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Title: Scotland's Mark on America

Author: George Fraser Black

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SCOTLAND'S MARK ON AMERICA

By GEORGE FRASER BLACK, PH.D.

With a Foreword By JOHN FOORD

_Published by_

The Scottish Section of "America's Making" New York, 1921




FOREWORD


It has been said that the Scot is never so much at home as when he is
abroad. Under this half-jesting reference to one of the
characteristics of our race, there abides a sober truth, namely, that
the Scotsman carries with him from his parent home into the world
without no half-hearted acceptance of the duties required of him in
the land of his adoption. He is usually a public-spirited citizen, a
useful member of society, wherever you find him. But that does not
lessen the warmth of his attachment to the place of his birth, or the
land of his forbears. Be his connection with Scotland near or remote,
there is enshrined in the inner sanctuary of his heart, memories,
sentiments, yearnings, that are the heritage of generations with whom
love of their country was a dominant passion, and pride in the deeds
that her children have done an incentive to effort and an antidote
against all that was base or ignoble.

It is a fact that goes to the core of the secular struggle for human
freedom that whole-hearted Americanism finds no jarring note in the
sentiment of the Scot, be that sentiment ever so intense. In the
sedulous cultivation of the Scottish spirit there is nothing alien,
and, still more emphatically, nothing harmful, to the institutions
under which we live. The things that nourish the one, engender
attachment and loyalty to the other. So, as we cherish the memories of
the Motherland, keep in touch with the simple annals of our
childhood's home, or the home of our kin, bask in the fireside glow of
its homely humor, or dwell in imagination amid the haunts of old
romance, we are the better Americans for the Scottish heritage from
which heart and mind alike derive inspiration and delight.

It is as difficult to separate the current of Scottish migration to
the American Colonies, or to the United States that grew out of them,
from the larger stream which issued from England, as it is to
distinguish during the last two hundred years the contributions by
Scotsmen from those of Englishmen to the great body of English
literature. We have the first census of the new Republic, in the year
1790, and an investigator who classified this enumeration according to
what he conceived to be the nationality of the names, found that the
total free, white, population numbering 3,250,000 contained 2,345,844
people of English origin; 188,589 of Scottish origin, and 44,273 of
Irish origin. The system of classification is manifestly loose, and
the distribution of parent nationalities entirely at variance with
known facts. That part of the population described as Irish was
largely Ulster-Scottish, the true Irish never having emigrated in any
considerable numbers until they felt the pressure of the potato
famine, fifty years later. There is excellent authority for the
statement that, at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War one-third of
the entire population of Pennsylvania was of Ulster-Scottish origin. A
New England historian, quoted by Whitelaw Reid, counts that between
1730 and 1770 at least half a million souls were transferred from
Ulster to the Colonies--more than half of the Presbyterian population
of Ulster--and that at the time of the Revolution they made one-sixth
of the total population of the nascent Republic. Another authority
fixes the inhabitants of Scottish ancestry in the nine Colonies south
of New England at about 385,000. He counts that less than half of the
entire population of the Colonies was of English origin, and that
nearly, or quite one-third of it, had a direct Scottish ancestry.

These conclusions find powerful support in the number of distinguished
men whom the Scots and the Ulstermen contributed to the Revolutionary
struggle, and to the public life of the early days of the United
States. Out of Washington's twenty-two brigadier generals, nine were
of Scottish descent, and one of the greatest achievements of the
war--the rescue of Kentucky and the whole rich territory northwest of
the Ohio, from which five States were formed--was that of General
George Rogers Clark, a Scottish native of Albert County, Virginia.
When the Supreme Court of the United States was first organized by
Washington three of the four Associate Justices were of the same
blood--one a Scot and two Ulster-Scots. When the first Chief Justice,
John Jay, left the bench, his successor, John Rutledge, was an
Ulster-Scot. Washington's first cabinet contained four members--two of
them were Scotch and the third was an Ulster-Scot. Out of the
fifty-six members who composed the Congress that adopted the
Declaration of Independence eleven were of Scottish descent. It was in
response to the appeal of a Scot, John Witherspoon, that the
Declaration was signed; it is preserved in the handwriting of an
Ulster-Scot who was Secretary of the Congress; it was first publicly
read to the people by an Ulster-Scot, and first printed by a third
member of the same vigorous body of early settlers.

George Bancroft will hardly be accused of holding a brief for the Scot
in American history but, with all his New England predilections, he
frankly records this conclusion: "We shall find the first voice
publicly raised in America to dissolve all connection with Great
Britain, came not from the Puritans of New England, or the Dutch of
New York, or the planters of Virginia, but from Scotch-Irish
Presbyterians." It was Patrick Henry, a Scot, who kindled the popular
flame for independence. The foremost, the most irreconcilable, the
most determined in pushing the quarrel to the last extremity, were
those whom the bishops and Lord Donegal & Company had been pleased to
drive out of Ulster.

The distinguished place which men of Scottish or of Ulster origin had
asserted for themselves in the councils of the Colonies was not lost
when the Colonies became independent States. Among the first of the
thirteen original States two-thirds were of either Scottish or
Ulster-Scottish origin. Of the men who have filled the great office of
President of the United States, eleven out of the whole twenty-five
come under the same category. About half the Secretaries of the
Treasury of the Government of the United States have been of Scottish
descent, and nearly a third of the Secretaries of State.

But it is perhaps in the intangible things that go to the making of
national character that the Scottish contribution to the making of
America has been most notable. In 1801, the population of the whole of
Scotland was but little over a million and a half, and behind that
there were at least eight centuries of national history. Behind that,
too, were all the long generations of toil and strife in which the
Scottish character was being molded into the forms that Scott and
Burns made immortal. It is a character full of curious contrasts, with
its strong predilection for theology and metaphysics on one side, and
for poetry and romance on the other. Hard, dry and practical in its
attitude to the ordinary affairs of life, it is apt to catch fire from
a sudden enthusiasm, as if volatility were its dominant note and
instability its only fixed attribute. And so it has come about that
side by side with tomes of Calvinistic divinity, there has been
transmitted to Scotsmen an equally characteristic product of the mind
of their race--a body of folksong, of ballad poetry, of legend and of
story in that quaint and copious Doric speech which makes so direct an
appeal to the hearts of men whether they are to the manner born or
not. It is surely a paradox that a nation which, in the making, had
the hardest kind of work to extract a scanty living from a stubborn
soil, and still harder work to defend their independence, their
liberties, their faith from foes of their own kindred, should be best
known to the world for the romantic ideals they have cherished and the
chivalrous follies for which their blood has been shed.

But, it is well to remember that long before the Reformers of the
sixteenth century founded the parish school system of Scotland, the
monasteries had their schools and so had the parish churches; there
were high schools in the burghs and song schools of remarkable
excellence. The light of learning may have waxed dim at times, but it
was not from an illiterate land that Scottish scholars carried into
Europe all through the Middle Ages the name and fame of their country,
any more than it was from a people unversed in the arts of war that
Scottish soldiers went abroad to fight foreign battles, giving now a
Constable to France, a General-in-Chief to Russia and still again a
Lieutenant to Gustavus Adolphus. If evidence were needed of the vigor
of the Scottish race, it is readily forthcoming in the fact that for
five hundred years the Land O'Cakes enriched the world with the
surplus of her able men.

Nurse of heroes, nurse of martyrs, nurse of freemen, are titles which
belong of right to our Motherland and she has been justified of her
children, at home and abroad. The rolls of honor of many countries and
many climes bear their names; there is no field of distinction whether
it be of thought or of action that has not witnessed their triumphs.
That Scotland has yielded more than her share of the men who have gone
forth to the conquest of the world is largely due to the fact that it
was part of her discipline that men must first conquer themselves. The
weakest of them felt that restraining influence, and the striving
after the Scottish ideal, however feeble, has been a protection
against sinking into utter baseness. The most wayward scions of the
Scottish family have known that influence, and have borne testimony to
the beauty of the homely virtues which they failed to practice and the
nobility of aspirations which fell short of controlling their life.

It belongs to the character and antecedents of Scotsmen that the
attribute of national independence should take so high a place among
the objects of human effort and desire. It was because Scotland
settled for all time, six hundred years ago, her place as an
independent State that she proved herself capable of begetting men
like John Knox, Robert Burns and Walter Scott. It is because the vigor
of the Scottish race and the adaptiveness of the Scottish genius
remain to-day unimpaired, that the lustre of Scottish-names shone so
brilliantly during the World War. It may be confidently asserted that,
whether regarded as a race or a people no members of the great
English-speaking family did more promptly, more cheerfully or more
courageously make the sacrifices required to perform their full part
in the struggle to defend the freedom that belongs to our common
heritage and to preserve the ideals without which we should not regard
life as worth living. The union, centuries old, in the Scottish mind
and heart of the most uncompromising devotion to individual liberty
with the most fervid patriotism, is a sentiment of which the world
stands greatly in need to-day. We need not go far to find evidence of
how perilous it is to sink regard for the great conception of human
brotherhood in a narrow, nationalistic concern for individual
interests. In the Scottish conception of liberty, _duties_ have always
been rated as highly as _rights_; it has been a constructive, not a
destructive formula; it has been an inspiration to raise men out of
themselves, not to prompt them to indulge in antics of promiscuous
leveling. The kind of democracy for which Scotsmen have deemed that
the world should be made safe is a human brotherhood, indeed, but a
brotherhood imbued with the generous rivalry of effort, the enthusiasm
of emulous achievement, and not one of inglorious, monotonous and
colorless equality.

JOHN FOORD




CONTENTS

Foreword                                                 3

Scottish Emigration to the American Colonies            11

Some Prominent Scots and Scots Families                 24

Scots as Colonial and Provincial Governors              32

Scots and the Declaration of Independence               36

Scots as Signers of the Declaration of Independence     38

Scots in the Presidency                                 40

Scots as Vice-Presidents                                41

Scots as Cabinet Officers                               42

Scots in the Senate                                     45

Scots in the House of Representatives                   47

Scots in the Judiciary                                  48

Scots as Ambassadors                                    51

Scots as State Governors                                53

Scots in the Army                                       60

Scots in the Navy                                       65

Scots as Scientists                                     67

Scots as Physicians                                     73

Scots in Education                                      76

Scots in Literature                                     81

Scots in the Church and Social Welfare                  84

Scots as Lawyers                                        87

Scots in Art, Architecture, etc.                        88

Scots as Inventors                                      95

Scots as Engineers                                      99

Scots in Industries                                    101

Scots in Banking, Finance, Insurance and Railroads     105

Scots as Journalists, Publishers and Typefounders      108

Some Prominent Scots in New York City                  113

Scottish Societies in the United States                115

Conclusion                                             116

List of Principal Authorities Referred to              117

Index                                                  119

"No people so few in number have scored so deep a mark in the world's
history as the Scots have done. No people have a greater right to be
proud of their blood."--_James Anthony Froude_.

       *       *       *       *       *




SCOTTISH EMIGRATION TO THE AMERICAN COLONIES


Scottish emigration to America came in two streams--one direct from
the motherland and the other through the province of Ulster in the
north of Ireland. Those who came by this second route are usually
known as "Ulster Scots," or more commonly as "Scotch-Irish," and they
have been claimed as Irishmen by Irish writers in the United States.
This is perhaps excusable but hardly just. Throughout their residence
in Ireland the Scots settlers preserved their distinctive Scottish
characteristics, and generally described themselves as "the Scottish
nation in the north of Ireland." They, of course, like the early
pioneers in this country, experienced certain changes through the
influence of their new surroundings, but, as one writer has remarked,
they "remained as distinct from the native population as if they had
never crossed the Channel. They were among the Irish but not of them."
Their sons, too, when they attended the classes in the University of
Glasgow, signed the matriculation register as "A Scot of Ireland."
They did not intermarry with the native Irish, though they did
intermarry to some extent with the English Puritans and with the
French Huguenots. (These Huguenots were colonies driven out of France
by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and induced to
settle in the north of Ireland by William III. To this people Ireland
is indebted for its lace industry, which they introduced into that
country.)

Again many Irish-American writers on the Scots Plantation of Ulster
have assumed that the Scots settlers were entirely or almost of Gaelic
origin, ignoring the fact, if they were aware of it, that the people
of the Scottish lowlands were "almost as English in racial derivation
as if they had come from the North of England." Parker, the historian
of Londonderry, New Hampshire, speaking of the early Scots settlers in
New England, has well said: "Although they came to this land from
Ireland, where their ancestors had a century before planted
themselves, yet they retained unmixed the national Scotch character.
Nothing sooner offended them than to be called Irish. Their antipathy
to this appellation had its origin in the hostility then existing in
Ireland between the Celtic race, the native Irish, and the English and
Scotch colonists." Belknap, in his _History of New Hampshire_ (Boston,
1791) quotes a letter from the Rev. James MacGregor (1677-1729) to
Governor Shute in which the writer says: "We are surprised to hear
ourselves termed Irish people, when we so frequently ventured our all
for the British Crown and liberties against the Irish papists, and
gave all tests, of our loyalty, which the government of Ireland
required, and are always ready to do the same when demanded."

Down to the present day the descendants of these Ulster Scots settlers
living in the United States who have maintained an interest in their
origin, always insist that they are of Scottish and not of Irish
origin. On this point it will be sufficient to quote the late Hon.
Leonard Allison Morrison, of New Hampshire. Writing twenty-five years
ago he said: "I am one of Scotch-Irish blood and my ancestor came with
Rev. McGregor of Londonderry, and neither _they_ nor any of their
descendants were willing to be called 'merely Irish.' I have twice
visited," he adds, "the parish of Aghadowney, Co. Londonderry, from
which they came, in Ireland, and all that locality is filled, not with
'Irish' but with Scotch-Irish, and this is pure Scotch blood to-day,
after more than _200_ years." The mountaineers of Tennessee and
Kentucky are largely the descendants of these same Ulster Scots, and
their origin is conclusively shown by the phrase used by mothers to
their unruly children: "If you don't behave, Clavers [i.e.,
Claverhouse] will get you."

If we must continue to use the hyphen when referring to these early
immigrants it is preferable to use the term "Ulster Scot" instead of
"Scotch-Irish," as was pointed out by the late Whitelaw Reid, because
it does not confuse the race with the accident of birth, and because
the people preferred it themselves. "If these Scottish and
Presbyterian colonists," he says, "must be called Irish because they
had been one or two generations in the north of Ireland, then the
Pilgrim Fathers, who had been one generation or more in Holland, must
by the same reasoning be called Dutch or at the very least English
Dutch."

To understand the reasons for the Scots colonization of Ulster and the
replantation in America it is necessary to look back three centuries
in British history. On the crushing of the Irish rebellion under Sir
Cahir O'Dogherty in 1607 about 500,000 acres of forfeited land in the
province of Ulster were at the disposal of the crown. At the
suggestion of King James the I. of England, Ulster was divided into
lots and offered to colonists from England. Circumstances, however,
turned what was mainly intended to be an English enterprise into a
Scottish one. Scottish participation "which does not seem to have been
originally regarded as important," became eventually, as Ford points
out, the mainstay of the enterprise. "Although from the first there
was an understanding between [Sir Arthur] Chichester and the English
Privy Council that eventually the plantation would be opened to Scotch
settlers, no steps were taken in that direction until the plan had
been matured ... The first public announcement of any Scottish
connection with the Ulster plantation appears in a letter of March 19,
1609, from Sir Alexander Hay, the Scottish secretary resident at the
English Court, to the Scottish Privy Council at Edinburgh." In this
communication Hay announced that the king "out of his unspeikable love
and tindir affectioun" for his Scottish subjects had decided that they
were to be allowed a share, and he adds, that here is a great
opportunity for Scotland since "we haif greitt advantaige of
transporting of our men and bestiall [i.e., live stock of a farm] in
regairde we lye so neir to that coiste of Ulster." Immediately on
receipt of this letter the Scottish Privy Council made public
proclamation of the news and announced that those of them "quho ar
disposit to tak ony land in Yreland" were to present their desires and
petitions to the Council. The first application enrolled was by "James
Andirsoun portionair of Litle Govane," and by the 14th of September
seventy-seven Scots had come forward as purchasers. If their offers
had been accepted, they would have possessed among them 141,000 acres
of land. In 1611, in consequence of a rearrangement of applicants the
number of favored Scots was reduced to fifty-nine, with eighty-one
thousand acres of land at their disposal. Each of these "Undertakers,"
as they were called, was accompanied to his new home by kinsmen,
friends, and tenants, as Lord Ochiltree, for instance, who is
mentioned as having arrived "accompanied with thirty-three followers,
a minister, some tenants, freeholders, [and] artificers." By the end
of 1612 the emigration from Scotland is estimated to have reached
10,000. Indeed, before the end of this year so rapidly had the traffic
increased between Scotland and Ireland that the passage between the
southwest of Scotland and Ulster "is now become a commoun and are
ordinarie ferrie," the boat-men of which were having a rare time of it
by charging what they pleased for the passage or freight. In the
selection of the settlers measures were carefully taken that they
should be "from the inwards part of Scotland," and that they should be
so located in Ulster that "they may not mix nor intermarry" with "the
mere Irish." For the most part the settlers appear to have been
selected from the shires of Dumbarton, Renfrew, Ayr, Galloway, and
Dumfries. Emigration from Scotland to Ireland appears to have
continued steadily and the English historian Carte estimated, after
diligent documentary study, that by 1641 there were in Ulster 100,000
Scots and 20,000 English settlers. In 1656 it was proposed by the
Irish government that persons "of the Scottish nation desiring to come
into Ireland" should be prohibited from settling in Ulster or County
Louth, but the scheme was not put into effect. Governmental opposition
notwithstanding emigration from Scotland to Ireland appears to have
continued steadily, and after the Revolution of 1688 there seems to
have been a further increase. Archbishop Synge estimated that by 1715
not less than 50,000 Scottish families had settled in Ulster during
these twenty-seven years. It should be also mentioned that "before the
Ulster plantation began there was already a considerable Scottish
occupation of the region nearest to Scotland. These Scottish
settlements were confined to counties Down and Antrim, which were not
included in the scheme of the plantation. Their existence facilitated
Scottish emigration to the plantation and they were influential in
giving the plantation the Scottish character which it promptly
acquired. Although planned to be in the main an English settlement,
with one whole county turned over to the city of London alone, it soon
became in the main a Scottish settlement."

The Scots were not long settled in Ulster before misfortune and
persecution began to harass them. The Irish rebellion of 1641, said by
some to have been an outbreak directed against the Scottish and
English settlers, regarded by the native Irish as intruders and
usurpers, caused them much suffering; and Harrison says that for
"several years afterward 12,000 emigrants annually left Ulster for the
American plantations." The Revolution of 1688 was also long and bloody
in Ireland and the sufferings of the settlers reached a climax in the
siege of Londonderry (April to August, 1688). They suffered also from
the restrictions laid upon their industries and commerce by the
English government. These restrictions, and later the falling in of
leases, rack-renting by the landlords, payment of tithes for support
of a church with which they had no connection, and several other
burdens and annoyances, were the motives which impelled emigration to
the American colonies from 1718 onwards. Five ships bearing seven
hundred Ulster Scots emigrants arrived in Boston on August 4, 1718,
under the leadership of Rev. William Boyd. They were allowed to select
a township site of twelve miles square at any place on the frontiers.
A few settled at Portland, Maine, at Wicasset, and at Worcester and
Haverhill, Massachusetts, but the greater number finally at
Londonderry, New Hampshire. In 1723-4 they built a parsonage and a
church for their minister, Rev. James MacGregor. In six years they had
four schools, and within nine years Londonderry paid one-fifteenth of
the state tax. Previous to the Revolution of 1776 ten distinct
settlements were made by colonists from Londonderry, N.H., all of
which became towns of influence and importance. Notable among the
descendants of these colonists were Matthew Thornton, Henry Knox, Gen.
John Stark, Hugh McCulloch, Horace Greeley, Gen. George B. McClellan,
Salmon P. Chase, and Asa Gray. From 1771 to 1773 "the whole emigration
from Ulster is estimated at 30,000 of whom 10,000 were weavers."

In 1706 the Rev. Cotton Mather put forth a plan to settle hardy Scots
families on the frontiers of Maine and New Hampshire to protect the
towns and churches there from the French and Indians, the Puritans
evidently not being able to protect themselves. He says, "I write
letters unto diverse persons of Honour both in Scotland and in
England; to procure Settlements of Good Scotch Colonies, to the
Northward of us. This may be a thing of great consequence;" and
elsewhere he suggests that a Scottish colony might be of good service
in getting possession of Nova Scotia. In 1735, twenty-seven families,
and in 1753 a company of sixty adults and a number of children,
collected in Scotland by General Samuel Waldo, were landed at George's
River, Maine. In honor of the ancient capital of their native country,
they named their settlement Stirling.

Another and an important cause of the early appearance of Scots in
America was the wars between Scotland and England during the
Commonwealth. Large numbers of Scottish prisoners taken at Dunbar
(1650) and at Worcester (1651) were sold into service in the colonies,
a shipload arriving in Boston Harbor in 1652 on the ship _John and
Sara_. The means taken to ameliorate their condition led in 1657 to
the foundation of the Scots Charitable Society of Boston--the earliest
known Scottish society in America. Its foundation may be taken as
evidence that there were already prosperous and influential Scots
living in Boston at that time. A list of the passengers of the _John
and Sara_ is given in Suffolk _Deed Records_ (bk. 1, pp. 5-6) and in
Drake's _The Founders of New England_ (Boston, 1860, pp. 74-76). These
men, says Boulton, "worked out their terms of servitude at the Lynn
iron works and elsewhere, and founded honorable families whose Scotch
names appear upon our early records. No account exists of the Scotch
prisoners that were sent to New England in Cromwell's time; at York in
1650 were the Maxwells, McIntires, and Grants. The Mackclothlans
[i.e., Mac Lachlans], later known as the Claflins, gave a governor to
Massachusetts and distinguished merchants to New York City."

The bitter persecution of Presbyterians during the periods of
episcopal rule in the latter half of the seventeenth century also
contributed largely to Scottish emigration to the new world. A
Scottish merchant in Boston named Hugh Campbell, obtained permission
from the authorities of the Bay State Colony in February 1679-80 to
bring in a number of settlers from Scotland and to establish them in
the Nepmug country in the vicinity of Springfield, Massachusetts.

So desperate had matters become in Scotland at the beginning of the
eighth decade of the seventeenth century that a number of the nobility
and gentry determined to settle in New Jersey and the Carolinas. One
of these colonies was founded in New Jersey in 1682 under the
management of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, John Drummond, Robert
Barclay the Quaker Apologist, David and John Barclay, his brothers,
Robert Gordon, Gawen Lawrie, and George Willocks. In 1684 Gawen
Lawrie, who had been for several years previously residing in the
colony, was appointed Deputy Governor of the province, and fixed his
residence at Elizabeth. In the same year Perth (so named in honor of
the Earl of Perth, one of the principal proprietors, now Perth Amboy)
was made the capital of the new Scottish settlement. During the
following century a constant stream of emigrants both from Scotland
and from Ulster came to the colony. One of the principal encouragers
of the Scottish colony in New Jersey was George Scot or Scott (d.
1685) of Pitlochrie, who had been repeatedly fined and imprisoned by
the Privy Council of Scotland for attending "Conventicles," as
clandestine religious gatherings were then called in Scotland, and in
the hope of obtaining freedom of worship in the new world he proposed
to emigrate "to the plantations." To encourage others to do the like
he printed at Edinburgh (1685) a work, now very rare, called "The
Model of the Government of the Province of East New Jersey, in
America; and Encouragement for Such as Design to be concerned there."
Scot received a grant of five hundred acres in recognition of his
having written the work, and sailed in the _Henry and Francis_ for
America. A malignant fever broke out among the passengers and nearly
half on board perished including Scot and his wife. A son and daughter
survived and the proprietors a year after issued a confirmation of the
grant to Scot's daughter and her husband (John Johnstone), many of
whose descendants are still living in New Jersey.

Walter Ker of Dalserf, Lanarkshire, banished in 1685, settled in
Freehold, and was active in organizing the Presbyterian Church there,
one of the oldest in New Jersey. The Scots settlers who came over at
this period occupied most of the northern counties of the state but
many went south and southwest, mainly around Princeton, and, says
Samuel Smith, the first historian of the province, "There were very
soon four towns in the Province, viz., Elizabeth, Newark, Middletown
and Shrewsbury; and these with the country round were in a few years
plentifully inhabited by the accession of the Scotch, of whom there
came a great many." These Scots, says Duncan Campbell, largely gave
"character to this sturdy little state not the least of their
achievements being the building up if not the nominal founding of
Princeton College, which has contributed so largely to the scholarship
of America."

In 1682 another company of nobles and gentlemen in Scotland arranged
for a settlement at Port Royal, South Carolina. These colonists
consisted mainly of Presbyterians banished for attending
"Conventicles." The names of some of these immigrants, whose
descendants exist in great numbers at the present day, included James
McClintock, John Buchanan, William Inglis, Gavin Black, Adam Allan,
John Gait, Thomas Marshall, William Smith, Robert Urie, Thomas Bryce,
John Syme, John Alexander, John Marshall, Matthew Machen, John Paton,
John Gibson, John Young, Arthur Cunningham, George Smith, and George
Dowart. The colony was further increased by a small remnant of the
ill-fated expedition to Darien. One of the vessels which left Darien
to return to Scotland, the _Rising Sun_, was driven out of its course
by a gale and took refuge in Charleston. Among its passengers was the
Rev. Archibald Stobo, who was asked by some people in Charleston to
preach in the town while the ship was being refitted. He accepted the
invitation and left the ship with his wife and about a dozen others.
The following day, the _Rising Sun_, while lying off the bar, was
overwhelmed in a hurricane and all on board were drowned. This Rev.
Archibald Stobo was the earliest American ancestor of the late
Theodore Roosevelt's mother. In the following year (1683) the colony
was augmented by a number of Scots colonists from Ulster led by one
Ferguson. A second Scottish colony in the same year under Henry
Erskine, Lord Cardross, founded Stuartstown (so named in honor of his
wife). Another colony from Ulster was that of Williamsburgh township
(1732-34), who named their principal village Kingstree.

There were settlements of Scots Highlanders in North Carolina, on the
Cape Fear River, as early as 1729; some indeed are said to have
settled there as early as 1715. Neill McNeill of Jura brought over a
colony of more than 350 from Argyllshire in 1739, and large numbers in
1746, after Culloden, and settled them on the Cape Fear River. Cross
Creek, now Fayetteville, was the center of these Highland settlements,
and hither came the Scottish heroine, Flora MacDonald, in 1775. The
mania for emigration to North Carolina affected all classes in
Scotland and continued for many years. The _Scots Magazine_ for May
1768 records that a number of settlers from the Western Isles had
embarked for Carolina and Georgia, including forty or fifty families
from Jura alone. In September of following year it is stated that a
hundred families of Highlanders had arrived at Brunswick, North
Carolina, and "two vessels are daily expected with more." In August
1769 the ship _Mally_ sailed from Islay full of passengers for North
Carolina, which was the third or fourth emigration from Argyll "since
the conclusion of the late war." In August 1770 it was stated that
since the previous April six vessels carrying about twelve hundred
emigrants had sailed from the western Highlands for North Carolina. In
February of the following year the same magazine states that five
hundred souls in Islay and adjacent islands were preparing to emigrate
to America in the following summer. In September of the same year
three hundred and seventy persons sailed from Skye for North Carolina,
and two entries in the magazine for 1772 record the emigration of
numbers from Sutherland and Loch Erribol. In the same year a writer
says the people who have emigrated from the Western Isles since the
year 1768 "have carried with them at least ten thousand pounds in
specie. Notwithstanding this is a great loss to us, yet the
depopulation by these emigrations is a much greater.... Besides, the
continual emigrations from Ireland and Scotland, will soon render our
colonies independent on the mother-country." In August, 1773, three
gentlemen of the name of Macdonell, with their families and four
hundred Highlanders from Inverness-shire sailed for America to take
possession of a grant of land "in Albany." On the 22d of June
previously between seven and eight hundred people from the Lewis
sailed from Stornoway for the colonies. On the first of September,
1773, four hundred and twenty-five men, women and children from
Inverness-shire sailed for America. "They are the finest set of
fellows in the Highlands. It is allowed they carried at least 6000
pounds Sterling in ready cash with them." In 1774 farmers and heads of
families in Stirlingshire were forming societies to emigrate to the
colonies and the fever had also extended to Orkney and Shetland and
the north of England. In 1753 it was estimated that there were one
thousand Scots in the single county of Cumberland capable of bearing
arms, of whom the Macdonalds were the most numerous. Gabriel Johnston,
governor of the province of North Carolina from 1734 to 1752, appears
to have done more to encourage the settlement of Scots in the colony
than all its other colonial governors combined.

In 1735 a body of one hundred and thirty Highlanders with fifty women
and children sailed from Inverness and landed at Savannah in January
1736. They were under the leadership of Lieutenant Hugh Mackay. Some
Carolinians endeavoured to dissuade them from going to the South by
telling them that the Spaniards would attack them from their houses in
the fort near where they were to settle, to which they replied, "Why,
then, we will beat them out of their fort, and shall have houses ready
built to live in." "This valiant spirit," says Jones, "found
subsequent expression in the efficient military service rendered by
these Highlanders during the wars between the Colonists and the
Spaniards, and by their descendants in the American Revolution. To
John 'More' McIntosh, Captain Hugh Mackay, Ensign Charles Mackay, Col.
John McIntosh, General Lachlan McIntosh, and their gallant comrades
and followers, Georgia, both as a Colony and a State, owes a large
debt of gratitude. This settlement was subsequently augmented from
time to time by fresh arrivals from Scotland.... Its men were prompt
and efficient in arms, and when the war cloud descended upon the
southern confines of the province no defenders were more alert or
capable than those found in the ranks of these Highlanders." "No
people," says Walter Glasco Charlton, "ever came to Georgia who took
so quickly to the conditions under which they were to live or remained
more loyal to her interests" than the Highlanders. "These men," says
Jones, "were not reckless adventurers or reduced emigrants
volunteering through necessity, or exiled through insolvency or want.
They were men of good character, and were carefully selected for their
military qualities.... Besides this military band, others among the
Mackays, the Dunbars, the Baillies, and the Cuthberts applied for
large tracts of land in Georgia which they occupied with their own
servants. Many of them went over in person and settled in the
province."

Among the immigrants who flocked into Virginia in 1729 and 1740 we
find individuals named Alexander Breckinridge, David Logan, Hugh
Campbell, William Graham, James Waddell (the "Blind Preacher"), John
McCue, Benjamin Erwin, Gideon Blackburn, Samuel Houston, Archibald
Scott, Samuel Carrack, John Montgomery, George Baxter, William
McPheeters, and Robert Poage (Page?), and others bearing the names of
Bell, Trimble (Turnbull), Hay, Anderson, Patterson, Scott, Wilson, and
Young. John McDowell and eight of his men were killed by Indians in
1742. Among the members of his company was his venerable father
Ephraim McDowell. In 1763 the Indians attacked a peaceful settlement
and carried off a number of captives. After traveling some distance
and feeling safe from pursuit they demanded that their captives should
sing for their entertainment, and it was a Scotswoman, Mrs. Gilmore,
who struck up Rouse's version of the one hundred and thirty-seventh
psalm:

    "By Babel's streams we sat and wept,
       When Zion we thought on,
    In midst thereof we hanged our harps
       The willow tree thereon.

    "For there a song required they,
       Who did us captive bring;
    Our spoilers called for mirth, and said:
       'A song of Zion sing.'"

In the following year Colonel Henry Bouquet led a strong force against
the Indians west of the Ohio, and compelled them to desist from their
predatory warfare, and deliver up the captives they had taken. One of
his companies was made up of men from the Central Valley of Virginia,
largely composed of Scots or men of Ulster Scot descent, and commanded
by Alexander McClanahan, a good Galloway surname. Ten years later
occurred the battle of Point Pleasant when men of the same race under
the command of Andrew Lewis defeated the Shawnee Indians.

In January 1775, the freeholders of Fincastle presented an address to
the Continental Congress, declaring their purpose to resist the
oppressive measures of the home government. Among the signers were
William Christian, Rev. Charles Cummings, Arthur Campbell, William
Campbell, William Edmundson, William Preston and others. Several other
counties in the same state, inhabited mainly by Scots or people of
Scottish descent, adopted like resolutions. During the Revolutionary
war, in addition to large numbers of men of Scottish origin serving in
the Continental army from this state, the militia were also constantly
in service under the leadership of such men as Colonels Samuel
McDowell, George Moffett, William Preston, John and William Bowyer,
Samson Mathews, etc.

The following Scots were members of His Majesty's Council in South
Carolina under the royal government, from 1720 to 1776: Alexander
Skene, James Kinloch (1729), John Cleland, James Graeme, George Saxby,
James Michie, John Rattray (1761), Thomas Knox Gordon, and John
Stuart. Andrew Rutledge was Speaker of the Commons' House of Assembly
from 1749 to 1752. David Graeme, attorney at law in 1754, was
Attorney-General of the State from 1757 to 1764. James Graeme, most
probably a relation of the preceding, was elected to the Assembly from
Port Royal in 1732, became Judge of the Court of Vice Admiralty from
1742 to 1752, and Chief Justice from 1749 to 1752. James Michie was
Speaker of the Assembly from 1752 to 1754, Judge of the Court of
Admiralty from 1752 to 1754, and Chief Justice from 1759 to 1761.
William Simpson served as Chief Justice 1761-1762. Thomas Knox Gordon
was appointed Chief Justice in 1771 and served till 1776, and in 1773
he also appears as Member of Council. John Murray was appointed
Associate Justice in 1771 and died in 1774. William Gregory was
appointed by His Majesty's mandamus to succeed him in 1774. Robert
Hume was Speaker of the Assembly in 1732-1733. Robert Brisbane was
Associate Justice in 1764, and Robert Pringle appears in the same
office in 1760 and 1766. John Rattray was Judge of the Court of
Vice-Admiralty in 1760-61, and James Abercrombie appears as
Attorney-General in 1731-32. James Simpson was Clerk of the Council in
1773, Surveyor-General of Land in 1772, Attorney-General in 1774-75,
and Judge of Vice-Admiralty in the absence of Sir Augustus Johnson in
1769. John Carwood was Assistant Justice in 1725. Thomas Nairne was
employed in 1707 "as resident agent among the Indians, with power to
settle all disputes among traders ... to arrest traders who were
guilty of misdemeanors and send them to Charleston for trial, to take
charge of the goods of persons who were committed to prison, and to
exercise the power of a justice of the peace." This Thomas Nairne is
probably the same individual who published, anonymously, "A letter
from South Carolina; giving an account of the soil ... product ...
trade ... government [etc.] of that province. Written by a Swiss
Gentleman to his friend at Bern," the first edition of which was
published in London in 1710 (second ed. in 1732).

Among the names of the seventeen corporate members of the Charleston
Library Society established in 1743 occur those of the following
Scots: Robert Brisbane, Alexander M'Cauley, Patrick M'Kie, William
Logan, John Sinclair, James Grindlay, Alexander Baron, and Charles
Stevenson.

Of the members of the Provincial Congress held at Charleston in
January, 1775, the following were Scotsmen or men of Scottish
ancestry: Major John Caldwell, Patrick Calhoun (ancestor of
Vice-President Calhoun), George Haig of the family of Bemersyde,
Charles Elliott, Thomas Ferguson, Adam Macdonald, Alexander M'Intosh,
John M'Ness, Isaac MacPherson, Col. William Moultrie, David Oliphant,
George Ross, Thomas Rutledge, James Sinkler, James Skirving, senior,
James Skirving, junior, William Skirving, and Rev. William Tennent.

In Maryland there seems to have been a colony of Scots about 1670
under Colonel Ninian Beall, settled between the Potomac and the
Patuxent, and gradually increased by successive additions. Through his
influence a church was established at Patuxent in 1704, the members
of which included several prominent Fifeshire families. Many other
small Scottish colonies were settled on the eastern shore of Maryland
and Virginia, particularly in Accomac, Dorchester, Somerset, Wicomico,
and Worcester counties. To minister to them the Rev. Francis Makemie
and the Rev. William Traill were sent out by the Presbytery of Laggan
in Ulster. Upper Marlborough, Maryland, was founded by a company of
Scottish immigrants and were ministered to by the Rev. Nathaniel
Taylor, also from Scotland.

Two shiploads of Scottish Jacobites taken at Preston in 1716 were sent
over in the ships _Friendship_ and _Good Speed_ to Maryland to be sold
as servants. The names of some of these sufficiently attest their
Scottish origin, as, Dugall Macqueen, Alexander Garden, Henry Wilson,
John Sinclair, William Grant, Alexander Spalding, John Robertson,
William MacBean, William McGilvary, James Hindry, Allen Maclien,
William Cummins, David Steward, John Maclntire, David Kennedy, John
Cameron, Alexander Orrach [Orrock?], Finloe Maclntire, Daniel Grant,
etc. Another batch taken in the Rising of the '45 and also shipped to
Maryland include such names as John Grant, Alexander Buchanan, Patrick
Ferguson, Thomas Ross, John Cameron, William Cowan, John Bowe, John
Burnett, Duncan Cameron, James Chapman, Thomas Claperton, Sanders
Campbell, Charles Davidson, John Duff, James Erwyn, Peter Gardiner,
John Gray, James King, Patrick Murray, William Melvil, William
Murdock, etc.

A strong infusion of Scottish blood in New York State came through
settlements made there in response to a proclamation issued in 1735 by
the Governor, inviting "loyal protestant Highlanders" to settle the
lands between the Hudson River and the northern lakes. Attracted by
this offer Captain Lauchlin Campbell of Islay, in 1738-40, brought
over eighty-three families of Highlanders to settle on a grant of
thirty thousand acres in what is now Washington County. "By this
immigration," says E.H. Roberts, "the province secured a much needed
addition to its population, and these Highlanders must have sent
messages home not altogether unfavorable, for they were the pioneers
of a multitude whose coming in successive years were to add strength
and thrift and intelligence beyond the ratio of their numbers to the
communities in which they set up their homes." Many Scottish
immigrants settled in the vicinity of Goshen, Orange County, in 1720,
and by 1729 had organized and built two churches. A second colony
arrived from the north of Ireland in 1731. At the same time as the
grant was made to Lauchlin Campbell, Lieutenant-Governor Clarke
granted to John Lindsay, a Scottish gentleman, and three associates, a
tract of eighty thousand acres in Cherry Valley, in Otsego County.
Lindsay afterwards purchased the rights of his associates and sent
out families from Scotland and Ulster to the valley of the
Susquehanna. These were augmented by pioneers from Londonderry, New
Hampshire, under the Rev. Samuel Dunlop, who, in 1743 established in
his own house the first classical school west of the Hudson. Ballston
in Saratoga County was settled in 1770 by a colony of Presbyterians
who removed from Bedford, New York, with their pastor, and were
afterwards joined by many Scottish immigrants from Scotland, Ulster,
New Jersey, and New England. The first Presbyterian Church was
organized in Albany in 1760 by Scottish immigrants who had settled in
that vicinity.

Sir William Johnson for his services in the French War (1755-58)
received from the Crown a grant of one hundred thousand acres in the
Mohawk Valley, near Johnstown, which he colonized with Highlanders in
1773-74.

In New York City about the end of the eighteenth century there was a
colony of several hundred Scottish weavers, mainly from Paisley. They
formed a community apart in what was then the village of Greenwich. In
memory of their old home they named the locality "Paisley Place." A
view of some of their old dwellings in Seventeenth Street between
Sixth and Seventh Avenues, as they existed in 1863, is given in
Valentine's _Manual_ for that year.

Although many Scots came to New England and New York they never
settled there in such numbers as to leave their impress on the
community so deeply as they did in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware,
and the south. There were Presbyterian churches in Lewes, Newcastle
(Delaware), and Philadelphia previous to 1698, and from that time
forward the province of Pennsylvania was the chief centre of Scottish
settlement both from Scotland direct and by way of Ulster. By 1720
these settlers had reached the mouth of the Susquehanna, and three
years later the present site of Harrisburg. Between 1730 and 1745 they
settled the Cumberland Valley and still pushing westward, in 1768-69
the present Fayette, Westmoreland, Allegheny, and Washington counties.
In 1773 they penetrated to and settled in Kentucky, and were followed
by a stream of Todds, Flemings, Morrisons, Barbours, Breckinridges,
McDowells, and others. By 1790 seventy-five thousand people were in
the region and Kentucky was admitted to the Federal Union in 1792. By
1779 they had crossed the Ohio River into the present state of Ohio.
Between the years 1730 and 1775 the Scottish immigration into
Pennsylvania often reached ten thousand a year.




SOME PROMINENT SCOTS AND SCOTS FAMILIES


Lord Bacon expressed his regret that the lives of eminent men were not
more frequently written, and added that, "though kings, princes, and
great personages be few, yet there are many excellent men who deserve
better fate than vague reports and barren elegies." Of no country is
this more true than the United States. An examination of the
innumerable early biographical dictionaries with which the shelves of
our public libraries are cumbered, will show that the bulk of the life
sketches of the individuals therein commemorated are vague and
unsatisfactory. In nearly every case little or no information is given
of the parentage or origin of the subject, and indeed one work goes so
far as to say that such information is unnecessary, the mere fact of
American birth being sufficient. However pleasing such statements may
be from an ultra patriotic viewpoint it is very unsatisfactory from
the biological or historical side of the question, which is
undoubtedly the most important to be considered. The neglect of these
items of origin, etc., makes the task of positively identifying
certain individuals as of Scottish origin or descent a very difficult
one. One may feel morally certain that a particular individual from
his name or features (if there be a portrait) is of Scottish origin,
but without a definite statement to that effect the matter must in
most cases be left an open question. One other cause of uncertainty,
and it is a very annoying one, is the careless method of many
biographers in putting down a man's origin as "Irish," "from Ireland,"
"from the north of Ireland," etc., where they clearly mean to state
that the individual concerned is descended from one of the many
thousands of Scots who settled in Ulster in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries. Notwithstanding this uncertainty the proportion
of men of undoubted Scottish origin who have reached high distinction,
and whose influence has had such far reaching scope in the United
States, is phenomenal. "Let anyone," says Dinsmore, "scrutinize the
list of names of distinguished men in our annals; names of men eminent
in public life from President down; men distinguished in the Church,
in the Army, in the Navy, at the Bar, on the Bench, in Medicine and
Surgery, in Education, trade, commerce, invention, discovery--in any
and all of the arts which add to the freedom, enlightenment, and
wealth of the world, and the convenience and comfort of mankind; names
which have won luster in every honorable calling--let him scrutinize
the list" and he will be astonished to find how large a proportion of
these names represent men of Scottish birth or Scottish descent. In
these pages it is obviously impossible to mention every Scot who has
achieved distinction--to do so would require a large biographical
dictionary. We can here only select a few names in each class from
early colonial times to the present day.

The most famous family of Colonial times was that of the Livingstons
of Livingston Manor, famed alike for their ability and their
patriotism. The first of the family in America was Robert Livingston
(1654-1725), born at Ancrum, Roxburghshire, who came to America about
1672. He married Alida (Schuyler) Van Rensselaer. His eldest son,
Philip (1686-1749), second Lord of the Manor, succeeded him and added
greatly to the family wealth and lands by his business enterprise.
Peter Van Brugh Livingston (1710-92), second son of Philip, was
President of the first Provincial Congress. Another son, Philip
(1716-78), was Member of the General Assembly for the City of New
York, Member of Congress in 1774 and 1776, and one of the Signers of
the Declaration of Independence. A third son was William (1723-90),
Governor of New Jersey. Other prominent members of this family were
Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813), and Edward (1764-1836). The former
was Member of the Continental Congress, Chancellor of the State of New
York (1777-1801), Secretary of Foreign Affairs (1781-83), Minister to
France (1801-05), and Negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase (1803). He
administered the oath of office to George Washington on his assuming
the office of President. Edward was Member of Congress from New York
(1795-1801), Mayor of New York City (1801-03), Member of Congress from
Louisiana (1823-29), United States Senator (1829-31), Secretary of
State (1831-33), and Minister to France (1833-35). Robert Fulton, the
inventor, married a daughter of the Livingstons and thus got the
necessary financial backing to make the _Clermont_ a success. A sister
of Edward was married to General Montgomery of Quebec fame, another to
Secretary of War Armstrong, and a third to General Morgan Lewis.

The Bells of New Hampshire descended from John Bell, the Londonderry
settler of 1718, gave three governors to New Hampshire and one to
Vermont. Luther V. Bell, formerly Superintendent of the McLean Asylum,
Somerville, Massachusetts, was another of his descendants. The McNutts
of Londonderry, New Hampshire, are descended from William McNaught,
who settled there in 1718. The McNaughts came originally from
Kilquhanite in Galloway. The Bean family, descended from John Bean who
came to America in 1660, were pioneers in new settlements in New
Hampshire and Maine, and bore the burden of such a life and profited
by it. About one hundred of them were soldiers in the Revolutionary
War. The Macdonough family of Delaware is also of Scottish descent.
Thomas Macdonough, the famous naval officer, was of the third
generation in this country. The Corbit family of Delaware are
descended from Daniel Corbit, a Quaker born in Scotland in 1682. The
Forsyths of Georgia are descended from Robert Forsyth, born in
Scotland about 1754, who entered the Congressional Army and became a
Captain of Lee's Light Horse in 1776. The Forsyths of New York State
trace their descent to two brothers from Aberdeenshire (John and
Alexander). The bulk of the Virginia Gordons appear to have been from
Galloway.

Alexander Breckenridge, a Scot, came to America about 1728, settling
in Pennsylvania and later in Virginia. One of his sons, Robert, was an
energetic Captain of Rangers during the Indian wars, and died before
the close of the Revolutionary War. By his second wife, also of
Scottish descent, he had several sons who achieved fame and success.
One of these sons, John Breckenridge (1760-1808), became
Attorney-General of Kentucky in 1795; served in the state legislature
1797-1800; drafted the famous Kentucky resolutions in 1798; was United
States Senator from Kentucky (1801-05) and Attorney-General in
Jefferson's Cabinet from 1805 till his death. Among the sons of John
Breckenridge were Robert Jefferson Breckenridge (1800-71), clergyman
and author, and Joseph Cabell Breckenridge. John Cabell Breckenridge,
son of Joseph C. Breckenridge, was Vice-President of the United States
(1857-61), candidate of the Southern Democrats for President in 1860,
General in the Confederate Armies (1862-64), Confederate Secretary of
War till 1865. Joseph Cabell Breckenridge (b. 1840), son of Robert J.
Breckenridge, also served with distinction in the Civil War, and took
an active part in the Santiago campaign during the Spanish-American
War. Henry Breckenridge (b. 1886), son of Joseph C. Breckenridge, was
Assistant Secretary of War, and served with the American Expeditionary
Forces in the Argonne. William Campbell Preston Breckenridge
(1837-1904), son of Robert J. Breckenridge, was Member of the
Forty-ninth Congress.

The descendants of James McClellan, kin of the McClellans of Galloway,
Scotland, who was appointed Constable at the town meeting held in
Worcester in March, 1724, have written their name large in the medical
and military annals of this country. Some of his descendants are
noticed under Physicians. The most famous of the family was General
George Brinton MacClellan (1826-85), Major-General in the United
States Army during the Civil War, unsuccessful candidate of the
Democratic Party for President in 1864, and Governor of New Jersey
from 1878 to 1881. The General's son, George B. McClellan (b. 1865),
was Mayor of New York (1903 and 1905) and is now a Professor in
Princeton. James Bulloch, born in Scotland c. 1701, emigrated to
Charleston, South Carolina, c. 1728. In the following year he married
Jean Stobo, daughter of the Rev. Archibald Stobo, and was the first
ancestor of the late President Roosevelt's mother. His son, Archibald
Bulloch (d. 1777), was Colonial Governor of Georgia and Commander of
the State's forces in 1776-77, and signed the first Constitution of
Georgia as President. He would have been one of the Signers of the
Declaration of Independence had not official duties called him, home.
A descendant of his, James Dunwoody Bulloch, uncle of the late
President Roosevelt, was Lieutenant in the Confederate Navy and
Confederate States Naval Agent abroad. Irvine S. Bulloch, another
uncle of Roosevelt's, was Sailing Master of the Alabama when in battle
with the U.S.S. Kearsarge. Another of this family was William B.
Bulloch (1776-1852), lawyer and State Senator of Georgia. The Chambers
family of Trenton, New Jersey, are descended from two brothers, John
and Robert Chambers, who came over in the ship _Henry and Francis_ in
1685.

In the eighteenth century many natives of Dumfriesshire emigrated to
the American colonies, and of these perhaps the most prominent were
those descended from John Johnston of Stapleton, Dumfriesshire, an
officer in a Scottish regiment in the French service. His second son,
Gabriel, became Governor of North Carolina. In the house of the
Governor's brother, Gilbert, it is stated that General Marion signed
the commission for the celebrated band known as "Marion's Men." Among
the more prominent descendants of Gilbert Johnston are: (1) James, who
became a Colonel on the staff of General Rutherford during the
Revolution and served in several engagements; (2) William, M.D., who
married a daughter of General Peter Forney, and died in 1855. This
William had five sons: (1) James, a Captain in the Confederate Army;
(2) Robert, a Brigadier-General; (3) William, a Colonel; (4) Joseph
Forney, born in 1843, Captain in the Confederate Army, Governor of
Alabama from 1896 to 1900, and United States Senator for Alabama in
1907; (5) Bartlett, an officer in the Confederate Navy. Samuel
Johnston, a nephew of Gilbert's, was the Naval Officer of North
Carolina in 1775, Treasurer during the Revolution, and Governor of
North Carolina from 1787 to 1789, President of the Convention that
finally adopted the State Constitution, and first Senator elected by
his state in the United States Congress in 1789. His son, James, was
the largest planter in the United States on his death in 1865.
Gilbert's brother Robert, was an attorney and civil engineer. His son,
Peter, served as Lieutenant in the legion which Colonel Henry Lee
recruited in Virginia, and after the war became Judge of the
South-Western Circuit in Virginia, and Speaker of the Virginia House
of Delegates. He married Mary Wood, a niece of Patrick Henry. Their
eighth son, Joseph Eccleston Johnston, born in 1807, graduated from
West Point in 1829, served in the Federal Army in all its campaigns,
up to the time of the Civil War. Although holding the rank of
Lieutenant-Colonel and Quarter-Master-General, he resigned and joined
the Confederate Army, and rendered brilliant service in its ranks.
Another eminent individual of this name was General Albert Sydney
Johnston, the son of a physician, John Johnston, the descendant of a
Scottish family long settled in Connecticut. Christopher Johnston
(1822-1891), a descendant of the Poldean branch of the Annandale
Johnstons, was professor of surgery in the University of Maryland. His
son, also named Christopher (d. 1914), graduated M.D., practised for
eight years, studied ancient and modern languages, and eventually
became Professor of Oriental History and Archaeology in Johns Hopkins
University. He was one of the most distinguished Oriental scholars
this country has produced.

Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804), one of the founders of the Republic,
served with distinction in the Revolutionary War, but it was as a
Statesman of the highest ability that he acquired his great fame. He
was one of the most prominent Members of the Continental Congress
(1782-83), of the Constitutional Convention in 1787, and Secretary of
the Treasury (1789-95). He was born in the West Indies, the son of a
Scots father and a French mother.

Thomas Leiper (1745-1825), born in Strathaven, Lanarkshire, emigrated
to Maryland in 1763, was one of the first to favor separation from the
mother country, and raised a fund for open resistance to the Crown.

Robert Stuart (1785-1848), pioneer and fur-trader, born at Callander,
Perthshire, a grandson of Rob Roy's bitterest enemy. In 1810, in
company with his uncle, John Jacob Astor, and several others, he
founded the fur-trading colony of Astoria. His share in this
undertaking is fully described in Washington Irving's _Astoria_. In
1817 Stuart settled at Mackinac as agent of the American Fur Company,
and also served as Commissioner for the Indian tribes. General George
Bartram, of Scottish parentage, was one of the "Committee of
Correspondence" appointed to take action on the "Chesapeake Affair" in
1807, when war with Britain seemed imminent, and was active in
military affairs during the war of 1812. Allan Pinkerton (1819-84),
born in the Gorbals, Glasgow, organized the United States Secret
Service Division of the United States Army in 1861, discovered the
plot to assassinate President Lincoln on his way to his inauguration
in 1861, and also broke up the "Molly Maguires," etc. William Walker
(1824-60), the filibuster, was born in Tennessee of Scots parentage.

Rev. George Keith, a native of Aberdeen, became Surveyor-General of
New Jersey in 1684. He founded the town of Freehold and marked out the
dividing line between East and West Jersey. In 1693 he issued the
first printed protest against human slavery, "An Exhortation & Caution
to Friends concerning Buying and Keeping of Negroes," New York, 1693.
James Alexander (1690-1756), a Scot, was disbarred for attempting the
defense of John Peter Zenger, the printer, in 1735. Along with
Benjamin Franklin he was one of the founders of the American
Philosophical Society. Andrew Hamilton (1676-1741), the most eminent
lawyer of his time, Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, and chief
Commissioner for building Independence Hall in Philadelphia, was born
in Scotland. For his championship of the freedom of the press and his
successful defense of Zenger he was hailed by Governor Morris as "the
day-star of the Revolution." His son James Hamilton, was the first
native-born Governor of Pennsylvania and Mayor of Philadelphia. James
Breghin or Brechin, Missionary, born in Scotland, took a prominent
part in the affairs of Virginia (1705-19) and was an active supporter
of Commissary Blair. Charles Anderson, another Missionary, probably a
graduate of Aberdeen, served in Virginia from 1700 to 1719, was also a
supporter of Blair. James Graham, first Recorder of the city of New
York (1683-1700) and Speaker of Assembly (1691-99) was born in
Scotland. Thomas Gordon (d. Perth Amboy, 1722), born in Pitlochrie,
was Attorney-General of the Eastern District (1698), Chief Secretary
and Registrar in 1702, later Speaker of Assembly, and in 1709 Chief
Justice and Receiver-General and Treasurer of the province. Alexander
Skene, who previously held office in Barbadoes, settled in North
Carolina about 1696. In 1717 he was Member of Council and Assistant to
the Judge of Admiralty to try a number of pirates. In 1719 he was
elected Member of the New House of Assembly and became leader of the
movement for the Proprietary Government. He was "looked upon as a man
that understood public affairs very well." Major Richard Stobo
(1727-c. 1770), a native of Glasgow, served in the Canadian campaign
against the French. It was he who guided the Fraser Highlanders up the
Heights of Abraham. Archibald Kennedy (c. 1687-1763), a relative of
the Earl of Cassilis, was Collector of Customs of the Port of New York
and Member of the Provincial Council. In his letters to headquarters
and in his reports he urged the importance of the American Colonies
to the mother country and advocated measures which, if carried out,
would undoubtedly have strengthened their loyalty and added to their
wealth and prosperity. Alexander Barclay, grandson of the Apologist of
the Quakers, was Comptroller of the Customs under the Crown in
Philadelphia from 1762 till his death in 1771. William Ronald, a
native of Scotland, was a delegate in the Virginia Convention of 1788.
His brother, General Andrew Ronald, was one of the Counsel
representing the British merchants in the so-called British Debts
Case. William Houston, son of Sir Patrick Houston, was a Delegate to
the Continental Congress (1784-87) and a Depute from Georgia to the
Convention for revising the Federal Constitution. His portrait, as
well as that of his brother's, was destroyed by fire during the Civil
War. Sir William Dunbar (c. 1740-1810), a pioneer of Louisiana, held
important trusts under the Federal government and was a correspondent
of Thomas Jefferson. Rev. Henry Patillo (1736-1801), born in Scotland,
advocated separation from the mother country on every possible
occasion, and was a Member of the Provincial Council in 1775. John
Dickinson (1732-1808), Member of the Continental Congress of 1765, of
the Federal Convention of 1787, and President of Pennsylvania
(1782-85), was also the founder of Dickinson College, Carlisle,
Pennsylvania. The Dickinsons came from Dundee in early colonial times.
John Ross, purchasing agent for the Continental Army, was born in
Tain, Ross-shire. He lost about one hundred thousand dollars by his
services to his adopted country, but managed to avoid financial
shipwreck. John Harvie, born at Gargunnock, died 1807, was Member of
the Continental Congress (1777), signer of the Articles of
Confederation the following year, and in 1788 was appointed Secretary
of the Commonwealth. John McDonnell (1779-1846), born in Scotland, was
in business in Detroit in 1812, and "thoroughly Americanized." He
opposed the British commander's orders after the surrender of Hull,
and redeemed many captives from the Indians. Became Member of State
Constitutional Convention (1835), State Senator (1835-37), and
Collector of the Port of Detroit (1839-41). John Johnstone Adair (b.
1807), graduate of Glasgow University, settled in Michigan, filled
several important positions and became State Treasurer, State Senator,
and Auditor General. Colonel James Burd (1726-93), born at Ormiston,
Midlothian, took part with General Forbes in the expedition to redeem
the failure of Braddock. General John Forbes (1710-59), born in
Pittencrieff, Fifeshire, was founder of Pittsburgh. He was noted for
his obstinacy and strength of character, and may have been the
prototype of the Scotsman of the prayer: "Grant, O Lord, that the
Scotchman may be right; for, if wrong, he is eternally wrong."
Captain William Bean was the first white man to bring his family to
Tennessee. His son, Russell Bean, was the first white child born in
the state. His descendant, Dr. James Bean, died in a snowstorm on Mont
Blanc while collecting specimens for the Smithsonian Institution.

George Rogers Clark (1752-1818), to whose prowess is due the
possession of the territory Northwest of the Ohio, secured by the
peace of 1783, was of Scottish descent. David Crockett (1786-1836),
was most probably of the same origin, though vaguely said to be "son
of an Irishman." The name is distinctly Scottish (Dumfriesshire).
Samuel McDowell (1735-1817), took an active part in the movement
leading to the War of Independence and was President of the first
State Constitutional Convention of Kentucky (1792). Colonel James
Innes, born in Canisbay, Caithness, was appointed Commander-in-Chief
of all the forces in the expedition to the Ohio in 1754 by Governor
Dinwiddie.

Isaac Magoon, a Scot, was the first settler of the town of Scotland
(c. 1700), and gave it the name of his native country. Dr. John
Stevenson, a Scot, pioneer merchant and developer of Baltimore, if not
indeed its actual founder, was known as the "American Romulus." George
Walker, a native of Clackmannanshire, pointed out the advantages of
the present site of the Capital of the United States, and George
Buchanan, another Scot, laid out Baltimore town in 1730. John Kinzie
(1763-1828), the founder of Chicago, was born in Canada of Scottish
parentage, the son of John MacKenzie. It is not known why he dropped
the "Mac." Samuel Wilkeson (1781-1848), the man who developed Buffalo
from a village to a city, was of Scottish descent. Alexander White
(1814-72), born in Elgin, Scotland, was one of the earliest settlers
of Chicago and did much to develop the city. Major Hugh McAlister, who
served in the Revolutionary War, later founded the town of
McAlisterville, Pennsylvania, was of Scots parentage. James Robertson
(1742-1814), founder of Nashville, Tennessee, was of Scottish origin.
His services are ranked next to Sevier's in the history of his adopted
state. Walter Scott Gordon (1848-86), founder of Sheffield, Alabama,
was the great-grandson of a Scot. The town of Paterson, in Putnam
county, New York, was settled by Matthew Paterson, a Scottish
stone-mason, in the middle of the eighteenth century, and was named
after him. Lairdsville, in New York state, was named from Samuel
Laird, son of a Scottish immigrant, in beginning of the eighteenth
century. Paris Gibson (b. 1830), grandson of a Scot, founded and
developed the town of Great Falls.




SCOTS AS COLONIAL AND PROVINCIAL GOVERNORS


Of the colonial Governors sent from Britain to the American Colonies
before the Revolution and of Provincial Governors from that time to
1789, a large number were of Scottish birth or descent. Among them may
be mentioned the following:

NEW YORK. Robert Hunter, Governor (1710-19), previously Governor of
Virginia, was a descendant of the Hunters of Hunterston, Ayrshire. He
died Governor of Jamaica (1734). He was described as one of the ablest
of the men sent over from Britain to fill public positions. William
Burnet (1688-1729), Governor in 1720, was also Governor of
Massachusetts (1720-1729). He was the eldest son of Gilbert Burnet,
Bishop of Sarum. Smith, the historian of New York, calls him "a man of
sense and polite breeding, a well bred scholar." John Montgomerie,
Governor of New York and New Jersey (1728-31), was born in Scotland.
John Hamilton, Governor (1736). Cadwallader Golden (1688-1776),
Lieutenant-Governor (1761-1776), born in Duns, Berwickshire, was
distinguished as physician, botanist, mathematician, and did much to
develop the resources of the state. O'Callaghan in his "Documentary
History of the State of New York," says: "Posterity will not fail to
accord justice to the character and memory of a man to whom this
country is most deeply indebted for much of its science and for many
of its most important institutions, and of whom the State of New York
may well be proud." John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, Governor
(1770-71), afterwards Governor of Virginia. James Robertson
(1710-1788), born in Fifeshire, was Governor in 1780. Andrew Elliot,
born in Scotland in 1728, was Lieutenant-Governor and administered the
royalist government from 1781 to November, 1783.

NEW JERSEY. Robert Barclay of the Quaker family of Barclay of Ury was
appointed Governor of East New Jersey in 1682, but never visited his
territory. Lord Neil Campbell, son of the ninth Earl of Argyll, was
appointed Governor in 1687, but meddled little in the affairs of the
colony. Andrew Hamilton (c. 1627-1703), his deputy, born in Edinburgh,
on Lord Neil Campbell's departure, became Acting Governor. He was an
active, energetic officer, who rendered good service to the state,
and organized the first postal service in the colonies. John Hamilton,
son of Andrew, was Acting Governor for a time and died at Perth Amboy
in 1746. William Livingston (1723-90), the "Don Quixote of New
Jersey," grandson of Robert Livingston of Ancrum, Scotland, founder of
the Livingston family in America, so famous in the history of New York
State, was Governor from 1776 to 1790. William Paterson (1745-1806),
of Ulster Scot birth, studied at Princeton, admitted to the New Jersey
bar in November, 1767, Attorney-General in 1776, first Senator from
New Jersey to first Congress (1789), succeeded Livingston as Governor
(1790-92), and in 1793 became Justice of the Supreme Court. The city
of Paterson is named after him.

PENNSYLVANIA. Andrew Hamilton, Governor (1701-03), was previously
Governor of East and West Jersey. Sir William Keith (1680-1751), born
in Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, Deputy Governor from 1717 to 1726.
Patrick Gordon (1644-1736), Governor (1726-28). James Logan
(1674-1751), born in County Armagh, son of Patrick Logan, of Scottish
parentage, was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania from
1731 to 1739, and President of the Council (1736-38). He bequeathed
his library of over two thousand volumes to Philadelphia, and they now
form the "Loganian Library" in the Philadelphia Public Library. James
Hamilton (c. 1710-1783), son of Andrew Hamilton, champion of the
liberty of the press, was elected Member of the Provincial Assembly
when but twenty years of age, and was re-elected five times. He was
Deputy Governor 1748-54 and 1759-63. Robert Hunter Morris, of the
famous New Jersey family of that name, Deputy Governor (1745-56).
Joseph Reed, of Ulster Scot descent, Governor (1778-81). John
Dickinson was President from 1782 to 1785.

DELAWARE. Dr. John McKinly (1721-96), first Governor of the state
(1777), was of Ulster Scot birth. (All the above Governors of
Pennsylvania except Reed also held the governorship of Delaware along
with that of Pennsylvania.)

VIRGINIA. Robert Hunter (1707). (_See above under New York._)
Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant-Governor (1710-22), a scion of the
Spotswood of that Ilk. He was one of the ablest and most popular
representatives of the crown authority in the Colonies and was the
principal encourager of the growth of tobacco which laid the
foundation of Virginia's wealth. Hugh Drysdale, Lieutenant-Governor
(1722-26), was strongly opposed to the introduction of slavery into
the colony. Commissary James Blair (1655-1743), President of Council
(1740-41), was born in Scotland. Robert Dinwiddie, born in Glasgow in
1693, was Governor from 1751 to 1758. He recommended the annexation
of the Ohio Valley and so secured that great territory to the United
States. To him is also due the credit of calling George Washington to
the service of his country. Dinwiddie county is named after him. John
Campbell, Earl of Loudon (1705-82), Governor (1756-58), does not
appear to have come to this colony. John Blair, Governor (1768), son
of Dr. Archibald Blair and nephew of Rev. James Blair, the Commissary.
Many of his descendants have distinguished themselves in the annals of
Virginia. John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, Governor (1771-75), was
previously Governor of New York. Patrick Henry (1736-99), Governor
(1776-79, 1784-86), was born in Hanover County, Virginia, of Scottish
parentage, his father being a native of Aberdeen, his grandmother a
cousin of William Robertson the historian. He became a lawyer in 1760
and in 1763 found his opportunity, when having been employed to plead
against an unpopular tax, his great eloquence seemed suddenly to
develop itself. This defence placed him at once in the front rank of
American orators, and in 1765 he entered the Virginia House of
Burgesses, immediately thereafter becoming leader in Virginia of the
political agitation which preceded the Declaration of Independence. On
the passage of the Stamp Act his voice was the first that rose in a
clear, bold call to resistance, and in May, 1773, he assisted in
procuring the passage of the resolution establishing a Committee of
Correspondence for intercourse with the other colonies. In the
Continental Congress which met in Philadelphia in 1774 he delivered a
fiery and eloquent speech worthy of so momentous a meeting. In 1776 he
carried the vote of the Virginia Convention for independence. He was
an able administrator, a wise and far-seeing legislator, but it is as
an orator that he will forever live in American history. William
Fleming (1729-95), surgeon, soldier, and statesman, Councillor and
Acting-Governor (1781), was born in Jedburgh, Roxburghshire.

NORTH CAROLINA. William Drummond, Governor of "Albemarle County
Colony" (i.e., North Carolina), was a native of Perthshire, a
strenuous upholder of the rights of the people, and ranks as one of
the earliest of American patriots. He took a prominent part in
"Bacon's Rebellion" in 1676, "an insurrection that was brought about
by the insolence and pig-headedness of Sir William Berkeley, then
Governor of Virginia," and was executed the same year. Gabriel
Johnston (1699-1752), Governor (1734-52), was born in Scotland, and
held the Professorship of Oriental Languages in St. Andrews University
before coming to the colonies. Johnston County is named after him.
Matthew Rowan was President of Council and Acting Governor in 1753.
Alexander Martin (1740-1807), was fourth and Acting Governor, 1782-84,
and from 1789 to 1792. Samuel Johnston (1733-1816), sixth Governor
(1788-89), four years Senator, and Justice of the Supreme Court from
1800-1803. Bancroft says the movement for freedom was assisted by "the
calm wisdom of Samuel Johnston, a native of Dundee, in Scotland, a man
revered for his integrity, thoroughly opposed to disorder and
revolution, if revolution could be avoided without yielding to
oppression."

SOUTH CAROLINA. Richard Kirk, Governor (1684). James Glen, born in
Linlithgow in 1701, Governor (1743-56). Lord William Campbell, third
brother of the fifth Duke of Argyll, Governor (1775). John Rutledge
(1739-1800), brother of Edward Rutledge the Signer, was President of
South Carolina (1776-78) and first Governor (1779-82). He was later a
delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, Associate Justice
of the United States Supreme Court (1789-91), Chief Justice of South
Carolina (1791-95), and in 1795 appointed Chief Justice of the United
States Supreme Court.

GEORGIA. William Erwin or Ewen, born in England in 1775. John Houston,
son of Sir Patrick Houston, one of the prime instigators and
organizers of the Sons of Liberty (1774), was Governor in 1774-76,
1778. His portrait was destroyed by fire during the Civil War. Houston
County was named in his honor. Edward Telfair, born in the Stewartry
of Kirkcudbright in 1735 and died at Savannah in 1807. When the
revolutionary troubles commenced he earnestly espoused the side of the
colonies, and became known locally as an ardent advocate of liberty.
He was regarded as the foremost citizen of his adopted state, and his
death was deeply mourned throughout the state.

FLORIDA. George Johnstone, a member of the family of Johnstone of
Westerhall, was nominal Governor of Florida when that colony was ceded
by Spain to Great Britain in 1763. He was one of the Commissioners
appointed by the British government to try and restore peace in
America in 1778.




SCOTS AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE


Presbyterians in the Colonies, being dissenters, were untrammeled and
free to speak their mind in defence of their country's right, and
history shows that they did not fail their opportunity: the doctrine
of passive obedience never finding favor with them. In the Colonies
the Presbyterian ministers claimed equal rights, religious freedom,
and civil liberty. Their teaching had great influence, particularly in
the South, and Patrick Henry of Virginia, David Caldwell, Dr. Ephraim
Brevard, Rev. Alexander Craighead (d. 1766), and James Hall of North
Carolina, the two Rutledges and Tennant of South Carolina, William
Murdoch of Maryland, James Wilson and Thomas Craighead of
Pennsylvania, Witherspoon of New Jersey, Read and McKean of Delaware,
Livingston of New York, and Thornton of New Hampshire, with their
associates had prepared the people for the coming conflict. In
Maryland the lower house of the General Assembly was a fortress of
popular rights and of civil liberty. Its resolutions and messages,
beginning in 1733, and in an uninterrupted chain until 1755
continually declared "that it is the peculiar right of his Majesty's
subjects not to be liable to any tax or other imposition but what is
laid on them by laws to which they themselves are a party." These
principles were reiterated and recorded upon the journals of every
Assembly until 1771. The resolutions, addresses, and messages of the
lower house during this period discuss with remarkable fullness and
accuracy the fundamental principles of free government, and most of
them emanated from William Murdoch, born in Scotland (c. 1720), who
was one of the leading spirits and the directing force of the
discussion. He led in the resistance to the Stamp Act and in other
ways he united his colony in solid resistance to the attempt to levy
taxes and imposts without their consent. In May, 1775, the General
Synod of the Presbyterian Church met in Philadelphia and issued its
famous "Pastoral Letter," which was sent broadcast throughout the
Colonies, urging the people to adhere to the resolutions of Congress,
and to make earnest prayer to God for guidance in all measures looking
to the defense of the country. This powerful letter was also sent to
the legislature in every colony. Adolphus in his "History of England
from the Accession of George III. to the Conclusion of Peace in 1783,"
published in London in 1802, declared that the Synod and their
circular was the chief cause which led the Colonies to determine on
resistance. There is no question that from the Scots Presbyterians and
their descendants came many of the leaders in the struggle for
independence, as Bancroft has well pointed out in the following words:
"The first voice publicly raised in America to dissolve all connection
with Great Britain came not from the Puritans of New England, nor the
Dutch of New York, nor the planters of Virginia, but from the
Scotch-Irish Presbyterians." Joseph Galloway (1730-1803), the
Loyalist, than whom, says Ford, "there could be no better informed
witness," "held that the underlying cause of the American Revolution
was the activity and influence of the Presbyterian interest," and
further, that "it was the Presbyterians who supplied the Colonial
resistance a lining without which it would have collapsed." And Joseph
Reed of Philadelphia, himself an Episcopalian, said: "The part taken
by the Presbyterians in the contest with the mother country was
indeed, at the time, often made a ground of reproach, and the
connection between their efforts for the security of religious liberty
and opposition to the oppressive measures of Parliament, was then
distinctly seen. A Presbyterian loyalist was a thing unheard of."
Parker, the historian, quotes a writer who says: "When the sages of
America came to settle the forms of our government, they did but copy
into every constitution the simple elements of representative
republicanism, as found in the Presbyterian system. It is a matter of
history that cannot be denied, that Presbyterianism as found in the
Bible and the standards of the several Presbyterian churches, gave
character to our free institutions." Ranke, the German historian,
declared that "Calvin was the founder of the American Government;" and
Gulian C. Verplanck of New York, in a public address, traced the
origin of our Declaration of Independence to the National Covenant of
Scotland. Chief Justice Tilghman (1756-1827) stated that the framers
of the Constitution of the United States were through the agency of
Dr. Witherspoon much indebted to the standards of the Presbyterian
Church of Scotland in molding that instrument.




SCOTS AS SIGNERS OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE


Of the fifty-six Signers of the Declaration of Independence, no less
than nine can be claimed as directly or indirectly of Scottish origin.
Edward Rutledge (1749-1800), the youngest Signer, was a son of Dr.
John Rutledge who emigrated from Ulster to South Carolina in 1735. The
Rutledges were a small Border clan in Roxburghshire. William Hooper
(1742-1790), was the son of a Scottish minister, who was born near
Kelso and died in Boston in 1767. Hooper early displayed marked
literary ability and entered Harvard University when fifteen years of
age. At twenty-six he was one of the leading lawyers of the colony of
North Carolina. George Ross (1730-79), was also of Scottish parentage.
His nephew's wife, Elizabeth (Griscom) Ross (1752-1832), better known
as "Betsy Ross," was maker of the first national flag. Matthew
Thornton (1714-1803), the distinguished New Hampshire statesman and
physician, was brought to this country from the north of Ireland by
his father when about three years of age. He accompanied the
expedition against Louisburg in 1745, was President of the Provincial
Convention in 1775 and Speaker in January, 1776. In September, 1776,
he was elected to Congress, and in November following signed the
Declaration of Independence, although he had not been one of the
framers. Thomas McKean (1734-1817), was a great-grandson of William
McKean of Argyllshire who moved to Ulster about the middle of the
seventeenth century. He was a member of Congress from Delaware
(1774-83), Chief Justice of Pennsylvania (1777-99), and Governor of
the state from 1799 to 1808. George Taylor (1716-81), described as the
son of a clergyman and "born in Ireland," was most probably an Ulster
Scot. He was a member of the Provincial Assembly of Pennsylvania from
1764 to 1770 and again in 1775. James Wilson (1742-1798), whose fame
was to become as wide and lasting as the nation, was born in St.
Andrews, the old university city of Fifeshire. He was a Delegate to
Congress from Pennsylvania in 1776, Member of the Constitutional
Convention of 1787, and Associate Justice of the United States Supreme
Court from 1789 till his death. He strongly advocated independence as
the only possible means of escape from the evils which had brought
the various commonwealths into such a state of turmoil and
dissatisfaction. Philip Livingston (1716-1778), grandson of Robert
Livingston, the first of the American family of the name, was Member
of Congress from New York in 1776. "His life was distinguished for
inflexible rectitude and devotion to the interests of his country."

Last but greatest of all to be mentioned is the Rev. John Witherspoon
(1722-94). Born in Yester, Scotland, educated in Edinburgh, minister
in Paisley, he was called in 1768 to be President of the College of
New Jersey, now Princeton University. He said he had "become an
American the moment he landed." He took an active part in the public
affairs of the colony of New Jersey, and in the convention which met
to frame a constitution he displayed great knowledge of legal
questions and urged the abolition of religious tests. In June, 1776,
he was elected to the Continental Congress, and in the course of the
debates he displayed little patience with those who urged half
measures. When John Dickinson of Pennsylvania said the country was not
ripe for independence, Witherspoon broke in upon the speaker
exclaiming, "Not ripe, Sir! In my judgment we are not only ripe, but
rotting. Almost every colony has dropped from its parent stem and your
own province needs no more sunshine to mature it." He further declared
that he would rather be hanged than desert his country's cause. One of
his sons was killed at the battle of Germantown.




SCOTS IN THE PRESIDENCY


Of the twenty-nine Presidents of the United States five (Monroe,
Grant, Hayes, Roosevelt, and Wilson) are of Scottish descent, and four
(omitting Jackson who has been also claimed as Scottish by some
writers) are of Ulster Scot descent, namely, Polk, Buchanan, Arthur,
and McKinley. Jackson may possibly have been of Ulster Scot descent as
his father belonged to Carrickfergus while his, mother's maiden name,
Elizabeth Hutchins, or Hutchinson, is Scottish. She came of a family
of linen weavers. Benjamin Harrison might also have been included as
he had some Scottish (Gordon) blood. His wife, Caroline Scott
Harrison, was of Scottish descent.

James Monroe, fifth President, was descended from Andrew Monroe, who
emigrated from Scotland in the middle of the seventeenth century.
President Grant was a descendant of Matthew Grant, who came from
Scotland to Dorchester, Mass., in 1630. George Hayes, ancestor of
Rutherford B. Hayes, nineteenth President, was a Scot who settled in
Windsor prior to 1680. Theodore Roosevelt was Dutch on his father's
side and Scottish on his mother's. His mother was descended from James
Bulloch, born in Scotland about 1701, who emigrated to Charleston, c.
1728, and founded a family which became prominent in the annals of
Georgia. Woodrow Wilson's paternal grandfather, James Wilson, came
from county Down in 1807. His mother, Janet (or Jessie) Woodrow, was a
daughter of Rev. Thomas Woodrow, a native of Paisley, Scotland. James
Knox Polk, eleventh President, was a great-great-grandson of Robert
Polk or Pollok, who came from Ayrshire through Ulster. Many kinsmen of
President Polk have distinguished themselves in the annals of this
country. James Buchanan, fifteenth President, was of Ulster Scot
parentage. Chester Alan Arthur, twenty-first President, was the son of
a Belfast minister of Scottish descent. William McKinley, twenty-fifth
President, was descended from David McKinley, an Ulster Scot, born
about 1730, and his wife, Rachel Stewart. The surname McKinley in
Ireland occurs only in Ulster Scot territory.




SCOTS AS VICE-PRESIDENTS


Of the Vice-Presidents of the United States six at least were of
Scottish or Ulster Scot descent.

John Caldwell Calhoun (1782-1850), of Scottish descent on both sides.
Previous to becoming Vice-President he was Secretary of War in
Monroe's cabinet, and later was Secretary of State in the cabinet of
President Tyler. He was one of the chief instruments in securing the
annexation of Texas. George Mifflin Dallas (1792-1864), son of
Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury, was Minister to
Russia in 1837-39, and subsequent to his Vice-Presidency was Minister
to Great Britain (1856-61). John Cabell Breckenridge (1821-75), of
direct Scottish descent, was Vice-President from 1857-61, candidate
for President in 1860, Major-General in the Confederate Army
(1862-64), and Confederate Secretary of War (1864-65). Henry Wilson
(1812-75), of Ulster Scot descent, had a distinguished career as
United States Senator before his election to the Vice-Presidency
(1873-75). His original name was Jeremiah Jones Colbraith (i.e.,
Galbraith). He was also a distinguished author, his most important
work being the "History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in
America" (1872-75). Thomas Andrews Hendricks (1819-85), who held the
Vice-Presidency only for a few months (March to November, 1885), was
of Scottish descent on his mother's side. Adlai Ewing Stevenson
(1835-1914) was Member of Congress from Illinois (1875-77), and First
Assistant Postmaster-General (1885-89), previous to becoming
Vice-President (1893-97).




SCOTS AS CABINET OFFICERS


WAR. William Harris Crawford (1772-1834), descended from David
Crawford, who came from Scotland to Virginia, c. 1654. Secretary of
War (1615-16), Secretary of the Treasury (1816-25), and save for an
unfortunate attack of paralysis, would have been President in 1824. He
was also United States Senator from Georgia (1807-13) and Minister to
France (1813-15). John Bell (1797-1869), Secretary (1841), Senator
(1847-59), and candidate of the Constitutional Union Party for
President in 1860, was probably of Scottish descent. George Washington
Crawford, Secretary of War, was also Governor of Georgia. Simon
Cameron (1799-1889), of Scottish parentage or descent, Senator
(1845-49), Secretary of War in cabinet of Lincoln (1861-62), United
States Minister to Russia (1862-63), and again Senator (1866-77).
James Donald Cameron (1833-1918), son of the preceding, was Secretary
under Grant for a year and United States Senator from 1877 to 1897.
Daniel Scott Lamont (1851-1905), journalist and Secretary under
Cleveland, was of Ulster Scot origin.

TREASURY. George Washington Campbell (1768-1848), Secretary (1814),
was also Minister to Russia (1810-20). Alexander James Dallas
(1759-1817), Secretary (1814-16), was the son of a Scottish physician,
Dr. Robert C. Dallas. During 1815-16 he also discharged the functions
of Secretary of War. Had a distinguished career as a statesman. Louis
McLane (1776-1857), son of Allen McLane, a Revolutionary soldier and
Speaker of the Legislature of Delaware, had a distinguished career as
Senator from Delaware (1827-29), Minister to Great Britain (1829-31),
Secretary of the Treasury (1831-33), and Secretary of State (1833-34).
His son, Robert Milligan McLane (1815-98), had a distinguished career
as a diplomat. James Guthrie (1792-1869), Secretary in the cabinet of
President Pierce (1853-57). Thomas Ewing (1789-1871), was United
States Senator from Ohio (1831-37), Secretary of the Treasury (1841),
Secretary of the Interior (1849-50). He traced his descent from
Findlay Ewing, a native of Loch Lomond, who distinguished himself in
the Revolution of 1688 under William of Orange. Hugh McCulloch
(1808-95), descended from Hugh McCulloch, Bailie of Dornoch,
Sutherlandshire, was Comptroller of the Currency (1863-65), Secretary
of the Treasury (1865-69, 1884-85). He funded the National Debt
during his first term as Secretary. Charles Foster (1825-1904),
Governor of Ohio (1880-84), was Secretary of the Treasury from 1891 to
1893. Franklin MacVeagh (b. 1837), of Scottish ancestry, also held the
office under President Taft.

INTERIOR. Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart (b. 1807), Secretary in
President Fillmore's cabinet, was son of Archibald Stuart, a Scot who
fought in Revolutionary War. Thomas Ewing is already referred to
(under Treasury). Samuel Jordan Kirkwood, Secretary of the Interior
under Garfield, was also three times Governor of Iowa.

NAVY. Benjamin Stoddert (1751-1813), Secretary (1798-1801), was
grandson of a Scot. William Alexander Graham (1804-75), Secretary
(1850), was also Governor of North Carolina. He projected the
expedition to Japan under Commodore Perry. James Cochrane Dobbin
(1814-57). Paul Morton (1857-1911), Secretary (1904-05), was said to
be descended from Richard Morton, a blacksmith and ironmaster of
Scottish birth, who came to America about the middle of the eighteenth
century.

STATE. James Gillespie Blaine (1830-93), Secretary (1881, 1889-92) and
unsuccessful candidate for President in 1884. John Hay (1838-1905),
one of the ablest Secretaries of State (1898-1905) this country ever
had, was also of Scottish descent. He also held several diplomatic
posts in Europe (1865-70), culminating in Ambassador to Great Britain
(1897-98).

AGRICULTURE. James Wilson (1835-1920), Secretary (1897-1913) under
McKinley, Roosevelt, and Taft, was born in Ayrshire, Scotland. He was
Regent of Iowa State University, and in 1891 was elected to the chair
of Practical Agriculture in the College of Agriculture and Director of
the State Experiment Stations. He was wonderfully successful in the
expansion and administration of the "most useful public department in
the world."

LABOR. William Bauchop Wilson, born in Blantyre, near Glasgow,
Scotland, in 1862, Secretary-Treasurer of the United Mine Workers of
America (1900-09); Member of Congress (1907-13), and Chairman of the
Committee on Labor in the sixty-second Congress, Secretary of Labor
(1913).

POSTMASTER-GENERAL. The first postal service in the Colonies was
organized by Andrew Hamilton, a native of Edinburgh, who obtained a
patent for a postal scheme from the British Crown in 1694. A memorial
stone on the southwest corner of the New York Post Office at
Thirty-third Street commemorates the fact. John Maclean (1785-1861),
Postmaster-General from 1823 to 1829, was later Associate Justice of
the United States Supreme Court of Ohio, and unsuccessful candidate
for the Republican nomination for President in 1856 and again in 1860.
He took part in the famous Dred Scott case, in which he dissented from
Taney, maintaining that slavery had its origin merely in power and was
against right. James Campbell (1812-93), of Ulster Scot parentage,
Postmaster-General in the cabinet of President Pierce, made a record
by reducing the rate of postage and introducing the registry system.
Montgomery Blair (1813-83) was Postmaster-General in the cabinet of
President Lincoln. Adlai Ewing Stevenson, Assistant
Postmaster-General, later became Vice-President.




SCOTS IN THE SENATE


John Ewing Colhoun (1749-1802), Member of State Legislature of South
Carolina and Senator from the same state (1801), was of the same
family as John C. Calhoun. George Logan (1753-1821), a man of high
scientific attainments, grandson of James Logan, Quaker Governor of
Pennsylvania, went to France in 1798 with the design of averting war
with that country, Senator from Pennsylvania (1801-07). John
Rutherfurd (1760-1840) was grandson of Sir John Rutherfurd of
Edgerston, Scotland. James Brown (1766-1835), Senator and
Minister-Plenipotentiary to France, was of Scottish descent. Jacob
Burnet (1770-1853), Jurist and Senator, was the grandson of a Scot.
His father, William Burnet (1730-91), was a skilful physician and
Member of Congress. John Leeds Kerr (1780-1844), lawyer and Senator,
was the son of James Kerr of Monreith. Alexander Campbell (1779-1857),
Senator, was of Argyllshire descent. Walter Lowrie (1784-1868),
Senator (1819-35) and thereafter Secretary of the Senate for twelve
years, was born in Edinburgh. His four sons all became prominent in
law and theology. Simon Cameron (1799-1889), grandson of a Cameron who
fought at Culloden. His ancestor emigrated to America soon after the
'45 and fought tinder Wolfe against the French at Quebec. Simon
Cameron was also for a time Secretary of War in Lincoln's Cabinet and
Minister to Russia. He named his residence at Harrisburg "Lochiel."
His brother James was Colonel of the New York Volunteers, the 79th
Highlanders, in the Civil War. James Donald Cameron (b. 1833), son of
Simon Cameron, was President of the Northern Central Railroad of
Pennsylvania (1863-74), Secretary of War Under General Grant, and
Senator from Pennsylvania. Charles E. Stuart (1810-87), Lawyer and
Senator, was a descendant of Daniel Stuart who came to America before
1680. Stephen Arnold Douglas (1813-61), Senator and unsuccessful
candidate of the Democratic party for the Presidency in 1860, was of
Scottish origin. Joseph Ewing MacDonald (1819-91), who held a foremost
place among constitutional lawyers and was Democratic candidate for
Governor of Indiana in 1864, was of Scottish ancestry. Francis
Montgomery Blair (1821-75), a descendant of Commissary Blair of
Virginia, was Senator from Missouri (1871-73), and Democratic
candidate for Vice-President in 1868. James Burnie Beck (1822-90),
born in Dumfriesshire, was Member of Congress (1867-75) and Senator
from 1876 to 1890. He served on many important committees. Joseph
McIlvaine (1765-1826), United States Senator from 1823 to 1826, was
grandson of a Scot. His father fought on the Colonial side in the
Revolution. Randall Lee Gibson (1822-92), of Scottish ancestry,
Major-General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, was United
States Senator from Louisiana from 1883 till his death. His
grandfather, Randall Gibson, was one of the founders of Jefferson
College, Mississippi. John Brown Gordon (1832-1904),
Lieutenant-General in the Confederate Army, thirty-fifth Governor of
Georgia and United States Senator, was grandson of a Scot. Marcus
Alonzo Hanna (1837-1904) was also partly Scottish descent. Calvin
Stewart Brice (1845-1898), Chairman of the Democratic Campaign
Committee (1888) and Senator from Ohio (1891-97), claimed descent from
Bruce of Kinnaird. Daniel Hugh McMillan (b. 1846), was much identified
with the welfare of Buffalo. His grandfather was "John the Upright,"
arbiter of the Hollanders of the Mohawk Valley during the latter part
of the eighteenth century. Alexander McDonald (d. 1903), Senator from
Arkansas (1868-71), was the son of John McDonald who came to the
United States in 1827, and was one of the first to discover and
develop bituminous coal mines on the west branch of the Susquehanna
River in Pennsylvania. John Lendrum Mitchell (1842-1904), grandson of
John Mitchell, farmer of Aberdeenshire, was State Senator of
Wisconsin, Member of Congress from Wisconsin (1891-93), and Senator
from the same state (1893-99), was also noted as a capitalist. Samuel
James Renwick MacMillan (d. 1897), Chairman of the Committee of
Commerce, was of Covenanting descent.




SCOTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES


Only a very few names of Members of Congress of Scottish birth of
descent can be dealt with here. Some additional names will be found in
other sections of this work. William Houston (b. about 1755), son of
Sir Patrick Houston, was a Member of the Continental Congress. John
Morin Scott (1730-84), grandson of the second son of Sir John Scott of
Ancrum was Brigadier-General of New York State troops at the Battle of
Long Island and Member of Congress from 1779 to 1783. William Burnet
(1730-91), of Scottish parentage, physician and Member of Congress.
Among his sons the following are worthy of notice: Dr. William Burnet
of New Jersey, Major Ichabod Burnet of Georgia, Jacob Burnet, pioneer
of Ohio, and David G. Burnet, Provisional President of the Republic of
Texas. William Crawford (1760-1823), Member of Congress from 1809 to
1817, was born in Paisley. William Fitzhugh Gordon (1787-1858), Member
from Virginia (1829-35), of Scottish descent, is said to have been the
originator of the Sub-Treasury system. The town of Gordonsville,
Virginia, was named after him or after his family. Leonidas Felix
Livingston (b. 1832), grandson of Adam Livingston from Scotland, who
served in the Revolutionary War, was a Member of the Georgia
Legislature and Member of Congress. John Louis Macdonald (b. 1838),
newspaper editor, State Senator, etc., was born in Glasgow. James
Buchanan (b. 1839) of Scottish descent, was Member from New Jersey to
49th, 50th, 51st and 52nd Congress. David Bremner Henderson
(1840-1906), born at Old Deer, Aberdeenshire, served in the Civil War
and lost a leg at Corinth, was Member from Iowa (1880-99), and Speaker
of the House of Representatives (1899-1906). William Grant Laidlaw,
born near Jedburgh, Scotland, in 1840, served in the Civil War and was
Member of Congress from 1887 to 1891. John Edgar Reyburn (b. 1845),
Member State Senate of Pennsylvania, Member of Congress 1890-1907; and
James Fleming Stewart (1851-1904), were both of Scottish descent.




SCOTS IN THE JUDICIARY


As with the medical and theological professions the legal has shared
the dominating influence of Scotland, and indeed it is perhaps not too
much to say that much of the distinctive character of American
jurisprudence is due to the influence of men of Scottish blood at the
bench and bar. The second Chief Justice of the United States Supreme
Court (John Rutledge) and two of the four original Associate Justices,
Blair and Wilson, were of Scottish origin. The mother of John
Marshall, the great Chief Justice, was of Scottish origin (Keith). Of
fifty judges of the United States Supreme Court from 1789 to 1882, at
least fifteen were of Scottish birth or descent. We have space here to
deal with only a selection of the most prominent names.

Andrew Kirkpatrick (1756-1831), Chief Justice of New Jersey for
twenty-one years, whose "decisions especially those on realty matters,
show a depth of research, a power of discrimination, and a justness of
reasoning which entitle him to rank among the first American jurists,"
was of Scottish parentage, descended from the Kirkpatricks of
Dumfriesshire. His son, also named Andrew, was President Judge of the
Court of Common Pleas of Essex County (1885-96) and United States
District Judge (1896-1904). George Robertson (1790-1874), Chief
Justice of Kentucky (1829-43), "whose name stands first in the list of
great men who have occupied and adorned the Appellate bench of
Kentucky," and who declined the offer of the governorship of Arkansas,
was of Scottish ancestry. Robert Cooper Grier (1794-1870), Associate
Justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut (1846-70) was of same
origin. Eugenius Aristides Nisbet (1803-71), descended from Murdoch
Nisbet, a Lollard of Kyle, after a brilliant career in the state
legislature became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia.
Thomas Todd (1765-1826), Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
(1807-26). The first Chief Justice of Delaware, William Killen
(1722-1805), was born in the north of Ireland of Scottish parentage.
John J. Milligan (1795-1875), grandson of a Scottish emigrant from
Ayrshire, was Associate Justice of Delaware, and refused, on account
of ill health, the portfolio of Secretary of the Interior in the
cabinet of President Fillimore. Ellis Lewis (1798-1871), Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania (1855-57) was of Scottish
descent. Alexander Addison (1759-1807), born in Scotland, became
President Judge of the fifth judicial district of Pennsylvania under
the constitution of 1770. Robert Hunter Morris, Lieutenant-Governor of
Pennsylvania, was Chief Justice of New Jersey for twenty-one years.
John McLean (1785-1861), Associate Justice, is noticed under Scots in
the Presidential Cabinet; and William Paterson, Associate Justice
(1793-1806), is mentioned under Colonial Governors. Samuel Nelson
(1792-1873), Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, was of Ulster
Scot descent. "His decisions have stood the test of time and the
searching analysis of the most able lawyers." Thomas Douglas
(1790-1853), first Chief Justice of Florida, was of Scots ancestry.
William Wallace Campbell (1806-81), great-grandson of an Ulster Scot,
was distinguished as a jurist and as a historian of New York State. He
was author of _Annals of Tryon County_ (1831), _Border Warfare of New
York_ (1849), _Life and Writings of De Witt Clinton_ (1849), etc.
During a visit to Scotland in 1848 he was elected an honorary member
of the Clan Campbell at a great gathering at Inveraray. Thomas
Drummond (1809-90), grandson of a Scot from Falkirk, was Justice of
the Illinois Supreme Court. John Archibald Campbell (1811-89),
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (1853-61), was Assistant
Secretary of War in the Confederate Cabinet, and in 1865 took part in
the "Hampton Roads Conference." John Wallace Houston (1841-95),
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Delaware, was of Scots
descent. His ancestors first settled in New York city, and Houston
Street is named after one of them. Other Associate Justices of
Delaware of Scottish descent are Charles Mason Cullen (1829-1903), and
George Gray (b. 1840), Attorney-General (1879-85), United States
Senator, Member of the Russo-Japanese Peace Commission of 1898, and
Member of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission of 1902. James
Gilfillan (1829-94), born at Bannockburn, Stirlingshire, "a profound
scholar, and as a jurist was distinguished for his ability, firmness,
and absolute impartiality." William Joseph Robertson (1817-98), born
in Virginia of Scottish parents, was Judge of the Supreme Court of
Virginia and Judge of the Supreme Court of Appeals (1859). Thomas
Sloan Bell (1800-61), of Scottish parentage, became President Judge of
the Judicial District of the counties of Wayne, Pike, Carbon, and
Monroe, in Pennsylvania, in 1855, and held many other important
positions. Samuel Dana Bell, son of Samuel Bell, Governor of New
Hampshire, was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire
(1859-64). Matthew Hall McAllister (1800-65), for several years Mayor
of Savannah, Georgia, afterwards United States Circuit Judge of
California, LL.D. of Columbia University, was of Scottish ancestry.
Thomas Ewing (1829-96), son of Thomas Ewing, Secretary of the
Treasury, at the age of twenty-nine was elected first Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court of Ohio. During the Civil War he took a conspicuous
part and rose to the rank of General. William Harper (1790-1847), born
in Antigua, Leeward Islands, of Scottish parents, was Chancellor of
the University of South Carolina (1828-30, 1835-47) and Judge of the
Court of Appeals of South Carolina (1830-35). John Bannister Gibson
(1780-1853), Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, was of Ulster Scot
descent. Harry Innes (1752-1816), of Scottish parentage, was one of
the Commissioners appointed to draft a constitution for Kentucky,
being chosen by Washington because of his integrity. He was also
appointed first Chief Justice of Kentucky but declined the office.
John Buchanan (1772-1844), of Scottish ancestry, was Chief Justice of
Maryland, and Chief Justice of the Court of Appeals for thirty-seven
years. His brother, Thomas, was associated with him on the bench.
David Torrance (1840-1906), Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of
Connecticut, was born in Edinburgh.




SCOTS AS AMBASSADORS


Some of those who have represented this country at foreign courts
previously held office in the Cabinet or were Members of the Senate
are noted under these headings:

John Graham (1774-1820), Minister-Plenipotentiary to Brazil (1819),
was brother of George Graham, Acting Secretary of War in the cabinets
of Madison and Monroe. Charles Johnston McCurdy (b. 1797), of Ulster
Scot descent, was Minister to Austria (1851-52) and Justice of the
Supreme Court. Miller Grieve (1801-78), born in Edinburgh,
Representative in the Georgia Legislature, Chairman of Board of
Trustees of Oglethorpe University, was Charge d'Affaires at
Copenhagen. William Hunter (1774-1849), of Scottish parentage, a
scholar and linguist, United States Senator from Rhode Island
(1812-20), was Minister-Plenipotentiary to Brazil in 1834. William
Bradford Reed (1806-76) was Envoy-Extraordinary and
Minister-Plenipotentiary to China. Lewis Davis Campbell (1811-82),
Chairman Ways and Means Committee in the thirty-fourth Congress, was
United States Minister to Mexico. Robert Milligan McLane (1815-98),
son of Allen McLane, was United States Minister to China (1853-55),
Mexico (1859-60), and France (1885-88). John M. Forbes (d. 1831),
descendant of the Scottish family of Forbes, was Secretary of Legation
to Buenos Ayres (1823) and Charge d'Affaires (1825-31). James Hepburn
Campbell (1820-95) Member of Congress and Minister to Sweden and
Norway (1864-67). John Adam Kasson (1822-1910), descendant of Adam
Kasson (1721) from Argyllshire, had a distinguished career, the list
of honors held by him is long. Whitelaw Reid (1837-1912), one of the
half dozen most distinguished representatives of this country abroad
was of Scottish descent on both sides. Wayne MacVeagh (b. 1833), of
Scottish origin, was United States Minister to Turkey (1870-71),
Ambassador to Italy (1893-97), and was also Attorney-General under
President Garfield. Thomas Barker Ferguson (b. 1841), diplomat and
inventor, was great-grandson of James Ferguson who emigrated from
Scotland at end of seventeenth century. He was Commissioner of Fish
and Fisheries (1878-87), Envoy-Extraordinary and
Minister-Plenipotentiary to Sweden and Norway (1893-97), etc. His
grandfather was a Member of the South Carolina Provincial Legislature
and Member of the Council of Safety. Whiteside Godfrey Hunter, born in
Londonderry in 1841, of Scottish ancestry, was a Member of Congress
and Envoy-Extraordinary and Minister-Plenipotentiary to Guatemala and
Honduras. Richard Renshaw Neill (b. 1845), was Secretary of United
States Legation at Lima, Peru, and has been Charge d'Affaires there
eight different times. Hugh Anderson Dinsmore (b. 1850), of Ulster
Scot origin, was Minister Resident and Consul General in Corea
(1887-90) and later Member of Congress (1892-1906). John Wallace
Riddle (b. 1864), held several diplomatic posts culminating in
becoming Ambassador to Russia (1906-09). Thomas Cleland Dawson (b.
1865), son of a native of Clackmannan, was Secretary of the American
Legation to Brazil (1897-1904), Minister Resident and Consul General
to Santo Domingo (1904), and author of "South American Republics," a
standard work (2 v. 1903-4). George Brinton McClellan Harvey the
present Ambassador to Great Britain is descended from Stuart Harvey
who came from Scotland in 1820.




SCOTS AS STATE GOVERNORS


MAINE. Robert Pinckney Dunlap (1794-1859), eighth governor, and Hugh
Johnston Anderson (1801-81), fourteenth Governor (1844-47), were of
Ulster Scot descent. Abner Coburn (1803-85), twenty-fourth Governor,
was also most probably of Scottish or Ulster Scot descent.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. Jeremiah Smith, fourth Governor (1809-10), was of
Ulster Scot parentage. His son, of the same name, was an Associate
Justice of the Supreme Court of the state. Samuel Bell (1770-1850), a
descendant of one of the Ulster Scot settlers of 1718, was three times
elected Governor (1819-23) with little or no opposition. John Bell
(1765-1836), his brother, was thirteenth Governor (1828-29). Joseph
Merrill Harper (1789-1865), who served as acting Governor in 1831, was
of Ulster Scot descent. Samuel Dinsmoor (1766-1835), sixteenth
Governor (1831-33), a distinguished factor in the history of his
state, was of Ulster Scot descent on both sides. His eldest son
(1799-1869), also named Samuel, served as twenty-fourth Governor
(1849-52). Noah Martin (1801-63), of Ulster Scot descent on both
sides, was the twenty-fifth Governor. Charles Henry Bell (1823-93),
son of Governor John Bell, was forty-first Governor of the state. John
Butler Smith, forty-seventh Governor (1893-95), was a descendant of
one of the settlers of 1718. John McLane (1852-1911) fifty-seventh
Governor (1905-06), was born in Lennoxtown, Scotland. He was host at
the Russian-Japanese Conference at Portsmouth.

VERMONT. Charles James Bell, fiftieth Governor (1905), was descended
from one of the Londonderry, N.H., settlers of 1718. John Wolcott
Stewart, thirty-third Governor (1870-72), was descended from Robert
Stewart who went from Edinburgh to Londonderry, Ireland, and whose son
was one of those who emigrated from there to Londonderry, N.H., in
1718. His grandfather fought in the Revolutionary War.

MASSACHUSETTS. William Claflin (1818-1905), twenty-third Governor, was
a descendant of one of the Scots prisoners taken at the battle of
Dunbar in 1650.

RHODE ISLAND. General Ambrose E. Burnside (1824-81), Governor
(1867-69). William Gregory (1849-1901), forty-second Governor
(1900-01), was of direct Scottish descent.

CONNECTICUT. George Payne McLean, forty-first Governor (1901-03), was
of Scottish descent.

DELAWARE. Charles Polk (1788-1857), thirteenth Governor (1827-30), and
President of the Constitutional Convention of his state in 1831, was
of Ulster Scot descent. John P. Cochran (1809-98), twenty-sixth
Governor (1875-79), was of the same origin.

PENNSYLVANIA. Thomas McKean, Governor (1799-1808), is already noticed
under Signers of the Declaration of Independence. William Findlay
(1768-1846), fourth Governor (1817-20), of Ulster Scot descent, was
also United States Senator and Treasurer of the Mint at Philadelphia.
William Freame Johnston (1802-72), Governor from 1848 to 1852, was of
Scottish parentage. He did much to develop the oil region of
Pennsylvania, and was also President of the Allegheny Valley Railroad.
James Pollock (1810-90), Governor (1855-58). It was through his
efforts that "In God we trust" was placed on the coinage. John White
Geary (1819-73), Governor from 1867 to 1873, was of Ulster Scot
descent.

MARYLAND. John Francis Mercer (1759-1821), eleventh Governor
(1801-03), was a descendant of the Mercers of Aldie, Perthshire.
Robert Bowie (1749-1818), twelfth and fifteenth Governor (1803-06,
1811-12), and Robert Milligan McLane (1815-98), forty-second Governor
(1884-85), were of direct Scottish descent. Frank Brown, forty-fifth
Governor (1892-96), was descended from Abel Brown who emigrated from
Dumfries, c. 1730.

VIRGINIA. James Barbour (1776-1842) was eleventh Governor (1812-14).
Barbour County, Florida, was named in his honor. David Campbell
(1779-1859), twenty-first Governor (1837-40), was of Scottish descent
on both sides. Thomas Walker Gilmer (1802-44), twenty-second Governor
(1840-41) was a descendant of the Scottish physician, Dr. George
Gilmer. John Mercer Patton (1797-1858), Lieutenant-Governor and acting
Governor (1841), was son of Robert Patton who emigrated from Scotland.
His mother was a daughter of Gen. Hugh Mercer. John Rutherford
(1792-1865), twenty-third Governor (1841-42), was most probably of
Scottish descent. William Ewan Cameron, thirty-sixth Governor
(1882-86) descended from the Rev. John Cameron, a graduate of Aberdeen
University, who came to America, c. 1770. Henry Carter Stuart (b.
1855), Governor (1914-18), descended from Archibald Stuart who fled
from Scotland for political reasons and settled in Virginia in 1726.

WEST VIRGINIA. William Erskine Stevenson (1820-1883), second Governor
(1869-71) was born of Ulster Scot parentage. William Alexander Mac
Corkle (b. 1857), eighth Governor (1893-97) is of Scottish descent.
His grandfathers, Captain John MacCorkle and Captain John McNutt, fell
at the battle of Cowpens, 1781.

NORTH CAROLINA. Nathaniel Alexander (1756-1808), thirteenth Governor
(1805-07), was of Scottish descent. William Alexander Graham
(1804-75), thirtieth Governor (1845-49), was son of Gen. Joseph
Graham, a Revolutionary officer. He was also Secretary of the Navy in
1850, and projected the expedition to Japan under Commodore Perry. Tod
R. Caldwell (1818-74), fortieth Governor (1871-74), and David Lindsay
Russell, forty-eighth Governor (1897-1901), were both of direct
Scottish descent.

SOUTH CAROLINA. General William Moultrie, son of Dr. Moultrie, was
Governor in 1785-87 and 1794-96. Edward Rutledge, tenth Governor
(1798-1800), is already noticed under the Signers of the Declaration
of Independence. "No measure of importance was adopted by the
legislature without his taking part in it, while many originated with
himself." Andrew Pickens, (1779-1838), nineteenth Governor (1816-18),
was a son of Andrew Pickens, the noted Revolutionary general. John
Geddes (1777-1828), twentieth Governor (1818-20), was of Scottish
descent. Stephen Decatur Miller (1787-1838), twenty-fifth Governor
(1828-30), also served as United States Senator. George McDuffie
(1790-1851), twenty-eighth Governor, the greatest orator and statesman
of Georgia, was of Scottish parentage on both sides. McDuffie County
in Georgia is so named in his honor. Patrick Noble (1787-1840),
thirtieth Governor (1838-40), was grandson of an Ulster Scot
immigrant. Robert Kingston Scott (1826-1900), forty-fifth Governor
(1868-72), was the grandson or great-grandson of a refugee from
Culloden.

GEORGIA. David Brodie Mitchell (1766-1837), ninth Governor (1809-11,
1815-17), was born in Scotland. He was described as "a conscientious,
cultured, and conservative man, of great energy, public spirit, and
animated by the purest patriotism." George McIntosh Troup (1780-1856),
the "Hercules of State Rights," fourteenth Governor (1823-27), was of
Scottish descent on both sides. He was one of Georgia's most
illustrious Chief Magistrates. A county in the state is named after
him. John Forsyth (1780-1841), fifteenth Governor (1827-29), was also
United States Secretary of State. George Rockingham Gilmer
(1790-1859), sixteenth Governor (1829-31, 1837-39), was the grandson
of a Scottish physician, Dr. George Gilmer. He was also Member of
Congress. He also wrote a work, "Georgians," 1855, containing much
valuable matter relating to the early settlers of his state. Charles
James McDonald (1793-1860), nineteenth Governor (1839-43), and George
Washington Crawford (1798-1872), twentieth Governor (1843-47), were
both of Scottish descent. James Johnson, twenty-fifth Governor (1861),
was grandson of a Scottish immigrant. He rendered great service to his
state in its reconstruction after the war. Alexander Hamilton Stephens
(1812-83), grandson of an adherent of Prince Charles Edward, was
Vice-President of the Confederacy (1861-65), chief Confederate
Commissioner in the Hampton Roads Conference in February, 1865, Member
of Congress from Georgia (1873-82), Governor of the state (1883), and
author of "The War Between the States" (1868-70) and of a "History of
the United States" (1883). John Brown Gordon (1832-1904), thirty-fifth
Governor (1886-90), was the great-grandson of one of seven brothers
who emigrated from Scotland, all of whom served in the Revolutionary
Army. As Governor his administration was faultless, and the New York
Sun declared his inauguration "worthy of Thomas Jefferson."

FLORIDA. Francis Philip Fleming (b. 1841), fourteenth Governor
(1889-93), was of Scottish descent. Alexander Walker Gilchrist,
nineteenth Governor (1909), a descendant of Nimrod Gilchrist, who came
from Glasgow in 1750.

ALABAMA. Israel Pickens (1780-1827), third Governor (1821-25),
Democratic Member of Congress from North Carolina (1811-17), United
States Senator (1826), was of Scottish descent. Reuben Chapman
(1802-82), eleventh Governor (1847-49), was also of Scottish ancestry.
Robert Miller Patton (1809-85), seventeenth Governor (1865-68), was
Ulster Scot on his father's side and Scottish on his mother's. Robert
Burns Lindsay, born in Dumfriesshire in 1824, a linguist and a
scholar, educated at the University of St. Andrews, was nineteenth
Governor (1870-72). George Smith Houston (1811-79), twenty-first
Governor, and Joseph Forney Johnston (b. 1843), twenty-seventh
Governor (1896-1900), were both of Scottish descent.

TENNESSEE. Joseph McMinn (d. 1824), fifth Governor (1815-21), was most
probably of Scottish descent. Samuel Houston, seventh Governor
(1827-28), is noticed under Texas. Neil S. Brown, fourteenth Governor
(1847-49), was grandson of Angus Brown, a Scot who fought in the
Revolutionary War under Gen. Francis Marion. William Bowen Campbell
(1807-67), sixteenth Governor (1851-53), was also of Scottish descent.
Benton McMillin (b. 1845), Governor (1899-1903), Envoy-Extraordinary
and Minister-Plenipotentiary to Peru in 1913, of Ulster Scot descent.

KENTUCKY. John Adair (1797-1840), eighth Governor (1820-24), was of
Scottish parentage. "His term was marked by great legislative
activity for the promotion of education in the state, and by the
abolition of imprisonment for debt." The state library was founded
under his auspices. Adair county was so named in his honor. John
Breathitt (1786-1834), Lieutenant-Governor (1828-32), and eleventh
Governor (1832-34), was the son of a Scottish emigrant. "A man of high
character and his public career irreproachable." Breathitt county was
named after him. James Fisher Robinson (1800-92), twenty-second
Governor, was of English and Scottish descent.

OHIO. Duncan McArthur (1772-1840), an early Governor (1830-32), was of
Scottish ancestry. He also held the rank of General in the war of
1812. Jeremiah Morrow (1770-1852), Governor (1822-26), and Allen
Trimble (1783-1870), Governor (1826-30), were both Ulster Scot
descent. James E. Campbell (b. 1843), Governor (1890-92), was
previously Member of Congress. James M. Cox (b. 1870), forty-sixth
Governor (1913-15) is of Scottish ancestry.

INDIANA. Noah Noble, fifth Governor (1831-37), was grandson of a
Scottish immigrant. David Wallace (1799-1859), sixth Governor
(1837-40), and Samuel Bigger (1802-46), were also of Scottish
ancestry. Thomas Andrews Hendricks, Governor from 1873 to 1877, is
already noticed under Vice-Presidents.

MICHIGAN. Robert McClelland (1807-80), Governor (1851-53), afterwards
Secretary of the Interior; and Austin Blair (1814-94), war Governor,
who sent over 83,000 soldiers from his state during the Civil War,
were both of Scottish ancestry.

WISCONSIN. The mother of Henry Dodge, first and fourth Governor
(1836-41, 1845-48), was Anne Nancy Hunter, of Ulster Scot parentage.
William E. Smith (1824-83), thirteenth Governor (1878-82), was born in
Scotland.

ILLINOIS. William Lee Davidson Ewing (1795-1846), Senator and acting
Governor (1834), was of Ulster Scot descent. Joseph Duncan
(1794-1844), fifth Governor (1834-38), who greatly encouraged
education in his state, was of Scottish ancestry. John Lourie
Beveridge (b. 1824) fifteenth Governor, was grandson of a Scot who
came to the United States about 1770. His "administration was
vigorous, just, and impartial."

MISSISSIPPI. John J. McRae (1815-68), nineteenth Governor (1854-58),
was of Scottish descent. William McWillie (1795-1869), twentieth
Governor (1858-60), and Anselm Joseph McLaurin (b. 1848),
thirty-second Governor (1896-1900), were-both grandsons of Scots.

LOUISIANA. John McEnery (1833-91), nineteenth (unrecognized) Governor
(1873), was of Scottish descent. Samuel Douglas McEnery (b. 1837),
brother of the preceding, was twenty-second Governor (1881-88). John
Newton Pharr (1829-1903), elected Governor in 1896 but not seated on
account of the negro question, was descended from Walter Pharr who
came from Scotland in 1765.

MISSOURI. Alexander McNair (1774-1826), first state Governor
(1820-24), most probably was of Scottish birth or descent. Trusten
Polk (1811-76), of same origin as President Polk, was eleventh
Governor (1857). Benjamin Gratz Brown (1826-85), also of Scottish
descent, was Governor from 1871 to 1873, and unsuccessful candidate
for Vice-President in 1872.

IOWA. John Chambers (1780-1852), second Governor of the territory of
Iowa was of Scottish descent on both sides. James Wilson Grimes
(1816-72), third Governor (1854-58), was of Ulster Scot descent.
Samuel Jordan Kirkwood (1813-94), three times Governor of his state
(1860-64, 1876-77), was descended from a brother of Captain Robert
Kirkwood, a Delaware soldier of the Revolution. He was also Secretary
of the Interior under Garfield. John Henry Gear (1825-1900), eleventh
Governor (1878-82), Assitsant Secretary of United States Treasury
(1892-93), and Senator (1895-1900), was of Scottish ancestry. Albert
Baird Cummins, eighteenth Governor, of Ulster Scot ancestry.

MINNESOTA. Alexander Ramsey, first territorial and second state
Governor (1849-53, 1860-64), was grandson of an Ulster Scot who served
in the Revolutionary War.

NEBRASKA. James E. Boyd (b. 1834), eighth Governor (1891-92), was born
in county Tyrone of Ulster Scot ancestry.

KANSAS. John Alexander Martin (1839-89), ninth Governor (1885-89), was
of Ulster Scot descent.

TEXAS. Samuel Houston (1793-1863) was a descendant of John Houston who
settled in Philadelphia in 1689. He was Member of Congress from
Tennessee (1823-27), Governor of Tennessee (1827-28), and as
Commander-in-Chief of the Texans he defeated the Mexicans under Santa
Anna in 1836 on the banks of the San Jacinto, and by this one blow
achieved the independence of Texas. He was elected first President of
the new republic in the same year, was re-elected in 1841, and in 1859
was elected Governor of the state. Houston, the capital of Harris
County, Texas, was named in his honor. Peter Hansborough Bell
(1812-98), third Governor (1849-53), was of Ulster Scot ancestry, as
was also James Edward Ferguson (b. 1871). James Stephen Hogg,
nineteenth Governor and Thomas Mitchell Campbell, twenty-third
Governor, were of Scottish descent.

COLORADO. Edward Moody McCook, fifth and seventh Governor (1869-73,
1874-75), was of Scottish descent. He also served in the Civil War and
attained the rank of Brigadier-General. James Benton Grant, tenth
Governor (1883-85), was grandson of a Scottish immigrant. Jesse Fuller
McDonald, twenty-third Governor (1905-07), a descendant of James
McDonald who emigrated from Scotland early in the eighteenth century
and settled in Maine.

WYOMING. Thomas Moonlight (1833-99), sixth territorial Governor
(1887-90), was born in Forfarshire.

UTAH. Eli Houston Murray (b. 1841), Governor (1880-84), of Scottish
ancestry.

IDAHO. John Henry Brady (b. 1862), eighth Governor (1910-11), is of
Ulster Scot descent. David P. Thompson, ninth Governor of the state
(1874-76), also of Ulster Scot descent, built the first railroad in
Oregon, and was twice Mayor of Portland.

SOUTH DAKOTA. Corie Isaac Crawford, sixth Governor (1907-08) is of
Ulster Scot descent.

CALIFORNIA. John McDougall (1818-66) was Lieutenant-Governor (1849)
and afterwards Governor. Peter Hardeman Burnett (b. 1807) was first
Governor of the state (1849-51). Both were of Scottish origin.

OREGON. James Shields, first territorial Governor (1848), was born in
Dungannon, County Tyrone, of Ulster Scot parentage. George Abernethy
(1807-77), territorial Governor (1845-49), was born in New York city
of Scottish parentage. "As a governor he was patriotic, efficient, and
unselfish."




SCOTS IN THE ARMY


REVOLUTION. Alexander MacDougall (1731-86), born in Islay,
successively Colonel, Brigadier-General, and Major-General in the
Revolutionary War, and later Delegate to the Continental Congress in
1780 and 1784, was described by Washington as "a brave soldier and
distinguished patriot." Before the outbreak of the war he was a
successful merchant, a leader of the "Sons of Liberty," and was the
first American imprisoned for his utterances in behalf of
independence. Macdougal Street, New York city, commemorates his name.
Robert Erskine (1735-1780), geographer and Chief of Engineers on the
staff of Washington, was a son of Rev. Ralph Erskine of Dunfermline.
Washington erected a stone over his grave at Ringwood, New Jersey.
Henry Knox (1750-1806), General of Artillery and Secretary of War
(1785-95). Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Clough Anderson (1750-1826) was
grandson of a Scottish emigrant. General James Ewing (c. 1736-1806),
of Ulster Scot descent, served in Braddock's campaign and also during
the Revolution. General William Wirt Henry was descended from an
Ulster Scot who came between 1718 and 1722 to Massachusetts. General
Richard Montgomery (1736-75), a descendant of the Montgomeries of
Ayrshire, was killed while leading the attack on Quebec; and Major
John Macpherson (1754-75), of Scots parentage, killed beside
Montgomery, was the first soldier of prominence from Pennsylvania to
be killed in the war. Bancroft calls him "the pure-minded, youthful
enthusiast for liberty." Colonel Allan McLane (1746-1829), of Scottish
origin, repeatedly referred to in Dr. Weir Mitchell's "Hugh Wynne,"
was one of the "Rough Riders" who patrolled the country around
Philadelphia to prevent provisions reaching the British troops in the
city. His flight and escape from the British in one of these raids was
the subject of a painting by James Peale. General Hugh Mercer (c.
1725-1777), born in Aberdeen, died of wounds received at the battle of
Princeton, also served with distinction in the Braddock and Forbes
campaigns in western Pennsylvania. His life was a strenuous one, full
of exacting and unselfish work for others, and as Judge Goolrick says
in his "Life of Mercer," he "is entitled to the gratitude of all
liberty-loving America." Mercer county, New Jersey, was named in his
honor. John Armstrong (1725-95), born in the North of Ireland of
Scottish ancestry, served in the French and Indian War (1755-56), was
Brigadier-General in the Continental Army (1776-77), and Delegate to
the Continental Congress (1778-80, 1787-88). Colonel James Livingston
(1747-1832), by his timely shot drove the British warship "Vulture"
from her anchorage in the North River "thus securing the capture of
Andre, effecting the discomfiture of Arnold's treason, and assuring
the safety of West Point, the key of the Revolution." James Chrystie
(1750-1807), born in or near Edinburgh, joined the Revolutionary Army
and served with high reputation till the end of the war. On the
discovery of Arnold's plot at West Point he was entrusted with a
delicate mission by Washington, which he executed successfully. His
son, Lieutenant-Colonel James Chrystie, earned a name for himself at
the Battle of Queenstown in the war of 1812. William Davidson
(1746-1781), born in Pennsylvania of Scottish parentage or descent,
was a Brigadier-General in the Revolutionary Army, and was killed in
the fight at the ford over Catawba River, January 31, 1781. Congress
voted five hundred dollars for a monument to his memory, and Davidson
College, North Carolina, is named in his honor. General William
Macpherson (1756-1813), born in Philadelphia of Scottish parents, was
in the British service at the time of the Revolution, but resigned and
joined the colonies, and served faithfully under Washington. Major
Robert Kirkwood was killed in the battle against the Miami Indians in
1792, the thirty-third time he had risked his life for his country.
Lachlan McIntosh (1727-1806), of the family of MacIntosh of Borlum,
was born in Badenoch, Inverness-shire, and came to America with his
father who settled in Georgia. He volunteered his services on the
outbreak of the Revolution, becoming General in 1776. He was second in
command at Savannah and took part in the defence of Charleston.
McIntosh county, Georgia, is named after his family, "whose members
have illustrated the state, in both field and forum, since the days of
Oglethorpe." William Moultrie (1731-1805), born in England or South
Carolina, son of the Scottish physician, Dr. John Moultrie, ancestor
of the Moultries of South Carolina, repulsed the attack on Sullivan's
Island in 1776 and defended Charleston in 1779. Fort Moultrie was
named in his honor. Andrew Pickens (1739-1817), of Scottish parentage,
was noted as a partizan commander in South Carolina (1779-81), served
with distinction at Cowpens in 1781, and captured Atlanta, Georgia, in
the same year. Pickens county, Georgia, bears his name. John Stark
(1728-1822), one of the most noted Generals of the Revolution, serving
with distinction in several campaigns, was a member of the Court
Martial which condemned Major Andre. Arthur St. Clair (1734-1818),
born at Thurso, Caithness, took part in many battles of the
Revolution, was President of Congress in 1787, and Governor of the
Northwest Territory (1789-1802). William Alexander (1726-83), titular
Lord Stirling, born in Albany of Scottish parentage, commanded a
Brigade at the Battle of Long Island, and also served at Trenton,
Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. John Paterson (1744-1808),
grandson of a Dumfriesshire emigrant, took part in many battles of the
Revolution, commissioned Major-General in 1783, the youngest one of
that rank in the army, and was one of the organizers of the Society of
Cincinnati. General Daniel Stewart was another patriot of the
Revolution. A county in Georgia is named in his honor.

MEXICAN WAR. Winfield Scott (1786-1866), grandson of a Scot who fought
at Culloden, was born in Virginia, and entered the army in 1808. He
served with great ability in the War of 1812, later became
Major-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Army in 1841. During the
war with Mexico he held chief command of the Army, and became
Lieutenant-General in 1847. John Munroe (c. 1796-1861), born in
Ross-shire, entered the United States Army, saw service against the
Florida Indians, became Chief of Artillery under General Zachary
Taylor in the Mexican War, and was subsequently Military and Civil
Governor of New Mexico (1849-50). James Bowie (1795-1836), of Scottish
descent and of "Bowie-knife" celebrity, took part in the Texan
Revolution and was killed at the Alamo in 1836. Bowie county and the
town of Bowie in Montague county, Texas, perpetuate his name. The
Bowies were a prominent family in Maryland, occupying high positions
in politics, jurisprudence, and society.

CIVIL WAR. General David Bell Birney (1825-64), son of James Gillespie
Birney, served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac. General
Ambrose Everett Burnside (1824-81), later Governor of Rhode Island
(1867-69), and United States Senator (1875-81), was grandson of a Scot
who emigrated to South Carolina at end of the eighteenth century.
Samuel Wylie Crawford (1829-92), of Scottish ancestry, was brevetted
Major-General of Volunteers for conspicuous gallantry, and wrote
"Genesis of the Civil War" (1887). Major-General Thomas Ewing
(1829-96), was descendant of Thomas Ewing who emigrated to New Jersey
in 1715. James Lorraine Geddes (1829-87), born in Edinburgh, brevetted
Brigadier-General for his services, was also a poet, and wrote "The
Soldier's Battle Prayer," "The Stars and Stripes," etc. John Brown
Gordon (1832-1904), Lieutenant-General in the Confederate Army and
later Governor of Georgia, was descendant of John George Gordon and
his wife Mary Chapman, emigrants from Scotland. General Charles Smith
Hamilton (1822-96), of Scottish descent, also served with distinction
in the Mexican War. General Grant ascribed the success of the repulse
at Corinth to him. Thomas Jonathan Jackson (1824-63), "Stonewall
Jackson," the noted Confederate General, was of Ulster Scot descent.
John Alexander Logan (1826-86), of Ulster Scot parentage, was later
unsuccessful candidate for the Vice-Presidency in 1884, United States
Senator (1871-77, 1879-86), and author of "The Great Conflict" (1866).
Major-General Robert McAllister (1813-91), great-grandson of Archibald
McAllister from Scotland, 1732. Charles Lafayette McArthur (1824-98),
soldier, politician, and journalist, was of Scots parentage. General
Arthur McArthur (1845-1912), of Scots parentage, son of Arthur
McArthur the Jurist, later served in the Philippines, became in 1906
Lieutenant-General, being the twelfth officer in the history of the
Army to attain that rank. Described as "our best read and best
informed soldier." His son, Douglas, served with distinction in the
Great War. John McArthur, born in Erskine, Scotland, in 1826,
emigrated to United States in 1849, was brevetted Major-General for
gallantry. General George Archibald McCall (1802-68), served in the
Florida and Mexican Wars, and also rendered distinguished service in
the Civil War. Daniel Craig McCallum (1815-78), born in Renfrewshire,
Superintendent of the Erie Railroad (1855-56), was Director of
Military Roads in the United States (1862-65), and became
Major-General in 1866. "He introduced the inflexible arched truss,
which has probably been in more general use in the United States than
any other system of timber bridges." The McCooks, of Scottish descent,
two Ohio families with a remarkable military record, often
distinguished as the "Tribe of Dan" and "Tribe of John" from their
respective heads--two brothers, Major Daniel and Dr. John McCook. All
the sons, fourteen in number, served either in the Army or Navy, and
all but one were commanding officers. Clinton Dugald McDougal (b.
1839), Major-General and later Member of Congress (1872-77), was born
in Scotland. Irvin McDowell (1818-85), served in the Mexican War, in
the Civil War had command of the Army of the Potomac, Major-General in
1872, was descendant of emigrant from Londonderry shortly after the
siege in which his ancestor took part. General John Bankhead Magruder
(1810-71) and Commander George Magruder of the Confederate Army were
said to be "direct descendants of the illustrious Rob Roy McGregor."
Alexander Mackenzie (b. 1844), Chief of Engineers, was of Scots
parentage. David McMurtrie Gregg (b. 1833), served with distinction in
battles of the Wilderness, and was afterwards Auditor-General of
Pennsylvania. John McNeil (1813-91), Brigadier-General, was born in
Halifax, Nova Scotia, of Scots parentage. General James Birdseye
Macpherson (1828-64), of Ulster Scot descent, took a most prominent
part in many battles. General Grant said at his death: "The country
has lost one of its best soldiers, and I have lost my best friend."
William Macrae (1834-82), of Scottish descent, Brigadier-General in
the Confederate Army was afterwards General Superintendent of the
Wilmington and Manchester Railroad. William Addison Phillips
(1824-93), soldier, statesman, and author, born in Paisley, refused to
leave his command to accept the nomination for Governor of his state
(Kansas). He was author of "Labor, Land, and Law" (1886). John
Robertson (1814-87), born in Banffshire, was Adjutant-General of
Michigan from 1861 to 1887. He was author of "The Flags of Michigan,"
"Michigan in the War," etc. James Alexander Walker (1832-1901),
descendant of John Walker who came from Wigtown (c. 1730), was also
Member of Congress (1895-99) and Lieutenant Governor of Virginia
(1877).




SCOTS IN THE NAVY


John Paul Jones (1747-92), perhaps the most famous Scottish name in
the annals of the American Navy, was the son of a Scottish gardener,
and was born at Kirkbean, Kirkcudbrightshire. The details of his naval
career are so well known that there is little use of repeating them
here. James Craig (1735-1800), a Scot, Was appointed by Congress a
Commissioner of naval stores in 1776. He was owner of a number of
armed privateering vessels, took several prizes, and also aided in
fitting out several other vessels as privateers. The Nicholson family,
of Scottish parentage, was famous in the naval annals of the United
States for three generations, from the Revolution to the Civil War.
Alexander Murray (1755-1821), grandson of a Scot, took an active part
in the naval battles of the Revolution and commanded a squadron
against the Barbary pirates in 1820. John Rodgers (1771-1838), of
Scottish parentage, had a distinguished part in the war against
Tripoli, the government of which he compelled to sign a treaty
abolishing slavery of Christians and the levying of tribute on
European powers. In the war of 1812 he fired the first gun, June 23,
1812, at the British frigate "Belvidere." He was afterwards offered,
but declined, the office of Secretary of the Navy. George Campbell
Read (c. 1788-1862), Admiral, of Ulster Scot descent, took part in the
fight between the "Constitution" and "Guerriere" in 1812. Isaac
McKeever (1794-1856), Commodore and Commandant of the Navy Yard at
Portsmouth, Virginia, was of Scottish parentage. John Berrien
Montgomery (1794-1873), descended from William Montgomery of Bridgend,
Ayrshire (1701), served in the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and while
too old for active service in the Civil War, was in charge of Boston
Navy Yard, then one of the most important supply stations of the navy.
Rear Admiral Andrew Bryson (1822-1892), of Scottish descent, took part
in Civil War, and retired after forty-three years' continuous service.
John McIntosh Kell (1823-1900), Executive Officer of the Confederate
Cruiser "Alabama" and author of "Cruise and Combats of the 'Alabama'"
was of Scottish origin. Rear Admiral Alexander Colden Rhind (1821-97),
who served in the Mexican and Civil Wars, was also of Scottish
descent. William Penn McCann (1830-1906), a descendant of John
McKeand, a native of Whithorn, Wigtownshire, who settled here before
the Revolution, was called "Father of the White Squadron" from his
having the warships painted white. Francis Munroe Ramsay (1835-1914),
Rear Admiral and Chief of the Bureau of Navigation (1889), Member of
the Court of Inquiry which investigated the conduct of Rear Admiral
Schley during the war with Spain, was a grandson of Patrick Ramsay who
came from Scotland, c. 1750. Frederick Vallete McNair (1839-1900),
Superintendent of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, was descended from
Samuel McNair (1732). Rear Admiral George Wallace Melville
(1841-1912), who saw considerable service in the Civil War and later
achieved world wide fame as an Arctic explorer, was the grandson of a
Scot from Stirling; and Admiral John Donaldson Ford (1840-1917), who
fought in the Civil War and took a prominent part in the capture of
Manila and destruction of the batteries at Cavite during the
Spanish-American War, was of Scottish parentage.




SCOTS AS SCIENTISTS


Alexander Wilson (1766-1813), born in Paisley, the first naturalist to
study American birds in their native haunts, and author of "American
Ornithology" (1803-13), was also distinguished as a poet. David Hosack
(1769-1835), one of the most distinguished surgeons and scientists of
his day, fourth President of the New York Historical Society, was son
of a native of Morayshire. Samuel Guthrie (1782-1848), physician and
chemist, was descendant of John Guthrie, who came to America in 1661.
He was one of the pioneers who introduced vaccination, produced the
first successful percussion powder (after many experiments), invented
the "punch lock" which superseded the flint-lock musket, and, in 1831,
discovered the anaesthetic chloroform. Hugh Williamson (1735-1819),
statesman and scientist, born in Pennsylvania and educated in
Edinburgh. He studied theology and was licensed but never preached,
was Professor of Mathematics in the College of Philadelphia (1760-63),
studied medicine in Edinburgh and Utrecht, practised successfully,
served as surgeon in the Revolutionary War, delegate to the Convention
that framed the Constitution of the United States (1787), and was
afterwards Member of the first Congress. John McLean (1771-1814), born
in Glasgow, became Professor of Chemistry in Princeton (1775) and
later Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry in William and
Mary College, Williamsburg, Virginia. His son, John, became President
of Princeton. Dr. William Watson (d. 1828), a Scot, was physician and
friend of Chancellor Livingston, and one of the early promoters of
scientific agriculture in America. He was founder of the Farmers' Club
of Dutchess and Columbia Counties, the pioneer of Agricultural
Societies in New York. James Renwick (1790-1862), born in Liverpool of
Scottish parents, was Professor of Physics in Columbia University,
author of several scientific works, and one of the Commissioners who
laid out the early boundary line of the Province of New Brunswick. His
mother was the Jeannie Jaffray of several of Burns's poems. James
Renwick, the architect, was his son. Other gifted sons were Edward
Sabine Renwick and Henry Brevoort Renwick. Joseph Henry (1797-1878),
the "Nestor of American Science," and organizer of the American
Academy of Sciences otherwise the Smithsonian Institution in
Washington, was of Scottish' origin. His paternal and maternal
grandparents emigrated from Scotland together and are said to have
landed the day before the Battle of Bunker Hill. The McAllisters of
Philadelphia (father and son) were famous as makers of optical and
mathematical instruments, and the son was the first to study and fit
astigmatic lenses, and was also the introducer of the system of
numbering buildings according to the numbers of the streets, assigning
one hundred numbers to each block. Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-87),
Naturalist and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was also of
Scottish origin. His works, including scientific papers, number over
one thousand titles. Carlile Pollock Patterson (1816-81) did much to
develop the United States Coast Survey. William Paterson Turnbull
(1830-71), ornithologist, author of the "Birds of East Pennsylvania
and New Jersey," a model of patient and accurate research, was born at
Fala, near Edinburgh. Edward Duncan Montgomery, biologist and
philosopher, was born in Edinburgh in 1835. Marshall MacDonald
(1835-95), ichthyologist, pisciculturist, and inventor, engineer in
charge of the siege of Vicksburg during the Civil War, and inventor of
automatic hatching jars, was the grandson of a Scottish immigrant.
Peter Smith Michie (1839-1901), soldier and scientist, born in
Brechin, Forfarshire, graduated from West Point in 1863, served as
Engineer in the Federal Army, and was afterwards Professor of Natural
and Experimental Philosophy at West Point. William Healey Dall (b.
1845), palaeontologist to the United States Geological Survey, author
of "Alaska and Its Resources," and author of hundreds of articles on
Natural History subjects, was a grandson of William Dall of
Forfarshire. Thomas Harrison Montgomery (1873-1912), specialist in
zoology and embryology, was of Scottish origin. Robert Gibson Eccles,
physician and chemist, born in Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, in 1848, discovered
that benzoic acid and the benzoates are excellent preservatives of
food. He has been Chemist of the Department of Indian Affairs,
Professor of Chemistry in the New York School of Social Economics,
President of the New York Pharmaceutical Association, etc., and has
written largely on philosophy and science. Stephen Alfred Forbes (b.
1844), naturalist, educator, and writer on entomology and zoology, is
of Scottish origin. Thomas Craig (1853-1900), Mathematician and Editor
of the American Journal of Mathematics, was of Scottish parentage.
Alexander Crombie Humphreys, born in Edinburgh in 1851, became
President of Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, in 1902.
Anstruther Davidson, born in Caithness in 1860, Associate Professor of
Dermatology in the University of Southern California, is also
distinguished as a botanist and entomologist.

William Maclure (1763-1840), the "Father of American Geology," was
born in Ayr, Scotland, and after acquiring a fortune in London, he
came in 1796 to the United States. Having studied geology in Europe he
was attracted by the imposing scale of the geological structure of his
adopted country, and in the course of some years made many journeys
across the eastern states. He recorded his geological observations on
a map, and in 1809 communicated his researches to the American
Philosophical Society. In 1817, having extended his knowledge during
the intervening eight years he presented his map to the Society, and
it was then published. This was the first geological survey of the
United States, and it was carried out unsustained by government aid or
patronage. It was also chiefly through Maclure's aid that the new
Academy of Sciences in Philadelphia was built and endowed. Dr.
Archibald Bruce (1777-1818), the first scientific mineralogist in
America, and founder of the _American Mineralogical Magazine_ (1810),
was born in New York city, son of Dr. William Bruce, head of the
medical department of the British Armies. Henry Darwin Rogers
(1808-66), born in Philadelphia of Ulster Scot parentage, Professor of
Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Pennsylvania, State
Geologist of Pennsylvania, published important works on the geology of
Pennsylvania and New Jersey. He removed to Edinburgh in 1855 and three
years later became Professor of Natural History in the University of
Glasgow. His elder brother, William Barton Rogers (1804-1882), was
also a distinguished physicist and geologist. David Dale Owen
(1807-60), born in Lanarkshire, was brought to the United States by
his father in 1823. In 1848 he took charge of the Geological Survey of
Wisconsin and Iowa, and that of Minnesota in 1852. His brother,
Richard Owen (1810-90), also born in Lanarkshire, had a distinguished
career in this country as a geologist. J. Peter Lesley (1819-1903),
also of Scottish descent, was another distinguished geologist who by
his researches and surveys in Pennsylvania, vastly aided in the
economic development of that state. Persifor Frazer (1844-1909), son
of John Fries Frazer and great-grandson of Lieutenant-Colonel Persifor
Frazer of Revolutionary times, was author of the Geological Survey of
Pennsylvania (5 vols.) William John McGee (1853-1912), geologist and
anthropologist, claimed descent from the MacGregors. He was Geologist
of the United States Geological Survey from 1883 to 1893, Ethnologist
in Charge of the Bureau of Ethnology from 1893 to 1903, and in 1907
was appointed a Member of the Inland Waterways Commission. Washington
Carruthers Kerr (1827-85), educator and scientist of Ulster Scot
parentage, was State Geologist of North Carolina (1866-82), and
published many papers and reports on his subject. John Muir
(1838-1914), geologist, explorer, naturalist, and author, was born in
Dunbar. "No man since Thoreau ever had keener sympathy with nature, a
quicker vision for her mysteries, or a surer speech for their
interpretation." The establishment of the Yosemite and Sequoia
National Parks and the great Sierra Forest Reservation are due to his
writings. The famous Muir Glacier in Alaska, discovered by him in
1879, will forever blazon his name. Other distinguished geologists who
may be briefly mentioned are: Samuel Calvin (1840-1911), Professor of
Geology in the University of Iowa, born in Wigtownshire; John James
Stevenson (b. 1841), educator and geologist, of Scottish parentage;
Erwin Hinckly Barbour (b. 1856), professor of Geology in the
University of Nebraska; and William Berryman Scott (b. 1858), the
distinguished geologist and palaeontologist of Princeton University.

Asa Gray (1810-88), the greatest of American botanists, was a
descendant of one of the Ulster Scot settlers of 1718. Dr. Alexander
Garden (1728-92), famous as a physician and botanist, was Professor of
Botany in King's College (now Columbia University). His son was a
distinguished Revolutionary officer. Thomas Huston Macbride (b. 1848),
President Emeritus of the State University of Iowa, who has written
much of value on botany, is of Scottish ancestry. Beverly Thomas
Galloway (b. 1863), descended from John Galloway, an emigrant from
Scotland in 1680, Chief of the Division of Plant Industry of the
United States Department of Agriculture, Assistant Secretary of
Agriculture in 1913-14, is the author of several works on plant
diseases. David Trembly Macdougal (b. 1865), Director of the Botanical
Research Department of the Carnegie Institution of Washington since
1905, is the grandson of a Scottish immigrant. His studies relate
especially to plant physiology, heredity, and organic evolution.

Stephen Alexander (1806-83), son of a native of Scotland, wrote much
on astronomy, and was chief of the expedition to the coast of Labrador
to observe the solar eclipse in August, 1869. James Ferguson
(1797-1867), an Engineer employed on the construction of the Erie
Canal, was born in Perthshire. He was later Assistant Astronomer at
the United States Naval Observatory, and discovered three asteroids,
for which he received medals from the French Academy of Sciences.
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel (1810-62), who was Director of the Cincinnati
Observatory (1845) and later of the Dudley Observatory (1859),
inventor of the chronograph and other astronomical apparatus, and
became a General in the Civil War, was probably also of Scottish
origin. Maria Mitchell (1818-89), daughter of William Mitchell
(1791-1868), also an astronomer, became Professor of Astronomy in
Vassar College, LL.D. of Columbia University (1887), and was the first
woman elected to the American Academy of Sciences. Lewis Morris
Rutherfurd (1816-92), one of the most distinguished astronomers on the
American Continent, obtained important results in astronomical
photography, and by means of a ruling engine, designed by him in 1870,
constructed the finest diffraction-gratings which had, up to that
time, been made, was of Scottish ancestry. George Davidson
(1825-1911), born in England of Scottish parentage, geodetist and
astronomer, one of the founders of the Geographical Society of the
Pacific, Regent of the University of California, was retired after
fifty years' active field service of incalculable value to the cause
of science. William Harkness (1837-1903), born in Ecclefechan,
Dumfriesshire, was executive officer of the Transit of Venus
Commission (1882). The task of reducing the observations and the
hundreds of photographs was successfully undertaken by him although
declared impossible by eminent British and German astronomers. He was
later Astronomical Director of the Naval Observatory and in 1897 made
head of the Nautical Almanac. Williamina (Mina) Paton Fleming
(1857-1911), born in Dundee, discovered many new stars and wrote much
of permanent value on her subject. William Wallace Campbell (b. 1862),
of Scottish ancestry, has been Director of Lick Observatory since
1901, and has written much on astronomy.

The most interesting Scot in connection with horticulture in the
United States is Grant Thorburn (1773-1861), who was born in Dalkeith
and left his native country for political reasons in 1794. After
trying a number of occupations he finally established himself as a
seed merchant in New York, and the business is still carried on under
his name. Under the pen name of "Lawrie Todd" he contributed to the
_Knickerbocker Magazine_ and other New York periodicals, and supplied
John Galt, the novelist, with much of the information incorporated in
his "Lawrie Todd; or, Settlers in the New World." Thorburn also
published two volumes of reminiscences, "Forty Years' Residence in
America," and "Fifty Years' Reminiscences of New York." William Adair,
born near Glasgow in 1815, developed a profitable business as gardener
and horticulturist in Michigan, and served as State Senator from 1861
to 1865, 1869-70. Peter Henderson (1822-90), born at Pathhead near
Edinburgh, founded the firm of Peter Henderson and Co.,
horticulturists and seedsmen, one of the largest firms of its kind in
existence. William Saunders (1822-1900), born in St. Andrews, planted
and laid out several large estates, beautified Fairmount and Hunting
Parks in Philadelphia, and the park and garden system of Washington,
D.C., the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, etc. William Macmillan,
born in Nairnshire, laid out the public parks of Buffalo, and William
R. Smith, a native of Haddingtonshire, was for many years
Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens at Washington. Robert Buist
(1805-80), born in Edinburgh, was also one of the greatest
horticulturists in the United States.




SCOTS AS PHYSICIANS


A prominent physician of early colonial times was Dr. Gustavus Brown
(1689-1765), born in Dalkeith, and died in Maryland. Dr. Gustavus
Richard Brown (1747-1804), born in Maryland and educated at Edinburgh
University, his son, also made a reputation for himself as a physician
of ability. Dr. Gustavus Brown (1744-1801), grandson of the first
named, was summoned to attend President Washington in his last
illness. Dr. John Lining (1708-1760), born in Scotland, settled in
Charleston, S.C., in 1730, gained a large practice through his skill
as a physician, and a distinguished reputation in Europe as a
scientist from his experiments in electricity, etc. His meteorological
observations were probably the first ever published. In 1751 he issued
his "History of the Yellow Fever," "which was the first that had been
given to the public from the American continent." Dr. Lionel Chalmers
(1715-1777), born in Argyllshire, practised in South Carolina for more
than forty years, and was the first to treat of the soil, climate,
weather, and diseases of that state. He "left behind him the name of a
skilful, humane physician." Dr. James Craik (1731-1814),
physician-general of the United States Army, was born at Arbigland,
near Dumfries, and for nearly forty years was the intimate friend of
Washington, and his physician in his last illness. One of the earliest
introducers of vaccination into America and an original investigator
into the cause of disease was Dr. John Crawford (1746-1813), of Ulster
Scots birth. As early as 1790 he had conceived what is now known as
the germ theory of disease. Dr. Adam Stephen, born in Scotland, died
at Martinsburg, West Virginia, in 1791, took part in the French and
Indian wars and was an active participant in the Revolutionary War on
the side of the colonists. The town of Martinsburg in Berkeley County
was laid out by him. Dr. George Buchanan (1763-1808), founder of the
Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, was a grandson of George
Buchanan, the Scot who laid out Baltimore town in 1730. Dr. John
Spence (1766-1829), born in Scotland, educated at Edinburgh
University, settled in Virginia in 1791, and obtained a high
reputation as a judicious and successful practitioner. The "father of
ovariotomy," Dr. Ephraim McDowell (1771-1830), was born in Virginia of
Scots ancestry and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh.
James Brown McCaw (1772-1846), one of the leading surgeons in
Virginia for over thirty years, studied medicine in Edinburgh. He was
one of the first, if not the first, to tie the external carotid
artery, an operation he performed in 1807. He came of a race of
doctors, being the great-grandson of James McCaw, a surgeon who
emigrated from Wigtownshire in 1771. George McClellan (1796-1847) the
eminent surgeon and founder of the Jefferson Medical College at
Philadelphia, was of Scottish descent. His son, John Hill Brinton
McClellan (1823-74), was professor of anatomy in Pennsylvania Medical
College, and his grandson was George McClellan (1849-1913), the
eminent Philadelphia anatomist. Dr. Peter Middleton (d. 1781), a
native of Scotland, made the first dissection on record in this
country before a class of students and in 1767 established a Medical
School in New York which was subsequently merged in the King's (now
Columbia) College. Dr. William Currie (1754-1823), served in the
medical service during the Revolutionary War, and was reputed one of
the most gifted men of his time as physician and classical scholar.
Horatio Gates Jameson (1778-1855), distinguished physician and
surgeon, was son of Dr. David Jameson who had emigrated to Charleston
in 1740 in company with Dr. (afterwards General) Hugh Mercer.
Granville Sharp Pattison (1791-1851), anatomist, born near Glasgow,
held several professional appointments in this country and founded the
Medical Department of the University of the City of New York. Dr. John
Kearsley Mitchell (1793-1858), poet, botanist, and eminent physician
of Philadelphia, was son of Dr. Alexander Mitchell who came from
Scotland in 1786. His son, Dr. Silas Weir Mitchell, born in 1829, was
distinguished for his researches in toxicology, the nervous system,
etc., and as one of the most distinguished of American authors. One of
the founders of the City Hospital, Albany, and Surgeon-General of New
York State, was Dr. James McNaughton (1796-1874), born at Kenmore,
Aberfeldy. Dr. Daniel McRuer (1802-73), born in Knapdale, Argyllshire,
"a typical Scotchman with a 'burr' in his talk," performed great
service in the Civil War as an army Surgeon. Dr. John Watson
(1807-1863), organizer of one of the first dispensaries for the
treatment of skin diseases and introducer of reforms in the New York
Hospital, was an Ulster Scot. John Murray Carnochan (1817-87), one of
the most distinguished surgeons of his day, was of Scottish parentage.
Ferdinand Campbell Stuart (b. 1815), inventor of various instruments
used in genito-urinary diseases and one of the founders of the New
York Academy of Medicine, was grandson of Rev. Archibald Campbell of
Argyllshire. Dr. David Hayes Agnew (1818-92) was of Scottish descent.
In his work "he attained a degree of eminence which has rarely, if
ever, been equaled, and to which our own times and generation furnish
no parallel." William Thomas Green Morton (1819-68), the discoverer of
anaesthesia, was also of Scottish origin. Dr. Robert Alexander Kinloch
(1826-91), of Scottish parentage, was the first American surgeon to
resect the knee joint for chronic cases, also the first to treat
fractures of the lower jaw and other bones by wiring the fragments,
and was also the first in any country to perform a laparotomy for
gunshot wounds in the abdomen without protrusion of the viscera. Dr.
George Troup Maxwell (1827-1879), was inventor of the laryngoscope.
James Ridley Taylor (1821-1895), who entered the medical profession
after middle life, at the end of a long career passed as a mechanical
engineer, and achieved success and fame in his profession, was born in
Ayr, Scotland. He probably inherited his mechanical skill from his
uncle, John Taylor of Dalswinton, who constructed the steam engine
along with Symington. James Henry McLean (1829-86), physician and
Member of Congress, was born in Scotland. Dr. James Craig (1834-88),
obstetrician, born in Glasgow, graduated at the University of the City
of New York, attended over four thousand cases without the loss of a
mother, was inventor of several surgical appliances, and was the first
to demonstrate hydriodic acid as a curative in acute inflammatory
rheumatism. Professor Alexander Johnson Chalmers Skene (1837-1900), of
Brooklyn, born in Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, was perhaps the most famous
Gynecologist in America. He was author of many treatises on his
special subject. Prof. Charles McBurney (b. 1845), the famous surgeon,
was of Scottish ancestry. Neil Jamieson Hepburn, born in Orkney in
1846, oculist and aurist, held many positions of responsibility.
Charles Smith Turnbull (b. 1847), oculist and eminent specialist in
diseases of the ear, was of Scottish parentage. Alexander Hugh
Ferguson (1853-1911), the famous Chicago surgeon of Scottish
parentage, was decorated by the King of Portugal for his skill in
surgery. Other prominent doctors and surgeons of Scottish origin whom
we have only space to name are: John Barclay Crawford (1828-94);
William Smith Forbes (1831-1905), grandson of Dr. David Forbes of
Edinburgh; John Minson Gait (d. 1808), and his son Alexander D. Gait
(1777-1841); Robert Ramsey Livingston (1827-88), the most prominent of
Nebraska's early physicians; and James Macdonald (1803-49), resident
physician of Bloomingdale Asylum.




SCOTS IN EDUCATION


The Scots have largely contributed to raise the standard of education
and culture in the United States. They furnished most of the principal
schoolmasters in the Revolutionary Colonies south of New York, and
many of the Revolutionary leaders were trained by them. While Harvard
still continued under the charge of a president and tutors and had but
one "professor," William and Mary College had had for many years a
full faculty of professors, graduates of the Scottish and English
universities. The Scots established the "Log College" at Nashaminy,
Pennsylvania, Jefferson College, Mercer College, Wabash College, and
Dickinson College; and in many places, before the cabins disappeared
from the roadside and the stumps from the fields, a college was
founded. The "Log College" was the seed from which Princeton College
sprang. The University for North Carolina, founded and nurtured by
Scots in 1793, and the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton
University are indebted to the same source for their present position.
William Gordon and Thomas Gordon, who founded a free school in the
county of Middlesex, Virginia, in the latter half of the seventeenth
century, were Scots; and Hugh Campbell, another Scot, an
Attorney-at-law in Norfolk county, Virginia, in 1691, deeded two
hundred acres of land in each of the counties of Norfolk, Isle of
Wight, and Nansemond, for free schools. James Innes, who came to
America from Canisbay, Caithness, in 1734, by his will gave his
plantation, a considerable personal estate, his library, and one
hundred pounds "for the use of a free school for the benefit of the
youth of North Carolina," the first private bequest for education in
the state. One of the first public acts of Gabriel Johnston,
Provincial Governor of North Carolina (1734-52), was to insist upon
the need of making adequate provision for a thorough school system in
the colony. Out of the host of names which present themselves in this
field of public service we have room only for the following:

James Blair (1656-1743), born in Edinburgh, was the chief founder and
first President of William and Mary College, and Mungo Inglis was the
first Grammar Master there till 1712. Francis Alison (1705-99), an
Ulster Scot educated in Glasgow, was Vice-Provost of the College of
Philadelphia, now the University of Pennsylvania. David Rhind, tutor
of John Rutledge, "an excellent classical scholar, and one of the most
successful of the early instructors of youth in Carolina," was of
Scottish birth. The tutor of Thomas Jefferson was also a Scot. Samuel
Finley (1715-66), born in Armagh of Scots ancestry, S.T.D. of Glasgow
University, 1763, was President of the College of New Jersey, and one
of the ancestors of Samuel Finley Breese Morse, inventor of the Morse
system of telegraphy. In educational work in the eighteenth century no
name stands higher than that of William Smith (1727-1803), born in
Aberdeen, first Provost of the College of Philadelphia. He was the
introducer of the system of class records now used in all American
universities. Isabella Graham (1742-1814), born in Lanarkshire, ranked
as one of the most successful teachers in New York at the end of the
eighteenth century. James Dunlap (1744-1818), of Scottish descent, was
President of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania. William Graham
(1745-99), was first President of Washington College (now Washington
and Lee University). Robert Patterson (1743-1824), a Scot of Ulster,
was Vice-Provost of the University of Pennsylvania (1810-13), and
Director of the United States Mint in Philadelphia (1805-24). His son,
Robert M. Patterson, succeeded him as Vice-Provost in 1828. Peter
Wilson (1746-1825), born at Ordiquhill, Aberdeenshire, published
several important text-books on Latin and Greek, was Member of the New
Jersey Legislature in 1777, and in 1783 was appointed to revise and
codify the laws of the state of New York. Thomas Craighead
(1750-1825), first President of Davidson Academy (1785-1809),
afterwards the University of Nashville, was great-grandson of Rev.
Robert Craighead who went from Scotland to Donoghmore in Ireland.
Joseph McKeen (1757-1807), first President of Bowdoin College, was of
Ulster Scot origin (1718). John Kemp (1763-1812), born at Auchlossan,
Aberdeenshire, became Professor of Mathematics in Columbia University.
He "had an important influence in moulding the views of De Witt
Clinton on topics of internal improvement and national policy." John
Brown (1763-1842), Professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy in the
University of South Carolina, was afterwards third President of the
University of Georgia. Joseph Caldwell (1773-1835) was Founder and
President of the University of North Carolina. Jesse Mercer
(1769-1841), Founder of Mercer University, was the grandson of a
Scottish emigrant to Virginia. Robert Finley (1772-1817), Trustee of
the College of New Jersey (1807-17) and fourth President of the
University of Georgia, was of Scottish parentage. John Mitchell Mason
(1770-1829), fourth President of Dickinson College and for several
years Foreign Secretary of the American Bible Society, was the son of
Dr. John Mason, born in Linlithgow. Both were ministers of the
Associate Church in New York. Archibald Alexander (1772-1851), fourth
President of Hampden-Sidney College, Virginia (1796-1806), and
Professor in Princeton Theological Seminary (1812-51), was of Scottish
parentage. James Waddell Alexander (1804-59), Professor of Rhetoric
and Belles-Lettres at Princeton (1833-44) and of Ecclesiastical
History and Church Government in Princeton Theological Seminary
(1844-51) was his son. Joseph Addison Alexander (1809-60), Orientalist
and Biblical critic, was another son of Archibald Alexander. Moses
Waddell (1770-1840), born in Iredell county, North Carolina, of
Scottish parentage, fifth President of the University of Georgia, was
one of the foremost teachers of his day. Samuel Brown Wylie
(1773-1852), Vice-Provost of the University of Pennsylvania (1834-45),
was born in Antrim of Scottish parents and educated in Glasgow. Joseph
McKean (1776-1818), Boyleston Professor of Rhetoric in Harvard
University (1809-18) was of Scottish parentage. Charles Macalister
(1798-1873), born in Philadelphia of Scottish parentage, intimate
friend of five Presidents, Government Director of the United States
Bank, was founder of Macalister College, Minneapolis. John Dempster
(1794-1863), President of the Illinois Wesleyan University, was of
Scottish parentage. Daniel Curry (1809-87) was President of De Pauw
University (1855-59). Andrew Harvie, born in Scotland before 1810,
became Principal of the Tecumseh branch of the State University of
Michigan (1839-40), Master of Chancery (1848), State Senator
(1850-51). Described as a "man of ability and thorough culture."
Nathaniel Macon Crawford (1811-71), fourth President of Mercer
University and afterwards President of Georgetown College, Kentucky,
was a son of William H. Crawford the statesman. John Forsyth
(1811-86), clergyman, author, and Professor of Latin in Rutgers
College, was of Scottish parentage, and received his education in
Edinburgh and Glasgow. James McCosh (1811-94), born at Carskeoch,
Ayrshire, was President of Princeton University from 1868 to 1888, and
was the author of many works on philosophy. John Fries Frazer
(1812-72), Vice-Provost of the University of Pennsylvania (1858-68),
was of Scottish ancestry. Louis Agassiz described him as "the first of
American physicists of his time." James Sidney Rollins (1812-88), of
Ulster Scot origin, for his efforts on behalf of education in his
state was declared by the Curators of the University of Missouri to
have won the honorable title of "Pater Universitatis Missouriensis."
Daniel Kirkwood (1814-95), mathematician and educator, grandson of
Robert Kirkwood who came from Scotland c. 1731, was Professor of
Mathematics at Indiana University (1856-86). David Chassel, "of Scotch
descent and Scotch characteristics," was tutor to Professor James
Hadley, America's greatest Greek scholar. Joshua Hall McIlvaine
(1815-97), a distinguished comparative philologist, was President of
Evelyn College, Princeton. Alexander Melville Bell (1819-1905), the
"Nestor of elocutionary science," inventor of the method of phonetic
notation of "visible speech," was born in Edinburgh. Alexander Martin
(1822-93), sixth President of De Pauw University, was born in Nairn,
Scotland. John Fraser (c. 1823-1878), second Chancellor of the
University of Arkansas, was born in Cromarty, Scotland. Malcolm
MacVicar, born in Argyllshire in 1829, was famous as an educator,
writer of text-books, and inventor of many devices to illustrate
principles in arithmetic, astronomy and geography. John Maclean
(1798-1886), tenth President of Princeton University, was of Scottish
parentage. Matthew Henry Buckham (b. 1832), eleventh President of the
University of Vermont, was born in England of Scottish parentage.
James Kennedy Patterson (b. 1833), first President of the Agricultural
and Mechanical College of Kentucky (1880-1901), was born in Glasgow.
David French Boyd (1834-99), second President of Louisiana State
University, and his brother, Thomas Duckett Boyd, also a University
President, were descended from John Boyd of Ayrshire, who emigrated to
Maryland in 1633. William Henry Scott (b. 1840), third President of
Ohio State University and Professor of Philosophy there, was of
Scottish ancestry. Neil Gilmour, born in Paisley, Scotland, in 1840,
was Superintendent of Public Instruction of New York State; and James
MacAlister (1840-1913), born in Glasgow, was the first Superintendent
of Schools in Philadelphia, where he introduced many reforms, notably
in the Kindergarten and in co-ordination of teaching. In 1891 he
became President of the Drexel Institute and was also author of
several works on education. Thomas Davidson (1840-1900), philosopher,
educator, and author, was born at Deer, Aberdeenshire. John McLaren
McBride (b. 1846), of Scottish parentage, was President of the
University of South Carolina. Gustavus Richard Glenn (b. 1848)
descended from Nicholas Glenn, an emigrant from Scotland, filled
several important educational positions and was afterwards President
of North Georgia Agricultural College. George Edwin Maclean (b. 1850),
a distinguished English and Anglo-Saxon scholar, was fifth Chancellor
of the University of Nebraska. William Milligan Sloan (b. 1850),
author, educator, and Professor of History in Columbia University, is
descended from William Sloane, a native of Ayr, who settled here in
the beginning of the nineteenth century. James Cameron Mackenzie (b.
1852), born in Aberdeen, is founder of the Mackenzie School for Boys
at Dobbs Ferry (1901) and a frequent contributor to educational
publications. James Hervey Hyslop (b. 1854), philosopher,
psychologist, and educator, was grandson of George Hyslop of
Roxburghshire. He devoted many years to psychical research. James
Geddes (b. 1858), philologist and Professor of Romance Languages in
Boston University, is of Scottish parentage. Andrew Armstrong
Kincannon (1859-1917), Chancellor of the University of Mississippi,
was descendant of James Kincannon who came from Scotland c. 1720.
Edwin Boone Craighead (b. 1861), Professor of Greek at Wofford
College, South Carolina, and afterwards third President of Tulane
University, is of Scottish descent. John Huston Finley (b. 1863),
President of the College of the City of New York and New York State
Commissioner of Education, is a descendant of a brother of Samuel
Finley, President of Princeton College. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin,
born in 1861, Professor of American History in the University of
Michigan, is the son of a Peebles lawyer. Duncan Black Macdonald,
Professor of Semitic Languages at Hartford Theological Seminary, was
born in Glasgow in 1863. Richard Cockburn Maclaurin (1870-1920),
seventh President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was born
in Lindean, Selkirkshire. George Hutcheson Denny (b. 1870), Professor
of Latin in Washington and Lee University, and later President of the
same institution, and James Gray McAllister (b. 1872), sixteenth
President of Hampden-Sidney College, are both of Scottish descent.
William Allan Neilson, born in Doune, Perthshire, was Professor of
English in Harvard University (1906-17), and is now President of Smith
College, Northampton, Massachusetts. William Douglas Mackenzie,
President of Hartford Theological Seminary Foundation, is a son of
John Mackenzie of Knockando, Morayshire, and was born in Fauresmith,
South Africa, in 1859.

As librarians may legitimately be included under the head of
educators, the following individuals may be mentioned: John Forbes
(1771-1824), born in Scotland, was Librarian of the New York Society
Library. His son, Philip Jones Forbes (1807-77), was Librarian of the
same institution from 1828 to 1855, and his son, John born in 1846,
afterwards became Librarian there. Morris Robeson Hamilton (b. 1820),
State Librarian of New Jersey, was descendant of John Hamilton, acting
Governor of New Jersey (d. 1746). John Cochrane Wilson (1828-1905),
Librarian of the Law Library of the Equitable Life Assurance Company.
Miss Catherine Wolf Bruce established a Free Circulating Library in
Forty-second Street in memory of her father, George Bruce the
type-founder, in 1888. It is now a branch of the New York Public
Library.




SCOTS IN LITERATURE


John Lawson (c. 1658-1711), Surveyor-General of North Carolina, a
native of Aberdeen, published "A New Voyage to Carolina," in 1709,
reprinted 1714, 1718, 1737, 1860, and twice translated into German
(1712, 1722). Lawson was cruelly murdered by the Tuscaroras. Hugh
Henry Brackenridge (1748-1816), born near Campbeltown, Argyllshire,
Judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, was author of a political
satire, "Modern Chivalry," a work now extremely rare. David Ramsay
(1749-1815), physician and patriot, of Ulster Scot descent, Delegate
to the Continental Congress, was author of historical works relating
to the Revolution and to South Carolina. Gilbert Imlay, born about
1755 in New Jersey of Scottish parents, was the first Kentucky
novelist, author of "The History of an Expatriated Family" (1793),
etc. Robert Dinsmoor (1757-1836), poet, was brother of Governor
Dinsmoor of New Hampshire. Hugh McCall (1767-1824), author of the
first "History of Georgia," (published in 2 v., 1811-16), was of
Scottish descent. His ancestor emigrated from Dumbartonshire to Ulster
along with the ancestor of J.C. Calhoun. The ancestors of both
remained two generations in Ulster before coming to America. The
greatest name in American literature is that of the son of the
Orcadian farmer, Washington Irving (1783-1859). He was the first who
won international honors for American literature. John Mellish or
Melish (1771-1822), born in Perthshire, died in Philadelphia, traveled
extensively in the United States and published several volumes of his
travels and also published many topographical and military maps. James
Murdock (1776-1856), of Ulster Scot descent, translated and edited
Mosheim's "Institutes of Ecclesiastical History," Milman's "History of
Christianity," etc. Henry Marie Brackenridge (1786-1871), author and
jurist, was son of the author of "Modern Chivalry." Thomas F. Gordon
(1789-1860), lawyer and historian of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, etc.,
was of Scottish ancestry. Augustus Baldwin Longstreet (1790-1870),
lawyer, newspaper editor, author of "Georgia Scenes" (1840), etc., was
son of the inventor. Lydia (Huntley) Sigourney (1791-1865), poet and
miscellaneous writer, was partly of Scots descent. Hew Ainslie
(1792-1878), author of a "Pilgrimage to the Land of Burns," etc., was
born in Ayrshire. David Paul Brown (1795-1872), born in Philadelphia
of Scottish parents, was author of "The Forum; or Forty Years of
Practice at the Philadelphia Bar." James Lawson (1799-1880), newspaper
editor and dramatist, was born in Glasgow and died in Yonkers. Angus
Umphraville of Missouri, the unknown author of "Missourian Lays" (St.
Louis, 1821), was most probably a Scot. His verses are described as
"simply wonderful." Maria J. McIntosh (1803-78), authoress, was
descended from the McIntoshes of Georgia. George Washington Bethune
(1805-62) of New York, a graceful poet and eloquent orator, was the
son of Divie Bethune, a native of Dingwall. Robert Shelton Mackenzie
(1808-80), born in Dublin of Scottish parentage, was editor of the
standard edition of "Noctes Ambrosianae," and in 1834 became the first
regular salaried correspondent of an American newspaper, the New York
"Evening Star." Rev. Robert Turnbull (1809-77), born at Whitburn,
Linlithgowshire, edited the "Christian Review" for many years and was
author of several works. James C. Moffat (1811-90), orientalist, poet,
and Professor of Classics in Lafayette College, author of "Comparative
History of Religions," etc., was born in Glencree, Wigtownshire.
Robert Macfarlane (1812-83), Editor of the "Scientific American," and
author of two or three technical treatises, was born in Rutherglen.
John Milton Mackie (1813-94), of Scottish ancestry, was author of
several important biographical works. William Secular (1814-72), born
in Kilbarchan, Editor of the Lowell "Courier" (1841-47), published the
"History of Massachusetts in the Civil War" (1868-71). Arthur
MacArthur (1815-96), Jurist and Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin
(1856-58), born in Glasgow, was author of "Education in Relation to
Manual Industry" (1884) and "Biography of the English Language"
(1889). William Ross Wallace (1819-81), author of "Perdita," etc., was
described by Bryant as "a born poet." Donald Macleod (1821-65), son of
the Rev. Alexander Macleod of Mull, Professor of Rhetoric in Mount St.
Mary's College, Ohio, was author of historical and other works. His
brother, Xavier Donald Macleod, was a poet and miscellaneous writer.
Donald Grant Mitchell (1822-1908), "Ik Marvel," was of Scottish
descent, and so was General Lew Wallace (1827-1905), author of "Ben
Hur," etc. James Grant Wilson (1832-1914), son of the poet publisher,
William Wilson, of Poughkeepsie, was born in Edinburgh, and attained
the rank of General in the Civil War. He was afterwards author of
several important biographical and historical works. William Swinton
(1833-92), journalist, was correspondent of New York "Times"
(1862-64), and author, was born in Haddingtonshire. He "produced many
educational works which were widely adopted in both private and public
schools throughout the country." Henry Ward Beecher called him the
"American Napier" from the vividness of his historical descriptions.
David Gray (1836-88), editor of the Buffalo "Courier" and poet, was
born in Edinburgh. John Clark Ridpath (1841-1900), educator,
historian, and author, was decended from the old Border family of
Redpath. He was the author of "Great Races of Mankind" (1893),
"History of the World" (1898), etc. Katherine Margaret Brownlee (b.
1841), a descendant of the Brownlees of Torwood, was author of several
volumes of poetry. Leonard Allison Morrison (b. 1843) of New
Hampshire, was a descendant of John Morrison who went from Scotland to
Londonderry and thence to Londonderry, New Hampshire, in 1723. Always
devoted to literary studies, as a historical and genealogical writer
he has earned an enviable reputation. James Morrison Steele Mackaye
(1842-94), actor and dramatist, was grandson of William Kay who came
from Scotland about 1800. His son, Percy Wallace Mackaye (b. 1875) is
a distinguished dramatist and poet. Wallace Bruce (b. 1844), poet and
essayist, was descended from George Bruce who came from Scotland in
1635. While United States Consul at Edinburgh (1889-93) he secured the
erection of a statue of Lincoln in the Calton Burial Ground, to
commemorate the services of Scottish-American soldiers in the Civil
War. James Kennedy, born at Aberlemno, Forfarshire, in 1850, is a
well-known poet, author, and lecturer. John D. Ross, born in Edinburgh
in 1853, is author of several literary works particularly relating to
Scotland. Francis Marion Crawford (1854-1909), the novelist, son of
Thomas Crawford the sculptor, was also of Scottish descent. Henry
Morse Stephens, the historian, was born in Edinburgh in 1857. Ernest
Evan Seton-Thompson (b. 1860), artist, author, and naturalist, and
Charles William Wallace (b. 1865), philologist and Shakespearean
scholar, are both of Scottish descent. John Hanson Thomas McPherson
(b. 1865), historian and educator, author of "History of Liberia"
(1891), is a descendant of Robert McPherson who came from Scotland in
1738. George Barr McCutcheon (b. 1866), author of many widely read
works of fiction ("Graustark," "Brewster's Millions," etc.) is a
descendant of John McCutcheon who emigrated from Scotland in 1730.
Mary Johnston (b. 1870), author of "Prisoners of Hope" (1898), "To
have and to hold" (1899), etc., is a descendant of Peter Johnston who
emigrated to Virginia in 1727.




SCOTS IN THE CHURCH AND SOCIAL WELFARE


Francis Makemie (c. 1658-1708), the organizer of the first American
Presbytery, was born in Ulster of Scots parentage. In 1676 he went to
Glasgow to attend the classes in the University there, and his name
still stands in the matriculation register of the University:
"Franciscus Makemius ... Scoto-Hibernus," i.e. Francis Makemie, a Scot
of Ireland. In 1683 he was ordained by the Presbytery of Laggan and
sent over to the American colonies, where he immediately began the
organization of churches and presbyteries. William Traill, another
Scot, Moderator of the Presbytery of Laggan, was sent over shortly
before Makemie but he confined his work to preaching. George Gillespie
(1683-1760), born in Glasgow, was one of the earliest ordained
ministers in New Jersey and Delaware. Alexander Garden (1685-1756), an
Episcopalian, born in Edinburgh, settled in Charleston, South
Carolina, as Rector of St. Philip's Episcopal Church. Samuel Auchmuty
(1722-77), son of the eminent Scottish lawyer of Boston, was Rector of
Trinity Church, New York city, and had charge of all the churches
there. Thomas Gordon, the "fighting parson" of Bacon's Rebellion
(1676) was a Scot. Henry Barclay (1712-64), Rector of Trinity Church,
New York, Trustee of the New York Society Library, and a Governor of
Columbia University, was the son of John Barclay, a Scot, Surveyor
General of East New Jersey. Robert Sandeman (1718-71), born in Perth,
and died in Danbury, Connecticut, was principal founder of the
Sandemanians or Glassites. John Mason, a native of Linlithgow, "one of
the most accomplished preachers and pastors of his day," was appointed
Minister of the Scotch Presbyterian Church, New York, in 1761. James
Caldwell (1734-81), soldier parson of the Revolution, was of Scots
parentage or descent. Finding the Revolutionary soldiers short of
wadding he distributed the church hymn books among them, with the
exhortation, "Now, boys, put Watts into them." His son, John E.
Caldwell, was one of the founders of the American Bible Society.
Alexander McWhorter (1734-1807), of Scottish parentage, took an active
part in Revolutionary matters and was a Trustee of Princeton College.
McWhorter Street in Newark, New Jersey, is named in his honor. James
Waddell (1739-1805), famous in Virginia as "The Blind Preacher," was
probably a grandson or great-grandson of William Waddell of Monkland
parish, Scotland, one of the prisoners captured at Bothwell Brig in
1679. Samuel McClintock (1732-1804), minister of Greenland, New
Hampshire, of Scottish origin, was present at Bunker Hill and appears
in Trumbull's painting of the battle. Four of his sons served in the
Revolutionary war. Alexander McLeod (1774-1833), born in the island of
Mull, died in New York as Pastor of the First Reformed Church.
Described as "a powerful preacher, a man of learning and wisdom, and a
devout Christian." George Buist (1770-1808), born in Fifeshire,
Scotland, educated in Edinburgh, "one of the most eloquent and
distinguished divines of his day," was Pastor of the Scots Church in
Charleston and President of the College of Charleston. Alexander
Campbell (1786-1866), founder of the Campbellites, was born in Antrim
of Scots ancestry. Walter Scott, another of the founders, was born in
Moffat, Dumfriesshire. John Dempster (1794-1843), founder of Boston
Theological Seminary, which afterwards became the Theological School
of Boston University, was of Scots parentage. Peter Douglas Gorrie
(1813-84), clergyman, and historian of the Methodist Church in the
United States, was born in Glasgow. John McClintock (1814-70), of Drew
Theological Seminary and leading editor of McClintock and Strong's
"Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature,"
was of Scottish descent. Robert Stuart MacArthur, born in Canada, in
1841, of Scots parentage, Minister of Calvary Baptist Church, New
York, has published many volumes of sermons, essays, and narratives of
travel. Robert Mackenzie (b. 1845), President of San Francisco
Theological Seminary, was born in Cromarty. Robert McIntyre (b. 1851),
Methodist Episcopal Bishop of California, was born in Selkirk. Joseph
Plumb Cochran, Medical Missionary to Persia, the "Hakim Sahib" of the
natives, was grandson of a Scot. John Alexander Dowie (1848-1907),
founder of the so-called "Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in
Zion," was born in Edinburgh. Mary M. Baker Glover Eddy (1821-1910),
claimed partly Scots descent (from MacNeils of Barra).

Charles Pettigrew (1743-1807), Bishop of the Diocese of North
Carolina, was of Scottish descent. James Kemp (1764-1827), second
Bishop of Maryland, was born at Keithhall in Aberdeenshire. Charles
Pettit McIlvaine (1799-1873), Bishop of Ohio (1832-73), author of
"Evidences of Christianity," 1832, was also of Scottish origin, from
the MacIlvaines of Ayrshire. William Edward McLaren (1831-1905), third
Bishop of Chicago, was grandson of a Scot. The first missionary Bishop
of Duluth, James Dow Morrison (b. 1844), was son of Rev. John Morrison
and his wife who emigrated from Glasgow in 1837. Abram Newkirk
Littlejohn (1824-91), first Bishop of Long Island, was a descendant of
Hugh Littlejohn of Perthshire. James Steptoe Johnston (b. 1843),
second Bishop of western Texas, was of Scottish descent; and Hugh
Miller Thompson (1830-1902), second Bishop of Mississippi, was an
Ulster Scot, born in Londonderry.

Richard Gilmour (1824-91), second Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese
of Cleveland (1872-91), born in Glasgow, Scotland, of Presbyterian
parents, was noted for his zeal in behalf of Catholic education.
Robert Seton (b. 1839), a descendent of the Setons of Winton, was
created Archbishop of Heliopolis in 1903. Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton
(1774-1821), of the same family, was founder of the Roman Catholic
Order of Sisters of Charity (1809), of which she was the first Mother
Superior.

John McLean (1759-1823), merchant and philanthropist, was founder of
McLean Asylum for Insane at Somerville, Massachusetts. Robert Rantoul
(1778-1848), of Scottish parentage, worked hard to ameliorate the
criminal legislation of the country, and took part in establishing a
charity school at Beverly, Massachusetts, which was said to be the
first Sunday School in America. Mrs. Graham, a Scotswoman, celebrated
in New York city for her benevolence and charity, founded a Sunday
School in New York for young women in 1792. The movement however
languished for some years until her daughter, Mrs. Bethune, also born
in Scotland, organized the Female Sabbath School Union of New York in
1816. By her work in this connection Mrs. Bethune earned her title of
"Mother of Sabbath Schools in America." Fanny Wright (1795-1852),
Madame Frances D'Arusmont, born in Dundee, Scotland, lectured
extensively in the United States on social, religious, and political
questions, and was the author of "Views on Society and Manners in
America," etc. Robert Dale Owen (1801-77), born in Glasgow, social
reformer, spiritualist, author, and Member of Congress from Indiana
(1843-47), was a strong advocate of negro emancipation. James Miller
McKim (1810-1874), of Ulster Scot descent, was one of the organizers
of the National Anti-Slavery Society (1835), later publishing agent of
the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society, and in 1865 one of the founders
of the New York "Nation." Albert Brisbane (1809-90), of Scottish and
English descent, was the "Father of American Fourierism." Albert Keith
Smiley (1828-1912), educator and reformer, was born in Maine of
Scottish ancestry; and Thomas Kirby Cree, of Ulster Scot origin, was
Secretary for twenty-five years of the International Committee of the
Young Mens' Christian Association. John MacVicar born in Canada in
1859 of Scottish parents, was one of the originators of the Commission
form of government, developing what became known as the "Des Moines
Plan." James Duncan, born in Kincardine in 1857, is the well-known
Labor Leader.




SCOTS AS LAWYERS


John Mercer (1704-68), author of "An exact abridgment of all the
public Acts of Assembly," Williamsburg, 1737, was a descendant of the
Mercers of Aldie. Robert Auchmuty (born in Scotland, died in Boston,
1750), and his sons were distinguished lawyers of Colonial times. Hugh
Maxwell (1787-1873), born in Paisley, was Assistant Judge Advocate
General (1814) and District Attorney of New York (1819-29). Edward
Duffield Ingraham (1793-1854), of Scottish descent, was at the head of
the legal profession of his time in Philadelphia. He was also an
eminent bibliophile, possessing a library of thirty thousand volumes.
Robert Rantoul (1805-52), of Scots ancestry, was member of the first
Commission to Revise the Laws of Massachusetts, Member of the first
Massachusetts Board of Education, "an honor intended to be conferred
only on such as were well qualified by their literary acquisitions to
discharge its responsible duties." He was also a prominent agitator
against the fugitive slave law, and organizer and corporator of the
Illinois Central Railroad, the first transcontinental line projected.
John Jay McGilvra (1827-1903), of Scots parentage, took part in many
prominent enterprises for the public benefit in Washington State, and
forced the Northern Pacific Railroad to restore five million acres to
public domain. Lawrence Maxwell, born in Glasgow in 1853, was
Solicitor-General of the United States (1893-95), and also held many
other important positions. David Robert Barclay, author of the well
known "Barclay's Digest" of the decisions of the Supreme Court (St.
Louis, 1868) was of Scots descent. William Birch Rankine (1858-1905)
of Scots parentage, took up the work of developing Niagara power and
founded the Niagara Falls Power Company (1886). Thomas M. Logan (b.
1840), lawyer, soldier, and railroad officer was a descendant of Logan
of Restalrig. David Clarence Gibboney (b. 1869), Special Counsel for
the Pure Food Commission in 1906, grandson of a Scot, has also made a
reputation for prosecution of gamblers, dive-keepers, illicit liquor
dealers, etc., in Philadelphia.




SCOTS IN ART, ARCHITECTURE, ETC.


John Smibert (c. 1684-1751), born in Edinburgh, came to America in
1728 and settled in Boston, where he met success as a portrait
painter. He was the first painter of merit in the colonies, and
painted portraits of many of the eminent magistrates and divines of
New England and New York between 1725 and 1751, the year of his death.
His work had much influence on the American artist, John Singleton
Copley. Gilbert Charles Stuart (1755-1828), born in Rhode Island of
Scottish parents, was the foremost American portrait painter of his
day. He painted several portraits of Washington, and also portraits of
Presidents John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Justice
Story, Fisher Ames, John Jacob Astor and others. Cosmo Alexander, a
skilled portrait painter, born in Scotland, was his teacher for a
time. Charles Fraser (1782-1860), born in Charleston, South Carolina,
of Scottish ancestry, first studied law and retired with a competency.
He then took up art and achieved eminent success in miniature painting
and as a painter of landscapes, pictures of genre, still life, etc.
William Dunlap (1766-1839), artist and dramatist, founder and early
Vice-President of the National Academy of Design, was of Ulster Scot
descent. His family name was originally Dunlop. Robert Walter Weir
(1803-89), of Scots parentage, is best known for his historical
pictures, he being one of the first in America to take up this branch
of the art. "The Embarkation of the Pilgrims" (1836-40) in the Rotunda
of the Capitol at Washington is by him. Russell Smith, born in Glasgow
in 1812, was a scientific draughtsman and landscape painter. Two of
his finest landscapes, "Chocorua Peak" and "Cave at Chelton Hills"
were exhibited in the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876. His son,
Xanthus (b. 1839), was a well-known marine and landscape painter and
painted many of the naval engagements of the Civil War. James Hope,
born near Abbotsford in 1818, settled in New York in 1853,
distinguished as a landscapist, was chosen an Associate of the
National Academy in 1865. Alexander Hay Ritchie (1822-95), born in
Glasgow and educated in Edinburgh, was a most successful painter in
oils as well as an engraver in stipple and mezzotint. His paintings of
the "Death of Lincoln" and "Washington and his Generals," obtained
great popularity. As a portrait painter fine examples of his work are
"Dr. McCosh" of Princeton, "Henry Clay," etc. He also did a good deal
of book illustrating. Thomas Lachlan Smith (d. 1884), also born in
Glasgow, was noted for his Winter scenes. Two notable pictures of his,
"The Deserted House" and "The Eve of St. Agnes," were exhibited at the
Centennial Exhibition. Still another Glasgow artist, John Williamson
(1826-85), born at the Tollcross in that famous city, became an
Associate of the National Academy, and made the scenery of the Hudson
and the Catskills his special study as shown by his "The Palisades,"
"Sugar Loaf Mountain," "Autumn in the Adirondacks," etc. William Hart
(1823-94), born in Paisley, became an Academican in 1857, and was
afterwards President of the Brooklyn Academy and of the American Water
Color Society. James McDougall Hart (1828-1901), born in Kilmarnock,
brother of William Hart, already mentioned, Academican of the National
Academy of Design, was noted for his landscapes and paintings of
cattle and sheep. His "Summer Memory of Berkshire" and his "Indian
Summer" attracted considerable attention at the Paris Salon in 1878.
James David Smillie (1833-1909), son of James Smillie, the Scottish
engraver, during the Civil War made designs for government bonds and
greenbacks. In 1864 he took up landscape painting and was one of the
founders of the American Water Color Society (1867) and National
Academican in 1876. His brother, George Henry Smillie (b. 1840), was
also distinguished as a landscape painter. He made a sketching tour in
the Rocky Mountains and the Yosemite Valley in 1871, and became a
National Academican in 1882. Walter Shirlaw, born in Paisley,
Scotland, in 1838, died in Madrid, Spain, in 1909, was the first
President of the Society of American Artists. His easel pictures "are
marked by rich color and fine composition, and he is one of the few
American artists who have successfully painted the nude. His
water-colors and etchings have brought him high reputation in these
forms of expression." Walter MacEwen, born in Chicago of Scottish
parents, has painted many pictures and has received medals and
decorations for his work. In 1895-96 he painted nine large panels and
a number of small ones for the Hall of Heroes in the Library of
Congress. George Inness (1825-94), the famous American painter, is
believed to have been of Scottish ancestry. James T. Dick (1834-68),
William Keith (b. Aberdeenshire, 1839), Robert Frank Dallas (b. 1855),
John White Alexander (b. 1856), Robert Bruce Crane (b. 1857), Addison
Thomas Miller (b. 1860), and John Humpreys Johnston, are all artists
of Scottish parentage or Scottish ancestry. John Robinson Tait (b.
1834), artist and author, son of a native of Edinburgh, has written
much on art subjects. John Wesley Beatty (b. 1851), Art Director of
the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, is of Scottish parentage. John
Ward Dunsmore (b. 1856), Director of the Detroit Museum of Arts and
Founder of the Detroit School of Arts; and John Ferguson Weir (b.
1841), Dean of the School of Fine Arts at Yale University, are of
Scottish descent.

Alexander Lawson (1773-1846), born in Lanarkshire, died in
Philadelphia, was famous as the engraver of the best plates in
Alexander Wilsons's _Ornithology_ and the plates on conchology for
Haldeman and Binney. His son, Oscar A. Lawson (1813-54), was chart
engraver of the United States Coast Survey, 1840-51. Samuel Allerdice
engraved a large number of plates of Dobson's edition of Rees's
_Cyclopaedia_, 1794-1803. Hugh Anderson, a Scot, did good line and
stipple work in Philadelphia in the first quarter of the nineteenth
century. George Murray, born in Scotland, died in Philadelphia in
1822, organized the bank-note and engraving firm of Murray, Draper,
Fairman & Co., in 1810-11, the best note engravers in this country in
their day. John Vallance, also born in Scotland, died in Philadelphia
in 1823, was one of the founders of the Association of Artists in
America, and Treasurer of the Society of Artists in Philadelphia in
1810. James Smillie (1807-85), born in Edinburgh, died in New York,
was celebrated as an engraver of bank notes and as an engraver of
landscapes. Among his best works are Cole's series "The Voyage of
Life," and Bierstadt's "Rocky Mountains." Dr. Alexander Anderson
(1775-1870), the "Bewick of America," born in New York of Scots
parentage, at the age of ninety-three engraved some illustrations for
Barbour's "Historical Collections of New Jersey." Robert Hinschelwood,
born in Edinburgh in 1812, studied under Sir William Allen, was
landscape engraver for Harpers and other New York publishers and also
engraver for the Continental Bank Note Company. John Geikie Wellstood,
born in Edinburgh in 1813, was another eminent engraver. In 1858 his
firm was merged in the American Bank Note Co., and in 1871 he founded
the Columbian Bank Note Company of Washington, D.C. He also made many
improvements in the manufacture of banknotes. Charles Burt (c.
1823-92), born in Edinburgh, died in Brooklyn, a pupil of William Home
Lizars of Edinburgh, did some fine plates and portraits for books and
for several years was one of the chief engravers for the Treasury
Department in Washington. Hezekiah Wright Smith, born in Edinburgh, in
1828, engraved portraits of Daniel Webster, Edward Everett, and his
head of Washington, after the Athenaeum head by Gilbert Stuart, is said
to be "the best engraving of this famous portrait ever made."
Nathaniel Orr (b. 1822), of Scottish ancestry, retired in 1888 "with
the reputation of having brought the art of wood engraving to the
highest perfection, and the signature 'Orr,' cut in the block was
always a sure guarantee of art excellence." Robert Shaw, born in
Delaware in 1859 of Scottish parentage, has made a reputation by his
etchings of famous historical buildings. His etching, the "Old Barley
Mill" ranks as one of the best etchings made in this country. A few
other Scottish engravers who produced good work were Robert Campbell,
William Charles (d. Philadelphia, 1820), Alexander L. Dick (1805),
W.H. Dougal (he dropped the "Mac" for some reason), Helen E. Lawson
(daughter of Alexander Lawson already mentioned), John Roberts
(1768-1803), William Main Smillie (1835-88), son of James Smillie
mentioned above, and William Wellstood (1819-1900).

John Crookshanks King (1806-82), born in Kilwinning, Ayrshire,
emigrated to America in 1829, and died in Boston, was celebrated for
his busts of Daniel Webster, John Quincy Adams, Louis Agassiz, the
naturalist, Ralph Waldo Emerson, etc. He also excelled as a maker of
cameo portraits. Thomas Crawford (1814-57), one of the greatest if not
the greatest sculptor of America, was of Scottish descent. His works
include "Armed Liberty" (bronze doors), Beethoven, bust of John
Quincy, Washington, "Orpheus," etc. Frederick William MacMonnies, born
in Brooklyn in 1863 of Scottish parents (his father was a native of
Whithorn, Wigtownshire), is sculptor of the statue of Nathan Hale in
City Hall Park, New York; "Victory" at West Point, etc. Robert
Ingersoll Aitken, born in San Francisco of Scottish parents, is
designer of the monuments to President McKinley at St. Helena,
Berkeley, and in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. He also designed the
monument to the American Navy in Union Square, San Francisco. In 1906
he moved to New York and has executed busts of some of the most
prominent Americans of the day. Notable of his ideal sculptures are
"Bacchante" (1908), "The Flame" (1909), and "Fragment" (1909). John
Massey Rhind, Member of the National Sculpture Society, one of the
foremost sculptors of the present day, was born in Edinburgh in 1858.
James Wilson, Alexander Macdonald (1824-1908), and Hermon Atkins
MacNeil (1866) are also of Scottish origin.

Alexander Milne Calder, born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1846, began
life as a gardener, studied with Alexander Brodie and John Rhind and
in London and Paris, came to America in 1868, and is best known as
having made the sculpture for the Philadelphia City Hall including the
heroic statue of William Penn, which crowns the tower. His son,
Alexander Stirling Calder, born in Philadelphia in 1870, is also a
sculptor of note, and was acting chief of the Department of Sculpture,
Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco, 1913-1915. Robert Tait
MacKenzie, born in Ontario, Canada, in 1867, son of Rev. William
Mackenzie, a graduate of Edinburgh, has created several groups of
athletes in action of great force and beauty. Dr. Mackenzie is a
physician and director of the Department of Physical Education in the
University of Pennsylvania.

Thomas MacBean, the architect of St. Paul's Chapel, Broadway, New York
City, built in 1764-66, was a Scot who received his training under
James Gibbs (an Aberdonian), architect of St. Martin-in-the-Fields,
London. John Notman (1810-65), born in Edinburgh, designed and
constructed some of the most important buildings in Philadelphia and
also the State Capitol, Trenton. James Renwick (1818-95), born in New
York city of Scottish ancestry, planned the distributing reservoir on
Fifth Avenue, New York, where the New York Public Library now stands.
He was one of the greatest architects in this country, and the beauty
of his work--to cite only a few of his most notable creations--is
amply attested by Grace Church, Calvary Church, and St. Patrick's
Cathedral, in New York; the Smithsonian Institution and Corcoran Art
Gallery, in Washington; and Vassar College in Poughkeepsie. John
McArthur (1823-90), born in Bladenoch, Wigtownshire, designed and
constructed Philadelphia City Hall, Lafayette College, the "Public
Ledger" building in Philadelphia, several hospitals, etc. Alexander
Campbell Bruce (b. 1835), of Scottish parentage, designed a number of
court-houses and other public buildings in Tennessee, Georgia,
Alabama, Florida, and North Carolina, besides schools, libraries,
churches, hotels, etc. He easily became the foremost architect of the
South. Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86), of Scottish descent, drew
the plans for many important buildings, but Trinity Protestant
Episcopal Church in Boston, is considered his masterpiece. James
Hamilton Windrim (b. 1840), architect and Director of Public Works in
Philadelphia, was of Ulster Scot parentage. His services were utilized
in the planning and construction of some of the most important
buildings in Philadelphia. The Masonic Temple in that city is believed
to be his masterpiece. The designer of many of the notable bridges of
Philadelphia was Frank Burns (1844-1913), an architectural draughtsman
of Scottish descent. Harold Van Buren Magonigle (b. 1867), designer of
the monument to the Seamen of U.S.S. _Maine_ (1900), Cornell Alumni
Hall, Ithaca, the National McKinley Memorial at Canton, Ohio, etc., is
the grandson of John Magonigle of Greenock. The builder of the world
famed Smithsonian Institution in Washington was Gilbert Cameron (d.
1866), a native of Greenock, and Scottish stone-masons were largely
employed in the construction of many of the most important buildings
in the country, such as the Metropolitan Museum and Tombs in New York,
the Capitol in Albany, the State House in Boston, the City Hall in
Chicago, etc. Alexander McGaw (1831-1905), born in Stranraer,
Wigtownshire, was famous as a bridge-builder and as builder of the
pedestal of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor. John L. Hamilton
(1835-1904), born in Newmilns, Ayrshire, came to the United States in
1853, and soon became eminent as a builder.

Duncan Phyfe, maker of exquisite furniture, who adapted and improved
the Sheraton style, and considered by good judges to be the equal of
Sheraton, Hipplewhite, and Adams, was a Scot who came to America about
1784. His father was John Fife of Inverness. Dyer, who devotes a
chapter of his _Early American Craftsmen_ to him, says "no other
American made anything comparable to ... the exquisite furniture of
Duncan Phyfe." The name of Samuel McIntire (d. 1811) stands out
pre-eminent as master of all the artists in wood of his time. An
account of his work is given by Dyer with illustrations of his work.
In 1812, Thomas Haig, a native of Scotland, a Queensware potter,
started the Northern Liberties Pottery, and turned out a beautiful
quality of red and black earthenware. About 1829 the works of the
Jersey Porcelain and Earthenware Company (founded 1825) were purchased
by David and J. Henderson. Some of the productions of the Hendersons
are especially sought after by collectors. The firm is now known as
the Jersey City Pottery. The Scottish firm of J. and G.H. Gibson,
glass-stainers, Philadelphia, obtained a national reputation for
artistic work. Daniel and Nathaniel Munroe, clockmakers, were famous
as such in Massachusetts in the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Henry Mitchell (1810-93), born in Fifeshire, was the pioneer
wagon-builder of the west. Frederick Turnbull (1847-1909), who
introduced the art of Turkey-red dyeing into this country about 1850,
was born in Glasgow.

Will C. Macfarlane (b. 1870), organist and composer, was born in
England of Scottish origin. His compositions include songs, anthems,
organ music, a Lenten Cantata, "The Message from the Cross." His
setting of Katherine Lee Bates's patriotic hymn, "America, the
Beautiful," has had nation-wide usage. William Wallace Gilchrist (b.
1846), composer, was of Scottish descent; and Edward Alexander
MacDowell (1861-1908), composer and Professor of Music in Columbia
University, was of Ulster Scot origin.

Robert Campbell Maywood (1784-1856), actor and theatrical manager in
Philadelphia, was born in Greenock, Scotland. Edwin Forrest
(1806-1872), the celebrated American actor, was the son of a native of
Dumfriesshire; and Robert Bruce Mantell, who made his debut in
Rochdale, England, was born in Irvine, Ayrshire, in 1854. James Edward
Murdoch (1811-93), grandson of a Scottish immigrant, was Professor of
Elocution at Cincinnati College of Music, and later a leading actor on
the American stage. During the Civil War he devoted his energies to
support of the Union and gave readings for the benefit of the United
States Sanitary Commission. Benjamin Franklin Keith (1846-1914),
theater proprietor, was of Scottish descent. Mary Garden, Singer and
Director of Grand Opera, was born in Aberdeen in 1877. James H.
Stoddart, the veteran actor, was also of Scottish origin.




SCOTS AS INVENTORS


As Scotland gave to the world the knowledge of the art of logarithms,
the steam engine, the electric telegraph, the wireless telegraph,
illuminating gas, the knowledge of chloroform, and many other
important inventions, it was to be expected that the inventive faculty
of her sons would not fail when transplanted to this country.

Hugh Orr (1717-98), born in Lochwinnoch, inventor of a machine for
dressing flax, took a patriotic part in the war of the Revolution by
casting guns and shot for the Continental Army, besides doing much to
encourage rope-making and spinning. His son, Robert, invented an
improved method of making scythes and was the first manufacturer of
iron shovels in New England. William Longstreet (1759-1814), a New
Jersey Scot, invented and patented an improvement in cotton-gins
called the "breast-roller," also a portable steam saw-mill. As early
as 1790 he was at work on the problem of the application of steam
power to the propulsion of boats, but lack of funds prevented
operations until 1807, the same year in which Fulton launched his
steamboat. His son, Augustus Baldwin Longstreet (1790-1870), became
President of South Carolina College. Robert Fulton (1765-1815), of
Ayrshire origin through Ulster, was, as every one knows, the first to
successfully apply steam to navigation. Hugh Maxwell (1777-1860),
publisher and newspaper editor, of Scottish descent, invented the
"printer's roller" (patented in 1817), cast his own types and engraved
his own woodcuts. Henry Burden (1791-1871), born in Dunblane, inventor
of an improved plow and the first cultivator, was also the first to
invent and make the hook-headed railroad spike "which has since proved
itself a most important factor in railroad building in the United
States." His "cigar boat" although not a commercial success was the
fore-runner of the "whale-back" steamers now in use on the Great
Lakes. William Orr (1808-91), manufacturer and inventor, born in
Belfast of Ulster Scot parentage, was the first to manufacture
merchantable printing paper with wood fibre in it, and made several
other improvements and discoveries along similar lines. Cyrus Hall
McCormick (1809-84), inventor of the reaping machine, was descended
from James McCormick, one of the signers of the address of the city
and garrison of Londonderry presented to William III. after the siege
in 1689. Of his invention the French Academy of Sciences declared
that by its means he had "done more for the cause of agriculture than
any other living man." James Blair (1804-84), born in Perth, Scotland,
was the inventor of the roller for printing calico; and Robert M.
Dalzell (1793-1873) was inventor of the "elevator system" in handling
and storing grain. Samuel Colt (1814-62), inventor of the Colt
revolver, and founder of the great arms factory at Hartford, Conn.,
was of Scots ancestry on both sides. He was also the first to lay a
submarine electric cable (in 1843) connecting New York city with
stations on Fire Island and Coney Island. Thomas Taylor, inventor of
electric appliances for exploding powder in mining, blasting, etc.,
Chief of the Division of Microscopy (1871-95), was born in Perth,
Scotland, in 1820. Duncan H. Campbell, born in Greenock in 1827,
settled in Boston as a lad, by his numerous inventions, "pegging
machines, stitching machines, a lock-stitch machine for sewing uppers,
a machine for using waxed threads, a machine for covering buttons with
cloth," laid the foundation of New England's pre-eminence in shoe
manufacturing. Gordon McKay (1821-1903), by his inventions along
similar lines also helped to build up New England's great industry.
Robert Dick, (1814-93), born in Bathgate, Linlithgowshire, died in
Buffalo, lecturer, newspaper editor, writer, preacher, and inventor,
was inventor of the mailing machine used in nearly every newspaper
office on the continent. Alexander Morton, (1820-60), the perfector if
not the inventor of gold pens, was born in Darvel, Ayrshire. James
Oliver, born in Roxburgh, Scotland, in 1823, made several important
discoveries in connection with casting and moulding iron, was the
inventor of the Oliver chilled plow, and founder of the Oliver Chilled
Plow Works, South Bend, Indiana. The business established by him is
now carried on in several cities from Rochester, New York State, to
San Francisco, and south to Dallas, Texas. William Chisholm, born in
Lochgelly, Fifeshire, in 1825, demonstrated the practicability of
making screws from Bessemer steel, organized the Union Steel Company
of Cleveland, (1871), and devised several new methods and machinery
for manufacturing steel shovels, scoops, etc. His brother, Henry, was
the first to introduce steel-making into Cleveland, and might justly
be called "The Father of Cleveland." Andrew Campbell (1821-90) was the
inventor of many improvements in printing machinery, and of a long
series of devices comprising labor-saving machinery relating to hat
manufacture, steam-engines, machinists' tools, lithographic and
printing machinery, and electrical appliances. William Ezra Ferguson
(b. 1832), merchant and inventor of the means of conveying grain on
steam shipments without shifting, was of Scottish ancestry. Alexander
Davidson (b. 1832) made many inventions in connection with the
typewriter, one of the most important being the scale regarding the
value of the letters of the alphabet. As an inventor he was of the
front rank. Andrew Smith Hallidie (b. 1836), son of a native of
Dunfermline, was the inventor of steel-wire rope making and also the
inventor of the "Hallidie ropeway," which led up to the introduction
of cable railroads. James Lyall (1836-1901), born in Auchterarder,
invented the positive-motion shuttle (1868) which revolutionized the
manufacture of cotton goods. He also invented fabrics for pneumatic
tyres and fire-hose. James P. Lee, born in Roxburghshire in 1837, was
inventor of the Lee magazine gun which was adopted by the United
States Navy in 1895. His first weapon was a breech-loading rifle which
was adopted by the United States Government during the Civil War.
Later he organized the Lee Arms Company of Connecticut. The production
of the telephone as a practical and now universally employed method of
"annihilating time and space" in the articulate intercourse of the
human race will forever be associated with the name of Alexander
Graham Bell, born in Edinburgh in 1847. By its means he has promoted
commerce, created new industries, and has bridged continents, all the
result of "sheer hard thinking aided by unbounded genius." To Dr.
Graham Bell we are also indebted for the photophone, for the inductoin
balance, the telephone probe, and the gramophone. During the war he
designed a "submarine chaser" capable of traveling under water at a
speed of over seventy miles an hour, and he has made important
experiments in the field of aeronautics and in other arts and
sciences. The mother of Thomas Alva Edison (b. 1847), it may here be
mentioned, was of Scottish parentage (Elliott). The originator of the
duplex system in the manufacture of railroad tickets was William
Harrison Campbell (1846-1906), of Scottish parentage. William Malcolm
(1823-90), also of Scottish parentage, was the inventor of telescopic
sights, an invention adopted by all civilized governments. His
attainments were better known and appreciated in Europe than in his
own country. Daniel McFarlan Moore, electrician and inventor, of
Ulster Scot descent, was inventor of the Moore electric light. James
Peckover, born in England of Scottish and English ancestry, invented
the saw for cutting stone and a machine for cutting mouldings in
marble and granite. Rear-Admiral George W. Baird (b. 1843), naval
engineer, invented the distiller for making fresh water from sea
water, and patented many other inventions in connection with machinery
and ship ventilation. James Bennett Forsyth (b. 1850), of Scottish
parentage, took out more than fifty patents on machinery and
manufacturing processes connected with rubber and fire-hose. John
Charles Barclay, telegraph manager, descendant of John Barclay who
emigrated from Scotland in 1684, patented the printing telegraph
"said to be the most important invention in the telegraph world since
Edison introduced the quadruplex system." Alexander Winton, born in
Grangemouth in 1860, inventor and manufacturer, successfully developed
a number of improvements in steam engines for ocean going vessels,
founded the Winton Motor Carriage Company in 1897, and patented a
number of inventions in connection with automobile mechanism. The
works of the company at Cleveland, Ohio, now cover more than thirteen
acres. The first to expound and formulate the application of the law
of conservation in illumination calculations was Addams Stratton
McAllister (b. 1875), a descendant of Hugh McAllister, who emigrated
from Scotland c. 1732. He also holds several patents for
alternating-current machinery, and has written largely on electrical
subjects. Richard Dudgeon (1820-99), born in Haddingtonshire,
Scotland, was distinguished as a machinist, inventor of the hydraulic
jack and boiler-tube expander.




SCOTS AS ENGINEERS


Thomas Hutchins (1730-1789), engineer and geographer was of Scottish
origin. He was author of some topographical works and also furnished
the maps and plates of Smith's Account of Bouquet's expedition
(Philadelphia, 1765). James Geddes (1763-1838), of Scottish birth or
parentage, was surveyor of canal routes in New York State and was
chief engineer on construction of the Erie Canal (1816), and chief
engineer of the Champlain Canal (1818). "In all matters relating to
the laying out, designing and construction of canals, he was looked
upon as one of the highest authorities in the country." James Pugh
Kirkwood (1807-77), born in Edinburgh, came to United States in 1832,
was one of the most eminent engineers in the country, one of the
founders of the American Society of Civil Engineers (1852) and
President (1867-68). James Laurie (1811-75), born at Bell's Mills,
Edinburgh, Chief Engineer on the New Jersey Central Railroad,
consulting engineer in connection with the Housatonic Tunnel, and
first President of the American Society of Civil Engineers. William
Tweeddale, born in Ayrshire in 1823, rendered valuable engineering
service in the Civil War, and was an authority on the sources and
character of water supply. Henry Brevoort Renwick, noted engineer and
expert in patent cases, first inspector of steam vessels for the Port
of New York, was a son of James Renwick the scientist. David Young,
born in Alloa, Scotland, in 1849, was President of the Consolidated
Traction Lines of New Jersey and General Manager of the larger
consolidated company. William Barclay Parsons (b. 1859), is partly
descended from Colonel Thomas Barclay, a Tory of the Revolution.
Hunter McDonald (b. 1860), descended from Angus McDonald, a refugee
from Culloden, is a prominent railroad engineer. T. Kennard Thomson,
born in 1864, is prominent as a bridge builder, designer of pneumatic
caissons, etc. His father came from Stranraer in 1834. Hugh Gordon
Stott, born in Orkney, in 1866, President of the American Institute of
Electrical Engineers (1907), Superintendent of motive power of
Manhattan Railway System, etc. William Gibbs McNeill (1801-53), of
Scottish parentage, was another engineer worth mentioning. Theodore
Crosby Henry (1841-1914), "the father of irrigation in Colorado," was
also of Scottish descent. William McLean (d. 1839), brother of Judge
McLean, was mainly instrumental in extending the Ohio Canal from
Cincinnati to Cleveland. John Findley Wallace (1852-1920), of Scottish
descent, was chief-engineer of the Panama Canal (1904-05), and also
designed and constructed many important engineering works. Angus
Sinclair (1841-1919), born in Forfarshire, was an engineer, author of
several text-books on engineering, and editor of the "Railway and
Locomotive Engineering."




SCOTS IN INDUSTRIES


Robert Gilmor (1748-1822), born in Paisley, was the founder of the
East India trade in this country. He also assisted in founding the
first bank in Baltimore (the Bank of Maryland), and the Maryland
Historical Society. His son Robert (1774-1848) was also prominent in
Baltimore business and was President of the Washington Monument
Association which laid the foundation for the Washington monument in
Baltimore in 1815 and completed it in 1829. Henry Eckford (1775-1832),
shipbuilder, was a native of Irvine, Ayrshire. On the outbreak of the
War of 1812 he built several ships for the American Government for use
on the Great Lakes. In 1820 he was appointed Naval Constructor at the
Brooklyn Navy Yard and there built six ships of the line. In 1822 he
built the steamer "Robert Fulton," which made the first successful
steam voyage to New Orleans and Havana. Angus Neilson Macpherson
(1812-76), born at Cluny, Inverness-shire, was builder of the frigate
"Ironsides," and designer of the furnaces for heating large plates and
the method of affixing them to the sides of the vessel. Donald Mackay
(1810-80), born in Nova Scotia, grandson of Donald Mackay of Tain,
Ross-shire, established the shipyards at East Boston, and constructed
a number of fast sailing ships, and during the Civil War a number of
warships for the United States Government. The beauty and speed of his
clippers gave him a world wide reputation as a naval constructor.
Thomas Dickson (1822-84), President of the Delaware and Hudson Canal
Co., was born in Lauder. William Grey Warden (1831-95), born in
Pittsburgh of Scottish ancestry, was a pioneer in the refining of
petroleum in Pennsylvania, and the controlling spirit in the work of
creating the great Atlantic Refinery consolidated with the Standard
Oil Company of Ohio in 1874. George Gibson McMurtry (1838-1915), born
in Belfast of Scottish descent, steel manufacturer and philanthropist,
was "one of the big figures of that small group of men which
established the industrial independence of the United States from the
European nations of cheap labor." James Edwin Lindsay (1826-1919),
lumberman, was descended from Donald Lindsay, who settled in Argyle,
New York, in 1739. John McKesson (b. 1807), descended from the
McKessons of Argyllshire, was founder of the, wholesale drug firm of
McKesson and Robbins; and Alfred B. Scott of the wholesale drug firm
of Scott and Bowne was also of Scottish descent. Edmond Urquhart (b.
1834) was one of the pioneers in the creation of the cotton seed oil
industry. To Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), born in Dunfermline, "the
richest and most free-handed Scot who ever lived," more than anyone
else is due the great steel and iron industry of the United States.
His innumerable gifts for public libraries, etc., are too well known
to need detailing here. To New York alone he gave over five million
dollars to establish circulating branches in connection with the New
York Public Library. In the development of the steel business of
Pittsburgh he was ably seconded by James Scott, George Lauder (his
cousin), Robert Pitcairn, Charles Lockhart, and others--all Scots.
James McClurg Guffey (b. 1839), oil producer and capitalist, was of
Galloway descent. He developed the oil fields of Kansas, Texas,
California, West Virginia, and Indian Territory. The town of Guffey,
Colorado, is named in his honor. His brother Wesley S. Guffey was also
prominent in the oil industry. John Arbuckle (1839-1912), merchant and
philanthropist, known in the trade as the "Coffee King," was born in
Scotland. Robert Dunlap (b. 1834), hat manufacturer and founder of
Dunlap Cable News Company (1891), was of Ulster Scot origin. William
Chalk Gouinlock (1844-1914), physician and manufacturer, of Scottish
ancestry, was one of the first to establish the salt industry in
Western New York (1883), and in 1887 established the first salt-pan
west of the Mississippi (at Hutcheson, Kansas). Edward Kerr, born in
Sanquhar, Dumfriesshire, in 1842, was founder of the Laurenceville
Bronze Company (1891); and William Mackenzie (1841-1914), born in
Glasgow, was founder of the Standard Bleachery at Carlton Hill, New
Jersey. Hugh J. Chisholm (1847-1912), capitalist and manufacturer, was
of Scottish parentage. James Smith Kirk (1818-86), soap manufacturer
in Chicago, was born in Glasgow. George Yule, born in Rathen,
Aberdeenshire, in 1824, was distinguished in manufactures. William
Chapman Ralston (1826-75), developer of California, was of Scottish
ancestry. William Barr (1827-1908), merchant and philanthropist,
founder of one of the largest dry goods firms in the Middle West, was
born in Lanark. Matthew Baird (1817-77), born in Londonderry of Ulster
Scot parentage, a partner in the Baldwin Locomotive Works, in 1865
became sole proprietor besides being a director in several other
important corporations. James Douglas Reid (1819-1901), born in
Edinburgh, superintended the construction of many of the most
important telegraph lines in the United States and founded and edited
the "National Telegraph Review." Theodore Irwin (b. 1827), grain
merchant, manufacturer, and bibliophile; and Edward Henry Kellogg (b.
1828), manufacturer of lubricating oils, were of Scottish descent.
James Abercrombie Burden (b. 1833), ironmaster and manufacturer, was
son of the great Scottish inventor, Henry Burden. William Sloane (d.
1879), came to the United States in 1834 and established the great
carpet firm of William Sloane and Sons. The development of the tobacco
industry which so enriched Glasgow in the middle of the eighteenth
century, drew large numbers of Scots to Virginia as merchants and
manufacturers, and, says Slaughter, "it is worthy of note that Scotch
families such as the Dunlops, Tennants, Magills, Camerons, etc., are
to this day (1879) leaders of the tobacco trade of Petersburg, which
has grown so great as to swallow up her sisters, Blandford and
Pocahontas, which were merged in one corporation in 1784." David
Hunter McAlpin (b. 1816) was one of the largest tobacco manufacturers;
and Alexander Cameron, born in 1834 at Grantown-on-Spey, had an
extensive share in the tobacco business, with four large branch
factories in Australia. Alexander Macdonald (b. 1833), born at Forres,
Elginshire, was President of the Standard Oil Company of Kentucky and
Director in several other important business enterprises. James Crow,
Kentucky pioneer, (c. 1800-1859), born in Scotland and graduated as a
physician from Edinburgh University. In 1822 went from Philadelphia to
Woodford County, Kentucky, where his knowledge of chemistry enabled
him vastly to improve the methods of distilling whiskey, and he became
the founder of the great distilling industry of that state. Walter
Callender, born in Stirling in 1834, was founder of the firm of
Callender, McAuslan, and Troup, of Providence. E.J. Lindsay, born in
Dundee in 1838, was manufacturer of agricultural implements in
Wisconsin. Alexander Cochrane, born at Barrhead in 1840, was a great
chemical manufacturer. Edwin Allen Cruikshank, born in 1843 of
Scottish ancestry, was a real estate operator and one of the founders
of the Real Estate Exchange in 1883. George Harrison Barbour, born in
1843 of Scottish parentage, was Vice-President and General Manager of
the Michigan Stove Company, the largest establishment of the kind in
the world. William Marshall, born in Leith in 1848, was founder of the
Anglo-American Varnish Company (1890). Robert Means Thompson, born in
1849 of Scottish ancestry, was President of the Orford Copper Company,
one of the largest producers of nickel in the world. William James
Hogg (b. 1851), carpet manufacturer in Worcester and Auburn,
Massachusetts; and Francis Thomas Fletcher Lovejoy, Secretary of the
Carnegie Steel Company were of Scottish descent. William Howe McElwain
(b. 1867), shoe manufacturer in New England, is of Argyllshire
descent; and the Armours of Chicago, descended from James Armour, who
came from Ulster c. 1750, claim Scottish ancestry. William Barbour
(b. 1847), thread manufacturer, was grandson of a Scot who moved from
Paisley, Scotland, to Lisburn, Ireland, in 1768, and in 1784
established what is now the oldest linen thread manufacturing
establishment in the world. George A. Clark (1824-73), born in
Paisley, established the thread mills at Newark, New Jersey, the
business of which was carried on by his brother William (b. 1841), who
came to the United States in 1860. The great Coates Thread Mills at
Pawtucket, Rhode Island, are a branch of the firm of J. and J. Coates
of Paisley. Hugh Chalmers (b. 1873), President of the Chalmers Motor
Company, of Detroit, is descended from Thomas Chalmers who came from
Scotland early in the nineteenth century. Ramsey Crooks (1786-1859),
fur trader, born in Greenock, Scotland; came to America and settled in
Wisconsin. In 1809, he entered the service of John Jacob Astor and
made, with Donald Mackenzie and Robert Stuart, the memorable
3,500-mile trip to Astoria, on the Pacific Ocean. In 1834, he settled
in New York and engaged successfully in business. During his residence
at Mackinac Island, Mich., and on his adventurous trips he was a great
friend and confidant of the Indians. Black Hawk said he was "The best
paleface friend the red men ever had." Mention may also here be made
of the Anchor line of Steamships founded by Thomas and John Henderson
of Glasgow. The ships of this line began service between Glasgow and
New York in 1856. In 1869 they established a North Sea service between
Granton, Scotland, and Scandinavian ports and through this channel
introduced many thousands of industrious Scandinavian settlers into
the United States. In 1870 they established the first direct
communication between Italy, southern Europe and the United States,
and in 1873 they inaugurated, and were the principal carriers of, the
live cattle trade between the United States and Europe.




SCOTS IN BANKING, FINANCE, INSURANCE AND RAILROADS


In the financial and commercial field in this country the Scots have
held a foremost place and stand unrivalled for integrity, energy,
fidelity, and enterprise. Many jibes are made at the expense of the
Canny Scot, but American business men have realized his value. In
business and commercial life the success of the average Scot is
remarkable and many of the guiding spirits among America's successful
business men are Scots or men of Scottish descent.

James Blair (b. 1807), brother of John Inslee Blair, was largely
identified with the development of banks and railroads in
Pennsylvania. George Smith (1808-99), born in Aberdeenshire, founded
the Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company (1839) and was later a
prominent banker in Georgia. Alexander Mitchell (1817-87), financier,
railroad builder, and one of the Commissioners of Public Debt of
Milwaukee, was born near Ellon, Aberdeenshire. Brown Brothers, bankers
in New York, was founded by Alexander Brown (1764-1834) who was born
in Ballymena of Ulster Scot parentage. George Bain (1836-91),
merchant, banker, and director in many railroads, banks, and insurance
companies, was born in Stirling, Scotland. Robert Craig Chambers (b.
1831), miner, financier, and State Senator of Utah, was of Scottish
descent. John Aikman Stewart (b. 1822), President of the United States
Trust Company and Assistant Treasurer of the United States, was born
in New York city, son of a native of Stornoway, Hebrides. Alonzo
Barton Hepburn (b. 1847), descendant of Patrick Hepburn who came from
Scotland in 1736, President of the Chase National Bank, a
distinguished New York banker, has written much on financial subjects.
Thomas William Lamont (b. 1870), whose forefather came from
Argyllshire, is a member of the firm of J.P. Morgan & Co., and
prominent in international finance. Walter Edwin Frew, President of
the Corn Exchange Bank, New York, and President of the New York
Clearing House is of Scottish parentage. He was a pioneer of the
branch banking system in New York. James Berwick Forgan, born in St.
Andrews, in 1852, President of the First National Bank of Chicago, is
a pillar of finance. Andrew Glassell (1827-1901), descendant of a
Dumfriesshire emigrant of 1756, was a prominent lawyer and banker in
Los Angeles. James Alexander Linen (b. 1840), President of the First
National Bank of Scranton, was of Scottish parentage. George Rutledge
Gibson (b. 1853), of Scottish descent, has written largely on
questions of foreign finance. John Hall McClement (b. 1862), railroad
and financial expert, is of Scottish parentage. Duncan MacInnes, born
at Inveresk, near Edinburgh, has been Chief Accountant of the City of
New York for many years, and is one of the best equipped men in
municipal finance in America. Robert Graham Dun (1826-1900),
mercantile credit expert, was grandson of Rev. James Dun, minister in
Glasgow, who emigrated to Virginia, c. 1815.

Robert Burns Beath (1839-1914), President of the United Firemens'
Insurance Company of Philadelphia, and author of the "History of the
Grand Army of the Republic" (1888), was of Scots parentage. William C.
Alexander (1806-74), President of the Equitable Life Insurance
Company, was second son of Dr. Archibald Alexander of Princeton. His
son James Waddell Alexander (1839-1915), was also President of the
same Company. John Augustine McCall (1849-1906), President of the New
York Life Insurance Company, was of Ulster Scot descent.

Men of Scottish birth or Scottish descent have had a prominent place
in the development of the railroads of the United States from their
inception to the present day. It was a Scot, Peter Fleming, Surveyor
of the upper part of New York city, who laid out the grades for the
first railroad in the state. John Inslee (or Insley) Blair (1802-99),
founder of the Lackawanna Coal and Iron Company (1846), financier and
founder of the Delaware and Lackawanna Railroad, was a descendant of
Samuel Blair who came from Scotland in 1720. Blairstown, New Jersey,
is named in his honor. He gave half a million dollars to various
Presbyterian institutions. Samuel Sloan (1817-1907), President of the
Delaware and Lackawanna Railroad (1867-99), was born in Lisburn of
Ulster Scot ancestry. John T. Grant (1813-87), railroad builder in
Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, was of
Scottish origin; and so also was Thomas Alexander Scott (1824-81),
Vice-President and President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Assistant
Secretary of War (1861-62), and President of the Texas Pacific
Railroad. James McCrea (b. 1836), descended from James McCrea, an
Ulster Scot who came to America in 1776, was one of the ablest
Presidents of the Pennsylvania Railroad. John Edgar Thompson, third
President, Frank Thompson, sixth Vice-President of the Pennsylvania
system, were also of Scottish descent. Alexander Johnson Cassatt,
seventh President, was Scottish on his mother's side. Another
prominent Scot connected with the Pennsylvania Railroad was Robert
Pitcairn, born at Johnstone, near Paisley, in 1836. Angus Archibald
McLeod (b. 1847), re-organizer of the Philadelphia and Reading
Railroad was also a Scot; and George Devereux Mackay (b. 1854), banker
and railroad builders, was descended from John Mackay who came from
Caithness in 1760. John Allan Muir (1852-1904), railroad promoter of
California, was of Scottish parentage.




SCOTS AS JOURNALISTS, PUBLISHERS AND TYPEFOUNDERS


The first newspaper printed in North America, _The Boston News-Letter_
for April 24, 1704, was published by a Scot, John Campbell
(1653-1728), bookseller and postmaster of Boston. John Mein and John
Fleming, the founders and publishers of _The Boston Chronicle_ (1767)
were both born in Scotland. The paper was printed "on a new and
handsome type, a broad faced long primer, from an Edinburgh foundry,
and typographically far surpassed any paper that had appeared before
it in New England." David Hall (c. 1714-1772), born in Edinburgh,
emigrated to America shortly after 1740, became a partner of Benjamin
Franklin in 1748. He was printer of the _Pennsylvania Gazette_, one of
the few leading newspapers of the day, and one of the founders of the
St. Andrew's Society of Philadelphia. His son, William (died 1831),
who carried on the printing business, was one of the original members
of the "Light Horse of the City of Philadelphia," afterwards known as
"The First City Troop," and served in the Continental Army during the
Revolutionary War. Robert Aitken (1734-1802), born in Dalkeith,
Scotland, printer and publisher in Philadelphia in 1769, was publisher
of the _Pennsylvania Magazine_ from January 1775 to June 1776, the
first magazine in Philadelphia containing illustrations, most of which
were engraved by Aitken himself. He also published, at his own
expense, in 1782, the first English Bible printed in America. Major
Andrew Brown (c. 1744-1797), born in the north of Ireland of Scottish
parents, was publisher of the _Federal Gazette_, later (1793) changed
to _Philadelphia Gazette_. He is credited with being the first
newspaper man to employ a reporter for the debates in Congress. It may
here be mentioned that the publisher of the first directory of
Philadelphia and its suburbs (1782), was a Scot, Captain John
Macpherson (1726-92). James Adams, Delaware's first printer (1761),
was an Ulster Scot who learned the art of printing in Londonderry and
founded the _Wilmington Courant_ in 1762. Col. Eleazer Oswald
(1755-1795), of Scottish origin, though born in England, rendered
brilliant service on the side of the colonies during the Revolution.
In 1779 he became associated with William Goddard in the _Maryland
Journal_, the first newspaper printed in Baltimore. Later removing to
Philadelphia he issued the first number of the _Independent Gazetteer,
or the Chronicle of Freedom_, April 13, 1782, and at the same time he
also conducted in New York _The Independent Gazetteer, or New York
Journal_ (1782-87). The first daily paper published in Baltimore
(1791) was by David Graham. Alexander Purdie, a native of Scotland,
was editor of the _Virginia Gazette_ from March 1766 to December 1774.
Shortly after this date he started a Gazette of his own, and in the
issue of his paper for June 7, 1776, he printed the heraldic device of
a shield, on which is a rattlesnake coiled, with supporters, dexter, a
bear collared and chained, sinister, a stag. The crest is a woman's
head crowned and the motto: _Don't tread on me_. Adam Boyd
(1738-1803), colonial printer and preacher, purchased the printing
outfit of another Scot, Andrew Stuart, who had set up the first
printing press in Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1763. In 1769 (Oct.
13) Boyd issued the first number of the _Cape Fear Mercury_, and
continued it till 1776. James Johnston, born in Scotland, was the
first to establish a printing press in Georgia (1762) and in April,
1763, began publication of _The Georgia Gazette_, which was published
by him for twenty-seven years. His successor (1793) was another Scot,
Alexander M'Millan, "Printer to the State." Robert Wells (1728-94),
born in Scotland, was a publisher and bookseller in South Carolina for
many years, and published the _South Carolina and American General
Gazette_. John Wells, Florida's first printer (1784), born in
Charleston, served his apprenticeship at Donaldson's printing house in
Edinburgh. Matthew Duncan, son of Major Joseph Duncan, of Scottish
ancestry, introduced printing into Illinois in 1809, and published the
first newspaper there. Major Nathaniel McLean, brother of John McLean,
one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, was one
of the first publishers in Minnesota (1849, the same year in which
printing was introduced into the state). The township of McLean,
Ramsey county, was named in honor of him. There is mention of a
printing press being set up in Michigan in 1785 by Alexander and
William Macomb, but nothing further is known of it. The first book
printed in Montana was in 1864, and in August of the same year John
Buchanan founded the _Montana Post_ at Virginia City. John Dunlap
(1747-1812), an Ulster Scot born in Strabane, was Congressional
Printer and first printed the Declaration of Independence.

Thomas Ritchie (1778-1854), born of Scottish parentage. He wielded a
powerful influence for good in both the national and state politics of
Virginia, and his funeral was attended by nearly all the distinguished
men of the times, including the President. Ritchie County, West
Virginia, was named in his honor. Francis Preston Blair (1791-1876),
political writer, negotiator of peace conference at Hampton Roads in
1864, and editor of the Washington _Globe_, was a descendant of
Commissary Blair of Virginia. James Gordon Bennett (1795-1872), born
near Keith, Banffshire, pioneer of modern American journalism and
founder of the New York _Herald_, a newspaper which has long wielded a
great influence on political affairs. Horace Greeley (1811-72),
founder of the New York _Tribune_, unsuccessful candidate for the
Presidency in 1872, anti-slavery leader, and author of "The American
Conflict" (1864-66), was of Ulster Scot descent. Of the same origin
was Joseph Medill (1823-99), proprietor of the Chicago _Tribune_
(1874); and Robert Bonner (1824-99), founder of the New York _Ledger_
(1851), was born in Londonderry of Ulster Scot origin. James Thompson
Callender (d. 1806), a political exile from Scotland, a controversial
writer of great power, a severe critic of the administration of John
Adams, founded the _Richmond Recorder_, predecessor of the _Richmond
Enquirer_. John Swinton (1829-1901), born in Haddingtonshire, was
editorial writer for the New York _Times_ (1860-70), and _Sun_
(1875-83, 1893-97). He took an active interest in social and
industrial questions and was Progressive Labor Party's candidate for
State Senator in 1887. James Redpath (1833-91), journalist and author,
born in Berwick-on-Tweed, was prominently identified with the
abolition movement, was organizer of the school system of South
Carolina, founder of the Boston Lyceum Bureau, war correspondent for
Northern newspapers during the Civil War, and author of several
histories and biographical works. William Andrew Ure (b. 1839), of
Scottish parentage, by his energy made the Newark, New Jersey, _Sunday
Call_, one of the leading newspapers in the state. Whitelaw Reid is
noted under Ambassadors. St. Clair McKelway (b. 1845), who became
Regent and Vice-Chancellor of the University of the State of New York,
was of Scots parentage. Andrew McLean, born in Renton, Dumbartonshire,
in 1848, is editor-in-chief of the _Brooklyn Citizen_, which under his
guidance has become an influential paper. Washington McLean and his
son, John R. McLean, established one of the greatest newspapers in the
Middle West, the _Cincinnati Enquirer_. David Alexander Munro
(1848-1910), a native of Maryburgh, Ross-shire, educated at Edinburgh
University, editor for many years of the _North American Review_. John
Foord, born in Perthshire, came to the U.S. in 1869; became editorial
writer on the _New York Times_ and later editor-in-chief; after 1883,
editor and publisher of the _Brooklyn Union_; editor of _Harper's
Weekly_; leader writer on _Journal of Commerce_, and editor of
_Asia_. Other journalists who may be mentioned are William Cauldwell
(b. 1824) of New York, of Scottish parentage on both sides; George
Dawson (1813-83) of Albany, born in Falkirk, Scotland; William Wiston
Seaton (1785-1866) of Washington, D.C., a Regent of the Smithsonian
Institution; and George Horace Lorimer (b. 1867), journalist and
author of "Letters from a Self-made Merchant to His Son" (1902), etc.
John J. McElhone (1832-90), famous as a stenographer and chief
Official Reporter of the House of Representatives, was of Scottish
ancestry.

Thomas Dobson, publisher of the first American edition of the
_Encyclopaedia Britannica_ (1791), was a Scot who gave a great impulse
to printing in the United States. Robert Carter (1807-89), publisher
and founder of the house of Robert Carter and Brothers, so long and
honorably known in New York city, was born in Earlston, Berwickshire.
Henry Ivison (1808-84), born in Glasgow, became a prominent publisher
in New York. His son, David Brinkerhoff Ivison, born in 1835, was also
a prominent publisher and founder of the American Book Company. John
Wilson (1802-68), born in Glasgow, was founder of the famous printing
firm of John Wilson and Son of Cambridge, Massachusetts, now Harvard
University Press. George Munro (1825-96), publisher of the _Seaside
Library, Fireside Companion_, etc., was of Scottish descent. In the
course of his life he gave away half a million dollars for educational
purposes. Whatever may be thought of his appropriating the works of
British authors without compensation it cannot be denied that he did a
great deal to raise the literary taste among the poorer classes in
this country. George William Quids (1829-94), publisher and proprietor
of the _Philadelphia Public Ledger_, was of Scottish descent. Robert
Clarke (1829-99), founded of the great Cincinnati publishing house of
Robert Clarke and Co., was born in the town of Annan in Dumfriesshire.
Norman Leslie Munro (1842-94), publisher of the _Family Story Paper_
and founder of Munro's Publishing House, was born in Nova Scotia of
Scottish ancestry.

John Baine, born in St. Andrews, in partnership with his grandson,
established the first type-foundry in Philadelphia in 1787. Their firm
cast the types for a portion of the American edition of the
_Encyclopaedia Britannica_, reprinted in Philadelphia in 1791.
Archibald Binny, (1763-1838), born in Portobello, near Edinburgh, and
James Ronaldson (d. 1841), also born in Scotland, succeeded to and
carried on the business established by Baine. In 1797 they cast the
first $ sign used in this country. The quality and art of their
product was in no wise inferior to the European and the sale of
foreign made types ceased shortly after they established their
business. Their foundry kept pace with the growth of the country and
in the seventies of last century became the best and most extensive
letter-foundry in the world. Archibald Binny loaned the United States
Government the sum of 50,000 dollars for use in the war of 1812-14.
Ronaldson was first president of the Franklin Institute in
Philadelphia (1824-41), an institution in which he took a great
interest, and in 1831 presented to Philadelphia the beautiful cemetery
bearing his name. He was described as "an upright, frugal and honest
man, and a lover of his adopted country." George Bruce (1781-1866),
born in Edinburgh, along with his brother David introduced the art of
stereotyping, the secret of which David secured in Edinburgh. In 1816
they purchased a foundry for type making and stereotyping, and George
Bruce in his seventy-eighth year of age produced type which has rarely
been excelled for beauty of design and neatness of finish. "He did
much toward facilitating American printing and towards making it a
fine art, inventing, with the assistance of his nephew, David Bruce,
Jr., a successful type-casting machine which has come into general
use." Thomas Mackellar (1812-1899), printer and poet, also one of the
leading type founders, was of Scottish parentage. William Vincent
McKean, born in 1820 of Ulster Scot descent, was another distinguished
type-founder and editor-in-chief of the _Philadelphia Public Ledger_
for many years. Another individual who may be included under this head
is Adam Ramage who was born in Scotland and died at an advanced age in
Philadelphia in 1850. He was distinguished as a manufacturer of
printing presses in the beginning of last century, and patented the
"Ramage" press in 1818.




SOME PROMINENT SCOTS IN NEW YORK CITY


Many names mentioned in other sections apply equally to New York city
but for lack of space they are not here again referred to. David
Jamison, one of the early Colonial lawyers in New York, was born in
Scotland. In 1707 he defended Francis Makemie, the Presbyterian
clergyman, when he was arrested for preaching in the city without a
license, and in 1710 he became Chief Justice of New Jersey. James
Graham (died c. 1700), Recorder of the city, was also a native of
Scotland. John Watts (1749-1836), of Scots parentage, was the last
Royal Recorder of the city, Speaker of the New York Assembly, Member
of Congress, 1793-96, and founder of the Leake and Watts Orphan
Asylum. Archibald Gracie, born in Dumfries, emigrated to America about
1778. Through his business enterprise he largely developed the
commercial importance of the port of New York. He was also founder of
the first Savings Bank in America, founder of the Lying-in Hospital of
the Cedar Street Presbyterian Church, President of the Chamber of
Commerce for twenty years, etc. Cadwallader David Golden (1769-1834),
grandson of Cadwallader Colden, was Mayor of the city from 1818 to
1821, and made an enviable record in that office. James Lenox
(1800-80), merchant, philanthropist, bibliophile, and founder of the
Lenox Library, now incorporated in the New York Public Library, was
one of the most useful citizens New York ever possessed. His public
benefactions were numerous, but only the largest were made public.
Among these were the Lenox Library, formerly at Fifth Avenue and
Seventieth Street; the Presbyterian Hospital, and liberal endowments
to Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary. Alexander
Turney Stewart (1803-76), merchant and philanthropist, born in Ireland
of Scots parents, established the great dry goods business now owned
by John Wanamaker. He was nominated as Secretary of the Treasury
(1869) but was not confirmed. Hugh Maxwell (1787-1873), born in
Paisley, was Assistant Junior Advocate General in 1814, District
Attorney for the city from 1819 to 1829, and Collector of the Port
(1849-52). Robert L. Stuart (1806-82) and his brother Alexander
(1810-79), sugar refiners, both gave large sums, estimated at over two
million dollars, to many charities, and the library, pictures, and
mineral and shell collections of the former are preserved in a
separate room of the New York Public Library. Hugh Auchincloss
(1817-90) and John Auchincloss, his brother, sons of Hugh Auchincloss
of Paisley, were prominent merchants in the city. Robert Lenox Kennedy
(b. 1822), banker and public spirited citizen, grandson of a Scot, was
President of the Trustees of the New York Public Library, an
institution largely Scottish in its foundation and endowment. James
Gibb, born in Scotland in 1829, a successful merchant, was President
of Brooklyn Park Commission. James Cruikshank (b. 1831), of Scottish
descent, was noted for his activity in furthering education in
Brooklyn. Abram Stevens Hewitt (1822-1903), of Scottish parentage, was
Member of Congress from New York (1875-79, 1881-86), and Mayor of the
city (1887-88). John Stewart Kennedy (1830-1909), financier and
philanthropist, born at Blantyre, near Glasgow, gave one million
dollars to the Presbyterian Hospital as his golden wedding anniversary
gift, five hundred thousand dollars to Columbia University, besides
innumerable gifts to other institutions. His will left over
sixty-seven million dollars, nearly half of it for charitable
purposes. Alexander Ector Orr (1831-1914), President of New York Rapid
Transit Commission, Vice-President of many financial institutions, was
of Ulster Scot descent. Thomas Fitchie (1834-1905), of Scottish
parentage, was an earnest worker for purity in civil life in Brooklyn.
Charles A. Lamont (1835-1904), son of Neil Lamont from Scotland, was
one of the original members of the Republican Party and of the Union
League prominent in city affairs. He was the originator of the Ramapo
scheme of water supply for the city. Robert Maclay (b. 1836), of
Scottish parentage, was President of the Knickerbocker Ice Company
(1875), Commissioner of Education, Rapid Transit Commissioner, etc.
Dr. Albert Prescott Marble (1836-1906), a recognized leader in
educational matters, President of the Board of Superintendents of the
New York Department of Education, was a descendant of one of the Scots
settlers of Maine. Robert Macy Galloway (b. 1837), merchant and
banker, had a considerable part in developing the elevated railroads
of the city. Eugene Gilbert Blackford (1839-1904), merchant and
ichthyologist, of Scottish descent, "did more to advance the interests
of fish culture in this country than any other man." He wrote much on
the subject and to his efforts was due the creation of the Aquarium at
the Battery. Alexander Taylor, born in Leith, Scotland, in 1821, was
founder of the firm of Alexander Taylor's Sons. Walter Scott, managing
Director of Butler Brothers, born in Canada, of Scottish parentage, is
widely known as a liberal promoter of education, art, athletics, and
patriotism.




SCOTTISH SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES


That the Scots in America have not been solely devoted to business and
the promotion of their own selfish welfare is evidenced by the
remarkable growth of their numerous Societies based upon the extension
of fellowship among Scots in the New World and for the collection and
distribution of charitable funds among the poor and needy of their
countrymen. The oldest of these Societies, the Scots' Charitable
Society of Boston, was founded January 6, 1657, with twenty-seven
members. It was followed by the St. Andrew's Club of Charleston, S.C.
(the first to bear the name of St. Andrew), 1729; the St. Andrew's
Society of Philadelphia, December 7, 1749; the St. Andrew's Society of
Savannah, Ga., 1750; the St. Andrew's Society of the Province,
afterward of the State of New York, November 19, 1756; and the St.
Andrew's Society of Albany, N.Y., November 10, 1803; until at the
present time, there is no city of any size or importance in the
country that does not have its St. Andrew's Society, or Burns or
Caledonian Club, which serves to keep alive the memories of the
home-land, to instil patriotism toward the adopted country, and to aid
the distressed among their kinsfolk. There are now more than one
thousand of these Societies in America, including the Order of
Scottish Clans (organized, 1878) a successful fraternal, patriotic and
beneficial order, with more than one hundred separate clans, and the
Daughters of Scotia, a rapidly growing order for women of Scottish
blood, organized in 1898.




CONCLUSION


"It is the knowledge that Scotsmen have done their share in building
up the great Republic that makes them proud of its progress and
inspires them to add to its glories and advantages in every way.
Scotsmen, as a nationality, are everywhere spoken of as good and loyal
citizens, while Americans who can trace a family residence of a
century in the country are proud if they can count among their
ancestors some one who hailed from the land of Burns, and it is a
knowledge of all this, in turn, that makes the American Scot of to-day
proud of his country's record and his citizenship and impels him to be
as devoted to the new land as it was possible for him to have been to
the old had he remained in it. In America, the old traditions, the old
blue flag with its white cross, the old Doric, are not forgotten, but
are nourished, and preserved, and honored, and spoken by Scotsmen on
every side with the kindliest sentiments on the part of those to whom
they are alien. Americans know and acknowledge that the traditions and
flag and homely speech have long been conserved to the development of
that civil and religious liberty on which the great confederation of
sovereign republican States has been founded. In the United States,
Sir Walter Scott has more readers and quite as enthusiastic admirers
as in Scotland, and if Americans were asked which of the world's poets
came nearest to their hearts, the answer would undoubtedly be--Robert
Burns."




LIST OF PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO


_Appleton_. Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York, 1887-89.
6v.

_Bingham_. Early History of Michigan. Lansing, 1888.

_Breed_. Presbyterians and the Revolution. Philadelphia, 1876.

_Campbell_, The Puritan in Holland, England, and America. New
York, 1892.

_Casson_. The Sons of Old Scotland in America. New York, 1906.

_Charlton_. The Making of Georgia. Savannah, 1905.

_Craighead_. Scotch and Irish Seeds in American Soil. Philadelphia,
1879.

_Dinsmore_. The Scotch-Irish in America. Chicago, 1906.

_Dyer_. Early American Craftsmen. New York, 1915.

_Ford_. The Scotch-Irish in America. Princeton, 1915.

_Green_. The Scotch-Irish in America. Worcester, 1895.

_Hanna_. The Scotch-Irish. New York, 1902. 2 v.

_Harrison_. The Scot in Ulster. Edinburgh, 1888.

_Jones_. History of Georgia. Boston, 1883.

_Kelly and Burrage_. American Medical Biographies. Baltimore,
1920.

_Lewis_. Great American Lawyers. Philadelphia, 1907-09. 8 v.

_Maclean_. Historical Account of the Settlements of Scottish Highlanders
in America Prior to the Peace of 1783. Cleveland, 1900.

_National Cyclopaedia, of American Biography_. New York, 1898-1906.
16 v.

_Parker_. History of Londonderry, New Hampshire. Boston, 1851.

_Register of the Privy Council of Scotland_. Edinburgh, v. 8, 9.

_Reid_. The Scot in America and the Ulster Scot. London, 1911.

_Roberts_. New York-Boston, 1904.

_Ross_. The Scot in America. New York, 1896.

_Scotch-Irish in America_. Proceeding of Scotch-Irish Congresses.

_Scots Magazine_. Edinburgh, 1768-1774.

_Slaughter_. History of Bristol Parish. Richmond, 1879.

_Smith_. History of the Colony of Nova Caesaria or New Jersey.
Burlington, 1765.

_Smith_. History of New York. Philadelphia, 1792.

_White_. Southern Presbyterian Leaders. New York, 1911.




INDEX


Abercrombie, James, 21.

Abernethy, Gov. George, 59.

Adair, Gov. John, 56.

Adair, John Johnstone, 30.

Adair, William, 71.

Adams, James, 108.

Addison, Alexander, 49.

Agnew, Dr. David Hayes, 74.

Ainslie, Hew, 81.

Aitken, Robert, 108.

Aitken, Robert Ingersoll, 91.

Alexander, Archibald, 78.

Alexander, Dr. Archibald, 106.

Alexander, Cosmo, 88.

Alexander, James, 29.

Alexander, James Waddell, 78, 106.

Alexander, John, 70.

Alexander, John White, 89.

Alexander, Joseph Addison, 78.

Alexander, Gov. Nathaniel, 55.

Alexander, Stephen, 70.

Alexander, Brig.-Gen. William, 62.

Alexander, William C., 106.

Allison, Francis, 76.

Allen, Adam, 70.

Allerdyce, Samuel, 90.

Anderson, Dr. Alexander, 90.

Anderson, Charles, 29.

Anderson, Hugh, 90.

Anderson, Gov. Hugh Johnston, 53.

Anderson, Lt.-Col. Richard C., 60.

Arbuckle, John, 102.

Armour, James, 103.

Armours of Chicago, 103.

Armstrong, Brig.-Gen. John. 61.

Arthur, Pres. Chester Alan, 40.

Astor, John Jacob, 28.

Auchincloss, Hugh, Jr., 114.

Auchincloss, Hugh, Sr., 114.

Auchincloss, John, 114.

Auchmuty, Robert, 87.

Auchmuty, Rev. Samuel, 84.


Bain, George, 105.

Baine, John, 111.

Baird, George W., 97.

Baird, Matthew, 102.

Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 68.

Bancroft, George, 4.

Barbour, Edwin Hinckley, 70.

Barbour, Geo. Harrison, 103.

Barbour, Gov. James, 54.

Barbour, William, 104.

Barclay, Alexander, 30.

Barclay, David, 16.

Barclay, David Robert, 87.

Barclay, Rev. Henry, 84.

Barclay, John, 16, 84, 87.

Barclay, John Charles, 97.

Barclay, Gov. Robert, 16, 32.

Barclay, Col. Thomas, 99.

Baron, Alexander, 21.

Barr, William, 102.

Bartram, Gen. George, 28.

Baxter, George, 19.

Beall, Col. Ninian, 21.

Bean, Dr. James, 31.

Bean, John, 26.

Bean, Russell, 31.

Bean, Capt. William, 31.

Beath, Robert Burns, 106.

Beatty, John Wesley, 89.

Beck, Senator, James Burnie, 46.

Bell, Alexander Graham, 97.

Bell, Alex. Melville, 79.

Bell, Gov. Charles Henry, 53.

Bell, Gov. Charles James, 53.

Bell, John, 25.

Bell, John, 42.

Bell, Gov. John, 53.

Bell, Luther V., 25.

Bell, Gov. Peter Hansborough, 58.

Bell, Gov. Samuel, 49, 53.

Bell, Samuel Dana, 49.

Bell, Thomas Sloan, 49.

Bennett, James Gordon, 110.

Berkeley, Sir William, 34.

Bethune, Divie, 82.

Bethune, Mrs. Divie, 86.

Bethune, Rev. Geo. W., 82.

Beveridge, Gov. John Lourie, 57.

Bigger, Gov. Samuel, 57.

Binny, Archibald, 111, 112.

Birney, Gen. David Bell, 62.

Birney, James Gillespie, 62.

Black, Gavin, 17.

Blackburn, Gideon, 19.

Blackford, Eugene G., 114.

Blaine, James Gillespie, 43.

Blair, Dr. Archibald, 34.

Blair, Asso. Justice, 48.

Blair, Gov. Austin, 57.

Blair, Senator Francis Montgomery, 45.

Blair, Francis Preston, 110.

Blair, James, 76.

Blair, James, 96.

Blair, James, 105.

Blair, Commissary James, 29, 33, 34.

Blair, Gov. John, 34.

Blair, John Inslee, 105, 106.

Blair, Montgomery, 44.

Blair, Samuel, 106.

Bonner, Robert, 110.

Bouquet, Col. Henry, 20.

Bowe, (Bowie), John, 22.

Bowie, Gov. Robert, 54.

Bowie, James, 62.

Bowyer, Col. John, 20.

Bowyer, Col. William, 20.

Boyd, Adam, 109.

Boyd, David French, 79.

Boyd, Gov. James E., 58.

Boyd, John, 79.

Boyd, Thos. Duckett, 79.

Boyd, Rev. William, 14.

Brady, Gov. John Henry, 59.

Breathitt, Gov. John, 57.

Brechin, James, 29.

Breckenridge, Henry, 26.

Brackenridge, Henry Marie, 81.

Brackenridge, Hugh H., 81.

Breckenridge, John, 26.

Breckenridge, V.-Pres. John Cabell, 26, 41.

Breckenridge, Joseph Cabell, 26.

Breckenridge, Robert, 26.

Breckenridge, Robert Jefferson, 26.

Breckenridge, Wm. Campbell Preston, 26.

Breckinridge, Alexander, 19, 26.

Breghin, James, 29.

Brevard, Dr. Ephraim, 36.

Brice, Senator Calvin Stewart, 46.

Brisbane, Albert, 86.

Brisbane, Robert, 21.

Brown, Abel, 54.

Brown, Alexander, 105.

Brown, Mayor Andrew, 108.

Brown, Angus, 56.

Brown, Gov. Gratz, 58.

Brown, Brothers, 105.

Brown, David Paul, 81.

Brown, Gov. Frank, 54.

Brown, Dr. Gustavus, 73.

Brown, Dr. Gustavus (III), 73.

Brown, Dr. Gustavus R., 73.

Brown, Senator James, 45.

Brown, John, 77.

Brown, Gov. Neil S., 56.

Brownlee, Katherine M., 83.

Bruce, Alex. Campbell, 92.

Bruce, David, 112.

Bruce, David, Jr., 112.

Bruce, George (1635), 83.

Bruce, Dr. Archibald, 69.

Bruce, Catherine Wolf, 80.

Bruce, George, 80, 112.

Bruce, Wallace, 83.

Bruce, Dr. William, 69.

Bryce, Thomas, 17.

Bryson, Rear Admiral Andrew, 65.

Buchanan, Alexander, 22.

Buchanan, George, 31, 73.

Buchanan, Dr. George, 73.

Buchanan, Pres. James, 40, 47.

Buchanan, John, 17.

Buchanan, Judge John, 50.

Buchanan, John, 109.

Buchanan, Thomas, 50.

Buckham, Matthew Henry, 79.

Buist, Rev. George, 85.

Buist, Robert, 72.

Bulloch, Archibald, 27.

Bulloch, Irvine S., 27.

Bulloch, James, 27, 40.

Bulloch, James Dunwoody, 27.

Bulloch, William B., 27.

Burd, Col. James, 30.

Burden, Henry, 95, 103.

Burden, James Abercrombie, 103.

Burnet, David G., 47.

Burnet, Bishop Gilbert, 32.

Burnet, Major Ichabod, 47.

Burnet, Jacob, 47.

Burnet, Senator Jacob, 45.

Burnett, John, 22.

Burnet, Geo. William, 32.

Burnet, Dr. William, 45, 47.

Burnet, Dr. Wm. (of N.J.), 47.

Burnett, Gov. Peter H., 59.

Burns, Frank, 92.

Burnside, Gen. Ambrose E., 53, 62.

Burt, Charles, 90.


Calder, Alex Milne, 91.

Calder, Alex Stirling, 91.

Caldwell, David, 36.

Caldwell, Rev. James, 84.

Caldwell, Major John, 21.

Caldwell, John E., 84.

Caldwell, Joseph, 77.

Caldwell, Gov. Tod R., 55.

Calhoun, V.-Pres. John Caldwell, 41, 81.

Calhoun, Senator John Ewing, 45.

Calhoun, Patrick, 21.

Callender, James Thompson, 110.

Callender, Walter, 103.

Calvin, Samuel, 70.

Cameron, Alexander, 103.

Cameron, Duncan, 22.

Cameron, Families, 103.

Cameron, Gilbert, 92.

Cameron, Col. James, 45.

Cameron, Senator James Donald, 42, 45.

Cameron, John, 22.

Cameron, Rev. John, 54.

Cameron, Senator Simon, 42, 45.

Cameron, Gov. William Ewan, 54.

Campbell, Rev. Alexander, 85.

Campbell, Senator Alexander, 45.

Campbell, Andrew, 96.

Campbell, Rev. Archibald, 74.

Campbell, Arthur, 20.

Campbell, Gov. David, 54.

Campbell, Duncan, 17.

Campbell, Duncan H., 96.

Campbell, Geo. Washington, 42.

Campbell, Hugh, 16.

Campbell, Hugh, 19.

Campbell, Hugh, 76.

Campbell, James, 44.

Campbell, Gov. James E., 57.

Campbell, James Hepburn, 51.

Campbell, John, 108.

Campbell, John Archibald, 49.

Campbell, John, Earl of London, 34.

Campbell, Capt. Lauchlin, 22.

Campbell, Lewis David, 51.

Campbell, Lord Neil, 32.

Campbell, Robert, 91.

Campbell, Sanders, 22.

Campbell. Gov. Thos. Mitchell, 58.

Campbell, William, 20.

Campbell, Lord William, 35.

Campbell, Gov. Wm. Bowen, 56.

Campbell, Wm. Harrison, 97.

Campbell, William Wallace, 49.

Campbell, Wm. Wallace, 71.

Cardross, Henry, Lord, 17.

Carnegie, Andrew, 102.

Carnochan, Dr. John Murray, 74.

Carrack, Samuel, 19.

Carter, Robert, 111.

Carwood, John, 21.

Cassatt, Alex. Johnson, 106.

Cauldwell, William, 110.

Chalmers, Hugh, 104.

Chalmers, Dr. Lionel, 73.

Chalmers, Thomas, 104.

Chambers, John, 27.

Chambers, Gov. John, 58.

Chambers, Robert, 27.

Chambers, Robert Craig, 105.

Chapman, James, 22.

Chapman, Mary, 62.

Chapman, Gov. Reuben, 56.

Charles, William, 91.

Charlton, Walter Glasco, 19.

Chase, Salmon P., 15.

Chassel, David, 78.

Chichester, Sir Arthur, 13.

Childs, George William, 111.

Chisholm, Henry, 96.

Chisholm, Hugh J., 102.

Chisholm, William, 96.

Christian, William, 20.

Chrystie, Lt.-Col. James, 61.

Claflin, Gov. William, 53.

Claperton, Thomas, 22.

Clark, George A., 104.

Clark, Gen. George Rogers, 4, 31.

Clark, William, 104.

Clarke, Robert, 111.

Cleland, Hon. John, 20.

Coates, J. & J. 104.

Coburn, Gov. Abner, 53.

Cochran, Gov. John P., 54.

Cochran, Rev. Joseph P., 85.

Cochrane, Alexander, 103.

Colbraith, Jeremiah Jones, 41.

Colden, Lt.-Gov. Cadwallader, 32, 113.

Colden, Cadwallader D., 113.

Colt, Samuel, 96.

Corbit, Daniel, 26.

Cowan, William, 22.

Cox, Gov. James M., 57.

Craig, James, 65.

Craig, Dr. James, 75.

Craig, Thomas, 68.

Craighead, Rev. Alexander, 36.

Craighead, Edwin Boone, 80.

Craighead, Rev. Robert, 77.

Craighead, Thomas, 36.

Craighead, Thomas, 77.

Craik, Dr. James, 73.

Crane, Robert Bruce, 89.

Crawford, Gov. Corie Isaac, 59.

Crawford, David, 42.

Crawford, Francis Marion, 83.

Crawford, Gov. Geo. Washington, 42, 56.

Crawford, Dr. John, 73.

Crawford, Dr. John Barclay, 75.

Crawford, Nathl. Macon, 78.

Crawford, Maj.-Gen. Sam. Wylie, 62.

Crawford, Thomas, 83.

Crawford, Thomas, 91.

Crawford, William, 47.

Crawford, William Harris, 42, 78.

Cree, Thomas Kirby, 86.

Crockett, David, 31.

Crooks, Ramsey, 104.

Crow, James, 103.

Cruickshank, Edwin A., 103.

Cruickshank, James, 114.

Cullen, Charles Mason, 49.

Cummings, Rev. Charles, 20.

Cummins, Gov. Albert Baird, 58.

Cummins, William, 22.

Cunningham, Arthur, 17.

Currie, Dr. William, 74.

Curry, Daniel, 78.


Dall, William, 68.

Dall, William Healey, 68.

Dallas, Alexander James, 41, 42.

Dallas, V.-Pres. George Mifflin, 41.

Dallas, Dr. Robert C., 42.

Dallas, Robert Frank, 89.

Dalzell, Robert M., 96.

D'Arnsmont, Mme. Francis, 86.

Davidson, Alexander, 96.

Davidson, Anstruther, 68.

Davidson, Charles, 22.

Davidson, George, 71.

Davidson, Thomas, 79.

Davidson, Brig.-Gen. William, 61.

Dawson, George, 110.

Dawson, Thomas Cleland, 52.

Dempster, John, 78.

Dempster, Rev. John, 85.

Denny, Geo. Hutcheson, 80.

Dick, Alexander L., 91.

Dick, James T., 89.

Dick, Robert, 96.

Dickinson, Pres. John, 30, 33, 39.

Dickinson, Thomas, 101.

Dinsmoor, Robert, 81.

Dinsmoor, Gov. Samuel Sen, 53, 81.

Dinsmoor, Gov. Samuel Jim, 53.

Dinsmore, Hugh Anderson, 52.

Dinwiddie, Gov. Robert, 31, 33.

Dobbin, James Cochrane, 43.

Dobson, Thomas, 111.

Dodge, Gov. Henry, 57.

Dougal, W.H., 91.

Douglas, Senator Stephen Arnold, 45.

Douglas, Thomas, 49.

Dowart, George, 17.

Dowie, Rev. John Alex., 85.

Drummond, James, Earl of Perth, 16.

Drummond, John, 16.

Drummond, Thomas, 49.

Drummond, Gov. William, 34.

Drysdale, Lt.-Gov. Hugh, 33.

Dudgeon, Richard, 98.

Duff, John, 22.

Dun, Rev. James, 106.

Dun, Robert Graham, 106.

Dunbar, Sir William, 30.

Duncan, James, 86.

Duncan, Gov. Joseph, 57.

Duncan, Major Joseph, 57.

Duncan, Matthew, 109.

Dunlap, James, 77.

Dunlap, John, 109.

Dunlap, Robert, 102.

Dunlap, Gov. Robert Pinckney, 53.

Dunlap, William, 88.

Dunlop Families, 103.

Dunlop, Rev. Samuel, 23.

Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of, 32, 34.

Dunsmore, John Ward, 90.


Eccles, Dr. Robert Gibson, 68.

Eckford, Henry, 101.

Eddy, Mary M.B. Glover, 85.

Edison, Thomas Alva, 97.

Edmundson, William, 20.

Elliot, Lt.-Gov. Andrew, 32.

Elliott, Charles, 21.

Erskine, Henry, Lord Cardross, 17.

Erskine, Robert, 60.

Erwin, Benjamin, 19.

Erwin (Ewen), Gov. William, 35.

Erwyn (Irvin), James, 22.

Ewen (Erwin), Gov. William, 35.

Ewing, Gen. James, 60.

Ewing, Thomas, 62.

Ewing, Senator Thomas, 42, 50.

Ewing, Gen. Thomas, 50, 62.

Ewing, Gov. Wm. Lee Davidson, 57.


Ferguson, Dr. Alex. Hugh, 75.

Ferguson, James, 51.

Ferguson, James, 70.

Ferguson, Gov. James Edward, 58.

Ferguson, Patrick, 22.

Ferguson, Thomas, 21.

Ferguson, Thomas Barker, 51.

Ferguson, Wm. Ezra, 96.

Fife, John, 93.

Findlay, Gov. William, 54.

Finlay, Samuel, 80.

Finley, John Huston, 80.

Finley, Robert, 77.

Finley, Samuel, 77.

Fitchie, Thomas, 114.

Fleming, Gov. Francis Philip, 56.

Fleming, John, 108.

Fleming, Peter, 106.

Fleming, Gov. William, 34.

Fleming, Williamina P., 71.

Foord, John, 110.

Forbes, Dr. David, 75.

Forbes, Gen. John, 30.

Forbes, John, 80.

Forbes, John, Jr., 80.

Forbes, John M., 51.

Forbes, Philip Jones, 80.

Forbes, Stephen Alfred, 68.

Forbes, Dr. Wm. Smith, 75.

Ford, Adm. John D., 66.

Forgan, James Berwick, 105.

Forney, Gen. Peter, 27.

Forrest, Edwin, 93.

Forsyth, Alexander, 26.

Forsyth, James Bennett, 97.

Forsyth, John 26.

Forsyth, Gov. John, 55.

Forsyth, Rev. John, 78.

Forsyth, Robert, 26.

Foster, Gov. Charles, 43.

Franklin, Benjamin, 29.

Fraser, Charles, 88.

Fraser, John, 79.

Frazer, John Fries, 69, 78.

Frazer, Persifor, 69.

Frazer, Lt.-Col. Persifor, 69

Frew, Walter E., 105.

Fulton, Robert, 25, 95.


Galloway, Beverly Thomas, 70.

Galloway, John, 70.

Galloway, Joseph, 37.

Galloway, Robert Macy, 114.

Galt, Dr. Alexander D., 75.

Galt, John, 17.

Galt, Dr. John Minson, 75.

Garden, Alexander, 22.

Garden, Dr. Alexander, 70.

Garden, Rev. Alex., 84.

Garden, Mary, 94.

Gardiner, Peter, 22.

Gear, Gov, John Henry, 58.

Geary, Gov. John White, 54.

Geddes, James, 80.

Geddes, James, 99.

Geddes, Brig.-Gen. James Lorraine, 62.

Geddes, Gov. John, 55.

Gibb, James, 114.

Gibboney, David C., 87.

Gibson, Geo. Rutledge, 106.

Gibson, J. & G.H., 93.

Gibson, John, 17.

Gibson, John Bannister, 50.

Gibson, Paris, 31.

Gibson, Randall, 46.

Gibson, Senator Randall Lee, 46.

Gilchrist Gov. Alex. Walter, 56.

Gilchrist, Nimrod, 56.

Gilchrist, Wm. Wallace, 93.

Gilfillan, James, 49.

Gillespie, Rev. George, 84.

Gilmer, Dr. George, 54, 55.

Gilmer, Gov. Geo. Rockingham, 55.

Gilmer, Gov. Thomas Walker, 54.

Gilmor, Robert, Sr., 101.

Gilmor, Robert, Jr., 101.

Gilmore, Mrs., 19.

Gilmour, Neil, 79.

Gilmour, Bishop Richard, 86.

Glassel, Andrew, 105.

Glen, Gov. James. 35.

Glenn, Gustavus R., 79.

Glenn, Nicholas, 79.

Goddard, William, 108.

Gordon, Gov. John Brown, 46, 56, 62.

Gordon, John George, 62.

Gordon, Gov. Patrick, 33.

Gordon, Robert, 16.

Gordon, Thomas, 29.

Gordon, Thomas, 76.

Gordon, Rev. Thomas, 84.

Gordon, Thomas F., 84.

Gordon, Hon. Thomas Knox, 20, 21.

Gordon, Walter Scott, 31.

Gordon, William, 76.

Gordon, Wm. Fitzhugh, 47.

Gorrie, Rev. Peter Douglas, 85.

Gouinlock, Dr. Wm. Chalk, 102.

Gracie, Archibald, 113.

Graeme, David, 20.

Graeme, Hon. James, 20.

Graeme, Judge James, 20.

Graham, David, 109.

Graham, George, 51.

Graham, Isabella, 77, 86.

Graham, Recorder James, 29, 113.

Graham, John, 51.

Graham, Gen. Joseph, 55.

Graham, William, 19.

Graham, William, 77.

Graham, Gov. Wm. Alexander, 43, 55.

Grant, Daniel, 22.

Grant, Gov. James Benton, 59.

Grant, John, 22.

Grant, John T., 106.

Grant, Matthew, 40.

Grant, Pres. U.S., 40.

Grant, William, 22.

Gray, Asa, 15, 70.

Gray, David, 83.

Gray, George, 49.

Gray, John, 22.

Greeley, Horace, 15, 110.

Gregg, David McMurtrie, 63.

Gregory, Judge William, 21.

Gregory, Gov. William, 54.

Grier, Robert Cooper, 48.

Grieve, Miller, 51.

Grimes, Gov. James Wilson, 58.

Grindlay, James, 21.

Guffey, James McClurg, 102.

Guffey, Wesley S., 102.

Guthrie, James, 42.

Guthrie, John, 67.

Guthrie, Dr. Samuel, 67.


Hadley, Prof. James, 78.

Haig, George, 21.

Haig, Thomas, 93.

Hall, David, 108.

Hall, James, 36.

Hall, William, 108.

Hallidie, Andrew L., 97.

Hamilton, Gen. Alexander, 28.

Hamilton, Andrew, 29.

Hamilton, Andrew, 43.

Hamilton, Gov. Andrew, 32, 33.

Hamilton, Gen. Charles S., 62.

Hamilton, Gov. James, 29, 33.

Hamilton, Gov. John, 32, 33, 80.

Hamilton, John L., 93.

Hamilton, Morris, R., 80.

Hanna, Senator Marcus Alonzo, 46.

Harkness, William, 71.

Harper, Gov. Joseph Morrill, 53.

Harper, William, 50.

Harrison, Pres. Benjamin, 40.

Harrison, Caroline Scott, 40.

Hart, James McDougall, 89.

Hart, William, 89.

Harvey, Geo. B. McC., 52.

Harvey, Stuart, 52.

Harvie, Andrew, 78.

Harvie, John, 30.

Hay, Sir Alexander. 13.

Hay, John, 43.

Hayes, George. 40.

Hayes, Pres. Rutherford B., 40.

Henderson, David. 93.

Henderson, David Bremner, 47.

Henderson, J., 93.

Henderson, John, 104.

Henderson, Peter, 71.

Henderson, Thomas, 104.

Hendricks, Gov. Thomas Andrews, 41, 57.

Hendry, James. 22.

Henry, Joseph, 67.

Henry, Patrick, 5, 28, 34, 36.

Henry, Theodore Crosby, 99.

Henry, Gen. Wm. Wirt, 60.

Hepburn, Alonzo Barton, 105.

Hepburn, Dr. Neil Jamieson, 75.

Hepburn, Patrick, 105.

Hewitt, Abram S., 114.

Hinschelwood, Robert, 90.

Hogg, Gov. James Stephen, 58.

Hogg, William James. 103.

Hooper, William (Signer), 30.

Hope, James, 88.

Hosack, Dr. David, 67.

Houston, Gov. George Smith, 56.

Houston, John, 58

Houston, Gov. John, 35.

Houston, John Wallace, 49.

Houston, Sir Patrick, 30, 35, 47.

Houston, Samuel, 19, 56, 58.

Houston. William, 30, 47.

Hume, Robert, 21.

Humphreys, Alex. Crombie, 68.

Hunter, Anne Nancy, 57.

Hunter, Gov. Robert, 32, 33.

Hunter, Whiteside Godfrey, 52.

Hunter, William, 51.

Hutchins, Elizabeth, 40.

Hutchins, Thomas. 99.

Hyslop, George, 80.

Hyslop, James Hervey, 79.


"Ik Marvel," 82.

Imlan, Gilbert, 81.

Inglis, Mungo, 76.

Inglis, William, 17.

Ingraham, Edward D., 87.

Innes, Harry, 50.

Innes. James, 76.

Innes. Col. James, 31.

Inness, George, 89.

Irving, Washington, 81.

Irwin, Theodore, 102.

Ivison, David B., 111.

Ivison, Henry, 111.


Jackson, Pres. Andrew, 40.

Jackson. Gen. Thomas, Jr., 63.

Jaffray, Jean, 67.

Jameson, Dr. David, 74.

Jameson, Dr. Horatio G., 74.

Jamison, David, 113.

Jay Chief Justice John, 4.

Jefferson, Thomas, 30.

John, Sir Augustus, 21.

Johnson, Gov. James, 56.

Johnson, Sir William, 23.

Johnson, Gen. Albert Sydney, 28.

Johnston, Bartlett, 27.

Johnston, Prof. Christopher, 28.

Johnston, Dr. Christopher, 28.

Johnston, Gov. Gabriel, 18, 27, 34, 76.

Johnston, Gilbert, 27.

Johnston, James, 27.

Johnston, Col. James, 27.

Johnston, Capt. James, 27.

Johnston, James, 109.

Johnston, Bishop James S., 86.

Johnston, John, 27.

Johnston, John, 28.

Johnston, John Humphreys, 89.

Johnston, Lt.-Col. Joseph Eccleston, 28.

Johnston, Gov. Joseph Forney, 27, 56.

Johnston, Mary, 83

Johnston, Peter, 28.

Johnston, Peter, 83.

Johnston, Robert, 28.

Johnston, Brig.-Gen. Robert, 27.

Johnston, Gov. Samuel, 27, 34.

Johnston, Col. William, 27.

Johnston, Dr. William, 27.

Johnston, Gov. William Freame, 54.

Johnstone, Gov. George, 35.

Johnstone, John, 16.

Jones, Admiral John. Paul, 65.


Kasson, John Adam, 51.

Kay, William, 83.

Keith, Benjamin Franklin, 94.

Keith, Rev. George, 29.

Keith, William, 89.

Keith, Sir William, 33.

Kell, Capt. John McIntosh, 65.

Kellogg, Edward Henry, 102.

Kemp, Bishop James, 85.

Kemp, John, 77.

Kennedy, Hon. Archibald, 29.

Kennedy, David, 22.

Kennedy, James, 83.

Kennedy, John S., 114.

Kennedy, Robert Lenox, 114.

Ker, Walter, 16.

Kerr, Edward, 102.

Kerr, Senator John Leeds, 45.

Kerr, Washington C., 69.

Killen, William, 48.

Kincannon, Andrew A., 80.

Kincannon, James, 80.

King, James, 22.

King, John Crookshanks, 91.

Kinloch, Hon. James, 20.

Kinloch, Dr. Robert A., 75.

Kinzie, John, 31.

Kirk, James Smith 102.

Kirk, Gov. Richard, 53.

Kirkpatrick, Chief Justice Andrew, 48.

Kirkpatrick, Judge Andrew, 48.

Kirkwood, Daniel, 78.

Kirkwood, James Pugh, 99.

Kirkwood, Mayor Robert, 58, 61.

Kirkwood, Robert, 78.

Kirkwood, Gov. Samuel Jordan, 43, 58.

Knox, Gen. Henry, 15, 60.


Laidlaw, William Grant, 47.

Laird, Samuel, 31.

Lamont, Charles A., 114.

Lamont, Daniel Scott, 42.

Lamont, Neil, 114.

Lamont, Thomas W., 105.

Lauder, George, 102.

Laurie, James, 99.

Lawrie, Gawen (Gavin), 16.

"Lawrie Todd," 71.

Lawson, Alexander, 90.

Lawson, Helen E., 91.

Lawson, James, 82.

Lawson, John, 81.

Lawson, Oscar A., 90.

Lee, Col. Henry, 28.

Lee, James P., 97.

Leiper, Thomas, 28.

Lenox, James, 113.

Leisley, J. Peter, 69.

Lewis, Andrew, 20.

Lewis, Ellis, 48.

Lewis, Gen. Morgan, 25.

Lindsay, Donald, 101.

Lindsay, E.J., 103.

Lindsay, James Edwin, 101.

Lindsay, John, 22.

Lindsay, Gov. Robert Burns, 56.

Linen, James Alex., 106.

Living, Dr. John, 73.

Littlejohn, Bishop Abram N., 85.

Littlejohn, Hugh, 85.

Livingston, Adam, 47.

Livingston, Edward, 25.

Livingston, Col. James, 61.

Livingston, Rev. John, 36.

Livingston, Leonidas Felix, 47.

Livingston, Peter Van Brugh, 25.

Livingston, Philip, 2nd Lord, 25.

Livingston, Philip (The Signer), 25, 39.

Livingston, Robert, 25, 33, 39.

Livingston, Robert R., 25.

Livingston, Dr. Robert R., 75.

Livingston. Gov. William, 25, 33.

Lockhart, Charles, 102.

Logan, David, 19.

Logan, Senator George, 45.

Logan, Judge James, 33.

Logan, Gov. James, 45.

Logan, Gen. John A., 63.

Logan, Patrick, 33.

Logan, Thomas, 87.

Logan, William, 21.

Longstreet, Augustus B., 81.

Longstreet, Augustus B., 95.

Longstreet, William, 95.

Lorimer, George Horace, 111.

London, John Earl of, 34.

Lovejoy, Francis T.F., 103.

Lowrie, Senator Walter, 45.

Lyall, James, 97.


Macalister, Charles, 78.

Macalister, James, 79.

McAllister, Addams S., 98.

McAllister, Archibald, 63.

McAllister, Hugh (of 1732), 98.

McAllister, Major Hugh, 31.

McAllister, James Gray, 80.

McAllister, Matthew Hall, 49.

McAllister, Maj.-Gen. Robert, 63.

McAllisters of Philadelphia, 68.

McAlpin, David Hunter, 103.

McArthur, John Arthur, 63.

McArthur, Lt.-Gen. Arthur, 63.

McArthur, Lt.-Gov. Arthur, 82.

McArthur, Chas. Lafayette, 63.

McArthur, Douglas, 63.

McArthur, Gov. Duncan, 57.

McArthur, John, 92.

McArthur, Maj.-Gen. John, 63.

McArthur, Rev. Robert S., 85.

MacBean, Thomas, 92.

MacBean, William, 22.

McBride, John McLaren, 79.

Macbride, Thos. Huston, 70.

McBurney, Dr. Charles, 75.

McCall, Gen. Geo. Archibald, 63.

McCall, Hugh, 81.

McCall, John Augustine, 106.

McCallum, Maj.-Gen. Daniel C., 63.

McCann, William Penn, 65.

McCauley, Alexander, 21.

McCaw, Dr. James, 74.

McCaw, Dr. James Brown, 74.

McClanahan, Alexander, 20.

McClellan, Dr. George, 74.

McClellan, George (the anatomist), 74.

McClellan, Gen. George B., 15, 26.

McClellan, Geo. B., 27.

McClellan, James, 26.

McClellan, Prof. John Hill B., 74.

McClelland, Gov. Robert, 57.

McClement, John Hall, 106.

McClintock, James, 17.

McClintock, Rev. John, 85.

McClintock, Rev. Samuel, 85.

McCook, Major Daniel, 63.

McCook, Gov. Edward Moody, 58.

McCook, Dr. John, 63.

MacCorkle, Capt. John, 55.

MacCorkle, Gov. Wm. Alexander, 55.

McCormack, Cyrus Hall, 95.

McCormack, James, 95.

McCosh, Rev. James, 78.

McCrea, James, 106.

McCue, John, 19.

McCulloch, Hugh, 15.

McCulloch, Hugh, 42.

McCurdy, Charles, Johnston, 51.

McCutcheon, George Barr, 83.

McCutcheon, John, 83.

Macdonald, Adam, 21.

Macdonald, Alexander, 91.

Macdonald, Alexander, 103.

McDonald, Senator Alexander, 46.

McDonald, Angus, 99.

McDonald, Gov. Chas. James, 55.

Macdonald, Duncan Black, 80.

McDonald, Flora, 17.

McDonald, Hunter, 99.

McDonald, James, 59.

Macdonald, Dr. James, 75.

McDonald, Gov. Jesse Fuller, 59.

McDonald, John, 46.

Macdonald, John Louis, 47.

Macdonald, Senator Joseph Ewing, 45.

McDonald, Marshall, 68.

McDonnell, John, 30.

Macdonough, Thomas, 26.

McDougal, Maj.-Gen. Clinton D., 63.

Macdougal, David Trembly, 70.

McDougall, Maj.-Gen. Alex, 60.

McDougall, Gov. John, 59.

MacDowell, Edward Alex., 93.

McDowell, Ephraim, 19.

McDowell, Dr. Ephraim, 73.

McDowell, Maj.-Gen. Irvin, 63.

McDowell, John, 19.

McDowell, Col. Samuel, 20, 31.

McDuffie, Gov. George, 55.

McElhone, John J., 111.

McElwain, William Howe, 103.

McEnery, Gov. John, 57.

McEnery, Gov. Samuel Douglas, 57.

MacEwen, Walter, 89.

Macfarlane, Robert. 82.

Macfarlane, Will. C., 93.

McGaw, Alexander, 92.

McGee, William John 69.

McGilvary, William, 42.

McGilvra, John Jay, 87.

MacGregor, Rev. James, 12, 14.

McIlvaine, Bishop Chas. P., 85.

McIlvaine, Senator Joseph, 46.

McIlvaine, Joshua Hall, 79.

Maclnnes, Duncan, 106.

McIntosh, Alexander, 21.

McIntosh, Col. John, 19.

McIntosh, John "Mor," 109.

McIntosh, Gen. Lachlan, 19, 61.

McIntosh, Maria J., 82.

McIntire, Samuel, 93.

MacIntyre, Finloe (Finlay), 22.

MacIntyre, John. 22.

McIntyre, Rev. Robert, 85.

Mackay, Ensign Charles, 19.

Mackay, Donald, 101.

Mackay, Geo. Devereux, 107.

McKay, Gordon, 96.

Mackay, Capt. Hugh, 18, 19.

Mackay, John (of 1760), 107.

Mackaye, James M. Steele, 83.

Mackaye, Percy Wallace, 83.

McKean, Joseph, 78.

McKean, Thomas (Signer), 38, 54.

McKean, Rev. Thomas, 36.

McKean, William, 38.

McKean, William Vincent, 112.

McKeand, John, 65.

McKeen, Joseph, 77.

McKeever, Commodore Isaac, 65.

MacKellar, Thomas, 112.

McKelway, St. Clair, 110.

Mackenzie, Alexander, 63.

Mackenzie, Donald. 104.

Mackenzie, James Cameron, 79.

McKenzie, John, 31.

Mackenzie, John, 80.

Mackenzie, Rev. Robert. 85.

Mackenzie, Robert Shelton. 82.

Mackenzie, Robert Tait, 91.

Mackenzie, William, 102.

Mackenzie, Rev. Wm. 91.

Mackenzie, Wm. Douglas, 80.

McKesson, John, 101.

Mackie, John Milton, 82.

McKie, Patrick, 21.

McKim, James Miller, 86.

McKinley, David, 40.

McKinley, Pres. William, 40.

McKinley, Gov. John, 33.

McLane, Col. Allan, 60.

McLane, Allen, 42, 51.

McLane, Gov. John, 53.

McLane, Louis. 42.

McLane, Gov. Robert Milligan, 42, 51, 54.

McLaren, Bishop Wm. Edward, 85.

McLaughlin, Andrew C., 80.

McLaurin, Gov. Anselm Joseph, 57.

Maclaurin, Richard C., 80.

Maclay, Robert, 114.

McLean, Andrew, 110.

Maclean, George Edwin, 79.

McLean, Gov. George Payne. 54.

McLean, Dr. James Henry, 75.

McLean, Dr. John, Sr., 67.

McLean, Dr. John, Jr., 67.

McLean, John, 43, 49.

McLean, John 79.

McLean, John, 86.

McLean, John, 109.

McLean, John R., 110.

McLean, Major Nathaniel, 109.

McLean, Washington, 110.

McLean, William, 100.

McLeod, Rev. Alexander, 82, 85.

McLeod, Angus A., 107.

Macleod, Donald, 82.

Macleod, Xavier Donald, 82.

Maclien (McLean), Allen, 22.

Maclure, William, 68.

McMillan, Alexander, 109.

McMillan, Senator Samuel Hugh, 46.

McMillan, John ("The Upright"), 46.

Macmillan, Sen. Sam. Jas. Renwick, 46.

Macmillan, William, 71.

McMillin, Gov. Benton, 56.

McMinn, Gov. Joseph. 56.

MacMonnies, Fred William, 91.

McMurtry. George Gibson, 101.

McNair, Gov. Alexander, 58.

McNair, Fred. V., 66.

McNair, Samuel, 66.

McNaught, William, 25.

McNaughton, Dr. James, 74.

MacNeil, Herman Atkins, 91.

McNeil, Brig.-Gen. John, 63.

McNeill, Neill, 17.

McNeill, Wm. Gibbs, 99.

McNess, John, 21.

MacNutt, Capt. John, 55.

McPheeters, William, 19.

Macpherson, Angus Neilson, 101.

Macpherson, Isaac, 21.

Macpherson, Gen. James B., 63.

Macpherson, Major John, 60.

Macpherson, Capt. John, 108.

McPherson, John H.T., 83.

McPherson, Robert, 83.

Macpherson, Gen. William, 61.

Macqueen, Dougall, 22.

McRae, Gov. John J., 57.

Macrae, Brig.-Gen. William, 64.

McRuer, Dr. Daniel, 74.

McVeagh, Franklin, 43.

McVeagh, Wayne, 51.

MacVicar, John, 86.

McVicar, Malcolm, 79.

McWhorter, Rev. Alex., 84.

McWillie, Gov. William, 57.


Machen, Matthew, 17.

Macomb, Alexander, 109.

Macomb, William, 109.

Magill Families, 103.

Magonigle, Harold Van B., 92.

Magonigle, John, 92.

Magoon, Isaac, 31.

Magruder, Commander George, 63.

Magruder, Gen. John B., 63.

Makemie, Rev. Frances, 22, 84. 113.

Malcolm, William, 97.

Mantell, Robert Bruce, 93.

Marble, Dr. Albert P., 114.

Marion, Gen., 27.

Marshall, John, 17.

Marshall, Chief Justice John, 48.

Marshall, Thomas, 17.

Marshall, William, 103.

Martin, Alexander, 79.

Martin, Gov. Alexander, 34.

Martin, Gov. John Alexander, 58.

Martin, Gov. Noah, 53.

Mason, Rev. John, 77, 84.

Mason, Rev. John Mitchell, 77.

Mather, Rev. Cotton, 15.

Mathews, Col. Samson, 20.

Maxwell, Dr. Geo. Troup, 75.

Maxwell, Hugh, 87, 113.

Maxwell, Hugh, 95.

Maxwell, Lawrence, 87.

Maywood, Robert C., 93.

Medill, Joseph, 110.

Mein, John, 108.

Melish or Mellish, John, 81.

Melvil, William, 22.

Melville, Rear Admiral George W., 66.

Mercer, Gen. Hugh, 54, 60, 74.

Mercer, Jesse, 77.

Mercer, John, 87.

Mercer, Gov. John Francis, 54.

Michie, Hon. James, 20.

Michie, Peter Smith, 68.

Middleton, Dr. Peter, 74.

Millar, Addison Thomas, 89.

Miller, Gov. Stephen Decatur, 55.

Milligan, John J., 48.

Mitchel, Gen. Ormsby McKnight, 70.

Mitchell, Dr. Alexander, 74.

Mitchell, Alexander, 105.

Mitchell, Gov. David Brodie, 55.

Mitchell, Donald Grant, 82.

Mitchell, Henry, 93.

Mitchell, Dr. John K., 74.

Mitchell, Senator John Lendrum, 46.

Mitchell, Maria, 70.

Mitchell, Dr. Silas Weir, 74.

Mitchell, William, 70.

Moffat, James C., 82.

Mouet, Col. George, 20.

Monroe, Andrew, 40.

Monroe, Pres. James, 40.

Montgomerie, Gov. John, 32.

Montgomery, Edmund Duncan, 68.

Montgomery, John, 19.

Montgomery, Capt. John B., 65.

Montgomery, Gen. Richard, 25, 60.

Montgomery, Thos. Harrison, 68.

Moonlight, Gov. Thomas, 59.

Moore, Daniel McFarlan, 97.

Morris, Gov. Robert Hunter, 33. 49.

Morrison, Bishop James Dow, 85.

Morrison, John, 83.

Morrison, Rev. John, 85.

Morrison, Leonard A., 12, 83.

Morrow, Gov. Jeremiah, 57.

Morse, Samuel F.B., 77.

Morton, Alexander, 96.

Morton, Paul, 43.

Morton, Richard, 43.

Morton, Dr. William T.G., 75.

Moultrie, Dr. John, 55, 61.

Moultrie, Gen. William, 21, 55, 61.

Muir, John, 69.

Muir, John Allan, 107.

Munro, David A., 110.

Munro, George, 111.

Munro, Norman Leslie, 111.

Munroe, Daniel, 93.

Munroe, Nathaniel, 93.

Murdoch, James Edward, 93.

Murdoch, William, 22, 36.

Murdock, James, 81.

Murray, Capt. Alexander, 65.

Murray, Gov. Eli Houston, 59.

Murray, George, 90.

Murray, John, 21.

Murray, John, Earl of Dunmore, 32, 34.

Murray, Patrick, 22.


Nairne, Thomas, 21.

Neill, Richard Renshaw, 52.

Neilson, Wm. Allan, 80.

Nelson, Samuel, 49.

Nicholson, Family, 65.

Nisbet, Eugenius Aristides, 48.

Noble, Gov. Noah, 57.

Noble, Gov. Patrick, 55.

Notman, John, 92.


Ochiltree, Lord, 13.

Oliphant, David, 21.

Oliver, James, 96.

Orr, Alexander Ector, 114.

Orr, Hugh, 95.

Orr, Nathaniel, 90.

Orr, Robert, 95.

Orr, William, 95.

Orrach (Orrock?) Alexander, 22.

Oswald, Col. Eleazar, 108.

Owen, David Dale, 69.

Owen, Richard, 69.

Owen, Robert Dale, 86.


(Page), Robert, 19.

Parsons, Wm. Barclay, 99.

Paterson, Maj.-Gen. John, 62.

Paterson, Matthew, 31.

Paterson, Gov. William, 33, 49.

Patillo, Rev. Henry, 30.

Paton, John, 17.

Patterson, Carlile Pollock, 68.

Patterson, James Kennedy, 79.

Patterson, Robert, 77.

Patterson, Robert M., 77.

Pattison, Dr. Granville Sharp, 74.

Patton, Gov. John Mercer, 54.

Patton, Robert, 54.

Patton, Gov. Robert Miller, 56.

Peckover, James, 97.

Perth, James Drummond, Earl of, 16.

Pettigrew, Bishop Charles, 85.

Pharr, Gov. John Newton, 58.

Pharr, Walter, 58.

Phillips, Wm. Addison, 64.

Phyfe, Duncan, 93.

Pickens, Gen. Andrew, 55, 61.

Pickens, Gov. Andrew, 55.

Pickens, Gov. Israel, 56.

Pinkerton, Allan, 28.

Pitcairn, Robert, 102, 107.

Poage, Robert, 19.

Polk, Gov. Charles, 54.

Polk, Pres. James Knox, 40.

Polk, Robert, 40.

Polk, Gov. Trusten, 58.

Pollock, Gov. James, 54.

Pollock, Robert, 40.

Preston, Col. William, 20.

Pringle, Robert, 21.

Purdie, Alex., 109.


Ralston, Wm. Chapman, 102.

Ramage, Adam, 112.

Ramsay, David, 81.

Ramsay, Rear Adm'l Francis M., 66.

Ramsay, Patrick, 66.

Ramsey, Gov. Alexander, 58

Rankine, William Birch, 87.

Rantoul, Robert, 86, 87.

Rattray, Hon. John, 20, 21.

Read (of Delaware), 36.

Read, Adm'l George Campbell, 65.

Redpath, James, 110.

Reed, Gov. Joseph, 33.

Reed, Joseph, 37.

Reed, William Bradford, 51.

Reid, James Douglas, 102.

Reid, Whitelaw, 4, 12, 51, 110.

Renwick, Edward Sabine, 67.

Renwick, Henry Brevoort, 67, 99.

Renwick, Prof. James, 67, 99.

Renwick, James (architect), 67, 92.

Reyburn, John Edgar, 47.

Rhind, Rear Adm'l Alex. Colden, 65.

Rhind, David, 77.

Rhind, John Massey, 91.

Richardson, Henry H., 92.

Riddle, John Wallace, 52.

Ridpath, John Clark, 83.

Ritchie, Alexander Hay, 88.

Ritchie, Thomas, 109.

Roberts, John, 91.

Robertson, George, 48.

Robertson, James, 31.

Robertson, Gov. James, 32.

Robertson, John, 22.

Robertson, Adj.-Gen. John, 64.

Robertson, Wm. Joseph, 49

Robinson, Gov. James Fisher, 57.

Rodgers, Capt. John, 65.

Rogers, Henry Darwin, 69.

Rogers, William Barton, 69.

Rollins, James Sidney, 78.

Ronald, Gen. Andrew, 30.

Ronald, William, 30.

Ronaldson, James, 111, 112.

Roosevelt, Pres. Theodore, 17, 27, 40.

Ross, Betsy, 38.

Ross, Elizabeth (Griscom), 38.

Ross, George (Signer), 21, 38.

Ross, John, 30.

Ross, John D., 83.

Ross, Thomas, 22.

Rowan, Gov. Matthew, 34.

Russell, Gov. David Lindsay, 55.

Rutherford, Gen., 27.

Rutherford, Gov. John, 54.

Rutherford, Senator John, 45.

Rutherford, Sir John, 45.

Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 71.

Rutledge, Andrew, 20.

Rutledge, Gov. Edward, 35, 36, 38, 55.

Rutledge, Judge John, 4, 48.

Rutledge, Gov. John, 35, 36.

Rutledge, Dr. John, 38.

Rutledge, Thomas, 21.


St. Clair, Arthur, 61.

Sandeman, Rev. Robert, 84.

Saunders, William, 71.

Saxby, Hon. George, 20.

Scott, Alfred B., 102.

Scott, Archibald, 19.

Scott, George, 16.

Scott, James, 102.

Scott, John Morin, 47.

Scott, Gov. Robert Kingston, 55.

Scott, Thomas A., 106.

Scott, Walter, 114.

Scott, Rev. Walter, 85.

Scott, Wm. Berryman, 70.

Scott, William Henry, 79.

Scott, Lt.-Gen. Winfield, 62.

Scoular, William, 82.

Seaton, William Wiston, 111.

Seton, Elizabeth Ann B., 86.

Seton, Archbishop Robert, 86.

Shaw, Robert, 91.

Shields, Gov. James, 59.

Shirlaw, Walter, 89.

Sigourney, Lydia (Huntley), 81.

Simpson, James, 21.

Simpson, William, 21.

Sinclair, Angus, 100.

Sinclair, John, 21.

Sinclair, John, 22.

Sinkler, James, 21.

Skene, Hon. Alexander, 20, 29.

Skene, Dr. Alex J. Chalmers, 75.

Skirving, James, Sen., 21.

Skirving, James, Jun., 21.

Skirving, William, 21.

Sloan, Samuel, 106.

Sloan, Wm. Milligan, 79.

Sloane, William, 79.

Sloane, William, 103.

Smibert, John, 88.

Smiley, Albert Keith, 86.

Smillie, George Henry, 89.

Smillie, James, 90, 91.

Smillie, James, David, 89.

Smillie, William Main, 91.

Smith, George, 17.

Smith, George, 105.

Smith, Hezekiah Wright, 90.

Smith, Gov. Jeremiah, 53.

Smith, Judge Jeremiah, 53.

Smith, Gov. John Butler, 53.

Smith, Russell, 88.

Smith, Thos. Lachlan, 89.

Smith, William, 17.

Smith, William, 77.

Smith, Gov. William E., 57.

Smith, William R., 71.

Smith, Xanthus, 88.

Spalding, Alexander. 22.

Spence, Dr. John, 73.

Spotswood, Lt.-Gov. Alexander, 33.

Stark, Gen. John, 15, 61.

Stephen, Dr. Adam, 73.

Stephens, Gov. Alex. Hamilton, 56.

Stephens, Henry Morse, 83.

Stevenson, Adlai E., 41, 44.

Stevenson, Charles, 21.

Stevenson, Dr. John, 31.

Stevenson, John James, 70.

Stevenson, Gov. Wm. Erskine, 54.

Steward, David, 22.

Stewart, Alexander Turney, 113.

Stewart, Gen. Daniel, 62.

Stewart, James Fleming, 47.

Stewart, John Aikman, 105.

Stewart, Gov. John Wolcott, 53.

Stewart, Rachel, 40.

"Stirling," Wm. Alexander, "Lord," 62.

Stobo, Rev. Archibald, 17, 27.

Stobo, Jean, 27.

Stobo, Major Richard, 29.

Stoddart, James H., 94.

Stoddert, Benjamin, 43.

"Stonewall" Jackson, 63.

Stoot, Hugh Gordon, 99.

Stuart, Alexander, 113.

Stuart, Alex. Hugh Holmes, 43.

Stuart, Andrew, 109.

Stuart, Archibald, 43, 54.

Stuart, Senator, Charles E., 45.

Stuart, Daniel, 45.

Stuart, Dr. Ferdinand C., 74.

Stuart, Gilbert Charles, 88.

Stuart, Gov. Henry Carter, 54.

Stuart, Hon. John, 20.

Stuart, Robert, 2.

Stuart, Robert, 104.

Stuart, Robert L., 113.

Swinton, William, 82.

Syme, John, 17.

Synge, Archbishop, 14.


Tait, John Robinson, 89.

Taylor, Alexander, 114.

Taylor, George, 38.

Taylor, Dr. James Ridley, 75.

Taylor, John, 75.

Taylor, Rev. Nathaniel, 22.

Taylor, Thomas, 96.

Telfair, Gov. Edward, 35.

Tennant, Rev. William, 21, 36.

Tennant, Families, 103.

Thompson, Gov. David P., 59.

Thompson, Frank, 106.

Thompson, Bishop Hugh Miller, 86.

Thompson, John Edgar, 106.

Thompson, Robert M., 103.

Thomson, T. Kennard, 99.

Thorburn, Grant, 71.

Thornton, Matthew, 15, 36, 38.

Tilghman, Chief Justice, 37.

Todd, Thomas, 48.

Torrance, David, 50.

Traill, Rev. William, 22, 84.

Trimble, Gov. Allen, 57.

Troup, Gov. Geo. McIntosh, 55.

Turnbull, Dr. Chas. Smith, 75.

Turnbull, Fred'k, 93.

Turnbull, Rev. Robert, 82.

Turnbull, Wm. Paterson, 68.

Tweedale, William, 99.


Umphraville, Angus, 82.

Ure, William Agnew, 110.

Urie, Robert, 17.

Urquhart, Edmond, 102.


Vallance, John, 90.

Verplanck, Gulian C., 37.


Waddell, Rev. James, 19, 84.

Waddell, Moses, 78.

Waldo, Gen. Samuel, 15.

Walker, George, 31.

Walker, Lt.-Gov. James A., 64.

Walker, John, 64.

Walker, William, 29.

Wallace, Charles William, 83.

Wallace, Gov. David, 57.

Wallace, John Findley, 100.

Wallace, Gen. Lew, 82.

Wallace, William Ross, 82.

Warden, William Grey, 101.

Watson, Dr. John, 74.

Watson, Dr. William, 67.

Watts, John, 113.

Weir, John Ferguson, 90.

Weir, Robert Walter, 88.

Wells, John, 109.

Wells, Robert, 109.

Wellstood, John Geikie, 90.

Wellstood, William, 91.

White, Alexander, 31.

Wilkeson, Samuel, 31.

Williamson, Dr. Hugh, 67.

Williamson, John, 89.

Willocks, George, 16.

Wilson, Alexander, 67, 90.

Wilson Henry, 22.

Wilson, V.-Pres. Henry, 41.

Wilson, Rev. James, 36.

Wilson, James (Signer), 38, 48.

Wilson, James, 40.

Wilson, James, 43.

Wilson, James, 91.

Wilson, James Grant, 82.

Wilson, John, 111.

Wilson, John Cochrane, 80.

Wilson, Peter, 77.

Wilson, William, 82.

Wilson, William Bauchop, 43.

Wilson, Pres. Woodrow, 40.

Windrim, James Hamilton, 92.

Winton, Alexander, 98.

Witherspoon, John, 4, 36, 37, 39.

Wood, Mary, 28.

Woodrow, Janet, 40.

Woodrow, Rev. Thomas, 40.

Wright, Fanny, 86.

Wylie, Samuel Brown, 78.


Young, David, 99.

Young, John, 17.

Yule, George, 102.


Zenger, John Peter, 29.





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