
the parish priest.




SEMINARY FOR JAPANESE MISSIONARIES


In the city of Manila, on the twenty-third day of July in the year
one thousand six hundred and twenty-four, the honorable president and
auditors of the royal Audiencia and Chancilleria of these Philipinas
Islands, in whose charge is the government thereof, declared that
[they have resolved upon this measure] in view of the fact that Senor
Don Alonso Faxardo de Tenga, formerly governor and captain-general of
these said islands, and president of the royal Audiencia, undertook
to found a seminary [and] college where Japanese should be educated,
instructed in religion, and taught, so that when they had received holy
orders they might go to the kingdom of Japan and preach and instruct
there in our holy faith, after the manner and likeness of the English
colleges in the kingdoms of Espana, and other Christian countries--for
which purpose he designated space and locations for a church, house,
and garden in the unoccupied land outside the walls of the said city;
and for the income and maintenance of the said seminary [and] college
he designated and applied the income from the passage and navigation
from this city to the port of Cavite, and the monopoly of buyo, bonga,
[23] and tobacco, which he ordered to be established by a royal decree,
which, to this purpose, was despatched in the name of his Majesty
on the twenty-ninth of January of this present year. By this it was
commanded that no person should make use of the said passage, nor of
the carriage and sale of the said buyo, bonga, and tobacco, excepting
those who hold it in lease for the said college and its administrators,
or those named by them for this purpose, under the penalties which
are imposed upon them by the magistrates. From this have resulted
great discontent and scandal in all ranks of this commonwealth, and
particularly among serious persons therein, both ecclesiastical and
lay--who, being moved by zeal for the service of God our Lord, and of
his Majesty, and for the prosperity and preservation of these islands
and the citizens and natives thereof, have made representations of
the many difficulties resulting from the aforesaid grant, not only
in sermons which have many times been preached in regard to this, but
likewise by information and declaration to the judges and ministers of
his Majesty, that they might aid in procuring relief therein, as it
is a thing so important for the royal service. For the establishment
of the said college and seminary was accomplished at a time when
the king of Japon so rigorously prohibited the preaching of the holy
gospel in his kingdom, as is explained in the said royal decree; and
[his resentment] had reached such an extreme that, when ambassadors
were despatched in the past year to negotiate on behalf of these
islands for friendship and good understanding with the said king,
he showed himself to be so ill disposed against them that he did
not allow the said ambassadors to enter his court during the eight
months and more which they passed in his kingdom, seeking an audience
in order to give their message and embassy. According to the letters
and relations received, his resentment was the result of having found
certain religious in his kingdom in secular clothes, and of having
learned that they had been brought from these islands to his land in
disguise and secretly. On this account, and in order to prevent them
from entering Japon, he has ordered all Spaniards who are in his said
kingdom to leave it, and has forbidden and discontinued traffic, and
he will not consent that Japanese ships come to these islands, as they
used to come, to bring provisions and other military stores for the
royal warehouses; this can only result in the ruin of this country,
on account of the lack which this may cause in its armament, trade,
and maintenance. If the king of Japon, who has already ordered that
religious cannot dwell in his kingdom, by not consenting to allow
Spaniards in it, as has been said, should get word that Japanese
are being educated and instructed in the said seminary, to go and
continue the said preaching, it is certain that he must experience
even greater displeasure and annoyance, and adopt more strenuous
measures to stop all communication and passage from these islands to
his said kingdom. As a result, the Spaniards will suffer the greatest
need through the want of provision which is brought to these islands
from there. It might even be the cause that he would unite with
the Dutch enemy, whom he admits peacefully into his said kingdom,
and that they would come with a great number of troops and vessels
against these islands, and cause great losses to them, as we have no
forces sufficient to resist them successfully. On this account it is
expedient to use prudent measures and acts, and not to continue this,
which in all certainty, and evidently, as is generally known by all
the religious orders and serious persons of this city, must result in
harm to the service of God and of his Majesty, and in notable loss to
this commonwealth--both because the said seminary cannot bring about
the good results claimed for it, on account of the little inclination
of the Japanese for it, and the different objects which it is presumed
have been aimed at by it; and because in this case the argument does
not exist that holds good in other kingdoms and parts where there
are colleges of the English and other foreign nations. For, if those
peoples are irritated by the religious instruction and teaching of
the persons who are gathered in the said colleges, there are forces
to resist them; but through this seminary they might cause greater
injury than the said nations are doing without it. As for the location
which was designated for the said seminary, although it was, as has
been said, in the unoccupied land outside the walls of this city,
it appears to have been selected and set aside in the Plaza de Armas
here, close by the village of Laguio, where they have commenced to
erect a building and pillars of stone, contrary to what his Majesty
directed by his royal decree of the sixth of March of the year one
thousand six hundred and eight, which is as follows:

"The King. In consideration of the fact that a relation has been made
to me on behalf of Hernando de los Rios Coronel, procurator-general of
the Philipinas Islands, to the effect that when the uprising of the
Chinese Sangleys occurred there, there were, about the walls of the
city of Manila, many buildings from which the Sangleys did much damage
to the walls thereof, until they were destroyed; and to prevent this
difficulty for the future, Don Pedro de Acuna, my former governor and
captain-general of those islands, commanded that no buildings should
be erected within three hundred paces from the wall of the said city,
in its entire circuit, and begged me, considering that this was so
expedient as he had given me to understand, in order that the said city
should be provided with the necessary defense, and protected from the
past dangers, that I should be pleased to have this confirmed, or do
as might be according to my pleasure. Having examined it in my royal
Council of the Yndias, the said order which the said Don Pedro issued
has appeared to me to be very effective, as is said. Accordingly it is
my will that this be observed and fulfilled, as exactly and punctually
as if it were issued by myself; and, in fulfilment thereof, I order
that neither now nor at any time shall any building be erected within
the said three hundred paces about the said wall of the said city of
Manila, since this is expedient for my service and for the security
and defense of the said city. Done at Madrid, on the sixth of March
of the year one thousand six hundred and eight.

_I The King_

By order of the king, our lord: _Juan de Civiza_"

All the aforesaid procedure is contrary to this decree. Besides,
the district and place where the said seminary building has been
commenced are the lots which have been seized and taken away from the
owners who possessed them, the houses which they had built upon them
being removed or torn down, in order to make the said Plaza de Armas;
nor have they thus far been paid for, nor has any satisfaction been
given to the owners. Accordingly, if the said lots were not necessary
for the purpose for which they were taken, they should be returned to
their owners as land and property which pertain and belong to them,
and no work or edifice should be erected thereon until they be paid and
satisfied. As for the income which is appropriated for the work, its
maintenance, and the prosecution of the building for the said seminary,
it was contrary to the rules of justice and to the laws of the kingdom,
and greatly to the prejudice of this whole commonwealth and the Indian
villages in its neighborhood; for the voyage and navigation from this
city to the port of Cavite--as it is not a river passage, but a bay
and an arm of the sea, which may be crossed with all sorts of vessels,
both large and small--cannot be reduced to the status of a private
route and profit, on account of the loss which this would cause to so
great a number of persons as possess the said vessels, and use them to
carry and convey merchandise and other sorts of articles from this city
to the said port. And especially it will cause this loss to the native
Indians of this city and of the villages of Laguio, Mahar, Meytubi,
Dongalo and others of this coast, who will be deprived and prevented
from using the vessels which they ordinarily possess to carry and
convey to the said port persons, merchandise, and other things; and
if this profit be hindered they will have nothing wherewith to sustain
themselves, and will not be able to pay his Majesty the royal tributes,
nor aid in other impositions and personal services. The same losses
will be increased by granting a monopoly of the said buyo, bonga, and
tobacco--not only for the neighboring villages but even for provinces
where it is collected and brought to this city; for their natives
have no other source of income which would be to them so important
and profitable as the gathering, carrying, and sale of buyo, bonga,
and tobacco, and if this were stopped they would be reduced to the
greatest poverty and want. That would make it impossible for them to
succeed in paying the royal tributes, impositions, repartimientos, and
other consequences of the service of his Majesty; and to the citizens
and the people of various nationalities who dwell here, for whom the
said commodities serve as food and sustenance, there would be caused
expense and inconvenience, as has already been seen by experience, for
even without the said monopoly being erected, but merely projected and
intended, the said buyo, bonga, and tobacco have risen and increased in
price, so much that the cost at present is twice what it was before,
and at the time when it was decided to erect the said monopoly--which
not only is of the fruits of the land, and articles which the said
peoples use for their sustenance, but likewise is prohibited by
equity and the laws. Consequently, looking for the greatest service
to God and his Majesty, the growth and preservation of these islands,
and the welfare and comfort of the citizens and natives thereof, they
[_i.e._, the president and auditors] declared that they would revoke,
and they did revoke, the said grant with everything therein contained;
and that they would declare it, and they did declare it, to be null
and of no force and effect. And they declared that they would notify,
and they did notify, each and every magistrate of his Majesty, that
each one of them, in his jurisdiction, in so far as may concern him,
shall not consent to the use of the said monopolies, or of any one
of them, on the part of either the said seminary or of any other
person with a lease-title therefrom, or in any other manner, who may
employ and make use of the said grant; but on the contrary they shall
proceed to the punishment of such, who shall be in their jurisdiction,
as against persons making use of a title and right not pertaining to
them. And as for the said edifice and its demolition, it shall be
entrusted to the captain-general, so that he, when he has examined
it, and found that it is within the said three hundred paces about
the walls, shall have it demolished and razed, until it be put in the
state in which the said Plaza de Armas had been before, and at the time
when the said edifice was commenced, in such manner that the purpose of
the command of his Majesty in the said royal decree shall be complied
with. A royal decree in conformity with this act shall be despatched,
and shall be cried publicly in the customary districts and places,
so that knowledge thereof may come to all. And, by this their act,
they decree and command accordingly, and have signed their names.


_Doctor Don Alvaro de Messa y Lugo_
Licentiate _Don Juan de Saavedra Valderrama_
Licentiate _Don Mathias Delgado y Flores_
Before me:
_Pedro Alvarez_



Don Phelipe, by the grace of God king of Castilla, of Leon, of Aragon,
of the two Cicilias, of Hierusalem, of Portugal, of Navarra, of
Granada, of Toledo, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Mayorca, of Sevilla,
of Cerdena, of Cordova, of Corcega, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the
Algarves, of Algeciras, of Gibraltar, and of the Canaria Islands,
and of the Eastern and Western Yndias, islands and mainland, of the
Ocean Sea; Archduke of Austria, Duke of Borgona, of Bramante, and
Milan; Count of Arpspug [_i.e.,_ Hapsburg] and of Flandez, of Tirol,
and of Barcelona; Seignior of Viscaya and of Molina, etc. [Here the
royal decree quotes in full the foregoing act of the royal Audiencia
beginning: "In consideration of the fact that Don Alonso Faxardo de
Tenca," etc., down to "but likewise is prohibited by equity and law."]

Wherefore, looking for the greatest service to God and myself, the
increase and preservation of the said islands, and the welfare and
comfort of the citizens and dwellers therein, after examination by my
president and auditors of the royal Audiencia and Chancilleria of my
said Philipinas Islands, in whose charge is the government thereof,
through the death of my governor, Don Alonso Fajardo de Tenca, it
was agreed that I should revoke, as by these presents I do revoke,
the said grant and everything therein contained, and I declare it
null and of no force and effect. And I command all my justices and
ministers that each one of them in his jurisdiction, in so far as
concerns him, shall not consent to the use of the said monopolies or
any one of them, on the part either of the said seminary or of any
other person with a lease-title therefrom, or in any other manner,
who may employ and make use of the said grant; but on the other hand
they shall proceed to the punishment of such, who may be in their
jurisdiction, as against persons making use of a title and right not
pertaining to them. And as for the said edifice and its demolition,
it shall be entrusted to the master-of-camp, Don Geronimo de Silva,
captain-general, likewise of the artillery of my said islands, so that
when he has examined it, and found that it is within the said three
hundred paces about the walls of the city of Manila, he shall have it
demolished and razed until it be put in the state in which the said
Plaza de Armas had been before, at the time when the said edifice was
commenced, in such manner that the purpose of my royal command in my
royal decree shall be complied with. And this, my letter and royal
edict, shall be publicly cried in the customary districts and places,
so that it may come to the knowledge of all. Given in the city of
Manila, on the twenty-fourth of July of the year one thousand six
hundred and twenty-four.


_Doctor Don Alvaro de Messa y Luga_
Licentiate _Don Juan de Saavedra Valderrama_
Licentiate _Don Matthias Delgado y Flores_


I, Captain Pedro Alvarez, chief secretary of the government and
department of war of these Philipinas Islands for the king our lord,
have had this written by his command with the decision of his president
and auditors.


Registered by Don Juan Sarmiento.
_Chancillor Don Juan Sarmiento_


In the city of Manila, on the twenty-fourth of Jury of the year one
thousand six hundred and twenty-four, was published this decree in
conformity with the provision therein, in loud and intelligible words,
by the voice of Augusto de Navarrete, public crier, in front of the
gate of the Audiencia hall, and on the corner where resides Captain
Antonio de Xerez Montoro, and on the site of Bagun Bay, outside the
walls--Captain Martin de Esquival, sargento-mayor, Geronimo Enrriquez
Sotelo, and many other persons being witnesses. To this I certify:

_Pedro Alvarez_

I, Captain Pedro Alvarez, sargento-mayor of the government and
department of war of these Philipinas Islands, at the command of
Senor Doctor Don Alvaro de Messa y Lugo of the council of his Majesty,
and his auditor in the royal Audiencia in these islands--who, as the
senior auditor, fills the office of president thereof--have ordered
to be drawn, and have drawn, this copy of the act and royal decree,
the originals whereof remain in my possession; and this is certain
and true, corrected and compared with the said original, to which
I refer. Witnesses at its correction and comparison were: Captain
Lopez de Olaiz, Sargento Pedro Delgado, and Martin de la Rroca,
citizens and residents of this city of Manila, where this is dated,
on the fifth day of the month of August of the year one thousand six
hundred and twenty-four.

_Pedro Alvarez_

[_Endorsed_: "Copy of the act and royal decree which were published
revoking the grant which was made to the seminary [and] college for
Japanese, of a monopoly of buyo, bonga, and tobacco, and the passage
to the fort of Cavite."]



EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM THE ARCHBISHOP TO FELIPE IV


10. The chief argument that induced his Majesty Philippo Second,
our sovereign, to reestablish in these islands, during the term
of Don Francisco Tello's government, the royal Audiencia which he
had suppressed some years before, was in order that the governors
might not be so absolute in regions so remote and so far separated
from his royal presence, but that there might be a superior arm to
restrain them, without allowing extortions on the innocent. That is a
most pious act, and one experienced by all this community during the
time of that sovereignty and superintendency in all things pertaining
to justice, government, and war. If your Majesty be pleased to have
it restored and reestablished with the majesty and power with which
it was founded, it will be of great service to God and your Majesty,
and the consolation and relief of your vassals. For it is certain that
three or four men view a cause which does not concern them with more
impartial eyes than does one man who is sole and absolute, who is at
times governed by passion, and consequently blind in what he orders
executed. Although it be said that demands for justice may be made in
the residencia--as if the poor man who suffers in person, property,
honor, and at times in his life, would appear at the residencia; and,
even if he were alive, could go to obtain satisfaction at that court
[_i.e._, of Mexico], or have method or means to do so, even though
his grievances were enormous and cried out to the heavens--well do
I know that there are testimonies in that royal Council (since they
have been sent from here) that say the contrary. But I equally affirm
this to be the truth, as, to my positive knowledge, it actually
occurs--more true than I would indeed wish, for it would be well
if these things did not happen. And since this royal Audiencia has
no more authority than at present, to suppress it will be of great
service for your Majesty, and even necessary, as the poor auditors
are as much annoyed and molested as are other private persons. What
is worse, your Majesty's authority has been seen humbled by so many
nations who know that this Audiencia immediately represents your royal
person. It will be less troublesome for us private persons to suffer
than that so great authority be seen in such decay. I petition your
Majesty to be pleased to have the importance of a matter of so great
moment considered, as may be most fitting to your royal service.

It is a fact that this city of Manila, both at the instance of the
governor and by its own action, has caused representations to be
made in that royal Council, that this royal Audiencia should refrain
from making appointments in which the children and relatives of the
auditors occupy the best offices of war, without ever having fired
an arquebus in their lives. These men become captains at one stroke,
to the grievance of the old soldiers who have served, just as if your
Majesty had not provided for this by making such men incapable of
offices--in which intention, I consider, enter the offices of justice
and war. However, even though it is not agreeable to them, it should
be so understood; and if your Majesty be pleased to order this to be
declared, and that favors and rewards for services can be expected
only from your royal hands, this difficulty would be remedied. For I
avow that it is vastly prejudicial, since, when a man has an auditor
to defend his causes, and those inclined to him favor those causes,
his negligence comes to be rewarded. In a matter of war, the present
condition of things very often is wont to be of irreparable damage,
as we in these islands have experienced on various occasions. [August
15, 1624.]





ROYAL ORDERS REGARDING THE RELIGIOUS


_Regulating their privileges_

The King. Inasmuch as the king my sovereign and father (whom may holy
Paradise keep) was informed that the religious who resided in the
Philipinas Islands, busied in the instruction and conversion of the
Indians, were meddling in things that did not concern them, he ordered
Gomez Perez das Marinas, then governor and captain-general of the
Philipinas Islands, or the person in whose charge the government might
be--by his decree, dated June eleven, of the former year five hundred
and ninety-four--not to allow the religious to have prisons or jails,
or to make arrests or condemn, unless they have commission from the
bishop for the things in which he can give it in accordance with law;
or not to appoint as fiscals others than those whom the bishop might
assign them, together with other declarations contained in the said
decree. Afterward the king my sovereign and father, who is in glory,
by another decree dated May six, six hundred and fourteen, ordered
the aforesaid to be obeyed and observed, according to its contents,
without violating or exceeding its tenor and form, as is contained
more at length in the said decree and its reissue, which are of the
following tenor:

"The King. To Don Juan de Silva, my governor and captain-general of
the Philipinas Islands and president of my royal Audiencia of them,
or the person or persons in whose charge may be their government:
The king my sovereign and father, who is in heaven, ordered to be
issued and gave the decree of the following tenor:

"'The King. To Gomez Perez das Marinas, my governor and captain-general
in the Philippinas Islands, or the person in whose charge may be the
government of them: Inasmuch as I have been informed that the religious
who reside in those islands, busied in the instruction and conversion
of the Indians, meddle in matters that do not concern them, I order you
not to allow them to have prisons or jails, or to arrest or condemn,
unless they be those who have commission from the bishop for those
things in which he can give commission in accordance with law; that
they do not appoint or have other fiscals than those assigned them by
the said bishop; and that they take no fees for burials, marriages,
or baptisms, other than according to the appraisement and declaration
of the said bishop. And inasmuch as I have been informed that they
have proceeded in the exercise of their privileges, with an excess
prejudicial to the suitable progress of the instruction, and that it
would be advisable to declare what privileges be conserved and what
revoked, in order to remove confusions and doubts--for they confess the
Indians without the bishop's authorization, and, although not curas,
perform marriages, which is in direct violation of the ordinance in
the holy council of Trent, incurring risk that the confessions and
marriages are invalid: I order you likewise that you shall communicate
with the superiors of the orders, and command them to examine the said
privileges; and, unless they have such privileges, not to proceed in
the matters here specified, because of the doubts and scandals that
may result. Given in Madrid, June eleven, one thousand five hundred
and ninety-four.


_I The King_
By order of the king our sovereign:
_Juan de Ibarra_'


"And now it has been represented to me on the part of the archbishop
of that city that none of the contents of the said decree are observed
or obeyed with the exactness that would be fitting and expedient to
the service of God and to my service. He petitioned me to order that
it be strictly observed, as a remedy for the troubles that arise
from it. Inasmuch as it is my will that this be done, I order you
to observe, and to cause the said decree above inserted of the king
my sovereign and father to be obeyed and observed, exactly according
to its contents and declarations, without violating or exceeding in
any part of it. This I shall regard with approbation; but by the
contrary I shall consider myself as disserved. Given in Madrid,
May six, one thousand six hundred and fourteen.


_I The King_
By order of the king our sovereign:
_Don Juan Ruiz de Contreras_"


And now Don Juan Cevicos, treasurer of the metropolitan church of
the city of Manila of the said Philipinas Islands, has informed me
in the name of the archbishop of the city that, petition having
been made in behalf of Licentiate Don Diego Barquez de Mercado,
while archbishop of the said church, and of the suffragan bishops,
in my royal Audiencia of the said city, for the execution of the said
decree, because it was not observed by the religious of the Order
of St. Francis, and an edict to that effect having been despatched,
the provincial of the said order was notified. He--under pretext
of two other decrees of the sixteenth of March of the said year
six hundred and fourteen, despatched at the petition of the said
religious because they had represented that the said archbishop had
tried to make innovations in the missions by appointing fiscals in
them (as in fact he did do, so that information should be made of
what had been done in this), and that in the meanwhile no innovation
or change should be made in what had been the usual practice at the
time when he entered the said archbishopric--opposed the said edict,
and petitioned that the said decree of the sixteenth of March, six
hundred and fourteen, be observed. The same was done by the other
orders in the said islands. After the cause had been prosecuted in
the said Audiencia, after some questions and answers, it was ordered
by an act lately issued, on the first of August the past year, six
hundred and twenty-two, that the said decrees be observed and obeyed,
and that notice be given to the president, governor and captain-general
of the said islands and to the said archbishop, as was done, so that
they might investigate on what was ordered and charged to them. The
determination in the said cause was sent to my royal Council of the
Indias. Until other provision should be made, there was to be no
innovation and the execution of the said edict was to be suspended,
as was evident and appeared by the testimony of the records, which was,
in accordance with the above said, presented and examined in the said
my Council. I was petitioned to order that the commands of the said
decree of June eleven, five hundred and ninety-four, and its reissue
of May six, six hundred and fourteen, above inserted, be executed; and
that, in accordance with them, the said archbishop and bishops should
appoint and name the said fiscals--as pertains to them, in accordance
with law--and try judicially the crimes and causes of the said Indians;
and that the said religious, who arrest and punish them, as appears,
[should not do this]. Having been examined by the members of the said
my Council of the Indias, it was agreed that I ought to order this
my decree to be given. Therefore I desire, and it is my will, that
the above decrees, above inserted (of June eleven of the said year
five hundred and ninety-four, and May six, six hundred and fourteen),
be observed, obeyed, and executed exactly according to their contents
and declarations, notwithstanding the contents of the said decrees
of March sixteen of the said year six hundred and fourteen, ordering
that the said archbishop make no change in the usual practice in the
appointment of fiscals, and that the said governor investigate. And,
since this is necessary, I render those decrees to be null and void,
and without effect. I order the president and auditors of my royal
Audiencia of the said islands not to violate or exceed the contents
of this my decree, or consent that they be violated or exceeded, now
or henceforth, and in no manner. On the contrary, they shall give
the protection and aid that may be necessary for its execution and
observance. This I shall regard with approbation. Given in Madrid,
August thirty, one thousand six hundred and twenty-four.


_I The King_
By order of the king our sovereign:
_Juan Ruiz de Contreras_
Signed by the members of the Council.


[_Endorsed_: "In order that the decrees above inserted, ordering that
the missionaries of the Filipinas Islands have no prisons or jails;
that they may not condemn, except those who have commission from the
archbishop; and that they appoint no other fiscals than those whom
he shall assign them; notwithstanding the decrees that were given
ordering no innovation in the former practice, be followed in the
appointment of the said fiscals."]

_Letter to the archbishop_

The King. Very reverend father in Christ, archbishop of the
metropolitan church of the city of Manila in the Filipinas Islands. The
letter which you wrote me on the thirteenth of August of last year,
1623, has been received and considered in my royal Council of the
Indias. In regard to your statement that, on account of the haste in
which were sent from Mexico the ships which arrived that year at those
islands with assistance, the archbishop did not send you the papers
for convening the council, and that you therefore did not carry out
your plan for doing so, but that the necessary measures for it would
be taken this year: I command you, on receiving the despatches, to
execute the orders contained therein with the care and punctuality
that is desirable, and that I expect from you.

I appreciate the diligence which you exerted in preventing the
attempt to nominate for provincial of the Order of St. Augustine a
person who did not possess the qualifications which are necessary and
requisite. You should always be on your guard against such things, and
attempt to preserve the desirable peace and concord among the orders.

You advised us that it was necessary to have some ecclesiastical person
to be charged with the guardianship and the mode of governing the
seminary of Santa Potenciana, and to examine the persons who are to
live there. It was resolved to order the president of the Audiencia,
jointly with you, to inform us of what takes place, and that in the
meantime you were both to join in providing the most effective way
of administering the said seminary, with regard to both the persons
who enter it and those who leave it, with this justification, that
it be necessary. Accordingly, you will endeavor, for your own part,
to have these orders executed.

Your statements regarding the foundation that was being established
so that the youths of those islands might be graduated without going
to the university--which foundations were to be under the patronage
of the most pure conception of Mary most holy, our Lady--have been
considered, and you may proceed.

As to your proposition that my royal exchequer in those islands should
be inspected, the necessary provisions have already been made.

You advise us that in the execution of the measures contained in the
decree of August 9, 1621, you have warned the heads of the orders that
they shall not receive in those islands the religious from Yndia,
and that you caused several clerics to embark who arrived at that
city from that country. You will continue to do so, fulfilling your
orders contained in this memorandum.

The other points mentioned in your letter have been considered,
but answers to you are not yet ready. [Madrid, October 3, 1624.]

_I The King_

Countersigned by Juan Ruiz de Contreras.



_Ordering the correction of abuses against the Indians by the
Dominicans_

Don Phelipe, by the grace of God, king of Castilla, Leon, Aragon,
Jerusalem, Portugal, Navarra, and the Indias. To the reverend and
devout father-general of the Order of St. Dominic: It has been learned
from letters received and examined in my royal Council of the Indias
from Don Alonso Faxardo de Tenza, my governor and captain-general of
the Philipinas Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia resident
therein, that, although the religious of the Order of St. Dominic who
reside there are most exemplary and protect their parishioners so well,
it generally results that there is anger at their encomenderos, and
they do not attend to the affairs of my service as is advisable. On
the other hand, the Indians consider the treatment received from the
religious as severe, for they do not allow even the women to wear
shoes, while they force the men of the province of Nueva Segovia to
guard the church in rotation and turn. For whatever annoyance the
Indians cause them, they question them with regard to the Christian
doctrine, and their questions exceed those that persons with more
reason and education can answer. And thereupon, if they fail in the
least to meet these requirements, the religious have the chiefs and
their wives whipped, and cut off their hair. That has resulted in
causing among the Indians so great resentment that the insurrection
of the Indians that occurred may be attributed to that. Inasmuch
as that is a matter in which it is advisable to apply a remedy;
and inasmuch as the harsh treatment practiced by the said religious
toward their parishioners has appeared excessive, and not in harmony
with what they should do, since their purpose in going to the said
islands is to instruct and teach the natives in the articles of
our holy faith, and with all love and mildness, because they are,
as is a fact, people without reason and so newly converted (for
which reason it is so expensive to my royal revenues, from which
everything necessary is given): I request and charge you to give
what order is advisable so that the aforesaid evils be remedied,
as may be most necessary to the religion that they profess. What
remedy you shall furnish, you shall send to the said my Council,
with all haste, so that it may be remitted to the said islands;
for if that be not done with the promptness required by the case,
the relief that seems most effective will [not] be applied. Madrid,
November twenty-seven, one thousand six hundred and twenty-four.

_I The King_

Countersigned by Joan Ruiz de Contreras, and signed by the Council.

[_Endorsed:_ "To the father-general of the Order of St. Dominic,
directing him to remedy the excesses, committed on the Indians by
punishing them, by the religious of that order, who have missions
in Philipinas."]





EARLY RECOLLECT MISSIONS IN THE PHILIPPINES


_Extracts from the Following Works, Covering the History of the
Missions to 1624:_


    _Historia general de los religiosos descalzos del orden de ... San
    Avgvstin_. Fray Andres de San Nicolas; Madrid, 1664. (pp. 396-510.)
    _Historia general de los religiosos descalzos del orden
    ... S. Augustin_. Fray Lvis de Iesvs; Madrid, 1681. (pp. 1-61.)
    _Historia general de Philipinas_. Fray Juan de la Concepcion;
    Manila, 1788. (Tomo iv, pp. 189-265; v, pp. 32-100.)


_Sources_: The first and second of these are obtained from copies
belonging to Edward E. Ayer, Chicago; the third, from a copy in the
possession of the Editors.

_Translations_: The matter herein presented is translated and
synopsized by James A. Robertson.




EARLY RECOLLECT MISSIONS IN THE PHILIPPINES

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE DISCALCED AUGUSTINIAN FATHERS, BY FRAY ANDRES
DE SAN NICOLAS [24]




Decade II


Chapter V

_Now the second provincial Chapter is held. The mission to the
Philippinas Islands is effectively discussed. The college of Zaragoca
and the convent of Pedroso are founded. Reference to the life of
Sister Polonia de los Santos_.

_Year 1605_


[At the second provincial chapter meeting of the Augustinian
Recollects, held in April, 1605, at the convent at Madrid, father
Fray Joan Baptista de Vera was chosen provincial. At that chapter
meeting, the question of the rules of the young order was taken up,
with other business. After the conclusion of their business the
convention dissolved, "while father Fray Joan de San Geronimo [25]
was effecting his passage to the Indias, with his good companions"
(pp. 396, 397).]


_First mission of our religious to the Philipinas Islands_


To his arduous labor in the formation and growth of the poor discalced
Augustinians, the first provincial [_i.e._, Fray Joan de San Geronimo]
gave a heroic end by beginning the very observant province of San
Nicolas [26] de Tolentino, in the islands adjacent to Asia which we
commonly call Philippinas....

[A short narrative of the early discoverers follows, and the beginnings
of the Augustinian missions. That order proving inadequate to cope with
the immense number of the infidels, the other orders are also given
a part in their conversion. But the need of other laborers is still
felt, and King Felipe II assents to the petition of Fray San Geronimo
"to go to the Indias with twelve associates to preach the gospel, in
that part that he should deem best." King Felipe "immediately decreed
that he should get ready to go to the Philippinas Islands, and ordered
his ministers to give him the despatches immediately. The noted and
pious father had the despatches in hand before the celebration of
the chapter, where after it was called to order, he presented there
the decree, which received prompt obedience."]

The memorial of this circumstance is found in the old register,
and is in the following form: "May first, one thousand six hundred
and five, while the very reverend fathers were in session, etc. Our
father Fray Joan de San Geronimo, outgoing provincial of this province,
presented certain royal letters of the king our sovereign, and of his
royal Council of the Indias, in which his Majesty gives permission to
the said father Fray Joan de San Geronimo to take twelve religious
to the Philippinas Islands to preach the holy gospel, and to found
monasteries of our holy order in those Philippinas Islands. Having
examined and read them, the expedition seemed to us to be one
of great service to God, and we, the entire body of definitors,
resolved that it should be undertaken accordingly; and that all the
documents and authority necessary should be given to him so that he
should go as superior and vicar-provincial of the said Philippinas
Islands; that he may found monasteries there, and in all parts of the
Indias--with the following proviso, namely, that he shall not have
more authority than that which this province shall give him; and that
those houses that shall be founded there, and the religious in them,
shall always be subject to the father provincial who is, or shall be,
over this province. He shall always correspond with the latter, and at
each chapter held they shall send the elections of vicar-provincial
and priors, and the acts that they shall pass, so that the father
provincial of this province may confirm them, or refuse to confirm,
as he shall deem best. Advice shall be given of all the deceased
of those houses, so that the office may be performed for them, at
the time when the elections of the vicar-provincials shall be sent,
etc." Then, lower in the roll of those elected--or in the catalogue,
as we commonly call it--one reads at the end the words that follow:
"As vicar provincial of the Indias, we nominate the venerable father,
Fray Joannis de Sancto Hieronymo, and assign to him fourteen religious,
who shall always be subject to this provincial of this province of
Hispania." This arrangement having been made (which was made by the
intervention of the royal decrees that were despatched at Valladolid,
April three of that year, and which contained, in fact, the permission
for such, and general authority to found as many convents there as
the new Augustinian Recollect missionaries were able and desired;
to which were added other messages touching spiritual matters which
the pontiff's legate generously conceded), the father provincial, Fray
Joan Baptista, decreed the issue of his warrant, on May two. In this
document, after mentioning that he was ordered and commanded by the
king, and also by the said legate, to send the said father as superior
of the religious, who were about to set out for the help of those who
were occupied in the vineyard of the Lord, in the cultivation of those
islands, the father provincial entrusted to him all his authority,
without reserving anything whatever; but with the conditions that we
mention, in the records and other minutes which are generally made
on such occasions, the permissions that are despatched.

The father vicar-provincial had already chosen his workers, men like
himself. They were among the choicest and best men that the Reform then
had in their convents. They were as follows: Fathers Fray Andres de
San Nicolas, who was called de Canovas, an apostolic man, and a great
preacher in word and deed; Fray Miguel de Santa Maria, a most exemplary
man, and devoted to the rigorous life; Fray Geronimo de Christo, [27]
very austere and observant; Fray Pedro de San Fulgencio, a capable
and very clever man for all things; Fray Diego de la Anunciacion,
[28] adorned with very singular virtues, and regarded as a saint;
Fray Rodrigo de San Miguel, [29] most keen-witted and erudite in
all learning; Fray Francisco Baptista, a penitent to excess, and
regulated by conscience; Fray Francisco de la Madre de Dios, most
zealous for the discalced, and for the welfare of his brethren; Fray
Andres del Espiritu Santo, a religious, although very young, very
modest and retiring. [30] The father superintendent also chose four
other religious, lay brethren, who were of use and a great credit to
the Reform, on the voyage, and at the time when they came, whose names
are as follows: Fray Simon de San Joseph; Fray Joan de San Geronimo;
Fray Geronimo de la Madre de Dios; and Fray Joan de San Guillermo. They
all assembled in Madrid on the fifteenth or sixteenth of May. Thence
they left for Sevilla, and from there went later to San Lucar. They
were detained there until they could embark in one of the ships of the
Nueva Espana trading-fleet, which set sail from the great bay of Cadiz,
July twelve, and commenced its voyage happily. The zealous missionaries
were going, very full of God, and consequently did not abate one point
of their observance, fulfilling their religious obligations as if they
were in the most retired house of those which they had left behind in
their province, notwithstanding that they were going in the midst of
the traffic and excitement that seem to be inevitable in sea-voyages,
and more so in so long ones as are those of the Indias. They did not
discontinue the two hours' mental prayer or the choral divine office,
at their proper times, and the silence, fastings, and discipline. If
they were given any moment from those holy exercises, they employed
it in preaching, and in caring for the sick. They cared for and served
the latter with what they needed, and as well as they could. They did
not content themselves only in their own ship, for when good weather
and the quiet of the sea permitted, they went in the small boat or
lancha to the others, in order to console and confess those in need of
it. They gave them wholesome counsels, and encouraged them to serve
God our Lord as they ought. By such course they succeeded in gaining
great credit and esteem. The commander himself always approached them
with his flagship to salute them, and to ask after their health,
and whether they needed anything, while he commended himself very
earnestly to their petitions and prayers. He visited them in the island
of Guadalupe with the great following of his men, charging to them
the prosperous outcome of the fleet. Finally they reached the port of
San Juan de Lua, September seventeen, with the rejoicing common to
those who sail, and especially on those seas. They disembarked and,
after having rested for some little time, they took the road; this
they moderated by stopping several days in La Puebla de los Angeles,
[31] as guests of our calced fathers, where they received the friendly
reception and love that that province has shown to the discalced very
often because their beginning was in that form.

Since the strictness of that convent was then extreme, it lit up in
great measure the devotion and modesty of ours, the will of all going
well alongside the rare mildness of their customs. The more serious
inmates of the house did not fail to praise the humility, poverty,
and circumspect behavior of our fathers; and consequently not a few
of them were determined to follow their purpose and accompany them on
that holy undertaking, and to enjoy so good examples. They requested
this from the father commissary, but he, being so exact in matters of
attention and courtesy, excused himself prudently, in order not to
anger the prelates of the province; and, besides, because he had no
order from the king, nor any subsidy with which to pay the expenses of
any more persons than he had brought from Espana, although he esteemed
the desire that they showed to aid him. He went immediately to Mexico,
leaving the fathers of La Puebla very enamored and sad. They were
received in that magnificent city with kindness and extraordinary
devotion by the most learned father, Fray Diego de Contreras--to
whom was given, after a few years, the church of Santo Domingo, the
primatial church of the Indias. He was then professor of rhetoric in
the noted university, and rector of the college of San Pablo whose
venerating community went out to meet them in solemn procession and
with pomp, when they entered their gates. The learned master gave
proof of his ardent charity in his hospitality and cordial kindness,
making them very happy. He prepared a room for them, in which they
remained, where they received all comfort and aid, until the father
vicar-provincial rented a comfortable house, into which he and his
subordinates, and the brethren whom he had with him moved, in order
not to give occasion for so much ceremony and so many compliments;
hoping for the near opportunity to depart for the port of Acapulco.

That one--although formerly a secular lodging, now a very strict
convent--could rival the most famous monastery in the matter of
observance; for, giving themselves to continual prayers, rigorous
fastings, harsh mortifications, and severe penances, all of them were
opposing themselves to the best of their ability in the war against
the flesh. They did not leave the house unless summoned for some work
of charity, such as to confess or to preach, which they performed
very willingly, and to the profit and good of souls. They voted
unanimously not to strive to obtain for themselves or for others,
under any pretext, in person or through others, any offices within
the order, or out of it--in order to give, as was actually seen,
a solid foundation to the province which they afterward erected so
humbly. Their rigid mode of life there was bruited through the city,
and the most noble and the wealthiest, with simple earnestness, asked
them to remain. Some of such persons offered to endow their house,
and others to contribute very ample alms. They begged our fathers at
least to leave them the number sufficient to give a good beginning to
the convent that they desired to establish. The master, Fray Diego de
Contreras, whom we mentioned above, was aiding and encouraging those
arguments, promising that they would become discalced, and that he
would carry forward our Institute, [32] with his great authority and
power, in that kingdom. Father Joan de San Geronimo was tempted by
those pious offers of generosity, but he did not deceive himself; for
many souls would have been lost if he had desisted from that opportune
and holy voyage, or if he had lessened the number of the helpers whom
he took with him--who were but few for the abundant harvest that they
set about gathering, as we shall note with the lapse of years, in the
manner in which it occurred. Accordingly, having closed his ears to all
the proposed advantages, he undertook to go to the port at the end of
that year, where we shall leave him continuing with his observance of
rules and pious devotions on the roads, although these were horrible,
as if he had been in the most comfortable and most quiet convent of
all those which he had lately left well established in Espana.

[The remainder of chapter V is concerned with matter that does not
touch the Philippines, namely, the founding of the college of Zaragoza,
that of the convent of Pedroso, and the life of Sister Polonia de
los Santos.]





Chapter VI


_Our religious reach Luzon, after the death of Father Andres de San
Nicolas in sight of the islands. They found the convent, which is
located outside the walls of Manila, and undertake the conversion
of the barbarous Zambales, in which three of their men die from the
hardships, and father Fray Alonso de la Anunciacion at the house
of Portillo._

We left father Fray Joan de San Geronimo and his twelve associates,
anxious to finish their journey, continuing their road from Mexico
to the port commonly called Acapulco, because it was necessary to
embark once more in order to reach Philippinas, where God our Lord
had prepared many souls who, oppressed by the demon, had no ministers
to lighten their darkness. There was already in the said port a ship
ready to sail, called "Espiritu Santo," and they were accordingly
detained but a short time. They finally set sail on the twenty-second
of February, that year of one thousand six hundred and six, in all
safety, and all being overjoyed at seeing themselves nearer the land
that they were seeking. Some incidents happened on that voyage which
were afterward regarded as miracles, and all attributed them to the
good company of so notable religious whom they carried. The first
one was that, the ship being all but sent to the bottom by burning,
the fire having approached near some barrels of powder, warning was
given in so good time that it could be extinguished, when if there had
been but little more delay, this would have been impossible. The second
seemed more prodigious; for on a certain very clear and serene night,
shouts came from the bow from those who were stationed there, crying,
"Land! land!" The pilot and sailors were thunderstruck as soon as they
saw themselves upon some shoals or sunken rocks, and already lost
beyond all remedy. Thereupon bewailing their misfortune, they tried
to seek confession, as quickly as possible. They thought that all
efforts were useless; therefore they cared for nothing else. However
they tried to cast the line, but uselessly, for their lines were cut,
and they the more confounded by their slight hopes of life. The ship
went ahead into that chasm [_rebentacon_]--as it is called--as if
it were passing through a strait; and after having sailed a goodly
stretch without accident, among so many reefs, they found themselves
on the high sea, free from everything.

Father Fray Andres de San Nicolas had preached the previous afternoon
with great energy against the great licentiousness and shameless
conduct of the passengers and the other people, who had no fear of
God. He severely censured their excesses, and the little anxiety
that they showed in that time of greatest danger. With burning words,
he exhorted them to do better, representing to them their danger and
begging them, finally, to confess, since they did not know what was
to happen that night. The fruit that proceeded from that sermon was
large, for, his audience becoming terrified and contrite, many of
them confessed, and others proposed to do the same by having their
entangled consciences examined as soon as possible. After a few hours,
what is described above was experienced, whereby all thought that the
good preacher had had a revelation of that event; and they could not
thank our Lord sufficiently for having granted to them the company
of so good religious, but more especially the company of him who
preached to them of their danger--whom they regarded as a distinguished
servant of God, as he was. Some certified afterward that that place
through which the boat had passed had been a rocky islet, and that
they had seen it on other voyages; and they were astonished at having
escaped on that occasion with life, attributing it, beyond doubt, to a
manifest miracle, which the Lord wrought at the intercession of those
fathers. They desired, therefore, to listen to their teaching daily,
and especially to that of the father who announced to them what we
have seen. Consequently, not sparing themselves at all, the fathers
gave in alternation their inspired discourses, which were the health
and medicine of the many who were there--the ship so conforming itself
to these that it seemed a reformed convent, where before it had been
a house of confusion and bluster, with soldiers, mariners, and seamen.

The same father, Fray Andres, among the continual sermons, preached
a very fervent one on a certain day, and gave them to understand that
he would live but a short time, and that he was not to reach the land
of promise, for his faults and defects. That happened so, for not long
after, he fell sick, before sighting the islands called Ladrones. His
sickness increasing, when he was told that the islands were in sight,
he arose from his bed, and looking at them, through a porthole of his
cabin, immediately lay down again, saying, "Nunc moriar laetus." [33]
His weakness was already very great, and, as he had already received
the holy sacraments, and was in great resignation and joy of soul,
and all our fathers were present, he begged father Fray Joan de
San Geronimo to have the passion of Jesus Christ our Lord read to
him very slowly. That was done, in the manner that he desired. He,
holding an image of the same crucified Lord in his hands, broke
out into very glowing utterances of love, and shed many tears during
those moments. After the passion was finished--which lasted until near
dawn, on account of so many pauses--he begged pardon of all for his
omissions and neglect. He asked them to remember him in their masses
and prayers. They recited the penitential psalms and other prayers,
at the end of which, the sick man, very happy, conversed with his
brethren with great affability. He charged them to keep their vows
and the observance of the rules of the order. He persuaded them to
persevere steadfastly in their purpose, and to be mindful of the
zeal with which they had been ready to leave their fatherland for
the welfare and conservation of many souls. He encouraged them to
place their confidence in God, for His Sovereign Majesty had especial
providence and care over that small flock. Accordingly, they were
not to become disconsolate with the thought that they had no house
or convent in Philipinas, for already a lodging suitable for their
purposes was being prepared for them. He concluded by urging them
to commend their souls to Him, and then became very calm. All obeyed
him, surprised, and desirous of such a death; and, at the end of the
prayer, that chosen spirit went out in peace and quiet from the waves
and shipwrecks of this world, and reached the safe and calm harbor
of glory.

Upon beholding his death, one cannot imagine the grief of both
religious and laymen; for, venerating him as a father, they bewailed
him universally, and, in all truth, there was not one who did not show
great affliction. The corpse remained in such manner that it caused
gladness to all who looked at it. Various opinions were expressed as
to whether they should bury it in the sea or not. The laymen promised
that they would deposit it in a fitting place, until they should cast
anchor in the islands now near. Father Fray Joan de San Geronimo did
not consent to this, in order to avoid innovations--and especially when
they were going to countries where they had no home, and where they
knew no one. Therefore, placing the body in a closely-sealed wooden
box, with an inscription written on a certain sheet of lead, which
denoted his name, country, and virtues, amid their lamentations and
tears the body was cast into the sea, without having added the weight
which is used to draw the body to the bottom of the water. On account
of that carelessness the box should have remained on the surface of
the water, without being able to sink at all; but on that occasion the
Lord permitted that the waves should receive such deceased without any
violence. As the ship was in a calm, consequently, all were witnesses
that it settled to the bottom very gradually, and easily. Certain
violent fevers were raging in that vessel, from which about forty
had already died, at the time that the noted Aragonese and observant
religious finished the navigation of his life. But from that instant
all had health, becoming better and recovering very soon. That was
attributed to his prayers in heaven in fulfilment of the word that he
gave them, during the last moments of his life, namely, that he would
commend them to God in glory, provided that he went there, as he had
good hopes of doing. After the conclusion of the services for a death
so fortunate and so bewailed, they soon arrived--May tenth--at the
islands that they were seeking. Having disembarked first, according to
the order that they bore, on the island of Zibu, the discalced were
lodged in the convent of our calced fathers, the venerable bishop,
and that example of prelates, Don Fray Pedro de Agurto, as we saw
in his life, having gone out to receive them in procession. That
most illustrious man desired that the new missionaries should not
go further, and offered them a foundation and whatever they wished,
in order to exercise themselves in the conversion and salvation of
the infidels. It was impossible to assent to so many kindnesses,
for their immediate passage to Manila was unavoidable, in order that
the governor might see the despatches and the decrees from Espana,
which it was necessary to present to him. After having given the
bishop the thanks due, they had to set out as soon as possible.

Before proceeding with our relation, it will not be out of place
to tell our readers, although in few words, something about the
island of Luzon and the city of Manila, as it is the metropolis of
the kingdoms that the crown of Castilla has there. It was given that
name, then, since the Spaniards have owned it, from a chief village
so named, distant two leguas from Manavilis, which is corruptly called
Marivelez. It was also called Nueva Castilla. It is the largest island
in the Philippinas, and extends farthest north of all those islands. It
is the most populous in nations and tribes, who exceed the others, both
in bravery and in the light of reason, with well-known advantages. Its
least altitude is scant thirteen degrees, and its greatest ten or nine
and one-half. Its circuit, without taking into account certain bays,
comprehends four hundred and twelve leguas. Those who make it three
hundred are in error, for they do not consider its position. It is
all very fertile, and has many large rivers, that of Cagayan or Nueva
Segovia being more swollen than the others. They are all navigable,
more or less. Ships enter that of Manila at full tide with one-half
their cargo, but the galleys enter it generally without any trouble. It
furnishes a location for the aforesaid city, on a certain very pleasant
and beautiful site on the shores of the sea. It is a point made by the
Pasig River in sight of the bay. That bay is affirmed to be one of the
largest and best that men can see in all the world, for it is thirty
leguas in circumference, and has an island of six miles at its mouth,
where a sentinel is always stationed. It sustains more than one hundred
thousand persons daily with fish, counting the Sangleys and Japanese,
and the villages that are settled on its shores. When Adelantado
Miguel Lopez de Legaspi took it by force of arms, May nineteen, one
thousand five hundred and seventy, ten thousand houses beautified it,
and it was the court of the king, Ladya [_sic_] Soliman, a follower
in part of the religion of Mahomet. The same general rebuilt the
city, and left it its former name of Manila--also the proper name
of the island--in the following year of seventy-one. He made it the
capital of the rest of the archipelago, as it was very suitable for
the concourse and commerce of China. Its streets are pleasant and
spacious, and without crossways or turns; for they are all straight,
and have beautiful buildings of stone, which vie with those of Espana
that are considered well made. It is strong by art and by nature,
because of the many creeks and swamps that surround it, together with
the great wall of stone built according to the style of the moderns,
with not a few ramparts. It is well defended with artillery, and has an
excellent and important fortress, supplied with all that is necessary,
even as the most noted forts that are renowned in Europa. Finally,
it is now the finest and richest city of all those of its class that
are known in the world. It enjoys a cathedral with its archbishop,
a royal Chancilleria, a presidio with numerous soldiers, and in short,
all the products that the regions of the Orient yield for the pleasure,
health, and comfort of this life, without having to envy anyone for
anything. That city alone makes the name of Espana very glorious and
formidable there; and what is more, it is that city which maintains the
Catholic religion in those very remote and out-of-the-way hemispheres.

Writing this brief relation in order to give a beginning to the
entrance of Ours, we shall go after them immediately, and shall
find them safe at the gates of Manila, after a journey of four
thousand eight hundred leguas by the course that they pursued from
Espana. That country was then very joyful over the good news of
the success that their governor, Don Pedro de Acuna, had had in the
capture of Terrenate, one of the enviable islands of Maluco. They were
sheltered in a small house, until they found better accommodations;
and although the whole city, upon hearing of their arrival, came
in throngs to visit them and offer them more suitable lodging,
as also did the holy orders already settled there, with singular
affection, they refused to accept it--except the infirmary, which
they consented to take for some [sick men], in the convent of the
most exemplary Dominican fathers, who immediately gave it with the
greatest charity. At this juncture the victorious governor arrived,
and amid all his victories and triumphs, as soon as he heard of Ours,
he went to visit them and to regale them, as he was so Catholic and
devout a gentleman. Time was wanting to present the royal despatches
to him, for while he was in the height of his glories, sudden death
assaulted him, brought him to his feet, and cast him into the gloom
of a sepulcher. For that reason the recognition of the decrees and
orders was suspended for some time. But at last, having been examined
and ordered by the royal Audiencia and other officials to be observed,
permission was freely given to father Fray Joan de San Geronimo to
erect the establishments that he wished.

_Foundation of the first convent of Manila_

The announcement made by father Fray Andres de San Nicolas while on his
deathbed to his brethren was fulfilled without any failure--namely,
that they should not despair, for divine Providence was already
arranging a house for them, which would give great pleasure to all. The
fact was that, in verification of his words, on the same day on which
the despatches for their voyage were made in Espana, the deceased
governor began to build a very fine summer-house, which had its garden
and its ponds, in a site called Bagunbaian, only three hundred paces
from the walls. It was just being finished when he returned from his
conquest, and when he ended the pleasures and joys of this life. The
retreat and pleasantness of this place were very welcome to Ours;
consequently they tried to buy it, and did so--having collected the
alms in two afternoons. During that time two religious went through
the city, accompanied by certain influential persons, [and collected]
more than three thousand pesos, with which they paid the sum asked,
a great portion of what they should have given having been forgiven to
them. Accordingly, they immediately took possession of their convent
on the day of St. Nicolas de Tolentino, to whom they dedicated it by
a special vow, which all took at the beginning of their navigation
from the shores and coasts of Espana. Under such good horoscope
was born the happy province of the Philipinas Islands. And thus we
should not wonder at the great luster that it has cast, shedding its
rays by its zeal through the darkest and most forgotten districts,
where a notable number of pagans, who were living like wild beasts
in a blind barbarism, received the truth of the faith which we profess.

The apostolic men first settled the firm foundation of their
house--not in the material of it but in the direction of their solid
virtues. They lived in the greatest poverty and contempt of [earthly]
things, without other end than the seeking of God in prayer, and in
making Him known and loved in their talks and examples. There was
some opposition on the part of our calced fathers in regard to the
title that they gave to the new church, that of the miraculous Father
San Nicolas de Tolentino; for his devotion was practiced in a chapel
of the principal convent and was very popular, and they thought that
it would be lessened or be done away with altogether. Ours, being so
good men, disapproved greatly of litigation; and, although with great
grief, they talked of consenting to change the title, commending the
matter to our Lord very earnestly, with the intervention of peculiar
penances and exercises. The matter was left to be decided by lot,
in which many saints took part, not excluding their own dear one. He,
then, was chosen, the first, second, and third time; and the will of
God was thus made plain. Not only did they confirm what was already
done, but they also placed under his protection the province which was
now in its beginning, and gave it his name. In accordance with this
a very solemn feast was made, that venerable prelate and bishop of
bishops Don Fray Pedro de Agurto saying the first mass. He had come
to Manila from Zibu to be the rainbow [_Iris_] that announced peace
and true brotherhood to calced and discalced, whom we ought to hold
as sons of a good father. Father Fray Pedro Solier--a chosen shoot of
the convent of Salamanca, and afterward provincial of those islands,
bishop of Puerto Rico, and lastly archbishop of Santo Domingo and
primate of the Indias--preached in glowing terms in praise of the
Reform, in the presence of the royal Audiencia, the ecclesiastical
and secular cabildos, the orders, the nobility, and all the people
of Manila--who from that time made greater progress in the veneration
and worship of that saint. The good-will that the city began to have
for the new evangelical ministers was vast. Consequently, the city
desired to shelter them within the girdle of its walls, on noting the
discomfort that they were suffering; and that was done by moving the
convent of San Nicolas, as we shall see.

It seemed hard for the religious to leave their first foundation, not
so much for the material of the house as for the service that they
were performing for our Lord in that suburb, in administering the
holy sacraments to the not few persons who were living there. Those
people, especially at night, were deprived of spiritual aid, for
it was necessary that the gates of the city be tightly shut and the
necessary guards posted. It was a true inspiration from heaven not to
abandon that convent (now that of San Joan Baptista), since--as was
within a very short time made evident, through the care and presence of
Ours--so great a number of Christians came so frequently from all parts
to confession and to holy communion that four ministers daily have
not been sufficient. They numbered some Spaniards and many negroes,
both free and slave, and more Indians of different nations, who came
to seek in that refuge relief from their sins and failings. They found
that convent always open day and night and the religious ever ready
to give them the health and life of their souls. After several years
the province determined that that house should be made a college,
and accordingly that was carried out. The arts and theology were
studied there, for, although instruction and piety join hands, it
was not advisable that the college and the house be in one place. In
that place rest three incorruptible bodies of the first founders,
and no one knows who they are. All are surprised that they can remain
so well preserved in a country so damp and hot, and it is regarded
by all as a miracle. That college, besides the aforesaid, possessed
a great treasure in the image of our Lady of Health. On bringing it
from Mexico, that image gave proofs of her favors not a few times on
the sea, and perfecting and increasing them in the islands through her
mercy. Her installation was celebrated with great pomp and ostentation
in the presence of the royal Audiencia and the city, which made very
Catholic and pious demonstrations in the feast. The church was filled
in a short time with vows and memorials which the faithful offered. A
brotherhood was founded under the title of Transito de Nuestra Senora
[_i.e._, "Transit of our Lady"], whose chief procession may be seen
and is solemnized on the third Friday of Lent, with the greatest
ostentation and display that one could express in writing or in
speech. The members of the confraternity march clad in very neat white
tunics with blue escapulars, bearing the attributes of the queen of
the skies on pendants of the same color and embroidered at a great
cost--with a numerous accompaniment of children dressed as angels,
who at intervals march along singing praises to the Virgin. It is
not an easy task to count the large tapers and lighted candles;
for, as is said, it is one of the best functions that are seen in
the Philippinas. Then follows the bed of the always glorious and
most pure Virgin, which the most devout and most noble women adorn
with the wealth of the city. The bed is surrounded with a group of
children, also dressed as angels, which is a cause for surprise every
year. Lastly, go about one thousand bleeding penitents; and there many
votive images, which move innumerable persons to compunction, who come
from the neighboring provinces to enjoy that day without fear of any
trouble. Thus has the fitting reverence of that image increased until
it is one of the greatest in the Philippinas; as has been experienced
on various occasions, especially when they put it within the city (for
fear of the Sangleys who revolted) in order to make a novena, in which
took part the royal Chancilleria, the archbishop, and the cabildos,
for the health of the Catholic army which was very sick. From that
prayer resulted not only the attaining of the convalescence of the
soldiers, but also the peace and quiet that was sought. That college
suffered a great blow in the time of a certain governor, whose name,
in order not to cast infamy on him purposely, we suppress. He,
under pretext that its building was a great obstacle to the wall,
rigidly made them demolish it, driving our religious thence, contrary
to justice and the permission of the city and cabildo; they opposed
him until they could do no more, as they saw that he did that, being
desirous of not conducting himself well, for it is said that such
was his custom. But when the end of his office came, the church and
cabildo brought suit for the injury received from that illegal act;
and they sentenced him to twenty-five thousand pesos, notwithstanding
that it is said that the damage exceeded fifty. Thereupon the college
was rebuilt, and the image again placed there.

_Preaching of Ours in the province of Zambales and of Tugui_

Eagerly had the apostolic men left Espana in search of misguided
and lost souls whom they might lead to the knowledge of God and into
the flock of His Church. When once they had set foot on the destined
land they could not be kept from turning their eyes and their desire
to all parts. The first task was to learn some one of the many
languages which are spoken among so many and so barbarous nations,
in order to have the means to convert the people that should happen
to fall to their lot. Accordingly, after well considering the matter,
they determined to study Tagal, as it was the most general tongue,
and the one that was talked as native in Manila and its environs. All
immediately applied themselves to one language with no little desire
and diligence. He who learned it first was father Fray Miguel de
Santa Maria, who was called Bombau. Discussing with him in what part
it would be better to begin their missions, they thought that it was
not advisable to go far from Manila, since they were so few. At that
juncture a very good opportunity came to their hands in the shape of
a village quite near by, now called Marivelez. [34] Its inhabitants
had no ministers, no one of them wishing, although many were at its
very doors, to abide in it--both because of the insalubrious climate
of its location, and because of the bad disposition of the Indians,
who were like brutes in their intercourse and in their customs. The
vicar-provincial stumbled over none of these obstacles, because of his
firm zeal. Accordingly, he sent the said father, Fray Miguel de Santa
Maria, accompanied by father Fray Pedro de San Joseph--who, although
of the Observance, had discalced himself--together with a lay-brother,
named Fray Francisco de Santa Monica, who also went with both of the
former, all of them being skilled in the aforesaid language. They
invoked in common the grace of the Holy Spirit, and, after a fervent
prayer, they took their farewells--these anxious to accomplish their
desires, and the others sick at heart at seeing themselves left behind
them. They were not long in arriving at the lairs of the wild beasts,
who lived eight leguas from Manila, and were desirous to subdue and
soften them, together with the rest of the coast of Zambales and of
Tugui, which extends for a little more than thirty leguas to Bolinao.

The customs and ceremonies of those people must be touched upon
briefly, not so much for the diversion that they may afford as that
we may certify to the labor of Ours in changing them according to law
and reason, and putting them into a suitable condition. The worship
with which they then reverenced their false deities they were wont
to perform not in the villages, but outside them in the mountains,
or the part nearest to their fields. They had certain little houses
there like chapels, in which they all assembled. But that did not
prevent them from having gods--penates, or idols, which they called
_anitos_. The priesthood was exercised by certain old men, ceremonious
in the extreme, and not less by old women called _catalonas_--witches,
superstitious creatures, diviners, and casters of lots--who were
esteemed and so thoroughly believed that whatever they said, although
lies, was taken as an infallible oracle. The manner of their sacrifices
(which they called by the name _maganitos_), on meeting to make them
in the place that we have spoken of above, was none other than that,
having prepared an unclean animal, very well grown--or for lack of
it, a large cock--they offered it to the devil by means of one of
those witches, with peculiar and curious ceremonies. For, dancing
to the sound of a bell, she took in her hands a small idol, made to
imitate the form in which the father of deceit was wont to appear
to them at times; it was of human form, with very ugly features, and
a long beard. She spoke certain words to it, invoking its presence,
whereupon the iniquitous spirit came, and entered into her miserable
body in order to dictate to her the deceits that are its custom in
such acts. After having declared their false notions to those present,
they ate the animal or bird, and they drank to intoxication, whereupon
the wicked sacrifice was brought to an end. Besides that adoration
which they gave to the devil, they revered several false gods--one,
in especial, called _bathala mey capal_, whose false genealogies
and fabulous deeds they celebrated in certain tunes and verses like
hymns. Their whole religion was based on those songs, and they were
passed on from generation to generation, and were sung in their feasts
and most solemn assemblies. Those who were ignorant of the teachings
of Mahomet adored not less the sun, the moon, the rainbow, birds,
and animals--but especially the cayman or crocodile; a blue bird
closely resembling the thrush; the crow; rocks placed on the shores
of the sea, and those that they see in the sea, such as sunken rocks
and shoals. [35]

Their ancestors also enjoyed that worship, and more especially those
who had been famous in arms, and in the virtues native to their mode
of belief; and they believed that reward was the lot of the good,
and punishment that of the wicked. From this arose among them the
knowledge of the immortality of the soul. Accordingly, when anyone
died, they bathed the body and buried it with benzoin, storax, and
other aromatic substances, and clothed it then in the best of its
possessions. Before burying the body, they bewailed it for the space
of three days. They anointed the bodies of those of high rank with
certain confections, which kept it from corruption better than do
our unguents of Europa. They did not bury them except in the lower
part of their houses, having placed and deposited them in a coffin
of incorruptible wood. They placed some bits of gold in the mouth,
and on the body the best jewels that they had. To that preparation
they added a box of clothing, which they placed near them, and every
day they carried them food and drink. They did not take especial pains
that, if the dead had possessed more property, everything should be
left to him; but slaves, both men and women, were presented to them
to serve them in the other life (which they no doubt imagined to
be similar to the present life). The custom that they observed with
those slaves was, to behead them immediately after having fed them
sumptuously, so that they might not fail the service and company of
such influential men, since the latter needed them, as they said. In
confirmation of that, it happened that, on the death of a chief of
that race, they killed all the sailors necessary for a boat's crew,
in order that servants, and rowers befitting his station might not
be lacking to him in the life that they ignorantly imagined for such
a person. After the conclusion of those honors, they gave themselves
up to extensive revelry and feasting, which they interspersed with
their mourning, observing a notable silence in the nearest houses
and in the streets. No one worked, just as during a festal occasion;
nor did he have to navigate under any consideration. He who opposed
the aforesaid usage did not escape death, which was inflicted on him
with rigor and without recourse.

Among all the above and many other follies, they believed that
the world had a beginning, and they had some notion of the flood;
but it was confused with the greatest nonsense and lies. They did
not doubt the fact of there having been in its time a creation of
man, but they believed that the first one had emerged from a bamboo
joint and his wife out of another, under very ridiculous and stupid
circumstances. They did not consider homicide as wrong, and the
taking of as many lives as possible was a great honor. Consequently,
the valiant and those who were feared set the heads of those who
perished at their hands on the doors of their houses, as a proof of
their deeds; for he who hung up the greatest number, in the sight
of his other countrymen was most esteemed and applauded. It was an
abuse of obligation that, a father or mother having died, the son
who inherited should retire from the village into the mountains and
forests until he had despoiled at least two persons of the common
light--even though it should be, as one can well judge, at the risk
of losing the light that he himself was enjoying. When they had more
children than they desired, or than they could support as they wished,
they generally buried them alive. In what pertains to political
government, they had no greater superiority than that which the most
powerful usurped in the matter of life and death over those who were
not powerful, disposing of them as they wished. Accordingly they made
them slaves for very slight reasons and occasions. When any suits
and quarrels arose in regard to criminal or civil matters, their old
men assembled, and composed these difficulties or passed sentence in
them, and no one could appeal or petition from their decisions. They
proved causes orally, examining witnesses and investigating doubts
verbally. Their laws were only traditions and very old customs, but
they observed these carefully--not so much for fear of punishment,
as because they believed that he who violated them would be instantly
killed, or at least become afflicted with the disease of leprosy,
and that another part also of his body would become corrupt.

Our three religious opposed themselves to so profound darkness as
this, with the light of the gospel, and without taking other arms than
the cross and the scourge of penance, by which all the wretchedness
and misfortunes there were changed into delights and comforts. The
suffering of great hardships was inevitable; for since those brutes
were intractable and ferocious, they did not show the fathers any
hospitality, that had any mark of reason and sense. The fathers
sought them through the thickets and fields where they were living,
and, alluring them with loving words, gave them to understand their
error and the blindness of their souls. They preached to them with
the ardor that came from their hearts of the Triune and One Lord,
who governs the universe, and told them their obligation to love Him
and to bow to the mild yoke of His law; but those people preferred to
condemn themselves forever to the pains of hell. The fathers retired
at night to some very small huts that they had made, in order to take
the necessary refreshment, which consisted only of beans [_frijoles_],
and at most a little rice, which they obtained but seldom. Then they
gave some rest and repose to their weakened and fatigued bodies. That
rest was, however, broken by three cruel disciplines, which all
took every two hours, in order to soften and mollify the diamond
hearts of those barbarians with their blood. With that efficacious
medicine and their tireless care, they continued gradually to soften
those rocks--although from the wretched life that they were living,
and their immense toil in going by day through those rough mountains,
seeking the sheep whom they desired to corral with the flock, within
the sheepfold of the Church, and from the worse sufferings in their
nights, they sickened and died.

[Accounts of the pious deaths of Fathers Miguel de Santa Maria,
and Pedro de San Joseph, and Brother Francisco de Santa Monica, the
three laborers in this first mission, follow in this same section. The
first named had long been renowned for his asceticism, both in Spain
and in the islands, having been one of the first to join the new
order. The second had been a calced Augustinian, but had transferred
his allegiance to the Recollects after their arrival in the islands,
and was very useful on this mission because of his thorough knowledge
of Tagal. The narrative continues:]

By the death of those three religious, the others might well fear
to go to complete the reduction of Marivelez, and to prosecute what
was already begun with the perfidious Zambales. But being full of the
love of God, and of zeal for souls, each of them offered himself, just
as if it were to obtain the greatest comfort and abundance that men
generally seek; and all demanded it anxiously, each as best he could,
as their most ambitious desire to go up there and be honored. The city
opposed it, for they thought that it meant to send those fathers to
their death--and all the more as they saw that, since Ours were so
few and so pious, they could serve more usefully in more secure and
healthful places. The holy obstinacy of those who would not consent
to abandon the post conquered. Accordingly, the first lot fell to
father Fray Rodrigo de San Miguel. He disposed the minds of those
heathen in such manner that, completing their reduction and leading
them to the yoke of the Lord, and to a civilized and Christian life,
he built a convent in a village called Bacag, adding to it that of
Luzon, which gave name to the island of Manila--through the error
or misunderstanding of the first Spaniards, who discovered it, when
examining and questioning the Indians whom they met in a boat. They
removed afterward to a better site, in the said Marivelez, and that
place has seven other villages, in a distance of twelve leguas, which
it administers as annexes. The persons who were converted to the faith
by the energy and labor of Ours reached one thousand five hundred.

That fort having been assured against the power and empire of
the devil, the door was opened wider for passage inside, and the
tyrannized souls of the Indians of Zambales were gained. The latter,
confident in their fierceness, were divided along the sea-coast,
and exercised themselves in the chase, by which they sustained
themselves--together with some fish--only zealous in killing men,
which was the greatest glory among them. Consequently, no boats dared
to go to their lands, unless with great risk of the occupants losing
their lives. With such brutality, the mountains of difficulties which
father Fray Rodrigo had to conquer in softening the harshness of those
beasts; and the sweat and labor that it would cost him to make them
comprehend the dictates of reason (from which they were very far),
while he was suffering extreme penury in all things necessary to life,
can be imagined. His food was only wild herbs and some fruit, which
was not on all occasions accompanied by a mouthful of biscuit, sent
as a great treat, if possible, from Manila. His rest, day and night,
was so little, and was so liable to surprises that scarcely could he
rest a moment without the expectation of death before him all the time,
which the heathen, instigated by the devil, promised to give him. He
went through their thickets and along their shores, crying out and
endeavoring to conquer the coldness of those men. By virtue of the
cross, he was finally able, little by little, to soften the insolence
of their fierce breasts, and to render them more tractable, although
they seemed like rocks in the hardness of their obstinate hearts.

God our Lord decreed that, in order to conquer their obstinate
resistance, it should happen one day that this same father, Fray
Rodrigo, on passing through a thicket consecrated to their devils
(where, as their rites said, it was sacrilege to cut or touch any
branch--besides the great fear that they had conceived that if anyone
should have the audacity to do so, or to take the least thing, he
would surely die immediately), saw a tree covered with a certain fruit
which they call _pahos_, [36] that resemble the excellent plums that
we know in Europa. As it was so ripe and mellow, he ordered them
to climb the tree and get some of the fruit. Those accompanying
him refused roundly, but he insisted on his desire. They finally
explained, and said that they would do it under no consideration;
for, beyond all doubt, those who dared to offend the respect for
that place would die very suddenly. Upon hearing that, the father was
inflamed with zeal for the honor and worship of the true God whom he
was preaching. Asking them whether all trees around about had that
quality of inflicting death on him who touched them, accidentally or
designedly, they answered "Yes." Then elevating his voice, he gave
them a fervent discourse against the delusion under which they were
laboring; and concluded by intimating to them that he himself would
get and eat the fruit, as well as cut down the trees, so that they
might see that one would not die, and so that they might thereby be
freed from the error and blindness of their ancestors. The Indians
were very sorrowful because father Fray Rodrigo had decided to eat
of the fruit, and they accordingly begged him earnestly and humbly
not to do it. But the good religious, arming himself with prayer
and with the sign of the cross, and repeating that antiphony, _Ecce
crucem Domini: fugite partes adversae. Vicit leo de tribu Juda,_ [37]
began to break the branches and to climb the tree, where he gathered
a great quantity of the fruit. He ate not a little of it before them
all, in detestation of their wicked superstitions and ill-founded
fears. The Indians looked at his face, expecting every moment to see
him a dead man. But they immediately recognized the truth of what
he told them. He charged them not to tell anyone what they had seen
him do there. On arriving at the village, he divided the rest of the
fruit that he brought, and kept for that purpose, among the other
chiefs and influential persons, who ate it with gusto, esteeming it
as a present from that father. The next day, after assembling them
(much to their pleasure), he execrated their ignorance in a long
sermon, and told them the secret of the fruit. Thereupon, all of them,
convinced and surprised, not one of them being wanting, followed him
axes in hand, and felled that thicket, casting contempt on the devil;
and many infidels ended by submitting to the knowledge of the truth.

Encouraged by so good an outcome, Ours proceeded with the conversion
of those peoples. They were not stopped by the manifest danger to
their lives, nor by the famines or other bodily privations that it was
necessary for them to suffer, in lands new, rough, and productive of no
relief for their so many hardships and miseries. However, the divine
providence made all these, and as many more as might be very mild,
by giving the fathers inward consolation, as well as outward aid on
not a few occasions. One of those occasions, experienced by the same
father, Fray Rodrigo, during a trip on the sea, was notable. At that
time, a sudden squall overtaking him, his boat was driven on certain
rocks and knocked to pieces, so that those aboard it were drowned,
although they knew how to swim well. Only the said father, by the
will of God and the beneficent miracle of a wave, which bore him safe
and sound to a rocky islet or reef, escaped. He remained there until
next day, in the fright that one can imagine, but hoping in God our
Lord that He would continue his rescue by conveying him to a place
of safety. That happened after twenty-four hours, for an Indian who
had seen him from a distance swam out to him and took him upon his
shoulders; and he gave thanks to heaven for so great mercy.

More marvelous was the case of father Fray Joan de la Ascension, who,
while sailing along the coast of Zambales, was struck by a very violent
storm, and the boat in which he was embarked, and all the Chinese who
were accompanying him, were lost, without one of them being saved. The
boat keeled over--as they say--and was turned completely bottom up. The
father remained in the hull of the boat, but so that he could hold
only his arms and head clear of the water, while the rest of his body
was under water. He supported himself in that darkness with his hands
tightly clasping a beam. For the space of three days did he remain
thus, while the hull tossed hither and thither. At the end of that
time, as some Indians were passing through that region and saw the
wreck, they drew nigh to see whether they could find anything. They
thought that they would surely find some pillage, and therefore began
to break open the boat in the part open to view. Consequently, when
they had made a small hole, the pitiful voice of the religious who
was crying for aid was heard. The greedy Indians were frightened,
and were about to flee from the terror caused them by so unexpected
a petition. But proceeding, after the encouragement given them by one
of their number who was bolder, they discovered the said father, who
was already half dead. Getting him out as quickly as possible, they
took care of him and gave him some food, whereupon he recovered, and
told them of his accident. It was told and wondered at, with reason,
in Manila and in other places; and all who heard of it attributed it
to nothing less than a prodigy never seen.

[Lives of Fathers Alonso de la Anunciacion and Francisco de los Santos,
and Brother Bernardo de San Augustin, follow in the succeeding three
sections of this chapter, which concludes with a section on the]


_Foundation of the convent of Masinglo_

With just reason can this house be [regarded as] the most precious and
esteemed jewel that the Augustinian Reform venerates, as it was the
fort that was raised against the devil in the lands of the infidels,
which the devil had usurped from the cross and the gospel, when our
religious, after so many labors and sufferings, tamed the untamable
Zambales. That village, before called Masinloc, was suitable for
the foundation, as it was in a location from which they could attend
quickly to the service of God our Lord and of souls. Accordingly, they
chose it, although its inhabitants were more ferocious than the rest
of their neighbors because they had no one to drive away their errors
and illumine their darkness. Father Fray Andres del Espiritu Santo,
then, accompanied by two other religious, planted that holy bulwark
to oppose all hell. With great care and helpfulness they tried first
to adorn it with the example of their virtues, so that the neophytes
should become fonder of the law which we profess. At that time the
recently baptized amounted to eight hundred, with whom great efforts
were exerted in separating them from their former evil habits, more
especially that of idolatry, to which was joined that of intoxication;
they were given to these in excess, by the habit that they had acquired
in both things from childhood. With the lapse of time the converted
have surpassed two thousand, because of the reduction of certain more
terrible Indians who lived in the mountains, without houses and away
from the coast. The latter were continually at war with others who
are called Negrillos [_i.e._, "little blacks"], for they seem to be
such, and they are very black. One may now consider the vigilance it
must have cost to attract those brutes, in order to make them live a
social life in accordance with reason, in peace and quiet--things that
were never seen among them until our religious undertook to tame them
and to bring them into rational intercourse. The jurisdiction of that
convent has extended fourteen leguas, and it has ten visitas which are
villages. The missionaries generally go to those villages to care for
their souls, and do not allow them to continue their former wickedness.

It happened in that village of Masinglo that, an Indian woman finding
herself at the end of her days, they summoned father Fray Bernardo de
San Lorenco so that he might baptize her, for she was then asking for
it. He went to her house, and as he thought that she was but slightly
sick, he judged that it would be well to delay the sacrament until
she knew her prayers well and the other mysteries that any Christian
must know in order to be confessed. He began to instruct her, and
to persuade her with efficacious reasons to hate her idolatries and
to have sorrow for her sins. He tried to leave her in this way until
next day, but she, crying out and moaning, said to him: "Baptize me,
Father, baptize me, immediately; do not leave me or permit me to die
and lose the blessings which thou hast told me that I will obtain by
becoming a Christian." The religious consoled her and answered that
he would baptize her in due time. She continued to urge him to wash
away her sins without delay. Consequently, seeing so much faith,
he baptized her, and left her and her children very happy. And,
although she did not appear sick, she died shortly afterward without
anyone having any warning of it. Upon another occasion another woman
also came to the convent, and urgently requested the same father for
baptism. He asked her why she desired it so urgently. She answered
that one of her eyes pained her, and that she was very much afraid of
dying suddenly without having the health to save herself. The father
performed his duty in catechising her as well as he was able, and
immediately administered the sacrament; she was very glad of this,
and returned to her house, where they shortly afterward found her
dead, without knowing that she had other illness or cause for death
than the above mentioned pain in that eye.

Thus when a beginning was given to that convent, the religious
discussed, as was unavoidable, the regulation of a new method by
which it, as well as the other convents that should be founded in
the lands and villages of the reduced Indians, should be governed. It
could not be perfected at one time, for experience, that mistress of
seasons, was, little by little, showing what was most advisable for
them. Accordingly, they have established efficient laws in various
assemblies and provincial and private chapters, so that those houses
have shed a luster in the example of their virtues--even though they
do not have an excessive number of religious, because of the lack that
they generally suffer of those who are necessary. It was, therefore,
ordered, in the first place, that all the laws and statutes of our
congregation be observed, without violating the most minute points of
the rules and regulations in force in Espana--especially in regard
to the two hours of mental prayer and the matins at midnight--even
should there be but one religious; since he could say them with
the Indian singers who reside and always live in the enclosure or
within the walls of the convent. Each of the religious was prohibited
strictly, and under well-imposed penalties, from engaging in any
trade or commerce, directly or indirectly, however slight it might
be. In addition, it was ordered that no one should use any piece
of silver or gold, even though it should be a medal, because of the
suspicion that it might arouse in the Indians who should see them,
when they were preaching gospel poverty. They were forbidden to
beg the loan of money, or to ask their stipends in advance from the
encomenderos, contenting themselves with the little that they had;
and living with the greatest possible frugality, in order that their
lives might conform to their discalcedness and their abstraction from
earthly things. The priors were not to leave their districts under any
pretext; and they were not to send their associates and subordinates
unless there were urgent necessity, and after a consultation, to be
registered in the books of the convent. The religious were not to enter
the houses of the Indians, except to administer the sacraments in the
necessary cases; and no one could employ himself in this office until
he should be well acquainted with the language of the land. They were
not to acquire possessions, or more income than the one hundred pesos
of their stipend; and necessity was to be the standard and rule that
they were to seek, as those who were truly poor. They were not to
entertain secular persons, and much less governors, alcaldes-mayor,
or encomenderos; for, if they did so, it would be very prejudicial
to the fitting retirement and strict observance advisable for the
Reform. The Christian doctrine was to be preached and explained to
the young people every morning in the churches, but to everyone on
feast days, with especial care and personal attendance. In order to
conduct the divine worship, they were to endeavor to have music in
all the convents, by teaching the youth not only to sing but also
to play the sweetest and best instruments that we use in Europa,
so that the new Christians might become very fond of frequenting the
sacred offices. They were to be admonished straitly to attend to the
devotion of the most holy Virgin, our Lady, having her rosary recited
every afternoon in the church; and on Saturday mornings they were to be
present at the mass, and before nightfall at the "Hail Mary," holding
their lighted candles in their hands. The religious also made other
resolutions pertaining to the protection and defense of the Indians,
in case that anyone should transgress by trying to do violence to them,
so that, as true fathers, they might oppose themselves courageously
to any annoyance that the malice of the soulless men of this age,
always iniquitous, might attempt. In short, they applied the needed
and fitting preservatives, with the desire of maintaining the good
name and reputation of religious who were seeking the safety of those
souls, and hating that which might have the appearance of love for
temporal things--in consideration of which no earthly interest had
transported them from Espana to Philippinas.




Chapter VIII

_The third provincial chapter is held; and after the election a not
slight danger assails the Reform. The first convent of Manila is
moved inside the walls_.


[The first section of this chapter deals with affairs of the Recollect
order in Spain. The third election of provincial results in the choice
of father Fray Gregorio de Santa Catalina. Dissensions immediately
break out in the ranks of the religious, which are engineered by
the retiring provincial, father Fray Joan Baptista. The schism
results in the suppression of the order by a bull of Paul V, and
its absorption into the calced Augustinian ranks. Various influences
are set afoot, however, by those devoted to the Reform, and the new
provincial prepares to go to Rome to entreat the pope to reconsider
the suppression. The second section deals with the]


_Removal of the convent of Manila_

In order to divert the grief of Ours in Espana for a moment, the
need of referring to the removal of the convent of San Nicolas of
Manila from its location outside the walls (which is now the college
of San Joan Baptista, as above stated) to the other site, within the
enclosure, where now is the glorious capital of the most religious
province of the Philippinas Islands--is interpolated. The credit
acquired by the good founders in a short time was vast, by means
of their exemplary life, and the zeal that they had manifested in
the reduction and conversion of the infidels. They had shed abroad
in all directions the light and splendor of their virtues, and very
especially of their voluntary poverty and abstraction from temporal
things, contenting themselves with but very little, and coveting, at
the most, the attainment of permanent blessings and riches. They won
many persons for God in that city by means of their holy instructions,
and taught them the true way, which very few court. By that course
they made themselves so much masters of the good-will of all that
the people begged them unanimously that they should enter a more
comfortable place--but without abandoning that place, because its
preservation was so useful for the welfare of as many souls as lived
in those suburbs and environs, so that nobles and plebeians might
enjoy the spiritual food that the fathers so promptly distributed to
them. Besides, it seemed unavoidable to do that, so that they might
be more secure and better guarded, whatever happened, because of the
continual and sudden attacks of the Japanese, Chinese, and Sangley
enemies, who are wont to attack those suburbs with courage. Father
Fray Joan de San Geronimo assented to the prayers of the faithful,
and the not little convenience of his own associates; and accordingly,
aided by the alms that were given him, he bought certain small houses,
near to a site where many years ago the artillery was founded. That
site was also given him at the end of the year by Governor Don Joan de
Silva. The opposition of some was not wanting, although that convent
was so desired and applauded. However, that opposition soon ended;
and our religious endured it with signal austerity for many days,
until the very noble gentleman and master-of-camp, Don Bernardino del
Castillo Ribera y Maldonado--a native of Mexico, castellan of the fort,
and regidor of the city--together with his very virtuous wife, Dona
Maria Enriquez de Cespedes, through the devotion that they bore to our
institute and to the holy neo-thaumaturgus Nicolas de Tolentino (at
whose intercession a son was born to him, who died shortly afterward,
the same lady having petitioned our glorious father to negotiate
with God so that that son might not live if he were to grow up bad
and a sinner), assumed the patronage of the church and convent. He
immediately erected a fine building of cut stone, the cost of which
exceeded one hundred thousand pesos. In addition to that, he assigned
it a suitable income--not for the support of the religious, for at
that time it was not the custom for Ours to accept such; but for the
necessary repairs that had to be made later.

At the conclusion of the work, it was our Lord's pleasure to grant
him a very pious death, prepared, among his many alms, by actions
and customs more resembling those of a perfect religious man of an
arrogant and merry soldier. The religious buried him as if in his
own house, displaying on his honorable tomb the memory of his deeds;
and erecting monuments afterward to him and to his consort in a very
fitting niche, as well as suitable proclamations of thankfulness that
Ours published. He left the devotion of the great titular saint,
whom he greatly loved, well established; consequently, by means of
his authority, the city chose the saint as patron, and decreed that
his day should be celebrated, and that the city should attend in the
form of its cabildo, which has always been done. Governor Don Alonso
Faxardo, governor of the islands, our illustrious benefactor--who gave
us permission, as far as the royal patronage is concerned, to preach
the gospel in the provinces of Butuan and Caragha, together with
the islands of Cuyo and Calamianes--was also buried there. From that
permission have resulted so great increase in numbers to the Church,
and great honors to our Recollect order. Likewise the governor's wife,
Dona Catalina Zambrano, and others--auditors and officials of the
Chancilleria, and many noble gentlemen--keep him company there. A
notable confraternity has been founded in that church, called the
Nazarenos [_i.e._, the Nazarines"], so that on the night of Holy
Thursday they march through the streets in a most devout procession,
just as they are accustomed to do in the kingdoms of Castilla.

Among the most revered images of those islands is reckoned that of the
holy Christ, which is called "the Christ of humility and patience,"
which was lately placed in the right side chapel. Licentiate Joan
de Arauz, cura and beneficiary of the parish church in the city of
Mexico, gave it, and with it a treasure of favors and concessions to
Manila. That image is very natural, and of the best manufacture that
has been known in those remote hemispheres. He manifests himself to the
sight, seated on a rock, with his cheek resting on his hand; and the
sight of him moves the hard heart of the most abandoned to trembling
and devotion. The religious took it aboard at Acapulco in solemn
procession, all of them hoping to arrive safe with so good company,
as happened. Accordingly, as soon as they cast anchor, they carried
that image to the college of San Joan Baptista, so that it might be
lodged until the necessary arrangements were made for the festival
of its entrance. The festival was at last effected after the lapse
of many days, and it was one of the celebrated festivals that have
been seen and admired, both in its pomp and in the concourse that
collected from all parts because of the fame of the image. It was
placed first in the cathedral church, and next day, a very momentous
procession having been ordained, they carried it thence to the convent,
where the beginning was made and the conclusion given to a magnificent
novena. The divine mercy showed its favors very frequently to those who
petitioned it for aid in their troubles with a true and living faith.

There is another image of our Lady, called "Consolation," because of
the great consolation that those who are afflicted find in it, when
they are most exhausted. Her devotion commenced from the time of the
entrance of our Reform into the islands; and it has been continued
by means of the favors that she scatters in protection of those who
commend themselves to her by invoking her aid. Our patrons had a most
singular affection for her, and therefore they left a clause by which
a mass was to be sung for their souls in all the festivities of the
most blessed Mary. They offered her many gold jewels and articles
of richest clothing, that testified the love with which they humbly
surrendered to the vassalage due to her. Father Fray Antonio de San
Augustin [38] encouraged greatly the worship and veneration of that
sacred and miraculous image, and received instant pay and wages for
his labor. For when he was about to die (the candle being already
in his hand), without anyone perceiving it or having hope of it he
recovered his senses, and talked to those present who were watching
him and assisting him, to the astonishment of all the physicians,
who regarded him as a dead man. He declared what had happened, and
said that having offered in his heart his vows at the feet of the
said Virgin, when he was almost dead, as was thought, he heard her
near him talking to him, together with St. Nicolas de Tolentino;
and she graciously revivified him, saying that he was not to die
from that illness. That was a fact, for within a few days he arose,
just as if he had not been at the gates of death.

The third image that illumines and ennobles that convent is that of
the famous titular saint, Nicolas de Tolentino. He has chosen to make
himself known in those remote regions as much as in the other regions
of Christendom, by means of the continual prodigies and marvels that he
works there. A great volume might be written of those that have been
seen in Manila alone, and a greater volume of those outside. Suffice
it to say that, because of his having appeared to the sailors in
their greatest straits and troubles, they have all unanimously taken
him as their patron. The glorious saint rewards their pious devotion
by lofty marvels, and does not discontinue for all that to work them
very frequently on land--for which both the Spaniards and the Indians
of the Philippinas Islands venerate him as a refuge, in whom they
consider their relief very sure.

Strong religious have gone out from that very strict house to combat
the power of the devil, in order to remove his yoke from many souls,
as we shall see in the time of reporting their deeds of valor.

[The chapter concludes with the pious deaths of Fathers Andres de
San Joseph, Diego de Santa Ana, and Gaspar de la Madre de Dios, and
of Brother Simon de San Augustin, all of whose bodies were buried in
the Manila convent. [39]]




Chapter IX


_Father Fray Gregorio de Santa Catalina goes to Roma, and presents his
[claim for] justice in the tribunal of the supreme pontiff. The end
of the chapter is concerned with a mission that Ours tried to make
to the Philippinas Islands, the founding of two convents, and the
deaths of two great religious_.

[The provincial's mission to Roma results disastrously at first,
for he is doomed to many months of dreary waiting is denied audience
with the pope, and even ordered to quit the city. But finally the tide
turns; the pope, having learned of his mission, grants the long-desired
audience, and after hearing the humble representations of the pleader,
looks favorably upon the Reform branch. Although the Augustinians
in Spain attempt to suppress entirely the Reform, public opinion is
too powerful, and the Recollects have too many influential friends;
and consequently, the general of all the Augustinian order, then Juan
Baptista de Asti, orders opposition to cease. Meanwhile, Father Pedro
de San Fulgencio comes as procurator from the Philippines to request
more missionaries. He finds the Reform in almost its last throes,
but, nothing daunted, departs for Rome to urge his mission before
the pope. Being favorably received and his pretensions granted,
after a considerable stay in the Roman court, where he also assists
the provincial Gregorio de Santa Catalina, he sets out on his return
to Spain, but dies at Milan; and, for lack of anyone to carry on his
work everything is lost for the time being. Now Augustinian agents from
Spain take the opportunity to arouse animus against the Reform and to
thwart their designs by saying "that the discalced were unnecessary
in the Philippinas Islands; and that those who had gone were few
and hitherto of no use in the preaching, as they were persons who
could in no way prove advantageous to the Indians. The contrary was
seen then; and by the mercy of God, we have since seen it here, and
shall see it, very clearly, in due course of time. We note here only,
for the confusion of those who boldly devised such a proposition,
the testimonies that have come on different occasions in regard to
the credit and praise of Ours, who have shed luster amid those rude
and very barbarous provinces, with so much glory to themselves, by
illuminating them with the light of the gospel." These testimonials,
some of them later than the period which the present volume covers,
follow:]

Let the first be that of an inquiry made in Manila, at the time that
the above-mentioned calumny was learned, before Captain Martin de
Herrera, alcalde-in-ordinary of the same city. The report of this
was approved afterward by the city's cabildo, its justices, and
magistrates, the witnesses being fully qualified to act as such:
namely, the master-of-camp, Don Bernardino del Castillo Maldonado,
castellan of the fort; Master-of-camp Don Pedro de Chaves; General
Don Joan Esquerra; Captain Christoval Guiral; General Don Joan Manuel
de la Vega; Don Joan Sarmiento, chancellor of the royal Audiencia;
Don Francisco Gomez de Arellano, dean of the cathedral there, and
commissary-general of the crusade; Don Joan de Aguilar, archdean of
the same church; Captain Hernando de Avalos y Vargas; Licentiate
Rodrigo Guiral, secular priest; Admiral Don Joan de Valmaseda;
Don Luis Enrriquez de Guzman; Don Diego de Leon, school-master of
the said church; Captain and sargento-mayor Don Francisco de Ayala;
Don Luis de Herrera Sandoval, treasurer also of the same church; Luis
de Barrasa, regidor of the city; Captain Melchor de Ayllon; and Don
Antonio de Arze, also regidor of Manila. All those so illustrious
persons deposed that the discalced Augustinian religious who were
living and who had lived there, were serious, learned, spiritual,
beloved men, and that they were gladly seen and heard by those who
lived and dwelt in the Philippinas Islands; and that, by their good
life and example, they had gathered and were gathering much fruit in
the community, and among the natives of the province of Zambales. Those
people had been most fierce enemies of the Spaniards and other nations
before Ours had taken charge of their reduction. By the excellent
instruction of our religious, they had become so tamed and gentle that
now one could pass through their coast; while before one could not
even approach them without evident risk of those people killing him,
with great gusto, as they were so barbarous. Consequently, it would
be well to keep and increase those religious in that archipelago,
for the salvation and profit of souls.

The second testimony is that of the royal Chancilleria of Manila, in a
letter to the Catholic king of the Espanas, and affirms the following:

"The discalced religious of the Order of St. Augustine, who are
employed in these islands in preaching the holy gospel, are held
in great esteem in this city of Manila because of their virtue
and good example. They have three or four provinces of Indians in
their charge, and, moved by holy and pious zeal for the welfare of
souls, they continue daily to establish new convents among the most
unconquerable people of the islands. Thus have they been seen to gather
most considerable fruit for the service of God and of your Majesty."

In another letter are also noted these words, which affirm the above:

"The discalced religious of St. Augustine are very observant in their
ministries, and attend to the service of your Majesty, on occasions
of enemies by sea and land, where some have been killed and captured."

Before proceeding further, it will not be an impertinent digression
to mention and explain briefly the services above mentioned, stating
first that our religious serve as chaplains in the forts of Tandag,
Calamianes, Bagangan, and Linao, with notable sacrifice both of
their liberty (for they are often captured and illtreated) and
of their lives, because of the bad voyages on, and hardships of,
the seas. When Don Fernando de Silva was governing the islands,
a fleet was sent against the Bornean and Camucones enemy, who were
devastating the coasts, seizing numbers of captives, and committing
other depredations. As chaplains went fathers Fray Diego de San Joan
Evangelista, native of Zaragoca, and Fray Joan de la Cruz. They bore
themselves so devotedly amid the military excitements, and gave so good
examples, that the chief commander, one Captain Bartolome Diaz, finding
it necessary to absent himself, in order to leave his men with security
and in quiet appointed, with well recognized prudence, the first above
named. For that religious, not as a substitute for the commander,
but as a father, cared for all, and they were satisfied. And they were
surprised, because it happened that, the supply of water falling short,
they sought it, but were unable to find any in various parts of the
islands, and were suffering the anguish and affliction that can be
imagined in such an extremity, when one day the said father said mass,
begging our Lord for help in such need. It happened, then, that after
performing his ministry he returned to the men and told them to be very
joyful, and to look in the direction that he pointed out to them for a
spring that was there. They found it immediately, not very far away,
and praised God for so great a mercy. In the insurrection of Caragha
a numerous fleet was also prepared; Captain Joan Mendez Porras was
accompanied, for the common consolation of the soldiers, by fathers
Fray Lorenco de San Facundo and Fray Diego de Santa Ana. By their
efforts the villages of Bislin, Careel, and Bagangan were conquered
and that land again reduced. In another fleet that set out from the
same province of Caragha, Captain Joan Nicolas chose father Fray
Jacinto de San Fulgencio, whereupon many villages surrendered to
the service of the king; and the Indians of the island of Dinagat,
Baybayon, and Sandegan requested ministers, and five hundred were
baptized. Besides such occasions, which are generally quite common,
Ours have served in divers fleets that have been prepared to oppose
the Dutch who were infesting the shores. Lastly, in two expeditions
made by Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera--one to the kingdom of
Jolo, and the other to that of Mindanao--he took, in the first,
fathers Fray Joan de San Nicolas, and Fray Miguel de la Concepcion;
and in the second, father Fray Lorenco de San Facundo and father
Fray Joan de San Joseph. The last-named religious was very useful,
for he served as ambassador to the Moro king, to whom he was a friend,
as he had been his captive in former times.

Returning to our narration, and the relation of the security of
Ours, now comes Don Fray Hernando Guerrero, archbishop of Manila,
in a letter to the Congregation of the Propaganda of the Faith,
[40] and he confirms the work of the same, while he says:

"The discalced Augustinian religious who live in these Philippinas
Islands are gathering a very large harvest here in the conversion of
souls. Not less known are the advances that Christianity is making
in the kingdoms of Japan by their preaching and teaching, where in
the years one thousand six hundred and twenty-nine and thirty, six
religious of the same institute suffered martyrdom, together with
many others, members of the third order, [41] or _Mantellatos_, and
confriars of the girdle [_correa_] of our father St. Augustine, all
converted to the faith and instructed by the same discalced religious
who are in those regions. Now, to relate the news that we have just
received, two of the same religious are suffering the most exquisite
torments that can be imagined, after two years of the hardest kind of
imprisonment. They are suffering also, in the ministries and convents
which they maintain in these islands, great discomfort and hardship;
for the Indians in their charge are the most unbridled and fierce of
all those known in this archipelago, as experience of last year proved,
when the Indians killed four religious. Their death and the evident
danger of their lives did not frighten the others, and therefore
other missionaries did not hesitate to go."

While that prelate was bishop of Nueva Segovia, he also wrote two
letters, one to the Catholic king of Espana, and the other to the
above congregation, of the following tenor:

"The Order of the discalced religious of the Order of our father
St. Augustine are of considerable importance in these islands, and
they are gathering much fruit with their teaching and their good
example. They have many missions in districts remote from this city,
as they were the last who came to the islands, etc."

"The discalced Augustinian religious," he says in the other, "who
reside in these Philippinas Islands are gathering large harvests in
all parts in the conversion of the souls of these pagans, as they have
done in the kingdom of Iapon. Two years ago six professed religious of
the same order were slain there, by fire and sword, for the preaching
of the gospel, and the conversion of souls, in addition to seventy
other persons who suffered the same death, in the same kingdom,
for the preservation of the faith, which they had received then
through the ministry of two Spanish religious of the same institute,
who were preaching it there. The two latter are also now in prison
for the same reason, and it is thought will already have perished by
fire or in some other way."

Don Fray Pedro de Arze, bishop of Zugbu, was more minute in describing
the labors and efforts of our religious, in a letter informing the
sacred Congregation of the Propaganda of the Faith, in which he says
the following:

"For some years past the discalced Augustinian fathers of the
congregation of Espana have been, and are, gathering very large
harvests in the conversion of the infidels of these islands; for,
besides the many others that they have in other bishoprics, they
have more than ten convents in my diocese alone. They are laboring
therein in the cultivation of the vineyard of the Lord, with the best
of example, strict observance, and care. This is in the newest and
most dangerous posts of these islands, where their lives are exposed
to great risk, as the islands are hostile. But notwithstanding all
these dangers and hardships, they have converted a very great number
of infidels, both adults and children, to our holy Catholic faith. I
trust, God helping, that the conversion of the infidels--and especially
those of one island where those holy religious have their missions,
as it is one of the largest islands of these regions--will, in the
future, by means of their care and industry, advance and increase to
much greater, etc."

Besides the above, there are three other letters to the same
congregation, of the following tenor:

"The discalced religious of the Order of our father St. Augustine have
worked hard as long as they have been in these islands (which is many
years), and with good example, in the preaching of the holy gospel;
and they have gathered a great harvest of souls. They have established
many convents in the islands, for which they should receive honor
from your Excellencies, and receive protection, so that his Holiness,
as master and father, may concede them rewards and favors, so that
they may be encouraged to complete what they have begun."

The second letter contains the following points:

"The Recollect fathers of the Order of our father St. Augustine in
these Philippinas Islands are laboring faithfully in the vineyard
of the Lord, with good example and prodigious danger, as the people
whom they instruct are harsh and fierce. In some districts, they
are making much gain in the conversion of souls; in Japon they have
made a very great gain, and have converted many, both men and women,
who have given their lives for the confession of our holy faith,
as will be seen there by the authentic report that is being sent to
his Holiness. Consequently, they deserve that your most illustrious
Lordships show them every grace and protection, and that you encourage
them to proceed in a work so holy by writing to the king of Espana to
protect and aid them, for that their example and good life deserve it."

The third letter is of the tenor that is set down here:

"The Recollect fathers of the Order of our father St. Augustine
in these Philippinas Islands are faithfully cultivating, in most
exemplary manner, the vineyard of the Lord, and are preaching His
holy gospel with great hardship and danger to their lives; for those
people whom they have in charge are so harsh and fierce that they
killed four religious the past year. But the others did not fear
on that account to send new ministers to preserve the fruit that
they were gathering among those souls, through their hope that, by
their teaching, they will convert all of those people to the true
knowledge. They have also made much gain in Japon, as has been seen;
since a great number of pagans, abandoning their errors, have embraced
our holy faith through the preaching of the religious of this order
who are in those kingdoms. For their confession, six religious of
that institute, accompanied by many, suffered martyrdom, after they
had taken the habits of Mantellatos, or tertiaries of the same order,
with other confriars, and others who wear the girdle."

This prelate confirmed the same in two other letters to the Catholic
monarch, in the following manner:

"The Recollect fathers of the Order of our father St. Augustine,
from their first arrival in these islands, have gathered a plentiful
harvest in souls by their good example. They have many convents
and many missions in their charge. In their care are the islands of
Calamianes, and they have charge of a great part of the island of
Mindanao, where they have convents and labor with great zeal for the
salvation of souls."

In the second letter he wrote these words:

"The Recollect fathers of the Order of our father St. Augustine
have many convents in these islands, where they administer, with
great care, Christian instruction to the natives of the islands,
to whom they furnish a good example and whom they treat with great
gentleness. Their missions are very dangerous and the people of some of
them are harsh and fierce. They have had very good success in Japon,
and have given many martyrs to the Church, who fortified their lives
by the confession of our holy faith, as will appear there [_i.e._,
in Europe] by the report made here in regard to this. They merit the
aid and protection of your Majesty, so that they may be encouraged
to serve our Lord."

The ecclesiastical cabildo of Manila, occupying the vacant see,
testified to the same king of Espana in another letter:

"The discalced Augustinian religious are very austere in their
institute, and in their ministrations to the natives in the missions
under their charge--who, as they are among the most untamable and
fierce people in these regions, have killed and captured several of
the religious. Consequently, they are very short of men, but have
not failed in the service of your Majesty on the occasions that have
offered by land and sea."

It would be an evident ingratitude not to record here three letters,
which the unconquerable city of Manila wrote to their king and
sovereign, giving him a definite relation of the condition of Ours.

_First letter_

"The order of the discalced Augustinians, which has extended into
these islands, has been and is of great fruit in the spiritual by
their general virtue, their exemplary lives, and their excellent
teaching--both in the settlements of the Spaniards, where they
have convents, and in those of the natives where the ministration
and preaching of the holy gospel results in a very great harvest of
souls. Because they were the last order to settle in these regions,
they had to build some of their convents among the most rude and
warlike natives of these provinces. They have had so good success
with those natives that, through their efforts and the loving
treatment which they have shown them, they have so converted them
to the faith and so subjected them to the obedience of his Majesty,
that the fervent spirit which those religious have infused into both
those tasks is very evident. The order has a great lack of ministers
to occupy their many missions; and they need the favor and protection
of your Majesty, in order to attain their desire of carrying very
far the conversion of souls, and of preserving those who have been
converted to the faith. Therefore, this city is under obligations
to represent it to your Majesty, and to petition your Majesty, as
we do, with all humility, to be pleased to have a goodly number of
religious sent to them, so that they may continue and carry on their
good intentions in the service of God and that of your Majesty. For,
besides that the number of religious here is very few, as they have
scarcely enough for their missions, they fall sick and die, as many of
the sites and posts to which they go are not very healthful; for which
reason, the lack of ministers in their order is greater each day. This
is felt so much the more keenly as the importance of it is known."

_Second letter_

"This city of Manila has informed your Majesty on other occasions
of the great results produced in these islands by the discalced
Recollect religious of the Order of St. Augustine. Their exemplary
devotion is daily increasing this Christianity, as they strive for it
with so great energy. In regions so remote, and so full of enemies
and of heathen people, they, losing the fear of the violent deaths
that they suffer daily, with the holy zeal which accompanies them,
have founded many convents. From that has resulted a very great
conversion of those rude people, they being the most turbulent that
are known in these regions. May our Lord, for whom is this work,
decree that they continue to increase, since so many blessings result
from it for the glory of our Lord and the service of your Majesty. To
you we represent the aforesaid, and their great need of religious so
that they may continue. For two alone who went to Japon have been the
cause of sending seventy Japanese to heaven--some already religious,
and others brothers of the girdle--while the said two fathers were
arrested and destined for martyrdom, and it is expected will by today
have achieved the happy end of it."

_Third letter_

"This city of Manila has informed your Majesty on various occasions of
the great importance to these islands of the order of the discalced
Recollects of the Order of St. Augustine; of the apostolic men in
it; of the great harvest that they are gathering by the preaching
of the holy gospel; of the excellent example which they have always
given, and are giving, with their strict and religious life, and
their so close observance of their rules; and of the so considerable
results that have been achieved by them in the service of our Lord
and in that of your Majesty, with the aid of your royal arms, in
the great number of infidels who have been converted to our holy
Catholic faith, and have been subdued so that they render your
Majesty due homage and tribute. Those people have generally paid
that tribute and pay it every year. [We have written you] that
those religious have exercised and exercise with especial care in
all things the spiritual earnestness that concerns their profession,
both in the maintenance or their work and in their continual desire,
notwithstanding the innumerable annoyances which they endure, to carry
this work onward. They are ever converting new souls to the service
of our Lord and the obedience of your Majesty, while they preserve
great harmony and concord among themselves. Consequently, that order
has always been and is one of the most acceptable orders and one
of the most welcome in these islands. They are the poorest of all,
as all their ministries are in remote regions very distant from this
city, and among the most warlike people in all the provinces of these
islands, as they have been but lately reduced. [We have told you] of
the risk of their lives on account of this, because it has happened
at times that those who seemed to be pacified have rebelled; while at
other times the religious have fallen into the hands of those who were
not pacified, when preaching to them the holy gospel. There have been
many others also who have suffered martyrdom in the kingdom of Japon,
thus enriching the church of God with such noble actions, as well as
the crown of your Majesty. Above all, they have no income except the
alms given them by the faithful. There is no fleet in which they do
not sail for the consolation of the infantry, etc. This city petitions
your Majesty to be pleased to concede permission to the said order,
so that religious may pass from those kingdoms to these islands to
the number that your Majesty may decree, in consideration of the fact
that the need for them, in ministries so distant as theirs, is very
great. In those ministries, through the little nourishment of the
food which they use for the sustenance of human life, for they live
as those who are truly poor, and with great abstinence, which they
observe, without reserving any time because of discomforts, whether of
sun or shower, going through dense forests and inaccessible mountains
in order to reduce the many millions of souls of those districts to
our holy Catholic faith, not one of whom has any light, etc."

Don Joan Nino de Tavora, governor and captain-general of the
above-named islands, and president of the royal Chancilleria of Manila,
says in another letter to the same king:

"The Recollect Augustinian fathers who reside in these islands,
inasmuch as they arrived last, have taken the districts most distant
from this city. They are extending their labors into the district of
Caragha, and Calamianes, with success among those Indians, etc. During
the last four years, more than four thousand persons have been baptized
by that order alone. I petition your Majesty to be pleased to order
that their procurators be despatched with the greatest number of
religious possible, etc."

Lastly, Sabiniano Manrique de Lara, who exercised the aforesaid office,
concludes in another letter, in which he affirms the proposition:

"The order of discalced Recollects of St. Augustine who reside in
these islands and the districts of them, preserves in its members,
with all virtue and exemplary life, its obligations for the service
of God, in the protection and instruction of their parishioners,
the Indian natives; and in what regards the service of your Majesty,
they show the efficacious zeal of good vassals. For during the time of
my government they have not at all embarrassed me in any way. On the
contrary, as I recognize their good conduct, I am obliged to represent
it to your Majesty; and will your Majesty be pleased to show them every
favor and grace, in whatever opportunity may occur to your Majesty."

A letter came with those that are here given as addressed to the
sacred Congregation of the Propaganda of the Faith, who ordered the
two following letters to be written, which we place at the end, in
order to qualify better the labor of Ours, and to conquer the calumny
of those who attempted to obscure and stifle the fervor with which
the Reform commenced the reduction of the barbarous infidels.

_To the vicar-general of the discalced Augustinians_

"Very reverend father:

"Your Paternity will have learned that a letter was presented and read
in the assembly of the sacred Congregation of the Propaganda of the
Faith, received from the bishop of Zibu, etc. The most illustrious
lord cardinals have received most special pleasure in learning from
it the great number of convents that the religious of your order have
built in the Philippinas, and also the great harvest that they are
gathering in the conversion of those heathen by their example and
their good and holy customs. Inasmuch as the said bishop lives with
steadfast hopes of greater progress and advancement if he were again
aided and reenforced with other laborers of their order, such as they,
and resembling them, the sacred Congregation, attentive to this,
petitions your Paternity, with the affection and earnestness that
the salvation of so many souls merits, to effect and strive anew,
with all the earnestness and care possible, to provide new religious
and workers for those so remote and needy regions. We assure your
Paternity that it will be a great service to God and to the holy
apostolic see. And also that act will be one of great pleasure
to their Excellencies the cardinals. The latter advise you that,
in the missions conducted by your Paternity, the contents of the
decree enclosed herewith should be observed and obeyed. Besides this,
the sacred Congregation, in consideration of the services that your
Paternity's order has rendered to the holy apostolic see, has thought
best to protect that order with great pleasure and good-will, etc.


_Cardinal Ludovisi_
_Francisco Ingoli_, secretary."


_To the very reverend fathers the father provincial and the definitors
of the discalced Augustinians in the Philippinas Islands_

"Very reverend fathers:

"The relation of the progress that your Reverences have made in those
districts in the conversion of the heathen, and of the efforts put
forth and the hardships suffered for the said object, having been
referred to this sacred Congregation of the Propaganda of the Faith,
his Holiness and these my most illustrious Lordships, after having
received most special consolation from so good news, have praised
not a little the zeal and piety of your Reverences. They also exhort
you to continue in the future with the same fervor, especially in the
care of the mission destined for Japon. In the same manner they have
ordered that an urgent message be sent to the papal legate [_nuncio_]
of Espana to try to procure prompt despatches for the multiplication
of the ecclesiastical workers in those regions. His Holiness, in
particular, has willingly offered them his consolation with eight
thousand benedictions, etc.


_Cardinal Borxa_
_Francisco Ingoli_, secretary."


In order to conclude all this with the destruction of the calumny
that their opponents invented, in regard to the presence of Ours in
Philippinas being without fruit, we might quote certain authors who
have spoken in no uncertain voice in their praise. But we forbear,
except in the case of master Fray Thomas de Herrera, whom, as he
is worth a thousand men, it will be well to cite. In regard to the
aforesaid, he speaks in the following manner in his _Alphabeto_:

"These fathers, who were not slothful laborers, kindled with zeal
for the Catholic faith, and desirous for the salvation of souls,
crossed the seas in the year 1605, to remote regions of this world,
although at the eleventh hour." (Folio 181, volume i.)

"The discalced fathers of Hispania crossed the seas in the year 1605,
kindled by their zeal for the salvation of souls (and at times by
the shedding of their blood in the kingdoms of Japonia) to those
remote islands, as planters of the Church or as spreaders of its
tents." (Folio 127, volume ii.)

"The congregation of the discalced of Hispania, which extends its
vineyards even to the seas and to the Philippinas Islands, sent
laborers about the year 1588 to remote colonies, who preached the
gospel to the Japanese; and with their own blood, shed most profusely,
they either planted or watered the Church in various kingdoms,
and illumined the Augustinian order with a great number of glorious
martyrs." (Folio 485, _ibidem_.)

[A section devoted to the founding of the convent of Calatayud in
Aragon follows, and the narration of the work in the Philippines is
taken up again in the succeeding section, entitled:]

_Foundation of the convent of Bolinao_

The missionary religious in the Philippinas Islands had complete and
quiet peace, although those who were living in Espana, opposed by
miseries and misfortunes, were trying with all earnestness to recover
their lost quiet. A great field was offered to them, in which to give
vent to the ardor of their desires; but being few in number, they could
not accept as much as was given them. They determined finally to take
the island of Bolinao, near the province of Zambales and of Tugui,
whose warlike and fierce inhabitants, although less so than the others,
gave father Fray Geronimo de Christo, vicar-provincial at that time,
and his associate, father Fray Andres del Santo Espiritu, sufficient
occasion to exercise their patience; for, not wishing to hear them,
they tried daily to kill them. The two fathers persisted in softening
those diamond hearts with their perseverance, after having lived for
some months on only herbs of the field, when the natives deprived
them of food so that, thus needy, the fathers should be compelled
to leave them and go away, or so that they might die of hunger. That
might have happened if God our Lord had not aided them with His grace,
as is His wont in times of greatest stress. The patient endurance of
Ours conquered the barbarians; and, recognizing that those who were
so long-suffering and so kind could not fail to be right in what
they said, they submitted to the yoke of the gospel, very gladly
and joyfully receiving the Christian instruction and baptism. For
that reason it became necessary to found a convent there, and that
was accomplished through the conversion of one thousand six hundred
souls, who are directed, together with those of other villages near
by. In that place occurred a circumstance resembling that of father
Fray Rodrigo de San Miguel, which we have recounted above; for while
all the Indians of the village were not yet converted, our religious
learned that those of the village had gone to a bamboo plantation not
very distant, in order to worship it and to venerate their bamboos, as
if they were gods. They followed the Indians, and found them occupied
with their blind observances. The more the religious persuaded them,
they could not induce them to cut a single bamboo, because of the error
which they had accepted from the mouth of the devil, namely, that they
would surely die if they touched the canes. Thereupon the fathers,
although at the evident risk of their lives, amid the great shouting
and lamentations of the Indians, ordered a good Christian servant, who
acted as their guide, to begin to fell the thicket. Proceeding at first
with the fear of those foolish people, the servant felled the entire
thicket to the earth, and then the barbarians were assured of their
error, and without delay they more joyfully accepted Christianity.

[Two sections follow, treating of the lives of Fathers Geronimo de
Christo and Diego de Jesus, the first of whom was a missionary in
the Philippines and the second in Mexico--who, being captured by the
English, passed through many stirring adventures.]

[Chapter x contains nothing touching the Philippines except a brief
survey of the life and death of the founder of the Philippine missions,
Father Joan de San Geronimo. He died near Ormuz, while returning to
Spain in order to secure more workers for his mission.]




Third Decade

[The first chapter recounts that papal permission was given to erect
four novitiates in the convents in the four Spanish cities of Madrid,
Valladolid, Zaragoza and Valencia.]




Chapter II

_Foundation of the convent of Cigayan_

_The year 1612_


The missionary fathers of the Philippinas Islands were free from
anxiety, and were far from suffering the strife and upheaval that the
Reform was enduring in Espana. However, in their great anxiety to guide
souls to heaven, they did not desist from their fruitful conversion
along the coasts of Zambales. They needed associates to help them
carry so heavy a burden; but notwithstanding that, in their sorrow for
the lamentable loss of those who did not yet know God because of the
lack of missionaries, after they had converted many infidels in the
village of Cigayan they set about founding a monastery there. They
carried it out that year, and lived therein with all security until
an Indian, instigated by the devil, laid violent hands on father Fray
Alonso de San Augustin, whom he wounded severely in the throat with
a very broad though short dagger, called _igua_ in that country,
which is made purposely for beheading a person at one blow--a vice
common to the Zambales, before they knew the sweet charity of the law
which we profess. But as the stroke was first caught by the hood [of
the father's habit], the barbarian did not succeed in his purpose,
which had been to behead him in a moment. But the wound did not
heal readily, and consequently he lived but a little while. It is
said that there was no further cause for the atrocious and profane
act of the wicked parricide than the desire to free himself from
the censures that that same father had administered to him for his
crimes and wickedness. Thereupon, the Indians of the village rose
in revolt, and after burning the church and the convent, fled to the
mountains. However, some remained, who defended the other religious,
and carried the wounded man to Masinglo. Consequently, the village was
almost deserted. Afterward they tried, and successfully, to subdue
the insurgents again. They succeeded by their energy and toil, and
restored the settlement and church again to their former state for
the administration of seven hundred souls or so, who were the last
ones to comprehend the cry of the gospel.

It happened in this place that one Sunday, while father Fray Francisco
de Santa Monica was in the church teaching the rudiments of the
Catholic faith to the least intelligent Indians, they came to tell
him that there was a certain woman, at a long legua's distance from
that place, dying of childbirth, who was entreating for baptism very
earnestly. The said father left his exercise, and, seizing a staff,
started to run so fast that, as he himself testified, it seemed as if
he were flying through the air. He was not far wrong, for in less than
one-half hour he reached the place or hut of the poor woman who was
expiring, all swollen and black with the pain and anguish that she was
suffering. He baptized her (and also instructed her as was necessary),
and she immediately gave birth to an infant, which, although alive,
was much deformed because of the danger of the mother. After it had
been washed likewise from the original sin in which all we children
of Adam are born, they both died, to the joy and wonder of that
minister at seeing the depth of the divine decrees in regard to the
predestination of those souls.

[Chapters iii, iv, and v treat of the European affairs of the order.]




Chapter VI

_All of the charges against the Reform are annulled by a brief, and
the fifth provincial chapter is held, with the prorogation which
they claimed. Two convents are established and a mission arranged
for the Philippinas_.

_The year 1616_


[By a papal decree of May twenty-one, new life is given to the
Recollect order, and their future assured. On the return of Father
Gregorio de Santa Catalina, the chapter which had been delayed until
that time was held. In this chapter, _discretos_ (or persons elected as
assistants in the council of the order) and visitors were abolished,
the latter having been found more expensive than useful. The title of
chief preacher was not to be given to anyone, as it tended to destroy
the democratic principles of the order. A section on the founding of
the college of Caudiel in Spain follows, and then the last section
of this chapter, which is also the last of this volume _in re_
the Philippines.]


_Foundation of the convent of Cabite_

Inasmuch as we have left our religious busily occupied in the lofty
ministry of the conversion of the infidels, it will be advisable for us
to turn our attention to them, on the present occasion, praising their
great zeal. Much more must we do so, since they advanced with so few
workers to do all that their forces were able, both in the preaching
of the gospel, and in the spread of their houses, in order that they
might serve with energy in the no small toil that was theirs. That
convent of Cabite seemed to be necessary; and they did not deceive
themselves, for, although only two leguas distant from Manila, it
is of considerable consequence for the conversion of many souls,
as Cabite is a port where men of not a few Asiatic nations assemble
for the sake of its commerce, which is remarkable. Hence that place
comes to be the largest one in the Philippinas Islands after the said
metropolis, and all the seamen live there, in order to be conveniently
near to its traffic and its trade. With such a motive, that convent
was founded by father Fray Andres del Espiritu Santo, and under so
good auspices that it has been of use to the service of God and to
the credit of the Reform, because of the spiritual blessing that it
has obtained, as well as by the esteem in which it has been held,
as the various people who come there from the most remote and distant
kingdoms have experienced the example and instruction of Ours. Divine
Omnipotence has there made illustrious, for the feeding of hearts, a
devout image of our Lady of Rule [_Nuestra Senora de Regla_]--modeled
from the one that protects and defends the Andalusian shores between
Cadiz and San Lucar--especially favoring through her means the poor
sailors in the continual dangers of their fearful duty. So many are
the vows that attest her miracles, that it would be a digression to
have to mention them.

While the useful foundation of that convent was being directed in
Philippinas, father Fray Rodrigo de San Miguel was in Espana, working
carefully and diligently in order to get the necessary despatches
to conduct helpers suitable for the prosecution of the spiritual
conquest that had been happily commenced among the Zambales. The
vigilance employed by two commissaries to get the so desired subsidy
for his brothers was disappointed by death, and by the opposition
we have already related. Consequently, the few who were fighting
the devil in the enclosure did not desist, and sent the above-named
father--since he was the most fitting person that could be found for
the attainment of such an enterprise--to whom they consigned papers of
great moment, as a testimonial of the work and of the fruit which they
were gathering with the gain of souls. Our calced fathers themselves
affirmed it, to the confusion of those who here opposed father Fray
Francisco de la Madre de Dios, and their ministries and desires. The
father embarked with great haste, but as he was coming on an affair of
heaven, misfortunes were not wanting in the world, and he endured very
heavy ones. He himself mentioned them in a relation that he made to
Pope Urban Eighth at the latter's command, when he reached his feet,
as the ambassador of certain schismatic princes of the Orient (as we
shall relate in detail when we come to the year of that event). The
father declares, then, that having suffered a severe storm amid the
islands--during which the vessels anchored at Manila were wrecked--he
sailed immediately toward Japon. Thence, after suffering other
tempests, they finally sighted Cape Mendocino in forty-four degrees
of latitude. Then coasting along the shores of Nueva Espana (which
was composed of inaccessible mountains), and through unknown seas
(in which he saw great monsters), for the distance of one thousand
leguas, he sighted the cape of San Lucas. There the gulf of the
Californias begins. The father anchored in Acapulco, the best of the
ports known to the pilots, after having spent more than seven months
on the voyage. He went to Mexico and to Vera Cruz; and, continuing
his journey and encountering a new storm on the ocean, was driven to
the coasts of Terranova [_i.e._, Newfoundland] and of Labrador. As a
consequence so much shortness of food was experienced that only two
onzas of biscuit were given to each man, and about the same amount
of water. The ship began to leak, so that it was as if by a miracle
that it was able to put in at the Terceras. There they refitted, and
the father finished his navigation, by coming to Cadiz, after having
made to that point from Manila seven thousand one hundred and sixty
leguas, in the manner that we have seen. Thence he went to Madrid,
and was given favorable audience; and everything that he petitioned
was conceded to him. But when twenty religious had been assembled,
although they were even about ready to sail in the fleet that was
being sent with reenforcements to the Malucas, the father's luck
turned against him with the order that was received, for the boats
that were ready not to sail. Consequently, he was accommodated on
the fleet of Nueva Espana, but with very few religious. However they
proved to be many, because of the lack of religious in the ministries
and convents of the Indias....




General History of the Discalced Religious of St. Augustine By Fray
Luis de Jesus [42]




Decade Fourth


Chapter First

_The Augustinian Reform is erected, by pontifical favor, into a
congregation, divided into provinces, and governed by a vicar-general._

[The first eleven sections of this chapter relate to affairs in
Spain, and contain matters touching the order at large, as well as
the affairs of various districts, and others pertaining to the lives
of various religious of the order. The balance of the chapter deals
with Philippine matters, as follows.]

_Year 1621_


Sec. XII

_Foundation of the convent of Zibu in Filipinas_

During this year of twenty-one, when our discalced order was erected
into a congregation in Espana, the number of our houses in the
Filipinas Islands was increased by the efforts of the zeal of the
religious who were attending therein to the service of God and the
welfare of so many souls, who were in need of ministers to lighten
them with the divine word upon the pathway of the Lord. Sovereign
Providence, then, arranged that our discalced should have a convent
in that island of Zibu. It has been a station for the entrance of the
publication of the faith of Christ our Lord to many distant provinces
of barbarous and blinded people.

The famous Magallanes discovered it in the year 1521. It has a
circumference of less than one hundred leguas. Its inhabitants are
called Pintados, because they have various designs on their bodies,
which they make with iron and fire. They were formerly regarded as
lords and chiefs of the other neighboring provinces, for they made
themselves feared by their great valor. Adelantado Miguel Lopez de
Legaspi gained it by force of arms from its king Tupas in the year
1575 [_sic_], and founded there the city of Nombre de Jesus, because
an image of the most holy child Jesus, one-half vara tall, was found
there in the house of an Indian. The Observantine fathers possess
that image in a convent that was built in the same house and on the
same site; it had before been owned and venerated by the heathen,
and is today frequented by the Catholics, who find there relief for
their needs. The city lies in the eastern part, and has a good port,
while there are other ports found in the island. There, then, did the
most pious bishop, Don Fray Pedro de Arce (of the order of our father
St. Augustine, and a son of the most observant province of Castilla,
and of the convent of Salamanca--where he professed in the year one
thousand five hundred and seventy-nine, while father Fray Antonio Munoz
was prior), solicit our discalced to found a convent; for, although
they had been the last in arriving at Filipinas, he hoped that they
were not to be the last in the work of the vineyard of the Lord.

The bishop assigned the site in a chapel dedicated to the conception
of our Lady, somewhat apart from the traffic of the city, so that,
accordingly, the religious could give themselves more quietly to
prayer. He adjudged them also the spiritual administration of an islet
and small village called Maripipi, not very far from Zibu. About
six hundred souls were instructed there by Ours with great care
and vigilance. The erection of that convent was accomplished by
father Fray Chrisostomo de la Ascension, who was its first prior. He
erected a small building, that afterward was rebuilt because of an
accidental fire, and extended so that now it is a very comfortable
dwelling, well suited to purposes of devotion. That convent has a
devout confraternity of Our Lady of Solitude [_Nuestra Senora de la
Soledad_.] On Holy Thursday, a solemn procession is made after the
ceremony of the descent of Christ from the tree of the cross. That
procession, passing through the streets of the city, is a great
edification and consolation to the faithful.


Sec. XIII

_Foundation of the convent of San Sebastian outside of the walls of
Manila in Filipinas_

The very devout and pious gentleman Don Bernardino del Castillo
Ribera y Maldonado was so good a benefactor to our discalced that
his generosity, which could not be satisfied within the circuit of
the walls of Manila, desired that we should make an experiment about
one-half legua from them. There as he had an estate which occupied
all that site, called Calumpan, to the boundaries of a little village
named Sampolog, and in its midst a well-built bit of a house, he made
an entire gift of it, so that a monastery might be built, in which the
religious could live retired, and, free from the excitement of the
city, give themselves up with more quietness to prayer. Father Fray
Rodrigo de San Miguel--whose heroic labors will give us considerable
of which to write--took possession of the estate, and remodeled the
said house in the form of a convent. The aforesaid master-of-camp
and castellan of the fort, Don Bernardino, was of great help, and it
was completed in time. The said village of Sampolog was assigned to
the care of the religious, so that the more than three hundred souls
that it contained should be instructed and taught there by them.

The comfort of the site was increased, so that the provincials have
chosen it as their place of habitation, because of the quiet that
is enjoyed there, as well as for its pleasantness, which serves as
a just recreation to the continual fatigue that their government
brings with it. One would believe that God looked on that house with
pleasure, for, during the cruel rising of the Sangleys, or Chinese,
it suffered no considerable damage, although they set fire to it in
various parts with the desire of leaving not even a memory of it. We
piously believe that the queen of the angels, our Lady, defended
it, as being her dwelling; for a very holy image is revered there,
under the title of Carmen. Although that image is small in stature,
it is a great and perennial spring of prodigies and favors, which
she performs for those who invoke her. Our religious took it from
Nueva Espana, and even in that very navigation she was able to make
herself known by her miracles.

Don Juan Velez, dean of that cathedral, was very devoted to our
discalced Recollects. Upon finding himself in the last extremity of
life, to which a very severe illness brought him, he requested that
that holy image, which had been but recently taken there, be carried
to his house. So lively was his faith, accompanied by the prayers of
the religious, that he immediately received entire health on account
of so celestial a visit. As a thank-offering for that favor, the
pious prebendary made one of the most famous feasts that have been
in that city. He founded a brotherhood, with so many brethren that
they exceed four thousand. Consequently, that most holy image is
daily frequented with vows, presents, and novenas, thank-offerings
of the many who are daily favored by that queen of the skies.

Finally, in this year of our narration was sent the sixth mission of
religious, which the father procurator, Fray Francisco de la Madre
de Dios, arranged in Espana for those islands; and he obtained by
his great energy authority from the Catholic monarch to take twelve
religious there to increase the number of the laborers in the vineyard
of the Lord.

That year died father Fray Alonso Navarro, and father Fray Antonio
Munoz. Mention was made of the first in the first volume, decade i,
chapter 6. Mention will be made of the second in this fourth decade
of this volume, chapter 9, in the foundation of the convent of Panama,
Sec. 9.




Chapter Second


_The apostolic see confirms what was enacted in the first general
chapter of the reform. Other new privileges are conceded. The preaching
of our religious in Filipinas spreads._

_Year 1622_

[Papal favor, with the confirmation of the enactments made by the
first general chapter of the Recollects held in Madrid, puts the
reformed order on a tolerably firm footing, and they are able to
proceed with their missionary and other efforts with more peace of
mind. The first section of the present chapter relates entirely to
the affairs of the order at large. The Philippine narration is again
taken up in section ii.]

Sec. II

_Preaching of our discalced Recollect religious in the province of
Caragha. Description of the country, with detailed and interesting
information._

ÂThe divine Mercy scattered his accustomed favors upon the province
of San Nicolas of Filipinas that year. For its zealous sons, desiring
to propagate the holy gospel, but lacking sufficient workers, busied
themselves in preserving what had been acquired, until the arrival of
very good companions [of their order], when they undertook to go to
the province of Caragha, a very principal portion of the island called
Mindanao. That island rivals that of Luzon in size. It is one hundred
and fifty leguas distant from Luzon, and is more than three hundred in
circuit, counting promontories and indentations. Its greatest length
is one hundred and thirty-six leguas, namely, from the point of La
Galera to the cape of San Augustin. It has flourishing villages,
especially along the shores of the rivers, which are large and not
few. One which flows out of the famous lake of Malanao is larger than
the others. That lake is formed from other rivers which dash down from
the mountains. The shape of the lake is oval, and its circumference
fifty leguas or more, according to report. Its greatest diameter is
only sixteen leguas, with its points and bays, and without the latter
it is only twelve. In short, that lake is considered as one of the
most famous in the world. Its marge is extremely fertile in rice and
other food products, which abound in the Bisayas. Its mountains are
clothed with cinnamon-trees, brasil-trees, ebony, orange, and other
trees that bear delicious fruit. On the lowlands are bred abundance
of deer, buffaloes, turtle-doves, and fowls, besides other kinds
of game-birds. But in the rough country are sheltered wild boars,
civet-cats, and other fierce and wild animals.

There are certain birds that possess remarkable characteristics. The
one called _tabon_ is found on the coast of Caragha. [43] It is smaller
than a domestic hen, and very like it [in appearance], although not
in affection for its young. It lays its eggs, which are three times
larger than those of our hens, in sandy places, and easily buries
them in a hole about one braza deep. That done, it abandons them,
and never returns to examine them again. Thereafter, the preservation
of those birds being in the care of divine Providence, the heat of
the sun quickens and hatches them, and the chicks, leaving the shell,
also break out of the sand above them, and gradually get to the surface
in order to enjoy the common light; and thus, without any further aid,
they fly away. If it happens that the chick in the egg is buried with
its head down, it does not get our, for upon breaking the shell and the
sand, it continues to dig always downward, as that is the direction
that its head has; and as it misses the road it gets tired and dies,
and its cradle serves as its tomb.

Quite different from the _tabon_ is another bird called _cagri_,
which is not found outside of Mindanao. [44] Its shape resembles
that of the bat, although it is much larger. It has no wings, but
only a membrane resembling a cloak, which falls from its shoulders
and covers it even to its feet. That enables it to pass from one tree
to another, but it cannot soar like other birds. It spreads out that
membrane when it wants to, and it is not without a tail. Its eyes
and head resemble those of a very graceful little dog, and its hair
is very soft, and at times colored with various colors, pleasing to
the sight. It bears so great affection to its young that it carries
them hanging to its breasts, just as women do, without leaving them,
although it climbs, flees, or runs.

The reader will not be wearied with knowing the characteristics
of another animal called _hamac_. It resembles a monkey, although
the head is very round. Its eyes are golden, and very beautiful and
large. Its tail is very large and serves it as a seat, and it neatly
wraps itself about with it. It does not use its feet to walk; for,
in order to go from one part to another, it lets its tail drop,
and supporting itself on it, leaps as it wishes. It is not seen
by day, because it keeps quiet until night, when it looks for its
food, which is only charcoal. [45] All its friendship is with the
moon. Accordingly, seated on a tree, it awaits the moon, until the time
when it shines. It looks at it fixedly without winking, from the time
when it begins to shine until it hides itself. When the dawn comes,
that animal loses its sight and returns to its dwelling. If anyone
discovers it, that animal takes pains to look at him, and measures
and takes note of his person with his sight, from top to toe. That is
usually a cause for fear, to those who do not know that characteristic;
but, if he knows it, that threatening causes him no fear. Finally,
concluding the description of that island, the reader must know that it
is called Cesarea, in memory of the unconquerable Charles Fifth--a name
that was given it by Bernardo de la Torre, captain and master-of-camp
of Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the year 1543; and under that name it
was designated by the documents and writings of that period.

Sec. III

_Customs of the inhabitants of that island_


Coming to the customs of the inhabitants of that land, we have to
note their common tradition, namely, that the first inhabitants were
blacks. Their barbarous descendants are preserved in the thickest
forests and in the most retired mountains. They have no regular
house, but stay where night overtakes them. They go almost naked,
for they only cover the shame of nature with the bark of certain
trees. Some of them have been seen to wear certain cloths made from
cotton, called _bahaquer_. They use the bow and arrow, and very keen
knives, with which they can sever the head of a man from the body at
one stroke. Their employment is to go in search of Bisayan Indians,
who live in the districts nearer the rivers and seashore; for they
hate the latter with fury because these have, as they give out,
usurped their own land.

It has been learned from serious and trustworthy persons that tall and
very ugly men have been discovered in those dense forests, whose feet
are turned backward. They live on the flesh of wild game, tree-roots,
and fish, without doing any work. The very sight of those men was so
terrifying that he who unfortunately chanced to see any one of them
was left cross-eyed and squinted forever, just like those whom we
call _vizcos_ [_i.e.,_ "cross-eyed"]. An eyewitness of this piece
of information confirmed this, who declared that he had seen and
known certain Indians who were almost squint-eyed from the effect
produced by the glance of those monstrous men. Those Indians say
that their speed is such that they can catch the swiftest deer by
running; and that upon catching those said Indians, the wild men
talked very confusedly among themselves, but afterward left the
captives hanging to some trees--whence they descended with great
risk, and were left squint-eyed, because of having looked at those
enormous barbarians. Some years later, another eyewitness who had
experience in the affairs of that island added that such monsters,
called _tecmas_, had been seen with ears misshapen because of their
size, and that their mouth was like that of a dog; while they were
so hideous in face and teeth that they caused great fright.

According to this information, these Indians have languages that are
very diverse, with peculiar characters. But they almost universally
talk the Bisayan, which is common and peculiar to Zibu, the head of
the other provinces called Pintados. Those Indians and the Caraghas,
with their other neighbors, go partly naked; for they cover the
lower part of the body, while they wear certain twisted cloths on
the head in the manner of a crown, or the duliman of the Turks,
but without the little bonnet that the latter are wont to wear. The
women are entirely covered, while, to protect themselves from the sun
and other inclemencies of the weather, they use curiously woven hats
of palm-leaves.

Their manner of religion was to adore, some the sky, and others the
moon; or their now deceased ancestors; or the mountains or woods in
which they believed their ancestors to dwell, accompanied by certain
deities, enjoying perpetual tranquillity. They regarded it as certain
that those who had been most valiant and tyrannical in this life were
deified, and also that there was eternal punishment for some. Others,
finally, reverenced most ugly idols made of stone or wood, which they
called _divatas_. There were different kinds of such idols: some
being destined for war, and others for sickness, sowing, and such
objects. They were rendered furious by thunder, and defied the deity
whom they supposed to have sent it; they called out loudly to it,
and if that did not suffice, they took arms against it.

It is said that the ridiculous Alcoran of the Mahometans had
penetrated even to that land from the Orient, having been taken
there by certain zealots of that infamous sect, who were trying to
extend it. However their efforts and false preaching availed them
little; for the inhabitants of those islands were very much given to
intoxication, and very fond of eating flesh forbidden by that false
law. Consequently, that error took root in very few of them.

They had no certain days established throughout the year for their
sacrifices, but made them as time and opportunity offered. They were
punctual in offering these when they were going to fight. War was
their universal inclination, because of their bestial and ferocious
appetite to rob and to go on raids, committing depredations on
the neighboring islands, and making slaves of all the people who
came to their hands. They also offered sacrifices in sickness, the
beginnings of their sowings, the building of their houses, and for
other necessities. The duties of priest were exercised indifferently by
both men and women, called _baylanes_. They made use of superstitions,
lots, witchery, and other ceremonies.

The method of their ceremonies was as follows. Those who were to be
present were summoned, handsomely dressed and adorned, by the sound
of certain harsh bells (or, rather, unmusical cattle-bells) to the
house where it seemed best--for they had no assigned temple--which
was adorned with herbs and flowers. While they were waiting for all
to gather, those who first came began certain songs, alternating
between men and women, in time to the sound of a small drum. The
victim was already prepared. It was either a hog or some captive,
whose hands and feet they tied as if he were a young sheep. All the
invited ones having arrived, the priest or priestess began their
barbarous function by going into a private retreat beforehand, where
he made six conjurations; and, after the devil had entered his body,
he left the retreat with infernal fury to explain the oracle which
all were awaiting. Then the priest, taking a small lance in his hand,
danced about the sacrifice to the music of certain cattle-bells and
rustic instruments. Finally, on reaching the animal or captive, the
priest wounded it, and the bystanders killed it with spear-thrusts
and blows. When the victim was dead, if it were a man, they cast it
into the sea; if it were an animal, they quickly skinned, cooked,
and ate it, drinking until they became intoxicated. But they kept
something for the absent ones, as a relic, also reserving the most
choice portion (generally the head), on a table that resembled an
altar, for the devil whom they called the _divata_. No one touched
that portion except the baylan, who afterward threw it into the water
very reverently. The sacrifice was concluded with that ridiculous
ceremony. However, they were wont to add certain other ceremonies,
according to the purposes for which the said sacrifices were being
made, as for instance in war. At such times, after their intoxication
was over, they went to the shore of the river or sea; and, after
launching a small boat, the baylan jumped into it, at the same time
making his lying conjurations. If the boat moved, it was taken as a
good sign, but if it were immovable, it was intimated to them that
that war should not be made, unless they repeated the sacrifices.

They also made use of another ceremony to ascertain whom each one
would capture. Each one kept in his house a great number of the teeth
of the crocodile or wild boar, strung on a cord. He handed those to
the priest very humbly. The latter received them with many salaams,
ordained so that they should have reverence for him. Then he said
certain badly-pronounced words ordering such teeth to move themselves,
by whose number the said baylan prophesied those who would remain
captive in the power of the owner of the string. In the same way they
cast other lots, in order to ascertain the future and its accidents.


Sec. IIII

_Continuation of the same_


When about to go rowing or sailing, they prayed to the promontories
or capes, attributing to them worship, as to the gods of war, with
very sad cries. They watched to see if a certain bird appeared,
called _limocon_, similar to the turtle-dove of Europa. If they
saw it in the direction that they were taking, it was a bad sign,
and they did not leave the port. They also considered the _toco_ or
_taloto_--called _chacon_ by our Spaniards, and very like the lizard
[46]--as inauspicious. They feared the latter wherever they found
it, as a thing very contrary to their designs. While the war lasted,
they did not eat of the fish called _pulpo_ [47] or of any other fish
caught in a net. For they believed that if they tasted of that, they
would become blind; while, if they ate of the others, they would lose
the victory and would be made captives. They thought that if they ate
with a light, they would be conquered; and consequently, never did
they strike a light to eat, even though night had fallen. Those who
remained in the village did no work for seven consecutive days; for,
if they did not do that, they feared the defeat of their companions. On
returning victorious, they asked their nearest dead relative, with
their rude prayers (having stopped their boats), whether he would
like to have a part in the taking of the captives whom they had. If
the boats moved--which was but natural and necessary, since they were
in the water--they believed that he assented. Thereupon, taking the
best slave, they bound him hand and foot; and, taking him ashore,
they passed the boat over him with great force and weight until they
killed him with brutal cruelty. The sacrifice was concluded in the
house with the death of another captive, who was killed by the wife
of the conqueror.

They showed themselves very dutiful toward their dead, burying them
with lamentations and remarkable minuteness of detail, increasing or
lessening the obsequies according to the quality and worth of their
actions. The nearest relatives were careful to close their mouths, for
they feared lest the soul of the dead would enter into their bodies
and do them a great deal of harm. Then they began their mourning by
lugubrious songs, which one of the kin intoned, while the others were
very attentive in order to respond, in time, with fearful cries. That
lasted more or less time according to the excellence of the deceased,
whose exploits were mentioned with great exaggeration. The friends and
acquaintances came in, both to console them and to become intoxicated,
which formed the relief for that sorrow. Only the mourners, who wore
white, refrained from drinking, in order that they might receive the
compliments of condolence soberly and in a dignified manner.

So great was their devotion to the souls of their parents and
grandparents (whom they called _humalagar_), that they always
offered them food in their banquets, especially when they finished
any house, thinking that they themselves would die if they failed in
that. They did the same with the first yield of their fruits. When
they became sick, they invoked these ancestors to aid them, as we do
the saints. Then they summoned certain old witches, who were their
physicians. They respected the latter so greatly that, from the day
on which they entered their doors, no fire was lit in that house, as a
sign of great reverence. The medicines applied were after consultation
with the devil, in the shape of a little idol or a very ugly figure of
a man or woman, whom they asked for the life of the sick person. If
the idol moved, it was a sign of death, just as remaining still was
a sign of life and health. They made the same tests in the water,
by putting a boat in it, and observing from a distance its state of
quietness or motion.

During the time that those barbarous obsequies lasted, it was
unlawful for anyone to go to any place where the deceased had gone,
or where he had bathed, under penalty of the culprit's losing
his life immediately. After the days for the mourning had been
completed, they covered the eyes and mouth of the corpse with sheets
of gold. They carried it to the field in a coffin, and into distant
caves or sepulchers among themselves; and buried it, together with
a male servant if the deceased was a man, or a female servant if the
deceased was a woman, so that such person might serve them, as they
thought that that was necessary in the other life. Thus did the dead
and living go hand in hand, without any recourse or dispensation. Such
servants of the deceased were set apart for that purpose from their
childhood, and were called _atabang_. If the deceased was rich, a
greater number of servants was added. This is confirmed by the event
that was rumored in the island of Bohol shortly before Miguel Lopez
de Legaspi arrived at Zibu; for those people placed seventy slaves
in the sepulcher of one of those barbarians, all arranged in order
in a little ship, which they call _caracoa_--which was provided with
anchors, rigging, and everything else, even arms and food, as if it
had been launched in the sea.

Of the aforesaid, it is well known that that people believed in the
error that the soul went with the body, and that they were maintained
in the other life as in this. Consequently, they placed the most costly
clothes in the sepulchers. The relatives added others, and even arms,
if the deceased was a man, and the instruments of her domestic labor
if a woman, together with all the other dishes and jewels of the house
(not even excepting gold and precious jewels), in accordance with
their taste, so that these might be enjoyed in the other life. The
food was carried to them for the space of one year, and it was placed
on an adorned table every day. When it was taken there, the food of
the preceding day was taken away. That they threw into the water, and
no one dared to touch it, as it was a sacred thing. They generally
built a hut over the grave, so that the deceased should not suffer
from the inclemency of the weather.

If the death were by violence, vengeance pertained to the children,
and in default of children to the nearest relative. The sign of that
obligation was to place certain armlets on the arms, as for instance,
twigs of osier, more or less according to the station of the dead. Upon
killing the first man whom they encountered--even though he were
innocent--one armlet was removed; and thus they continued to kill
until all the rings were removed from the arms. The avenger did not
eat anything hot, or live in a settlement, during that wicked and
barbarous vengeance.

Each year every relative punctually celebrated the obsequies, and that
was a very festive day. They gathered a great quantity of food and
beverages; they commenced many joyful dances; they stuffed themselves
with what was prepared, taking some to their houses, and reserving the
greater portion to offer to the _divata_, and to the deceased, in the
following manner. A small bamboo boat was prepared, with much care,
and they filled it with fowls, flesh, eggs, fish, and rice, together
with the necessary dishes. The baylan gave a talk or a prolix prayer,
and finished by saying: "May the dead receive that obsequy, by giving
good fortune to the living." Those present answered with great shouting
and happiness. Then they loosed the little boat (sacred, as they
thought), which no one touched, and whose contents they did not eat,
even though they were perishing; for they considered that a great sin.


Sec.V

_Vices of the inhabitants of that island_

The vices of that people were indeed enormous. They were never lovers
of peace among themselves, and always were anxious for continual wars,
which they carried on at the slightest excuse. All their desire was to
rob and capture on land and sea, although they had in their ancient
times condemned theft severely. Their arms consisted of a lance;
a long, narrow shield which covered the entire body; and a dagger
resembling a broad knife, with which they easily cut off the head of
him whom they conquered, which was their greatest delight. They also
used bows and steel-pointed arrows with skill.

Their greed was insatiable, although they were lazy and slothful; and
for that reason they practice unheard-of usury. There is no trace of
reason or justice in them. If one lent another a short measure of rice,
the debtor was obliged to return it in a certain time. If he did not
have the wherewithal to return it, he became a captive, and had no
redress; for the judges, who should have prevented that oppression,
were the first to practice that offense. That was the practice between
peers. If the business were with any chief, the poor wretch remained
a slave forever, even though the sum were for only four reals. They
made a distinction in those captivities; for if one were born of a
slave woman, and a free father, or the contrary, such a one remained
a half slave. Consequently in order for the accomplishment of his
service to his master, it was sufficient for him to serve for six
months scattered along through the twelve of the year. If he were the
child of parents both half slave, he was obliged to serve one month,
remaining free the three following; then he served another month,
continuing in this manner his servitude. Likewise, when a freeman
and a slave had many children, the chiefs were wont to set some free,
while the others remained slaves forever.

Their intoxication and lust went to excess. They had what wives they
could support, and did not exempt among them their sisters and their
mothers. Marriage consisted in the will of the parents of the bride,
and the suitor paid them the dowry, although it was not handed to them
until after they had children. If either of the parents were dead,
the dowry was given to the nearest relative. They were divorced with
ease, but it was on condition that if the husband solicited it he lost
what was given to his parents-in-law; but if the wife procured it,
the dowry was restored. If adultery were proved, the aggressor and the
aggrieved [husband] came to terms--the same being done in the case of
the wife--in regard to the sum that was agreed upon, after considerable
haggling, and they generally remained fast friends. Consequently,
some husbands were wont to make a business of that, such was their
barbarism, arranging tricks, and providing occasions for their wives
to repeat their adulteries, in order that they might derive infamous
gains. If the culprit had nothing with which to pay, he became a
captive or lost his life. Divorce was very frequent, and agreement was
made to divide the children between husband and wife for their support.

They gloried in knowing charms and in working them, by consulting the
devil--a means by which some made themselves feared by others, for
they easily deprived them of life. In confirmation of this assertion,
it happened, according to the recital of one of our ministers, that
while he was preaching to a great assembly one Indian went to another,
and breathed against him with the intent of killing him. The breath
reached not the Indian's face, however, but an instrument that he
was carrying, the cords of which immediately leaped out violently,
while the innocent man was left unharmed. The philosophy of such
cases is that the murderer took in his mouth the poisonous herb
given him by the devil, and had another antidotal herb for his own
defense. Then, exhaling his breath in this manner, he deprived of
life whomever he wished. They used arrows full of poison, which
they extracted from the teeth of poisonous serpents. They wounded
and killed as they listed, by shooting these through a blowpipe,
which they concealed between the fingers of their hands with great
dissimulation, blowing the arrows so that they touched the flesh of
their opponent. They practiced consultation with the devil by means
of their baylans, in order to ascertain natural causes, especially
in their illnesses. Consequently, they were very great herbalists,
knowing above all the preservatives from the poisons with which
they attacked one another on slight occasions--especially the women,
who are the more passionate and more easily aroused.


Sec. VI

_Treats of the government of those islanders_

The government of those people was neither elective nor hereditary;
for he who had the greatest valor or tyranny in defending himself was
lord. Consequently, everything was reduced to violence, he who was most
powerful dominating the others. When one went to the chief to plead
justice, the latter delivered his sentence without writing anything;
and there was no appeal, whether the sentence were just or unjust. The
rich treated the poor and the plebeians as useless brutes, so that
those poor wretches flung themselves upon the rocks to die, as they
were unable to endure so hard a yoke. If he who was less did not pay
homage to him who was more influential, he was declared as his slave
only because the other wished it. They also deprived those miserable
beings of life for such reasons. Such was their iniquity and madness.

If any criminal received protection in the house of a chief and the
latter managed his affair, the one protected became a perpetual slave,
together with his wife, children, and descendants, in return for the
protection. Because once while some boats were sailing some drops
of water fell on a chief woman, through the carelessness of him who
was rowing, it was considered so serious an offense that the poor
wretch was condemned to perpetual slavery, together with his wife,
children and relatives. However, our religious destroyed that practice
by spreading the holy gospel in that country.

The nobility of those Indians was personal. It consisted in one's own
deeds, without reference to those of others. Accordingly, he who was
more valiant and killed most men in war was the more noble. The sign
of that nobility consisted in wearing the cloth wrapped about the head
(of which we have spoken above), of a more or less red color. Those
nobles were exempt from rowing in the public fleets (and that although
they were slaves), and ate with their masters at the table when they
were at sea--a privilege which they gained by their exploits. In
that custom of killing they reared their children and taught them
from an early age, so that beginning early to kill men, they might
become proud and wear the red cloth, the insignia of their nobility.


Sec. VII

_Governor Don Juan de Silva declares war against those Indians,
and our religious enter to preach the gospel faith._

We have extended the relation of the barbarous customs of those
Indians, in order that the reader might know the great difficulty in
subjecting them to the law of reason, and (what is more) to the mild
law of the holy gospel. Some Spaniards, accompanied by evangelical
ministers, had penetrated those provinces at times from the year
1597, with great zeal; but they could not remain there because of the
ferocity of the natives, and for other casualties, which make those
provinces less habitable, notwithstanding that they abound in many
things that are necessary to life and advantageous to commerce.

For these and other reasons, Don Juan de Silva, governor and president
of Manila, called various meetings of commanders, and experienced
captains, in which it was determined to make energetic war on those
barbarians. Charge of the war was given to General Don Juan de Vega,
son of Doctor Don Juan de Vega, auditor of Manila. He with a fine
fleet of four hundred Spaniards and other Indians sailed to humble
the pride of those barbarians. The latter were not unprepared for
resistance; for, joining their forces, they entrenched themselves so
that there was considerable doubt as to the undertaking. Both sides
fought with great valor, and there were many killed and wounded. But
at last our troops were victorious, as their zeal was to the service
of God and the increase of His worship. More than one thousand five
hundred Christian captives were liberated, and a presidio and fort
[48] was erected as a warning for the future. That effort was not
sufficient to quiet those Caraghas islanders; for within four years
three thousand of them assembled and, surrounding the redoubt,
placed it in great straits. They were repulsed by our men with so
great valor that, having retired to the sea, they vented their fury
by inflicting severe injuries on some villages friendly to us. And,
our men also getting a good reenforcement that was sent us from
Manila, those men returned to their homes--where, treating afterward
for articles of peace, they were pardoned for their past boldness,
and their subjection was arranged with the mildness of the gospel yoke.

Affairs were in that condition, when the most illustrious Don Fray
Pedro de Arce, bishop of Zibu, most worthy son of our Augustinian
order, with his great zeal of gaining souls for God conceded to
our Reform the office of catching them with the net of the gospel
preaching. When the reenforcement of missionaries had arrived from
Espana that year [_i.e._, 1622], as is said in volume i, last chapter,
eight of our religious were appointed for that purpose. Stimulated
by the pity that they had at learning that so many souls were being
lost in the blindness of their idolatry, these missionaries set out in
great fervor from Manila, after having received the blessing of their
superior, and not without the holy envy of the other religious, who
would have liked to spend their lives in that holy employment. These
apostolic men landed at Zibu, where they received the blessings of
the most zealous bishop and many kindnesses with which he wished to
load them. He despatched them with promptness, and in a short time
they reached the redoubt of Tanda, which was the name of the fort
that had been erected there by our Spaniards.

Then commenced the greatest felicity of that land; for our religious,
having as their object the welfare of those barbarians, tried to
gain their good-will by gentle measures. For that purpose, father
Fray Miguel de Santa Maria, the superior of that spiritual squadron,
refused to settle in the said fortress of Tanda; for, since those
heathen had a horror of it, they would not go to it. Consequently,
despising his life, and exposing it to manifest danger, he determined
to enter the country one legua further, and to build a dwelling-place
on the shores of a river. His design did not succeed badly, for,
attended by good fortune, he continued to attract and gain the
affections of those fierce Indians by making them understand their
illusions and errors. His other associates were not idle amid so much,
for, having separated among the environs (after having left a priest
in the redoubt as chaplain, who was not slothful in his gaining of
souls), they worked fervently in scattering the light of the faith,
in the midst of the darkness of that blind people, without excusing
themselves from great perils and hardships. They chose their residence
in the village of Yguaquet, [49] on the bank of another river where
the country people generally met. Those gospel workers were divided
and separated from one another, in order that they might attend with
greater convenience to the different districts.

One cannot imagine the toil of our religious in cultivating that wild
forest of barbaric people. They catechised, instructed, and baptized
many, so that what was before a brutish wickedness, where the devil
reigned, began to be a beautiful fragment of the Church. They endured
great suffering, because of the intractability and fierceness of the
islanders, who were hostile to peace and to human intercourse; for
they had so little affection for even their brothers and sons that
they killed them or abandoned them to die, on but slight pretext. But
everything surrenders to the grace of God, and to the earnest zeal of
His ministers, who consider only the honor of His Divine Majesty--from
whom those pious workers received so great strength, that great wonder
is caused by the consideration that people so given to witchcraft,
cruelty, and injustice should have received the worship of the true
God with so great affection and devotion. To see them so surrendered
to the obedience of the Catholic Church, and so fond of the churches
that were soon built by the care and solicitude of Ours, edifies and
consoles one. There are celebrated the feasts of Christ and His most
holy mother, and those of the other saints, in which they show a very
steadfast faith. Finally those people learned some arts and trades,
by which they live in great comfort.

We cannot avoid mentioning a very notable conversion in that province
of Caraghas. There was a chief, named Inuc, so celebrated and feared
that through his power and cunning he was absolute master of a
considerable territory, and the shores of a river that afterward took
his name. That barbarian was not satisfied with tyrannizing within
his own boundaries, but entering those of others, sailed through
the gulfs and along the coasts, in search of whom he might rob,
capture, and kill. It is said of that man that he had made more than
two thousand persons slaves, and killed innumerable men with his own
hand. Consequently, he was feared in the neighboring islands; while
no vessel dared to go to his lands--especially one of Spaniards,
whom he hated beyond measure, so that he would never agree to make
treaties of peace or of profit with them.

The perdition of that man and the injuries and offenses that he
committed against God and his neighbors, caused great anguish to
father Fray Juan de la Madre de Dios, [50] a native of Villa-Banez
in old Castilla, and one of the eight who went to Caragha. He took it
upon himself to subdue this man without other aid than confidence of
that of God. In order to achieve it, he prepared himself by special
fasting and prayers. He went alone to look for him; having found
him--to the great surprise of Inuc himself, who thought that the
religious had great boldness in coming into his presence--the latter
talked to him so fittingly and fervently, that the tyrant, having first
pardoned the father's coming without his leave, thanked him for the
holy admonitions that he gave to him. Showing him great affection,
Inuc admitted trade between his countrymen and the Spaniards;
then he consented that the holy gospel might be preached in his
territories. He gave his vassals an example by being baptized; by
sending away his numerous wives and marrying the first according to the
rites of the Church; by freeing his captives; and by issuing an edict
allowing those aggrieved to come to him to receive reparation for the
injuries which he had inflicted on them. He fulfilled that exactly,
binding himself by two judges, namely, our religious and the captain
of the fort of Tanda. They settling and sentencing with all equity,
restored to those interested whatever appeared to be theirs. Thus did
he who was before a haughty tyrant become a humble sheep of the flock
of the Church, and a faithful vassal of the kings of Castilla. News
of that conversion spread throughout those districts, and following
his example, many heathen submitted to the yoke of our holy law.

Our missionaries were greatly encouraged by that fortunate success,
so that they were not dismayed at the work that they had undertaken,
although its difficulties were many. They were confirmed in their
intent by another case that happened in a village called Ambagan
on that coast of Caragha. A religious was resting one night when an
Indian, instigated by the devil, called together two other companions,
who formed a rearguard for him; while he, entering the house, tried
to kill the innocent man who was asleep. It was at midnight, the time
that he thought most opportune. He left those who accompanied him at
the foot of the house, while he mounted the ladder. At the entrance
of the room of the gospel minister, a venerable old man accosted
him and asked him in his own tongue: "Where art thou going? Seest
thou not that I am watching this man who is asleep, and who is my
son?" Notwithstanding that, the Indian persisted in his evil intent
of entering. But at that juncture the old man raised a staff of gold
which he held in his hand, and threatening the aggressor, scared him
so that, turning his back to descend the ladder, he could not find
it in order to escape, notwithstanding his eager search for it. Thus
did he spend the remainder of the night in great anxiety, and in the
morning he was discovered by the people who lived there. The Indian,
conscience-stricken, demanded that they inform the father, to whom
with great sorrow he related all that had happened, giving him leave
to publish it. He declared also who were his associates--who, growing
tired of waiting, and seeing that day was dawning, had returned in
order not to be discovered. The bystanders were astonished at hearing
the circumstances; and it was believed that that venerable old man
was our father St. Augustine, who defended his religious son with
the pastoral staff.


Sec. VIII

_Our religious preach in the province of Butuan_

The province of Butuan--so called from the river of that name which
flows through it and renders to the sea the tribute of its so abundant
waters, while the sea enters the land for one-half legua--has wide
borders and plains where numerous people live who resemble the Caraghas
in their customs and ceremonies. However they are not so rude in their
behavior, perhaps because they were softened by the evangelical law,
which they once enjoyed. However, they abandoned that law because
the ministers abandoned them. [51] That holy conquest was undertaken
with great resolution by father Fray Juan de San Nicolas, one of the
eight, who with a spirit apostolically bold planted the standard of
the cross in the town nearest the seashore. He subdued its inhabitants
by his gentleness, and attracted them to the bosom of the Church by
sermons in their own language. Those sermons produced a great fruit,
not only among those country people, but also among the traders who
came from other districts to traffic.

With such auspicious beginnings, Ours continued to penetrate the
province, and, going up and down that river, sowed the divine word. It
fell to the lot of father Fray Jacinto de San Fulgencio, also one of
the eight above mentioned--who regarded but lightly the hardships
that were represented to him, with unfortunate examples, as having
encountered other ministers of the gospel--to journey more than fifty
leguas, preaching the faith of Jesus Christ to the villages. He had
serious and frequent difficulties in making himself heard; for the
devil appeared in a visible form to the Indians, persuading them not
to admit those fathers into their country, because of whom, so they
said, dire calamities and troubles must happen to them. But, as it
was the cause of God, all the deceits and cunning of that common
enemy remained only threats.

It was no little work to make the Indians leave so many wives as each
one had, obliging them to marry the first, and to free their slaves
whom they miserably oppressed. But he attained it with his mildness,
the inoffensive method by which our religious succored the weakness
of those Indians. Thus did they obtain permission to travel through
the shores of that river, gaining souls for heaven, and building a
dwelling in the village of Linao. [52]

In that did the superb zeal of father Fray Jacinto de San Fulgencio
excel wonderfully. For having resolved to go up the river together with
some Butuan Indians, already Christians, and arriving at the said place
of Linao, and seeing that its inhabitants were gentler and more docile,
he erected an altar in a chosen house, where he placed the images--from
which the heathen received great joy, praising their beauty. Then he
assembled the chief men of the district, and preached them a sermon,
in which he informed them who the true God is, and bade them abandon
the customs and rites of the devil. They jested at such a proposition,
but were soon subdued--especially one, who declared the location of
their god or _divata_. Father Fray Jacinto was overjoyed at that, and
schemed how he might see such place of worship, which was located on
the other side of the river. Commending himself, then, to Jesus Christ,
whose cause he was advancing, he ordered a boat to be launched and went
to look for the idol. Some Indians went out to meet him, brandishing
their lances in order to prevent his entrance. Others more humane,
persuaded him that he should abandon that undertaking, saying that,
if he wished to build a church there, they would give him a better
location. The father answered mildly that that house was very much
to his purpose because it was large, and all could gather in it in
order to be instructed in the mysteries of the faith. The Indians who
accompanied the pious father feared that a quarrel was about to ensue,
and that fear went with them even to the door [of the house]. The
father entered the place of worship boldly, to the wonder of all. He
saw various altars on which they sacrificed to the idol, which was
placed on a higher altar covered with curtains. The father carefully
avoided giving any attention to the said idol, and, having assembled
the chiefs, addressed them in regard to erecting an altar to the true
God. All agreed to it. On going out, the father purposely turned his
gaze to the image, and asked who was that who had so much reverence
there. No one replied, whereupon the zealous father seized the image,
which was a fierce devil, made of wood covered with black paint,
which made it altogether ugly and frightful. The barbarians were as
if thunderstruck, for they thought that no one could touch that god
without losing his life, and they could not cease their surprise
that that father had been able to capture their divata. Thereupon
the fervent missionary took occasion to make them understand their
blindness, and to persuade them of the offense which was committed
against the true God in worshiping the devil. After so notable an
action, he returned triumphant, with the protection of heaven, to
his boat, taking the idol with him without any one preventing him. On
the next day the Indians offered a considerable quantity of gold to
ransom their little god. The father paid no attention to it. On the
contrary, he diverted them, and leaving them to forget it, descended
to the convent of Butuan. There the people went to look for him,
proclaiming the little or no value of their god, and saying that they
wished to receive the true God. That was a matter of great consolation
to the father at seeing how well his pains had been recompensed.

The divine pity approved the holy zeal of our religious by the
experience of that village of Linao, which was located on the shores
of the river, forty leguas away from the sea--that while before they
were molested by crocodiles, which killed numerous people, as soon
as the fathers made a settlement there they suffered no persecution
from those fierce animals. They all attributed it to the most holy
cross now set up, and to the voice of the gospel. Numerous conversions
were made in that country. Very famous is that of an Indian woman who,
having received our holy faith, died shortly afterward on the eve of
St. Catalina, virgin and martyr, at the first watch of the night. On
going next day to deliver her to the fathers in order that they might
bury her, and the grave being already opened, they came from the house
of the deceased woman to say that she was alive. Wondering at the news,
the fathers went to verify the matter, and found it to be truth. For
the deceased talked before them all, declaring that God had permitted
her to return to this life, so that, inasmuch as she had concealed a
very grave sin in confession, she might confess and be saved. She did
so immediately, and the instant when she was absolved she expired;
while Ours gave many thanks to our Lord for the pity that He had had
toward that soul, and to the others, since they became more inclined
to our holy Catholic religion because of that prodigy.

Also it is worth while to narrate what happened in the province of
Ambongan and the lake of Compongan through the preaching by Ours of
the faith of Jesus Christ. An Indian woman was very near the end of
her life, and her husband and children were sad because at the time
there was no father there to administer the sacraments; for Ours were
at Butuan, whence they could not come without considerable delay. The
sick woman, seeing their sadness, told them to console themselves;
for the most holy Virgin, their advocate, had appeared to her very
beautiful and shining, and had told her to rejoice, for she would not
die until a father should have come to confess her and give her all the
other sacraments of the church. That very thing happened, for within
a month a missionary priest arrived there to visit and console those
villages. The sick woman heard of it, and had herself carried to the
church, where she received the sacraments of penitence, the eucharist,
and extreme unction, in the presence of that village. She returned to
her house, embracing a cross, to which she spoke innumerable tender
words. She died about midnight, leaving behind strong indications of
having gone to enjoy the eternal rest.


Sec. IX

_Ours preach in Calamianes, and Cuyo_

The fervor of our religious did not rest with what was accomplished
in the provinces above mentioned. Having obtained some associates,
they determined to preach in Calamianes, islands which remained
in their blindness and idolatry. Their inhabitants were wild, and
great sorcerers and magicians, who knew many herbs. They used the
latter to kill by means of the breath or expiration infected with a
poisonous herb, as we have said above. They are poor, not because of
the sterility of the country, but because the Borneans, Camuzones,
and others of their neighbors plunder them.

Those islands lie west of the island of Panai, which is one of the
largest of the Filipinas, being eighty leguas long, but narrow in its
breadth, and extends north and south from ten to twelve and one-half
degrees. They are small, for they are only four to six leguas in
circuit, and that which is largest is twenty. The chief islands, those
most frequented by Ours, number nine. In that of Butuagan [_sic_],
the climate is not suited to deer; for they are not raised there;
and if they are taken there they die very soon, without the reason
being known, for all the Filipinas contain many of them.

That of Coron is also notable, as it is a ledge or rock, very high
and rugged, which is fortified naturally by the crags that girdle
it. Its ascent is steep and intricate. The Indians retire there as
to a sacred place. It cannot be taken except by hunger or thirst,
and the crag or island is dry and barren, so that not a drop of water
can be found on it. Numerous birds resort thither, and there are
also a great number of beehives [53] amid the hollows of the rocks,
and a quantity of honey is produced, as well as wax, without its
costing any care or labor. The Indians gather that harvest, and,
carrying it to other places, obtain the things needful for life.

All those islands are defended by reefs, which makes the navigation of
those seas very dangerous, even in the time of fair weather. Within
their boundaries there are a number of different kinds of animals,
of rare form. There was one the size of a cat, with the head and feet
of a tiger, and the eyes, nostrils, and hands of a man, and entirely
covered with soft down. There is another little animal seen, which,
as it has no teeth, because these never grow, lives on maggots. To get
them it sticks out its tongue, which is very long, where those little
animals congregate; and, when the tongue is full of them, it draws it
back and swallows them. [54] The forests abound with many incorruptible
woods, such as ebony, cypress, cedar, and small pomegranate trees.

Those islanders had never had a gospel minister to draw them from
their ignorance. Our discalced, pitying their wretchedness, resolved
to send five religious for that undertaking. Their superior was
father Fray Juan de Santo Tomas. He, not fearing any dangers, and
armed with the divine strength, planted the tree of the cross in the
island of Cuyo. That island is called "the garden of nature," because
of the singular pleasantness and beauty that it enjoys, in which it
is more fortunate than the other islands of that famous sea. It is
six leguas in circuit, as are two others its near neighbors, which
rival it in beauty. It abounds in rice, and very savory fruits. The
mountains are full of fragrant flowers, and shelter a great number
of wild boars. There are many species of birds, and fowls are reared
in considerable abundance.

Although those islands were densely populated, the people were so
barbarous that they seemed not to possess reason. For that cause
our religious wished to cultivate that forest in order to sow the
seed of the gospel. Notwithstanding [their savagery], father Fray
Francisco de San Nicolas, accompanied by another priest, named Fray
Diego de Santa Ana, and a lay brother, went to the chief island of the
Calamianes. Treating the inhabitants with gentleness, they instructed
and persuaded them to live gathered into villages--a thing that
they utterly abominated, both because of their natural fierceness,
and because they were greatly harassed by the enemies who generally
infested those islands. Much was suffered in the attainment of that,
but it was accomplished, with the most severe toil on the part of
Ours; and they baptized many of those Indians, whose number we shall
declare below, when we treat of the convents which were built in
those islands in spite of the devil and all hell, who opposed them
with all their forces.

Although it will be somewhat of a digression, we cannot help saying
something of the barbarous customs of those heathen Calamianes. They
recognized a first cause, which governed what was visible. They
attributed good or evil events to fortune and to the star of each
one. They adored a deity who resembled Ceres, to whom they commended
their fields and offered their fruits. They worshiped another petty
deity who resembled Mars, in order to gain his protection in their
battles. They believed in the _humalagar [i.e._, soul of an ancestor]
(as we said of the Charaghas)--whom they summoned in their sicknesses
by means of their priestesses. The priestesses placed a leaf of a
certain kind of palm upon the head of the sick man, and prayed that it
[_i.e._, the soul] would come to sit there, and grant him health. They
also venerated the moon, asking that it would aid them at the time of
death. They celebrated the obsequies of the dead during the full moon.

Their priests were highly revered, and were called _mangaloc_. The
devil showed them what they asked from him, in water, with certain
shadows or figures. They practiced circumcision, and had ministers
assigned for it. They had as many concubines as they could support. If
the first wife committed adultery, the penalty was to repudiate
her for a certain time. When anyone wished to have a share in the
inheritance of the dead, he laid a piece of his garment upon the
corpse, and thereby acquired that right, but he was obliged to aid the
deceased's children. They had no fidelity among themselves, whence many
conflicts arose. In order to clear themselves of calumnies or charges,
they invented various tricks. At times, divine Providence, breaking
their entanglements, defended the innocent and punished the guilty.

Their arms consisted of bows and arrows. On the point of the arrow they
fitted a fish spine, with a certain poison that was so effective that
it was mortal even if it only slightly touched the flesh. They used
short spears and certain shields which they called _carazas_. They
carried certain knives with two sharp edges, which were short, like
daggers. They used jackets or doublets of well-twisted cord, and under
those others of rattan, a kind of osier. By means of these they turn
aside the sharp, keen bamboos which, of the length of two brazas,
are hurled in naval battles, with which they do great harm. [55]

Wonders were not wanting in the conversions of those people. The
Christian parents of an Indian woman brought her into the presence of
father Fray Juan de San Joseph, and, as she was suffering grievously
from a violent fever, begged him to baptize her, for they feared lest
she die without that sacrament. The father instructed and catechised
her, and told her to have confidence, and that baptism would save
her, soul and body. The heathen woman received that instruction
so thoroughly that when she was baptized, she was as well from her
illness as if she had never had it, God rewarding her faith, and
encouraging others so that they should receive baptism.

Another Indian woman was at the extremity of death, and without
baptism. The father was summoned, but he, thinking that she was not in
so great danger, and that more time was necessary to instruct her in
the mysteries of the faith, wished to postpone her baptism. However,
God put a strong impulse into his heart not to leave the sick woman
in danger; and at last catechising her very briefly, scarcely had he
baptized her when she died happy.

The devil grieved mightily because the fathers were taking away so many
souls from his captivity, and tried to drive them from that province
of Calamianes. He availed himself of a witch and her son, appearing
in person to them, and ordering them to use all the delusions and
witcheries that they knew, in order to frighten the Spanish soldiers
who were in a fortress near by, so that the gospel ministers should by
this means be induced to depart to Manila. The sorcerers began their
deceits, and one night they seized the soldier on guard and bore him
through the air to the top of a hill more than a legua away. When the
period of his watch was over, others went to relieve him; as they
could not find him, the captain thought that he had deserted, and
sent another soldier to look for him. He was found crying out like a
madman. He was taken manacled to the fortress, and, recognizing that
it was the devil who had maltreated him, they summoned father Fray
Benito de Santa Monica, a native of Sevilla, and a powerful minister,
who had grace to cast out devils. The father began the exorcisms
of the church; and the evil spirit talked--a thing that he had not
done before--and said many things in many languages. Consequently,
the father ordered him not to talk unless he were questioned; the
spirit obeyed, and, finally urged by the exorcisms, made known all
the said trick, and left the body of the soldier.

The next night the devils entered into eight soldiers, afflicting them
with the same accidental madness as the other. Thus did they continue
to multiply their cases of possession, to the great fear of all the
others. And although our religious did not cease in their exorcisms and
prayers, the infernal spirits were stubborn and pertinacious. Fears
grew greater when legions of devils were seen in the air at night
in most horrible guise. On that account the most holy sacrament was
exposed in the fort. Yielding to its sovereign presence, the demons
fled in confusion to their eternal dungeons, with the ruin of their
deceits; for the Catholics mended their lives, the faith was confirmed,
and the infidels were more inclined to receive it.


Sec. X

_Preaching of Ours in the river of Cagaiang_

Let us leave those islands for a moment and return to Mindanao, where
Ours were fervently attending to their ministry. After having put
Christianity on the best footing possible along the shores of Butuan,
they went forty leguas farther on by sea, to look for another river
called Cagaiang, as they had been told that its inhabitants were a
people more docile than the other inhabitants, in order to enlighten
them with the light of the gospel. The lord of that land was an Indian
named Salangsang. He lived on a steep and inaccessible rock, which is
a peninsula called Himologan. It had no other approaches or mode of
ascent than certain ladders made of rattans [_bexucos_], which resemble
strong osiers. When those were removed it was fortified and protected
from the invasions of enemies. The customs of those people are like
those related of the inhabitants of Caraghas. The path opened for
that undertaking was that Dona Magdalena Bacuya, a Christian Indian
woman (the grandmother of the above mentioned Indian, Salangsang),
being moved by zeal for the honor of God, and compassion for the
blindness of those people, went to see her grandson. Although with
difficulty, she succeeded in gaining admittance for our ministers,
who were at that time staying at the island of Camigui without being
able to accomplish that which they wished. Finally, fathers Fray Juan
de San Nicolas and Fray Francisco de la Madre de Dios arrived there
[at Himologan], and found the chief in the presence of five hundred
Indians who lived in that place. That site, perched on its summit,
was a very agreeable residence capacious enough for that people to
live in a house resembling a cloister, so large that they lived in
it with all their families. These had communication on the inside,
while it was strongly enclosed on the outside. In the middle of it
was the _divatahan_ or temple dedicated to the devil. It was a little
house and dirty, as was he who was worshiped there. The prince received
the ministers with some show of affection, for he gave them a little
buffet on the cheek, as a sign that he received them as friends.

Those people wondered at seeing those ministers in their lands, and
joked about them, taking them for madmen, since they entered without
weapons or other defense, to seek their death. But as those fathers
had God on their side, whose cause they were serving, His sovereign
Majesty ordained that the chief, showing them kindness, should give
them a small corner in his house, so that they might live securely,
although very uncomfortably. For no one gave them anything, and,
in order to live, they had to go fishing and to carry wood and water
on their backs. They suffered considerably from that, but in joy and
gladness, for they were serving the Lord, to whom they were attempting
to offer those barbarous people by means of the preaching of the faith.

The fathers obtained permission to celebrate the holy mystery of the
mass, although it had to be done outside that rock, the dwelling-place
of the Indians. They selected the shore of a small river near the
sea. There with their own hands they raised an oratory and an altar,
where they celebrated mass with great labor, because they had to carry
on their shoulders all the things necessary for the work, without any
one aiding them. Then they went up, and locked themselves in their
little lodging, which served them as cell and choir, going out only
to discuss with the leading Indians the knowledge of the true God. By
that good example, they steadily gained great love, and the people
presented to them some food. Ours repaid them by fervently preaching
our holy faith to them. The Indians brought their little children
so that they might be taught the holy mysteries and the Christian
doctrine; and these made no poor beginning in this, although the old
fathers, accustomed to their vices, were unwilling to accept it.

Those Indians were vassals of King Corralat (of whom we shall speak
later) to whom they paid tribute. Collectors came yearly along the
level land from his court to the river to collect the tribute. That
king was a Mahometan, and consequently hostile to Christians. He
learned that our religious were in the lands of his dominion as
guests, and ordered that they be killed without any objection. More
than one thousand men came to do that, but they were not bold enough
to execute the order of their king, for the natives had acquired so
great affection for Ours that they went out in their defense. The
matter was arbitrated and it consisted in the gospel workers paying
tribute to the king. They gladly assented to it, for the charity of
the fathers extended to all things. The payment of the tribute cost
them great trouble, as it was large, and they had to work with their
hands, as they had no support from other directions.

Corralat did not become quiet with that, or rather it was the
devil who, angry at the great fruit that Ours were gathering in the
vineyard of the Lord, was trying by that means to drive them out
from it. The Mahometan king proclaimed war against the villages of
that river. During it the religious suffered great frights, pains,
and hardships, fleeing to different parts, in dangerous boats,
laden at times with the sacred ornaments; hiding in caves, in need
of food and without comforts; and guarding themselves for a better
occasion, in order to employ their lives in the service of God and
the spread of His faith. His [Divine] Majesty was not displeased
with that earnest zeal, for he freed them all from those dangers;
while the Indians were so energetic in their defense that they refused
obedience to the tyrant king, and begged aid from the Spaniards who
were established at the fortress of Caragha and from those at Zibu,
which was given them immediately. Beyond doubt that was a plan of
the divine pity to enlighten those heathen with the light of truth,
and to withdraw them from the captivity of Satan. For the Indians,
having been defended by the arms of Castilla and instructed by the
religious, became so fond of them that they delivered to them their
_divatahan_, where they built a church, in order to administer baptism
to those who were converted. Salangsang, together with his wife, was
the first to receive baptism in the church, and many others followed
their example. That prince, having become a Christian, became a
willing subject to the kings of Castilla. He built a stronghold
with sufficient ramparts to defend himself against the stratagems
of Corralat. Finally Ours erected the convent called Cagaiang, where
the Indians began to build houses for their dwellings.

He who labored most in the conversion of those people was father
Fray Augustin de San Pedro, a son of the convent of Valladolid, and a
Portuguese by nationality. He not only took care of the teaching of
the faith, but also instructed the Indians in civilized ways. Thus
did they seem to have been transferred from wild beasts into men. It
happened in a memorable assault that some nearby Indians made at dawn
on the village of Cagaiang, with the intention of killing the fathers
(that was an attempt of the devil, and he instigated the Indians to do
it, in order to break the friendship which those villages had made)
that father Fray Jacinto de Jesus Maria was alone in his cell. The
barbarians entering the house killed eight persons who were guarding
it. Making themselves masters of the door, they fought with their
campilans and other weapons, aiming thrusts, cuts, and strokes in
all directions, so that in the darkness Ours might not hide from
them. But the said father, trusting in God, went out through the
midst of them all, without receiving the slightest blow. It is not
difficult for the divine omnipotence to work those miracles, and He
is wont to perform them often in order to defend His ministers. The
father hid in a thicket, until after the fury had subsided, when he
could place himself in safety.


Sec. XI

_Foundation of the convents of the above-mentioned provinces_

We cannot excuse ourselves, for the glory and honor of God, from
referring to the souls whom Ours drew from the darkness of heathenism
into the light of the Christian religion, in the provinces of Caragha,
Butuan, Calamianes, and Cagaiang--for whose conservation it was
thought necessary to found convents, whence the religious set out to
overrun the country, administering sacraments, consoling some, subduing
others, and always gaining souls for the Lord. We have not been able
to ascertain with certainty in what year they were established, but
that amounts to but little. The order in which they are mentioned in
the records of the provincial chapter held at Manila in the year one
thousand six hundred and fifty is as follows:

_Tandag_

1. The convent of Tandag, head of those in the province of Caragha,
where there is a presidio of Spaniards, is one hundred and fifty leguas
distant from Manila. It has to its account seven hundred Christian
families. It was founded by father Fray Miguel de Santa Maria. At first
it was more than one legua up the river but was afterward removed
to the seashore for certain reasons of convenience. It has a devout
confraternity of the most holy Virgin, and another of the girdle of
our father St. Augustine, which has been already established in the
other convents.

A captain (whose name is carefully suppressed) having been buried
in the church of that house, the prior noted one day that his grave
was higher than the others. Attributing it to the carelessness of
the sacristan, he ordered the latter to level it. That was done;
but on the following day, it was seen to be in the same shape as on
the preceding day. It was leveled again, and a quantity of earth
taken away, but still the grave did not discontinue rising. That
novelty caused much talk, and at last the said prior ascertained
that the said captain had died excommunicated. He ordered the body
to be exposed, and then, absolving it in the manner that the holy
Roman church orders, they buried it again without the earth after
that making any more show of casting him out. By such demonstrations
does God give us to understand the respect and fear that should be
extended to the censures of the Church.


_Butuan_

2. The convent of Butuan is situated on the shore of the river. That
village numbers one thousand five hundred Christians. The convent was
founded by father Fray Francisco de San Nicolas a native of Portillo,
and a son of the house of Valladolid. He was a most zealous minister
and preacher to those people.


_Cuyo_

3. The convent of Cuyo, in the island of that name, has to its account
two thousand Catholic families.


_Cagaiang_

4. The convent of Cagaiang governs and teaches one thousand eight
hundred faithful persons.


_Sidargao_

5. The convent of Sidargao, [56] which is an island ten leguas distant
from the fort of Tanda, has two thousand Christian families. According
to the testimony of persons of credit, certain manikins, small and
beautiful, resembling pigmies in appearance and size, were seen in
the said island on a certain occasion. They fled with great swiftness
through the thickets of the forests, so that, notwithstanding the
efforts made, they could not be caught. However, it is said that some
of them were caught in former times, but that they died of fright
in a few hours. A cross is preserved near the village of Sapao,
on top of a rock of the size of two dedos above the stone, which
has certain letters. Those letters cannot be read now, as they have
been obliterated by the lashing of the sea, which beats against it
continually. It is a tradition that the first Spanish discoverers of
that gulf made that cross, although it is not known when.

That islet is five or six leguas in circuit, and lies in nine degrees
of latitude. It is well supplied with food and good water, of which
there are many springs, called _bito_. They are always in the same
condition, and do not increase with the rains, nor diminish with the
dryness of the seasons. It is remarkable for one thing--in which it is
different from that coast of Caragha, and the other islands--namely
that no monkeys are reared there nor can they be reared if brought
there, for they die immediately. During the rainy season, the earth
turns red, and is so sticky that when one walks it tears the shoes from
the feet. There is a remarkable tree that is called _nono_. It springs
from the root of another large and shady tree. As it increases in size,
it embraces it, and by sucking the moisture and nourishment from it,
becomes strong. When it becomes so strong that it can grow alone,
it casts away that tree, and despises that which was its staff, thus
treating it badly until it withers--a living image of the children
of this age.

Coming to the peculiarities of that coast, we cannot fail to mention
one, namely, that there are trees of the hugest size, so tall that one
would believe that they are trying to reach up into the clouds. The
Indians are wont to make their dwellings in them, specially those
Indians called _cimarrones_. [57] They pay no tribute, so that
their trees serve them as a fort in which to defend themselves from
the Spanish soldiers of the fort of Caragha. The manner of building
those dwellings is as follows: They look out a very stout, high tree;
they trim off all the branches up to the height where the floor of
the house is to be. They put in some cross-bars, which cross on the
trimmed-off branches. They fix them with large timbers in the manner
of an enclosure, with which the trampling-ground is made. Then they
enclose that floor with the same timbers, in the manner of a parapet,
and cover it with a little nipa. The branches above are also protected
from the rain and inclemencies of the weather. Thus the house is
made so strong that it resists any invasion. It has often cost our
soldiers considerable trouble to get those people; for those houses
have no approach except certain light ladders made from rattans
tied together. In those houses they keep all their possessions,
and there live their children and wives, who all help to fight. They
have made a place by which to retire when pursued closely, preparing
a passage from branch to branch in order to escape. Those houses are
so capacious that one of our religious lay brothers, who had been a
soldier in the presidio of Caragha, said that he had seen one that
would hold sixty persons. On climbing into another out of curiosity,
he saw three women hanging--a mother and her daughters. As well as
could be guessed, the mother had hanged the girls and then herself,
in order not to fall into the power of the Castilians. [58]

_Calamianes or Taitai_

6. The convent of Calamianes, or, as it is called, Taitai, where there
is a presidio of Spaniards, and where one thousand six hundred souls
are directed. That convent has another confraternity of our Lady,
the Virgin.

_Bislin or Bislig_

7. The convent of Bislin or Bislig governs two thousand families. There
died most happily father Fray Juan de San Augustin, a son of the
province of Castilla. He was a grand minister of the gospel, and knew
the Bisayan tongue very well. He lived apostolically, and gave a fine
example with his virtues, which made him very lovable to the Indians
themselves, as was seen in the rising of the coast of Caragha, from
which it was necessary to withdraw him and keep him from perils to
the life that he would have lost through the fury of the enemies. His
abstinence was remarkable, for, although the toil of his ministry
was so vast, as he went continually through rugged places, forests,
rivers, and seas, he ate nothing but herbs, and sometimes small fish,
when he was especially fatigued. He was very humble and poor, bearing
himself with the Indians as if he were the meanest of them. By these
and other virtues he gathered great fruit in this life, which will
doubtless have gained him eternal rest.


_Baldad, Dignes,and Iaquet_

8, 9, and 10. Our most reverend father, Fray Pedro de Santiago,
preacher of Felipe Fourth, examiner of writings for the supreme council
of the Inquisition, vicar-general of our congregation, chronicler of
the kingdom of Aragon, bishop of Solsona, and afterward of Lerida,
referred many times to the convents of Baldad, Dignes, and Iaquet,
in a relation that he published on the going of our religious to the
Indias. However, father Fray Andres del Santo Espiritu, provincial of
Filipinas, in another manuscript relation, calls one of them Iguaquet,
which is thought to be that mentioned as Iaquet. In that convent there
are eight hundred Christian families. It was founded on a river in
the northern part of this coast of Caragha by father Fray Juan de San
Nicolas, a native of the Algarbes in Portugal, who took the habit in
Manila. He was a grand minister and knew the language of the Caraghas
[59] perfectly. He preached with great spirit, and succeeded in making
many miraculous conversions, among both the heathen and the Christian
sinners, who left his sermons so contrite, that they anxiously went
to seek the salvation of their souls in the sacrament of penance.

11. Another convent is also mentioned as being in certain islets
not far from Iguaquet, in which another eight hundred families of
Christians were cared for.


_Laylaia_

12. The convent of Laylaia (which sounds the same as [the name of]
the river above), is forty leguas distant from Butuan. There was a
presidio of Spaniards there, which from the indications seems to be
that of Linao. It has in charge one thousand six hundred souls.


_Caviscail_

13. That of Caviscail, in the Calamianes Islands, was abandoned because
of the murder committed on one of our religious, an able minister of
that village, by the Indians.


_Calagdan_

14. Father Fray Felipe de la Madre de Dios, provincial of Castilla,
and chronicler, mentions another--in the _Noticias Historiales_,
that he left in manuscript--at Calagdan. He assigns to it seven
hundred families that were converted to the faith.


_Binalgavan_

15. That of Binalgavan, in the island of Negros, with one thousand
five hundred families. That convent was left in the hands of the
fathers of the Society of Jesus, for reasons that existed for such
action. We cannot avoid mentioning some matters that happened there
when it was in charge of Ours.

A certain Indian chief had a son two years old, who was very sick. He
made the usual sacrifices to the devil for his health. As he did not
get what he was after, he begged father Fray Jacinto de San Fulgencio
for a little water passed through the chalice. The father gave it to
the sick child, and the latter was instantly cured. With that occasion,
it was the will of the divine mercy that the child, his parents,
and their household should be baptized and leave their darkness.

On another occasion they brought an Indian from a mountain with a
leg already rotting; and as he was being treated in the house of the
alcalde-mayor, at an unseasonable hour of the night he called loudly
for baptism. The father went to him, and, upon seeing him, the sick man
said: "Baptize me, Father, since God has brought me into the power of
the Christians for that reason." The religious minister baptized him
immediately, and scarcely had he finished administering the sacrament
to him when the Indian, invoking the most sweet name of Jesus, expired.

Finally a converted Indian woman, having been convicted of a grave
sin, in order to deny it cursed, saying: "May a crocodile eat me
before I reach my house, if what I said was untrue." God punished
her immediately, for while near her native place, called Passi, in
the island of Panai, a crocodile attacked her, and seizing her in its
mouth, dragged her into the river, and swallowed her. At that time,
father Fray Juan de San Joseph was prior of that convent.


_Tagho_

16. The convent of Tagho, so called from a river that bathes it,
has in charge the care of nine hundred families of Christians.


_Dinai_

17. In Calamianes, the convent of Dinai, with seven hundred families,
was removed to Linacapan in order to avoid the continual raids of
the pirates.


_Damaran_

18. The convent of Damaran had charge of four hundred baptized persons.

Father Fray Jacinto de San Fulgencio, commissary and procurator of that
province of San Nicolas of Filipinas, while at this court of Madrid
gave a relation of other houses, in addition to those enumerated,
which are as follows:


_Layavan_

19. The convent of Layavan, with seven hundred families in its charge.


_Camigui_

20. That of Camigui, with the bay of Liangan, has six hundred families.

_Baqua_

21. That of Baqua has charge of one thousand two hundred families
divided among six villages.

_Parasao_

22. That of Parasao governs eight hundred families who live in
that place.

_Bagangan_

23. That of Bagangan, with eight hundred other Christian families.

_Tuggaban_

24. That of Tuggaban has in charge one thousand three hundred families.

_Banton_

25. That of Banton, with one thousand two hundred families.

_Divail_

26. That of Divail cares for one thousand three hundred families.

_Parava_

27. That of Parava administers one thousand families.

_Sampongan_

28. That of Sampongan governs six hundred families.

_Surigao_

29. That of Surigao another six hundred.

_Casteel_

30. That of Casteel, a like number.

Father Fray Christoval de Santa Monica, father of the said province,
commissary and procurator-general, added:

_Gura_

31. That of Gura.

_Baler_

32. That of Baler.

_Binangonan_

33. That of Binangonan.

In other records and documents which have come from the said province
is found the relation of:

_Abucai_

34. That of Abucai.

_Dagat_

35. That of Dagat.

_Tebastlan_

36. That of Tebastlan.

Many of the said convents are no longer in existence now, either
through lack of religious, or for other accidental reasons; because
these have occurred, it has been deemed advisable to abandon
them--although the churches are still standing and are cared for,
and our religious visit those villages, preserving them in the faith,
so that the spiritual food is not wanting to them.


Sec. XII

_Mention of some hardships which Ours have suffered in the spread of
the Catholic faith_


It would be beyond our powers to tell what Ours suffered in spreading
the gospel truth, and in drawing the souls of so many barbarians
and heathen from their blindness and errors; for, as they have cared
more for gaining the reward of heaven than of earth, what is known
of it is little or almost nothing. We trust in God, who can reward
those who serve Him, and that He will have given great glory to
those who have suffered so much for the extension of His honor, by
bringing so many people to recognize Him. Let us, then, relate that
the father-provincial of the above named houses visits them three
times during the term of his office--and that with so great perils
by land and water that the preservation of his life seems a special
providence of heaven. Father Fray Onofre de la Madre de Dios was met
on one of those occasions by more than twenty caracoas of pirates
and was obliged to cast himself into the water, together with his
secretary. They went to an island, where, naked and without food,
they suffered those miseries that can be imagined.

Another provincial father, Fray Andres del Espiritu Santo, suffered
a violent tempest, in which a number of persons perished. The boat
having overturned, as neither he nor three other religious who
were accompanying him knew how to swim, they seized hold of the
keel. They remained there two days and one night, expecting death
every instant. But God was pleased to have them reach a beach amid
rocks and reefs. There, bruised and full of wounds, they found no
other comfort than to seek roots with which to support themselves
for many days, until unexpected aid came to them from another part.

Father Fray Nicolas de Tolentino visited the province of Caragha. He
was wrecked three times, and suffered most the last time; for, the boat
having broken, he had nothing to eat in seven days. Having reached an
uninhabited place by dint of his exertions, he went overland through
rough paths and through mountains, at the risk of being eaten by
crocodiles, until he found a little boat, that carried him and his
companion to Manila. They were so weak and hurt that they could not
recover their health for a long time.

Brother Fray Francisco de San Nicolas, a native of Cadiz, coming from
the island of Negros to attend to certain things of the church service,
suffered so terrible a whirlwind that the boat was driven upon some
rocks and broken into splinters. Its occupants were drowned, and our
lay brother, not knowing how to swim, went to the bottom. Without
knowing how, he found himself in the hollow of a rock which had an
opening at the top. He managed to creep through, by the help of God,
who protected him. Climbing to the top he saw that he was on a rocky
islet of one-half legua in circuit, and remained there until his
cries and shouts brought some passing Indians, who, surprised at so
novel an occurrence, took him off in their boat.

The captivities and oppressions suffered by Ours would take long to
recount, and so I shall give only one. Jolo is an island that lies
between those of Burnei and Mindanao. It is very famous in that
archipelago, not for its size, but for the warlike daring of its
caciques or petty kings, who have made themselves feared by their
robberies and cruel deeds throughout those seas. While their fleet,
then, was at Calamianes, father Fray Juan de San Joseph, a native
of Granada, was captured. He was then prior of the convent of Cuyo,
and was visiting those villages which had been converted to the
faith, administering the sacraments and the word of God to them--the
employment of those gospel ministers. They took him to their island,
being greedy for the ransom. The amount of it was discussed, but as
the sum demanded by those barbarians was large, and the poor religious
could not collect it in a short time, it was necessarily delayed for
some time. During that time the Mahometan islanders began to persuade
the father to abandon the faith and adopt their vile worship, promising
him great riches and comfort, and marriage with a sister of the lord
or petty king of the island. That would have been a powerful temptation
to one who was not so firm in the law of Jesus Christ, and assisted by
His divine favor. Our religious resisted that strong and troublesome
battery mightily; but those barbarians, seeing themselves despised,
turned the leaf, converting those flatteries into threats of death,
and placed before him many cruel methods of depriving him of life. That
was not what the good father feared most, since he desired to lose his
life for the faith which he professed. The petty king had conceived an
affection for the father, and left untried no means in his power in
order to break down the strength of the religious. To such an extent
did he carry his madness that one of the wives of the barbarian, a
beautiful and unbridled woman, visited our prisoner often, accompanied
by beautiful women of high rank, in order that they might achieve
success in winning him to their disgraceful love; for, had he been
taken in that net, the chaste man would have remained ensnared. That
trick, it is well known, is one of the most persuasive that the devil
furnishes. For he makes war by the affection for the object, and with
the vehement incentives of the appetite. But divine grace was very
well fortified in the soul of the gospel minister. Consequently,
the shots of the devil, the world, and the flesh were weakened and
destroyed. The women returned in confusion, after hearing him preach
of the mysteries of our sacred law. He understood the Bisayan language
very well, and consequently learned the one peculiar to that island
in a short time. Although the instruction did not take root in their
minds, at least they recognized a certain element of grandeur that
aroused their veneration. Father Fray Juan passed considerable time
in those struggles, comforting the Christians who were there, and
obtaining many triumphs for himself. Finally, on the arrival of the
time for his ransom, he returned to his convent at Cuyo, joyous at
having suffered for God, although not well satisfied at not having
given his life for his holy law. But we can declare that if the
barbarians lacked the determination to condemn him to martyrdom,
our Catholic soldier did not want the courage to receive it.

We shall give an end to this year of twenty-two, by giving a brief
memorial of father Fray Diego de Santo Tomas, a native of Nueva-Espana,
a creole of Cholula, and the son of Diego Garcia de Leon and Dona
Ines Carrillo. He went to Filipinas when very young, where, leaving
the deceits of the world, he betook himself to the port of religion,
taking our holy habit in the convent of San Nicolas of Manila. He
professed in the year 1610. When he saw the so great fervor of
the religious for the spreading of the faith, he took the call so
effectively into his breast that the superiors, employing him in that
exercise, ordered him to become sub-prior. He was afterward prior
of Masinglo, and lastly of Dinai. In the exercise of those duties,
he was careful to employ all his strength in caring for the sheep
reduced to the flock of the church. He went through the Calamianes
Islands, preaching, converting, and confirming those converted in the
faith. And as his cares were prodigious, and he became weakened by
his hardships, his strength failed him; tired out, he became sick,
and died on a desert beach, without any human presence. However the
divine presence would not fail him. Happy soldier, whom death overtook
while fighting in the campaign of the Church of God!

Let us give a companion to this father, and let him be father Fray
Juan de la Anunciacion. He was born in Madrid, in the parish of
San Gines. His parents were Diego del Castillo and Felipa Manuel de
Benavides. He took our holy habit in the year 1613, while father Fray
Juan Bautista Altaraque was master of novitiates. He professed the
following year under father Fray Augustin de San Gabriel, prior of
the convent of the said town. He went to the Indias, being desirous of
employing his life in the service of God and the welfare of souls. He
thoroughly understood the languages of the Indians. Entering the
rudest of the islands, he preached with great fervor, and converted
many heathen. He spent some years in that employment, and finally his
life, without anyone being present at his death. He died worn out,
and for lack of nourishment. He lived much, since as long as life
lasted for him he employed it in the service of the holy church and
the conversion of the infidels. His body was found and very reverently
given honorable burial.

[Most of the third chapter is concerned with affairs in Japan. A
short description of that country is followed by the efforts of the
Recollects to gain entrance to its inhospitable shores in 1623. Fired
by the news of the persecution waged against the Christians, two
fathers, Francisco de Jesus and Vincente de San Antonio, disguised
as merchants, set out from Manila to preach the gospel to the
Japanese. But many misfortunes overtake them: their boat, old and weak,
opens at the bow and compels them to put in at the island of Babuyanes;
shortly after setting sail once more, a fierce storm drives them to
the Chinese coast, whence they narrowly escape shipwreck and then
death at the hands of the people, who prove hostile. However, forty
days after leaving Babuyanes, they reach Japan, on June 20. Shortly
begins their journey toward Nangasaqui, which they reach October 14,
1623, noting Japanese customs on the way. There it is reported that
disguised priests are in the city, and an edict published by the
emperor banishes all the Spaniards from the country. Both the fathers,
however, escape the banishment. A section on the life of Father Juan
de la Madre de Dios, a noted laborer in the missions of Mindanao,
and who was buried at the fort of Caragha, follows; and the chapter
closes with a reference to affairs at large connected with the order,
and the obtaining of certain papal decrees.]





Chapter Fourth

_The first provincial chapter is celebrated in Filipinas in the convent
of Manila; and in Espana the first intermediate general chapter of
Portillo. Certain servants of God finish their lives happily._


Sec. I

_Election of the first provincial of Filipinas, at the convocation
of the first chapter of that province Year 1624_

The religious of those islands had been governed since the time
of their arrival there by vicar-provincials, either elected by the
priests who were in the convents or missions, or appointed by the
superior prelate of Espana, according to the letters and patents
which father Fray Pedro de la Madre de Dios and father Fray Rodrigo
de San Miguel had obtained for it. The first vicar-provincial was the
venerable father Fray Juan de San Geronimo, who governed until the
year 1608. Father Fray Geronimo de Christo followed him, but, as he
died very soon, the chapter was convoked; and, in the following year
of six hundred and nine, the same father Fray Juan de San Geronimo was
elected. When the latter returned to Espana, the chapter was convoked
in the year six hundred and ten, and father Fray Andres del Espiritu
Santo elected. He governed until the year twelve, when father Fray
Pedro de la Madre de Dios came from Espana with the appointment. But,
his patents having expired, the chapter was convoked, in which the said
father was elevated to the same office, and he ruled until the year
15. That year, the chapter having been convoked, father Fray Andres
del Espiritu Santo took the government a second time, until the year
of eighteen, when father Fray Rodrigo de San Miguel came from Espana
with the appointment. He had it in charge until the year twenty-two,
when, as he returned to Espana, he was succeeded by the said father,
Fray Andres del Espiritu Santo, who had come that same year from
Espana with religious. He governed until the year twenty-three, in
which father Fray Pedro de la Madre de Dios came from Espana, having
been appointed by the venerable father vicar-general. He convoked
a chapter, in order that a separate provincial might be elected in
that province, as was done in the others. The patents were as follows.

"His Holiness, our most blessed father Gregory Fifteenth (may God
preserve him), with the desire that is his of aiding the reformed
orders, at the instance made him by his Majesty and our order--who
petitioned him that a vicar-general be given us, and permission that
the convents of our order, with the title and name of province, might
divide into several provinces--conceded a brief for the aforesaid,
which was carried out. For that purpose a chapter was convoked in this
convent of the city of Madrid on November twenty of the following year,
the past year of 1621, in which I was elected vicar-general. The
convents possessed by the order in Espana in those islands were
divided into four provinces. Consequently, that the orders given
by his Holiness and by the general chapter may be executed, I am
sending the messages, so that a provincial chapter may be held. In
that chapter the orders of our Latin constitutions and those of the
new ordinances of our aforesaid general chapter shall be observed.

"In regard to time, I declare that it shall be held within four months
of the time when your Reverences shall receive the messages and when
the religious who bear them, and who sail in this trading-fleet,
shall arrive at that convent of the city of Manila--so that [there
will be no haste] in case that it should not be a suitable time when
the religious arrive, or it should be necessary to arrange anything
for the celebration; but if time should allow, and the necessary
things should be arranged, it may be held within a month, and not
before. I warn your Reverences that, on receiving and opening the
messages and despatches that I am sending, the form that I order
be observed. And inasmuch as when your Reverences receive these
despatches, two years will have passed of the sexennium--according
to the order laid down in the new ordinances, decreeing that now
and henceforth provincial chapters shall be held, so that those
who are to come to take part in the election of a new vicar-general
may be elected every six years--your Reverences shall take one year
from this first triennium, and this election shall be, but for this
time only, a biennium. Thus shall be done with both the provincial
and definitors, and the rest of the priors and the other offices,
so that in the following provincial chapter of that province, the
definitor and discreto may be elected--who shall come, in its name,
for the new election of vicar-general that is to be made (if our Lord
be so pleased), at Pentecost of the year 1627.

"The coming shall be arranged in such manner that they may not come
late, nor leave before it is necessary. As soon as the definitor and
discreto (or those who may be elected to fill their places on account
of their death, or for any other legitimate impediment) are elected,
your Reverences shall advise the vicar-general by the first boat, if
they cannot arrive in time. I have chosen to advise your Reverences
of this, so that you might know what you ought and must do; and so
that everything may be done with prudence, devotion, and virtue,
in which may our Lord give us many increases. From this convent of
the discalced of our father St. Augustine, of the city of Madrid,
June 12, 1622. Your Reverences' brother,

_Fray Geronimo de La Resurreccion_"

Accordingly, when this order arrived with the other despatches, the
priors of San Nicolas of Manila, of Zibu, of Cabite, of Masinglo,
of Amo, of Bolinao, of Calumpan, of Tanda, of Butuan, of Iguaquet,
of Tibastlan, of Cuyo, of Linacapan, and of Cagaiang assembled. Under
the presidency of the said father Fray Pedro de la Madre de Dios, they
unanimously elected the venerable father Fray Onofre de la Madre de
Dios, provincial, on the sixth of February of that year twenty-four,
the time that the present history has reached.

The election was very suitable, as he who was elected was deserving
of other and greater posts. He was a native of Perpinan, in the
county of Rosellon, and a son of the convent of Zaragoca, in Aragon,
where he studied arts and theology. He was prior of the convent of
Zuera, and afterward master of novitiates in that of Madrid, where he
furnished a great example of observance and virtue. He went to the
Indias with the zeal of preaching the faith of Christ our Lord. He
filled some posts worthily, with so much satisfaction to the religious
that he deserved to be the first provincial of that province. He
completed the suitable ordering and economical regime of the houses,
the methods that he practiced being continual presence at the choir,
steadfast application to the divine worship, and the decoration of
the churches. He was modest in his actions, which he adapted to all;
mild in his intercourse, by which he made himself loved; skilful
in business management; extremely poor, and given to continual
mortification. The definitors were father Fray Andres del Espiritu
Santo, father Fray Diego de San Bernardo, father Fray Joseph de San
Augustin, and father Fray Juan de Santo Tomas, chosen men indeed.

The acts passed are reduced to the following points: "That the
religious living at the missions or villages of the Indians maintain
all the regular observance of the convents, especially in rising at
midnight for matins, and in the two hours of mental prayer morning and
afternoon, even though there should be no more than one priest. That
authority be given to the missionary fathers to carry some books that
are conformable to their profession; and that they be prohibited from
wearing hempen garments, especially since the heat of the country is
contrary to that harshness. That the ministers learn the language of
the Indians within one year; and that, in order to avoid disturbance,
they do not receive guests in their convents, unless it be bishops,
religious, governors, or alcaldes-mayor.

[A section on the first intermediate general chapter of the Recollects,
which was held at the convent of Portillo, follows. Section iii
treats of the life and death of brother Fray Juan de San Nicolas,
who had professed at Manila, December 21, 1622. The malice of certain
Indians who were taking him up the river from the convent of Iguaquet,
to aid in one of the missions, causes his death; for they overturn
the boat, leaving him to drown while they swim safely to shore. The
chapter ends with an account of the life of Bishop Don Fray Gregorio
de Santa Catalina Alarcon who after having been appointed bishop of
Nueva Caceres, in the Philippines, by King Felipe IV, is appointed
almost immediately afterward to the bishopric of Santiago de Cuba at
Habana. His death occurs at sea while on his way to assume the latter
office. This chapter completes the annals for the year 1624.]





GENERAL HISTORY OF THE PHILIPINAS BY FRAY JUAN DE LA CONCEPCION [60]



Volume IV


Chapter VII

_Arrival at these islands of a new mission of the discalced Recollects,
the reformed branch of the Hermits of the order of the great father
St. Augustine_.


[Through the solicitations of Felipe II, the supreme general of the
Augustinian order, Gregorio Petrochini, furthers the founding in
Spain of a reformed branch of the order. Accordingly the beginning
is made in the convent of Talavera, from which beginning the branch
gradually grows, although with several set-backs, until the Recollects
(their distinctive name) obtain separation from the regular branch of
the Augustinians. A province is formed, and elections held, at which
Juan de San Geronimo is chosen provincial. After his term of office,
he is created bishop of Chiapa; but, burning with the mission fever,
offers himself and twelve companions as volunteers for the missions
of the Indias.]

34. So noble a proposition edified the king, who recognized it as
made by a whole and free spirit. The king had information that the
orders appointed for the conquest of Philipinas were not sufficient
for the total conversion and reduction of the many pagans; and,
even if they were sufficient, that they had not exerted all their
strength, distracted by other and less important cares. The
proposition of the father provincial was very much in keeping
with the royal intentions. Accordingly, without any delay, it was
decreed that the father and his associates should prepare to go to
the Philipinas Islands, and executive orders to his ministers for a
speedy despatch were formulated without delay. The venerable father
kept these to himself until the formal session of the chapter, in
whose assembly he presented the decree. It was punctually obeyed,
all of them considering this laborious expedition as a great service
for God. They determined to grant him all the necessary documents,
and appointed as vicar-provincial with full powers father Fray Juan de
San Geronimo himself, with the limitation of recognizing as superior
the father provincial of the province of Castilla.

35. With this arrangement, and the royal decrees which contained
the permission for their embarcation, and general royal authority
to make as many establishments as possible in these islands, and as
those new missionaries should deem proper (to which were added other
concessions for spiritual matters conceded by the papal legate),
and fortified with all these patents and despatches, the good father
chose his associates, men like himself. Most of them were graduated,
and most of them eminent men of the Reform. He well comprehended that
such new plantations required, since they were to be conspicuous before
all, men of learning and eminent virtue. Having assembled at Madrid,
they set out for Sevilla on the fifteenth of May, in great harmony and
modesty. There they rested somewhat from the fatigues of their journey,
and then continued it to San Lucar de Barrameda. They waited there
until a large trading-fleet sailed, which left the bay of Cadiz for
Nueva Espana, and those religious embarked in one of its ships. The
confessions that they heard, and their exhortations to the sailors,
were a great comfort to the latter, and they did not neglect charitably
to assist the sick. Thus did they acquire unusual estimation throughout
the fleet. The commander-in-chief approached them in his ship, the
flagship, when the weather permitted, to inquire after their health,
and to offer them what they needed, commending himself to their holy
prayers, and placing in their care the prosperous voyage of the fleet.

36. They reached the port of Vera Cruz with perfect safety, where
the ships were sheltered. They disembarked, and, passing through the
town of Los Angeles, went to Mexico. There they were received in
the college of San Pablo by its rector, father maestro Fray Diego
de Contreras, who was afterward archbishop of Santo Domingo, the
primatial church of the Indias. He kept them with his hospitable aid
until the vicar-provincial rented a comfortable house, in order to
avoid receiving favors, which their strict regulations forbade. While
awaiting the opportunity to go to the port of Acapulco, their mode
of life was retired and edifying. Many noble and wealthy persons
began to entreat them to remain there, and to establish themselves,
offering them their favor and most abundant alms; and they asked that,
if that should not be granted, a competent number would remain and
establish themselves. The father maestro Contreras encouraged these
solicitations, and promised them to allow them to become discalced,
and to give credit to the new institute.

37. The president Fray Juan considered those so liberal propositions
as annoying temptations, to which, through the motive of their zeal,
not one of his could consent. He considered it advisable to avoid them
by flight, and resolved upon his voyage to the port of Acapulco. There
was already a ship there about to sail to Philipinas on the day of
the invocation of the Holy Ghost. Having embarked on it, they set
sail on the twenty-second of February, one thousand six hundred and
six. They had their terrors on the voyage; the ship caught fire,
and the fire was already quite near the powder-barrels that were
reserved in the "Santa Barbara." [61] Warning was given of this
(which is one of the greatest of dangers), in sufficient time to
enable them to extinguish the fire. Had it reached the powder,
the worst ruin would have surely followed. I think that there is
no peril of the sea so horrible. Another danger happened on a calm,
clear night, when the cry of "Land, land!" came from the bow. That
danger startled the pilots, who had no shoals down on their charts
there. They were aware of them by the breakers in the water, and
the vessel was so engulfed in them that it could neither bear away,
nor put in, without the same risk. As the breaking of the waters
was getting nearer the ship, they considered all their efforts vain,
and without any urging, allowed themselves to be carried in the same
path. They tried to make soundings, but the plunging of the boat and
the violent dragging of the sounding-line on the reefs did not permit
them to make an accurate calculation of the depth. In such a contest,
the hopes of all were already weak, besides which they were entering
amid the breakers. The ship sailed a long distance without meeting
accident, and later they found themselves in the deep sea, free from
so dangerous a fright. That shoal was marked down accurately on the
charts, and was noted on other voyages. It was a rocky islet surrounded
with many covered reefs. They considered it a marvelous occurrence
that they should pass over them without meeting with accident on
them. Father Fray Andres de San Nicolas fell sick near the islands
of the Ladrones, and, recognizing that his attack was serious, he
sought consolation in the holy sacraments. During his last hours he
fervently exhorted all to persevere in the undertaking that had been
begun, promising them a happy result. He yielded up his spirit to God
amid tender colloquies. Those of the ship wished to keep his body in a
well-sealed wooden casket, in order to give it decent burial on shore;
but in order to avoid innovations, the venerable superior, Fray Juan,
did not consent to this. Accordingly, having been placed in a casket,
he was cast into the sea, accompanied with the usual obsequies.

38. They continued from that moment their voyage prosperously, after
an almost general epidemic of fever, safe and sound. By special orders
they anchored in the port of Zebu. That most venerable prelate, Don
Pedro de Agurto, received the new missionaries with a procession. They
were lodged in the convent of the Augustinian fathers, who received
them as brethren. Much did that illustrious man desire the propagation
of the gospel. He begged and insisted that they stay in his bishopric,
and offered them a foundation to their liking, if they would only
remain for the conversion of the infidelity that was obstinately
persevering for the lack of ministers. He suffered greatly from this,
for so necessary was the remedy. It was impossible for the newcomers
to consent to so favorable arrangements, or to listen to so urgent
and compelling entreaties. Their journey to Manila was unavoidable, in
order to present the royal decrees and despatches to the governor. They
thanked his Excellency fittingly, and all offered to put themselves
at his disposal after the performance of so necessary business. They
set out from that place to execute it, as soon as opportunity
offered. They reached the capital city of Manila without any accident,
then celebrating the victories obtained by their governor, Don Pedro
de Acuna, in the expedition of Terrenate. They were accommodated in
a small house for the time being, where the most influential people
of the city came to visit them. Everyone offered them a more decent
lodging, the orders distinguishing themselves by offering them their
convents. To all they humbly excused themselves, only accepting the
infirmary of the Dominican fathers, for the treatment of some of their
sick, where they were treated with a most benign charity. The governor
arrived, triumphant from his expedition; and as soon as he heard of
the arrival of those new religious, leaving the magnificent trophies,
deigned to be the first to visit them. He consoled and regaled them
as a noble knight. But being eager to finish the despatch of the
ships to Acapulco, and going quickly to Cavite, he could not examine
the royal despatches; nor could he do so afterward, for, as we have
already stated, death attacked him while engaged in this affair, and
laid its spoils in the sepulcher. Thus was suspended his recognition
of the royal decrees; they were presented to the royal Audiencia, who,
recognizing them as authentic, gave them the requisite attention. In
virtue of these, permission was given to the father vice-provincial,
Fray Juan de San Geronimo, to preach the gospel wherever he thought
best, and to establish his houses wherever he should consider it
most advisable.



Chapter VIII

_This Mission establishes itself at Bagumbayan, and they begin their
evangelical labors_


1. The deceased governor, Acuna, had already finished a country-seat or
summer-house for his retirement from the cares caused by so extensive
a government, at a location called Bagumbayan, three hundred paces
distant from the walls of the city. At the death of that gallant
governor they began to try to dispose of this house. The new
missionaries thought that retreat very suitable for their purpose,
and tried to buy it because it was already offered for sale. For
that purpose they went through the city begging alms of its citizens,
accompanied by certain persons of influence, and in two afternoons they
collected more than three thousand pesos. With them they immediately
paid the price asked, the authorized guardian of estates, Captain Don
Pedro de Ortega, lowering its just price considerably. Licentiate
Don Rodrigo Diaz Guiral, then filling the office of fiscal of the
royal Audiencia, was a zealous and influential party in everything,
and took especial interest in facilitating that accommodation. They
converted the house of recreation into a convent. They assigned a
location for a public church, which they dedicated on the tenth of
September to the glorious St. Nicolas de Tolentino, to whom they had
consecrated themselves by a special vow when they left the coasts
of Espana. That function was very solemn. His Excellency of Zebu,
Don Pedro de Agurto, performed the pontifical office; while the
very reverend father maestro, Fray Pedro Solier, of the Order of
St. Augustine of the Observance, a person distinguished by his merits
and position, preached. He was then provincial of the province of
Santissimo Nombre de Jesus in these islands, bishop of Puerto Rico,
and afterward archbishop of Santo Domingo. The royal Audiencia, the
ecclesiastical and secular cabildos, the orders, and the nobility and
citizens of Manila were present and lent honor to the function With
such favorable beginnings, those evangelical ministers were greatly
consoled and very happy. They were most happy with the favorable
horoscope in which that new province was born, in having St. Nicolas
for their patron. There was some altercation [over this matter] with
the Augustinian fathers of the Observance; the devotion to this saint
had now grown very extensive in their church, in a special chapel,
and they foresaw that worship there would be decreased on account of
this new advocacy. It was not an occasion for a suit, and they tried
modestly to avoid litigation. Although possession could not give better
right, the Recollects yielded, and accommodated themselves to a change
of title, commending to God this serious matter. The calmness of Senor
Agurto was seen in that, at whose direction they cast lots to settle
the controversy satisfactorily. Many other saints took part in the
lots, and in them the said St. Nicolas had success the first, second,
and third time when the cast was repeated. Thus was the will of God
powerfully confirmed, resistance ceased, and they resigned themselves
to it peacefully. They extended the protection of the new church to
the province, which was already in its beginnings. The said first
feast was celebrated with the greatest harmony between the parties,
and unity of minds.

2. They were not useless in that location, for, accommodating the
active life to the contemplative one, they applied themselves with
fervid ardor to spiritual help in the administration of sacraments and
in gospel preaching to many different peoples, who needed that same
assistance, especially at night, when the city gates were locked. As
there were no parish churches near, many were the sudden calls that
disturbed their rest, for all of which they were very ready and
prepared, as one should be in a matter that concerns the salvation of
the soul. Their zeal could not be restrained here; more arduous was
the obligation which had brought them, and the acquiring of some one
of the many languages which are spoken in these islands. Without that
diligence their application would be useless; without such intercourse,
men must necessarily consider one another as barbarians. Since the
Tagal language is the most general, their most careful study was given
to it. Their eagerness was emulative, and made them rapid in their
haste. He who most quickly penetrated the language was father Fray
Miguel de Santa Maria, native and son of the convent of Zaragoza,
a person of resolution and vigorous mind, and of no common abilities.

3. With these arrangements they tried to make a beginning in their
apostolate. On discussing where they would better employ themselves,
they thought that they would better not separate far then, since they
were so few. Quite near by, eight leguas distant, was the village
of Marivelez, which had no ministers. The other ministers had left
it because of the insalubrity of its climate and the brutishness
of its natives, who were very obstinate in their superstitions. The
voices of the missionaries did not at all soften them, wherefore with
comfortable maxims they had left them in their obstinacy, shaking
off secretly the dust from their sandals. Truly their religion
was ridiculous. They had their groves or reserved places in the
forest. There were their peculiar penates or minor gods, to whom they
made their sacrifices. Certain old deluded and ceremonious persons
took charge of the sacrifices. They were assisted by certain old women,
called _catalonas_, who had great authority among those deluded people,
which they had acquired by deceitful and delusive tricks. The method of
sacrificing cattle was the common and transcendental one among those
natives. But irreligion was manifest in all their vain observances,
and in the conservation of their traditions, rather than any active
and positive religion. They observed those long-kept and sacrilegious
customs, through fear of punishment if they omitted them; and, even
more, they were persuaded that they would die the instant when they
violated these.

4. Their laws in political government were no better, being at
the pleasure of the most powerful, who exercised their tyranny
despotically. Many difficulties were those. And if one would
consider that others, who must be considered of equal or greater
spirit, had abandoned them as unconquerable, he would understand
their human prudence, or temerity, or their great conceit. But the
robust vicar-provincial stumbled in nothing, his wonderful zeal
facilitating everything. For that administration and conquest, he
appointed Fray Miguel de Santa Maria the adelantado, giving him as
associates father Fray Pedro de San Josef, and the lay brother Fray
Francisco de Santa Monica, all of them now well acquainted with that
language. They accepted their appointments resignedly, and set out
for Marivelez. They quickly found that profound darkness was opposed
to their new light. They were not dismayed by their inevitable
labors. No welcome was found among so rude and unconquerable a
people. The missionaries solicited them in the woods, where they
gained their livelihood by the labor of their fields. They spoke to
them in affectionate tones; they undeceived them of their errors,
which so darkened their souls. They maintained, at their own cost,
some huts where they retired for the necessary rest at night. When they
took any slight and hurried refreshment, it was for their necessary
relief and rest, since the rest of their time was broken with
penitential exercises. By such unalterable and edifying procedure,
they were gradually softening those hard rocks; and they already
had many converts and baptized people. The other idolaters did not
regard that desertion well, and one day when the father was going on
his rounds to catechise them in the woods, the pagans were awaiting
him, and discharged upon him a shower of stones. He yielded to his
contusions and wounds. He escaped with his life from this exigency,
which was not little. But he was so ill-treated that he could not
recover his health, which became worse; and recognizing that it was
impossible to recover it there because of the utter lack of comfort,
he determined to retire to Manila, in order to die conformably with
his brethren. Some medicines were administered to him here, which he
took rather to please his superior than because he had any idea that
they would be of use. The dissolution of his body rapidly progressing,
he piously received the last sacraments; and, in the midst of lofty
and loving acts, he passed to the eternal rest, leaving this wretched
life with envy. His two courageous companions returned also to the
infirmary at Manila, for they had fallen sick from their continual
troubles; and they ended their lives in so excellent and desirable
a manner, the first fruits of this laborious task.

5. So arduous an undertaking was not abandoned through fear of
its danger, because those beginnings were, in the general mind,
unfortunate. It fell to the lot of father Fray Rodrigo de San Miguel,
a man celebrated in the history of his holy province, especially in
the voyage that he made from these islands to Basora and Caldea,
in which he reduced various Armenians of the schism [62] to the
obedience of the holy see, and presented their chiefs to his Holiness,
Urban Eighth, who thanked him for his zeal by special favors and
rewards. He was firm in spirit and of most courageous boldness. He took
possession of that toilsome mission. With his industry, he reduced
to a civilized and Christian life the remainder of those pagans,
in a location called Bagac. There he built his church and dwelling,
and there he gathered many scattered peoples. Afterward he moved it
to that of Marivelez because of the convenience of the port, and its
more equable climate. He arranged other annexed locations within
a distance of twelve leguas, where his tireless industry gathered
about one thousand five hundred souls. Assuring this stronghold, he
opened a gateway by which to pass to the coast beyond. The Zambales
Indians tyrannized over it, and no boats could touch there without
danger of their lives. Those were Indians of barbarous ferocity, and
very bloody-minded. It was very difficult to soften such monsters,
so blinded by their superstitions and by their barbarous customs,
that in no way would they accustom their ears to other things. One
very extraordinary event procured respect for the father among them,
and thereupon they paid more attention to his evangelical words.

6. Father Fray Rodrigo was one day passing through a thicket. That
thicket was, according to their customs, one of the reserved ones,
and it was considered sacrilegious to cut anything from it, and that
such act would be punished with immediate death. So infatuated were
they with that blindness that no one, even though in great need,
dared to take anything from that place, being restrained by fear. The
father saw a beautiful tree, which they call _pajo_, laden with
ripe fruit. He ordered his followers to gather some by climbing the
tree. They strenuously resisted, but father Fray Rodrigo insisted on
it. They declared that they would not do it under any circumstances,
and that it meant sure death if they offended the respect whose
fatal sentence comprehended all the trees of that place. The father
severely chided them for their error, and to show them that it was so,
he determined to gather the fruit himself. He began to break branches
and to clear the trunk, in order to facilitate the ascent. The Indians
were grieved, and urgently begged him to desist from that undertaking,
which they considered as so rash. But the religious, arming himself
with the sign of the cross, and reciting the antiphon, _Ecce lignum
crucis_, managed to gather some of the ripe fruit, which the tree
offered. He ate it in front of them and liked the fruit very much,
for indeed it is savory. They looked at his face amazed, expecting
his instant death. When that did not happen, they recognized their
delusion, and detested their cheats They also ate without experiencing
any harm. The father charged them to say nothing upon their arrival
at the village. He took with him a goodly quantity of that fruit,
and divided a great portion of it among the chiefs. Esteeming the
gift, they, in their ignorance, ate it without fear. In a sermon on
the following day, the father disclosed the secret and checked their
vain fears; so that, undeceived by experience, they followed him
with their axes, and in short order felled that thicket, which was
a confused center of perverse iniquities. Thereupon, many of those
infidels submitted to the true knowledge.

7. He continued the conversion of those people after that happy result,
despising dangers, and enduring bodily necessities, very full indeed
of interior consolation. That is a rough coast, and offers grievous
terrors in its times of turbulent weather. Father Fray Rodrigo
was navigating along it when a fierce tempest suddenly overtook
him, which, driving the small boat upon some rocks, dashed it into
pieces. Those who were in it were drowned, although they knew how to
swim. The father alone, by the violent impulse of a wave, reached a
small rocky islet. His life was miraculously saved on it, and God,
who does not grant His blessings incompletely, caused an Indian to
discover him within twenty-four hours. The Indian swam to him, and
carried him from that danger, on his shoulders. Even more marvelous was
another thing that happened to father Fray Juan de la Ascension, while
sailing along that same coast. He was in a boat manned by Chinese,
who, being careless of their sheets, did not loose them in time, when
the wind suddenly shifted furiously. It is most dangerous to coast
along high lands, for so furious winds blow through the passes that
if great care is not taken with the sheets the boats overturn easily.

8. Thus did it happen with this boat, and its keel was exposed to
the sun. All were drowned, without any aid; only father Fray Juan was
saved by divine Providence. This is more manifest, since the method
was one unheard-of. The father remained inside his craft, while
the overturned boat tossed up and down. Its space did not entirely
fill with water, a small space being left, which served as an arch,
in which the father could keep his head and arms out of the water,
having laid fast hold of a beam. He passed three days thus, until
a boatful of Indians, happening to pass that way, and observing the
floating hull, approached the boat, to see if it contained anything
by which their greed could be advantaged. They began to break
through the open end. As soon as they had opened a small aperture,
they heard the voice of the shipwrecked religious, who begged for
help. The Indians were frightened, and resolved to leave the task
that they had undertaken. One of them, more courageous, inspired them
with the sufficient resolution, and, continuing, they discovered the
father almost at the last extremity. They reached him presently, took
good care of him, and helped him with what they were carrying. With
that he came to himself and recounted his catastrophe. They marveled
greatly at so extraordinary an event, which they regarded only as a
prodigy never before seen. In this manner did they continue with the
conversion of those infidels, until they obtained a good foundation
in the village of Masinloc. It was a very suitable location, as it
was the center of many mountains and settled districts where many and
diverse peoples could easily be reduced to a civilized and Christian
life. The management of its planting was given to father Fray de el
Espiritu Santo; and he, with two associates, was well employed in
those apostolic excursions. In a short time they had eight thousand
newly baptized Indians, and arranged methods for their administration,
and for their catechism. Their first care was divine worship, and
instruction and training musicians and singers. So did those zealous
ministers labor, and we leave them now in that cultivation.




Volume V


Chapter III


_The discalced Augustinian religious continue their spiritual conquests
on the coast of Zambales, and pacify it with their labors. They extend
their fervent tasks to the province of Caraga, in Mindanao._

1. If God created man with a certain fertility, with which to
propagate other men, although that fertility was not taken away by
the first sin, it is not what it would be if disobedience had not
intervened; and if to that propagation conservation be not added, it
would not proceed according to the form and method of its kind, but
even in these natural arrangements nothing would be done without the
cooperation of the Creator. Proportionally so is it in the spiritual
propagation, in which man is formed for piety and justice. He who
plants or he who waters is nothing, but it is only God who giveth the
increase. For that reason so necessary dispositions are not useless,
but are indispensable in the present providence. How can they hear
unless there be one to preach to them? God gave man understanding,
but it is as dull in infancy as if he did not have one; it must be
excited, and brought to light with the increase of age, in which he
becomes capable of knowledge and of instruction, skilful to perceive
truth and pure and chaste love, with which to fight strenuously
against the engendered vices to which he is inclined naturally from
his youth. Those spiritual propagations in semi-brutish men are very
difficult; for, although reason is not altogether extinguished, the
sparks of it are so feeble that one must use considerable discretion
and prudence in order to arouse them. With those monsters were
the discalced Augustinian religious dealing on the Zambales coast;
having as the object of their living faith the salvation of souls,
they could employ themselves admirably in such spiritual propagations,
planting and watering with immense labor, God granting them the desired
increase in that so blessed intercourse. Establishing themselves in
Masinloc, they did not restrain themselves in the undertaking until
they reached the end of the coast, on whose famous point is the village
of Bolinao. There they had had the first intelligence of the gospel,
which the observantine Augustinians had tried to communicate to
them. But either the ferocity and barbarous customs of the natives,
who threatened to kill them, or their great occupation in other
more abundant missions, compelled them to abandon that attempt. At
the demand of those religious, together with a commission from the
governor then in office, Don Rodrigo de Rivero, and the instance of
the venerable dean and cabildo, the vice-provincial despatched fathers
Fray Christoval de Christo and Fray Andres del Espiritu Santo to that
conversion. The village was then located on an island, which formed
the port of the same point. When the venerable religious entered, the
natives would have nothing to do with them; however they did not dare
to expel the fathers nor lay hands on them. They supported themselves
on certain herbs and roots, which grow naturally and without labor
in the forest, necessarily suffering misery and misfortunes.

2. Their endurance and suffering made the Bolinaos more tractable;
they were persuaded that their preaching was true, and that their
instruction was important for them. They began to listen to it
without aversion, although with curiosity. The efficacy of the word
of God penetrated strongly into their hearts. Then they conceived
a horror of their barbarous customs. Thereupon, and because of the
continual instruction, they resolved to abandon paganism, and to
surrender their necks to the gospel yoke. One thousand six hundred,
having been catechised satisfactorily, were baptized. They built
a suitable church and a dwelling-house for the father ministers,
and the village of Bolinao was established in very orderly ways,
in matters relating to their common life and to civilization. They
have continued happily in their vocation, and I think that it is one
of the most solid Christian communities in the islands. They are very
devout, and their thoughts are without any superstition, while they
are most inclined to devotion. Thence the fathers extended their zeal
to the near-by and dependent communities; all these were most happily
subjected. That was largely induced by the religious themselves
cutting down a reserved bamboo plantation, and thus removing their
foolish fears that he who dared to cut a single bamboo from it would
die--but which did not happen to them, as the Indians had imagined. By
that means they were undeceived in their previous superstitions.

3. The fathers also extended their reductions and conversions to
the south of Masinloc. They formed the scattered peoples, and the
rural settlers of Tuguy and Paynayan into villages. Inasmuch as
the Pagans and Negritos of the immediate forests disturbed those
new establishments greatly by making furtive raids on them and
killing several people, seizing those who were heedless at night,
the superior government determined to establish a small fort in
Paynayen, with moderate-sized artillery, and a garrison of Spanish
and Pampanga infantry which would maintain in loyalty those newly
catechised and reduced, and would shelter them from barbarous
hostilities. The expenses for it were to be paid, in order to make
raids in the forests, and to intimidate with their arms those people
of so fierce customs. The only ones still to be conquered on that
long coast were the scattered people of Sigayan, about eight leguas
north of Masinloc. Father Fray Alonso de San Augustin, a son of this
city of Manila, took charge of that undertaking at the order of his
vicar-provincial. His diligence was efficacious and most lively. He
reduced many of those infidels to the true faith; founded a town with
them, which he, with good supervision, established in a commodious
site; and established a church and house. He managed and perfected
the work with great vigilance and the consolation of his soul. One day
when the people were assembled, he preached a fervent sermon, censuring
the resistance of some obstinate infidels. Some of them were respected
and venerated as the greatest chiefs. The sermon mortified them, and
they resolved to take satisfaction for the pretended and supposed
insult. The bolder of them, on some pretext or other, approached
the zealous father, quickly drew a cutting weapon, such as they use,
from its sheath, and at the first blow almost decapitated him with
it. His hood protected him somewhat, but not so much that he was not
grievously wounded. As the wound was given in a dangerous place, its
cure was difficult. Thus he lived but a short time, sacrificing his
life very willingly for the good of those rebellious sheep. After
that parricide the new reduction rose in rebellion. The followers
of the unjust aggressor burned and destroyed the village, convent,
and church, and withdrew to the general asylum and refuge of the
woods. Some faithful Christians remained with the wounded father, whom
they carried to Masinloc, where his happy death occurred. With what
was left, after abandoning that new Christianity for the time being,
the ministers tried later, as if forgetful of the past insult, to have
the reduction returned to its old site. They interested the Indians
of Masinloc, and, partly with mild means and partly with threats,
they attained their object--not without great efforts, fears, and
hardships. The church, house, and village were rebuilt, and about seven
hundred souls were enrolled. That village, after other translations,
is the one now called Santa Cruz, and is dependent on Masinloc.

4. Those hardships caused those religious to be well received in
Manila. Its citizens became interested in that, without leaving
their first foundation of Bagumbayan, which was very useful for those
suburbs, they should move into a regular convent within the walls of
their fortification--which was unavoidable because of the continual
disputes with Japanese and Chinese, and because of the fears caused
by the Dutch with their fleets. Because of the urgency with which
all compassionately entreated them, with this security, the father
vice-provincial, Fray Juan de San Geronimo, responded gratefully;
and, recognizing the strict advisability of it, bought a small
house near the artillery foundry which then existed. The governor,
then Don Juan de Silva, liberally and willingly facilitated this
undertaking with alms, and conceded the site. Various oppositions
were encountered against that foundation, but they were conquered,
although with difficulty, by constancy. The religious passed many days
of poverty on that site, being uncomfortable and with scanty subsidies,
until the very pious and noble gentleman, Don Bernardino de el Castillo
Rivera y Maldonado, a native of the City of Mexico, master-of-camp of
the royal regiment, castellan of the fort of Santiago, and regidor of
the city--moved likewise by the urgent entreaties of his pious wife,
Dona Maria Enrriquez de Cespedes, who was very strongly inclined
towards this religious institute and to their patron, San Nicolas de
Tholentino (by whose intercession she had obtained a son), who had died
soon afterward--took charge of the foundation. He erected a handsome
building on that site for a church and convent, which was made of
hewn stone. He finished it at a personal cost to his estate of more
than one hundred thousand pesos. He assigned it suitable revenues in
lands, and funds for the necessary repairs and rebuilding--all the
more liberally, as he had no necessary heir.

5. In an authentic declaration that he made before the
alcalde-in-ordinary of this city, Don Martin de Herrera--received and
testified before the notary-public, Juan de Villa Marin--the patron,
Don Bernardino, declares that the impelling motive for undertaking and
perfecting the work of church and convent was his great devotion to
San Nicolas de Tolentino, and his having recognized in the discalced
Augustinian religious, from the time of their arrival in this city,
learned, virtuous, and serious men; and the knowledge that they were
gathering much fruit in this community and among the natives round
about. In their manner of acting, they persuaded men that they were
all true servants of God. That had moved him to aid them in their very
severe need; and he had taken under his charge convent and church,
building them a new edifice from the foundations up. He had bought
many pieces of ground for them at excessive prices; in that way and
on the work, he had spent a large sum, and he considered it well
employed. He declared that he was ready to spend much more, even to
the extent of all his wealth, and to be left with only his assigned
pay of castellan; for the said Recollect religious deserve it by
their example and virtue. For the repairs and preservation of the
work, he assigned a fitting income from many lands. It is estimated
that he spent on and endowed it, in all, with one hundred and fifty
thousand pesos, although with obligations to chaplaincies. Besides
that, he adorned the church, and continually expended money for it.

6. He also had a garden or country-house, called Calumpang, because
of its location. He made them a present of it, and of a portion of
the lands surrounding it, on condition that the said religious found
a convent on that site, where some religious could live retired and
free from disturbance. The then vice-provincial, Fray Rodrigo de
San Miguel, took possession, after obtaining the necessary licenses
from the government and from the archbishop. With these was formed a
convent of the same house, and a small church was erected under the
invocation of St. Sebastian, being dedicated to that glorious martyr,
a being to whom especial devotion was paid by its founders, who aided
its cost with their wealth. The archbishop, then Don Fray Miguel Garcia
Serrano, adjudged [to it] the spiritual administration of the tenants
of the lands, to the number of about thirty houses. The minister of
Sampoloc had a suit pending about those tenants, but as soon as they
were adjudged to that new church, they escaped from his demands;
and free possession remained to them, which was confirmed by the
royal patronage. A beautiful image of our Lady of Carmel was placed
in that church a few years afterward, which was brought from Mexico
by a mission of those religious. Her devotion extended her worship,
and her favors made her more famous. The dean of that holy church, Don
Juan Velez, given up by the doctors, and already without hope, begged
the religious to carry the holy image of Carmel to his house. At the
entrance of that Lady, and the fervent prayer of the dean, he suddenly
became well and completely cured. As a thank-offering for so singular
a favor, he returned the image to her church, and made her a very
solemn feast. He founded with the ordinary authority a confraternity,
under the title of Carmel, which attained so many members within
a short time that the number was more than two thousand, of both
sexes. The dean continued the feast every year, but scapularies were
not distributed because they had no authority for it, and because they
had no members of the Carmelite order. [63] Therefore those religious
had recourse to a competent prelate of the Carmelites, who could
concede the permission with apostolic privilege--the very reverend
father-provincial of Andalucia, Maestro Fray Diego de el Castillo,
granting authority to the prior of the convent of San Sebastian in
Philipinas in order that he, in his person alone, could and might
bless the scapularies of his holy order, and distribute them to the
faithful who might request them. From the receipt of that despatch,
and by means of such a distribution, the confraternity became full
to overflowing. The feast could not be held on its appropriate day in
July, which is wont to fall in the height of the rainy season. Having
recourse to the apostolic see, Pope Clement Eleventh erected the
confraternity anew, and set its feast for the twenty-first of January,
with special concessions of a plenary indulgence weekly, and additional
ones during the year on days assigned by the archbishop. Those weekly
indulgences fall on Wednesday, and the others on the four Sundays of
the month in February, May, July; and the last, on the day of the
betrothals. The same pontiff later extended the plenary indulgence
of the twenty-first of February to the following week, in order to
satisfy the devotion of the innumerable crowd. If those nine days
were increased to a fortnight, the crowd would always be numerous. In
the nine days are administered from six to seven thousand communions,
besides many who commune in other churches. It is the most extensive
devotion among Spaniards and natives. That devotion had its failings,
as is usual among numerous crowds, which have been corrected by the
zeal of the superiors. That confraternity has since been established
in the city of Zebu, and has in the same manner been extended into
the Bisayan provinces.

7. At length his final illness came to this illustrious
benefactor. Recognizing it as such, he made his will, in which he
instituted as his heir San Nicolas de Tolentino. He died, and the
religious accepted that condition, and the remainder of his property
was adjudged to them. He was buried in that church as if in his own
house: on his conspicuous tomb was expressed the record that he left
by his charitable deeds. In the same tomb the body of his wife was
afterward placed. Monuments were erected to them, and in a suitable
niche were placed worthy memorials of gratitude. Since that first
church had the misfortune to be ruined by earthquakes, the fathers
did not recognize the patronage when they entirely rebuilt the church,
regarding their new church as free.

8. The governor, the bishops, and the encomenderos were urgent for
those religious to extend their apostolic labors. But they were few and
could not attend to those extensions Consequently, the vicar-provincial
decided to send a religious to Espana, to beg king and council for
aid for new operations. Father Fray Pedro de San Fulgencio, a well
known and experienced member of the order, was proposed for that
undertaking. He was given for the voyage legitimate authorizations,
letters of credit from all the governments, very expressive and
liberal, in which the truth and necessity were explained, so that
his Majesty would kindly concede a suitable number of ministers, who
might continue so excellent and important beginnings. That father
reached Madrid without accident, and found his brethren in mortal
anguish and distressing pain, and the reformed branch now breathing
its last and almost destroyed.

[The outgoing provincial has relaxed the strict rule of the reformed
branch. The internal disputes that follow his term are brought to a
definite head by Paul V's brief, ordering the regular Augustinians
to take over the convents of the Recollects and to absorb that
branch. However, the order is saved by the strenuous efforts exerted
both in Spain and Rome.]

15. In such condition was this reformed branch when father Fray
Pedro, procurator of Philipinas, reached Espana, without province,
without authority, and without means for cooperation in his urgent
affairs. But his brave spirit did not waver; he was adroit and prompt
in the management of papers; and he was presented to the king with
a brief memorial referring to his commissions. Although his Majesty
was not then very well inclined to the Reform, laying aside those
considerations, he paid good heed to the petition, recognizing its
justification. He conceded the despatch of thirty religions, whom
the procurator could take with him on the first occasion that should
present itself, with the usual subsidies. After that so favorable
result was obtained, it was considered advisable to go to the court
of Roma, in order to move the universal head [of the church] to
favor the general interest by information of the results obtained
in the islands. He obtained audience with the supreme pontiff, Paul
V, to whom he related the labors of his associates in the benefit
of infidel souls. His representation was very well received by the
supreme pontiff. The latter conceded him many favors and indulgences
for the missionaries engaged in conversions and reductions. In order
to aid father Fray Gregorio [64] in his claims, he was detained a long
while. Those public interests and the most important affairs of those
conquests disappointed private interests. Powerful rivals advanced
their claims, but the procurator ought not to have abandoned his own
affairs. He trusted too much to his prompt and favorable commissions,
in whose durability the quickest despatch is not enough; for the agents
on the opposing side, availing themselves of his voluntary absence,
began to depreciate the mission that had been conceded. They declared
that the Recollects were not necessary in Philipinas; that those
who had gone there before were but few and useless. The procurators
of the provinces of Philipinas--who by having taken the habit were
not divested of human passions, for they considered it [_i.e.,_ the
Recollect mission] as a grievance, instead of being moved by a just
and charitable zeal--interested themselves in that report. There was
much that had to be tilled and cleared. Whole provinces were begging
for spiritual aid. But now, since their zeal was mitigated, they were
excusing themselves from labors, and were contenting themselves with
tranquillity. To say that new missions were necessary, without some
of these entering the labors of others, was very apparent to them,
and on very superficial considerations reprehensible. Their immoderate
opposition reached such a point that they declared publicly that they
[_i.e.,_ the Recollects] were not men who could prove at all useful
to the infidels.

16. Their procurator, Fray Pedro, was well able to answer those
calumnies (for they were calumnies), and to restrain insinuations so
pernicious and prejudicial to the interests with which he was charged;
for he had discretion and a spirit for everything. The most effective
thing in that was the pressing need of his commissions, and the
contents of his credentials. But death, which overtook him at Milan on
his return trip, prevented those advancements and important efforts;
and there was no person to whom to entrust the favorable outcome
of his negotiations at Roma, nor his papers as procurator, which
were the essential part of the negotiation. Upon that so unexpected
disaster, inasmuch as there was no substitution of powers, nor, as
it happened, anyone in whom to substitute them, the above opposition
and contradiction had their opportunity--thus disappointing the
arrangements of several religious who were already preparing for that
voyage, in their anxiety to embark quickly, and assist their associates
in the islands, and extend their laborious work. Those misfortunes and
disturbances were unhappily removed and extended to Philipinas. The
vice-provincial was notified of Paul V's brief, of the extinction of
the province, and the submission to the calced religious, who began to
make use of violent acts of superiority. Although counsel was taken
with erudite men regarding that difficulty, yet in view of that so
executive brief, they wavered in their opinions. The only thing that
militated against the brief was that it was not passed by the royal
Council. But since it had to do with government and monarchy, it was
at least binding on the inner court of the conscience, especially on
subjects who had given a special and solemn obedience to the pontiff,
in regard to the internal government of their institutes. These so
violent disturbances had some rest in the election of provincial
in the person of the father maestro, Fray Miguel Garcia Serrano. In
it the offices of the convents and ministries of the discalced were
confirmed to the persons who held them, and in the same manner; all
taking care, after the representations of such a prelate, to honor
and protect so afflicted a family.

17. Those so complicated causes for disquietude saddened
extraordinarily the venerable father, Vice-provincial Fray de San
Geronimo. He, upon seeing his edifice being destroyed gradually in
this manner, and that its ruin was a foregone conclusion by such
measures, determined, notwithstanding his age, and the catastrophes
that usually happened, to return to Espana, in order to solicit and
promote the quiet of his reformed branch, and help for the preaching
and conservation of the Indians, by communicating in person to the
Catholic king his fortunate beginnings, being confident in the royal
and benignant attachment to his person, and his merits. His receipt of
certain letters, however, compelled him to cut short the voyage. Those
letters assured him that the mind of the monarch was made up to appoint
him as bishop in one of the vacant sees of these islands. In order
that those obligatory despatches might not find him in the islands,
and as he found a suitable opportunity, he embarked in a vessel to make
his voyage by way of India. That unusual effort also was frustrated,
because he was attacked by his last illness on the high sea, at
the parallel of Ormuz. During it he edified the sailors greatly by
his excellent disposition, and his conformity to the divine will,
in whose kiss he delivered up his spirit. Very sorrowfully they cast
him into the sea, the common tomb of sailors who happen to die thus.

18. Although few, those reformed religious, condescending at repeated
urging, accepted a foundation in the port of Cavite. There lived the
seamen, who, accustomed to dangers, are also reckless in vices. Men
of nationalities distinct in religion and sect were wintering there
because of the heavy commerce, and through their frequent intercourse
their morals were becoming relaxed.

19. He who most urgently requested and sighed for such a foundation
was a pious citizen and a good Christian, named Raphael Blanco, chief
of the shore or arsenal, and master of the calkers. He offered to help
in the establishment with a large ground-plot and property on which
he had built some houses, with the necessary condition that it was to
be used as a church and convent. He was ready to sign a legal writ
of gift, provided that the vicar-provincial bound himself to erect
a church on the said ground and site. The parties having come to an
agreement, went before the royal Audiencia, which was governing,
and the bishop of Zebu, Don Fray Pedro de Arze, governor of this
archipelago. Permission was granted, and a church and convent were
formed in the best manner, in the houses of Raphael Blanco, with the
aid of various alms, with St. Nicolas de Tolentino as its titulary. In
the beginning of its construction it was of wood; but afterward, the
necessary licenses having been granted, it was built of stone. Three
reredoses adorned the temple. Shortly after its foundation its benefit
was experienced. The people of the port were most extraordinarily
afflicted; they frequently saw various horrifying specters in the air,
which gave vent to terrible and formidable cries. Those specters took
possession of various bodies, which they maltreated in many and cruel
ways. Some they made raving mad; to some they caused very dangerous
illnesses; some took to the mountains in flight; some, going up
to the heights, let themselves fall down a precipice. So terrible
a persecution put the whole port beside itself. The churches were
opened and the august sacrament exposed day and night. The greatest
crowd collected in the new convent and church. Missions were preached
there with spirit and fervor, in which their prior at that time, Fray
Pedro de la Madre de Dios, excelled. These aroused all to penitence,
and there was frequent petition for the holy sacraments. The air was
filled with sighing, and the people mortified themselves with fastings
and severe penances, in order to placate the divine wrath, so manifest
in fearful acts of vengeance. The priests were continually employed
in exorcisms against the wicked spirits. Cavite resembled an afflicted
Nineveh. God willed to let the punishment end with threats. The spirits
left their obsessions at the command of the ecclesiastical ministers,
the horrible apparitions ceased, and their mournful howling was no
longer heard. The inhabitants became quiet and were consoled, but
did not fail to be very well warned. For they continued constant in
the correction and the general reform of morals; and it extended to
every kind of people, who were intimidated for a considerable time by
such fearful events, and very thankful to their spiritual benefactors.

20. Upon hearing of the death of his vice-provincial, father Fray
Rodrigo de San Miguel became very eager to make his voyage to Espana
to solicit new workers. He asked and obtained duplicate despatches
from the most prominent and distinguished inhabitants, from the
ecclesiastical and secular cabildos, from the governor, and from
the royal Audiencia. All the documents were confirmed by the most
illustrious bishops, who said that the discalced Augustinians were
very observant of their rule in their ministries, very zealous in the
conversion of souls, and therefore very advantageous, useful, and even
necessary. That would oblige his Catholic Majesty to concede them the
mission that they desired. The orders also confirmed the documents,
especially the observantine Augustinians, in which they confuted the
preceding adverse testimonies. Then he embarked with so favorable
and extensive despatches; but his voyage was very disagreeable. They
suffered a severe storm amid these islands, in which were lost boats
that had anchored at Manila and Cavite. The stormy winds obliged them
to sail to Japon, from which altitude they continued their course,
with constant squalls, until they sighted Cape Mendocino--whence,
coasting the shores of Nueva Espana, they finally anchored at Acapulco,
after innumerable terrors and dangers, and after a most distressing
voyage of seven months.

21. The father went overland to the North Sea, and embarking at Vera
Cruz, continued his course. On the voyage a raging tempest carried them
to the coasts and banks of Terra Nova--[_i.e._, Newfoundland]. That
deviation from their course made water and food grow scarce, so much
so that daily rations of only two ounces of sea-biscuit were dealt
out, and the same proportion of water. The ship sprang a leak, and
took so much water into the hold that they reached the Terceras as
by a miracle. There they rested and equipped themselves, in order to
finish their voyage to Cadiz. Thence the father went to Madrid, where
his requests were listened to kindly, and his despatches conceded
to him. In virtue of them, he had already called together twenty
religious; and he determined to embark in the fleet that was being
sent to the Malucas with reenforcements. He could not effect that,
because that order had been lost with the obligations expressed in
another part. Accordingly it was necessary to accommodate himself to
the trading-fleet which was being despatched to Vera-Cruz, although
with a small number of missionaries; however, considering the extreme
lack of them [in the islands] great relief was furnished even by these.

22. Thereupon, and the contentions of the Roman court having been
favorably determined, because the supreme pontiff had [now] been
thoroughly and sufficiently informed, the latter took pains to console
those whom he recognized as innocent. He did that by his apostolic
brief, in which, with full knowledge of the cause, he explained his
former brief and definitive sentence, confirming the concession of
Clement Eighth, in the erection of the province. He restored the
title and office of provincial to the same father Fray Gregorio,
confirmed his former patents, and restored everything to its former
condition. However, there were certain endurable reservations, by
which they could not found more monasteries or receive novices. At
the end of the three years' term, the calced provincial was to visit
that reformed branch in whose jurisdiction the Recollect convents
were to be. He conceded them many indulgences, privileges, and
favors, by which their minds were calmed, and their desired relief
in Philipinas obtained. This country was reenforced with thirteen
other missionaries, whom the fathers of Espana sent officially in
charge of their commissary, father Fray Christoval de San Augustin. He
reached Mexico, whence he could not proceed farther, as death seized
him. Father Fray Onofre de la Madre de Dios took charge of that
leadership, with whose arrangement they all arrived safe and sound
at Manila. They had their frights in meeting some Dutch urcas, which
followed our ship with a stern wind; and they were about to be captured
when the religious invoked in their favor the glorious St. Nicolas
de Tholentino. Then, luffing, they were able to escape the Dutch.

23. The most illustrious bishop of Zebu, Don Fray Pedro de Arze,
was in Manila, and requested the reverend father Fray Rodrigo de San
Miguel, the vice-provincial at that time, to send religious to Zebu
to make a foundation in that city. The latter complied with this, by
sending father Fray Juan Chrisostomo de la Ascencion to take charge of
that, in answer to the bishop's venerable and respectful urgency. His
Excellency conceded to the father a site as his especial property,
which had a chapel of our Lady of the Conception somewhat apart from
its center. There the said father established his convent. As his
Excellency's desires were not that the fathers should live in ease,
he immediately assigned to them the administration of the island
of Maripipi, where there were about six hundred souls. Being thus
established in Bisayas, his same Excellency, after consulting the
superior government, and his Excellency Don Alonso Fajardo acquiescing,
charged and intrusted them solemnly with the spiritual administration
of the province of Caraga in Mindanao. That province, although subdued
by Don Juan de Silva, and given as an encomienda, had not yet had
any ministers--or, at most, a secular chaplain for ministration to
the garrison of its fort. It was a difficult undertaking because
of the warlike spirit and the ferocity of the Caragas, whose chief
tenet of religion was the deification or apotheosis of the brave
and of the most tyrannical. From so barbarous a maxim one can infer
something of their fierce customs. The district was large and caused
great labor, for the conquests had to be made through rough and dense
forests. Their superior assigned eight religious for this task, who,
being supplied with the necessary things, arrived without accident
at the presidio of Tandag. [65]

24. They endeavored to reduce that infidelity with mildness and
gentleness. They made those people see their errors, and God lent such
force to their persuasions that many were baptized. They procured
their conversion through the chiefs, who by their superiority
tyrannized over their dependents. One of those chiefs was called
Ynuc, as renowned for his reputation as feared for his cruelty, by
means of which he was absolute along that coast and formidable in the
neighboring islands. He hated the Spaniards violently, with whom he
always refused to make peace or truce, ever preserving for them an
implacable hatred. The superior of that mission, father Fray Juan de
la Madre de Dios, trusting in God, dared to conquer that monster. He
left Tandag to look for him alone, without any followers. He found
him at his _rancheria_. [66] Ynuc wondered at the father's audacity
in appearing before him without first asking permission. He intended
to take satisfaction for what he considered an intolerable insult,
but the father talked to him with so much mildness and spirituality,
that he not only pardoned his boldness, but also showed pleasure at his
salutary advice. They conversed intimately, and Ynuc was so pleased
with his intercourse that he accepted tolerable treaties of peace
with the Spaniards of Tandag, with whom he opened communication and
commerce. He granted a free permit so that the father might preach
to his subjects, and so that the father might enter and leave his
lands without hindrance, ordering that all give him their help. The
father continuing his intercourse with Ynuc, the opportunity came,
when master of his affections, to treat concerning his conversion,
as his example was so important. Ynuc did not resist the divine call
very strenuously. He disposed himself for catechism, and received
baptism amid great solemnity. In that conversion he performed the
necessary duty, as a proof [of his sincerity], of sending all the
concubines from his house, and marrying the first wife and confirming
by the sacraments the natural contract _in faciae ecclesiae_. [67] He
freed all his slaves, who exceeded two thousand. He issued edicts
ordering that all persons who thought themselves aggrieved should
come for satisfaction, without any fear; and he made the religious
the judges for that, together with the commandant of the fort. They
settled all differences equitably, and to the satisfaction of the
interested parties, entirely contenting them all with their decrees.

25. That conversion was much bruited throughout the whole province,
and to his example many infidels bowed their necks; however, many
difficulties yet remained. The missionaries resolved to conquer them,
for which they exposed themselves to evident dangers. The superior
either did not recognize them as dangers or despised them. He was
resting one night in a location called Ambagan, not far from Tandag. An
Indian, without other motive than his barbarous inclination, conceived
the thought of killing him, and obtained two companions, who aided
him with their weapons in his depraved purpose. He climbed into the
house boldly, leaving his two companions ready on the ladder. When
he tried to enter the apartment where the minister was sleeping, a
venerable old man stopped him, who asked him in his native language:
"Where art thou going, profligate? I am guarding the sleeper, who is
my son." The Indian, carried away by his headlong wrath, persisted
in entering the forbidden apartment. Thereupon, the venerable old man
raised aloft a golden staff, which he supported in his hand, with which
he threatened the Indian, who conceived so great a horror of it that
in his confusion he was unable to find the ladder by which to descend,
although he sought it in various ways. He remained there, miserable
and afflicted, all that night, without knowing what was passing, until,
the morning having come and the minister having come out of his room,
he placed himself before the latter very contritely, and told him what
had happened, urging him to make it known. His associates confirmed
what referred to them--namely, that becoming tired of waiting at the
foot of the ladder, they had retired thence at daybreak, in order
not to be discovered, abandoning their associate to his fortune. The
father agreed, as did the more judicious, that he whom the Indian
was declaring by his signs was the great father St. Augustine, who
miraculously defended his son with the pastoral staff.

26. The infidels came to hold these religious in great veneration when
so noteworthy incidents were made known throughout the province,
and the gospel obtained great advantages. The errors in which
the idolatrous priests were trying to maintain the infidels were
dissipated. The priests, seeing their interests waning by the recent
conversions, conspired against the fathers' lives several times; but
they escaped those dangers by a special and divine providence. Several
reductions were formed in the province, and in the adjacent island
of Siargao. The Jesuit fathers could not take care of all their
enterprises in that island. The reduction of Butuan was not assured,
with the visits made at long intervals. Those visits, being transient,
allowed no place for instruction, nor did those people preserve much
of their teaching. The bishop of Zebu communicating that fact to the
superior government, it was agreed that the discalced Augustinians
should take charge of that administration, with a foundation,
as that was important. They accepted it with legal papers, and
had much to do on that great and famous river. They ascended its
waters even to their source, which is the lake of Linao, about fifty
leguas in circuit. There they founded a settlement, in order to
assure their labors. [68] They coasted the shore to little Cagayan,
[69] on that excursion taking also into their charge the island of
Camiguin. Farther on they passed through the rancherias of Higan and
Langaran up to the lake of Malanao. But the opposition of the Jesuits
stopped them; for the latter disputed their right to that spiritual
progress, to such an extent that they produced controversies in the
court. His Catholic Majesty decided the question by the rights of his
royal patronage. He ordered the island of Mindanao to be surveyed,
and distributed the administration of it between the two contending
provinces, granting to that of the Recollects [the coast] from the
point of Sulaban [70] to the cape of San Agustin, while the rest
remained in charge of the Society. Thereby were hostile rivalries
pacified, which would have produced nothing good had they continued
without so powerful arbitration.




Chapter IV

_The Augustinian Recollects are charged with the administration and
conquest of the province of Calamianes. Geographical and natural
description of that province_.


1. The extension of its spiritual progress to the province of
Calamianes does much honor to the religious Recollect family. It was
not the effect of a rash temerity; it was a matter of slow and careful
deliberation. When once established and determined, resolution free
from terrible doubts was necessary to undertake it. "Not only is fear
not a cause for surety," said the emperor Leo [71] in his tactics,
"but it is also most adverse for good strategies; since in difficult
undertakings it is necessary to consult God, and, assured in one's
inmost beliefs, to attack without trepidation of spirit. The best
good of expeditions (especially military), if they are difficult,
consists in discovering thoroughly the condition of the enemy,
the number and quality of their troops, and their enterprise in
military discipline. With that keen knowledge, the captain prepares
his assaults, and plans his sudden counter strategies." In the present
conversion, maxims so prudent were very suitable--in which, prepared
by the spiritual food of faith, hope, and charity, they made manifest
the mystery of the ineffable Trinity, and subdued the infidels to
the sacrament of holy baptism. It was a difficult thing, and one that
exceeds human strength; but obeying God, attacks become spirited. By
His help one can soothe difficulties, explain intricate mysteries, and
resolve everything easily. After having consulted that superior oracle,
accompanied solely by his armor-bearer, one can attack whole armies,
rout them, and throw them into a general confusion and consternation;
and it is the enemy's own weapons that wound and disperse them.

2. The archipelago of Calamianes consists of an infinity and
indeterminate number of islands, large and small, and most of them very
fertile. [72] Those best known and best supplied with the products
of commerce which might make them rich are [here] set down. But
their lack of attention [to these products] reduces the natives to
a wretched and unhappy state. The first island, and that which is
first encountered from the course of Mindoro, about fifty leguas
across from Luban, is Calamian the great, which gives name to the
whole province. It is commonly called Busuagan, taking that name from
a principal village or settlement. It is a large and pleasant island
in the form of an oblong, eight long leguas in length and about four
wide. Its rivers are of great volume; there are sufficient mountains;
and from that nature [of the land], there is an abundant yield of
wax of superior quality, which is produced naturally, and without
[human] labor, by the vast multitude of industrious bees. The only
work in it is the gathering of the honeycomb in its season (which
is very securely fastened in the large, high, and leafy branches
of the trees), by the sole effort of making fires with thick smoke,
which compels those little animals, which defend their property at
the cost of their lives, to flee in confusion.

3. A more profitable product is the nest made by certain small black
birds, which are mistakenly called swallows. The material of which the
nest is made, in order to lay and hatch their eggs, is yet unknown. It
is regarded as sure that its manufacture takes place in the breast or
crop, whence issues a long filament. Those filaments stick together
because of their viscous nature, and at their extremities adhere to
the rock. Those nests are usually located in very overhanging and
rough places, in such a way that the continual rains do not unfasten
or destroy them, although the birds always endeavor to place them
under shelter. The shape of the nest is similar to that of the
regular swallow, although smaller. It is known that that filament
is produced with difficulty. It is like fine vermicelli, which is
sometimes accompanied with drops of blood. It is white and somewhat
transparent, like ice. It is prepared in various ways, but a soup
resembling that of vermicelli, but of better taste, and incomparably
more nourishing, is made with the broth from a substantial olio,
or stew. It is very useful for those who suffer from evacuations
and dysentery; it corrects those ailments and is good as a mild and
dissolvent food. The Chinese esteem it highly, and generally pay,
according to its scarcity or abundance, eight, nine, and sixteen pesos
per cate, which contains twenty-one onzas. They are very difficult to
gather, for the birds always build them in craggy locations, in whose
tortuous and precipitous caverns they are only obtained by descending
a rope. Some are obtained by climbing up bamboos, finding a rest for
the feet on the knots, which are left with large projections for that
purpose. So dangerous evolutions cost even broken arms and legs, and
sometimes even cause death. The taking of the nests is repeated three
times during the calm months of the year. The latter part of December,
those to whom are assigned crags--in which it is not right for one
to meddle with those of another, a rule that is observed with much
fidelity--go out. They gather the old nests, which are sufficiently
blackened by the preceding rains; however, they do not lose much
of their nourishment. Thus do they force the little bird to make a
new nest, as it cannot make use of the old one for breeding. As the
desire to breed is excited by its nature, the industrious little
bird strives to build its nest before breeding. All the month of
January is spent in its costly labors. The destroyers come and tear
them down. Sometimes they are found with eggs, and sometimes even
imperfect; but nothing restrains their greed, and they tear down
all indifferently. The disconsolate birds again begin to build their
nest, and at the end of February or the beginning of March the Indians
repeat their robbery. The saddened bird, forced to build its shelter
at the behest of nature in the multiplication of the species repeats
its anxious labors. Either because there is not enough material for
so many labors, or because the season has passed in their periods,
the bird does not possess the same inclination in its formation; the
nest is finished later, and is less juicy, as experience has shown,
for at that time the rainy season generally sets in. That, and the
Moros who infest these seas cause the harvest of nests involuntarily
to be abandoned. However, if the above circumstances do not prevent,
the third excursion is not lacking. All the crags are not accessible,
and where those furtive assaults cannot be made, the number of those
industrious little birds is prodigious." [73]

4. The beaches are protracted into very extensive shoals and
reefs. There the excellent balate is very abundant. This is
a shellfish, [74] which when cooked and dried in the smoke is
preserved dry. This product is highly relished by the Chinese or
Sangleys. They lade as much as possible into their boats, paying thirty
and even thirty-eight pesos per pico (which is equivalent to five
arrobas twelve and one-half libras), according to the season. The
flesh is very wholesome, and tastes like shrimp. The fisheries
of fine-shelled turtles are also abundant, and they also form a
conspicuous product. Some of the shells have markings as deep red as
a fine garnet; and the four principal shells are of an extraordinary
size. From the shells are made very neat boxes, trays, and other pretty
things. They are given a jasper finish, which makes their colors shine
out strongly. The island has abundance of deer, wild boars, and wild
hogs, and monkeys and birds of singular rarity. There are many pagans
of good appearance and better disposition. The frequent raids of the
Moros hold that most fertile island in the greatest abandonment. A
narrow channel separates the island of Coron [75] from it. The latter
is a rocky crag about three leguas in circumference. The only entrance
to it is by a narrow tongue of land, which forms, as it were, a small
port. But it is so easy of defense that a few men can prevent any
entrance there without danger. Because of the strength and independence
of its location many natives of savage inclination, and most warlike,
live there. Calamian the little follows, where the capital is at
present located. [76] There is a fort there, well armed. The men in
their capacity as soldiers, with their corresponding officers, defend
from the natives. It is also fertile in the same products, although
less abundantly than Calamian the great, but it is so overrun with rats
or moles that no seed plant can live, for they destroy everything. The
natives are forced to engage in the trade of jars and salt, although
they are much interested in the nest business, and in that of wax;
the one being their own occupation and the other the exchange.

5. Passing without comment other innumerable islands, comes the famous
one of Paragua, [77] about eighty leguas long and from ten to twenty
in its greatest width. It is a rich and fertile island. Besides the
common articles of commerce, such as wax (of which the harvest is more
abundant than in any other district), nests, fine shell, and balate, it
has various fisheries for fine pearls of beautiful luster, some of them
found at a depth of three or four brazas. Shells, or _madres abiertas_,
of excellent mother-of-pearl, of various beautiful colors, are found
on its coasts. The matrix-shell of these pearls has been seen of one
and one-half ordinary palmos in length and almost one palmo in its
narrowest part--whose pearl could not be obtained, because the valve
opened on drawing it from the sea, and the sensitive fleshy part that
contained the pearl fell into the water. According to its appearance,
it must have contained pearls of many grains and carats in size. The
island has various exquisite and useful woods which distil special
gums. There is one which is an effective remedy for cancers; it is so
powerful a caustic that it burns out the cancer even when it is deep,
although the wounds caused by its burning are dangerous. However,
those wounds have their suitable remedy. There is a quantity of nutmeg
of two varieties--the long and the round. The latter is valued more
because it is more fragrant. It is easily destroyed by grubs, because
the precautions useful for its preservation are unknown. There are
bejucos or Indian canes for walking-sticks, with their branches as
much as five and one-half palmos long; they are of better luster
and of greater toughness than are those gathered by the Dutch in the
islands of the Sonda. I am sure that camphor would be found, if one
looked for it, just as good as that of Borney; for the resemblance of
Paragua's productions to those of that great island is very marked,
and the latter is not very far from its southern point.

6. There are but few quadrupeds [78] that are not found in the other
islands: porcupines, armadillos, _tezones_, leopards, _colcobos_,
and certain very beautiful foxes, but of the same species as the
stink-foxes of Peru, and very pestilent. They come to the houses in
their greed for fowls, among which they cause considerable havoc. But
whether it is due to their urine or some other posterior evacuation,
such is their stench that is necessary to abandon the house for a
time, as it is unendurable. There are many and rare birds. Royal
peacocks are very common; they are but slightly larger than a hen,
though without any difference from the large peacocks of India in
the vividness of their colors. Several efforts have been made to
domesticate them, but in vain; they become greatly depressed, and
soon die. There are nightingales that sing harmoniously near the
coolness of the small streamlets, repeating their melodious trills,
and gifted with most nimble throats. There are many varieties of
parrots of brilliant colors; green, white, and vari-colored pigeons;
squirrels or _paniquesas_, of several distinct species--some are white
with a black ring which sets them off well; there are some with wings
and some with membranes that facilitate their flight, although that
is but short. It is known that the land is one continuous mineral
district. Extensions of pure iron jut from the shores laid bare by the
breaking of the waves, as rocky shoals. There are others of vitriol
or verdigris, in very rich veins. It must be that the centers of the
mountains are like this. The island abounds in exquisite and healthful
waters, now in the springs, now in the large rivers--so many in number
that sixty-seven are counted from Catbuli to the bay of Ypolote, on the
side and coast of the east. Numerous tribes live there. In the roughest
locations the Aetas or black Cimarrones are gathered. Along the rivers
and level farm lands the natives are of a lighter complexion, and
less ugly in feature. This island is peculiar in what we have already
mentioned, namely, that earthquakes are not experienced there. But
there are stormy clouds that emit vivid lightnings and terrifying
thunder. But we have not heard that the fury of the thunderbolts is
in those clouds, or results from them, for the inhabitants of Paragua
have experienced none of those ravages. Consequently, they do not
have any words or terms peculiar to their language, for these or for
earthquakes, which is a very convincing proof....

7. The coasts, bays, and rivers of that large island abound plentifully
in divers and savory fish. In the bay of Malampaya, opposite Taytay,
in the same district as Manila, although with a clear and deep bottom,
there are many islands, which beautify the bay with their foliage. A
vast multitude of vicudas enter the great rivers at the spawning
season--a fine cod-fish that differs in no wise from that of Terranova
[_i.e.,_ Newfoundland], and when fresh they are of delicious taste. The
Indians catch them (although with danger from the Moros), and without
other appliances than certain hooks, and as many as they wish. For
lack of salt, they smoke-dry them, which always leaves an unpleasant
taste, and the fish spoil easily. Paragua has its own near-by islands
scattered along its coast, some of which are inhabited by pigeons,
various species of parrots, peacocks, and aquatic birds; others in
which sailors get as many eggs and squabs, or the young of such birds,
as they wish. The largest and most fertile [of these islands] is that
of Dumaran, which is separated from Paragua by a narrow strait. It is
a fertile island, in which there is a most abundant harvest of rice,
which as a general rule yields more than a hundred-fold.

8. The island of Alutaya belongs to that province. It is a rocky
and arid land. However, it has plenty of domestic and useful
animals, [the rearing of which forms], the careful industry of
its natives. It is about thirty leguas across the open sea from
the islands of Calamianes. About six leguas away is the island of
Cuyo, which is small, being about three leguas in circuit, and low,
but very fertile. It contains whatever is fitting and desirable for
the sustenance of human life. Its natives, being for the most part
descendants of Sangleys, are industrious and shrewd in trade. In
exchange for the edible and potable products of their island, and
the textiles of Yloylo, and tobacco, they lade fine products in
Calamianes, an exchange that causes anger to the alcaldes-mayor. The
latter endeavor to prevent that trade, which injures their interests;
but those people by their shrewdness deceive them easily, and frustrate
the efforts of the alcaldes. The natives were on the whole very savage,
and had even more barbarous customs and greater stupidity than the
inhabitants of the other islands. They have a knowledge of herbs. In
Paragua especially, there are some very poisonous ones. They use
them to bewitch their fellows and deprive them of life. There is
one of so uncommon deadliness, that if it be chewed in the mouth,
and if the exhalations from it be directed in a gentle current toward
any person whom it is wished to destroy, his life is quickly taken
away. I heard that from some who have intercourse with the Negroes
of Dapit, who know more about it and use it mere easily. The way to
overcome those fatal effects is to carry the effective remedy with
one--another herb or root. Thus the evil breath loses all its force,
and the [aforesaid] herb or root is a sure antidote for its deadliness.

9. This Recollect province set itself to conquer those savage
monsters. They had but little religion, and that an idolatry
so barbarous and stupid that no light of reason was visible
in it. Their knowledge of the first cause was very erroneous and
confused. They admitted another life, but through certain very confused
transmigrations. They revered their dead greatly, for they prepared
food for their resting-places. They had certain little idols--one who
presided over the fields, one over wars, one over illnesses--and they
offered ridiculous sacrifices to all. They revered the moon greatly,
as the mistress of death, and celebrated their funeral rites only at
the full moon. Their priests had high honor among them, and still more
the priestesses, who arrogated despotic power to themselves. They had
no civil body, but were scattered, and had communication only in their
families. They were timid and cowardly, and avenged their grievances
only by treachery. Five religious were assigned for that difficult
undertaking, their director and superior being father Fray Juan de
Santo Thomas, a missionary of proved spirit and a man of resolute
mind. They left Manila provided with the necessary supplies. They
put in first at the island of Cuyo, whose natives, being of excellent
disposition, were hoping to have Spaniards in their island--although
this was against the will of their priests, who were losing their
profits (which their offices made easy) by admitting them. The
missionaries were received with affection by the others, who had
no such interests. They first reduced those people to a social life
and united them, settling quarrels among the families, and forming a
goodly village; and, urging their obligation, they built a church and
house. They continued gently to insinuate themselves in the natives'
hearts and succeeded in reducing them to the bosom of the Catholic
church. Thence they went to Alutaya. They preached the gospel, and,
in the same manner, established a town, church, and house, for the
people received the instruction with docility.

10. After those so fortunate beginnings, they determined to send two
of the said religious and one lay brother to Paragua. They entered the
bay of Taytay, where they experienced greater resistance. The people
were opposed to living congregated in one settlement, and that was
the gravest hindrance; but the fathers were able to attain in part,
by dint of patience and constancy. The greatest annoyance arose from
the Moros, who infested those coasts, and the natives were unwilling
to expose themselves to their injuries by establishing themselves on
the beach. The religious hoped that the Spaniards would defend them
with their arms, and that with their reduction they would become
established there. By that method and other effective efforts they
attained the erection of a large village. Thence the religious
informed the superior government of their progress, and that for
its continuation and the defense of the natives--both those already
reduced, and those whom they expected to reduce--the construction of a
fort was necessary for the reduction of the island of Paragua, in which
a Spanish garrison might be stationed. By that means the reduction of
all that large island was certain. Accordingly, that determination
was taken in a meeting of the royal treasury tribunal; and two
companies were detached for the garrison, one Spanish and the other
Pampanga. The title and pay of royal chaplain was given and conceded
to the minister of that village. The fort mounted on its ramparts some
excellent artillery. The conquests were carried farther along that
coast, and inland. The Spaniards were also received, and without any
repugnance the natives accommodated themselves to the fitting homage,
even the infidels recognizing the tribute. Villages were established
on the river of Barbacan, Aborlan, and as far as Ypolote. They also
reduced the island of Dumaran, and spread to the Calamianes Islands,
where they founded reductions in Linacapan, Culiong, or Calamian the
lesser, and in the greater [Oalamian] at Busuagan. To the above, which
they regarded as capitals, they added other near-by villages; and as
their ministrations spread so extraordinarily, it became necessary for
a greater number of religious to go there. That was made possible by
the second arrival from Espana of father Fray Rodrigo de San Miguel,
[79] who had been sent to make various efforts in their interests,
and who returned with eight religious.






BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATA


The principal document in this volume, "Early Recollect missions in
the Philippines," is compiled from the following works:

1. _Historia general de los religiosos descalzos del orden de San
Avgvstin_, by Fray Andres de San Nicolas (Madrid, 1664), pp. 396-510.

2. _Historia general de los religiosos descalzos del orden de
S. Augustin_, by Fray Luis de Jesus (Madrid, 1681), pp. 1-61. (This
work is a continuation of the preceding one.)

3. _Historia general de Philipinas_, by Fray Juan de la Concepcion
(Manila, 1788), tomo iv, pp. 189-265, and v, pp. 32-100.

The following documents are obtained from MSS. in the Archivo general
de Indias, Sevilla:

4. _Seminary for Japanese missionaries_,--"Simancas-Secular; Audiencia
de Filipinas; cartas y expedientes del governador de Filipinas vistos
en el Consejo; anos 1600 a 1628; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 7."

5. _Extract from Serrano's letter_.--"Simancas--Eclesiastico; Audiencia
de Filipinas; cartas y expedientes del arzobispo de Manila vistos en
el Consejo; ano de 1579 a 1679; est. 68, caj. 1, leg. 32."

6. _Royal orders regarding the religious_.--"Audiencia de Filipinas;
registro de oficio; reales ordenes dirigidas a las autoridades
del distrito de la Audiencia; anos 1597 a 1634; est. 105, caj. 2,
leg. 1." The second part of this document, however, is obtained from
the "Cedulario Indico" of the Archivo Historico Nacional, Madrid:
"tomo 40, fol. 26, verso, n deg.. 38."

The following document is taken from the Ventura del Arco MSS. (Ayer
library):

7. _Conflict between civil and religious authorities_.--In vol. i,
pp. 515-523.

The following document is found in Pastells's edition of Colin's
_Labor evangelica_ (Barcelona, 1904):

8. _Ecclesiastical affairs in the Philippines_.--In tomo iii,
pp. 674-697.






NOTES

[1] Translated from Pastells's _Colin_, iii, pp. 674-677. The
original is conserved in Archivo general de Indias, with the following
pressmark: "Registros de oficio y partes; reales ordenes dirigidos a
las autoridades y particulares del distrito de la Audiencia; 1568-1808;
est. 105, caj. 2, leg. 11, libro 1, folio 233, verso, part 2."

[2] Thus in Pastells's text (p. 690); but it is apparently a misprint
for June 22, 1622, the date of Serrano's act.

[3] Throughout this document, the matter contained in brackets is
editorial comment by Rev. Pablo Pastells, S.J., who has published the
present document in the appendix to the third volume of his edition
of Colin's _Labor evangelica_ (Barcelona, 1904), _ut supra_.

[4] The passage of the council of Trent referred to above reads as
follows: "In monasteries, whether the houses of men or of women,
with which the care of the souls of secular persons is connected,
all persons--excepting those who belong to their monasteries, or
who are servants of those places--both secular and religious, who
exercise that care after this manner, shall be immediately subject
in those things which pertain to the said care and administration
of sacraments, to the jurisdiction, visit, and correction of the
bishop in whose diocese they are located. Neither shall any there,
even those removable at will [_ad nutum amovibilis_], be considered
unless by the consent of that bishop, and by the latter's previous
examination, made personally or by his vicar; excepting the monastery
of Cluny and its boundaries, and also excepting those monasteries or
places in which abbots, generals, or the heads of the orders establish
their ordinary and chief residence, and other monasteries or houses in
which abbots, or other superiors of the regulars, exercise episcopal
or temporal jurisdiction in parish churches and parishes; excepting
likewise from the right of those bishops even persons who exercise
greater jurisdiction in the said places." See the original reading
in Pastells's edition of Colin's _Labor evangelica_, appendix, p. 677.

[5] See the above bull in this series, _Vol_. IV, pp. 119-124.

[6] See the last two decrees here mentioned, later in this
document. The first decree--the original of which is preserved in the
Archivo general de Indias, in "Cartas y expedientes del gobernador
de Filipinas vistos en el Consejo; anos 1567-1699; est. 67, caj. 6,
leg. 10"--which we translate, as well as all the above document,
from Pastells's edition of Colin's _Labor evangelica_, iii, pp. 682,
683, is as follows:

"The King: Very reverend father in Christ, archbishop of the
metropolitan church of the city of Mexico of Nueva Espana; reverend
fathers in Christ, bishops of my council, venerable deans, dignidades,
canons, and other persons, who are assembled in the provincial council
which is held in the city of Mexico. You have already been informed
by my decree--of which duplicates signed by my hand were sent out,
directed to all the prelates of the churches of the Yndias--dated
December six, of the year one thousand five hundred and eighty-three,
that I ordered you all, and each of you in particular, that if you
have clerics who are suitable and competent, you shall appoint them
to benefices, curacies, and missions, in preference to the friars
of the mendicant orders, who hold them at present--observing, in
the said appointment, the order that is mentioned in the title of
my patronship, as is more minutely set forth in the said decrees,
the tenor of which, being precisely the same as that of the one sent
to you, the above-mentioned archbishop, is as follows:

"The King: Very reverend father in Christ, archbishop of the
metropolitan church of the city of Mexico of Nueva Espana, and
member of our council: Already you know that, in accordance with
the ordinances and established rules of the holy Catholic church,
and with the ancient custom received and observed in Christendom, the
jurisdiction of the holy sacraments in the curacies of the parishes of
the churches belongs to the seculars, they being aided as assistants
in preaching and confessing by the religious of the orders; and that if
missions and curacies have been entrusted to religious of the mendicant
orders in those regions by apostolic concession, it was because of the
lack that was experienced of the said lay priests, and the convenience
that was found in the said religious for busying themselves in the
conversion, instruction, and teaching of the natives, with the example
and profit that is required. Now granting that this was the object
aimed at in that arrangement, and that the effect has been greatly in
accordance with the efforts made for it, and that they have obtained
so much fruit through their apostolic lives and holy perseverance,
and that so great a multitude of souls have come to the knowledge
of our Lord through His favor and aid by means of their teaching:
still, inasmuch as it is advisable to bring back this matter to its
beginning, and that, in so far as is possible, what pertains to the
said curacies of parishes and missions be restored to the common and
received use of the Church, so that there may be no defect in that
of the Indians, I request and charge you that now and henceforth,
if you have suitable and competent clergy, you appoint them to the
said curacies, missions, and benefices, preferring them to the friars,
and observing in the said appointments the order that is mentioned in
the title of our patronship. As long as there are not all the seculars
necessary for the said missions and benefices, you shall divide those
which are left over, equally, among the orders in those provinces,
so that there may be some of all the orders, to the end that each
order may labor according to its obligation, striving to excel in so
holy and apostolic an enterprise. And you shall watch above all, as a
good shepherd, so that your subordinates live with great watchfulness,
relieving our conscience and your own, so that the results that are
desirable be obtained among those natives. Madrid, December six, 1583.

_I The King_

By order of his Majesty:
_Antonio de Eraso_


"Certain religious of the above-mentioned orders having come from
those provinces and from others of the Yndias, and having related
the many annoyances that have followed and that might follow from the
observance and fulfilment of the said decree, I ordered some of the
members of my council and other persons of great learning, prudence,
and intelligence to assemble. They having examined the indults, briefs,
and concessions of the supreme pontiffs, and the other papers that
are filed in the secretary's office of my Council of the Indias, in
regard to this matter of the missions--as well as the informations,
letters, relations, and opinions that have been given, sent, and
brought from all parts but lately, and upon the occasion of this
decree, both by the religious and by the prelates and clergy--have
given me their opinion. Considering that it was proper, in order to
come to a resolution and decision in a matter of so great moment and
importance, and commencing with what is of greatest importance--namely,
to commend it to God our Lord, whom you all, as is done here,
are to entreat very urgently to guide and direct it as may be most
to His service, the proper spiritual government of those kingdoms,
the welfare of the souls of the inhabitants and natives therein, and
the propagation of the holy gospel: I have determined to await a more
detailed relation of what may appear from these new documents, and the
general consensus of opinion in all classes, so that after examining
them all (since we all must aid for one and the same purpose, and the
result must be for the welfare of all, and particularly for mine, for
the fulfilment of the great obligation under which our Lord, besides
the many benefits which I continually receive from His blessed hand,
has placed me by adding thereto so great kingdoms and seigniories,
where so great a multitude of souls have come to His true knowledge,
and where they will continue to come daily, by the help of His grace
which illumines them, so that they may leave their blindness) the best
conclusion may be reached. Accordingly, I request and charge you that,
having assembled and congregated in that holy council, you discuss and
confer over what pertains to this matter. You shall send me a very
minute relation of the measures that you shall deem it advisable to
take in each province and bishopric by itself, and for all in general,
in regard to the execution of the said decree. You shall say what
missions are in possession of the religious and those in charge of
the seculars, and in what villages and vicinity these are, and all
the other things concerning it that you think to be necessary for the
sake of greater clearness; so that, having examined the said relations
and the others that are awaited, and the papers that are here, and
holding consultation with my Council of the Indias, as well as with
the other persons whom I shall appoint for this purpose, I may take
the most advisable measures. While that is being done and determined,
you shall suspend (as I now for the time being do suspend), and I shall
consider as suspended, the execution of the decree herein inserted.

"All, and each one by himself, if they are in your dioceses, shall
leave the said missions freely and quietly to the said orders and
religious, so that those who have held, hold, and shall hold them, may
hold them as hitherto, without making any innovation, or changing the
manner of filling those missions or appointing the religious to them.

"Each of you personally, in his own district, without entrusting it
to any other person, shall visit the churches of the missions where
the said religious shall be established, and inspect the most holy
sacraments and the baptismal fonts in them, the buildings of the
said churches, the alms given for them, and all the other things
pertaining to such churches and the services of divine worship. You
shall also visit and fraternally correct the religious established in
the said missions, in regard to curacies, and shall take special care
to consider the honor and good fame of such religious in irregular
acts that may be hidden; and when more than this should be necessary
or advisable you shall inform their prelates, so that these may punish
them. If the latter do not inflict punishment, you shall do so, each
one of you, in accordance with the ordinance of the holy council
of Trent, after the period of time mentioned in it is passed. And
inasmuch as it is not advisable that a matter that is so important as
is the care of souls--and, further, those souls that are so new in
the faith--be at the will of the religious who shall be established
in the said missions, curacies, and benefices, they must understand,
both superiors and members [of the orders] that they are to hold the
office of cura _non ex voto charitatis_, as is said, but by justice
and obligation, administering the holy sacraments, not only to the
Indians, but also to the Spaniards who may be found living among
them--to the Indians by virtue of the above-mentioned apostolic
indults, and to the Spaniards by commission from the prelates. For
that each of you shall give, in his own district, and to me, a very
specific account of how the religious, on their part, observe what
pertains to them of this--which they are to perform exactly and
according to their obligation--together with what, in your opinion,
they may do to aid you in fulfilling your pastoral duties, in which
you shall consider the safety of the souls in your charge, for whom
you must give so strict an account to God our Lord. Barcelona, June
first, one thousand five hundred and eighty-five.


_I The King_
By order of his Majesty:
_Antonio de Erasso_"

[7] Referring to his _Nova collectio et compilatio privilegiorum
apostolicorum regularium_ (Turnoni, 1609).

[8] Gregory XIV, in his brief _Cum sicuti nuper accepimus_, after
approving the first diocesan council (convened in Manila by Bishop
Salazar), and the reservation of cases that the bishop should make
with the advice of the said council, imposes on him the visitation
of his flock and of the religious who administer it, forbidding any
religious to go out for the conquest of unpacified infidels without
the express command of their regular superior and the license of the
bishop in writing. The extract to this effect is as follows:

"And lest the rules and resolutions made for the said bishop [_i.e._,
of Manila], and the religious and missionaries assembled in the same
place, for the happy progress of the Christians newly converted to
the faith, should be infringed by them for their own special pleasure,
profit, or inclination, we will and decree by our apostolic authority
that those things that shall have been ordained and commanded by that
congregation, by the votes of the majority, for the protection of
the Christian faith or for the salvation of souls for the thorough
conversion of those converted Indians, be steadfastly and rigorously
observed, as long and so far as that congregation shall ordain and
command it.

"Moreover, whenever that bishop, at the advice of the said
congregation, shall have reserved any case for himself, according
to what shall have appeared expedient for the nature of the times,
persons, and affairs, no secular priest nor a member of any religious
order or congregation shall, under pretext of any privilege or indult
(even though apostolic), excepting the bishop himself, or by his
express license and command, be authorized, or dare or presume to
grant absolution in any manner in cases so reserved, during the said
reservation, under penalty of being suspended from the ministry of
the mass and from the confession of the faithful, incurring that
penalty by the very act.

"Moreover, we enjoin and order that bishop that, since it is the
special duty of the bishop to minister to his own sheep and to
visit them in person, he shall visit the flock entrusted to him,
the religious of the Christian instruction, and those missions, in
his own person or in that of his vicar-general in spiritual things,
or at least in the persons of other very grave men, and not at all by
simple and unskilled clergy, ignorant of letters, and of no judgment.

"And inasmuch as some of the inhabitants of those islands, and members
of the above-mentioned orders, eager to see new things, and wandering
or passing from one district to another, abandon those newly converted
and baptized; and inasmuch as such persons cause the latter at times
to revert to idolatry, which is greatly to be deplored; and inasmuch
as many others who otherwise would acknowledge the faith and accede to
baptism neglect it on account of the lack of ministers, or remain in
infidelity; and inasmuch as the religious themselves, ignorant even
of the languages of those districts, are despised, to the shame of
their orders, and render more difficult the conversion of the Indians:
We, desirous of checking this evil by an opportune remedy, strictly
forbid and prohibit all and singular, of whatever religious order,
and all others whomsoever who are engaged in the conversion of the
infidels and the teaching of Christian doctrine, under penalty of
excommunication, not to dare or presume to go from a pacified to an
unpacified land, except by the express license and command of their
bishop and of the religious superiors, given in writing.

Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, under the seal of the fisherman,
April xviii, MDXCI, in the first year of our pontificate."

See Pastells's _Colin, ut supra_, iii, p. 679.

[9] Tomo i of his _Questiones regulares et canonicae_ was published
at Salamanca in 1598; another edition, in four volumes, was issued
some years later.

[10] Probably contained in his _Epitome, o compendio de la Suma_
(Madrid, 1610).

[11] See the bulls concerning the Indias granted by Alexander VI,
in _Vol_. I of this series, pp. 97-114. The bull here referred to is
the _Inter caetera_ of May 4, 1493.

[12] This bull was dated May 9, 1522, and begins _Omnimodo exponi
nobis_; it grants authority to the friars of the mendicant orders to
go to the Indias, after securing permission from their king or from
his royal council. See Pastells's _Colin, ut supra_, iii, p. 677.

[13] See this decree _ante_, note 6.

[14] The original of this decree is in the Archivo general of Sevilla,
"Cartas y expedientes del gobernador de Filipinas vistos en el Consejo;
anos 1567-99; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 10."

[15] The two decrees here mentioned (see Pastells's _Colin, ut supra_,
iii, pp. 684, 685)--the originals of which are conserved in Archivo
general de Indias, having the same pressmark as that in the preceding
note--are respectively as follows:

"The King: To the president and auditors of my royal Audiencia of the
city of Manila, of the Philipinas Islands. Certain prelates of those
regions have written to me that many religious who are appointed to
the missions of Indians which are in charge of the orders do not have
the competency and qualities that are required for the office of cura,
which they fill; that they do not know the language of those whom
they have to instruct; and that the archbishops and bishops cannot
remedy this, because the religious do not come before them to be
examined. And in the visits that the former make, the latter claim
to be exempt from their jurisdiction, even in regard to curacies,
saying that they have an indult for it; neither can their superiors
remedy it. Inasmuch as it is a matter of so great consideration, I
have now ordained that, in so great conformity with what is decreed
and ordained, the said archbishops and bishops shall not allow any
religious to enter to perform or exercise the duties of cura in the
missions which are in their charge, without first being examined
and approved by the prelate of that diocese, both in regard to his
competency and in the language, in order to exercise the duty of cura
and to administer the sacraments to the Indians of their missions,
as well as to the Spaniards who may be there; that, if in the visits
that the said prelates make to them in regard to curacies, any of
the said religious missionaries should be found without the ability,
qualifications, and example that are requisite, and who do not know
sufficiently the language of the Indians whom they instruct, such
religious shall be removed and their superiors advised, so that the
latter may appoint others who have the necessary qualifications, in
which they are to be examined; and that, if any indult or bull of his
Holiness is presented to them exempting the said religious from this,
they shall advise you, so that you may do your duty. And inasmuch as it
is advisable that that be observed, executed, and obeyed, I charge you
that you give the said prelates in that district the encouragement,
protection, and aid necessary for this; and that you do not permit
or allow religious to be admitted into the missions in any other
way. You shall advise me of what you shall do. Given in San Lorenco,
November fourteen, one thousand six hundred and three.


_I The King_

By order of the king our sovereign:

_Juan de Ybarra_"


"The King. Very reverend father in Christ, archbishop of the city of
Manila of the Philipinas Islands, and member of my council: You will
see by my decree of the same date as this, which this accompanies,
what I have resolved and ordered in regard to the examination of the
religious who shall exercise duties as curas in the district of that
archbishopric--which is not discussed here in regard to seculars,
as it is a settled and fixed matter. And inasmuch as it is advisable
for the relief of my conscience, and that of yours, that that decree
be fulfilled and obeyed carefully, I charge you that you do so;
and if any indult or brief from his Holiness be presented to you,
in behalf of the orders, exempting them from this, you shall advise
my royal audiencias, so that they may do their duty, and my fiscal
shall plead what is suitable. You shall advise me of what you shall
do in everything. San Lorenzo, November fourteen, one thousand six
hundred and three.


_I The King_

By order of the king our sovereign:

_Juan de Ybarra_."

[16] The following decree was given by the king prohibiting certain
practices of the regulars:

"The King. To the president and auditors of my royal Audiencia of the
city of Manila of the Philipinas Islands: I have been informed that the
religious who reside in those regions have the custom of assigning at
times Indian villages for the celebration of their chapter meetings,
from which, besides the annoyances and wrongs that the Indians receive,
it happens that the audiencias and governors are unable to apply the
remedy for certain things that occur in the said chapter meetings,
and that require despatch. And inasmuch as it has been considered that
that is a cause for trouble, it has been deemed advisable to prevent
it by ordering--as I do order and command by this present--that now
and henceforth, chapter meetings of the religious be not celebrated
in Indian villages; and that if there be reasons obliging the meeting
to be celebrated at any time in any such village, those reasons be
communicated to you, both the president and the Audiencia, and that
your order and permission be obtained. Such is my will. Given in
Valladolid, June thirteen, one thousand six hundred and fifteen.



_I The King_

By order of the king our sovereign:

_Juan Ruiz de Contreras_"


This decree is translated from Pastells's Colin, _ut supra_, p. 685;
its original is conserved in the Archivo general of Sevilla, its
pressmark, "Registros de oficio; reales ordenes dirigidos a las
autoridades del distrito de la Audiencia; anos 1597-1804; est. 105,
caj. 2, leg. 1, lib. 1, vol. 64."

[17] The passage of the brief referred to above, is as follows:

"We, therefore, who gladly favor the increase of Divine worship and
the salvation of souls, especially since we have been petitioned by
each of the Catholic kings, giving assent to them petitioning after
this manner, do, by virtue of our apostolic authority, concede and
grant license and authority, by the tenor of these presents, to all
and singular, the religious of any, even the mendicant orders, living
in monasteries of their orders in the said regions of the Indias (of
the Ocean Sea), or outside of them, by the consent of their superiors,
so that they may freely and legally use the license obtained from their
superiors, as is declared in their provincial chapters, to exercise
the office of parish priest in the villages of those regions, such
office having been and being assigned to them by a similar license,
in the celebration of marriages and in the administration of the
ecclesiastical sacraments, as has been their wont hitherto (provided
that they observe the form of the said council in other ceremonies);
and to preach the word of God and hear confessions, as is declared,
so long as those religious know the languages of those districts;
and no other permission of the ordinaries of those places, or of
any other persons, shall be necessary. And moreover, by the same
authority and tenor, we decree and ordain that the said bishop shall
make no innovation in the places of those regions where there are
monasteries of religious who exercise the care of souls. So likewise
[we decree and ordain] that it must be resolved and determined by
any judges and commissaries, who exercise any authority whatever,
delegated to them or to any one of them, to him determining and
interpreting otherwise by virtue of any authority whatever; and we
declare null and void whatever else shall be attempted in regard to
these things, by anyone under any authority whatever.... Given at Rome,
at St. Peter's, under the seal of the fisherman, March 23, 1567."

See Pastells's _Colin, ut supra_, iii, p. 678.

[18] The passage referred to above, which we translate from the
original bull as given in Pastells's _Colin, ut supra_, p. 678,
is as follows:

"Since, therefore, our predecessor Pope Pius V of happy memory, after
hearing of the troubles which were said to have been inflicted on the
friars of the mendicant orders by the ordinaries of the places and the
rectors of ecclesiastical parishes in many ways, in regard to ... the
care of souls and the administration of the sacraments ... not only
decreed many things differently in certain of his letters to the said
friars, but even those things that were recently decreed in regard
to these things in the council of Trent, ... we ... decree and ordain
concerning the said and concerning all other letters and regulations
which emanated in any manner from the same predecessor concerning those
matters to any orders and congregations of any regulars, including the
mendicants, and concerning all and whatever is contained therein, that
that regulation and decision, which was legal before the declaration
of the said letters and regulations, whether by the ancient law,
or by the holy decrees of the said council, or in any other way, be
regarded as having force hereafter, and which they would have, had
not those letters and regulations emanated, to which regulation and
decision and to their former undiminished condition and limitation,
we reduce them all.... Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, in the year of
the incarnation of our Lord, 1572 [_sic_] on the kalends of March."

[19] _Monitoria_: Summons issued by an ecclesiastical judge to command
the personal appearance and deposition of a witness.

[20] The original of this letter is conserved in the Archivo general
of Sevilla; its pressmark, "Cartas y expedientes del Arzobispo de
Manila; anos 1579-1697; est. 68, caj. I, leg. 32."

[21] This document is obtained from Pastells's _Colin_, iii, pp. 685,
686. The original decree is conserved in the Archivo general de Indias,
Sevilla; its pressmark the same as that indicated in note 14, _ante_.

[22] Juan de Bueras was born in the mountains of Burgos. He went to
the American missions after having taught moral theology at Toledo. He
was provincial of the Philippines in 1627. Later he became visitor of
the provinces of New Spain and Mexico, dying at Mexico, February 19,
1646. See Sommervogel's _Bibliotheque_.

[23] See _Vol_. IV, p. 222.

[24] Following is a translation of the title page of this work,
a facsimile of which is here presented:

"General history of the discalced religious of the Order of the
hermits of the great father and doctor of the Church, St. Augustine,
of the congregation of Espana and of the Indias. To his Catholic
Majesty our sovereign Felipe Fourth. By father Fray Andres de San
Nicolas, son of the same congregation, its chronicler, and rector
of the college of Alcala de Henares. Volume first. From the year
M.D.LXXXVIII. to that of M.DC.XX. Divided into three decades. With
privilege. In Madrid. Printed by Andres de la Iglesia. Year M.DC.LXIV."

[25] Fray Juan de San Jeronimo was born at Malagon, Spain; he became
a priest, and when already in middle life entered the discalced
Augustinian order at Talavera, in 1593, making his profession in the
following year. He soon attained high standing in this new order, and
was the envoy sent to Rome to negotiate its separation from the regular
Augustinians and secure approval for its constitution. In 1602 he was
elected its first provincial, and under his rule the order flourished
and spread in Spain. He was nominated to the bishopric of Chiapa, in
Nueva Espana, but declined this honor that he might devote himself to
foreign missions. Arriving at the Philippines in 1606, he organized
there his mission, built a convent at Bagunbayan, and undertook the
conversion of the natives in the province of Zambales. The convent
expanded into a college, but its buildings were demolished in
1644. Being soon afterward rebuilt, it lasted until the eighteenth
century, when it was again torn down. San Jeronimo had charge of it
during two years; but, his health being much enfeebled, he set out on
the return to Spain. When in sight of Ormuz, he died, in 1610. See
account of his life in San Nicolas's _Historia_, pp. 469, 470; and
in _Provincia de S. Nicolas de Tolentino_ (Manila, 1879), pp. 20-23.

[26] This and various other accents which are grave instead of acute
follow the text of the original work.

[27] Andres de San Nicolas died at sea, when the ship was in sight
of the Ladrone Islands.

Miguel de Santa Maria, after reaching Manila, was assigned to
the settlement of Mariveles; but the natives were angered at his
preaching, and stoned him so severely that he died from the effects
of this attack, in the Manila convent.

Jeronimo de Christo was an old man when he departed for the Philippine
mission, but was noted for his learning and ability. He was elected
prior of the Manila convent, and afterward vicar-provincial in San
Jeronimo's absence; and died while in active service in the missions,
in 1608.

[28] Pedro de San Fulgencio soon afterward returned to Europe, to
obtain more missionaries; having made arrangements for their voyage,
he died on reaching Milan.

Diego de la Anunciacion, born in 1565, made his profession in the
Recollect convent at Madrid, in 1597; and held several high positions
in his order before he entered the Philippine mission. He was superior
of the convent at Bagunbayan, and afterward prior. After some years
he returned to Spain, where he spent the rest of his life, dying
December 13, 1625.

[29] Rodrigo de Agandum Moriz (in religion, Fray Rodrigo de San
Miguel) was born in Valladolid--or, according to some authorities,
in Orio of Guipuzcoa--in 1584, and entered the discalced Augustinian
order at the age of fourteen years. Joining the Philippine mission
in 1606, he ministered to the natives in various districts of Luzon
with great acceptance, employing his poetical talents in teaching
the Christian faith to the Indians. In 1614 he went to Spain for
more missionaries, returning to the islands in 1617-18. Again
voyaging to Europe (1622), he went, via India and Persia, to Rome,
where he arrived in 1626. Declining the pope's offer to make him a
bishop and patriarch in the Indias, he planned a mission to Chaldea;
but he died at Orio, while en route to Madrid, December 26, 1626. He
left several manuscript works, mainly historical, among which was
_Historia general de las islas accidentales a la Asia adyacentes,
llamadas Philipinas_; this was published in _Documentos ineditos
para la historia de Espana_, tomos lxxviii and lxxix (Madrid, 1882),
but it was apparently left unfinished by the author, the part that
is extant treating mainly of the early explorations by Magalhaes and
Villalobos, and of the history of the Moluccas.

In the Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla, is the following letter
from Felipe IV to a brother of Fray Rodrigo:

"The King. It has been learned in the Council of the Indias that
father Fray Rodrigo de San Miguel, a discalced Augustinian religious,
who is said to be a brother of your Grace, brought from the Yndias a
general history of the Filipinas Islands, compiled with great care,
as, in order to write it, he had examined the archives and authentic
memoirs of those regions; that it has been lately our Lord's pleasure
to take father Fray Rodrigo, who has died in Vizcaya; and that your
Grace was given two of his books, especially the above history. And
inasmuch as that work would be very important for what is written
on the general history of the said islands by order of his Majesty,
the matter having been discussed with the father provincial of the
said order, in which the latter has declared that the said history is
in possession of your Grace; the Council has directed me to write to
your Grace, in its name, that it would be greatly to the service of
his Majesty for your Grace to send me the said history for the said
purpose. And if your Grace wish remuneration for it, or that it be
returned after having used it for the said purpose, your Grace will
advise me of what you desire in this matter, so that those gentlemen
may know it, and so that the advisable measures may be taken. May God
preserve your Grace, as I desire. Madrid, May seventeen, one thousand
six hundred and twenty-seven.

_Antonio Gonzalez de Legardo_

On the receipt of this letter, I beg your Grace to advise me
immediately, for the Council anxiously awaits a reply because of the
history." (_Pressmark_: "est. 139, caj. 1, leg. 15.")

[30] Andres del Espiritu Santo was born at Valladolid in 1585, and
made his profession at Portillo in 1601. Entering the Philippine
mission, he began his labors with the natives in the province of
Zambales, where he was very successful. In 1609, and again in 1615,
he was chosen vicar-provincial. Afterward going to Spain for more
missionaries, he returned to the islands in 1622, and four years
later became provincial, as again in 1632. The rest of his life was
spent at Manila, where he died in 1658.

[31] A city between Vera Cruz and Mexico City, more commonly known as
Puebla; it was founded about 1530, and became the seat of the diocese
in 1550, and soon was a flourishing agricultural and manufacturing
center.

[32] _Instituto_: constitution, or rules of observance, adopted by
the order.

[33] "Now I shall die happy."

[34] Luis de Jesus states (_Historia_, p. 79) that this name is a
corruption of Manavilis.

[35] Cf. the accounts by Loarca (_Vol_. V of this series) and Plasencia
(_Vol_. VII).

[36] This tree (_Mangifera altisima_) resembles the mango, but its
fruit is much smaller. The tree grows to a greater height than the
mango. The fruit is eaten by the natives, being used with vinegar. See
Blanco's _Flora_.

[37] "Behold the cross of the Lord.  Flee, ye adverse ones. The lion
of Judah is conqueror."

[38] Antonio de San Agustin was born in Manila, the son of Francisco
de las Misas, and made his profession in the Recollect convent there,
in December, 1614. He was a minister in various places, and had been
prior of several convents. In 1658, while returning from an official
visit to the Calamianes Islands, he was captured by Moros, who slew
him. At the time of his death he was sixty-six years old.

[39] The first father named above was afflicted by a grievous
plague of vermin [_chinches_--literally, "bedbugs"], seemingly
after a request that he might suffer his purgatory on earth. At the
time of his death, "raising his voice and saying, _In manus tuas,
Domine, commendo spiritum meum_, he expired, without making another
movement. Immediately the _chinches_ disappeared and not one could be
found, although one could gather than by handfuls before, as they say."

[40] The _Congregatio de Propaganda Fide_, one of the "sacred
congregations" of the Catholic Church, was founded in 1622, by Pope
Gregory XV, conferring upon it most ample powers for the propagation
of the faith, and especially for the superintendence of missions
in countries where heretics or infidels had to be evangelized. The
jurisdiction proper of the congregation extends to all territories
which are governed _more missionum_, or as missionary countries--not
by the bishops of the regular hierarchy, but by prefects and vicars
apostolic. It has, moreover, legislative and judicial power. See
Hoffmanns' _Catholic Directory_, 1896, p. 48.

[41] The status of a tertiary, or "member of the third order," was
originated by St. Francis of Assisi, after the foundation of his own
order, and that of the Minorite nuns who lived under a rule prescribed
by him. In 1221 he instituted a third order, the members of which, men
and women, should be bound by rule to more unworldliness of life, pious
devotion, and works of mercy than those of ordinary persons living in
the world. He called them "Brothers and Sisters of Penance." They had
to take a year's novitiate, and a simple vow to observe the rule. Many
tertiaries, in course of time, desired to take solemn vows and live
in community, while still conforming to the rule of the Third Order;
thus arose various congregations of tertiary monks and nuns. Other
religious orders had their Third Order; that of the Augustinians was
established at the beginning of the fifteenth century. (Addis and
Arnold's _Catholic Dictionary_, p. 792.)

[42] Following are translations of the title-pages of this work,
of which facsimiles are here presented:

_Engraved title-page_: "General History of the discalced religious of
the Order of the hermits of the great father and doctor of the Church,
St. Augustine, of the congregation of Espana and of the Indias. To
the most excellent duke of Ixar count of Salinas. By Father Fray Luis
de Jesus son of the same congregation, and its chronicler.  Volume
second. From the year M.DC.L. Divided into three decades. Engraved
by Pedro a Villafranca royal engraver, Madrid. 1663."

_Printed title-page:_ "General History of the discalced religious of
the Order of the hermits of the great father and doctor of the Church,
St. Augustine, of the congregation of Espana and of the Indias. By
Father Fray Luis de Jesus, son of the same congregation, pensioned
lecturer, general chronicler, and acting provincial of Castilla the
old and the new. Dedicated to the most excellent Senor Don Jayme
Francisco de Hijar Silva Sarmiento, etc., protector of our sacred
Reform convent. Volume second. Divided into three decades, from the
year twenty-one to that of fifty. With privilege. In Madrid: Printed
by Lucas Antonio de Bedmar, printer of the kingdom. Year of 1681."

[43] Delgado in his _Historia_, pp. 813-816, describes this
bird. _Tabon_, he says, is a word that signifies in the Pintados
"to hide by covering, or to cover by concealing it with earth." When
the chick first appears its plumage is white and gray. Its wings
are used at first for aid in running rather than in flying. The bird
lives mainly on fish, which it catches in the sea. The eggs, which
are very nutritious, are eaten with gusto by the natives.

[44] This is the flying lemur (_Galeopithecus philippinensis_; called
_kaguang_ or _caguan_ by the Visayans), an animal belonging to the
Quadrumana, and the Prosimidae (semi-apes). Alfred R. Wallace found
it in Sumatra, Borneo, and Singapore; see his description of it in
_Malay Archipelago_ (New York, 1869), pp. 145, 146. Jagor found it
in Samar--_Travels in the Philippines_ (English translation, London,
1875), pp. 242-244.  See also Delgado's description (_Historia_,
p. 845). This lemur has, like the flying squirrel, a volucral membrane,
which not only covers all its limbs but reaches to its tail; and thus
the creature glides from tree to tree. This explains the writer's
allusion to it as a bird.

[45] The creature thus described is the tarsier (_Tarsius spectrum_),
belonging to the same class (semi-apes) as the lemur, _ante._ Jagor
(_ut supra_, p. 252) was told in Luzon that it could be found only
in Samar, and that it lived exclusively on charcoal--of course,
an erroneous notion. In Samar it was called _mago_ or _macauco._
The _Report_ of U.S. Philippine Commission for 1900 (iii, p. 311)
mentions several Islands as its habitat, and the belief of the natives
that it lives on charcoal. Delgado cites the same notion (_Historia_,
p. 875); he supposes the tarsier to be a sort of wild cat.

[46] The gecko (_Gecko verticillatus_), a reptile allied to the
lizard. Two species of this animal in the Philippines frequent the
houses: one very small, which feeds on mosquitoes, flies, and other
pests, and works noiselessly; the other larger (up to eight inches
long) with a heavy body and a loud call. The latter is, to judge
from Delgado's description (_Historia_,p. 885) the one mentioned in
our text.

[47] The cuttlefish, or octopus (_Sepia octopus_).

[48] This was in 1609, and the fort erected was that of Tandag;
it was on a bay on the northeast coast of Surigao province, Mindanao.

[49] Apparently the same as the present Gigaquit, a town an the
northeast coast of the province of Surigao.

[50] Juan de la Madre de Dios assumed the habit of the discalced
Augustinians at Valladolid, making his profession in 1615. With eight
other missionaries, he arrived at Manila in 1620; and some two years
later he entered the Mindanao mission. His ministry there was short;
for toward the end of 1623 he was slain by a fierce Moro chief whom
he had rebuked for his acts of injustice and tyranny. See sketches
of his life, in Luis de Jesus's _Historia_, pp. 53-55; and _Provincia
de S. Nicolas de Tolentino_, pp. 308, 309.

[51] Apparently referring to the missions founded by the Jesuits,
some years before, in northern Mindanao; see _Vol_. XIII, pp. 48,
80. Fuller accounts of these missions are given in Combes's _Historia
de Mindanao_, which will be presented in later volumes of this series.

[52] Situated in central Surigao, on a chain of lakes and rivers
from which issues the Butuan River, flowing northward into the bay
of same name.

[53] See Delgado's account of the various kinds of bees in the
Philippines (_Historia_, pp. 848-850).

[54] The pangolin or _Manis_, commonly known as ant-eater. The
preceding sentence probably refers to the flying lemur (note 44,
_ante_.)

[55] Cf. account of the weapons used by the Mindanaos, given by Retana
and Pastells in their edition of Combes's _Historia de Mindanao_,
cols. 782 and 783. Also cf. weapons of North American Indians, as
described in _Jesuit Relations_--see Index, vol. lxxii, pp. 337, 338.

[56] Referring to Siargao Island, off northeast coast of Mindanao;
about twenty-one miles long and fourteen wide.

[57] _Cimarron_ is an American word meaning "wild" or "unruly," and
is also applied to a runaway slave. O.T. Mason, in his translation
of Blumentritt's _Native Tribes of the Philippines_ (Washington,
1901), says (p. 536) that "this characterization is given to heathen
tribes of most varied affiliation, living without attachment and
in poverty, chiefly posterity of the Remontados." Buzeta and Bravo
(_Diccionario_) say that these people are "collections or tribes of
infidels known by this name in the island of Luzon and others of the
archipelago. There is at present a tribe living in the dense forests
of the mountain Isaroc in the province of Camarines Sur. There are
also some collections of these and some hostiles in the mountains
of the island and province of Samar. They are descendants of the
Negrito race, who seem to become differentiated from their own species
because of their extraordinarily wild and mountainous life." Hence
the name seems to have been given these people in Mindanao simply to
distinguish them as especially barbarous and difficult to establish
relations among. They were probably one of the numerous tribes of
Negritos such as inhabit Mindanao today.

[58] In a brief description of the Philippine Islands which occurs in
a geographical work by the Chinese writer Chao-Yu-Kua (who flourished
in the thirteenth century)--which account will appear later in this
series--is an interesting mention of "nests" built in trees by the
Aetas or Negritos, who live therein in single families. Professor
Friedrich Ratzel (_History of Mankind_, Butler's translation, London
and New York, 1896) says (i, p. 111) that the Battaks in Sumatra,
and many Melanesians lived in trees; and on p. 422, he says: "Among
the Battaks safe dwelling-places are also found at the point where a
tree-stem forks or throws off branches; the central shoot is lopped
off, and the surrounding branches remain." Continuing he speaks of the
huts built by the Ilongotes of Luzon on tree stems, which are made
from leaves of the nipa-palm and bamboo. "The Orang-Sakei and the
Lubus of Sumatra also live to some extent in trees" (p. 423). There
are also tree-dwellers in Africa and India.

[59] "In older works are so named [Caragas] the warlike and Christian
inhabitants of the localities subdued by the Spaniards on the east
coast of Mindanao, and, indeed, after their principal city, Caraga. It
has been called, if not a peculiar language, a Visaya dialect, while
now only Visaya (near Manobo and Mandaya) is spoken, and an especial
Caraga nation is no longer known." (Blumentritt's "Native Tribes of
the Philippines," in _Smithsonian Report_, 1899, p. 535.)

[60] The title-pages of La Concepcion's fourteen volumes show more or
less difference in their wording. Following is a translation of the
title of vol. iv, a facsimile of which is here presented: "General
history of Philipinas: temporal and spiritual conquests of these
Spanish dominions, their establishment, progress, and decadence;
comprehending the empires, kingdoms, and provinces of islands and
continents with which there has been communication and commerce by
immediate coincidences, with general notices regarding geography,
hydrography, natural history, politics, customs, and religions, in
which so universal a title should be interested. By father Fray Juan de
la Concepcion, discalced Augustinian Recollect, pensioned lecturer,
ex-provincial, synodal examiner of the archbishopric of Manila,
and chronicler of his province of San Nicolas of the Philipinas
islands. Volume IV. With permission of the superiors. At Manila,
in the printing office of the royal and conciliar seminary of San
Carlos; printed by Agustin de la Rosa y Balagtas. Year of 1788."

[61] A term applied to the gun-room on a ship, which was considered
as under the protection of St. Barbara.

[62] The Armenian church was founded by St. Gregory, who was
consecrated bishop of Armenia in the year 302 A.D. Owing to a
misunderstanding, this church refused to accept the decisions of
the Council of Chalcedon (451 A.D.) regarding certain questions
of heresies, which led to its gradual separation from the Greek
church. In the middle of the fifteenth century arose dissensions,
which resulted in a schism; these were mainly occasioned by Roman
Catholic missionaries who endeavored to proselytize the Armenians to
the doctrine, liturgy, and ceremonies of the Roman church, to which
they gained many adherents. This led to dissensions and persecutions,
which continued until, in the middle of the eighteenth century,
the Armenian patriarch secured the intervention of Peter the Great,
and the protection of the Russian church, under which that of Armenia
has since remained.

[63] The Order of the Carmelites was founded by a crusader named
Berthold, in the middle of the twelfth century. Some time after
becoming a monk in Calabria he went to Mount Carmel, where he was
joined by various other hermits living there in solitude. They adopted
the rule of life framed for them by Albert, patriarch of Jerusalem,
which consisted of sixteen articles. These forbade the possession of
property; ordered that each hermit should live in a cell by himself;
interdicted meat; recommended manual labor and silence; and imposed
a strict fast from the exaltation of the cross to Easter, Sundays
being excepted. The hermits were compelled to abandon Mount Carmel
by the advance of the Mahomedan power, and established themselves in
Cyprus, and other places. In Europe they were compelled to live in
common and mitigate their rule, and they became known as one of the
mendicant orders. In England, where they became very numerous, they
were called the "White Friars." To St. Simon Stock, the first general,
the Virgin is said to have shown the scapular in a vision. The order
became divided into two branches, according to whether they observed
the strict or the mitigated rule, being designated as Observatines and
Conventuals. The Carmelite nuns were first instituted by John Soreth,
general of the order in the fifteenth century. See Addis and Arnold's
_Catholic Dictionary_, pp. 120-122.

[64] Gregorio de Santa Catalina, who had gone to Rome with twelve
religious to urge the support of the pope for the Recollects.

[65] "Fray Miguel de Santa Maria, with his seven companions, arrived
at Tandag in the year 1622" (_Provincia de S. Nicolas de Tolentino_,
p. 276).

[66] A letter dated May 22, 1904, from father Fray Eduardo Navarro,
O.S.A., Valladolid, Spain, who spent many years in the Philippines,
thus defines several terms as used in the islands. _Pueblo_ ["town" or
"village"] is to be understood in its usual significance. But beside
the pueblo proper, where are established the church, parochial house,
and city hall, all the pueblos have, at a greater or less distance,
groups of a greater or less number of houses. If they belong to
Christians, they are called barrios ["suburbs"], and have a distinctive
name; if of infidels, they are called rancherias ["a collection of
huts"] of such and such a chief.

[67] _i.e._, "at the entrance to the church;" said of marriages duly
performed with church rites.

[68] "Strictly speaking, then, the work of the redemption of those
islanders [in Mindanao] belongs to the Jesuits and the Recollects. The
latter commenced their labors by virtue of an arrangement made in the
year 1622, by the bishop of Cebu, Very Reverend Father Fray Pedro de
Arce--agreed upon with the captain-general of the archipelago, who was
then the famous Don Alonso Fajardo de Tenza. Their first enterprises
were on the northern and eastern coasts of Mindanao, as well as in
the adjacent islets of Dinagat, Camiguin, and Siargao. In the year
1631, the ninth of their evangelizing work, the Recollect fathers
suffered painful but glorious losses; for six of those missionaries
were martyred by the inhabitants of the island." (Retana and Pastells,
in their edition of Combes's _Historia de Mindanao_, col. 788.)

[69] River and pueblo of same name in the province of Misamis, in
northern Mindanao; the river falls into the bay of Macajalar.

[70] A point on the northern coast of Misamis province.

[71] Referring to Leo VI, Emperor of the East, styled "the Philosopher"
and "the Wise;" he occupied the throne of Constantinople from 886 to
911 A.D. He wrote several books, among which is a treatise on military
tactics, which was published by J. Meursius, at Leyden, in 1612.

[72] The islands in the Calamianes and Cuyos groups number one
hundred and forty-five that are charted, besides nearly sixty that
are uncharted. See descriptions of these groups in _U. S. Gazetteer
of Philippine Islands_, pp. 412-415, 480-484. The names Calamian and
Busuanga are now applied to separate islands, the largest, of the
Calamianes group.

[73] The bird here referred to (_Collocalia troglodites_) is a
specie of swift; the nests, composed of a gelatinous secretion from
the salivary glands in the mouths of the birds, sell at high price
almost their weight in gold, when fresh and clean. The best nests are
obtained on the precipitous sides of the Penon de Coron, between Culion
and Busuanga, where the natives gather them at no little personal
risk. The nests are known to commerce as _salangana_. (_U. S. Gazetteer
of Philippine Islands_, pp. 170, 482.)

Delgado says (_Hist. de Filipinas_, p. 821) that the material used by
the bird is a species of seaweed, called _ngoso_, or another called
_lano_--and not, as Colin and San Antonio would have it, the foam of
the sea. See _ut supra_, pp. 727, 728, and 822.

See also Retana's note in his edition of Zuniga's _Estadismo_, ii,
pp. 430*, 431*.

[74] The balate--also known as "sea slug," "sea cucumber," "beche de
mer," and commercially as "trepang"--is a slug (_Holothuria edulis_)
used as food in the Eastern Archipelago and in China, in which country
it is regarded as a delicacy by the wealthy classes, and brings from
seven to fifty cents a pound in the markets. (See _U. S. Gazetteer
of Philippine Islands_, pp. 482, 483.) Delgado, writing in 1754, says
(p. 935) that in Manila the dried balate was usually worth thirty-five
to forty (or even more) silver pesos a pico (or pecul; equivalent,
in the Philippines, to 137.9 U.S. pounds).

[75] "Better known as Penon de Coron ("Crown Peak"); a small, rocky
island off the eastern end of Busuanga Island, famous for the fine
quality of the edible bird's-nests found there.

[76] Apparently the present Calamian island is here referred to;
its chief town is Culion.

[77] Now known as Palawan; its northern part forms the province of
Paragua, which includes many dependent islands lying near it.

[78] "In general it may be said that the Philippines politically
speaking, and the Philippines zoologically speaking, are not
identical areas, for Balabac, Palawan, and the Calamianes Islands
are strongly characterized by the presence of numerous Bornean forms
which are conspicuously absent throughout the remaining islands of
the archipelago. Although the Philippines are commonly held to form
an eastern extension of the Indo-Malayan subregion, it should not
be forgotten that at least among the birds and mammals there is a
large amount of specialization in the islands to the eastward of
the Balabac-Palawan-Calamianes group.... The Philippines are very
poor in mammals.... They are undoubtedly well adapted to a large and
diversified mammalian fauna, and the only plausible explanation of
the scarcity of forms is to suppose either that they have never been
connected with Borneo and the Asiatic continent or that, if at one
time connected, they have since been subjected to such subsidence as to
wipe out the greater part of their mammalian fauna." (U.S. Philippine
Commission's _Report_, 1900, iii, p. 307.)

[79] This is an error on the part of La Concepcion; Fray Rodrigo went
to Europe in 1622, but died there in 1626. The missions of Mindanao
and Paragua were begun by Recollects who arrived at Manila in 1620
and 1622, and continued by missionaries who came in 1627 and 1637.






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