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Title: Military Instructors Manual
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Title: Military Instructors Manual

Author: James P. Cole and Oliver Schoonmaker

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MILITARY INSTRUCTORS MANUAL

by

CAPTAIN JAMES P. COLE, 59th INFANTRY
Instructor 3rd Battalion, 17th Provisional Training Regiment,
Plattsburg, N.Y.

and

MAJOR OLIVER SCHOONMAKER, 76th DIVISION
Assistant Instructor 3rd Battalion, 17th Provisional Training
Regiment, Plattsburg, N.Y.







                          TO
                     COLONEL WOLF

          Under whose careful supervision so many have
          received their Military Training in order that
          they may show the world in battle the true spirit
          of American manhood.






Acknowledgment.


To have prepared this book within the time allotted to it, without the
assistance of Candidates ALCOTT FARRAR ELWELL and LYLE MILTON PROUSE
would have been impossible, and grateful recognition is made of their
services. Not only much of the manual labor, but the preparation of
entire chapters, has been in their hands.

Candidates CHARLES HUNTINGTON JACOBS and MICHAEL FRANCIS MCALEER have
rendered very valuable assistance and we wish to thank the following
candidates for the loan of materials used elsewhere, for typewriting
and other work:

          GLENN MACK AINSWORTH.
          PHILIP M. BROWN.
          NELSON P. BUMP.
          EDWIN G. BURROWS.
          PHILIP DOREMUS.
          WALTER LANE HARDENBROOK.
          ALBERT BLANCHARD KELLOGG.
          HENRY PRATT MCKEAN.
          LOREN RAY PIERCE.
          HARRY RAPHAEL SAFTEL.
          ROLAND EMERY PACKARD.
          HOYT SHERMAN.





Introduction.


The officer of to-day has big problems to face at short notice. His
training has necessarily been so intensive that he cannot absorb a
large amount of it. He has little time to make out schedules or even
to look over the hasty notes he may have made during his training
period, yet he finds himself facing problems which force him to
immediate action.

This book so condenses and systematizes general military instruction
and the work done at Plattsburg so that it may be easily utilized in
training other troops. No broad claim for originality is made except
in the arrangement of all available material; the bibliography makes
acknowledgment to all texts so utilized. Besides bringing helpful
reminders to new officers regarding the elements of modern warfare,
much of the material will be found of radical importance, as it is
practically new and never before condensed. Since under the new army
organization the platoon leader virtually has assumed the roll of a
captain of a company, it is not enough for him to know simply his own
part; he must be ready with all the information that his
non-commissioned officers and men should know, and more important
still, he must know how to teach them. Having little or no time to
work over and digest for himself this mass of new material pouring in
upon him, the officer may find in this book, material condensed and
already arranged.

It is hoped that this work will serve to recall to many officers,
valuable points of military training which would otherwise be lost,
to them in the mass of notes never looked at since the day they were
made. More than this, every reader will find help in planning his
work, saving thereby precious hours already too full of necessary
duties, and will find fresh material for progress in the game of war.

It is the purpose of this book to help men who are in the service of
the United States, and through them to share in bringing victory.




Table of Contents.

                                                 PAGE.

Chapter 1. SCHEDULES                                1

Chapter 2. INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS              31

Chapter 3. PHYSICAL TRAINING                       91
           VOICE CULTURE.

Chapter 4. USE OF MODERN ARMS                     105
            1. S.A.F.M.
            2. Range Practice.
            3. Pistol.
            4. Bayonet.
            5. Machine Guns.
            6. Grenade Instruction.

Chapter 5. MAP SKETCHING                          143

Chapter 6. ARTICLES OF WAR. (Courts-Martial.)     161

Chapter 7. ARMY REGULATIONS                       175

Chapter 8. PRACTICE MARCHES                       187
           FIELD WORK.

Chapter 9. FEEDING MEN                            213
           CAMPING AND CAMP SANITATION.

Chapter 10. PERSONAL HYGIENE                      221
            FIRST AID.

Chapter 11. SIGNALING                             229

Chapter 12. GUARD DUTY                            237

Chapter 13. COMPANY ADMINISTRATION                245

Chapter 14. CONFERENCES                           259
            Study.
            Small Problems in Infantry.
            Examinations.

Chapter 15. TRENCH WARFARE                        287
            1. General Principles.
            2. Siting Trenches.
            3. Construction.
            4. Occupation.

CONCLUSION                                        396

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                      397

CHAPTER INDEX                                     403




CHAPTER 1.

Schedules.


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., August 27 to September 1, 1917_

    Organization.   |                 |                  |
Issue of Equipment. |                 |  Drill           |
   Organization of  |    Drill        |  Physical        |
      Barracks      |    I.D.R.       |  M.P.T.          |
====================|=================|==================|
                    |                 |                  |
Monday, Aug. 27     |                 |                  |
7.00-12.00 a.m.     |                 |                  |
1.30-4.30 p.m.      |                 |                  |
                    |                 |                  |
====================|=================|==================|
Tuesday, Aug. 28    | Without arms    | 8.00-8.30 a.m.   |
                    | 7.00-8.00 a.m.  | pgs. 1-30        |
                    | pars 48-73      |                  |
                    | --------------- |                  |
                    | 8.30-10.30 a.m. |                  |
                    | pars. 101-132   |                  |
                    |                 |                  |
====================|=================|==================|
                    | With arms       |                  |
                    | 7.00-8.00 a.m.  |                  |
                    | pars 48-100     | 8.00-8.30 a.m.   |
Wednesday, Aug. 29  | --------------- | pgs. 1-33        |
                    | 8.30-10.30 a.m. |                  |
                    | par. 101-132    |                  |
                    |                 |                  |
====================|=================|==================|
                    | 7.00-8.00 a.m.  | 8.00-8.30 a.m.   |
                    | par. 48-100     | pgs. 1-36        |
                    |                 |                  |
Thursday, Aug. 30   | 8.30-9.30 a.m.  |                  |
                    | pars. 101-132   |                  |
                    |                 |                  |
                    | 9.30-10.30 a.m. |                  |
                    | pars. 159-198   |                  |
====================|=================|==================|
                    | 7.00-8.00 a.m.  | 8.00-8.30 a.m.   |
                    | par. 48-100     | pgs. 1-39        |
                    |                 |                  |
Friday, Aug. 31     | 8.30-9.30 a.m.  |                  |
                    | pars. 101-132   |                  |
                    |                 |                  |
                    | 9.30-10.30 a.m. |                  |
                    | pars. 159-198   |                  |
====================|====================================|
Saturday, Sept. 1.  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
====================|=====================================

                 |                |                |
                 |    Musketry    |                |
    Practice     |    Training    |                |
    March        |    S.A.F.M.    |   Study        | Conferences
=================|================|================|==================
                 |                | 7.00-9.00 p.m. |
                 |                | par. 1-21      |
                 |                | par. 48-73-    |
                 |                | 101-132        |
                 |                | I.D.R.         |
=================|================|================|==================
                 |                | 1.30-3.30 p.m. |
                 |                | par. 1-21      |
                 |                | S.A.F.M.       | 2.30-4.30 p.m.
                 |                |                | Care of arms and
                 |                | 7.00-9.00 p.m. | equipment
                 |                | par. 74-100    |
                 |                | I.D.R.         |
=================|================|================|==================
                 |                | 2.30-3.30 p.m. |
                 |                | par. 1-31      |
Without arms     | 1.30-2.30 p.m. | S.A.F.M.       | 3.30-4.30 p.m.
10.45-11.45 a.m. | par. 1-21      | -------------- | Assembling and
                 |                | 7.00-9.00 p.m. | adjusting pack
                 |                | par. 159-198   |
                 |                | I.D.R.         |
=================|================|================|==================
                 |                |                |
                 |                |                |
                 |                |                |
10.45-11.45 a.m. | 1.30-2.30 p.m. | 7.00-9.00 p.m. | 2.30-4.30 p.m.
With arms        | par. 1-31      | par. 159-198   | Assembling and
                 |                | I.D.R.         | adjusting pack
                 |                |                |
                 |                |                |
=================|================|================|==================
                 |                |                |
                 |                |                |
With arms and    |                | 7.00-9.00 p.m. | 3.30-4.30 p.m.
light pack       | 1.30-3.30 p.m. | par. 199-257-  | Military
10.45-11.45 a.m. | par. 1-31      | 758-765        | Courtesy
                 |                | I.D.R.         |
                 |                |                |
                 |                |                |
=================|================|================|==================

======================================================================


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., September 3 to September 8, 1917_

                   |                |    Drill          |
                   |     Drill      |    Physical       |
                   |     I.D.R.     |    M.P.T.         |
===================|================|===================|
Monday,  Sept. 3   | 7.00-8.30 a.m. | 3.30-4.00 p.m.    |
                   | pars. 101-158  | pgs. 1-42         |
                   |       159-193  |                   |
===================|================|===================|
Tuesday, Sept. 4   | 7.00-8.30 a.m. | 3.30-4.00 p.m.    |
                   | pars.  48-100  | pgs. 1-45         |
                   |       158-198  |                   |
===================|================|===================|
Wednesday, Sept. 5 | 7.00-8.30 a.m. | 3.30-4.00 p.m.    |
                   | pars. 101-158  | pgs. 1-48         |
                   |       158-198  |                   |
===================|================|===================|
Thursday, Sept. 6  | 7.00-8.30 a.m. | 3.30-4.30 p.m.    |
                   | pars.  48-100  | pgs. 1-52         |
                   |       159-198  |                   |
===================|================|===================|
Friday, Sept. 7    | 7.00-8.30 a.m. | 3.30-4.00 p.m.    |
                   | pars. 101-158  | pgs. 1-55         |
                   |       159-198  |                   |
===================|====================================|
Saturday, Sept. 8  | As prescribed by Senior Instructor.
===================|=====================================

Musketry         |                  | Companies
Training         | Semaphore        | Practice March
S.A.F.M.         | Signalling       | Full Kit
=================|==================|=================
8.45-9.45 a.m.   |                  |
par. 1-31        | 9.45-10.45 a.m.  |
                 |                  |
=================|==================|=================
10.00-11.00 a.m. |                  |
par. 1-31        | 11.00-11.30 a.m. | 8.45-9.45 a.m.
                 |                  |
=================|==================|=================
8.45-9.45 p.m.   |                  |
par. 1-31        | 9.45-10.15 a.m.  |
                 |                  |
=================|==================|=================
10.30-11.30 a.m. |                  |
par. 1-31        |                  | 8.45-10.15 a.m.
                 |                  |
=================|==================|=================
8.45-9.45 a.m.   |                  |
par. 1-31        | 9.45-10.15 a.m.  |
                 |                  |
=================|==================|=================

======================================================


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., September 3 to September 8, 1917_--(_Concluded_)

                   | Grenade Instruction [A] | Bayonet Drill    |
===================|=========================|==================|
                   |                         | 4.00-4.30 p.m.   |
                   |                         | Lesson 1         |
Monday, Sept. 3    | 11.00-11.30 a.m.        | Notes on         |
                   |                         | Bayonet Training |
===================|=========================|==================|
                   |                         | 4.00-4.30 p.m.   |
                   |                         | Lessons 1 and 2  |
Tuesday,  Sept. 4  | 11.30-12.00 m.          | Notes on         |
                   |                         | Bayonet Training |
===================|=========================|==================|
                   |                         | 4.00-4.30 p.m.   |
                   |                         | Lessons 1 and 3  |
Wednesday, Sept. 5 | 10.30-11.00 a.m.        | Notes on         |
                   |                         | Bayonet Training |
                   |                         |                  |
===================|=========================|==================|
                   |                         | 4.00-4.30 p.m.   |
                   |                         | Lessons 1 and 4  |
Thursday, Sept. 6  | 11.30-12.00 m.          | Notes on         |
                   |                         | Bayonet Training |
===================|=========================|==================|
                   |                         | 4.00-4.30 p.m.   |
                   |                         | Lessons 1 and 5  |
Friday, Sept. 7    | 10.30-11.00 a.m.        | Notes on         |
                   |                         | Bayonet Training |
===================|=========================|==================|
Saturday, Sept. 8  | As prescribed by Senior Instructor.
===================|=============================================

Voice Culture      | Conferences             | Study
===================|=========================|====================
                   |                         | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
                   | 1.30-3.30 p.m.          | pars. 1-158 I.D.R
11.30-12.00 m.     | par. 1-100 I.D.R.       | pgs. 7-46
                   | pgs. 7-46 M.G.D.        | M.G.D.
===================|=========================|====================
                   |                         | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
                   | 1.30-3.30 p.m.          | par. 159-174 I.D.R.
                   | pars. 101-158 I.D.R.    | pgs. 47-88
                   | pgs. 7-88 M.G.D.        | M.G.D.
===================|=========================|====================
                   | Physical Exam.          | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
                   | 1.30-3.30 p.m.          | par. 175-198 I.D.R.
11.00-12.00 m.     | pars. 159-174           | part III--U.S.
                   | part 5, 6, 10, 19       | Signal Book
                   | U.S.S.B.                |
===================|=========================|====================
                   |                         | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
                   |  1.30-3.30 p.m.         | par. 792-798 I.D.R.
                   |  pars. 175-198, 1-61    | par. 1-61
                   |  S.A.F.M.               | S.A.F.M.
===================|=========================|====================
                   |  1.30-3.30 p.m.         | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
11.00-12.00 m.     |  pars. 792-798 I.D.R.   | par. 199-220 1-61
                   |  1-61 S.A.F.M.          | S.A.F.M.
                   |                         |
===================|=========================|====================

==================================================================

[Footnote A: As prescribed by Senior Grenade Instructor.]


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., September 10 to September 15, 1917_

                    |                    |                   |
                    |   Drill            | Musketry Training |
                    |   I.D.R.           | S.A.F.M.          |
====================|====================|===================|
                    | 7.00-7.30 a.m.     |                   |
                    | pars. 133-150      | 8.30-9.30 a.m.    |
                    | ------------------ | pars. 35-43       |
Monday, Sept. 10    | 7.30-8.00 a.m.     | Sight setting     |
                    | pars. 123-127      | and loadings      |
                    | ------------------ |                   |
                    | 8.00-8.30 a.m.     |                   |
                    | pars. 159-198      |                   |
====================|====================|===================|
                    |                    | 9.30-10.30 a.m.   |
                    |                    | pars. 35-51       |
Tuesday, Sept. 11   | Same as for Monday | Sight setting     |
                    |                    | and loadings      |
====================|====================|===================|
Wednesday, Sept. 12 | 7.00-8.00 a.m.     | 8.30-9.30 p.m.    |
                    | pars. 199-211      | pars. 35-57       |
                    | ------------------ | Sight setting     |
                    | 8.00-8.30 a.m.     | and loadings      |
                    | pars. 159-198      |                   |
====================|====================|===================|
                    | 7.00-8.00 a.m.     |                   |
Thursday, Sept. 13  | pars. 199-224      | 10.00-11.00 a.m.  |
                    | ------------------ | pars. 35-60       |
                    | 8.00-8.30 a.m.     | Sight setting     |
                    | pars. 159-198      | and loadings      |
====================|====================|===================|
                    | 7.00-8.30 a.m.     | 8.30-9.30 a.m.    |
Friday, Sept. 14    | pars. 159-224      | pars. 35-61       |
                    |                    | Sight setting     |
                    |                    | and loadings      |
====================|====================|===================|
Saturday, Sept. 15  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
==============================================================

First Aid Manual,   | Signaling          |
N.C.O's and         | Morse Code         | Practice March
Privates            | (wig wag)          | Full Kit
====================|====================|==================
                    |                    |
                    |                    |
9.30-10.30 a.m.     |                    |
Wounds              | 10.30-11.00 a.m.   |
pgs. 286-288        |                    |
                    |                    |
                    |                    |
                    |                    |
====================|====================|==================
                    |                    |
                    |                    |
                    | 10.30-11.00 a.m.   | 8.30-9.30 a.m.
                    |                    |
====================|====================|==================
                    |                    |
9.30-10.30 a.m.     |                    |
Fractures           | 10.30-11.00 a.m.   |
pgs. 288-290        |                    |
                    |                    |
====================|====================|==================
                    |                    |
                    |                    |
                    |                    | 8.30-10.00 a.m.
                    |                    |
                    |                    |
====================|====================|==================
9.30-10.00 a.m.     |                    |
Resuscitation       | 10.00-11.00 a.m.   |
pgs. 290-296        |                    |
                    |                    |
====================|====================|==================

============================================================


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., September 10 to September 15, 1917_--(_Concluded_)

                     | Grenade Instruction | Drill, Physical |
                     | [B]                 | M.P.T.          |
=====================|=====================|=================|
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     | 3.30-4.00 p.m.  |
Monday, Sept. 10     | 11.00-11.30 a.m.    | pgs. 1-58       |
                     |                     | pgs. 133-134    |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
=====================|=====================|=================|
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     | 3.30-4.00 p.m.  |
Tuesday, Sept. 11    | 11.00-11.30 a.m.    | pgs. 1-61       |
                     |                     | pgs. 133-134    |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
=====================|=====================|=================|
                     |                     |                 |
Wednesday, Sept. 12  | 11.00-11.30 a.m.    | 3.30-4.00 p.m.  |
                     |                     | pgs. 1-64       |
                     |                     | pgs. 133-134    |
                     |                     |                 |
=====================|=====================|=================|
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     | 3.30-4.00 p.m.  |
Thursday, Sept. 13   | 11.00-11.30 a.m.    | pgs. 1-67       |
                     |                     | pgs. 133-134    |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
=====================|=====================|=================|
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     | 3.30-4.00 p.m.  |
Friday, Sept. 14     | 11.00-11.30 a.m.    | pgs. 1-70       |
                     |                     | pgs. 133-134    |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
                     |                     |                 |
=====================|=======================================|
Saturday, Sept. 15   | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
==============================================================

Bayonet Drill  |     Conference       |      Study
               |                      |
===============|======================|============================
               | 1.30-2.30 p.m.       | Mon. | 7.00-8.00 p.m.
               | pars. 123-127,       |      | pars. 123-127,
               | 199-223 I.D.R.       |      | 199-223 I.D.R.
4.00-4.30 p.m. | -------------------- |      | ------------------
               | 2.30-3.30 p.m.       |      | 8.00-9.00 p.m.
               | pars. 32-61 S.A.F.M. |      | pars. 32-61 S.A.F.M.
===============|======================|      |=====================
               |                      |      | 7.00-8.00 p.m.
               | 1.30-3.30 p.m.       |      | pars. 225-248 I.D.R.
4.00-4.30 p.m. | pars. 225-248 I.D.R. |      | --------------------
               | pgs. 5-11            |      | 8.00-9.00 p.m.
               | Notes on             |      | pgs. 5-11
               | Bayonet Training     |      | Notes on
               |                      |      | Bayonet Training
===============|======================|======|=====================
               | 1.30-3.30 p.m.       | Tues.| 7.00-9.00 p.m.
               | pars. 249-257 I.D.R. |      | pars. 249-257 I.D.R.
4.00-4.30 p.m. | pgs. 12-19           |      | pgs. 12-19
               | Notes on             |      | Notes on
               | Bayonet Training     |      | Bayonet Training
===============|======================|======|=====================
               | 1.30-2.30 p.m.       | Wed. | 7.00-8.00 p.m.
               | Patrolling, messages,|      | Patrolling, messages,
               | orders, etc.         |      | orders, etc.
4.00-4.30 p.m. | pgs. 12-24 F.S.R.    |      | pgs. 12-24 F.S.R.
               | -------------------- |      | --------------------
               | 2.30-3.30 p.m.       |      | 8.00-9.00 p.m.
               | Notes on             |      | Notes on
               | Grenade Warfare      |      | Grenade Warfare
===============|======================|======|=====================
               | 1.30-2.30 p.m.       |Thurs.| 7.00-8.00 p.m.
               | Advance and          |      | Advance and
               | Rear Guards          |      | Rear Guards
               | pgs. 25-34 F.S.R.    |      | pgs. 25-24 F.S.R.
4.00-4.30 p.m. | -------------------- |      | --------------------
               | 2.30-3.30 p.m.       |      | 8.00-9.00 p.m.
               | Training &           |      | Training &
               | Employment of        |      | Employment of
               | Bombers              |      | Bombers
===================================================================

===================================================================

[Footnote B: As prescribed by Senior Grenade Instructor.]


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., September 17 to September 22, 1917_

                    | Drill, I.D.R.    | Musketry Training |
                    |                  | S.A.F.M.          |
====================|==================|===================|
                    |                  |                   |
                    |                  |                   |
Monday, Sept. 17    | 7.00-8.00 a.m.   | 8.00-8.30 a.m.    |
                    | pars. 48-198     | pars. 32-61       |
                    | close order only |                   |
                    |                  |                   |
====================|==================|===================|
                    |                  |                   |
Tuesday, Sept. 18   | 7.00-8.00 a.m.   | 8.00-8.30 a.m.    |
                    | pars. 48-198     | pars. 32-61       |
                    | close order only |                   |
====================|==================|===================|
                    |                  |                   |
Wednesday, Sept. 19 | 7.00-8.00 a.m.   | 8.00-8.30 a.m.    |
                    | pars. 48-198     | pars. 32-61       |
                    | close order only |                   |
====================|==================|===================|
                    |                  |                   |
Thursday, Sept. 20  | 7.00-8.00 a.m.   | 8.00-8.30 a.m.    |
                    | pars. 48-198     | pars. 32-70       |
                    | close order only |                   |
                    |                  |                   |
====================|==================|===================|
Friday, Sept. 21    | 7.00-8.00 a.m.   | 8.00-8.30 a.m.    |
                    | pars. 48-198     | pars. 32-70       |
                    | close order only |                   |
====================|==================|===================|
Saturday, Sept. 22  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
============================================================

Drill, Physical    | Sketching       | Study
M.P.T.             | [C]             |
===================|=================|======================
8.30-9.00 a.m.     | 9.00-11.30 a.m. | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
pgs. 1-73, 133-134 | 1.30-4.30 p.m.  | pgs. 20-34
                   |                 | Notes on Bayonet
                   |                 | Training
                   |                 | pars. 232-257, I.D.R.
                   |                 | pars. 258-276, I.D.R.
===================|=================|======================
8.30-9.00 a.m.     | 9.00-11.30 a.m. | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
pgs. 1-76, 133-134 | 1.30-4.30 p.m.  | Outposts
                   |                 | pgs. 35-42, F.S.R.
                   |                 | pars. 277-289, I.D.R.
===================|=================|======================
8.30-9.00 a.m.     | 9.00-11.30 a.m. | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
pgs. 1-79, 133-184 | 1.30-4.30 p.m.  | Orders
                   |                 | pgs. 43-50, F.S.R.
                   |                 | pars. 290-326, I.D.R.
===================|=================|======================
8.30-9.00 a.m.     | 9.00-11.30 a.m. | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
pgs. 1-82, 133-132 | 1.30-4:30 p.m.  | Marches
                   |                 | pgs. 51-65, F.S.R.
                   |                 | pars. 1-9, 14-18,
                   |                 | E.F.M.
===================|=================|======================
8.30-9.00 a.m.     | 9.00-11:30 a.m. | 7.00-9.00 p.m.
pgs. 1-85, 133-134 | 1.30-4.30 p.m.  | pars. 37-42, 61-72,
                   |                 | 101-109, E.F.M.
============================================================

============================================================

[Footnote C: As prescribed by Senior Instructor in Sketching.]

_September 24-29, 1917_. CONSTRUCTION OF TRENCHES.


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., October 1 to October 6, 1917._

                  | Drill, I.D.R.   | Physical            |
                  |                 | M.P.T.              |
==================|=================|=====================|
Monday, Oct. 1    | 1/2 hour        | 1/2 hour            |
                  | pars. 48-198    | pgs. 86-89 and 142  |
                  |                 | Arm Combinations    |
==================|=================|=====================|
Tuesday, Oct. 2   | Company         | 1/2 hour            |
                  | 1/2 hour        | pgs. 90-93 and 142  |
                  | pars. 48-198    | Arm Combinations    |
==================|=================|=====================|
Wednesday, Oct. 3 | Battalion       | 1/2 hour            |
                  | 1/2 hour        | pgs. 90-93 and 142  |
                  | pars. 258-289   | Arm Combinations    |
==================|=================|=====================|
Thursday. Oct. 4  | Battalion       | 1/2 hour            |
                  | 1/2 hour        | pgs. 17-93 and 142  |
                  | pars. 258-289   | Arm Combinations    |
==================|=================|=====================|
Friday, Oct. 5    | Battalion       | 1/2 hour            |
                  | 1/2 hour        | pgs. 17-93 and 142  |
                  | pars. 258-289   | Arm Combinations    |
==================|=======================================|
Saturday, Oct. 6  |As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
===========================================================

Bayonet   | Range Practice   | Signalling
 [D]      | [E]              |
==========|==================|=================
1/2 hour  | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  |
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   |
          |                  |
==========|==================|=================
1/2 hour  | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  | 1 hour
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   | Semaphore and
          |                  | Wigwag
==========|==================|=================
1/2 hour  | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  |
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   |
          |                  |
==========|==================|=================
1/2 hour  | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  | 1 hour
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   | Semaphore and
          |                  | Wigwag
==========|==================|=================
1/2 hour  | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  |
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   |
          |                  |
===============================================

===============================================


[Footnote D: Per Bayonet Program.]

[Footnote E: Per schedule Senior Instructor Musketry Training.]


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., October 1 to October 6, 1917_--(_Concluded_)

                  | Field Work   | Pistol                |
==================|==============|=======================|
Monday, Oct. 1    | 1 hour       | 1/2 hour              |
                  | Patrolling   | Nomenclature          |
                  |              | 1/2 hour              |
                  |              | Manual                |
==================|==============|=======================|
Tuesday, Oct. 2   |              | Same as for Monday    |
                  |              |                       |
                  |              |                       |
                  |              |                       |
==================|==============|=======================|
Wednesday, Oct. 3 | 1 hour       | 1/2 hour              |
                  | Patrolling   | Manual                |
                  |              | 1/2 hour              |
                  |              | Position and Aiming   |
==================|==============|=======================|
Thursday, Oct. 4  |              | Same as for Wednesday |
                  |              |                       |
                  |              |                       |
                  |              |                       |
==================|==============|=======================|
Friday, Oct. 5    | 1 hour       | Same as for Wednesday |
                  | Patrolling   |                       |
                  |              |                       |
                  |              |                       |
==================|==============|=======================|
Saturday, Oct. 6  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
==================|=======================================

Conference                | Study                     |
==========================|===========================|=======
2 hours                   | 7.00-9.00 p.m.            |
pars. 258-274, I.D.R.     | pars. 263-285, I.D.R.     |
Prob. 1 to Situation 3.   | Problem 1, S.P.I.         |
S.P.I.                    |                           |
==========================|===========================|=======
2 hours                   | 7.00-9.00 p.m.            |
pars. 275-285, I.D.R.     | pars. 286-304, I.D.R.     |
Situation 3, Prob. 1, to  | Problem 2, S.P.I.         |
end of Problem, S.P.I.    |                           |
==========================|===========================|=======
2 hours                   | 7.00-9.00 p.m.            |
pars. 286-304, I.D.R.     | pars. 305-326, I.D.R.     |
Problem 2, S.P.I.         | Problem 3 to Situation 4  |
                          | S.P.I.                    |
==========================|===========================|=======
2 hours                   | 7.00-9.00 p.m.            |
pars. 305-326, I.D.R.     | pars. 327-349, I.D.R.     |
Prob. 3 to Situation 4,   | Situation 4, Problem 3 to |
S.P.I.                    | end of Problem, S.P.I.    |
==========================|===========================|=======
2 hours                   | 7.00-9.00 p.m.            |
pars. 327-349, I.D.R.     | Per later                 |
Situation 4, Prob. 3, to  | announcement              |
end of Problem, S.P.I.    |                           |
==========================|===========================|=======

==============================================================


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., October 8 to October 13, 1917_.

                      | Drill, I.D.R. | Physical Drill      |
                      |               | M.P.T.              |
======================|===============|=====================|
Monday, October 8     | 1 hour        |                     |
                      | pars. 48-289  |                     |
                      | 1 hour        | 1/2 hour            |
                      | pars. 123-158 | pgs. 17-93, 133-142 |
                      | 199-224       |                     |
======================|===============|=====================|
Tuesday, October 9    | 1 hour        |                     |
                      | pars. 48-289  |                     |
                      | 1 hour        | 1/2 hour            |
                      | pars. 123-158 | pgs. 17-93, 133-142 |
                      | 199-224       |                     |
======================|===============|=====================|
Wednesday, October 10 | 1/2 hour      |                     |
                      | pars. 48-289  |                     |
                      | 1 hour        | 1/2 hour            |
                      | pars. 123-158 | pgs. 17-93, 133-142 |
                      | 199-224       |                     |
======================|===============|=====================|
Thursday, October 11  | 1 hour        |                     |
                      | pars. 48-289  |                     |
                      | 1 hour        | 1/2 hour            |
                      | pars. 123-158 | pgs. 17-93, 133-142 |
                      | 199-224       |                     |
======================|===============|=====================|
Friday, October 12    |               |                     |
======================|===============|=====================|
Saturday, October 13  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
=============================================================

 Bayonet  | Range Practice  | Signaling
 [F]      | [G]             |
==========|=================|============
          |                 |
          |                 |
1/2 hour  | 7-30-11.30 a.m. |
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.  |
          |                 |
==========|=================|============
          |                 |
          |                 |
1/2 hour  | 7-30-11.30 a.m. |
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.  |
          |                 |
==========|=================|============
          |                 |
          |                 |
1/2 hour  | 7-30-11.30 a.m. |
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.  | 1/2 hour
          |                 |
==========|=================|============
          |                 |
          |                 |
1/2 hour  | 7-30-11.30 a.m. |
          | 1.15-4.15 p.m.  |
          |                 |
==========|=================|============
          |                 |
=========================================

=========================================

[Footnote F: Per Bayonet Program.]

[Footnote G: Rifle, pistol, machine gun, estimating distances, etc.,
as prescribed by Senior Instructor Musketry Training.]


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., October 8 to October 13, 1917_--(_Concluded_)

                      | Field Work          |                         |
                      | (Company) [H]       | Conferences             |
======================|=====================|=========================|
Monday, October 8     |                     | 2 hours                 |
                      |                     | Prob. 4 to Situation 5  |
                      |                     | exclusive, S.P.I.       |
                      |                     | pars. 596-622, I.D.R.   |
======================|=====================|=========================|
Tuesday, October 9    |                     | 2 hours                 |
                      |                     | Situation 5, Prob. 4 to |
                      |                     | end of Problem, S.P.I.  |
                      |                     | pars. 623-660, I.D.R.   |
======================|=====================|=========================|
Wednesday, October 10 |                     | 2 hours                 |
                      |                     | Problem 5, S.P.I.       |
                      |                     | pars. 661-677, I.D.R.   |
======================|=====================|=========================|
Thursday, October 11  |                     | 2 hours                 |
                      |                     | Problem 6, S.P.I.       |
                      |                     | pars. 678-707, I.D.R.   |
                      |                     |                         |
======================|=====================|=========================|
Friday, October 12    | 7.00-11.30 a.m.     |                         |
                      | 1.30-4.30 p.m.      |                         |
                      | Advance and rear    |                         |
                      | guards, outposts,   |                         |
                      | patroling, messages |                         |
                      | and orders          |                         |
======================|===============================================|
Saturday, October 13  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
======================|================================================

                       |       |
Study                  |       |
=======================|=======|=======
7.00-9.00 p.m.         |       |
Problem 4, S.P.I       |       |
pars. 596-660, I.D.R.  |       |
                       |       |
=======================|=======|=======
7.00-9.00 p.m.         |       |
Problem 5, S.P.I.      |       |
pars. 661-677, I.D.R.  |       |
                       |       |
=======================|=======|=======
7.00-9.00 p.m.         |       |
Problem 6, S.P.I.      |       |
pars. 678-707, I.D.R.  |       |
=======================|=======|=======
7.00-9.00 p.m.         |       |
Problem 7 to           |       |
Situation 5, exclusive |       |
pars. 350-370, I.D.R.  |       |
=======================|=======|=======
                       |       |
                       |       |
7.00-9.00 p.m.         |       |
as per later           |       |
announcement           |       |
                       |       |
=======================|=======|=======

=======================|=======|=======

[Footnote H: To include conferences and critique on the ground of
exercise conducted.]

_October 15-17, 1917_. CONSTRUCTION OF TRENCHES.
_October 18-19, 1917_. OCCUPATION OF THE TRENCHES FROM 8.00 A.M.
_October 18, 1917_ TO 8.00 A.M. _October 19, 1917._
_October 20, 1917_. 7.30 A.M.-11 A.M. CONFERENCE OF TRENCH OCCUPATION,
11 A.M. INSPECTION.


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., October 22 to October 27, 1917_

                      | Drill, I.D.R. | Physical Drill      |
                      |               | M.P.T.              |
======================|===============|=====================|
Monday, October 22    | 1 hour        | 1/2 hour            |
                      | pars. 48-289  | pgs. 17-93          |
                      |               | pg. 149             |
======================|===============|=====================|
Tuesday, October 23   | 1  hour       | 1/2 hour            |
                      | pars. 48-289  | pgs. 17-93          |
                      |               | pg. 149             |
======================|===============|=====================|
Wednesday, October 24 | 1 hour        | 1/2 hour            |
                      | pars. 48-289  | pgs. 17-93          |
                      |               | pg. 149             |
======================|===============|=====================|
Thursday, October 25  | 1 hour        | 1/2 hour            |
                      | pars. 48-289  | pgs. 17-93          |
                      |               | pg. 149             |
======================|===============|=====================|
Friday, October 26    |               |                     |
======================|===============|=====================|
Saturday, October 27  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
=============================================================

 Bayonet     | Range Practice   | Signaling
 [I]         | [J]              |
=============|==================|===========
1/2 hour     | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  |
             | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   |
             |                  |
=============|==================|===========
1/2 hour     | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  |
             | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   |
             |                  |
=============|==================|===========
1/2 hour     | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  | 1/2 hour
             | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   |
             |                  |
=============|==================|===========
1/2 hour     | 7.30-11.30 a.m.  |
             | 1.15-4.15 p.m.   |
             |                  |
=============|==================|===========
             |                  |
=============|==================|===========

============================================

[Footnote I: Per Bayonet Program.]

[Footnote J: Rifle, pistol, machine gun, estimating distances, etc.,
as prescribed by Senior Instructor of Musketry Training.]


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., October 22 to October 27, 1917_--(_Concluded_)

                      | Field Work  |                         |
                      | [K]         | Conferences             |
======================|=============|=========================|
Monday, October 22    |             | 2 hours                 |
                      |             | pars. 350-370, I.D.R.   |
                      |             | Review Problems 1-6     |
                      |             | S.P.I.                  |
                      |             |                         |
======================|=============|=========================|
Tuesday, October 23   |             | 2 hours                 |
                      |             | pars. 371-401, I.D.R    |
                      |             | Prob. 7 to Situation 5  |
                      |             | S.P.I.                  |
                      |             |                         |
======================|=============|=========================|
Wednesday, October 24 |             | 2 hours                 |
                      |             | pars. 402-442, I.D.R.   |
                      |             | Situation 6, Prob. 7    |
                      |             | to end of prob.         |
======================|=============|=========================|
Thursday,  October 25 |             | 2 hours                 |
                      |             | pars. 442-494, I.D.R.   |
                      |             | Problem 8, S.P.I.       |
                      |             |                         |
======================|=============|=========================|
Friday,  October 26   |             | 7.00-11.30 a.m.         |
                      |             | 1.30-4.30 p.m.          |
                      |             | Companies in attack     |
                      |             | and defense (to include |
                      |             | siting of trenches)     |
======================|=============|=========================|
Saturday, October 27  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
======================|========================================

                        |        |
Study                   |        |
========================|========|=========
3 hours--1 hour daily   |        |
and 7.00-9.00 p.m.      |        |
pars. 371-401, I.D.R.   |        |
Prob. 7 to Situation 5, |        |
S.P.I.                  |        |
========================|========|========
3 hours--1 hour daily   |        |
and 7.00-9.00 p.m.      |        |
pars. 402-441, I.D.R.   |        |
Situation 6, Prob. 7 to |        |
end of Prob. S.P.I.     |        |
========================|========|========
3 hours--1 hour daily   |        |
and 7.00-9.00 p.m.      |        |
pars. 442-494, I.D.R.   |        |
Prob. 8, S.P.I.         |        |
========================|========|========
3 hours--1 hour daily   |        |
and 7.00-9.00 p.m.      |        |
pars. 495-536, I.D.R.   |        |
Problem 9, S.P.I.       |        |
========================|========|========
7.00-9.00 p.m.          |        |
as per later            |        |
announcement            |        |
                        |        |
                        |        |
========================|========|========

========================|========|========

[Footnote K: To include conferences and critique on the ground of
exercise conducted.]


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., October 29 to November 3, 1917_

                       | Drill            | Physical Drill   |
                       |                  |                  |
=======================|==================|==================|
Monday, October 29     | 1 hour           | 1/2 hour         |
                       | Attack Formation |                  |
                       | [Trench]         |                  |
=======================|==================|==================|
Tuesday,  October 30   | 1 hour           | 1/2 hour         |
                       | Attack Formation |                  |
                       | [Trench]         |                  |
=======================|==================|==================|
Wednesday,  October 31 | 1 hour           | 1/2 hour         |
                       | Attack Formation |                  |
                       | [Trench]         |                  |
=======================|==================|==================|
Thursday, November 1   | 1 hour           | 1/2 hour         |
                       | Attack Formation |                  |
                       | [Trench]         |                  |
=======================|==================|==================|
Friday, November 2     |                  |                  |
=======================|==================|===================
Saturday, November 3   | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
=======================|======================================

 Bayonet      | Signaling | Range Practice
 [L]          | [M]       |
==============|===========|=================
1/2 hour      |           | 7.30-11.30 a.m.
              |           | 1.15-4.15 p.m.
              |           |
==============|===========|=================
1/2 hour      |           | 7.30-11.30 a.m.
              |           | 1.15-4.15 p.m.
              |           |
==============|===========|=================
1/2 hour      | 1/2 hour  | 7.30-11.30 a.m.
              |           | 1.15-4.15 p.m.
              |           |
==============|===========|=================
1/2 hour      |           | 7.30-11.30 a.m.
              |           | 1.15-4.15 p.m.
              |           |
==============|===========|=================
              |           |
==============|===========|=================

============================================

[Footnote L: Per Bayonet Program.]

[Footnote M: Rifle, pistol, machine gun, estimating distances, etc.,
as prescribed by Senior Instructor of Musketry Training.]


SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION, PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP
_Plattsburg, N.Y., October 29 to November 3, 1917_--(_Concluded_)

                      | Field Work           | Conferences           |
                      | [N]                  |                       |
======================|======================|=======================|
Monday, October 29    |                      | 2 hours               |
                      |                      | pars. 495-536, I.D.R. |
                      |                      | Problem 9, S.P.I.     |
                      |                      |                       |
                      |                      |                       |
======================|======================|=======================|
Tuesday, October 30   |                      | 2 hours               |
                      |                      | Problem 10, S.P.I.    |
                      |                      | Battle Fire Training  |
                      |                      | (lesson scheduled     |
                      |                      |     later)            |
======================|======================|=======================|
Wednesday, October 31 |                      | 2 hours               |
                      |                      | Problem 11, S.P.I.    |
                      |                      | Battle Fire Training  |
                      |                      | (lesson scheduled     |
                      |                      |     later)            |
======================|======================|=======================|
Thursday, November 1  |                      | 2 hours               |
                      |                      | Problem 12, S.P.I.    |
                      |                      | Battle Fire Training  |
                      |                      | (lesson scheduled     |
                      |                      |     later)            |
======================|======================|=======================|
Friday, November 2    | Battalions in attack |                       |
                      | and defense          |                       |
                      | (Field Kit)          |                       |
======================|======================|=======================|
Saturday, November 3  | As prescribed by Senior Instructors.
======================|===============================================

                         |        |
Study                    |        |
=========================|========|=========
3 hours--1 hour daily    |        |
and 7.00-9.00 p.m.       |        |
Problem 10, S.P.I.       |        |
Battle Fire Training     |        |
(lesson scheduled later) |        |
=========================|========|=========
3 hours--1 hour daily    |        |
and 7.00-9.00 p.m.       |        |
Problem 11, S.P.I.       |        |
Battle Fire Training     |        |
(lesson scheduled later) |        |
=========================|========|=========
3 hours--1 hour daily    |        |
and 7.00-9.00 p.m.       |        |
Problem 12, S.P.I.       |        |
Battle Fire Training     |        |
(lesson scheduled later) |        |
=========================|========|=========
3 hours--1 hour daily    |        |
and 7.00-9.00 p.m.       |        |
Problem 13, S.P.I.       |        |
Battle Fire Training     |        |
(lesson scheduled later) |        |
=========================|========|=========
7.00-9.00 p.m.           |        |
as per later             |        |
announcement[O]          |        |
=========================|========|=========

=========================|========|=========

[Footnote N: To include conferences and critique on the ground of
exercise conducted.]

[Footnote O: During the week each Battalion will be given 1/2 day's
instruction in camouflage under direction Senior Engineer Instructor.]


SCHEDULES.

_November 5th-9th, 1917._

  Infantry Drill Regulations, 2 hours.
  March in full kit, 2-1/2 hours.
  Signaling, 1/2 hour.
  Physical drill, 2-1/2 hours,
  Bayonet, 2-1/2 hours,
  Machine gun instruction, 7-1/2 hours.
  Field fortification, 10 hours.
  Conferences, 10 hours.
  Study, 10 hours.
In the study and conferences the following will be taken up:
  Manual of Courts-Martial--pp. 305 to end.
  First Aid.
  Personal Hygiene.
  Camp Sanitation.

_November 12th-17th, 1917._

  Physical, drill, 2-1/2 hours.
  Bayonet drill, 2-1/2 hours.
  Battalion ceremonies, 1-1/2 hours.
  Battalion march, full kit, 2-1/2 hours.
  Field fortification and trench warfare, 23 hours.
  Study and conferences, 10 hours.
In the study and conference's the following will be taken up:
  Trench Warfare.
  Grenades
  Gas Attack and Defense.
  Communication.

_November 19th-23rd, 1917._

Physical, drill, 2-1/2 hours.
Bayonet drill, 2-1/2 hours.
Infantry Drill Regulations, 2-1/2 hours.
Company administration and Army regulations, 40 hours.
Ceremonies, parades and reviews, 5 hours.




CHAPTER 2.

Infantry Drill Regulations.


The greatest lesson of the present war is that the keynote of success
is discipline. In trenches the direct control of the men is even less
than in extended order in open warfare, and only thoroughly
disciplined troops with a trusted leader can hope to succeed.

The successful officer will show anger or irritation only in rare
cases, and then by design: he will know his men individually and be as
considerate of them as possible, ready to do himself what he asks to
have done; just in administering punishments; clear in giving his
commands and insistent that they be carried out promptly; he will
learn from drilling his men the quickest way a desired result can be
accomplished, and to give the necessary commands in the most effective
manner.

He will read his Infantry Drill Regulations through each month and
will always find something that he never knew or has forgotten. He
will always consult it before going to drill. In explaining movements
he will use blackboard diagrams in conferences. On the field he will
take the fewest possible men and have movement executed by the numbers
properly before the other men. Then have all the men go through the
movement a number of times.

The object of each exercise or drill should be explained to the men
whenever possible.

"Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training."


School of the Soldier.

INSTRUCTION WITHOUT ARMS.

The object of the facings and marchings is to give the soldier
complete control of his body in drills so that he can move easily and
promptly at any command.

Attention.

POSITION OF ATTENTION.--This is the position a soldier assumes when in
ranks or whenever the command _attention_ is given.

In the training of anyone nothing equals the importance of a proper
posture; it is the very foundation upon which the entire fabric of any
successful training must be founded.

Instructors must persist in the development of this position until the
men assume it from habit.

At the command, 1. Company (Squad, etc.), 2. Attention, the following
position is assumed:

   1. HEELS TOGETHER AND ON A LINE.--If the heels are not on a line,
the hips and sometimes even the shoulders, are thrown out of line.
   2. FEET TURNED OUT EQUALLY, FORMING AN ANGLE OF 45 DEGREES.--If the
feet are not turned out equally, the result will be the same as above.
   3. KNEES EXTENDED WITHOUT STIFFNESS.--Muscles should be contracted
just enough to keep the knees straight. If locked, men tire easily and
faint if at attention a long time.
   4. THE TRUNK ERECT UPON THE HIPS, the spine extended throughout its
entire length; the buttocks well forward.
   The position of the trunk, spine and buttocks is most essential. In
extending the spine the men must feel that the trunk is being
_stretched up_ from the waist until the back is as straight as it can
be made.
   In stretching the spine the _chest_ should be _arched_ and raised,
_without_, however, _raising the shoulders or interfering with natural
respiration_.
   5. SHOULDERS FALLING NATURALLY and moved back until they are square.
   Being square, means having the shoulder ridge and the point of the
shoulder at right angles to a general anterior-posterior plane running
through the body. They should never be forced back of this plane, but
out rather in line with it.
   6. ARMS HANGING NATURALLY, thumbs against the seams of the trousers,
fingers extended, and back of hand turned out.
   The arms must not be forcibly extended nor held rigidly; if they are,
a compensating faulty curve will occur in the lumbar region.
   7. HEAD ERECT, CHIN RAISED until neck is vertical, eyes fixed upon
some object at their own height.
   Every tendency to draw the chin in must be counteracted.
   8. When this position is correctly assumed, the men will be taught to
_incline the body forward_ until the weight rests chiefly upon the
balls of the feet, heels resting lightly upon the ground.
   When properly assumed, a vertical line drawn from the top of the head
should pass in front of the ear, shoulder and thighs, and find its
base at the balls of the feet.
   Every tendency toward rigidity _must be avoided_; all muscles are
contracted only enough to maintain this position, which is one of
co-ordination, of _physical and mental alertness_, that makes for
mobility, activity and grace. A man who faints standing at attention
has not taken the proper position.


Rests.

POSITION OF REST AND AT EASE.--When men are standing _at rest_ or _at
ease_ they must be cautioned to avoid assuming any position that will
nullify the object of the position of Attention. Standing on one leg,
folding arms, allowing shoulders or head to droop forward, must be
discountenanced persistently until the men form the habit of resting
with feet separated but on the same line, hands elapsed behind the
back,--head, shoulders and trunk erect, (m.p.t., pp. 21 and 22.)

   FALL OUT.--Leave ranks.
   REST.--One foot in place. Can talk.
   AT EASE.--One foot in place. Silence.
   PARADE REST.--Do not slouch down on right foot. Keep chest well up.
   EYES RIGHT, 2. FRONT.--Have it snappy.
   RIGHT FACE.--To face _in marching_ and advance, turn on the ball of
either foot and step off with the other foot in the new line of
direction. (Do not confuse with the ordinary command, "Right Face.")
   RIGHT HALF FACE.--45 degrees, used to show position in Right Oblique.
   ABOUT FACE.--Have weight well back. Not necessary to move right foot
after turn is made.
   HAND SALUTE.--Manner of rendering is index to manner in which all
other duties are performed.
   FORWARD MARCH.--Shift weight to right foot, _mentally_.
   DOUBLE TIME, MARCH.--Tendency to go too fast. Time it. 30 steps in 10
seconds. Take one step quick time, then take up double time.
   MARK TIME, MARCH.--Given as either foot strikes the ground. To resume
full step, _Forward, March._
   HALF STEP, MARCH.--All steps and marchings executed from a halt,
except Right Step, begin with left foot.
   RIGHT STEP, MARCH. BACKWARD, MARCH.--Executed in quick time only and
at trail, without command. 15 inch Step.
   SQUAD, HALT.--Given as either foot strikes the ground.
   BY THE RIGHT FLANK, MARCH.--Step off with right foot.
   TO THE REAR, MARCH.--Given as right foot strikes the ground. If
marching in double time, turn to the rightabout taking 4 steps, in
place, in cadence, and step off with left foot.
   CHANGE STEP, MARCH.--Being in march; given as either foot strikes the
ground.


Manual of Arms.

PURPOSE.--To make the man so accustomed to the rifle that he handles
it without a thought.

Eight rules govern the carrying of the piece. See paragraph 75,
Infantry Drill Regulations.

Six rules govern the execution of the manual. See paragraph 76,
Infantry Drill Regulations.


Commands and Cautions.

ORDER, ARMS.--See that all the fingers of the right hand are around
the piece.

PRESENT, ARMS.--Left forearm horizontal and against the body.

PORT, ARMS.--Right forearm horizontal. Left forearm against the body.

RIGHT SHOULDER, ARMS.--Insist on an angle of 45 degrees. Trigger guard
in hollow of shoulder. Right hand does the work.

LEFT SHOULDER, ARMS.--Right hand in next to last position grasps small
of stock.

PARADE, REST.--Left hand grasps piece just below stacking swivel.
Right foot straight back 6 inches.

TRAIL, ARMS.--Piece at angle of about 30 degrees, about 3 inches off
the ground.

RIFLE SALUTE.--Left forearm horizontal.

FIX BAYONET.--Parade Rest and resume order after bayonet is fixed.

UNFIX BAYONET.--Parade Rest and resume order after bayonet is unfixed.

INSPECTION ARMS.--Be sure men glance down in chamber and keep hold of
bolt handle.

Parade, Rest can be executed only from order arms, and the command
Attention follows Parade, Rest.

Any movement not in the manual, _e.g._, Right, Face, breaks the
execution of movements by the numbers. The number of counts in the
execution of each command must be remembered.

Distinguish between _raise_ and _carry_ and _throw_.


School of the Squad.

OBJECT.--To give basic element, the squad, its first lesson in team
work.

Team work wins battles just as it does football games.

Avoid keeping men too long at the same movement.

COMPOSITION OF SQUAD.--7 men and a corporal. Never less than 6 nor
more than 11 men.

FALL IN.--Instructor 3 paces in front of where center is to be.

FALL OUT.--If under arms, always preceded by Inspection Arms. Does not
mean dismissed.

COUNT OFF.--Right file front and rear do not execute eyes right. Front
and rear rank men count off together.

INSPECTION ARMS.--
RIGHT DRESS, FRONT:

      (1) Company Commander must establish base file or files before
          giving the command Right Dress.
      (2) Right flank men remain facing to front.
      (3) Be sure first four men are on desired line and rest of
          company can easily be made to conform.
      (4) Right guide may be established at any point desired and at
          command Right Dress all march to their proper positions
          without other command, and at the trail.
      (5) Have men beyond base files step forward until one pace
          beyond where new line is to be and then dress back on line
          established.

GUIDE RIGHT.--Keep head and eyes off the ground. Close in or open out
gradually.

TAKE INTERVAL, TO THE RIGHT, MARCH, SQUAD, HALT.--(At command "To the
Right") Rear rank falls back 60 inches. At March, all face to right
and leading man of each rank steps off, followed by the others at
four-pace intervals, rear-rank men marching abreast of their file
leaders. When halted all face to the front.

To REFORM, ASSEMBLE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH.

TAKE DISTANCE, MARCH.--1-2-3-4 front rank, 1-2-3-4 rear rank, 4-pace
intervals. Guide in each four is right.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.--No. 1, Front rank stands fast.

STACK ARMS.--Piece of even number front rank: butt between his feet,
barrel to front. Even number rear rank passes piece to file leader.

TAKE ARMS.--Loose pieces are returned by even numbers front rank. If
No. 2 of rear rank is absent, No. 1 rear rank takes his place in
making or breaking stacks and resumes his post. Pieces are never
stacked with bayonet fixed.

OBLIQUE, MARCH.--Taught from Right half face. Half faced to front
after obliquing, Forward, March. If at half step or mark time while
obliquing, Oblique, March.

IN PLACE, HALT.--All halt and stand fast without changing position of
pieces.

RESUME MARCH.--Only given after In place, Halt.

RIGHT TURN.--Turn on moving pivot is used by subdivisions of a column
in executing change of direction.

Each rank successively and on same ground executes movement. All
except pivot man execute two right obliques. No marking time. Arriving
on new line, all take the half step, glance toward marching flank and
take full step without command as last man arrives on the line.

RIGHT HALF TURN.--Executed in similar manner.

SQUADS RIGHT.--Turn on fixed pivot is used in all formations from line
into column and the reverse. No half step. Right flank man faces to
right in marching and marks time. Rest of front rank oblique once to
new position. Step off on 5th step.

SQUAD RIGHT ABOUT.--Front rank twice executes squads right.

In rear rank, No. 3 with No. 4 abreast of him on his left and followed
in column by the second and first moves straight forward until on
prolongation of new line he is to occupy; faces to right in marching
and proceeds to place. Then all face to the right in marching, mark
time and glance toward marching flank. As last man arrives on new line
all step off without command on 9th step.

Deploying as skirmishers and following the corporal are covered under
Company Extended Order.


School of the Company.

The company is the basic fighting and administrative unit, and must be
easily handled and capable of promptly carrying out the will of its
commander.

Team work among the squads, so that the company can be easily managed
as a whole, is the purpose of company drill.

Close order drill is for discipline.

Numerical designations of squads or platoons do not change.

Center squad is middle or right middle squad of the company.

  8 (6-11) men      = 1 squad.
  7 (2-7) squads    = 1 platoon.
  4 platoons        = 1 company (250 men, 6 officers).
  4 (2-6) companies = 1 battalion (1,026 officers and men).
  3 battalions      = 1 regiment (3,755, including medical detachment).
  2 regiments       = 1 brigade (8,210 officers and men).
  2 brigades        = 1 division (27,152 officers and men).

First Sergeant when not commanding a platoon is opposite the 3rd file
from outer flank of first platoon, in line of file closers.

FALL IN.--First Sergeant 6 paces front of center, facing company.
Right guide takes post at such point that the center will be 6 paces
from and opposite the First Sergeant.

Squad leaders salute and report all present; or Private(s) ----
absent. First Sergeant does not return salute of squad leaders.

Captain takes post 12 paces in front of center of company in time to
receive report of First Sergeant, "Sir, all present or accounted for,"
or names of unauthorized absentees. E.G. A man in hospital might be
reported absent by squad leader if he did not know where he was, but
First Sergeant would know, and would not report him absent.

Captain returns salute of First Sergeant who then takes his post
_without command_.


PLATOON MOVEMENTS IN PLATOON COLUMN.

_Leading Platoon, C.O._

On Right into Line       ... Right Turn.
Column Right             ... Right Turn.
Right Front into Line    ... Continue. (Caution) If halted, Forward.


_Rear Platoon, C.O._

On Right into Line       ... Continue. (caution) If halted, Forward.
Column Right             ... Continue. (caution) If halted, Forward.
Right Front into Line    ... Right Oblique


QUESTIONS WHICH COME UP IN DAILY MILITARY LIFE.

It is well to have a solution on hand.

(1) The company is in line reversed,--16th squad where 1st squad
should be. Bring the company into proper line, 1-2-3-4; 5-6-7-8;
9-10-11-12; 13-14-15-16.

(2) You are platoon leader. Your platoon is drilling separately and
you get assembled in company line.

16-15-14-13; 12-11-10-9; 4-3-2-1; 5-6-7-8.

What commands do you give to get the platoon into line properly
arranged?

(3) You are in charge of the company and find yourself marching into
the company street in reverse order. What commands do you give to
correct this?

(4) You are marching your company to the rear along a road through a
narrow cut. Suddenly around a bend comes an ambulance. To let it pass,
you must immediately reduce your marching front. What is the quickest
method? (This can be used also in arranging the advance party of the
outguard.)

(5) You are marching your company in company front, and wish to march
in column of platoons. What do you command?

ANSWERS.

   (1) Right (left) by squads.
       Column left (right).
       Squads right (left)
       Company, Halt.
   (2) Forward; 2 March.
       On left into line; 2 Platoon; 3 Halt.
   (3) On right (left) into line.
   (4) 1 Squads right; 2 March.
       2 By the left flank; 2 March.
   (5) 1 Right by squads; 2 March.
       2 Platoons left front into line;  Double time;
       2 March.

On the O.D. Shirt Collar Insignia is worn as follows:

"On the right side, in the middle of the collar, the letters (U.S.),
(U.S.R.), (U.S.N.A.), and the insignia of rank; the letters one inch
from the end of the collar and the insignia of rank one-half inch from
letters."

"On the left side in the middle of the collar, and one inch from the
end, the insignia of the arm of the service."


_For Second Lieutenants._

On the right side, in the middle of the collar, and one inch from the
end, the letters (U.S.), (U.S.R.), (U.S.N.A.).

On the left side, in the middle of the collar and one inch from the
end, the insignia of the arm of service.

When the Star Spangled Banner is played, an officer in uniform if
uncovered stands at Attention. If covered he salutes. An officer
"Presents his compliments" only to his juniors.

1. COMPANY RIGHT, MARCH; COMPANY, Halt; Forward March.
   Being in line to turn. Right-flank man is pivot. Right guide steps
back at command March, and marks time.

2. PLATOONS RIGHT, MARCH; Company, Halt; Forward March.
   Line to Column Platoons, reverse.
   Guides must be covering.

3. SQUADS RIGHT, MARCH; Company, Halt.
   Line to Column Squads, reverse.
   Line of Platoon to Column Platoons, reverse.

4. RIGHT TURN, MARCH; Forward, March.
   Line to change direction. Right guide is pivot. Men do not glance
toward flank. Rear rank begins oblique on same ground as front rank.
   All take full step at command, Forward, March.

5. COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH.
   First Platoon Leader, Right Turn.
   Other Platoon Leaders (if halted), Forward; (if marching), cautions,
continue the march. All Platoons execute right turn on same ground.
   Column of Platoons to change direction.

6. COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH.
   Column Squads to change direction.

7. PLATOONS, COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH.
   Column Squads to Line of Platoons.

8. SQUADS RIGHT, COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH.
   Right by Squads, March.
   Line to Column Squads and change direction.
   Right guide posts himself and takes 4 short steps. Right Squad
conforms.

9. SQUADS RIGHT, PLATOONS, COLUMN RIGHT, MARCH.
   Platoons right by Squads, March.
   Line to line of Platoons. Guide same as in 8.

10. SQUADS RIGHT ABOUT, MARCH; Company, Halt.
   To face or march to the rear.
   _About Face_; Forward, March.
   To the rear a few paces.

11. ON RIGHT INTO LINE, MARCH; Company, Halt, Front.
   Column Platoons or Squads to line to side.
   If executed in double time, leading squad marches double time until
halted.

12. RIGHT FRONT INTO LINE, MARCH; Company, Halt, Front.
   Column Platoons or Squads to line (front).
   In double time, halting and aligning are omitted. Guide is toward side
of first unit in line. If halted, leader of leading unit commands,
Forward.

13. PLATOONS, RIGHT FRONT INTO LINE, MARCH; Company, Halt, Front.
   Column Squads to Column Platoons.
   Line of Platoons to Company line.

14. ROUTE STEP, MARCH.
   Muzzles kept elevated. Ranks cover, preserve distances. (If halted,
at rest.)
   At ease, March. Silence preserved. (Halted, at ease.)

15. RIGHT BY TWOS, MARCH.
   All but 2 right files of leading Squad execute in place, Halt.
   RIGHT BY FILES, MARCH.
   To diminish the front in Column Squads.

16. SQUADS RIGHT FRONT INTO LINE, MARCH.
   Twos right front into line, march.
   Twos or files, to Column Squads. Leading file or files halt.
   N.B.--If right by twos, then left into line or reverse.

DISMISS THE COMPANY.--First Sergeant places himself 3 paces to front.
2 paces from nearest flank, salutes, faces toward opposite flank,
commands, Inspection Arms, Port Arms, Dismissed.

TO FALL IN COMPANY WHEN IT CANNOT BE FORMED BY SQUADS.--Inspection
Arms.
   Right Shoulder Arms.
   Roll Call. Each man as name is called, executes Order Arms.

FOR MUSTER, COMMANDS ARE: Open Ranks, MARCH, FRONT. (At command Open
Ranks, Rear Rank drops back 4 steps, 5 counts.)
   (As mustering officer approaches) Right Shoulder Arm's. Attention to
Muster.
   Each man, as name is called, answers "Here" and comes to Order Arms.
   Company Commander is on right flank, in same place as "Prepare for
Inspection."

IN ALIGNING COMPANY.--Captain places himself 2 paces from and facing
the flank toward which dress is made, verifies alignment and commands
Front.
   (Platoon leaders same position for Platoon alignment.)

TO MARCH SQUAD WITHOUT UNNECESSARY COMMANDS.--The Corporal commands,
_Follow Me_.
   Men always at ease. Squad conform to pace of Corporal, and carry
pieces as he does.
   In line or skirmish line, No. 2 front rank follows in trace of
Corporal at 3 paces. Others guide on No. 2.

AS SKIRMISHERS, MARCH.--At run. Rear rank men on right of file
leaders. All conform to Corporals gait. In squad alone, skirmish line
is formed on No. 2, front rank, Corporal ahead when advancing, in rear
when halted.
   Regular interval in skirmish line 1/2 pace = 1 yard per man.
   Squad deployed = 10 paces.
   Any number of paces may be specified, _e.g._ As Skirmishers, at 10
paces, March.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.--Men form on corporal. If he continues to advance,
move in double time, form and follow. Do not assemble while marching
to rear.

KNEEL.--Left forearm and left lower leg form straight line.

LIE DOWN.--On both knees, then both elbows.

RISE.--Stand on point marked by both knees.
   (When deployed, may sit instead of kneel.)

LOADINGS AND FIRINGS.--Loadings are executed only in line and skirmish
line.
   Firings are always executed at a halt.
   When kneeling and lying down in double rank, rear rank does not
load, aim or fire.
   In both cease firing and suspend firing pieces are loaded and
locked. (Sec. 150, i.d.r., April, 1917, is incorrect.)
     1. AIMING.--Target carefully pointed out.
     2. SIGHT-SETTING ANNOUNCED. (Battle sight if none announced.)
     3. (If by volley), Ready, Aim, Squad FIRE.
   To continue volley firing, Aim, Squad FIRE.
   Volley fire is used against large, compact enemy or in fire of
position.

FIRE AT WILL.--Normally employed in attack and defense; 3 shots per
minute at effective ranges (600 to 1,200 yards); 5 to 6 shots per
minute at close ranges (up to 600 yards).

CLIP FIRE:
    Used (1) To steady men.
         (2) To produce a short burst of fire.

UNLOAD.--Safety lock up.


EXTENDED ORDER.

   A squad acting alone, as one out on a patrol or for instruction,
the corporal acts as the leader of a small platoon leading the advance,
and in rear when halted.
   Men come to trail as they come on the skirmish line.
   On halting, a deployed line faces front (direction of real or
assumed enemy), and takes cover.

CORPORAL CAUTIONS.--By the Right Flank (if halted). Corporal steps out
looking back to get his 10-pace interval. Squad Halt.

LEFT FACE.--Base squad deploys as soon as it has room.
   Guide of a deployed squad is center without command.
   Captain indicates point on which corporal of base squad is to march.

COMPANY RIGHT is executed as explained for front rank of Company, but
at 1/2 pace intervals.


DEPLOYMENTS.

_From Line, to Form Skirmish Line to Front._

As SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE RIGHT, MARCH.--1. If marching, corporal
commands, Follow Me. Corporal of base squad moves straight to front,
deploys as soon as possible and advances until Company, Halt, is
given.
   Other squads move to left front and place squads on the line.
   If guide is center, other corporals on right of center squad move to
the right, and squads on the left to the left, and bring their squads
on the line.
   If guide is left, other corporals move to right front.

2. If at halt, base squad deploys abreast of its corporal, 3 paces in
front of the former line, as soon as it has room.
   Other squads are conducted by the left flank, to their places.

TO DEPLOY FROM COLUMN OF SQUADS, FORMING SKIRMISH LINE TO THE
FRONT.--If at a halt, base squad deploys abreast of its corporal 3
paces in front of its former position.
   If marching, base squad deploys and moves straight to the front.
   If guide is right, other corporals move to left front and place
squads on line.
   If guide is center, corporals in front move to right (if at a halt,
to right rear), the corporals in rear of center squad move to left and
come on line in succession.
   Column of twos or files are deployed by same commands in same manner.
   If deployment in an oblique direction is desired, the captain points
out desired direction.
   Column of squads may be turned to the flank or rear and then deployed.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.--In skirmish line, men assemble at a run, to their
places individually. Squads do not assemble and march to places as
units as do platoons.

PLATOONS, ASSEMBLE.--Men assemble individually on the run, in their
platoons and are then marched to relative position on base platoon as
indicated by position or command of captain.

PLATOON COLUMNS.--Platoon leaders should be sure to go through center
of platoon.
   Platoon guides in rear.
   Columns should be 20 yards apart, or more.
   (Used to take advantage of few favorable routes where cover is poor
or ground difficult.)

SQUAD COLUMNS.--Men oblique and follow squad leader. No advantage in
cover, but used to advance more quickly over rough or brush grown
ground.
   (It might be desirable to teach men to take squad columns from
column of squads.)
  In assembling from Platoon or Squad columns, the men reform by
platoons or squads and are conducted by their leaders to point
indicated by captain.
   _Thin lines_ are used to cross wide stretches under artillery fire or
heavy, long range rifle fire which cannot be profitably returned.

No. 1's FORWARD, MARCH.
   First line is led by platoon leader, right platoon.
   Second line is led by platoon guide, right platoon.
   Third line is led by platoon leader, next platoon, etc.
   Quick time, unless conditions otherwise demand.

CAPTAIN POINTS OUT NEW LINE.--Original intervals preserved.

DISADVANTAGE.--Serious loss of control over company.

ADVANTAGE.--Offers less definite target and is less likely to draw
fire.


BEING IN SKIRMISH LINE.

BY PLATOON (2 PLATOONS, SQUADS, 4 MEN, ETC.), FROM THE RIGHT,
RUSH.--Leader of rush usually platoon leader.

   (1) Selects new line.
   (2) Cease firing.
   (3) Prepare to rush.
   (4) Follow me.
   (5) Commence firing.

When whole company rushes, it is led by Captain. Platoon leader lead
their platoons.


COMMANDS.

Commands should be so given as to be distinctly heard by all the men
who have to execute them. It is unfair to expect good execution of a
slovenly command or one that cannot be heard. A sufficient interval
should be allowed between the preparatory command and the command of
execution, proportioned to the size of the command, so that each man
has time to grasp the movement before execution is required.


School of the Battalion.

BASIS.--4 companies to a battalion.

ARRANGEMENT.--Right to left by rank of Captains. After formation order
is not kept with reference to rank of Captains.

NUMBER.--From right to left in whatever direction.

CENTER.--Actual center or right center company.

BAND.--Places itself as if it were an adjoining battalion on right.

DRESSING.--Each company is dressed by its Captain who places himself
on the flank toward which the dress is to be made.

In battalion line beside the guide (or beside flank file of the front
rank if guide is not in line) facing front.

In column of companies--2 paces from the guide and facing down the
line.


To Form the Battalion.

OTHER THAN CEREMONIES.--Column of squads. Adjutant does not take his
post until companies are formed. Each Captain halts company and
salutes Adjutant. Adjutant returns salutes and when last Captain has
saluted, faces Major and reports "Sir, the Battalion is formed." He
joins Major without command.

FOR CEREMONIES.--Or when directed, Battalion is formed in line.
Adjutant places himself 6 paces to right of right company and facing
in direction line is to extend. Guides precede companies on line by 20
paces. Adjutant causes guides to cover. Companies are halted one pace
in rear of line and dressed to right against arm of guide. When guides
of left company have been posted, Adjutant by shortest route moves to
post facing Battalion midway between post of Major and center of
Battalion. Adjutant commands: 1. Guides, 2. Posts, 3. Present, 4.
Arms. He then faces about and reports, "Sir, the Battalion is formed."
Major commands, "Take your post, sir."

TO DISMISS THE BATTALION.--Dismiss your companies.

TO RECTIFY THE ALIGNMENT.--See Infantry Drill Regulations, paragraphs
273-274.

TO RECTIFY THE COLUMN.--See Infantry Drill Regulations, paragraph 275.

HELPFUL HINTS TO BEGINNERS.--These hold good with few exceptions.
   When in column of squads; first command of Captain begins with word
"Column."
   When in column of companies; first command of Captain begins with
word "Squads."

IN COLUMN OF SQUADS.--

Major: _On right (left) into line._

First Captain: Squads right. (Captain marches beside right guide.)

Rear Captains: Continue to march (If halted, forward).

Major: _March_.

Rear Captains: (Upon uncovering preceding company) Squads right.

Major: _Battalion_.

First Captain: Company.

Major: _Halt_.

First Captain: Right Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: (Coming on line). Company Halt, Right Dress, Front.

Major: _Right (left) front into line._

First Captain: Column right.

Rear Captains: Column half right.

Major: _March_.

First Captain: (Halts and allows company to pass him and form column
of squads to right.) Squads left, Company Halt, Left Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: When company in column of squads arrives one pace in
rear of the right flank of the company that has formed in line. Column
half right, March. The Captain then takes 5 paces beyond the flank of
the last company in line, allows company to pass him, and as rear
guide reaches him, commands: Squads left, March, Company Halt, Left
Dress, Front.

Major: _Line of companies at_ (seven) paces, guide left (right).
(Close on first company from column of squads is no longer used in
Battalion drill.)

First Captain: Continue to march (if halted, forward).

Rear Captains: Column half right.

Major: _March_.

Rear Captains: (When company reaches a position 7 paces to the flank
of the leading company.) Column half right.

Major: _Battalion_.

All Captains: Company.

Major: _Halt_.

Major: _Column of companies, first company_ squads right (left).

First Captain: Squads right.

Rear Captains: Continue to march (if halted, forward.).

As each company reaches the point where the first company formed line
the Captain commands: Squads right, March.

IN COLUMN OF COMPANIES OR CLOSE COLUMN OF COMPANIES.--

Major: _On right (left) into line._

First Captain: Right turn.

Rear Captains: Continue to march (if halted, forward).

Major: _March_.

Rear Captains: Each Captain takes 5 paces beyond the left flank of the
company that has just executed the turn and commands: Right turn,
March.

Major: _Battalion_.

First Captain: Company.

Major: _Halt_.

First Captain: Right Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: (As they come on line.) Company Halt, Right Dress,
Front.

Major: _Right (left) front into line._

First Captain: Company.

Second Capt: Right by Squads.

Third and fourth Captains: Squads Right.

Major: _March_.

First Captain: Halt, Left Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: Column half left, March, Column half right March.
Taking 5 paces from the flank of the company last on line and allowing
the company to pass by him until the rear guide reaches him, Captain
commands: Squads left, March, Company Halt, Left Dress, Front.

Major: _Close on first company_ (Never any other).

First Captain: Company.

Rear Captains: Continue to march (if halted, forward).

Major: _March_.

First Captain: Halt.

Rear Captains: As each successive company closes to 8 paces from the
company immediately in front, the Captain commands: Company Halt.

Major: _Extend on fourth company._ (Never any other.)

First Captain: Continue to march (if halted, forward).

Rear Captains: Company.

Major: _March_.

Rear Captains: Halt. Then as each company in rear of the leading
company gets the proper distance (company front plus 5 paces) the
Captain commands: Forward March.

Close column not extended in double time.

Major: _Column of squads, first company_ squads right (left).

First Captain: Squads right.

Rear Captains: Continue to march (if halted, forward). As each company
reaches the point where the first company formed column of squads, the
Captain commands: Squads right, March.

Major: _Column right (left)._

First Captain: Right turn.

Rear Captains: Continue to March (if halted, forward).

Major: _March_.

First Captain: When the marching flank of the company is one pace from
the new line the Captain commands: Forward March.

Rear Captains: Other companies march squarely up to the turning point
and each changes direction at the Captain's command: Right turn,
March, Forward, March.

LINE OF COMPANIES OR CLOSE LINE OF COMPANIES.

Major: _Battalion right (left)._

First Captain: Column right.

Flank Captains: Column half right.

Major: _March_.

Flank Captains: When each company has moved 7 paces to the flank of
the base company the command is: Column half right, March. The
companies are then marched echeloned with an interval of 7 paces.

Major: _Battalion_.

First Captain: Company.

Major: _Halt_.

Flank Captains: Continue to march. As each company comes into line
with the base company the Captain commands: Company, Halt.

Major: _Close on first (fourth) company._

_Extend on first (fourth) company._ Both movements executed in the
same manner.

First Captain: (If marching.) Halt. (If halted, cautions "Stand
Fast.")

Flank Captains: Squads right.

Major: _March._

Flank Captains: Right Oblique, March. (When the company has closed
sufficiently): Forward March, Squads left, March. (Then as the company
comes on the line with first company): Company, Halt.

Major: _Column of Squads, first (fourth) company, forward._

First Captain: Forward.

Flank Captains: Column half right (left).

Major: _March._

Flank Captains: As their companies come onto the line behind the
leading company (at 4.4 paces) the Captain commands: Column half
right, March.


IN BATTALION LINE.

Major: _Close on first (fourth) company._

First Captain: Stand fast (Caution).

Second Captain: Squads right, column right.

Third and fourth Captains: Squads right, column half right.

Major: _March._

Second, third and fourth Captains: As each company reaches a point 8
paces behind the company just preceding it into close column, the
command is given: Column half right, March. (Cautioning "Guide left"
when closing on first company--"Guide right" when closing on fourth
company): Squads left, March, Company, Halt.

Major: _Halt._

First Captain: Right Dress, Front.

Rear Captains: (As they come on the line): Company Halt, Right Dress,
Front.

[Illustration: PLATE No. 2A. CO. I--N.E. PROPER ARRANGEMENT OF SHELTER
TENTS.]

[Illustration: PLATE No. 2B. LAYOUT OF EQUIPMENT FOR INSPECTION.
TENT PINS SHOULD BE LAID IN ECHELON THREE INCHES APART.]


Inspections.

(Kitchen and mess inspections have been covered under Feeding Men.)

Daily inspection of the barracks should be made and rigid discipline
enforced as to the floors being kept clean, scrubbed once a week,
bedding and bed clothes aired out of doors every Tuesday, shoes
cleaned and kept in order under bunks, lockers under bunks, toilet
articles and books all kept in order. Sheets, comforters and blankets
should be shaken out, folded as for pack and laid on top of pillow
until afternoon, each day.

In inspecting men every week see that hair is kept short and feet
clean and in good condition, toe nails trimmed. Insist on woolen
socks.

Equipment must be inspected carefully, each week, to see that it is in
good condition.


SPECIAL POINTS OF COMPANY INSPECTION.

After Open Ranks, March, given from usual position in front of
Company, the Captain takes his post 3 paces in front of Right Guide,
facing to the left and commands:

1. Front. 2. Prepare for Inspection.

The Lieutenants are 3 paces in front of the center of their
respectives Platoons, facing to front.

If equipment is also to be inspected, commands are as follows:

1. Close Ranks. 2. March. Stack Arms. Backward, March. Take Interval
to the Right, March. Company, Halt.

1. Unsling Equipment. 2. Open Packs. Close Packs. Sling Equipment.


Battalion Inspection.

At command, Prepare for Inspection, given by the Major, each Captain
commands, Open Ranks. They do not salute when the Major and Inspector
approach.

The Lieutenants take their places as in Company Inspection. Each
Captain commands:

Company Attention. Prepare for Inspection.

Lieutenants face about and stand at ease, after being inspected or
passed.

After inspection:

Close Ranks, march.

Rest.


Regimental Inspection.

Commands mean and principles are same as for Battalion. (Look up Post
of Colonel, par. 754, Infantry Drill Regulations.)


Ceremonies.

BATTALION REVIEW.

After Battalion is formed in line, Major faces front.

When Reviewing Officer halts, Major turns about and commands:

Present Arms; turns to front and salutes. Major turns about; commands
Order Arms, and again faces front.

When Reviewing Officer is within 6 paces, the Major salutes, takes
post on the right and accompanies him.

On arriving at the right of the line again, Major salutes, halts,
takes his post in front of Battalion and commands:

Pass in Review. Squads Right, March.

Major and Staff execute Eyes Right and take post on right of Reviewing
Officer remaining until Battalion has passed, when he salutes and
rejoins it.

Double time is given by Major when the Battalion comes to its original
starting place and the Battalion passes in review as before except
that Eyes Right is omitted and Major salutes only when he leaves
Reviewing Officer.

Major and Staff may be dismounted at discretion of Commanding Officer.


BATTALION PARADE.

When band sounds off, the Reviewing Officer and his Staff stands, if
dismounted, with arms folded: if mounted they remain at attention at a
convenient distance in front of the center and facing the Battalion.

The Battalion is not presented for Battalion Parade.

The Lieutenants take posts in front of center of their Platoons at
Captain's command for dressing his Company on the line.

After Guides Posts, the Adjutant commands:

(To Battalion) Parade Rest.

(To Band) Sound Off.

Battalion, Attention. Present Arms.

At conclusion of National Anthem Adjutant reports:

Sir: The parade is formed.

The Major directs: _Take your post, sir_.

Major then commands: _Order Arms_.

At conclusion of Manual of Arms, Major directs: _Receive the reports,
sir_.

Captains report "'C' Company present or accounted for," or "'C'
Company, 1 officer, 7 enlisted men are absent."

Publish the orders, sir:

After publishing them, Adjutant commands: Officers, Center, March. At
command Center, Officers face center: at command March, march to
center and halt, facing front.

Commands Forward and Halt are given by Senior Officer. Left Officer of
center Company is guide and marches on the Major. Halt at 6 paces from
Major, salute and come down with the Major.

At command Officers Posts, March, Officers face about at command
"posts" and are conducted by Senior Officer who halts them 3 paces
from line. Officers, Halt. Posts, March. Face outward at command,
Posts, step off with 4 pace intervals. Lieutenants go to their posts
by shortest route, in rear of Company.


REGIMENTAL PARADE.

Lieutenants remain in file closers.

At command, Officers Center, Captains remain at their posts with their
Companies.


REGIMENTAL REVIEW.

Regiment formed in line or line of masses.

Colonel commands: Pass in Review.

Each Major commands: 1, _Squads Right_; 2, _March_.

If in line of masses, Colonel commands: "Pass in Review." Major of
Right Battalion commands: _Column of Squads, First Company Squads,
Right, March_.

   FIRE DIRECTION IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CAPTAIN AND HIGHER
   COMMANDERS. ABOVE THE GRADE OF CAPTAIN AND DIRECTION IS
   PRINCIPALLY TACTICAL. WITH A CAPTAIN IT IMPLIES THE ABILITY TO
   ISSUE CORRECT FIRE ORDERS TO MEET GIVEN SITUATIONS IN ORDER
   THAT THE FIRE OF THE COMPANY MAY BE AS EFFECTIVE AS POSSIBLE.

   FIRE CONTROL IS THE COMBINED PRODUCT OF THE FIRE UNIT
   COMMANDERS AND THE FIRERS. THE FIRE UNIT IS THE PLATOON.

   FIRE DISCIPLINE MEANS STRICT ATTENTION TO THE SIGNALS AND
   ORDERS OF THE COMMANDER, AND IS THE FACULTY DEVELOPED IN THE
   MEN BY INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING, OF COMMENCING, CEASING, OR
   DIMINISHING FIRE, OR OF CONCENTRATING IT UPON A DEFINED OBJECT
   IN OBEDIENCE TO THE DELIBERATE WILL OF THE COMMANDER.

NOTE.--It is to be remembered that all grades of commanders are
supposed to be familiar with the duties of all below them.

In issuing orders all Officers, in addition to announcing where they
will be found will give the location of the next higher Commander.

The authorities for statements under the Platoon Leader and below are
not given after each statement but the paragraphs from which they are
deduced are given under the heading for each grade. This course was
thought necessary to avoid repetition.


I. THE COLONEL.

POSITION--(369, 380, 528--i.d.r.)

   1. Advancing to the battlefield: as
        (a) Independent commander ordinarily with the advance guard
            in order that he may:
              1. Receive information promptly.
              2. Personally see the situation (reconnoiter).
              3. Order the deployment.
              4. Begin the action strictly in accordance with his own
                 wishes.
        (b) Subordinate commander (427, i.d.r.).
            After receiving his order for the action, precedes his
            command as far as possible in order to:
              1. Personally reconnoiter the ground.
              2. Be prepared to issue his orders promptly.

Note--For a discussion of the position of leaders see Subject V.

   2. During the action; such as will enable him to:
        (a) Observe the progress of events.
        (b) Receive and transmit messages and orders.
        (c) Be in constant, direct, and easy communication with the
            reserve. (369, i.d.r.)

DUTIES:

   a. After having received his orders, the regimental commander
      leads his regiment forward in a column, or in line of columns,
      until the time arrives for issuing the regimental order, he
      then: (426, i.d.r.)
   b. Assigns targets and sectors or tasks to battalions and special
      units. (312, 381 and 426, i.d.r.)
   c. Provides for necessary reconnaissance to front and flank. (428,
      i.d.r.)
   d. Announces his position and also that of the next higher
      commander.
   e. Controls the reserve as the tactical situation demands. (441,
      i.d.r.)
   f. Regulates ammunition supply. (316, f.s.r. and 552, i.d.r.) See
      also full discussion of the ammunition supply in Subject VIII.

Note--The colonel is assisted in the performance of his duties by the
regimental staff.


II. THE MAJOR.

The battalion is the attack unit whether acting alone or as part of a
larger force. (305, i.d.r.)

POSITION:

      (The general rules for a colonel apply)

   1. Where he can best:
        a. Direct the reinforcing of the firing line from the
           support. (315, i.d.r.)
        b. Observe the progress of events, (369, i.d.r.)
        c. Maintain contact with regimental headquarters. (369,
           i.d.r.)

   2. On the firing line when all the supports have joined. (315,
      i.d.r.) (See Subject V.)

GENERAL.

DUTIES:

   1. Conducts his battalion according to sector and mission assigned
      him.
   2. Directs first disposition of battalion by tactical orders,
      giving  subordinates--
        a. Information of the enemy.
        b. Position of supporting and neighboring troops.
        c. The general object to be attained.
        d. The special problem for each company (291, i.d.r.)
           (This includes making the primary apportionment of the
           target.) (303, i.d.r.)
        e. If practicable, the point or time at which the fire fight
           is to open. (304, i.d.r.)
        f. Orders for flank protection and reconnaissance, unless
           specifically provided for by higher authority. (293, 397
           and 398, i.d.r.)
        g. His position and that of the next higher commander.
   3. Controls supports, dispatches reinforcements from support to
      firing line. (226 and 297, i.d.r.)
   4. Controls subsequent movements by suitable orders or commands.
      (291, i.d.r.)
   5. Regulates ammunition supply--(See Subject VIII, also Pars.
      316-317, f.s.r.) (The combat train is the immediate reserve
      supply of the battalion.)
        a. Is responsible for the proper use of the combat train.
        b. Insures maintenance of the prescribed allowance at all
           times.
        c. Causes combat trains to march immediately in rear of the
           battalion unless directed otherwise. (548, i.d.r.)
        d. When battalion deployed on his own initiative, indicates
           whether extra ammunition shall be issued. (294, i.d.r.)
        e. When battalion deployed pursuant to orders from higher
           authority, causes issue of extra ammunition unless
           specifically ordered not to do so. (294, 548, i.d.r.)
        f. When combat wagons are emptied, directs them to proper
           rendezvous to be refilled. (548, i.d.r.)
        g. Sees that combat wagons and belts of men are refilled as
           soon as possible after an engagement. (553, i.d.r.)
   6. Maintains contact with adjoining troops. (399 i.d.r.)
   7. May harmonize ranges used by the companies on the firing line.
   8. Determines when bayonets shall be fixed. (318, i.d.r.)
   9. Subject to orders from higher authority, determines the point
      from which the charge to be made. (319, i.d.r.)
   10. Orders the charge. (318, i.d.r.)

SPECIAL.

   1. _In attack_:
        a. May select formation in which companies advance. (212,
           i.d.r.)
        b.  Designates--
           1. The direction of the objective. (303, i.d.r.)
           2. The companies for the firing line.
           3. The companies for the support.
           4. The order and front of the companies in the firing line.
           5. The right or left company of the firing line as the base
              company.
           6. May indicate when the advance by rushes is to start.
              (311, i.d.r.)
   2. _In defense_:
        a. Describes front of each company. (292, i.d.r.)
        b. Assigns sector of fire. (244, 302, i.d.r.)
        c. Locates fire, communicating and cover trenches.
        d. Directs preparation of obstacles.
        e. Assigns companies to construct trenches and obstacles.
        f. Details troops to occupy trenches. (321, i.d.r.)
        g. Causes firing line and supports to fix bayonets when a
           charge by the enemy is imminent. (324, i.d.r.)
        h. Seeks opportunities for counter attacks. (326, i.d.r.)


III. BATTALION STAFF.

POSITIONS:

Battalion Adjutant       }
Battalion Sergeant Major } with Major.

   Mounted orderlies--both with Major (one with major and one with
      Adjutant) until horses are sent to rear when both may be with
      the horses or one take the horses and the other remain with the
      major, as he may direct.

DUTIES:

   All assist the major in any way directed, by
      a. Reconnaissance. (565, i.d.r., 25, f.s.r.)
      b. Observation of the firing line.
      c. Maintaining contact with regimental headquarters.
      d. Maintaining contact with the support.
      e. Receiving, communicating, and sending visual signals from and
         to front and rear.
      f. Observing fire effect and progress of events.
      g. Keeping copies of all orders, messages, and other data
         necessary, for his war diary. (35, f.s.r.)

When there is only one range finder to the battalion, the Battalion
Sergeant Major is the Battalion Range Taker. When not actually engaged
in taking ranges, he assists the Major as above or, preferably, he may
be charged with the duty of maintaining communication with the
companies of the firing line.

The major designates a sergeant to take charge of the battalion combat
train. Under the Major's direction, he
      a. Conducts combat train as far to the front with the battalion
         as directed.
      b. Issues ammunition to the battalion.
      c. Takes combat train to rendezvous for refilling, under
         direction of the regimental commander.
      d. Rejoins battalion, if it is not in action, or, if it be
         engaged, joins or establishes communication with the
         regimental reserve. (548, 549 and 553, i.d.r.)
         (This sergeant is not provided for in the present
         organization. Recommendation has been made to the War
         Department that he be included in the Tables of
         Organization.)

IV. THE CAPTAIN.
(The Fire Director.)

POSITION: _Where he can best:_

   1. Control his four platoons. (248, i.d.r.)
   2. Observe fire effect. (249, i.d.r.)
   3. See the major and platoon chiefs. (234, i.d.r.)

DUTIES: _Before fire action:_

   1. Conducts his company to place of deployment assigned by the
      major's orders (297, i.d.r.) in best manner. (212, i.d.r.)
   2. Designates target, and allots part to each platoon. (245 and
      249, i.d.r.) (See Overlapping Method, page 15, Subject V. Fire
      Tactics.)
   3. Determines the range. (240 and 249, i.d.r.)
   4. Announces the sight setting. }
   5. Indicates class of fire and  } (249, i.d.r.)
   6. Time to open fire.           }
   7. Informs the subordinates as to the location of the battalion
      commander, and, when necessary, announces his own position.

_During the Action:_

   1. Observes fire effect. (249, 414, 415, i.d.r., and 216,
      s.a.f.m.)
   2. Corrects material errors in sight setting. (249, i.d.r.)
   3. Prevents exhaustion of ammunition supply. (249, 550, 551,
      i.d.r.)
   4. Distributes ammunition received from rear. (249, i.d.r.)
   5. Provides for the collection and distribution of the ammunition
      of the dead and wounded. (551, i.d.r.)
   6. Is on the alert for the Major's signals or commands. (226 and
      234, i.d.r.)
   7. In the absence of express directions from the major, if
      commanding a flank company, determines when advances by rushes
      shall be attempted. (311, i.d.r.)
   8. Indicates size of fractions to rush. (311, i.d.r.)
   9. Leads a rush by entire company. (223, i.d.r.)
  10. Leads the charge. (319, i.d.r.)
  11. When necessary, designates new platoon leaders and sees that new
      squads are organized and new squad leaders designated to replace
      those disabled. (104, 375, i.d.r.)

V. BUGLERS.

POSITION:

Join the Captain when the company deploys. (164, i.d.r.)

DUTIES: (235, i.d.r.)

   1. _One Bugler_--
      a. Observes the enemy.
      b. Observes the target.
      c. Observes for fire effect.
      d. Watches platoon leaders for signals.
      e. Transmits signals to platoon leaders.
   2. _The other_--
      a. Watches the Major for signals and repeats them back.
      b. Transmits information to the Major.
   3. BOTH--
      a. Repeat bugle signals "charge." (319, i.d.r.)
      b. Carry field glasses, message pads, pencils and signal flags.
         (i.u.a.e.m., 387, i.d.r.)
      c. Act as messengers.

   ALL OF THE ABOVE IMPLIES THAT THEY MUST BE PROFICIENT IN:
      a. Signaling--Hand, Arm and Letter Codes.
      b. Observation for fire effect.
      c. Location and definition or description of targets.
      d. Bugle calls.


VI. RANGE ESTIMATORS.

Five or six officers or men, selected from the most accurate
estimators in the company are designated "Range Finders." (240,
i.d.r.)

The term "Range Finder" is a misnomer as a range finder is an
instrument. The school uses the term "Range Estimator" when applied to
an individual. The attention of the War Department has been called to
this.

The range estimators are given special training in the estimation of
ranges.

When an action is pending, the Captain receives from the Major the
primary apportionment of the target or sector of fire. (303, i.d.r.)

The Captain returns to the company, and, avoiding dangerous grouping,
assembles the platoon leaders and range estimators, and points out to
both the target of the Battalion and Company.

The Range Estimators immediately begin their estimation of the range
to the company target; the Captain meanwhile continues with his
instructions to the Platoon Leaders.

The instructions to the Platoon Leaders completed, the Range
Estimators announce to the Captain either their individual estimates,
or the mean of their estimates as deduced by one of the estimators.
The Range Estimators then take their customary posts (240, i.d.r.),
and the Captain indicates to the Platoon Leaders the range to be used.

The Range Estimators act in an advisory capacity to the Captain. The
mean of their estimates will usually be the most accurate deduction
available in battle. The adoption by the Captain of the range thus
determined, however, is not obligatory.

Range Estimators should be ready to signal their estimates of the
range to the platoon leaders at any time during the action.


VII. THE PLATOON LEADER.

(The Fire Controller.)

POSITION: Where he can best:

   1. Control the squads constituting his platoon. (252, i.d.r.)
   2. Observe the target and fire effect. (252, 414, 415, i.d.r., and
      216, s.a.f.m.)
   3. Observe the captain for signals or commands. (234, 251, i.d.r.)

DUTIES:

   (6, 42, 104, 229, 231-233, 244, 245-257, 319, 375, 550, i.d.r.)
   Controls the fire of his platoon and in his fire orders.

   1. Receives his orders from the company commander.
   2. If necessary, may indicate the fire position that has been
      ordered.
   3. Announces sight setting.
   4. Points out designated target to his platoon, if practicable,
      otherwise to his corporals only, or
   5. When the target cannot be seen, indicates an aiming target. (247
      and 251, i.d.r., call this an aiming "point", but the occasions
      upon which infantry would use an aiming "point" are so rare that
      it is believed aiming "target" is a more accurate term as it
      includes both point and line.)
   6. Assigns target so as to insure that the entire front or sector
      given him by the company commander will be covered with fire.
   7. Gives class of fire.
   8. Announces rate of fire.
   9. If commanding a flank platoon, details a man to watch for
      signals from the combat patrols.
  10. When his Corporals have signaled that their squads are ready to
      fire, signals the Captain by looking toward him and holding up
      his hand.
  11. When Captain signals a "commence firing", repeats same to the
      corporals.

THEREAFTER:

   1. Observes for fire effect.
   2. When platoon is not firing, insures that the front assigned is
      kept under constant observation for any appearance of the enemy
      or any change of position.
   3. Changes sight-setting of his platoon when necessary.
   4. Regulates rate of fire.
   5. Increases rate of fire when large and distinct targets appear
      and decreases it when the target becomes small and indistinct.
   6. Prevents decrease in rate of fire when--
      (1) Changing sight-setting,
      (2) Preparing for rushes,
      (3) Fixing bayonets,
      (4) Transmitting firing data to supports,
      (5) Distributing ammunition.
   7. Increases the rate of fire to cover the advance of adjacent
      units. For this purpose progress and movements of adjoining
      units are kept under observation.
   8. Maintains direction of advance of his platoon in rushing, so as
      not to blanket fire of adjacent units.
   9. Is on the alert for Captain's commands or signals, for this
      purpose he may use his platoon guide.
  10. May use his platoon guide to observe adjoining units.
  11. Must understand all signals.
  12. Leads his platoon in advancing and charging.
  13. Prevents changing fire to unauthorized targets.
  14. Insures distribution of ammunition brought up from the rear and
      the collection and distribution of same from the dead and
      wounded. (540, i.d.r.).
  15. In coming up with re-enforcements, he takes over the duties of
      disabled platoon leaders of the platoon into which his men have
      dropped, or it may be some other section of the line needs his
      service in which case he goes there.
  16. Endeavors to preserve the integrity of squads, designates new
      squad leaders to replace those disabled, organizes new squads
      when necessary, sees that every man is placed in a squad and
      takes every opportunity for restoring order in the firing line.
      (104, 375, i.d.r.)
  17. In "Advance by thin lines", leads odd numbered lines. (218,
      i.d.r.).


VIII. THE FIRST SERGEANT.

Commands a Platoon, Never a Guide.


GUIDES.

GENERAL RULES:

1. Guides must be resourceful, have good health, vigorous physique,
keen eyesight, presence of mind and courage, with good judgment,
military training and experience. They must be able to read maps, make
sketches and send clear and concise messages.

2. EQUIPMENT.--Guides are equipped with whistle, watch, compass,
message book, knife, pencil, wire cutters, map, pace scale and glasses
if possible.

3. As instructors they go where needed.

4. As file closers they insure steadiness and promptness in the ranks.

5. In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision is
charged with the step and direction.

CLOSE ORDER.--The guides of the right and left, or leading and rear,
platoons, are the right and left, or leading and rear guides
respectively of the company when it is in line or in column of squads.
Other guides are in the line of file closers.

In platoon movements the post of the platoon guide is at the head of
the platoon, if the platoon is in column, and on the guiding flank if
in line. When a platoon has two guides their original assignment to
flanks of the platoon does not change.

The guides of a column of squads place themselves on the flank
opposite the file closers. To change the guides and file closers to
the other flank, the Captain commands: 1. _File closers on left
(right) flank;_ 2. March. The file closers dart through the column;
the captain and guides change.

In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward the side
of the guide.

Men in the line of file closers do not execute the loadings or
firings.

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute the manual
of arms during the drill unless specially excused, when they remain at
the order. During ceremonies they execute all movements.

IN TAKING INTERVALS AND DISTANCES.--Unless otherwise directed, the
right and left guides, at the first command, place themselves in the
line of file closers, and with them take a distance of 4 paces from
the rear rank. In taking intervals, at the command "March", the file
closers face to the flank and each steps off with the file nearest
him. In _assembling_ the guides and file closers resume their places
in line.

To FORM THE COMPANY.--At the sounding of the assembly the first
sergeant takes position 6 paces in front of where the center of the
company is to be, faces it, draws saber, and commands "Fall in".

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the front,
where the right of the company is to rest, and at such point that the
center of the company will be 6 paces from and opposite the first
sergeant; the squads form in their proper places on the left of the
right guide, superintended by the other sergeants, who then take their
posts.

For the instruction of platoon leaders and guides, the company, when
small, may be formed in single rank. In this formation close order
movements only are executed. The single rank executes all movements as
explained for the front rank of the company.

ALIGNMENTS.--The alignments are executed as prescribed in the School
of the Squad, the guide being established instead of the flank file.
The rear-rank man of the flank file keeps his head and eyes to the
front and covers his file leader.

At each alignment the Captain places himself in prolongation of the
line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which the dress is
made, verifies the alignment and commands: "Front".

Platoon leaders take a like position when required to verify the
alignments.

In "Company right" the right guide steps back on the command "March",
aligning the first two men next to him as he does so, to establish the
correct line.

In "Platoon right" the Captain announces the guide and the guides
cover promptly.

In "Right turn" the right guide is the pivot of the front rank.

In "Column right" the right flank man of the leading squad is the
pivot, _not the guide_.

In "Right by squads" the right guide (when he has posted himself in
front of the right squad) takes four short steps and then resumes the
full step. The right squad conforms.

"Squads right about." If the company or platoons are in column of
squads, file closers turn about toward the column and take posts. If
in line, each darts through the nearest interval between squads. The
right and left guides place themselves in the new front rank. File
closers on facing about, maintain their relative positions.

When the company executes "About face", guides place themselves in the
new front rank.

In "Right front into line, double time" halting and aligning commands
are omitted. Guide is toward side of the first unit.

In "Take interval" or "Take distance" guides drop back at the first
command.

In "Squads right" or "Platoons, column right" interior guides of
platoons cross the company. A good rule for beginners is always to
cross over (except in "column right").

Guide of a company in line is right (unless otherwise announced).

Guide of a platoon in line is right.

Guide of a battalion in line is center.

Guide of a line of subdivisions is center.

Guide of a deployed line is center.

Guide of a squad is toward the side of the guide of the company.

Guide of successive formations into line is toward the point of rest.

File closers remain on the same side of the company except when in so
doing they would be left in front of the company.

If the battalion is in line, the guide away from the point of rest (in
each company) comes to the "Right shoulder arms" at the command to
dress.

At the command "Eyes right", guides who are charged with the direction
do not execute "Eyes right", but simply salute.

At "Retreat" guides unarmed stand at "Attention". Only officers
salute.

In "Stack arms" the right guide should align the stacks.

In squads (acting alone) the corporal is the guide; number 2 of the
front rank, if the corporal is not in line.

The guides of rear units are charged with the step, trace and
distance.

EXERCISE FOR GUIDES.--Lay out a course of arbitrary distance; 200
yards will answer the purpose. Instruct the guides to march the course
as they would if they were guiding a company, but being sure to count
their steps (a pebble transferred to the left hand at 100 steps is
often found useful).

RESULT.--The number of steps will range from 205 to 225. After getting
the number of steps taken by each man, show them that they should have
taken 240 steps and that each man took too long a step. Have them
march back guiding on two points in line as before, cautioning them to
cut down the length of the step to 30 inches from the start, and not
to wait until they get half way down the course and find that they
have less than 120 steps.

RESULT.--All of the men, even after the caution, will have taken too
long a step.

Instructor times the guides both ways, and calls attention to the fact
that in ALL cases the cadence was under 120 steps per minute.

After repeating above as much as desired have the men march in pairs,
one man keeping time and the other counting steps and marching on two
points.

They may check up every 10 seconds if desired.


IX. PLATOON GUIDES.

POSITION:

   1. Behind the firing line, on left of platoon leader. (163,
      i.d.r.)
   2. Advancing in line--behind center of platoon. (213 and 223,
      i.d.r.) To insure prompt and orderly advance.
   3. "Advance by thin lines"--lead even numbered lines. (218, i.d.r.)
   4. Advancing in squad or platoon column--in rear.

DUTIES:

   (104, 213, 223, 229, 255, 367, 375, and 376, i.d.r.)

   1. The platoon leader's assistant and may be assigned any duty the
      platoon leader sees fit.
   2. Keeps adjoining units under observation.
   3. Watches firing line.
   4. Checks every breach of fire discipline.
   5. Prevents skulking, men leaving the ranks at any time to care for
      wounded, etc.
   6. Designates new squad leaders and organizes new squads when
      necessary.
   7. Attaches men that have become separated from squads to other
      squads.
   8. Insures prompt and orderly advance.
   9. On joining firing line from the support takes over duties of
      sergeants disabled.
  10. May receive and transmit signals to the Captain.
  11. If the platoon leader is disabled, he takes over his duties.
      Hence he should know what the platoon leader is doing and how.
  12. When taking over the duties of the platoon leader he calls the
      senior corporal of his platoon out to act as guide.


X. CORPORAL.

POSITION:

   1. Marching in line, as center skirmisher of squad (124, i.d.r.)
      or
   2. When skirmish line is halted, immediately behind his squad.

   Note.--The School has recommended to the War Department that the
      Infantry Drill Regulations be changed to provide that the
      Corporal's position be as prescribed above and in paragraph 20,
      page 10.

DUTIES:

   Paragraphs 42, 222, 252, 254, 255, 411, and 551, i.d.r., cover in
      general the corporal's duties.
   The squad leader (Corporal) controls the fire of his squad, he must
      understand the duties of the private and in issuing his fire
      orders:

   1. Receives his instructions from the platoon leader.
   2. Points out indicated objective to his squad.
   3. Takes as the squad target that portion of the platoon target
      which corresponds to the position of the squad in the platoon.
   4. Announces sight setting.
   5. Announces class and rate of fire.
   6. When his squad is ready to fire looks toward the platoon leader
      and holds up his hand. At the platoon leader's signal to
      commence firing he sees that the squad opens fire.

THEREAFTER:

   1. Makes all fire from the shoulder.
   2. Makes all use ordered rate of fire.
   3. Insures that all fire at designated objective.
   4. Prevents slighting of invisible portions of the target for more
      visible parts.
   5. Prevents men from changing fire to unauthorized targets not in
      the assigned front or sector.
   6. Maintains constant observation to the front; when squad is
      firing, for effect of fire--when squad is not firing, for
      appearance of enemy.
   7. Insures prompt obedience to orders to suspend and cease firing.
   8. Makes men utilize ground to fullest extent for concealment in
      firing and advancing.
   9. In sight-setting, changing sights and fixing bayonets, has front
      rank perform operation first (rear-rank men increasing rate of
      fire) and then the rear-rank follow while the front-rank men
      make up for loss of fire for the rear rank, thus insuring that
      the rate of fire for the squad does not fall off.
  10. Prevents increasing vulnerability of squad while preparing for
      a rush, and rushes as soon after cease firing as possible.
  11. When other squads of his platoon, are rushing, or the platoon
      which is covering the same target as is his platoon, is rushing
      he has his squad increase its rate of fire to make up for lost
      fire effect of the rushing element.
  12. In rushing causes men to spring to feet running at full speed,
      all men to drop to the ground at the same time, and those who
      are in rear to crawl up to the line.
  13. When re-enforcing the firing line, takes over the duties of
      disabled squad leaders. For this purpose his squad may drop into
      line at one place and he may move to the next squad on the right
      or left where there is a squad leader needed. If there are no
      vacancies caused by disabled squad leaders, he drops into line
      and assists the squad leaders who are there.
  14. Prevents decreasing rate of fire when men are transmitting data
      to arriving supports.
  15. Prevents wasting of ammunition.
  16. Prevents use of 30 rounds in right pocket section of belts
      except on order of an officer.
  17. Distributes ammunition of dead and wounded and ammunition
      brought up from the rear.
  18. Prevents decreasing the rate of fire while ammunition is being
      distributed.
  19. Looks to the rear only at his platoon leader's whistle
      "Attention." Pays no attention to any other except suspend
      firing.
  20. Takes his position in rear of his squad when it is firing and
      remains there, where he can control its fire, and only crawls
      into line and adds his rifle when all control is lost. (Short
      ranges.)
  21. To control his squad he does not walk up and down behind his
      squad but rolls along behind his line and keeps down.
  22. Leads his squad in moving to the front or rear.
  23. Must know thoroughly the drill regulation signals and have a
      good practical knowledge of the theory of fire.
  24. In rushing, maintains the direction of advance of his squad so
      as not to blanket the fire of squads in his rear.
  25. Takes advantage of every lull in the action and every favorable
      opportunity to reorganize his squad and get it more under
      control.
  26. Checks every breach of fire discipline, abates excitement, and
      prevents any man from leaving the squad to go to the rear for
      any purpose whatsoever.
  27. If called out of line to act as guide, notifies designated
      private (103, i.d.r.) to take command of squad.


XI. THE PRIVATE.

POSITION:

   Deployed in line: One man per yard (125, i.d.r.), unless a greater
      extension is directed in the order for deployment. (126,
      i.d.r.)

DUTIES:

   (6, 42, 104, 133, 134, 138, 139, 149, 152-156, 203, 209, 233, 247,
      251, 254, 255, 319, 354, 367, i.d.r., and 209, s.a.f.m.)

   The individual soldier must be trained:

   1. To recognize targets from description quickly.
   2. To describe and define targets.
   3. To use rear sight in describing targets.
   4. To use horizontal and vertical clock systems, singly or in
      combination in describing target.
   5. To set sights quickly and accurately as ordered.
   6. To bring piece to shoulder, aim carefully and deliberately from
      habit, and to reload quickly.
   7. To fire at the ordered rate. (Par. 18, Standard for Field
      Firing.)
   8. To fire at the part of the designated objective which
      corresponds to his position in the firing line.
   9. To continue firing in the designated sector and not to change
      therefrom unless ordered.
  10. Not to slight invisible parts of the target for more visible
      ones.
  11. To maintain constant observation to the front.
  12. To utilize folds of ground for concealment in advancing and
      firing.
  13. To select firing positions.
  14. To understand effects of visibility and the selection of
      backgrounds.
  15. To fire from all positions, from behind hillocks, trees, heaps
      of earth and rocks, depressions, gullies, ditches, doorways and
      windows.
  16. To obey promptly orders to suspend and cease firing.
  17. To ignore whistle signals, except suspend firing.
  18. To watch closely for the expected target after having suspended
      firing.
  19. To obey promptly all orders from his squad leader.
  20. To drop into the nearest interval when reinforcing the firing
      line and obey the orders of the nearest squad leader.
  21. To transmit firing data to men of the supports coming into the
      line rapidly and accurately, without decreasing his rate of
      fire.
  22. To call for range and target when reinforcing the firing line.
  23. To have confidence in his own ability to hit.
  24. To a system of sight setting and fixing bayonets in order that
      there may be no cessation of fire in the unit during this
      operation.
  25. To prepare for rushes without decreasing fire of the unit
      unduly.
  26. To avoid unnecessary movement in preparing for rushes.
  27. To spring forward at command "Rush" or "Follow Me" without
      preliminary rising.
  28. To avoid bunching in rushing.
  29. Not to swerve to the right or left in search of cover but to
      advance in a straight line, in order not to blanket the fire of
      men in his rear.
  30. To drop quickly at end of rush and crawl up to line if in rear
      of it.
  31. To remain with his own company, but if he accidentally becomes
      detached from his company or squad to join the nearest one.
  32. To maintain silence except when transmitting or receiving firing
      data and charging.
  33. To retain presence of mind.
  34. To be careful not to waste ammunition.
  35. To use the thirty rounds of ammunition in the right pocket
      section of the belt only upon the order of an officer.
  36. To remain with the firing line after bringing up ammunition.
  37. To utilize ammunition of dead and wounded.
  38. Never to attempt to care for dead or wounded during the action.
  39. To have confidence in his ability to use the bayonet.
  40. To a firm determination to close with the enemy.
  41. To preserve the line in charging.
  42. To understand that a charge should be slow and steady (the
      faster men must not run away from the slower ones).
  43. To form up immediately after the charge and follow the enemy
      with fire, not attempting a disorganized pursuit.
  44. To understand that it is suicidal to turn his back to an enemy
      and that, if he cannot advance, he must intrench and hold on
      until dark.
  45. To count distant groups of object or beings.
  46. To recognize service targets.
  47. NEVER TO FIRE UNTIL HE UNDERSTANDS WHAT THE TARGET IS, AT WHAT
      PART HE IS TO FIRE, AND WITH WHAT SIGHT SETTING.


Packs.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSEMBLING THE INFANTRY EQUIPMENT, MODEL OF 1910.

1. THE CARTRIDGE BELT.--(a) To assemble the belt.
   Place the adjusting strap on the ground, eyeleted edge to the front;
place the pocket sections on the ground in prolongation of the
adjusting strap, pockets down, tops of pockets to the front; insert
end of adjusting strap in outer loop of metal guide, from the upper
side, carry it under the middle bar and up through the inner loop;
engage the wire hook on the end of adjusting strap in the eyelets;
provided on the inner surface of the belt.

(b) To adjust the belt.
   Adjust the belt to fit loosely about the waist--i.e., so that when
buckled it may rest well down over the hip bones on the sides of the
body and below the pit of the abdomen in front. Care should be taken
that the adjustment be made equally from both ends of the adjusting
strap, so that the center eyelet will be in the middle of the belt.

(c) To fill the belt.
   Unsnap the flap of the pocket and the interior retaining strap; lay
the retaining strap out flat in prolongation of the pocket, insert a
clip of cartridges, points of bullets up, in front of the retaining
strap; press down until the base of the clip rests on the bottom of
the pocket; pass the retaining strap over the bullet points and fasten
it to the outside of the pocket by means of the fastener provided;
insert a second clip of cartridges, points of bullets down, in rear of
the first clip; press down until the points of the bullets rest on the
bottom of the pocket; close the flap of the pocket and fasten by means
of the fastener provided.

The remaining nine pockets are filled in like manner.

2. TO ATTACH THE FIRST-AID POUCH.--Attach the pouch under the second
pocket of the right section of the belt by inserting one hook of the
double-hook attachment in the eyelet, from the inside of the belt;
pinch the base of the pocket, bringing eyelets close together, and
insert the other hook in the same manner in the adjoining eyelet.
   Place the first-aid packet in the pouch and secure the cover.

3. TO ATTACH THE CANTEEN COVER.--Attach the canteen cover to the belt
under the rear pocket of the right section in the same manner as the
first-aid pouch.
   Place the canteen and cup (assembled) in the cover and secure the
flaps.

4. TO ATTACH THE PACK CARRIER TO THE HAVERSACK.--Spread the haversack
on the ground, inner side down, outer flap to the front (Fig. 4);
place the buttonholed edge of the pack carrier on the buttonholed edge
of the haversack, lettered side of carrier up; buttonholes of carrier
superimposed upon the corresponding ones of the haversack; lace the
carrier to the haversack by passing the ends of the coupling strap
down through the corresponding buttonholes of the carrier and
haversack nearest the center of the carrier, bringing the ends up
through the next buttonholes and continuing to the right and left,
respectively, to the sides.

5. TO ATTACH THE CARTRIDGE BELT TO THE HAVERSACK.--Place the haversack
and pack carrier (assembled) on the ground, inner side down (Fig. 5);
place the cartridge belt, pockets down, tops to the front, along the
junction of the haversack and carrier; insert hook on rear of belt
suspender in the center eyelet of the adjusting strap, so that the end
of the hook will be on the outside of the belt; insert hooks on ends
of front belt suspenders in the eyelets between the second and third
pockets from the outer ends of the belt, so that the end of the hooks
will be on the outside of the belt.

6. TO ATTACH THE BAYONET SCABBARD TO THE HAVERSACK.--Attach the
scabbard by passing its lower end through the loop provided on the
side of the haversack body, then engage the double-hook attachment in
the eyelets on the outer flap on the haversack, inserting the hooks
from the inside.
   Place the bayonet in the scabbard.

7. TO ATTACH THE INTRENCHING TOOL CARRIER TO THE HAVERSACK.--Fold the
outer flap of the haversack over so that the meat-can pouch is
uppermost; pass the intrenching tool carrier underneath the meat-can
pouch and engage the double-hook attachment in the eyelets in the flap
provided, inserting the hooks from the underside.
   Place the intrenching tool in the carrier and secure.
   Place the meat-can, knife, fork, and spoon in the meat-can pouch.
   The equipment is now assembled and is never disassembled except to
detach the pack carrier and its contents as hereinafter provided for.


To ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT.

(_With Rations._)

Place the assembled equipment on the ground, suspender side of
haversack down, pockets of cartridge belt up, haversack spread out,
inside flap and pack carrier extended their full length to the rear
(Fig. 6).

Place three cartons of hard bread in the center of the haversack body,
the lower one on the line of attachment of the inside flap; lay the
remaining carton of hard bread, the condiment can and the bacon can on
the top of these, the condiment can and the bacon can at the bottom,
top of the bacon can to the front; the socks and toilet articles are
rolled, towel on the outside, into a bundle of the same approximate
dimensions as a carton of hard bread, and are placed in front of the
two rows thus formed.

The inside flap of the haversack is folded over these articles, the
end of the flap being turned in so that the flap, thus shortened,
extends about 2 inches beyond the top of the upper row; the sides of
the haversack are folded over the sides of the rows; the upper binding
straps are passed through the loops on the outside of the inside flap,
each strap through the loop opposite the point of its attachment to
the haversack body, and fastened by means of the buckle on the
opposite side, the strap being passed through the opening in the
buckle next to its attachment, over the center bar, and back through
the opening of the buckle away from its attachment; the strap is
pulled tight to make the fastening secure; the outer flap of the
haversack is folded over and fastened by means of the lower haversack
binding strap and the buckle on the inside of the outer flap; the
strap is pulled tight, drawing the outer flap snugly over the filled
haversack.

The haversack is now packed and the carrier is ready for the reception
of the pack (Fig. 7).

If one haversack ration and one emergency ration are carried in lieu
of two haversack rations, the haversack is packed in the manner
described above, except that two cartons of hard bread and the bacon
can form the bottom layer, the bacon can on the bottom; the condiment
can, the emergency ration, and the toilet articles form the top layer.

If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two haversack
rations, it is packed on top of the top layer.

TO MAKE THE PACK (Fig. 8).--Spread the shelter half on the ground and
fold in the triangular ends, forming an approximate square from the
half, the guy on the inside; fold the poncho once across its shortest
dimension, then twice across its longest dimension, and lay it in the
center of the shelter half; fold the blanket as described for the
poncho and place it on the latter; place the shelter tent pins in the
folds of the blanket, in the center and across the shortest dimension;
fold the edges of the shelter half snugly over the blanket and poncho
and, beginning on either of the short sides, roll tightly and
compactly. This forms the pack.

TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK (Fig. 9).--Place the pack in the pack carrier and
grasp the lower suspension rings, one in each hand; place the right
knee against the bottom of the roll; pull the carrier down and force
the pack up close against the bottom of the packed haversack; without
removing the knee, pass the lower carrier binding strap over the pack
and secure it by means of the opposite buckle; in a similar manner
secure the lower haversack binding strap and then the upper carrier
binding strap.
   Engage the snap hook on the pack suspenders in the lower suspension
rings.
   The equipment is now assembled and packed as prescribed for the full
equipment.


TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT.

(_Without Rations._)

Place the assembled equipment on the ground as heretofore described;
fold up the inside flap of the haversack so that its end will be on a
line with the top of the haversack body; fold up the lower haversack
strap in the same manner.

TO MAKE UP THE PACK.--Fold the poncho, blanket and shelter half, and
make up the pack as heretofore prescribed, except that the condiment
and bacon can (the former inside the latter) and the toilet articles
and socks are rolled in the pack. In this case the pack is rolled,
beginning on either of the long sides instead of the short sides, as
heretofore described.

TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK.--Place the pack on the haversack and pack
carrier, its upper end on a line with the upper edge of the haversack
body; bind it to the haversack and carrier by means of the haversack
and pack binding straps; fold down the outer flap on the haversack and
secure it by means of the free end of the middle haversack banding
strap and the buckle provided on the underside of the flap; engage the
snap hooks of the pack suspenders in the lower suspension rings.

The equipment is now packed and assembled (Fig. 10).

TO ADJUST THE EQUIPMENT TO THE SOLDIER.--Put on the equipment,
slipping the arms one at a time through the pack suspenders as through
the sleeves of a coat; by means of the adjusting buckles on the belt
suspenders, raise or lower the belt until it rests well down over the
hip bones on the sides and below the pit of the abdomen in front;
raise or lower it in rear until the adjusting strap lies smoothly
across the small of the back; by means of the adjusting buckles on the
pack suspenders, raise or lower the load on the back until the top of
the haversack is on a level with the top of the shoulders, the pack
suspenders, from their point of attachment to the haversack to the
line of tangency with the shoulder, being horizontal. _The latter is
absolutely essential to the proper adjustment of the load_.

The position of the belt is the same whether filled or empty.


TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT LESS THE PACK.

(_With Rations._)

(Fig. 11.)

Detach the carrier from, the haversack; place the rest of the
equipment on the ground as heretofore described; place the four
cartons of hard bread, the bacon can, the condiment can, and the
toilet articles in one row in the middle of the haversack body, the
toilet articles at the top, the bacon can at the bottom, top to the
front, the row extending from top to bottom of the haversack; fold the
inside flap over the row thus formed; fold the sides of the haversack
up and over; pass the three haversack binding straps through the loops
on the inside flap and secure by means of the buckles on the opposite
side of the haversack; pass the lower haversack binding strap through
the small buttonhole in the lower edge of the haversack, fold the
outer flap of the haversack over the whole and secure by means of the
buckle on its underside and the lower haversack binding strap.

Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous buttonholes
in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the snap hooks on the
ends of the pack suspenders.

If one haversack ration and one emergency ration are carried in lieu
of two haversack rations, the haversack is packed in the manner
described above, except that one emergency ration is substituted for
two of the cartons of hard bread.

If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two haversack
rations, it is packed on top of the layer.


TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT LESS THE PACK.

(_Without Rations._)

Detach the carrier from the haversack; place the rest of the equipment
on the ground as heretofore described; fold up the inside flap of the
haversack until its upper end is on a line with the top of the
haversack body; fold the sides of the haversack over, pass the three
haversack binding straps through the loops on the inside flap and
secure by means of the buckles on the opposite side of the haversack;
pass the lower haversack binding strap through the small buttonhole in
the lower edge of the haversack; place the condiment and bacon can
(the former inside the latter) and the toilet articles and socks in
the bottom of the pouch thus formed; fold the outer flap of the
haversack over the whole and secure by means of the buckle on its
underside and the lower haversack binding strap.

Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous buttonholes
in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the snap hooks on the
ends of the pack suspenders.

TO ADJUST THE EQUIPMENT TO THE SOLDIER.--Put on the equipment as
prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the cartridge belt as
prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the pack suspenders so that
the top of the haversack is on a level with the top of the shoulders.


TO DISCARD THE PACK WITHOUT REMOVING THE EQUIPMENT FROM THE BODY.

Unsnap the pack suspenders from the suspension rings and snap them
into the eyelets on top of the belt and in rear of the rear pockets of
the right and left pocket sections; support the bottom of the pack
with the left hand and with the right hand grasp the coupling strap at
its middle and withdraw first one end, then the other; press down
gently on the pack with both hands and remove it. When the pack has
been removed, lace the coupling strap into the buttonholes along the
upper edge of the carrier. Adjust the pack suspenders.

For illustration of how packs are made up and carried, see Privates'
Manual, Chapter 2.


CARE OF EQUIPMENT.

LEATHER.--1. Keep leather clean. Use material furnished by Ordnance
Department, or castile soap and water.

2. Oil leather frequently to keep it pliable. Use Neatsfoot oil,
Viscol or Harness soap.

3. Dry in the shade; never in the sun or in artificial heat. Always
store in a cool, dry place without artificial heat. Shoe polishes are
almost always injurious.

WOOLEN CLOTHES.--Wash in tepid or cold water with a non-alkaline soap;
do not wring it out; dry in the shade.

MENDING.--Always keep equipment ready for use.

CLOTH EQUIPMENT.--DRY CLEANING.--Scrub with a stiff brush frequently.

WASHING.--Only under the direction of an officer.

Dissolve 1 piece of Q.M. soap (not yellow), in 9 cups of water. One
cup will clean the equipment of one man. Apply with a brush and lather
well. Rub soap directly on persistent spots. Wash off in cold water
and dry in the shade.


INSTRUCTIONS ON MAKING PACKS.

FOUR METHODS:

   Full equipment with rations.
   Full equipment without rations.
   Full equipment less pack, with rations.
   Full equipment less pack, without rations.

   Haversack,                              Weight  9-1/4
   Carrier     Cartridge belt, canteen,    Weight 11-1/2
   Suspenders  Mess Rations                Weight 10-1/2
   Mess pouch  Gun                                 9
               Clothing                            7
                                                 -------
                                                  40

ADJUSTING CARTRIDGE BELT.--1. Fits loosely around waist. 2. Resting on
hips. 3. Hole between buckles. Insert ammunition: First, clip in
front, points up, fastened with retaining strap, Second clip points
down. First aid pouch under 4th pocket, left. Canteen under rear
pocket, right. Bayonet between 3rd and 4th pocket, left. (New bayonet
scabbard fastens on haversack.)


DISTRIBUTION OF INTRENCHING TOOLS IN THE SQUADS.

   No. 3 rear of each odd-numbered squad  ... Bolo
   No. 3 rear of each even-numbered squad ... Hand Axe.
   No. 1 rear of each squad               ... Pick Mattock.
   Nos. 1, 2 and 3 front of each squad    ... Shovels
   No. 2 rear of each squad               ... Wire Cutter.




CHAPTER 3.

Physical Training.


Only the carefully trained and conditioned man can make victory
possible. For this reason the first and most important concern of a
nation at war is the physical training of its soldiers.

The setting-up exercises are the basis for all other activities and
their disciplinary value is almost as great as their physical value.

PHYSICAL TRAINING.--Each period should include exercises for all parts
of the body. Following the setting-up exercises the following should
be given in the order named: marching, jumping, double timing,
gymnastic contests, and concluding or restorative exercises.

Rifle exercises have for their purpose the development of "handiness"
with the piece. They should be used moderately and with frequent
rests, for they develop big muscles at the expense of agility--a
muscle bound man cannot use his strength.

BAYONET TRAINING in addition to its military value calls into play
every muscle of the body and makes for alertness, agility, quick
perception, decision, aggressiveness and confidence.


Time Schedule.

A.M. (Begins 1/2 hour            P.M. (End 1/2 hour
after breakfast):                before retreat):

1. Disciplinary exercises,       1. Bayonet training, 30
   2 minutes.                        minutes.
2. Starting positions, 1         2. Games and contests,
   minute.                          30 minutes.
3. Setting up exercises,         Alternating daily with:
   20 minutes.                   1. Bombing practice, 20
4. Marching and marching            minutes.
   exercises, 5 to 8             2. Conditioning exercises,
   minutes.                         15 minutes.
5. Jumping, 5 to 8 minutes.         Double timing.
6. Double timing, 5 minutes         Vaulting and overcoming
                                    obstacles.
                                 3. Rifle practice, 10 minutes.

Instructions must be:

   1. An inspiration to the men.
   2. Well prepared themselves.
   3. Stripped for action.
   4. An example to the men.
   5. Must make drill attractive.
   6. Never have men overdo. Temper the exercises to the endurance of
      the weakest man.
   7. Accompany every exercise with the proper breathing.
   8. See that the men are clothed according to the season.
   9. Have the drills short and snappy.
  10. Have frequent rests at the beginning--less frequent as work
      progresses.

The platoon is the best unit for physical drills.

FORMATIONS.--When exercising in small squads, the men "fall in" in a
single rank and, after having "counted off" by fours, threes or twos,
as the instructor may direct, distance is taken at the command: Take
distance, March, Squad Halt. At "March" No. 1 moves forward, being
followed by the other numbers at intervals of four paces. Halt is
commanded when all have taken their distances.

At the discretion of the instructor the distance may be any number of
paces, the men being first cautioned to that effect.

When distance is taken from the double rank, No. 1 of the rear rank
follows No. 4 of the front rank, and he is in turn followed by the
other numbers of the rear rank.

If the instructor desires the files to cover, he commands: In file
_Cover_. Nos. 1 stand fast, the others moving to the right with the
side step, until the Nos. 1 are covered.

To return to the original formation, the instructor commands: Assemble
March. No. 1 of the front rank stands fast and the other members move
forward to their original places.

_Second Formation._ To the right and left. Take interval, March.

_Front Rank:_                  _Rear Rank:_
No. 1, 6 steps right step.       No. 1, 3 steps right step.
No. 2, 3 steps right step.       No. 2, Stands fast.
No. 3, Stands fast.              No. 3, 3 steps left step.
No. 4, 3 steps left step.        No. 4, 6 steps left step.


Commands.

KINDS OF COMMANDS, AND HOW GIVEN.--There are two kinds, _preparatory_
and _executive_.

The _preparatory command_ describes and specifies what is desired and
the _executive command_ calls what has been described into action.

The tone of the command should always be animated, distinct, and of a
loudness proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

Instructors should cultivate a proper command, as its value as a
tributary to the success of any military drill cannot be
overestimated.

After an exercise has been described, its various movements or parts
should be performed at _executive words_, which indicate not only the
movement that is desired but the manner of the execution. Thus: 1.
Trunk forward, 2. Bend, 3. Recover (or Raise), here the word _bend_ is
drawn to indicate moderately slow execution; the recovery being a
little faster, the word _recover_ should be spoken to indicate it.

The word Recover should always be used to bring the men back to the
original position.

If it is desired to continue an exercise, the command Exercise should
be used and the cadence or rhythm should be indicated by words or
numerals. If numerals are used, they should equal the number of
movements composing the exercise. Thus an exercise of two movements
will be repeated at _one, two_; one of four movements will require
four counts, etc.

The numeral or word preceding the command Halt should always be given
with a rising inflection in order to prepare the men for the command
Halt.

Thus: 1. Thrust arms forward, 2. Exercise one, two, one, two, one,
Halt.

If any movement of any exercise is to be performed with more energy
than the others, the word or numeral corresponding to that movement
should be emphasized.

FIRST LESSON.--A. Disciplinary Exercises. 1. Attention; 2. At Ease; 3.
Rest; 4. Facings.
   B. Starting Positions. (m.p.t., pp. 25 to 29.)
   C. Setting-up Exercises (every exercise has two motions)[P]:

      1. Arms forward, 2. Raise. Swing arms downward and forward.
      2. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on toes. (33.)
      3. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend head backward; same, forward.
         (38.)
      4. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Turn trunk right; same, left. (40.)
      5. Arms to thrust, 2. Raise. Half bend knees slowly. (35.)
      6. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk forward. (36.)
      7. Arms to thrust, 2. Raise. Raise and lower shoulders. (32.)
      8. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk sideward, right; same,
         left. (37.)
      9. Arms forward, 2. Raise. Stretch arms sideward. (43.)
     10. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk backward. (34.)
     11. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Raise knees forward alternatingly.
         (41.)
     12. Breathing Exercise: Inhale, raising arms sideward; exhale,
         lowering arms.

   D. Marching Exercises:

      1. Marching in column in quick time and halting.
      2. Same, marking time, marching forward and halting.
      3. Same, marching on toes.

[Footnote P: Note.--Jumping and double-timing exercises and contests
should not be included in the first week's work.
Bracketed numbers refer to pages in "Manual of Physical Training,"
where similar exercises are illustrated and described.]


SECOND LESSON.--A. Disciplinary Exercises. Same as in first lesson.
   B. Starting positions.
   C. Setting-up Exercises (every exercise has two motions):

      1. Arms forward, 2. Raise. Swing arms sideward.
      2. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on toes. (33.)
      3. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Turn head right; same, left. (41.)
      4. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Turn trunk sideward, right;
         same, left. (40.)
      5. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Full bend knees, slowly. (39.)
      6. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk forward. (36.)
      7. Arms to thrust, 2. Raise. Move shoulders forward and
         backward. (35.)
      8. Arms sideward, 2. Raise. Bend trunk sideward, right; same,
         left. (31.)
      9. From Attention. Stretch arms forward and sideward.
     10. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk backward. (34.)
     11. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Extend right and left leg forward.
         (44.)
     12. Breathing Exercise: Inhale, raising arms sideward and upward;
         exhale, lowering arms sideward.

   D. Marching Exercises:

      1. Marching in column in quick time, mark time, marching in
         quick time and halting. (88.)
      2. Marching on toes. (89.)
      3. Marching on toes and rocking.

   E. Jumping Exercises:

      1. Rise on toes and arms forward, 2 Raise. Swing arms downward
         and bend knees; swing arms forward and extend knees, and
         recover Attention.
      2. Jumping in place. (193.)

   F. Double Timing:

      1. Double timing, change to quick time and halting. (92.)

   G. Concluding Exercises:

      1. Breathing exercise, raising and lowering arms sideward.


THIRD LESSON.--A disciplinary Exercises, as in first lesson.
   B. Starting Positions.
   C. Setting-up Exercises:

      1. Arms forward, 2. Raise. Swing arms downward and sideward. (4
         motions.)
      2. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on right and left toes,
         alternatingly. (4 motions.) (46.)
      3. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend head forward and backward. (4
         motions.) (38.)
      4. Arms sideward, 2. Raise. Turn trunk right and left. (4
         motions.) (53.)
      5. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on toes and full bend knees
         slowly. (4 motions.) (39.)
      6. Fingers in rear of head, 2. Place. Bend trunk forward. (2
         motions.) (42.)
      7. Arms to thrust, 2. Raise. Move shoulders forward, upward,
         backward, and recover. (4 motions.)
      8. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Bend trunk sideward, right, and
         left. (4 motions.) (37.)
      9. From Attention. Stretch arms sideward, upward, sideward, and
         recover. (4 motions.)
     10. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Bend trunk backward. (2
         motions.) (34.)
     11. Hands on hips, 2 Place. Extend right and left leg backward.
         (2 motions.)
     12. Breathing Exercise: Inhale, raising arms forward, upward; and
         exhale, lowering arms sideward, down.

   D. Marching Exercises:

      1. Marching in quick time, raising knees. (89.)
      2. Thrusting arms sideward.

   E. Jumping Exercises:

      1. Standing broad jump.
      2. Three successive broad jumps.

   F. Double Timing:

      1. Double timing. (92.)
      2. Double timing, marking time in the double and forward.
      3. Double timing and halting from the double.

   G. Gymnastic Contests. Two of these games should be included in
      each lesson. See pp. 39-40.
   H. Concluding Exercises:

      1. Breathing exercise, as in 12.


FOURTH LESSON.--A. Disciplinary Exercises, as in first lesson.
   B. Starting Positions.
   C. Setting-up Exercises:

      1. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Extend arms forward; swing
         sideward, forward, and recover. (4 motions.)
      2. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on toes quickly. (2 motions.)
         (33.)
      3. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Turn head right and left. (4
         motions.) (41.)
      4. Arms upward, 2. Raise. Turn trunk right and left. (4
         motions.)
      5. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Half bend knees, quickly. (2
         motions.) (35.)
      6. Arms sideward, 2. Raise. Bend trunk forward. (2 motions.)
      7. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Move elbows forward, and
         stretch backward. (2 motions.) (45.)
      8. Arms upward, 2. Raise. Bend trunk sideward, right and left.
         (4 motions.)
      9. From Attention. Stretch, arms forward, sideward, upward,
         sideward, forward, and recover. (6 motions.)
     10. Arms sideward, 2. Raise. Bend trunk backward. (2 motions.)
     11. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Extend legs sideward. (2 motions.)
     12. Breathing Exercise: 1. Inhale, raising arms forward, upward;
         exhale, lowering arms sideward.

   D. Marching Exercises:

      1. Marching in quick time, raising knees, and rising on toes of
         other foot.
      2. Raising heels.
      3. Thrusting arms sideward.

   E. Jumping Exercises:

      1. Three successive standing broad jumps.
      2. Jumping in place, raising knees.

   F. Double Timing:

      1. Double timing.
      2. Raising heels.
      3. Double timing, sideward, crossing legs.

   G. Gymnastic Contests.
   H. Concluding Exercises:

      1. Swing arms forward, upward, relaxed.
      2. Breathing exercise, as in 12.


FIFTH LESSON.--A. Disciplinary Exercises.
   B. Starting Positions.
   C. Setting-up Exercises:

      1. Arms to thrust. Thrust arms upward; swing downward; forward;
         upward, and recover. (4 motions.) (55.)
      2. Hands in rear of head. Rise on toes and rock. (2 motions.)
         (39.)
      3. Hands on hips. Bend head forward and backward. (4 motions.)
      4. Hands on shoulders. Turn trunk right and left, stretching
         arms sideward. (4 motions.) (52.)
      5. Full bend knees. Hands on ground between knees, squatting
         position, extend right and left leg backward, alternatingly.
         (4 motions.) (65.)
      6. Hands on shoulders. Bend trunk forward and stretch arms
         sideward. (2 motions.) (51.)
      7. From Attention. Curl shoulders forward and stretch backward.
         (2 motions.) (38.)
      8. Hands on shoulders. Bend trunk sideward, right and left,
         extending arms sideward. (4 motions.) (65.)
      9. From Attention. Flex forearms vertically; extend upward; flex
         and recover. (4 motions.) (54.)
     10. Hands on shoulders. Bend trunk backward, stretching arms
         sideward. (2 motions.) (56.)
     11. From Attention. Raise arms forward and extend leg forward;
         stretch arms sideward, extending leg backward; move arms and
         leg to first position and recover Attention. (4 motions.)
         (53.)
     12. Breathing Exercise: Raise arms sideward; upward; and lower
         laterally quickly. (4 motions.)

   D. Marching Exercises:

      1. March in quick time and swing extended leg forward, ankle
         high.
      2. Raising knee and hopping on other foot.
      3. From arms forward. Swing arms upward.

   E. Jumping Exercises:

      1. Standing hop, step and jump.
      2. Preliminary running broad jumps.
      3. Broad jump from a walking start of four paces. (197.)

   F. Double timing.

      1. Double timing.
      2. Double timing sideward, crossing leg in front.
      3. Double timing, raising knees.

   G. Gymnastic Contests.
   H. Concluding Exercises:

      1. Bend trunk forward and backward, relaxed.
      2. Breathing exercise, as in 12.

For further work for recruits and work to be given trained soldiers,
see Special Regulation No. 23, "Field Physical Training of the
Soldier."

To prevent grumbling, keep men at work. Idle men are the ones who
growl. The French consider periods spent in the trenches as periods of
rest; instead of letting the men go on pass when relieved, they
restore discipline by close order drill.

The physical benefit is less than half of physical exercises. There
should be mental exertion in every exercise. But the most important
part is the disciplinary benefit. The exercises must teach men to jump
at commands, and by this means must make the organization a
homogeneous mass.

The principal thing in the position of attention is "chest lifted; and
arched." There should be a stretch upward at the waist. The position
should give the impression of a man as proud of himself as he can be.
This is a bluff which works, not only by making a good first
impression on others, but by causing the man himself to live up to it.

Insist on precision. Especially when men are losing interest, don't
let the work sag, but make it interesting by requiring concentration.
At the beginning of each exercise, wake the men up by calling them to
attention until they do it well, giving the facings, etc.

COMMANDS.--There is a tone at which each voice carries best. Each man
must find it for himself. To make commands understood, enunciate
carefully with lips and teeth. Sound especially first and last letters
of words. Officer's posture adds to effect of command. His personality
is impressed on his men largely by his voice. Preparatory command
should be vibrant and cheerful--not a harsh tone that grates on the
men and antagonizes them. The command of execution must be short and
sharp; drill can be made or marred by it.

MARCHING.--A cadence faster than 120 a minute adds snap to marching,
but snap can not be gained in proportion as the cadence is run up.
Snap is attained chiefly by the proper gait. Soldiers should march,
not with knees always slightly bent, but should straighten them
smartly at the end of each step. This adds drive to the step, and
gives the men confidence and a mob spirit of courage. After long drill
at attention, this spirit can be carried into extended order work.

Marching exercises are useful and can be greatly varied. The command
"Exercise" should always be given as the left foot strikes the ground.
"Exercise" is a command of execution, and the first movement should be
executed at once when it is given. The count "One" is given when this
first position is reached. The command to stop all marching exercises
is "Quick time--March."

In all exercises the instructor should cultivate the ability to pick
mistakes. He can develop this until he can watch much larger groups
than at first.


Voice Culture.

Mastery of the voice is a necessity for every officer; for without it
the giving of commands will soon make his throat look and feel like a
piece of raw Hamburg steak. Quality of voice is more effective than
quantity. Brute force may produce a roar that has tremendous volume at
a short distance; but the sound will not carry unless it is so placed
that it gets the benefit of the resonance spaces in the head. If the
tone is produced properly, so that it has the singing quality
necessary in all right commands, quantity of tone will come of itself.

This singing quality has nothing to do with music; it may be attained
by a man who can hardly distinguish a bar of music from a bar of soap.
It depends upon three principles, which are very simple in themselves
but can not be applied without careful practise. The first covers
proper use of the breath. Air must be drawn into the lungs by
expanding the diaphragm and abdomen, a process best seen in the
natural breathing of a man who is lying on his back with all muscles
relaxed. Filling the upper part of the lungs by raising the chest puts
the work on the comparatively small muscles between the ribs; but
filling the base of the lungs by pulling downward brings into play the
diaphragm, the largest muscle in the body. The sensation which
accompanies proper deep control of the breath is as if the tone were
not pushed out of the mouth, but drawn in and upwards. It is partly
described by the phrases of singing teachers, "drawn tone" and
"singing on the breath."

The diaphragm must not only relieve the muscles between the ribs, but,
still more important, the small muscles of the throat. The second
great principle of voice production is that the throat must be
perfectly relaxed. Any tension there interferes with the free
vibration which is essential for strong and resonant tone. This
relaxation is most easily gained by drawing the chin in slightly,
loosening the muscles under it. The base of the tongue can be relaxed
by rolling the letter "R," even to the extent of making two syllables
of such words as "gr-rand." Talking with the teeth closed loosely will
also help to ease incorrect, tension about the throat. If the throat
is properly relaxed, there will be no sensation in it during the
production of the voice. Any sensation between the diaphragm and the
resonance chambers of the head is a sign of wrong and harmful tension.

The use of these resonance chambers is required by the third
principle--that the tone must be reinforced by resonance in all the
hollow spaces of the head. These are found in the nose, above the
palate and even above the eyes. They have the same effect as the
sounding board of a musical instrument, in giving quality to the tone.
The best way to put this principle into practice is to learn the
sensation of the clear and ringing tone which is produced by proper
placing of the voice. Exercises containing the letters "M" and "N"
will give this effect. This does not mean that the sound should be
nasal; it should be made in the nose, but not through it. Another way
to increase resonance is to think of crying the words rather than
talking them. A slightly whining intonation or a sound like that of a
laugh has more ring to it than an ordinary flat talking tone.

These principles should not be neglected because they are simple. They
can not be mastered without work, and unless they are mastered the
voice will not be heard at a distance and will not last under the work
of giving commands. Further suggestions on the manner of giving
commands will be found under Physical Training.




CHAPTER 4.

Use of Modern Arms.

[Illustration: Plate #3]


Small Arms Firing.

Under this heading we have many phases of the training and exercises
given to our armed forces. It has been found best to use simple every
day methods to get the best results.

There are two principal factors--the rifle and the pistol. The former
only will be taken up now. The scheme is to make the soldier a good
shot singly and collectively, in time of peace and in time of war.

The course of instruction at this camp was arranged as follows:

      (a) Nomenclature and care of the rifle.
      (b) Sighting drills.
      (c) Position and aiming drills.
      (d) Deflection and aiming drills.
      (e) Range practice.
      (f) Estimating distance drill.
      (g) Combat firing.

(a) Every man should be taught the names of the principal parts (see
cut) of the rifle and how to clean and keep it clean.

(b) If time permits, the sighting bar described on page 26, s.a.f.m.
should be used. To illustrate the normal and peep sight make a drawing
on a blackboard of page 30, s.a.f.m.

Using a sand bag or some convenient rest for the rifle. The instructor
sights it on some object showing the normal and peep sight. Using the
above rests have a marker hold a disk against a large piece of paper
towards which the rifle is pointed. There is a pin hole in the center
of the bull's eye on the disk. The range should be about 50 feet, and
the bull's eye about 1 inch in diameter. The marker moves it about
until the man sighting tells him to "hold," at which time he marks the
center with the point of a pencil. This is done three times, the three
points are then connected. The triangle thus formed is then used by
the instructor to show the man whether he took too much or too little
front sight or whether he leaned to one side or the other while
aiming.

Use for this exercise both the normal and peep sight.

To show the effect of canting the piece use a sight setting of 1,000
yards, take out the bolt, aim the rifle while lying on a sand bag at a
1-inch bull's eye 50 feet away. Then look through the bore of the
rifle and have the place where the target would be approximately hit
by a bullet marked. Cant the piece to the right and aim at the same
bull's eye. Then look through the bore of the rifle and mark the place
where the bullet would approximately strike the target. The last mark
would be lower and to the right of the first mark. It should be
readily seen that in canting the piece to the right your sight is to
the right of its original position--that is right windage. Also by
canting it to the right your elevation is lowered, that is, lessened.
Canting the piece to the left would make the bullet strike low and to
the left.

(c) Preliminary command "Position and aiming drill," command of
execution "Squad (platoon, or company) Ready." At the command "Ready"
each man faces half right and carries the right foot about 1 foot to
the right, in such a position that will insure the greatest firmness
and steadiness, raises the piece and drops it into the left hand at
the balance, left thumb along the stock, muzzle at the height of the
breast. If kneeling or sitting the position of the piece is
similar--if kneeling the left forearm rests on the left thigh--if
sitting the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down the left
hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the
butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground. From the
position of ready the four exercises--position, aiming, trigger
squeeze, and rapid fire--are given. These exercises given on pages
38-42, s.a.f.m. should be carefully studied. Do not leave it to the
sergeant, etc., to do--give your company your own instruction when
practicable, and in time of battle they will know you and you will
know them, and there will grow up between you that mutual
understanding which is necessary for the real success of any
undertaking. Do not forget to give these exercises in all positions of
firing, namely, standing, sitting, kneeling, and prone.

(d) A change of one point of windage at the 100 yard range will change
the point struck by the bullet of the next shot 4 inches. If right
windage is taken the bullet will strike to the right, if left windage
is taken it will strike to the left:

                                       number of
   Range.   windage.   direction.     inches change.
    100     1 point   right or left        4
    200     1 point   right or left        8
    300     1 point   right or left       12
    500     1 point   right or left       20
    600     1 point   right or left       24

Remember to take windage in the direction you want the bullet to
strike.

A change of 25 yards in your sight setting raises or lowers the point
struck by the bullet of the next shot at the 100 yards range 1 inch:

                                 Number inches
   Range.    Change in sight.   change on target.
    100        25 yards               1
    200        25 yards               2
    300        25 yards               3
    500        25 yards               5
    600        25 yards               6
    300        75 yards               9
    500       150 yards              30

(e) Range practice.

Target details must be thoroughly familiar with paragraphs 106-110,
s.a.f.m. Scorers must be familiar with the method of recording
scores. The following schedule is the one that was followed at this
camp:

SLOW FIRE.

=====+==========+=====+======+==========+====================+==========
Range|   Time   |Shots|Target| Position | Sights             |Ammunition
-----|----------|-----|------|----------|--------------------|----------
 100 | No limit | 15  |  A   | Prone    | Leaf               | Guard
 100 | No limit | 15  |  A   | Kneeling | Leaf               | Guard
 100 | No limit | 15  |  A   | Standing | Leaf               | Guard
 200 | No limit | 15  |  A   | Prone    | 10 leaf, 5 battles | Service
 200 | No limit | 15  |  A   | Kneeling | 10 leaf, 5 battles | Service
 300 | No limit | 15  |  A   | Prone    | 10 leaf, 5 battles | Service
 300 | No limit | 15  |  A   | Sitting  | 10 leaf, 5 battles | Service
=====+==========+=====+======+==========+====================+==========


RAPID FIRE.

=====+=========+=====+=======+========================+======+==========
Range|  Time   |Shots|Target |Position                |Sights|Ammunition
-----|---------|-----|-------|------------------------|------|----------
 100 | 1 min   | 10  |  D    | Prone                  | Leaf | Service
 100 | 1 min.  | 10  |  H    | Prone                  | Leaf | Service
 200 | 1 min.  | 10  |  D    | Kneeling from standing | Leaf | Service
 200 | 1 min.  | 10  |  H    | Prone from standing    | Leaf | Service
 300 | 1'-10"  | 10  |  D    | Prone from standing    | Leaf | Service
 300 | 1'-10"  | 10  |  H    | Prone from standing    | Leaf | Service
=====+=========+=====+=======+========================+======+==========

At each range with the rapid fire 5 additional shots should be fired
with the battle sight and with half the allotted time.

(f) A course should be laid off in an open field. The base should be
marked. At least 5 natural objects whose distances are to be estimated
should be placed so that they are clearly visible from the base. The
objects should be men standing, kneeling or prone, and should be
placed from 550 to 1,200 yards from the base. Each company should be
conducted to the base and extended along it, backs towards the
objects, in single rank. Each man should have a pencil and paper. The
objects whose distances are to be estimated are pointed out by the
company commander and the men told to estimate and record their
estimates. At the conclusion of the exercise, the company commander
should read off the correct distances, and have each man figure his
per cent of error. It is important that the men know the correct
distances while the objects are still in view.

For record, paragraph 85, s.a.f.m. should be followed.

Remember that there are four principal ways to estimate distances by:
1, it cannot be more than a certain distance, and it cannot be less
than a certain distance--take the mean; 2, divide the distance into a
certain number of familiar lengths; select a halfway point, estimate
this and multiply by 2; 3, estimate the distance along a parallel
line, as a road having well defined objects; 4, take the mean of
several estimates.

(g) In combat the platoon is the fire unit. The fire of the company,
battalion or regiment is nothing more than the combined fire of all
the fire units. The enemy can be imaginary, outlined or represented.
The exercise must be conducted under an assumed tactical situation.
The commander must lead his men according to the assumptions made by
the umpire. Signals are used to indicate the enemy's actions,
strength, etc. The situation should be simple, and after the exercise
a critique should be held on the ground. Combat practice with ball
ammunition against disappearing targets, and at estimated ranges, gets
excellent results. The officer conducting the exercise will prohibit
the advance if it would be impossible were the enemy real.

Have every man play the game.

A point to be remembered is that for battle sight the sight slide must
be as far to the rear as it will go. If it is part way up the leaf,
the drift correction cut in the slot upon which it moves will throw it
to the left, and left windage will be taken.

Point blank range is 530 yards. Battle sight is set for this distance
because this is the extreme range at which a bullet would strike a man
kneeling between the rifle and the target.

[Illustration: Plate #4.]

Pistol.

NOMENCLATURE AND CARE.--The soldier is first taught the nomenclature
of the parts of the pistol. Ordinance Pamphlet No. 1866 gives this
information, (See cut of pistol.)


MANUAL FOR THE PISTOL.

1. The pistol being in the holster: 1. Raise, 2. Pistol.

At the command Raise, unbutton the flap of the holster with the right
hand and grasp the stock, back of hand outward.

At the command Pistol, draw the pistol from the holster, reverse it,
muzzle up, the hand holding the stock with the thumb and last three
fingers; forefinger outside of the guard; barrel to the rear, and
inclined to the front at an angle of about thirty degrees; hand as
high as the neck and six inches in front of the point of the right
shoulder. This is the position of Raise Pistol, and it may be
similarly taken from any position.

2. To withdraw magazine, pistol in any position: 1. Withdraw. 2.
Magazine.

At the command Magazine, place pistol, barrel down, in left hand and
clasp barrel in full grip of left hand, thumb clasped over barrel in
front of trigger guard, butt of pistol up, barrel pointing to the left
front and slightly downward. With tip of right forefinger press stud
releasing magazine and then place tip of same finger under projection
at front of magazine base. Raise magazine about an inch then close
thumb and second finger on sides of magazine, giving a secure grasp
with which it can be withdrawn from socket, placed inside belt (in
pocket of shirt or otherwise disposed of without throwing it away).
Right hand then grasps stock, back of hand to the left.

3. To open chamber, the pistol in any position: 1. Open. 2. Chamber.

Carry the pistol to the left hand (if not already there) barrel to the
left, front end of slide grasped between the thumb and forefinger of
left hand; right hand grasping stock, back of hand up; right thumb
under slide stop. Hold left hand steady and push forward with right
hand till slide reaches end of stroke; engage slide stop, and come to
Raise Pistol. Should the pistol be cocked and locked, it will be
unlocked so that the slide can move.

4. To close chamber, being at Raise Pistol, chamber open: 1. Close. 2.
Chamber.

At the command Chamber, release slide top with right thumb and let
hammer down gently. To let hammer down, pull downward with point of
right thumb till hammer presses against grip safety and forces it
home; then while continuing this pressure on hammer, pull trigger; and
while continuing pull on trigger, let the hammer down. While letting
hammer down, grasp stock firmly between the palm and last three
fingers to prevent pistol rotating in hand.

5. To insert magazine, pistol being in any position, no magazine in
socket: 1. Insert. 2. Magazine.

Lower pistol into left hand as in Withdrawn Magazine, grasp magazine
with tip of right forefinger on projection at base of magazine,
withdraw from pocket and insert in pistol. To make sure that magazine
is home, strike base of magazine with palm of right hand. Bring the
pistol to the position of Raise Pistol.

6. To return pistol, being at Raise Pistol: 1. Return. 2. Pistol.

Lower the pistol and raise the flap of the holster with the right
thumb; insert the pistol in the holster and push it down; button the
flap with the right hand. If the pistol be loaded and cocked the
command. 1. Lock, 2. Pistol must precede the command "Return."

7. To load, having loaded magazine in pistol, pistol in any position,
chamber empty: 1. Load. 2. Pistol.

Place pistol in left hand, barrel down, butt of pistol up, barrel
pointing to left front and downward, slide grasped between thumb and
forefinger. Push forward with right hand until the slide is fully
open, then release slide allowing it to move forward and load
cartridge into chamber. Come to Raise Pistol. If the last shot in the
magazine has been fired, to reload; same command, but execute
Withdrawn Magazine, Insert Magazine, Close Chamber. As soon as the
pistol is loaded, it will be immediately locked by the commands. 1.
Lock. 2. Pistol. Should the command for locking pistol be
inadvertently omitted it will be locked without command.

8. To unload pistol, being in any position, loaded:

Execute by the commands, Withdraw Magazine, Open Chamber, Close
Chamber, Insert Magazine.

9. To inspect pistol, it being in the holster: 1. Inspection. 2.
Pistol.

Execute, Raise Pistol.

To inspect the pistol more minutely, add 3. Withdraw. 4. Magazine. 5.
Open. 6. Chamber.

To avoid accidents, individual men out of ranks, in barracks or camp
will first Withdraw Magazine then Open Chamber whenever the pistol is
removed from the holster for cleaning, for examination, or for any
other purpose. Accidental discharges will not occur if the above rule
is always observed, and failure to observe it must be considered a
military offense, whether or not accident results.

10. Whenever men fall in ranks with the automatic pistol the officer
or non-commissioned officer in charge will command:

   1. Raise, 2. Pistol;
   1. Withdraw, 2. Magazine;
   1. Open, 2. Chamber;
   1. Close, 2. Chamber.

   1. Insert, 2. Magazine.
   1. Return, 2. Pistol.

When falling in the above commands are given after chamber of rifles
have been opened and closed, and the order resumed--the rifle being
held against the left wrist. The commander of any company or
detachment thereof is responsible for giving the necessary commands to
put the pistols in a safe condition.

11. The pistol with cartridge in chamber is habitually carried cocked
and locked, whether in the hand or in the holster. The hammer will not
be lowered while a cartridge is in the chamber.

12. In campaign, the pistol should habitually be carried with a
magazine in the socket, loaded with seven ball cartridges, chamber
empty, hammer down. The extra magazines should also be loaded with
seven ball cartridges each.

When action seems imminent, the pistol should be loaded by command. It
may then be returned by command to the holster till the time for its
use arrives.

13. Recruits are first taught the motions of loading and firing
without using cartridges. However, the automatic action and the effect
of ball cartridges in operating the slide cannot be taught without
firing ball cartridges. Practice without cartridges is very necessary
to acquire facility in the exact movements of the manual and in
aiming, holding and trigger squeeze.

To execute the movements without cartridges, first Withdraw Magazine,
Open Chamber, and Examine both Pistols and magazines to assure that
none contain ball cartridges.

14. All the movements in loading pistol should be practiced without
looking at it. In order to do this successfully it is necessary to
know exactly where the magazines are carried so the hand may find them
without fumbling. Also, since the projection at the front of the
magazine base is on the same side as the bullets, and the magazine
must be inserted in the socket with these to the front, the magazine
should be carried in the pocket with the projection to the left and
should be withdrawn from the pocket with the same grasp as is
prescribed for Withdrawn Magazine.

15. This manual must be practiced with all the precision and exactness
required for the manual for the rifle. Accidents will be reduced to a
minimum and familiarity with the pistol gained.


POSITION

Stand firmly on both feet, body perfectly balanced and erect and
turned at such an angle as is most comfortable when the arm is
extended toward the target; the feet far enough apart (about 8 to 10
inches) as to insure steadiness; weight of body borne equally upon
both feet; right arm fully extended but not locked; left arm hanging
naturally.

THE GRIP.--Grasp the stock as high as possible with the thumb and last
three fingers, the forefinger alongside the trigger guard, the thumb
extended along the stock. The barrel hand and fore-arm should be as
nearly in one line as possible when the weapon is pointed toward the
target. The grasp should not be so tight as to cause tremors but
should be firm enough to avoid losing grip. The lower the stock is
grasped the greater will be the movement or jump of the muzzle caused
by recoil. If the hand be placed so that the grasp is on one side of
the stock, the recoil will cause a rotary movement of the weapon
toward the opposite side.

The releasing of the sear causes a slight movement of the muzzle,
generally to the left. The position and pressure of the thumb along
the stock overcomes much of this movement.

To do uniform shooting the weapon must be held with exactly the same
grip for each shot, not only must the hand grasp the stock at the same
point for each shot, but the tension of the grip must be uniform.

THE TRIGGER SQUEEZE.--The trigger must be squeezed in the same manner
as in rifle firing. The pressure of the forefinger on the trigger
should be steadily increased and should be straight back, not
sideways. The pressure should continue to that point beyond which the
slightest movement will release the sear. Then when the aim is true,
the additional pressure is applied and the pistol fired. When the
pistol is fired the greatest effort should be taken to hold the pistol
to the mark as nearly as possible. This will be of great benefit in
automatic firing.

POSITION AND AIMING DRILLS.--The Squad is formed with an interval of
one pace between files. Black pasters are used as aiming points. The
pasters are ten paces distant from the squad. The instructor command,
1. Raise, 2. Pistol and cautions "Position and Aiming Drill." The men
take the position prescribed in paragraph 3. At the command, 1. Squad,
2. Fire, slowly extend the arm till it is nearly horizontal, the
pistol directed at a point; about six inches below the bull's-eye. At
the same time put the forefinger inside the trigger guard and
gradually feel the trigger. Inhale enough air to comfortably fill the
lungs and gradually raise the piece until the line of sight is
directed at the point of aim, _i.e._, just below the bull's-eye at six
o'clock. While the sights are directed upon the mark, gradually
increase the pressure on the trigger until it reaches that point where
the slightest additional pressure will release the sear. Then, when
the aim is true, the additional pressure necessary to fire the piece
is given so smoothly as not to derange the alignment of the sights.
The weapon will be held on the mark for an instant after the hammer
falls and the soldier will observe what effect, if any, the squeezing
of the trigger has had on his aim.

When the soldier has become proficient in taking the proper position
the exercise is conducted "At Will."

QUICK FIRE.--Being at the Raise Pistol, chamber and magazine empty, 1.
Quick Fire Exercise, 2. One. Lower the forearm until it is nearly
horizontal, pistol pointing at the target, 3. Two. Thrust the pistol
forward to the position of aim, snapping the pistol just before the
arm reaches its full extension. Then look through sights to verify the
pointing. 4. Three. Return to Raise Pistol and cock the pistol.

In this exercise the soldier must keep his eyes fixed upon the mark.
He should constantly practice pointing the pistol until he acquires
the ability to direct it on the mark in the briefest interval of time
and practically without the aid of the sights. In other words, the
pistol in this exercise is accurately pointed instead of accurately
aimed. In night firing pointing the pistol is the only method that can
be used. After careful practice in this exercise it is surprising what
good results can be obtained at night.

This exercise should then be practiced from the position of the pistol
in the holster instead of Raise Pistol.

CLASSES OF FIRE: 1. SLOW FIRE.--As described above. Target L or A or
improvised target.

2. QUICK FIRE.--Being at Raise Pistol, pistols locked, at the command
"Commence Firing" fire and return to Raise Pistol after each shot
following the principles of Quick Fire Exercise. Target E, five yards
apart, one for each man firing. This firing should be done by the
numbers as described in Quick Fire Exercise.

3. AUTOMATIC FIRE (TARGET E).--Being at Raise Pistol, pistols locked.
At the command "Commence Firing" empty the magazine in seven seconds,
keeping the arm extended. Target E, 5 yards apart, one for each man
firing.

4. TRENCH FIRE (TARGET E).--Two lines of targets. The first line is
composed of F targets, 5 yards apart, one figure for each man firing.
The second line is composed of two E figures, one yard apart, for each
man firing, placed in a trench immediately in rear of the figures of
the first line. This gives for each firer a group of three figures,
one placed on top at the near edge of the trench and the other two in
the trench immediately in rear. In case a trench is not available the
rifle pit can be used. A gutter, sunken road, embankment, or hedge can
be used for this purpose so long as trench fire is simulated.

[Illustration: Plate #5. TRENCH TARGET COURSE FOR THE AUTOMATIC
PISTOL.]

The firing line advances at a walk from 100 yards takes up a double
time 50 yards from trench, fires one shot at the double time when
within ten yards of the first target continues to the trench and fires
the remaining six shots, automatic fire, at the two targets in the
trench in rear of the first line target.

SCORE (TARGET E, BOBBING).--A score will be seven shots. Targets will
be marked after the men in the firing line have completed their
scores. All loading and firing should be done by command.

COURSE: 1. SLOW FIRE.--10 yards. Minimum of one maximum of five
scores.
2. QUICK FIRE.--10 yards. Minimum of one maximum of three scores.
3. AUTOMATIC FIRE.--10 yards. Minimum of one maximum of three scores.
4. TRENCH FIRE.--Minimum of one maximum of three scores.


Bayonet Training.

A. THE FUNCTIONS OF BAYONET TRAINING ARE:

   1. To teach the correct use of the bayonet until it becomes
      instinctive.
   2. To develop the fighting spirit.
   3. To develop speed, accuracy, and cooerdination.

B. GENERAL PRINCIPLES:

   1. Fencing, in modern combat, is out of the question. Almost every
      fight will consist of but one or two motions. Hence the class
      must be taught that the best defence is the quickest offensive.
   2. Every available means of offence, with hands and feet as well as
      with rifle and bayonet, is a part of bayonet training.
   3. Teamwork is essential. Men must be taught, especially in the
      combat, to exercise, to seize every opportunity to act together.
   4. Personal control during combat, especially at night, will be
      nearly impossible. Control should be practiced, therefore, in
      the form of clear instructions delivered to the men before
      assault, and fulfilled individually.
   5. In every assault and combat exercise, the men must be taught
      never to leave an enemy alive, or who may be alive, behind them.

C. TECHNIQUE OF BAYONET COMBAT:

   1. The _point_ is the main reliance. Its use should be practiced
      in every possible situation, until a correct choice or
      combination of long point, short point, and jab, and the
      execution thereof, becomes a matter of instinct.
   2. The point must always be directed at a definite target. The most
      vulnerable points of the body are: Lower abdomen, base of the
      neck, small of the back (on either side of the spine), chest,
      and thighs. Bony parts of the trunk must be avoided by accurate
      aim.
   3. The use of the rifle as a club, swinging or striking, is
      valuable only:
      a. When the point is not available.
      b. In sudden encounters at close quarters, when a sharp butt
         swing to the crotch may catch an opponent unguarded.
      c. After parrying a swinging butt blow, when a butt strike to
         the jaw is often the quickest possible riposte.
      The use of butt swings overhead or sidewise to the head or
      neck, is to be avoided; they are slow, inaccurate, easily
      parried or side-stepped, and leave the whole body unguarded.
      After every butt blow a thrust must immediately follow, since
      no butt blow, of itself, is apt to be fatal.
   4. The parries must be regarded and practiced chiefly as means of
      opening the opponent's guard; hence, a thrust must immediately
      follow each parry.
   5. The foot movements shown in the old manual are useful only to
      promote quickness and steadiness. They should, therefore, be
      practiced in combination with the points and butt blows, and so
      combined can be executed in the oblique directions as well as at
      right angles. The left foot moves in the direction of the
      thrust.

D. MANUAL OF THE BAYONET: There are only 7 exercises to learn in the
      new bayonet drill:

   1. _Guard_.--Point of the bayonet directed at the opponent's
      throat, the rifle held easily and naturally with both hands,
      barrel inclined slightly to the left, right hand at the height
      of the navel and grasping the small of the stock, left hand
      holding the rifle at a convenient position above the lower
      band, so that the left arm is slightly bent, making an angle of
      about 150 degrees. The legs should be well separated and in an
      easy position. Lean forward, on your toes, left knee slightly
      bent, right foot flat on the ground and turned to the right
      front. Remember in this position to have your eye on your
      opponent, do not restrain your muscles, keep them taut, but
      flexible.
   2. "_High Port_."--The hands hold the rifle as in guard; the left
      wrist level with, and directly in front of the left shoulder;
      the right hand above the right groin and on level with the
      navel.
      Remember that the barrel in this position is to the rear. This
      position is assumed on the advance without command.
   3. "_Long Point_."--Being in the position of "guard," grasp the
      rifle firmly, vigorously deliver the point to the full extent
      of the left arm, butt along side and close to the right
      forearm; body inclined forward; left knee well bent, right leg
      braced, and weight of the body pressed well forward with the
      fore part of the right foot, heel raised. The right hand gives
      the power to the point, while the left guides it. If a point is
      made in the oblique direction the left foot should move in that
      direction. This exercise is done in 3 counts. At 1 the point is
      made; at 2, the withdrawal; at 3, resume the guard. The
      withdrawal must be straight back, and not with the downward
      motion, until the right hand is well behind the hip.
   4. _Right (Left) Parry_.--1. Straighten the left arm, without
      bending the wrist or twisting the rifle in the hand, and force
      the rifle forward far enough to the right (left) to ward off
      the opponent's weapon, 2. Resume "guard."
      Remember to keep your eyes on the weapon to be parried.
   5. _Short Point_.--1. Shift the left hand quickly toward the
      muzzle and draw the rifle back to the full extent of the right
      arm, butt either high or low as a low or high point is to be
      made. 2. Deliver the point vigorously to the full extent of the
      left arm. 3. Withdrawal. 4. Resume the "guard."
   6. _Jab Point_.--1. Shift the left hand quickly toward the muzzle,
      draw the rifle back, and shift the right hand up the rifle and
      grasp it above the rear sight, at the same time bringing the
      rifle to an almost vertical position close to the body. Bend the
      knees. 2. Straighten the knees, jab the point of the bayonet
      upward into the throat or under the chin of the
      opponent--chiefly by a body movement. 3. Withdrawal. 4. Carry
      the rifle forward with the left hand, grasping the small of the
      stock with the right. 5. Resume guard. Remember in the first
      motion to have the hands at least 4 inches apart.
   7. _Butt swing--butt strike_--out.--1. Swing the butt up at the
      opponent's ribs, forearms, etc., using a full arm blow, bringing
      the rifle to a horizontal position over the left shoulder, butt
      to the front. 2. Advance the rear foot, and dash the butt into
      the opponent's face. 3. Advance the rear foot and at the same
      time slash the bayonet down on the opponent's head or neck. 4.
      Resume the "guard."
      (The easiest guard to a swing at the crotch is simply to get
      the left knee in the opponent's right.)

E. PROGRESSIVE EXERCISES:

   1. The class works in pairs with scabbards on bayonets. One man
      alternately in each pair signals; the other promptly executes
      the movement, at the target, designated by the signal. The
      following signals are suggested:
        The hand, placed against the body, indicates the target.
        Long point--Back of hand outward.
        Short point--Palm of hand outward.
        Jab point--Hand horizontal against chin, palm down.
        High port--Fist against left breast.
        Parry right (left)--Hand waved to right (left).
        Butt swing--Fist against crotch.
        Butt strike--Fist against jaw.
      Instead of signals, thrusting sticks are then used. These are
      strong wands having a padding of paper and burlap over one end
      and a rope ring tied to the other. Points and butt swings are
      executed at the padding and rings, respectively, as these are
      presented. The man holding the stick must remember to stand to
      one side of the man with the bayonet.
   2. AS IN FIRST EXERCISE.--One man thrusts with a stick: the other
      parries.
   3. THRUSTS ARE PRACTICED AT DUMMIES, first from a distance of five
      feet, then by advancing two paces or more. To simulate fighting
      conditions, a frame is then arranged in which dummies are slung
      on ropes passed over pullies, and so manipulated that as the man
      withdraws his bayonet from one dummy another swings at, him from
      a different direction.
   4. As SOON AS PROFICIENCY HAS BEEN GAINED in the above exercises,
      the assault practice is taken up.
      a. _A course is laid out as follows:_
         (1) A fire trench about 60 yards long, well _revetted_.
         (2) 20 yards in front of the trench, smooth wire
             entanglements.
         (3) 15 yards further, another trench, parallel to the first,
             60 yards long, 4 feet deep and 4 feet wide. In this
             trench prone dummies are placed, one per yard.
         (4) 15 yards further, 60 dummies, hung on frames, parallel to
             the trenches.
         (5) 15 yards further, a hurdle 4 feet high and 60 yards
             long, parallel to the trenches.
         (6) 10 yards further, a low trip wire, stretched parallel to
             the trenches.
         (7) 10 yards further, 60 dummies, hung on frames, parallel to
             the trenches.
         (8) 15 yards further, a large trench, 60 yards long, 6 feet
             deep, 10 feet wide, containing 60 prone dummies, 1 per
             yard.
      b. _Procedure:_
         Each platoon, in turn, enters the first trench at skirmish
             intervals, bayonets fixed. On signal, all move out at a
             walk, guiding carefully in line on a leader previously
             designated. After passing each obstacle, the line is again
             carefully formed. On each of the swinging dummies one of
             the seven movements of the manual is used; a long or short
             point is used on each prone dummy. All go down into the
             last trench together, with a good loud yell, point of the
             bayonet level with the toe, and land on the dummies in the
             bottom, stabbing as they land. This course should be
             repeated several times at quick time, then at double time,
             and finally at a run. Remember that in the advance the
             rifle is carried at high port.
   5. COMBAT EXERCISES (to be used in conjunction with the assault
      practice):
      a. _Equipment for each man:_
         Thrusting stick or other wooden rod with wooden ball or
             thick padding covering one end. (Old rifles with
             spring-bayonets are even better.)
         Plastron.
         Baseball mask.
         Pair of broadsword or single stick gloves.
      b. _Procedure_:
         The class is formed in two lines of about equal numbers,
             facing each other, about fifty paces apart, with intervals
             in each line of about two paces. A leader is designated
             for each line. The instructor stands at one end of the
             space between; an assistant at the other end. On the
             instructor's whistle, the lines advance, guiding carefully
             on their leaders. When about ten paces apart, they charge,
             each seeking to break and roll up the opposing line.
             Sticks are carried and used as rifles with bayonets fixed.
             Any other use disqualifies. Use of the butt is barred. One
             thrust on the plastron or mask, or two hits on the
             extremities, disables the recipient, who must promptly
             retire--or be retired. The combat continues until the
             second whistle, blown not more than 30 seconds after
             contact; when they cease fighting promptly, separate, and
             form as before.
      c. _Criticism:_
         After each combat, the instructor will criticize the manner
             of advance and of fighting, especially the alignment kept
             in the advance and the team work in combat, and the
             advantage taken of opponents' mistakes. He counts the
             casualties and awards the decision. He must continually
             urge the men never to lag behind nor advance ahead of the
             line, never to allow large gaps to occur in the line, and
             always to seize the advantage given by opponents who
             disregard these principles.
      d. _The terrain for this exercise_ should be frequently varied.
             It may also be conducted at night, the opposing sides
             being clearly distinguished.[Q]

[Footnote Q: The last exercise was devised and perfected by M. Jules
Leslabay, Master of Fencing, Harvard R.O.T.C., 1917. It is more
completely described in his "Manual of Bayonet Training."]


Machine Guns.

1. Properties of the machine guns are divided into three general
classes: Mode of action, fire, and inconspicuousness.

   (a) THE MODE OF ACTION.--The machine gun acting only by its fire
      can prepare an attack or repulse an offensive movement, but it
      does not conquer ground. The latter role is almost exclusively
      that of infantry which is fitted for crossing all obstacles.
      When it will suffice to act by fire, employ the machine gun in
      preference to infantry, preserving the latter for the combined
      action of movement and fire. By the employment of the machine
      gun economize infantry, reserving a more considerable portion
      of it for manoeuvre purposes.
   (b) FIRE.--Machine gun fire produces a sheath, dense, deep but
      narrow. The increase of the width of the sweeping fire gives to
      the sheath a greater breadth, but when the density becomes
      insufficient, the effect produced is very weak. Machine gun
      fire will have its maximum power upon an objective of narrow
      front and great depth. With the infantry fighting normally in
      thin lines the preceding conditions will generally only be
      realized when these lines are taken in the flank. "The fire of
      the machine gun parallel to the probable front of the enemy--a
      flanking fire--must therefore be the rule." The fire
      perpendicular to the front will be employed generally on
      certain necessary points of passage as, bridges, roads,
      defiles, cuts, roadways, communicating trenches, etc., where
      the enemy is generally forced to take a deep formation with a
      narrow front, or where he is in massed formation.
   (c) INCONSPICUOUSNESS.--By reason of its small strength the machine
      gun section can utilize the smallest cover, and can consequently
      hide from the enemy; the machine gun therefore, more than the
      infantry, has the chance to act by surprise. The opening of the
      fire by surprise will be the rule; the machine gun will avoid
      revealing itself upon objectives not worth the trouble. Flank
      action and surprise are the two conditions to try for under all
      circumstances.

2. OFFENSIVE REINFORCEMENT OF A FRONT MOMENTARILY STATIONARY.--The
machine guns assisted by small elements of infantry cover thoroughly
the getting in hand of the main body, the machine guns presenting to
the enemy a line of little vulnerability. The machine guns assist in
securing the possession of the ground previously taken, and will
permit time to prepare for the resumption of the forward movement.
Preparation of the attack--machine gun fire completes the preparation
done by the artillery, either by acting on the personnel or by opening
breaches in the accessary defenses. At times the machine guns alone
may be charged with the preparation of the attack where it is
necessary to act very quickly as in pursuit, exploitation of a
success. Whatever the situation, concentrate the machine gun fire on
one or several points. Machine guns cover the flanks of attacking
troops. They follow the advance of these troops remaining on the
flanks, so as to be able to fire instantly on all points from which an
attack might come. Machine guns will likewise be employed in intervals
created intentionally or accidentally between units. It is here a
powerful weapon which can rapidly be put into action by the Commander.
The personnel and material must be protected as far as possible from
the effects of fire.

3. DEFENSIVE.--It is here that the flanking fire is especially
necessary. In the defensive preparation of a position the machine guns
must be so placed that they will provide along the front several
successive fire barriers. The machine guns must be ready at all times
to stop by instantaneous fire all hostile attack. In order to have
machine gun protection at all, it is absolutely necessary that they be
protected from bombardment. This is best done by the following: Place
the machine guns under solid cover; make their emplacement invisible;
echelon the machine guns in depth. The cover must be placed where it
can be hidden from the sight of the enemy, such as a counter slope, a
position where it is impossible to blend it, relief with an
accentuated slope of the ground, woods, brush, etc. It is essential
that the principal parts of the machine gun casemate be prepared in
the rear. Only in this manner will the work be done solidly and
rapidly. While the machine gunners and helpers do the excavating,
specialists in rear prepare the parts for assembling. The latter are
then transported to the position and, the casemate is established,
hiding the work with the greatest care from enemy observation.
Remember that it is of the utmost importance that the machine gun be
invisible, so the firing emplacements must be made outside of the
shelter, but near enough for the gun to be brought out instantly and
put into action. All communicating trenches leading to the firing
emplacement must be concealed. Enough emplacements should be built to
avoid firing daily from the emplacements especially reserved for cases
of attack. Do not place too many machine guns in the first line; in
case of a violent bombardment they are sure to be destroyed. The
object to be attained is to install the machine guns in conditions
such that if the enemy penetrates our first line, by aid of his
bombardment or asphyxiating gas, his infantry, as it advances, comes
under the fire of machine guns echeloned previously in depth, under
whose fire it must stop. It is not a matter of sweeping a wide sector,
but of giving over certain strips of ground flanking fire which will
cut down surely the enemy's waves when they push forward. The
commander should, therefore, divide between the first line and the
terrain in rear, the machine guns which he controls, organizing for
each particular case a firing emplacement in accord with the
surrounding ground and the purpose in view.


GENERAL RULES FOR INSTALLATION.

Machine gunners must under no circumstances abandon their positions.
They must, when necessary, allow themselves to be surrounded and
defend themselves in their place to the end. In many cases the
heroism and tenacity of a few machine gunners have permitted the rapid
retaking of a lost position. To provide for this resistance to a
finish, the machine gun emplacements must fulfil the following
conditions:

   1. Be surrounded by a wire entanglement of irregular trace and as
invisible as possible.
   2. In the enclosure thus created having several firing emplacements,
in case one or more becomes useless.
   3. The personnel must have all the means for protection against gas
and have in addition rations, water and abundant ammunition.


EMPLOYMENT OF FIRE AND INSTRUCTION.

The more grazing the fire of a machine gun the more effective it is.
This causes the principal employment of the machine gun to be at
distances where the trajectory is flattest, that is under 800 or 1,000
yards. However, the effort to obtain a grazing fire must not exclude
long distance fire. This latter will always be justified when directed
upon important objectives, or necessary points of passage. For this
fire to have some efficacy, it is necessary to calculate the range
with the greatest precision. On the defensive indirect fire will be
employed sometimes to annoy the supply, reliefs, etc. To give results,
great quantities of ammunition will have to be expended. All of the
officers and non-commissioned officers and as many men as possible
must be capable of firing the machine gun, so that at the time of an
attack no gun will remain idle for want of personnel. It is, moreover,
essential to keep up the training of the personnel by having them fire
at least twice a month, and, if possible, once a week.


RESUME.

Machine guns must be utilized in the greatest measure in order to
_economize the infantry._

Seek to employ them always in a, _flank fire_.

Conceal them so as to get _surprise fire_.

_Echelon_ them and _shelter_ them so as to avoid their premature
destruction.


POINTS BEFORE FIRING.

   1. Thoroughly overhaul the gun to see that no part is deficient,
and that the mechanism works freely.
   2. See that the barrel is clean and dry.
   3. See that the barrel mouthpiece is tight.
   4. See that small hole in gas regulator is to the rear.
   5. Thoroughly oil all working parts, especially the cam slot and
exterior of the bolt, and the striker post and piston.
   6. Weigh and adjust the mainspring.
   7. See that the mounting is firm.
   8. Examine the magazines and ammunition.
   9. See that the spare parts and oil reserve are handy.

POINTS DURING FIRING

   1. During a temporary cessation of fire, re-oil all working parts.
   2. Replace a partly emptied magazine with a full one.
   3. Examine the mounting to see that it is firm.
   4. See that empty magazines are refilled without delay.

POINTS AFTER FIRING.

   1. Unload.
   2. Oil the bore and chamber, piston rod and gas cylinder.
   3. Sort out live rounds from empty cases.
   4. See that mainspring is eased.
   5. Thoroughly clean and oil the gun on returning to quarters. Clean
the bore daily for several days.

It is of the greatest importance that the points before, during, and
after firing, should be carefully attended to as otherwise the number
of stoppages will be unnecessarily increased.

Nine out of ten stoppages are due to want of care.

Immediate action must become instinctive and automatic.


Grenade Instruction.

INTRODUCTION.--War, as it is being fought on the western front, has
brought to light many new weapons; but no other weapon that this
struggle has brought forth exceeds the grenade in importance. It is
not a new weapon, but its present importance is entirely new. Its
extensive use has grown out of conditions on the western front;
conditions which have never been seen previous to this war. The fact
that armies have taken to "digging themselves in" has necessitated the
use of some other weapon than the rifle. The rifle with its flat
trajectory is of little use against an enemy who is completely hidden
from view and who can go on existing under ground. Hence the reversion
to the ancient grenade--but with all its modern improvements. The
grenade has shown itself to be the weapon that can solve the problem
of seeking out an enemy who is under ground; its trajectory is high
and its fire is plunging, so that it can be thrown from a place of
concealment and protection and into a place equally well concealed
from ordinary view.

The importance of the grenade may be judged from its extensive use by
both the Allies and the Germans; and also by the formations now
adopted by both British and French armies for the purpose of
exploiting its use. In a British Battalion the normal percentage of
expert bombers is 25. In the French Company 36 per cent of the men are
devoted to grenade work.

A grenade has been defined as a slow moving, high trajectory missile
containing high explosive and exploding by contact or time fuse.
Grenades may be divided roughly into two classes--1, hand grenades,
and 2, rifle grenades, and each of these classes may be subdivided as
regards means of explosion, into 1, time fuse, or 2, percussion
grenades.

Among the time-fuse hand grenades may be mentioned the Mills No. 5,
Stokes bomb, smoke bombs, fumite bombs, etc. The Mills is easily the
most important and has come to be the standard adopted by the Allies.
The percussion grenade is little used--the most important among those
of this type is the so-called "mushroom," named from its shape.

Chief among the rifle grenades may be mentioned the Mills No. 23, the
Hale No. 3 and the Newton No. 24. Just as the Mills hand grenade has
become the standard, so has the Mills rifle grenade attained that
pre-eminence. A more detailed description of the various sorts of
grenades cannot be attempted in this brief space; but one or two
diagrams at the close of the chapter may serve to clarify the subject
to some extent.

Any course in grenade training should have a three-fold purpose:

   1st. To give the individual a practical knowledge of the working
of the grenades in use.
   2nd. To teach him how to throw them.
   3rd. To make him acquainted with the general principles of
organization and the execution of a grenade attack, either as a
separate operation or as a part of a general attack. The time spent on
any such course of training is a matter to be settled in the light of
local considerations; but for purposes of preliminary training of a
great number of men a period of two weeks is usually sufficient, with
time allotted according to some such plan as this: (1) 10 separate
half-hour sessions of practice in throwing from various positions and
at the various targets; (2) 2 hours of study and a like amount of time
spent in a conference for the purpose of clearing up matters that are
hazy. In this brief time (only 9 hours) the foundation may be laid for
a more thorough training of the specialists later on. In any such
course the use of dummy grenades should always precede the use of any
live ones; and men should be taught caution above all other things.
This is a point easily lost sight of when men are using only dummies;
but it is well worth remembering, for obvious reasons.


FIRST: GIVING THE INDIVIDUAL A PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORKING OF
THE GRENADES IN USE.--The differences in the construction and the uses
of hand and rifle grenades should be brought out clearly. The various
sorts of grenades should be explained and men should not forget the
importance of knowing the grenades of the enemy as well as our own.
This knowledge may one day prove of no little importance. As has
already been stated, the Mills No. 5 is the standard among hand
grenades of the Allies. It conforms to the general description of hand
grenades; _i.e._, it is an egg-shaped projectile, more or less hollow,
and loaded with a charge of explosive. Besides this it has an
apparatus for setting off the bursting charge. It weighs 1 pound 5
ounces approximately, and 4 ounces of this is high explosive. The
shell being of serrated cast-iron, an explosion will scatter a sort of
shrapnel over an area equal to three times the height. No more need be
said of the effectiveness of such a weapon. Among rifle grenades the
Mills is also the standard more or less, although the French make
great use of a rifle grenade that fits over the muzzle of the rifle,
fired by ball cartridge, in contrast to the Mills No. 23, which has a
rod running down the barrel of the rifle and which is propelled by the
explosion of a blank cartridge. The maximum range of this grenade with
a 5-1/2-inch stem is 120 yards, the gun being fired at an angle of 45
degrees. The Newton Improved (a rifle grenade which explodes on
contact) has a range of 250 yards; the Hale No. 3 also explodes on
contact and has a range of 200-225 yards.

[Illustration: Plate #7]

SECOND: INSTRUCTION IN THROWING.--As previously stated the use of
dummy grenades should precede the use of any live ones. Due
precautions should be taken at all times, even when working with dummy
grenades, for a habit of carelessness is not to be tolerated with this
sort of weapon. Men should be instructed to throw from standing,
kneeling and prone positions; although this last-named position is
little used. Distance is important but ACCURACY IS ESSENTIAL. Men
should always be taught to throw at a definite target, even when
throwing in the open during preliminary work. The men may work in
groups, one group throwing and the other returning. This method keeps
all hands occupied and furnishes a medium for a little competition,
which is a very helpful thing in training of this sort. A manual of
the following sort may be of use in acquiring the proper sort of
throw.

   1. Pick up the grenade with the left hand.
   2. Prepare to throw--face to the right and transfer the grenade to
      the right hand.
   3. Take aim--left hand and arm extended up and straight toward the
      target, right hand and arm behind the thrower in the same plane
      as the left.
   4. Withdraw pin with left hand.
   5. Throw--use a straight overhead motion and do not bend the arm at
      the elbow. It is not a baseball throw. The tendency for most of
      us Americans is to follow a perfectly natural habit--try to use
      the baseball throw. This is to be discouraged for several
      reasons, the chief one being that the grenade weighs about a
      pound and a half, whereas our baseball weighs only a third of
      this amount. Then, too, it often happens in the trenches that a
      grenade duel will last for hours. Under such circumstances the
      last grenade may decide the issue and endurance will be a
      mighty telling factor. Hence, the insistence upon the overhead
      throw.

The preliminary throwing should take place in the open but always with
a definite target, an outline of a section of trench being the best
sort of target. Another excellent idea is to have a target arranged
according to the diagram shown herewith and to keep score. This
procedure will also add incentive for competition and will produce
results. After men have thrown in the open for a sufficient period,
they should proceed to the next stage: This is the stage of throwing
in a cage or from behind and over obstacles. There are three distinct
phases of this feature of the training: (1.) The thrower sees the
target but must throw over an obstacle. (2.) The target is invisible;
the thrower is aided by an observer and a periscope; the observer
notes the fall of the grenades and gives directions as follows--"So
many yards right or left" or "Shorten or lengthen so many yards." (3.)
Actual throwing in trenches. This stage immediately precedes that of
"working up a trench."

THIRD: INSTRUCTION IN GRENADE ORGANIZATION.--Men should be given a
certain amount of theoretical instruction as to the composition of the
armies now on the western front; this in order that they may see the
part that grenadiers and bombers are playing in the struggle. They
should be shown the organization of the British Infantry and how the
first section of each platoon is composed exclusively of bombers
and--rifle grenadiers; they should also be taught how the bombers and
grenadiers are concentrated in the French organization. The typical
bombing squad consists of 7 or 8 men and a leader who take positions
as follows: 1 and 2, bayonet men; 3, first thrower; 4, first carrier;
5, leader; 6, rifle bomber; 7, second thrower; 8, second carrier; 9,
rifle bomber. One of these bayonet men may be reserved to act as a
sniper. The leader acts as an observer and directs the work of the
bombers. The rifle bombers outrange the hostile bombers and also
afford protection on the flanks. Every man must be taught his job and
must be thoroughly instructed in the work of the squad as a whole in
order that each man may be able to fill any position and that there
may be perfect teamwork.

[Illustration: Plate #8]

POINTS TO REMEMBER.

   1. Men should always have a definite target for their throwing--an
outline of a trench is usually to be preferred.
   2. Caution in handling grenades should be made a habit.
   3. Accuracy is essential.
   4. Training should be progressive, both for men and organizations.
   5. Keep up competition among the men; rivalry will increase practice
and men will throw grenades for recreation. This will get results. Let
two men throw at each other. A good shot will make the other man move.
   6. Insist upon the straight overhead throw. It is less tiresome and
when developed properly will give equal accuracy with any other
method.
   7. Teamwork in a bombing squad is essential.
   8. Under new methods of warfare every infantryman is a bomber; but
specialists must be trained.
   9. Officer must be a real leader and the best fighter in his
platoon.
  10. Qualification tests should be arranged and the better qualified
men taken for special training in this art.




CHAPTER 5.

Map Sketching.


Map sketching is an important factor in trench warfare to-day as it is
in a war of movement. A fairly accurate map will indicate more than
many words and in much less time. Time is the great factor in war.
Instruction must also be rapid. Here are ten lessons which would
occupy a week if taken morning and afternoon. The aim of the
instruction as in company rifle shooting is to train many men to do a
satisfactory job, not to make a few finished topographers. Neatness,
accuracy and initiative are cardinal points.

For the instructor, reference should be made to _Grieves'_ "_Military
Sketching and Map Reading_", 2nd edition, if he desires to supplement
any points given here.


LESSON 1. (CLASS ROOM--FOUR HOURS.)

_Problem--Map Reading._

Study the conventional signs found in the "Manual for Non-commissioned
Officers and Privates of Infantry of the Army of the U.S.," 1917, page
273, or in Grieves, pages 28-35. These conventional signs are not
universal and must be used only as indications of the general
practice.

In map sketching in the field few conventional signs are used, and the
items of importance are written on the map, such as WOODS, CULTIVATED,
HEDGE, SWAMP, etc.

TAKING UP MAP SCALES.--There are three ways of indicating the relation
between the actual distance on the ground and the space the same
distance occupies on the map:

1. The graphic scale is a straight line divided into units, as miles,
yards, feet or meters, which represents the actual ground distance.
Thus if 6" = 1 mile the line would be six inches long and marked at
one end and 1 mile at the other, three inches being marked 1/2 mile,
etc. It is important to always have this graphic scale on a map so
that if the paper gets wet or is stretched from its original size the
scale will change in the same proportion.

2. A Statement in words or figures, e.g., 3 inches equal one mile,
meaning that 3 inches measured anywhere on the map represent 1 mile on
the actual ground.

3. The Representative Fraction (generally known abbreviated as R.F.)
having a number above the line that shows the unit length on the map
and below the line the number of units which are in the corresponding
actual ground distance. For example, if 1" = 1 mile, then the R.F. is:

                 1" (map distance)
           -----------------------------------
            63,360" (1 mile--ground distance)

if 3" = 1 mile the R.F. is:
                 3" (map distance)                       1
           -----------------------------------  or    -------
            63,360" (1 mile--ground distance)          21120

if 6" = 1 mile:
                 6"           1
            --------  or   -------
             63360"         10560

if 12" = 1 mile:
                12"            1
            ---------  or   ------
             63360"          5280

In reading a map one must know the scale and also where the North is.
This is always indicated by an arrow pointing either to the magnetic
North or the true North. If to the magnetic North the needle will have
but one barb away from the true North. The angle between the magnetic
and the true North is the declination.

Placing the map in proper relation to the ground so that points of the
compass coincide on map and ground is called _orienting the map_.

In map work there is one vital point to remember; practically all the
ground surface is in its present form as a result of water action

   1. Look for the water courses, that is the drainage system. It will
give the general slope of the land.
   2. Look for the high points between the water courses, remembering
that there is always a valley then a hill then a valley again
continued in succession.
   3. Finally locate towns, railroads, main highways and work down to the
minor details.

In measuring a map to get the actual distances on the ground, copy the
graphic scale on any piece of paper and apply this directly or if your
distances exceed your scale use the edge of a piece of paper and then
apply it to the graphical scale on the map.


LESSON 2. (FIELD WORK--FIVE HOURS.)

_Problem--Stride Scale Map Making_.

Producing a map from the actual ground requires certain instruments.
The second lesson takes up the preparation of the stride scale on the
alidade and the different kinds of maps, made in military sketching.

The alidade is a triangular ruler with one or more working scales on
it beside other measurements. The _working scale_ is, for infantry,
the stride or the space of ground covered from left foot to left foot
again in walking, reduced to the proper map distance. This varies with
individuals of course. Any scale of units, however, can be used as,
horse trot, telegraph poles, etc.

The working scale for each man is made by having him step off a
measured course, say 440 yards. The ground should not be too even as a
general average is needed, moreover the pace must be the natural gait
of the individual under ordinary circumstances. Let him count the
course three times then average the three results for the final
estimate.

Now to convert this into a working scale for the alidade made on a
scale of six inches to the mile; take the case of a man who takes 220
strides in 440 yards:

      440 yards = 15,840 inches
      15,840 / 220 = 72, or his stride in inches
      then 880 strides = 1 mile or 6" on the scale.

It is better to have a scale of 1,000 strides which is easily done by
the proportion:

1,000 sts. : 880 sts. : : x : 6
           x = 6.8

now draw a line 6.8 inches long and a diagonal line from it; divide
this diagonal line into 10 equal parts for each 100 paces at any
convenient scale and draw a line from the end of the tenth part to the
end of the 6.8 inches line; draw lines parallel to this line from each
of the divisions. The 6.8" line is then divided into 10 equal parts;
each of these parts may be divided in the same manner into tenths.

Your scale is ready to be pasted or transferred to the alidade and
each 6.8. inches on the map will equal 1,000 of your strides on the
ground, or about 1-1/12 miles (2,000 yards).

There are two general classes of sketches:

1. ROAD SKETCH.--A traverse (passing over) made along a definite rout
showing all features of military importance for a distance of 200 or
300 yards on each side of the road. A road sketch is always made on a
scale of 3 inches to 1 mile.

2. AREA SKETCH.--A map of a definite locality. There are 3 kinds of
area sketches according to opportunity for observation:

   (a) Position Sketch--when access may be had to the whole area.
   (b) Outpost Sketch--where part of the ground must be mapped without
       passing over it. This form is applicable particularly to trench
       warfare. Intersection and resection are used to locate points
       within the enemy's lines.
   (c) Place Sketch--when sketch must be made from one point, as when
       the proximity of the enemy would prevent any movement; as from
       trench observation stations, etc.; also an elaboration of the
       _landscape_ or _horizon_ sketch which is used everywhere in the
       trenches today. From one point an actual outline of the
       opposite trench and background is made in perspective,
       reference points on the horizon being marked on the edge of a
       pad at arm's length. These marks are then prolonged on the
       paper and the horizon is sketched. In like manner the middle
       distance and the foreground come under observation and are put
       on in one below the other.

Time must be allowed the men to make their stride scales and to paste
or transfer them to their alidades.

[Illustration: Plate #9]

LESSON 3. (FIELD WORK--FIVE HOURS.)

The problem is to make a Position Sketch about one mile square closing
the traverse. First considering the sketch board, compass, pencils,
etc.; next the orienting, sighting and pacing; finally the uses of
intersection and resection and in making allowance for error.

The sketch board should be about 12 to 18 inches square, being used
with or without a tripod. A cheap camera tripod is excellent. The
board should have a compass attached so that it will remain in the
same relative position on the board. If iron thumb tacks are used
avoid getting them too near the compass. A hard pencil must be used to
obtain good results. The paper must be smooth and where possible
covered with another sheet fastened on but one side which will
readily fold back when one desires to work on the sketch.

By always placing the board so that the compass reads North it will be
oriented correctly. Care must be used when near electric wires or
masses of metal as automobiles, railroad tracks, etc., which will
attract the needle from its true azimuth (N. and S. direction) and
thus throw off the whole map. In such cases it is far better to back
sight and use the compass only at intervals to verify the sights.

This brings up the matter of sighting. It is important to make long
shots thus reducing the amount of individual error. In taking a
sighting point make sure it can be recognized when reached and make
sure to look at the reverse side in order to recognize it in case of
back sighting if necessary. Always carry several large-headed pins
using one at your present station and resting the side of the alidade
against it, swinging the other end for sighting.

After sighting and lining the sight on your sketch, step off evenly to
pace the distance. Time is always a factor in military mapping and
where possible make mental notes as you go along as to where roads or
other important features are located, so that you can place them in
their proper place on the map when you have reached the next station.
It is well always to set a good pace for here time can be readily
saved.

Making an _intersection_ is very simple. For as the sketcher moves
along he ties his map together by sighting at any prominent object
near his area, running these lines very lightly and only where he
assumes the points to lie on his map. An abbreviation on the line or a
number referring to a list off to one side will answer to recall the
object. At any other station where the same point can be seen a
similar line is drawn and where the two lines cross will be the
location of the object. In the case of three lines not crossing at the
same point take the middle of the triangle so formed.

_Resection_ is just the reverse of this process. The mapper wants to
know where he is located on the map. If he is properly oriented and
can aim at two points on the ground which he has located on the map,
he places a pin at one of these locations on the map and aims with the
alidade at the object on the ground drawing a line towards himself;
this is repeated with the other known point and where the two lines
cross on the map will be the point he is standing at.

In intersection the greatest accuracy is obtained by running the rays
so as to meet as nearly as possible at right angles.

In running a traverse the sketcher must expect to find some error at
his closing point. This error must be distributed over the whole
traverse so as not to have all the error concentrated at one point.


LESSON 4. (FIELD WORK--FOUR HOURS.)

PROBLEM.--Make a simple sketch, containing topographical details using
the traverse made during the preceding lesson. Use of conventional
signs should be emphasized and the appreciation of features of
military importance impressed. A tendency is to put in details to a
point of confusion. Judgment must be developed to choose telling
points.

A sharp pencil is always needed in sketching; in putting in the
topographical details special attention must be given to the pencil.
Keep the point sharp and make clear, distinct signs.


LESSON 5. (CLASS ROOM--FOUR HOURS.)

PROBLEM.--Contours, the Vertical Interval, Use of the Slope Board, Map
Distance, Visibility and Profiles.

A contour is an imaginary line on the surface of the earth all points
of which have the same elevation from a base or datum level, sea level
usually being this base. Slice an apple into pieces 1/2-inch thick;
where the cuts come may represent the contour lines. Take these
individual slices, beginning at the bottom and outline them on a sheet
of paper with a pencil (having run a nail through the apple first to
keep each piece in place). The resulting circles will represent the
apple's outline at 1/2-inch intervals.

Contours are always at equal elevations from each other, and the
Vertical Interval (known by the abbreviation V.I.) is the measure
between successive contour lines. In military maps the V.I. is always
the same for each map scale:

    1 inch to the mile, the V.I. is 60 feet.
    3 inch to the mile, the V.I. is 20 feet.
    6 inch to the mile, the V.I. is 10 feet.
   12 inch to the mile, the V.I. is  5 feet.

Note that the V.I. changes in proportion to the scale, a map on a 3
inch to the mile scale is 3 times as large as one on a scale of 1 inch
to the mile, while the V.I. is 1/3 as great, hence the former shows 3
times as many contours as the latter.

Map Distance means the horizontal distance between two contour lines
on a map and indicates a certain degree of slope. As the scale
increases the V.I. decreases in proportion and the M.D. therefore
remains the same for the same degree of slope whatever the scale of
the map. By computation we find that a one degree slope rises one foot
for every 57.3 feet horizontal distance, so a one degree slope would
have a 20 foot rise in 1,146 feet horizontal distance, this distance
equals .65 of an inch on the map if the scale is 3" to 1 mile.

The term "Map Distance" is also loosely used to denote distance
between points as measured on the map. Care should be taken to
distinguish between these two meanings.

Distances between contours, scale 3" to 1 mile: 1/2 deg. slope = 1.3", 1 deg.
slope =.65", 2 deg. slope =.32", 3 deg. slope =.22". These distances are
already on the alidade and if you get a slope of 2 deg. with the slope
board and have the distance from your station on the map to the point
of aim either by pacing, intersection or resection, apply the M.D.
scale as many times as it will go. This will give the number of
contour lines crossing the traverse and the difference in elevation.
The spacing of the contours may not be even between your station and
the point of aim in which case the position of the contours must be
estimated by eye.

If your elevation above the datum or sea level is unknown at the start
assume any elevation which is great enough to put the datum lower than
the lowest spot of the area to be sketched.

The sketching board is easily made to serve as a slope board in this
manner. Hang a plumb bob about an inch below the center of a straight
edge of the board while pointing at the horizon, using the back of the
board. Mark a point 5.7" directly below and draw a semicircle through
it with the same radius. Now mark the point below the center zero and
from it divide the arc using chords one tenth of an inch long. This
will give a scale reading in degrees. By sighting along the top of the
board at some object at the height of the eye from the ground the
degree of slope is shown by the plumb bob on the scale below. Care
must be exercised to prevent the wind from disturbing the reading. A
protractor may be used in the same manner by sighting along the top
and using a plumb bob to record the angle.

In reading maps it is important to know whether points are visible
from each other due to intervening ridges or other topographical
features. This can be told by laying off accurately the distance on
the map between the points in question and using as datum the lowest
of the 3 points, then draw vertical lines, from the 2 higher points,
making them in proportion to their elevation with any convenient
scale. Draw a line between the first and last points and, if the
intervening vertical cuts this line the second point is not visible
from the first. Take for example, two points A and B, 1,760 yards
apart, by the map, A 500 feet and B 450 feet above sea level, the
intervening point C is 475 feet above sea level and 500 yards from B.
As B is the lowest we will call its elevation zero or at datum, then
elevation of A is 50 feet and C 25 feet.

[Illustration: Plate #10]

Another method of deciding visibility is by proportion. Measure the
distance between the three points A, B, and C, and obtain their
elevations above the datum (lowest of the 3) and using similar
triangles. Take the same case as above, letting X represent the point
above which the view is clear at 1,260 yards from point A, the line of
sight passes through this point.

1760 (A--B) : 500 (B--C) : : 50 (elev. A)  : X
            solving,      X = 14.2

Now, since the ground at point C is 25 feet above the base and the
line of sight passes within 14.2 feet of the base at this place, an
observer at A is unable to see B.

The matter of profiling is very simple. Merely mark where the contours
cut the edge of a piece of co-ordinate paper and extend the proper
elevations, then pass a line through these points, remembering that
the surface of the ground has a natural curve.


LESSON 6. (FIELD WORK--FIVE HOURS.)

PROBLEM.--By use of the slope scale on the sketch board and the
contour interval scale on the alidade, each man will secure vertical
data on the flat sketch made in the fourth lesson. Certain critical
elevations will be determined and marked with red flags before hand.
The elevations of two points on the ground will be furnished, one as
the datum and the other as a check. Draw in contours of this sketch
with the help of drainage lines and elevations already secured.

The chief points to be considered are to take slopes from points
established on the sketch; to take several sights and average the
angle of slope; to properly lay off the elevation by using the slope
scale on the alidade; and finally to put in the contours along these
lines of sight _on the spot_ thus allowing for difference in
topography between the point of sight and the station from which the
elevation is taken. Careful note must be made of the drainage systems
as these are the keynotes to the sketch and finally the contours are
connected together, keeping in mind always that no contour stops
unless it makes a closed curve or goes off the map. Remember also
that contours make fingers pointing up stream and are blunt around
hill sides. Contours cross streams to opposite points and break at
roads, continuing on the other side. Uniform slopes have
equally-spaced contours. Do not try to measure every slope, two
intersecting elevation sights on a hill will check the height. Put the
intervening contours in by eye.


LESSON 7. (CLASSROOM--FOUR HOURS.)

PROBLEM.--Completing the map sketch previously made and making a
landscape sketch.

It is important to complete a map and no matter how good it is, if
certain points are omitted, the value of the work is very much
decreased. The sketcher must clear the sketch of all unnecessary lines
and notes and make his lettering clear on the map. Be sure that the
following items are on the sketch before it is turned in.

   1. Location of the ground shown.
   2. Line of magnetic north shown by an arrow, and if declination is
known, the true north also.
   3. Graphic scale and representative fraction--R.F.
   4. Vertical interval--V.I.
   5. Sketcher's name and organization to which he belongs.
   6. Date.

A landscape sketch is a place sketched with details shown in
perspective. The horizon is always of military importance and should
be shown as well as intervening crests, woods, houses, etc. Landscape
sketching in trench warfare is a necessary accomplishment of the
observer. The beginner will at first be confused by a mass of details,
but he must note only the outline of the features sketched. First draw
the sky line and crests, then fill in the other details with fewest
lines possible. Unnecessary shading tends to detract from the
clearness of the sketch. There will be great difficulty in getting the
perspective, note the size of objects, the further away they are the
smaller they seem. Make them so. In making the sketch, hold the pad in
front with one eye closed, the upper edge of the pad horizontal; a
string 20 inches long is tied to the pad and held between the teeth to
insure the same distance from the eye each time. Moreover, if it is
desired to locate objects by deflection of an angle from a reference
point, this can be done by using _mils_. One mil is 1-6400 of a
circle. At 20 inches a half-inch interval subtends 25 mils.

[Illustration: Plate #11]

The paper is oriented by bringing the sector desired along the upper
edge of the pad. The points desired are then in proper positions, both
horizontally and vertically.

Place a mark at the upper edge for points desired. The sky line should
be located first. Now carry these lines down, having drawn three
horizontal lines about 1/2 inch apart, beginning with the highest
point on the top line. Marks locating the other features are likewise
transposed in vertical and horizontal portions.

Now draw sky line connecting transposed marks, then such other points
as crests, trenches, houses, etc. After practice most other features
can be drawn in without reorienting, the sky line having been drawn.
The vertical elevation should be slightly exaggerated. Objects in the
background should be drawn in lightly while nearby features are
indicated by _heavy lines_. Avoid details, draw only silhouette, shade
only in showing woods.


LESSON 8. (FIELD WORK--FIVE HOURS.)

PROBLEM.--Make complete area sketch including contours, with no data
furnished other than the initial elevation.

Before commencing the work summarize the important points involved.

   1. If possible select a base line.
   2. Locate as many points by intersection as possible.
   3. Make traverse by road, check locations by resection.
   4. At good observation points observe and complete the sketch as far
as possible.

At each station keep the following points in view:

   1. Back sight on previous station.
   2. Select new sighting point ahead.
   3. Determine elevation by slope board.
   4. Put in contours where possible noting the drainage and critical
points of the general slope and the terrain.
   5. Put in details along traverse just made of all topographical
features of military importance.
   6. Determine your present elevation.
   7. Make as many shots for intersection as you can and mark them.
   8. Look for possible resection shots.


LESSONS 9 AND 10. (FIELD WORK--NINE HOURS.)

PROBLEM.--Make a road sketch of about 12 miles with scale of 3 inches
to the mile, V.I. 20 feet. This should include details of military
importance to a distance of 300 yards on either side of the road.

Keep in mind these points:

   1. Start carefully and give attention to every part of the map.
   2. Keep the board properly oriented.
   3. Watch the water drainage systems.
   4. Put down all necessary details at each _setup_.
   5. Note high hills and towns not on immediate route, condition of
roads, fences, cultivation, hedges, cuts and fills, bridges (kind and
length), railroads, telegraph and telephone lines, schools, churches,
etc., notice particularly woods and points of concealment for hostile
troops.

Do the work at each station for elevation, contours and the noting of
necessary details so that the sketch will be complete as you go along.
Make certain that the title of the sketch, scale, orientation, etc.,
are all clearly indicated, for a road map may have to be completed by
another or may be called for suddenly when it will be useless without
these details.

Remember there are but two things absolutely essential to a good road
sketch; a good traverse and the location of the drainage system in its
relation to this traverse. With this control approximate contours can
be drawn by anyone having a knowledge of the principles of topography.
Never plot unimportant details. Prominent buildings and farm houses
are of value for locating oneself. Woods and orchards are shown for
tactical reasons but no one can expect to show every fence, ditch or
bit of cover that might hide a patrol.


Map Reading.

(GETTYSBURG 3" MAP--HUNTERSTOWN SHEET.) Plattsburg Barracks, N.Y.,
Sept. 17, 1917:

1. What is the shortest distance by road from Biglersville to Texas?

2. Describe the road between Texas and Table Rock.

3. Is it a cut or a fill along the railroad about 1/2 mile east of
Granite Hill Station?

4. What is meant by 931 on Chestnut Hill?

5. Can a man on the summit of hill 712 (about one mile southwest of
Plainview) be seen from the town of Plainview?

6. Point out two fords on the Conewago River.

7. Where is the highest point on the road from Plainview to
Heidlersburg?

8. Describe the fences along the road from Texas to Table Rock
Station.

9. Is Hill 566 S.W. from D. Wert visible from Henderson Meeting House?

10. Of what material is the bridge at Bridge School House constructed?

Harvard College:

1. Can a sentinel standing at 707 see road fork 535 (about 1,500 yards
south)?

2. An enemy patrol is marching north on the 544-616 road, and has
crossed the stream (750 yards north of 544.) Can this patrol see the
Red outguard at 707 from any point between stream and cross roads 616?

3. Can the sentinel at 712 see the road fork 518 (1,850 yards
southwest from 712)?

4. Can the sentinel at 712 see the cross roads 561 (about 1,200 yards
southeast)?

Assuming the height of a man as 5' 0" above the ground and trees and
buildings as 30' 0".

1. Is the ground at road fork 552 near D. Wirt visible to a patrol on
Hill 712? If not what is the obstructing point? Turn in profile, using
cross section paper.

2. Disregarding trees, is a man standing on Bridge 523 near Bridge
S.H. visible from Hill 712?

Solve by any method desired indicating the method.

1. Make a profile from location of the letter "U" of Chestnut Hill
near Center Mills to Hill 712, 2-1/2 miles to the south.

2. Is the location of the letter "B" of Beatrich visible from "U" of
Chestnut Hill? If not what obstructs?

1. Can a man on Hill 712 see a man at cross roads 554 in Hunterstown
(disregard trees)?

2. To a man standing at the point where contour 680 crosses the road
just south of 707, where does the roadbed first become invisible?

1. When the point arrives at Hill 647 can it see the road fork 610 to
the northwest?

2. When the flank patrol reaches Benders Church cross roads can it see
an enemy patrol at the house midway on the road 534-554 one mile to
the northeast?

3. Looking north along the Center Mills road from Hill 647, where does
the road first become invisible?

1. What does 1/21120 mean?

2. What direction is the general drainage system on this sheet?




CHAPTER 6.

Helpful References to the Articles of War.

(Extracted from M.C.M. and Guide to the Articles of War--Waumbaugh's
Lectures.)


MILITARY LAW is the body of rules that governs members of the army.
Military Law is based upon the Articles of War approved by Congress,
August 27, 1916, effective March 1, 1917. This body of rules defines:

      (1) Punishable offenses of members of the army.
      (2) The Method of determining guilt.
      (3) Punishment.

The present Articles of War are revisions of those from the
Revolution.


ARTICLE 1.

DEFINITIONS:

   (1) The word "officer" shall be construed to refer to a
       commissioned officer (and no one else).
   (2) The word "soldier" to include non-commissioned officer or any
       other enlisted man.


ARTICLE 2.

PERSONS SUBJECT TO MILITARY LAW:

   (1) All officers and soldiers of the Regular Army.
   (2) All volunteers in the service of the U.S.
   (3) All other persons lawfully called, drafted or ordered into such
       service.
   (4) West Point cadets.
   (5) Officers and soldiers of the Marine Corps when detached for
       service with the army, by order of the President.
   (6) All retainers to the camp, or accompanying or serving with the
       army in time of war, both within and without territorial
       jurisdiction of U.S.
   (7) All persons under sentence by court-martial.


ARTICLES 3-18.

COURTS MARTIAL CLASSIFIED:

   (A) General Courts Martial.
       Appointed by
         (1) President,
         (2) Commanding officer of department or territorial division.
         (3) Commanding officer of separate army division brigade.
         (4) Commanding officer of district or force empowered by
             President.
       Jurisdiction.
         Over all persons subject to Military Law as regards all
             offenses punishable by Military Law.
       Sentence.
         Everything.
   (B) Special Courts Martials (3 to 5 officers inclusive).
       Appointed by
         (1) Commanding officer of district, garrison, fort or camp.
         (2) Commanding officer of brigade, detached battalion.
       Jurisdiction.
         Over any person subject to military law (except an officer),
             and for any crime not capital. (Only soldiers excluding
             those having certificate of eligibility for promotion.)
       Sentence.
         (1) No power to adjudge dishonorable discharge.
         (2) No confinement in excess of six (6) months.
         (3) No forfeiture of pay in excess of six (6) months.
   (C) Summary Courts Martial (one (1) officer).
       Appointed by
         (1) Commanding officer of garrison, fort, camp, etc.
         (2) Commanding officer of regiment, detached battalion, etc.
         (N.B.) When but one (1) officer is present with command he
             shall be the summary court martial.
       Jurisdiction.
         (1) Only privates holding no certificate of eligibility for
             promotion--and
         (2) For crimes not capital.
       Sentence.
         (1) Confinement not over 3 months.
         (2) No dishonorable discharge.
         (3) No punishment over one (1) month without higher
             authority.


METHOD OF ENTERING A CHARGE AGAINST A MAN:

Example:

    Charge: Violation of the ---- Article of War.

    Specification: In that (rank, name, organization) did at
                       (place) on or about (date) etc. (brief description
                       of offence committed).

                   Signed
                   (Name)
                   (Rank and Branch of Service)

In cases where there are more than one charge the number of each A.W.
is put down in the charge. A description of each offence is put down
separately under SPECIFICATION.

Note that double lines are drawn under CHARGE, single line under
SPECIFICATION.


GENERAL REMARKS:

The three (3) Courts Martial are alike in the following:

   (a) Composed only of officers of Army or Marine Corps on detached
       service with the Army by order of the President.
   (b) Pass upon both law and fact.
   (c) Criminal Courts only.
   (d) Unable to promulgate any finding that does not require approval
       of appointing authority.

The three (3) Courts Martial differ in the following:

   (a) Number of members.
   (b) Appointing authority.
   (c) Punishments.


ARTICLE 31.

ORDER OF VOTING:

Members in General or Special Courts Martial shall vote from junior to
senior.


ARTICLE 39.

LIMITATIONS UPON PROSECUTIONS:

Military offences fall into three (3) groups:

   (1) War desertion, mutiny, murder. Have no limitations.
   (2) Burglary, etc. (A W. 93) and frauds against Government (A.W.
       94). Prosecution limited to 3 years.
   (3) All other offences. 2 years.

In some cases the Statute of Limitations is suspended (A.W. 39),
especially in cases of absence from the United States.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following Articles of War are the important ones for officers to
be acquainted with in the ordinary course of his duties:


ARTICLE 54.

FRAUDULENT ENLISTMENT:

Punishment: Court Martial.

      "Any person procuring himself to be enlisted by means of
    willful misrepresentation or concealment as to his qualifications
    for enlistment and shall receive pay or allowance," ...
      This offense requires two (2) steps:
        (1) Misrepresentation or concealment.
        (2) Receiving pay or allowances.


ARTICLE 58.

DESERTION:

Punishment: (Wartime) Death or Court Martial. (Peacetime) Court
Martial.

      "Any person--who deserts or attempts to desert in time of War
    ... death or such other punishment as the court martial may
    direct ... any other time any punishment except death."
      Essential features are:
        (1) An intent not to return.
        (2) An overt act of separation from duty.
            Drunkenness tends to show absence of the intent.
             Minority is no defense.
             Enlistment while in desertion does not remove the charge
             of desertion.


ARTICLE 61.

ABSENCE WITHOUT LEAVE:

Punishment: Court Martial.

      "Any person who fails to repair at the fixed time to duty, or
    goes from same without leave of absence, or absents himself from
    his command, guard, quarters, station or camp without proper
    leave...."
      Does not require to prove intent, yet persons ignorant of
    military law, drunk or victims of mistake are dealt with gently.


ARTICLE 62.

DISRESPECT TOWARD PRESIDENT, VICE-PRESIDENT, CONGRESS, SECRETARY OF
WAR, GOVERNORS, LEGISLATURES:

Punishment: (Officer) Dismissal from the service,
            (Soldier) Court martial.

      "Any officer who uses contemptuous or disrespectful words
    against the President, etc.... any other person subject to
    military law who so offends."
      Contemptuous language is objectionable and liable to court
    martial whether
        (1) Used in public or private.
        (2) In official or private capacity.
        (3) Written or spoken.
        (4) True or untrue.


ARTICLE 63.

DISRESPECT TOWARD A SUPERIOR OFFICER:

Punishment: Court-martial.

      "Any person subject to military law who behaves himself with
    disrespect toward his superior officer...."
      Unlike Article 62, disrespect toward a superior officer requires
    no words--acting or neglecting to act (such as rudeness or failure
    to salute) are enough.


ARTICLE 64.

ASSAULTING OR WILLFULLY DISOBEYING SUPERIOR OFFICER:

Punishment: Death or court-martial.

      (1) "Any person subject to military law who on any pretense
    whatsoever, strikes his superior officer--lifts a weapon, or
    offers violence against him, being in the execution of his
    office."
      (2) "Or willfully disobeys any lawful command of his superior
    officer."
      Drunkenness here tends to show absence of the essential
    willfullness.
      Self defense is not forbidden nor violence to suppress mutiny.


ARTICLE 65.

INSUBORDINATE CONDUCT TOWARD A NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER:

Punishment: Court-martial.

      (1) "Any soldier who assaults or attempts or threatens to
    strike or assault."
      (2) "Or willfully disobeys the lawful order of a
    non-commissioned officer while in the execution of his office."
      (3) "Or uses threatening or insulting language."
      (4) "Or behaves in an insubordinate or disrespectful manner."
      Drunkenness will not have the effect here of showing an absence
    of willfullness.


ARTICLE 68.


DISORDERS:

Punishment: Court-martial.

      "All officers and non-commissioned officers have power to quell
    disorders and to order officers who take part in the same into
    arrest, and other persons into arrest or confinement.
      Whosoever, being so ordered:
        (1) Refuses to obey.
        (2) Draws a weapon.
        (3) Otherwise threatens or does violence shall be punished."
      This is one instance (except a.w., 67, mutiny) where even a
    corporal might order a general into arrest.
      This is the only instance:
        (1) Where anyone other than a commissioned officer can put an
            officer under arrest.
        (2) Where anyone other than an officer can order, arrest or
            confinement of a soldier except on power given by C.O.


ARTICLE 69.

BREAKING ARREST:

Punishment: (Officer) Dismissal, (Soldier) Court-martial.

      "Any officer charged with crime shall be placed in arrest by
    C.O.... in exceptional cases ... confined."
      "A soldier charged with crime ... shall be placed in confinement
    ... when charged with minor offense placed in arrest."
      "Any person placed in arrest ... shall be restricted to
    barracks, quarters, tent, unless limits are enlarged by proper
    authority."
      "An officer or any other person breaking his arrest or who
    escapes from confinement before being set at liberty by proper
    authority shall be punished by...."
      To break arrest is punishable even though a person is innocent
    of the charge or ought to have been released.


ARTICLE 75.

MISBEHAVIOR BEFORE THE ENEMY:

Punishment: Death or court-martial.

      "Any officer or soldier who:
        (1) Misbehaves before the enemy--runs away, or shamefully
            abandons post.
        (2) Or speaks words inducing others to do so.
        (3) Or quits his post or colors to plunder or pillage.
        (4) Occasions false alarms in camp or quarters shall suffer
            ...."
      The word "enemy" implies "any hostile body" such as a mob or
    riot crowd.


ARTICLE 83.

NEGLECT OF MILITARY PROPERTY:

Punishment: Make good the loss and court-martial.

      "Any person subject to military law who willfully or through
    neglect suffers to be lost, damaged, or wrongfully disposed of,
    any military property belonging to United States of
    America--shall make good the loss and...."


ARTICLE 84.

WASTE OR UNLAWFUL DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY ISSUED TO SOLDIERS:

Punishment: Court-martial.

      "Any soldier who sells or wrongfully disposes of any property
    issued for military service shall be punished...."


ARTICLE 85.

DRUNK ON DUTY:

Punishment: (War time) dismissal and court-martial, (Peace time)
court-martial.

      "Any officer ... drunk on duty shall ... in time of war be
    dismissed ... and
      Any other person subject to military law, drunk on duty ...
    shall be punished...."


ARTICLE 86.

MISBEHAVIOR OF A SENTINEL:

Punishment: (War time) death or court-martial, (Peace time)
court-martial.

      "Any sentinel found:
        (1) Drunk.
        (2) Asleep.
        (3) Or who leaves before being regularly relieved shall be
            punished...."


ARTICLE 92.

MURDER OR RAPE:

Punishment: Death or life imprisonment.

      "Any person who commits murder or rape shall suffer death or
    life imprisonment as the court-martial may direct."
      No person shall be tried for murder or rape committed in the
    limits of the U.S.A. in time of peace. This is left to civil
    courts.


ARTICLE 93.

VARIOUS CRIMES:

Punishment: Court-martial.

      "Any person who commits
        (1) Manslaughter,
        (2) Mayhem (cutting),
        (3) Arson,
        (4) Burglary,
        (5) Larceny,
        (6) Embezzlement,
        (7) Perjury,
        (8) Assault with intent to commit any felony.
        (9) Assault with intent to do bodily harm. shall be
            punished...."
      Definition of these crimes is left to local law.


ARTICLE 94.

FRAUDS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT:

Punishment: Court-martial.

      Article of War No. 94 is equivalent to prohibiting any person
    subject to military law from defrauding or attempting, or
    conspiring to defraud the Government of the U.S.A.--also from
    stealing, embezzling any Government property.


ARTICLE 95.

CONDUCT UNBECOMING AN OFFICER AND A GENTLEMAN:

Punishment: Dismissal.

      "Any officer or cadet convicted of unbecoming conduct shall be
    dismissed...."
      Misconduct may be official or unofficial.


ARTICLE 96.

GENERAL ARTICLE, THE CATCH ALL:

Punishment: Court-martial.

      "... all disorders and neglects to the prejudice of good
    military discipline.
      All conduct of a nature to bring discredit upon the military
    service.
      All crimes and offences not capital shall be taken cognizance of
    by
        (1) General,
        (2) Special,
        (3) Summary court-martials according to the nature and degree
            of the offense and punished....
      Article of War 96 covers all crimes and is handy when no other
    Article of War fits. It is wise, however, to use this Article
    sparingly on Charges, finding if possible the exact Article
    necessary to cover the case at hand."


EXAMPLES.

PROBLEM 1:

Charge.--Violation of ---- Article of War.

Specification.--In that Private John Doe, Company C. 301st Regiment
Infantry, did at Albany, New York, on or about September 15th, 1917,
dress himself in the uniform of a 1st Lieutenant and attend a dance at
Odd Fellows Hall.

(Signed)       JOHN HANCOCK,
                   Captain, 301st Infantry.

Under what article of war, if any, does this belong?


PROBLEM 2:

Charge.--Violation of ---- and ---- Articles of War.

Specification.--In that Sergeant James Hopkins, Company H, 205th
Infantry, did at Franconia, N.H., on or about July 4th return to
barracks intoxicated.

In that Sergeant James Hopkins, moreover, refused to appear at
reveille July 5th.

(Signed)       WILLIAM HITCHCOCK,
                       Captain, 205th Infantry.

Under what articles of war do these offenses belong?

What kind of court-martial required?


PROBLEM 3:

Charge.--Violation of ---- Article of War.

Specification.--In that Captain George Jones, 125th Infantry did at
Laconia, Maine, on or about August 20, 1917, make a speech in which he
stated that the Reichstag of Germany was a more efficient and
democratic body than the United States Congress.

(Signed)       ALBERT SMITH,
                      Major, 125th Infantry.

Under what article of war does this offense belong?


NO.  ARTICLES OF WAR.                 PUNISHMENT.
54.  Fraudulent enlistment            Court martial
58.  Desertion                        War: Death or court martial
                                      Peace: Except death
61.  Absence without leave            Court martial
62.  Disrespect to Presidents         Officer: Dismissal
     Vice-President, Secretary        Soldier: Court martial
     of War, Congress, etc.
63.  Disrespect to superior officer   Court martial
64.  Assaulting or disobeying         Death or court martial
     superior officer
65.  Insubordination to a             Court martial
     non-commissioned officer
69.  Arrest or confinement            Officer: Dismissal
     of accused persons               Soldier: Court martial
75.  Misbehavior before the enemy     Death or court martial
83.  Loss, etc., military property    Make good the loss and court martial
84.  Loss of military property        Court martial
     issued to soldiers
85.  Drunk on duty                  { Officers--
                                    {   War: Dismissal
                                    {   Peace: Court martial
                                    { Soldiers: Court martial
86.  Misbehavior of sentinel        { War: Death or
                                    { Peace: Court martial (except death)
93.  Various crimes                   Court martial
94.  Frauds against the Government    Court martial
95.  Conduct unbecoming an officer    Dismissal
96.  General article                  Court martial
                                     (General or special)





CHAPTER 7.

Notes on Army Regulations


1. OBEDIENCE required in the military service--strict and prompt.

2. AUTHORITY EXERCISED with firmness, kindness and justice--prompt and
lawful punishment.

3. ABUSIVE LANGUAGE or conduct by superiors forbidden.

4. RESPECT TO SUPERIORS will be extended upon all occasions, whether
on duty or not.

5. REMARKS BY OFFICERS or soldiers upon others in the military
service, whether praise or censure, public or private, written or
spoken, is prohibited. Any effort to affect legislation for a personal
favor will be entered against a man's military record.

106. FURLOUGHS not granted to men about to be discharged. Not more
than five per cent of a company shall be absent at one time.

109. MEN ON FURLOUGH may not leave the United States.

111. FOR MEN IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES furlough can begin on date of
reaching United States.

113. No PAYMENTS made to men while on furlough. Arms not to be taken
on furlough or while reporting sick.
   (N.B.--There will unquestionably be a modification of this ruling,
as the custom abroad is to have every man keep his complete equipment
with him whenever possible.)

116. DESERTION. Property lost or destroyed will be charged against
deserter.

117. ABANDONED CLOTHES turned over to Quartermaster. Personal effects
sold and credited to United States.

121. REWARD OF $50 for apprehension and delivery of deserter or
military prisoner.

127. COSTS OF APPREHENSION will be charged against deserter.

129. NO PAY OR CLOTHES drawn by soldier awaiting trial on charge of
desertion.

131. WILL BE RESTORED to duty only by court martial or authority
competent to order trial.

132. ABSENT WITHOUT LEAVE. Enlisted man forfeits all pay and
allowances while away.
   Soldier will not be charged with desertion until commanding officer
has reason to believe he intended to desert. Absence of less than 24
hours will not be noted upon the muster roll.

139. DISCHARGE of enlisted man only
   1. By order of President or Secretary of War.
   2. By order of General Court Martial.
   3. By order of United States court or justice or judge, on writ of
      habeas corpus.
   4. By command of territorial department.
   5. By disability in line of duty.
   6. By sentence of civil court.
   7. By purchase.
(N.B.--In time of war it is probable that the last two methods would
not be effective for discharge from the service.)

140. FINAL STATEMENTS. The company commander will furnish each
enlisted man a final statement (or duplicate) or a full statement in
writing explaining why such final statement is not furnished. No final
statement will be furnished a soldier who has forfeited all pay and
allowances or who has no deposits due him.

147. CERTIFICATE will give
   1. Character certified by company commander.
   2. Whether recommended for re-enlistment.
      In case of negative opinion, the soldier should be notified at
   least 30 days prior to discharge. In that case the company
   commander shall convene a board of three officers (if possible) to
   determine what kind of discharge shall be given. The soldier will
   be given a hearing.

151. LOSS OF DISCHARGE CERTIFICATE. Discharge certificates will not be
made in duplicate. Upon proper proof of loss or destruction without
fault of person entitled to it, the War Department will issue a
certificate of service, showing date of enlistment and discharge from
the army and character given in original certificate.
   Discharge certificates should never be forwarded to the War
Department in correspondence unless called for.

159. PHYSICAL DISABILITY CERTIFICATE issued when an enlisted man is
permanently unfitted for service, in line of duty. Certificates of
disability not made in duplicate.

162. DEATH OF SOLDIER.
   1. Effects are secured.
   2. Nearest relatives notified.
   3. Adjutant General of army notified.

In active service the War Department requires the following reports:
   1. Report of company commander to Adjutant General, covering death
      and disposal of remains.
   2. Report of surgeon or company commander embodying
      a. Cause of death.
      b. Whether in line of duty.
      c. Whether due to another soldier's misconduct.
   3. Inventory of effects in duplicate.

163. EFFECTS, when not claimed within reasonable time, sold and
credited to United States.
   No authority for officers to pay debts of dead soldiers.
   Trinkets will not be sold but sent to the Adjutant General's office.

165. EFFECTS will be delivered, if called for, to legal representative
of deceased after arrears are paid.

167. MEDAL OF HONOR. Authorized by Congress to be awarded to officers
and men for extreme acts of gallantry in action, beyond line of duty.
Recommendations will be considered by standard of extraordinary merit,
and must have incontestible proof.

184. CERTIFICATE OF MERIT. Granted by President to any enlisted man in
the service for distinguished acts in line of duty, on recommendation
of company commander, based upon statement of eye witness, preferably
the immediate company commander. $200 permanent additional pay is
allowed.

285. QUARTERS. Name of each soldier on bunk. Arms on rack.
Accoutrements hung up by the belts.

287. SATURDAY INSPECTION preceded by thorough policing. Leaders of
squads will see that everything is clean.

1011. NEGLECT OF ROOMS or furniture by officer or soldier a military
offense. All necessary costs shall be paid by him.

1178. DESTRUCTION OF TABLEWARE or kitchen utensils by soldiers will be
charged against their pay.

288. CHIEFS OF SQUADS are responsible
      1. For cleanliness of men.
      2. For their proper equipment for duty.
      3. For their proper dress when going "on pass."

374. PREMISES shall be policed daily after breakfast.

290. COMPANY COMMANDER will see that public property held by men is
kept in good order, and missing or spoiled articles paid for.

292. ARMS shall not be taken down without proper supervision and by
order of commissioned officer.
   No changing of parts or finish.
   Tompions (muzzle plugs) in small arms forbidden.

657. ACCOUNTABILITY AND RESPONSIBILITY--Both devolve upon persons
entrusted with public property.
   Responsibility without accountability devolves upon one to whom
property is entrusted, but who does not have to make returns
therefor. Responsibility does not end until property has been given
back to accountable officer and a receipt taken, or he has been
relieved by regulations or by orders.
   Accountability without responsibility occurs when an officer holds
proper memorandum receipts for property delivered to others.

EXAMPLE.--The Company Commander is accountable and responsible for the
rifles turned over to his company. He is accountable without
responsibility when each enlisted man has been issued a rifle and has
signed a receipt for it. Each enlisted man is then responsible for his
rifle, without accountability, until he returns it in proper
condition. In general, therefore: Accountability requires evidence of
the disposition that has been made of property. Responsibility implies
possession, and requires return of the property or payment for it.

685. LOSS OF PUBLIC PROPERTY by neglect of any officer or soldier
shall be paid by him, at such rates as a survey of the property may
determine.
   Charges will be made only after conclusive proof, and not without a
survey if the soldier demands one.
   Signing the payroll will be regarded as an acknowledgment of the
justice of the charge.

1202. RATION is the allowance of food for one person or animal for one
day.

1229. FORFEITURE of ration is made when a soldier overstays furlough.

1339. PAY for continuous service is credited a soldier if he enlists
within three months after honorable discharge.
   For privates an increase of $3 per month is allowed up to and
including the third enlistment, beyond this $1 per month increase
given up to and including the seventh enlistment.
   For non-commissioned officers the increase of $3 per month continues
to and includes the seventh enlistment.
   No increased pay is given after the seventh enlistment to private or
non-commissioned officer.

1347. ALLOTMENTS (revised by Act of Congress, October, 1917).
   The new law does away with future pensions. Allotments may be made to:
     1. Family.
     2. Bank.

   For married men or those with dependents, such as children, parents
divorced wives, whose support is required by court order, allotments
are compulsory, and must not be less than $15 a month and not more
than one-half of his pay. The Company Commander is responsible for
finding who comes under this rule. By this arrangement soldiers cannot
shirk the support of dependents.
   The government will double the amount allotted by each soldier, to a
limit of $37.50 a month. In cases where the soldier allots half of his
pay the government will add to the allotment according to the
following scale, even though it more than doubles the amount paid by
the soldier:

  Class A.
     Wife, no child, $15.
     Wife, one child, $25.
     Wife, two children, $32.50.
     For each additional child, $5 more.
     No wife living, one child, $5.
     Two children, $12.50.
     Three children, $20.
     Four children, $30.
     For each additional child, $5.
  Class B.
     One parent, $10.
     Two parents, $20.
     Each grandchild, brother, sister or additional dependent, $5.
  Nurses can make allotment.

When both A and B classes are in need of allotment from a soldier's
pay, and he has allotted half of his pay to Class A, he may allot an
additional one-seventh of his pay for the support of Class B
dependents, and the government will pay the sums listed above to the
Class B dependents, to the limit of $20 a month. Payments under this
act were begun November 1, 1917. In case less than one-half of a
soldier's pay is allotted, the Secretary of War may require the
allotment to be increased up to one-half of the pay.

COMPENSATION FOR DEATH OR DISABILITY in line of duty. In all cases
must be applied for. In case of death, monthly compensation shall be
as follows per month:

     Widow, $25.
     Widow and 1 child, $35.
     Widow and 2 children, $47.50.
     Each additional child, $5.
     One child alone, $20.
     Two children, $30.
     Three children, $40.
     Each additional child, $5.
     Widowed mother, $20.
     For transportation of body, $100.

   No women can receive compensation from two sources. The government
will continue to pay compensation to a dependent wife until her death
or remarriage, and to children until they are 18 years old, unless
they are insane or helpless, in which case it will continue to pay the
compensation during such incapacity.
   In case of total disability, compensation will be as follows per
month:

     Soldier alone, $30.
     With wife, no child, $45.
     With wife, one child, $55.
     With wife, two children, $65.
     Three children or more, $75.
     No wife living, one child, $40.
     No wife living, each additional child, $10.
     Soldier and widowed mother, $40.

   In case of total disability where attendance is needed, $20 per month
will be added to the compensation, unless the soldier is blind,
bedridden, or has lost both feet or hands, in which case the
compensation will be $100 per month, with no extra allowance for
attendance. In case of partial disability, compensation will be a
percentage of the amount paid in case of total disability. These
annuities continue only during the life of the person for whom they
are first paid.

ADDITIONAL INSURANCE.--Uniform compensation for all ranks can go only
to blood relations. In case of death or disability in line of duty, it
is paid in monthly instalments for 20 years. Insurance is from $1,000
to $10,000 in multiples of $500. The rate is exceedingly low.
Insurance must be applied for within 120 days after entering the
service. Premiums are paid monthly, quarterly or yearly from the pay
of the insured man. After the war this insurance must be converted
within five years into a policy either of straight life insurance,
20-year payment or endowment, maturing at the age of 62. In case of
death when there is no blood relationship, the reserve value,
according to the American insurance mortality tables, is paid to the
estate. None of these payments can be attached for debt, nor legal
action started against them except in a United States Court. The
maximum lawyer's fee in any such case is $500.

1361. DEPOSITS of not less than $5 may be made by an enlisted man (not
retired) to any quartermaster. Deposit book, signed by quartermaster
and company commander, given to man who makes the deposit. This book
is not transferable.

1363. A LOST DEPOSIT BOOK is not replaced without an affidavit of the
soldier, testifying that he has not sold nor assigned it.

1364. PAYMENT made only on final statement. The soldier should be
informed of the importance of keeping the deposit book.

1365. WITHDRAWAL OF DEPOSIT when discharged or furloughed to reserve.

1366. INTEREST on sum greater than $5 is 4 per cent.

1368. FORFEITURE due to desertion, but not by sentence of court
martial. Deposits not exempt from liabilities due the United States.

1371. OFFICERS AND MEN lose pay while confined by civil authorities.

1375. FURLOUGHED TO RESERVE or discharged, a soldier is given a final
statement in duplicate. This must be presented to be valid.

1378. TRANSPORTATION and subsistence is allowed to the point of
enlistment, or for the same distance. Not subject to deduction for
debts due the United States.

1380. DISCHARGED SOLDIER under charge of fraudulent enlistment is not
entitled to transportation and subsistence.

1383. TRANSFER OF CLAIMS on the government made by an enlisted man are
only recognized after discharge or furlough to the reserve. They must
be in writing and must be endorsed by a commissioned officer or other
responsible person known to the quartermaster.

1437. No one is allowed to accompany sick or wounded from the battle
line to the rear except those specifically authorized.

1530. Ammunition lost or used without orders or not in line of duty
shall be charged to the soldier using it.


NOTES ON THE LAWS OF WAR.

   (From Manual for Commanders of Infantry Platoons, translated from
      the French at the Army War College, 1917. War Department
      Document No. 626.)

The laws of war were instituted under the generous error that certain
well-organized peoples had entirely emerged from barbarism and that
they considered themselves bound by the placing of their signatures to
international conventions, freely agreed to.

An infinite number of acts minutely and officially investigated have
established that our troops and our Nation should never count on the
observance of these laws and that the atrocities committed prove to be
not only individual violations dishonoring merely the perpetrator, but
violations premeditated and ordered in cold blood by the commanders
with the moral support of the heads of the enemy nation.

These laws are nevertheless repeated here in order that:

1. The knowledge of how the war should have been conducted may develop
in the heart of each man the sentiment of hate (applicable only to
foes such as we actually have), that in no case should a chief of
platoon tolerate any intercourse between his men and the enemy other
than that of the rifle; this duty is explicit and not to be departed
from except in the case of the wounded and prisoners incapable of
doing harm.

2. That every violator of these laws, taken in the act, shall be the
subject of an immediate report with witnesses, then sent to the
division headquarters to be tried as to the facts of the case.

The laws of war resulted from the Geneva convention, from the
declaration of St. Petersburg (Petrograd), and from the different
Hague conventions. All these diplomatic papers were signed by Germany,
Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria.

The following are the principal articles:

Protect the wounded on the field of battle from pillage and from bad
treatment; respect ambulances and evacuation convoys; respect the
personnel exclusively concerned with the transportation, treatment and
guarding of wounded; do not treat this personnel as prisoners of war
if it falls into the hands of the enemy; but return such personnel, as
well as material, when its retention shall be no longer necessary for
the care of the wounded prisoners.

Refrain from employing any projectile which weighs less than 400 grams
that is either explosive or loaded with incendiary or inflammable
material, from all projectiles having for their sole object the
spreading of asphyxiating or harmful gases, all expanding bullets or
those which will easily flatten out inside the human body, such as
jacketed bullets whose jacket does not entirely cover the core or is
nickel.

Forbid the use of poisons or of poisoned arms, killing or wounding an
enemy who has thrown down his arms and surrendered; declarations that
there will be no quarter; refrain from bombarding towns and cities
which are not defended, from firing on churches, historical monuments,
edifices devoted to the arts, to science, to charity, to sick and
wounded and which are marked by a conspicuous signal known to the
enemy.

Prisoners should be treated as to rations, housing and clothing the
same as troops of the country which has captured them. All their
personal belongings, except their arms and military papers, should be
left in their possession.

The following should be inviolate: The emissary--that is to say, an
individual authorized by a belligerent to enter into talks with the
authorities of the other side and coming under a white flag; also his
trumpeter, his standard bearer, and his interpreter. He loses his
inviolability if it is proven that he has profited by his privilege to
provoke or commit treachery.

An undisguised military man can never be treated as a spy.




CHAPTER 8.

Practice Marches.


"Special attention should be paid to the fitting of shoes and the care
of the feet." (i.d.r., 627.)

Short marches from 2 to 4 miles should be made daily and at a uniform
rate until the troops become hardened. Particular attention must
always be paid to the rate of march--it is imperative for the leading
element to keep a uniform rate per hour.

Be careful and see to it that your troops march on the right-hand side
of the road, and during halts, no one, not even officers, must be
permitted on the left. Keep closed up, and during the last mile of
your march have your company sing some real snappy song, and they will
come in in jubilant spirits. Keep the muzzles of your rifles always
elevated on the march so that men marching in rear wont be bothered.

On the march the first halt is for 15 minutes taken after 45 minutes
of marching. The men should be taught to use this time to adjust their
clothing and equipment, and answer the calls of nature. Do not halt
where there are houses, etc., on this first halt, as a great many men
want to relieve themselves.

The succeeding halts are for 10 minutes after 50 minutes of
marching--except of course during a forced march--when you would march
for a longer period. During rainy or very hot weather the halts should
be made oftener.

Do not have any straggling, remember if a man falls out he must have a
certificate signed by an officer stating the cause. Have one officer
march in rear of the company. Be careful about the use of water. Have
your men take a good drink early in the morning just after reveille,
and on the march use their canteen sparingly. One canteen of water
must last one man one day. Do not allow men to drink until after the
second halt.

On reaching camp the kitchens are put up, latrines are dug, and tents
are pitched. When everything has been tended to each man should give
his feet a good salt water bath. Put them in the water and let them
remain there for 2 minutes. Do not dry them by rubbing, but sponge
them--this will harden the feet. This should be done for the first
three days, after which it can be dispensed with. A change of socks
daily should be made, take one pair of socks from the pack, and wash
out the dirty pair.

Try to avoid night marching.

The leading company in each regiment regulates the rate of march.

"The marching efficiency of an organization is judged by the amount of
straggling and elongation and the condition of the men at the end of
the march." (i.d.r., 632.)

Remember a sanitary squad should be detailed daily to police the
immediate vicinity after each halt.


Field Work.

Field work will be classified under the following heads: Orders,
Deployment, Fire, Attack, Defense, Leadership, Communications, Night
Operations, Patrols, Advance Guards, Rear Guards, Flank Guards, Camp,
March Outpost, and Outpost.

(a) AN ORDER is the will of the commander expressed verbally or in
writing to his subordinates. It should be clear, concise and to the
point. A field order should be given as follows:
       1. Information of the enemy and supporting troops.
       2. General plan of the commander.
       3. Dispositions of the troops.
       4. Instructions for the trains.
       5. Place where messages are to be sent.

(b) DO NOT DEPLOY too early. It is very fatiguing, and has a tendency
to disorganize the skirmish line. The major designates the companies
to be on the firing line, and those to remain in support. The distance
between the firing line and support is from 50 to 500 yards. The
support should be as close as possible under cover.

(c) FIRE DIRECTION is the function of the company commander. He gives
each platoon its sector or objective, determines the range, target,
indicates the class of fire, and the time to open fire. Fire control
is given to platoon commanders. The platoon is the fire unit. "Fire
control implies the ability to stop firing, change the sight setting
and target, and resume a well directed fire. The best troops are those
that submit longest to fire control." Fire discipline is the function
of the individual soldier. "It implies that in a firing line without
leaders, each man retains his presence of mind and directs effective
fire upon the target."

(d) THE TROOPS march in column of squads until under the observation
of the enemy. Platoon columns are used in crossing ground where there
is cover. Squad columns are used across the artillery zone. At
approximately 800 yards a skirmish line is formed. Thin lines may then
be used to advance to the attack. Remember the Major has assigned each
company in the firing line an objective. Be sure to watch out for
flank protection. If the Major has forgotten to have combat patrols on
the exposed flank or flanks, it is up to the flank company to send out
a combat patrol. This patrol should be slightly in advance of the
front line, and off to the right or left. The advance is made by a
fraction rushing forward. These rushes are from 20 to 80 yards. When a
rush is made the remaining troops fire faster. The firing line should
not be reinforced by less than a platoon. The Major determines when to
fix bayonets. The front rank men fix bayonets first, the rear rank men
fire faster, then the rear rank men fix bayonets while the front rank
fire faster. A battalion is the smallest unit in the firing line to
inaugurate a charge. Remember the battalion is the attack unit.

In changing sight setting follow same plan as fixing bayonet, _i.e._,
each front rank first, the rear rank man firing faster, etc.

(e) DEFENSE.--In defense the line is usually stronger and the support
weaker than in the attack. Do not give up your ground unless you have
written orders from the High Command. Watch out for flank protection
by combat patrols.

(f) LEADERSHIP.--A good leader should possess self reliance,
initiative, aggressiveness, superior knowledge, and have a conception
of teamwork. Make your work a game in which each man has a part to
play. Reward merit and give the disagreeable things to be done to the
"knockers." A leader must know his men. Never give them a job to do
that you couldn't do yourself. Train yourself to estimate the
situation quickly and calmly. Have your men well disciplined, well
drilled, well equipped, and well dressed. It might be called
unmilitary by some of the sterner characters in our service, but we
believe by occasionally drawing comparisons to something real
amusing--a good joke--you show your men that the "old Man" is really
made of human stuff. Be sympathetic, and it has been shown by
experience that, for some slight breach of discipline a "little talk"
in the orderly room does the most good, and is the best form of
punishment. Do your work cheerfully, and your men will do likewise.
Keep yourself abreast of the times in all matters military--remember
your men look to you in time of action and excitement and you must be
ready to deliver the goods. Work out and plan your orders, etc.,
simply. Morale is the greatest asset an organization can have. Keep
all your troubles and have the men keep theirs within the company.
Have _esprit de corps_. The real successful leader knows and plays the
game.

(g) COMMUNICATIONS.--Communication is maintained by wireless,
telegraph, telephone, signals, runners, carrier pigeons, aeroplanes,
motor cars, patrols, and connecting files. Each unit usually maintains
communication with the next higher command, and with similar commands
on the flanks.

(h) NIGHT OPERATIONS.--They are used to minimize losses from hostile
fire, to escape observation, and to gain time. The ground to be
traversed at night should be carefully looked over in daylight. Some
distinctive badge should be worn by our troops. The bayonet is chiefly
used at night. Avoid firing. The enemy should be surprised. Place
obstacles in front of your own lines at night. Usually 50 yards is the
maximum range to fire at night.

(i) PATROLS.--"A commander may be excused for being defeated, but
never for being surprised."


PATROLS.

Commander selects leader, strength, gives it a mission, when to report
back, and where to send messages. He gives it a number if more than
one patrol is sent out, information of the enemy, and location of any
friendly patrols that may be or have been sent out. Patrol leader is
then allowed to ask questions.

_Patrol Leader_.--He should have a compass, watch, pencil, note-book,
knife, and a map of the country. He should then do the following:

   1. Assemble his men.
   2. Inspect them.
      a. To see if they are fit for this duty.
      b. That they have no valuable maps or papers, that their
         equipment does not rattle or shine.
      c. Rations and water.
   3. He repeats the instruction that he has received.
   4. He explains any signals that are to be used.
   5. Designates a rallying point in case they are scattered.
   6. Details a second in command.
   7. Takes a formation that will favor the escape of at least one
      man.

_Conduct of the Patrol_.--1. Move cautiously but not timidly.
   2. Do not flinch or show consciousness of it in case you become
      suddenly aware that you are under the observation of the enemy.
      Not knowing that you are aware of his presence he will let you
      come on, and suddenly, when you see cover, make a dash for it
      and escape.
   3. Do not get lost.
   4. Do not allow yourself to think of the enemy as being in one
      direction only.
   5. In entering or passing through woods take an extended skirmish
      line formation.
   6. In passing any short defile bridge or ford, send one man ahead.
   7. If you suspect the presence of the enemy under certain cover, a
      good way to find out is to let one man approach within a
      reasonable distance and then, acting as though he had been
      discovered, turn and run. This will generally draw his fire.
   8. Keep quiet. Forbid unnecessary talking.
   9. From time to time select suitable rallying points in case you
      become separated.
  10. Remember that you do not fight unless in self defense.

_Report_.--1. Do not report the presence of small patrols unless you
have been ordered to do so. Locate the main body or a large command.
   2. Determine his strength, kind of troops and movements.
   3. Remember the indispensable qualities of a report are: accuracy
      as to facts, simplicity, clearness, legibility and correct
      spelling. Surmises must not be given as facts. Separate what you
      know and what has been told you. A report should not be
      expressed carelessly in ten words when it could be clearly
      stated in twenty. Send a sketch if practicable.
   4. Do not send a verbal message.
   5. Address it to C.O. Support or C.O. Advance Guard, etc., not to
      the commander of a certain body of troops. Give date, place and
      time.
   6. Remember to state what you intend to do.
   7. In hostile country send two messages by different routes. In
      friendly country one will suffice.
   8. When the capture of your message is likely, give messenger a
      false one that will be easily found and conceal the true message
      carefully.

_Return_.--1. Do not return over the same route as you avoid ambuscade
and widen your field of reconnaissance.
   2. Report any special features of military value that you have
      seen to your C.O.
   3. Compliment your men.

(j) _Advance Guard._--"An advance guard is a detachment of the main
body which precedes it and covers it on the march" (i.d.r. 639). The
commander of troops designates the advance guard, the distance between
it and the main body, and also designates a commander. The advance
guard commander if he has more than a battalion designates the
reserve, support, distance between them. If the advance guard is a
battalion or less it would have no reserve, and in that case the
advance guard commander would designate the support, advance party,
and the distance between them. In the former case the support
commander would designate the advance party, and the distance between
the support and the advance party. In both cases the advance party
commander designates the point, and the distance between the point and
the advance party. Usually it is the duty of the advance party to send
out flank patrols. The strength varies from 1/20 to 1/3 of the main
body. Remember "the formation of the advance guard must be such that
the enemy will first be met by a patrol, then in turn by one or more
larger detachments, each capable of holding the enemy until the next
in rear has time to deploy before coming under effective fire." The
advance guard must be aggressive. Do not put up with a cautious point.
Have a double connecting file, and if possible every 100 yards. "Each
element of the column sends the necessary connecting files to its
front." On the road in order are: point--advance
party--support--reserve (if there is one)--main body. Have the point
precede the advance party, all the remaining elements follow the one
ahead. This has been found by experience to be the best method of
getting "there."

(k) _Rear Guards_.--"A rear guard is a detachment detached to protect
the main body from attack in the rear." "The general formation is that
of the advance guard reversed." i.e. rear point, rear party, support,
and main body. "In retreat a column is preceded by a body of troops
designated 'leading troops,' whose principle duty is to clear the road
of obstacles and to facilitate the withdrawal of the command."

(l) _Flank Guards_.--As their name imply protect the flanks. They
should be in constant communication with the column. Their formation
usually conforms to that of patrols.

(m) _Camps_.--The four principal factors to be considered in the
selection of the camp site are: near a good road or roads, have good
drainage, plenty of room to accommodate your troops, and have a good
water supply. Immediately after camp is made sinks are dug for the
disposal of excreta. One should be dug for each company on the
opposite flank from the kitchen for the disposal of human excreta, and
one near the kitchen for the disposal of wastes, etc., that cannot be
burned around the kitchen.

(n) _March Outpost_.--A march outpost is usually an advance guard
halted, with observers in each unit on the alert. A cossack post
might be established on a good near by observation point. The march
outpost is the protection furnished the main body at short halts, or
on making camp before the outpost is established.

(o) _Outpost_.--The outpost may be best illustrated by circles:

Each support is numbered from right to left. Each outguard in each
support is numbered from right to left. Each sentinel post in each
outguard is numbered from right to left. Outguards are divided into
three classes, cossack posts, sentry squads and packets. A cossack
post consists of 4 men, 1 posted in observation near the posts of the
remaining three.

A sentry squad consists of one squad, posts a double sentinel post in
observation near the post of the squad. A picket consists of two or
more squads not exceeding half a company. It furnishes cossack posts,
sentry squads, sentinel posts, and patrols. It is usually placed at
the more important points of the outguard line, as a road fork, etc.
The post furnished by pickets may be as far as 100 yards away. There
should be also a sentinel post near the picket in observation. If the
outguard consists of two or more companies there is a reserve. The
reserve is held at some suitable point, where it can readily support
the line. The reserve maintains connection with the main body and the
support. The support occupies the line to be held. This line should be
entrenched. The support maintains communication with its outguards and
with each support on its flanks. It also sends out the necessary
reconnoitering patrols. The outguards furnish sentinel posts and
maintain communication with them, and with the outguards on each
flank. It is the duty of the support commander to inspect his line and
make such changes in the outguards as he deems necessary, then to
report to the outpost commander with a sketch if practicable of his
line when his dispositions are completed. The outpost commander should
inspect the line, order such changes as he deems necessary, and
report with a sketch of the outpost line to the commander of troops
when his outpost has taken up its position. "The support commander
must practice the greatest economy on men consistent with the
requirements of practical security." Instead of using outguards along
the whole front, part of it may be covered by patrols.

[Illustration: Plate #12 DIAGRAM OF OUTPOST LINE]

Outline of Field Service Regulations.

LAND FORCES OF U.S.

    Regular Army.
    Organized Land Militia.
    Volunteer forces.

  How Grouped:
    Mobile Army.
    Coast Artillery.

Mobile Army:

For offensive operations against enemy and so requires maximum degree
of mobility.

Basis of organization the division, a self-contained unit composed of
all necessary arms and services.

Coast Artillery:
   (1) Permanent fortifications for defense against naval attack.
   (2) Semi-permanent fortifications for protection of permanent from
raiders.
   (3) Organization of mobile troops to prevent landing of enemy.


MILITARY INFORMATION.

Essential:
   (1) To enable War Department to estimate equipment and size of force
necessary.
   (2) To enable commander properly to estimate the situation in the
field of operations.


TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION.

Wire, Signaling, Radio and Messenger:
   Message.--Concise, written information sent by messenger or wire.
   Source always given.--"Heard" separated from "seen."
   Report.--Formal account of some enterprise.
   War Diary.--Record of events kept in campaigns.
   Maps.

Reconnaissance:
   The work of individuals or units in gathering information.
   To keep contact with the enemy--to be acquainted with the terrain;
to protect flanks and rear and guard against surprise.
   Reconnaissance begins on entering theater of operations and lasts
through campaign.
   Effected by patrols and air craft.

Indications of enemy:
   Tracks on road.
   Abandoned camps and clothing.
   Infantry, thick, low cloud of dust.
   Cavalry, high, thin cloud of dust.
   Artillery and wagons, broken cloud.

Determination of Enemy Forces:
   Timing past a given point.
   Cavalry (walk), 110 per minute.
   Cavalry (trot), 200 per minute.
   Infantry, 175 per minute.
   Artillery and wagons, 5 per minute.

Security:
   Those measures taken to protect a command from enemy observation,
annoyance and surprise.
   Obtained by covering the front with detachments.
   March.--Advance, flank and rear guards.
   Camp.--Outposts.
   March and camp detachments.--To give warning and resist attack until
such time as detachment in rear can deploy.

Advance Guard:
   Detachment from main body to cover its advance.
   Against surprise for information.
   Push back small bodies.
   Check enemy's advance until deployment in rear.
   Seize good position and locate enemy lines.
   Remove obstacles.
   Strength 1-20 to 1-3 of entire command.

Divisions of Advance Guard:
   Cavalry point.
   Infantry point.
   Advance party.
   Support.
   Reserve.

Leading Troops:
   A detachment protecting the head of a column in retreat.

Rear Guard:
   Detachments protecting the rear of a retreating column.
   Formation like that of advance guard.

Flank Patrols:
   Detachments for protecting the flanks of marching column.

March Outpost:
   Detachments for protection of column halted on march.
   Formation, that of the marching protection.

Outpost:
   The detachments forming the protection for a force in camp or
bivouac.

Divisions of Outpost:
   Reserve.
   Line of supports.
   Line of outguards.
   Pickets.

Sentinel Posts:
   Sentry squads. Cossack posts. Sentinels.
   Detached posts (from support).

Hours of Special Danger:
   Evening and dawn; thus good times to relieve outposts.

Examining Post:
   Intelligence and a place where prisoners, etc., are brought in.

Orders:
   The expression of the will of a commander, either written or verbal.
   Letters of instruction--plans of the superior leaders.

Field Orders:
   Regulate tactical and strategical actions of troops.

General Orders Include:
   (1) All necessary detailed instructions.
   (2) All standing instructions (avoid repetition).
   (3) Proceedings of general and special courts-martial.

Special Orders:
   Relate to assignment and movement of individuals, not necessary to
be communicated to the whole command.

      Bearers of verbal orders must _repeat._

Field Orders:
   (1) Heading.--Title, place, date, hour and number.
   (2) Distribution of troops.--Division of command.
   (3) Body:
      (a) Information of enemy and supporting troops.
      (b) General plan of commander.
      (c) Detailed tactical dispositions to carry out general plan.
      (d) Instructions for trains--also the positions of ammunition
          and dressing stations.
   (4) Ending.--Authentication and method of sending.

Marches and Convoys:
   Successful march.--That which places troops at destination on time,
and in best possible condition.

Rates of March:
   Infantry.--2 to 2-1/2 miles per hour.
   Cavalry.--4 miles (walk), 8 miles (trot), 12 miles (gallop).
   Artillery.--(Same.)

Average Marches:
   Infantry.--15-20 miles per day.
   Cavalry.--25 miles per day.
   Artillery.--15-20 miles per day.
   Load of pack mules equals 250 pounds.

March Orders, State:
   (1) Object of march.
   (2) Distribution of troops.
   (3) Order of march of main body.
   (4) Manner of forming the column.

Halts:
   First hour, 15 minutes' rest. Each successive hour, a 10-minute
rest.
   Weather conditions create exceptions to above rule.

Marches in Peace:
   (1) Changing station.
   (2) Practice.

In War:
   (1) Concentration.
   (2) In presence of enemy.
   (3) Forced marches.
   (4) Night marches.

Convoys (on Land):
   Those trains by which supplies are forwarded to an army from depots,
etc., in the rear--also trains bringing supplies collected by
requisition.

Security Furnished by an Escort:
   (1) Advance guard.
   (2) Main body.
   (3) Flank guard when necessary.
   (4) Rear guard.

Favorable places for attacking convoys:
   Through woods defile.
   Over hedges.
   Sharp bends.
   Ascending or descending slopes.
   Farming corral, watering.
   Whenever conditions are such that escort cannot quickly prepare for
defense.

Conducting Prisoners:
   10 foot soldiers to every 100 prisoners.

Infantry:
   The principal arm, charged with the main field work. Its role is
the role of the entire force and its success is the success of the
whole force.

Artillery:
   The close supporting arm of the infantry.
   Its targets are those most dangerous in the eyes of the infantry.

Cavalry:
   Reconnaissance--supports the other arms and is valuable in pursuit.

Combat:
   Offensive.
   Defensive.
     (a) Temporary.
     (b) Passive defense.

Combat Principles:
   Fire superiority.
   Unity of command.
   Simple and direct plans and methods.
   All troops necessary to mission must be assigned at beginning.
   Detachments justifiable only when they can contribute directly to
success of main battle.
   Some reserves must be kept.
   Flank protection and reconnaissance.

Fire Superiority:
   Must be gained early and maintained.

Frontage of Units:
   Depth in formation for combat rather than extension of line.

Reserves:

Fresh troops must be on hand to

   (1) Give fire line impetus.
   (2) To penetrate enemy lines.
   (3) To fill gaps and help reorganization.
   (4) To meet counter attacks.

Plan of Action:
   Mission of army is to win battle.
   Offensive action must be the rule.
   When enemy is near every available means must be taken to gain
information, in order to prepare for deployment.

Offensive Combat:
The attack develops into 2 parts.
   (1) Assaulting hostile position at selected points.
   (2) Threaten or assault all other parts of enemy line in order
to hold enemy from reinforcing operations.

Enveloping Attack:
   Advantage of converging fire upon position.

Holding Attack:
   An attack for holding enemy in one place, while assaults made at
another point.

Assaults:
   The local concentrated offensive.

Pursuit:
   Only by energetic pursuit can the full fruit of victory be gleaned.
Its purpose is to cause the greatest loss in personnel and morale
possible cavalry and artillery active.

Defensive Combat:
   Passive defense--to gain time, or to hold certain points pending
results in other parts of the line.
   Defense seeking a favorable decision--a parrying of blows while
seeking a favorable opening.
   Counter attack the crisis of this form.
   Counter attack--made by launching reserves at the flank, while the
enemy is fully committed to the attack.

Defensive Positions:
   Requisites:
     Clear field of fire.
     Flanks naturally secure.
     Extent of ground suitable to strength of force.
     Effective corps for reserves.
     Good lines of retreat.
     Good communication.

Position in Readiness:
   A position intended to resist the advance of an enemy in the
immediate vicinity information of whose movements is not full enough
to warrant definite action.

Withdrawal From Action:
   Troops most readily disengaged from the enemy should be withdrawn
first.
   Demands highest order of skill in troop leadership.
   Covering Positions--those positions chosen to cover the retreating
force.
   Retreat--a step by step opposition to the enemy's advance on a
prearranged plan.
   Delaying actions:
      1. Advance delayed as long as possible, consistent with safe
         withdrawal.
      2. Delayers must hold position.

Night Combat:
   Offensive advisable.
      1. Where fire superiority is impossible by day.
      2. To avoid heavy losses by advance to assaulting position by
         day.
      3. To capture posts or patrols.
      4. To surprise for moral effect.

Defensive:
   Obstacles in front of position.
   Trenches heavily manned and supports drawn close.

Shelter:
   Troops under canvas--in camp.
   Troops on ground without canvas--bivouac.
   Troops in huts or villages--cantonment.
   Tactical considerations are paramount in the selection of camp sites
in the theater of operations.

Selection of Camp Site:
   1. Suitably large to accommodate command.
   2. Water supply sufficient and accessible.
   3. Good roads to and in camp.
   4. Wood and grass forage near at hand.
   5. Sandy subsoil for drainage.
   6. Hot weather shade--cold protection.

   To maintain the efficiency of a command, troops must have adequate
shelter.

Sanitary Considerations Around Camp:
   Latrines on opposite side of camp from kitchens.
   Short camps, straddle trenches.
   Long camps, trenches 2 by 6 by 12 with seats.
   Have latrines screened.
   Burn the trenches out daily and keep covered.
   Wash boxes and paint with tar.


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON F.S.R.

1. How are the land forces of the U.S. organized?

_Ans_.--The _Mobile Army_ consisting of Regular Army, organized land
militia when called to Federal service, drafted army, volunteers and
the field artillery and the _Coast Artillery._

Basis of organization is the Division composed of all arms and
self-sufficient. Several divisions may be grouped into a field army,
to which are attached field army troops. These are organized into a
brigade for purpose of supply and administration when necessary
through numbers.

Coast Artillery is charged with the care and use of land and coast
fortifications, including submarine mines and torpedo defenses.

2. What is the object of collecting military information?

_Ans_.--To enable the War Department to decide upon the size of army
or expedition, the proportions of different arms, the character of
clothing, equipment, etc., needed for any operation.

Information collected by the Gen. Staff in time of peace should
include geography, physical resources, and military strength of the
various nations.

3. Define reconnaisance.

_Ans_.--Reconnaisance is used to designate the work of troops or
individuals when gathering information in the field.

It is necessary during combat for the tactical use of troops.

It is carried on by: (a) aero squadron; (b) independent cavalry; (c)
divisional cavalry; (d) by infantry as reconnoitering patrols.

4. What are some indications of the presence of the enemy?

_Ans_.--Clothing or material on roads or in abandoned camps.

A thick, low cloud of dust indicates infantry.

A high, thin cloud cavalry.

A broken cloud artillery or wagon trains.

How would you determine from these indications what the number and
organization of the enemy might be?

_Ans_.--Estimate strength by length of time it takes to pass a given
point. Assuming that infantry in column of squads occupies half a yard
per man, cavalry in column of fours 1 yard per trooper, and artillery
in single column 20 yards per gun or caisson, a given point would be
passed in one minute by about: 175 infantry, 110 cavalry at walk, 200
cavalry at trot, 5 guns or caissons.

5. Suppose on patrol and safely concealed for sighting the enemy at no
great distance, by what rough method would you ascertain the
approximate strength of the force assuming it to be composed of
infantry, cavalry and artillery?

See answer No. 4.

6. What is the composition and arrangement of the advance guard?

_Ans_.--All arms of the service. In open country much cavalry and
field artillery, the latter seldom assigned to command smaller than a
brigade. Also machine guns, ambulance company if the force is large
and engineers for purpose of removing obstacles to the march.

Large command; advance cavalry, support, reserve.

Small command; point, advance party, support, reserve.

Strength should be 1/20 to 1/3, depending on size of command and
character of terrain.

Advance guard increases in size proportionately with size of command.
Why?

7. Define: (a) Outguard; they constitute small detachments farthest to
the front and nearest to the enemy.

(b) Cossack post; observation group at indicated point consisting of
four men, post single sentinel.

(c) Picket; small command up to platoon placed in line of outguards at
more important points such as road forks.

8. What is an order?

_Ans_.--Orders are used by commanders of divisions and separate
brigades for regulating the movement and supply of field trains,
fixing position of distributing points for rations and forage, in
short, have to do with supplies of all kinds, especially food.

   Form:
      The heading.
      The distribution of troops (in certain orders).
      The body.
      The ending.

   The Body contains:
      1. Information about the enemy and our supporting troops.
      2. General plan of the commander.
      3. Disposition of the troops.
      4. Instructions for the trains.
      5. Where the commander may be found or messages are to be sent.

9. During an advance what is the general order of advance of a column?

_Ans_.--Cavalry and horse artillery.
        Infantry and light artillery.
        Engineering and signal troops.
        Trains.

10. What is the average march per day of various arms?

_Ans_.--Infantry, 15 miles per day.
        Infantry in large bodies, 12 miles per day.
        Cavalry, 25 miles per day.
        Field artillery, 15 to 20 miles per day.
        Horse artillery, same as cavalry, to which it may be attached.

Forced marches are from 28 to 30 miles for infantry.

11. How is the escort distributed in guarded convoys?

_Ans._--Advance guard, with advance cavalry 3 to 5 miles ahead.

Main body may be opposite most important point of the train, usually
opposite its center.

Section of infantry at head and tail of train.

Flank guard--if necessary.

Rear guard--1/6 of escort.

What places are most favorable for attacking convoy?

When passing through woods, defile, or over bridge, when going around
sharp bends in the road; when convoy is forming corral.

12. Discuss uses of the various arms in combat.

_Ans._--Infantry: The most important arm, charged with the main work
of the battle.

Artillery: Supporting arm of infantry. Its target is the opposing arm
most dangerous to the infantry.

Cavalry: Reconnaisance before combat, support of other arms during
combat.

13. What is the difference between the attack and the assault?

_Ans._--In combat where the force is as large or larger than a
division, a simultaneous advance against the entire hostile front is
out of the question. Attack is made up of a number of local combats.
Some where enemy is engaged with view to driving him out. This is
called the assault. Other parts of attack with fewer troops simply to
keep the enemy from coming to the support of those troops of the
assaulted lines. The entire advance against the enemy is the attack.

After the firing lines have advanced some distance the weak and the
strong points of the enemy's lines are disclosed. The weak points of
course are selected.

14. Discuss the manner in which a pursuit should be carried out?

_Ans._--If enemy commences withdrawal before front lines have given
way, troops in action push forward until enemy in their front are
driven away. Cavalry and horse artillery are thrown against flanks of
retreating enemy, or on their front. Purpose to further disorganize
the enemy, beat him to bridges, defiles, etc. In meantime reserve is
sent into the pursuit, while troops engaged are assembling to
constitute a new reserve. General scheme is to keep in continuous
contact with enemy, giving him no chance to reorganize. Boldness
necessary.

15. What are the different kinds of defense, and what is the purpose
of each?

_Ans._--(a) Passive; to retain position for specified time with or
without combat, or to prevent enemy from carrying position.

(b) Defense seeking favorable decision; troops forced temporarily to
assume the defensive, with intention of assuming the offensive at
first favorable opportunity.

16. What is the purpose of the counter attack?

_Ans._--To win victory, stave off defeat or prevent lines from being
entered. It may be launched either at the enemy's strong or weak
points depending on conditions. If enemy are beaten off and
disorganized at some point, it may be good opportunity to follow up
the advantage by counter attack. Also at other points where weakness
develops. Counter attack is made at strength of enemy to prevent him
from penetrating the defensive position.

17. How should advance position be organized and held?

_Ans._--Force should not be so weak that it can be driven back to main
body before it accomplishes its purpose, nor so strong that it will
hold out too long, thereby committing the entire force to action in
advance line instead of the line selected.

Trenches. What is position in readiness?

Troops placed in readiness for action where it is intended to resist
the advance of enemy in immediate vicinity, but knowledge of his
movements not yet sufficiently definite to decide upon plan of action.
Preliminary to taking up offensive, or more usually to taking up and
occupying defensive position. Hasten deployment when time comes.

18. If it becomes necessary to withdraw troops from action state steps
necessary to insure the safety of troops during the withdrawal and
retreat.

_Ans._--Last reserves should be used. If none, troops least pressed
used to cover withdrawal. Cavalry and artillery used unsparingly.
Depends on the terrain. First covering position well to the rear so as
not to suffer demoralization. On flanks of line of retreat. There
should also be facilities to withdraw the occupying force. Firing line
made as strong as possible, minimum of reserves held. Use M.G. Perhaps
successive covering points necessary further to rear before advance of
enemy can be checked. When a few miles to the rear, or far enough to
free troops from all contact with the enemy, reorganize. Step-by-step
opposition useless. Number of covering positions should be reduced to
the minimum.

Retreat; trains at once put into march. Other forces at once put into
order of march. All roads used, separate roads for divisions.

Effective rear guard from troops whose strength and morale is least
impaired.

Divisional cavalry and as much artillery as can effectively be used.
Use artillery at long range to keep the enemy deployed, destroy
bridges, etc.




CHAPTER 9.

Feeding Men.


IN CAMP.--You will usually have plenty of food but continual
inspecting is necessary to have it properly cared for, prepared and
served. The kitchen must be kept clean: company commanders inspect
daily and insist on the following:

   1. Have cooks and enlisted men come to attention at the command of
the first man who sees you approach.
   2. Have all refrigerators opened, and put your head in far enough
to detect any bad odors.
   3. Check the bill of fare and see that food not consumed one day is
utilized later--waste bread for bread pudding, for example.
   4. See that doors close properly, that windows are screened and roof
is tight--allow no flies.
   5. Have floors, tables and refrigerators scrubbed daily.
   6. Have the ground around the mess shack raked and thoroughly
policed. Towels hung out to dry must be so hung as not to fall to the
ground. Raked ground does not allow flies to build undisturbed.
   7. Taste the coffee and look in the coffee bins.
   8. Inspect pans, knives, meat grinder (have latter taken apart for
you occasionally).
   9. See that the mess sergeant looks after the incinerator properly;
that he makes the cooks use what he tells them to. Cooks should not be
allowed to help themselves to things; the mess sergeant should weigh
out or set out just what is to be used each day.
   10. Have the food served hot and in individual portions as far as
possible; see that the food is not put on the table too soon.
   11. During each month talk with an old soldier, a raw recruit and a
non-commissioned officer about the mess to see what the men think of
it.

ON THE MARCH.--(1. i.d.r., 669-673.)

If portable kitchens accompany troops, the men should fall in in
single file and be helped to food as they pass by in companies.

FOR INDIVIDUAL COOKING.--Rations issued might be: 1 carton of
hard-tack, 1 ration of bacon, 1 potato, 2 tablespoons of rice, 1
heaping tablespoon of coffee, sugar.

Fires for individual cooking are best made out of small dried twigs to
produce a hot fire large enough for a group of four men.

There are two methods of cooking with the issue mess-kit.

First Method: Each man cooking for himself. As there are but two
cooking utensils, the tin cup and the frying pan, the cooking must be
systematized in order to cook four articles on the two utensils. To do
this, the rice is first cooked in the tin cup filling the tin cup
one-third full of water throwing in the rice. The water is brought to
a boil and boiled until the individual grains of rice are soft
through. The tin cup is then removed from the fire, the water poured
off, and the cup covered with the lid of the mess tin, the rice being
allowed to steam. In the meantime, the bacon should be fried in the
frying pan, the grease being saved. When the rice is well steamed, it
is turned out in the lid of the meat can, then the bacon placed on top
of it. The tin cup is washed out and the man is then ready to fry his
potato and boil his coffee. The cup is filled two-thirds full of water
and the coffee placed in it and boiled until the desired strength is
attained. To prevent the coffee from boiling over, a canteen of water
should be handy and water thrown in whenever the coffee begins to boil
over. When the coffee is strong enough, the addition of cold water
will settle the grounds. In the meantime, cut the potatoes very thin
and fry them in the bacon grease and the meal is ready: hard-tack,
potatoes, rice, bacon and coffee.

Second Method: Squads of four may specialize; one man to collect the
frying pans and fry all the bacon, another the potatoes, another the
rice and coffee, and the other for collection of wood. Either method
may be followed.

Mess-kits should be cleaned immediately after using, sand being used
for scouring. Mess-kits must be cleaned thoroughly.

IN THE TRENCHES.--Usually rations and stores will be carried up to the
trenches by the supports and the reserves. If this is not possible and
it becomes necessary that men from the front line trenches be
employed, not more than 10 per cent of the men in the firing line are
to be away from the trenches at the same time.

RATIONS AND COOKING:

(a) Ration parties from the support and reserve trenches will be made
up in complete units, _i.e._, platoons or companies.

(b) The company mess sergeant will accompany the ration parties for
his company and will report his arrival to the company commander.

(c) Great care is to be taken that ration and carrying parties make as
little noise as possible.

(d) Cooking if possible will be done behind the front line trenches,
and should be concentrated by sections or companies. Steps must be
taken to insure that as little smoke as possible is made by the cook's
fires.

(e) Waste in any form will be discouraged.

(f) Arrangements should be made to insure that soup or some hot drink
be available for the men between midnight and 7 a.m.

Each company commander must see that timely requisitions for rations
are made and to have no delays at meal times. Food should be brought
up in tin boilers about the size of wash boilers so that two men can
handle one of them easily without a relief. In front line, men send
mess kit relayed from hand to hand to these boilers at stations in
each platoon or section and they are relayed back. Sometimes men in
the front line are relieved for a few minutes. Always carry 24 hours
rations.


Camping and Camp Sanitation.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES:

Great care must be exercised in selecting a camp site, but it must
never be forgotten that the tactical situation is of paramount
importance.

The following principles govern the selection:
   (1) Sufficient supply of pure water.
   (2) Good roads, but not too near a main highway on account of dust
      and noise.
   (3) Wood and forage must be obtainable.

  The ground should:
   (1) Give ample room without crowding.
   (2) Have porous soil.
   (3) Have high elevation to make site dry.

  Avoid:
   (1) Marshy ground and mosquitoes.
   (2) Woods or dense vegetation.
   (3) Ravines or depressions in terrain or dry stream beds subject to
      sudden freshets.

  Water must be obtainable:
   (1) Arrange immediately where to obtain
        (a) Drinking and cooking water.
        (b) Water for animals.
        (c) Water for bathing and washing.
   In the case of running water, the point furthest up-stream shall be
guarded for drinking and cooking water. Bathing shall be done at a
point furthest down-stream.

Successful military camping depends upon three (3) things:
   (1) Discipline.
   (2) Cooking.
   (3) Sanitation.

Discipline means control; it means order. Nowhere are these more
essential. Confusion is loss of control, loss of time, and loss of
respect by the men.

Upon arrival at a favorable camp site get the men off their feet. Do
not wait around. As C.O. have your decisions made and the work
organized, so that each squad will be under a leader. Keep squads
together, allowing none to stray off until the work is done, then let
everyone rest except the sentinels.

Do not omit to post sentinels over the water supply and at important
points, even though you have not decided upon the exact location of
camp.

Organize the work by platoons or squads and rotate, if camp is to be
made every few days.

Discipline in camp means more than order and dispatch, however, men
must understand that they are under discipline when off duty--that
they cannot disregard sanitary measures, eat promiscuously, destroy
property, vegetation, or timber and must police the grounds at all
times. Papers, cigarette butts, and newspapers, should never be
allowed on the ground near camp. Eatables should never be kept in
tents to draw vermin. Where possible, in dry weather, the company
street should be wet down to keep the dust out of the tents. Have men
ditch around tents immediately upon making camp. Though it may seem
somewhat of a hardship, a sudden down pour of rain, will recompense
them for this labor many times over. In ditching the tents, completely
circle them, for if this is not done a great deal of rain will come in
the front of the tent.

Food means everything to a soldier. The camp cooking is a barometer of
the organized efficiency and of the enlisted men's attitude. Nothing
else can do so much to help or hinder.

The Company Commander should realize the controlling power exercised
by the company cook and keep the matter in his own hands. He should
accept no excuse for burnt or dirty food.

If officers mess with their companies they will appreciate the
attitude of the men and be able to judge the real situation. Officers
will be well repaid for doing this, as it gives them an idea of the
food that is being served their men.

In the mechanical details of preparing food, the fire is of first
importance. A quick method of cooking is by laying a pair of large
green logs on the surface of the ground just wide enough to place the
pots between them, so that the bottom of the pots will be resting upon
them. Build a fire between these logs, making sure to place the logs
parallel to the direction of the wind.

A pit may be dug, with a sloping bottom, and across this may be placed
the pots, and if iron rails are available, the utensils may be placed
on these. For longer stays this pit may be lined with stone. Stones
retain the heat and less wood is required. Four trenches radiating
from a central chimney will give one flue whatever may be the
direction of the wind. (For more specific data on the subject of fires
and camp cooking, see Manual for Army Cooks--U.S.A.--also notes in
i.d.r., pp. 154-155.)

Make a rule never to allow food to remain in tin cans after opening
them. Remember to place kitchen near available water supply and
furthest from latrines, horse picket lines, or dumps of any kind.

Sanitation comes last in the thoughts of the enlisted man, but it is
no less important for that.

The first requisite is cleanliness. Food receptacles must be scoured
and covers and cracks in tin ware scraped as well as scalding the tins
themselves. Have boiling hot water in tanks (galvanized iron ash cans
are good) for men to wash mess kits in after meals. One can should
contain soapy water so as to cut the grease from the dishes, and the
second tank should contain clean, boiling water for scalding the kits.
Scraps of food should be scraped from the mess tins before immersing
them in water, otherwise washing water becomes filled with small
particles of food. Wiping cloths will greatly add to the convenience
of the men and takes but a short time to make them clean and fit for
use again.

Care must be exercised over three kinds of waste:
   (1) Garbage.
   (2) Kitchen slops.
   (3) Excreta.

Garbage can be burned in the kitchen fires. It should never stand
exposed to the air, but should be tightly covered in iron cans, and
should be disposed of every twenty-four hours. Kitchen help have an
aversion to prompt disposal of garbage and need watching. Fly traps
should be made of muslin and used freely about the kitchen.

Kitchen slops, fats, greasy water, etc., must be drained into covered
pits, never allowing them to be tossed on the ground around the cook
tent. A hole dug and partially filled with stones with a barrel placed
upside down on them, makes a very good receptacle for kitchen slops.
The barrel should be placed so that the inverted top will be a little
way beneath the surface of the ground. A hole should be bored in the
bottom of the barrel and a funnel inserted, through which the slops
may be poured. If the soil is porous, a trough may be dug and covered
with mosquito netting or cheese cloth, and the water poured through
this and allowed to drain off.

Excreta is the most deadly form of waste, and too much care cannot be
exercised in disposing of it. Impress upon every man that he must
cover completely with dirt all excreta so that flies may not have a
chance to approach it.

For short stops and while working in the field "straddle," latrines
are the best. These are shallow trenches the width of a shovel, about
12 inches wide, and several feet in length. For long stops a deep
latrine is dug of the following dimensions: 2 feet wide, 6 feet deep
by 15 feet long. Two posts with crotches, driven at the ends of this
trench, supporting a substantial pole to make a seat * * * for
convenience a hand rail placed in front of this improvised seat will
add to the comfort of the men.

A more permanent latrine is made by covering the pit with a wooden
box, in the top of which are cut holes of the necessary diameter. To
these holes should be fitted spring covers which will shut down
tightly. A wooden frame boarded around this arrangement makes a
satisfactory enclosure.

A urinal made of two long boards joined together to form a V-shaped
trough and drained by a pipe into the pit completes the whole. A pitch
sufficient for rapid drainage should be given the urinal trough.

When necessary to utilize separate urinals, a hole filled with stone
and sprinkled daily with quicklime is sufficient for short periods. At
night there should be a galvanized iron can placed in each company
street and emptied before reveille each morning. This can must be
disinfected by burning out, as must be the latrines when earth or sand
is not used as a covering each time.

Pits must be covered daily with quicklime, ashes, earth and filled
when within two (2) feet of the surface. Their position should be
distinctly marked so as to prevent reopening.

It is a safe rule never to use an old camp ground, but select a new
one, even if less conveniently located. Camp sites should be changed
if it is found that the soil is becoming polluted, or if the ground is
cut up and dusty from constant use.

The condition in which a camp site is left by an organization will
clearly indicate the efficiency and discipline in a command.




CHAPTER 10.

Personal Hygiene and First Aid.


This is a purely arbitrary grouping of topics for the purpose of
saving space. Either of the topics mentioned could be treated at
length; detailed information will be found in any of the reference
books mentioned in the bibliography.

PERSONAL HYGIENE means "the preservation of health by attention to the
care of the body;" it is determined by the formation of correct
habits. Cleanliness of person, clothing and bedding should become a
habit of life with the soldier; but some men will always require
watching and admonition. These habits are: personal cleanliness;
regulation of diet; avoidance of excesses (eating, drinking and sexual
matters); wearing suitable clothing; keeping the bodily processes at
work (kidneys, bowels and skin); taking sufficient exercise,
preferably in the open air; rest of body and mind, with recreation for
the latter; maintaining the surroundings in which one lives in a
cleanly state.

BATHING is easily the most important requirement in matters of
personal hygiene; men should bathe as often as conditions of life in
barracks and camp will permit. On the march a vigorous "dry rub" with
a coarse towel will often prove an excellent substitute when water is
not available. _Teeth_ should be cleaned at least twice daily.
_Clothing_ should be kept clean, particularly underclothing. _Diet_ is
not a matter which a soldier can determine to any extent for himself;
but he can follow a certain few precautions:

   1. Don't eat hurriedly; chew the food properly.
   2. Don't overload the stomach.
   3. Don't eat green or overripe fruit.
   4. Don't eat anything while away from camp or barracks, whose
materials or manner of preparation seem questionable.
   5. Don't bring a "grouch" to the table with you.
   6. Don't eat on the march; don't drink too much water on the march.

SEXUAL INDULGENCE is a matter to be handled tactfully, but with
absolute frankness. Men should be taught that it is not a matter of
necessity; that their health will not suffer by any lack of it; that
they themselves will be the sufferers for any violations of rules of
health. The procedure directed by the War Department for purposes of
combatting infection is as follows:

1. That physical inspections of enlisted men be made twice each month
for the detection of venereal disease.

2. That any soldier who exposes himself to infection shall report for
cleansing and preventive treatment immediately upon return to camp or
garrison.

3. That any soldier who fails so to report, if found to be suffering
from a venereal infection, shall be brought to trial by court martial
for neglect of duty.

4. That men so infected shall be confined strictly to the limits of
the post during the infectious stages of the disease.

5. That all officers serving with troops shall do their utmost to
encourage healthful exercises and physical recreation and to supply
opportunities for cleanly social and interesting mental occupations
for the men under their command.

6. That company and medical officers shall take advantage of favorable
opportunities to point out the misery and disaster that follow upon
moral uncleanliness; and the fact that venereal disease is never a
trivial affair.

With a great many men these precautions and measures will not be
necessary but for the sake of those who are ignorant or neglectful,
proper steps should at all times be taken.

EXERCISE.--A sufficient amount of exercise to maintain health is
ordinarily provided by military drills and other duties requiring
active movement. But this should be regarded only as the minimum of
exercise; athletic work should be encouraged (and this will be done by
the present activities of those "higher up"); bayonet training will be
found an excellent medium of accomplishing a double purpose;
calisthenics should be short but snappy and vigorous. A vigorous
policy of an officer as regards things of this sort will ward off a
great many minor ills and particularly "colds," which are often the
result of poor ventilation.

CLEANLINESS OF SURROUNDINGS.--Men should be taught that cleanliness of
surroundings is not merely for purposes of inspection; but that it is
absolutely necessary where a great number of men are living together
in close quarters. Quarters should be well policed; the company street
should be kept clean; refuse of all sorts should be kept in
receptacles provided for that purpose and frequently removed. A police
squad appointed daily should be charged with this work, and the
corporal of the same made responsible for the condition of quarters
and the company street.

PREVENTABLE DISEASES.--Men should be given a certain amount of
theoretical knowledge of preventable diseases. These matters will be
taken care of to a large extent by the Medical Corps; but men should
be taught just what precautions are necessary to avoid recourse to the
hospital.

VENEREAL diseases have already been touched upon.

TYPHOID FEVER is a germ disease and communicable. Vaccination is the
first preventive; protection of water supply is the second; thorough
disposal of wastes is a third; and sharp punishment for violation of
sanitary regulations is a fourth. Habits of personal cleanliness will
do much to prevent any such disease.

DYSENTERY is very common in field service, but may be prevented by
same methods as for typhoid fever, save for vaccination; men suffering
from this malady should be isolated, if possible, and utmost
precaution taken to prevent spread of the disease.

MALARIA is a mosquito disease; get rid of mosquitoes and then you will
get rid of the carrier of the germs. Quinine may act as a preventive.
Cases should be isolated, if possible.

TONSILITIS AND COLDS may be combatted very effectively by proper
precautions as to ventilation.

MEASLES.--Very important but little known; isolation recommended.

There are many other diseases concerning which the men should be
instructed, but lack of space prevents further treatment of them. They
should be taught the proper treatment of blistered feet, for they
incapacitate a great many men; the chief causes are ill-fitting shoes
and our old friend "uncleanliness." Shoes are the most important
article of clothing of the infantryman; each man should have one pair
well broken in for marching, and two other pairs. Socks should be
soft, smooth and without holes--also _clean_. Further steps for the
prevention of blisters are; hardening of the skin by appropriate baths
for the feet; soaping the feet; or adopting some other means of
reducing the friction of the foot against the sock. _Treatment_--Wash
the feet; open the blister at the lowest point, with a clean needle;
dress with vaseline or other ointment and protect with adhesive
plaster, care being taken not to shut out the air. Zinc oxide plaster
is excellent. Sterilize a needle; thread it with a woolly thread and
run it through blister, leaving ends projecting about one-half inch;
this will act as a wick and dry up blister in short time.

FIRST AID.--Explain to the men the uses of the first aid packet and of
the pouch carried by the Medical Corps. (This pouch is being replaced
by web-belts with pockets.)

WOUNDS may be classed as ordinary cuts, inside wounds, lacerated,
punctured and poisoned wounds. For ordinary minor wounds--iodine and
exposure to the air are usually sufficient. _War wounds_ are usually
caused by something having an explosive effect and may be accompanied
by hemorrhage, shock and even loss of function; they may be arterial
or venous.

POISONED WOUNDS are of two sorts; external and internal.

DIAGNOSIS TAG.--This tag placed on a soldier shows wound, name, rank,
regiment, treatment received, etc. This tag should be carefully read
before further treatment is accorded.

TREATMENT OF WOUNDS.--The compress, of the first aid packet will
always prove of help.

BLEEDING WOUNDS.--The bandage of the first aid packet will stop all
ordinary bleeding; but in aggravated cases the bleeding may be stopped
by pressure on the artery, between the wound and the heart. This may
be done by hand or by means of the forceps in the medical pouch. The
points of compression should be learned and located; in front of the
ear just above the socket of the jaw; in the neck in front of the
strongly marked muscle reaching from behind the ear to the upper part
of the breast bone; in the hollow behind the collar bone; just behind
the inner border of the larger muscle of the arm; the femoral artery
at the middle of the groin where the artery passes over the bone.
Bleeding may also be stopped to some extent by elevating the wounded
part. A tourniquet may be improvised by using the compress, running a
stick or the bayonet through the band, and taking up the slack by
twisting.

POISONED WOUNDS.--For a _snakebite_ make a tight constriction just
above the wound; make an incision at the bite and suck out the poison.
_Do it quickly_. If this is impossible, follow the same plan but give
a stimulant; repeatedly loosen the constriction and let a little of
the poison into the system at a time to be neutralized. In cases of
chemical poisoning do not follow the usual method of treating
poisoning. _Do not make the patient vomit_, but give him something fat
or albuminous such as raw eggs or milk. This forms mercurial
albuminate. _Ptomaine_ poisoning (symptoms are headache, cramps,
nausea, high fever and chills, etc.). Drink salt water, vomit and
repeat the procedure to clean out the stomach. A purgative should also
be taken. Ice cream and milk kept too long are frequent causes of this
sort of poisoning, as are dishes kept in the icebox over night.

FAINTING, HEAT EXHAUSTION AND SHOCK are all of the same class;
symptoms are the same--weak pulse, paleness and low temperature,
tendency to fall to ground. Often follows taking too much water on the
march. Treatment should be in nature of stimulant; make patient lie
down, get blood to his head, wrap him in blankets, give him hot
drinks, etc.

SUNSTROKE.--Symptoms and treatment are different. Patient has a high
temperature. Keep his head high and feet low; disrobe him and pour
cold water on him; keep him in a cool place until temperature lowers
to 101; then remove cold water and temperature will go down itself. Do
not apply cold water too long as the temperature may go to sub-normal
which is just as dangerous as a temperature abnormally high.

BURNS AND SCALDS.--Air should be shut out; otherwise treat like
blister, care being taken not to remove skin. Do not put on anything
that will stick and do not try to remove anything that has a tendency
to stick; put on linseed oil and water, cotton and a loose bandage.

FREEZING AND FROSTBITES.--Use ice water and snow to start with. Keep
the patient cool until he is thawed out. Massage and gradually work up
to a warmer temperature.

FRACTURES are of three kinds; simple, compound and comminuted.

   Simple: Bones do not penetrate the skin (may be single or double).
   Compound: Bones penetrate the skin and cause infection.
   Comminuted: Bone is shattered.

Indications of a fracture are: Pain, redness, swelling and mobility
where it ought not to be.

TREATMENT.--Find out the kind of fracture. Paint the wound and put on
first aid packet; replace the clothes and splint the break. Splints
should not be too long so as to cause any friction or annoyance to the
patient. They may be made out of any available material, such as
rifle, bayonet, shingle, piece of board, scabbard, etc. Bind them
firmly but not too tightly.

ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION.--This subject is worthy of more treatment than
it can be accorded here. Any text on first aid will explain thoroughly
the Schaefer method, which is now the standard method in the army.
Points to be remembered in this method are; remove foreign articles
from the mouth; curl the little finger over the 12th rib; avoid the
pelvic bones; hold the arms straight and apply the pressure by means
of the whole body brought forward; take care not to break a rib; do
not give up too soon.

TRENCH FOOT.--This is due to long standing with legs and feet in wet
clothes. There are three types:

   Mild: Symptoms are numbness and a slight swelling.
   Medium: Additional symptom of a bluing of the leg; also large
blisters.
   Severe: Gangrene sets in.

Tight clothes help to bring on these things. Keep the shoes, socks and
breeches loose; keep the clothes dry; furnish the men with hot food in
the trenches and so keep up the circulation. _Do not use grease_.
Trench foot can be avoided by proper treatment, and punishment should
follow upon its contraction.





CHAPTER 11.

Signaling.


This chapter proposes to cover a large amount of ground in a small
compass; hence treatment must be brief. A more liberal treatment will
be found at different sources; here a few suggestions and hints will
be given.

SEMAPHORE.--Time spent, 61 hours: 6 sessions 1/2 hours, 1 session 1
hour, 1 conference 2 hours. It is easy to say "just learn the
semaphore," but to learn it quickly and well is another matter. A few
suggestions as to the methods followed by others will usually prove
helpful. Learn the semaphore by what may be called the "cycle" method,
_i.e._, teach and illustrate how the successive letters are formed by
moving the arm or arms around the body in a clockwise direction
through successive stages. There are a few exceptions to the rule as
will be pointed out; but they only serve as a few landmarks and help
to fix the whole matter more firmly in mind.

FIRST CYCLE.--1 arm. A to G. One arm always at the interval. Be sure
to make the "D" with right arm straight overhead--then it is more
distinct at a distance. (Plate.)

SECOND CYCLE.--2 arms. H to N, inclusive, with exception of J. One arm
always in the A position. In making I always be sure that the left
hand is at the A position. Some men insist in making this letter wrong
by crossing the body with the left hand uppermost. This is very
awkward and also very indistinct at a distance. P changes arms but
retains same relative position of flags.

THIRD CYCLE.--2 arms. T and U. Right arm in position of C. Letter U
actually resembles that letter.

THIRD CYCLE.--2 arms. O to S. One arm always in B position. In letter
O, left arm is in B position; in all others, right arm.

FOURTH CYCLE.--2 arms. T and U. Right arm in position of C. Letter U
actually resembles that letter.

DOUBLES.--L, U, R, N. These letters are keys to many others and should
be promptly learned.

OPPOSITES.--V and K, O and W, Q and Y, S and M, Z and H, X and I, M
follows L in cycle and is opposite of S, S follows E in cycle and is
opposite of M, K precedes L in cycle and is opposite of V. Figures are
first 10 letters of alphabet, preceded by crossing flags overhead.

INSTRUCTING.--This plan of teaching the semaphore will be found very
helpful, for it helps to reason out the alphabet for the student. By
fixing firmly in mind a few things the student can soon reason out the
alphabet for himself by a very logical plan.

SECOND STEP.--After the men have been taught the alphabet they should
either pair off and one man send to the other, or one man should be
selected to send for the entire class. At first only letters should be
sent until the men have learned the alphabet thoroughly. In this way
the key characters of the alphabet can be fixed in mind, as well as
their relation to the other letters.

THIRD STEP.--The men should next be paired off and instructed to send
simple messages to each other. You should insist that there be no
other communication between the men than by means of their flags.

FOURTH STEP.--Proceed to simple qualification tests, four men working
in two pairs and the pairs alternating in sending and receiving. One
man of first pair should read for his companion to send. On the other
end, one man should read and the other copy. The distances should be
such as to preclude the possibility of conversation. Forty letters per
minute is a fair test; or this system may be followed: Have a good
signalman send 10 combinations of 5 letters each to the whole class.
The men should read these and write them down, _one combination at a
time_. Time limit should be 3 minutes.

[Illustration: Plate 13]

WIG WAG.--Time spent: Same as semaphore course. The alphabet can be
found in any standard signal book, or in the "Manual for
Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates." The dots are made to the
right of the body, the dashes to the left; interval at the end of a
word by dipping the flag once to the front, at the end of a sentence
by dipping it twice, and at the end of a message by dipping it three
times. The alphabet should be learned first according to the same
general plan as in the semaphore; _i.e._, the key letters to certain
combinations should first be learned. The following grouping of
letters may be found helpful:

E I S H; T M O; A U V; N D B; R F L; K C Y; W P J; G Z Q.

The instructor can find many other groupings that will aid him. It
should also be pointed out that each number from one to ten consists
of five characters, and that each succeeding number follows the
previous one according to a regular method.

After the men have studied the alphabet sufficiently, have them send
to each other, limiting the work at first to letters only. Then
gradually work up to the point where they may send simple messages.
Make them rely upon the flags for communicating during the practice.
Do not permit conversation--separate the men by a considerable
distance. In both wig wag and semaphore instruction the same plan
should be followed as in teaching a foreign language; _i.e._, confine
all communication to the medium under study. Qualification tests are
similar to those for the semaphore, except that less speed can be
exacted; 15 characters per minute or 10 combinations of 5 letters each
to be received and written down in 5 minutes.

In both the semaphore and the wig wag men should be taught the
conventional signals used in field work. These can be found in any
manual on the subject.


POINTS TO REMEMBER.

The semaphore is a quicker means of communication than the wig wag;
but the wig wag can be used in a prone position under shelter.

Lanterns can be used at night for semaphoring.

Acetylene lamps can be used at night in place of the wig wag. In this
case a short flash represents a dot, a long flash a dash.

A few men in each company should be developed into expert signalers;
some men always show aptitude for this sort of thing.

Frequent use should be made of signaling in field work.


Letter Codes.

INFANTRY.

For use with General Service Code or semaphore hand flags.

--------------+---------------------------+----------------------------
 Letter of    | If signaled from the rear | If signaled from the firing
 alphabet     |      to the firing line   |      line to the rear
--------------+---------------------------+----------------------------
 AM           | Ammunition going forward. | Ammunition required.
 CCC          |  Charge (mandatory at     | Am about to charge if
              |   all times).             |   no instructions to the
              |                           |   contrary.
 CF           | Cease firing              | Cease firing.
 DT           | Double time or "rush."    | Double time or "rush."
 F            | Commence  firing.         |
 FB           | Fix bayonets.             |
 FL           | Artillery fire is causing |
              |   us losses.              |
 G            | Move forward.             | Preparing to move forward.
 HHH          | Halt.                     |
 K            | Negative.                 |
 LT           | Left.                     |
 O            | What is the (R.N., etc.)? | What is the (R.N., etc.)?
 (Ardois and  |    Interrogatory.         |       Interrogatory.
 semaphore    |                           |
 only).       |                           |
              |                           |
 ..--..       | What is the (R.N., etc.)? | What is the (R.N., etc.)?
 (All methods |    Interrogatory.         |       Interrogatory.
 but Ardois   |                           |
 and          |                           |
 semaphore).  |                           |
 P            | Affirmative.              | Affirmative.
 RN           | Range.                    | Range.
 RT           | Right.                    | Right.
 SSS          | Support going forward.    | Support needed.
 SUF          | Suspend firing.           | Suspend firing.
 T            | Target.                   | Target
--------------+---------------------------+----------------------------


Arm Signals.

The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals either arm
may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing line "retreat
back" at once to prevent misunderstandings.

FORWARD MARCH.--Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold
the arm horizontally, thrusting it in direction of march. This signal
is also used to execute quick time from double time.

HALT.--Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust the hand upward and hold
the arm vertically.

DOUBLE TIME, MARCH.--Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust
the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

SQUADS RIGHT, MARCH.--Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry
it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times
between the vertical and horizontal positions.

SQUADS LEFT, MARCH.--Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry
it downward to the side and swing it several times between the
downward and horizontal positions.

SQUADS RIGHT ABOUT, MARCH (if in close order) or, TO THE REAR, MARCH
(if in skirmish line).--Extend the arm vertically above the head;
carry it laterally downward to the side and swing it several times
between the vertical and downward positions.

CHANGE DIRECTION OR COLUMN RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH.--The hand on the side
toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across
the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a
horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction.

As SKIRMISHERS, MARCH.--Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.

As SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE CENTER, MARCH.--Raise both arms laterally until
horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical and return
to the horizontal; repeat several times.

As SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH.--Raise both arms laterally
until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in
the horizontal position: swing the other upward until vertical and
return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.--Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and
describe horizontal circles.

RANGE, OR CHANGE ELEVATION.--To announce the RANGE, extend the arm,
toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist
closed; by keeping the fist closed battle sight is indicated; by
opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number
equal to the hundreds of yards; to add 50 yards describe a short
horizontal line with forefinger. _To change elevation_, indicate the
_amount of increase or decrease_ by fingers as above; point upward to
indicate increase and downward to indicate decrease.

WHAT RANGE ARE YOU USING? OR WHAT IS THE RANGE?--Extend the arms
toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting
on the other hand, fist closed.

ARE YOU READY? OR I AM READY.--Raise the hand, fingers extended and
joined, palm toward the person addressed.

COMMENCE FIRING.--Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm
down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the body.

FIRE FASTER.--Execute rapidly the signal "COMMENCE FIRING."

FIRE SLOWER.--Execute slowly the signal "COMMENCE FIRING."

TO SWING THE CONE OF FIRE TO THE RIGHT, OR LEFT.--Extend the arm in
full length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing the arm to
right (left), and point in the direction of the new target.

FIX BAYONET.--Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix
Bayonet."

SUSPEND FIRING.--Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal
position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.

CEASE FIRING.--Raise the forearm as in _suspend firing_ and swing it
up and down several times in front of the face.

PLATOON.--Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader;
describe small circles with the hand.

SQUAD.--Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing
the hand, up and down from the wrist.

RUSH.--Same as _double time_.

The signals PLATOON and SQUAD are intended primarily for communication
between the captain and his platoon leaders. The signal PLATOON or
SQUAD indicates that the platoon commander is to cause the signal
which follows to be executed by platoon or squad.




CHAPTER 12.

Guard Duty.

Time spent: Study, 2 hours.
            Conference, 2 hours.
            Formal guard mounting.

Guards are divided roughly into four classes:
   1. Exterior--(Which come more properly under head of field service).
   2. Interior--Their purpose is to preserve order, protect property
and enforce police regulations.
   3. Military Police--Also treated of in field service.
   4. Provost Guards--Used in the absence of military police to aid
civil authorities in preserving order among soldiers beyond the
interior guard.

Here we are concerned chiefly with interior guards. We shall make up a
brief summary of what an officer must know and what he ought to teach
his non-coms. and men. Also we shall touch upon the subject of guard
duty as it has been changed by trench warfare.

An officer ought to have a good grasp of the following subjects
relative to guard duty:
   1. Guard mounting (both formal and informal).
   2. Posting reliefs.
   3. Preparation and running of rosters.
   4. General orders--also special orders at post No. 1.
   5. Duties of the following in reference to guard duty:
       1. Commanding officer.
       2. Officer of the day.
       3. Adjutant.
       4. Sergeant Major.
       5. Commander of the guard.
       6. Sergeant of the guard.
       7. Corporal of the guard.
       8. Musicians.
       9. Orderlies and color sentinels.
      10. Privates of the guard.
   6. Compliments of the guard.
   7. Prisoners: General.
                 Garrison.
                 Awaiting trial.
                 Awaiting result of trial.

      How is an officer arrested? Can an enlisted man arrest him?
      How is a non-com. arrested?
      How is a soldier arrested?
      How is a civilian arrested?
      (See a.w. No. 68.)

An officer ought to-teach to his non-coms. as much of the above as is
consistent with time and other demands; he ought to teach to his
privates all that is necessary to the proper discharge of their duties
in this connection.

FORMAL GUARD MOUNTING.--Here follow a few reminders that may help the
reader to keep the ceremony in mind:

1. Weather conditions permitting, guard mounting takes place every day
at the discretion of the C.O.

2. Tour of duty is 24 hours; there are 3 reliefs, 2 hours on and 4
hours off. No organization is detailed for guard duty more than once
in 5 days if this can be prevented.

CEREMONY.--1. The band takes post, its left 12 paces to the right of
where the right of the guard is to be.

2. Adjutant's Call.--The Adjutant marches to the parade ground
(Sergeant Major on his left) and takes post 12 paces in front of and
facing the center of where the guard is to rest. The Sergeant Major
continues on, marches by the left flank and takes post 12 paces to the
left of the band and facing in the direction the line is to extend.

3. The details are marched to the parade ground by the senior
non-commissioned officers, halted and dressed as follows:

FIRST DETAIL.--Non-commissioned officer.--1. Detail; 2. Halt. The
detail is halted against the left arm of the Sergeant Major; the
non-commissioned officer steps out, faces the Sergeant Major at a
distance slightly greater than the front of the detail and commands:
1. Right; 2. Dress. The detail dresses on the line formed by the
Sergeant Major and the Commander of the detail. 3. Front. The
Commander of the detail salutes and reports: "The detail is correct"
(or otherwise). When the report is made the Sergeant Major returns the
salute. The Commander of the detail passes by the right of the guard
and takes post in rear of the right file of his detail.

OTHER DETAILS.--Non-commissioned officers.--1. Detail; 2. Halt; 3.
Right; 4. Dress; 5. Front. Each commander of a detail halts his
detail, dresses it on the general line, salutes and reports as does
the first; then takes his post in a similar manner. Should the
commander of a detail not be a non-commissioned officer he passes by
the right of the guard and retires.

4. SERGEANT MAJOR.--He takes one step to the right, draws sword and
verifies the detail, and then commands: "Count off." He completes the
last squad if necessary and indicates the division into platoons: then
takes his post and commands: 1. Open ranks; 2. March. This is executed
as laid down in the Infantry Drill Regulations. 3. Front. He then
moves parallel to the front rank until opposite the center, turns to
the right, halts half-way to the Adjutant, salutes and reports: "Sir,
the details are correct" (or otherwise).

5. ADJUTANT: "Take your post." (Adjutant draws saber.)

6. SERGEANT MAJOR.--Faces about, approaches to within two paces of the
center of the guard, turns; to the right and moves three paces beyond
the left of the guard, turns to the left, halts on the line of the
front rank, faces about and brings his sword to the order. (When the
Sergeant Major has reported the Officer of the Guard takes his post,
as shown in the diagram, and draws saber.)

7. ADJUTANT.--1. Officer (officers) and non-commissioned officers; 2.
Front and center; 3. March. At "Center" the officer carries saber; at
"March" the officer advances and halts 3 paces from the Adjutant,
remaining at the carry; non-commissioned officers pass by the flank,
move along the front and form in order of rank from right to left, 3
paces behind the officer, remaining at the right shoulder. If there is
no officer of the guard the non-commissioned officers halt 3 paces
from the Adjutant. The Adjutant assigns them to their positions in
order of rank--commander of the guard; leader of the first platoon;
leader of the second platoon, etc., and commands: 1. Officer
(officers) and non-commissioned officers; 2. Posts; 3. March. At the
command "March" they take their posts as prescribed in the School of
the Company with open ranks (Platoon leaders 3 paces in front of
center of their platoons).

8. ADJUTANT: "Inspect your guard, sir."

9. OFFICER OF THE GUARD.--Faces about and commands: "Prepare for
inspection."

10. ADJUTANT (after the inspection is ended, and after posting himself
30 paces in front of and facing center of the guard--at the same time
the new Officer of the Day takes position about 30 paces behind the
Adjutant, facing the guard, and with the old officer of the day 1 pace
in rear and 3 paces to the right): 1. Parade; 2. Rest; 3. Sound off.
(The band, playing passes in front of the Officer of the Guard to the
left of the line, returns to its post and ceases to play.) 1. Guard;
2. Attention; 3. Close ranks; 4. March. (As in the School of the
Company.) 1. Present; 2. Arms. He then faces the new officer of the
day, salutes, and reports: "Sir, the guard is formed."

11. NEW OFFICER OF THE DAY (returning salute): "March the guard in
review, sir."

12. ADJUTANT.--He carries saber, faces about, brings the guard to the
order and commands: "1. At trail, platoons right; 2. March; 3. Guard;
4. Halt." The band takes post 12 paces in front of the first platoon,
the Adjutant 6 paces from the flank and abreast of the Commander of
the Guard, and the Sergeant Major 6 paces from the flank of the second
platoon. Adjutant commands: "1. Pass in review; 2. Forward; 3. March."

13. COMMANDER OF THE GUARD (as the guard reaches a position 6 paces
from the Officer of the Day): 1. Eyes; 2. Right; (at 6 paces beyond
the Officer of the Day) 3. Front.

At 12 paces beyond the Officer of the Day the Adjutant and the
Sergeant-Major halt, salute and retire.

14. COMMANDER OF THE GUARD (as the Adjutant and the Sergeant Major
retire): 1. Platoons, right by squads; 2. March. The guard is then
marched to its post; the old guard is then relieved and sentinels
posted according to the principles laid down in the Manual of Interior
Guard Duty. (See diagrams at the end of this chapter.)

GUARD DUTY IN THE TRENCHES.--It differs from guard duty as we are
accustomed to it. The challenge is not "Who is there?" but rather a
sudden and imperative "Hands up." The party challenged throws up his
hands and gives the countersign in a low voice. Sentinels are posted
in the front line and in the line of dugouts, one at each entrance to
a dugout to give immediate warning. Watchers are posted at places
having a good range of view; at night they keep watch over the
parapets rather than through the loopholes since the latter afford
only a narrow range of view. Auto riflemen (6 or 7 to a post) are used
as watchers, one being on duty at a time. They should have a favorable
background to provide concealment.

[Illustration: Plate 14]

[Illustration: Plate 14A.]




CHAPTER 13.

Company Administration.


Company administration is a very broad subject and can be really
learned only by experience. However, this chapter will attempt to
point out a few suggestions and practices that may prove of some
assistance, particularly to the new officer. We shall treat briefly of
the first organization of the company; then we shall try to reproduce
in some slight measure the actual work of a day in camp (more
particularly of a training camp such as Plattsburg); then finally we
shall treat of the orderly room and some of the problems that come up
in army paper work.


Notes on Organization.

(By MAJOR W.H. WALDRON, Twenty-Ninth Infantry.)


1. PREPARE IN ADVANCE TO RECEIVE MEN ASSIGNED TO COMPANY.

(a) Detail one of the Lieutenants in charge of the company mess.

DUTIES.--Secure the necessary kitchen and dining room equipment and
prepare everything to start the mess; make up a bill-of-fare for a
week based on the ration components and supplies available; secure the
rations and issue them to the cooks daily. Train a mess Sergeant in
the duties that fall to him. In fine, this Lieutenant will have
complete charge of the company mess, the cooking, and serving of the
meals, training of cooks and men detailed for duty in connection with
the mess.

(b) Detail the other Lieutenant in charge of property.

DUTIES.--Procure all the articles of individual and company equipment
from the Regimental Supply Officer. Get into the company storeroom and
prepare it for issue. Train the Company Supply Sergeant in the duties
that will fall to him.

(c) This leaves the Company Commander free to organize the orderly
room and make the necessary preparations to receive the men as they
report.

IF IN CANTONMENT.--Lay out the quarters into platoon sections and
subdivide these into squads, allowing space for platoon leaders and
guides. Starting at the end of the quarters plainly mark each squad
section, 8 beds, four on each side of the aisle with the number of the
squad--first squad, second squad, etc.

IF IN TENTS.--Number the tents, one for each squad, leaving two tents
in the center for platoon leaders, guides, etc. Prepare a sheet having
a space for each squad, large enough to enter eight names in it.
Prepare a measuring post where the men can be measured for height as
they report.

2. MEN REPORTING:

(a) When the men arrive they will be sent to Regimental Headquarters
direct. There they will receive their assignment to a company. When so
assigned they will be directed to join the company.

(b) A table on which is spread the squad assignment sheet is located
at the head of the company street. Nearby is located the measuring
post. When a man reports, look him over, receive him in the company,
make him feel at home. Make him feel that he is welcome. This little
act will pay you large dividends in contentment and company _esprit de
corps_ later on. Turn him over to the man in charge of the measuring
post to get his height. Assign him to a squad corresponding to his
height. Enter his name in the squad space to which he is assigned and
send him to the section of the cantonment designated for that
particular squad. Detail a few of the first men who report for duty to
assist in this work.

Say you have 16 squads. They will run in height about as follows:

1st squad, over 6 feet; 2nd, 6 feet; 3rd, 6 feet; 4th, 5 feet 11
inches; 5th, 5 feet 11 inches; 6th, 5 feet 10 inches; 7th, 5 feet 10
inches; 8th, 5 feet 9 inches; 9th, 5 feet 9 inches; 10th, 5 feet 8
inches; 11th, 5 feet 8 inches; 12th, 5 feet 7 inches; 13th, 5 feet 7
inches; 14th, 5 feet 6 inches; 15th, 5 feet 6 inches; 16th, 5 feet 5
inches. If there are more squads put them in the 5 feet 7 to 5 feet 9
inches class.

(c) As soon as practicable place one member of the squad in charge for
the ensuing 24 hours, change this detail every day until every man of
the squad has had an opportunity to demonstrate his ability. This will
assist you greatly in the selection of your non-commissioned officers.

(d) Should the entire company be assigned in a body, line them up in a
row according to height and assign them to squads. Place the most
likely looking man in each squad in charge for the time being.

3. ISSUE OF EQUIPMENT:

(a) The articles of camp equipment, bedding and poncho should be
issued as soon as practicable. These are necessary for the immediate
comfort of the men.

(b) Hold the articles of personal equipment for issue later on. Do not
dump the entire equipment on a man all at once. There is nine-tenths
of it that he knows nothing about. He does not know what it is for. As
the training progresses you can issue it to him, an article or two at
a time until he has finally gotten all of it. Before issuing an
article, explain at a company formation, what it is for, the purpose
it serves and where it is carried.

(c) Uniforms and clothing should be procured as soon as practicable.
The commanding officer will indicate whether or not the clothing will
be requisitioned for in bulk or on individual clothing slips. The
supply officer will provide a quartermaster publication which shows
the sizes of clothing by the numbers. Seek out a couple of tailors in
the company, have them measure the men and make a record of the sizes
of clothing that they require. Shoes will have to be fitted to each
man. Make them large enough. The average recruit will want to wear a
shoe at least one size too small for him. When he gets the pack on and
drags it around all day his feet will swell and fill his small shoes
to the bursting point. Do not let the men decide what size shoes they
will wear; you decide it for them and make them plenty big. This work
of measuring the men can be started right out the first day. The
captain that gets in his requisition first, properly made out, will be
the first to get his clothing.

4. ORGANIZATION:

(a) As soon as practicable get the company organized into permanent
squads. Try out squad leaders for a few days. You will soon be able to
select the men that you will want for non-commissioned officers. Be
careful in their selection so that you will not have to make many
changes. Don't be in too much of a hurry about making sergeants; try
them out as corporals first. Try to get a good man and start him in as
mess sergeant. A man with hotel experience, especially the kitchen and
dining room end of the business, give him a trial. Your lieutenant in
charge of the mess can tell in a day or two how he stacks up. Make it
plain that the men detailed from day to day are merely acting
non-commissioned officers and that you are merely placing them in
charge to give them an opportunity to demonstrate their ability. It's
better to work this proposition out in a systematic manner than it is
to jump in and make a lot of non-commissioned officers that you will
have to break later on to make way for better men.

Give your acting non-commissioned officers all the responsibility you
can. Assign tasks with their squads and see how they get away with it.

(b) At one of the first formations explain the rules of camp
sanitation and personal cleanliness and the necessity for their strict
observance.

(c) Start right out with a system of rigid inspections so that the men
will acquire habits of cleanliness and tidiness of their surroundings.
Once this is acquired it is easily maintained. The reverse of this
statement is equally true. Let a company get started in a slovenly,
untidy manner and it is difficult to get it back on the right track
again.

(d) As soon as uniforms are issued have every man dispose of his
civilian clothing, dress suit cases, trunks, etc. There is no place
for them in the cantonments or tents. Strip right down to uniforms and
allow no civilian clothing around.

(e) Before issuing rifles provide places for their safe keeping in
cantonments. If wooden trunks are used, a wire staple driven into the
upright of the bed at the height of the slacking swivel forms an
excellent support; simply hook the slacking swivel into the staple.

(f) Get every man interested in the company. Be personally interested
in every man yourself. Do not permit any swearing at the men or around
the barracks. Explain the idea of military courtesy and the salute and
insist on its being carried out at all times. By doing all of these
things and systematizing your work of training and instruction right
from the start you lay the foundation for a "good company." Fifteen
good companies make a "good regiment" and so on up to the division,
and that's what we want "good divisions"--the basis of which lies in
the "good company" which you are going to command.

DAY'S ROUTINE.--The day's routine will soon develop and cannot be a
stereotyped thing. It will be determined to a large extent by local
conditions. But in all training camps some such model as the
following will no doubt be followed:

   REVEILLE:
     First call, 5.30 a.m.
     March, 5.40 a.m.
     Assembly, 5.45 a.m.

At first call the non-commissioned officer in charge of quarters, or
some other charged with that duty, will go through the barracks and
awaken the men. After a short time this may be dispensed with.

   MESS:
     First call (followed by mess call), 5.55 a.m.
     Assembly, 6.00 a.m.

Allow the men approximately 20 minutes for breakfast and the privilege
of returning individually--this for purposes of attending to the calls
of nature.

SICK CALL, 6.30 a.m.--Have the non-commissioned officer in charge of
quarters put through this call; the sick will report to the orderly
room, be entered on the sick report and marched to the hospital by the
same non-commissioned officer. All men answering sick call should be
questioned as to the nature of their trouble and its cause; men who
are trying to dodge work should be caught up with. Care should be
exercised in making out the sick report; be careful what you put on it
and where you put it. The sick report will be treated further under
"Paper Work."

   MORNING INSTRUCTION:
     First call, 6.50 a.m.
     Assembly, 7.00 a.m.
     Recall, 12.00 m.

Utilize this time according to the schedule laid down by higher
authorities. It will no doubt be insisted that the schedule be closely
adhered to; but this can be done without completely destroying
individual initiative.

   MESS:
     First call (followed by mess call), 12.10 p.m.
     Assembly, 12.15 p.m.

Allow 30 minutes for noon mess. The men may not consume it all; but
judgment must be used in this matter. After mess have the company
formed and marched back to barracks. This plan should be followed for
a time, at least, particularly with "green" men purely for
disciplinary purposes.

   AFTERNOON INSTRUCTION:
     First call, 1.20 p.m.
     Assembly, 1.30 p.m.
     Recall, 4,30 p.m.

Same general procedure as for morning work.

SICK CALL, 4.45 p.m.--When the sick report is sent to the hospital in
the afternoon, it is customary to make a new entry for all men who are
in the hospital. In this way a running account is kept and quickly
referred to without running all through the book.

The time from recall to retreat at 5.30 or thereabouts can usually be
used to advantage in cleaning up and getting ready for this ceremony.

   RETREAT.--(Formal--on the parade grounds).
     First call, 5.30 p.m.
     Assembly, 5.35 p.m.
     Retreat, 5.50 p.m.

   MESS:
     First call, followed by mess call, 6.00 p.m.
     Assembly, 6.05 p.m.

   SCHOOL CALL (except Saturdays), 7.00 p.m.
   TATTOO, 9.00 p.m.
   CALL TO QUARTERS, 9.30 p.m.
   TAPS, 9.45 p.m.

At taps lights should be out and absolute quiet should prevail. This
rule should be insisted upon from the very beginning of the training
period. A check roll call is often taken at taps and the company
reported to the Officer of the Day. Likewise, the company is reported
to the Officer of the Day at reveille, retreat and mess formations;
however, these things are determined entirely by local conditions.

SUNDAYS AND HOLIDAYS.--Calls are 1/2 hour later, except retreat,
tattoo, call to quarters and taps. In case an entertainment is given
on the post, taps usually follow its close by a half hour.

DETAILS for any day should be published at retreat formation the day
previous; bulletins and notices should also be published to the
company at this formation.

PAPER WORK.--Paper work in the Army is generally viewed askance. A
certain amount of it is absolutely necessary, but the amount can be
reduced by careful attention to the way in which the work is done. A
good first sergeant and a good company clerk will take a load of
trouble off the shoulders of the company commander in this respect;
but usually these men must be trained. Instructions on the blank forms
should be carefully read the first time a certain paper is made out.
Attend to all paper work promptly and make a note of anything that
cannot be handled immediately. Do not let anything get into the
company files until it has been O.K'd. by the company commander or
initialed by the officers. Have a basket for the company commander and
one for the other officers where they may expect to find matters that
are of interest to them. Get reports, requisitions and other papers in
on time. Do not wait until they are called for. Establish a daily, as
well as a monthly, system of doing things in the orderly room and then
stick to it as nearly as possible. Have a file for:

   1. General orders, post and W.D.
   2. Special orders.
   3. Memorandums, bulletins and notices may be included under this
      head.
   4. Company orders.
   5. Document file (copies of letters, etc.).

The needs for files will be determined largely by local conditions.
The point is to have things where they can be found readily under an
appropriate heading; and to have them accessible to others besides the
company clerk. Keep a copy of everything, as nearly as possible, but
do not clutter up your company files with unimportant items. Keep your
orderly room looking as neat as possible.

MILITARY CORRESPONDENCE.--A very important feature of Army Paper Work.
Neatness, brevity and clarity are to be sought--ceremonial forms are
avoided.

References to Army Regulations: Paragraphs 225, 512, 776, 778, 779,
780, 786, 789, 790, 822 (g.o. 23 w.d.).

A letter consists of three parts; heading, body and signature. The
heading consists of designation of the command, place and date, all
placed in the upper right-hand corner. At the left, and with a margin
of about an inch, should be:

   From:

   To:

   Subject:

A double space should be left between these lines.

The body should be divided into numbered paragraphs, each paragraph
treating of but one topic. The lines should be single-spaced, but a
double space should be left between the paragraphs. The signature
should be made without any unnecessary forms.

Any good treatise on this subject will show the proper forms for a
military letter.

Indorsements follow the signature in succession on the same page or on
added pages. They are very brief, follow a prescribed form and, if
necessary, are paragraphed in the same way as the letter. Letters
should be made in three, four, five or six copies, according to
destination. They should always be handled through military channels;
time will be lost if you try to dodge it.

MORNING REPORT.--This is a complete record of daily events and should
be kept with great care. It is submitted daily to the proper
authority, checked and returned. Any standard work on this subject
will show the proper method of making entries. Be sure to make entry
of all events affecting your company, its numbers or condition. If
there is no change, say so.

RATION RETURN.--This form is made out in duplicate for periods of from
10 days to a month. In case men join the company after the ration
return has been submitted for a given period, one ration for each man
for each day from date of joining to date of submitting next return,
may be drawn on the next return. The same plan is followed in making
deductions for men in the hospital or absent from the company. For
ration allowances see a.r. 1202-1252.

SICK REPORT.--A commissioned officer of the company and the medical
officer sign on one line following the last entry for the occasion.
Neither may encroach on the territory of the other and both enter
their opinions as to whether the sickness is in line of duty. No
erasures are allowed.

DUTY ROSTER.--For any roster the key word should be "equality of all
duties." It means the difference between contentment and
dissatisfaction among your men. Keep an exact list of men available
for every duty and detail them in exact rotation; adjust to complete
satisfaction any little differences that arise. Let the men know that
you want to give them a square deal and they will respond. The longest
man off duty is the first man to be called. In the regular service the
roster covers guard duty and other duties, notably kitchen, police and
other fatigue work.

MONTHLY RETURN.--The form is self explanatory. Read the instructions
on the blanks before filling them in. By keeping in the company a
record of events you can easily fill out the return properly when the
time comes.

SERVICE RECORD.--References in Army Regulations: Paragraphs 115, 118,
124, 135, 138, 938, 1337, 1361, 1451, 1535. Article 16.

The service record is a complete personal history of the soldier and
follows him wherever he goes. It contains: a descriptive list, report
of assignment, record of prior service, current enlistment, military
record, record of allotments, clothing account and settlement,
deposits, indorsements (this latter to give reasons for change of
status or station of the soldier).

DISCHARGE.--Discharges are of three kinds: honorable, dishonorable and
plain discharge. The first is on a white sheet and entitles the
soldier to re-enlist; the second is on a yellow sheet and is given
following sentence of a general court-martial; the third is on a blue
sheet and is given on account of physical disability--it does not
entitle the soldier to re-enlist.

FINAL STATEMENT, a.r., Art. 21.--The final statement is issued to
every enlisted man upon his discharge unless he has forfeited all pay
and allowances and has no deposits due him.

The final statement is not to be prepared on the type-writer. Money
amounts shall be written in both figures and words. The final
statement should show the amount due the soldier for: additional pay;
clothing; deposits; pay detained; miscellaneous causes. It also should
show the amounts due the United States by the soldier for various
reasons. In addition it should also state the period covered by the
last pay of the soldier.

Officers signing and certifying to the various entries are
responsible.

MUSTER ROLL. a.r. ARTICLE 42.--The muster roll is made bi-monthly and
great care should be taken in its preparation to make it both correct
and complete. All officers and enlisted men are taken up on the muster
roll from the date of receipt of notice of assignment. The following
are entered on the rolls:

   1. Commissioned officers belonging to the organization, in order of
rank.
   2. Commissioned officers attached to the organization, in order of
rank.
   3. Non-commissioned officers in order of grade.
   4. All others except musicians and privates, alphabetically arranged
in order of grade.
   5. Musicians.
   6. Privates.

All names, except those entered by rank, are entered in alphabetical
order with the last name first.

The names of enlisted men attached to the company are borne on a
detachment roll. This is not true of officers attached to an
organization, however.

Remarks should be entered according to the model which can be obtained
from the Adjutant General's Office.

All changes should be noted which affect the status of the soldier. An
excellent idea for retaining this data is to keep a separate card for
each man and to enter thereon anything that affects his status.

PAY ROLL. a.r. 1315-1383.--The pay roll is made out monthly in
triplicate, one copy being retained and two copies being sent to the
Quartermaster. On the pay roll there are four certificates to be
signed:

   1. The commander of the organization examines the roll carefully and
certifies that all entries are correct.
   2. The inspecting and mustering officer signs certifying that all
are present or accounted for--or notes exceptions.
   3. The commanding officer witnesses the payment of each man and
certifies to that effect.
   4. The commanding officer certifies that the duplicate and triplicate
are exact copies of the original.

NAMES.--The last name is entered first; _e.g._, Smith, John A. But the
soldier signs as follows: John A. Smith.

LOSSES.--The losses should follow immediately on the next line after
the last entry. They include those by reason of: Discharge, transfer,
retirement, desertion and the fact that the man has been dropped.

Each officer should check his knowledge and be sure that he knows the
purpose of, and is familiar with the following papers: (References are
to Army Regulations and to Adjutant and Quartermaster forms.)

   (1) Morning Report (a.r. 280).
   (2) Daily Sick Report (a.r. 280), (339 a.g.o.).
   (3) Duty Roster (a.r. 282), (339 a.g.o.).
   (4) Company Fund Book (a.r. 280), (452 q.m.c.).
   (5) Delinquency Record (a.r. 280), (509 q.m.c.).
   (6) Property Responsibility:
         Quartermaster (a.r. 280), (501cc q.m.c.).
         Ordnance (a.r. 280), (501c q.m.c.).
   (7) Descriptive List, Military Record and Clothing Account (a.r.
       280), (29 a.g.o.).
   (8) Memorandum Receipts (a.r. 281), (448 a.g.o.).
   (9) Abstract Record of Memorandum Receipts (par. 1, g.o., 6, 1916),
       (448b a.g.o.).
  (10) Summary Court Records (a.r. 9570), (594 a.g.o.).
  (11) Statement of Clothing charged to Enlisted man (165b q.m.c.).
  (12) Abstract of Clothing (180 q.m.c.).
  (13) Company Target Records (307 a.g.o.).
  (14) Individual Clothing Slips (165 q.m.c.).
  (15) Files of Orders (a.r. 280).
  (16) Correspondence Book with Index (a.r. 280).
  (17) Document File.
  (18) Record of Rifles (p. 14, Ordnance Pamphlet No. 1965).
  (19) Record of Sizes of Clothing (g.o. 48, 1911).
  (20) Company Return (a.r. 811), (30 a.g.o.).
  (21) Muster Roll (a.g. 807).
  (22) Returns (a.g. 811).
  (23) Return of Casualties.
  (24) Pay Roll (366 q.m.c.).

As well as numerous other forms for special occasions which are not
here listed.

Except for the morning report, sick report, duty roster,
correspondence book and various files, practically all the
afore-mentioned records are now kept at regimental headquarters
instead of in the company orderly room.




CHAPTER 14.

Conferences.

(Time--2 hours each day in afternoon.)


1. Know your subject and be thoroughly prepared.

2. Have an outline to refer to, showing main points you wish to cover.

3. Do not allow a man to give an entire chapter in reply to a
question. Make your questions short and specific--and require answers
to be the same.

4. Get every man on his feet at least once every day.

5. Have a laugh every little while--keep the men awake.

6. Vary your system of calling on men so that no one will know when he
is likely to be called on.

7. Avoid reading to the men.

8. Require men to put things on the blackboard when possible.

9. In case of a conference for which no time has been given for
preparation, use all possible schemes to get the points home without
having either a lecture or a study period. Allot--a definite time and
require definite results--_e.g._, allow 10 minutes for a rough map
showing the placing of a picket--15 minutes for an outline of a
certain chapter, etc.

10. Never forget that there are 2 sides to every conference--what you
plan to give and what you plan to get. You must test the men to see
how well they know the work but you must also make sure that every man
knows it when he goes out even if he didn't when he came in.


Study.

The study period usually comes after a full day in the open, and the
warm air and artificial light soon make the most ardent soldier doze
off into cat-naps. Something must be done to counteract these
influences and keep the men on the job. The terror of the next day's
conference will not do it, as that time seems safely distant, with all
night ahead.

Assign the men three to five questions on the work to be studied,
which will be asked in conference and which require a pretty general
knowledge of the subject. Every man will then have a definite
objective and a certain minimum of attainment for the evening. Or
reverse the process and let each of the class write several questions
about what they have studied. The following day let these questions,
with the names of the men who asked them, be read before the class and
answered. The effect of reading the name of the writer is to insure
careful preparation of the question and study of the subject. A good
question can hardly be asked without a basis of knowledge, and a
foolish question condemns its author.

Another plan is to let the men, whenever possible, instruct the class.
Announce that any man may be called upon to take charge, and the
uncertainty will keep everyone studying. This plan will also give the
men valuable practice in teaching others. Their periods of
instruction, of course, must be limited, and unsatisfactory parts of
their work reviewed before the conference is dismissed.

Another way to stimulate study is to have a short discussion, talk or
quiz just before the close of the study hour, when the men, if left to
themselves, will incline to look at their watches more often than at
their books. A brief explanation of the work assigned, with emphasis
upon a few especially important points, makes good use of this closing
time, especially when the men are required to write down the points
emphasized.


Syllabus: Small Problems for Infantry.

(References, f.s.r., p. 26-30, 33-39.)

First Problem: Advance Guard and Point:

   A. Definition and Function.--Small patrol sent ahead from advance
party for disclosing enemy's position and strength, in time for
larger bodies to make suitable defensive and offensive dispositions.
Function primarily warning; but to give specific information, it may
have to fight and thus feel enemy out.

   B. Principles:

      1. Formed zig-zag; distance from advance party =?
      2. Controlled by leader of advance party.
      3. Speed must be great enough not to impede the main column.
         Must not halt at first sign of enemy, nor go off on a flank.
      4. Interest and co-operation of inferiors, by adequate
         explanation of situation and of individual duties
         ("repeats").
      5. Rules for estimating numerical strength of the moving body of
         troops (cf., f.s.r., sec. 27).
      6. Point as a "march outpost" (=?) when the column is halted.
         Only then may the A.G. point make any lateral arrangement of
         its members (cf. 3 above).

Second Problem: Advance Guard Connecting File, cf., f.s.r., reference
above:

   A. Definition and Function.--Two men (usually) for liaison en
route where elements too widely separated or roads too curved and
wooded. Distance 200 to 5 yards apart.

   B. Principles:

      1. Constant touch with elements before and behind.
      2. Relay both ways messages sent to or from remoter parts of the
         column. Speed and accuracy of signaling.
      3. Guide to be forward in daytime, at night on the main body.

Third Problem: Advance Guard Flank Patrol, pp. 31-32:

   A. Definition and Function.--For protecting a marching column from
attack, by warning it on the basis of information gained in
reconnaissance. Interval between men depends on circumstances.

   B. Principles:

      1. Start from near head of the column, _i.e._, from smallest
         element in the advance guard that can afford to cut down its
         numbers.
      2. Speed rather than safety, to keep abreast of own column and
         to force the enemy to disclose himself by firing on F.P.
         rather than on main body.
      3. Sent to investigate suspicious areas, _e.g._ in woods, behind
         houses.
      4. Action in case of firing on main body; advance and
         counterfire, deployed.
      5. Get-away man in rear of column.
      6. _Stick to the job_: no wandering or chasing of enemy beyond
         range of column. Job is to warn and protect against flank
         attack.

Fourth Problem: Platoon as Advance Party:

   A. Definition and Function:

      Body of infantry, amounting to 1/8 to 1/2 the Support
         (depending on the number of cavalry ahead) cf., f.s.r., p.
         28.
      Duty.--To back up the point and the advance cavalry (if any) if
         fired upon; remove enemy bodies and other obstacles.

   B. Principles:

      1. Describe general mission to inferiors.
      2. Explain individual duties to inferiors.
      3. Send out point and connecting files.
      4. Form in platoon; zig-zag.
      5. Keep going; prosecute engagements briskly, not to delay main
         column.
      6. Procedure under fire: deploys and drops, when fired upon;
         looks for enemy's direction and assigns target and range.
         Advance under cover if any, when fire light; when heavy seek
         to divert fire to you away from main body of advance guard to
         facilitate latter's disposition for advance to your support.
         Seek to drive off a weaker enemy, and to hold off a stronger.
      7. Speedy decisions. Value of imaginary situations, while on the
         march; and planning your commands.

Fifth Problem: Combat Patrol:

   A. Definition and Function.--Contrasted with covering detachment,
which is large enough to offer considerable resistance, the combat
patrol is primarily to _Warn_, especially against flank attacks. Size
varies widely because of looseness in definition, _e.g._, 100 men
might be _covering detachment_ for a regiment, but a combat patrol
for a brigade.

   B. Principles:

      1. Comparison of thin line versus thin column, regarding: (a)
         vulnerability, (b) fatigue, (c) tactical advantage, when
         engagement materializes, (e) control of movement and of
         fire.
      2. Agent between advance and main body.
      3. Attack any enemy of reasonable size that attacks main body.
      4. Corn as concealment versus corn as obstruction to sight.
      5. Vulnerability of charging cavalry.
      6. Lieutenant as tactical chief, sergeant as disciplinarian, in
         a platoon; except when?
      7. Messages concise, not ambiguous, written versus oral?
         Repeats.
      8. Limitations of use of map. Vegetation changes; errors in
         contouring.

Sixth Problem and Seventh Problem: Two Pickets:

   A. Definition and Function.--Outpost contrasted with advance guard
in that former is stationed around a camp or bivouac, while latter
precedes a marching column. To check enemy attempting to attack main
body, and hold him till larger force is able to deploy. Consists of
outpost reserve, outpost line of supports, line of outguards
(pickets, sentry squads, and cossack posts), plus sentinels, patrols,
etc.

   Picket ordinarily merely warns of an attack, but may offer
resistance.

   B. Principles:

      1. Smooth posting of outpost very desirable; influence of delay
         on spirits of men, after day's march.
      2. Outpost support sends out pickets.
      3. Picket sends out sentry squads, cossack posts, sentinels,
         etc.
      4. Provisional dispositions by leaders of outguard elements;
         importance of good sketch; intrenchments?
      5. Confirmation and alteration by higher officers; especially
         changes at night regarding layout and manning. Fire
         ineffective at night except at short ranges.
      6. Roster =?
      7. Instructions regarding enemy's position and strength, and the
         friendly outguards to right and left.
      8. Mode of numbering elements (from right to right). Arrangement
         for smooth withdrawal of each element upon stronger one.
      9. Disposition of strangers; use for information.
      10. Need of explicit arrangements in case of attack in day or
         night.
      11. Sleep near arms.

Eighth Problem--Cossack Post and Sentry Squad:

   A. Definition and Function:

      1. Cossack Post: 4 men in charge of a corporal (usually)
         primarily to observe and warn; secondarily to keep
         concealed, and intercept strangers who might be useful to
         enemy or to us.
      2. Sentry Squad: 8 men in charge of a corporal. Duties similar
         but strength is greater. Posts double sentinel.
      3. Post important enough for a cossack post is often doubled
         into a sentry squad at night.

   B. Principles:

      1. Opportunity to "pick off" enemies ought to be ignored until
         position of c.p. or s.s. or of its supporting body has
         unquestionably been learned by enemy. Then fire away.
      2. _Stop_ enemy's patrolling. Is as important as to _force_ your
         own observation.
      3. Advantages of s.s. over c.p. for night work: (a) strength,
         (b) sureness, (c) adequacy of observation before firing
         alarm.
      4. Use of prisoners, and papers on dead bodies.
      5. Value of imagining yourself in position of enemy commander in
         deciding what enemy dispositions you will combat him with.

Ninth Problem: Reconnoitering Patrol:

   A. Definition and Function.--Gather information in the field. No
resistance unless compelled. Concealment and flight rather than
resistance by fire: opposite of "covering detachment."

   B. Principles.

      1. Judgment in deciding what equipment is appropriate to the
         particular patrol.
      2. Sketch copies; contours as guides for concealed route.
      3. Fight only in self defence.
      4. How to question hidden sentinel without disclosing his
         position to enemy.
      5. Judicious choice of cover in approaching destination.
      6. Dating and placing of messages.
      7. Rate of passage of troops: "Rule of 2-2-2."

Tenth Problem--Visiting Patrol:

   A. Definition and Function:

      Two men or more sent from supports and pickets liaison between
         adjoining outguards. More useful at night, because of
         reduced visibility of terrain between outguards.

      1. Inform the sending body of conditions at sentinel posts.
      2. Prevent enemy from penetrating lines between posts.
      3. Exchange information between adjoining posts.
      4. Take back captured strangers to commander.
      5. Reenforce feeling of mutual support among the isolated
         sentinels.

   B. Principles.

      1. Keen sight and hearing; silence.
      2. Need of signals. Both countersign and check--countersign.
      3. Equipment; nothing that rattles or glistens.
      4. Disposition: leader in front, because of need for quick
         decision.
      5. Distance not over two miles even in most open country.
      6. Danger of startling a friend sentinel by unwarned approach.

Eleventh Problem--Detached Post:

   A. Definition and Function.--Posted where connection cannot be
easily maintained with other elements of outpost. Sent usually by
outpost reserve or by main body, and retires to them, rather than to
the line of supports. Function same as element of outpost
proper,--_observation, resistance, reconnaissance_; but less
resistance than _warning_. May be as small as 2 men, or as large as a
support, depending on location and importance of detached position.

   B. Principles.

      1. Established under precautions, because of danger of enemy
         breaking between the main body and the detached post.
      2. Entrenchment: what time of day? What other circumstances?
         Treatment of bridges? Night?
      3. Requisitioning order: Need of payment; for justice, for
         military advantage later (reassure farmers through whose
         territory you will need to pass and keep supplied).

Twelfth Problem--Requisitioning Detachment or Patrol:

   A. Definition and Function.--A patrol may have any mission: here
it is sent to take (on payment) the provender designated. A.r.d. sent
by commander with specific instructions, is legal; a raid for booty
illegal. (See f.s.r., sec, 290.)

   B. Principles.

      1. Preparation essential.
      2. Sending of men singly or in pairs across open spaces.
      3. Deliberate start on _wrong_ road to deceive enemy scouts.
      4. Not to fire unless obliged,--until return trip.

Thirteenth Problem--A Contact Patrol:

   A. Definition and Function.--A small patrol sent out from a
stationary body of troops, usually at night, to find out whether
enemy is starting a retreat. (Compact formation in column.)

   B. Principles.

      1. Travel light, but prepare to spend some time lying still.
      2. Route rear and parallel to a road, but not on it.
      3. Do not attack enemy patrols unless necessary.
      4. Get through enemy line of observation and watch support or
         larger body.
      5. Return together when you have definite information. Do not
         send single messengers.

Fourteenth Problem.--A Small Outguard:

   The principles used in 14 are same as those listed under 1-13; and
should be clinched by assigning yourself the problem of completely
arranging an outpost for a brigade to be encamped or bivouacked at
some assigned position on the Hunter's Town sheet. Exchange
solutions, for mutual criticism.


Examinations.

The following examinations, given at the second Plattsburg Training
Camp, will enable students of military matters to form some idea as to
where they stand in their grasp of the subject:

Plattsburg Training Camp:

   1. Explain the "Position of the Soldier." (Par. 51, i.d.r.)
   2. Being at parade rest, explain position of right foot. (Par. 53,
      i.d.r.)
   3. Explain the "Hand Salute." (Par. 58, i.d.r.)
   4. (1) Give length of full step (a) in quick time, (b) in double time.
      (2) How is the full step measured? (Par. 60, i.d.r.)
   5. Explain "Halt" from quick time. (Par. 70, i.d.r.)
   6. Explain position of butt of rifle at "Order Arms" standing.
      (Par. 77, i.d.r.)
   7. Explain position of left forearm at present arms. (Par. 78,
      i.d.r.)
   8. At parade rest under arms (rifle), explain position of left
      hand. (Par. 90, i.d.r.)
   9. The squad being in line explain "Squad Right." (Par. 119,
      i.d.r.)
  10. The company in line, give commands and explain "To dismiss the
      company." (Par. 174, i.d.r.)

       *       *       *       *       *

   1. Being in any formation assembled, give commands and explain
      movements for deploying the squad as skirmishers. (Par. 124,
      i.d.r.)
   2. When deployed as skirmishers (a) How do the men march? (b) How
      are the pieces carried? (c) Who is the guide? (d) What is the
      normal interval between skirmishers? (e) What is the length of
      the front of the squad when deployed at normal intervals? (Par.
      124, i.d.r.)
   3. In what formations are the loadings executed? (Par. 133, i.d.r.)
   4. At the preparatory command for forming skirmish line, what does
      each squad leader do? (Par. 200, i.d.r.)
   5. In what direction does a deployed line face on halting? (Par.
      203.)
   6. Being in skirmish line, explain the movement "Platoon columns."
      March. (Par. 213, i.d.r.)
   7. What is the purpose of the advance in a succession of thin
      lines? (Par. 219, i.d.r.)
   8. Name three classes of fire. Which class is normally employed in
      action? (Par. 241-2-3, i.d.r.)
   9. Why is it necessary to have proper distribution of fire? (Par.
      246, i.d.r.)
  10. Explain briefly the functions of platoon leaders, platoon
      guides and squad leaders in the fire fight. (Par. 252, i.d.r.)

   1. Explain the position of parade rest (without arms). (Par. 53,
      i.d.r.)
   2. Being in the position of the soldier, explain the position of
      the heels, feet and knees. (Par. 51, i.d.r.)
   3. Give the commands for and explain the execution of "Right Face."
   4. Being at a halt, give the commands for moving forward in quick
      time and explain the execution thereof. (Par. 62, i.d.r.)
   5. (a) Being in march in quick time, give the commands necessary
          to march in double time and explain the execution thereof,
          (Par. 63, i.d.r.)
      (b) What is the length of step and the rate of steps per minute
          in double time? (Par. 60, i.d.r.)
   6. At "Right Shoulder Arms":
      (a) Explain the position of the trigger guard. (Par. 83,
          i.d.r.)
      (b) What is the position of the barrel? (Par. 88, i.d.r.)
   7. In the rifle salute (right shoulder arms), describe the
          position of the:
      (a) Left forearm on first count, (Par. 93, i.d.r.)
      (b) Left hand on first count. (Par. 93, i.d.r.)
   8. Explain the position of the left forearm on the second count of
      right shoulder arms from order arms. (Par. 83, i.d.r.)
   9. The squad being in line explain "Squad right about." (Par. 121,
      i.d.r.)
  10. Explain the execution of "Right by Squads," 2 March. (Par. 183,
      i.d.r.)

   1. What are the two general classes of military information? (Par.
      9, f.s.r.)
   2. What do you understand by the term "reconnaissance?" (Par. 11,
      f.s.r.)
   3. (a) Name the various kinds of patrols. (Note to Par. 23,
          f.s.r.)
      (b) What are the advantages of small patrols over strong
          patrols? (Par. 24, f.s.r.)
   4. What governs the formation adopted by the patrol? (Par. 26,
      f.s.r.)
   5. What is a field message? (Par. 32, f.s.r.)
   6. (a) What is the function of an advance guard? (Par. 40, f.s.r.)
      (b) What of a flank guard? (Par. 53, f.s.r.)
   7. (a) What is an outpost? (Par. 60, f.s.r.)
      (b) How are the outguards classified? (Par. 64, f.s.r.)
   8. Define a successful march. (Par. 96, f.s.r.)
   9. What rules govern the halts of a column of troops on the march?
      (Par. 102, f.s.r.)
  10. (a) From a certain point off the road you observe a column of
          troops marching on the road. You can distinguish that these
          troops are infantry in column of squads. It requires 20
          minutes for them to pass a given point. How much infantry
          is in the column? (Par. 27, f.s.r.)
      (b) The day is still, no wind blowing, further to the rear you
          can see a broken cloud of dust extending in prolongation of
          the road but cannot see the cause. What does this indicate?
          (Par. 27, f.s.r.)

       *       *       *       *       *

Harvard College. School of the Soldier:

   1. Define depth, distance, interval, front, base, point of rest,
      deployment, pace. (i.d.r. definitions.)
   2. (a) What is the guide of the leading subdivision, in column of
      subdivisions, charged with? (Par. 20, i.d.r.)
      (b) What is the guide of the subdivisions in rear charged with?
          (Par. 20, i.d.r.)
   3. What are orders, commands and signals. (Par. 31, 37, i.d.r.)
   4. Describe position of the soldier or attention (without arms.)
      (i.d.r. 51.)
   5. What are the rests? Describe each. (Par. 52, i.d.r.)
   6. Describe about face. (Par. 57, i.d.r.)
   7. (a) Being at a halt, or marching in quick time, to march in
      double time. Describe commands and how executed. (Par. 63,
      i.d.r.)
      (b) Marching in double time, to resume quick time. Describe
          commands and how executed. (Par. 64, i.d.r.)
   8. What are the rules that govern the carrying of the piece? (Par.
      75, i.d.r.)
   9. What general rules govern the execution of the manual of arms?
      (Par. 76, i.d.r.)
  10. Give the rate per minute and length of the half step and full
      step in quick and double time. (Par. 60, i.d.r.)
  11. What are the arm signals for: Column left, march; halt; as
      skirmishers, march; assemble, march; suspend firing; range, 250
      yards; fix bayonets. (Par. 43, i.d.r.)
  12. Explain the execution of the command "Right Dress." (Par. 107,
      i.d.r.)

       *       *       *       *       *

School of the Squad:

   1. To suspend firing: Give the commands and describe execution.
      Same, to cease firing. (Par. 149-150, i.d.r.)
   2. Describe in detail the execution of "Squads Right." (Par. 119,
      i.d.r.)
   3. Give the commands and explain execution for taking intervals.
      How does it differ from taking distances? (Pars. 109, 110, 111,
      112, i.d.r.)
   4. Describe in detail "Right oblique, March." (Par. 116, i.d.r.)
   5. Explain the use of "In place, Halt." (Par. 14, i.d.r.)
   6. When can the following commands be used: Resume March. (Par. 14,
      i.d.r.) Oblique March. (Par. 117, i.d.r.) By the right flank,
      March. (Par. 71, i.d.r.) Take Arms. (Par. 114, i.d.r.)
   7. Describe by what commands and in what manner a squad is formed.
   8. (a) Being in line, give the commands and describe the movements
      for turning on a moving pivot.
      (b) Being in line, give the commands and describe the movements
          for turning on a fixed pivot.
   9. Being in any formation, assembled, give the commands and
      describe the movements for deploying as skirmishers.

       *       *       *       *       *

School of the Company:

   1. Give the proper commands for the following movements:
      (a) Company being in line, to march to the front in column of
          squads. (Par. 183, i.d.r.)
      (b) Company being in line, to form column of squads to the
          flank. (Par. 178, i.d.r.)
      (c) Company being in line, to form skirmish line. (Par. 206,
          200, 202, i.d.r.)
      (d) Company being in column of squads, to form line to the right
          so the leading squad shall be on the right of the line.
          (Par. 188, i.d.r.)
   2. Being in line, to align the company. Give the commands and
      explain the movement. (Pars. 175, 107, i.d.r.)
   3. The company having gone from line into column of squads by the
      command: "Squads right, March," state the position of the
      captain, two lieutenants and right and left guides. (Pars. 163,
      168 and Plate II, i.d.r.)
   4. Show by diagram: (a) A company of two platoons in column of
      platoons, (b) A company of three platoons in line of platoons.
      (Plate II, i.d.r.)
   5. What commands are given to form the company?
   6. (a) Who is the pivot in executing "Company Left?"
      (b) Who is the pivot in executing "Left Turn?"


Military Science and Tactics.

MINOR TACTICS.

MAP: GETTYSBURG--ANTIETAM (HUNTERSTOWN SHEET).

First Problem: An Advance Party--Situation I:

_Your battalion_ and the _machine gun_ company occupy _Center Mills_,
in enemy's country. The remainder of the _Harvard Regiment_ is
encamped _two miles north of Center Mills_. The Battalion has an
outguard _at J. Fohl, 1150 yards southeast_ of Center Mills. _It is
mid-winter;_ there is _no snow_, but the _streams are frozen_.

At 6.45 a.m., 1 Feb., 17, your battalion and the machine gun company
are _hurriedly assembled, pieces are loaded_, and the column, _your
company in the lead_, is marched out of town, over the southeast
road. Your captain calls the _officers and non-commissioned officers_
to the head of the company and gives the following verbal order:

_A Blue force, estimated at one battalion with machine guns, is
marching north from Granite Hill Sta. Blue patrols have been reported
in vicinity of Henderson meeting house (700 yards north of
Hunterstown). There are no Red troops south of here. Our battalion and
the machine gun company are going to take up a position on the 712-707
hills, which flank this road, about 3 miles south of here. This
company will be the advance guard. The main body, which is the rest of
our column, follows at 600 yards. Lieutenant Allen, your platoon (1st)
and the second platoon will constitute the_ ADVANCE PARTY. _The third
and fourth platoons will form the_ SUPPORT, _and will follow the
advance party at 300 yards. Here is a map for you. Follow this road
(pointing and indicating on map) through J. Fohl--554-534--Bridge
S.H., to crossroads 666, where you will halt and establish a_ MARCH
OUTPOST. _I will be with the support. When we reach the outguard at J.
Fohl the column will halt and the advance guard will move out. Posts._

The column halts at the outguard. You are Lieutenant Allen.

Required:

Your instructions, and dispositions in detail.

Situation II:

The _advance party_ has just cleared roadfork 534 when it is fired
upon from the woods along the stream about _500 yards southeast_.
There are probably _20 rifles firing upon you_. The enemy's fire is
well-directed. The _point_ has crossed the first bridge, 300 yards
south of 534. The _support_ has halted; but is not under fire.

Required:

Your instructions and dispositions.

Second Problem: An Advance Guard Point--Situation I:

The situation is the same as in the First Problem.

You are the commander of the point.

Required:

Your instructions and dispositions as the _point_ clears the outguard.

Required:

The _point_ has just crossed the first bridge 300 yards southeast of
534, when you hear firing and observe that the _advance party_ is
being fired upon from the woods directly east of you. A few moments
later you note a few dismounted men crossing the island about 400
yards to the east. The firing has ceased.

Required:

Your instructions and dispositions.

Situation III:

The _advance guard_ has resumed its march. When the point reaches
Bridge S.H., it is fired upon from the woods 400 yards to the east.
About ten cavalrymen are hurriedly mounting, others are already riding
into the woods.

Required:

Your instructions and dispositions.

Third Problem: An Advance Guard Flank Patrol--

Situation:

The situation is the same as in the _First Problem_, and follows
_Situation III, Second Problem_.

When the _advance party_ is two hundred yards from the roadfork where
unimproved road leads northeast, about 600 yards southeast of Bridge
S.H., Lieutenant Allen gives the following instructions to Corporal
Adams, 3d Squad:

_Corporal, about fifteen Blue cavalry have been driven back through
those woods (pointing out woods to east). When we reach the roadfork
in front of us take your squad and comb the woods until you reach
southern edge. From there go east until you observe the crossroads
(616) which are about 1200 yards beyond. Return over first improved
road running southwest to the crossroads (666) about 1-1/2 miles south
of here and just under the hilltop, where you will rejoin advance
party._

You are Corporal Adams.

Required:

Your instructions, dispositions, and route of the patrol.


MAP READING. VISIBILITY PROBLEMS.

MAP: GETTYSBURG--ANTIETAM (HUNTERSTOWN SHEET).

NOTE.--_Observation points 707 and 712 are the hills referred to in
the First Problem under Minor Tactics._

_Where one point is invisible from another, state points of
interference._

_Problem 1_. Can a sentinel standing at 707 see the roadfork 535
(about 1500 yards south)?

_Problem 2_. An enemy patrol is marching north on the 544-616 road,
and has crossed the stream (750 yards north of 544). Can this patrol
see the Red outguard at 707 from any point between stream and
crossroads 616?

_Problem 3_. Can the sentinel at 712 see the roadfork 581 (1850 yards
southwest from 712)?

_Problem 4_. Can the sentinel at 712 see the crossroads 561 (about
1200 yards southeast)?

       *       *       *       *       *

General Situation--Hunterstown Sheet.

The _Harvard Regiment_ camps the night of May 31-June 1 on Opossum
Creek just west of Friends Grove S.H. (A-7) in hostile territory. The
regiment is part of a brigade, the remainder of the brigade being in
camp one day's march north of Center Mills.

Problem I: An Advance Guard Point:

At daylight of June 1st the regimental commander receives the
following message from brigade headquarters: "Our aeroplanes report a
large force of the enemy near Hunterstown. Move at once on
Hunterstown. Develop the strength of this enemy and locate his exact
position. I will send reinforcements to you by motor-train if
necessary."

Officers call is sounded, and this information transmitted to all the
officers of the regiment. The _First Battalion_ is designated as
_advance guard_ and ordered to move out at once by crossroads 554 and
561, and road forks 535 and 552 towards Hunterstown. Major A,
commanding the First Battalion, designates the first two platoons of
"D" company as advance party and C company and the remainder of D
company as support.

Lieut. X, commanding the advance party, calls up all his
non-commissioned officers and explains the situation to them. He then
says: "Sergeant Mason, take 4 men and move out on that road (pointing)
as the point. At crossroads and road forks semaphore W.W. and I will
indicate the direction. The remainder of these two platoons will be
the advance party. I will be with it. Move out."

You are Sergeant Mason.

(_a_) What instructions, and information do you give the point before
you reach crossroads 554?

After passing crossroads 561 about 300 yards one of your men reports
about a squad of hostile cavalry on the road south of road fork 544,
1500 yards east of you.

(_b_) What do you do?

Problem II: An Advance Guard Connecting File:

Situation as in preceding problem.

After the advance party has moved out about 100 yards, Captain Y,
commanding the support, says: "Smith, you take Jones and move out as
connecting file." After Smith and Jones have moved about 100 yards,
he says: "Donnelly, you take Burke and move out as connecting file."
You are Donnelly.

(_a_) What instructions do you give Burke before reaching crossroads
554?

After passing crossroads 561 you go about 150 yards without seeing the
connecting file in rear of you.

(_b_) What do you do?

Problem III: An Advance Guard Flank Patrol:

Situation as in preceding problem.

On arriving at crossroads 561 Lieut. X commanding the advance party
calls up Sergeant Clifford and says: "Sergeant, the point has just
reported a squad of hostile cavalry about a mile down this road
(pointing toward road fork 544). Take _your squad_ and scout down this
road. I will take the next road to the left leading to Hunterstown.
Rejoin me on that road."

You are Sergeant Clifford.

(_a_) What formation do you adopt for your patrol?

Nothing happens until you arrive near road fork 544, when you hear
firing from the woods southwest of you. This fire is not directed
toward you. There is evidently about a squad firing. You can see no
enemy in any direction.

(_b_) What do you do?

Problem IV: Platoon as an Advance Party:

General situation same as before.

You are Lieut. X commanding the advance party. You have arrived near
the small orchard southeast of road fork 535. A sharp fire is suddenly
opened from the woods to the southeast, apparently from a _squad or
small platoon_.

(_a_) Give your orders and dispositions.

After firing about a minute the fire of the enemy stops. You move out
into the road and can see no sign of your point or connecting files.
The support is closing up on you.

(_b_) What do you do?

Visibility Problems:

(_a_) Can a man on hill 712 see a man at crossroads 554 in
Hunterstown? (Disregard trees.)

(_b_) A man stands at the point where contour 680 crosses the road
followed in above problem, just south of hill 707. Where does the
roadbed first become invisible?

       *       *       *       *       *

MAP: GETTYSBURG--- ANTIETAM (HUNTERSTOWN SHEET).

First Problem: A Connecting File--Situation I:

The Harvard Regiment is in camp in hostile country the night May 1-2
in the corn field 1000 yards east of Boyd S.H., just northeast of
cross roads 488. The line of outguards extends approximately through
Boyd S.H., Hill 527, McElheny.

At 1.00 a.m.; May 1st, the regimental commander receives the following
telephone message from brigade headquarters at Gettysburg (just off
the map to the south)--An enemy force estimated strength one regiment
is in camp 6 miles north of Center Mills. His patrols were seen
yesterday by our advance cavalry near Guernsey and Center Mills. It is
reliably reported that this force will march by Center Mills and
Guernsey on Biglersville to-morrow morning to destroy a large amount
of rolling stock at that point. Move at once toward Center Mills to
stop and drive back this force.

Officers call is sounded. The situation is explained to the officers
and they are told to have their companies ready to move at 2.00 a.m.
The 1st battalion is designated as advance guard.

The advance guard is directed to move across the field to road fork
511 thence north by the main road. The _first platoon_ of "A" company
is designated as advance party. "B" company and the remainder of "A"
company form the support. As the advance party moves out Captain Smith
commanding the support, says to Private Long, "Long, you and Williams
move out as connecting files. This is a dark night so be careful to
keep connection both front and rear." Before Long is out of sight; he
says, "Scott, you and Hunt move out as connecting files following
Long." You are Scott.

Required:

(a) What instructions do you give Hunt?

(b) What do you do up to the time you reach the main road at 511?

Situation II:

After you have passed road fork in _Table Rock_ about 100 yards you
notice that Hunt who has been watching to the rear does not seem to be
alert. You look back and can see no sign of the connecting file in
rear of you. It is still dark.

Required:

What do you do?

Second Problem: An Advance Guard Point--General Situation same as in
Problem I:

Sergeant Hill and four men constitute the point. The situation has
been explained to Sergeant Hill by the advance party commander.

About daylight the point arrives at crossroads 600. A sharp fire
evidently from about a squad is received from the house on the rise
500 yards north along the road. You are Sergeant Hill.

Required:

What do you do?

Third Problem: An Advance Guard Flank Patrol--Situation I--General
Situation same as Problem I:

Up to daylight no flank patrols have been sent out. When the support
reaches Table Rock the support commander calls Corporal Bell and says
to him "Corporal take your squad as a flank patrol up this road to the
right. Take the left hand road at the first two road forks and follow
the road past the church and school-house until you reach this road
again about 1-1/2 miles north of here. Report every thing you have
seen when you rejoin. Your squad consists of seven men besides
yourself."

Required:

(a) The disposition of your squad on the march.
(b) What do you do when you hear the firing near crossroads 600?

Fourth Problem: Platoon as Advance Party--Situation--General Situation
same as in the First Problem:

When you arrive at a point about 200 yards south of hill 646 you hear
firing 1000 yards north of you. You cannot see who is firing nor can
you see the point. You are Lieutenant Clark commanding the advance
party.

Required:

What do you do?

Visibility Problems:

(a) When the point arrives at hill 647 can it see the crossroads 610
to the northeast?

(b) When the flank patrol reaches Benders' Church crossroads can it
see an enemy patrol at the house midway on the road 534-554 one mile
to the northeast?

(c) Looking north along the Center Mills road from hill 647 where does
the road first become invisible?

       *       *       *       *       *

MAP: HUNTERSTOWN SHEET.

General Situation:

The Harvard regiment encamped on the night of July 12-13 at
Biglerville (B-8) in hostile territory. The remainder of the brigade
of which the regiment is a part is in camp 5 miles west of
Biglerville.

Problem I:

At daylight, July 13, the regimental commander receives the following
message from brigade headquarters:

"It is reported that the enemy is in force near Heidlersburg. Move on
Heidlersburg at once; locate the position of the enemy, and develop
his strength. Reinforcements will be sent you, if necessary."

This information is transmitted to all officers of the regiment. The
First Battalion is ordered to move out at once as advance guard on
Biglerville-610-582 road toward Heidlersburg. Major Dunn, commanding
First Battalion, designates the first two platoons of C Company as
advance party, and D Company and the remainder of C Company as
support.

Lieut. Gibbs, commanding the advance party, explains the situation to
his non-commissioned officers, and then orders:

     "Sergeant Dow, take four men and move out on that road
   (indicating road to Heidlersburg) as point. The remainder of these
   two platoons will be the advance party and will follow you at 200
   yards. I shall be with it. Move out."

You are Sergt. Dow.

How do you place your men, and what information and instructions do
you give the point before you pass the orchard east of Biglerville?

Situation 2:

You are still Sergt. Dow.

The point has reached crossroads 582. You are informed by a farmer
living at crossroads 582 that about half an hour before there were
some soldiers half a mile north of 582 on the road to Center Mills. He
says he does not know where they went.

What do you do?

Problem II:

The advance party has arrived at crossroads 582. Information has come
to Lieut. Gibbs, both from the point and from the farmer direct, that
Red Soldiers have been seen on road to north leading to Center Mills.
Lieut. Gibbs on arrival at 582 sends out a squad under Sergt. Jones
to patrol north on the Center Mills road half a mile, then east by
farm road to corner, then by fence south of house and barn to Opossum
Creek and down creek to main road again.

The advance party then proceeds about 300 yards easterly from 582,
when the point signals "Enemy in small numbers in creek bottom due
north."

   (a) What does Lieut. Gibbs and the advance party do?
   (b) What does he tell the point to do?
   (c) What does the flank patrol under Sergt. Jones do?

Problem III:

Because of the action taken in Problem II the Reds have ceased to
menace the left flank of the advance guard:

   (a) What does the advance party and its commander do?
   (b) What does he tell the point to do?

Another Situation--Problem IV:

Enemy is in the vicinity of Hunterstown. Your brigade has marched
south through Guernsey to road fork 610, and has turned east, and is
about to camp in grass field north of road 610-582, 1-3 of a mile west
of 582. Your battalion is to form the outpost. You are its major.

Where do you post:

   (a) The outpost reserve?
   (b) The outpost supports?
   (c) The outguards?

        (NOTE: The sector up to and including the road Center
          Mills--554-534--Bridge S.H. is covered by another brigade
          to your left.)

Problem V:

On the same general scheme as in Problem IV. You are Sergt. Robinson
of Support No. 1. You are ordered by its commander to move out with 3
squads to form a picket, outguard No. 1, putting out observation
posts on the road about half a mile south of the support.

   (a) State what directions you give to your picket and how you move
       to your position.
   (b) Where do you post the picket and its observation posts?
   (c) What orders and instructions do you give on arrival at the
       place selected?




CHAPTER 15.

Trench Warfare.

General Principles.


1. Defense may be made in depth by all organizations, down to and
including the platoon, or it may be made laterally.

2. The smallest active segment, be it only three men, must have a
chief and a second in command, who is responsible for the proper
upkeep and defense of the segment. All occupants of active segments
must know all instructions which should be simple.

3. Any troops in charge of a portion of trench must never abandon it,
no matter what happens, even if surrounded.

4. All ground lost must be retaken at once by immediate counter attack
launched by the unit which lost the ground. As a matter of fact a
counter attack is difficult for a platoon or company; it is really
necessary for it to be made by a battalion.

5. Each company must provide for emplacements for mine throwers to be
served by the artillery and for pneumatic guns to be served by their
own men.


Instructions to be Issued by Battalion Commander.

1. Disposition of companies in sector assigned (best done by sketch
showing sectors assigned to companies).

2. Special orders to companies (concerns field of fire to be obtained
not only in own sector, but also in those adjoining it).

3. Improvement of defense. (Brief reports from company commanders to
be followed by work being done on order of battalion commander after
inspection.)

4. Organization of watching (not sentry duty) (by company commander
under supervision of battalion commander).

5. Organization of observation (not sentry duty) (by company commander
under supervision of battalion commander).

6. Organization of supply (procuring, routing, etc., of tools,
ammunition, food, water, etc.), (by company commander under
supervision of battalion commander).

7. Organization of liaison (communication) (runners, telephone,
telegraph visual signaling, pigeons, etc., by company commander under
the supervision of battalion commander). _All telephonic communication
must be in code_.

8. Organization of supplies to include amounts to be expected daily
from the rear.

9. Knowledge of enemy must be imparted to company commanders in order
to assist them in making their dispositions.

10. Frequent reports to be made of existing conditions at the front
for information of higher commanders.

11. Lateral defense of boyaux must not be overlooked.

12. Wide turning movements are not possible. Enveloping movements are
possible only on local attacks against small portions of the hostile
line after it has been pierced. All main attacks are confined to
purely frontal attacks.

13. The most important obstacle is barbed wire entanglements.

14. Communication (liaison) between and co-ordination and co-operation
of, the different elements of a command is of the utmost importance.

15. Artillery co-operates more closely than ever with infantry. Its
reconnaissance officers accompany infantry lines in order to obtain
information. _There is a certain number of artillery observers
attached to each battalion of infantry_.

The general method of attack is to smother the defense with a torrent
of explosive shells, kept up incessantly for one or more days, and
shatter the defense so they will offer but slight resistance to the
infantry; then rush forward with the infantry and seize the positions
while the enemy is demoralized, and consolidate them before
reenforcements can be brought up.

   The artillery bombardment is necessary to prepare the way for the
          infantry advance. It has for its objects:
   (1) To destroy the hostile artillery, wire entanglements and
       infantry trenches.
   (2) To produce curtains of fire and prevent bringing up
       reenforcements.

_Light guns are assigned to_ EACH BATTALION OF INFANTRY, subject only
to orders of regimental and battalion commanders concerned.

Save under exceptional circumstances the light gun is always attached
to the Machine Gun Company for the attack.

The essential role of the light gun is to destroy with direct fire the
visible machine guns; they are employed separately and not grouped.

The infantry is divided into two classes: Holding troops--and
attacking or shock troops. Holding troops are those doing routine or
trench duty; shock troops are picked organizations of young and
vigorous men and are kept in camps well behind the battle front.
Holding troops are two weeks in and two weeks out of the trenches.

All specialist groups, _i.e._, Machine Gun Companies, etc., are
officered, allowing company and battalion commanders to concentrate
them, if the situation requires.

_They play the normal part in combat if they do not receive special
instructions._


Attack of a Defensive Position.

Unity of command in depth must be preserved everywhere, unless there
is an imperative reason for doing otherwise.

The front of each regiment should be divided between two or three
battalions.

_Each battalion commander having to look after a front of from 500 to
600 yards, can exercise efficient control of his command._

In preparing for an assault, seniors must take steps to organize it
and make all necessary preparations themselves, and not leave all the
responsibility with the juniors.

In the assault each unit must know its special task beforehand, and it
should be rehearsed in rear of the line of trenches. Each commander
must know the exact time he is to start and must start on time.

The first waves of men are placed at 4 or 5 pace interval. Chief of
section can command only a front of 80 to 100 paces and it is
necessary to form the section in two (2) waves. The first containing
the grenadiers and automatic riflemen, the latter in the center. The
second wave contains the riflemen and rifle grenadiers, the latter in
the center.

If the terrain is cut up by woods, villages, etc., the proportion of
grenadiers may be increased by taking them from the sections in
support and the automatic riflemen sent back to the second wave.

If the distance to cross exceeds 300 or 400 yards, the number of
automatic riflemen should be increased.

_Two or three sections are usually placed abreast on the company
front, which thus covers two to three hundred yards._

The support sections follow the leading sections of their company at
about 50 yards, marching in two lines, if possible in two lines of
squad columns at 20 yard intervals.

The first wave of the support is usually formed of the one-half
section of specialists.

The echeloning of the specialists in front is also the most favorable
formation to progress by rushes in a terrain cut up by shell holes.

The chief of section is between the two (2) waves of his section.

The captain is usually in front of the support sections.

The support sections are closely followed by a powerful line of
machine guns, which are thrown into the fight when needed to reenforce
the leading units.

"Trench Cleaners" usually march immediately after the leading sections
and may be taken from the support sections. They are armed with
pistols, knives and hand grenades.

The captain can use his section complete, or take out the specialists
and use them for a particular purpose.

The specialists carry only the weapons of their specialty and have
their loads lightened. The ordinary riflemen carry the usual packs and
equipment.

Officers no longer lead the assault, but direct it. They are equipped
with the rifle and bayonet, the same as the enlisted man.

Each unit of the first wave of the attack is given a definite
objective. Different waves must not break upon the first wave.

Fire is opened by the assaulting troops only at short ranges, the
advance being protected by a curtain of artillery fire. The advancing
line makes use of shell holes and all other available cover.

When the first section reaches its objective it is joined by the half
section of riflemen; it immediately organizes the captured ground.


Attacking From Trenches.--The commanders of brigades and battalions,
with the commander of the artillery detailed to support them, study on
the ground the artillery plan so far as it affects them. Immediately
after the advance of the infantry begins, the artillery supporting it
commences an intense bombardment with the object of forcing the enemy
to take cover. At the moment laid down in the table of artillery fire
the barrage lifts clear of the trench and the infantry rush in and
capture it. The infantry must be taught that their success depends
upon their getting within 75 yards of the barrage before it lifts, in
order that they may reach the trenches before the enemy can man them.
The secret of a successful assault is exact synchronization of the
movements of the infantry with those of the barrage.

The pace of a barrage depends, to a certain extent, on the pace of the
infantry, which varies with the condition of the ground, the length of
the advance, the number of enemy trenches to be crossed, etc. It may
be from 15 to 75 yards per minute. The pace of the barrage should be
quicker at first, and should gradually slow down as the men become
exhausted, in order to give them time to get close to the barrage and
pull themselves together for the final rush.

In an attack each unit must have sufficient driving power in itself to
carry it through to its objective and enable it to hold its ground
when it gets there. When a number of trenches have to be carried,
considerable depth will be required, and the frontage must be reduced.
A brigade usually has a front in attack of 250 to 350 yards, but this
may be increased to 1,000 or 1,200 yards.

A battalion should have a front of 250 to 350 yards. The battalion
must be organized in depth in a series of waves. Two companies are
usually put abreast in the first line and the others in the second
line. Each company in both lines attacks in column of platoons at
about 50 yards' distance, with intervals of three to five paces
between men, so there would be eight lines of waves, of two platoons
each. The 8th and 16th platoons, the two in rear forming the eighth
wave, are usually not employed in the attack, but are left behind as a
nucleus to form on in case of heavy casualties.

The front line must not be less than 200 yards from the enemy's front
line.

The leading two or three waves are likely to meet machine gun fire,
and generally move in extended order. Not more than two waves can be
accommodated in one trench. Subsequent waves will move in line or in
line of section columns in single file. Russian saps must be run out
as far as possible across "No Man's Land" to be opened up immediately
after the assault, as approach trenches. Ladders or steps are
necessary to assist the leading waves in leaving the trenches, as they
must move in lines. Provision must be made for bridges over the first
line trenches for the rear waves. In the original assault line will be
more suitable for both leading and rear waves. In later stages it is
better for the rear waves to move in small and handy columns. In the
original assault the distance between waves may be 75 to 100 yards; in
later stages they may follow each other at 50 yards.

In the original assault, zero, or the time for the assault to begin,
may be fixed for the moment at which our barrage lifts from the enemy
front trench, the infantry timing their advance so as to be close
under our barrage before it lifts. In the later stages zero must be
the moment at which our barrage commences, and this commencement will
be the signal for the infantry to leave their trenches. Each wave is
assigned its own objective. All watches must be synchronized in order
that all units may start off at the appointed time.

The first wave is composed of bombers and rifle grenade men, and
attacks the enemy's first line of trenches. It must go straight
through to its objective, following the artillery barrage as closely
as possible. The second and third waves, composed of riflemen with
bayonets and Lewis guns, re-enforce the first wave after the latter
has occupied the enemy's first line trench, and attack the second line
trench. The fourth wave takes up tools, ammunition and sand bags and
assists in consolidating the line. The fifth wave is a mopping-up
party to clear the enemy's dugouts. The sixth wave comprises
battalion headquarters and has two Lewis guns, kept for a special
purpose. The seventh and eighth waves, if used, seize and consolidate
the enemy's third line trench.

Bombing squads (1 non-commissioned officer and 8 men) are on the flank
of each attacking wave. Battalion bombers are assigned a special task.

All movements must be over the top of the ground. The pace throughout
should be a steady walk, except for the last 30 or 40 yards, when the
line should break into a steady double time, finishing up the last 10
yards with a rush.

Barrage is continued 20 or 30 minutes after the objective has been
reached.

Mopping parties must be trained with great care under selected
officers. They should always wear a distinguishing mark. They must at
once dispose of any occupants who may have emerged from their dugouts,
and picket the dugout entrances.

The ultimate unit in the assault is the platoon. It must be organized
and trained as a self-contained unit, capable of producing the
required proportion of riflemen, bombers, rifle bombers, Lewis
gunners, and carriers, all trained to work in combination.

Assaulting troops should have twelve hours of daylight in the trenches
before the assault begins, to enable them to get acquainted with the
ground and get some rest. All ranks must be given a hot meal,
including hot tea or coffee, before the assault.

Take every precaution to prevent the enemy from realizing that the
assault is about to take place. Bayonets must not be allowed to show.
No increase in rate of artillery fire. No unusual movements must be
made in the trenches, and there must be no indication of the impending
assault until the barrage is dropped.

When the trench has been taken, it should be consolidated at once to
prevent counterattack. To protect this consolidation, throw out an
outpost line, the posts consisting of one non-commissioned officer and
6 riflemen with a Lewis gun, about 150 to 200 yards apart and 100 to
300 yards beyond the line. These posts should be established in
shellholes, which are to be converted into fire trenches, protected by
wire entanglements, as soon as possible.

Approach trenches toward the enemy should be blockaded and hand and
rifle grenadiers posted to guard them. The main captured trench should
be converted at once into a fire trench facing the enemy. If it is
badly knocked to pieces, a new trench may be constructed 40 or 50
yards in front of the captured line. The commander must reorganize in
depth to provide supports and reserves for counterattacks. Situation
reports should be sent back frequently. Rough sketches are better than
messages.

Tanks follow infantry as closely as possible to deal with strong
points. They are employed in sections of four.

Machine guns may be used to provide covering fire for attacking
infantry, cover its withdrawal if the attack fails, fill gaps in the
assaulting lines, assist in the consolidation of positions and repel
counterattacks.

Lewis guns are of great value in knocking out hostile machine guns.
They usually move on the flanks of the second wave of assault. Later
they are used to back up patrols and to hold the outpost line while
the garrison line is being consolidated.

As soon as consolidation begins, wire entanglements should be
constructed. Every effort should be made to secure the objective
against recapture. Any men available should be used to continue the
offensive.

All commanders down to and including company commanders must keep some
portion of their command as a reserve. The company commander needs his
reserve to work around points which are holding against the leading
lines, to protect his flanks in case the companies on his right and
left are delayed in their advance and to exploit his success and gain
ground to the front. He must keep it well in hand behind the company.

Battalion reserves must start with the assaulting column and get
across "No Man's Land" as soon as possible; they must not get out of
hand. Such a reserve is usually checked in the vicinity of the enemy's
front line trench, where it can be thrown in to assist the advance or
extend a flank as needed.

The brigade reserve is kept well in hand just clear of the friendly
front line and support trenches. Reserves of companies and battalions
must start moving over the top of the ground with the rest of the
assaulting troops.


Defense Of Trenches.--The latest methods consist in constructing,
supporting and strong points at the most favorable points to be held,
such as villages, woods, etc. These are separated by intervals not too
great for mutual support. They are of such resisting power that they
must be taken before the attack can progress. In the intervals between
them fire and communicating trenches are constructed, but these are
only held lightly. Dummy trenches may be placed in these intervals.
Lines of the various works are so traced that they bring enfilading
fire on troops attacking adjacent positions. The lines need not be
continuously occupied, but the obstacles extend in an unbroken line
along the whole front. Wire entanglements are set in front of
important positions in belts 20 feet wide, in two or three rows, each
20 yards apart.

Each supporting point usually is occupied by a battalion, and consists
of a series of trenches formed into strong points, each held by a
garrison of one or more platoons or a company. The supporting points
are from 600 to 800 yards in depth and have a front of 600 to 1,000
yards. The first line of strong points is occupied by one or two
companies in firing and cover trenches, while the remainder of the
battalion occupies the support and reserve trenches. Bomb-proofs are
built along the cover trenches and are connected with the firing
trenches. Approach trenches are protected on both flanks by wire
entanglements. Strong points in support and reserve trenches are
prepared for an all-around defense and divided into two or more
separate strong points by wire entanglements.

A body of infantry attacked is to oppose to the assailant its high
powered weapons, machine guns, automatic rifles, rifle grenades and
hand grenades and to reserve for the counter attack the grenadiers and
riflemen. There is always one line upon which the resistance must be
made with the greatest energy; for its defense the following methods
have been found successful. Machine guns should be placed where they
can secure the best flanking fire, and every one put out of action
should immediately be replaced by an automatic rifle. If machine gun
barrage fire is to play its role successfully at the moment of
assault, the guns must survive the bombardment. Their protection is
secured by placing them under shelter during the bombardment and
making their emplacements as nearly invisible as possible. They should
be echeloned in depth as far as practicable. They are generally placed
in re-entrants of the firing trenches and cover the intervals between
the adjoining supporting and strong points. Where the ground will
permit they are often placed in concealed positions 20 to 30 yards in
front of the trenches, to break up attacks made by hostile infantry.
Not too many should be placed in the front line, and they should be
echeloned in depth so as to confuse their disposition. The value of
machine guns depends on the possibility of using them suddenly for
brief periods, and in using them as long as they are effective.
Machine guns disposed for flanking fire must be well covered by
grenadiers; this is also true of automatic rifles.

Automatic rifles, rifle grenades and hand grenades are used to
constitute a barrage to keep back the enemy. The entire front should
be defended by a barrage of hand grenades, while the barrage of
automatic rifles and rifle grenades is superposed farther to the
front, up to 400 yards.

All riflemen and those grenadiers not employed in forming barrages are
reserved to make a counterattack.

Companies on the second line operate on similar principles; machine
guns, automatic rifles and rifle grenades are arranged so as to cover
every portion of the first line that might be invaded. After a short
preparation by fire from these, the grenadiers and riflemen make the
counterattack.

The captains in charge of the two lines are responsible for the
arrangement of the machine guns, automatic rifles and rifle grenades,
the distribution of barrages and the distribution of groups for the
counterattack. The real strength of the defense consists, not in
holding the fire and cover trenches, nor even the support trenches,
but in holding the supporting and strong points until the
counterattack can be launched.


Liaison.--The question of liaison in battle is of the utmost
importance, and complete co-ordination of the different arms is
absolutely necessary. Each battalion sends an officer or
non-commissioned officer and a cyclist to the colonel, and each
colonel sends a soldier to the battalion commander.

The principal means of communication are the telephone, telegraph,
wireless, aeroplane, mounted messengers, autos and motorcycles; and at
the front runners, visual signals, rockets and carrier pigeons.

Each battalion commander is connected by telephone with each company
commander, with the artillery observers, with the artillery commander,
with his own colonel and with the adjacent battalions on either side.

The signallers of assaulting companies move with the company
commander. All signallers should be given a special training in
repeating a message several times to a known back station which may
not be able to reply forward.

At the commencement of the assault the pigeons and pigeon carriers
must be kept back at battalion headquarters, and sent forward as soon
as the position has been gained.

Runners can be relied upon when all other means fail. They must be
trained with their companies. Runners should be lightly equipped and
wear a distinctive mark. They must be familiar with all the principal
routes to all the principal centers within their battalion sector. The
quicker they go the safer they are. Company and platoon runners must
go forward with their respective commanders. Messages to be carried
long distances will be relayed. Never send a verbal message by a
runner; ignore any received; all messages must be written.

Company and battalion commanders must be prepared to assist artillery
liaison officers in getting their messages back. Liaison officers must
be exchanged by all the assaulting battalions with the battalion on
either flank.


Trench Orders.--(Battalion): Trenches are usually divided into a
certain number of bays; the number of men to defend these bays depends
upon the length of trench allotted to each company. Each section is
detailed to guard a certain number of bays.

Non-commissioned officers and men must always wear their equipment by
day and night. Every company will "Stand To" arms daily one-half hour
before dusk and one-half hour before dawn, and will remain until
dismissed by the company commander.

The enemy's trenches are so close that it is very important for the
men to have their rifle sights always at battle sight, so that there
will be no necessity to alter their sights in case of alarm. By night
all bayonets are to be fixed and half of the men on duty in the
trenches are to be sitting on the firing platform with their rifles by
their side. In case of attack, especially at night, it should be
impressed upon the men that they fire low.

Section commanders are responsible that the men under their command
have sufficient standing room for the purpose of firing over the
parapet. They must have a clear field of fire, and not only be able to
see the enemy trenches but the ground in the immediate vicinity of
their trench. When making new trenches parapets should be at least
five feet thick at the top in order to be bullet proof.

Repairs or alterations of the parapet should be reported at once by
the section commander to the platoon commander, who will report it to
superior authority. Repairing of trenches, fatigue, etc., will be
carried on either by day or night according to company arrangement.
Certain hours will be allotted for these tasks and no man is to be
employed upon any kind of work out of these hours. No man should leave
his post in the trenches at any time without the permission of the
non-commissioned officer in charge of that post. At night there should
be at least one sentry post to each ten yards of parapet. At night,
double sentries should be posted if possible, and no sentry should be
kept on duty for longer than an hour at a time. The arrangement should
be such that when one sentry is doing his last half hour, his comrade
will be doing his first half hour.

Sentries at night should always have their rifles resting on the
parapet, ready to fire at a moment's notice. As few sentries as
possible should be posted by day, so as to give as much rest as
possible to the remainder of the men.

By day any existing loop-holes may be used by a sentry for observation
purposes, but this must be strictly prohibited at night, when the
sentry must look over the parapet. If a sentry is continually fired
at, the section commander will post him in another position, but not
too far from his original position. There is no excuse for a man going
to sleep on sentry duty; if he is sick he should report the fact to
the non-commissioned officer, who will report to superior authority.

An armed party of the enemy approaching the trench under a flag of
truce should be halted at a distance, ordered to lay down their arms,
and the matter at once reported to the company commander. If the party
fails to halt when ordered to do so, or does not convey a flag of
truce, they should be fired upon. An unarmed party should be halted in
the same way. It is not necessary to challenge at night; open fire at
once. This is modified only by special instructions.

Men especially picked for listening patrols and sharp-shooters will be
given special privileges. All loud talking must be checked at night by
officers and non-commissioned officers. All working parties must wear
their equipment and carry their rifles. All picks and shovels will be
returned after use to the company store room. Ration parties and
parties carrying materials for repairs, etc., need not wear their
equipment or carry rifles; they should be accompanied by a fully armed
non-commissioned officer as an escort. Not more than 20 men are to be
away from the company at one time; one non-commissioned officer and
four men per platoon.

Rifles must be kept clean and in good condition while in the trenches.
They will be cleaned every morning during an hour appointed by the
company commander for the purpose. Platoon commanders will be
responsible that section commanders superintend this work. All rifles
except those used by sentries are to be kept in racks during the day.

Trenches must be kept in sanitary condition. Platoon commanders will
be responsible for the latrines in their sections of the trenches. All
water for drinking and cooking is to be taken from a water cart or
tank provided for this purpose.

Stretcher bearers will be stationed at a place designated by the
commanding officer. No soldier will be buried nearer than 300 yards
from the trenches.

In every platoon a non-commissioned officer will be detailed for duty
by day; he will do no night duty. He will post the day sentries and
see that they are on the alert and carry out their orders correctly.
He will be responsible for the cleanliness of his lines and will
frequently visit the latrines. He will see that all loose ammunition
is collected.

The platoon commander will always send a non-commissioned officer to
draw rations and he will be responsible for their delivery.

The passing along of messages by word of mouth will not be used. All
messages should be written.

Special instructions will be issued as to precautions against gas.


Selection of Site.

(a) Fire trench should be selected with due regard to tactical
requirements and the economy of men.

(b) Every fire trench should have a good field of fire, at least 250
yards.

(c) The trenches should have the best possible cover.

(d) The forward position on a slope for the first line has the best
advantage. The support trench should be on the reverse slope from 100
to 600 yards in rear of the first line to prevent direct observation
and to be practically free from artillery fire. The reserve trench is
usually from 1/2 to 1 mile in rear of the first line. Remember that
the first line, the support line, and the reserve line are all fire
trenches. Do not put them on a crest.

(e) The communicating trenches (boyaux) should be zigzagged, wide and
deep, and should follow the low ground. The longest straight trench
should not exceed thirty paces. The angle made by each turn should be
less than 140 degrees.

(f) The fire trenches should have salients and re-entrants so as to
flank the wire entanglements. The bays are usually 27 feet long with 9
feet of traverse.

(g) There are two problems in the siting of trenches, one for those to
be constructed under fire and another for those that will be
constructed without any danger from fire. Trenches built under fire
are usually made by connecting up individual shelters made by the
front line when forced to halt. Trenches built under quiet conditions
can be laid out according to the best possible plan.


Trench Construction.

Several kinds of difficulties face the trench digger: Sand, clay,
water and bullets. In order to overcome them he must be familiar with
the general arrangement of a trench, the principles which govern its
construction and the standard trench as it has been worked out in the
present war at the cost of thousands of lives.


General Arrangement.--A position is a combination of trenches,
consisting of: The fire trench, or first line, nearest the enemy; the
cover trench, just behind the first line, where all but sentinels of
the fire trench garrison are held in dugouts or shelters; the support
trench, from 150 to 200 yards in rear of the cover trench, and the
reserve, from 800 to 1,200 yards still further to the rear.

The support trench is placed far enough from the first line to prevent
the enemy from shelling both trenches at once. By a concentration of
artillery fire and a determined advance of the hostile infantry the
first line may be captured. The support trench must be so organized
that it will then act as a line of resistance upon which the enemy's
advance will break. Lieutenant Colonel Azan of the French army says:
"As long as the support trenches are strongly held, the position is
not in the hands of the enemy."

[Illustration: Plate #16]

The reserve is usually a _strong point_, so organized that it can
maintain independent resistance for several days if necessary, should
the enemy obtain control of adjacent areas.

Where possible trenches should be on reverse slopes, with the
exception of the first line; but usually the outline of a trench is
determined in actual combat, or is a part of hostile trench converted.
Under these circumstances it cannot be arranged according to tactical
ideals.

Artillery and the automatic gun are the determining factors in trench
warfare to-day. The effect of artillery fire must be limited in its
area as far as possible, and trenches are, therefore, cut by
_traverses_, which are square blocks of earth not less than nine feet
square, left every 27 feet along the trench. They should overlap the
width of the trench by at least one yard, thereby limiting the effect
of shell burst to a single _bay_, the 27-foot length of firing trench
between two traverses. Sharp angles have the same effect as traverses,
but angles of more than 120 degrees cannot be utilized in this way.

The sides of the trench are kept as nearly perpendicular as possible,
to give the maximum protection from shell burst and the fall of high
angle projectiles. The _parados_, the bank of earth to the rear of the
trench, has been developed during the war to give protection from
flying fragments of shells exploding to the rear, and to prevent the
figure of a sentinel from being outlined through a loop-hole against
the sky. The _berm_, a ledge or shelf left between the side of the
trench and the beginning of the parados, has come into general use in
order to take the weight of the parados off the earth at the immediate
edge of the trench, and so prevent the reverse slope from caving in
easily under bombardment or heavy rain.

[Illustration: Plate #16A]

Automatic guns have made it necessary to break the line of the trench
at every opportunity, in order to secure a flanking fire for these
arms. Auto-rifles and machine guns have tremendous effectiveness only
in depth, and flanking fire gives them their greatest opportunity.


Trench Construction.--The methods of building trenches are the same
whether the work is carried on under fire or not. In an attack, upon
reaching the limit of advance, the men immediately dig themselves in,
and later connect these individual holes to make a continuous line of
trench.

Most of the digging must be done at night, and must be organized to
obtain the most work with the least confusion. There are three ways of
increasing the efficiency of the men. In the first of these, squad
shifts, the squad leader divides his men into reliefs and gives each
man a limited period of intensive work. Reliefs may be made by squads
or by individuals. The second way of increasing efficiency is to
induce competition among the man and squads, thus making the work a
game in which each soldier's interest will be aroused in the effort to
do better than the others. The third method is to assign a fixed
amount of work to each man. An average task, which all ought to
accomplish in a given time, is found by experience, and those who
finish before their time is up are relieved from further work during
that shift, and allowed to return to their shelters.

Continual care must be used to check up the tools on hand, as the men
are prone to leave them where they were working rather than carry them
back and forth to work. Each unit must guard its property from
appropriation by neighbors on its flanks.


System of Laying Out Trenches.--The trace of the trench is first
staked out, particularly at traverses and corners when the work is to
be done at night. Measurements should be exact, and the men should be
required to line the limits of each trench so as not to exceed them
in digging. All sod should be taken up carefully and used on the
parapet for concealment or on the berm to make a square back wall for
the dirt of the parapet. If possible this should be done with the
parados wall, so as to make it as inconspicuous as possible from the
front.

Men should begin to dig at the center of the trench and throw the dirt
as far out on the sides as possible, so that as they go deeper the
earth can be thrown just over the berm. The slope of the sides will be
kept steep and the men prevented from widening the trench as they dig.
In sandy soil the sides of the trench should be allowed to reach their
angle of repose (which is wider at the top than required), then the
trench walls supported with _revettments_ to the proper width, which
are filled in behind with sand. Always dig to full depth before
beginning to revet, as it is impossible to dig deeper afterwards
without loosening the revetting.


Revettments.--Every trench at points needs support, and this
_revetting_ may be done with any of the following materials: Sod;
corduroy of logs laid lengthwise; sand bags (size 20 in. x 10 in. x 5
in.); galvanized iron; chicken wire and cloth made in a frame about
six feet long; _hurdles_, wicker mats made by driving three-inch
stakes into the ground, leaving uprights as high above the ground as
the depth of the trench, then weaving withes and slender saplings
between the uprights; expanded metal; _gabions_, cylindrical baskets
made like hurdles except that the stakes are driven in a circle;
_fascines_, bundles of faggots about 10 inches in diameter by 9 feet
long. The faggots are laid together on a horse or between stakes
driven in the ground, then "choked," or bound tightly together, by a
rope 3 feet 8 inches long with loops at each end, tightened with two
stiff levers. The bundle is then bound with wire at intervals of two
feet. The circumference of a fascine should be 25 inches.

[Illustration: Plate #17]

Capt. Powell of the C.E.F. found during 18 months' service in the
trenches, that a separate construction for the bottom and firing step
from that of the parapet made repair much simpler when the trench was
damaged by shell fire. The upper part of the trench usually suffers
most, while the bottom section, if unattached, often remains intact
and the drainage system needs only to be cleared out. If the portion
above the firing step is one piece with that below, however, the whole
trench has to be reconstructed.

There is nothing more important than the supports used to keep
revetting in place. With sods, sand bags, concrete and gabions, a
proper arrangement in the first place will make other support
unnecessary.


Sod should be placed carefully, with a slope of not more than one
inch on four, with the vegetation uppermost. This type is least
affected by rain.


Sand Bags should be used like brickwork, laid in alternate headers
(binders) and stretchers. Their use should be confined as far as
possible to emergency and repair work, because after a few weeks the
bags rot and cannot be moved about. If the trench wall has been
demolished by artillery fire, the particles of cloth make digging out
the bottom of the trench a very difficult matter.


Concrete Work has been used extensively by the Germans, but the
chips fly like bullets under shell explosion, and the concrete cracks
and disintegrates in severe weather. It is used in the bottom of
trenches for drainage and for the firing step.


Gabions may be set into the wall of the trench and filled with
earth, or used at corners to prevent the wearing down of the edge,
which reduces the protective effect of the trench. Set in at a slight
angle they will hold the side without further re-enforcement.

With the other forms of revetting some secondary support is required.
This is usually furnished by sinking stakes into the bottom of the
trench and securing their upper ends to a "dead man"--a stake or log
sunk in the ground more than three feet away. The tendency is to sink
the dead men too near to the trench, and to attach too many wires to
one of them. It is important to sink the stakes at least one foot
below the bottom of the trench. By digging holes for them instead of
driving them in directly, the sides of the trench need not be
disturbed by the concussion of driving the stakes. This is especially
important in sandy soils. Stakes should be placed about two feet
apart. Dead men should be buried deeply enough to prevent cutting by
shell explosions.


Trench Armament.--A few machine guns are set in concealed
emplacements along the trench to cover important salients. The
automatic rifle is used over the parapet. Besides these there is the
rifle grenade and trench mortar. The rifle grenade has a simple
emplacement. After securing the proper elevation, the butt of the
rifle is placed between posts or blocks of wood and the muzzle rested
against a log on the wall of the trench. A trench mortar emplacement
is dug in the rear wall of the trench, or a shell hole is utilized,
care being taken to conceal it from aerial observation.


Loopholes.--Loopholes are still much in use for observation, but
they are employed less and less for firing, as they are difficult to
conceal from the enemy and almost useless when the enemy is close.
They should cut the parapet diagonally, not directly to the front, and
should be concealed by vegetation and by a curtain over the opening
when they are not in use. Sheet steel plates with small peep holes are
used on the parapet. They are set up with a slope to the rear to
deflect bullets.


Trench Bottoms.--In clay or hard soil special arrangements must be
made for drainage. Where possible the trench should have a convex
surface and should be smooth. A rough bottom means delay in reliefs,
and possible injuries. Where trenches are used for long periods
board walks should be constructed. Under these drains or sink holes
can be placed to collect water. A sink hole may be constructed by
digging a pit filled with small stones, or a barrel may be sunk into
the ground and filled with stone. Where there is not sufficient slope
to carry off the water, or at the lowest point of a drainage system, a
water hole should be dug in front of the trench large enough to handle
the drainage water.

[Illustration: Plate #18]

Communication Trench (or Boyau).--Running to the rear and joining
the different parallel resistance trenches are communication trenches
or boyaux. These are for transportation of men and material as well as
for communication. Communication trenches should be made wide enough
to allow travel for men with loads, should be at least seven feet deep
and as smooth as possible on the bottom. Rough places will delay
traffic. They are dug with turns every 20 or 30 yards to prevent their
being swept by gun fire. When boyaux are built by night sharp zig-zag
corners should be used, or the angles will not be acute and protection
will be lost. During daylight when the directions can be seen, the
construction may be a serpentine curve, with no stretch of more than
30 yards visible from one point.

Boyaux are sometimes used for lateral defence and often emplacements
for automatic guns are arranged to cover stretches of them. Bombing
stations are placed near by to protect the guns and to clear the boyau
of the enemy. At these points the boyau is left straight for a short
distance in front. Where provision is made for lateral or frontal
defence by rifle fire, firing steps are constructed. If this is
inconvenient for movement along the boyau, individual emplacements
must be made in the side wall for firing. Sentry posts are dug at
right angles to the boyau.

Arrangements for passage of men moving in opposite directions may be
made by extending short spurs at the corners, enlarging the boyau at
the bends, digging niches or passing points here and there, or
constructing island traverses with the boyau running around on each
side.

[Illustration: Plate #19]

Every boyau should be marked where it meets a trench with a sign
indicating the place and trench. Without this messengers, reliefs and
re-enforcements may easily be lost in the maze of trenches.


Latrines should be run out about 20 feet from boyaux at points
directly in rear of lateral trenches. If possible they should be
placed so that men cannot enter them without passing near the platoon
leaders. This will prevent men from leaving the front line, under the
pretense of going to latrines, during bombardments or mining
operations. The trench leading to a latrine should be constructed like
a boyau, and the pit should be close to the side nearest the enemy, to
give the best possible protection from shell fire. There are three
types of trench latrines: Deep boxes which are covered and have rough
seats; short straddle trenches or trenches equipped with a single
horizontal bar, and portable cans, used where the ground or the
limited space make it impossible to dig pits. These cans should be
emptied daily into holes behind the trenches, which are covered after
the cans are emptied into them.

Urinals should be separate from the latrines. They may be either holes
about three feet deep filled with stone, troughs with a covered pit at
the end, or portable cans.


Shelters. For the protection of men not actually on duty three forms
of shelters are used. The _splinter-proof_ is a form of light shelter
whose covering affords protection only against splinters. These are
usually on the reserve line. About 12 inches to 20 inches of earth
over a roof of logs or planks will afford protection from splinters
and shrapnel. Curved sheets of iron may also be used. The _deep
shelter_ or _bomb-proof_ is a chamber constructed by digging from the
surface and constructing a roof. To protect against eight-inch
shells the top of the chamber should be twenty feet below the surface.
Heavy beams or sections of railroad iron are laid across the roof.
Above them is a layer of earth several feet thick; then another layer
of timber extending to undisturbed ground on the sides with concrete,
crushed stone, metal, etc., above to make a percussion surface for
exploding projectiles that penetrate the upper layer of earth. This
layer fills in the rest of the space to the level of the ground.

[Illustration: Plate No. 20.]

Shelters should not exceed six feet in width, but can be of any
length. This will prevent the crushing in of the roof timber by the
explosion of a projectile buried in the upper layer of earth. The
principles of constructing shelters will be considered under
"Dugouts," as they are similar for the two types.


Dugouts are chambers tunnelled into the ground with twenty feet or
more of undisturbed earth above them. They are used in the cover
trenches and sometimes in the first line. Enough of them must be built
to shelter the garrison of each sector, allowing one man per yard of
front. They must also be built for machine gun and trench mortar
detachments.


Sentries must be stationed in observation posts which command the
ground in front of each dugout. They must be connected with the
dugouts by telephone or speaking tube.


Position.--Dugouts must always be on the side of the trench toward
the enemy. This prevents flying shells from falling into the
entrances. They should connect with lateral trenches, not with boyaux,
as men at the entrance obstruct traffic through the boyaux.


Entrances and exits must be well concealed, with not less than five
feet of head cover. This should be provided with a bursting layer. All
dugouts must have at least two openings, one on the opposite side of
the traverse or angle from the other. It is well to have an exit
behind the parados leading to a surprise position for a machine gun
and bombers. All openings must have a sill 6 inches to 8 inches high,
to prevent water from entering the dugout.


Galleries leading to dugouts should be built at an incline of 45
degrees. Their dimensions should be 2 feet 6 inches by 6 feet. Frames
are of squared timber. The sill and two side posts should be not less
than 6 inches square, and the frames in the passageways 2 feet 6
inches by 4 feet 6 inches. They must be placed at right angles to the
slope of the gallery, with distance pieces between uprights. In
treacherous soil the frames rest on sills. Steps in the passageway are
1 foot broad and 1 foot high.


Bomb-traps, extensions of the gallery about 3 feet long, should be
dug beyond the point where the entrance to the dugout chamber leads
off from the gallery. These will catch bombs thrown in from the
surface and protect the chamber from the effects of their explosion.


Interior. The standard section is 6 feet by 8 feet, to allow for
bunks on each side. Frames of 6 by 6 timber spaced 2 feet 6 inches
apart support the sides and roof. Roof planking should be 2 inches
thick, and the sides should be covered with 1-1/2 inch plank or
corrugated iron. Two shovels and two picks for emergencies should
always be kept in each dugout. The construction of the chamber should
be that of a very strong box, so that it will stand strain, if
necessary, from within as well as from without.


Depots for Supplies must be near the headquarters of the platoon,
company, battalion and regiment. Shelters may be made with ammunition
boxes set into the side of the trench. Places should be provided for
the following: Food, ammunition for rifles and auto-rifles, grenades,
rockets, tools and other supplies. Places must also be arranged in
the front line for ammunition, rockets and hand and rifle grenades.


Telephones. Communication is established as speedily as possible
with the various units. In the forward trenches wires do not last long
under bombardment and fire left open along the side of the trench,
where quick repairs can be made. All soldiers must be taught to
respect these wires and to care for them when they are found under
foot or hanging. Conduits are dug for wires to battalion and
regimental headquarters, and these are fairly safe from shell fire.


Departure Parallel. In preparing for an advance upon the enemy, a
straight line trench without traverses, and with steps at the end for
exit to the surface, is built in front of the first line trench. This
line of departure is generally brought within about 200 yards of the
hostile line by means of _saps_, short trenches run out from the front
line to the new parallel. Since this line of departure can be seen by
the enemy, it is sometimes better to construct steps in the front line
trench itself, or when possible to build a _Russian sap_. This is a
tunnel very near the ground, which can be broken through at a moment's
notice when troops are ready to advance.


Machine Gun Emplacements.--Shell-holes with a good field of fire and
emplacements along boyaux are the best location for machine guns. Few
guns are placed in the front line, and these only at strong points in
the line, which command a maximum field of effectiveness. Shell-holes
may be imitated for machine gun emplacements, but in any case they
should be connected by underground passage with the trenches. Thus
when trenches are destroyed by bombardment the machine guns remain
intact. The field of fire for each machine gun should be carefully
determined and marked by three stakes, one for the position of the
gun, the other two for the limits of the field of fire. Using these as
guides, the gun can be fired correctly at night. During the day it
is never left in place nor fired from its actual emplacement.

[Illustration: No. 21]

Listening Posts.--These stations are usually carried out to the edge
of the entanglements nearest the enemy. The listening station must be
large enough for half a squad, and often has an automatic rifle and
grenade thrower. There should be not more than two posts for each
battalion. They are not occupied during the day. They are hard to
defend and easily captured by a raiding party which cuts the wire to
one of the flanks and comes in from the rear. The boyau leading to the
post should be zig-zagged. The post itself should be deep enough for
good head cover.


Wire Entanglements.--The object of the entanglement is not to stop
completely the advance of the enemy, but to delay him at close range
under machine gun, auto rifle and rifle fire, and within range of
grenades and bombs. Entanglements should be concealed as much as
possible from the enemy's trenches and from aerial observation. If
possible, they should be placed on a reverse slope or in a dead angle.
They should be from 50 to 100 yards in front of the trench, so that
artillery fire directed upon the trench will not be effective on the
wire. At the same time the wire must not be far enough advanced so
that the enemy's raiding parties can cut the entanglements.

Wire entanglements are classified as high entanglements, low
entanglements and loose wire.


High Entanglements are strung on metal or wood posts about four feet
high, both wire and posts being painted for camouflage. The driving of
posts must be muffled, and metal screw posts are used when near the
enemy's line. Posts are placed in two parallel lines, two yards apart,
spaced alternately so that the posts in one line are opposite the
middle of the interval in the other.


Tracing Entanglements is done by a sergeant followed by two stake
placers, two holders and two drivers, who in turn are followed by men
attaching wire. Two men carry each roll of wire, and each pair (there
are twelve pairs in all) strings one wire. A panel between stakes is
composed of four strands. Each wire should be wrapped around each
post. The same arrangement of panels should run between the two lines
of posts. The entanglements are in three lines about 20 yards apart,
the nearest being 20 yards from the front line trench. The
entanglement nearest the enemy should be constructed first, so that
men always work nearest their own trenches. All wire entanglements
should be at all points commanded by the flanking fire of machine
guns. High entanglements (known as abatis) may be made by felling
trees toward the enemy, and similar entanglements made of brushwood
are useful in emergency.


Low Entanglements are formed of pickets two feet high, 2-1/2 inches
in diameter, wired in all directions. Vegetation renders the
entanglement invisible from the enemy and from aerial observation.
This type may also be placed in shallow excavations which are
concealed from the enemy and partly protected from artillery fire.
Sharpened stakes, with their points hardened by fire, driven obliquely
into the ground, may also be used.


Loose Wire in the form of loops of small diameter fastened to
stakes, or wire laid along the ground and attached at the ends, or
spirals of barbed wire in racks, is used for entanglements. It is
reported that this form is coming into considerable use, but the
details have not been published. Such entanglements are much harder to
locate by aerial observation.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following are a number of criticisms made by Lieut. Henri Poire of
the French army, detailed as instructor at Plattsburg, upon the system
of field works constructed by the 17th and 18th Provisional Training
Regiments. The ground was of loose sand, with some gravel at a depth
of about six feet.

   1. Dimensions of trenches as laid out were not followed.
      (a) Bottom of trenches behind firing steps too narrow.
      (b) Firing step too deep. It should never be more than 3 feet 4
          inches below berm of parapet.
      (c) Parapet much too thin in most cases. It should be at least
          three feet thick.
      (d) Communication trenches (boyaux) generally too narrow.
      (e) Islands in communication trenches should never be less than
          10 x 12 yards--otherwise one shell will demolish the entire
          passageway.

   2. Revettment work not well anchored. In some cases too many wires
from supports fastened to one dead man. Another fault is that dead
men were not buried deeply enough in the ground, nor far enough back
from the trench. In one case a dead man (a stake) supported all four
sides of an island in a communication trench. The destruction of this
post would have completely blocked every passage around the island.
Furthermore, dead men rot quickly and tend to break off. It is
necessary, therefore, to have a number of them, each holding only a
portion of the weight. All projecting branches and irregularities
along a trench should be removed by occupying troops.

   3. Too many loop-holes. Except for snipers, riflemen and automatic
riflemen fire over the parapet.

   4. Machine gun loop-holes not wide enough. They should not be less
than 36 inches wide. There must be vegetation planted in front and a
curtain hung over the loop-holes to prevent detection. The growing
plants in front will be easily swept away at the first discharge.

   5. Remember never to imitate shell-holes until after a real
bombardment by the enemy.

   6. The dugouts made were never deep enough and afforded no
protection. In fact it would be far better to have none than to be
caught inside when a shell exploded in a shallow one, because the
confinement of the explosion would intensify the effect.

   7. Shelters were all too wide. Six feet is the maximum.
   The platoon headquarters dugout should be of the same width as the
trench, not over three feet, but as long as necessary. Company
headquarters is six feet wide and of whatever depth required.

   8. In digging, not enough care was used to conceal the fresh earth
from the enemy. Make false emplacements to utilize this dirt; also dig
dummy trenches about one foot deep, leaving the sides sharp so that
they will show clearly on aerial photographs.

   9. In using plants as camouflage, distinct care must be exercised
not to put growing plants too freely nor to place them where they
never existed. The actual ground conditions must be copied.

   10. Some latrines were not arranged with the stools close beneath
the wall nearest the enemy. This caused the loss of protection, which
it is imperative to consider, as many casualties occur here.

   11. Too many listening posts. They are easily captured by hostile
fighting patrols. There should never be more than two listening posts
to a battalion.

   12. The observation stations in many instances had no good field of
fire or were outlined against the sky on the crest of some rise. The
site for an observation post should always be placed over the crest
and have a good field of fire for use in case of attack.


Occupation.

I. Relief in the Trenches.


   A. THE TWO MAIN CLASSES OF RELIEF:
      1. General Relief. Applied to the relief of a whole position
         manned by a division or more. Executed when large units are
         going to "full rest" in the rear or being removed from one
         part of the front to another. Executed in the same way as
         interior relief; i.e., by successive relief of the
         battalions involved.
      2. Interior Relief. Applied to the relief of one sector or
         portion of a sector manned by a brigade or less.

   B. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF RELIEF:

      1. Interior relief is executed about once every six days; more
         frequently when the stay in the trenches is particularly
         arduous, less frequently when it is unusually comfortable.
      2. The battalion is the relieving unit.
      3. It is advisable to arrange the relief between units which
         have friendly relations to one another; e.g., battalions of
         the same regiment; and, so far as possible, to assign each
         unit to the same trenches on each relief. This promotes
         continuity of effort.
      4. Relief is executed at night; the hour must be varied; secrecy
         is imperative.
      5. Prompt execution is essential, to prevent fatigue of the
         troops and congestion of the boyaux.

   C. THE MECHANISM OF RELIEF:

      1. Reconnaissance, 24 hours in advance, by the captain of each
         relieving company, accompanied by his platoon leaders and
         non-commissioned officers. He ascertains:
         (1) The plan of occupation; i.e., the dispositions and
             duties of the unit to be relieved.
         (2) The shelter accommodations.
         (3) Work being done and proposed.
         (4) Condition of the wire and other defences.
         (5) The available water supply.
         (6) Artillery support.
         (7) Communications.
         (8) The location, amount and condition of stores.
         (9) Danger points.
        (10) All available information of the enemy; his habits,
             location of his snipers, what work he is doing.
        (11) The ways and means of liaison, both lateral and from
             front to rear.
        To the success of this reconnaissance, the closest
             co-operation between all officers of the companies
             relieving and relieved, is indispensable.

      2. The march from billets to the trenches:
         (a) Transportation, by auto-trucks and wagons, is utilized
             to a point as near the lines as possible, to carry the
             packs of the men, the auto rifles, extra ammunition and
             other heavy equipment. When the distance is great the
             men themselves should be carried by auto-truck; this
             saves time and fatigue. The men will carry rifles loaded
             and locked, full cartridge belts, gas masks, and all
             other lighter equipment, with rations for 24 hours at
             least. Grenades will be secured in the trenches.
         Electric torches will be carried by company and platoon
         commanders.
         (b) The strictest discipline must be maintained. On arrival
             within sight of the enemy, noise and smoking (or other
             lights) will be prohibited.
         (c) Guides, from the company to be relieved, will meet the
             relieving company promptly at a point definitely agreed
             upon in advance.

      3. The march through the boyaux (communicating trenches):
         (a) Distance; often as much three or four miles.
         (b) Order of march: company in single file, captain at the
             head; each platoon leader at the head of his platoon; a
             non-commissioned officer at rear of each platoon.
         (c) The column must be kept closed up. Each man must consider
             himself a connecting file, guiding on the head, and
             behave accordingly. A guide should accompany the
             commander of the last platoon.
         (d) Rate of march: roughly, about 40 yards per minute. It
             takes 250 men about 20 minutes to pass a given point.
         (e) Route and right of way:
             The first line and support trenches will never be used
             as roads. Separate boyaux should, if possible, be
             assigned to the troops relieving and relieved. In no
             case will one company cross the path of another. In case
             of two columns meeting, one moving forward, the other to
             the rear, the former has the right of way.

      4. No man of the unit in occupation will leave his post until
         he has actually been relieved and has transmitted all orders
         and information relative to that post.

      5. Liaison must be established, immediately on arrival, with the
         units on the flanks and with headquarters in the rear.
         Captains must make sure that their runners are thoroughly
         acquainted with the routes of communication.

      6. As soon as relief is accomplished both captains will report
         that fact to their respective commanders.

      7. The relieving commander then inspects his trenches. He
         ascertains that all his watchers are at their posts and that
         the balance of his men know their posts and duties and are
         prepared to assume them quickly.

      8. The duties of the relieved commander are:
         (1) To turn over his sector thoroughly policed and in good
             condition as regards its construction and the new work,
             if any, in progress.
         (2) To turn over his supplies in good condition and fully
             accounted for.
         (3) After reporting the relief, to march his men back to
             billets as promptly and secretly as possible, in column
             of files, platoon leaders in the rear of their platoons,
             a non-commissioned officer and guide at the head of each.
         (4) On the evening preceding relief, to send his cooks back
             to billets so that his men may be provided with a hot
             meal immediately on arrival.

   D. If an attack occurs during the march through the boyaux, to or
      from relief, the company affected occupies the nearest
      defensive position and at once notifies its battalion
      commander. If an attack occurs during the actual process of
      relief, the senior officer present takes command.


II. The Stay in the Trenches.


   A. THE FOUR OBJECTS OF A TRENCH COMMANDER:

   1. Security of his sector.
   2. Protection of his troops.
   3. Constant and accurate observation.
   4. A continuous offensive.

   B.  HIS PLAN OF DEFENSE:

   1. General principles of defense:
      (a) Arrangement in depth. The most dependable defense is in
          prearranged counter attacks. The system of defense must
          react like a helical spring.
      (b) Tenacity of defense.
          1. Each unit must be prepared to hold its post to the last
             extremity.
          2. Orders to withdraw will never be obeyed unless
             unmistakably valid.
          3. All ground lost must be retaken at once in counter attack
             by the unit which lost it.
      (c) Apportionment of responsibility. Each active segment must
          have a commander responsible for its defense, upkeep and
          sanitation, and the discipline and instruction of his men.

   2. Basis:
      (a) The plan of defense turned over by the preceding commander.
          This will usually suffice for the first 24 hours after
          relief.
      (b) General information of the enemy's lines, dispositions, and
          intentions, based chiefly on aerial photographs.

   C. ORGANIZATION OF DEFENSE:

   1. Allocation of front. (The front of an American battalion will
      average about 1,000 yards.)
      Diagrams: A. The Regiment. B. The Battalion. C. The Company. D.
      The Platoon.
   2. Distribution of effectives. Determined chiefly by the terrain
      and by 3.
   3. Employment of the several arms:
      (a) Machine guns. Crew of 8 men per gun. (Furnished by
          detachments of a machine gun company.) Located by the
          infantry commander, in concealed emplacements behind the
          first line, to deliver successive barrages from flanking
          positions. Effective range: up to 700 yards.
      (b) Automatic rifles. Crew of 3 men per rifle. Usually posted to
          enfilade the entanglements of the first line. They
          concentrate the fire effect of from 7 to 10 riflemen.
          Effective range: up to 300 yards.
      (c) Rifle Grenadiers. Located near enough to first line to hold
          the enemy trenches under fire and deliver effective barrages
          near the mouths of our own communicating trenches. Should be
          located near observation posts so that their fire can be
          promptly corrected.
      (d) Trench mortars. Located similarly to (c). Manned by
          riflemen.
      (e) Bombers. One supply man to each 2 grenadiers. Used for
          protection of auto-rifles, in counter attacks, for
          protection of communicating trenches and fighting in close
          quarters.
      (f) Riflemen. Posted to deliver frontal fire. Grouped according
          to the plan of counter attacks.
      (g) As many men as possible should be instructed in the use of
          the enemy's weapons.

   D. LIAISON:

      (a) By telephone. Quickest and most accurate. Maintained
          between each platoon and its company headquarters, and
          between adjoining companies. Especially subject to
          destruction in bombardment. Wireless and ground telegraphy
          are used only between brigade and division headquarters.
      (b) By runners ("liaison agents"). Five detailed from each
          company to battalion headquarters; one sent to each
          adjoining company headquarters; one from each platoon to
          company headquarters; four or five on duty at each platoon
          headquarters; five from each machine gun company to
          battalion headquarters. Messages sent by them should, if
          practicable, be written and signed, and should be receipted
          for by the addressee.
      (c) By rockets and flares. Quickest means of liaison with the
          artillery in rear.
      (d) Domestic (message carrying) grenades.
      (e) Dogs and carrier pigeons. Sent out to the rear from
          battalion headquarters.
      (f) One searchlight--with a radius of 3 miles--is furnished to
          each company.
      (g) Noise. Klaxon signals, etc., give warning of gas attacks.

   E. OBSERVATION:

      (a) Observers:
          1. Must be men of infinite patience, keen hearing and
             eyesight.
          2. They are located behind the first line in positions
             combining good view with concealment.
          3. Each is provided with a panoramic map, made from
             aeroplane photographs, of the enemy's trenches. On this
             must be promptly noted every slightest change in the
             trace, height of parapet, etc., of the enemy's line. Such
             notes greatly assist in locating machine gun
             emplacements.
          4. Each observer will also record in a note book everything
             of importance, with the time observed.
          5. A report of changes, with an abstract of observer's
             notes, is forwarded daily to regimental headquarters.
      (b) Watchers (sentinels):
          1. Stationed, one near the door of each dugout, in the
             first line, support and intermediate trenches.
          2. They must be carefully concealed.
          3. They must watch over the parapet (never through slits or
             loopholes) so as to have unrestricted view.
          4. They are furnished with signal rockets and flares for
             prompt communication with the artillery, and have
             authority to use them.
          5. Double sentinels are posted at night.
      (c) Listening Posts:
          1. Located, usually in shell holes, just inside the
             entanglements. Connected with front line by tunnels.
             Protected from grenades by heavy gratings, when
             possible, and by concealment.
          2. Occupied by 4 men (1 in command), in 3 reliefs. Usually
             occupied only at night unless our trenches are on a
             reverse slope.
          3. Chief function is protection of the entanglements.
      (d) Microphone Posts.--Installed usually behind the first line.
          Intercept the enemy's telephone and ground-telegraph
          messages and any loud conversation in his trenches.
      (e) Fixed Patrols.--Generally remain in shell holes in front of
          our entanglements.
      (f) Reconnoitering Patrols:
          1. Composed of from 3 to 5 men, commanded by a
             non-commissioned officer. Sent out at night only.
          2. The company commander must promptly notify commanders of
             adjoining companies of the dispatch of these patrols,
             their time of departure, route and probable time of
             return.
          3. Men should be assigned to this duty by roster.

F. TRENCH WORK:

   1. Constant battle with the elements, care for drainage,
      revettment, sanitation and storage.
   2. Repair of the effects of bombardment.
   3. New work, for better security, communication and observation.
   4. Work in the open.
      (a) Usually consists of repair or rearrangement of wire
          entanglements, digging new listening posts, etc.
      (b) Effected by parties detailed by roster.
      (c) They are guarded by fighting patrols, composed like
          reconnaissance patrols. Their best protection is in silence
          and concealment.
      (d) Adjoining companies must be notified of their dispatch,
          location and probable time of return.
      (e) This work, like all operations conducted outside the
          protection of the trenches, offers a valuable tonic to the
          morale.

   G. OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS:

   1. Sniping:
      (a) Snipers constitute one of the most dependable and
          productive agencies of attrition.
      (b) The best shots of the company are especially trained and
          assigned for this duty exclusively.
      (c) They operate in pairs and post themselves to cover any
          exposed portions of the enemy's trenches, especially his
          communicating trenches.
      (d) They should be well supplied with all necessary special
          equipment; _e.g._, sniperscopes, telescopic sights, painted
          headgear, etc.

   2. Mining Operations.

   3. Raiding:
      (a) Object of raids: destruction of the enemy's defenses,
          disturbance of his morale, collection of prisoners and
          information.
      (b) The personnel of raiding parties will usually include: A
          commander and second in command, bayonet men, bombers,
          engineers, signal men, stretcher bearers. Their numbers and
          proportions are regulated by the nature and difficulty of
          the task.
      (c) Co-ordination with the artillery barrage is the essential of
          their success. The limit of advance, extent of operations,
          and time of return will therefore be set in advance and
          rigidly adhered to.

   H. ROLE OF THE TRENCH COMMANDER:

   1. Inspections: The men will be formally inspected twice daily at
      the general "stand to" by the company commander. Particular
      attention will be paid to the health of the men, condition of
      their feet and their clothing. Each man must have at least one
      pair of dry socks always available. Arms, gas masks, and other
      equipments will also be rigidly inspected.
   2. Roster: The company commander will carefully supervise the
      preparation of the duty roster. An obviously equal distribution
      of the arduous duties involved in trench life is essential to
      the maintenance of morale.
   3. Reports and Records: (Additional to those already required by
      regulations.) Log Book, Report of Casualties, Wind Report
      (daily), Bombardment Report (daily), Intelligence Report, which
      will include observer's notes and changes (twice daily), and a
      daily report of Work completed and Undertaken.
   4. "One principle which the trench commander should never forget is
      the necessity for his frequent presence in the midst of his men.
      * * * Direct contact with the troops on as many occasions as
      possible is the most certain way to gain their confidence."

[Illustration]

[Illustration]


Duties of the Company Commander.

   1. To inspect the sector his company is to occupy, one day in
      advance of occupying it.
   2. To assign segments to the platoons.
   3. To prepare a plan of defense.
   4. To connect by liaison with the companies on his flanks.
   5. To have an agent or runner at Battalion Headquarters.
   6. To prepare a plan for counter attacks.
   7. To report to the Battalion Commander when his company has taken
      up its position:
      (a) Its situation.
      (b) Security.
      (c) Liaison.
      (d) State of position left by predecessor.
      (e) Defense of sector.
      (f) Plan of counter attacks.
   8. To inspect the trenches frequently to see that everything is in
      proper condition and that his men are in jubilant spirits.
   9. To have platoon guides report to Battalion Headquarters on the
      date for the relief of his company and act as guides to the
      company that relieves him.
  10. To keep a special log book in which the following are kept:
      (a) Work completed by his unit.
      (b) Work under way.
      (c) Work proposed.
  11. Turn over to his successor:
      (a) Measures taken for security.
      (b) Plan of attacks.
      (c) Plan of counterattacks.
  12. Have one officer on duty at all times.
  13. "Stand to" will take place one (1) hour before daylight, and all
      available men will attend. There will be a thorough inspection.
      Rapid loading will be practiced. The firing position of every
      man will be tested to see if he can hit the bottom of our wire.
      Gas helmets will be inspected.
  14. Time table--allot hours of work, rest and meals.
  15. Supplies--make timely requisitions for them--be especially
      watchful about meals and rations--have no delays.
  16. To have one watcher and one relief on duty near Company
      Headquarters at all times.
  17. To get a good field of fire to the front and cover the sectors
      of each company on flanks.
  18. (Subject to change) Red Rocket-Artillery Barrage wanted.
                          White Rocket Gas Attack.
  19. To report twice daily all changes in wind direction.
  20. To report to Battalion Commander when relieved.


Duties of Platoon Leaders as Officers on Duty with Company.

   1. Report with old officer at company headquarters.
   2. Make frequent inspections of all trenches occupied by company.
   3. Visit each Listening Post; at least once during tour of duty.
   4. Visit all sentinels and receive their reports.
   5. See that one non-commissioned officer per platoon is on duty.
   6. Receive reports of non-commissioned officers after they have
      posted sentinels.
   7. At end of tour hand over to new officer all orders, a report of
      work in progress, and any useful information.
   8. Report with new officer at Company Headquarters on completion of
      tour.
   9. To report anything unusual to Company Headquarters.
  10. To send dead and wounded to dressing station trenches.
  11. To send patrols to front at night.


Duties of Platoon Leaders.

   1. Must accompany company commander on inspection of trenches one
      day previous to occupying them.
   2. Make necessary reliefs for his men in his segment.
   3. Make a plan of defense and counterattack for his position or
      approve the one left there.
   4. Establish sniping posts and arrange reliefs.
   5. Establish Listening Posts and arrange reliefs.
   6. Assign non-commissioned officer to duty with platoon and arrange
      relief.
   7. Instruct every man as to his place in case of attack.
   8. Establish liaison with platoons on both flanks; and one runner
      to Company Headquarters.
   9. Have one platoon guide report to Company Headquarters on day his
      platoon is to be relieved.
  10. On completion of posting his platoon, report to his company
      commander.
  11. Turn over to platoon relieving him all orders and data
      pertaining to his position.
  12. Be especially attentive to rigid military discipline; _i.e._,
      every soldier to be neat; equipment must be clean at all times;
      to render the required salute when not observing or firing at
      the enemy.
  13. Have one non-commissioned officer on duty at all times.
  14. To inspect rifles, equipment and latrines twice daily.
      (a) To have at least one latrine in working order at all times.
      (b) To have a sentry on duty at each platoon dugout at all
          times.
      (c) Establish one Observation Post in daytime.
  15. In Front Line Trenches:
      (a) No smoking or talking to be allowed at night.
      (b) Every man to wear his equipment except packs.
      (c) Have rifle within reaching distance.
      (d) All reliefs to be within kicking distance of soldier on
          duty.
  16. Inspect at "Stand to" and report results to Company
      Headquarters, especially if each man has 170 rounds of
      ammunition and necessary grenades and bombs.
  17. To be especially attentive to sanitation and care of the men's
      feet.
  18. To have one (1) watcher and relief on duty at all times near
      platoon dugouts.
  19. To get a good field of fire to his front and to cover the sector
      of each platoon on his flanks.
  20. Make requisition for material.
  21. To see that all of his men are properly fed.
  22. Report to company commander when relieved.
  23. Must know what every man is doing at all times.


Duties of Non-Commissioned Officer on Duty (Each Platoon).

   1. To make frequent inspections of the position occupied by his
      platoon.
   2. To be responsible that each soldier knows his duties.
   3. To report anything of special importance to officer on duty.
   4. On being relieved to report with the new non-commissioned
      officer to the officer on duty.
   5. After posting sentinels to report "All is Well" to officer on
      duty.
   6. Explain to his sentinel his duties, the position of Section and
      Platoon Commanders and of sentries on either side; and to
      caution his sentries when friendly patrols are out, the probable
      time and place of return.
   7. Bayonets will always be fixed in front line trenches.
   8. At night time to have double sentinel.
   9. To see that each sentinel in daytime has a periscope.
  10. Rifles to be loaded; no cartridge shall be in the chamber
      except when necessary to shoot.
  11. To report to Company Headquarters any change in direction of
      wind.


Patrols.

   1. Usual orders about patrols.
   2. Always go out at night via the Listening Post; tell the men in
      the Listening Post your mission and probable time of return.


Sentinels.

   1. To sound Klaxon horn on approach of gas attack.
   2. To report immediately to non-commissioned officer on duty any
      change in direction of wind.
   3. In cold weather to work bolt frequently to keep it from
      freezing.
   4. At night to challenge only in case of necessity, and then only
      in a low tone. Challenge "_Hands up._"
   5. Number of posts depends on assumed nearness of enemy and local
      conditions. Normally one per platoon by day and three double
      sentinels per platoon at night.
   6. Relief kept close at hand. Report "All is Well," or otherwise,
      when officer passes.
   7. Screened from observation.
   8. Remain standing unless height of parapet renders this
      impossible.


Machine Guns.

   1. Non-commissioned officer and one (1) watcher on duty at all
      times.
   2. Except in emergency they will not be fired from their regular
      emplacements.
   3. Unless emplacements are well concealed, guns will not be mounted
      except between evening and morning "stand to."
   4. Before dusk each gun will be sighted on some particular spot
      either in front of or behind the enemy's line.
   5. Range cards will be prepared and kept with each gun.


Snipers.

   1. Sniping Post consists of one (1) observer and one (1) rifleman
      with relief of two (2) men posted close by.
   2. Sniping post should be well concealed.
   3. Daily report from each post, of
      (a) Any work done by enemy.
      (b) Enemy seen; place, uniform, apparent age, physique,
          equipment.
      (c) Any other information of interest.
   4. Sniper to be appointed from each section.
   5. Must be intelligent, alert, good scout, good shot, courageous.
   6. Snipers should spend 24 hours in trenches with those of command
      which theirs is to relieve, before relief takes place.
   7. No night work required of these men since they must be
      constantly on the alert during the day.

Organization of a Platoon--Rifle Company--Table No. 7

                          PLATOON

                    Platoon Headquarters
                          1 Lieut.
                           1 Sgt.
                         4 Privates.

1st Section     |  2d  Section   |   3d Section      | 4th  Section
 Hand Bombers   |Rifle Grenadiers|    Riflemen       | Auto-Riflemen
----------------+----------------+-------------------+--------------------
 3 Teams, each  | 1 Team of      | 1 Sgt.            | 1 Sgt. and 2 Corps.
1 Leader        | 6 Grenadiers   | 2 Squads of       | 4 Teams, each
1 Thrower       | 3 Carriers     |    8 men each     | 1 Gunner
1 Carrier       | (May be        | 4 Extra           | 2 Carriers
1 Scout         |    subdivided) |    riflemen[R]    |
2 Corps.        | 2 Corps.       | 1 Sgt. and 2 Cpl. | 1 Sgt. and 2 Cpls.
4 Pvts. 1st Cl. | 1 Pvt. 1st Cl. | 6 Pvts. 1st Cl.   | 4 Pvts. 1st Cl.
6 Pvts.         | 6 Pvts.        | 12 Pvts.          | 8 Pvts.
    Total--12   |     Total--9   |     Total--21     |     Total--15

[Footnote R: Runners: Attached to 3d Section and 7th Squad. With
Platoon commander when company is in extended order formation.]


_Suggested Organization of Platoon in Close Order and for
Administration._

1st Squad      |   2d Squad      |    3d Squad     |   4th Squad    |
---------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------|
Bomber Section | 1/2 Auto Rifle  | 1/2 Auto Rifle  |                |
(less 1 bomber | Section i.e.,   | Section i.e.,   | Grenadier      |
    team)      | Cpl and 2 teams | Cpl and 2 teams | Section        |
               |                 |                 |                |
  1 Corp       |    1 Cpl.       |    1 Cpl.       | 1 Cpl.         |
  7 Pvts.      |    6 Pvts.      |    6 Pvts.      | 7 Pvts.        |
               |                 |                 | (Extra Cpl. in |
               |                 |                 | File Closers)  |
---------------+-----------------+-----------------+----------------+


5th Squad      |   6th Squad     | 7th Squad       |
---------------+-----------------+-----------------|
 1 Rifle Squad | 1 Rifle Squad   | 1 Bomber Team   |
               |                 | plus 4 extra    |
               |                 | riflemen[S]     |
               |                 |                 |
 1 Cpl.        |   1 Cpl.        |    1 Cpl.       |
 7 Pvts.       |   7 Pvts.       |    7 Pvts.      |
               |                 |                 |
               |                 |                 |
---------------+-----------------+-----------------+

Right Guide--Automatic Gun Sgt.    Left Guide--Rifle Sgt.
Chief of Platoon--Lieut.  File closer or acting 1st Sgt.--Sgt.-Asst.

Note.--If desirable the 4 mechanics and 4 privates (signalmen) who are
not assigned to platoons regularly, can be used to fill the blank
files in the 2d and 3d squads.

[Footnote S: Runners: Attached to 3d Section and 7th Squad. With
Platoon commander when company is in extended order formation.]


Deployments.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES:

   (a) The following plans for deployment are not to be regarded as
rigid. The positions of the various squads depends upon tactical
considerations.
   (b) The platoon in attack will be used only for accomplishment of
its offensive mission. Moppers-up, additional carriers, etc., will be
furnished by other organizations.
   A. Being in line, to form single skirmish line to the front.
      1. As skirmishers (so many) paces, guide right (left or
         center). 2. March.
         Executed as described in pars. 206 and 208, i.d.r.
         Normal interval to be ordered, 4 or 5 paces.
         This formation to be regarded as exceptional.
   B. Being in column of squads, to form single skirmish line. Same
      command as in (A). Executed as described in para 207 and 208,
      i.d.r.
   C. Being in line to form double skirmish line to the front (_i.e._,
      to take the "Formation for Attack" in the diagram.)
      1. In two lines. 2. As skirmishers (so many) paces, guide right
         (left or center). 3 March.
         Executed according to the principles in pars. 206 and 208,
         i.d.r., except that at the command March the even-numbered
         squads stand fast while the odd-numbered squads form the
         first line by deploying on the base squad as in the case of
         deployment in single line. Similarly, the even-numbered
         squads form the second line by deploying on their base squad
         after the odd-numbered squads have moved forward about 20
         paces.

[Illustration: NORMAL BATTALION FORMATION IN ATTACK]

   D. Being in line or column of squads to deploy in line of squad
      columns in one or two lines. Use same commands and execute in
      same manner as described in (A), (B), (C), except that in the
      command "Squad Columns" is substituted for "as skirmishers,"
      and in the execution each corporal on approaching the line
      forms his squad in "squad column" instead of deploying it as
      skirmishers.
      _E.G._ 1. In two lines--2. Squad columns (so many) paces, Guide
      right (left or center)--3. March.
      This gives a "Formation of Approach" as the French describe it,
      or as an "Artillery Formation" as the British describe it; which
      may be used directly or indirectly (by means of echelons) for
      advancing when not liable to infantry fire.

[Illustration: Plate #22]

   E. Being in above formation to vary the intervals.
      1. Squad columns (so many) paces, 2. Guide right (left or
         center). Executed in the same manner as similar movement
         described in i.d.r. 126.


General Principles of the Platoon Formation in the Assault of
Fortified Positions in Trenches. (Points of Resistance, Etc.).

1. The platoon is now a complete fighting unit within itself. It
contains riflemen, bombers, auto-riflemen, and rifle grenadiers. With
this combination the platoon commander has, under his immediate
control, all the different kinds of fire available to the infantry.

[Illustration: Plate #23]

2. This formation was developed so that the platoon commander could
meet the different contingencies that arise from being opposed by
points of resistance in a "Trench-to-Trench" attack or the
"Semi-Open-Warfare;" that is the secondary stage of a push.

3. When strong opposition develops, the principle on which the platoon
works is to develop or surround the point of resistance, the platoon
acting either alone or in conjunction with neighboring platoons. The
four different kinds of fire are then used to their best advantages to
silence or diminish the enemy fire thus making this manoeuvre
possible.

4. In order to obtain success it is first necessary to impress on the
officers and men that the primary advantage of the entire formation is
its mobility, and the scope it gives to the initiative of the platoon
section, squad and team leaders. In studying this formation it is
first necessary to free the mind of all parade ground formations and
to feel that there is nothing to hinder any desired movement of the
sections, so long as the movement is not contrary to the operation
orders for the attack. Until this idea is grasped thoroughly no
progress can be made.

5. There is no typical or "normal formation." The one given at the
beginning of this instruction here is a drill or parade ground
formation, and while it may be used under actual conditions of
warfare, it is simply utilized at this time as a basis from which the
necessary variations may be worked out. In an attack, every platoon in
the battalion may use a different formation.

6. The formation to be used is decided upon after a careful study of
air-photographs. As far as possible all points of resistance are
picked out and the best method of meeting the situations that may
arise are then considered. The platoon is then arranged so as to best
facilitate this manoeuvre. It must be realized that there will be
other platoons on the flanks and in the rear, and their dispositions
must be studied with a view of their probable bearing on the points of
resistance.

7. In order to know how to get results it is first necessary to have a
very clear conception of the uses and limitations of the different
weapons in the platoon.

Briefly they can be used in the following ways:

(a) The auto-rifles open up a point blank fire on the strong point as
soon as it is discovered. Their function is to either draw the fire of
the enemy or to silence him by a hit or forcing him to take cover.
Their work may be compared to the work of the field artillery in a
barrage. They cover the movement of the infantry across the open. The
auto rifles so place themselves at such points that their line of fire
will in no way interfere with the manoeuvre of the commander of the
platoon or the remaining units of the platoon interfere with the
effective use of the auto rifles of the platoon.

(b) The rifle grenadiers advance at once just as close as possible,
but at all costs to within effective grenade range. They then take
cover in shell holes, trenches, etc., and open up a rapid fire. They
are the long distance howitzers of the platoon and are very valuable.
By a well placed grenade the whole resistance may be overcome. This
section usually works around a flank.

(c) The riflemen work up by squad as far as practicable and to a
flank, when an opportunity presents itself, the squad opens fire in
such a manner as to protect advance of other squads or teams.

(d) The bombers endeavor to get well around behind the enemy and
taking advantage of cover get to within bomb range. They may be
compared to the close range howitzers or trench mortars.

When all four sections are in action at proper ranges, the opposition
can probably last but a short time, and as soon as the machine guns
cease fire the platoon, especially the riflemen, go after the
remainder of the garrison with the bayonet.

[Illustration: Plate #27]

It may happen that the barrage put up will so demoralize the enemy
that the riflemen can advance before his machine guns are even put out
of action. This operation allows the rifle men to get in with the
bayonet, if the resistance is not sooner overcome.

When the different sections are getting to their places, they usually
find enough shell holes or old trenches to obtain cover. They should
not move as entire sections, but as small groups of three or four at a
time.

8. After the encircling movement has once begun, the platoon commander
loses all control, and the action is then conducted by the section,
squad or team leaders. They must be trained to act on their own
initiative, as further orders are rarely practicable.

The resistance will finally be overcome, either because the enemy will
retreat or surrender under the menace of encirclement, or by the
losses caused by our fire or by the attack at close range of our
bombers or else by the final assault with the bayonet led by our
riflemen.

It must be remembered that under an artillery barrage it is never
possible to issue verbal orders, so the sections must be trained to
understand and obey the arm signals of its officer, or more often to
work without orders.

9. A sequence of command must be arranged in each section, squad and
team down to the last man.


REMARKS REGARDING THE FORMING OF WAVE FROM CLOSE ORDER.

The sketch of deployment attached is an illustration of one of the
formations that may be adopted. It is given as an example. Any other
wave formation may be practically as easily formed up. The platoon
commander simply calls out the squads he wants in the first line.

_It must not be imagined that this transition from close order to
extended is done in the field when actually under fire or as a result
of surprise._

Before the platoon goes into an attack it is all arranged so as to
allow it to be changed with ease from column of sections at extended
intervals (formation for approach) to the wave formation decided upon.
This arrangement is made when the platoon is miles to the rear.

When the change is made from column of sections to the wave formation
there must be no crossing of sections as they go to their places.


Some of the Many Questions a Platoon Commander Should Ask Himself on
Taking Over a Trench, and at Frequent Intervals Afterwards.

1. _I am here for two purposes: To hold this line under all
circumstances, and to do as much damage as possible to the enemy? Am I
doing all I can to make this line as strong as possible? Am I as_
OFFENSIVE _as I might be with organized snipers, sniperscopes, rifle
grenades, catapults, etc., and patrols?_

2. Do I connect up all right with the platoons on my right and left?
Do I know the position of my nearest support?

3. Does every man know his firing position and can he fire from it,
over the parapet, at the foot of the wire?

4. Where are my S.A.A. and bomb stores? Are they under cover from the
weather?

5. Do all my men know their duties in case of attack--bombers
especially?

6. Are all my rifles and ammunition clean and in good order? Have all
the men got rifle covers? Are the magazines kept charged?

7. Is my wire strong enough?

8. Are my parapets and traverses bullet-proof everywhere?

9. Where are my sally ports?

10. Where are my listening posts? Are my listening patrols properly
detailed?

11. What points in front particularly require patrolling at night?

12. Are my sentries in their right places? Are they properly posted by
N.C.O's.? Have they received proper instructions?

13. Have I got the S.O.S. message in my pocket, and do I know the
orders regarding its use?

14. Are the trenches as clean and as sanitary as they might be? Are
live rounds and cases properly collected? Are my bags for refuse and
empties in position?

15. Are my trenches as dry as I might make them?

16. Am I doing all I can to prevent my men getting "Trench Feet"?

17. How can I prevent my parapets and dugouts from falling in?

18. Have I got at least one loophole, from which men can snipe, for
every section? Have I pointed out to Section Commanders the portion of
the enemy's trench they are responsible for keeping under fire, and
where his loopholes are?

19. Have my men always got their smoke helmets on and are they in good
order?

20. Are the arrangements, in case of gas attack, complete and known to
all ranks?

21. Are the orders as to wearing equipment carried out?

22. Are my men using wood from the defences as firewood?

23. Are my men drinking water from any but authorized sources?

24. _I am here for two purposes: To hold this line under all
circumstances, and I do as much damage as possible to the enemy? Am I
doing all I can to make this line as strong as possible? Am I as_
OFFENSIVE _as I might be with organized snipers, sniperscopes, rifle
grenades, catapults, etc., and patrols?_


Defensive Measure Against Gas Attacks.

I. Introduction.

A. General Considerations:

In the absence of suitable means of protection the poison gases used
in war are extremely deadly and the breathing of only very small
quantities of them may cause death or serious injury. This being the
case, it is essential that not the slightest time should be lost in
putting on the anti-gas device on the gas alarm being given.

It cannot be too strongly insisted on that the measures to meet
hostile gas attacks afford _perfect protection_, and if they are
carried out properly no one will suffer from gas poisoning.

The whole basis of protecting troops against gas lies (a) in keeping
the appliances in perfect working order; (b) in learning to adjust
them rapidly under all conditions, and (c) in ensuring that every man
is given immediate warning. These results can only be attained:

   (1) By frequent and thorough inspection of all protective
       appliances.
   (2) By thorough instruction and training in their use.
   (3) By every man understanding and complying with all standing
       orders on the subject of defense against gas.

If these are effectually carried out, there is nothing to fear from
hostile gas attacks. Officers must impress this on their men, as an
important object of all anti-gas instruction should be to inspire
complete confidence in the efficacy of the methods which are adopted.


B. Nature of Gas Attacks:

(1) GAS CLOUDS:

This method of making a gas attack is entirely dependent on the
direction of the wind. The gas is carried up to the trenches
compressed in steel cylinders. These are dug in at the bottom of the
trench and connected with pipes leading out over the parapet. When the
valves of the cylinders are opened, the gas escapes with a hissing
sound, which, on a still night, can frequently be heard at a
considerable distance. It mixes with the air and is carried by the
wind towards the opposing trenches, spreading out as it goes forward.
A continuous wave of gas and air is thus formed, the color of which
may vary:

   (a) Because of the weather conditions. In very dry air it may be
       almost transparent and slightly greenish in color, while in
       damp weather it forms a white cloud.
   (b) Because it may be mixed with smoke of any color.

A cloud attack can only take place when there is a steady but not too
strong wind blowing from the enemy's lines towards our own. A wind
between 4 and 8 miles an hour is the most likely condition. An 8-mile
wind will carry the gas cloud twice as quickly as a man walks rapidly.

Gas attacks may occur at any time of the day, but are most likely to
be made during the night or in the early morning.

Gentle rain is without appreciable effect on a gas attack, but strong
rain washes down the gas. Fogs have hardly any effect and may, in
fact, be taken advantage of to make an attack unexpectedly. Water
courses and ponds are no obstruction to a gas cloud.

The gas used by the enemy is generally a mixture of chlorine and
phosgene, both of which are strongly asphyxiating. The gases are
heavier than air, and therefore, tend to flow along the ground and
into trenches, shelters, craters and hollows. The gas cloud may flow
round slight eminences, thus leaving patches of country which remain
free from gas.

Chlorine and phosgene strongly attack the mucous membranes of the
respiratory organs, causing bad coughing. In strong concentrations of
gas, or by longer exposure to low concentrations, the lungs are
injured and breathing becomes more and more difficult and eventually
impossible, so that the unprotected man dies of suffocation. Death is
sometimes caused by two or three breaths of the gas. Even when very
dilute, chlorine can be recognized by its peculiar smell, which is
like chloride of lime, but stronger and more irritating.

Both chlorine and phosgene also exert a strongly corrosive action on
metals, so that the metal parts of arms must be carefully protected by
greasing them.

The speed with which the gas cloud approaches depends entirely on the
wind velocity. Gas attacks have been made with wind velocities varying
from 3 to 20 miles per hour, _i.e._, from 1-1/2 to 10 yards per
second. In a 9-mile wind, the gas would reach trenches 100 yards
distant in 20 seconds.

Gas attacks have been made on fronts varying from 1 to 5 miles; their
effects at points up to 8 miles behind the front trenches have been
sufficiently severe to make it necessary to wear helmets.

(2) GAS PROJECTILES:

The use of these is not entirely dependent on the direction of the
wind. In gas projectiles such as shells, hand grenades, and trench
mortar bombs, a part or the whole of the explosive charge is replaced
by a liquid which is converted into gas by the explosion. The
explosive force and noise of detonation of these projectiles is less
than that of the ordinary kind, and a large number of them are usually
discharged into a comparatively small space. After the explosion, the
irritant chemicals form a small gas cloud, though some may sink to the
ground and remain active for a considerable time.

For using gas shells, the best condition is calm, or a wind of low
velocity.

Gas projectiles can be used in all types of country. Woods, bushes,
corn fields and clumps of buildings may hold the gas active for a
considerable time.

Two kinds of shell gases are used by the enemy, viz., lachrymators,
which mainly affect the eyes, and poison gases, which may affect the
eyes and are just as deadly as the gases used in the form of clouds.

(1) TEAR, OR LACHRYMATORY SHELLS:

These shells on explosion drive the liquid chemical which they contain
into the air as a mist. They cause the eyes to water strongly and
thereby gradually put men out of action.

Their actual smell may be slight. Large concentrations of lachrymators
begin to affect the lungs and cause sickness, coughing and general
irritation.

(2) POISON SHELLS:

Besides the comparatively harmless lachrymators the enemy also uses
projectiles which contain a gas, the action of which is very similar
to that of phosgene. Because of their slight detonation, these shells
are liable to be mistaken for blinds, but they emit large quantities
of a gas which attacks the lungs strongly and is very dangerous, and
even in slight cases may cause serious after effects.

(3) SMOKE:

The enemy may make use of smoke, either in the form of a cloud or
emitted from shells and bombs. Smoke may be used with gas or between
gas clouds; it may also be used alone to distract attention from a
real discharge of gas, to cover the advance of infantry, or merely as
a false gas attack.

(4) MINE AND EXPLOSION GASES:

The poisonous gases which occur in mines, and which are formed in
large quantities when high explosive goes off in an enclosed space,
_e.g._, from a direct hit in a shelter, or on the explosion of a
charge in a mine, are not protected against by the ordinary anti-gas
appliances. The chief of these gases is carbon monoxide. Protection
against such gases will not be considered in these notes.

Officers are held responsible that all the anti-gas appliances for
protecting their men are maintained in perfect condition, and that all
ranks under their command are thoroughly trained in the use of these
appliances and in all other measures which may affect their safety
against gas.

Summary of Protective Measures:

   (a) Provision to each man of individual protective devices.
   (b) Arrangement for the inspection of those appliances and training
       in their use and instruction in all other measures of gas
       defense.
   (c) Provision of protected and gas-proof shelters.
   (d) Weather observations to determine periods when the conditions
       are favorable to a hostile gas attack.
   (e) Arrangement of signals and messages; for immediate warning of a
       gas attack.
   (f) Provision of appliances for clearing gas from trenches and
       shelters.


C. Protection of Shelters:

(1) METHODS OF PROTECTION:

Protection of dugouts, cellars, buildings, etc., is given if all
entrances are closed by well-fitting doors or by blankets sprayed with
hypo. solution. Practically no gas passes through a wet blanket, and
the protection depends on getting a good joint at the sides and bottom
of a doorway, so as to stop all draughts. This can be effected by
letting the blanket rest on battens, fixed with a slight slope,
against the door frame. The blanket should overlap the outer sides and
a fold should lie on the ground at the bottom. A pole is fastened to
the blanket, which allows the latter to be rolled up on the frame and
causes it to fall evenly.

Wherever possible, particularly where there is likely to be movement
in and out of the shelter, two blankets fitted in this way but sloping
in opposite directions should be provided. There should be an interval
of at least three feet between the two frames, and the larger this
vestibule is made the more efficient is the dugout.

When not in use, the blankets should be rolled up and held so that
they can be readily released, and should be sprayed occasionally with
water or a little Vermorel sprayer solution.

If the blankets became stiff from a deposit of chemicals, they should
be sprayed with water.

All ranks must be taught how to use gas-proof dugouts, _e.g._, how to
enter a protected doorway quickly, replacing the blanket immediately,
and carrying in as little outside air as possible.

The protection afforded by these means is just as complete against
lachrymatory gases as it is against cloud gas and poisonous shell
gases.

(2) SHELTERS WHICH SHOULD BE PROTECTED:

The following should always be protected:

Medical aid posts and advanced dressing stations; Company, Battalion
and Brigade Headquarters; signal shelters and any other place where
work has to be carried out during a gas attack.

In addition to the above, it is desirable to protect all dugouts,
cellars and buildings within the shell area, particularly those of
artillery personnel. It should be noted, however, that the protection
of dugouts for troops in the front line of trenches is usually
inadvisable on account of the delay involved in getting men out in
time of attack. It is desirable to protect stretcher bearers' dugouts
with a view to putting casualties in them.


D. Protection of Weapons and Equipment:

Arms and ammunition and the metal parts of special equipment (_e.g._,
telephone instruments) must be carefully protected against gas by
greasing them or keeping them completely covered. Otherwise,
particularly in damp weather, they may rust or corrode so badly as to
refuse to act. A mineral oil must be used for this purpose. The
following in particular should be protected:

(1) SMALL ARMS AND S.A.A.

Machine guns and rifles must be kept carefully cleaned and well oiled.
The effects of corrosion of ammunition are of even more importance
than the direct effects of gas upon machine guns and rifles.

Ammunition boxes must be kept closed. Vickers belts should be kept in
their boxes until actually required for use. The wooden belt boxes are
fairly gas-tight, but the metal belt boxes should be made gas-tight by
inserting strips of flannelette in the joint between the lid and the
box.

Lewis magazines should be kept in some form of box, the joints of
which are made as gas-tight as possible with flannelette.

A recess should be made, high up in the parapet if possible, for
storing ammunition and guns. A blanket curtain, moistened with water
or sprayer solution, will greatly assist in keeping the gas out.

(2) HAND AND RIFLE GRENADES:

Unboxed grenades should be kept covered as far as possible. All safety
pins and working parts, especially those made of brass, should be kept
oiled to prevent their setting from corrosion by the gas.

(3) LIGHT TRENCH MORTARS AND THEIR AMMUNITION:

As far as the supply of oil permits, the bore and all bright parts of
light trench mortars and their spare parts should be kept permanently
oiled. When not in use, mortars should be covered with sacking or
similar material.

Unboxed ammunition should be kept covered as far as possible and the
bright parts oiled immediately after arrival. Ammunition which has
been in store for some time should be used up first.

Sentries must be prepared to give the alarm on the first appearance of
gas, as a few seconds delay may involve very serious consequences.
Signals must be passed along by all sentries as soon as heard.

The earliest warning of a gas attack is given:

      (a) By the noise of the gas escaping from the cylinders.
      (b) By the appearance of a cloud of any color over the enemy's
          trenches. If the attack takes place at night, the cloud will
          not be visible from a distance.
      (c) By the smell of the gas in listening posts.

   (1) ACTION TO BE TAKEN IN THE TRENCHES ON GAS ALARM:
      (a) Respirators to be put on immediately by all ranks (a
          helmet, if no box respirator is available).
      (b) Rouse all men in trenches, dug-outs and mine shafts, warn
          officers and artillery observation posts and all employed
          men.
      (c) Artillery support to be called for by company commanders by
          means of prearranged signals.
      (d) Warn battalion headquarters and troops in rear.
      (e) All ranks stand to arms in the front trenches and elsewhere
          where the tactical situation demands.
      (f) Blanket curtains at entrances to protected shelters to be
          let down and carefully fixed.
      (g) Movement to cease except where necessary.

   (2) ACTION TO BE TAKEN IN BILLETS AND BACK AREAS:
      (a) All men in cellars or houses to be roused.
      (b) The blanket curtains of protected collars, etc., to be let
          down and fixed in position.
      (c) Box respirators to be put on immediately, the gas is
          apparent.


H. Action During a Gas Attack:

(1) PROTECTIVE MEASURES:

There should be as little moving about and talking as possible in the
trenches. Men must be made to realize that with the gas now used by
the enemy, observance of this may be essential for their safety.

When an attack is in progress, all bodies of troops or transport on
the move should halt and all working parties cease work until the gas
cloud has passed.

If a relief is going on, units should stand fast as far as possible
until the gas cloud has passed.

Supports and parties bringing up bombs should only be moved up if the
tactical situation demands it.

If troops in support or reserve lines of trenches remain in, or go
into, dug-outs, they must continue to wear their anti-gas appliances.

Officers and N.C.O's must on no account remove or open up the masks of
the box respirators or raise their helmets to give orders. The
breathing tube may be removed from the mouth when it is necessary to
speak, but it must be replaced.

Men must always be on the look-out to help each other in case an
anti-gas device is damaged by fire or accident. When a man is wounded,
he must be watched to see that he does not remove his respirator or
helmet until he is safely inside a protected shelter; if necessary,
his hands should be tied.

Men must be warned that if they are slightly gassed before adjusting
their respirators or helmets they must not remove them. The effect
will wear off.

(2) TACTICAL MEASURES:

From the point of view of protection against gas, nothing is gained by
men remaining in unprotected dug-outs or by moving to a flank or to
the rear. It is, therefore, desirable that on tactical and
disciplinary grounds all men in the front line of trenches should be
forbidden to do these things. In support or reserve lines where there
are protected dug-outs, it is advisable for men to stay in them unless
the tactical situation makes it desirable for them to come out.

Nothing is gained by opening rapid rifle fire unless the enemy's
infantry attacks. A slow rate of fire from rifles and occasional short
bursts of fire from machine guns will lessen the chance of their
jamming from the action of the gas and tends to occupy and steady the
infantry.

It should be remembered that the enemy's infantry cannot attack while
the gas discharge is in progress and is unlikely to do so for an
appreciable time--at least 10 minutes--after it has ceased. It is, in
fact, a common practice for the enemy infantry to retire to the second
and third line of trench whilst gas is being discharged. There is,
therefore, no object in opening an intense S.O.S. barrage of artillery
on "No man's land" during the actual gas cloud and it is advisable
that the warning to the artillery of a gas attack should be a signal
differing from the ordinary S.O.S. signal, as the latter may have to
be sent later if an infantry attack develops.

It must be remembered that smoke may be used by the enemy at the same
time as, or alternately with, the gas and that under cover of a smoke
cloud he may send out assaulting or raiding parties. A careful
look-out must, therefore, be kept; hostile patrols or raiders may be
frustrated by cross-fire of rifles and machine guns and should an
assault develop the ordinary S.O.S. procedure should be carried out.


I. Precautions Against Gas Shells:

Owing to the small explosion which occurs with these shells, they are
liable to be mistaken for blinds, and even when the gas is smelt men
may not realize its possibly dangerous character at once and so may
delay putting on respirators or helmets until too late. Men sleeping
in dug-outs may be seriously affected unless they are roused. Men in
the open air are unlikely to be seriously affected by poison gas
shells, provided they put on respirators or helmets on first
experiencing the gas. The following points should therefore be
attended to:

(i) All shells which explode with a small detonation or appear to be
blind should be regarded with particular attention; the respirator or
helmet should be put on at the first indication of gas and blanket
protection of shelters adjusted.

(ii) Arrangements must be made for giving a _Local_ alarm in the event
of a sudden and intense bombardment with poison gas shells, but care
must be taken that this alarm is not confused with the main alarm.
Strombos horns must on no account be used to give warning of a gas
shell bombardment.

(iii) All shelters in the vicinity of an area bombarded with poison
gas shells must be visited and any sleeping men roused.

(iv.) Box respirators or helmets should continue to be worn throughout
the area bombarded with poison gas shells until the order is given by
the local unit Commander for their removal.

Lachrymatory or "tear" shells are frequently used by the enemy for the
purpose of hindering the movements of troops, for preventing the
bringing up of supports, or for interfering with the action of
artillery. Owing to the deadly nature of poison gas shells, however,
the precautions given in paragraph 60 above, must be taken for all gas
shells. The goggles are intended for use after lachrymatory
bombardments only, in cases where the irritant gas persists in the
neighborhood.


K. Action Subsequent to a Gas Attack:

1. GENERAL:

The most important measure to be taken after a cloud gas attack is to
prepare for a further attack. The enemy frequently sends several
successive waves of gas at intervals varying from a few minutes up to
several hours and it is therefore necessary to be on the alert to
combat this procedure. The following measures should be adopted as
soon as the gas cloud has passed:

      (a) Removal of respirators.--Anti-gas fans should be used to
          assist in clearing the trenches of gas, so as to admit of
          respirators being removed. Respirators and helmets must not
          be removed until permission has been given by the Company
          Commander.

A sharp look out must be kept for a repetition of the gas attack, as
long as the wind continues in a dangerous quarter.

2. MOVEMENT:

Owing to the enemy gas sometimes causing bad after effects, which are
intensified by subsequent exertion, the following points should be
attended to:
      (a) No man suffering from the effects of gas, however slightly,
          should be allowed to walk to the dressing station.
      (b) The clearing of the trenches and dugouts should not be
          carried out by men who have been affected by the gas.
      (c) After a gas attack, troops in the front trenches should be
          relieved of all fatigue and carrying work for 24 hours by
          sending up working parties from companies in rear.
      (d) Horses which have been exposed to the gas should not be
          worked for 24 hours if it can be avoided.

3. CLEARING DUGOUTS AND OTHER SHELTERS:

It is essential that no dugout be entered after a gas attack event
with box respirators or helmets adjusted, until it has been
ascertained that it is free from gas. The only efficient method of
clearing dugouts from gas is by thorough ventilation. The older method
of spraying is not efficient.

An appreciable quantity of gas may be retained in the clothing of men
exposed to gas attacks and also in bedding, coats, etc., left in
shelters. Precaution should, therefore, be taken to air all clothing.

4. VENTILATION:

_Natural Ventilation_.--Unless a shelter has been thoroughly
ventilated by artificial means, as described below, it must not be
slept in or occupied without wearing respirators, until at least 12
hours after a gas attack. It must not be entered at all without
respirators on for at least 3 hours. The above refers to cloud gas
attacks. In the case of gas shell bombardments the times cannot be
definitely stated, as they depend on the nature of the gas used and
the severity of the bombardment. With lachrymatory gases the times
after which shelters can be used without discomfort may be
considerably longer than those mentioned above.

_Ventilation by Fire_.--All kinds of shelters can be efficiently and
rapidly cleared of gas by the use of fires. Shelters with two openings
are the easiest to ventilate and where possible, dugouts with only one
entrance should have a second opening made, even a very small one, to
assist in ventilation.

In dugouts provided with a single exit at the end of a short passage,
the best results are obtained if the fire is placed in the center of
the floor of the dugout and at a height of about 9 inches.

In dugouts provided with a single exit at the end of a long and nearly
horizontal passage, the best results are obtained if the fire is
placed about one-third of the distance from the inner end of the
passage.

In dugouts provided with two or more exits, the fire should be placed
at the inner end of one of the exit passages.

In general, 1 pound of dry wood per 200 cubic feet of air space is
sufficient for clearance of any gas. The best fuel is split wood, but
any fuel which does not smoulder or give off thick smoke can be used.
The materials for the fire, _e.g._, the split wood, newspaper, and a
small bottle of paraffine for lighting purposes, should be kept in a
sand bag, enclosed in a biscuit tin provided with a lid. An improvised
brazier should be kept ready for use.

The fire must be kept burning for at least ten minutes and the
atmosphere in the shelter should be tested from time to time.

_Ventilation by Fanning_.--Dugouts can be ventilated by producing air
currents in them by means of special anti-gas fans.

If no anti-gas fans are available, ventilation can be assisted by
flapping with improvised fans such as sand bags, ground sheets, etc.

5. CLEANING OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION:

Rifles and machine guns must be cleaned after a gas attack and then
re-oiled. Oil cleaning will prevent corrosion for 12 hours or more,
but the first available opportunity must be taken to dismantle machine
guns and clean all parts in boiling water containing a little soda. If
this is not done, corrosion continues slowly even after oil cleaning
and may ultimately put the gun out of action.

After a gas attack, S.A.A. should be carefully examined. All rounds
affected by gas must be replaced by new cartridges immediately and the
old ones cleaned and expended as soon as possible.

All hand and rifle grenades exposed to the gas should have their
safety-pins and working parts cleaned and re-oiled.

All bright parts of light trench mortars, together with all
accessories and spare parts exposed to the gas, must be cleaned and
wiped dry as soon as possible after the attack and in any case within
24 hours, after which they should be thoroughly coated afresh with
oil. The same applies to ammunition which may have been exposed to the
gas.

Ammunition which, for any reason, had not been oiled, must be cleaned
and oiled and expended as soon as possible.

For details regarding the cleaning of guns and artillery ammunition
and signal equipment, see paragraphs 116 and 123.

6. TREATMENT OF SHELL HOLES:

In the neighborhood of shelters or battery positions where gas from
shell holes is causing annoyance, the holes and the ground round them
should be covered with at least a foot of fresh earth. Shell holes so
treated should not be disturbed, as the chemical is not thereby
destroyed and only disappears slowly.


Concealment From Aerial Observers.

A. 1. An aeroplane cannot conduct reconnaissance at a height of less
      than 5,000 feet without being within easy range of
      anti-aircraft artillery; nor of less than 2,000 feet without
      coming into range of machine-gun and rifle fire.
   2. To be observed from such heights, objects on the ground must be
      distinguished by:
         (a) Motion.
         (b) Color contrast.
         (c) Line contrast, or
         (d) Shadows.

B. Concealment:
   1. (a) On warning of hostile aircraft, troops on the march should
          withdraw to the side of the road (if possible, into shade),
          or lie down flat in the road and remain motionless.
      (b) If it is necessary to continue the march, this should be
          done in broken detachments, which are far less distinct
          than continuous column.
      (c) Troops in a trench should crouch down in the shadowy side
          and remain motionless.
      (d) Faces should never be turned up, as the high lights on
          cheek-bones and foreheads then show up distinctly.
      (e) Bright metal on arms, equipment and headgear must be kept
          covered.
   2. Artillery wagon-trains, etc., should if possible be halted
          promptly on warning. When halted, their neutral coloring
          protects them.
   3. Trenches are best concealed:
      (a) By avoiding, in construction, a too regular outline, and
          following as far as possible the contours of the ground.
      (b) By coloring the parapet and parados to match the ground.
          This may be done most quickly by painted canvas; if the
          latter is not available, by planting or strewing the loose
          earth with surrounding herbage. In this work care must be
          taken not to make the covering itself too conspicuous by
          brightness or monotony of coloring.
      (c) By covering the trench itself, where convenient, with a thin
          material, colored like the parapet and parados.
      (d) By avoiding all overt movement of troops in the trenches
          under observation.
   4. Buildings, _e.g._, ammunition dumps, hangars, etc., can be
          completely concealed by being painted the color of the
          ground they stand on and fitted with canvas curtains,
          similarly painted and stretched from the eaves to the
          ground at a horizontal angle of 35 degrees. These curtains
          completely eliminate shadows.
   5. Success in each work of concealment by camouflage is best
          assured by the assistance of an aeroplane observer to test
          and correct it.

       *       *       *       *       *


Orders Governing Intrenchment Problems at Second Plattsburg Training
Camp.

HEADQUARTERS PLATTSBURG TRAINING CAMP,
PLATTSBURG BARRACKS, NEW YORK.
SEPTEMBER 22, 1917.

DIVISIONAL ENTRENCHING PROBLEM.

General Situation:

The Salmon river forms the boundary line between two states, the
"Blue" on the north and the "Red" on the south. War has been declared
and the Red Army is mobilizing near Keeseville. Mobilization by the
first Blue Army at Plattsburg has been completed.

Special Situation, Blue:

Our advanced troops are holding the line of the Salmon river against
strong detachments of the Red Army. The commanding general of the Blue
Army has decided to establish a second position on the line, _Bluff
Point to the bend_ (248) _in the Saranac river_.

The following order is issued by the Division Commander:

HEADQUARTERS, 101st Div.,
PLATTSBURG, N.Y.
23 Sept., '17, 9:00 A.M.

FIELD ORDERS,
No. 1.

1. Our advanced troops are holding the line of the Salmon river.

2. This division and 1 Brigade 102 Division will entrench along the
line: _Bluff Point_--_Chateaugay Branch Railroad_--_Saranac River_
(248).

3. (a) The Chief of Artillery will prepare the positions, and lines of
communication for his Brigade, determine his sectors, and submit his
plan of action.

(b) The 1st Brig. and 2 Bns. 267th Inf. will entrench the sector,
_Saranac River_ (248) to _Sand Road_, exclusive. The 2nd Brig. will
entrench the sector _Sand Road to Bluff Point_, both inclusive. The
supports will entrench on the line, _Saranac River_ (182)--_Cliff
Haven_.

(c) The Reserve--1 Brig. 102 Div. less 2 Bns., will construct
crossings on the _Saranac River_--under direction of the Chief of
Engineers, and prepare them for defense.

(d) The Chief of Engineers will supply tools for entrenching and lay
out the lines of entrenchments. He will repair the following trunk
roads: _Peru Road_, _Sand Road_, _Lake-Shore Road_; and construct a
transverse trunk line road from _Pulp Mill to O'Connell's Farm_, and
the necessary tram lines. The Engineer Depot for stores and material
will be established at _Plattsburg Barracks_.

(e) The Chief Signal Officer will establish necessary lines of
communication, utilizing equipment at _Plattsburg Barracks, Central
Station_. Aero Squadron at _Chazy_.

4. (a) The Chief Medical Officer will establish his dressing stations
in the _Butts_ of the rifle range and in ravine on _O'Connell's Farm_.
A field hospital will be established at the _Lozier Works_.

(b) Ammunition train and supply train will be parked in the _Fair
Ground_. Ammunition distributing stations at railroad spurs,
_Plattsburg Barracks_, and _O'Connell's Farm_. The Division Ordnance
Officer will locate the Ammunition Dumps along transverse trunk line
road.

(c) Field trains, until further orders, at north end of _Plattsburg
Barracks Reservation_. Distributing point, _Plattsburg Railroad
Station_--Regimental Supply Stations: _Saranac River_ 182;
intersection _Peru Road_ and _Rifle Range Road_, _Sand Hole_ in _Rifle
Range_, _Sand Road on O'Connell's Farm_, _Ravine on O'Connell's Farm_.

(d) The commander of trains will establish traffic regulations for all
roads.

5. Messages to _Statistical Office_.

WOLF,
Major General.

Official copy:
  J.A. BAER,
    Genl. Staff,
      Chief of Staff.

Copies to:
  Brig. and Regt. Commanders.
  C. of E.
  Div. Q.M.
  C.S.O.
  C.M.O.
  Div. O.O.
  C. of Tr.

       *       *       *       *       *

HEADQUARTERS, 1ST BRIGADE, 101ST DIVISION,
PLATTSBURG BARRACKS, N.Y.
23RD SEPT., 1917, 6 P.M.

FIELD ORDERS
No. 1.

1. Strong detachments of the Red Army, now mobilizing at _Keeseville_,
are south of the _Salmon River_. Our advance troops are holding the
line of the _Salmon River_.

2. Our division and one brigade, 102nd Division, will entrench and
occupy the line _Bluff Point-Chateaugay Branch (D. & H.R.R.), Saranac
River_ (248). This brigade, reinforced by two Battalions, 267th
Infantry, will entrench and occupy the sector, _Saranac River_ (248),
_Sand Road_, exclusive.

3. (a) The 1st and 2nd Battalions, 267th infantry will entrench and
occupy the sector from the _Saranac River_ to a point 600 yards east.

(b) The 266th Infantry, the sector from a point 600 yards east of the
_Saranac River_, connecting with the trenches of the 267th Infantry,
to a point 100 yards east of _Peru Road_.

(c) The 265th Infantry, the sector from a point 100 yards east of the
_Peru Road_, and connecting with the trenches of the 266th Infantry,
to the _Sand Road_ exclusive.

(d) The Brigade Machine Gun Battalion will organize and maintain
strong points along line regimental reserves. The C.O. of this
organization will, at once, consult with the regimental commanders
relative to preparation of machine gun emplacements and probable need
for re-enforcements within their respective sectors.

(e) The Brigade Signalmen will establish telephonic communications
between Brigade and Regimental Headquarters.

4. (a) The regimental commanders and senior officers of the two
battalions, 267th Infantry, will at once report to the Chief Engineer
of the Division for plan of entrenchments in their respective sectors.

(b) Tools and materials for entrenching will be supplied at the trench
sites.

5. Messages to Brigade Headquarters near _Peru Road_, east Savoy
Hotel.

GOODRICH,
Brigadier General, Commanding.

Official Copy:
  WM. KIRBY,
    Major of Cavalry, U.S.R.,
      Adjutant.

Copies to:
  C.O., 265th Infantry.
  C.O., 266th Infantry.
  C.O., 1st and 2nd Battalions, 267th Infantry.
  C.O., Brigade M.G. Co.
  Headquarters, 101st Division.

HEADQUARTERS, 1ST BATTALION, 265TH INFANTRY
PLATTSBURG BARRACKS, N.Y.
OCT. 16, 1917.

FIELD ORDERS
No. 1.

Blue print of trenches; scale 24 inches equals 1 mile.

1. The enemy strongly occupies a line of trenches immediately _South_
of the _Chateaugay Branch Railroad_, the center of their line being
about opposite the center sector of our first line of trench, _Sand
Road-Target Range Fence_, their line of trenches being within 50 yards
of the railroad at that point, and then retiring slightly from the
railroad to the _East_ and _West_.

The 264th Infantry occupies the section of trenches directly to the
East of us and the 266th Infantry occupies the section of trenches
directly to the West of us.

2. This battalion will take up a defensive position in the nearly
completed line of trenches, _Sand Road-Target Range Fence_, and as
rapidly as possible complete the trench system in the following order
of work:
   a. Deepen all trenches to at least three feet.
   b. Construct latrines.
   c. Provide cover.
   d. Revet work previously done.

3. a. Front lines, _i.e._, fire, communicating and support trenches:
Company "B" will occupy the _East_ sector, _i.e._, _Sand Road_ to
_Belgium Boyau_, inclusive, including _Slum Boyau_ and the salient at
_South_ end Reserve Trench immediately in rear of _East_ end of
Support trench.

Company "C" will occupy the _Central_ sector, _i.e._, from _East_
sector (_Belgium Boyau_, exclusive), to _Cardona Boyau_, inclusive,
including _Poire Boyau_.

Company "A" will occupy the _West_ sector, _i.e._, from _Central_
sector (_Cardona Boyau_, exclusive), to and including salient near
_Southwest_ corner of _Target Range Fence_.

b. Reserve Line: Company "D" will occupy the line from the _Target
Range Fence_ on the _West_ to a point 165 yards _East_ of the _Verdun
Salient_, one-half of the Company occupying the sector, _Target Range
Fence_, to a point 75 yards _East_ of the _Rams Horn Boyau_, including
_Rams Horn Boyau_, and the other half of the Company occupying the
sector from a point 75 yards _East_ of the _Rams Horn Boyau_ to a
point 165 yards _East_ of the _Verdun Salient_.

c. Machine Guns: Headquarters, 1st Platoon and 1st Platoon Machine Gun
Company, will report to the Commanding Officer, Company "A," for
assignment to the shell craters (converted) and dugouts (constructed
for machine guns), four in all, in the _West_ sector.

Headquarters, 2nd Platoon and Third Section (2nd Platoon) Machine Gun
Company, will report to the Commanding Officer, Company "C," for
assignment to the shell crater (converted), and dugout (constructed
for machine gun), two in all, in the _Central_ sector. Fourth section
(2nd Platoon), Machine Gun Company, will report to the Commanding
Officer, Company "B," for assignment to the shell crater (converted),
two in all, in the _East_ sector.

d. Trench Mortars: Two trench mortars have been assigned to the
_Central_ sector and the Commanding officer, Company "C," is charged
with the construction of emplacements therefor and the manning of
them.

4. a. Dressing stations have been established in the _Butts_ of the
rifle range and in ravine on _O'Connell's Farm_.

b. Ammunition distributing points are located at _Plattsburg Barracks_
and _O'Connell's Farm_.

c. Regimental supply stations are located at _Saranac River_ (182),
intersection _Peru Road_ and _Rifle Range Road_, _Sand Hole in Rifle
Range_, _Sand Road_ on _O'Connell's Farm_, and _Ravine_ on
_O'Connell's Farm_.

5. Battalion Headquarters are located in dugout in _Support_ trench
(West Tremont), midway between _Rams Horn_ and _Poire Boyaux_, to
which place messages will be sent.

BOSCHEN,
Captain, 56th Infantry, Commanding.

Copies to:
  C.O., 265th Infantry.
  C.O., Companies A, B, C and D.
  C.O., M.G. Company.
  C.O., Headquarters Company.
  R.S.O.

       *       *       *       *       *

HDQTRS. 1ST BATT., 265TH INFTY.,
PLATTSBURG BCKS., N.Y., _Oct. 17, 1917._

FIELD ORDERS
No. 2

   1. DISPOSITIONS:
      a. The assignment of companies to sectors is as announced in
         Field Orders No. 1, these headquarters.
      b. Company commanders are charged with the details of occupation
         of the trenches and the proper disposition of the
         "specialists" (bombers, grenadiers, auto-riflemen, etc.),
         directing particular attention to the active and passive
         areas of their sectors.

   2. FIELDS OF FIRE: Company commanders must arrange for and obtain
         the best fields of fire in their own sectors, and provide
         for protection of visible areas in adjoining sectors by
         lateral fire.

   3. IMPROVEMENTS OR CHANGES IN TRENCHES: Company commanders before
         making any changes or improvements in trenches will render to
         battalion headquarters brief recommendations of changes
         desired. These recommendations will be submitted at 11.00
         a.m. and 3.00 p.m., after which hours the battalion
         commander will inspect and if deemed necessary will be
         ordered.

   4. ORGANIZATION FOR WATCHING AND OBSERVATION:
      a. Each company commander will organize a system for watching
         the enemy by day and will establish look-out posts for this
         purpose; this system will be augmented at night by patrols
         if necessary.
      b. The watching of the enemy must be continuous and long
         occupation of the sector will not warrant any laxity.

   5. ORGANIZATION FOR SUPPLY:
      a. Company commanders will make the necessary details for
         obtaining supplies; these details to be in charge of Mess or
         Supply Sergeants and will not exceed three squads for each
         lettered company.
      b. _Food_: Machine guns details and members of the Medical Corps
         assigned to each sector are attached to the lettered
         companies for rations.
      c. Cooked food will be at the _Food Station_ at 6.00 a.m., 11.50
         a.m. and 5.00 p.m. daily, and will be distributed at that
         point.
      d. Company commanders will detail the Mess Sergeant, with an
         appropriate detail (about 2 squads) to proceed to _Food
         Station_, which is located at the wire entanglement on the
         _west_ side of the _Target Range_ about 400 yards _north of
         Brigade Headquarters_.
      e. The details mentioned above will proceed via trenches,
         leaving same at junction of _Tipperary_ trench and _Rams
         Horn_ boyau in the following order:
           Co. D: Detail will clear junction _Rams Horn_ boyau and
           _Tipperary_ trench at 5.40 a.m., 11.10 a.m. and 4.40 p.m.
           Co. A: Detail will clear junction _Tremont_ trench, and
           _Rams Horn_ boyau at 5.30 a.m., 11.00 a.m. and 4.30 p.m.,
           proceeding via _Rams Horn_ boyau.
           Co. B: Detail will clear junction _Tremont_ trench, and
           _Poire_ boyau at 5.35 a.m., 11.05 a.m. and 4.55 p.m.,
           proceeding via _Poire_ boyau and _Tipperary_ trench.
           Co. C: Detail will clear junction _Tremont_ trench and _Slum_
           boyau at 5.40 a.m., 11.10 a.m. and 4.40 p.m., proceeding via
           _Slum_ boyau and _Tipperary_ trench.
      f. These details will return to their respective sectors via
         the indicated routes, moving in reverse order at five-minute
         intervals, and company commanders will make necessary
         arrangements for distribution of food within their
         respective sectors.
      g. Company commanders will cause the necessary police after each
         meal to insure sanitary condition of trenches.
      h. Food containers will be held in company until the next meal
         hour when they will be returned to the _Food Station_.
      i. _Water_: Water wagon will be at the _Food Station_ from 10.00
         a.m. to 4.30 p.m. daily.
      j. Containers for water will be furnished by Regimental Supply
         Officer at the _Food Station_.
      k. All men will carry full canteens of water when entering the
         trenches.
      l. Company commanders will detail the Mess Sergeant, with an
         appropriate detail (about 2 squads), to proceed to the _Food
         Station_ to procure water in containers; these details will
         proceed via the routes indicated in paragraph 5, section "e":
         Co. D, 2.00 p.m.; Co. A, 2.05 p.m.; Co. B, 2.10 p.m.; Co. C,
         2.15 p.m.
      m. These details will return to their respective sectors in
         reverse order at five-minute intervals.
      n. _Miscellaneous_: Details for obtaining tools, ammunition,
         trench supplies, etc., will be arranged for as required.
      o. Requisitions for miscellaneous supplies required will be
         submitted by company commanders to the Regimental Supply
         Officer not later than 3.00 p.m., October 17, 1917.

   6. ORGANIZATION FOR LIAISON:
      a. The Signal Officer will establish necessary telephonic
         communications.
      b. Each organization will detail one runner to report to the
         battalion commander at regimental headquarters at 8.00 a.m.
      c. Four runners will be detailed for duty with each company
         headquarters and one runner will be detailed for duty with
         each platoon headquarters. These runners should be lightly
         equipped and wear a distinctive mark.
      d. At least two men per section must be able to act as guides to
         all company headquarters of the battalion.
      e. Verbal messages will not be sent by runners; all messages
         must be written.
      f. Company commanders, or their representatives, will report
         daily at battalion headquarters at 5.00 p.m.
      g. There must be accurate communication between platoons in
         company, and companies in battalion, in order to insure
         co-ordinated action.

   7. DEFENSE:
      a. Immediately after the occupation of the trenches, company
         commanders will make a careful estimate of all tactical
         situations presented in their sectors and will plan for a
         stubborn defense. Care must be exercised in providing for
         defense in depth and lateral defense. The front line
         trenches of each sector will be held until actually entered
         by the enemy, and no sector will be abandoned until the
         occupants are actually forced out.
      b. The main line of resistance will be the support trenches
         (_Tremont_) and special attention must be given to the
         preparation for defense. If the front line trenches of any
         sector be captured by the enemy there will be no withdrawal
         from any other sector of the front line trenches for the
         purpose of establishing a continuous line in the support
         trench.
      c. The company commander of the reserve will organize parties
         for counterattacks and these parties will be held in
         readiness at convenient points to insure prompt movement to
         the front.
      d. Continuous occupation of the trenches without fire action
         must not cause a feeling of security and result in being
         surprised by the enemy.

   8. STAND TO: "Stand to" will take place at 5.00 a.m. and 5.00 p.m.,
         daily. At this formation every available man will be
         present. Rifles, ammunition, equipment, clothing, etc., will
         be inspected. Rapid loading will be practiced. The firing
         position of every man will be tested to see whether he can
         hit the bottom edge of our wire. Gas helmets and respirators
         will be inspected if worn. After "stand to" in the morning
         and before "stand to" in the evening rifles will be
         thoroughly cleaned and oiled.

   9.  TRENCH ORDERS:
      a. Current "Trench Standing Orders" recently published from
         Brigade Headquarters are in force.
      b. During the occupation of the trenches it will be assumed
         that, the trenches are under the observation and fire of the
         enemy and all movement in the trenches will be conducted
         accordingly. All movements of troops, either individuals or
         groups, will be via the trenches at all times.
      c. No one will be allowed to go overland between trenches or to
         enter the trenches by the flank. All persons will enter the
         trenches from the reserve trenches and no visitors will be
         allowed in the trenches except on passes issued from the
         Regimental Headquarters.
      d. Commanding officers, Companies A and B, are responsible for
         the posting of the necessary sentinels along the flanks of
         the position (during the day), with instructions covering the
         provisions contained in paragraph 9, sections "b" and "c."

  10. REPORTS:
      a. Company commanders will submit by 1.00 p.m., October 18,
         1917, a report showing the dispositions and plan of defense
         of their respective sectors.
      b. Frequent reports of information obtained and any change of
         conditions at the front will be made to battalion
         headquarters when necessary.

BOSCHEN,
_Captain, 56th Infantry._
_Commanding._

Copies to:
  C.O. 265th Infty.
  C.O. Cos, A, B, C and D.
  C.O. M.G. Co.
  C.O., Hdq. Co.
  R.S.O.


Company Organization (in Detail):

Company Headquarters:

   1 Captain, commanding company,
   1 First Lieutenant (senior), second in command,
   1 First Sergeant, armed with pistol,
   1 Mess Sergeant, armed with rifle,
   1 Supply Sergeant, armed with rifle,
   1 Corporal, company clerk, armed with rifle,
   4 Mechanics, armed with rifle,
   5 Wagoners (from Supply Company),
   4 Cooks, armed with rifle,
   2 Buglers, armed with pistol,
   4 Privates, first class, company agent and signalmen.

     _Equipment_: 15 rifles, 5 pistols, 8 automatic rifles (for
     replacement), 40 trench knives (to be distributed as needed), 2
     bicycles. Following from Supply Company: 1 rolling kitchen,
     4-mule; 1 combat wagon, 4-mule; 1 ration and baggage wagon,
     4-mule; 1 ration cart, 2-mule; 1 water cart, 2-mule; 16 mules,
     draft.

_4 Platoons, each organized as follows_ (numbered 1 to 4 in company):


Headquarters:

   1 First Lieutenant; 1st and 4th Platoons commanded by First
     Lieutenants; 2nd and 3rd Platoons commanded by Second
     Lieutenants, armed with pistol.

   1 Sergeant, assistant to platoon commander, armed with pistol and
     rifle.

     _Equipment_: 1 rifle, 2 pistols.

   1st SECTION: Bombers and rifle grenadiers:

   1 Sergeant, armed with pistol and rifle,

   3 Corporals, armed with pistol and rifle, 1 trained as rifle
     grenadier; remainder trained as bombers,

   6 Privates, first class, 2 armed with pistol and rifle, and
     remainder with rifle only; 1 trained as rifle grenadier, and
     remainder as bombers.

   12 Privates, armed with rifles; 4 trained as rifle grenadiers,
     remainder trained as bombers.

     _Equipment_: 22 rifles, 6 pistols.

2nd SECTION: Riflemen:
  2 Corporals, armed with pistols and rifles,
  3 Privates, first class, armed with rifle,
  7 Privates, armed with rifle,
  _Equipment_: 12 rifles, 2 pistols.

3rd SECTION: Riflemen:
  2 Corporals, armed with pistol and rifle,
  3 Privates, first class, armed with rifle,
  7 Privates, armed with rifle.
  _Equipment_: 12 rifles, 2 pistols.

4th SECTION: Auto-riflemen:
  1 Sergeant, armed with pistol and rifle,
  1 Corporal, armed with pistol and rifle,
  3 Privates, first class; 1 armed with rifle, 2 armed with pistols;
    auto-rifle gunners, including 1 extra,
  6 Privates, armed with rifle.
  _Equipment_: 9 rifles, 4 pistols, 2 auto-rifles.

NOTE.--Sections numbered from 1 to 16 in company.


Personnel:

Commissioned:

   Captain                          1
   First Lieutenants                3
   Second Lieutenants               2
                                  ----
         Total                      6
                                  ====

Enlisted:

   First Sergeant                   1
   Mess Sergeant                    1
   Supply Sergeant                  1
   Sergeants                       12
   Corporals                       33
   Mechanics                        4
   Wagoners (from Supply Company)  (5)
   Cooks                            4
   Buglers                          2
   Privates, first class           64
   Privates                       128
                                 -----
         Total                    250
                                 =====


Equipment:

Rifles                            239
Pistols                            69
Auto rifles                        16
Trench knives                      40
Bicycles                            2
From Supply Company:
  Rolling kitchen, 4-mule           1
  Combat wagon, 4-mule              1
  Ration and baggage wagon, 4-mule  1
  Ration cart, 2-mule               1
  Water cart, 2-mule                1
  Mules, draft                     16
                                  ====


Trench Standing Orders.

1. Duties.--A. One officer per company and one non-commissioned
officer per platoon will always be on duty. During their tour of duty
they will not be in their dugouts. They will frequently visit all
trenches occupied by their units. Every listening post will be visited
at least once by an officer during his tour of duty.

B. The officer and non-commissioned officer on duty will, when his
tour of duty is completed, turn over to the officer or
non-commissioned officer relieving him all orders, a report of the
work in progress, if any, and any other information of use.

C. At night the officer and non-commissioned officer on duty will
frequently patrol the trench line, to see that the sentries are alert
and to receive any reports they may desire to make.

D. The-non-commissioned officer coming on duty will go round and post
new sentinels with the non-commissioned officer coming off duty.

E. The length of the tour of duty will depend upon the number of
officers and non-commissioned officers on duty. Normally each tour
should be, by night, two hours; by day, four hours. This may be
modified, however, so that all officers and non-commissioned officers
will have an equal amount of this duty while in the trenches.

F. Non-commissioned officers, after posting sentinels, will report
"all is well" or otherwise to the officers on duty.

G. No man will be detailed for a duty in the trench without being
given suitable warning of this duty and be informed at which hour he
will come on duty.

H. The Company Commander will be responsible for sending any report
required by Battalion Headquarters.

2. Sentries.--A. The number of sentry posts required will depend on
the assumed propinquity or distance of the enemy, strength of
obstacles, ease with which sentry posts can be re-enforced and other
local conditions. Normally by day this should be one sentinel for each
platoon and at night three double sentinels for each platoon. There
must be sentries enough to insure alarm being given promptly in case
of attack and that local resistance is sufficient until help can
arrive.

B. The next relief will remain within an easy distance of the sentry
on post, usually in shelters provided for this purpose.

C. Every sentry is to be regularly posted by a non-commissioned
officer who will explain to him his duties and ascertain that the
sentry is aware of the position of the section and platoon commanders
and of the sentries on either side, and whether there are any patrols
or working parties out in front.

D. Every sentinel will report when an officer passes his post, "All is
well," or otherwise.

E. Every sentinel by day will be provided with a head-cover to blend
with the ground (this may be improvised), and while observing the
ground to the front will remain perfectly still. An empty sand bag or
some other suitable material may be utilized for this purpose.

3. Patrols.--A. It is the duty of all the troops holding the front
lines to establish a command of the ground in front of their parapet
up to the enemy's wire. This can be done by extended and constant
patrolling by night and reconnaissance by day so that the ground is
thoroughly well known to as large a portion as possible of officers
and men and so no enemy can move or remain in his front by night or
day without detection. One of the particular duties of these patrols
is to observe the condition of the wire entanglements.

B. Every patrol must have definite orders as to its mission; broadly
speaking, patrols may be divided into two classes: (1) reconnoitering
patrols, (2) fighting patrols.

C. The first duty of reconnoitering patrols is to obtain the
information for which they are sent out. They fight only in
self-defense or if any especially favorable opportunity arises to
inflict loss upon the enemy without prejudice to their mission. They
usually consist of two to six men, under an officer or
non-commissioned officer.

D. Fighting patrols are sent out for the express purpose of causing
loss or damage to the enemies by such means as engaging the enemy's
patrols or working parties, or by raiding saps, listening posts or
trenches. For identification purposes they should always endeavor to
secure at least one prisoner. Their strength depends upon the
resistance they are likely to meet with.

E. Company commanders are responsible for the orders given to patrols,
subject to any instructions which may be issued by higher authority.
They are also responsible that all troops, whom it concerns, including
companies on both flanks, are warned when and where patrols will be
out, length of time they will be out, and of the points to which they
will return.

F. Information gained by patrols is of little value unless transmitted
quickly to those whom it concerns. Patrol reports will be made out by
the commander of the patrol immediately upon his return and sent at
once to the company commander unless orders to the contrary have been
given.

4. Stand To.--A. "Stand to" will take place one-half hour after a
relief has been posted and one-half hour before being relieved. At
this parade every available man will be present. Rifles, equipment,
clothing, etc., will be inspected. Firing steps will be tested as soon
as practicable after reliefs have been posted to see that each man can
fire on the foot of the nearest part of the wire entanglement which he
is required to cover by his fire. The same procedure will be gone
through at the "stand to" one-half hour before being relieved. Other
"stand tos" may be ordered in the discretion of the company commander.
These should be sufficiently often to insure that every man turns out
promptly and knows his place in case of attack.

5. Machine Guns.--A. The concealment of machine gun emplacements is
important. Consequently, it is only at night or in case of attack that
machine gun crews will occupy their defense emplacements. At night
guns should take up other position than their defense emplacements and
fire a stated number of rounds in order to test out the guns and
mislead the enemy as to their numbers and real emplacements, after
which they will at once go back to their defense emplacements.

B. The guns and their crews will be tactically under the orders of the
company commander in whose sector they are located, but no alteration
will be made by him in their disposition or arcs of fire; he will,
however, bring before the senior machine gun instructor any
suggestions for improvements in machine gun dispositions for defense.

C. Two men per gun will always be on duty with the guns.

D. Range cards will be prepared and kept with each gun.

E. Officers and non-commissioned officers in charge of guns will
remain in close proximity to the guns. They will frequently inspect
their guns, emplacements, etc. They are responsible for cleanliness
and maintenance of the emplacements.

F. Machine gun commanders are responsible for guns always being ready
for action, and that emplacements are clear of all material except
such as is required for the service of the guns; that embrasures or
loopholes are kept clear of all obstructions which may interfere with
fire or view.

6. Reliefs.--A. Reconnaisance. Prior to taking over the line of
trenches the company commander, accompanied by his senior First
Lieutenant and First Sergeant, will reconnoiter the trenches.

B. Points to be noted by the company commanders. The following points
will be specially noted by company commanders before taking over
trenches:

   1. Plan of occupation (number of men holding lines to be taken
      over, their distribution and duties).
   2. Shelter accommodations.
   3. Work being done and proposed.
   4. Conditions of the wire and defenses generally.
   5. Information as to the enemy, his habits, snipers, and the work
      he is doing, etc.
   6. Water supply.
   7. Artillery support.
   8. Communications.
   9. Danger points.
   10. Location and condition of stores.
   11. Liaison.

7. Guides.--A. Arrangements will be made between the company
commanders of the incoming and outgoing companies as to the rendezvous
where guides will be provided by the latter to conduct the incoming
troops to the trenches.

B. One guide per platoon, one for each company and one for battalion
headquarters will be provided. These guides must know the exact spot
where they will meet the relief troops and the best way to conduct the
units to the particular section of the trench they will occupy.

8. Smoking and Talking.--A. After leaving the rendezvous there will
be no smoking and talking until arrival in trenches. Strictest march
discipline will be enforced on the way to and from the trenches.

9. Procedure on Arrival at Trenches.--A. The troops being relieved
will not leave the trenches until the relieving troops are in position
and the new sentries have been posted, all trench stores have been
handed over and receipted for, and orders to move have been received
from the Company Commander.

B. Platoon commanders will at once personally see that all sentinels
are properly posted, that the non-commissioned officer is on duty,
that every man knows his place in case of attack, and that both flanks
of his platoon are in liaison with the adjoining platoon.

C. When reliefs are completed, Platoon Commanders will report to that
effect to the Company Commander.

D. Men will not be dismissed until the Company Commander has received
the reports from all of his Platoon Commanders that everything is in
order.

10. Log Books.--A. Each Company Commander will keep a log book in
which will be entered:

      1. Work done.
      2. Number of men working.
      3. Hours worked.
      4. Any information obtained from sentries, patrols, or other
         sources.

They will also enter in this book a list of any trench stores that
come into their possession.

11. Equipment.--A. Equipment will be worn in the front trenches.
Haversacks, packs, and trench tools need not be worn, these will be
left in the shelters. In support and reserve trenches, they will be
worn at the discretion of the Company Commander.

B. Ration and carrying parties will wear equipment and carry rifles
unless otherwise ordered.

C. Pieces will be assumed to be loaded and locked at all times.

D. In the firing trenches bayonets will be fixed at night.

E. Non-commissioned officers and men of the firing line will at all
times be in possession of their rifles and bayonets. The rifles of men
in the support and reserve trenches or dugouts will be where they can
be quickly seized, even in the dark.

12. Stretcher Bearers.--A. Stretcher bearers will be stationed at a
point designated by the Company Commander.

13. Discipline.--A. Sleeping in the firing trenches will not be
permitted.

B. No man will enter the firing trench, except in discharge of his
duty, unless so ordered by his Company or Platoon Commander.

C. Sentries will remain standing unless the height of the parapet
renders this impossible.

D. Saluting and standing at attention, etc., will be as carefully
adhered to as when in camp except that sentinel will not let this
interfere with their duties.

14. Rations and Cooking.--A. Cooking will be done in the rear of the
reserve at a point to be designated.

B. Company Quartermaster Sergeants will accompany ration parties,
which will be limited in size to the actual needs for bringing up
cooked rations from the point where cooking is done, to the trenches.
At no time should this exceed ten per cent of the effective strength
of the unit from which sent.

C. Care will be taken that as little noise as possible be made by
these carrying parties.

15. Sanitation.--A. The importance of strict attention to sanitation
will be impressed upon all ranks.

B. The commanding officer of each unit is responsible for sanitation
in his sector. He will make frequent inspections of latrines, refuse
pits and trenches to ascertain that no unsanitary conditions exist.

C. Latrines will be constructed in the trenches, excreta kept covered
at all times and such disinfectants as may be provided will be used at
regular intervals. When filled within eighteen inches of the top, pits
will be filled with earth and labeled.

D. Urinal cans will be provided and men required to use these cans and
contents will be emptied as often as necessary into deep pits at least
one hundred yards from the trenches. Empty tin cans, particles of food
and other refuse will be collected in receptacles kept in the trenches
for that purpose and carried to the rear and buried in pits. This is
usually done at night.


Emergency Dumps for Companies (Material).

1. Any large shell crater will do for these or holes can be dug 10' x
10,' x 5' deep.


CONTENTS OF DUMP.

   10 rolls barbed wire.
    8 coils French accordion wire.
   30 long screw stakes.
   50 short screw stakes.
    4 prepared wire blocks (gooseberries).


STORES FOR COMPANY.

  100 very flares.
    6 S.O.S. rockets.
    2 verminal sprayers.
    1 strombos horn. (gas alarm)
      rubber boots.
      periscopes.
  200 revolver ammunition.
    1 log book.
    1 set maps.
    1 set air photos.
    1 defense scheme.

2. These are taken over and signed for. Each dugout must have a gas
blanket and some form of gas alarm (usually empty shell case.)


STORES AT BATTALION HEADQUARTERS.

    1 strombos horn.
    2 verminal sprayers.
  300 very flares.
   20 S.O.S. rockets.
  500 revolver ammunition.
   50 ground flares.

[Illustration: Plate #28]




Conclusion.


The present army of the United States had its inception at Plattsburg
in 1915. The first regiment of the Business Mens' Training Camp will
go down in history as the first chapter of preparedness.

The training camps of 1916, not only at Plattsburg, but at various
other places throughout the United States, constituted the second
chapter.

We are just finishing chapter three in the officers' training camps of
1917.

This book brings together the essential points of the instruction
given at the second and probably the last of the officers' training
camps at Plattsburg, in such a way that an officer may refresh his
memory when he is about to take up with his men any of the subjects
covered.

It is hardly necessary to add that no attempt has been made to cover
fully any branch of the work. The bibliography provides for further
study and the books in it should be at every officer's command.

As the war progresses many changes will be made; not only will methods
change but some branches now considered essential may be cast aside as
useless.

Nothing but work can make the pages of any military book have real
meaning. This book gives what are now considered the essentials of
military training. If it has brought to the conscientious officer
points he might otherwise have forgotten to the detriment of his
command, it will have served its purpose.




Bibliography.


CHAPTER II. I.D.R.

   Balck "Tactics" Vol. 1. Infantry.

   Howell "Lectures on the Swiss Army."

   Bjornstadt "Lectures on the German Army."

   "Drill and Field Training" (English)--Imperial Army Series.

   "Instructions on the Offensive Conduct of Small Units." War
Department, May, 1917.

   "Notes on the methods of attack and defense to meet the Conditions
of Modern Warfare." Army War College, April, 1917.

   Privates Manual. (Moss.)

   "Instructions for assembling the Infantry Pack," Ordnance
Department. Pamphlet No. 1717 Manual of Military Training. (Moss.)


CHAPTER III. PHYSICAL TRAINING.

   "Manual of Physical Training." (Koehler.)

   "Field Physical Training of the Soldier." Special Regulation No.
23.

   Voice Culture. (Robert Lloyd.) (In lecture form.)


CHAPTER IV. SMALL ARMS FIRING MANUAL.

   Bull's Eye Scorebook.

   U.S. Marines Scorebook.

   "How to Shoot." (Moss.)

   "Notes on training for Rifle Fire in Trench Warfare." Army War
Coll., April, 1917.

   "The Rifle in War." (Eames.)

   "Suggestions to Military Riflemen." (Whelen.)

   "Musketry" sheets from First Camp, Plattsburg, New York.

   "Control of the Firing Line." Army Service School.

   "Musketry Training." (Pickering.)

   "A Synopsis of the Rifle in War." Army Service Schools.

   British--"Aids in Musketry." "Fire Problems." (Pilcher.)

   "Fire Orders"--"Direction and Control"--"Musketry"--Imperial Army
Series.

   "Lecture and Lessons on Musketry and Instructions for Officers and
N.C.O.S. Musketry Diagrams." (Clutterbuck.)

   "Notes on Bayonet Training." Army War College, March, 1917.

   "British Manual of the Bayonet." Ordnance Pamphlet No. 1715 and No.
1866. (Pistol.)

   "Notes on Bombing." (McClintock.)

   "Notes on Grenade Training"--Plattsburg Training Camp.

   "Notes on Grenade Warfare." Army War College.


CHAPTER V. MILITARY SKETCHING AND MAP HEADING.

   "Military Map Reading." (Sherrill.)

   "Military Sketching and Map Reading." (Grieves.)

   "An Officer's Notes" (Parker.)

   "Topography." (Sherrill.)

   Engineers Field Manual.

   "Manual of Infantry Training." (Moss.)

   "Training Manual in Topography, Map Reading and Reconnaissance."
(By Major Spalding, U.S.A.)

   "Military Sketching and Map Reading." (Capt. Barnes.)


CHAPTER VI. ARTICLES OF WAR.

   "A Guide to the Articles of War." (Professor Eugene Waumbaugh.)

   Manual of Courts Martial.


CHAPTER VII. ARMY REGULATIONS.

   "Manual for Commanders of Infantry Platoons." Translated from the
French by the Army War College, 1917, War Department Document No.
626. a.r., 1913.


CHAPTER VIII. (FIELD WORK.)

   "Notes on Field Fortification." Army Service Schools, 1916.

   "E.F.M." and Addendum thereto.

   "Elements of Trench Warfare." (Waldron.)

   "Field Entrenchments." (Solano.)

   "Scouting and Patrolling." (Waldron.)

   "Scout Instruction." (McKenney.)

   "Scout's Handwork." (McKenney.)

   "The 2nd Matabele War." (Baden Powell.)

   "Aids to Scouting." (Baden Powell.)

   "Manual of Military Training." (Moss.)

   "Small Problems in Infantry." (Bjornstadt.)

   "S.M. Tactics."

   "A Military Primer." (Marshall & Simonds.)

   "Technique of Modern Tactics." (Von Allen.)

   "Night Movements." (Burnett.)

   "Night Operations for Infantry." (Dawkins.)


CHAPTER IX. (FEEDING MEN.)

   "Manual for Army Cooks."

   "Mess Sergeant's Handbook." (Holbrook.)

   "Mess Officer's Assistant."

   "Mess Account Book." (Frink.)

   "Handling the Straight Army Ration." (Holbrook.)

   "Manual of Military Training." (Moss.)

   "Field Service." (Moss.)


CHAPTER X. (PERSONAL HYGIENE AND FIRST AID.)

   "Manual of Military Training." (Moss.)

   "Lectures on Military Sanitation and Management of Sanitation
Service," Army Service Schools.

   "Lectures" delivered at Plattsburg Training Camp, 1917.

   "Elements of Military Hygiene." (Ashburn.)

   "Red Cross Pamphlet on First Aid."

   "Manual for Non-Coms. and Privates."


CHAPTER XI. (SIGNALING.)

   "United States Signal Book."

   "Infantry Drill Regulations."


CHAPTER XII. (GUARD DUTY.)

   "Manual of Interior Guard Duty."


CHAPTER XIII. (COMPANY ADMINISTRATION.)

   "Company Administration." (Waldron.)

   "Army Paper Work." (Perrin-Smith Pub. Co.)

   "Notes on Organizations." (Waldron.)

   "Synopsis of Work Done at 1st Plattsburg Camp." (Farley.)

   "Army Paper Work." (Moss.)

   "Army Regulations."


CHAPTER XIV. (CONFERENCES. STUDY. S.P.I. EXAMINATIONS.)

   "Examinations in Military Science," Harvard University, 1917.


CHAPTER XV. (TRENCH WARFARE.)

   "Field Fortifications." (Lt. Henri Poire.) Plattsburg, N.Y., 1917.

   "The French Automatic Rifle." (Capt. Gene Loriot.)

   "Notes on Liaison in Modern Warfare."

   "Notes on the Method of Attack and Defense to Meet the Conditions
of Modern Warfare."

   "Machine Gun Tactics." (Applin.)

   "Grenades, Hand and Rifle." (Solano.)

   "Training for the Trenches." (Vickers.)

   "Studies in Leading Troops." (Vernois.)

   "Tactical Decisions and Orders." (Buddecke.)

   "Problems in Leading Troops--Army Service Schools."

   "Battle Orders." (Von Kiesling.)

   "70 Problems." (Morrison.)

   "Tactical Principles and Problems." (Hanna.)

   "Technique of Modern Tactics." (Bond and McDonough.)

   "Estimating Tactical Situations." (Fitch.)


The Book Department, Army Service Schools, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas,
or the United States Infantry Association, Washington, D.C., will get
any books available.





INDEX.


CHAPTER 1. PAGE.

Schedules; 1

CHAPTER 2.

Infantry drill regulations; 31
  School of the soldier; 31
    Instruction without arms; 31
  Attention; 32
    Position of; 32
    Heels together and on a line; 32
    Feet turned out equally, forming angle of 45 degrees; 32
    Knees extended without stiffness; 32
    Trunk erect upon hips; 32
    Shoulders falling naturally; 32
    Arms hanging naturally; 33
    Head erect, chin raised; 33
  Rests; 33
    Position of rest and at ease; 33
    Fall out; 34
    Rest; 34
    At ease; 34
    Parade rest; 34
    Eyes right; 34
    Right face; 34
    Right half face; 34
    About face; 34
    Hand salute; 34
    Forward march; 34
    Double time, march; 34
    Mark time, march; 34
    Half step, march; 34
    Right step, march; 34
    Squad, halt; 34
    By right flank, march; 34
    To the rear, march; 34
    Change step, march; 34
  Manual of arms; 35
    Purpose; 35
  Commands and cautions; 35
    Order, arms; 35
    Present, arms; 35
    Port, arms; 35
    Right shoulder, arms; 35
    Left shoulder, arms; 35
    Parade, rest; 35
    Trail, arms; 35
    Rifle salute; 35
    Fix bayonet; 35
    Unfix bayonet; 36
    Inspection arms; 36
  School of the squad; 36
    Object; 36
    Composition of squad; 36
    Fall in; 36
    Fall out; 36
    Count off; 36
    Inspection arms--right dress, front; 36
    Guide right; 37
    Take interval; 37
    To reform; 37
    Take distance; 37
    Assemble, march; 37
    Stack arms; 37
    Take arms; 37
    Oblique, march; 37
    In place, halt; 37
    Resume march; 38
    Right turn; 38
    Right half turn; 38
    Squads right; 38
    Squad right about; 38
  School of the company; 38
    Object; 38
    Composition; 39
    Fall in; 39
    Platoon movements; 40
      Leading platoon; 40
      Rear platoon; 40
    Questions which come up in daily military life; 40
    Answers; 41
    Insignia; 41
      For second lieutenants; 41
    Company right, march; 42
    Platoons right, march; 42
    Squads right, march; 42
    Right turn, march; 42
    Column right, march; 42
    Platoons, column right, march; 42
    Squads right, column right, march; 42
    Squads right, platoons, column right, march; 42
    Squads right about, march; 43
    Right into line, march; 43
    Right front into line, march; 43
    Platoons, right front into line, march; 43
    Route step, march; 43
    Right by twos, march; 43
    Squads right front into line, march; 43
    Dismiss the company; 43
    To fall in company when it cannot be formed by squads; 44
    For muster; 44
    In aligning company; 44
    To march squad without unnecessary commands; 44
    As skirmishers, march; 44
    Assemble, march; 45
    Kneel; 45
    Lie down; 45
    Rise; 45
    Loadings and firings; 45
    Arming; 45
    Sight-setting announced; 45
    Fire at will; 45
    Clip fire; 45
    Unload; 45
    Extended order; 45
      Corporal cautions; 46
      Left face; 46
      Company right; 46
    Deployments; 46
      As skirmishers, guide right, march; 46
      To deploy from column or squad; 46
      Assemble, march; 47
      Platoons, assemble; 47
      Platoons, columns; 47
      Squad columns; 47
      No. 1's forward, march; 48
      Captain points out new line; 48
      Disadvantage; 48
      Advantage; 48
    Being in skirmish line; 48
      By platoon; 48
    Commands; 48
  School of the Battalion; 49
    Basis; 49
    Arrangement; 49
    Number; 49
    Center; 49
    Band; 49
    Dressing; 49
  To form the battalion; 49
    Other than ceremonies; 49
    For ceremonies; 49
    To dismiss the battalion; 50
    To rectify the alignment; 50
    To rectify the column; 50
    Helpful hints to beginners; 50
    In column of squads; 50
    In column of companies; 51
    Line of companies; 53
    In battalion line; 54
  Inspections; 55
    Special points of company; 55
  Battalion inspection; 56
  Regimental inspection; 56
  Ceremonies; 56
    Battalion review; 56
    Battalion parade; 57
    Regimental parade; 58
    Regimental review; 58
  Fire direction; 58
  Fire control; 58
  Fire discipline; 58
  The colonel; 59
    Position; 59
    Duties; 60
  The major; 60
    Position; 60
  The general; 61
    Duties; 61
    Special; 62
  Battalion staff; 63
    Positions; 63
    Duties; 64
    Position; 65
    Duties: before fire action; 65
      during the action; 65
  Buglers; 66
    Position; 66
    Duties; 66
    Must be proficient in; 67
  Range estimators; 67
  Platoon leader; 68
    Position; 68
    Duties; 68
    Thereafter; 69
  First sergeant; 70
  Guides; 70
    General rules; 70
      Equipment; 70
      Close order; 71
      Taking intervals and distances; 71
      To form the company; 72
      Alignments; 72
    Exercise for; 74
    Result; 74
  Platoon Guides; 75
    Position; 75
    Duties; 75
  Corporal; 76
    Position; 76
    Duties; 76
    Thereafter; 76
  The private; 78
    Position; 78
    Duties; 79
  Packs; 81
    Cartridge belt; 81
    To attach first-aid pouch; 82
    To attach canteen cover; 82
    To attach pack carrier to haversack; 82
    To attach cartridge belt to haversack; 83
    To attach bayonet scabbard to haversack; 83
    To attach intrenching tool carrier to haversack; 83
    To assemble the full equipment (without rations); 84
      To make the pack; 85
      To assemble the pack; 85
    To assemble the full equipment (with rations); 86
      To make the pack; 86
      To assemble the pack; 86
      To adjust to the soldier; 86
    To assemble full equipment, less the pack (with
      rations); 87
    To assemble full equipment, less the pack (without
      rations); 88
    To discard pack without removing equipment from
      body; 88
    Care of equipment; 89
      Leather; 89
      Woolen clothes; 89
      Mending; 89
      Cloth equipment--dry cleaning; 89
      Washing; 89
    Instructions on making packs; 89
      Methods; 89
    Adjusting cartridge belt; 90
    Distribution of intrenching tools in the squad; 90

CHAPTER 3.

Physical training; 91
  Physical training; 91
  Bayonet training; 91
  Time schedule; 91
  Formations; 92
  Second formation; 93
  Commands; 93
    Kinds of and how given; 93
    First lesson; 94
    Second lesson; 95
    Third lesson; 96
    Fourth lesson; 98
    Fifth lesson; 99
Voice culture; 103

CHAPTER 4.

Use of modern arms; 105
  Small arms firing; 106
    Slow fire; 109
    Rapid fire; 109
  Pistol; 112
    Nomenclature and care; 112
    Manual for the pistol; 112
    Position; 116
      The grip; 116
      The trigger squeeze; 117
      Position and aiming drills; 117
      Quick fire; 118
    Classes of fire; 118
      Slow fire; 118
      Quick fire; 118
      Automatic fire; 118
      Trench; 118
      Score; 119
    Course; 120
      Slow fire; 120
      Quick fire; 120
      Automatic fire; 120
      Trench fire; 120
  Bayonet training; 120
    Functions of; 120
    General practice; 120
    Technique of bayonet combat; 121
    Manual of the bayonet; 122
    Progressive exercises; 124
  Machine guns; 128
    Mode of action; 128
    Fire; 129
    Inconspicuousness; 129
    Offensive reinforcement of a front momentarily stationary; 130
    Defensive; 130
    General rules for installation; 131
    Employment of fire and instruction; 132
    Resume; 132
    Points before firing; 133
    Points during firing; 133
    Points after firing; 133
  Grenade instruction; 134
    Introduction; 134
    Working of grenades in use; 136
    Instruction in throwing; 138
    Instruction in grenade organization; 139
    Points to remember; 141

CHAPTER 5.

Map sketching; 143
  Class room--map reading; 143
  Taking up map scales; 143
  Field work--strict scale map making; 145
    Road sketch; 146
    Area sketch; 146
    Problem; 150
  Class room--problem; 150
  Field work--problem; 154
  Class room--problem; 155
  Field work--problem; 157
    problem; 158
Map reading; 159


CHAPTER 6.

Helpful references to the articles of war; 161
  Military law; 161
  Article 1; 161
    Definitions; 161
  Article 2; 161
    Persons subject to military law; 161
  Articles 3-18; 162
    Courts martial classified; 162
    Method of entering a charge against a man; 163
    Specification; 164
    General remarks; 164
  Article 31; 164
    Order of voting; 164
  Article 39; 164
    Limit upon prosecutions; 164
  Article 54; 165
    Fraudulent enlistment; 165
  Article 58; 165
    Desertion; 165
  Article 61; 166
    Absence without leave; 166
  Article 62; 166
    Disrespect toward President and others; 166
  Article 63; 166
    Disrespect toward a superior officer; 166
  Article 64; 167
    Assaulting or wilfully disobeying superior officer; 167
  Article 65; 167
    Insubordinate conduct toward a non-commissioned officer; 167
  Article 68; 167
    Disorders; 167
  Article 69; 168
    Breaking arrest; 168
  Article 75; 169
    Misbehavior before the enemy; 169
  Article 83; 169
    Neglect of military property; 169
  Article 84; 169
    Waste or unlawful disposal of property issued to soldiers; 169
  Article 85; 169
    Drunk on duty; 169
  Article 86; 170
    Misbehavior of sentinel; 170
  Article 92; 170
    Murder or rape; 170
  Article 93; 170
    Various crimes; 170
  Article 94; 171
    Frauds against the government; 171
  Article 95; 171
    Conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman; 171
  Article 96; 171
    General articles, the catch all; 171
    Examples; 172
      Problem 1; 172
      Problem 2; 172
      Problem 3; 172


CHAPTER 7.

Notes on army regulations; 175
  Authority exercised; 175
  Abusive language; 175
  Respect to superiors; 175
  Remarks by officers; 175
  Furloughs; 175
  Men on furloughs; 175
  Men in foreign countries; 175
  No payments; 175
  Desertion; 175
  Abandoned clothes; 175
  Reward; 175
  Costs of apprehension; 176
  No pay or clothes; 176
  Will be restored; 176
  Absent without leave; 176
  Discharge of enlisted men; 176
  Final statements; 176
  Certificate; 176
  Loss of discharge certificate; 177
  Physical disability certificate; 177
  Death of soldier; 177
  Effects; 177
    Will be delivered; 177
  Medal of honor; 178
  Certificate of merit; 178
  Quarters; 178
  Saturday; 178
  Neglect of rooms; 178
  Destruction of tableware; 178
  Chiefs of squads; 178
  Premises; 178
  Company commanders; 178
  Arms; 178
  Accountability and responsibility; 178
    Example; 179
  Loss of public property; 179
  Ration; 179
  Forfeiture; 179
  Pay; 179
  Allotments; 180
    Class A; 180
    Class B; 180
  Compensation for death or disability; 181
  Additional insurance; 182
  Deposits; 182
  A lost deposit book; 182
  Payment; 183
  Withdrawal of deposits; 183
  Interest; 183
  Forfeiture; 183
  Officers and men; 183
  Furloughed to reserve; 183
  Transportation; 183
  Discharged soldier; 183
  Transfer of claims; 183
  Notes on the laws of war; 183


CHAPTER 8.

Practice marches; 187
Field work; 188
  An order; 188
  Do not deploy too early; 188
  Fire direction; 189
  The troops; 189
  Defense; 190
  Leadership; 190
  Communications; 191
  Night operations; 191
  Patrols; 191
    Leader; 191
    Conduct of; 192
    Report; 192
    Return; 193
  Advance guard; 193
  Rear guard; 194
  Flank guard; 194
  Camps; 194
  March outpost; 194
  Outpost; 195
  Outline of field service regulations; 197
    Land forces of U.S.; 197
    Military information; 197
    Transmission of information; 198
    Questions and answers on; 206


CHAPTER 9.

Feeding men; 213
  In camp; 213
  On the march; 214
  For individual cooking; 214
  In the trenches; 215
  Rations and cooking; 215
Camping and camp sanitation; 216
  General principles; 216


CHAPTER 10.

Personal hygiene and first aid; 221
  Personal hygiene; 221
  Bathing; 221
  Sexual indulgence; 222
  Exercise; 222
  Cleanliness of surroundings; 223
  Preventable diseases; 223
  Typhoid fever; 223
  Dysentery; 223
  Malaria; 224
  Tonsilitis and colds; 224
  Measles; 224
  First aid; 224
  Grounds; 224
  Poisoned wounds; 225
  Diagnosis tag; 225
  Treatment of wounds; 225
  Bleeding wounds; 225
  Fainting, heat exhaustion and shock; 226
  Sunstroke; 226
  Burns and scalds; 226
  Freezing and frostbites; 226
  Fractures; 226
    Treatment; 227
  Artificial respiration; 227
  Trench foot; 227


CHAPTER 11.

Signaling; 229
  Semaphore; 229
    First cycle; 229
    Second cycle; 229
    Third cycle; 229
    Fourth cycle; 230
    Doubles; 230
    Instructing; 230
    Second step; 230
    Third step; 230
    Fourth step; 230
  Wig wag; 232
  Points to remember; 233
  Letter codes; 233
  Arm signals; 234
    Forward, march; 234
    Halt; 234
    Double time, march; 234
    Squads right, march; 234
    Squads left, march; 234
    Squads right about, march; 234
    Change direction or column right, march; 234
    As skirmishers, march; 234
    As skirmishers, guide center, march; 235
    As skirmishers, guide right, march; 235
    Assemble, march; 235
    Range, or change elevation; 235
    What range are you using?; 235
    Are you ready?; 235
    Commence firing; 235
    Fire faster; 235
    Fire slower; 235
    To swing the cone of fire; 235
    Fix bayonet; 236
    Suspend firing; 236
    Cease firing; 236
    Platoon; 236
    Squad; 236
    Rush; 236


CHAPTER 12.

Guard duty; 237
  Guards; 237
  Formal guard mounting; 238
  Ceremony; 238
    First detail; 239
    Other details; 239
    Sergeant major; 239
    Adjutant; 239, 240, 241
    Officer of the guard; 240
    New officer of the day; 240
    Commander of the guard; 241
  Guard duty in the trenches; 241


CHAPTER 13.

Company administration; 245
  Notes on organization; 245
    Prepare in advance to receive men; 245
      Duties; 245
      If in cantonments; 246
      If in tents; 246
    Men reporting; 246
    Issue of equipment; 247
    Organization; 248
    Day's routine; 249
      Reveille; 250
      Mess; 250, 251
      Sick call; 250, 251
      Morning instruction; 250
      Afternoon instruction; 251
      Retreat; 251
      School call; 251
      Tattoo; 251
      Call to quarters; 251
      Taps; 251
    Sundays and holidays; 252
    Details; 252
    Paper work; 252
    Military correspondence; 253
    Morning report; 254
    Ration return; 254
    Sick report; 254
    Duty roster; 254
    Monthly return; 255
    Service record; 255
    Discharge; 255
    Final statement; 255
    Muster roll; 255
    Pay roll; 256
    Names; 257
    Losses; 257


CHAPTER 14.

Conferences; 259
  Study; 259
  Syllabus: Small problems for infantry; 261
  Examinations; 269
  Military science and tactics; 275
  Minor tactics; 275


CHAPTER 15.

Trench warfare; 287
  General principles; 287
  Instructions to be issued by battalion commander; 287
  Attack of a defensive position; 289
  Attacking from trenches; 291
  Defense of trenches; 296
    Liaison; 298
  Trench orders; 299
  Selection of site; 302
  Trench construction; 303, 307
    General arrangement; 303
    System of laying out trenches; 307
    Revettments; 308
    Sod; 310
    Sand bags; 310
    Concrete work; 310
    Gabions; 310
    Trench armament; 311
    Loopholes; 311
    Trench bottoms; 311
    Communication trench; 313
    Latrines; 315
    Shelters; 315
    Dugouts; 317
    Sentries; 317
    Position; 317
    Entrances; 317
    Galleries; 318
    Bomb-traps; 318
    Interior; 318
    Depots for supplies; 318
    Telephones; 319
    Departure parallel; 319
    Machine gun emplacements; 319
    Listening posts; 321
    Wire entanglements; 321
    High entanglements; 321
    Tracing entanglements; 322
    Low entanglements; 322
    Loose wire; 322
  Criticisms by Lieut Henri Poire; 322
Occupation; 325
  Two main classes of relief; 325
  General principles of relief; 325
  Mechanism of relief; 325
    Attack during the march; 328
  The stay in the trenches; 329
    Four objects of a trench commander; 329
    His plan of defense; 329
    Organization of defense; 329
    Liaison; 331
    Observation; 331
    Trench work; 333
    Offensive operations; 334
    Rule of the trench commander; 335
  Duties of the company commander; 335
  Duties of platoon leaders as officers on duty; 339
  Duties of platoon leaders; 339
  In front line trenches; 340
  Duties of non-commissioned officer on duty; 341
  Patrols; 342
  Sentinels; 342
  Machine guns; 342
  Snipers; 343
  Organization of a platoon; 344
  Deployments; 346
  Normal battalion formation in attack; 347
  General principles of the platoon formation in assault of
    fortified positions; 349
  Remarks regarding forming of wave from close order; 353
  Some questions a platoon commander should ask himself; 354
  Defensive measure against gas attacks; 356
    General considerations; 356
    Nature of gas attacks; 356
      Gas clouds; 356
      Gas projectiles; 358
      Tear or lachrymatory shells; 359
      Poison shells; 359
      Smoke; 359
      Mine and explosion gases; 359
  Protection of shelters; 360
    Methods of protection; 360
    Shelters which should be protected; 361
  Protection of weapons and equipment; 361
    Small arms and S.A.A.; 362
    Hand and rifle grenades; 362
    Light trench mortars; 362
  Action to be taken in trenches on gas alarm; 363
  Action to be taken in billets and back areas; 363
  Action during gas attack; 364
    Protective measures; 364
    Tactical measures; 364
  Precautions against gas shells; 365
  Action subsequent to a gas attack; 367
    General; 367
    Movement; 367
    Clearing dugouts and other shelters; 367
    Ventilation; 368
      Natural; 368
      By fire; 368
      By fanning; 369
    Cleaning arms and ammunition; 369
    Treatment of shell holes; 370
  Concealment from aerial observers; 370
  Orders governing intrenchment problems; 372
  Company organization; 384
    Company headquarters; 384
    Headquarters; 384
  Personnel; 385
    Commissioned; 385
    Enlisted; 386
  Equipment; 386
  Trench standing orders; 386
    Duties; 386
    Sentries; 387
    Patrols; 388
    Stand to; 389
    Machine guns; 389
    Reliefs; 390
    Guides; 391
    Smoking and talking; 391
    Procedure on arrival at trenches; 391
    Log books; 392
    Equipment; 392
    Stretcher bearers; 392
    Discipline; 392
    Rations and cooking; 393
    Sanitation; 393
  Emergency dumps for companies (material); 394
    Contents of dump; 394
    Stores for company; 394
    Stores at battalion headquarters; 394
Conclusion; 396
Bibliography; 397



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