Infomotions, Inc.The World's Great Men of Music Story-Lives of Master Musicians / Brower, Harriette, 1869-1928



Author: Brower, Harriette, 1869-1928
Title: The World's Great Men of Music Story-Lives of Master Musicians
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Title: The World's Great Men of Music
       Story-Lives of Master Musicians

Author: Harriette Brower

Release Date: August 25, 2004 [EBook #13291]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII

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Produced by Ronald Holder and PG Distributed Proofreaders




THE WORLD'S GREAT MEN OF MUSIC

BY

HARRIETTE BROWER

_Author of "Piano Mastery, First and Second Series,"
"Home-Help in Music Study," "Self-Help in
Piano Study," "Vocal Mastery," etc_.


Also Published Under the Title of
"Story-Lives of Master Musicians"




1922

FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY

Printed in the United States of America




FOREWORD


The preparation of this volume began with a period of delightful
research work in a great musical library. As a honey-bee flutters
from flower to flower, culling sweetness from many blossoms, so
the compiler of such stories as these must gather facts from many
sources--from biography, letters, journals and musical history. Then,
impressed with the personality and individual achievement of each
composer, the author has endeavored to present his life story.

While the aim has been to make the story-sketches interesting to
young people, the author hopes that they may prove valuable to musical
readers of all ages. Students of piano, violin or other instruments
need to know how the great composers lived their lives. In every
musical career described in this book, from the old masters
represented by Bach and Beethoven to the musical prophets of our own
day, there is a wealth of inspiration and practical guidance for the
artist in any field. Through their struggles, sorrows and triumphs,
divine melody and harmony came into being, which will bless the world
for all time to come.




                CONTENTS

CHAPTER
         FOREWORD

      I  PALESTRINA

     II  JOHN SEBASTIAN BACH

    III  GEORGE FREDERICK HANDEL

     IV  CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD GLUCK

      V  JOSEF HAYDN

     VI  WOLFGANG MOZART

    VII  LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN

   VIII  CARL MARIA VON WEBER

     IX  FRANZ SCHUBERT

      X  FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY

     XI  ROBERT SCHUMANN

    XII  FREDERIC CHOPIN

   XIII  HECTOR BERLIOZ

    XIV  FRANZ LISZT

     XV  GIUSEPPE VERDI

    XVI  RICHARD WAGNER

   XVII  CESAR FRANCK

  XVIII  JOHANNES BRAHMS

    XIX  EDWARD GRIEG

     XX  PETER ILYITCH TSCHAIKOWSKY

    XXI  EDWARD MACDOWELL

   XXII  CLAUDE ACHILLE DEBUSSY

  XXIII  ARTURO TOSCANINI

   XXIV  LEOPOLD STOKOWSKY

    XXV  SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY


[Illustration: LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN]

[Illustration: JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH]

[Illustration: JOHANNES BRAHMS]

[Illustration: PETER ILYITCH TSCHAIKOWSKY]





STORY-LIVES OF

MASTER MUSICIANS




I

PALESTRINA


To learn something of the life and labors of Palestrina, one of the
earliest as well as one of the greatest musicians, we must go back in
the world's history nearly four hundred years. And even then we may
not be able to discover all the events of his life as some of the
records have been lost. But we have the main facts, and know that
Palestrina's name will be revered for all time as the man who strove
to make sacred music the expression of lofty and spiritual meaning.

Upon a hoary spur of the Apennines stands the crumbling town of
Palestrina. It is very old now; it was old when Rome was young. Four
hundred years ago Palestrina was dominated by the great castle of its
lords, the proud Colonnas. Naturally the town was much more important
in those days than it is to-day.

At that time there lived in Palestrina a peasant pair, Sante Pierluigi
and his wife Maria, who seem to have been an honest couple, and not
grindingly poor, since the will of Sante's mother has lately been
found, in which she bequeathed a house in Palestrina to her two sons.
Besides this she left behind a fine store of bed linen, mattresses and
cooking utensils. Maria Gismondi also had a little property.

To this pair was born, probably in 1526, a boy whom they named
Giovanni Pierluigi, which means John Peter Louis. This boy, from a
tiniest child, loved beauty of sight and sound. And this is not at
all surprising, for a child surrounded from infancy by the natural
loveliness and glory of old Palestrina, would unconsciously breathe in
a sense of beauty and grandeur.

It was soon discovered the boy had a voice, and his mother is said
to have sold some land she owned to provide for her son's musical
training.

From the rocky heights on which their town was built, the people
of Palestrina could look across the Campagna--the great plain
between--and see the walls and towers of Rome. At the time of our
story, Saint Peter's had withstood the sack of the city, which
happened a dozen years before, and Bramante's vast basilica had
already begun to rise. The artistic life of Rome was still at high
tide, for Raphael had passed away but twenty years before, and Michael
Angelo was at work on his Last Judgment.

Though painting and sculpture flourished, music did not keep pace with
advance in other arts. The leading musicians were Belgian, Spanish or
French, and their music did not match the great achievements attained
in the kindred art of the time--architecture, sculpture and painting.
There was needed a new impetus, a vital force. Its rise began when
the peasant youth John Peter Louis descended from the heights of
Palestrina to the banks of the Tiber.

It is said that Tomasso Crinello was the boy's master; whether this
is true or not, he was surely trained in the Netherland manner of
composition.

The youth, whom we shall now call Palestrina, as he is known by the
name of his birthplace, returned from Rome at the age of eighteen to
his native town, in 1544, as a practising musician, and took a post at
the Cathedral of Saint Agapitus. Here he engaged himself for life, to
be present every day at mass and vespers, and to teach singing to
the canons and choristers. Thus he spent the early years of his young
manhood directing the daily services and drumming the rudiments of
music into the heads of the little choristers. It may have been dry
and wearisome labor; but afterward, when Palestrina began to reform
the music of the church, it must have been of great advantage to him
to know so absolutely the liturgy, not only of Saint Peter's and Saint
John Lateran, but also that in the simple cathedral of his own small
hill-town.

Young Palestrina, living his simple, busy life in his home town, never
dreamed he was destined to become a great musician. He married in
1548, when he was about twenty-two. If he had wished to secure one of
the great musical appointments in Rome, it was a very unwise thing for
him to marry, for single singers were preferred in nine cases out of
ten. Palestrina did not seem to realize this danger to a brilliant
career, and took his bride, Lucrezia, for pure love. She seems to have
been a person after his own heart, besides having a comfortable dowry
of her own. They had a happy union, which lasted for more than thirty
years.

Although he had agreed to remain for life at the cathedral church of
Saint Agapitus, it seems that such contracts could be broken without
peril. Thus, after seven years of service, he once more turned his
steps toward the Eternal City.

He returned to Rome as a recognized musician. In 1551 he became master
of the Capella Giulia, at the modest salary of six scudi a month,
something like ten dollars. But the young chapel master seemed
satisfied. Hardly three years after his arrival had elapsed, when
he had written and printed a book containing five masses, which he
dedicated to Pope Julius III. This act pleased the pontiff, who, in
January, 1555, appointed Palestrina one of the singers of the Sistine
Chapel, with an increased salary.

It seems however, that the Sistine singers resented the appointment
of a new member, and complained about it. Several changes in the Papal
chair occurred at this time, and when Paul IV, as Pope, came into
power, he began at once with reforms. Finding that Palestrina and two
other singers were married men, he put all three out, though granting
an annuity of six scudi a month for each.

The loss of this post was a great humiliation, which Palestrina found
it hard to endure. He fell ill at this time, and the outlook was dark
indeed, with a wife and three little children to provide for.

But the clouds soon lifted. Within a few weeks after this unfortunate
event, the rejected singer of the Sistine Chapel was created Chapel
Master of Saint John Lateran, the splendid basilica, where the young
Orlandus Lassus had so recently directed the music. As Palestrina
could still keep his six scudi pension, increased with the added
salary of the new position, he was able to establish his family in a
pretty villa on the Coelian Hill, where he could be near his work at
the Lateran, but far enough removed from the turmoil of the city to
obtain the quiet he desired, and where he lived in tranquillity for
the next five years.

Palestrina spent forty-four years of his life in Rome. All the eleven
popes who reigned during this long period honored Palestrina as a
great musician. Marcellus II spent a part of his three weeks' reign
in showing kindness to the young Chapel master, which the composer
returned by naming for this pontiff a famous work, "Mass of Pope
Marcellus." Pius IV, who was in power when the mass was performed,
praised it eloquently, saying John Peter Louis of Palestrina was a new
John, bringing down to the church militant the harmonies of that
"new song" which John the Apostle heard in the Holy City. The
musician-pope, Gregory XIII, to whom Palestrina dedicated his grandest
motets, entrusted him with the sacred task of revising the ancient
chant. Pope Sixtus V greatly praised his beautiful mass, "Assumpta est
Maria" and promoted him to higher honors.

With this encouragement and patronage, Palestrina labored five years
at the Lateran, ten years at Santa Maria Maggiore and twenty three at
Saint Peter's. At the last named it was his second term, of course,
but it continued from 1571 to his death. He was happy in his work, in
his home and in his friends. He also saved quite a little money and
was able to give his daughter-in-law, in 1577, 1300 scudi; he is known
indeed, to have bought land, vineyards and houses in and about Rome.

All was not a life of sunshine for Palestrina, for he suffered many
domestic sorrows. His three promising sons died one after another.
They were talented young men, who might have followed in the footsteps
of their distinguished father. In 1580 his wife died also. Yet neither
poignant sorrow, worldly glory nor ascetic piety blighted his homely
affections. At the Jubilee of Pope Gregory XIII, in 1575, when 1500
pilgrims from the town of Palestrina descended the hills on the way
to Rome, it was their old townsman, Giovanni Pierluigi, who led their
songs, as they entered the Eternal City, their maidens clad in white
robes, and their young men bearing olive branches.

It is said of Palestrina that he became the "savior of church music,"
at a time when it had almost been decided to banish all music from the
service except the chant, because so many secular subjects had been
set to music and used in church. Things had come to a very difficult
pass, until at last the fathers turned to Palestrina, desiring him
to compose a mass in which sacred words should be heard throughout.
Palestrina, deeply realizing his responsibility, wrote not only one
but three, which, on being heard, pleased greatly by their piety,
meekness, and beautiful spirit. Feeling more sure of himself,
Palestrina continued to compose masses, until he had created
ninety-three in all. He also wrote many motets on the Song of Solomon,
his Stabat Mater, which was edited two hundred and fifty years later
by Richard Wagner, and his lamentations, which were composed at the
request of Sixtus V.

Palestrina's end came February 2, 1594. He died in Rome, a devout
Christian, and on his coffin were engraved the simple but splendid
words: "Prince of Music."




II

JOHN SEBASTIAN BACH


Away back in 1685, almost two hundred and fifty years ago, one of the
greatest musicians of the world first saw the light, in the little
town of Eisenach, nestling on the edge of the Thuringen forest. The
long low-roofed cottage where little Johann Sebastian Bach was born,
is still standing, and carefully preserved.

The name Bach belonged to a long race of musicians, who strove to
elevate the growing art of music. For nearly two hundred years there
had been organists and composers in the family; Sebastian's father,
Johann Ambrosius Bach was organist of the Lutheran Church in Eisenach,
and naturally a love of music was fostered in the home. It is no
wonder that little Sebastian should have shown a fondness for music
almost from infancy. But, beyond learning the violin from his father,
he had not advanced very far in his studies, when, in his tenth
year he lost both his parents and was taken care of by his brother
Christoph, fourteen years older, a respectable musician and organist
in a neighboring town. To give his little brother lessons on the
clavier, and send him to the Lyceum to learn Latin, singing and other
school subjects seemed to Christoph to include all that could be
expected of him. That his small brother possessed musical genius of
the highest order, was an idea he could not grasp; or if he did, he
repressed the boy with indifference and harsh treatment.

Little Sebastian suffered in silence from this coldness. Fortunately
the force of his genius was too great to be crushed. He knew all the
simple pieces by heart, which his brother set for his lessons, and
he longed for bigger things. There was a book of manuscript music
containing pieces by Buxtehude and Frohberger, famous masters of the
time, in the possession of Christoph. Sebastian greatly desired to
play the pieces in that book, but his brother kept it under lock and
key in his cupboard, or bookcase. One day the child mustered courage
to ask permission to take the book for a little while. Instead of
yielding to the boy's request Christoph became angry, told him not to
imagine he could study such masters as Buxtehude and Frohberger, but
should be content to get the lessons assigned him.

The injustice of this refusal fired Sebastian with the determination
to get possession of the coveted book at all costs. One moonlight
night, long after every one had retired, he decided to put into
execution a project he had dreamed of for some time.

Creeping noiselessly down stairs he stood before the bookcase and
sought the precious volume. There it was with the names of the various
musicians printed in large letters on the back in his brother's
handwriting. To get his small hands between the bars and draw the book
outward took some time. But how to get it out. After much labor he
found one bar weaker than the others, which could be bent.

When at last the book was in his hands, he clasped it to his breast
and hurried quickly back to his chamber. Placing the book on a table
in front of the window, where the moonlight fell full upon it, he took
pen and music paper and began copying out the pieces in the book.

This was but the beginning of nights of endless toil. For six months
whenever there were moonlight nights, Sebastian was at the window
working at his task with passionate eagerness.

At last it was finished, and Sebastian in the joy of possessing it for
his very own, crept into bed without the precaution of putting
away all traces of his work. Poor boy, he had to pay dearly for his
forgetfulness. As he lay sleeping, Christoph, thinking he heard sounds
in his brother's room, came to seek the cause. His glance, as he
entered the room, fell on the open books. There was no pity in
his heart for all this devoted labor, only anger that he had been
outwitted by his small brother. He took both books away and hid them
in a place where Sebastian could never find them. But he did not
reflect that the boy had the memory of all this beautiful music
indelibly printed on his mind, which helped him to bear the bitter
disappointment of the loss of his work.

When he was fifteen Sebastian left his brother's roof and entered the
Latin school connected with the Church of St. Michael at Lueneburg. It
was found he had a beautiful soprano voice, which placed him with the
scholars who were chosen to sing in the church service in return for
a free education. There were two church schools in Lueneburg, and the
rivalry between them was so keen, that when the scholars sang in the
streets during the winter months to collect money for their support,
the routes for each had to be carefully marked out, to prevent
collision.

Soon after he entered St. Michael's, Bach lost his beautiful soprano
voice; his knowledge of violin and clavier, however, enabled him
to keep his place in the school. The boy worked hard at his musical
studies, giving his spare time to the study of the best composers. He
began to realize that he cared more for the organ than for any other
instrument; indeed his love for it became a passion. He was too
poor to take lessons, for he was almost entirely self-dependent--a
penniless scholar, living on the plainest of fare, yet determined to
gain a knowledge of the music he longed for.

One of the great organists of the time was Johann Adam Reinken. When
Sebastian learned that this master played the organ in St. Katharine's
Church in Hamburg, he determined to walk the whole distance thither to
hear him. Now Hamburg was called in those days the "Paradise of German
music," and was twenty-five good English miles from the little town
of Lueneburg, but what did that matter to the eager lad? Obstacles only
fired him to strive the harder for what he desired to attain.

The great joy of listening to such a master made him forget the long
tramp and all the weariness, and spurred him on to repeat the journey
whenever he had saved a few shillings to pay for food and lodging. On
one occasion he lingered a little longer in Hamburg than usual, until
his funds were well-nigh exhausted, and before him was the long walk
without any food. As he trudged along he came upon a small inn, from
the open door of which came a delightful savory odor. He could not
resist looking in through the window. At that instant a window above
was thrown open and a couple of herrings' heads were tossed into the
road. The herring is a favorite article of food in Germany and poor
Sebastian was glad to pick up these bits to satisfy the cravings of
hunger. What was his surprise on pulling the heads to pieces to
find each one contained a Danish ducat. When he recovered from his
astonishment, he entered the inn and made a good meal with part of the
money; the rest ensured another visit to Hamburg.

After remaining three years in Lueneburg, Bach secured a post as
violinist in the private band of Prince Johann Ernst of Saxe-Weimar;
but this was only to fill the time till he could find a place to
play the instrument he so loved. An opportunity soon came. The old
Thuringian town Arnstadt had a new church and a fine new organ. The
consistory of the church were looking for a capable organist and
Bach's request to be allowed to try the instrument was readily
granted.

As soon as they heard him play they offered him the post, with promise
of increasing the salary by a contribution from the town funds. Bach
thus found himself at the age of eighteen installed as organist at a
salary of fifty florins, with thirty thalers in addition for board and
lodging, equal, all in all, to less than fifty dollars. In those days
this amount was considered a fair sum for a young player. On August
14, 1703, the young organist entered upon his duties, promising
solemnly to be diligent and faithful to all requirements.

The requirements of the post fortunately left him plenty of leisure to
study. Up to this time he had done very little composing, but now he
set about teaching himself the art of composition.

The first thing he did was to take a number of concertos written for
the violin by Vivaldi, and set them for the harpsichord. In this way
he learned to express himself and to attain facility in putting his
thoughts on paper without first playing them on an instrument. He
worked alone in this way with no assistance from any one, and often
studied till far into the night to perfect himself in this branch of
his art.

From the very beginning, his playing on the new organ excited
admiration, but his artistic temperament frequently threatened to
be his undoing. For the young enthusiast was no sooner seated at the
organ to conduct the church music than he forgot that the choir and
congregation were depending on him and would begin to improvise at
such length that the singing had to stop altogether, while the people
listened in mute admiration. Of course there were many disputes
between the new organist and the elders of the church, but they
overlooked his vagaries because of his genius.

Yet he must have been a trial to that well-ordered body. Once he asked
for a month's leave of absence to visit Luebeck, where the celebrated
Buxtehude was playing the organ in the Marien Kirche during Advent.
Luebeck was fifty miles from Arnstadt, but the courageous boy made the
entire journey on foot. He enjoyed the music at Luebeck so much that
he quite forgot his promise to return in one month until he had stayed
three. His pockets being quite empty, he thought for the first time of
returning to his post. Of course there was trouble on his return, but
the authorities retained him in spite of all, for the esteem in which
they held his gifts.

Bach soon began to find Arnstadt too small and narrow for his soaring
desires. Besides, his fame was growing and his name becoming known in
the larger, adjacent towns. When he was offered the post of organist
at St. Blasius at Muelhausen, near Eisenach, he accepted at once. He
was told he might name his own salary. If Bach had been avaricious he
could have asked a large sum, but he modestly named the small amount
he had received at Arnstadt with the addition of certain articles of
food which should be delivered at his door, gratis.

Bach's prospects were now so much improved that he thought he might
make a home for himself. He had fallen in love with a cousin, Maria
Bach, and they were married October 17, 1707.

The young organist only remained in Muelhausen a year, for he received
a more important offer. He was invited to play before Duke Wilhelm
Ernst of Weimar, and hastened thither, hoping this might lead to an
appointment at Court. He was not disappointed, for the Duke was so
delighted with Bach's playing that he at once offered him the post of
Court organist.

A wider outlook now opened for Sebastian Bach, who had all his young
life struggled with poverty and privation. He was now able to give
much time to composition, and began to write those masterpieces for
the organ which have placed his name on the highest pinnacle in the
temple of music.

In his comfortable Weimar home the musician had the quiet and
leisure that he needed to perfect his art on all sides, not only in
composition but in organ and harpsichord playing. He felt that he had
conquered all difficulties of both instruments, and one day boasted
to a friend that he could play any piece, no matter how difficult, at
sight, without a mistake. In order to test this statement the friend
invited him to breakfast shortly after. On the harpsichord were
several pieces of music, one of which, though apparently simple,
was really very difficult. His host left the room to prepare the
breakfast, while Bach began to try over the music. All went well until
he came to the difficult piece which he began quite boldly but stuck
in the middle. It went no better after several attempts. As his friend
entered, bringing the breakfast, Bach exclaimed:--"You are right. One
cannot play everything perfectly at sight,--it is impossible!"

Duke Wilhelm Ernst, in 1714, raised him to the position of
Head-Concert Master, a position which offered added privileges. Every
autumn he used his annual vacation in traveling to the principal towns
to give performances on organ and clavier. By such means he gained a
great reputation both as player and composer.

On one of these tours he arrived in Dresden in time to learn of a
French player who had just come to town. Jean Marchand had won a great
reputation in France, where he was organist to the King at Versailles,
and regarded as the most fashionable musician of the day. All this had
made him very conceited and overbearing. Every one was discussing the
Frenchman's wonderful playing and it was whispered he had been offered
an appointment in Dresden.

The friends of Bach proposed that he should engage Marchand in a
contest, to defend the musical honor of the German nation. Both
musicians were willing; the King promised to attend.

The day fixed for the trial arrived; a brilliant company assembled.
Bach made his appearance, and all was ready, but the adversary failed
to come. After a considerable delay it was learned that Marchand had
fled the city.

In 1717, on his return from Dresden, Bach was appointed Capellmeister
to the young Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Coethen. The Prince was an
enthusiastic lover of music, and at Coethen Bach led a happy, busy
life. The Prince often journeyed to different towns to gratify his
taste for music, and always took Bach with him. On one of these trips
he was unable to receive the news that his wife had suddenly passed
away, and was buried before he could return to Coethen. This was a
severe blow to the whole family.

Four years afterward, Bach married again, Anna Magdalena Wuelkens was
in every way suited for a musician's wife, and for her he composed
many of the delightful dances which we now so greatly enjoy. He also
wrote a number of books of studies for his wife and his sons, several
of whom later became good musicians and composers.

Perhaps no man ever led a more crowded life, though outwardly a quiet
one. He never had an idle moment. When not playing, composing or
teaching, he would be found engraving music on copper, since that work
was costly in those days. Or he would be manufacturing some kind of
musical instrument. At least two are known to be of his invention.

Bach began to realize that the Coethen post, while it gave him plenty
of leisure for his work, did not give him the scope he needed for his
art. The Prince had lately married, and did not seem to care as much
for music as before.

The wider opportunity which Bach sought came when he was appointed
director of music in the churches of St. Thomas and St. Nicholas
in Leipsic, and Cantor of the Thomas-Schule there. With the Leipsic
period Bach entered the last stage of his career, for he retained this
post for the rest of his life. He labored unceasingly, in spite of
many obstacles and petty restrictions, to train the boys under his
care, and raise the standard of musical efficiency in the Schule, as
choirs of both churches were recruited from the scholars of the Thomas
School.

During the twenty-seven years of life in Leipsic, Bach wrote some of
his greatest works, such as the Oratorios of St. Matthew and St. John,
and the Mass in B Minor. It was the Passion according to St. Matthew
that Mendelssohn, about a hundred years later discovered, studied
with so much zeal, and performed in Berlin, with so much devotion and
success.

Bach always preferred a life of quiet and retirement; simplicity had
ever been his chief characteristic. He was always very religious; his
greatest works voice the noblest sentiments of exaltation.

Bach's modesty and retiring disposition is illustrated by the
following little incident. Carl Philip Emmanuel, his third son, was
cembalist in the royal orchestra of Frederick the Great. His Majesty
was very fond of music and played the flute to some extent. He had
several times sent messages to Bach by Philip Emmanuel, that he would
like to see him. But Bach, intent on his work, ignored the royal
favor, until he finally received an imperative command, which could
not be disobeyed. He then, with his son Friedmann, set out for
Potsdam.

The King was about to begin the evening's music when he learned that
Bach had arrived. With a smile he turned to his musicians: "Gentlemen,
old Bach has come." Bach was sent for at once, without having time
to change his traveling dress. His Majesty received him with great
kindness and respect, and showed him through the palace, where he
must try the Silbermann pianofortes, of which there were several. Bach
improvised on each and the King gave a theme which he treated as a
fantasia, to the astonishment of all. Frederick next asked him to play
a six part fugue, and then Bach improvised one on a theme of his own.
The King clapped his hands, exclaiming over and over, "Only one Bach!
Only one Bach!" It was a great evening for the master, and one he
never forgot.

Just after completing his great work, The Art of Fugue, Bach became
totally blind, due no doubt, to the great strain he had always put
upon his eyes, in not only writing his own music, but in copying out
large works of the older masters. Notwithstanding this handicap he
continued at work up to the very last. On the morning of the day on
which he passed away, July 28, 1750, he suddenly regained his sight. A
few hours later he became unconscious and passed in sleep.

Bach was laid to rest in the churchyard of St. John's at Leipsic, but
no stone marks his resting place. Only the town library register tells
that Johann Sebastian Bach, Musical Director and Singing Master of the
St. Thomas School, was carried to his grave July 30, 1750.

But the memory of Bach is enduring, his fame immortal and the love his
beautiful music inspires increases from year to year, wherever that
music is known, all over the world.




III

GEORGE FREDERICK HANDEL


While little Sebastian Bach was laboriously copying out music by pale
moonlight, because of his great love for it, another child of the same
age was finding the greatest happiness of his life seated before an
old spinet, standing in a lumber garret. He was trying to make music
from those half dumb keys. No one had taught him how to play; it was
innate genius that guided his little hands to find the right harmonies
and bring melody out of the old spinet.

The boy's name was George Frederick Handel, and he was born in the
German town of Halle, February 23, 1685. Almost from infancy he showed
a remarkable fondness for music. His toys must be able to produce
musical sounds or he did not care for them. The child did not inherit
a love for music from his father, for Dr. Handel, who was a surgeon,
looked on music with contempt, as something beneath the notice of a
gentleman. He had decided his son was to be a lawyer, and refused
to allow him to attend school for fear some one might teach him his
notes. The mother was a sweet gentle woman, a second wife, and much
younger than her husband, who seemed to have ruled his household with
a rod of iron.

When little George was about five, a kind friend, who knew how he
longed to make music, had a spinet sent to him unbeknown to his
father, and placed in a corner of the old garret. Here the child loved
to come when he could escape notice. Often at night, when all were
asleep, he would steal away to the garret and work at the spinet,
mastering difficulties one by one. The strings of the instrument had
been wound with cloth to deaden the sound, and thus made only a tiny
tinkle.

After this secret practising had been going on for some time, it was
discovered one night, when little George was enjoying his favorite
pastime. He had been missed and the whole house went in search.
Finally the father, holding high the lantern in his hand and followed
by mother and the rest of the inmates, reached the garret, and there
found the lost child seated at his beloved spinet, quite lost to
the material world. There is no record of any angry outburst on the
father's part and it is likely little George was left in peace.

One day when the boy was seven years old, the father was about to
start for the castle of the Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, to see his son,
a stepbrother of George, who was a _valet de chambre_ to the Duke.
Little George begged to go too, for he knew there was music to be
heard at the castle. In spite of his father's refusal he made up his
mind to go if he had to run every step of the way. So watching his
chance, he started to run after the coach in which his father rode.
The child had no idea it was a distance of forty miles. He strove
bravely to keep pace with the horses, but the roads were rough and
muddy. His strength beginning to fail, he called out to the coachman
to stop. His father, hearing the boy's voice looked out of the window.
Instead of scolding the little scamp roundly, he was touched by his
woebegone appearance, had him lifted into the coach and carried on to
Weissenfels.

George enjoyed himself hugely at the castle. The musicians were very
kind to him, and his delight could hardly be restrained when he was
allowed to try the beautiful organ in the chapel. The organist stood
behind him and arranged the stops, and the child put his fingers on
the keys that made the big pipes speak. During his stay, George had
several chances to play; one was on a Sunday at the close of the
service. The organist lifted him upon the bench and bade him play.
Instead of the Duke and all his people leaving the chapel, they stayed
to listen. When the music ceased the Duke asked: "Who is that child?
Does anybody know his name?" The organist was sent for, and then
little George was brought. The Duke patted him on the head, praised
his playing and said he was sure to become a good musician. The
organist then remarked he had heard the father disapproved of his
musical studies. The Duke was greatly astonished. He sent for the
father and after speaking highly of the boy's talent, said that
to place any obstacle in the child's way would be unworthy of the
father's honorable profession.

And so it was settled that George Frederick should devote himself to
music. Frederick Zachau, organist of the cathedral at Halle, was
the teacher chosen to instruct the boy on the organ, harpsichord and
violin. He also taught him composition, and showed him how different
countries and composers differed in their ideas of musical style. Very
soon the boy was composing the regular weekly service for the church,
besides playing the organ whenever Zachau happened to be absent. At
that time the boy could not have been more than eight years old.

After three years' hard work his teacher told him he must seek another
master, as he could teach him nothing more. So the boy was sent to
Berlin, to continue his studies. Two of the prominent musicians there
were Ariosti and Buononcini; the former received the boy kindly and
gave him great encouragement; the other took a dislike to the little
fellow, and tried to injure him. Pretending to test his musicianship,
Buononcini composed a very difficult piece for the harpsichord
and asked him to play it at sight. This the boy did with ease and
correctness. The Elector was delighted with the little musician,
offered him a place at Court and even promised to send him to Italy
to pursue his studies. Both offers were refused and George returned to
Halle and to his old master, who was happy to have him back once more.

Not long after this the boy's father passed away, and as there was but
little money left for the mother, her son decided at once that he must
support himself and not deprive her of her small income. He acted as
deputy organist at the Cathedral and Castle of Halle, and a few years
later, when the post was vacant, secured it at a salary of less
than forty dollars a year and free lodging. George Frederick was now
seventeen and longed for a broader field. Knowing that he must leave
Halle to find it, he said good-by to his mother, and in January 1703,
set out for Hamburg to seek his fortune.

The Opera House Orchestra needed a supplementary violin. It was a very
small post, but he took it, pretending not to be able to do anything
better. However a chance soon came his way to show what he was capable
of. One day the conductor, who always presided at the harpsichord, was
absent, and no one was there to take his place. Without delay George
came forward and took his vacant seat. He conducted so ably, that he
secured the position for himself.

The young musician led a busy life in Hamburg, filled with teaching,
study and composition. As his fame increased he secured more pupils,
and he was not only able to support himself, but could send some money
to his mother. He believed in saving money whenever he could; he knew
a man should not only be self supporting, but somewhat independent, in
order to produce works of art.

Handel now turned his attention to opera, composing "Almira, Queen of
Castile," which was produced in Hamburg early in January 1705. This
success encouraged him to write others; indeed he was the author of
forty operas, which are only remembered now by an occasional aria.
During these several years of hard work he had looked forward to a
journey to Italy, for study. He was now a composer of some note and
decided it was high time to carry out his cherished desire.

He remained some time in Florence and composed the opera "Rodrigo,"
which was performed with great success. While in Venice he brought
out another opera, "Agrippina," which had even greater success. Rome
delighted him especially and he returned for a second time in 1709.
Here he composed his first oratorio, the "Resurrection," which was
produced there. Handel returned to Germany the following year. The
Elector of Hanover was kind to him, and offered him the post of
Capellmeister, with a salary of about fifteen hundred dollars. He
had long desired to visit England, and the Elector gave him leave of
absence. First, however, he went to Halle to see his mother and his
old teacher. We can imagine the joy of the meeting, and how proud and
happy both were at the success of the young musician. After a little
time spent with his dear ones, he set out for England.

Handel came to London, preceded by the fame of his Italian success.
Italian opera was the vogue just then in the English capital, but
it was so badly produced that a man of Handel's genius was needed to
properly set it before the people. He had not been long on English
soil when he produced his opera "Rinaldo," at the Queen's Theater;
it had taken him just two weeks to compose the opera. It had great
success and ran night after night. There are many beautiful airs in
"Rinaldo," some of which we hear to-day with the deepest pleasure.
"Lascia ch'jo pianga" and "Cara si's sposa" are two of them. The
Londoners had welcomed Handel with great cordiality and with his
new opera he was firmly established in their regard. With the young
musician likewise there seemed to be a sincere affection for England.
He returned in due time to his duties in Hanover, but he felt that
London was the field for his future activities.

It was not very long after his return to Germany that he sought
another leave of absence to visit England, promising to return within
a "reasonable time." London received him with open arms and many great
people showered favors upon him. Lord Burlington invited him to his
residence in Piccadilly, which at that time consisted of green fields.
The only return to be made for all this social and home luxury was
that he should conduct the Earl's chamber concerts. Handel devoted his
abundant leisure to composition, at which he worked with much ardor.
His fame was making great strides, and when the Peace of Utrecht was
signed and a Thanksgiving service was to be held in St. Paul's, he was
commissioned to compose a Te Deum and Jubilate. To show appreciation
for his work and in honor of the event, Queen Anne awarded Handel a
life pension of a thousand dollars.

The death of the Queen, not long after, brought the Elector of Hanover
to England, to succeed her as George I. It was not likely that King
George would look with favor on his former Capellmeister, who had so
long deserted his post. But an opportunity soon came to placate his
Majesty. A royal entertainment, with decorated barges on the Thames
was arranged. An orchestra was to furnish the music, and the Lord
Chamberlain commissioned Handel to compose music for the fete. He
wrote a series of pieces, since known as "Water Music." The king was
greatly delighted with the music, had it repeated, and learning that
Handel conducted in person, sent for him, forgave all and granted him
another pension of a thousand dollars. He was also appointed teacher
to the daughters of the Prince of Wales, at a salary of a thousand
a year. With the combined sum (three thousand dollars) which he now
received, he felt quite independent, indeed a man of means.

Not long after this Handel was appointed Chapel master to the Duke
of Chandos, and was expected to live at the princely mansion he
inhabited. The size and magnificence of The Cannons was the talk of
the country for miles around. Here the composer lived and worked,
played the organ in the chapel, composed church music for the service
and wrote his first English oratorio, "Esther." This was performed in
the Duke's chapel, and the Duke on this occasion handed the composer
five thousand dollars. Numerous compositions for the harpsichord
belong to this period, among them the air and variations known as
"The Harmonious Blacksmith." The story goes that Handel was walking
to Cannons through the village of Edgeware, and being overtaken by a
heavy shower, sought shelter in the smithy. The blacksmith was singing
at his work and his hammer kept time with his song. The composer was
struck with the air and its accompaniment, and as soon as he reached
home, wrote out the tune with the variations. This story has been
disputed, and it is not known whether it is true or not.

When Handel first came to London, he had done much to encourage the
production of opera in the Italian style. Later these productions
had to be given up for lack of money, and the King's Theater remained
closed for a long time. Finally a number of rich men formed a society
to revive opera in London. The King subscribed liberally to the
venture. Handel was at once engaged as composer and impressario. He
started work on a new opera and when that was well along, set out for
Germany, going to Dresden to select singers. On his return he stopped
at Halle, where his mother was still living, but his old teacher had
passed away.

The new opera "Radamisto" was ready early in 1720, and produced at the
Royal Academy of Music, as the theater was now called. The success
of the production was tremendous. But Handel, by his self-will had
stirred up envy and jealousy, and an opposition party was formed,
headed by his old enemy from Hamburg, Buononcini, who had come to
London to try his fortunes. A test opera was planned, of which Handel
wrote the third act, Buononcini the second and a third musician the
first. When the new work was performed, the third act was pronounced
by the judges much superior to the second. But Buononcini's friends
would not accept defeat, and the battle between all parties was
violent. Newspapers were full of it, and many verses were written.
Handel cared not a whit for all this tempest, but calmly went his way.

In 1723, his opera "Ottone" was to be produced. The great singer
Cuzzoni had been engaged, but the capricious lady did not arrive in
England till the rehearsals were far advanced, which of course did not
please the composer. When she did appear she refused to sing the aria
as he had composed it. He flew into a rage, took her by the arm and
threatened to throw her out of the window unless she obeyed. The
singer was so frightened by his anger that she sang as he directed,
and made a great success of the aria.

Handel's industry in composing for the Royal Academy of Music
was untiring. For the first eight years from the beginning of the
Society's work he had composed and produced fourteen operas. During
all this time, his enemies never ceased their efforts to destroy him.
The great expense of operatic production, the troubles and quarrels
with singers, at last brought the Academy to the end of its resources.
At this juncture, the famous "Beggar's Opera," by John Gay, was
brought out at a rival theater. It was a collection of most beautiful
melodies from various sources, used with words quite unworthy of them.
But the fickle public hailed the piece with delight, and its success
was the means of bringing total failure to the Royal Academy. Handel,
however, in spite of the schemes of his enemies, was determined to
carry on the work with his own fortune. He went again to Italy to
engage new singers, stopping at Halle to see his mother who was ill.
She passed away the next year at the age of eighty.

Handel tried for several years to keep Italian opera going in London,
in spite of the lack of musical taste and the opposition of his
enemies; but in 1737, he was forced to give up the struggle. He was
deeply in debt, his whole fortune of ten thousand pounds had been
swept away and his health broken by anxiety. He would not give up;
after a brief rest, he returned to London to begin the conflict anew.
The effort to re-awaken the English public's interest in Italian opera
seemed useless, and the composer at last gave up the struggle. He was
now fifty-five, and began to think of turning his attention to more
serious work. Handel has been called the father of the oratorio; he
composed at least twenty-eight works in this style, the best
known being "Samson," "Israel in Egypt," "Jephtha," "Saul," "Judas
Maccabaeus" and greatest of all, the "Messiah."

The composer conceived the idea of writing the last named work in
1741. Towards the end of this year he was invited to visit Ireland
to make known some of his works. On the way there he was detained at
Chester for several days by contrary winds. He must have had the score
of the "Messiah" with him, for he got together some choir boys to try
over a few of the choral parts. "Can you sing at sight?" was put to
each boy before he was asked to sing. One broke down at the start.
"What de devil you mean!" cried the impetuous composer, snatching the
music from him. "Didn't you say you could sing at sight?"

"Yes sir, but not at _first_ sight."

The people of Dublin warmly welcomed Handel, and the new oratorio,
the "Messiah," was performed at Music Hall, with choirs of both
cathedrals, and with some concertos on the organ played by the
composer. The performance took place, April 13, 1742. Four hundred
pounds were realized, which were given to charity. The success was so
great that a second performance was announced. Ladies were requested
to come without crinoline, thereby providing a hundred more seats than
at the first event.

The Irish people were so cordial, that the composer remained almost
a year among them. For it was not till March 23, 1743, that the
"Messiah" was performed in London. The King was one of the great
audience who heard it. All were so deeply impressed by the Hallelujah
chorus, that with the opening words, "For the Lord God omnipotent
reigneth," the whole audience, including the King, sprang to their
feet, and remained standing through the entire chorus. From that time
to this it has always been the custom to stand during this chorus,
whenever it is performed.

Once started on this line of thought, one oratorio after another
flowed from his prolific pen, though none of them proved to be as
exalted in conception as the "Messiah." The last work of this style
was "Jephtha," which contains the beautiful song, "Waft her, angels."
While engaged in composing this oratorio, Handel became blind, but
this affliction did not seem to lessen his power for work. He was now
sixty-eight, and had conquered and lived down most of the hostility
that had been so bitter against him. His fortunes also constantly
improved, so that when he passed away he left twenty thousand pounds.

The great composer was a big man, both physically and mentally. A
friend describes his countenance as full of fire; "when he smiled it
was like the sun bursting out of a black cloud. It was a sudden flash
of intelligence, wit and good humor, which illumined his countenance,
which I have hardly ever seen in any other." He could relish a joke,
and had a keen sense of humor. Few things outside his work interested
him; but he was fond of the theater, and liked to go to picture sales.
His fiery temper often led him to explode at trifles. No talking among
the listeners could be borne by him while he was conducting. He did
not hesitate to visit violent abuse on the heads of those who ventured
to speak while he was directing and not even the presence of royalty
could restrain his anger.

Handel was always generous in assisting those who needed aid, and he
helped found the Society for Aiding Distressed Musicians. His last
appearance in public, was at a performance of the "Messiah," at Covent
Garden, on April 6, 1759. His death occurred on the 14th of the same
month, at the house in Brook Street where he had lived for many years.
Thus, while born in the same year as Sebastian Bach, he outlived him
by about a decade. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, and later a
fine monument was erected to his memory. The most of his manuscripts
came into the possession of King George III, and are preserved in the
musical library of Buckingham Palace.




IV

CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD GLUCK


Christoph Willibald Gluck has been called the "regenerator of the
opera" for he appeared just at the right moment to rescue opera
from the deplorable state into which it had fallen. At that time the
composers often yielded to the caprices of the singers and wrote to
suit them, while the singers themselves, through vanity and ignorance,
made such requirements that opera itself often became ridiculous.
Gluck desired "to restrict the art of music to its true object, that
of aiding the effect of poetry by giving greater expression to words
and scenes, without interrupting the action or the plot." He wrote
only operas, and some of his best works keep the stage to-day. They
are simple in design yet powerful in appeal: very original and stamped
with refinement and true feeling.

The boy Christoph, like many another lad who became a great musician,
had a sorrowful childhood, full of poverty and neglect. His home was
in the little town of Weissenwangen, on the borders of Bohemia, where
he was born July 2, 1714. As a little lad he early manifested a love
for music, but his parents were in very straitened circumstances and
could not afford to pay for musical instruction. He was sent to one of
the public schools. Fortunately the art of reading music from notes,
formation of scales and fundamentals, was taught along with general
school subjects.

While his father lived the boy was sure of sympathy and affection,
though circumstances were of the poorest. But the good man passed away
when the boy was quite young, and then matters were much worse. He was
gradually neglected until he was at last left to shift for himself.

He possessed not only talent but perseverance and the will to succeed.
The violoncello attracted him, and he began to teach himself to play
it, with no other help than an old instruction book. Determination
conquered many difficulties however, and before long he had made
sufficient progress to enable him to join a troop of traveling
minstrels. From Prague they made their way to Vienna.

Arrived in Vienna, that rich, gay, laughter-loving city, where the
people loved music and often did much for it, the youth's musical
talent together with his forlorn appearance and condition won sympathy
from a few generous souls, who not only provided a home and took care
of his material needs, but gave him also the means to continue his
musical studies. Christoph was overcome with gratitude and made the
best possible use of his opportunities. For nearly two years he gave
himself up to his musical studies.

Italy was the goal of his ambition, and at last the opportunity
to visit that land of song was within his grasp. At the age of
twenty-four, in the year 1738, Gluck bade adieu to his many kind
friends in Vienna, and set out to complete his studies in Italy. Milan
was his objective point. Soon after arriving there he had the good
fortune to meet Padre Martini, the celebrated master of musical
theory. Young Gluck at once placed himself under the great man's
guidance and labored diligently with him for about four years. How
much he owed to the careful training Martini was able to give, was
seen in even his first attempts at operatic composition.

At the conclusion of this long period of devoted study, Gluck began to
write an opera, entitled "Artaxerxes." When completed it was accepted
at the Milan Theater, brought out in 1741 and met with much success.
This success induced one of the managers in Venice to offer him an
engagement for that city if he would compose a new opera. Gluck then
produced "Clytemnestra." This second work had a remarkable success,
and the managers arranged for the composition of another opera, which
was "Demetrio," which, like the others was most favorably received.
Gluck now had offers from Turin, so that the next two years were spent
between that city and Milan, for which cities he wrote five or six
operas. By this time the name of Gluck had become famous all over
Italy; indeed his fame had spread to other countries, with the
result that tempting offers for new operas flowed in to him from all
directions. Especially was a London manager, a certain Lord Middlesex,
anxious to entice the young composer from Italy to come over to
London, and produce some of his works at the King's Theater in the
Haymarket.

The noble manager made a good offer too, and Gluck felt he ought to
accept. He reached London in 1745, but owing to the rebellion which
had broken out in Scotland all the theaters were closed, and the city
in more or less confusion. However a chance to hear the famous German
composer, who had traveled such a distance, was not to be lost, and
Lord Middlesex besought the Powers to re-open the theater. After much
pleading his request was finally granted. The opening opera, written
on purpose to introduce Gluck to English audiences, was entitled "La
Caduta del Giganti,"--"Fall of the Giants"--and did not seem to please
the public. But the young composer was undaunted. His next opera,
"Artamene," pleased them no better. The mind of the people was taken
up at that period with politics and political events, and they cared
less than usual for music and the arts. Then, too, Handel, at the
height of his fame, was living in London, honored and courted by the
aristocracy and the world of fashion.

Though disappointed at his lack of success, Gluck remained in England
several years, constantly composing operas, none of which seemed to
win success. At last he took his way quietly back to Vienna. In 1754,
he was invited to Rome, where he produced several operas, among them
"Antigone"; they were all successful, showing the Italians appreciated
his work. He now proceeded to Florence, and while there became
acquainted with an Italian poet, Ranieri di Calzabigi. They were
mutually attracted to each other, and on parting had sworn to use
their influence and talents to reform Italian opera.

Gluck returned to Vienna, and continued to compose operas. In 1764,
"Orfeo" was produced,--an example of the new reform in opera! "Orfeo"
was received most favorably and sung twenty-eight times, a long run
for those days. The singing and acting of Guadagni made the opera
quite the rage, and the work began to be known in England. Even in
Paris and Parma it became a great favorite. The composer was
now fifty, and his greatest works had yet--with the exception or
"Orfeo"--to be written. He began to develop that purity of style which
we find in "Alceste," "Iphigenie en Tauride" and others. "Alceste" was
the second opera on the reformed plan which simplified the music to
give more prominence to the poetry. It was produced in Vienna in 1769,
with the text written by Calzabigi. The opera was ahead of "Orfeo" in
simplicity and nobility, but it did not seem to please the critics.
The composer himself wrote: "Pedants and critics, an infinite
multitude, form the greatest obstacle to the progress of art. They
think themselves entitled to pass a verdict on 'Alceste' from some
informal rehearsals, badly conducted and executed. Some fastidious
ear found a vocal passage too harsh, or another too impassioned,
forgetting that forcible expression and striking contrasts are
absolutely necessary. It was likewise decided in full conclave, that
this style of music was barbarous and extravagant."

In spite of the judgment of the critics, "Alceste" increased the
fame of Gluck to a great degree. Paris wanted to see the man who had
revolutionized Italian opera. The French Royale Academie had made him
an offer to visit the capital, for which he was to write a new opera
for a debut. A French poet, Du Rollet, living in Vienna, offered to
write a libretto for the new opera, and assured him there was every
chance for success in a visit to France. The libretto was thereupon
written, or rather arranged from Racine's "Iphigenie en Aulide," and
with this, Chevalier Gluck, lately made Knight of the papal order of
the Golden Spur, set out for Paris.

And now began a long season of hard work. The opera "Iphigenie"
took about a year to compose, besides a careful study of the French
language. He had even more trouble with the slovenly, ignorant
orchestra, than he had with the French language. The orchestra
declared itself against foreign music; but this opposition was
softened down by his former pupil and patroness, the charming Marie
Antoinette, Queen of France.

After many trials and delays, "Iphigenie" was produced August 19,
1774. The opera proved an enormous success. The beautiful Queen
herself gave the signal for applause in which the whole house joined.
The charming Sophie Arnould sang the part of Iphigenie and seemed
to quite satisfy the composer. Larrivee was the Agamemnon, and other
parts were well sung. The French were thoroughly delighted. They
feted and praised Gluck, declaring he had discovered the music of the
ancient Greeks, that he was the only man in Europe who could express
real feelings in music. Marie Antoinette wrote to her sister: "We had,
on the nineteenth, the first performance of Gluck's 'Iphigenie,' and
it was a glorious triumph. I was quite enchanted, and nothing else is
talked of. All the world wishes to see the piece, and Gluck seems well
satisfied."

The next year, 1775, Gluck brought out an adaptation suitable for
the French stage, of his "Alceste," which again aroused the greatest
enthusiasm. The theater was crammed at every performance. Marie
Antoinette's favorite composer was again praised to the skies, and was
declared to be the greatest composer living.

But Gluck had one powerful opponent at the French Court, who was none
other than the famous Madame du Barry, the favorite of Louis XV. Since
the Queen had her pet musical composer, Mme. du Barry wished to have
hers. An Italian by birth, she could gather about her a powerful
Italian faction, who were bent upon opposition to the Austrian Gluck.
She had listened to his praises long enough, and the tremendous
success of "Alceste" had been the last straw and brought things to a
climax. Du Barry would have some one to represent Italian music, and
applied to the Italian ambassador to desire Piccini to come to Paris.

On the arrival of Piccini, Madame du Barry began activities, aided by
Louis XV himself. She gathered a powerful Italian party about her,
and their first act was to induce the Grand Opera management to make
Piccini an offer for a new opera, although they had already made the
same offer to Gluck. This breach of good faith led to a furious war,
in which all Paris joined; it was fierce and bitter while it lasted.
Even politics were forgotten for the time being. Part of the press
took up one side and part the other. Many pamphlets, poems and satires
appeared, in which both composers were unmercifully attacked. Gluck
was at the time in Germany, and Piccini had come to Paris principally
to secure the tempting fee offered him. The leaders of the feud kept
things well stirred up, so that a stranger could not enter a cafe,
hotel or theater without first answering the question whether he stood
for Gluck or Piccini. Many foolish lies were told of Gluck in his
absence. It was declared by the Piccinists that he went away on
purpose, to escape the war; that he could no longer write melodies
because he was a dried up old man and had nothing new to give France.
These lies and false stories were put to flight one evening when the
Abbe Arnaud, one of Gluck's most ardent adherents, declared in an
aristocratic company, that the Chevalier was returning to France with
an "Orlando" and an "Armide" in his portfolio.

"Piccini is also working on an 'Orlando,'" spoke up a follower of that
redoubtable Italian.

"That will be all the better," returned the abbe, "for we shall then
have an 'Orlando' and also an 'Orlandino.'"

When Gluck arrived in Paris, he brought with him the finished opera of
"Armide," which was produced at the Paris Grand Opera on September
23, 1777. At first it was merely a _succes d'estime_, but soon became
immensely popular. On the first night many of the critics were against
the opera, which was called too noisy. The composer, however, felt he
had done some of his best work in "Armide"; that the music was written
in such style that it would not grow old, at least not for a long
time. He had taken the greatest pains in composing it, and declared
that if it were not properly rehearsed at the Opera he would not let
them have it at all, but would retain the work himself for his own
pleasure. He wrote to a friend: "I have put forth what little strength
is left in me, into 'Armide'; I confess I should like to finish my
career with it."

It is said the Gluck composed "Armide" in order to praise the beauty
of Marie Antoinette, and she for her part showed the deepest interest
in the success of the piece, and really "became quite a slave to
it." Gluck often told her he "rearranged his music according to the
impression it made upon the Queen."

"Great as was the success of 'Armide,'" wrote the Princess de
Lamballe, "no one prized this beautiful work more highly than the
composer of it. He was passionately enamored of it; he told the Queen
the air of France had rejuvenated his creative powers, and the sight
of her majesty had given such a wonderful impetus to the flow
of ideas, that his composition had become like herself, angelic,
sublime."

The growing success of "Armide" only added fuel to the flame of
controversy which had been stirred up. To cap the climax, Piccini
had finished his opera, which was duly brought out and met with a
brilliant reception. Indeed its success was greater than that won by
"Armide," much to the delight of the Piccinists. Of course the natural
outcome was that the other party should do something to surpass the
work of their rivals. Marie Antoinette was besought to prevail on
Gluck to write another opera.

A new director was now in charge of the Opera House. He conceived the
bright idea of setting the two composers at work on the same subject,
which was to be "Iphigenie en Tauride." This plan made great commotion
in the ranks of the rival factions, as each wished to have their
composer's work performed first. The director promised that Piccini's
opera should be first placed in rehearsal. Gluck soon finished his
and handed it in, but the Italian, trusting to the director's word of
honor, was not troubled when he heard the news, though he determined
to complete his as soon as possible. A few days later, when he went to
the Opera House with his completed score, he was horrified to find the
work of his rival already in rehearsal. There was a lively scene, but
the manager said he had received orders to produce the work of Gluck
at once, and he must obey. On the 18th of May, 1779, the Gluck opera
was first performed. It produced the greatest excitement and had a
marvelous success. Even Piccini succumbed to the spell, for the music
made such an impression on him that he did not wish his own work to be
brought out.

The director, however, insisted, and soon after the second Iphigenie
appeared. The first night the opera did not greatly please; the next
night proved a comic tragedy, as the prima donna was intoxicated.
After a couple of days' imprisonment she returned and sang well. But
the war between the two factions continued till the death of Gluck,
and the retirement of Piccini.

The following year, in September, Gluck finished a new opera, "Echo et
Narcisse," and with this work decided to close his career, feeling he
was too old to write longer for the lyric stage. He was then nearly
seventy years old, and retired to Vienna, to rest and enjoy the fruits
of all his years of incessant toil. He was now rich, as he had earned
nearly thirty thousand pounds. Kings and princes came to do him honor,
and to tell him what pleasure his music had always given them.

Gluck passed away on November 15, 1787, honored and beloved by all.
The simple beauty and purity of his music are as moving and expressive
to-day as when it was written, and the "Michael of Music" speaks to us
still in his operas, whenever they are adequately performed.




V

JOSEF HAYDN


In Josef Haydn we have one of the classic composers, a sweet, gentle
spirit, who suffered many privations in early life, and through his
own industrious efforts rose to positions of respect and honor, the
result of unremitting toil and devotion to a noble ideal. Like many
of the other great musicians, through hardship and sorrow he won his
place among the elect.

Fifteen leagues south of Vienna, amid marshy flats along the river
Leitha, lies the small village of Rehrau. At the end of the straggling
street which constitutes the village, stood a low thatched cottage
and next to it a wheelwright's shop, with a small patch of greensward
before it. The master wheelwright, Mathias Haydn, was sexton, too, of
the little church on the hill. He was a worthy man and very religious.
A deep love for music was part of the man's nature, and it was shared
to a large extent by his wife Maria. Every Sunday evening he would
bring out his harp, on which he had taught himself to play, and he
and his wife would sing songs and hymns, accompanied by the harp. The
children, too, would add their voices to the concert. The little
boy Josef, sat near his father and watched his playing with rapt
attention. Sometimes he would take two sticks and make believe play
the violin, just as he had seen the village schoolmaster do. And
when he sang hymns with the others, his voice was sweet and true. The
father watched the child with interest, and a new hope rose within
him. His own life had been a bitter disappointment, for he had been
unable to satisfy his longing for a knowledge of the art he loved.
Perhaps Josef might one day become a musician--indeed he might even
rise to be Capellmeister.

Little Josef was born March 31, 1732. The mother had a secret desire
that the boy should join the priesthood, but the father, as we have
seen, hoped he would make a musical career, and determined, though
poor in this world's goods, to aid him in every possible way.

About this time a distant relative, one Johann Mathias Frankh by name,
arrived at the Haydn cottage on a visit. He was a schoolmaster at
Hainburg, a little town four leagues away. During the regular evening
concert he took particular notice of Josef and his toy violin. The
child's sweet voice indicated that he had the makings of a good
musician. At last he said: "If you will let me take Sepperl, I will
see he is properly taught; I can see he promises well."

The parents were quite willing and as for little Sepperl, he was
simply overjoyed, for he longed to learn more about the beautiful
music which filled his soul. He went with his new cousin, as he called
Frankh, without any hesitation, and with the expectation that his
childish day dreams were to be realized.

A new world indeed opened to the six year old boy, but it was not all
beautiful. Frankh was a careful and strict teacher; Josef not only was
taught to sing well, but learned much about various instruments.
He had school lessons also. But his life in other ways was hard
and cheerless. The wife of his cousin treated him with the utmost
indifference, never looking after his clothing or his well being in
any way. After a time his destitute and neglected appearance was
a source of misery to the refined, sensitive boy, but he tried to
realize that present conditions could not last forever, and he bravely
endeavored to make the best of them. Meanwhile the training of his
voice was well advanced and when not in school he could nearly always
be found in church, listening to the organ and the singing. Not long
after, he was admitted to the choir, where his sweet young voice
joined in the church anthems. Always before his mind was a great city
where he knew he would find the most beautiful music--the music of his
dreams. That city was Vienna, but it lay far away. Josef looked down
at his ragged clothing and wondered if he would ever see that magical
city.

One morning his cousin told him there would be a procession through
the town in honor of a prominent citizen who had just passed away. A
drummer was needed and the cousin had proposed Josef. He showed the
boy how to make the strokes for a march, with the result that Josef
walked in the procession and felt quite proud of this exhibition of
his skill. The very drum he used that day is preserved in the little
church at Hamburg.

A great event occurred in Josef's prospects at the end of his second
year of school life at Hamburg. The Capellmeister, Reutter by name, of
St. Stephen's cathedral in Vienna, came to see his friend, the pastor
of Hamburg. He happened to say he was looking for a few good voices
for the choir. "I can find you one at least," said the pastor; "he is
a scholar of Frankh, the schoolmaster, and has a sweet voice."

Josef was sent for and the schoolmaster soon returned leading him by
the hand.

"Well my little fellow," said the Capellmeister, drawing him to his
knee, "can you make a shake?"

"No sir, but neither can my cousin Frankh."

Reutter laughed at this frankness, and then proceeded to show him how
the shake was done. Josef after a few trials was able to perform the
shake to the entire satisfaction of his teacher. After testing him on
a portion of a mass the Capellmeister was willing to take him to the
Cantorei or Choir school of St. Stephen's in Vienna. The boy's heart
gave a great leap. Vienna, the city of his dreams. And he was really
going there! He could scarcely believe in his good fortune. If he
could have known all that was to befall him there, he might not have
been so eager to go. But he was only a little eight-year-old boy, and
childhood's dreams are rosy.

Once arrived at the Cantorei, Josef plunged into his studies with
great fervor, and his progress was most rapid. He was now possessed
with a desire to compose, but had not the slightest idea how to go
about such a feat. However, he hoarded every scrap of music paper he
could find and covered it with notes. Reutter gave no encouragement to
such proceedings. One day he asked what the boy was about, and when
he heard the lad was composing a "Salve Regina," for twelve voices,
he remarked it would be better to write it for two voices before
attempting it in twelve. "And if you must try your hand at
composition," added Reutter more kindly, "write variations on the
motets and vespers which are played in church."

As neither the Capellmeister nor any of the teachers offered to
show Josef the principles of composition, he was thrown upon his own
resources. With much self denial he scraped together enough money to
buy two books which he had seen at the second hand bookseller's and
which he had longed to possess. One was Fox's "Gradus ad Parnassum,"
a treatise on composition and counterpoint; the other Matheson's "The
Complete Capellmeister." Happy in the possession of these books, Josef
used every moment outside of school and choir practise to study them.
He loved fun and games as well as any boy, but music always came
first. The desire to perfect himself was so strong that he often added
several hours each day to those already required, working sixteen or
eighteen hours out of the twenty-four.

And thus a number of years slipped away amid these happy surroundings.
Little Josef was now a likely lad of about fifteen years. It was
arranged that his younger brother Michael was to come to the Cantorei.
Josef looked eagerly forward to this event, planning how he would help
the little one over the beginning and show him the pleasant things
that would happen to him in the new life. But the elder brother could
not foresee the sorrow and privation in store for him. From the moment
Michael's pure young voice filled the vast spaces of the cathedral, it
was plain that Josef's singing could not compete with it. His soprano
showed signs of breaking, and gradually the principal solo parts,
which had always fallen to him, were given to the new chorister. On
a special church day, when there was more elaborate music, the "Salve
Regina," which had always been given to Josef, was sung so beautifully
by the little brother, that the Emperor and Empress were delighted,
and they presented the young singer with twenty ducats.

Poor Josef! He realized that his place was virtually taken by the
brother he had welcomed so joyously only a short time before. No one
was to blame of course; it was one of those things that could not be
avoided. But what actually caused him to leave St. Stephen's was a
boyish prank played on one of the choir boys, who sat in front of
him. Taking up a new pair of shears lying near, he snipped off, in a
mischievous moment, the boy's pigtail. For this jest he was punished
and then dismissed from the school. He could hardly realize it, in his
first dazed, angry condition. Not to enjoy the busy life any more, not
to see Michael and the others and have a comfortable home and sing
in the Cathedral. How he lived after that he hardly knew. But several
miserable days went by. One rainy night a young man whom he had known
before, came upon him near the Cathedral, and was struck by his
white, pinched face. He asked where the boy was living. "Nowhere--I am
starving," was the reply. Honest Franz Spangler was touched at once.

"We can't stand here in the rain," he said. "You know I haven't a
palace to offer, but you are welcome to share my poor place for one
night anyway. Then we shall see."

It was indeed a poor garret where the Spanglers lived, but the
cheerful fire and warm bread and milk were luxuries to the starving
lad. Best of all was it to curl up on the floor, beside the dying
embers and fall into refreshing slumber. The next morning the world
looked brighter. He had made up his mind not to try and see his
brother; he would support himself by music. He did not know just how
he was going to do this, but determined to fight for it _and never
give in_.

Spangler, deeply touched by the boy's forlorn case, offered to let
him occupy a corner of his garret until he could find work, and Josef
gratefully accepted. The boy hoped he could quickly find something to
do; but many weary months were spent in looking for employment and
in seeking to secure pupils, before there was the slightest sign
of success. Thinly clad as he was and with the vigorous appetite of
seventeen, which was scarcely ever appeased, he struggled on, hopeful
that spring would bring some sort of good cheer.

But spring came, yet no employment was in sight. His sole earnings had
been the coppers thrown to him as he stood singing in the snow covered
streets, during the long cold winter. Now it was spring, and hope rose
within him. He had been taught to have simple faith in God, and felt
sure that in some way his needs would be met.

At last the tide turned slightly. A few pupils attracted by the small
fee he charged, took lessons on the clavier; he got a few engagements
to play violin at balls and parties, while some budding composers got
him to revise their manuscripts for a small fee. All these cheering
signs of better times made Josef hopeful and grateful. One day a
special piece of good fortune came his way. A man who loved music,
at whose house he had sometimes played, sent him a hundred and fifty
florins, to be repaid without interest whenever convenient.

This sum seemed to Haydn a real fortune. He was able to leave the
Spanglers and take up a garret of his own. There was no stove in it
and winter was coming on; it was only partly light, even at midday,
but the youth was happy. For he had acquired a little worm-eaten
spinet, and he had added to his treasures the first six sonatas of
Emmanuel Bach.

On the third floor of the house which contained the garret, lived a
celebrated Italian poet, Metastasio. Haydn and the poet struck up an
acquaintance, which resulted in the musician's introduction to the
poet's favorite pupil, Marianne Martinez. Also through Metastasio,
Haydn met Nicolo Porpora, an eminent teacher of singing and
composition. About this time another avenue opened to him. It was a
fashion in Vienna to pick up a few florins by serenading prominent
persons. A manager of one of the principal theaters in Vienna, Felix
Kurz, had recently married a beautiful woman, whose loveliness was
much talked of. It occurred to Haydn to take a couple of companions
along and serenade the lady, playing some of his own music. Soon after
they had begun to play the house door opened and Kurz himself stood
there in dressing gown and slippers. "Whose music was that you were
playing?" he asked. "My own," was the answer. "Indeed; then just step
inside." The three entered, wondering. They were presented to Madame,
then were given refreshments. "Come and see me to-morrow," said Kurz
when the boys left; "I think I have some work for you."

Haydn called next day and learned the manager had written a libretto
of a comic opera which he called "The Devil on two Sticks," and was
looking for some one to compose the music. In one place there was to
be a tempest at sea, and Haydn was asked how he would represent that.
As he had never seen the sea, he was at a loss how to express it. The
manager said he himself had never seen the ocean, but to his mind it
was like this, and he began to toss his arms wildly about. Haydn tried
every way he could think of to represent the ocean, but Kurz was not
satisfied. At last he flung his hands down with a crash on each end
of the keyboard and brought them together in the middle. "That's it,
that's it," cried the manager and embraced the youth excitedly. All
went well with the rest of the opera. It was finished and produced,
but did not make much stir, a fact which was not displeasing to the
composer, as he was not proud of his first attempt.

His acquaintance with Porpora promised better things. The singing
master had noticed his skill in playing the harpsichord, and offered
to engage him as accompanist. Haydn gladly accepted at once, hoping to
pick up much musical knowledge in this way. Old Porpora was very
harsh and domineering at first, treating him more like a valet than
a musician. But at last he was won over by Haydn's gentleness and
patience, until he was willing to answer all his questions and
to correct his compositions. Best of all he brought Haydn to the
attention of the nobleman in whose house he was teaching, so that
when the nobleman and his family went to the baths of Mannersdorf for
several months, Haydn was asked to go along as accompanist to Porpora.

The distinguished musicians he met at Mannersdorf were all very kind
to him and showed much interest in his compositions, many of which
were performed during this visit. The nobleman, impressed with Haydn's
desire to succeed, allotted him a pension of a sum equal to fifteen
dollars a month. The young musician's first act on receiving this was
to buy himself a neat suit of black.

Good fortune followed him on his return to Vienna. More pupils came,
until he was able to raise his prices and move into better lodgings.
A wealthy patron of music, the Countess of Thun, sent for him to come
and see her. She had heard one of his clavier sonatas played, found
it charming and wished to see the composer. Her manner was so
sympathetic, that Haydn was led to tell her the story of his
struggles. Tears came into her eyes as she listened. She promised her
support as friend and pupil, and Haydn left her with a happy, grateful
heart.

His compositions were heard in the best musical circles in Vienna, and
the future was bright with promise. A wealthy music patron persuaded
him to write a string quartet, the first of many to follow. Through
this man he received, in 1759, an appointment of music director to a
rich Bohemian, Count Morzin, who had a small orchestra at his country
seat. In the same year the first Symphony was composed.

As brighter days dawned, Haydn procured all the works on theory
obtainable, and studied them deeply. He had mastered the difficulties
of the "Gradus," one of the books purchased years before, and without
any outside help had worked out his musical independence, uninfluenced
by any other musician. He was now twenty-six, and his fame was
growing. Meanwhile an affair of the heart had great influence on his
life. Sometime previously Haydn had been engaged to give lessons
on the harpsichord to two daughters of a wig-maker named Keller. An
attachment soon sprang up between the teacher and the younger of the
girls. His poverty had stood in the way of making his feelings known.
But as prosperity began to dawn, he grew courageous and asked the
maiden to become his wife. His disappointment was keen when he found
the girl had in the meantime decided to take the veil. The wig-maker
proved to be a matchmaker, for when he learned how matters stood he
urged the composer to take the sister, who was only three years older.
The gentle Haydn was unable to withstand the pressure brought to bear,
and consented. After his bride was his he found he had won a virago,
one who cared nothing for art or for her husband's ideals, if only she
could have enough money to spend.

The composer was in sad straits for a while, but fortunately a way
opened by means of which he could be free. Count Morzin, where he had
conducted the orchestra, was obliged to reduce his establishment and
dismissed his band and its director. As soon as this was known, the
reigning Prince of Hungary, Paul Anton Esterhazy offered Haydn the
post of assistant Capellmeister at his country seat of Eisenstadt.
The head Capellmeister, Werner, was old, but the Prince kept him
on account of his long service. Haydn, however, was to have
entire control of the orchestra, and also of most of the musical
arrangements.

Haydn was blissfully happy over the realization of his highest hopes.
In his wildest dreams he had never imagined such magnificence as he
found at the palace of Eisenstadt. The great buildings, troops of
servants, the wonderful parks and gardens, with their flowers, lakes
and fountains almost made him believe he was in fairyland. Of course
there would be some hard work, though it would not seem hard amid such
fascinating surroundings and there would be plenty of leisure for his
own creative activities. Best of all his wife could not be with him.

Prince Paul Anton passed away after a year and his brother Nikolaus
succeeded him. He advanced Haydn still further, and increased his
salary. Werner, the old Capellmeister, died in 1766, and Haydn
succeeded to the full title. This was the father's dream for his boy
Josef, and it had been abundantly realized. His mother had passed
away, but his father was living, and had come, on one occasion,
to Eisenstadt to see him. His brother Michael who had now become
Concertmeister in Salzburg, spent several happy days with him also.

The summer residence of Prince Nikolaus at Esterhazy had been rebuilt,
enlarged and was more magnificent than Eisenstadt. The music was more
elaborate. The Prince was so fond of the life there that he postponed
his return to town till late in the autumn.

In order to give him a hint through music, Haydn composed what he
called the "Farewell Symphony," in which, toward the close each pair
of players in turn rose, extinguished their candles and passed out,
until only the first violinist remained. He last of all blew out his
light and left, while Haydn prepared to follow. The Prince at last
understood, and treating the whole as a joke, gave orders for the
departure of the household.

In 1790 Haydn lost the master to whom he was so devotedly attached.
He received a pension of a thousand florins on condition that he would
retain his post. But Prince Anton, who succeeded his brother, cared
nothing for music; Haydn was not obliged to live at the palace and
returned to Vienna. Several attempts had already been made to induce
him to visit London, but he always had refused. Now there seemed to be
no obstacle in the way. One day a visitor called. "My name is Salomon;
I have come from London to fetch you; we will settle terms to-morrow."
On the sail from Calais to Dover, the composer first saw the sea and
was reminded of his boyish efforts to describe it in tones.

London welcomed Haydn warmly, for his fame had preceded him and his
music was familiar. The first concert was given March 11, 1790 at the
Hanover Square Rooms, and was a great success. This was followed by a
series of concerts, and at last a benefit for the composer on May 16,
which was an ovation and realized three hundred and fifty pounds. He
heard the "Messiah" for the first time and when, at the "Hallelujah
Chorus," the audience sprang to its feet, he burst into tears,
exclaiming "He is the master of us all!"

At Oxford, in July, he received the honorary degree of Doctor of
Music, and three great concerts were given in his honor, with special
performers brought from London. In fact the whole visit to England had
been such a success that he repeated the trip in 1794, and received
even greater honors. His symphonies were heard on all London
programs. He was the lion of the season, and was frequently invited to
Buckingham Palace to play for the King and Queen, who always urged
him to live in England. Haydn was now sixty-five; he had composed
quantities of music, but his greatest work, "The Creation," was not
yet written. While in London, Salomon had shown him a poem founded on
"Paradise Lost," written years before in the hope that Handel would
use it for an oratorio. Haydn decided to try his hand at oratorio on
this subject. As he went on, it grew to be a labor of love and prayer.
It was finished and performed in Vienna, March 19, 1799, and made
a profound impression. The composer at once began work on a second
oratorio, founded on Thompson's "Seasons." The desire for work was
strong within, but his health was failing. "'The Seasons' gave me my
finishing stroke," he often remarked to friends.

Haydn was acknowledged on every hand as the father of instrumental
music. He laid great stress on melody. "It is the air which is
the charm of music," he said, "and it is the air which is the most
difficult to produce. The invention of a fine melody is a work of
genius."

Full of years and honors, respected and beloved, Father Haydn passed
away. As Vienna was at that time in the hands of the French, he was
given a very simple burial. In 1820 Prince Esterhazy had the remains
reinterred in the upper parish church at Eisenstadt, where a simple
stone with Latin inscription is placed in the wall above the vault to
mark the spot.




VI

WOLFGANG MOZART


The early December dusk was closing in over the quaint old city of
Salzburg. Up on the heights above the town the battlements of the
great castle caught a reflection of the last gleams of light in the
sky. But the narrow streets below were quite in shadow.

In one of the substantial looking houses on a principal thoroughfare,
called the Getreide Gasse, lights gleamed from windows on the third
floor. Within, all was arranged as if for some special occasion.
The larger room, with its three windows looking on the street, was
immaculate in its neatness. The brass candlesticks shone like gold,
the mahogany table was polished like a mirror, the simple furniture
likewise. For today was Father Mozart's birthday and the little
household was to celebrate the event.

Mother Mozart had been busy all day putting everything in order
while Nannerl, the seven year old daughter, had been helping. Little
Wolfgang, now three years old, in his childish eagerness to be as busy
as the others, had only hindered, and had to be reprimanded once in a
while. One could never be vexed with the little elf, even if he turned
somersaults in new clean clothes, or made chalk figures all over the
living-room chairs. He never meant to do any harm, and was always so
tenderhearted and lovable, it was hard to scold him.

And this was the Father's birthday, about the most important of all
the family celebrations. Already the roast on the spit was nearing
perfection, while in the oven a fine cake was browning.

When all was ready and Leopold Mozart had received the good wishes
of the little household, baby Wolfgang was mounted on a footstool to
recite a poem, in honor of the occasion. When he had finished it he
stood quietly a moment then reaching out his tiny arms, clasped them
tightly about his father's neck, and said:

"Dear papa, I love you very, very much; after God, next comes my
papa."

Leopold Mozart was a musician and held the post of Vice-Capellmeister.
Music was honored in this simple home, and when two of the Court
musicians, friends of Father Mozart, came in to join the festivities
on this birthday night, a toast was drunk to the honor of _Musica_,
the divine goddess of tones.

"I wonder if even a little of my own musical knowledge and love for
the art will overflow upon the two dear children," remarked Father
Mozart, gazing down tenderly on the little ones.

"Why not," answered the mother; "you long ago promised to begin
lessons with Nannerl; can she not start this very night?"

"Yes, indeed, Papachen, may I not learn to play the piano? I promise
to work very hard."

"Very well," answered the father; "you shall see I am grateful for all
the love you have showed me tonight, and I will begin to teach Nannerl
at once."

"I want to learn music too," broke in little Wolfgang, looking at his
father with beaming eyes.

Every one laughed at this, while the father said baby Wolfgang would
have to grow some inches before he could reach the keys.

The lesson began, and the little girl showed both quickness and
patience to grasp the ideas. No one at first noticed the tiny child
who planted himself at his sister's elbow, the light of the candles
falling on his delicate, sensitive features and bright brown hair. His
glance never left Nannerl's fingers as they felt hesitatingly
among the white and black keys, while his ear easily understood the
intervals she tried to play.

When the little girl left the piano, or the harpsichord, as it was
called in those days, Wolfgang slipped into her place and began to
repeat with his tiny fingers what his father had taught her. He sought
the different intervals, and when at last he found them, his little
face beamed with joy. In a short time he was able to play all the
simple exercises that had been given his sister.

The parents listened to their wonder-child with ever increasing
astonishment, mingled with tears of emotion. It was plain to be seen
that Wolfgang must have lessons as well as Nannerl. And what joy it
would be to teach them both.

It was a happy household that retired that night. Nannerl was happy
because she at last had the chance to take piano lessons. Wolfgang,
little "Starbeam," dreamed of the wonderful Goddess of Music, who
carried him away to fairyland which was filled with beautiful music.
The parents were filled with joy that heaven had granted them such
blessings in their children.

The musical progress of the children was quite remarkable. Marianne,
which was Nannerl's real name, soon began to play very well indeed,
while little Wolfgang hardly had to be told anything in music, for
he seemed to know it already. The father would write Minuets for the
little girl to study; her tiny brother would learn them in half an
hour. Soon Wolfgang was able to compose his own Minuets. Several have
come down to us which he wrote when he was five years old; and they
are quite perfect in form and style.

One day Father Mozart brought home Schachtner, the Court trumpeter, to
dinner. Coming suddenly into the living-room, they found the tiny elf
busily writing at his father's desk.

"Whatever are you doing, Wolferl?" cried his father, gazing at the ink
stained fingers of his little son and then at the paper covered with
blots.

"Oh, Papa, a piano sonata, but it isn't finished yet."

"Never mind that," said Leopold Mozart, "let us see it, it must be
something very fine." Taking up the paper the father and his friend
looked at it curiously. The sheets were bedaubed with ink stains that
almost concealed the notes. For the child had thrust his pen each time
to the bottom of the ink well, so that frequent blots on the paper
were the result. These did not trouble him in the least, for he
merely rubbed his hand over the offending blot and proceeded with his
writing.

At first the two friends laughed heartily to see how the little
composer had written the notes over smudges, but soon the father's
eyes filled with happy tears.

"Look, my dear Schachtner!" he cried. "See how correct and orderly it
all is, all written according to rule. Only one could never play it
for it seems to be too difficult."

"But it's a sonata, Papa, and one must practice it first, of course,
but this is the way it should go."

He sprang to the piano and began to play. The small fingers could not
master the more intricate parts, but gave sufficient idea of how he
intended the piece to sound.

They stood in speechless astonishment at this proof of the child's
powers; then Leopold Mozart caught up the little composer and kissing
him cried, "My Wolfgang, you will become a great musician."

Wolfgang, not content with merely learning the piano, begged to study
the violin also. His violin lessons had hardly begun when one evening
his father and two friends were about to play a set of six trios,
composed by Wentzl, one of the players. Wolfgang begged to be allowed
to play the second violin. Needless to say his request was refused.
At last he was told he might sit next to Schachtner and make believe
play, though he must make no sound.

The playing began, when before long it was seen the boy was actually
playing the second violin part and doing it correctly. The second
violin ceased bowing in amazement and allowed Wolfgang to go on alone.
After this he was permitted to play all the second violin part of
the whole six pieces. Emboldened by this success, he volunteered
to attempt the first violin part, an offer which was greeted with
laughter; but nothing daunted, he took up his violin and began. There
were mistakes here and there, of course, but he persisted to the end,
to the astonishment of all.

Three years had passed swiftly by since little Wolfgang Mozart began
to study music the night of his father's fortieth birthday. He had
made marvelous progress and already the fame of his powers had passed
beyond the narrow limits of his native town. Leopold Mozart had no
means other than the salary which he received from the Court. His
children's musical gifts induced the father to turn them to advantage,
both to supply the family needs and to provide the children a broad
education in music. He determined to travel with the children. A
first experiment in January, 1762, had proved so successful that the
following September they set out for Vienna. Wolfgang was now six
years old and Marianne eleven.

At Linz they gave a successful concert and every one was delighted
with the playing of the children. From here they continued their
journey as far as the monastery of Ips, where they expected to stay
for the night. It had been a wonderful day, spent in sailing down
the majestic Danube, till they reached the grey old building with
its battlemented walls. Soon after they arrived, Father Mozart took
Wolfgang into the chapel to see the organ.

The child gazed with awe at the great pipes, the keyboard and the
pedals. He begged his father to explain their working, and then as
the father filled the great bellows the tiny organist pushed aside
the organ bench, stood upon the pedals and trod them, as though he had
always known how. The monks in the monastery hastened to the chapel,
holding their breath as one pointed to the figure of a tiny child in
the organ loft. Was it possible, they asked themselves, that a child
could produce such beautiful music? They remained rooted to the spot,
till Wolfgang happened to see them and crept meekly down from his
perch.

All the rest of the journey to Vienna, Wolfgang was the life of the
party, eager to know the name and history of everything they met. At
the custom-house on the frontier, he made friends with the officials
by playing for them on his violin, and thus secured an easy pass for
the party.

Arrived at Vienna, Leopold Mozart found the fame of the children's
playing had preceded them. A kind and gracious welcome awaited the
little party when they went to the palace of Schoenbrunn. The Emperor
Franz Josef took to Wolfgang at once, was delighted with his playing
and called him his "little magician." The boy's powers were tested by
being required to read difficult pieces at sight, and playing with one
finger, as the Emperor jestingly asked him to do. Next, the keyboard
was covered with a cloth, as a final test, but little Wolfgang played
as finely as before, to the great delight of the company who applauded
heartily. The little magician was so pleased with the kindness of both
the Emperor and Empress that he returned it in his own childish way,
by climbing into the lap of the Empress and giving her a hug and a
kiss, just as though she were his own mother. He was also greatly
attracted by the little Princess Marie Antoinette, a beautiful child
of about his own age, with long fair curls and laughing blue eyes. The
two struck up an immediate friendship.

After the favor shown them at Court, the gifted children became the
rage in Vienna society. Invitations poured in from every side, and
many gifts. Those bestowed by the royal family were perhaps the most
valued. Wolfgang's present was a violet colored suit, trimmed with
broad gold braid, while Nannerl received a pretty white silk dress.
Each of the children also received a beautiful diamond ring from the
Emperor. A portrait of the boy in his gala suit, which was painted at
the time, is still preserved.

The following year the Mozarts took the children on a longer journey,
this time with Paris in view. They stopped at many towns and cities
on the way. At Frankfort the first performance was so successful that
three more were given. A newspaper of the time says "little Mozart
is able to name all notes played at a distance, whether single or in
chords, whether played on the piano, or any other instrument, bell,
glass or clock." The father offered as an additional attraction that
Wolfgang would play with the keyboard covered.

The family stayed five months in Paris; the children played before
the Court at Versailles, exciting surprise and enthusiasm there and
wherever they appeared. From Paris they traveled to London, in April,
1764.

Leopold Mozart's first care on reaching the great English metropolis
was to obtain an introduction at Court. King George III and the Queen
were very fond of music, and it was not long before an invitation came
for the children to attend at the Palace. The King showed the greatest
interest in Wolfgang, asking him to play at sight difficult pieces by
Bach and Handel. Then the boy, after accompanying the Queen in a song,
selected the bass part in a piece by Handel, and improvised a charming
melody to it. The King was so impressed that he wished him to play the
organ, in the playing of which Wolfgang won a further triumph.

The King's birthday was to be celebrated on June 4 and London was
crowded with people from all parts of the country. Leopold Mozart had
chosen June 5 as the date for his first public concert. The hall was
filled to overflowing; one hundred guineas being taken in. Many of the
assisting performers would take no fee for their services, which added
to the father's gratitude and happiness.

Not long after this Leopold Mozart fell ill, and the little family
moved to Chelsea, for the quiet and good air. Later they were
given another reception at Court, where, after Wolfgang's wonderful
performances, the children won much applause by playing some piano
duets composed by the boy--a style of composition then quite new.

In July, 1765, the family left London and traveled in Holland, after
which came a second visit to Paris, where they added to their former
triumphs, in addition to playing in many towns on the way back.
Finally the long tour was brought to a close by the return to Salzburg
in November, 1766.

At the period of musical history in which the gifted boy lived, a
musician's education was not complete unless he went to Italy, for
this country stood first as the home of music. Leopold Mozart had made
a couple of trips to Vienna with his children, the account of which
need not detain us here. He had decided that Wolfgang must go to
Italy, and breathe in the atmosphere of that land of song. And so in
December, 1769, father and son set out for the sunny south, with high
hopes for success.

Mozart's happy nature was jubilant over the journey. He watched
eagerly the peasants as they danced on the vine-clad terraces,
overlooking the deep blue lakes,--or listened as they sang at their
work in the sunny fields. He gazed at the wonderful processions of
priests through narrow streets of the towns, but above all there was
the grand music in the cathedrals.

The young musician had plenty of work to do, more than most boys
of thirteen. For, besides the concerts he had to give, he was set
difficult problems by the various professors who wished to test his
powers. The fame of his playing constantly spread, so the further he
traveled into Italy there were more demands to hear him. At Roveredo,
where it was announced he would play the organ in St. Thomas's Church,
the crowd was so great he could scarcely get to the organ-loft. The
vast audience listened spellbound, and then refused to disperse till
they had caught a glimpse of the boy player. At Verona he had another
triumph; one of his symphonies was performed, and his portrait was
ordered to be painted.

When they reached Milan the Chief musician of the city subjected the
boy to severe tests, all of which he accomplished to the astonishment
and delight of everybody. It was at Bologna however, where he met
the most flattering reception. Here was the home of the famous Padre
Martini, the aged composer of church music. Father Martini was almost
worshiped by the Italians; he was a most lovable man and looked up to
as a great composer. He had long ago given up attending concerts, so
that every one was astonished when he was present in the brilliant
audience gathered at Count Pallavicini's mansion to listen to the
boy's playing. Wolfgang did his best, for he realized the importance
of the event. Father Martini took the boy to his heart at once,
invited him to visit him as often as possible during his stay,
and gave him several fugue subjects to work out. These the boy
accomplished with ease, and the Padre declared he was perfectly
satisfied with his knowledge of composition.

The journey to Rome was now continued, and for Wolfgang it was a
succession of triumphs. At Florence he played before the Court of the
Archduke Leopold, and solved every problem put to him by the Court
music director as easily as though he were eating a bit of bread.

It was Holy Week when young Mozart and his father entered Rome, and
the city lay under the spell of the great festival of the year. They
soon joined the throngs that filled the vast temple of St. Peter's,
to which all turn during this solemn season. After attending a service
and viewing the treasures of the Cathedral, they turned their steps to
the Sistine Chapel, which contains the wonderful painting of the Last
Judgment by Michael Angelo. It was here that the celebrated Miserere
by Allegri was performed. Wolfgang had been looking forward to this
moment all through the latter part of his journey. His father had told
him how jealously guarded this music was; it could never be performed
in any other place, and the singers could never take their parts out
of the chapel. He was intensely eager to hear this work. And indeed it
would be difficult to imagine anything more beautiful and impressive
than the singing of the Miserere, which means "Have Mercy." It follows
the solemn service called Tenebrae, (Darkness) during which the six
tall candles on the altar are extinguished one by one,--till but one
is left, which is removed to a space behind the altar. Then in almost
complete darkness the Miserere begins. A single voice is heard singing
the antiphon, or short introduction,--and then comes silence, a
silence so profound that the listener scarcely dares to breathe
for fear of disturbing it. At length the first sad notes of the
supplication are heard, like the softest wailing of an anguished
spirit; they gradually gain force till the whole building seems to
throb with the thrilling intensity of the music.

The young musician was profoundly moved; the father too was much
affected by the solemn service. Neither spoke as they left the chapel
and sought their lodgings. After they had retired the boy could not
sleep; his thoughts were filled with the wonderful music he had heard.
He arose, lit the lamp, and got out pens and music paper. He worked
industriously the long night through. When morning dawned the boy sat
with his beautiful head upon his folded arms, asleep, while before him
on the table lay a score of the Miserere of Allegri, entirely written
from memory.

The next day, Good Friday, the Miserere was performed for the second
time. Wolfgang, the boy of fourteen, who had performed the wonderful
feat of writing this work out after one hearing, again attended the
service, keeping the score in his hat, and found his work was nearly
perfect, needing but a couple of trifling corrections.

The news of this startling feat gained for the young musician a
cordial welcome into the houses of the great in Rome; during their
stay father and son were feted to their hearts' content.

At Naples, their next stopping place, Wolfgang played before a
brilliant company, and excited so much astonishment, that people
declared his power in playing came from a ring he wore on his finger.
"He wears a charm," they cried. Mozart smiled, took off the ring and
played more brilliantly than ever. Then the enthusiasm was redoubled.
The Neapolitans showed them every attention and honor. A carriage
was provided for their use, and we have an account of how they drove
through the best streets, the father wearing a maroon-colored coat
with light blue facings, and Wolfgang in one of apple green, with
rose-colored facings and silver buttons.

It was indeed a wonderful tour which they made in Italy, though there
is not time to tell of many things that happened. On their return to
Rome, the Pope gave him the order of the Golden Spur, which made him
Chevalier de Mozart. Arriving at Bologna the young musician was made a
member of the Accademia Filharmonica. The test for this admission was
setting an antiphon in four parts. Wolfgang was locked in a room till
the task should be finished. To the astonishment of everybody he asked
to be let out at the end of half an hour,--having completed the work.

The travelers now proceeded to Milan, where Mozart was to work on his
first opera, for which he had received a commission. It was a great
task for a boy to accomplish and we find the young composer writing
to his mother and sister to pray for his success. The opera was called
"Mitridate," and was finished after three months' hard work. The first
performance was given in Milan, December 26, 1770, and was conducted
by Wolfgang himself. It was a proud, happy day for the father, indeed
for the whole family. "Mitridate" succeeded beyond their hopes; it was
given twenty times before crowded houses; and its success brought an
election to the Accademia, and also a commission to write a dramatic
Serenata for an approaching royal wedding. This work also was a great
success. The Empress who had commissioned Mozart to compose the work
was so pleased, that besides the promised fee, she gave the composer a
gold watch with her portrait set in diamonds on the back.

Sunshine and success had followed the gifted boy through all his
travels; but now shadows and disappointments were to come, due to
jealousy, intrigue and indifference of those in power who might have
helped him but failed to recognize his genius. Shortly after the
return of the father and son to their home town of Salzburg, their
protector and friend, the good Archbishop of Salzburg, died. His
successor was indifferent to art and held in contempt those who
followed it as a profession. He persistently refused to appoint the
young musician to any office worthy his talent or to recognize his
gifts in any way. While Mozart remained at home in Salzburg, hoping
his prospects would improve, he worked at composing with untiring
diligence. By the time he was twenty-one he had accumulated a mass
of music that embraced every branch of the art. He had a growing
reputation as a composer but no settled future. He had the post of
concertmaster, it is true, but the salary was but a trifle and he
was often pressed for money. Leopold therefore decided to undertake
another professional tour with his son. The Archbishop however
prevented the father leaving Salzburg. So the only course left open
was to allow Wolfgang and his mother to travel together. They set out
on the morning of September 23, 1777. Wolfgang's spirits rose as the
town of Salzburg faded into the haze of that September morning; the
sense of freedom was exhilarating; he had escaped the place associated
in his mind with tyranny and oppression, to seek his fortune in new
and wider fields.

At Munich where they first halted, Wolfgang sought an engagement
at the Elector's Court. He had an audience at the Nymphenburg, a
magnificent palace on the outskirts of the city. The Elector said
there was no vacancy; he did not know but later it might be possible
to make one, after Mozart had been to Italy and had made a name for
himself. With these words the Elector turned away. Mozart stood as
if stunned. To Italy, when he had concertized there for about seven
years, and had been showered with honors! It was too much. He shook
off the dust of Munich and he and his mother went on to Mannheim.
Here was a more congenial atmosphere. The Elector maintained a fine
orchestra, and with the conductor, Cannabich, Mozart became great
friends, giving music lessons to his daughter. But he could not seem
to secure a permanent appointment at Court, worthy his genius and
ability. Money became more scarce and the father and sister must make
many sacrifices at home to send money to maintain mother and son. With
the best of intentions Wolfgang failed to make his way except as a
piano teacher. The father had resorted to the same means of securing
the extra sums required, and wrote quite sharply to the son to bestir
himself and get something settled for the future.

For the young genius, Mannheim possessed a special attraction of which
the father knew nothing. Shortly after their arrival in the city,
Wolfgang became acquainted with the Weber family. The two oldest
daughters, Aloysia, fifteen, and Constanza, fourteen, were charming
girls just budding into womanhood. Aloysia had a sweet, pure voice,
and was studying for the stage; indeed she had already made her debut
in opera. It was not at all strange that young Mozart, who often
joined the family circle, should fall in love with the girl's fair
beauty and fresh voice, should write songs for her and teach her
to sing them as he wished. They were much together and their early
attraction fast ripened into love. Wolfgang formed a project for
helping the Webers, who were in rather straitened circumstances, by
undertaking a journey to Italy in company with Aloysia and her father;
he would write an opera in which Aloysia should appear as prima donna.
Of this brilliant plan he wrote his father, saying they could stop in
Salzburg on the way, when the father and Nannerl could meet the fair
young singer, whom they would be sure to love.

Leopold Mozart was distracted at news of this project. He at once
wrote, advising his son to go to Paris and try there to make a name
and fame for himself. The son dutifully yielded at once. With a heavy
heart he prepared to leave Mannheim, where he had spent such a happy
winter, and his love dream came to an end. It was a sad parting with
the Weber household, for they regarded Wolfgang as their greatest
benefactor.

The hopes Leopold Mozart had built on Wolfgang's success in Paris were
not to be realized. The enthusiasm he had aroused as a child prodigy
was not awarded to the matured musician. Three months passed away in
more or less fruitless endeavor. Then the mother, who had been his
constant companion in these trials and travels, fell seriously ill. On
July 3, 1778, she passed away in her son's arms.

Mozart prepared to leave Paris at once, and his father was the
more willing, since the Archbishop of Salzburg offered Wolfgang
the position of Court organist, at a salary of 500 florins, with
permission to absent himself whenever he might be called upon to
conduct his own operas. Leopold urged Wolfgang's acceptance, as their
joint income would amount to one thousand florins a year--a sum that
would enable them to pay their debts and live in comparative comfort.

To Mozart the thought of settling down in Salzburg under the
conditions stated in his father's letter was distasteful, but he had
not the heart to withstand his father's appeal. He set out from Paris
at once, promising himself just one indulgence before entering the
bondage which lay before him, a visit to his friends the Webers at
Mannheim. When he arrived there he found they had gone to Munich to
live. Therefore he pushed on to Munich. The Weber family received him
as warmly as of old, but in Aloysia's eyes there was only a friendly
greeting, nothing more. A few short months had cooled her fickle
attachment for the young composer. This discovery was a bitter
trial to Wolfgang and he returned to his Salzburg home saddened by
disappointed love and ambition.

Here in his old home he was cheered by a rapturous welcome; it was
little short of a triumph, this greeting and homage showered on him by
father, sister and friends. In their eyes his success was unshadowed
by failure; to them he was Mozart the great composer, the genius among
musicians. He was very grateful for these proofs of affection and
esteem, but he had still the same aversion to Salzburg and his Court
duties. So it was with new-kindled joy that he set out once more for
Munich, in November, 1780, to complete and produce the opera he had
been commissioned to write for the carnival the following year.

The new opera, "Idomeneo," fulfilled the high expectations his Munich
friends had formed of the composer's genius. Its reception at the
rehearsals proved success was certain, and the Elector who was
present, joined the performers in expressing his unqualified approval.
At home the progress of the work was followed with deepest interest.
The first performance of "Idomeneo" took place on January 29, 1781.
Leopold and Marianne journeyed to Munich to witness Wolfgang's
triumph. It was a proud, happy moment for all three; the enthusiastic
acclaim which shook the theater seemed to the old father, who watched
with swimming eyes the sea of waving hands around him, to set the seal
of greatness on his son's career.

The Archbishop, under whom Mozart held the meager office we have
spoken of, grew more overbearing in his treatment; he was undoubtedly
jealous that great people of Vienna were so deferential to one of his
servants, as he chose to call him. At last the rupture came; after a
stormy scene Mozart was dismissed from his service, and was free.

Father Mozart was alarmed when he heard the news of the break, and
endeavored to induce Wolfgang to reconsider his decision and return to
Salzburg. But the son took a firm stand for his independence. "Do not
ask me to return to Salzburg," he wrote his father; "ask me anything
but that."

And now came a time of struggling for Mozart. His small salary was cut
off and he had but one pupil. He had numerous friends, however, and
soon his fortunes began to mend. He was lodging with his old friends
the Webers. Aloysia, his former beloved, had married; Madame Weber
and her two unmarried daughters were now in Vienna and in reduced
circumstances. Mozart's latest opera, "The Elopement," had brought
him fame both in Vienna and Prague, and he had the patronage of many
distinguished persons, as well as that of Emperor Josef.

Mozart had now decided to make a home for himself, and chose as his
bride Constanza Weber, a younger sister of Aloysia, his first love. In
spite of Leopold Mozart's remonstrance, the young people were married
August 16, 1782.

Constanza, though a devoted wife, was inexperienced in home keeping.
The young couple were soon involved in many financial troubles
from which there seemed no way out, except by means of some Court
appointment. This the Emperor in spite of his sincere interest in the
composer, seemed disinclined to give.

Mozart now thought seriously of a journey to London and Paris, but
his father's urgent appeal that he would wait and exercise patience,
delayed him. Meanwhile he carried out an ardent desire to pay a visit
to his father and sister in Salzburg, to present to them his bride.
It was a very happy visit, and later on, when Mozart and his wife were
again settled in Vienna, they welcomed the father on a return visit.
Leopold found his son immersed in work, and it gladdened his heart to
see the appreciation in which his playing and compositions were held.
One happy evening they spent with Josef Haydn who, after hearing some
of Mozart's quartets played, took the father aside, saying: "I declare
before God, as a man of honor, that your son is the greatest composer
I know, either personally or by reputation. He has taste, but more
than that the most consummate knowledge of the art of composition."

This happy time was to be the last meeting between father and son.
Soon after Leopold's return to Salzburg, he was stricken with illness,
and passed away May 28, 1787. The news reached the composer shortly
after he had achieved one of the greatest successes of his life. The
performances of his latest opera, "The Marriage of Figaro," had been
hailed with delight by enthusiastic crowds in Vienna and Prague; its
songs were heard at every street corner, and village ale house. "Never
was anything more complete than the triumph of Mozart and his 'Nozze
di Figaro,'" wrote a singer and friend.--"And for Mozart himself, I
shall never forget his face when lighted up with the glowing rays of
genius; it is as impossible to describe as to paint sunbeams."

Despite the success of Figaro, Mozart was still a poor man, and must
earn his bread by giving music lessons. Finally the Emperor, hoping
to keep him in Germany, appointed him Chamber-composer at a salary
of about eighty pounds a year. It must have seemed to Mozart and his
friends a beggarly sum for the value his Majesty professed to set upon
the composer's services to art. "Too much for the little I am asked to
produce, too little for what I could produce," were the bitter words
he penned on the official return stating the amount of his salary.

Mozart was inclined to be somewhat extravagant in dress and household
expenditure, also very generous to any one who needed assistance.
These trials, added to the fact that his wife was frequently in
ill health, and not very economical, served to keep the family in
continual straits. Occasionally they were even without fire or food,
though friends always assisted such dire distress. Mozart's father had
declared procrastination was his son's besetting sin. Yet the son was
a tireless worker, never idle. In September, 1787, he was at Prague,
writing the score of his greatest opera, "Don Giovanni"; the time was
short, as the work was to be produced October 29. On the evening of
the 28th it was found he had not yet written the overture. It only
had to be written down, for this wonderful genius had the music quite
complete in his head. He set to work, while his wife read fairy tales
aloud to keep him awake, and gave him strong punch at intervals. By
seven o'clock next morning the score was ready for the copyist. It was
played in the evening without rehearsal, with the ink scarcely dry on
the paper.

Even the successes of "Don Giovanni," which was received with thunders
of applause, failed to remedy his desperate financial straits. Shortly
after this his pupil and patron, Prince Karl Lichnowsky, proposed he
should accompany him to Berlin. Mozart gladly consented, hoping for
some betterment to his fortunes. The King of Prussia received him
with honor and respect and offered him the post of Capellmeister, at
a salary equal to about three thousand dollars. This sum would have
liberated him from all his financial embarrassments, and he was
strongly tempted to accept. But loyalty to his good Emperor Josef
caused him to decline the offer.

The month of July, 1791, found Mozart at home in Vienna at work on a
magic opera to help his friend Salieri, who had taken a little theater
in the suburb of Wieden. One day he was visited by a stranger, a tall
man, who said he came to commission Mozart to compose a Requiem. He
would neither give his own name nor that of the person who had sent
him.

Mozart was somewhat depressed by this mysterious commission; however
he set to work on the Requiem at once. The composing of both this and
the fairy opera was suddenly interrupted by a pressing request that he
would write an opera for the coronation of Leopold II at Prague. The
ceremony was fixed for September 6, so no time was to be lost. Mozart
set out at once for Prague. The traveling carriage was at the door.
As he was about to enter it, the mysterious stranger suddenly appeared
and enquired for the Requiem. The composer could only promise to
finish on his return, when hastily entering his carriage, he drove
away.

The new opera, "La Clemenza di Tito," was finished in time and
performed, but was received somewhat indifferently. Mozart returned to
Vienna with spirits depressed and body exhausted by overwork. However,
he braced himself anew, and on September 30th, the new fairy opera,
the "Magic Flute," was produced, and its success increased with each
performance.

The Requiem was not yet finished and to this work Mozart now turned.
But the strain and excitement he had undergone for the past few months
had done their work: a succession of fainting spells overcame him, and
the marvelous powers which had always been his seemed no longer at his
command. He feared he would not live to complete the work. "It is for
myself I am writing the Requiem," he said sadly to Constanza, one day.

On the evening of December 4, friends who had gathered at his bedside,
handed him, at his desire, the score of the Requiem, and, propped up
by pillows he tried to sing one of the passages. The effort was too
great; the manuscript slipped from his nerveless hand and he fell back
speechless with emotion. A few hours later, on the morning of December
5, 1791, this great master of whom it was prophesied that he would
cause all others to be forgotten, passed from the scene of his many
struggles and greater triumphs.




VII

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN


The Shakespeare of the realm of music, as he has been called, first
saw the light on December 16, 1770, in the little University town
of Bonn, on the Rhine. His father, Johann Beethoven, belonged to the
court band of the Elector of Cologne. The family were extremely poor.
The little room, where the future great master was born, was so low,
that a good-sized man could barely stand upright in it. Very small
it was too, and not very light either, as it was at the back of the
building and looked out on a walled garden.

The fame of young Mozart, who was acclaimed everywhere as a marvelous
prodigy, had naturally reached the father's ears. He decided to train
the little Ludwig as a pianist, so that he should also be hailed as
a prodigy and win fame and best of all money for the poverty-stricken
family. So the tiny child was made to practice scales and finger
exercises for hours together. He was a musically gifted child, but how
he hated those everlasting tasks of finger technic, when he longed to
join his little companions, who could run and play in the sunshine. If
he stopped his practice to rest and dream a bit, the stern face of his
father would appear at the doorway, and a harsh voice would call out,
"Ludwig! what are you doing? Go on with your exercises at once. There
will be no soup for you till they are finished."

The father, though harsh and stern, wished his boy to have as thorough
a knowledge of music as his means would permit. The boy was also sent
to the public school, where he picked up reading and writing, but did
not make friends very quickly with the other children. The fact
was the child seemed wholly absorbed in music; of music he dreamed
constantly; in the companionship of music he never could be lonely.

When Ludwig was nine his father, regarding him with satisfaction and
some pride, declared he could teach him no more--and another master
must be found. Those childhood years of hard toil had resulted in
remarkable progress, even with the sort of teaching he had received.
The circumstances of the family had not improved, for poverty had
become acute, as the father became more and more addicted to drink.
Just at this time, a new lodger appeared, who was something of a
musician, and arranged to teach the boy in part payment for his room.
Ludwig wondered if he would turn out to be a more severe taskmaster
than his father had been. The times and seasons when his instruction
was given were at least unusual. Tobias Pfeiffer, as the new lodger
was called, soon discovered that father Beethoven generally spent his
evenings at the tavern. As an act of kindness, to keep his drunken
landlord out of the way of the police, Tobias used to go to the tavern
late at night and bring him safely home. Then he would go to the
bedside of the sleeping boy, and awake him by telling him it was time
for practice. The two would go to the living room, where they would
play together for several hours, improvising on original themes and
playing duets. This went on for about a year; meanwhile Ludwig studied
Latin, French, Italian and logic. He also had organ lessons.

Things were going from bad to worse in the Beethoven home, and in the
hope of bettering these unhappy conditions, Frau Beethoven undertook
a trip through Holland with her boy, hoping that his playing in the
homes of the wealthy might produce some money. The tour was successful
in that it relieved the pressing necessities of the moment, but the
sturdy, independent spirit of the boy showed itself even then. "The
Dutch are very stingy, and I shall take care not to trouble them
again," he remarked to a friend.

The boy Ludwig could play the organ fairly well, as he had studied it
with Christian Neefe, who was organist at the Court church. He also
could play the piano with force and finish, read well at sight and
knew nearly the whole of Bach's "Well Tempered Clavichord." This was
a pretty good record for a boy of 11, who, if he went on as he had
begun, it was said, would become a second Mozart.

Neefe was ordered to proceed with the Elector and Court to Muenster,
which meant to leave his organ in Bonn for a time. Before starting
he called Ludwig to him and told him of his intended absence. "I must
have an assistant to take my place at the organ here. Whom do you
think I should appoint?" Seeing the boy had no inkling of his meaning,
he continued: "I have thought of an assistant, one I am sure I can
trust,--and that is you, Ludwig."

The honor was great, for a boy of eleven and a half. To conduct the
service, and receive the respect and deference due the position, quite
overwhelmed the lad. Honors of this kind were very pleasant, but,
alas, there was no money attached to the position, and this was what
the straitened family needed most sorely. The responsibilities of the
position and the confidence of Neefe spurred Ludwig on to a passion of
work which nothing could check. He began to compose; three sonatas
for the pianoforte were written about this time. Before completing his
thirteenth year, Ludwig obtained his first official appointment from
the Elector; he became what is called cembalist in the orchestra,
which meant that he had to play the piano in the orchestra, and
conduct the band at rehearsals. With this appointment there was no
salary attached either, and it was not until a year later when he was
made second organist to the Court, under the new Elector, Max Franz,
that he began to receive a small salary, equal to about sixty-five
dollars a year. We have seen that the straits of the family had not
prevented Ludwig from pursuing his musical studies with great ardor.
With his present attainments and his ambition for higher achievements,
he longed to leave the little town of Bonn, and see something of the
great world. Vienna was the center of the musical life of Germany; the
boy dreamed of this magical city by day as he went about his routine
of work, and by night as he lay on his poor narrow cot. Like Haydn,
Vienna was the goal of his ambition. When a kind friend, knowing his
great longing, came forward with an offer to pay the expenses of the
journey, the lad knew his dream was to become a reality. In Vienna he
would see the first composers of the day; best of all he would see and
meet the divine Mozart, the greatest of them all.

Ludwig, now seventeen, set out for the city of his dreams with the
brightest anticipations. On his arrival in Vienna he went at once to
Mozart's house. He was received most kindly and asked to play, but
Mozart seemed preoccupied and paid but little attention. Ludwig,
seeing this stopped playing and asked for a theme on which to
improvise. Mozart gave a simple theme, and Beethoven, taking the
slender thread, worked it up with so much feeling and power, that
Mozart, who was now all attention and astonishment, stepped into the
next room, where some friends were waiting for him, and said, "Pay
attention to this young man; he will make a noise in the world some
day."

Shortly after his return home he was saddened by the loss of his
good, kind, patient mother, and a few months later his little sister
Margaretha passed away. No doubt these sorrows were expressed in some
of his most beautiful compositions. But brighter days followed the
dark ones. He became acquainted with the Breuning family, a widow
lady and four children, three boys and a girl, all young people. The
youngest boy and the girl became his pupils, and all were very fond
of him. He would stay at their house for days at a time and was always
treated as one of the family. They were cultured people, and in
their society Beethoven's whole nature expanded. He began to take an
interest in the literature of his own country and in English authors
as well. All his spare time was given to reading and composition.
A valuable acquaintance with the young Count Von Waldstein was made
about this time. The Count called one day and found the composer at
his old worn out piano, surrounded by signs of abject poverty. It
went to his heart to see that the young man, whose music he so greatly
admired should have to struggle for the bare necessities of life while
he himself enjoyed every luxury. It seemed to him terribly unjust. He
feared to offend the composer's self-respect by sending him money, but
shortly after the call Beethoven was made happy by the gift of a fine
new piano, in place of his old one. He was very grateful for this
friendship and later dedicated to the Count one of his finest sonatas,
the Op. 53, known as the "Waldstein Sonata."

With a view of aiding the growth of the opera, and operatic art, the
Elector founded a national theater, and Beethoven was appointed viola
player in the orchestra besides still being assistant organist in the
chapel. In July, 1792, the band arranged a reception for Haydn, who
was to pass through Bonn on his way from London, where he had had
a wonderful success, to his home in Vienna. Beethoven seized the
opportunity to show the master a cantata he had just composed. Haydn
praised the work and greatly encouraged the young musician to go
forward in his studies. The Elector, hearing of Haydn's words of
praise, felt that Beethoven should have the chance to develop his
talents that he might be able to produce greater works. Therefore
he decided to send the young composer, at his own expense, to
study strict counterpoint with Haydn. He was now twenty-two and his
compositions already published had brought him considerable fame and
appreciation in his vicinity. Now he was to have wider scope for his
gifts.

He bade farewell to Bonn in November of this year and set out a second
time for the city of his dreams--Vienna. He was never to see Bonn
again. He arrived in Vienna comparatively unknown, but his fine piano
playing and wonderful gift for improvising greatly impressed all
who heard him. He constantly played in the homes of the wealthy
aristocracy. Many who heard him play, engaged lessons and he was
well on the road to social success. Yet his brusque manners often
antagonized his patrons. He made no effort to please or conciliate;
he was obstinate and self-willed. In spite of all this, the innate
nobleness and truth of his character retained the regard of men and
women belonging to the highest ranks of society. With the Prince and
Princess Lichnowsky Beethoven shortly became very intimate, and was
invited to stay at the Palace. The Princess looked after his personal
comfort with as motherly an affection as Madame Breuning had done.
The etiquette of the Palace however, offended Ludwig's love of
Bohemianism, especially the dressing for dinner at a certain time.
He took to dining at a tavern quite frequently, and finally engaged
lodgings. The Prince and his good lady, far from taking offense at
this unmannerly behavior, forgave it and always kept for Beethoven a
warm place in their hearts, while he, on his part was sincere in his
affection for his kind friends.

Beethoven began his lessons with Haydn, but they did not seem to get
on well together. The pupil thought the master did not give him enough
time and attention. When Haydn went to England, about a year after the
lessons began, Beethoven studied with several of the best musicians
of the city, both in playing and composition. Albrechtsberger, one of
these, was a famous contrapuntist of his time, and the student gained
much from his teaching. The young musician was irresistible when he
seated himself at the piano to extemporize. "His improvisating was
most brilliant and striking," wrote Carl Czerny, a pupil of Beethoven.
"In whatever company he might be, he knew how to produce such an
effect upon the listeners that frequently all eyes would be wet,
and some listeners would sob; there was something wonderful in his
expressive style, the beauty and originality of his ideas and his
spirited way of playing." Strange to say the emotion he roused in
his hearers seemed to find no response in Beethoven himself. He would
sometimes laugh at it, at other times he would resent it, saying, "We
artists don't want tears, we want applause." These expressions however
only concealed his inner feelings--for he was very sympathetic
with those friends he loved. His anger, though sharp, was of short
duration, but his suspicions of those whose confidence he had won by
his genius and force of character, were the cause of much suffering to
himself and others.

Beethoven in appearance was short and stockily built; his face was not
at all good looking. It is said he was generally meanly dressed and
was homely, but full of nobility, fine feeling and highly cultivated.
The eyes were black and bright, and they dilated, when the composer
was lost in thought, in a way that made him look inspired. A mass of
dark hair surmounted a high broad forehead. He often looked gloomy,
but when he smiled it was with a radiant brightness. His hands were
strong and the fingers short and pressed out with much practise. He
was very particular about hand position when playing. As a conductor
he made many movements, and is said to have crouched below the desk in
soft passages; in Crescendos he would gradually lift himself up
until at the loudest parts he would rise to his full height with arms
extended, even springing into the air, as though he would float in
space.

Beethoven as a teacher, showed none of the impatience and carelessness
that were seen in his personal habits. He insisted on a pupil
repeating the passage carefully a number of times, until it could be
played to his satisfaction. He did not seem to mind a few wrong notes,
but the pupil must not fail to grasp the meaning or put in the right
expression, or his anger would be aroused. The first was an accident,
the other would be a lack of knowledge of feeling.

Beethoven loved nature as much or more than any musician ever did. How
he hailed the spring because he knew the time would soon come when he
could close the door of his lodgings in the hot city, and slip away to
some quiet spot and hold sweet communion with nature. A forest was a
paradise, where he could ramble among the trees and dream. Or he
would select a tree where a forking branch would form a seat near the
ground. He would climb up and sit in it for hours, lost in thought.
Leaning against the trunk of a lime tree, his eyes fixed upon the
network of leaves and branches above him, he sketched the plan of his
oratorio "The Mount of Olives"; also that of his one opera "Fidelio,"
and the third Symphony, known as the "Eroica." He wrote to a friend,
"No man loves the country more than I. Woods, trees and rocks give the
response which man requires. Every tree seems to say 'Holy, holy.'"

Already, as a young man, symptoms of deafness began to appear, and
the fear of becoming a victim of this malady made the composer more
sensitive than ever. He was not yet thirty when this happened, and
believing his life work at an end, he became deeply depressed. Various
treatments were tried for increasing deafness; at one time it seemed
to be cured by the skill of Dr. Schmidt, to whom out of gratitude he
dedicated his Septet, arranged as a Trio. By his advice the composer
went for the summer of 1820 to the little village of Heiligenstadt
(which means Holy City) in the hope that the calm, sweet environment
would act as a balm to his troubled mind. During this period of rest
and quiet his health improved somewhat, but from now on he had to give
up conducting his works, on account of his deafness.

It may be thought that one so reticent and retiring, of such hasty
temper and brusque manners, would scarcely be attracted to women.
But Beethoven, it is said, was very susceptible to the charm of the
opposite sex. He was however, most careful and high-souled in all his
relations with women. He was frequently in love, but it was usually a
Platonic affection. For the Countess Julie Guicciardi he protested
the most passionate love, which was in a measure returned. She was
doubtless his "immortal beloved," whose name vibrates through the
Adagio of the "Moonlight Sonata," which is dedicated to her. He wrote
her the most adoring letters; but the union, which he seemed to desire
so intensely, was never brought about, though the reason is not known.
For Bettina von Arnim, Goethe's little friend, he conceived a tender
affection. Another love of his was for the Countess Marie Erdoedy,
to whom he dedicated the two fine Trios, Op. 70, but this was also
a purely Platonic affection. The composer was unfortunate in his
attachments, for the objects were always of a much higher social
standing than himself. As he constantly associated with people of rank
and culture, it was natural that the young girl nobly born, with all
the fascinations of the high bred aristocrat, should attract him far
more than the ordinary woman of his own class. And thus it happened
that several times he staked his chances of happiness on a love he
knew could never be consummated. Yet no one needed a kind, helpful,
sympathetic wife more than did our poet-musician. She would have
soothed his sensitive soul when he suffered from fancied wrongs,
shielded him from intrusion, shared his sorrows and triumphs, and
attended to his house-keeping arrangements, which were always in a sad
state of confusion. This blissful state was seemingly not for him. It
was best for the great genius to devote himself wholly to his divine
art, and to create those masterpieces which will always endure.

In 1804 Beethoven completed one of his greatest symphonies, the
"Eroica." He made a sketch, as we have seen, two years before. He had
intended it to honor Napoleon, to whose character and career he was
greatly attracted. But when Napoleon entered Paris in triumph and was
proclaimed Emperor, Beethoven's worship was turned to contempt. He
seized the symphony, tore the little page to shreds and flung the work
to the other end of the room. It was a long time before he would look
at the music again, but finally, he consented to publish it under the
title by which it is now known.

When we consider the number and greatness of Beethoven's compositions
we stand aghast at the amount of labor he accomplished. "I live only
in my music," he wrote, "and no sooner is one thing done than the next
is begun. I often work at two or three things at once." Music was his
language of expression, and through his music we can reach his heart
and know the man as he really was. At heart he was a man capable of
loving deeply and most worthy to be loved.

Of the composer's two brothers, one had passed away and had left his
boy Carl, named after himself, as a solemn charge, to be brought up by
Uncle Ludwig as his own son. The composer took up this task generously
and unselfishly. He was happy to have the little lad near him, one of
his own kin to love. But as Carl grew to young manhood he proved to
be utterly unworthy of all this affection. He treated his good uncle
shamefully, stole money from him, though he had been always generously
supplied with it, and became a disgrace to the family. There is no
doubt that his nephew's dissolute habits saddened the master's life,
estranged him from his friends and hastened his death.

How simple and modest was this great master, in face of his mighty
achievements! He wrote to a friend in 1824: "I feel as if I had
scarcely written more than a few notes." These later years had been
more than full of work and anxiety. Totally deaf, entirely thrown in
upon himself, often weak and ill, the master kept on creating work
after work of the highest beauty and grandeur.

Ludwig van Beethoven passed from this plane March 26, 1827, having
recently completed his fifty-sixth year, and was laid to rest in the
Waehring Cemetery near Vienna. Unlike Mozart, he was buried with much
honor. Twenty thousand people followed him to his grave. Among them
was Schubert, who had visited him on his deathbed, and was one of the
torch bearers. Several of the Master's compositions were sung by a
choir of male voices, accompanied by trombones. At the grave Hummel
laid three laurel wreaths on the casket.




VIII

CARL MARIA VON WEBER


As we have already seen in the life stories of a number of musicians,
the career they were to follow was often decided by the father, who
determined to form them into wonder children, either for monetary gain
or for the honor and glory of the family. The subject of this story is
an example of such a preconceived plan.

Franz Anton von Weber, who was a capable musician himself, had always
cherished the desire to give a wonder child to the world. In his
idea wonder children need not be born such, they could be made by the
proper care and training. He had been a wealthy man, but at the time
of our story, was in reduced circumstances, and was traveling about
Saxony at the head of a troupe of theatrical folk, called "Weber's
Company of Comedians."

Little Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, to give his full name, was born
December 18, 1786, at Eutin, a little town in Lower Saxony. He was the
first child of a second marriage, and before the baby boy could
speak, his career had been planned; the father had made up his mind
to develop his son into an extraordinary musical genius. It is not
recorded what his young mother, a delicate girl of seventeen, thought
about it; probably her ideas for her baby son did not enter into the
father's plan. Mother and child were obliged to follow in the train
of the wandering comedians, so baby Carl was brought up amid the
properties of stage business. Scenery, canvas, paints and stage lights
were the materials upon which Carl's imagination was fed. He learned
stage language with his earliest breath; it is no wonder he turned to
writing for the stage as to the manner born.

As a child he was neither robust nor even healthy, which is not
surprising, since he was not allowed to run afield with other
children, enjoying the sweet air of nature, the flowers, the sunshine
and blue sky. No, he must stay indoors much of the time and find his
playmates among cardboard castles and painted canvas streets. This
treatment was not conducive to rosy cheeks and strong, sturdy little
legs. Then, before the delicate child was six years old, a violin was
put into his hand, and if his progress on it was thought to be too
slow by his impatient father, he was treated to raps and blows by way
of incentive to work yet harder. His teachers, too, were continually
changing, as the comedians had to travel about from place to place.
After awhile he was taken in hand by Michael Haydn, a brother of the
great Josef. Michael was a famous musician himself and seldom gave
lessons to any one. But he was interested in Carl and took charge of
his musical education for some time.

It was not long before Carl Maria's genius began definitely to show
itself, for he started to write for the lyric stage. Two comic operas
appeared, "The Dumb Girl of the Forest," and "Peter Schmoll and his
Neighbors." They were both performed, but neither made a hit.

When Carl was seventeen, the father decided he should go to Vienna,
for there he would meet all the great musicians of the time. The
boy was at the most impressionable age: he was lively, witty, with
pleasant manners and amiable disposition; he soon became a favorite in
the highest musical circles. It was a gay life and the inexperienced
youth yielded to its allurements. In the meantime he did some serious
studying under the famous Abbe Vogler. The following year the Abbe
recommended him to the conductorship of the Breslau Opera House. This
was a very difficult post for a boy of eighteen, and he encountered
much jealousy and opposition from the older musicians, who did not
relish finding themselves under the leadership of such a youth. A year
served to disgust him with the work and he resigned. During the year
he had found time to compose most of his opera "Rubezahl."

For the next few years there were many "ups and downs" in Carl's life.
From Breslau he went to Carlsruhe, and entered the service of Prince
Eugene. For about a year he was a brilliant figure at the Court. Then
war clouds gathered and the gay Court life came to an end. Music
under the present conditions could no longer support him, as the whole
social state of Germany had altered. The young composer was forced to
earn his livelihood in some way, and now became private secretary to
Prince Ludwig of Wurtemburg, whose Court was held at Stuttgart. The
gay, dissolute life at the Court was full of temptation for our young
composer, yet he found considerable time for composition; his opera
"Sylvana" was the result, besides several smaller things. During the
Stuttgart period, his finances became so low, that on one occasion he
had to spend several days in prison for debt. Determined to recruit
his fortunes, he began traveling to other towns to make known his art.
In Mannheim, Darmstadt and Baden, he gave concerts, bringing out
in each place some of his newer pieces, and earning enough at each
concert to last a few weeks, when another concert would keep the wolf
from the door a little longer.

In 1810, when he was twenty-four, he finished his pretty opera "Abu
Hassan," which, on the suggestion of his venerable master, Vogler,
he dedicated to the Grand Duke. The Duke accepted the dedication with
evident pleasure, and sent Carl a purse of gold, in value about two
hundred dollars. The opera was performed on February 6, 1811, and its
reception was very gratifying to the composer. The Grand Duke took one
hundred and twenty tickets and the performance netted over two hundred
florins clear profit. It was after this that Carl Maria went on a tour
of the principal German cities and gave concerts in Munich, Prague,
Berlin, Dresden and other places. He was everywhere welcomed, his
talents and charming manners winning friends everywhere. Especially in
Prague he found the highest and noblest aristocracy ready to bid him
welcome.

Weber paid a visit to Liebich, director of the Prague theater, almost
as soon as he arrived in town. The invalid director greeted him
warmly.

"So, you are _the_ Weber! I suppose you want me to buy your operas.
One fills an evening, the other doesn't. Very well, I will give
fifteen hundred florins for the two. Is it a bargain?" Weber accepted,
and promised to return the next spring to conduct the operas. He kept
his promise, and the result was much better than he ever dreamed. For
beyond the performance of his operas, he was offered the post of music
director of the Prague theater, which post was just then vacant.
The salary was two thousand florins, with a benefit concert at a
guaranteed sum of one thousand more, and three months leave of absence
every year. This assured sum gave young Weber the chance of paying his
debts and starting afresh, which, he writes "was a delight to him."

The composer now threw himself heart and soul into improving the
orchestra placed in his charge. Before long he had drilled it to a
high state of excellence. Many new operas were put on the stage in
quick succession. Thus Weber worked on with great industry for three
years. The success he achieved created enemies, and perhaps because of
intrigues, envy and ill feeling which had arisen, he resigned his
post in 1816. The three years in Prague had been fruitful in new
compositions. Several fine piano sonatas, a set of "National Songs,"
and the Cantata, "Kampf und Sieg," (Struggle and Victory). This last
work soon became known all over Germany and made the gifted young
composer very popular. During this period Weber became engaged to
Caroline Brandt, a charming singer, who created the title role in his
opera of "Sylvana."

Weber had many kind, influential friends in Prague, who admired his
zeal and efficiency as music director. One of them, Count Vitzhum, did
all he could to secure Weber for Dresden. On Christmas morning, 1816,
he received the appointment. He wrote to Caroline: "Long did I look on
Count Vitzhum's letter without daring to open it. Did it contain joy
or sorrow? At length I took courage and broke the seal. It was joy!
I am Capellmeister to his Majesty the King of Saxony. I must now rig
myself out in true Court style. Perhaps I ought to wear a pigtail to
please the Dresdeners. What do you say? I ought at least to have an
extra kiss from you for this good news."

He went to Dresden, and at first looked over the situation. On nearer
view the prospect was not as bright as it had appeared at first. There
was a rival faction, strongly opposed to his plans for the promotion
of German opera. There had never been anything tolerated at Dresden
but Italian opera, and there were many talented Italian singers to
interpret them. Weber was encouraged by a new national spirit, which
he felt would favor German opera, and was determined to conquer at
all costs. He finally succeeded, for, as he wrote to a friend, "The
Italians have moved heaven, earth and hell also, to swallow up the
whole German opera and its promoter. But they have found in me a
precious tough morsel; I am not easily swallowed." It was the same
kind of fight that Handel waged in England, and that Gluck fought
against the Piccinists.

"Joseph and his Brethren," by Mehul, was the first opera to be taken
up by the new conductor. He drilled the orchestra much more carefully
than they had been accustomed, and while, in the beginning, some were
sulky at the strictness they were subjected to, yet they finally saw
the justice of it and at last took pride in doing their work well.
"Joseph" was brought out January 30, 1817. The King and Court were
present, and everything passed off well, indeed remarkably well. His
majesty was greatly pleased and did not cough once during the whole
performance, as he used to do when things did not go to suit him.

In spite of Italian opposition which still continued, Weber's efforts
to establish German opera kept right on, until at last it became a
State institution, and the composer was appointed musical director for
life. With this bright prospect in view he was able to wed his beloved
Caroline. They were married on November 4. A quotation from his diary
shows the talented musician had become a serious, earnest man. "May
God bless our union, and grant me strength and power to make my
beloved Lina as happy and contented as my inmost heart would desire.
May His mercy lead me in all things."

Weber was now entering the most prolific and brilliant period of his
life. His music became richer, more noble and beautiful. The happy
union with Caroline seemed to put new life and energy into him, and as
a result his works became quickly known all over Europe. His mind
was literally teeming with original themes, which crowded each other,
struggling to be expressed. First there was the "Mass in E flat," a
beautiful, original work; then a festal Cantata, "Nature and Love,"
written to celebrate the Queen of Saxony's birthday. After this the
"Jubilee Cantata," composed to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary
of the reign of Augustus, of Saxony. The Italian faction prevented a
performance of the whole work, and only the Overture was given.
When the entire work was heard it made a great sensation. Now came a
Jubilee Mass and some piano pieces, among them the charming and famous
"Invitation to the Dance," with which every one is familiar. While
writing all these works, the composer was busy with one of his
greatest operas, "Der Freischuetz." On May 8, 1820, a hundred years
ago, the score of "Der Freischuetz," was sent to the director of the
Berlin theater, and directly put in rehearsal. The rehearsals had not
proceeded very far before Weber, the tireless ceaseless worker, had
finished his important opera, "Preciosa," which was also despatched to
Berlin. "Preciosa" was brought out before "Der Freischuetz," which was
just as it should be, as the public needed to be educated up to the
"Freischuetz" music. "Preciosa" was founded on a Spanish story, "The
Gypsy of Madrid," and Weber has written for it some of his most
charming melodies, full of Spanish color, life and vivacity. Nowadays
the opera is neglected, but we often hear the overture. It is to be
noted that the overtures to each of Weber's operas contain the leading
themes and melodies of the operas themselves, showing with what skill
the artist wrought. When Weber's widow presented the original score
of "Der Freischuetz" to the Royal Library in Berlin, it was found there
was not a single erasure or correction in the whole work.

On June 18, 1821, came the first performance of Weber's masterpiece,
"Der Freischuetz." The theater was beseiged for hours by eager crowds,
and when the doors were at last opened, there was a grand rush to
enter. The whole house from pit to galleries was soon filled, and
when the composer entered the orchestra, there was a roar of applause,
which it seemed would never end. As the performance proceeded, the
listeners became more charmed and carried away, and at the close there
was a wild scene of excitement. The success had been tremendous, and
the frequent repetitions demanded soon filled the treasury of the
theater. Everybody was happy, the composer most of all. The melodies
were played on every piano in Germany and whistled by every street
urchin. Its fame spread like lightning over Europe, and quickly
reached England. In London the whole atmosphere seemed to vibrate with
its melodies. In Paris, however, it did not please on first hearing,
perhaps because it was so thoroughly German. But somewhat later, when
renamed "Robin des Bois,"--"Robin of the Forest,"--it was performed
some three hundred and fifty times before being withdrawn.

Weber kept ever at work. Two years after the production of "Der
Freischuetz" the opera of "Euryanthe" was completed. The libretto was
the work of a half demented woman, Helmine von Chezy, but Weber set
out to produce the best opera he was capable of, and to this story he
has joined some wonderful music. It was his favorite work; he wrote
to his beloved wife two hours before the first performance: "I rely
on God and my 'Euryanthe.'" The opera was produced at the Kaernthnertor
Theater, in Vienna, on October 25, 1823. The composer, though weak and
ill, made the long journey to the great city, that he might personally
introduce his favorite to the Viennese. He wrote his wife after the
performance: "Thank God, as I do, beloved wife, for the glorious
success of 'Euryanthe.' Weary as I am, I must still say a sweet good
night to my beloved Lina, and cry Victory! All the company seemed in
a state of ecstasy; singers, chorus, orchestra;--all were drunk, as it
were, with joy."

The title role was taken by Henrietta Sontag, a young girl, still in
her teens, though giving high promise of the great things she achieved
a few years later. Strange to say, a short time after its first
appearance, "Euryanthe" failed to draw. One reason might have been
laid to the poor libretto, another to the rumor, started, it is said,
by no less an authority than the great master Beethoven, that the
music of the opera was "only a collection of diminished sevenths."

The composer lost no time in laying his score before Beethoven, who
said he should have visited him _before_, not _after_ the performance.
He advised him to do what he himself had done to "Fidelio," cut out
nearly a third of the score. Weber took this advice, and remade parts
of the opera, where he deemed it necessary.

The strain of the production of "Euryanthe" told severely on the
composer's delicate health, and he returned to Dresden in an exhausted
state. There was no rest for him here, as official duties were
pressing. The malady afflicting his lungs had made rapid progress and
he began to fear he should not be long spared to his wife and little
ones.

He shook off the apathy and took up his pen once more. His fame
was known all over Europe and many tempting offers came in from all
directions. One of these was from Covent Garden Theater, London, in
the summer of 1824, which resulted in a visit to the English capital.
Charles Kemble, the director of Covent Garden, desired Weber to write
a new opera for production there. "Oberon" was the subject at last
decided upon; it was taken from an old French romance. Weber at once
set to work on the music of this fairy opera, and with the exception
of the overture, had finished the work in time to bring it to London
in 1826. He was ill and suffering at the time he left home, February
7, and it seemed as though he were bidding a final good-by to his wife
and little ones.

Arrived in London, Sir George Smart invited him to take up his
residence in his house. Here he had every comfort, a beautiful piano
too was placed at his disposal by one of the first makers in London.
"No King could be served with greater love and affection in all
things," he wrote; "I cannot be sufficiently grateful to heaven for
the blessings which surround me." Here he composed the beautiful
Overture to "Oberon" which was only completed a few days before the
first performance of the opera.

"Oberon" was given at Covent Garden on April 12. The house was packed
from pit to dome, and the success was tremendous. Next morning the
composer was in a highly nervous and exhausted state, but felt he must
keep his promise to Kemble and conduct the first twelve performances
of "Oberon." He was to have a benefit concert, and hoped through this
to have a goodly sum to take back to his little family. Sad to relate,
on the evening chosen, May 26, a heavy rain fell and the hall was
nearly empty. After the concert he was so weak he had to be assisted
from the room. The physician ordered postponement of the journey home,
but he cried continually, "I must go to my own--I must! Let me see
them once more and then God's will be done."

The next morning, when they came to call him, all was still in his
chamber; he had passed away peacefully in sleep.

Weber was buried in London. His last wish--to return home,--was
finally fulfilled. Eighteen years after, his remains were brought to
Dresden, and the composer was at last at home.




IX

FRANZ SCHUBERT


In the old Lichtenthal quarter of the city of Vienna, in the vicinity
of the fortifications, there still stands an old house. It is
evidently a public house, for there hangs the sign--"At the Red Crab."
Beside this there is a marble tablet fastened above the doorway, which
says that Franz Schubert was born in this house. At the right of his
name is placed a lyre crowned with a star, and at the left a laurel
wreath within which is placed the date, January 31, 1797.

This then was the birthplace of the "most poetical composer who ever
lived," as Liszt said of him; the man who created over six hundred
songs, eight symphonies, operas, masses, chamber works and much
beautiful piano music, and yet only lived to be thirty-one. It is
almost unbelievable. Let us get a nearer view of this remarkable
musician.

His father kept a school here; there were five children, four boys and
a girl to provide for, and as there was nothing to depend on but
the school-master's pay, it is easy to see the family was in poor
circumstances, though the wife managed most carefully to make ends
meet. They were a very devoted family altogether. Little Franz early
showed a decided fondness for music, and tried to pick out bits
of tunes of his own by ear on an old dilapidated piano the family
possessed. He made friends with a young apprentice who took him
sometimes to a piano wareroom in the city, where he was allowed to
play his little tunes on a fine piano.

When Franz was seven he began to have music lessons at home, the
father teaching him violin and his big brother Ignaz, the piano.
Franz, in his eagerness to learn soon outstripped his home teachers,
and told them he could go on alone. It was then decided he should go
to the parish choir master, Holzer, to learn piano, violin, organ,
singing and thorough bass. Soon Holzer was astonished at the boy's
progress. "Whenever I begin to teach him anything I find he knows
it already; I never had such a pupil before." By the time Franz was
eleven, his voice had come out so well that he was given the place of
head soprano in the parish church, and played violin solos whenever
they occurred in the service. He had even begun at home to compose and
write down little piano pieces and songs. The parents considered that
this remarkable talent should be cultivated further, if possible, in
order that it might assist the slender purse of the family. There was
a choir school, called the Convict, which trained its boys for the
Imperial Chapel. If Franz could prove his ability to enter this
school, he would receive free education in return for his services.

One fine morning in October, 1808, Franz in his homespun grey suit,
spectacles shielding his bright, near-sighted eyes, his bushy
black hair covered by an old fashioned hat, presented himself for
examination by the Court Capellmeister and the singing master. The
other boys jeered at his odd appearance, but he kept his good humor.
When his turn came to sing, after solving all the problems given, his
singing of the trial pieces was so astonishing that he was passed in
at once, and ordered to put on the uniform of the imperial choristers.

The boy soon found plenty to fill his time and occupy his mind. There
was the school orchestra, in which he was able to take a prominent
place. There was daily practise, in which the boys learned the
overtures and symphonies of Mozart and Haydn, and even Beethoven. He
loved best Mozart's "Symphony in G minor," in which he said he heard
angels singing. The leader of the orchestra was attracted to the
lad's playing the very first day he entered, for he played with such
precision and understanding. One day Franz mustered courage to talk
a little to the big conductor, whose name was Spaun, and confessed he
had composed quite a good deal already, adding he would like to do
it every day, only he could not afford to get the music paper. Spaun
received this burst of confidence with sympathy, and saw to it that
the boy was, in the future, supplied with the necessary music paper.

Franz had soon made such progress on the violin, that he began to take
the first violin parts and when the conductor was absent he was asked
to lead the orchestra. Indeed by his deep earnestness and sincerity,
as well as ability, the gifted boy had become a power in the school.
When he went home to see his people, which could only be on Sundays
and holidays, it was a happy reunion for all. If he brought home a
new string quartet, the father would get out his 'cello, Ignaz and
Ferdinand would take first and second violins and the young composer
the viola. After it had been played through, then all the players
discussed it and offered their criticism. Indeed Franz was composing
at such an astonishing rate, that it was difficult to keep him
supplied with music paper. One of his works of this time was a
fantasia for four hands, in twelve movements. Then came a first
attempt at song writing, a long affair which also contained twelve
movements, and was in melancholy mood.

Five years the boy Franz Schubert remained at the Convict School and
as he had decided to give himself entirely to music, there was no
reason for his remaining longer in the school. At the end of the year
1813, he left, and his departure was celebrated by the composition of
his first Symphony, in honor of Dr. Lang, the musical director. The
lad, now seventeen, stood at the beginning of his career; he was full
of hope and energy, and determined to follow in the footsteps of the
great masters of music. Of all his compositions so far produced, his
songs seemed to be the most spontaneous. He probably did not guess
that he was to open up new paths in this field.

Hardly had he left the school when he was drafted for the army. This
meant several years of virtual captivity, for conscription could not
be avoided. The only other thing he could do was to return home and
become a teacher in his father's school. He chose the lesser evil and
qualified at once to become his father's assistant, which would also
assure him a certain amount of leisure. We can imagine him installed
as teacher of the infant class, and realize how distasteful was the
daily round of school work, and how he longed to have it over, that he
might put on paper all the lovely themes that had come to him through
the school day. Other bright spots were the happy hours he spent with
the Grob family, who lived also in the district of Lichtenthal.
The family consisted of a mother, a son and daughter. They were all
musical. Therese Grob had a fine voice and she enjoyed the songs
Schubert brought her to sing, while her brother Heinrich could play
both piano and 'cello. Many evenings filled with music were passed by
the young people. His friends at the Convict too, welcomed each new
piece he wrote. Nor did he forget his old master Holzer, the organist
of the little church where the composer himself regularly attended.
During 1814, Schubert composed his first mass, which was performed
October 16. It excited so much interest that it was repeated ten days
later at the Augustine church. Franz conducted, the choir was led
by Holzer, Ferdinand sat at the organ, and Therese sang the soprano
solos. In the audience sat old Salieri, Court Capellmeister of Vienna,
with whom Beethoven had studied. Salieri praised Schubert for his
work, and said that he should become his pupil. He kept his word and
gave the young composer daily lessons for some time. The father was
so proud and happy that he bought a five octave piano for his boy, to
celebrate the event.

Schubert added many compositions to his list this year, among them
seventeen songs, including "Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel." His
acquaintance with the poet Johann Mayrhofer, with whom he soon became
intimate, was of benefit to both. The poet produced verses that
his friend might set to music. The following year, 1815, he wrote a
hundred and thirty-seven songs, to say nothing of six operas, and much
music for church and piano. Twenty-nine of these songs were written
in the month of August. One day in August eight songs were created; on
another day seven. Some of the songs were quite long, making between
twenty and thirty pages when printed.

A new friend came into Schubert's life the next year. His name was
Franz Schober, and he intended entering the University in Vienna.
Being a great lover of music and also familiar with some of Schubert's
manuscript songs, he lost no time, on arriving in Vienna, in seeking
out the composer. He found the young musician at his desk very busily
writing. School work was over for the day, and he could compose in
peace. The two young men became friends at once, for they felt the
sympathetic bond between them. They were soon talking as though they
had always known each other. In a few words Schubert told his new
friend how he was situated at home, and how he disliked the daily
drudgery of school teaching. On hearing of these trials Schober
suggested they should make a home together, which arrangement would
free the composer from the grinding life he was living and enable him
to give his whole time to his art. The proposal delighted Franz, and
the father willingly gave his consent. And so it came about that
the composer was free at last, and took up his abode at his friend's
lodgings. He insisted on giving him musical instruction, to make some
return for all his kindness, though this did not last long, owing to
the dislike Franz always had for teaching of any sort.

Schubert, at the age of twenty-four, had composed a great quantity
of music, but none of it had as yet been published. He was almost
unknown, and publishers were unwilling to undertake issuing the work
of an unknown man. When his songs were performed by good artists,
as had been done a number of times, they won instant recognition and
success. Seeing that the publishers were unwilling to print the work
of an unknown musician, two of Schubert's friends undertook to publish
the "Erlking," one of his first songs, at their own risk. At the
Sonnleithner mansion, where musicals were regularly held, the
"Erlking" had been much applauded, and when it was decided to have it
published, the decision was announced. A hundred copies were at once
subscribed for, and with this encouragement the engraving of the
"Erlking" and "Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel" was forthwith begun.
The pieces were sold by the music publishers on commission. The plan
succeeded beyond expectation, so that other songs were issued in the
same way, until, when seven had appeared the publishers were willing
to risk the engraving of other songs themselves. Before all this had
taken place, Johann Vogl, an admired opera singer in Vienna at the
time, had learned Schubert's "Erlking," and had sung it in March,
1821, at a public concert patronized by royalty. The song was received
with storms of applause. Schober, who knew the singer, constantly
talked to him about the gifts of his friend and begged him to come and
see Schubert. At last one day he consented. They found the composer
hard at work as usual, music sheets covering the floor as well as the
table and chair. Vogl, used to the highest society, made himself quite
at home and did his best to put Schubert at his ease, but the
composer remained shy and confused. The singer began looking over some
manuscripts. When he left he shook Schubert's hand warmly, remarking;
"There is stuff in you, but you squander your fine thoughts instead of
making the most of them."

Vogl had been much impressed by what he had seen that day, and
repeated his visit. Before long the two were close friends. Schubert
wrote to his brother: "When Vogl sings and I accompany him, we seem
for the moment to be one." Vogl wrote of Schubert's songs that they
were "truly divine inspirations."

Schubert's residence with his friend Schober only lasted six months,
for Schober's brother came to live with him, and the composer had to
shift for himself. Teaching was exceedingly distasteful to him, yet as
his music did not bring in anything for years after he left home,
he had to find some means of making a living. In these straits he
accepted a position as music teacher in the family of Count Johann
Esterhazy. This meant that he must live with the family in their
Vienna home in winter, and go with them to their country seat in the
summer. The change from the free life he had enjoyed with his
friends who idolized him and his beautiful music, to the etiquette of
aristocratic life, was great. But there were many comforts amid his
new surroundings; the family was musical, the duties were not heavy,
and so Schubert was not unhappy.

At the Esterhazy country estate of Zelesz, he heard many Hungarian
melodies sung or played by the gipsies, or by servants in the castle.
He has employed some of these tunes in his first set of Valses. In
his present position he had much leisure for composition. Indeed Franz
Schubert's whole life was spent in giving out the vast treasures of
melody with which he had been so richly endowed. These flowed from his
pen in a constant stream, one beautiful work after another. He wrote
them down wherever he happened to be and when a scrap of paper could
be had. The exquisite song "Hark, Hark the Lark" was jotted down on
the back of a bill of fare, in a beer garden. The beautiful works
which he produced day after day brought him little or no money,
perhaps because he was so modest and retiring, modestly undervaluing
everything he did. He had no desire to push himself, but wrote because
impelled to by the urge within. So little did he sometimes value his
work that a fine composition would be tucked away somewhere and quite
forgotten. His physical strength was not robust enough to stand the
strain of constant composition. Then too, when funds were very low,
as they often were, he took poor lodgings, and denied himself the
necessary nourishing food. If he could have had a dear companion to
look after his material needs and share his aims and aspirations, his
earthly life might have been prolonged for many a year. With no one to
advise him, and often pressed with hunger and poverty, he was induced
to sell the copyrights of twelve of his best songs, including the
"Erlking" and the "Wanderer," for a sum equal to about four hundred
dollars. It is said the publishers made on the "Wanderer" alone, up to
the year 1861, a sum of about five thousand five hundred dollars. It
is true that "everything he touched turned to music," as Schumann once
said of him. The hours of sleep were more and more curtailed, for he
wrote late at night and rose early the next day. It is even said he
slept in his spectacles, to save the trouble and time of putting them
on in the morning.

In Schubert's boyhood, the music of Mozart influenced him most. This
is seen in his earlier compositions. Beethoven was a great master
to him then, but as time went on the spell of his music always grew
stronger. In 1822, he wrote and published a set of variations on a
French air, and dedicated them to Beethoven. He greatly desired to
present them in person to the master he adored, but was too shy to go
alone. Diabelli, the publisher, finally went with him. Beethoven was
courteous but formal, pushing paper and pencil toward his guest, as he
was totally deaf. Schubert was too shy to write a single word.
However he produced his Variations. Beethoven seemed pleased with the
dedication, and looked through the music. Soon he found something in
it he did not approve of and pointed it out. The young author, losing
his presence of mind, fled from the house. But Beethoven really liked
the music and often played it to his nephew.

Five years later, during his last illness, a collection of some sixty
of Schubert's songs was placed in his hands. He turned them over and
over with amazement and delight. "Truly Schubert has the divine fire,"
he exclaimed. He wanted to see the composer of such beautiful music.
Schubert came and was allowed to have a talk with him first, before
other friends who were waiting. When Schubert paid another visit to
the bedside of the master, it was almost the end of his life, though
he could recognize all who stood about him. Overcome with emotion,
Schubert left the room.

A couple of weeks after this Schubert was one of the torch bearers who
accompanied the great master to the last resting place. Little did the
young man of thirty dream that he would soon follow after. His life at
this time was full of disappointments. He had always longed to write
for the lyric stage. He composed numerous operas; but they were always
rejected, for one reason or another. The last, "Fierabras," which was
on the point of being produced, was finally given up. The composer
became very dejected, and believed himself to be the most unfortunate,
the most miserable being on earth. But, fortunately for Schubert,
his cheerfulness again asserted itself and the stream of production
resumed its flow. With his temperament, at one moment he would be
utterly despairing, the next his troubles would seem to be forgotten,
and he would be writing a song, a symphony or a sonata. At all
events, constant work filled his days. The last year of his life was
productive of some of his finest works.

About the end of October, 1828, he began to show signs of a serious
breakdown. He was living at the home of his brother Ferdinand, in one
of the suburbs of the city. Although he revived a little during
the early part of November, so that he could resume walks in the
neighborhood, the weakness increased, and eleven days passed without
food or drink. Lingering till the nineteenth of November, he passed
peacefully away, still in his early manhood. The old father, the
schoolmaster at the old home, hoped to have his son buried in the
little cemetery near by. But Ferdinand knew his brother's wish, to be
placed near Beethoven in Waehringer Cemetery. The monument, erected by
his friends and admirers the following year, bears, above the name,
this inscription:

    "Music has here entombed a rich treasure, but much fairer
    hopes."




X

FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY


Mendelssohn has often been named "Felix the Happy," and he truly
deserved the title. Blest with a most cheerful disposition, with the
power to make friends of every one he met, and wherever he went, the
son of a rich banker, surrounded with everything that wealth could
give, it was indeed no wonder that Felix Mendelssohn was happy. He did
not have to struggle with poverty and privation as most of the
other great musicians were forced to do. Their music was often the
expression of struggle and sorrow. He had none of these things to
bear; he was carefree and happy, and his music reflects the joyous
contentment of his life.

The Mendelssohn family originally lived in Hamburg. Their house faced
one of the fine squares of the city, with a handsome church on
the opposite side. The building is still there and well preserved,
although the principal story is used as public dining rooms. A large
tablet has been placed above the doorway, with a likeness of the
composer encircled by a wreath of laurel. Here little Felix was born,
February 3, 1809. There were other children, Fanny a year or two
older, then after Felix came Rebekka and little Paul. When French
soldiers occupied the town in 1811, life became very unpleasant for
the German residents, and whoever could, sought refuge in other cities
and towns. Among those who successfully made their escape was the
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy family, the second name belonged to the family
and was used to distinguish their own from other branches of the
Mendelssohn family. With his wife and children, Abraham Mendelssohn
fled to Berlin, and made his home for some years with the grandmother,
who had a house on the Neue Promenade, a fine broad street, with
houses only on one side, the opposite side descended in a grassy slope
to the canal, which flowed lazily by.

It was a happy life the children led, amid ideal surroundings. Felix
very early showed a great fondness for music, and everything was done
to foster his budding talent. With his sister Fanny, to whom he was
devotedly attached, he began to have short music lessons from
his mother when he was only four years old. Their progress was so
satisfactory, that after a while, professional musicians were engaged
to teach them piano, violin and composition, as a regular part of
their education. Besides these, they must study Greek, Latin, drawing
and school subjects. With so much study to be done each day, it was
necessary to begin work at five o'clock in the morning. But in spite
of hard work all were happy, and as for Felix nothing could dampen the
flow of his high spirits; he enjoyed equally work and play, giving the
same earnest attention to each. Both he and Fanny were beginning
to compose, and Felix's attempts at improvising upon some comical
incident in their play time would call forth peals of laughter from
the inseparable children.

Soon more ambitious attempts at composition were made, the aim being
to write little operas. But unless they could be performed, it was
useless to try and make operas. This was a serious difficulty; but
Felix was deeply in earnest in whatever he undertook, and decided he
must have an orchestra to try out his operatic efforts. It looked like
an impossibility, but love and money can accomplish wonders. A small
orchestra was duly selected from among the members of the Court band.
The lad Felix was to conduct these sedate musicians, which he did
modestly but without embarrassment, standing on a footstool before
his men, waving the baton like a little general. Before the first
performance was quite ready, Felix felt there must be some one present
who could really judge of the merits of his little piece. Who would
do so better than his old professor of thorough bass and composition,
Carl Zelter, the director of the Berlin Singakademie. Zelter agreed
to accept this delicate office, and a large number of friends were
invited for the occasion.

This was only the beginning of a series of weekly musical evenings at
the Mendelssohn home. Felix, with his dark curls, his shining eyes,
and charming manners, was the life of anything he undertook. He
often conducted his little pieces, but did not monopolize the time.
Sometimes all four children took part, Fanny at the piano, Rebekka
singing, Paul playing the 'cello and Felix at the desk. Old Zelter was
generally present, and though averse to praising pupils, would often
say a few words of encouragement at the close.

Felix was at this time but little more than twelve years old. He had
within the last year composed fifty or sixty pieces, including a trio
for piano and strings, containing three movements, several sonatas for
the piano, some songs and a musical comedy in three scenes, for
piano and voices. All these were written with the greatest care and
precision, and with the date of each neatly added. He collected his
pieces into volumes; and the more work he did the more neatly he
wrote.

The boy Felix had a wonderful gift for making friends. One day he
suddenly caught sight of Carl Maria von Weber walking along the
streets of Berlin, near his home. He recognized the famous composer at
once, as he had lately visited his parents. The boy's dark eyes glowed
with pleasure at the recognition, and tossing back his curls, he
sprang forward and threw his arms about Weber's neck, begging him to
go home with him. When the astonished musician recovered himself, he
presented the boy to Jules Benedict, his young friend and pupil who
walked at his side, saying, "This is Felix Mendelssohn." For response
Felix, with a bright look, seized the young man's hand in both his
own. Weber stood by smiling at the boy's enthusiasm. Again Felix
besought them to come home with him, but Weber had to attend a
rehearsal. "Is it for the opera?" the boy cried excitedly.

"Yes," answered the composer.

"Does he know all about it?" asked Felix, pointing to Benedict.

"Indeed he does," answered the composer laughing, "or if he doesn't he
ought to for he has been bored enough with it already." The boy's eyes
flashed.

"Then _you_, will come with me to my home, which is quite near, will
you not?" There was no refusing those appealing dark eyes. Felix again
embraced Weber, and then challenged his new friend, Mr. Benedict, to
race him to the door of his house. On entering he dragged the visitor
upstairs to the drawing-room, exclaiming, "Mama, Mama, here is a
gentleman, a pupil of Carl Weber, who knows all about the new opera,
'Der Freischuetz.'"

The young musician received a warm welcome, and was not able to leave
until he had played on the piano all the airs he could remember
from the wonderful new opera, which Weber had come to Berlin to
superintend. Benedict was so pleased with his first visit that he came
again. This time he found Felix writing music and asked what it was.
"I am finishing my new quartet for piano and strings," was the simple
reply. To say that Benedict was surprised at such an answer from a boy
of twelve hardly expresses what he felt. It was quite true he did not
yet know Felix Mendelssohn. "And now," said the boy, laying down his
pen, "I will play to you, to prove how grateful I am that you played
to us last time." He then sat down at the piano and played correctly
several melodies from "Der Freischuetz," which Benedict had played on
his first visit. After that they went into the garden, and Felix for
the moment, became a rollicking boy, jumping fences and climbing trees
like a squirrel.

Toward the close of this year, 1821, his teacher Zelter announced he
intended going to Wiemar, to see Goethe, the aged poet of Wiemar, and
was willing to take Felix with him. The poet's house at Wiemar was
indeed a shrine to the elect, and the chance of meeting the object
of so much hero worship, filled the impressionable mind of Felix with
reverential awe. Zelter on his part, felt a certain pride in bringing
his favorite pupil to the notice of the great man, though he would not
have permitted Felix to guess what he felt for anything he possessed.

When they arrived, Goethe was walking in his garden. He greeted both
with kindness and affection, and it was arranged that Felix should
play for him next day. Zelter had told Goethe much about his pupil's
unusual talents, but the poet wished to prove these accounts by his
own tests. Selecting piece after piece of manuscript music from his
collection, he asked the boy to play them at sight. He was able to do
so with ease, to the astonishment of the friends who had come in to
hear him. They were more delighted when he took a theme from one of
the pieces and improvised upon it. Withholding his praise, Goethe
announced he had a final test, and placed on the music desk a sheet
which seemed covered with mere scratches and blotches. The boy
laughingly exclaimed, "Who could ever read such writing as that?"
Zelter rose and came to the piano to look at this curiosity. "Why, it
is Beethoven's writing; one can see that a mile off! He always wrote
as if he used a broomstick for a pen, then wiped his sleeve over the
wet ink!"

The boy picked out the strange manuscript bit by bit; when he came to
the end he cried, "Now I will play it through for you," which he did
without a mistake. Goethe was well pleased and begged Felix to come
every day and play, while he was in the city. The two became fast
friends; the poet treated him as a son, and at parting begged he would
soon return to Wiemar, that they might again be together. During the
following summer the whole family made a tour through Switzerland,
much to the delight of Felix, who enjoyed every moment. There was
little time for real work in composition, but a couple of songs and
the beginning of a piano quartet were inspired by the view of Lake
Geneva and its exquisite surroundings.

When Felix returned to Berlin, he had grown much, physically as well
as mentally. He was now tall and strong, his curling locks had been
clipped, and he seemed at a single bound to have become almost a man.
His happy, boyish spirits, however, had not changed in the least.
About this time the family removed from their home on the Neue
Promenade, to a larger and more stately mansion, No. 3 Leipsiger
Strasse, then situated on the outskirts of the town, near the Potsdam
Gate. As those who know the modern city realize, this house, now no
longer a private residence, stands in the very heart of traffic and
business. The rooms of the new home were large and elegant, with
a spacious salon suitable for musicals and large functions. A fine
garden or park belonged to the house, where were lawns shaded by
forest trees, winding paths, flowering shrubs and arbors in shady
nooks, offering quiet retreats. Best of all there was a garden house,
with a central hall, which would hold several hundred people, having
long windows and glass doors looking out upon the trees and flowers.
Sunday concerts were soon resumed and given in the garden house,
where, on week days the young people met, with friends and elders, to
play, and act and enjoy the social life of the home. The mansion and
its hospitality became famous, and every great musician, at one time
or another, came to pay his respects and become acquainted with this
art-loving family.

At a family party in honor of Felix's fifteenth birthday, his teacher
Zelter saluted him as no longer an apprentice, but as an "assistant"
and member of the Brotherhood of Art. Very soon after this the young
composer completed two important works. The first was an Octet for
strings. He was not yet seventeen when the Octet was finished,
which was pronounced the most fresh and original work he had yet
accomplished. It marked a distinct stage in the gifted youth's
development. The composition which followed was the beautiful
"Midsummer Night's Dream" music. He and his sister Fanny had lately
made the acquaintance of Shakespeare through a German translation, and
had been fascinated by this fairy play. The young people spent much of
their time in the lovely garden that summer, and amid these delightful
surroundings the music was conceived.

The Overture was first to spring into being. When it was written
out, Felix and Fanny often played it as a duet. In this form the
composer-pianist Moscheles heard it and was impressed by its beauty.
The fascinating Scherzo and dreamy Nocturne followed. When all were
elaborated and perfected, the complete work was performed by the
garden house orchestra for a crowded audience, who abundantly
expressed their delight. Sir G. Macfarren has said of it: "No one
musical work contains so many points of harmony and orchestration that
are novel yet none of them have the air of experiment, but all seem to
have been written with a certainty of their success."

And now a great plan occupied Mendelssohn's mind, a project which had
been forming for some time; this was nothing less than to do something
to arouse people to know and appreciate the great works of Johann
Sebastian Bach. Two years before Felix had been presented with a
manuscript score of Bach's "Passion according to St. Matthew," which
Zelter had allowed to be copied from the manuscript preserved in the
Singakademie. The old man was a devoted lover of Bach's music, and
had taught his pupil in the same spirit. When Felix found himself the
possessor of this wonderful book, he set to work to master it, until
he knew every bit of it by heart. As he studied it deeply he was more
and more impressed with its beauty and sublimity. He could hardly
believe that this great work was unknown throughout Germany, since
more than a hundred years had passed since it had been written. He
determined to do something to arouse people from such apathy.

Talking the matter over with musicians and friends, he began to
interest them in the plan to study the music of the Passion. Soon
he had secured sixteen good voices, who rehearsed at his home once
a week. His enthusiasm fired them to study the music seriously, and
before very long they were anxious to give a public performance.
There was a splendid choir of nearly four hundred voices conducted by
Zelter, at the Singakademie; if he would only lend his chorus to give
a trial performance, under Mendelssohn's conducting, how splendid that
would be! But Felix knew that Zelter had no faith in the public taking
any interest in Bach, so there was no use asking. This opinion was
opposed by one of his little choir, named Devrient, who insisted that
Zelter should be approached on the subject. As he himself had been
a pupil of Zelter, he persuaded Mendelssohn to accompany him to the
director's house.

Zelter was found seated at his instrument, enveloped by a cloud of
smoke from a long stemmed pipe. Devrient unfolded the plan of bringing
this great work of Bach to the knowledge of the public. The old man
listened to their plea with growing impatience, until he became quite
excited, rose from his chair and paced the floor with great strides,
exclaiming, "No, it is not to be thought of--it is a mad scheme." To
Felix argument then seemed useless and he beckoned his friend to
come away, but Devrient refused to move, and kept up his persuasive
argument. Finally, as though a miracle had been wrought, Zelter began
to weaken, and at last gave in, and besides promised all the aid in
his power.

How this youth, not yet twenty, undertook the great task of preparing
this masterpiece, and what he accomplished is little short of the
marvelous. The public performance, conducted by Mendelssohn, took
place March 11, 1829, with every ticket sold and more than a thousand
persons turned away. A second performance was given on March 21, the
anniversary of Bach's birth, before a packed house. These performances
marked the beginning of a great Bach revival in Germany and England,
and the love for this music has never been lost, but increases each
year.

And now it seemed best for Felix to travel and see something of other
countries. He had long wished to visit England, and the present seemed
a favorable time, as his friends there assured him of a warm
welcome. The pleasure he felt on reaching London was increased by the
enthusiastic greeting he received at the hands of the musical public.
He first appeared at a Philharmonic concert on May 25, when his
Symphony in C minor was played. The next day he wrote to Fanny: "The
success of the concert last night was beyond all I had ever dreamed.
It began with my Symphony. I was led to the desk and received an
immense applause. The Adagio was encored, but I went on; the Scherzo
was so vigorously applauded that I had to repeat it. After the Finale
there was lots more applause, while I was thanking the orchestra and
shaking hands, till I left the room."

A continual round of functions interspersed with concerts at which he
played or conducted, filled the young composer's time. The overture to
"Midsummer Night's Dream" was played several times and always received
with enthusiasm. On one occasion a friend was so careless as to leave
the manuscript in a hackney coach on his way home and it was lost.
"Never mind, I will write another," said Mendelssohn, which he was
able to do, without making a single error.

When the London season closed, Mendelssohn and his friend Klingemann
went up to Scotland, where he was deeply impressed with the varied
beauty of the scenery. Perhaps the Hebrides enthralled him most, with
their lonely grandeur. His impressions have been preserved in the
Overture to "Fingal's Cave," while from the whole trip he gained
inspiration for the Scottish Symphony.

On his return to London and before he could set out for Berlin, Felix
injured his knee, which laid him up for several weeks, and prevented
his presence at the home marriage of his sister Fanny, to William
Hensel, the young painter. This was a keen disappointment to all, but
Fanny was not to be separated from her family, as on Mendelssohn's
return, he found the young couple had taken up their residence in the
Gartenhaus.

Mendelssohn had been greatly pleased with his London visit, and though
the grand tour he had planned was really only begun, he felt a strong
desire to return to England. However, other countries had to be
visited first. The following May he started south, bound for Vienna,
Florence and Rome. His way led through Wiemar and gave opportunity for
a last visit to Goethe. They passed a number of days in sympathetic
companionship. The poet always wanted music, but did not seem to care
for Beethoven's compositions, which he said did not touch him at all,
though he felt they were great, astonishing.

After visiting numerous German cities, Switzerland was reached and
its wonderful scenery stirred Mendelssohn's poetic soul to the depths.
Yet, though his passionate love of nature was so impressed by the
great mountains, forests and waterfalls, it was the sea which he loved
best of all. As he approached Naples, and saw the sea sparkling in
the sun lighted bay, he exclaimed: "To me it is the finest object in
nature! I love it almost more than the sky. I always feel happy when
I see before me the wide expanse of water." Rome, of course, was a
center of fascination. Every day he picked out some special object
of interest to visit, which made that particular day one never to
be forgotten. The tour lasted until the spring of 1832, before
Mendelssohn returned to his home in Berlin, only to leave it shortly
afterwards to return to London. This great city, in spite of its fogs,
noises and turmoil, appealed to him more than the sunshine of Naples,
the fascination of Florence or the beauty of Rome.

The comment on Mendelssohn that "he lived years where others only
lived weeks," gives a faint idea of the fulness with which his time
was occupied. It is only possible to touch on his activities in
composition, for he was always at work. In May 1836 when he was
twenty-seven, he conducted in Duesseldorf the first performance of his
oratorio of "St. Paul." At this period he wrote many of those charming
piano pieces which he called "Songs without Words." This same year
brought deepest happiness to Mendelssohn, in his engagement to Cecile
Jean-Renaud, the beautiful daughter of a French Protestant clergyman.
The following spring they were married, a true marriage of love and
stedfast devotion.

The greatest work of Mendelssohn's career was his oratorio of
"Elijah" which had long grown in his mind, until it was on the eve
of completion in the spring of 1846. In a letter to the famous singer
Jenny Lind, an intimate friend, he writes: "I am jumping about my
room for joy. If my work turns out half as good as I fancy it is, how
pleased I shall be."

During these years in which he conceived the "Elijah," his fame had
spread widely. Honors had been bestowed on him by many royalties.
The King of Saxony had made him Capellmeister of his Court, and Queen
Victoria had shown him many proofs of personal regard, which endeared
him more than ever to the country which had first signally recognized
his genius.

It was Leipsic perhaps which felt the power of his genius most
conclusively. The since famous Leipsic Conservatory was founded
by him, and he was unceasing in his labors to advance art in every
direction. He also found time to carry out a long cherished plan to
erect, at the threshold of the Thomas School, Leipsic, a monument to
the memory of Sebastian Bach.

Let us take one more glimpse of our beloved composer. It was the
morning of August 26, 1846. The Town Hall of Birmingham, England,
was filled with an expectant throng, for today the composer of the
"Elijah" was to conduct his greatest work, for the first time before
an English audience. When Mendelssohn stepped upon the platform, he
was greeted by a deafening shout; the reception was overwhelming, and
at the close the entire audience sprang to its feet in a frenzy of
admiration. He wrote to his brother Paul that evening: "No work of
mine ever went so admirably at the first performance, or was received
with such enthusiasm both by musicians and public." During April the
following year, four performances of the "Elijah" took place in Exeter
Hall, the composer conducting, the Queen and Prince Albert being
present on the second occasion. This visit to England which was to be
his last, had used his strength to the limit of endurance, and there
was a shadow of a coming breakdown. Soon after he rejoined his family
in Frankfort, his sister Fanny suddenly passed away in Berlin.
The news was broken to him too quickly, and with a shriek he fell
unconscious to the floor.

From this shock he never seemed to rally, though at intervals for a
while, he still composed. His death occurred November 4, 1847. It
can be said of him that his was a beautiful life, in which "there was
nothing to tell that was not honorable to his memory and profitable to
all men."

Mendelssohn's funeral was imposing. The first portion was solemnized
at Leipsic, attended by crowds of musicians and students, one of the
latter bearing on a cushion a silver crown presented by his pupils of
the Conservatory. Beside the crown rested the Order "Pour le Merite,"
conferred on him by the King of Prussia. The band, during the long
procession, played the E minor "Song without Words," and at the close
of the service the choir sang the final chorus from Bach's "Passion."
The same night the body was taken to Berlin and placed in the family
plot in the old Dreifaltigkeit Kirch-hof, beside that of his devoted
sister Fanny.




XI

ROBERT SCHUMANN


Many of the composers whose life stories we have read were surrounded
by musical atmosphere from their earliest years; Robert Schumann seems
to have been an exception. His father, August Schumann, was the son
of a poor pastor, and the boy August was intended to be brought up a
merchant. At the age of fifteen he was put into a store in Nonneburg.
He was refined in his tastes, loved books, and tried even in boyhood
to write poetry. He seemed destined, however, to live the life marked
out for him, at least for a time. It grew so distasteful, that later
he gave it up and, on account of extreme poverty, returned to his
parents' home, where he had the leisure to write. At last he secured
a position in a book store in Zeitz. In this little town he met the
daughter of his employer. The engagement was allowed on the condition
that he should leave the book store and set up his own business. But
where was the money to come from? He left the store, returned home
and in a year and a half had earned a thousand thalers, then quite a
handsome sum.

He now claimed the hand of his chosen love and established in the book
business, labored so unceasingly, that the business increased. Then
he moved to a more favorable location, choosing the mining town of
Zwickau, in Saxony.

Here, this industrious, honorable man and his attractive, intelligent,
but rather narrow and uneducated young wife lived out their lives, and
brought up their children, of whom Robert, born June 8, 1810, was
the youngest; before him there were three brothers and a sister. All
passed away before Robert himself.

He was the so-called "handsome child" of the family, and much petted
by the women. Besides his mother there was his god-mother, who was
very fond of him, and at her home he would spend whole days and
nights. As his talents developed, the boy became the spoilt darling of
everybody. This lay at the foundation of his extreme susceptibility,
even the obstinacy of his riper years.

Little Robert at six was sent to a popular private school and now for
the first time mingled with a number of children of his own age.
The first symptoms of ambition, the source of much of his later
achievement, began to show itself, though quite unconsciously. It made
him the life of all childish games. If the children played "soldiers,"
little Robert was always captain. The others loved his good nature and
friendliness, and always yielded to him.

He was a good student in the primary school, but in no way
distinguished himself in his studies. The following year he was
allowed to take piano lessons of an old pedantic professor from
Zwickau High School. This man had taught himself music, but had heard
little of it. The kind of instruction he was able to give may be
imagined, yet Robert was faithful all his life to this kind old
friend.

In spite of inadequate guidance, music soon kindled the boy's soul.
He began to try to make music himself, though entirely ignorant of
the rules of composition. The first of these efforts, a set of little
dances, were written during his seventh or eighth year. It was soon
discovered that he could improvise on the piano; indeed he could
sketch the disposition of his companions by certain figures on the
piano, so exactly and comically that every one burst out laughing
at the portraits. He was fond of reading too, much to his father's
delight, and early tried his hand at authorship. He wrote robber
plays, which he staged with the aid of the family and such of his
youthful friends as were qualified. The father now began to hope
his favorite son would become an author or poet; but later Robert's
increasing love for music put this hope to flight.

The father happened to take his boy with him to Carlsbad in the summer
of 1819, and here he heard for the first time a great pianist, Ignatz
Moscheles. His masterful playing made a great impression on the nine
year old enthusiast, who began now to wish to become a musician, and
applied himself to music with redoubled zeal. He also made such
good progress at school that at Easter 1820 he was able to enter the
Zwickau Academy.

The love for music grew with each day. With a boy of his own age,
as devoted as himself to music, four-hand works of Haydn, Mozart and
Beethoven, as well as pieces by Weber, Hummel and Czerny, were played
almost daily. The greatest ecstasy was caused by the arrival of a
Steck piano at the Schumann home, which showed that father Schumann
endeavored to further his boy's taste for music. About this time
Robert found by chance, the orchestral score of an old Italian
overture. He conceived the bold idea of performing it. So a bit of
an orchestra was gathered among the boys he knew, who could play an
instrument. There were two violins, two flutes, a clarinet and two
horns. Robert, who conducted with great fervor, supplied as best he
could the other parts on the piano.

This effort was a great incentive to the boys, principally to Robert,
who began to arrange things for his little band and composed music for
the one hundred fiftieth Psalm. This was in his twelfth year.

August Schumann was more and more convinced that Providence had
intended his son to become a musician, and though the mother struggled
against it, he resolved to see that Robert had a musical education.
Carl Maria von Weber, then living in Dresden, was written to, and
answered he was willing to accept the boy as a student. The plan never
came to anything however, for what reason is not known. The boy was
left now to direct his own musical studies, just when he needed an
expert guiding hand. He had no rivals in his native town, where he
sometimes appeared as a pianist. It was no wonder he thought he was on
the right road, and that he tried more than ever to win his mother's
consent to his following music as a life work.

And now a great change took place in the lively, fun-loving boy.
He seemed to lose his gay spirits and become reflective, silent and
reserved. This condition of mind never left him, but grew into a
deeper reserve as the years passed.

Two events deeply stirred Robert's nature with great force--the death
of his father in 1826, and his acquaintance with the works of Jean
Paul. The Jean Paul fever attacked him in all its transcendentalism,
and this influence remained through life, with more or less intensity.

After his father left him, Robert found he must make a choice of a
profession. His mother had set her heart on his making a study of law,
while his heart was set on music. Yielding to her wishes for a time he
went to Leipsic in March 1828 to prepare to enter the University as
a student of law. He also gained consent to study piano at the same
time, and began lessons with Frederick Wieck. The desire to study with
Wieck was inspired by the piano playing of his little daughter, Clara,
then nine years old, who had already gained a considerable degree of
musical culture and promised to make her mark as a pianist.

Under his new teacher, Robert for the first time was obliged to study
a rational system of technic and tone production. He was also expected
to learn harmony correctly, but strangely enough he seemed to take no
interest in it, even saying he thought such knowledge useless. He held
to this foolish idea for some time, not giving it up till forced to by
realizing his total ignorance of this branch of the art.

Robert now became greatly impressed by the genius of Franz Schubert.
He eagerly played everything the master had composed for the piano,
both for two and four hands, and Schubert's death during this year,
filled him with profound grief. The young musical friends with whom
Robert had become intimate, while living in Leipsic, shared his
enthusiasm about his hero of German song, and they desired to enlarge
their knowledge of Schubert's work. They did more, for they decided
to take one representative composition and practise together till they
had reached the highest perfection. The choice fell on the Trio in B
flat major, Op. 99, whose beauties had greatly impressed them. After
much loving labor the performance was well nigh perfect. Schumann
arranged a musical party at which the Trio was played. Besides
students and friends, Wieck was invited and given the seat of honor.

This musical evening was the forerunner of many others. Weekly
meetings were held in Robert's room, where much music was played
and discussed. The talk often turned to grand old Bach and his
"Well-tempered Clavichord," to which in those early days, he gave
ardent study.

With all this music study and intercourse with musical friends there
was very little time left for the study of law. Yet he still kept
up appearances by attending the lectures, and had intended for some
months to enter the Heidelberg University. This decision was put into
execution in May 1829, when he started by coach for Heidelberg.

We find Robert Schumann at nineteen domiciled in the beautiful city of
Heidelberg, and surrounded by a few musical friends, who were kindred
spirits. With a good piano in his room, the "life of flowers," as
he called it, began. Almost daily they made delightful trips in a
one-horse carriage into the suburbs. For longer trips they went to
Baden-Baden, Wurms, Spires and Mannheim. Whenever Robert went with
his friends he always carried a small "dumb piano" on which he
industriously practised finger exercises, meanwhile joining in the
conversation. During the following August and September, Robert and
two or three chosen companions made a delightful journey through
Italy, the young man preparing himself by studying Latin, in which he
became so fluent that he could translate poems from one language to
the other.

The next winter Robert devoted himself to music more than
ever--"played the piano much," as he says. His skill as a pianist
gradually became known in Heidelberg and he frequently played in
private houses. But he was not content with the regular study of
the piano. He wanted to get ahead faster and invented some sort of a
device to render his fourth finger more firm and supple. It did not
have the desired effect however, but was the means in time of injuring
his hands so that he never could attain the piano virtuosity he
dreamed of.

Before starting on the trip to Italy just mentioned, he felt that a
decision must be reached about his music. It had become as the breath
of life to him. He wrote his mother and laid bare his heart to her.
"My whole life has been a twenty years struggle between poetry and
prose, or let us say--between music and law. If I follow my own bent,
it points, as I believe correctly, to music. Write yourself to Wieck
at Leipsic and ask him frankly what he thinks of me and my plan. Beg
him to answer at once and decisively." The letter was duly written to
Wieck, who decided in favor of Robert and his plans.

Robert on hearing his decision was wild with joy. He wrote an
exuberant letter to Wieck promising to be most submissive as a piano
pupil and saying "whole pailfuls of very very cold theory can do me no
harm and I will work at it without a murmur. I give myself up wholly
to you."

With a heart full of hope, young Schumann returned to Leipsic, which
he had gladly left more than a year before. It was during this early
resumption of piano lessons with Wieck that he began the treatment
which he thought would advance his technic in such a marvelously
short time. He fastened his third finger into a machine, of his own
invention, then practised unceasingly with the other four. At last
he lost control over the muscles of the right hand, to his great
distress. He now practised unremittingly with the left hand, which
gained great facility, remarkable long after he had given up piano
playing.

Under these difficulties piano lessons with Wieck had to be given
up and were never resumed. He studied theory for a short time with
Kupach, but soon relinquished this also. He was now free to direct his
own path in music and to study--study, and compose.

One of the first pieces he wrote was "The
Papillons"--"Butterflies,"--published as Op. 2. It was dedicated to
his three sisters-in-law, of all of whom he was very fond. In the
various scenes of the Butterflies there are allusions to persons and
places known to the composer; the whimsical spirit of Jean Paul broods
over the whole.

Robert began to realize more and more his lack of thorough theoretical
knowledge and applied to Dorn, who stood high in the musical
profession in Leipsic. On his introduction, in spite of his lame hand
he played his "Abegg Variations," published as Op. 1, and Dorn was
willing to accept the timid quiet youth as pupil. He studied with
great ardor, going from the A.B.C. to the most involved counterpoint.

Thus passed two or three busy years. Part of the time Schumann had
a room in the house of his teacher Wieck and thus was thrown more or
less in the society of Clara Wieck, now a young girl of thirteen or
fourteen. Later he gave up his room--though not his intimate relations
with the family--and moved to a summer residence in Riedel's Garden,
where he spent the days in music and the evenings with his friends.

The year 1833, was one of the most remarkable in his life so far.
Not the least important event was the establishment of the "Neue
Zeitschrift fuer Musik." Schumann himself says of this:--

"At the close of the year '33, a number of musicians, mostly young,
met in Leipsic every evening, apparently by accident at first, but
really for the interchange of ideas on all musical subjects. One day
the young hot heads exclaimed: 'Why do we look idly on? Let's take
hold and make things better.' Thus the new Journal for music began.

"The youthful, fresh and fiery tone of the Journal is to be in
sharp contrast to the characterless, worn-out Leipsic criticism. The
elevation of German taste, the encouragement of young talent must be
our goal. We write not to enrich tradespeople, but to honor artists."

Schumann took up arms in favor of the younger generation of musicians
and helped make the fame of many now held in the world's highest
esteem. Sometimes, he admits, his ardor carried him too far in
recognition of youthful talent, but in the main he was very just
in his estimates. We do not forget how his quick commendation aided
Brahms.

The young musicians who founded the paper had formed themselves also
into an alliance, which they called the Davidsbuendlerschaft. The
idea of this alliance, which was derived from David's war with the
Philistines, seemed to exist only in the mind of Schumann himself.
It gave him a chance to write under the name of different characters,
chief of whom were Florestan and Eusebius, between whom stood Master
Raro. In Florestan Schumann expressed the powerful, passionate side of
his nature, and in Eusebius the mild and dreamy side.

He wrote to a friend: "Florestan and Eusebius are my double nature,
which I would gladly--like Raro--melt down into one man." As time
passed however, he made less and less use of these fanciful images
until they finally seemed to fade out of his mind.

An important event of 1834, was Schumann's acquaintance with Ernestine
von Fricken, who came to Leipsic from the little town of Asch, on
the Bohemian border. She lived at the Wiecks', expecting to become a
pianist under Papa Wieck's tuition. Schumann became greatly interested
in Ernestine and for some time he had in mind an engagement with her.
The noble "Etudes Symphoniques" were written this year. The theme was
suggested by Ernestine's father. The "Carnival" was partly written
in this year, but not completed till the following year. In this
collection of charming short pieces he brings in the characters of his
dreams,--Florestan, Eusebius, Chiarina (Clara), Estrella (Ernestine).
There is the March against the Philistines, and the titles of many
other of the little pieces are characteristic. It is a true Schumann
composition, full of his traits. Here we have the sweet, graceful,
elegant and the very humorous and comical finale.

The tone creations of 1835 consist of the two Sonatas, F sharp minor,
Op. 11 and G minor, Op. 22, which are held by pianists to be among his
most interesting and poetical works.

By the next year Schumann had suffered a deep sorrow in the loss of
his mother, and also his love for Ernestine began to cool, until the
partial bond was amicably dissolved. Meanwhile his affection for
Clara Wieck, who was just budding into womanhood, began to ripen into
devoted love. This, too, was the beginning of the long struggle for
the possession of his beloved, since the father had opposed such a
connection from beginning to end. Schumann wrote a friend in 1839:
"Truly from the struggle Clara has cost me, much music has been caused
and created; the Concerto, Sonatas, Davidsbuendler Dances, Kreisleriana
and Novellettes are the result." Beyond the compositions just
mentioned, he relieved his oppressed heart by a composition rich in
meaning--nothing less than the great Fantaisie, Op. 17. He meant to
contribute the profits from its sale to the fund for the erection of a
monument to Beethoven. The titles to the three movements were "Ruins,"
"Triumphal Arch," "Starry Crown." He afterwards gave up the whole
idea, and dedicated the work to Franz Liszt.

Schumann lived a quiet, busy life, and if he could have gained
the consent of Clara's father for their union, he would have been
supremely happy. He feared the principal reason of Wieck's refusal was
that the young man should earn more money first, before thinking of
settling down with a wife. Robert therefore reverted more seriously to
a plan he had thought of, to go to Vienna, and move his paper to that
city, hoping to better his fortunes. He felt, too, that he ought to
travel, as he had remained in Leipsic for eight years without change.

Thus, by the end of September, 1838, Schumann started for Vienna with
many high hopes. A friend invited him to remain at his house, which
was of much advantage. He made many calls and visits, saw musicians
and publishers, and really learned to know the city for itself. He
found it would not be profitable for him to publish the Journal there,
also that the Austrian capital was a no more propitious place to make
one's fortune than the smaller town of Leipsic. However he was able to
compose a number of works which have become among the best known and
beloved of all, including the "Arabesque," "Faschingsschwank," or
"Carnival Strains from Vienna," the "Night Pieces," Op. 24, and other
short compositions.

When Robert discovered Vienna was not the city to prosper in, he
thought of a return to Leipsic, to win his bride. He came back in
April, and succeeded, with the help of legal proceedings, in securing
Clara's hand in marriage. This was in 1840. From now on Schumann began
to write songs. In this one year he composed as many as a hundred and
thirty-eight songs, both large and small. He writes at this time: "The
best way to cultivate a taste for melody, is to write a great deal for
the voice and for independent chorus."

He now began to express himself not only in song but in orchestral
music. His first effort was the beautiful B flat major Symphony,
which, with the songs of that time seems to embody all the happiness
he enjoyed in winning his Clara. She proved a most admirable helpmate,
trying to shield him from interruptions and annoyance of every sort,
so he should have his time undisturbed for his work. Thus many of
his best compositions came into being in the early years of wedded
happiness.

This retirement was interrupted in 1844, by a long concert tour
planned by Clara. She was firmly decided to go and made Robert
solemnly promise to accompany her to St. Petersburg. He was loath
to leave the quiet he loved, but it had to be done. Clara had great
success everywhere, as a pianist, giving many recitals during their
travels from place to place. From Russia the artist pair went to
Helsingfors, Stockholm and Copenhagen. They started on their tour in
January and did not reach home till the first of June.

Schumann now seemed to lose interest in the Journal and expressed
a wish to withdraw from it and live only for his creative art. An
alarming state of health--both mind and body--seemed to make this
retirement desirable. Perhaps owing to this condition of health he
decided to leave Leipsic for good and make his home in Dresden. He and
his wife took formal leave of Leipsic in a Matinee musical given on
the eighth of December.

But life in Dresden became even more strenuous and more racking than
it had been in Leipsic. He threw himself into the labor of composing
the epilogue of Goethe's "Faust" with such ardor that he fell into
an intensely nervous state where work was impossible. However, with
special medical treatment he so far recovered that he was able to
resume the work, but still was not himself. We can divine from brief
remarks he let drop from time to time, that he lived in constant
fear--fear of death, insanity or disaster of some kind. He could
not bear the sight of Sonnenstein, an insane asylum near Dresden.
Mendelssohn's sudden death in November, 1847, was a great shock and
preyed on his mind.

Schumann had intervals of reprieve from these morbid dreams, and
he again began to compose with renewed--almost abnormal--vigor and
productiveness.

The artist pair took a trip to Vienna where Clara gave several
concerts. They spent some weeks there and before returning to Dresden,
gave two splendid concerts in Prague, where Schumann received a
perfect ovation for his piano quintette and some songs. A little
later the two artists made a trip north. In Berlin Robert conducted
a performance of "Paradise and the Peri" at the Singakademie, while
Clara gave two recitals.

This year of 1847 was a very active one outside of the musical
journeys. The master composed several piano trios, much choral music,
and began the opera "Genevieve," which was not completed however,
until the middle of 1848. All the compositions of the previous year
were perfectly lucid and sane. The opera unfortunately had a text from
which all the beauty and romance had been left out.

The music, however, revealed a rare quality of creative power,
combined with deep and noble feeling. Schumann's nature was more
lyric than dramatic; he was not born to write for the stage. The lyric
portions of his opera are much the best. He did not realize that
he failed on the dramatic side in his work, indeed seemed quite
unconscious of the fact.

"Genevieve" was given in Leipsic in June 1850, directed by the
composer. Two more performances were given and then the work was laid
away.

In 1848, Schumann, who loved children dearly and often stopped his
more serious work to write for them, composed the "Album for the
Young," Op. 68, a set of forty-two pieces. The title originally was:
"Christmas Album for Children who like to play the Piano." How many
children, from that day to this have loved those little pieces, the
"Happy Farmer," "Wild Rider," "First Loss," "Reaper's Song," and all
the rest. Even the great pianists of our time are not above performing
these little classics in public. They are a gift, unique in musical
literature, often imitated, but never equaled by other writers.
Schumann wrote of them: "The first thing in the Album I wrote for my
oldest child's birthday. It seems as if I were beginning my life as a
composer anew, and there are traces of the old human here and there.
They are decidedly different from 'Scenes from Childhood' which are
retrospective glances by a parent, and for elders, while 'Album for
the Young' contains hopes, presentments and peeps into futurity _for
the young_."

After the children's Album came the music to Byron's "Manfred." This
consists of an overture and fifteen numbers. The whole work, with one
exception, is deep in thought and masterly in conception. The
overture especially is one of his finest productions, surpassing other
orchestral works in intellectual grandeur.

A choral club of sixty-seven members, of which Schumann was the
director, inspired him to compose considerable choral music, and his
compositions of this time, 1848-9, were numerous.

The intense creative activity of 1849 was followed by a period of
rest when the artist pair made two trips from Dresden, early in 1850.
Leipsic, Bremen, and Hamburg were visited. Most of the time in Hamburg
was spent with Jenny Lind, who sang at his last two concerts.

The late summer of 1850 brought Schumann an appointment of director of
music in Duesseldorf, left vacant by the departure of Ferdinand Hiller
for Cologne. Schumann and his wife went to Duesseldorf the first week
of September and were received with open arms. A banquet and concert
were arranged, at which some of the composer's important works were
performed. His duties in the new post were conducting the subscription
concerts, weekly rehearsals of the Choral Club and other musical
performances. He seemed well content with the situation and it did not
require too much of his physical strength.

Outside of his official duties his passion for work again gained the
ascendent. From November 2, to December 9, he sketched and completed
the Symphony in E flat in five parts, a great work, equal to any of
the other works in this form.

From this time on, one important composition followed another, until
increasing illness forshadowed the sad catastrophe of the early part
of 1854. He wrote in June 1851, "we are all tolerably well, except
that I am the victim of occasional nervous attacks; a few days ago I
fainted after hearing Radecke play the organ." These nervous attacks
increased in 1852. He could not think music in rapid tempo and wished
everything slow. He heard special tones to the exclusion of all
others.

The close of 1853, brought two joyful events to Schumann. In October
he met Johann Brahms, whom he had introduced to the world through his
Journal, as the "Messiah of Art." In November he and his wife took a
trip through Holland, which was a triumphal procession. He found his
music almost as well known in Holland as at home. In Rotterdam and
Utrecht his third symphony was performed; in The Hague the second was
given, also "The Pilgrimage of the Rose." Clara also played at many
concerts.

Just before Christmas the artist pair returned to Duesseldorf.

The hallucinations which had before obsessed him now returned with
alarming force. He could no longer sleep--he seemed to be lost in
mental darkness.

One day in February 1854, his physician made a noon call upon him.
They sat chatting when suddenly Schumann left the room without a word.
The doctor and his friends supposed he would return. His wife went in
search of him. It seems he had left the house in dressing-gown, gone
to the Rhine bridge and thrown himself into the river. Some sailors
rescued him.

He now received constant care, and it was found best to place him in
a private hospital near Bonn. Here he remained till the end of July,
1856, when the end came.

In his death the world of music lost one of the most highly gifted
spirits. His life was important and instructive for its moral and
intellectual grandeur, its struggles for the noblest, loftiest
subjects as well as for its truly great results.




XII

FREDERIC CHOPIN


What would the piano playing world do without the music of Frederic
Chopin? We can hardly think of the piano without thinking of Chopin,
since he wrote almost exclusively for the universal instrument. His
music touches the heart always rather than the head, the emotional
message far outweighs the intellectual meaning. It is vital
music--love music, winning the heart by its tenderness, voicing the
highest sentiments by its refinement, its purity, its perfection of
detail and finish.

And the man who could compose with such refinement, with such
appealing eloquence, must have possessed those qualities which
shine out in his music. He must have been gentle, chivalrous,
high-thoughted. We cannot avoid expressing ourselves in our work--in
whatever we do.

The father of this beloved composer was a Frenchman, born in Nancy,
Lorraine, in 1770, the same year Beethoven saw the light in Bonn. He
was carefully brought up, well-bred and well-educated. When a friend
of his in Warsaw, Poland, in the tobacco and snuff trade, then in high
repute with the nobility, needed help with his book-keeping, he sent
for the seventeen-year-old lad. Thus it happened that Nicholas Chopin
came to Warsaw in 1787. It was a time of unrest, when the nation was
struggling for liberty and independence. The young man applied himself
to master the language, and study the character and needs of his
adopted country, that he might be well informed. During the period of
insecurity in political affairs, the tobacco factory had to be closed
and Nicholas Chopin looked for other activity. A few years later we
find him in the household of Countess Skarbek, as a tutor to her son,
Frederic. Here he met his bride, Justina de Krzyzanowska, a young
lady of noble but poor family, whom he married in 1806. She became the
mother of his four children, three girls and a boy.

The boy Frederic Chopin, was born on March 1, 1809, in the little
village of Zelazowa Wola, belonging to the Countess Skarbek, about
twenty-eight miles from Warsaw. It is probable the family did not
remain here long, for the young husband was on the lookout for more
profitable employment. He was successful, for on October 1, 1810,
he was appointed Professor of French in the newly founded Lyceum in
Warsaw. He also soon organized a boarding school for boys in his own
home, which was patronized by the best Polish families of the country.

Surrounded by refined, cultivated people, in an atmosphere at once
moral and intellectual, little Frederic passed a fortunate childhood.
He soon manifested such fondness for music, especially for the piano,
that his parents allowed him to have lessons, his teacher being
Adalbert Zywny, the best-known master of the city. It is related that
Zywny only taught his little pupil first principles, for the child's
progress was so extraordinary that before long he had mastered all
his teacher could impart, and at twelve he was left to shape his own
musical destiny.

He early gave proofs of his talents. Before he was eight years old
he played at a large evening company, with such surprising cleverness
that it was predicted he would become another Mozart. The next year he
was invited to take part in a large concert given under distinguished
patronage. The boy was a simple, modest child, and played the piano as
the bird sings, with unconscious art. When he returned home after this
concert, his mother asked: "What did the people like best?" and he
answered naively: "Oh, mama, every one was looking at my collar."

After this, little Frederic became more than ever the pet of the
aristocracy of Warsaw; his charming manners, his unspoiled nature, his
musical gifts made him welcome in princely homes. He had also begun
to compose; indeed these efforts started soon after he began piano
lessons, and before he could handle a pen. His teacher had to write
down what the little composer played. Among those early pieces were
mazurkas, polonaises, valses and the like. At the age of ten he
dedicated a march to Grand Duke Constantine, who had it scored for
band and played on parade. He started lessons in composition with
Joseph Eisner, a celebrated teacher, who became a life-long adviser
and friend.

Up to the age of fifteen, Frederic was taught at home, in his father's
school. He now entered the Warsaw Lyceum, and proved a good student,
twice carrying off a prize. With this studiousness was joined a gaiety
and sprightliness that manifested itself in all sorts of fun and
mischief. He loved to play pranks on his sisters, comrades and others,
and had a fondness for caricature, taking off the peculiarities of
those about him with pose and pen. Indeed it was the opinion of a
clever member of the profession, that the lad was born to become a
great actor. All the young Chopins had a great fondness for literature
and writing; they occasionally tried their hand at poetry, and the
production of original one-act plays, written for birthday fetes and
family parties.

The most important event of Frederic's fifteenth year was the
publication of his first composition for piano, a Rondo in C minor.
This was soon followed by a set of Variations, Op. 2, on an air from
Mozart's "Don Giovanni." In these early pieces, written perhaps even
before he was fifteen, we find the first stages of his peculiar style.
Even at this early time he was pleased with chords that had the tones
spread apart in extended harmony. As his hands were small he invented
a contrivance which separated the fingers as far apart as possible,
in order that he might reach the new chords more easily. This he wore
even during the night. The contrivance however, did not result in
injury to his hands, as did Schumann's efforts to strengthen his
fourth finger.

In 1827, Chopin finished his studies at the Lyceum and determined
to adopt music as his profession. He was now seventeen, of slender
figure, finely cut features, high forehead, delicate brows above
dreamy, soulful eyes. Though not weak or sickly, as some accounts make
out, he was never very robust; he would far rather lie under beautiful
trees in delightful day dreams, than take long excursions afoot. One
of his aversions was smoking or tobacco in any form; he never used it
in his whole life. He was vivacious, active, hard working at music and
reasonably healthy in early youth, but not of a hardy organism. His
mother and sisters constantly cautioned him to wrap up in cold or damp
weather, and like an obedient son and good brother, he obeyed.

Young Chopin greatly wished to travel and see something of the
world. A much longed-for opportunity to visit Berlin came to him the
following year. An old friend of his father's, Dr. Jarocki, Professor
in the Warsaw University, was invited to attend a Philosophic
Congress, presided over by Alexander von Humboldt, to be held in that
city. The good Professor was willing to take his friend's son under
his wing, and Frederic was quite beside himself with joy, for now he
believed he could meet some of the musical celebrities of Berlin, and
hear some great music. As to the latter his hopes were realized, but
he did not meet many musicians, and could only gaze at them from a
distance. It may have been a certain shyness and reticence that stood
in the way, for he wrote home about a concert in the Singakademie:
"Spontini, Zelter and Felix Mendelssohn were all there, but I spoke to
none of these gentlemen, as I did not think it becoming to introduce
myself." Music and things connected with music, music-shops and piano
factories, took up most of his time, as he declined to attend the
meetings of the Congress.

"At the time of the Berlin visit," writes Niecks, his biographer,
"Chopin was a lively, well-educated, well-mannered youth, who walked
through life, pleased with its motley garb, but as yet unconscious
of the deeper truths, the immensities of joy and sadness, of love and
hate, which lie beneath the surface."

After a stay of two weeks in the Prussian capital, Professor Jarocki
and Frederic started on their return to Poland. During the journey
they were obliged to halt an hour for fresh horses. Chopin began to
look about the little inn for some sort of amusement to while away the
time. He soon discovered in a corner, an old piano, which proved to
be in tune. Of course he lost no time, but sat down and began to
improvise on Polish melodies. Soon his fellow passengers of the
stage-coach began to drop in one after another; at last came the post
master with his wife and pretty daughter. Even when the hour was
up and the horses had been put to the chaise, they begged the young
musician to go on and on. Although he remonstrated, saying it was now
time to go, they protested so convincingly that the boy sat down again
and resumed his playing. Afterwards wine was brought in and they all
drank to the health of the young master. Chopin gave them a mazurka
for farewell, then the tall post master caught him up and carried him
out to the coach, and all travelers started away in high spirits.

About the middle of July, 1829, Chopin with three young friends,
started out for Vienna. In those days an artist, in order to make
himself and his work known, had to travel about the world and arrange
concerts here and there, introduce himself to prominent people in each
place and make them acquainted with his gifts. The present journey had
for its object Vienna, the city of Beethoven and Schubert and other
great masters.

Of course the young musician carried many letters of introduction,
both to publishers and influential persons, for whom he played. Every
one told him he ought to give a concert, that it would be a disgrace
to parents, teachers and to himself not to appear in public. At last
Frederic overcame his hesitation. In a letter home he writes; "I have
made up my mind; they tell me I shall create a furore, that I am an
artist of the first rank, worthy of a place beside Moscheles, Herz
and Kalbrenner," well-known musicians of the day. One must forgive the
nineteen year old boy, if he felt a little pride in being classed with
these older and more famous musicians.

The concert took place in the Imperial Opera House, just ten days
after his arrival, and from all accounts was a great success. Chopin
was more than satisfied, he was delighted. Indeed his success was so
emphatic that a second concert was given the following week. In both
he played some of his own compositions and improvised as well.

"It goes crescendo with my popularity here, and this gives me much
pleasure," he wrote home, at the end of the fortnight, and on the eve
of starting to return. On the way back the travelers visited Prague,
Teplitz and Dresden. A couple of days were spent in each, and then the
party arrived safely in Warsaw.

With such an intense nature, friendship and love were two vital forces
controlling life and action. Chopin was devoted to his friends; he
clung to them with effusive ardor, incomprehensible to those less
sensitive and romantic. With Titus Woyciechowski he was heart to heart
in closest intimacy, and wrote him the most adoring letters when they
chanced to be separated. Titus was less demonstrative, but always
remained devoted.

Love for women was destined to play a large part in the inner life of
Chopin. The first awakening of this feeling came from his admiration
of Constantia Gladowska, a beautiful girl and vocal pupil at the
Conservatory at Warsaw. Strangely enough he admired the young lady for
some time at a distance, and if report be true, never really declared
himself to her. But she filled his thoughts by day, and he confessed
to dreaming of her each night. When she made her debut in opera, he
hung on every note she sang and rejoiced in her success but did not
make his feelings known to her. All this pent-up emotion was confined
to his piano, in impassioned improvisations.

Seeing no suitable field for his genius in Warsaw and realizing he
ought to leave home and strike out for himself, he yet delayed making
the break. He continued putting off the evil day of parting from home
and friends, and especially putting a wide distance between himself
and the object of his adoration, Constantia.

The two years of indecision were fruitful in producing much piano
music and in completing the beautiful E minor Concerto, which was
rehearsed with orchestra and was performed at the third and last
concert he ever gave in Warsaw. This concert was arranged for October
11, 1830. Chopin requested Constantia Gladowska, whom he had never
met, to sing an aria. In the success of the evening sorrow was
forgotten. He wrote to his friend: "Miss Gladowska wore a white gown
with roses in her hair and was wondrously beautiful; she had never
sung so well."

After this event, Chopin decided the time had come for him to depart.
His trunk was bought, his clothing ready, pocket-handkerchiefs hemmed;
in fact nothing remained but the worst of all, the leave-taking. On
November I, 1830, Elsner and a number of friends accompanied him to
Wola, the first village beyond Warsaw. There they were met by a group
of students from the Conservatory, who sang a cantata, composed by
Elsner for the occasion. Then there was a banquet. During this last
meal together, a silver goblet filled with Polish earth was presented
to Chopin in the name of them all.

We can imagine the tender leave-takings after that. "I am convinced,"
he said, "I am saying an eternal farewell to my native country; I have
a presentiment I shall never return." And so indeed it proved.

Again to Vienna, by way of Breslau, Dresden and Prague. In Vienna
all was not as rosy as it had been on his first visit. Haslinger was
unwilling to publish more of his compositions, though there were the
two concertos, etudes and many short pieces. The way did not open to
give a concert. He was lonely and unhappy, constantly dreaming of home
and the beloved Constantia. From graphic letters to one of his dearest
friends, a few sentences will reveal his inner life.

"To-day is the first of January (1831). Oh, how sadly this year begins
for me! I love you all above all things. My poor parents! How are my
friends faring? I could die for you all. Why am I doomed to be here so
lonely and forsaken? You can at least open your hearts to each other.
Go and see my parents--and--Constantia."

Although it did not seem advisable to give concerts in Vienna, yet
Chopin made many pleasant acquaintances among the musicians and
prominent people, and was constantly invited. He had planned to
go from Vienna to either Italy or France. As there were political
troubles in the former country, he decided to start for Paris,
stopping on the way at a few places. In Munich he gave a morning
concert, in the hall of the Philharmonie, which won him renown. From
Munich he proceeded to Stuttgart, and during a short stay there, heard
the sad news of the taking of Warsaw by the Russians. This event, it
is said, inspired him to compose the C minor Etude, Op. 10, No. 12.

The Poles and everything Polish were at that time the rage in Paris.
The young Polish master found ready entrance into the highest musical
and literary circles of this most delightful city of the world. All
was romance, fantasy, passion, which fitted with Chopin's sensitive
and romantic temperament. Little wonder that he became inspired by
contact with some of the greatest in the world of arts and letters.

There were Victor Hugo. King of the romanticists, Heine, poet and
novelist; De Musset, Flaubert, Zola, Lamartine, Chateaubriand,
Baudelaire, Ary Scheffer, Merimee, Gautier, Berlioz, Balzac, Rossini,
Meyerbeer, Hiller, Nourrit, to mention a few. Liszt was there too, and
George Sand, Mendelssohn and Kalkbrenner. Chopin called on the last
named, who was considered the first pianist of the day, and played for
him. Kalkbrenner remarked he had the style of Cramer and the touch of
Field. He proposed that Chopin should study three years with him,
and he would then become a great virtuoso. Of course the young artist
might have learned something-on the mechanical side, but at the risk
of injuring the originality and style of his playing. His old friend
and teacher Elsner, kept him from doing this.

The first year in Paris Chopin played at a number of concerts and
functions, with ever increasing success. But in spite of the artistic
success, his finances ran low, and he began to consider a trip to
America. Fortunately he met Prince Radziwill on the street at this
time, and was persuaded to play at a Rothschild soiree in the evening.
From this moment, it is said, his prospects brightened, and he secured
a number of wealthy patrons as pupils. Whether this be true or not, he
came to know many titled personages. One has only to turn the pages of
his music to note how many pieces are dedicated to Princess This and
Countess That. This mode of life was reflected in his music, which
became more elegant and aristocratic.

During the season of 1833 and 1834, Chopin continued to make his way
as composer, pianist and teacher. A letter to friends in Poland, says:
"Frederic looks well and strong; he turns the heads of all the French
women, and makes the men jealous. He is now the fashion."

In the spring of 1834 Chopin had been persuaded by Ferdinand Hiller
to accompany him to Aix-la-Chapelle, to attend the Lower Rhine Music
Festival. Before they started Chopin found he had not the money to go,
as it had been spent or given to some needy countryman. Hiller did not
like to go alone, and asked if his friend could think of no way out of
the dilemma. At last Chopin took the manuscript of the E flat Valse,
Op. 18, went with it to Pleyel the publisher, and returned with five
hundred francs. They could now go and enjoy the trip they had planned.

In July, 1835, Chopin met his parents at Carlsbad, where his father
had been sent by the Warsaw physicians to take the cure. The young
musician, now famous, had not seen his parents in nearly five years,
and the reunion must have been a happy one. From here he went to
Dresden and Leipsic, meeting Schumann and Mendelssohn. Schumann
admired the young Pole greatly and wrote much about him in his musical
magazine. Mendelssohn considered him a "really perfect virtuoso, whose
piano playing was both original and masterly," but he was not sure
whether his compositions were right or wrong. Chopin also stopped
in Heidelberg on the way to Paris, visiting the father of his pupil
Adolph Gutman. He must have been back in Paris about the middle of
October, for the papers mention that "M. Chopin, one of the most
eminent pianists of our epoch, has just made a tour of Germany, which
has been for him a real ovation. Everywhere his admirable talent
obtained the most flattering reception and excited much enthusiasm."

The story of Chopin's attraction for Marie Wodzinski and his reported
engagement to her, is soon told. During his visit in Dresden, after
leaving his parents in Carlsbad, he saw much of his old friends, Count
Wodzinski and his family. The daughter, Marie, aged nineteen, was
tall and slender, not beautiful but charming, with soft dark hair and
soulful eyes. Chopin spent all his evenings at their home and saw much
of Marie. The last evening the girl gave him a rose, and he composed a
valse for her.

The next summer the two met again at Marienbad, and resumed their
walks, talks and music. She drew his portrait, and one day Chopin
proposed. She assured him she would always remain his friend, but her
family would never consent to their marriage. So that brief romance
was over.

An attachment of a different sort was that with Mme. Dudevant, known
in literature as George Sand. Books have been written about this
remarkable woman. The family at Nohant where she had spent her
childhood, where her two children, Maurice and Solange, lived, and
where her husband sometimes came, became distasteful to her; she
wanted to see life. Paris offered it. Although possessing ample means,
she arranged to spend six months in Paris each year, and live on two
hundred and fifty francs a month. She came in 1831. Her _menage_
was of the simplest--three small rooms, with meals from a near-by
restaurant at two francs; she did the washing herself. Woman's attire
was too expensive, so, as she had worn man's attire when riding and
hunting at Nohant, she saw nothing shocking in wearing it in Paris.

Her literary student life, as she called it, now began. She went about
the streets at all times, in all weathers; went to garrets, studios,
clubs, theaters, coffee-houses, everywhere but the _salons_. The
romance of society-life as it was lived in the French capital, were
the studies she ardently pursued. From these studies of life grew the
several novels she produced during the years that followed.

It is said that Chopin met Mme. Sand at a musical matinee, given by
the Marquis of C, where the aristocracy of genius, wealth and beauty
had assembled. Chopin had gone to the piano and was absorbed in an
improvisation, when lifting his eyes from the keys he encountered the
fiery glances of a lady standing near. Perhaps the truer account of
their first meeting is that given by Chopin's pupil Gutman. Mme. Sand,
who had the faculty of subjugating every man of genius she came in
contact with, asked Liszt repeatedly to introduce her.

One morning, early in the year 1837, Liszt called on his brother
artist and found him in good spirits over some new compositions. He
wished to play them to some friends, so it was arranged that a party
of them should come to his rooms that evening. Liszt came with his
special friend, Mme. d'Agoult and George Sand. Afterwards these
meetings were frequently repeated. Liszt poetically describes one such
evening, in his "Life of Chopin."

The fastidious musician was not at first attracted to the rather
masculine-looking woman, addicted to smoking, who was short, stout,
with large nose, coarse mouth and small chin. She had wonderful eyes,
though, and her manners were both quiet and fascinating.

Her influence over Chopin began almost at once; they were soon seen
together everywhere. Sand liked to master a reserved, artistic nature
such as that of the Polish musician. She was not herself musical, but
appreciated all forms of art.

In 1838 Mme. Sand's son Maurice became ill, and she proposed a trip to
Majorca. Chopin went with the party and fell ill himself. There were
many discomforts during their travels, due to bad weather and other
inconveniences.

Chopin's health now began to be a source of anxiety to his friends.
He had to be very careful, gave fewer lessons during the season, and
spent his vacations at Nohant. He played rarely in public, though
there were two public concerts in 1841 and '42 at Pleyel's rooms. From
1843 to 1847 he lived quietly and his life was apparently happy. He
was fond of the Sand children, and amused himself with them when at
Nohant.

But the breach, which had started some years before, between Mme. Sand
and Chopin, widened as time passed, and they parted in 1847. It was
the inevitable, of course. Chopin never had much to say about it; Sand
said more, while the students asserted she had killed their beloved
master. Probably it all helped to undermine the master's feeble
health. His father passed away in 1844, his sister also, of pulmonary
trouble; he was lonely and ill himself. He gave his last concert in
Paris, February 16, 1848. Though weak he played beautifully. Some one
said he fainted in the artist's room. The loss of Sand, even though he
had long wearied of her was the last drop.

To secure rest and change, he undertook a trip to London, for the
second and last time, arriving April 21, 1848. He played at different
great houses and gave two matinees, at the homes of Adelaide Kemble
and Lord Falmouth, June 23, and July 7. These were attended by many
titled personages. Viardot Garcia sang. The composer was thin, pale,
and played with "wasted fingers," but the money helped replenish his
depleted purse.

Chopin visited Scotland in August of the same year, and stayed with
his pupil Miss Jane Stirling, to whom he dedicated the two Nocturnes,
Op. 55. He played in Manchester, August 28; his playing was rather
weak, but retained all its elegance, finish and grace. He was encored
for his familiar Mazurka, Op. 7, No. 1, and repeated it with quite
different nuances. One survivor of this audience remarked subsequently
in a letter to a friend: "My emotion was so great I was compelled to
retire to recover myself. I have heard all the celebrated stars of
the musical firmament, but never has one left such an impression on my
mind."

Chopin returned to London in November, and left England in January
1849. His purse was very low and his lodgings in the Rue Chaillot,
Paris, were represented as costing half their value, the balance being
paid by a Russian Countess, who was touched by his need. The generous
hearted Miss Stirling raised 25,000 francs for the composer, so his
last days were cheered by every comfort. He passed away October 17,
1849, and every writer agrees it was a serene passing. His face was
beautiful and young, in the flower-covered casket, says Liszt,
for friends filled his rooms with blossoms. He was buried from
the Madeleine, October thirtieth. The B flat minor Funeral March,
orchestrated by Reber, was given, and during the service Lefebure
Wely played on the organ the E and B minor Preludes. His grave in Pere
Lachaise is sought out by many travelers who admire his great art. It
is difficult to find the tomb in that crowded White City, but no
doubt all music lovers seek to bring away at least a leaf--as did the
writer--from the earthly resting place of the most ideal pianist and
composer who ever lived.

Chopin was preeminently a composer for the piano. With the exception
of the Trio, Op. 8 and a book of Polish songs, everything he wrote was
for his favorite instrument. There are seventy-one opus numbers in the
list, but often whole sets of pieces are contained in one opus number,
as is the case with the Etudes, of which there are twelve in Op. 10,
and the same in Op. 25. These Etudes take up every phase of piano
technic; each one has a definite aim, yet each is a beautiful finished
work as music. They have been edited and re-edited by the greatest
masters.

The twenty-four Preludes were composed before the trip to Majorca,
though they were perfected and polished while there. Written early in
his career, they have a youthful vigor not often found in later
works. "Much in miniature are these Preludes of the Polish poet," says
Huneker.

There are four Impromptus and four Ballades, also four Scherzos. In
them the composer is free, fascinating, often bold and daring. The
great Fantaisie, Op. 49, is an epic poem, much as the Barcarolle is a
poem of love. The two Sonatas, not to mention an early effort in this
form, are among the modern classics, which are bound to appear on the
programs of every great pianist of the present, and doubtless of
the future. The two Concertos are cherished by virtuosi and audience
alike, and never fail to make an instant and lasting appeal.

And think of the eleven Polonaises, those courtly dances, the most
characteristic and national of his works; the fourteen Valses, beloved
of every young piano student the world over; the eighteen Nocturnes,
of starry night music; the entrancing Mazurkas, fifty-two in number.
One marvels, in merely glancing over the list, that the composer, who
lived such a super-sensitive hectic life, whose days were so occupied
with lesson giving, ever had the time to create such a mass of music,
or the energy to write it.

When one considers the amount of it, the beauty, originality and glory
of it, one must acknowledge Frederic Chopin as one of the greatest
piano geniuses of all time.




XIII

HECTOR BERLIOZ


In the south of France, near Grenoble, is found a romantic spot, La
Cote Saint-Andre. It lies on a hillside overlooking a wide green and
golden plain, and its dreamy majesty is accentuated by the line of
mountains that bounds it on the southeast. These in turn are crowned
by the distant glory of snowy peaks and Alpine glaciers. Here one of
the most distinguished men of the modern movement in French musical
art, Hector Berlioz, first saw the light, on December 11, 1803.

He was an only son of a physician. His father, a learned man, with
the utmost care, taught his little boy history, literature, geography,
languages, even music. Hector was a most romantic, impressionable
child, who peopled nature with fairies and elves, as he lay under
great trees and dreamed fantastic day dreams. Poetry and romantic
tales were his delight and he found much to feed his imagination in
his father's large library.

His mother's father lived at Meylan, a little village not far from
Grenoble, and there, in this picturesque valley, the family used to
spend a part of each summer.

Above Meylan, in a crevice of the mountain, stood a white house amid
its vineyards and gardens. It was the home of Mme. Gautier and her two
nieces, of whom the younger was called Estelle. When the boy Hector
saw her for the first time, he was twelve, a shy, retiring little
fellow. Estelle was just eighteen, tall, graceful, with beautiful
dusky hair and large soulful eyes. Most wonderful of all, with her
simple white gown, she wore pink slippers. The shy boy of twelve fell
in desperate love with this white robed apparition in pink slippers.
He says himself:

"Never do I recall Estelle, but with the flash of her large dark
eyes comes the twinkle of her dainty pink shoes. To say I loved her
comprises everything. I was wretched, dumb, despairing. By night I
suffered agonies--by day I wandered alone through the fields of Indian
corn, or, like a wounded bird, sought the deepest recesses of my
grandfather's orchard.

"One evening there was a party at Mme. Gautier's and various games
were played. In one of them I was told to choose first. But I dared
not, my heart-beats choked me. Estelle, smiling, caught my hand,
saying: 'Come, I will begin; I choose Monsieur Hector.' But, ah, she
laughed!

"I was thirteen when we parted. I was thirty when, returning from
Italy, I passed through this district, so filled with early memories.
My eyes filled at sight of the white house: I loved her still. On
reaching my old home I learned she was married!"

With pangs of early love came music, that is, attempts at musical
composition. His father had taught him the rudiments of music, and
soon after gave him a flute. On this the boy worked so industriously
that in seven or eight months he could play fairly well. He also
took singing lessons, as he had a pretty soprano voice. Harmony was
likewise studied by this ambitious lad, but it was self taught. He had
found a copy of Rameau's "Harmony" among some old books and spent many
hours poring over those labored theories in his efforts to reduce them
to some form and sense.

Inspired by these studies he tried his hand at music making in
earnest. First came some arrangements of trios and quartettes. Then
finally he was emboldened to write a quintette for flute, two violins,
viola and 'cello. Two months later he had produced another quintette,
which proved to be a little better. At this time Hector was twelve
and a half. His father had set his heart on the boy's following his
footsteps and becoming a doctor; the time was rapidly approaching when
a decision had to be made. Doctor Berlioz promised if his son would
study anatomy and thoroughly prepare himself in this branch of the
profession, he should have the finest flute that could be bought. His
cousin Robert shared these anatomical lessons; but as Robert was a
good violinist, the two boys spent more time over music than over
osteology. The cousin, however, really worked over his anatomy, and
was always ready at the lessons with his demonstrations, while Hector
was not, and thus drew upon himself many a reprimand. However he
managed to learn all his father could teach him, and when he was
nineteen consented to go to Paris, with Robert, and--though much
against his will--become a doctor.

When the boys reached Paris, in 1822, Hector loyally tried to keep his
promise to his father and threw himself into the studies which were
so repugnant to him. He says he might have become a common-place
physician after all, had he not one night gone to the opera. That
night was a revelation; he became half frantic with excitement and
enthusiasm. He went again and again. Learning that the Conservatoire
library, with its wealth of scores, was open to the public, he began
to study the scores of his adored Gluck. He read, re-read and copied
long parts and scenes from these wonderful scores, even forgetting
to eat, drink or sleep, in his wild enthusiasm. Of course, now, the
career of doctor must be given up; there was no question of that. He
wrote home that in spite of father, mother, relations and friends, a
musician he would be and nothing else.

A short time after this the choir master of Saint Roch, suggested that
Hector should write a mass for Innocents' Day, promising a chorus and
orchestra, with ample rehearsals, also that the choir boys would copy
the parts. He set to work with enthusiasm. But alas, after one trial
of the completed work, which ended in confusion owing to the countless
mistakes the boys had made in copying the score, he rewrote the whole
composition. Fearing another fiasco from amateur copyists, the young
composer wrote out all the parts himself. This took three months. With
the help of a friend who advanced funds, the mass was performed at
Saint Roch, and was well spoken of by the press.

The hostility of Hector's family to music as a profession, died down
a bit, owing to the success of the mass, but started up with
renewed vigor when the son and brother failed to pass the entrance
examinations at the Conservatoire. His father wrote that if he
persisted in staying on in Paris his allowance would be stopped.
Lesueur, his teacher, promised to intercede and wrote an appealing
letter, which really made matters worse instead of better. Then
Hector went home himself, to plead his cause in person. He was coldly
received by his family; his father at last consented to his return
to Paris for a time, but his mother forbade it absolutely. In case he
disobeyed her will, she would disown him and never again wished to see
his face. So Hector at last set out again for Paris with no kind look
or word from his mother, but reconciled for the time being with the
rest of the family.

The young enthusiast began life anew in Paris, by being very
economical, as he must pay back the loan made for his mass. He found
a tiny fifth floor room, gave up restaurant dinners and contented
himself with plain bread, with the addition of raisins, prunes
or dates. He also secured some pupils, which helped out in this
emergency, and even got a chance to sing in vaudeville, at the
enormous sum of 50 francs per month!

These were strenuous days for the eager ardent musician. Teaching from
necessity, in order to live, spending every spare moment on composing;
attending opera whenever he got a free ticket; yet, in spite of many
privations there was happiness too. With score under arm, he always
made it a point to follow the performance of any opera he heard. And
so in time, he came to know the sound--the voice as it were, of
each instrument in the orchestra. The study of Beethoven, Weber and
Spontini--watching for rare and unusual combinations of sounds, being
with artists who were kind enough to explain the compass and powers of
their instruments, were the ways and means he used to perfect his art.

When the Conservatoire examinations of 1827, came on, Hector tried
again, and this time passed the preliminary test. The task set for
the general competition was to write music for Orpheus torn by the
Bacchantes. An incompetent pianist, whose duty it was to play over the
compositions, for the judges, could seem to make nothing of Hector's
score. The six judges, headed by Cherubini, the Director of the
Conservatoire, voted against the aspirant, and he was thrown out a
second time.

And now came to Berlioz a new revelation--nothing less than the
revelation of the art of Shakespeare. An English company of actors had
come to Paris, and the first night Hamlet was given, with Henrietta
Smithson--who five years later became his wife--as Ophelia.

In his diary Berlioz writes: "Shakespeare, coming upon me unawares,
struck me down as with a thunderbolt. His lightning spirit opened to
me the highest heaven of Art, and revealed to me the best and grandest
and truest that earth can give." He began to worship both the genius
of Shakespeare and the art of the beautiful English actress. Every
evening found him at the theater, but days were spent in a kind of
dumb despair, dreaming of Shakespeare and of Miss Smithson, who had
now become the darling of Paris.

At last this sort of dumb frenzy spent itself and the musician in him
awoke and he returned to his normal self. A new plan began to take
shape in his mind. He would give a concert of his own works: up to
that time no French musician had done so. Thus he would compel her
to hear of him, although he had not yet met the object of his devoted
admiration.

It was early spring of the year 1828, when he set to work with frantic
energy, writing sixteen hours a day, in order to carry through the
wonderful plan. The concert, the result of so much labor, was given
the last of May, with varying success. But alas, Miss Smithson,
adsorbed in her own affairs, had not even heard of the excitable young
composer who had dared and risked so much to make a name that might
attract her notice.

As Berlioz pere again stopped his allowance, Hector began to write
for musical journals. At first ignorant of the ways of journalism, his
wild utterances were the despair of his friends; later his trenchant
pen was both admired and feared.

For the third time, in June of this year, he entered the Conservatoire
contest, and won a second prize, in this case a gold medal. Two years
later he won the coveted Prix de Rome, which gives the winner five
years' study, free of expense, in the Eternal City.

Before this honor was achieved, however, a new influence came into his
life, which for a time overshadowed the passion for Shakespeare and
Miss Smithson. It happened on this wise.

Ferdinand Hiller, composer, pianist and one of Hector's intimate
friends, fell deeply in love with Marie Moke, a beautiful, talented
girl who, later on, won considerable fame as a pianist. She became
interested in the young French composer, through hearing of his mental
suffering from Hiller. They were thrown together in a school where
both gave lessons, she on the piano and he on the--guitar! Meeting so
constantly, her dainty beauty won a warm place in the affections of
the impressionable Hector. She was but eighteen, while her admirer was
twenty-five.

Hiller saw how things were going and behaved admirably. He called it
fate, wished the pair every happiness, and left for Frankfort.

Then came the Prix de Rome, which the poor boy had struggled so long
to win, and now did not care so much for, as going to Italy would mean
to leave Paris. On August 23, 1830, he wrote to a friend:

"I have gained the Prix de Rome. It was awarded unanimously--a thing
never known before. My sweet Ariel was dying of anxiety when I told
her the news; her dainty wings were all ruffled, till I smoothed them
with a word. Even her mother, who does not look too favorably on our
love, was touched to tears.

"On November 1, there is to be a concert at the Theater Italien. I
am asked to write an Overture and am going to take as subject
Shakespeare's Tempest; it will be quite a new style of thing. My great
concert, with the Symphonie Fantastique, will take place November
14, but I must have a theatrical success; Camille's parents insist on
that, as a condition of our marriage. I hope I shall succeed."

These concerts were both successful and the young composer passed from
deepest anxiety to exuberant delight. He wrote to the same friend;

"The Tempest is to be played a second time at the opera. It is new,
fresh, strange, grand, sweet, tender, surprising. Fetis wrote two
splendid articles about it for the Revue Musicale.--My marriage is
fixed for Easter, 1832, on condition that I do not lose my pension,
and that I go to Italy for one year. My blessed Symphonie has done the
deed."

The next January Berlioz went home to his family, who were now
reconciled to his choice of music as a profession, and deluged him
with compliments, caresses and tender solicitude. The parents had
fully forgiven their gifted son.

"There is Rome, Signore."

It was true. The Eternal City lay spread out in purple majesty before
the young traveler, who suddenly realized the grandeur, the poetry
of this heart of the world. The Villa Medici, the venerable ancient
palace, centuries old, had been reserved by the Academie of France as
home for her students, whose sole obligation was to send, once a year,
a sample of their work to the Academie in Paris.

When Hector Berlioz arrived in Rome he was twenty-seven, and of
striking appearance. A mass of reddish auburn hair crowned a high
forehead; the features were prominent, especially the nose; the
expression was full of sensitive refinement. He was of an excitable
and ardent temperament, but in knowledge of the world's ways often
simple as a child.

Berlioz, who was welcomed with many humorous and friendly jests on his
appearance among the other students, had just settled down to work,
when he learned that his Ariel--otherwise Marie Moke--had forsaken him
and had married Pleyel. In a wild state of frenzy he would go to Paris
at once and seek revenge. He started, got as far as Nice, grew calmer,
remained at Nice for a month, during which time the Overture to "King
Lear" was written, then returned to Rome by the way of Genoa and
Florence.

By July 1832, Berlioz had returned to La Cote Saint Andre for a home
visit. He had spent a year in Italy, had seen much, composed a number
of important things, but left Rome without regrets, and found the
familiar landscape near his home more fascinating than anything Italy
could show.

The rest of the summer was spent in the beautiful Dauphiny country,
working on the "Damnation of Faust." In the fall he returned to Paris.
The vision of his Ophelia, as he used to call Miss Smithson, was
seldom long absent from his thoughts, and he now went to the house
where she used to live, thinking himself very lucky to be able to find
lodging there. Meeting the old servant, he learned Miss Smithson was
again in Paris, and would manage a new English theater, which was
to open in a few days. But Berlioz was planning a concert of his own
compositions, and did not trust himself to see the woman he had so
long adored until this venture was over. It happened, however, that
some friends induced her to attend the concert, the success of which
is said to have been tremendous. The composer had the happiness of
meeting the actress the same evening. The next day he called on her.
Their engagement lasted nearly a year, opposed by her mother and
sister, and also by Hector's family. The following summer Henrietta
Smithson, all but ruined from her theatrical ventures, and weak from
a fall, which made her a cripple for some years, was married to Hector
Berlioz, in spite of the opposition of their two families.

And now there opened to Berlioz a life of stress and struggle,
inseparable from such a nature as his. At one moment he would be
in the highest heaven of happiness, and the next in the depths of
despair. His wife's heavy debts were a load to carry, but he manfully
did his best to pay them. We can be sure that every work he ever
produced was composed under most trying circumstances, of one kind
or another. One of his happiest ventures was a concert of his own
compositions, given at the Conservatoire on October 22, 1833. Of it he
wrote: "The concert, for which I engaged the very best artists, was a
triumphant success. My musicians beamed with joy all evening, and to
crown all, I found waiting for me a man with long black hair, piercing
eyes and wasted form. Catching my hand, he poured forth a flood of
burning praise and appreciation. It was Paganini!"

Paganini commissioned Berlioz to write a solo for his beautiful Strad.
viola. The composer demurred for a time, and then made the attempt.
While the result was not just what the violinist wished, yet the
themes afterward formed the basis for Berlioz' composition "Childe
Harold."

The next great work undertaken by Berlioz was the Requiem. It seems
that, in 1836, the French Minister of the Interior set aside yearly,
3,000 francs to be given to a native composer, chosen by the Minister,
to compose a religious work, either a mass or an oratorio, to be
performed at the expense of the Government.

"I shall begin with Berlioz," he announced: "I am sure he could write
a good Requiem."

After many intrigues and difficulties, this work was completed and
performed in a way the composer considered "a magnificent triumph."

Berlioz, like most composers, always wished to produce an opera.
"Benvenuto Cellini" was the subject finally chosen. It took a long
time to write, and perhaps would never have been finished, since
Berlioz was so tied to bread-winning journalistic labors, if a kind
friend--Ernest Legouve--had not offered to lend him two thousand
francs. This loan made him independent for a little time, and gave him
the necessary leisure in which to compose.

The "Harold" music was now finished and Berlioz advertised both this
and the Symphonie Fantastique for a concert at the Conservatoire,
December 16, 1838. Paganini was present, and declared he had never
been so moved by music before. He dragged the composer back on the
platform, where some of the musicians still lingered, and there knelt
and kissed his hand. The next day he sent Berlioz a check for twenty
thousand francs.

Berlioz and his wife, two of the most highly strung individuals to be
found anywhere, were bound to have plenty of storm and stress in their
daily life. And so it came about that a separation, at least for a
time, seemed advisable. Berlioz made every provision in his power
for her comfort, and then started out on various tours to make his
compositions known. Concerts were given in Stuttgart, Heckingen,
Weimar, Leipsic, and in Dresden two, both very successful. Others took
place in Brunswick, Hamburg, Berlin, Hanover, finishing at Darmstadt,
where the Grand Duke insisted not only on the composer taking the full
receipts for the concert, but, in addition, refused to let him pay any
of the expenses.

And now back in Paris, at the treadmill of writing again. Berlioz had
the sort of mentality which could plan, and also execute, big musical
enterprises on a grand scale. It was proposed that he and Strauss
should give a couple of monster concerts in the Exhibition Building.
He got together a body of 1022 performers, all paid except the singers
from the lyric theaters, who volunteered to help for the love of
music.

It was a tremendous undertaking, and though an artistic success, the
exertion nearly finished Berlioz, who was sent south by his physician.
Resting on the shores of the Mediterranean, he afterwards gave
concerts in Marseilles, Lyons, and Lille and then traveled to Vienna.
He writes of this visit:

"My reception by all in Vienna--even by my fellow-plowmen, the
critics--was most cordial; they treated me as a man and a brother, for
which I am heartily grateful.

"After my third concert, there was a grand supper, at which my friends
presented me with a silver-gilt baton, and the Emperor sent me eleven
hundred francs, with the odd compliment: 'Tell Berlioz I was really
amused.'"

His way now led through Hungary. Performances were given in Pesth and
Prague, where he was royally entertained and given a silver cup.

On returning to Paris, he had much domestic trouble to bear. His wife
was paralyzed and his only son, Louis, wished to leave home and become
a sailor--which he did eventually, though much against the wishes of
his parents.

The "Damnation of Faust," now finished, was given at the Opera, and
was not a success. Berlioz then conceived the idea of going to Russia
to retrieve his fortunes. With the help of kind friends, who advanced
the money, he was able to carry out the plan. He left for Russia on
February 14, 1847. The visits to both St. Petersburg and Moscow proved
to be very successful financially as well as artistically. To cap the
climax, "Romeo and Juliette" was performed at St. Petersburg. Then the
King of Prussia, wishing to hear the "Faust," the composer arranged to
spend ten days in Berlin: then to Paris and London, where success was
also achieved.

Shadows as well as sunshine filled the next few years. The composer
was saddened by the passing of his father. Then a favorite sister also
left, and last of all his wife passed quietly away, March 3, 1854.
With all these sorrows Berlioz was at times nearly beside himself. But
as he became calmer he decided, after half a year, to wed a woman who
had been of great assistance to him in his work for at least fourteen
years.

The remaining span of Berlioz' life was outwardly more peaceful and
happy. He continued to travel and compose. Everywhere he went he was
honored and admired.

Among his later compositions were the Te Deum, "Childhood of Christ,"
"Lelio," "Beatrice and Benedict" and "The Trojans."

At last, after what he called thirty years of slavery, he was able
to resign his post of critic. "Thanks to 'The Trojans,' the wretched
quill driver is free!"

A touching episode, told in his vivid way, was the meeting, late in
life, with his adored Estelle of the pink shoes. He called on her and
found a quiet widow, who had lost both husband and children. They
had a poignant hour of reminiscence and corresponded for some time
afterwards.

Hector Berlioz passed away March 8, 1869. The French Institute sent a
deputation, the band of the National Guard played selections from his
Funeral Symphony; on the casket lay wreaths from the Saint Cecilia
Society, from the youths of Hungary, from Russian nobles and from the
town of Grenoble, his old home.

The music of Berlioz is conceived on large lines, in broad masses of
tone color, with new harmonies and imposing effects. He won a noble
place in art through many trials and hardships. His music is the
expression, the reflection of the mental struggles of a most intense
nature. The future will surely witness a greater appreciation of its
merits than has up to now been accorded it.




XIV

FRANZ LISZT


Franz Liszt, in his day the king of pianists, a composer whose
compositions still glow and burn with the fire he breathed into them;
Liszt the diplomat, courtier, man of the world--always a conqueror!
How difficult to tell, in a few pages, the story of a life so complex
and absorbing!

A storm outside: but all was warmth and simple comfort in the large
sitting-room of a steward's cottage belonging to the small estate of
Raiding, in Hungary.

It was evening and father Liszt, after the labors of the day were
over, could call these precious hours his own. He was now at the old
piano, for with him music was a passion. He used all his leisure time
for study and had some knowledge of most instruments. He had taught
himself the piano, indeed under the circumstances had become quite
proficient on it. To-night he was playing something of Haydn, for he
greatly venerated that master. Adam Liszt made a striking figure as
he sat there, his fine head, with its mass of light hair, thrown back,
his stern features softened by the music he was making.

At a table near sat his wife, her dark head with its glossy braids
bent over her sewing. Hers was a sweet, kindly face, and she endeared
herself to every one by her simple, unassuming manners.

Quite near the old piano stood little Franz, not yet six. He was
absolutely absorbed in the music. The fair curls fell about his
childish face and his deep blue eyes were raised to his father,
as though the latter were some sort of magician, creating all this
beauty.

When the music paused, little Franz awoke as from a trance.

"Did you like that, Franzerl?" asked his father, looking down at him.
The child bent his curly head, hardly able to speak.

"And do you want to be a musician when you grow up?" Franzerl
nodded, then, pointing to a picture of Beethoven hanging on the wall,
exclaimed with beaming eyes: "I want to be such a musician as he is!"

Adam Liszt had already begun to teach his baby son the elements of
music, at the child's earnest and oft-repeated request. He had no real
method, being self-taught himself, but in spite of this fact Franz
made remarkable progress. He could read the notes and find the keys
with as much ease as though he had practised for years. He had a
wonderful ear, and his memory was astonishing. The father hoped his
boy would become a great musician, and carry out the dream which he
had failed to realize in himself.

Little Franz was born in the eventful year of 1811,--the "year of the
comet." The night of October 21, the night of his birth, the tail
of the meteor seemed to light up the roof of the Liszt home and was
regarded as an omen of destiny. His mother used to say he was always
cheerful, loving, never naughty but most obedient. The child seemed
religious by nature, which feeling was fostered by his good mother. He
loved to go to church on Sundays and fast days. The midnight mass on
Christmas eve, when Adam Liszt, carrying a lantern, led the way to
church along the country road, through the silent night, filled the
child's thoughts with mystic awe.

Those early impressions have doubtless influenced the creations of
Liszt, especially that part of his "Christus" entitled "Christmas
Oratorio."

Before Franz was six, as we have seen, he had already begun his
musical studies. If not sitting at the piano, he would scribble
notes--for he had learned without instruction how to write them long
before he knew the letters of the alphabet, or rudiments of writing.
His small hands were a source of trouble to him, and he resorted to
all kinds of comical expedients, such as sometimes playing extra notes
with the tip of his nose. Indeed his ingenuity knew no bounds, when it
came to mastering some musical difficulty.

Franz was an open minded, frank, truth-loving child, always ready
to confess his faults, though he seemed to have but few. Strangely
enough, though born an Hungarian, he was never taught to speak his
native tongue, which indeed was only used by the peasants. German, the
polite language of the country, was alone used in the Liszt home.

The pronounced musical talent of his boy was a source of pride to Adam
Liszt, who spoke of it to all his friends, so that the little fellow
began to be called "the artist." The result was that when a concert
was to be given at the neighboring Oldenburg, Adam was requested to
allow his wonder child to play.

When Franz, now a handsome boy of nine, heard of the concert, he was
overjoyed at the prospect of playing in public. It was a happy day for
him when he started out with his father for Oldenburg. He was to play
a Concerto by Reis, and a Fantaisie of his own, accompanied by the
orchestra. In this his first public attempt Franz proved he possessed
two qualities necessary for success--talent and will. All who heard
him on this occasion were so delighted, that Adam then and there made
arrangements to give a second concert on his own account, which was
attended with as great success as the first.

The father had now fully made up his mind Franz was to be a musician.
He decided to resign his post of steward at Raiding and take the boy
to Vienna for further study.

On the way to Pressburg, the first stop, they halted to call at
Eisenstadt, on Prince Esterhazy. The boy played for his delighted
host, who gave him every encouragement, even to placing his castle at
Pressburg at his disposal for a concert. The Princess, too, was most
cordial, and gave the boy costly presents when they left.

At Pressburg Adam Liszt succeeded in arranging a concert which
interested all the Hungarian aristocracy of the city. It was given
in the spacious drawing-rooms of the Prince's palace, and a notable
audience was present. Little Franz achieved a triumph that night,
because of the fire and originality of his playing. Elegant women
showered caresses upon the child and the men were unanimous that such
gifts deserved to be cultivated to the utmost without delay.

When it was learned that father Liszt had not an ample purse, and
there would be but little for Franz's further musical education, six
Hungarian noblemen agreed to raise a subscription which would provide
a yearly income for six years. With this happy prospect in view, which
relieved him of further anxiety, the father wrote to Hummel, now in
employ of the Court at Weimar, asking him to undertake Franz's musical
education. Hummel, though a famous pianist, was of a grasping nature;
he wrote back that he was willing to accept the talented boy as a
pupil, but would charge a louis d'or per lesson!

As soon as the father and his boy arrived in Vienna, the best teachers
were secured for Franz. Carl Czerny was considered head of the piano
profession. Czerny had been a pupil of Beethoven, and was so overrun
with pupils himself, that he at first declined to accept another. But
when he heard Franz play, he was so impressed that he at once promised
to teach him. His nature was the opposite of Hummel's, for he was most
generous to struggling talent. At the end of twelve lessons, when Adam
Liszt wished to pay the debt, Czerny would accept nothing, and for the
whole period of instruction--a year and a half--he continued to teach
Franz gratuitously.

At first the work with such a strict master of technic as Czerny, was
very irksome to the boy, who had been brought up on no method at all,
but was allowed free and unrestrained rein. He really had no technical
foundation; but since he could read rapidly at sight and could glide
over the keys with such astonishing ease, he imagined himself already
a great artist. Czerny soon showed him his deficiencies; proving to
him that an artist must have clear touch, smoothness of execution and
variety of tone. The boy rebelled at first, but finally settled down
to hard study, and the result soon astonished his teacher. For Franz
began to acquire a richness of feeling and beauty of tone wonderful
for such a child. Salieri became his teacher of theory. He was now
made to analyze and play scores, also compose little pieces and short
hymns. In all these the boy made fine progress.

He now began to realize he needed to know something besides music,
and set to work by himself to read, study and write. He also had
great opportunity, through his noble Hungarian patrons, to meet the
aristocracy of Vienna. His talents, vivacity and grace, his attractive
personality, all helped to win the notice of ladies--even in those
early days of his career.

After eighteen busy months in Vienna, father Liszt decided to bring
his boy out in a public concert. The Town Hall was placed at his
disposal and a number of fine artists assisted. With beaming face and
sparkling eyes, the boy played with more skill, fire and confidence
than he had ever done before. The concert took place December 1, 1822.
On January 12, 1823, Franz repeated his success in another concert,
again at the Town Hall.

It was after this second concert that Franz's reputation reached the
ears of Beethoven, always the object of the boy's warmest admiration.
Several times Franz and his father had tried to see the great master,
but without success. Schindler was appealed to and promised to do his
best. He wrote in Beethoven's diary, as the master was quite deaf:

"Little Liszt has entreated me to beg you to write him a theme for
to-morrow's concert. He will not break the seal till the concert
begins. Czerny is his teacher--the boy is only eleven years old. Do
come to his concert, it will encourage the child. Promise me you will
come."

It was the thirteenth of April, 1823. A very large audience filled the
Redouten Saal. When Franz stepped upon the platform, he perceived the
great Beethoven seated near. A great joy filled him. Now he was to
play for the great man, whom all his young life he had worshiped from
afar. He put forth every effort to be worthy of such an honor. Never
had he played with such fire; his whole being seemed thrilled--never
had he achieved such success. In the admiration which followed,
Beethoven rose, came upon the platform, clasped the boy in his arms
and kissed him repeatedly, to the frantic cheers of the audience.

The boy Franz Liszt had now demonstrated that already at eleven years
old, he was one of the leading virtuosi of the time; indeed his great
reputation as a pianist dates from this third Vienna concert. The
press praised him highly, and many compared him to the wonderful
genius, Mozart. Adam Liszt wished him now to see more of the world,
and make known his great talents, also to study further. He decided
to take the boy to Paris, for there lived the celebrated composer,
Cherubini, at that time Director of the Paris Conservatoire.

On the way to Paris, concerts were given in various cities. In Munich
he was acclaimed "a second Mozart." In Strassburg and Stuttgart he had
great success.

Arrived in Paris, father and son visited the Conservatoire at once,
for it would have been a fine thing for the boy to study there for
a time, as it was the best known school for counterpoint and
composition. Cherubini, however, refused to even read the letters
of recommendation, saying no foreigner, however talented, could be
admitted to the French National School of Music. Franz was deeply
hurt by this refusal, and begged with tears to be allowed to come, but
Cherubini was immovable.

However they soon made the acquaintance of Ferdinand Paer, who offered
to give the child lessons in composition.

Franz made wonderful progress, both in this new line of study, and
in becoming known as a piano virtuoso. Having played in a few of the
great houses, he soon found himself the fashion; everybody was anxious
for "le petit Litz" as he was called, to attend and play at their
soirees. Franz thus met the most distinguished musicians of the day.
When he played in public the press indulged in extravagant praise,
calling him "the eighth wonder of the world," "another Mozart," and
the like. Of course the father was overjoyed that his fondest hopes
were being realized. Franz stood at the head of the virtuosi, and
in composition he was making rapid strides. He even attempted an
operetta, "Don Sancho," which later had several performances.

The eminent piano maker, Erard, who had a branch business in London
and was about to start for that city, invited Liszt to accompany
him and bring Franz. They accepted this plan, but in order to save
expense, it was decided that mother Liszt, who had joined them in
Paris, should return to Austria and stay with a sister till the
projected tours were over.

Franz was saddened by this decision, but his entreaties were useless;
his father was stern. The separation was a cruel one for the boy. For
a long time thereafter the mere mention of his mother's name would
bring tears.

In May, 1824, father and son, with Erard, started for England, and on
June 21 Franz gave his first public concert in London. He had already
played for the aristocracy in private homes, and had appeared at
Court by command of King George IV. The concert won him great success,
though the English were more reserved in their demonstrations, and not
like the impulsive, open-hearted French people. He was happy to return
to Paris, after the London season, and to resume his playing in the
French salons.

The next spring, accompanied by his father, he made a tour of the
French provinces, and then set out for a second trip to England. He
was now fourteen; a mere boy in years, but called the greatest pianist
of the day. He had developed so quickly and was so precocious that
already he disliked being called "le petit Litz," for he felt himself
full grown. He wished to be free to act as he wished. Adam, however,
kept a strict watch on all his movements, and this became irksome to
the boy, who felt he was already a man.

But father Liszt's health became somewhat precarious; constant
traveling had undermined it. They remained in Paris quietly, till the
year 1826, when they started on a second tour of French cities
till Marseilles was reached, where the young pianist's success was
overwhelming.

Returning to Paris, Franz devoted much of his time to ardent study of
counterpoint, under Anton Reicha. In six months' study he had mastered
the difficulties of this intricate art.

Adam Liszt and Franz spent the winter of 1826-7 in Switzerland, the
boy playing in all important cities. They returned to Paris in the
spring, and in May, set out again for England on a third visit. Franz
gave his first concert in London on June ninth and proved how much he
had gained in power and brilliancy. Moscheles, who was present,
wrote: "Franz Liszt's playing surpasses in power and the overcoming of
difficulties anything that has yet been heard."

The strain of constant travel and concert playing was seriously
telling on the boy's sensitive, excitable nature. He lost his sunny
gaiety, grew quiet, sometimes almost morose. He went much to church,
and wanted to take orders, but his father prevented this step.
Indeed the father became alarmed at the boy's pale face and
changed condition, and took him to the French watering place of
Boulogne-sur-Mer. Here both father and son were benefited by the
sea baths and absolute rest. Franz recovered his genial spirits and
constantly gained in health and strength.

But with Adam Liszt the gain was only temporary. He was attacked with
a fever, succumbed in a few days and was buried at Boulogne. The loss
of his father was a great blow to Franz. He was prostrated for days,
but youth at last conquered. Aroused to his responsibilities, he began
to think for the future. He at once wrote his mother, telling her what
had happened, saying he would give up his concert tours and make a
home for her in Paris, by giving piano lessons.

Looking closer into his finances, of which he had no care before,
Franz found the expenses of his father's illness and death had
exhausted their little savings, and he was really in debt. He decided
to sell his grand piano, so that he should be in debt to no one. This
was done, every one was paid off and on his arrival in Paris his old
friend Erard invited him to his own home till the mother came.

It was a sweet and happy meeting of mother and son, after such a
long separation. The two soon found a modest apartment in the Rue
Montholon.

As soon as his intention to give lessons became known, many
aristocratic pupils came and found him a remarkable teacher. Among his
new pupils was Caroline Saint Cricq, youngest daughter of Count Saint
Cricq, then Minister of the Interior, and Madame his wife.

Caroline, scarcely seventeen, the same age as her young teacher, was
a beautiful girl, as pure and refined as she was talented. Under the
eyes of the Countess, the lessons went on from month to month, and the
mother did not fail to see the growing attachment between the young
people. But love's young dream was of short duration. The Countess
fell ill and the lessons had to be discontinued. Caroline did not see
her devoted teacher till all was over.

There was now another bond between them, the sympathy over the loss
of their dear ones. The Count had requested that the lessons should be
resumed. But when the young teacher remained too long in converse with
his pupil after the lessons, he was dismissed by the Count, and all
their sweet intercourse came to an abrupt end.

Mme. Liszt did all she could to soothe the grief and despair of her
son. For days and weeks he remained at home, neglecting his piano and
his work. He again thought of the church with renewed ardor and told
his mother he now had decided to become a monk. His spirits sank very
low; he became ill, unable to leave the house and it was reported
everywhere he had passed away.

Again he rallied and his strong constitution conquered. As strength
slowly returned, so also did his activity and love of life.

During his long convalescence he was seized with a great desire for
knowledge, and read everything he could lay hands on. He would often
sit at the piano, busying his fingers with technic while reading a
book on the desk before him. He had formerly given all his time to
music and languages; now he must know literature, politics, history
and exact sciences. A word casually dropped in conversation, would
start him on a new line of reading. Then came the revolution of 1830.
Everybody talked politics, and Franz, with his excitable spirits,
would have rushed into the conflict if his mother had not restrained
him.

With all this awakening he sought to broaden his art, to make his
instrument speak of higher things. Indeed the spirit must speak
through the form. This he realized the more as he listened to the
thrilling performances of that wizard of the violin, Paganini,
who appeared in Paris in 1831. This style of playing made a deep
impression on Liszt. He now tried to do on the piano what Paganini
accomplished on the violin, in the matter of tone quality and
intensity. He procured the newly published Caprices for violin and
tried to learn their tonal secrets, also transcribing the pieces for
piano.

Liszt became fast friends with the young composer, Hector Berlioz,
and much influenced by his compositions, which were along new harmonic
lines. Chopin, the young Polish artist, now appeared in Paris, playing
his E minor Concerto, his Mazurkas and Nocturnes, revealing new phases
of art. Chopin's calm composure tranquilized Liszt's excitable nature.
From Chopin, Liszt learned to "express in music the poetry of the
aristocratic salon." Liszt ever remained a true and admiring friend of
the Pole, and wrote the poetic study sketch of him in 1849.

Liszt was now twenty-three. Broadened and chastened by all he had
passed through, he resumed his playing in aristocratic homes. He also
appeared in public and was found to be quite a different artist from
what the Parisians had previously known. His bold new harmonies in
his own compositions, the rich effects, showed a deep knowledge of
his art. He had transcribed a number of Berlioz's most striking
compositions to the piano and performed them with great effect.

The handsome and gifted young artist was everywhere the object of
admiration. He also met George Sand, and was soon numbered among that
wonderful and dangerous woman's best friends. Later he met the young
and beautiful Countess Laprunarede, and a mutual attraction ensued.
The elderly Count, her husband, pleased with the dashing young
musician, invited him to spend the winter at his chateau, in
Switzerland, where the witty Countess virtually kept him prisoner.

The following winter, 1833-34, when the salons opened again, Liszt
frequented them as before. He was in the bloom of youth and fame, when
he met the woman who was to be linked with his destiny for the next
ten years.

We have sketched the childhood and youth of this wonderful artist up
to this point. We will pass lightly over this decade of his career,
merely stating briefly that the lady--the beautiful Countess d'Agoult,
captivated by the brilliant talents of the Hungarian virtuoso, left
her husband and child, and became for ten years the faithful companion
of his travels and tours over Europe. Many writers agree that Liszt
endeavored to dissuade her from this attraction, and behaved as
honorably as he could under the circumstances. A part of the time
they lived in Switzerland, and it was there that many of Liszt's
compositions were written.

Of their three children, the boy died very young. Of the girls,
Blandine became the wife of Emile Ollivier, a French literary man and
statesman. Her sister, Cosima, married first Hans von Buelow and later
Richard Wagner.

In 1843 Liszt intended to take Madame with him to Russia, but instead,
left her and her children in Paris, with his mother, as the Countess
was in failing health. His first concert, in St. Petersburg, realized
the enormous sum of fifty thousand francs--ten thousand dollars.
Instead of giving one concert in Moscow, he gave six. Later he played
in Bavaria, Saxony and other parts of Germany. He then settled in
Weimar for a time, being made Grand Ducal Capellmeister. Then, in
1844-45, longing for more success, he toured Spain and Portugal.

A generous act was his labor in behalf of the Beethoven monument, to
be erected in the master's birthplace, Bonn. The monument was to be
given by subscriptions from the various Princes of Germany. Liszt
helped make up the deficit and came to Bonn to organize a Festival in
honor of the event. He also composed a Cantata for the opening day of
the Festival, and in his enthusiasm nearly ruined himself by paying
the heavy expenses of the Festival out of his own pocket.

The political events of 1848 brought him back to Weimar, and he
resumed his post of Court Music Director. He now directed his energies
toward making Weimar the first musical city of Germany. Greatly
admiring Wagner's genius, he undertook to perform his works in Weimar,
and to spread his name and fame. Indeed it is not too much to say that
without Liszt's devoted efforts, Wagner would never have attained his
vogue and fame. Wagner himself testified to this.

While living in Weimar, Liszt made frequent journeys to Rome and to
Paris. In 1861 there was a rumor that the object of his visits to
Rome was to gain Papal consent to his marriage with the Princess
Sayn-Wittgenstein. During a visit to Rome in 1864, the musician was
unable to resist longer the mysticism of the church. He decided to
take orders and was made an Abbe.

Since that time, Abbe Franz Liszt did much composing. He also
continued to teach the piano to great numbers of pupils, who flocked
to him from all parts of the world. Many of the greatest artists now
before the public were numbered among his students, and owe much of
their success to his artistic guidance.

In 1871, the Hungarian Cabinet created him a noble, with a yearly
pension of three thousand dollars. In 1875, he was made Director of
the Academy at Budapest. In addition, Liszt was a member of nearly all
the European Orders of Chivalry.

Franz Liszt passed away August 1, 1886, in the house of his friend,
Herr Frohlich, near Wagner's Villa Wahnfried, Bayreuth, at the age of
seventy-five. As was his custom every summer, Liszt was in Bayreuth,
assisting in the production of Wagner's masterpieces, when he
succumbed to pneumonia. Thus passed a great composer, a world famous
piano virtuoso, and a noble and kindly spirit.

For the piano, his chosen instrument, Liszt wrote much that was
beautiful and inspiring. He created a new epoch for the virtuoso. His
fifteen Hungarian Rhapsodies, B minor Sonata, Concert Etudes and many
transcriptions, appear on all modern programs, and there are many
pieces yet to be made known. He is the originator of the Symphonic
Poem, for orchestra; while his sacred music, such as the Oratorio
"Christus," and the beautiful "Saint Elizabeth," a sacred opera, are
monuments to his great genius.




XV

GIUSEPPE VERDI


In the little hamlet of Le Roncole, at the foot of the Apeninnes,
a place that can hardly be found on the map, because it is just a
cluster of workmen's houses, Giuseppe Verdi, one of the greatest
operatic composers, was born, October 9, 1813.

There were great wars going on in Europe during that time. When
Giuseppe was a year old, the Russian and Austrian soldiers marched
through Italy, killing and destroying everywhere. Some of them came
to Le Roncole for a few hours. All the women and children ran to the
church and locked themselves in for safety. But these savage men had
no respect for the house of God. They took the hinges off the doors
and rushing in murdered and wounded the helpless ones. Luigia Verdi,
with the baby Giuseppe in her arms, escaped, ran up a narrow staircase
to the belfry, and hid herself and child among some old lumber. Here
she stayed in her hiding place, until the drunken troops were far away
from the little village.

The babe Giuseppe was born among very poor, ignorant working
people, though his father's house was one of the best known and most
frequented among the cluster of cottages. His parents Carlo Verdi
and Luigia his wife, kept a small inn at Le Roncole and also a little
shop, where they sold sugar, coffee, matches, spirits, tobacco and
clay pipes. Once a week the good Carlo would walk up to Busseto, three
miles away, with two empty baskets and would return with them filled
with articles for his store, carrying them slung across his strong
shoulders.

Giuseppe Verdi who was to produce such streams of beautiful,
sparkling music,--needing an Act of Parliament to stop them, as once
happened,--was a very quiet, thoughtful little fellow, always good and
obedient; sometimes almost sad, and seldom joined in the boisterous
games of other children. That serious expression found in all of
Verdi's portraits as a man was even noticeable in the child. The only
time he would rouse up, was when a hand organ would come through the
village street; then he would follow it as far as his little legs
would carry him, and nothing could keep him in the house, when he
heard this music. Intelligent, reserved and quiet, every one loved
him.

In 1820, when Giuseppe was seven years old, Carlo Verdi committed a
great extravagance for an innkeeper; he bought a spinet for his son,
something very unheard of for so poor a man to do.

Little Giuseppe practised very diligently on his spinet. At first he
could only play the first five notes of the scale. Next he tried
very hard to find out chords, and one day was made perfectly happy
at having sounded the major third and fifth of C. But the next day
he could not find the chord again, and began to fret and fume and
got into such a temper, that he took a hammer and tried to break
the spinet in pieces. This made such a commotion that it brought his
father into the room. When he saw what the child was doing, he gave a
blow on Giuseppe's ear that brought the little fellow to his senses
at once. He saw he could not punish the good spinet because he did not
know enough to strike a common chord.

His love of music early showed itself in many ways. One day he
was assisting the parish priest at mass in the little church of
Le Roncole. At the moment of the elevation of the Host, such sweet
harmonies were sounding from the organ, that the child stood perfectly
motionless, listening to the beautiful music, all unconscious of
everything else about him.

"Water," said the priest to the altar boy. Giuseppe, not hearing him,
the priest repeated the call. Still the child, who was listening to
the music, did not hear. "Water," said the priest a third time and
gave Giuseppe such a sharp kick that he fell down the steps of the
altar, hitting his head on the stone floor, and was taken unconscious
into the sacristy.

After this Giuseppe was allowed to have music lessons with
Baistrocchi, the organist of the village church. At the end of a
year Baistrocchi said there was nothing more he could teach his young
pupil, so the lessons came to an end.

Two years later, when old Baistrocchi died, Giuseppe, who was then
only ten, was made organist in his place. This pleased his parents
very much, but his father felt the boy should be sent to school, where
he could learn to read and write and know something of arithmetic.
This would have been quite impossible had not Carlo Verdi had a good
friend living at Busseto, a shoemaker, named Pugnatta.

Pugnatta agreed to give Giuseppe board and lodging and send him to
the best school in the town, all for a small sum of three pence a day.
Giuseppe went to Pugnatta's; and while he was always in his place in
school and studied diligently, he still kept his situation as organist
of Le Roncole, walking there every Sunday morning and back again to
Busseto after the evening service.

His pay as organist was very small, but he also made a little money
playing for weddings, christenings and funerals. He also gained a few
lire from a collection which it was the habit of artists to make at
harvest time, for which he had to trudge from door to door, with a
sack upon his back. The poor boy's life had few comforts, and this
custom of collections brought him into much danger. One night while
he was walking toward Le Roncole, very tired and hungry, he did not
notice he had taken a wrong path, when suddenly, missing his footing,
he fell into a deep canal. It was very dark and very cold and his
limbs were so stiff he could not use them. Had it not been for an old
woman who was passing by the place and heard his cries, the exhausted
and chilled boy would have been carried away by the current.

After two years' schooling, Giuseppe's father persuaded his friend,
Antonio Barezzi of Busseto, from whom he was in the habit of buying
wines and supplies for his inn and shop,--to take the lad into his
warehouse. That was a happy day for Giuseppe when he went to live with
Barezzi, who was an enthusiastic amateur of music. The Philharmonic
Society, of which Barezzi was the president, met, rehearsed and gave
all its concerts at his house.

Giuseppe, though working hard in the warehouse, also found time to
attend all the rehearsals of the Philharmonics, and began the task
of copying out separate parts from the score. His earnestness in this
work attracted the notice of the conductor, Ferdinando Provesi, who
began to take great interest in the boy, and was the first one to
understand his talent and advised him to devote himself to music. A
Canon in the Cathedral offered to teach him Latin, and tried to make a
priest of him, saying, "What do you want to study music for? You
have a gift for Latin and it would be much better for you to become a
priest. What do you expect from your music? Do you think that some
day you will become organist of Busseto? Stuff and nonsense! That can
never be."

A short time after this, there was a mass at a chapel in Busseto,
where the Canon had the service. The organist was unable to attend,
and Verdi was called at the last moment to take his place. Very much
impressed with the unusually beautiful organ music, the priest, at the
close of the service desired to see the organist. His astonishment was
great when he saw his scholar whom he had been seeking to turn from
the study of music. "Whose music did you play?" he asked. "It was most
beautiful."

"Why," timidly answered the boy, "I had no music, I was playing
extempore--just as I felt."

"Ah, indeed," replied the Canon; "well I am a fool and you cannot do
better than to study music, take my word for it."

Under the good Provesi, Verdi studied until he was sixteen and made
such rapid progress that both Provesi and Barezzi felt he must be sent
to Milan to study further. The lad had often come to the help of his
master, both at the organ and as conductor of the Philharmonic. The
records of the society still have several works written by Verdi at
that time--when he was sixteen--composed, copied, taught, rehearsed
and conducted by him.

There was an institution in Busseto called the Monte di Pieta, which
gave four scholarships of three hundred francs a year, each given for
four years to promising young men needing money to study science or
art. Through Barezzi one of these scholarships was given to Verdi, it
being arranged that he should have six hundred francs a year for two
years, instead of three hundred francs for four years. Barezzi himself
advanced the money for the music lessons, board and lodging in Milan
and the priest gave him a letter of introduction to his nephew, a
professor there, who received him with a hearty welcome, and insisted
upon his living with him.

Like all large music schools, there were a great many who presented
themselves for admittance by scholarship and only one to be chosen.
And Verdi did not happen to be that one, Basili not considering his
compositions of sufficient worth. This was not because Verdi was
really lacking in his music, but because Basili had other plans. This
did not in the least discourage Giuseppe, and at the suggestion of
Alessando Rolla, who was then conductor of La Scala, he asked Lavigna
to give him lessons in composition and orchestration.

Lavigna was a former pupil of the Conservatoire of Naples and an able
composer. Verdi showed him some of the same compositions he had shown
Basili. After examining them he willingly accepted the young aspirant
as a pupil.

Verdi spent most of his evenings at the home of the master, when
Lavigna was not at La Scala and there met many artists. One night it
chanced that Lavigna, Basili and Verdi were alone, and the two masters
were speaking of the deplorable result of a competition for the
position of Maitre di Capelle and organist of the Church of San
Giovanni di Monza. Out of twenty-eight young men who had taken part
in the competition, not one had known how to develop correctly the
subject given by Basili for the construction of a fugue. Lavigna, with
a bit of mischief in his eyes, began to say to his friend:--"It is
really a remarkable fact. Well, look at Verdi, who has studied fugue
for two short years. I lay a wager he would have done better than your
eight and twenty candidates."

"Really?" replied Basili, in a somewhat vexed tone.

"Certainly. Do you remember your subject? Yes, you do? Well, write it
down."

Basili wrote and Lavigne, giving the theme to Verdi, said:

"Sit down there at the table and just begin to work out this subject."

Then the two friends resumed their conversation, until Verdi, coming
to them said simply: "There, it is done."

Basili took the paper and examined it, showing signs of astonishment
as he continued to read. When he came to the conclusion he
complimented the lad and said: "But how is it that you have written a
double canon on my subject?"

"It is because I found it rather poor and wished to embellish
it," Verdi replied, remembering the reception he had had at the
Conservatoire.

In 1833 his old master Provesi died. Verdi felt the loss keenly, for
Provesi was the one who first taught him music and who showed him how
to work to become an artist. Though he wished to do greater things, he
returned to Busseto to fulfill his promise to take Provesi's place as
organist of the Cathedral and conductor of the Philharmonic, rather
big positions to fill for a young man of twenty.

And now Verdi fell in love with the beautiful Margherita, the oldest
daughter of Barezzi, who did not mind giving his daughter to a poor
young man, for Verdi possessed something worth far more than money,
and that was great musical talent. The young people were married in
1836, and the whole Philharmonic Society attended.

About the year 1833-34 there flourished in Milan a vocal society
called the Philharmonic, composed of excellent singers under the
leadership of Masini. Soon after Verdi came to the city, the Society
was preparing for a performance of Haydn's "Creation." Lavigna, with
whom the young composer was studying composition, suggested his pupil
should attend the rehearsals, to which he gladly agreed. It seems that
three Maestri shared the conducting during rehearsals. One day none of
them were present at the appointed hour and Masini asked young Verdi
to accompany from the full orchestral score, adding, "It will be
sufficient if you merely play the bass." Verdi took his place at the
piano without the slightest hesitation. The slender, rather shabby
looking stranger was not calculated to inspire much confidence.
However he soon warmed to his work, and after a while grew so excited
that he played the accompaniment with the left hand while conducting
vigorously with the right. The rehearsal went off splendidly, and
many came forward to greet the young conductor, among them were
Counts Pompeo Belgiojoso and Remato Borromes. After this proof of his
ability, Verdi was appointed to conduct the public performance, which
was such a success that it was repeated by general request, and was
attended by the highest society.

Soon after this Count Borromes engaged Verdi to write a Cantata for
chorus and orchestra, to honor the occasion of a marriage in the
family. Verdi did so but was never paid a sou for his work. The next
request was from Masini, who urged Verdi to compose an opera for
the Teatro Filodramatico, where he was conductor. He handed him a
libretto, which with a few alterations here and there became "Oberto,
Conte di San Bonifacio." Verdi accepted the offer at once, and being
obliged to move to Busseto, where he had been appointed organist,
remained there nearly three years, during which time the opera was
completed. On returning to Milan he found Masini no longer conductor,
and lost all hope of seeing the new opera produced. After long waiting
however, the impressario sent for him, and promised to bring out the
work the next season, if the composer would make a few changes. Young
and as yet unknown, Verdi was quite willing. "Oberto" was produced
with a fair amount of success, and repeated several times. On the
strength of this propitious beginning, the impressario, Merelli, made
the young composer an excellent offer--to write three operas, one
every eight months, to be performed either in Milan or in Vienna,
where he was impressario of both the principal theaters. He promised
to pay four thousand lire--about six hundred and seventy dollars--for
each, and share the profits of the copyright. To young Verdi this
seemed an excellent chance and he accepted at once. Rossi wrote a
libretto, entitled "Proscritto," and work on the music was about to
begin. In the spring of 1840, Merelli hurried from Vienna, saying he
needed a comic opera for the autumn season, and wanted work begun on
it at once. He produced three librettos, none of them very good. Verdi
did not like them, but since there was no time to lose, chose the
least offensive and set to work.

The Verdis were living in a small house near the Porta Ticinesa; the
family consisted of the composer, his wife and two little sons. Almost
as soon as work was begun on the comic opera, Verdi fell ill and was
confined to his bed several days. He had quite forgotten that the rent
money, which he always liked to have ready on the very day, was due,
and he had not sufficient to pay. It was too late to borrow it, but
quite unknown to him the wife had taken some of her most valuable
trinkets, had gone out and brought back the necessary amount. This
sweet act of devotion greatly touched her husband.

And now sudden sorrow swept over the little family. At the beginning
of April one of the little boys fell ill. Before the doctors could
understand what was the matter, the little fellow breathed his last
in the arms of his desperate mother. A few days after this, the other
child sickened and died. In June the young wife, unable to bear the
strain, passed away and Verdi saw the third coffin leave his door
carrying the last of his dear ones. And in the midst of these crushing
trials he was expected to compose a comic opera! But he bravely
completed his task. "Un Giorno di Regno" naturally proved a dead
failure. In the despondency that followed, the composer resolved to
give up composition altogether. Merelli scolded him roundly for such
a decision, and promised if, some day, he chose to take up his pen
again, he would, if given two months' notice, produce any opera Verdi
might write.

At that time the composer was not ready to change his mind. He could
not live longer in the house filled with so many sad memories, but
moved to a new residence near the Corsia di Servi. One evening on
the street, he ran against Merelli, who was hurrying to the theater.
Without stopping he linked his arm in that of the composer and made
him keep pace. The manager was in the depths of woe. He had secured
a libretto by Solera, which was "wonderful, marvelous, extraordinary,
grand," but the composer he had engaged did not like it. What was to
be done? Verdi bethought him of the libretto "Proscritto," which Rossi
had once written for him, and he had not used. He suggested this
to Merelli. Rossi was at once sent for and produced a copy of the
libretto. Then Merelli laid the other manuscript before Verdi. "Look,
here is Solera's libretto; such a beautiful subject! Take it home and
read it over." But Verdi refused. "No, no, I am in no humor to read
librettos."

"It won't hurt you to look at it," urged Merelli, and thrust it into
the coat pocket of the reluctant composer.

On reaching home, Verdi pulled the manuscript out and threw it on the
writing table. As he did so a stanza from the book caught his eye; it
was almost a paraphrase from the Bible, which had been such a solace
to him in his solitary life. He began to read the story and was more
and more enthralled by it, yet his resolution to write no more was
not altered. However, as the days passed there would be here a line
written down, there a melody--until at last, almost unconsciously the
opera of "Nabucco" came into being.

The opera once finished, Verdi hastened to Merelli, and reminded him
of his promise. The impressario was quite honorable about it, but
would not agree to bring the opera out until Easter, for the season of
1841-42, was already arranged. Verdi refused to wait until Easter,
as he knew the best singers would not then be available. After many
arguments and disputes, it was finally arranged that "Nabucco" should
be put on, but without extra outlay for mounting. At the end
of February 1842, rehearsals began and on March ninth the first
performance took place.

The success of "Nabucco" was remarkable. No such "first night" had
been known in La Scala for many years. "I had hoped for success," said
the composer, "but such a success--never!"

The next day all Italy talked of Verdi. Donizetti, whose wealth of
melodious music swayed the Italians as it did later the English,
was so impressed by it that he continually repeated, "It is fine,
uncommonly fine."

With the success of "Nabucco" Verdi's career as a composer may be
said to have begun. In the following year "I Lombardi" was produced,
followed by "Ernani." Then came in quick succession ten more operas,
among them "Attila" and "Macbeth."

In 1847, we find Verdi in London, where on July 2, at Her Majesty's
Theater, "I Masnadieri" was brought out, with a cast including
Lablanche, Gardoni, Colletti, and above all Jenny Lind, in a part
composed expressly for her. All the artists distinguished themselves;
Jenny Lind acted admirably and sang her airs exquisitely, but the
opera was not a success. No two critics could agree as to its merits.
Verdi left England in disgust and took his music to other cities.

The advantage to Verdi of his trips through Europe and to England is
shown in "Rigoletto," brought out in Vienna in 1851. In this opera
his true power manifests itself. The music shows great advance in
declamation, which lifts it above the ordinary Italian style of that
time. With this opera Verdi's second period begins. Two years later
"Trovatore" was produced in Rome and had a tremendous success.
Each scene brought down thunders of applause, until the very walls
resounded and outside people took up the cry, "Long live Verdi,
Italy's greatest composer! Vive Verdi!" It was given in Paris in 1854,
and in London the following year. In 1855, "La Traviata" was produced
in Vienna. This work, so filled with delicate, beautiful music, nearly
proved a failure, because the consumptive heroine, who expires on the
stage, was sung by a prima donna of such extraordinary stoutness that
the scene was received with shouts of laughter. After a number of
unsuccessful operas, "Un Ballo in Maschera" scored a success in Rome
in 1859, and "La Forza del Destino," written for Petrograd, had a
recent revival in New York.

When Rossini passed away, November 13, 1868, Verdi suggested a requiem
should be written jointly by the best Italian composers. The work was
completed, but was not satisfactory on account of the diversity of
styles. It was then proposed that Verdi write the entire work himself.
The death of Manzoni soon after this caused the composer to carry out
the idea. Thus the great "Manzoni Requiem" came into being.

In 1869, the Khedive of Egypt had a fine opera house built in Cairo,
and commissioned Verdi to write an opera having an Egyptian subject,
for the opening. The ever popular "Aida" was then composed and brought
out in 1871, with great success. This proved to be the beginning of
the master's third period, for he turned from his earlier style which
was purely lyric, to one with far more richness of orchestration.

Verdi had now retired to his estate of Sant'Agata, and it was supposed
his career as composer had closed, as he gave his time principally
to the care of his domain. From time to time it was rumored he was
writing another opera. The rumor proved true, for on February 5, 1887,
when Verdi was seventy-four years old, "Otello" was produced at La
Scala, Milan, amid indescribable enthusiasm. Six years later the
musical world was again startled and overjoyed by the production of
another Shakespearean opera, "Falstaff," composed in his eightieth
year. In all, his operas number over thirty, most of them serious, all
of them containing much beautiful music.

At Sant'Agata the master lived a quiet, retired life. The estate was
situated about two miles from Busseto, and was very large, with a
great park, a large collection of horses and other live stock. The
residence was spacious, and the master's special bedroom was on the
first floor. It was large, light and airy and luxuriously furnished.
Here stood a magnificent grand piano, and the composer often rose in
the night to jot down the themes which came to him in the silence of
the midnight hours. Here "Don Carlos" was written. In one of the upper
rooms stood the old spinet that Verdi hacked at as a child.

Verdi was one of the noblest of men as well as one of the greatest of
musical composers. He passed away in Milan, January 27, 1901, at the
age of eighty-eight.




XVI

RICHARD WAGNER


One of the most gigantic musical geniuses the world has yet known was
Richard Wagner. Words have been exhausted to tell of his achievements;
books without number have been written about him; he himself, in
his Autobiography, and in his correspondence, has told with minutest
detail how he lived and what his inner life has been. What we shall
strive for is the simple story of his career, though in the simple
telling, it may read like a fairy tale.

Richard Wagner first saw the light on May 22, 1813, in Leipsic. Those
were stirring times in that part of the world, for revolution was
often on the eve of breaking out. The tiny babe was but six months
old when the father passed away. There were eight other children, the
eldest son being only fourteen. The mother, a sweet, gentle little
woman, found herself quite unable to support her large family of
growing children. No one could blame her for accepting the hand of her
husband's old friend, Ludwig Geyer, in less than a year after the
loss of her first husband. Geyer was a man of much artistic talent,
an actor, singer, author and painter. He thought little Richard might
become a portrait painter, or possibly a musician, since the child had
learned to play two little pieces on the piano.

Geyer found employment in a Dresden theater, so the family removed to
that city. But he did not live to see the blossoming of his youngest
step-son's genius, as he passed away on September 30, 1821, when the
child was eight years old.

Little Richard showed wonderful promise even in those years of
childhood. At the Kreuzschule, where his education began, he developed
an ardent love for the Greek classics, and translated the first twelve
books of the Odyssey, outside of school hours. He devoured all stories
of mythology he could lay hands on, and soon began to create vast
tragedies. He revelled in Shakespeare, and finally began to write
a play which was to combine the ideas of both Hamlet and King Lear.
Forty-two persons were killed off in the course of the play and had
to be brought back as ghosts, as otherwise there would have been no
characters for the last act. He worked on this play for two years.

Everything connected with the theater was of absorbing interest to
this precocious child. Weber, who lived in Dresden, often passed their
house and was observed with almost religious awe by little Richard.
Sometimes the great composer dropped in to have a chat with the
mother, who was well liked among musicians and artists. Thus Weber
became the idol of the lad's boyhood, and he knew "Der Freischuetz"
almost by heart. If he was not allowed to go to the theater to
listen to his favorite opera, there would be scenes of weeping and
beseeching, until permission was granted for him to run off to the
performance.

In 1827 the family returned to Leipsic, and it was at the famous
Gewandhaus concerts that the boy first heard Beethoven's music. He
was so fired by the Overture to "Egmont," that he decided at once to
become a musician. But how--that was the question. He knew nothing of
composition, but, borrowing a treatise on harmony, tried to learn the
whole contents in a week.

It was a struggle, and one less determined than the fourteen-year-old
boy would have given up in despair. He was made of different stuff.
Working alone by himself, he composed a sonata, a quartette and
an aria. At last he ventured to announce the result of his secret
studies. At this news his relatives were up in arms; they judged
his desire for music to be a passing fancy, especially as they knew
nothing of any preparatory studies, and realized he had never learned
to play any instrument, not even the piano.

The family, however, compromised enough to engage a teacher for him.
But Richard would never learn slowly and systematically. His mind shot
far ahead, absorbing in one instance the writings of Hoffmann, whose
imaginative tales kept the boy's mind in a continual state of nervous
excitement. He was not content to climb patiently the mountain;
he tried to reach the top at a bound. So he wrote overtures for
orchestras, one of which was really performed in Leipsic--a marvelous
affair indeed, with its tympani explosions.

Richard now began to realize the need of solid work, and settled down
to study music seriously, this time under Theodor Weinlig, who was
cantor in the famous Thomas School.

In less than six months the boy was able to solve the most difficult
problems in counterpoint. He learned to know Mozart's music, and tried
to write with more simplicity of style. A piano sonata, a polonaise
for four hands and a fantaisie for piano belong to this year. After
that he aspired to make piano arrangements of great works, such as
Beethoven's "Ninth Symphony." Then came his own symphony, which
was really performed at Gewandhaus, and is said to have shown great
musical vigor.

Instrumental music no longer satisfied this eager, aspiring boy; he
must compose operas. He was now twenty, and went to Wuerzburg, where
his brother Albert was engaged at the Wuerzburg Theater as actor,
singer and stage manager. Albert secured for him a post as chorus
master, with a salary of ten florins a month.

The young composer now started work on a second opera, the first,
called "The Marriage," was found impracticable. The new work was
entitled "The Fairies." This he finished, and the work, performed
years later, was found to be imitative of Beethoven, Weber, and
Marschner; the music was nevertheless very melodious.

Wagner returned to Leipsic in 1834. Soon there came another impetus
to this budding genius: he heard for the first time the great singer
Wilhelmina Schroeder-Devrient, whose art made a deep impression on
him.

It was a time for rapid impressions to sway the ardent temperament of
this boy genius of twenty-one. He read the works of Wilhelm Heinse,
who depicts both the highest artistic pleasures and those of the
opposite sort. Other authors following the same trend made him believe
in the utmost freedom in politics, literature and morals. Freedom in
everything--the pleasures of the moment--seemed to him the highest
good.

Under the sway of such opinions he began to sketch the plot of
his next opera, "Prohibition of Love" (Liebesverbot), founded on
Shakespeare's "Measure for Measure." This was while he was in Teplitz
on a summer holiday. In the autumn he took a position as conductor
in a small operatic theater in Magdeburg. Here he worked at his new
opera, hoping he could induce the admired Schroeder-Devrient to be his
heroine.

Wagner remained in this place about two years and finished his opera
there. The performance of it, for which he labored with great zeal,
was a fiasco. The theater, too, failed soon after and the young
composer was thrown out of work. His sojourn there influenced his
after career, as he met Wilhelmina Planer, who was soon to become his
wife.

Hearing there was an opening for a musical director at Koenigsberg,
he traveled to that town, and in due course secured the post. Minna
Planer also found an engagement at the theater, and the two were
married on November 24, 1836; he was twenty-three and she somewhat
younger. Kind, gentle, loving, she was quite unable to understand she
was linked with a genius. Wagner was burdened with debts, begun in
Magdeburg and increased in Koenigsberg. She was almost as improvident
as he. They were like two children playing at life, with fateful
consequences. It was indeed her misfortune, as one says, that this
gentle dove was mismated with an eagle. But Minna learned later,
through dire necessity, to be more economical and careful, which is
more than can be said of her gifted husband.

After a year the Koenigsberg Theater failed and again Wagner was out
of employment. Through the influence of his friend Dorn, he secured
a directorship at Riga, Minna also being engaged at the theater. At
first everything went well; the salary was higher and the people among
whom they were placed were agreeable. But before long debts began to
press again, and Wagner was dissatisfied with the state of the lyric
drama, which he was destined to reform in such a wonderful way. He was
only twenty-four, and had seen but little of the world. Paris was the
goal toward which he looked with longing eyes, and to the gay French
capital he determined to go.

When he tried to get a passport for Paris, he found it impossible
because of his debts. Not to be turned from his purpose, he, Minna and
the great Newfoundland dog, his pet companion, all slipped away from
Riga at night and in disguise. At the port of Pillau the trio embarked
on a sailing vessel for Paris, the object of all his hopes. The
young composer carried with him one opera and half of a second
work--"Rienzi," which he had written during the years of struggle in
Magdeburg and Koenigsberg. In Riga he had come upon Heine's version
of the Flying Dutchman legend, and the sea voyage served to make the
story more vital.

He writes: "This voyage I shall never forget as long as I live; it
lasted three weeks and a half, and was rich in mishaps. Thrice we
endured the most violent storms, and once the captain had to put
into a Norwegian haven. The passage among the crags of Norway made a
wonderful impression on my fancy, the legends of the Flying Dutchman,
as told by the sailors, were clothed with distinct and individual
color, heightened by the ocean adventures through which we passed."

After stopping a short time in London, the trio halted for several
weeks in Boulogne, because the great Meyerbeer was summering there.
Wagner met the influential composer and confided his hopes and
longings. Meyerbeer received the poor young German kindly, praised his
music, gave him several letters to musicians in power in Paris, but
told him persistence was the most important factor in success.

With a light heart, and with buoyant trust in the future, though
with little money for present necessities, Wagner and his companions
arrived in Paris in September, 1839. Before him lay, if he had but
known it, two years and a half of bitter hardship and privation;
but--"out of trials and tribulations are great spirits molded."

There were many noted musicians in the French capital at that time,
and many opportunities for success. The young German produced his
letters of introduction and received many promises of assistance from
conductors and directors. Delighted with his prospects he located in
the "heart of elegant and artistic Paris," without regarding cost.

Soon the skies clouded; one hope after another failed. His
compositions were either too difficult for conductors to grasp, or
theaters failed on which he depended for assistance. He became in
great distress and could not pay for the furniture of the apartment,
which he had bought on credit. It was now that he turned to writing
for musical journals, to keep the wolf from the door, meanwhile
working on the score of "Rienzi," which was finished in November, 1840
and sent to Dresden. In later years it was produced in that city.

But the Wagners, alas, were starving in Paris. One of Richard's
articles at this time was called "The End of a Musician in Paris,"
and he makes the poor musician die with the words; "I believe in
God--Mozart and Beethoven." It was almost as bad as this for Wagner
himself. He determined to turn his back on all the intrigues and
hardships he had endured for over two years, and set out for the
homeland, which seemed the only desirable spot on earth.

The rehearsals for "Rienzi" began in Dresden in July 1842. Wagner had
now finished "The Flying Dutchman," and had completed the outline of
"Tannhaeuser," based on Hoffmann's story of the Singers' Contest at the
Wartburg.

And now Wagner's star as a composer began to rise and light was seen
ahead. On October 20, 1842 "Rienzi" was produced in the Dresden Opera
House and the young composer awoke the next morning to find himself
famous. The performance was a tremendous success, with singers, public
and critics alike. The performance lasted six hours and Wagner, next
day, decided the work must be cut in places, but the singers loudly
protested: "The work was heavenly," they assured him, "not a measure
could be spared."

With this first venture Wagner was now on the high road to success,
and spent a happy winter in the Saxon capital. He could have gone on
writing operas like "Rienzi," to please the public, but he aimed far
higher. To fuse all the arts in one complete whole was the idea that
had been forming in his mind. He first illustrated this in "The Flying
Dutchman," and it became the main thought of his later works. This
theory made both vocal and instrumental music secondary to the
dramatic plan, and this, at that time, seemed a truly revolutionary
idea.

"The Flying Dutchman" was produced at the Dresden Opera House January
2. 1843, with Mme. Schroeder-Devrient as Senta. Critics and public
had expected a brilliant and imposing spectacle like "Rienzi" and were
disappointed. In the following May and June "The Dutchman" was heard
in Riga and Cassel, conducted by the famous violinist and composer,
Spohr.

In spite of the fact that "The Flying Dutchman" was not then a
success, and in Dresden was shelved for twenty years, Wagner secured
the fine post of Head Capellmeister, at a salary of nearly twelve
hundred dollars. This post he retained for seven years, gaining a
great deal of experience in orchestral conducting, and producing
Beethoven's symphonies with great originality, together with much that
was best in orchestral literature.

"Tannhaeuser" was now complete, and during the following summer, at
Marienbad, sketches for "Lohengrin" and "Die Meistersinger" were
made. During the winter, the book being made he began on the music
of "Lohengrin." In March of the exciting year 1848, the music of
"Lohengrin" was finished. There was a wide difference in style between
that work and "Tannhaeuser." And already the composer had in mind a new
work to be called "The Death of Siegfried." He wrote to Franz Liszt,
with whom he now began to correspond, that within six months he would
send him the book of the new work complete. As he worked at the drama,
however, it began to spread out before him in a way that he could not
condense into one opera, or even two; and thus-it finally grew into
the four operas of the "Ring of the Nibelungen."

It must not be imagined that Wagner had learned the lesson of
carefulness in money matters, or that, with partial success he always
had plenty for his needs. He had expensive tastes, loved fine clothing
and beautiful surroundings. Much money, too, was needed to produce new
works; so that in reality, the composer was always in debt. The many
letters which passed between Wagner and Liszt, which fill two large
volumes, show how Liszt clearly recognized the brilliant genius of his
friend, and stood ready to help him over financial difficulties, and
how Wagner came to lean more and more on Liszt's generosity.

Just what part Wagner played in the revolution of 1848 is not quite
clear. He wrote several articles which were radical protests for
freedom of thought. At all events he learned it would be better for
him to leave Dresden in time. In fact he remained in exile from his
country for over eleven years.

Wagner fled to Switzerland, leaving Minna still in Dresden, though in
due time he succeeded in scraping together funds for her to follow him
to Zurich. He was full of plans for composing "Siegfried," while she
continually urged him to write pleasing operas that Paris would
like. Wagner believed the world should take care of him while he was
composing his great works, whereas Minna saw this course meant living
on the charity of friends, and at this she rebelled. But Wagner grew
discouraged over these petty trials, and for five years creative work
was at a standstill.

How to meet daily necessities was the all absorbing question. A
kind friend, who greatly admired his music, Otto Wesendonck, made it
possible for him to rent, at a low price, a pretty chalet near Lake
Zurich, and there he and Minna lived in retirement, and here he wrote
many articles explaining his theories.

During the early years at Zurich Wagner's only musical activity was
conducting a few orchestral concerts. Then, one day, he took out the
score of his "Lohengrin," and read it, something he rarely did with
any of his works. Seized with a deep desire to have this opera brought
out, he sent a pleading letter to Liszt, begging him to produce the
work. Liszt faithfully accomplished this task at Weimar, where he was
conducting the Court Opera. The date chosen was Goethe's birthday,
August 28, and the year 1850. Wagner was most anxious to be present,
but the risk of arrest prevented him from venturing on German soil.
It was not till 1861, in Vienna, that the composer heard this the most
popular of all his operas. Liszt was profoundly moved by the beautiful
work, and wrote his enthusiasm to the composer.

Wagner now took up his plan of the Nibelung Trilogy, that is the three
operas and a prologue. Early in 1853 the poem in its new form was
complete, and in February he sent a copy to Liszt, who answered: "You
are truly a wonderful man, and your Nibelung poem is surely the most
incredible thing you have ever done!"

So Wagner was impelled by the inner flame of creative fire, to work
incessantly on the music of the great epic he had planned. And work he
must, in spite of grinding poverty and ill health. It was indeed to be
the "Music of the Future."

After a brief visit to London, to conduct some concerts for the London
Philharmonic, Wagner was back again in Zurich, hard at work on the
"Walkuere," the first opera of the three, as the "Rheingold" was
considered the introduction. By April 1856, the whole opera was
finished and sent to Liszt for his opinion. Liszt and his great
friend, Countess Wittgenstein, studied out the work together, and both
wrote glowing letters to the composer of the deep effect his music
made upon them.

And now came a halt in the composition of these tremendous music
dramas. Wagner realized that to produce such great works, a special
theater should be built, of adaptable design. But from where would the
funds be forthcoming? While at work on the "Walkuere," the stories of
"Tristan" and "Parsifal" had suggested themselves, and the plan of
the first was already sketched. He wrote to Liszt: "As I have never in
life felt the bliss of real love, I must erect a monument to the most
beautiful of all my dreams." The first act of "Tristan and Isolde"
was finished on the last day of the year 1857. In his retreat in
Switzerland, the composer longed for sympathetic, intellectual
companionship, which, alas, Minna could not give him. He found it in
the society of Marie Wesendonck, wife of the kind friend and music
lover, who had aided him in many ways. This marked attention to
another aroused Minna's jealousy and an open break was imminent. The
storm, however, blew over for a time.

In June, 1858, Wagner was seized with a desire for luxury and quiet,
and betook himself to Venice, where he wrote the second act of
"Tristan." Then came the trouble between Wagner and the Wesendoncks
which caused the composer to leave Zurich finally, on August 17, 1859.
Minna returned to Dresden while Wagner went to Paris, where Minna
joined him for a time, before the last break came.

What promised to be a wonderful stroke of good luck came to him here.
His art was brought to the notice of the Emperor, Napoleon III, who
requested that one of his operas should be produced, promising carte
blanche for funds. All might have gone well with music of the accepted
pattern. But "Tannhaeuser" was different, its composer particular as to
who sang and how it was done. The rehearsals went badly, an opposing
faction tried to drown the music at the first performance. Matters
were so much worse at the second performance that Wagner refused to
allow it to proceed. In spite of the Emperor's promises, he had borne
much of the expense, and left Paris in disgust, burdened with debt.

From Paris Wagner went to Vienna, where he had the great happiness of
hearing his "Lohengrin" for the first time. He hoped to have "Tristan"
brought out, but the music proved too difficult for the singers of
that time to learn. After many delays and disappointments, the whole
thing was given up. Reduced now to the lowest ebb, Wagner planned a
concert tour to earn a living. Minna now left him finally; she could
no longer endure life with this "monster of genius." She went back to
her relatives in Leipsic, and passed away there in 1866.

The concert tours extended over a couple of years, but brought
few returns, except in Russia. Wagner became despondent and almost
convinced he ought to give up trying to be a composer. People called
him a freak, a madman and ridiculed his efforts at music making.
And yet, during all this troublesome time, he was at work on his one
humorous opera, "Die Meistersinger." On this he toiled incessantly.

And now, when he was in dire need, and suffering, a marvelous boon was
coming to him, as wonderful as any to be found in fairy tale. A fairy
Prince was coming to the rescue of this struggling genius. This Prince
was the young monarch of Bavaria, who had just succeeded to the throne
left by the passing of his father. The youthful Prince, ardent and
generous, had long worshiped in secret the master and his music.
One of his first acts on becoming Ludwig of Bavaria, was to send for
Wagner to come to his capital at once and finish his life work in
peace. "He wants me to be with him always, to work, to rest, to
produce my works," wrote Wagner to a friend in Zurich, where he had
been staying. "He will give me everything I need; I am to finish my
Nibelungen and he will have them performed as I wish. All troubles
are to be taken from me; I shall have what I need, if I only stay with
him."

The King placed a pretty villa on Lake Starnberg, near Munich, at
Wagner's disposal, and there he spent the summer of 1864. The King's
summer palace was quite near, and monarch and composer were much
together. In the autumn a residence in the quiet part of Munich
was set apart for Wagner. Hans von Buelow was sent for as one of the
conductors; young Hans Richter lived in Munich and later became one of
the most distinguished conductors of Wagner's music.

The Buelows arrived in Munich in the early autumn, and almost at once
began the attraction of Mme. Cosima von Buelow and Wagner. She,
the daughter of Liszt, was but twenty five, of deeply artistic
temperament, and could understand the aims of the composer as no
other woman had yet done. This ardent attraction led later to Cosima's
separation from her husband and finally to her marriage with Wagner.

The first of the Wagner Festivals under patronage of the King, took
place in Munich June 10, 13, 19, and July 1, 1865. The work was
"Tristan and Isolde," perhaps the finest flower of Wagner's genius,
and already eight years old. Von Buelow was a superb conductor and
Ludwig an inspired Tristan. Wagner was supremely happy. Alas, such
happiness did not last. Enemies sprang up all about him. The King
himself could not stem the tide of false rumors, and besought the
composer to leave Munich for a while, till public opinion calmed
down. So Wagner returned to his favorite Switzerland and settled
in Triebschen, near Lucerne, where he remained till he removed to
Bayreuth in 1872.

In 1866, the feeling against Wagner had somewhat declined and the King
decided to have model performances of "Tannhaeuser" and "Lohengrin"
at Munich. The Festival began June 11, 1867. The following year "Die
Meistersinger" was performed--June 21, 1868.

And now the King was eager to hear the "Ring." It was not yet complete
but the monarch could not wait and ordered "Das Rheingold," the
Introduction to the Trilogy, to be prepared. It was poorly given
and was not a success. Not at all discouraged, he wished for "Die
Walkuere," which was performed the following year, June 26, 1870.

It had long been Wagner's desire to have a theater built, in which his
creations could be properly given under his direction. Bayreuth had
been chosen, as a quiet spot where music lovers could come for the
sole purpose of hearing the music. He went to live there with
his family in April, 1872. Two years later they moved into Villa
Wahnfried, which had been built according to the composer's ideas.
Meanwhile funds were being raised on both sides of the water, through
the Wagner Societies, to erect the Festival Theater. The corner stone
was laid on Wagner's birthday--his fifty-ninth--May 22, 1872. It was
planned to give the first performances in the summer of 1876; by that
time Wagner's longed-for project became a reality.

The long-expected event took place in August, 1876. The Festival
opened on the thirteenth with "Das Rheingold," first of the Ring music
dramas. On the following night "Die Walkuere" was heard; then came
"Siegfried" and "Goetterdaemmerung," the third and fourth dramas being
heard for the first time. Thus the Ring of the Nibelungen, on which
the composer had labored for a quarter of a century at last found
a hearing, listened to by Kings and Potentates, besides a most
distinguished audience of musicians from all parts of the world.

At last one of Wagner's dreams was realized and his new gospel of art
vindicated.

One music drama remained to be written--his last. Failing health
prevented the completion of the drama until 1882. The first
performance of this noble work was given on July 26, followed by
fifteen other hearings. After the exertions attending these, Wagner
and his wife, their son Siegfried, Liszt and other friends, went to
Italy and occupied the Vendramin Palace, on the Grand Canal, Venice.
Here he lived quietly and comfortably, surrounded by those he loved.
His health failed more and more, the end coming February 13, 1883.

Thus passed from sight one of the most astonishing musicians of all
time. He lives in his music more vitally than when his bodily presence
was on earth, since the world becomes more familiar with his music as
time goes on. And to know this music is to admire and love it.




XVII

CESAR FRANCK


Whatever we learn of Cesar Franck endears him to all who would know
and appreciate the beautiful character which shines through his art.
He was always kind, loving, tender, and these qualities are felt in
the music he composed. Some day we shall know his music better. It has
been said of this unique composer: "Franck is enamored of gentleness
and consolation; his music rolls into the soul in long waves, as on
the slack of a moonlit tide. It is tenderness itself."

In Liege, Belgium, it was that Cesar Franck was born, December 10,
1822. Chopin had come a dozen years earlier, so had Schumann, Liszt
and other gifted ones; it was a time of musical awakening.

The country about Liege was peculiarly French, not only in outward
appearance, but in language and sentiment. Here were low hills covered
with pines and beeches, here charming valleys; there wide plains
where the flowering broom flourished in profusion. It was the Walloon
country, and the Francks claimed descent from a family of early
Walloon painters of the same name. The earliest of these painters was
Jerome Franck, born away back in 1540. Thus the name Franck had stood
for art ideals during a period of more than two and a half centuries.

When Cesar and his brother were small children, the father, a man
of stern and autocratic nature--a banker, with many friends in the
artistic and musical world--decided to make both his sons professional
musicians.

His will had to be obeyed, there was no help for it. In the case of
Cesar, however, a musician was what he most desired to become, so that
music study was always a delight.

Before he was quite eleven years old, his father took him on a tour of
Belgium. It looked then as though he had started on a virtuoso career,
as the wonder children--Mozart, Chopin, Thalberg, Liszt and others who
had preceded him, had done. The future proved, however, that Cesar's
life work was to be composing, teaching and organ playing, with a
quiet life, even in busy Paris, instead of touring the world to make
known his gifts.

During this youthful tour of Belgium, he met a child artist, a year
or two older than himself, a singer, also touring as a virtuoso. The
little girl was called Pauline Garcia, who later became famous as Mme.
Pauline Viardot Garcia.

When Cesar was twelve he had learned what they could teach him at
the Liege Conservatory, and finished his studies there. His father,
ambitious for the musical success of his sons, emigrated with
his family to Paris, in 1836. Cesar applied for entrance to the
Conservatoire, but it was not until the following year, 1837, that he
gained admission, joining Leborne's class in composition, and becoming
Zimmermann's pupil in piano playing. At the end of the year the boy
won a prize for a fugue he had written. In piano he chose Hummel's
Concerto in A minor for his test, and played it off in fine style.
When it came to sight reading, he suddenly elected to transpose the
piece selected a third below the key in which it was written, which he
was able to do at sight, without any hesitation or slip.

Such a feat was unheard of and quite against the time-honored rules of
competition. And to think it had been performed by an audacious
slip of a boy of fifteen! The aged Director, none other than Maestro
Cherubini, was shocked out of the even tenor of his way, and declared
that a first prize could not be awarded, although he must have
realized the lad deserved it. To make amends, however, he proposed
a special award to the audacious young pianist, outside the regular
competition, to be known as "The Grand Prize of Honor." This was the
first time, and so far as is known, the only time such a prize has
been awarded.

Cesar Franck won his second prize for fugue composition in 1839. Fugue
writing had become so natural and easy for him, that he was able to
finish his task in a fraction of the time allotted by the examiners.
When he returned home several hours before the other students had
finished, his father reproached him roundly for not spending more time
on the test upon which so much depended. With his quiet smile the boy
answered he thought the result would be all right. And it was! The
next year he again secured the first prize for fugue; this was in July
1840. The year following he entered the organ contest, which was a
surprise to the examiners.

The tests for organ prizes have always been four. First, the
accompaniment of a plain chant, chosen for the occasion; second, the
performance of an organ piece with pedals; third, the improvising of
a fugue; fourth, improvising a piece in sonata form. Both the
improvisations to be on themes set by the examiners. Cesar at once
noticed that the two themes could be combined in such a way that one
would set off the other. He set to work, and soon became so absorbed
in this interweaving of melodies that the improvisation extended to
unaccustomed lengths, which bewildered the examiners and they decided
to award nothing to such a tiresome boy. Benoist, teacher of this
ingenious pupil, explained matters with the result that Cesar was
awarded a second prize for organ.

He now began to prepare for the highest honor, the Prix de Rome. But
here parental authority interfered. For some unexplained reason, his
father compelled him to leave the Conservatoire before the year was
up. It may have been the father desired to see his son become a famous
virtuoso pianist and follow the career of Thalberg and Liszt. At any
rate he insisted his boy should make the most of his talents as a
performer and should also compose certain pieces suitable for public
playing. To this period of his life belong many of the compositions
for piano solo, the showy caprices, fantaisies and transcriptions.
Being obliged to write this kind of music, the young composer sought
for new forms in fingering and novel harmonic effects, even in his
most insignificant productions. Thus among the early piano works, the
Eclogue, Op. 3, and the Ballade, Op. 9, are to be found innovations
which should attract the pianist and musician of to-day.

His very first compositions, a set of three Trios, Op. 1, were
composed while he was still at the Conservatoire, and his father
wished them dedicated "To His Majesty, Leopold I, King of the
Belgians." He wished to secure an audience with the King and have his
son present the composition to his Majesty in person. It may have
been for this reason he withdrew the boy so suddenly from the
Conservatoire. However this may have been, the Franck family returned
to Belgium for two years. At the end of that time, they all returned
to Paris, with almost no other resources than those earned by the
two young sons, Josef and Cesar, by private teaching and concert
engagements.

And now began for Cesar Franck that life of regular and tireless
industry, which lasted nearly half a century. This industry was
expressed in lesson-giving and composing.

One of the first works written after his return to Paris, was a
musical setting to the Biblical story of "Ruth." The work was given
in the concert room of the Conservatoire, on January 4, 1846, when the
youthful composer was twenty-three. The majority of the critics
found little to praise in the music, which, they said, was but a poor
imitation of "Le Desert," by David. One critic, more kindly disposed
than the others, said: "M. Cesar Franck is exceedingly naive, and this
simplicity we must confess, has served him well in the composition of
his sacred oratorio of 'Ruth.'" A quarter of a century later, a second
performance of "Ruth" was given, and the same critic wrote: "It is
a revelation! This score, which recalls by its charm and melodic
simplicity Mehul's 'Joseph,' but with more tenderness and modern
feeling, is certainly a masterpiece."

But alas, hard times came upon the Franck family. The rich pupils, who
formed the young men's chief clientele, all left Paris, alarmed by the
forebodings of the revolution of 1848. Just at this most inopportune
moment, Cesar decided to marry. He had been in love for some time
with a young actress, the daughter of a well-known tragedienne, Madame
Desmousseaux, and did not hesitate to marry in the face of bad times
and the opposition of his parents, who strongly objected to his
bringing a theatrical person into the family.

Cesar Franck was then organist in the church of Notre Dame de Lorette,
and the marriage took place there, February 22, 1848, in the very
thick of the revolution. Indeed, to reach the church, the wedding
party were obliged to climb a barricade, helped over by the
insurgents, who were massed behind this particular fortification.

Soon after the wedding, Franck, having now lost his pupils--or most
of them--and being continually blamed by his father, whom he could no
longer supply with funds, decided to leave the parental roof and set
up for himself in a home of his own. Of course he had now to work
twice as hard, get new pupils and give many more lessons. But with all
this extra labor, he made a resolve, which he always kept sacredly,
which was to reserve an hour or two each day for composition, or for
the study of such musical and literary works as would improve and
elevate his mind. Nothing was ever allowed to interfere with this
resolution, and to it we owe all his great works.

Franck made his first attempt at a dramatic work in 1851, with a
libretto entitled "The Farmer's Man." As he must keep constantly at
his teaching during the day, he devoted the greater part of the night
to composition. He worked so hard that the opera, begun in December
1851, was finished in two years, but he paid dearly for all this extra
labor. He fell ill--a state of nervous prostration--and was unable for
some time to compose at all.

It was indeed a time of shadows for the young musician, but the skies
brightened after a while. He had the great good fortune to secure the
post of organist and choir master in the fine new basilica of Sainte
Clothilde, which had lately been erected, and which had an organ
that was indeed a masterpiece. This wonderful instrument kept all its
fulness of tone and freshness of timbre after fifty years of use. "If
you only knew how I love this instrument," Father Franck used to say
to the cure of Sainte Clothilde; "it is so supple beneath my fingers
and so obedient to all my thoughts."

As Vincent d'Indy, one of Franck's most gifted and famous pupils,
writes:

"Here, in the dusk of this organ-loft, which I can never think of
without emotion, he spent the best part of his life. Here he came
every Sunday and feast day--and toward the end of his life, every
Friday morning too, fanning the fire of his genius by pouring out his
spirit in wonderful improvisations, which were often far more lofty in
thought than many skilfully elaborated compositions. And here, too,
he must have conceived the sublime melodies which afterward formed the
groundwork of his 'Beatitudes.'"

"Ah, we knew it well, we who were his pupils, the way up to that
thrice-blessed organ loft, a way as steep and difficult as that which
the Gospels tell us leads to Paradise. But when we at last reached the
little organ chamber, all was forgotten in the contemplation of that
rapt profile, the intellectual brow, from which seemed to flow without
effort a stream of inspired melody and subtle, exquisite harmonies."

Cesar Franck was truly the genius of improvisation. It is said no
other modern organist, not excepting the most renowned players, could
hold any comparison to him in this respect. Whether he played for the
service, for his pupils or for some chosen musical guest, Franck's
improvisations were always thoughtful and full of feeling. It was a
matter of conscience to do his best always. "And his best was a sane,
noble, sublime art."

For the next ten years Franck worked and lived the quiet life of a
teacher and organist; his compositions during this time were organ
pieces and church music. But a richer inner life was the outgrowth of
this period of calm, which was to blossom into new, deeper and more
profoundly beautiful compositions.

One of these new works was "The Beatitudes." For years he had had the
longing to compose a religious work on the Sermon on the Mount. In
1869, he set to work on the poem, and when that was well under way,
began to create, with great ardor, the musical setting.

In the very midst of this absorbing work came the Franco-Prussian war,
and many of his pupils must enter the conflict, in one way or another.
Then early in 1872, he was appointed Professor of Organ at the
Conservatoire, which was an honor he appreciated.

The same year, while occupied with the composition of the
"Beatitudes," he wrote and completed his "Oratorio of the Redemption."
After this he devoted six years to the finishing of the "Beatitudes,"
which occupied ten years of his activity, as it was completed in 1879.
A tardy recognition of his genius by the Government granted him the
purple ribbon as officer of the Academy, while not until five or six
years later did he receive the ribbon of a Chevalier of the Legion of
Honor.

In consequence of this event his pupils and friends raised a fund
to cover expenses of a concert devoted entirely to the master's
compositions. These works were given--conducted by Pasdeloup:
Symphonic Poem--"Le Chasseur Maudit," Symphonic Variations, piano
and orchestra, Second Part of "Ruth." Part II was conducted by the
composer and consisted of March and Air de Ballet, with chorus, from
"Hulda" and the Third and Eighth Beatitudes.

The Franck Festival occurred January 30, 1887, and was not a very
inspiring performance. The artist pupils of the master voiced to him
their disappointment that his works should not have been more worthily
performed. But he only smiled on them and comforted them with the
words: "No, no, you are too exacting, dear boys; for my part I am
quite satisfied."

No wonder his pupils called him "Father Franck," for he was ever kind,
sympathetic and tender with them all.

During the later years of Cesar Franck's earthly existence, he
produced several masterpieces. Among them the Violin Sonata, composed
for Eugene and Theophile Ysaye, the D minor Symphony, the String
Quartet, the two remarkable piano pieces, Prelude, Chorale and Fugue,
Prelude, Aria and Finale, and finally the Three Chorales for organ,
his swan song. His health gradually declined, due to overwork and an
accident, and he passed quietly away, November 8, 1890.

Chabrier, who only survived Franck a few years, ended his touching
remarks at the grave with these words:

"Farewell, master, and take our thanks, for you have done well. In you
we salute one of the greatest artists of the century, the incomparable
teacher, whose wonderful work has produced a whole generation of
forceful musicians and thinkers, armed at all points for hard-fought
and prolonged conflicts. We salute, also, the upright and just man,
so humane, so distinguished, whose counsel was sure, as his words were
kind. Farewell!"




XVIII

JOHANNES BRAHMS


It has been truly said that great composers cannot be compared one
with another. Each is a solitary star, revolving in his own orbit.
For instance it is impossible to compare Wagner and Brahms; the former
could not have written the German Requiem or the four Symphonies any
more than Brahms could have composed "Tristan." In the combination of
arts which Wagner fused into a stupendous whole, he stands without a
rival. But Brahms is also a mighty composer in his line of effort,
for he created music that continually grows in beauty as it is better
known.

Johannes Brahms was born in Hamburg, May 7, 1833. The house at 60
Speckstrasse still stands, and doubtless looks much as it did seventy
years ago. A locality of dark, narrow streets with houses tall and
gabled and holding as many families as possible. Number 60 stands in
a dismal court, entered by a close narrow passage. A steep wooden
staircase in the center, used to have gates, closed at night.
Jakob and Johanna lived in the first floor dwelling to the left. It
consisted of a sort of lobby or half kitchen, a small living room
and a tiny sleeping closet--nothing else. In this and other small
tenements like it, the boy's early years were spent. It certainly was
an ideal case of low living and high thinking.

The Brahms family were musical but very poor in this world's goods.
The father was a contra bass player in the theater; he often had to
play in dance halls and beer gardens, indeed where he could. Later he
became a member of the band that gave nightly concerts at the Alster
Pavillion. The mother, much older than her husband, tried to help out
the family finances by keeping a little shop where needles and thread
were sold.

Little Johannes, or Hannes as he was called, was surrounded from his
earliest years by a musical atmosphere, and must have shown a great
desire to study music. We learn that his father took him to Otto
Cossel, to arrange for piano lessons. Hannes was seven years old, pale
and delicate looking, fair, with blue eyes and a mass of flaxen hair.
The father said:

"Herr Cossel, I wish my son to become your pupil; he wants so much
to learn the piano. When he can play as well as you do it will be
enough."

Hannes was docile, eager and quick to learn. He had a wonderful memory
and made rapid progress. In three years a concert was arranged for
him, at which he played in chamber music with several other musicians
of Hamburg. The concert was both a financial and artistic success. Not
long after this, Cossel induced Edward Marxsen, a distinguished master
and his own teacher, to take full charge of the lad's further musical
training. Hannes was about twelve at the time.

Marxsen's interest in the boy's progress increased from week to week,
as he realized his talents. "One day I gave him a composition of
Weber's," he says. "The next week he played it to me so blamelessly
that I praised him. 'I have also practised it in another way,' he
answered, and played me the right hand part with the left hand." Part
of the work of the lessons was to transpose long pieces at sight;
later on Bach's Preludes and Fugues were done in the same way.

Jakob Brahms, who as we have seen was in very poor circumstances, was
ready to exploit Hannes' gift whenever occasion offered. He had the
boy play in the band concerts in the Alster Pavillion, which are
among the daily events of the city's popular life, as all know who are
acquainted with Hamburg, and his shillings earned in this and similar
ways, helped out the family's scanty means. But late hours began to
tell on the boy's health. His father begged a friend of his, a wealthy
patron of music, to take the lad to his summer home, in return for
which he would play the piano at any time of day desired and give
music lessons to the young daughter of the family, a girl of about his
own age.

Thus it came about that early in May, 1845, Hannes had his first taste
of the delights of the country. He had provided himself with a small
dumb keyboard, to exercise his fingers upon. Every morning, after he
had done what was necessary in the house, Hannes was sent afield by
the kind mistress of the household, and told not to show himself till
dinner time. Perhaps the good mistress did not know that Hannes had
enjoyed himself out of doors hours before. He used to rise at four
o'clock and begin his day with a bath in the river. Shortly after this
the little girl, Lischen, would join him and they would spend a couple
of hours rambling about, looking for bird's nests, hunting butterflies
and picking wild flowers. Hannes' pale cheeks soon became plump and
ruddy, as the result of fresh air and country food. Musical work
went right on as usual. Studies in theory and composition, begun with
Marxsen, were pursued regularly in the fields and woods all summer.

When the summer was over and all were back in Hamburg again, Lischen
used to come sometimes to Frau Brahms, of whom she soon grew very
fond. But it troubled her tender heart to see the poor little flat so
dark and dreary; for even the living room had but one small window,
looking into the cheerless courtyard. She felt very sorry for her
friends, and proposed to Hannes they should bring some scarlet runners
to be planted in the court. He fell in with the idea at once and it
was soon carried out. But alas, when the children had done their part,
the plants refused to grow.

Johannes had returned home much improved in health, and able to play
in several small concerts, where his efforts commanded attention.
The winter passed uneventfully, filled with severe study by day and
equally hard labor at night in playing for the "lokals." But the next
summer in Winsen brought the country and happiness once more.

Hannes began to be known as a musician among the best families of
Winsen, and often played in their homes. He also had the chance to
conduct a small chorus of women's voices, called the Choral Society of
Winsen. He was expected to turn his theoretical studies to account by
composing something for this choir. It was for them he produced his
"A B C" song for four parts, using the letters of the alphabet. The
composition ended with the words "Winsen, eighteen-hundred seven and
forty," sung slowly and fortissimo. The little piece was tuneful and
was a great favorite with the teachers, from that day to this.

The boy had never heard an opera. During the summer, when Carl Formes,
then of Vienna, was making a sensation in Hamburg, Lischen got her
father to secure places and take them. The opera was the "Marriage
of Figaro." Hannes was almost beside himself with delight. "Lischen,
listen to the music! there was never anything like it," he cried over
and over again. The father, seeing it gave so much pleasure, took the
children again to hear another opera, to their great delight.

But the happy summer came to an end and sadness fell, to think
Johannes must leave them, for he had found many kind friends in
Winsen. He was over fifteen now and well knew he must make his way as
a musician, help support the family, and pay for the education of his
brother Fritz, who was to become a pianist and teacher. There was a
farewell party made for him in Winsen, at which there was much music,
speech making and good wishes for his future success and for his
return to Winsen whenever he could.

Johannes made his new start by giving a concert of his own on
September 21, 1848. The tickets for this concert were one mark; he
had the assistance of some Hamburg musicians. In April next, 1849, he
announced a second concert, for which the tickets were two marks. At
this he played the Beethoven "Waldstein Sonata," and the brilliant
"Don Juan Fantaisie." These two works were considered about the top
of piano virtuosity. Meanwhile the boy was always composing and still
with his teacher Marxsen.

The political revolution of 1848, was the cause of many refugees
crowding into Hamburg on their way to America. One of these was the
violinist, Edward Remenyi, a German Hungarian Jew, whose real name
was Hofmann. But it seemed Remenyi was really in no haste to leave
Hamburg. Johannes, engaged as accompanist at the house of a wealthy
patron, met the violinist and was fascinated by his rendering of
national Hungarian music. Remenyi, on his side, saw the advantage of
having such an accompanist for his own use. So it happened the two
played together frequently for a time, until the violinist disappeared
from Germany, for several years. He reappeared in Hamburg at the close
of the year 1852. He was then twenty-two, while Brahms was nineteen.
It was suggested that the two musicians should do a little concert
work together. They began to plan out the trip which became quite
a tour by the time they had included all the places they wished to
visit.

The tour began at Winsen, then came Cella. Here a curious thing
happened. The piano proved to be a half tone below pitch, but Brahms
was equal to the dilemma. Requesting Remenyi to tune his violin a
half tone higher, making it a whole tone above the piano, he then,
at sight, transposed the Beethoven Sonata they were to play. It was
really a great feat, but Johannes performed it as though it were an
every day affair.

The next place was Luneburg and there the young musician had such
success that a second concert was at once announced. Two were next
given at Hildesheim. Then came Leipsic, Hanover and after that Weimer,
where Franz Liszt and his retinue of famous pupils held court. Here
Johannes became acquainted with Raff, Klindworth, Mason, Pruekner and
other well-known musicians.

By this time his relations with Remenyi had become somewhat irksome
and strained and he decided to break off this connection. One morning
he suddenly left Weimar, and traveled to Goettingen. There he met
Joseph Joachim, whom he had long wished to know, and who was the
reigning violinist of his time. Without any announcement, Johannes
walked in on the great artist, and they became fast friends almost
at once. Joachim had never known what it was to struggle; he had had
success from the very start; life had been one long triumph, whereas
Johannes had come from obscurity and had been reared in privation. At
this time Johannes was a fresh faced boy, with long fair hair and deep
earnest blue eyes. Wuellner, the distinguished musician of Cologne,
thus describes him: "Brahms, at twenty, was a slender youth, with
long blond hair and a veritable St. John's head, from whose eyes shone
energy and spirit."

Johannes was at this time deeply engaged on his piano Sonata in F
minor, Op. 5. He had already written two other piano sonatas, as yet
little known. The Op. 5, is now constantly heard in concert rooms,
played by the greatest artists of our time.

In disposition Hannes was kindly and sincere; as a youth merry and
gay. A friend in Duesseldorf, where he now spent four weeks, thus
describes him:

"He was a most unusual looking young musician, hardly more than a boy,
in his short summer coat, with his high-pitched voice and long fair
hair. Especially fine was his energetic, characteristic mouth, and his
earnest, deep gaze. His constitution was thoroughly healthy; the most
strenuous mental exercise hardly fatigued him and he could go to sleep
at any hour of the day he pleased. He was apt to be full of pranks,
too. At the piano he dominated by his characteristic, powerful, and
when necessary, extraordinarily tender playing." Schumann, whom he now
came to know in Duesseldorf, called him the "young eagle--one of the
elect." In fact Schumann, in his musical journal, praised the young
musician most highly. And his kindness did not stop there. He wrote to
Hannes' father, Jakob Brahms, in Hamburg, commending in glowing terms
his son's compositions. This letter was sent to Johannes and the
result was the offering of some of his compositions to Breitkopf and
Haertel for publication. He had already written two Sonatas, a Scherzo,
and a Sonata for piano and violin. The Sonata in C, now known as Op.
I, although not his first work, was the one in which he introduced
himself to the public. For, as he said: "When one first shows one's
self, it is to the head and not to the heels that one wishes to draw
attention."

Johannes made his first appearance in Leipsic, as pianist and
composer, at one of the David Quartet Concerts, at which he played his
C major Sonata and the Scherzo. His success was immediate, and as a
result, he was able to secure a second publisher for his Sonata Op. 5.

And now, after months of traveling, playing in many towns and meeting
with many musicians and distinguished people, Johannes turned his
steps toward Hamburg, and was soon in the bosom of the home circle.
It is easy to imagine the mother's joy, for Hannes had always been the
apple of her eye, and she had kept her promise faithfully, to write
him a letter every week. But who shall measure the father's pride and
satisfaction to have his boy return a real musical hero?

The concert journey just completed was the bridge over which Johannes
Brahms passed from youth to manhood. With the opening year of 1854, he
may be said to enter the portals of a new life.

He now betook himself to Hanover, to be near his devoted friend
Joachim, plunged into work and was soon absorbed in the composition
of his B major Piano Trio. Later Schumann and his charming wife, the
pianist, came to Hanover for a week's visit, which was the occasion
for several concerts in which Brahms, Joachim and Clara Schumann took
part. Soon after this Schumann's health failed and he was removed to
a sanatorium. In sympathy for the heavy trial now to be borne by Clara
Schumann, both young artists came to Duesseldorf, to be near the wife
of their adored master, Robert Schumann. There they remained and by
their encouragement so lifted the spirits of Frau Clara that she was
able to resume her musical activities.

Johann had been doing some piano teaching when not occupied with
composition. But now, on the advice of his musical friends, he decided
to try his luck again as a concert pianist. He began by joining Frau
Clara and Joachim in a concert at Danzig. Each played solos. Johann's
were Bach's "Chromatic Fantaisie" and several manuscript pieces of
his own. After this the young artist went his own way. He played with
success in Bremen, also in Hamburg. It is said he was always nervous
before playing, but especially so in his home city. However all passed
off well. He now settled definitely in Hamburg, making musical trips
to other places when necessary.

Robert Schumann rallied for a while from his severe malady, and hopes
were held out of his final recovery. Frau Clara, having her little
family to support, resumed her concert playing in good earnest, and
appeared with triumphant success in Vienna, London and many other
cities. When possible Brahms and Joachim accompanied her. Then
Schumann's malady took an unfavorable turn. When the end was near,
Brahms and Frau Clara went to Endenich and were with the master till
all was over. On July 31, 1856, a balmy summer evening, the mortal
remains of the great composer were laid to rest in the little cemetery
at Bonn, on the Rhine. The three chief mourners were: Brahms--who
carried a laurel wreath from the wife--Joachim and Dietrich.

Frau Schumann returned to Duesseldorf the next day, accompanied by
Brahms and Joachim. Together they set in order the papers left by the
composer, and assisted the widow in many little ways. A little later
she went to Switzerland to recover her strength, accompanied by
Brahms and his sister Elise. A number of weeks were spent in rest and
recuperation. By October the three musicians were ready to take up
their ordinary routine again. Frau Clara began practising for her
concert season, Joachim returned to his post in Hanover, and Johann
turned his face toward Hamburg, giving some concerts on the way, in
which he achieved pronounced success.

The season of 1856-7, was passed uneventfully by Brahms, in composing,
teaching and occasional journeys. He may be said to have had four
homes, besides that of his parents in Hamburg. In Duesseldorf, Hanover,
Goettingen and Bonn he had many friends and was always welcome.

It may be asked why Brahms, who had the faculty of endearing himself
so warmly to his friends, never married. It is true he sometimes
desired to found a home of his own, but in reality the mistress of
his absorbing passion was his art, to which everything else remained
secondary. He never swerved a hair's breadth from this devotion to
creative art, but accepted poverty, disappointment, loneliness and
often failure in the eyes of the world, for the sake of this, his true
love.

Johannes was now engaged as conductor of a Choral Society in Detmold,
also as Court Pianist and teacher in the royal family. The post
carried with it free rooms and living, and he was lodged at the Hotel
Stadt Frankfort, a comfortable inn, exactly opposite the Castle, and
thus close to the scene of his new labors.

He began his duties by going through many short choral works of the
older and modern masters. With other musicians at Court much chamber
music was played, in fact almost the entire repertoire. The young
musician soon became a favorite at Court, not only on account of his
musical genius but also because of the general culture of his mind.
He could talk on almost any subject. "Whoever wishes to play well must
not only practise a great deal but read many books," was one of his
favorite sayings. One of his friends said, of meetings in Brahms'
rooms at night, when his boon companions reveled in music: "And how
Brahms loved the great masters! How he played Haydn and Mozart! With
what beauty of interpretation and delicate shading of tone. And then
his transposing!" Indeed Johann thought nothing of taking up a new
composition and playing it in _any_ key, without a mistake. His score
reading was marvelous. Bach, Handel, Mozart, Haydn, all seemed to flow
naturally from under his fingers.

The post in Detmold only required Brahms' presence a part of the year,
but he was engaged for a term of years. The other half of the year
was spent in Hamburg, where he resumed his activities of composing and
teaching. The summer after his first winter in Detmold was spent
in Goettingen with warm friends. Clara Schumann was there with her
children, and Johann was always one of the family--as a son to her.
He was a famous playfellow for the children, too. About this time
he wrote a book of charming Children's Folk Songs, dedicated to the
children of Robert and Clara Schumann. Johann was occupied with his
Piano Concerto in D minor. His method of working was somewhat like
Beethoven's, as he put down his ideas in notebooks. Later on he formed
the habit of keeping several compositions going at once.

The prelude to Johann's artistic life was successfully completed. Then
came a period of quiet study and inward growth. A deeper activity was
to succeed. It opened early in the year 1859, when the young musician
traveled to Hanover and Leipsic, bringing out his Concerto in D minor.
He performed it in the first named city, while Joachim conducted the
orchestra. It was said the work "with all its serious striving,
its rejection of the trivial, its skilled instrumentation, seemed
difficult to understand; but the pianist was considered not merely a
virtuoso but a great artist of piano playing."

The composer had now to hurry to Leipsic, as he was to play with the
famous Gewandhaus orchestra. How would Leipsic behave towards this new
and serious music? Johann was a dreamer, inexperienced in the ways
of the world; he was an idealist--in short, a genius gifted with an
"imagination, profound, original and romantic." The day after the
concert he wrote Joachim he had made a brilliant and decided failure.
However he was not a whit discouraged by the apathy of the Leipsigers
toward his new work. He wrote: "The Concerto will please some day,
when I have made some improvements, and a second shall sound quite
different."

It has taken more than half a century to establish the favor of the
Concerto, which still continues on upward wing. The writer heard the
composer play this Concerto in Berlin, toward the end of his life.
He made an unforgettable figure, as he sat at the piano with his long
hair and beard, turning to gray; and while his technic was not of
the virtuoso type, he created a powerful impression by his vivid
interpretation.

After these early performances of the Concerto, Johann returned
to Hamburg, to his composing and teaching. He, however, played the
Concerto in his native city on a distinguished occasion, when Joachim
was a soloist in Spohr's Gesang-Scene, Stockhausen in a magnificent
Aria, and then Johann, pale, blond, slight, but calm and self
controlled. The Concerto scored a considerable success at last, and
the young composer was content.

In the autumn of this year, Johann paid his third visit to Detmold,
and found himself socially as well as musically the fashion. It was
the correct thing to have lessons from him and his presence gave
distinction to any assemblage. But Johann did not wish to waste his
time at social functions; when obliged to be present at some of these
events he would remain silent the entire evening, or else say sharp
or biting things, making the hosts regret they had asked him. His
relations with the Court family, however, remained very pleasant.
Yet he began to chafe under the constant demands on his time, and the
rigid etiquette of the little Court. The next season he definitely
declined the invitation to revisit Detmold, the reason given was that
he had not the time, as he was supervising the publication of a number
of his works. Brahms had become interested in writing for the voice,
and had already composed any number of beautiful vocal solos and part
songs.

We are told that Frau Schumann, Joachim and Stockhausen came
frequently to Hamburg during the season of 1861, and all three made
much of Johannes. All four gave concerts together, and Johannes took
part in a performance of Schumann's beautiful Andante and Variations,
for two pianos, while Stockhausen sang entrancingly Beethoven's
Love Songs, accompanied by Brahms. On one occasion Brahms played his
Variations on a Handel Theme, "another magnificent work, splendidly
long, the stream of ideas flowing inexhaustibly. And the work was
wonderfully played by the composer; it seemed like a miracle. The
composition is so difficult that none but a great artist can attempt
it." So wrote a listener at the time. That was in 1861. We know this
wonderful work in these days, for all the present time artists perform
it. At each of Frau Schumann's three appearances in Hamburg during the
autumn of this year, she performed one of Brahms' larger compositions;
one of them was the Handel Variations.

Although one time out of ten Johann might be taciturn or sharp,
the other nine he would be agreeable, always pleased--good humored,
satisfied, like a child with children. Every one liked his earnest
nature, his gaiety and humor.

Johann had had a great longing to see Vienna, the home of so many
great musicians; but felt that when the right time came, the way would
open. And it did. Early in September, 1862, he wrote a friend: "I am
leaving on Monday, the eighth, for Vienna. I look forward to it like a
child."

He felt at home in Vienna from the start, and very soon met the
leading lights of the Austrian capital. On November 16, he gave his
first concert, with the Helmesberger Quartet, and before a crowded
house. It was a real success for "Schumann's young prophet." Although
concert giving was distasteful, he appeared again on December 20, and
then gave a second concert on January 6, 1863, when he played Bach's
Chromatic Fantaisie, Beethoven's Variations in C minor, his own Sonata
Op. 5, and Schumann's Sonata OP. 11.

Johann returned home in May, and shortly after was offered the post
of Conductor of the Singakademie, which had just become vacant. He had
many plans for the summer, but finally relinquished them and sent an
acceptance. By the last of August he was again in Vienna.

Now followed years of a busy musical life. Brahms made his
headquarters in Vienna, and while there did much composing. The
wonderful Piano Quintette, one of his greatest works, the German
Requiem, the Cantata Rinaldo and many beautiful songs came into being
during this period. Every little while concert tours and musical
journeys were undertaken, where Brahms often combined with other
artists in giving performances of his compositions. A series of three
concerts in Vienna in February and March, 1869, given by Brahms and
Stockhausen, were phenomenally successful, the tickets being sold
as soon as the concerts were announced. The same series was given in
Budapest with equal success.

Early in the year 1872, when our composer was nearly forty, we find
him installed in the historic rooms in the third floor of Number 4
Carl's Gasse, Vienna, which were to remain to the end of his life
the nearest approach to an establishment of his own. There were three
small rooms. The largest contained his grand piano, writing table, a
sofa with another table in front of it. The composer was still
smooth of face and looked much as he did at twenty, judging from his
pictures. It was not until several years later, about 1880, that
he was adorned by the long heavy beard, which gave his face such a
venerable appearance.

The year 1874, was full of varied excitement. Many invitations
were accepted to conduct his works in North Germany, the Rhine,
Switzerland, and other countries. A tour in Holland in 1876, brought
real joy. He played his D minor Concerto in Utrecht and other cities,
conducted his works and was everywhere received with honors. But the
greatest event of this year was the appearance of his first Symphony.
It was performed for the first time from manuscript in Carlsruhe and
later in many other cities. In this work "Brahms' close affinity with
Beethoven must become clear to every musician, who has not already
perceived it," wrote Hanslick, the noted critic.

We have now to observe the unwearied energy with which Brahms, during
the years that followed added one after another to his list, in each
and every branch of serious music; songs, vocal duets, choral and
instrumental works. In the summer of 1877 came the Second Symphony. In
1879 appeared the great Violin Concerto, now acclaimed as one of the
few masterpieces for that instrument. It was performed by Joachim at
the Gewandhaus, Leipsic, early in the year. There were already four
Sonatas for Piano and Violin. The Sonata in G, the Rhapsodies Op. 79
and the third and fourth books of Hungarian Dances, as duets, were the
publications of 1880. He now wrote a new Piano Concerto, in B flat,
which he played in Stuttgart for the first time, November 22, 1881. In
1883 the Third Symphony appeared, which revealed him at the zenith of
his powers. This work celebrated his fiftieth birthday.

The Fourth Symphony was completed during the summer of 1885. Then came
the Gipsy Songs.

From 1889 onward, Brahms chose for his summer sojourn the town of
Ischl, in the Salzkammergut. The pretty cottage where he stayed was
on the outskirts of the town, near the rushing river Traun. He always
dined at the "Keller" of the Hotel Elizabeth, which was reached by
a flight of descending steps. In this quiet country, among mountain,
valley and stream, he could compose at ease and also see his friends
at the end of the day.

A visit to Italy in the spring of 1890, afforded rest, refreshment and
many pleasant incidents.

The "Four Serious Songs," were published in the summer of 1896. At
this time Brahms had been settled in his rooms at Ischl scarcely a
fortnight when he was profoundly shaken by news of Clara Schumann's
death. She passed peacefully away in Frankfort, and was laid beside
her husband, in Bonn, May 24. Brahms was present, together with many
musicians and celebrities.

The master felt this loss keenly. He spent the summer in Ischl as
usual, composing, among other things, the Eleven Choral Preludes. Most
of these have death for their subject, showing that his mind was taken
up with the idea. His friends noticed he had lost his ruddy color and
that his complexion was pale. In the autumn he went to Carlsbad for
the cure.

After six weeks he returned to Vienna, but not improved, as he had
become very thin and walked with faltering step. He loved to be with
his friends, the Fellingers, as much as possible, as well as with
other friends. He spent Christmas eve with them, and dined there the
next day. From this time on he grew worse. He was very gentle the last
months of his life, and touchingly grateful for every attention shown
him. Every evening he would place himself at the piano and improvise
for half an hour. When too fatigued to continue, he would sit at the
window till long after darkness had fallen. He gradually grew weaker
till he passed peacefully away, April 3, 1897.

The offer of an honorary grave was made by the city of Vienna, and
he has found resting place near Beethoven and Mozart, just as he had
wished.

Memorial tablets have been placed on the houses in which Brahms lived
in Vienna, Ischl and Thun, also on the house of his birth, in Hamburg.




XIX

EDWARD GRIEG

    "_From every point of view Grieg is one of the most original
    geniuses in the musical world of the present or past. His
    songs are a mine of melody, surpassed in wealth only by
    Schubert, and that only because there are more of Schubert's.
    In originality of harmony and modulation he has only six
    equals. Bach, Schubert, Chopin, Schumann, Wagner and Liszt. In
    rhythmic invention and combination he is inexhaustible, and as
    orchestrator he ranks among the most fascinating_."

                                                    HENRY T. FINCK


Edward Hargarup Grieg, "the Chopin of the North," was a unique
personality, as well as an exceptional musician and composer. While
not a "wonder child," in the sense that Mozart, Chopin and Liszt were,
he early showed his love for music and his rapt enjoyment of the music
of the home circle. Fortunately he lived and breathed in a musical
atmosphere from his earliest babyhood. His mother was a fine musician
and singer herself, and with loving care she fostered the desire for
it and the early studies of it in her son. She was his first teacher,
for she kept up her own musical studies after her marriage, and
continued to appear in concerts in Bergen, where the family lived.
Little Edward, one of five children, seemed to inherit the mother's
musical talent and had vivid recollections of the rhythmic animation
and spirit with which she played the works of Weber, who was one of
her favorite composers.

The piano was a world of mystery to the sensitive musical child. His
baby fingers explored the white keys to see what they sounded like.
When he found two notes together, forming an interval of a third, they
pleased him better than one alone. Afterwards three keys as a triad,
were better yet, and when he could grasp a chord of four or five tones
with both hands, he was overjoyed. Meanwhile there was much music to
hear. His mother practised daily herself, and entertained her musical
friends in weekly soirees. Here the best classics were performed with
zeal and true feeling, while little Edward listened and absorbed music
in every pore.

When he was six years old piano lessons began. Mme. Grieg proved a
strict teacher, who did not allow any trifling; the dreamy child found
he could not idle away his time. As he wrote later: "Only too soon it
became clear to me I had to practise just what was unpleasant. Had I
not inherited my mother's irrepressible energy as well as her musical
capacity, I should never have succeeded in passing from dreams to
deeds."

But dreams were turned into deeds before long, for the child tried to
set down on paper the little melodies that haunted him. It is said he
began to do this at the age of nine. A really serious attempt was
made when he was twelve or thirteen. This was a set of variations for
piano, on a German melody. He brought it to school one day to show one
of the boys. The teacher caught sight of it and reprimanded the young
composer soundly, for thus idling his time. It seems that in school he
was fond of dreaming away the hours, just as he did at the piano.

The truth was that school life was very unsympathetic to him,
very narrow and mechanical, and it is no wonder that he took every
opportunity to escape and play truant. He loved poetry and knew
all the poems in the reading books by heart; he was fond, too, of
declaiming them in season and out of season.

With the home atmosphere he enjoyed, the boy Grieg early became
familiar with names of the great composers and their works. One of
his idols was Chopin, whose strangely beautiful harmonies were just
beginning to be heard, though not yet appreciated. His music must have
had an influence over the lad's own efforts, for he always remained
true to this ideal.

Another of his admirations was for Ole Bull, the famous Norwegian
violinist. One day in summer, probably in 1858, when Edward was
about fifteen, this "idol of his dreams" rode up to the Grieg home on
horseback. The family had lived for the past five years at the fine
estate of Landaas, near Bergen. The great violinist had just returned
from America and was visiting his native town, for he too was born in
Bergen. That summer he came often to the Griegs' and soon discovered
the great desire of young Edward for a musical career. He got the boy
to improvise at the piano, and also to show him the little pieces he
had already composed. There were consultations with father and mother,
and then, finally, the violinist came to the boy, stroked his cheek
and announced; "You are to go to Leipsic and become a musician."

Edward was overjoyed. To think of gaining his heart's desire so easily
and naturally; it all seemed like a fairy tale, too good to be true.

The Leipsic Conservatory, which had been founded by Mendelssohn, and
later directed for a short time by Schumann, was now in the hands of
Moscheles, distinguished pianist and conductor. Richter and Hauptmann,
also Papperitz, taught theory; Wenzel, Carl Reinecke and Plaidy,
piano.

Some of these later gained the reputation of being rather dry and
pedantic; they certainly were far from comprehending the romantic
trend of the impressionable new pupil, for they tried to curb his
originality and square it with rules and customs. This process was
very irksome, for the boy wanted to go his own gait.

Among his fellow students at the Conservatory were at least a half
dozen who later made names for themselves. They were: Arthur Sullivan,
Walter Bache, Franklin Taylor, Edward Dannreuther and J.F. Barnett.
All these were making rapid progress in spite of dry methods. So
Edward Grieg began to realize that if he would also accomplish
anything, he must buckle down to work. He now began to study with
frantic ardor, with scarcely time left for eating and sleeping. The
result of this was a complete breakdown in the spring of 1860, with
several ailments, incipient lung trouble being the most serious.
Indeed it was serious enough to deprive Grieg of one lung, leaving him
for the remainder of his life somewhat delicate.

When his mother learned of his illness, she hurried to Leipsic and
took him back to Bergen, where he slowly regained his health. His
parents now begged him to remain at home, but he wished to return to
Leipsic. He did so, throwing himself into his studies with great zeal.
In the spring of 1862, after a course of four years, he passed his
examinations with credit. On this occasion he played some of his
compositions--the four which have been printed as Op. 1--and achieved
success, both as composer and pianist.

After a summer spent quietly with his parents at Landaas, he began
to prepare for coming musical activities. The next season he gave
his first concert in Bergen, at which the piano pieces of Op. 1, Four
Songs for Alto, and a String Quartet were played. With the proceeds
of this concert he bought orchestral and chamber music, and began to
study score, which he had not previously learned to do. In the spring
of 1863--he was hardly twenty then--he left home and took up his
residence in Copenhagen, a much larger city, offering greater
opportunities for an ambitious young musician. It was also the home of
Niels W. Gade, the foremost Scandinavian composer.

Of course Grieg was eager to meet Gade, and an opportunity soon
occurred. Gade expressed a willingness to look at some of his
compositions, and asked if he had anything to show him. Edward
modestly answered in the negative. "Go home and write a symphony," was
the retort. This the young composer started obediently to do, but the
work was never finished in this form. It became later Two Symphonic
Pieces for Piano, Op. 14.

Two sources of inspiration for Grieg were Ole Bull and Richard
Nordraak. We remember that Ole Bull was the means of influencing his
parents to send Edward to Leipsic. That was in 1858. Six years later,
when Ole Bull was staying at his country home, near Bergen, where
he always tried to pass the summers, the two formed a more intimate
friendship. They played frequently together, sonatas by Mozart and
others, or trios, in which Edward's brother John played the 'cello
parts. Or they wandered together to their favorite haunts among
mountains, fjords or flower clad valleys. They both worshiped nature
in all her aspects and moods, and each, the one on his instrument, the
other in his music, endeavored to reproduce these endless influences.

Richard Nordraak was a young Norwegian composer of great talent, who,
in his brief career, created a few excellent works. The two musicians
met in the winter of 1864 and were attracted to each other at once.
Nordraak visited Grieg in his home, where they discussed music and
patriotism to their hearts' content. Nordraak was intensely patriotic,
and wished to see the establishment of Norse music. Grieg, who had
been more or less influenced by German ideas, since Leipsic days,
now cast off the fetters and placed himself on the side of Norwegian
music. To prove this he composed the Humoresken, Op. 6, and dedicated
them to Nordraak. From now on he felt free to do as he pleased in
music--to be himself.

In 1864 Grieg became engaged to his cousin, Nina Hargerup, a slender
girl of nineteen, who had a lovely voice and for whom he wrote many of
his finest songs. He returned to Christiania from a visit to Rome, and
decided to establish himself in the Norwegian capital. Soon after his
arrival, in the autumn of 1856, he gave a concert, assisted by his
fiancee and Mme. Norman Neruda, the violinist. The program was made
up entirely of Norwegian music, and contained his Violin Sonata Op.
8, Humoresken, Op. 6, Piano Sonata, Op. 7. There were two groups of
songs, by Nordraak and Kjerulf respectively. The concert was a
success with press and public and the young composer's position seemed
assured. He secured the appointment of Conductor of the Philharmonic
Society, and was quite the vogue as a teacher. He married Nina
Hargerup the following June, 1867, and they resided in Christiania for
the next eight years.

Grieg could not endure "amateurish mediocrity," and made war upon it,
thus drawing jealous attacks upon himself. His great friend and ally,
Nordraak, passed away in 1868, and the next year his baby daughter,
aged thirteen months, the only child he ever had, left them.

In spite of these discouragements, some of his finest compositions
came into being about this period of his life. Songs, piano pieces and
the splendid Concerto followed each other in quick succession.

Another satisfaction to Grieg was a most sympathetic and cordial
letter from Liszt on making acquaintance with his Sonata for violin
and piano, Op. 8, which he praised in high terms. He invited Grieg
to come and visit him, that they might become better acquainted. This
unsolicitated appreciation from the famous Liszt was a fine honor
for the young composer, and was the means of inducing the Norwegian
Government to grant him an annuity. This sum enabled him the following
year, to go to Rome and meet Liszt personally.

He set out on this errand in October, and later wrote his parents of
his visits to Liszt. The first meeting took place at a monastery near
the Roman Forum, where Liszt made his home when in town.

"I took with me my last violin Sonata, the Funeral March on the death
of Nordraak and a volume of songs. I need not have been anxious, for
Liszt was kindness itself. He came smiling towards me and said in the
most genial manner:

"'We have had some little correspondence, haven't we?'

"I told him it was thanks to his letters that I was now here. He eyed
somewhat hungrily the package under my arm, his long, spider-like
fingers approaching it in such an alarming manner that I thought it
advisable to open at once. He turned over the leaves, reading through
the Sonata. He had now become interested, but my courage dropped to
zero when he asked me to play the Sonata, but there was no help for
it.

"So I started on his splendid American Chickering grand. Right in the
beginning, where the violin starts in, he exclaimed: 'How bold that
is! Look here, I like that; once more please.' And where the violin
again comes in _adagio_, he played the part on the upper octaves with
an expression so beautiful, so marvelously true and singing, it made
me smile inwardly. My spirits rose because of his lavish approval,
which did me good. After the first movement, I asked his permission to
play a solo, and chose the Minuet, from the Humoresken."

At this point Grieg was brave enough to ask Liszt to play for him.
This the master did in a superb manner. To go on with the letter:

"When this was done, Liszt said jauntily, 'Now let us go on with
the Sonata'; to which I naturally retorted, 'No thank you, not after
this.'

"'Why not? Then give it to me, I'll do it.' And what does Liszt do?
He plays the whole thing, root and branch, violin and piano; nay more,
for he plays it fuller and more broadly. He was literally over the
whole piano at once, without missing a note. And how he did play! With
grandeur, beauty, unique comprehension.

"Was this not geniality itself? No other great man I have met is like
him. I played the Funeral March, which was also to his taste. Then,
after a little talk, I took leave, with the consciousness of having
spent two of the most interesting hours of my life."

The second meeting with Liszt took place soon after this. Of it he
writes in part:

"I had fortunately received the manuscript of my Concerto from
Leipsic, and took it with me. A number of musicians were present.

"'Will you play?' asked Liszt. I answered in the negative, as you
know I had never practised it. Liszt took the manuscript, went to the
piano, and said to the assembled guests: 'Very well, then, I will show
you that I also cannot.' Then he began. I admit that he took the
first part too fast, but later on, when I had a chance to indicate the
tempo, he played as only he can play. His demeanor is worth any price
to see. Not content with playing, he at the same time converses,
addressing a bright remark now to one, now to another of his guests,
nodding from right to left, particularly when something pleases him.
In the Adagio, and still more in the Finale, he reached a climax, both
in playing and in the praise he bestowed.

"When all was over, he handed me the manuscript, and said, in a
peculiarly cordial tone: 'Keep steadily on; you have the ability,
and--do not let them intimidate you!'

"This final admonition was of tremendous importance to me; there
was something in it like a sanctification. When disappointment and
bitterness are in store for me, I shall recall his words, and the
remembrance of that hour will have a wonderful power to uphold me in
days of adversity."

When Edward Grieg was a little over thirty, in the year 1874, the
Norwegian Government honored him with an annuity of sixteen hundred
crowns a year, for life. Another good fortune was a request from the
distinguished poet, Henrik Ibsen, to produce music for his drama of
"Peer Gynt."

With the help of the annuity Grieg was able to give up teaching and
conducting and devote himself to composition. He left Christiania,
where he and Mme. Grieg had resided for eight years, and came back
for a time to Bergen. Here, in January 1874, Ibsen offered him the
proposition of writing music for his work, for which he was arranging
a stage production.

Grieg was delighted with the opportunity, for such a task was very
congenial. He completed the score in the autumn of 1875. The first
performance was given on February 24, 1876, at Christiania. Grieg
himself was not present, as he was then in Bergen. The play proved
a real success and was given thirty-six times that season, for which
success the accompanying original and charming music was largely
responsible.

Norway is a most picturesque country, and no one could be more
passionately fond of her mountains, fjords, valleys and waterfalls
than Edward Grieg. For several years he now chose to live at Lofthus,
a tiny village, situated on a branch of the Hardanger Fjord. It
is said no spot could have been more enchanting. The little study,
consisting of one room, where the composer could work in perfect
quiet, was perched among the trees above the fjord, with a dashing
waterfall near by. No wonder Grieg could write of the "Butterfly," the
"Little Bird," and "To the Spring," in such poetical, vivid harmonies.
He had only to look from his window and see the marvels of nature
about him.

A few years later he built a beautiful villa at Troldhaugen, not
far from Bergen, where he spent the rest of his life. Some American
friends who visited them in 1901, speak of the ideal existence of
the artist pair. Grieg himself is described as very small and frail
looking, with a face as individual, as unique and attractive as his
music--the face of a thinker, a genius. His eyes were keen and blue;
his hair, almost white, was brushed backward like Liszt's. His hands
were thin and small; they were wonderful hands and his touch on the
piano had the luscious quality of Paderewski's. Mme. Grieg received
them with a fascinating smile and won all hearts by her appearance and
charm of manner. She was short and plump, with short wavy gray hair
and dark blue eyes. Her sister, who resembled her strongly, made up
the rest of the family. Grieg called her his "second wife" and they
seemed a most united family.

Here, too, Grieg had his little work cabin away from the house, down
a steep path, among the trees of the garden. In this tiny retreat he
composed many of his unique pieces.

As a pianist, there are many people living who have heard Grieg play,
and all agree that his performance was most poetical and beautiful. He
never had great power, for a heavy wagon had injured one of his hands,
and he had lost the use of one of his lungs in youth. But he always
brought out lyric parts most expressively, and had a "wonderfully
crisp and buoyant execution in rhythmical passages." He continued to
play occasionally in different cities, and with increased frequency
made visits to England, France and Germany, to make known his
compositions. He was in England in the spring of 1888, for on May
3, the London Philharmonic gave almost an entire program of Grieg's
music. He acted in the three-fold capacity of composer, conductor and
pianist. It was said by one of the critics: "Mr. Grieg played his
own Concerto in A minor, after his own manner; it was a revelation."
Another wrote; "The Concerto is very beautiful. The dreamy charm of
the opening movement, the long-drawn sweetness of the Adagio, the
graceful, fairy music of the final Allegro--all this went straight
to the hearts of the audience. Grieg as a conductor gave equal
satisfaction. It is to be hoped the greatest representative of 'old
Norway' will come amongst us every year."

Grieg did return the next year and appeared with the Philharmonic,
March 14, 1889. The same critic then wrote:

"The hero of the evening was unquestionably Mr. Grieg, the heroine
being Madame Grieg, who sang in her own unique and most artistic
fashion, a selection of her husband's songs, he accompanying with
great delicacy and poetic feeling. Grieg is so popular in London, both
as composer and pianist, that when he gave his last concert, people
were waiting in the street before the doors from eleven in the
morning, quite as in the old Rubinstein days."

In only a few cities did the artist pair give their unique piano and
song recitals. These were: Christiania, Copenhagen, Leipsic, Rome,
Paris, London and Edinburgh. They were indeed artistic events, in
which Nina Grieg was also greatly admired. While not a great singer,
it was said she had the captivating abandon, dramatic vivacity and
soulful treatment of the poem, which reminded of Jenny Lind.

Mme. Grieg made her last public appearance in London in 1898. After
that she sang only for her husband and his friends. Grieg's sixtieth
birthday, June 15, 1903, was celebrated in the cities of Scandanavia,
throughout Europe and also in America: thus he lived to see the
recognition of his unique genius in many parts of the world.

Grieg was constantly using up his strength by too much exertion. To a
friend in 1906, he wrote: "Yes, at your age it is ever hurrah-vivat.
At my age we say, sempre diminuendo. And I can tell you it is not easy
to make a beautiful diminuendo." Yet he still gave concerts, saying
he had not the strength of character to refuse. Indeed he had numerous
offers to go to America, which he refused as he felt he could not
endure the sea voyage. Always cheerful, even vivacious, he kept up
bravely until almost the end of his life, but finally, the last of
August, 1907, he was forced to go to a hospital in Bergen. On the
night of September 3, his life ebbed away in sleep.

The composer who through his music had endeared himself to the whole
world, was granted a touching funeral, at which only his own music
was heard, including his Funeral March, which he had composed for his
friend Nordraak. The burial place is as romantic as his music. Near
his home there is a steep cliff, about fifty feet high, projecting
into the fjord. Half way up there is a natural grotto, which can only
be reached by water. In this spot, chosen by Grieg himself, the urn
containing his ashes was deposited some weeks after the funeral. Then
the grotto was closed and a stone slab with the words "Edward Grieg"
cut upon it, was cemented in the cliff.




XX

PETER ILYITCH TSCHAIKOWSKY


Russian composers and Russian music are eagerly studied by those
who would keep abreast of the time. This music is so saturated with
strong, vigorous life that it is inspiring to listen to. Its rugged
strength, its fascinating rhythms, bring a new message. It is
different from the music of other countries and at once attracts by
its unusual melodies and its richness of harmony.

Among the numerous composers of modern Russia, the name of Peter
Ilyitch Tschaikowsky stands out most prominently. This distinctive
composer was born on April 28, 1840, in Votinsk, where his father, who
was a mining engineer, had been appointed inspector of the mines
at Kamsko-Votinsk. The position of manager of such important mines
carried with it much luxury, a fine house, plenty of servants and an
ample salary. Thus the future young musician's home life was not one
of poverty and privation, as has been the lot of so many gifted ones,
who became creators in the beautiful art of music.

Peter Ilyitch was less than five years old when a new governess came
into the family, to teach his elder brother Nicholas and his cousin
Lydia. As a little boy he was apt to be untidy, with buttons missing
and rumpled hair. But his nature was so affectionate and sympathetic
that he charmed every one with his pretty, loving ways. This natural
gift he always retained. The governess was a very superior person and
her influence over her young charges was healthful and beneficial. The
child Peter was most industrious at his lessons; but for recreation
often preferred playing the piano, reading, or writing poetry, to
playing with other children.

When Peter was eight, the family moved to St. Petersburg, and the two
younger boys were sent to boarding school. The parting from his home
but especially from his mother--though he saw her once a week--nearly
broke his heart. Such a school was no place for a sensitive,
high-strung boy like Peter, who needed the most tender fostering care.
The work of the school was very heavy, the hours long. The boys often
sat over their books till far into the night. Besides the school
work, Peter had music lessons of the pianist Philipov, and made rapid
progress. At this time music in general excited the boy abnormally;
a hand organ in the street would enchant him, an orchestra strangely
agitated him. He seemed to live at a high strung, nervous tension, and
had frequent ailments, which kept him out of school.

In 1849 the father secured another appointment, this time at Alapaiev,
a little town, where, though there was not so much luxury, the family
tried to revive the home life of Votinsk.

No one at Alapaiev seemed to take any interest in the boy Peter's
music. He was really making great progress, for he had learned much in
the lessons he had taken in St. Petersburg. He studied many pieces by
himself, and often improvised at the piano. His parents did nothing
to further his musical education; this may have been because they
were afraid of a return of the nervous disorders that the quiet of the
present home surroundings had seemed to cure.

From the fact that the father had held government appointments, his
sons were eligible for education at the School of Jurisprudence. Peter
was accordingly entered there as a scholar, and completed his course
at the age of nineteen. In those nine years the child Peter developed
into maturity. During this period he suffered the loss of his mother,
a handsome and very estimable woman, whom he adored with passionate
devotion, and from whom he could never bear to be separated.

While attending the Law School, music had to be left in the
background. His family and companions only considered it as a pastime
at best, and without serious significance; he therefore kept his
aspirations to himself. The old boyish discontent and irritability,
which were the result of his former nervous condition, had now given
place to his natural frankness of character and charm of manner, which
attracted all who came in contact with him.

In 1859, when Peter had finished his studies at the School of
Jurisprudence, he received an appointment in the Ministry of Justice,
as clerk of the first class. This would have meant much to some young
men, but did not greatly impress Peter, as he did not seem to take his
work very seriously. During the three years in which he held the post,
he followed the fashion of the day, attended the opera and theater,
meanwhile receiving many impressions which molded his character and
tastes. The opera "Don Giovanni," Mozart's masterpiece, made a deep
impression upon him, also the acting of Adelaide Ristori and the
singing of Lagrona.

The new Conservatoire of Music was founded at St. Petersburg in 1862,
with Anton Rubinstein as director, and Tschaikowsky lost no time in
entering as a pupil, studying composition and kindred subjects with
Professor Zaremba. His progress was so rapid in the several branches
he took up--piano, organ and flute--that Rubinstein advised him to
make music his profession, and throw his law studies to the winds.
Thanks to Rubinstein, he secured some pupils and also engagements as
accompanist. Meanwhile he worked industriously at composition, and one
of his pieces was a Concert Overture in F, scored for small orchestra.
In 1865 he took his diploma as a musician and also secured a silver
medal for a cantata. One year after this the Moscow Conservatoire
was founded, with Nicholas Rubinstein at its head. The position
of Professor of Composition and Musical History was offered to
Tschaikowsky, then only twenty-six. It was a flattering offer for so
young a man, when many older heads would have liked to secure such
an honor. He moved to Moscow, and retained his position in the
Conservatoire for at least twelve years, in the meantime making many
friends for himself and his art, as his fame as a composer grew. One
of these friends was the publisher Jurgenson, who was to play rather
an important part in the composer's life, through accepting and
putting forth his compositions.

During those first years in Moscow, Tschaikowsky made his home with
Nicholas Rubinstein. His life was of the simplest, his fare always so.
Later on when money was more abundant, and he had his own house in the
country, he lived with just the same simplicity. One would think that
all this care and thought for expense would have taught him the value
of money. Not at all. He never could seem to learn its value, never
cared for it, and never could keep it. He liked to toss his small
change among groups of street boys, and it is said he once spent his
last roubles in sending a cablegram to von Buelow in America, to thank
him for his admirable performance of his first Piano Concerto. Often
his friends protested against this prodigality, but it was no use to
protest, and at last they gave up in despair.

Soon after he began his professorship in Moscow, he composed a Concert
Overture in C minor. To his surprise and disappointment, Rubinstein
disapproved of the work in every way. This was a shock, after the lack
of encouragement in St. Petersburg. But he recovered his poise, though
he made up his mind to try his next work in St. Petersburg instead of
Moscow. He called the new piece a Symphonic Poem, "Winter Daydreams,"
but it is now known as the First Symphony, Op. 13. About the end of
1866, he started out with it, only to be again rebuffed and cast down.
The two men whose good opinion he most desired, Anton Rubinstein and
Professor Zaremba, could find nothing good in his latest work, and
the young composer returned to Moscow to console himself with renewed
efforts in composition. Two years later the "Winter Daydreams"
Symphony was produced in Moscow with great success, and its author
was much encouraged by this appreciation. He was, like most composers,
very sensitive to criticism and had a perfect dread of controversy.
Efforts to engage him in arguments of this sort only made him withdraw
into himself.

Tschaikowsky held the operas of Mozart before him as his ideal. He
cared little for Wagner, considering his music dramas to be built on
false principles. Thus his first opera, "Voivoda," composed in 1866,
evidently had his ideal, Mozart, clearly in mind. It is a somewhat
curious fact that Tschaikowsky, who was almost revolutionary in other
forms of music, should go back to the eighteenth century for his ideal
of opera. Soon after it was completed "Voivoda" was accepted to be
produced at the Moscow Grand Theater. The libretto was written by
Ostrowsky, one of the celebrated dramatists of the day. The first
performance took place on January 30, 1869. We are told it had several
performances and considerable popular success. But the composer was
dissatisfied with its failure to win a great artistic success, and
burnt the score. He did the same with his next work, an orchestral
fantaisie, entitled "Fatum." Again he did the same with the score of
a complete opera, "Undine," finished in 1870, and refused at the St.
Petersburg Opera, where he had offered it.

"The Snow Queen," a fairy play with music, was the young Russian's
next adventure; it was mounted and produced with great care, yet it
failed to make a favorable impression. But these disappointments did
not dampen the composer's ardor for work. Now it was in the realm of
chamber music. Up to this time he had not seemed to care greatly
for this branch of his art, for he had always felt the lack of tone
coloring and variety in the strings. The first attempt at a String
Quartet resulted in the one in D major, Op. 11. To-day, fifty years
after, we enjoy the rich coloring, the characteristic rhythms of this
music; the Andante indeed makes special appeal. A bit of history about
this same Andante shows how the composer prized national themes and
folk tunes, and strove to secure them. It is said that morning after
morning he was awakened by the singing of a laborer, working on the
house below his window. The song had a haunting lilt, and Tschaikowsky
wrote it down. The melody afterwards became that touching air which
fills the Andante of the First String Quartet. Another String Quartet,
in F major, was written in 1814, and at once acclaimed by all who
heard it, with the single exception of Anton Rubinstein.

Tschaikowsky wrote six Symphonies in all. The Second, in C minor
was composed in 1873; in this he used themes in the first and last
movements, which were gathered in Little Russia. The work was produced
with great success in Moscow in 1873. The next orchestral composition
was a Symphonic Poem, called "The Tempest," with a regular program,
prepared by Stassow. It was brought out in Paris at the same time
it was heard in Moscow. Both at home and in France it made a deep
impression. The next work was the splendid piano Concerto in B flat
minor, Op. 23, the first of three works of this kind. At a trial
performance of it, his friend and former master, Nicholas Rubinstein,
to whom it was dedicated, and who had promised to play the piano part,
began to criticize it unmercifully and ended by saying it was quite
unplayable, and unsuited to the piano.

No one could blame the composer for being offended and hurt. He at
once erased the name of Nicholas Rubinstein from the title page and
dedicated the work to Hans von Billow, who not long after performed
it with tremendous success in America, where he was on tour. When we
think of all the pianists who have won acclaim in this temperamental,
inspiring work, from Carreno to Percy Grainger, to mention two who
have aroused special enthusiasm by their thrilling performance of it,
we can but wonder that his own countrymen were so short sighted at
the time it was composed. Later on Nicholas Rubinstein gave a superb
performance of the Concerto in Moscow, thus making some tardy amends
for his unkindness.

Tschaikowsky was now thirty-five. Most of his time was given to the
Conservatoire, where he often worked nine hours a day. Besides, he had
written a book on harmony, and was contributing articles on music to
two journals. In composition he had produced large works, including
up to this time, two Symphonies, two Operas, the Concerto, two String
Quartets and numerous smaller pieces. To accomplish such an amount
of work, he must have possessed immense energy and devotion to his
ideals.

One of the operas just mentioned was entitled "Vakoula the Smith."
It bears the date of 1874, and was first offered in competition with
others. The result was that it not only was considered much the
best work of them all but it won both the first and second prizes.
"Vakoula" was splendidly mounted and performed in St. Petersburg, at
the Marinsky Theater at least seventeen times. Ten years later, in
January 1887, it appeared again. The composer meanwhile had re-written
a good part of it and now called it "Two Little Shoes." This time
Tschaikowsky was invited to conduct his own work. The invitation
filled him with alarm, for he felt he had no gift in that direction,
as he had tried a couple of times in the early years of his career and
had utterly failed. However, he now, through the cordial sympathy of
friends, decided to make the attempt. Contrary to his own fears, he
obtained a successful performance of the opera.

It proved an epoch-making occasion. For this first success as
conductor led him to undertake a three months' tour through western
Europe in 1888. On his return to St. Petersburg he conducted a program
of his own compositions for the Philharmonic Society, which was
also successful, in spite of the intense nervousness which he always
suffered. As a result of his concert he received offers to conduct
concerts in Hamburg, Dresden, Leipsic, Vienna, Copenhagen and London,
many of which he accepted.

To go back a bit in our composer's life story, to an affair of
the heart which he experienced in 1868. He became engaged to the
well-known singer Desiree Artot; the affair never went further, for
what reason is not known. He was not yet thirty, impressionable and
intense. Later on, in the year 1877, at the age of thirty-seven, he
became a married man. How this happened was doubtless told in his
diaries, which were written with great regularity: but unfortunately
he destroyed them all a few years before his death. The few facts that
have been gleaned from his intimate friend, M. Kashkin, are that he
was engaged to the lady in the spring of this year, and married her
a month or so afterward. It was evidently a hasty affair and
subsequently brought untold suffering to the composer. When
the professors of his Conservatoire re-assembled in the autumn,
Tschaikowsky appeared among them a married man, but looking the
picture of despair. A few weeks later he fled from Moscow, and when
next heard of was lying dangerously ill in St. Petersburg. One thing
was evident, the ill-considered marriage came very near ruining his
life. The doctors ordered rest and change of scene, and his brother
Modeste Ilyitch took him to Switzerland and afterward to Italy. The
peaceful life and change of scene did much to restore his shattered
nerves. Just at this time a wealthy widow lady, Madame von Meek, a
great admirer of Tschaikowsky's music, learning of his sad condition,
settled on him a generous yearly allowance for life. He was now
independent and could give his time to composition.

The following year he returned to Moscow and seemed quite his natural
self. A fever of energy for work took possession of him. He began a
new opera, "Eugen Onegin," and completed his Fourth Symphony, in F
minor. The score of the opera was finished in February, 1878, and
sent at once to Moscow, where the first performance was given in March
1879. In the beginning the opera had only a moderate success, but
gradually grew in favor till, after five years, it was performed
in St. Petersburg and had an excellent reception. It is considered
Tschaikowsky's most successful opera, sharing with Glinka's "Life of
the Tsar" the popularity of Russian opera. In 1881 he was invited
to compose an orchestral work for the consecration of the Temple of
Christ in Moscow. The "Solemn Overture 1812," Op. 49, was the outcome
of this. Later in the year he completed the Second Piano Concerto.
The Piano Trio in A minor, "To the memory of a great artist," Op.
50, refers to his friend and former master, Nicholas Rubinstein, who
passed away in Paris, in 1881.

Tschaikowsky's opera, "Mazeppa," was his next important work. In the
same year the Second Orchestral Suite, Op. 53, and the Third, Op. 55,
followed. Two Symphonic Poems, "Manfred" and "Hamlet" came next. The
latter of these was written at the composer's country house, whose
purchase had been made possible by the generosity of his benefactress,
and to which he retired at the age of forty-five, to lead a peaceful
country life. He had purchased the old manor house of Frovolo, on the
outskirts of the town of Klin, near Moscow. Here his two beautiful
ballets and two greatest Symphonies, the Fifth and Sixth, were
written. The Fifth Symphony was composed in 1888 and published the
next year. On its first hearing it made little impression and was
scarcely heard again till Nikisch, with unerring judgment, rescued it
from neglect; then the world discovered it to be one of the composer's
greatest works.

Tschaikowsky's two last operas, the "Pique Dame" (Queen of Spades),
Op. 68, and "King Rene's Daughter" are not considered in any way
distinctive, although the former was performed in New York, at the
Metropolitan. The Third Piano Concerto, Op. 75, occupied the master
during his last days at Frovolo; it was left unfinished by him and was
completed by the composer Taneiev. The wonderful Sixth Symphony, Op.
74, is a superb example of Tschaikowsky's genius. It was composed in
1893, and the title "Pathetic" was given it by the composer after its
first performance, in St. Petersburg, shortly before his death, as the
reception of it by the public did not meet his anticipations. In this
work the passion and despair which fill so many of the master's
finest compositions, rise to the highest tragic significance. The
last movement, with its prophetic intimation of his coming death, is
heart-breaking. One cannot listen to its poignant phrases without
deep emotion. The score is dated August 81, 1893. On October twelfth,
Tschaikowsky passed away in St. Petersburg, a victim of cholera.

A couple of years before he passed away, Tschiakowsky came to America.
In May, 1891, he conducted four concerts connected with the formal
opening of Carnegie Hall, New York. We well remember his interesting
personality, as he stood before the orchestra, conducting many of his
own works, with Adele Aus der Ohe playing his famous Concerto in B
flat minor.

The music of this representative Russian composer has made rapid
headway in the world's appreciation, during the last few years. Once
heard it will always be remembered. For we can never forget the deeply
human and touching message which is brought to us through the music of
Peter Ilyitch Tschaikowsky.




XXI

EDWARD MACDOWELL


Edward MacDowell has been acclaimed America's greatest composer. If
we try to substitute another name in its place, one of equal potency
cannot be found.

Our composer's ancestors were Irish and Scotch, though his father was
born in New York City and his mother was an American girl. Edward was
their third son, and appeared December 18, 1861; this event happened
at the home of his parents, 220 Clinton Street, New York.

The father was a man of artistic instincts, and as a youth, fond of
drawing and painting. His parents had been Quakers of a rather severe
sort and had discouraged all such artistic efforts. Little Edward
seems to have inherited his father's artistic gifts, added to his own
inclination toward music.

The boy had his first piano lessons when he was about eight years old,
from a family friend, Mr. Juan Buitrago, a native of Bogota, South
America. Mr. Buitrago became greatly interested in Edward and asked
permission to teach him his notes. At that time the boy was not
considered a prodigy, or even precocious, though he seemed to have
various gifts. He was fond of covering his music and exercise books
with little drawings, which showed he had the innate skill of a born
artist. Then he liked to scribble bits of verses and stories and
invent fairy tales. He could improvise little themes at the piano, but
was not fond of technical drudgery at the instrument in those early
days.

The lessons with Mr. Buitrago continued for several years, and then he
was taken to a professional piano teacher, Paul Desvernine, with
whom he remained till he was fifteen. During this time he received
occasional lessons from the brilliant Venezuelan pianist, Teresa
Carreno, who admired his gifts and later played his piano concertos.

Edward was now fifteen, and his family considered he was to become
a musician. In those days and for long after, even to the present
moment, it was thought necessary for Americans to go to Europe for
serious study and artistic finish. It was therefore determined the
boy should go to Paris for a course in piano and theory at the
Conservatoire. In April, 1876, accompanied by his mother, he left
America for France.

He passed the examinations and began the autumn term as a pupil of
Marmontel in piano and of Savard in theory and composition.

Edward's knowledge of French was very uncertain, and while he could
get along fairly well in the piano class, he had considerable trouble
in following the lessons in theory. He determined to make a special
study of the language, and a teacher was engaged to give him private
lessons.

His passion for drawing was liable to break out at any moment. During
one of the lesson hours he was varying the monotony by drawing,
behind his book, a picture of his teacher, whose special facial
characteristic was a very large nose. Just as the sketch was finished
he was detected and was asked to show the result. The professor,
instead of being angry, considered it a remarkable likeness and asked
to keep it. Shortly after this the professor called on Mrs. MacDowell,
telling her he had shown the drawing to an eminent painter, also
an instructor at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. The painter had been so
greatly impressed with the boy's talent that he offered him a three
years' course of free instruction, under his own supervision. He also
promised to be responsible for Edward's support during that time.

This was a vital question to decide; the boy's whole future hung in
the balance. Mrs. MacDowell, in her perplexity, laid the whole matter
before Marmontel, who strongly advised against diverting her son from
a musical career. The decision was finally left to Edward himself, and
he chose to remain at the Conservatoire.

Conditions there, however, were not just to his liking, and after two
years he began to think the school was not the place for him. It was
the summer of 1878, the year of the Exposition. Edward and his mother
attended a festival concert and heard Nicholas Rubinstein play the
Tschaikowsky B flat minor piano Concerto. His performance was a
revelation. "I can never learn to play the piano like that if I stay
here," exclaimed Edward, as they left the hall.

They began to consider the merits of the different European schools
of music, and finally chose Stuttgart. Mrs. MacDowell and her son went
there in November hoping that in this famous Conservatory could be
found the right kind of instruction.

But alas, MacDowell soon found out his mistake. He discovered that
he would have to unlearn all he had acquired and begin from the
beginning. And even then the instruction was not very thorough.

They now thought of Frankfort, where the composer Joachim Raff was the
director and Carl Heymann, a very brilliant pianist, was one of the
instructors.

After months of delay, during which young MacDowell worked under the
guidance of Ehlert, he at last entered the Frankfort Conservatory,
studying composition with Raff, and piano with Heymann. Both proved
very inspiring teachers. For Heymann he had the greatest admiration,
calling him a marvel, whose technic was equal to anything. "In hearing
him practise and play, I learned more in a week than I ever knew
before."

Edward MacDowell remained in close study at the Frankfort Conservatory
for two years, his mother having in the meantime returned to America.
He had hoped to obtain a place as professor on the teaching staff of
the institution. Failing to do this he took private pupils. One of
these, Miss Marian Nevins, he afterwards married. He must have been a
rather striking looking youth at this time. He was nineteen. Tall and
vigorous, with blue eyes, fair skin, rosy cheeks, very dark hair and
reddish mustache, he was called "the handsome American." He seemed
from the start, to have success in teaching, though he was painfully
shy, and always remained so.

In 1881, when he was twenty, he applied for the position of head piano
teacher in the Darmstadt Conservatory, and was accepted. It meant
forty hours a week of drudgery, and as he preferred to live in
Frankfort, he made the trip each day between the two towns. Besides
this he went once a week to a castle about three hours away, and
taught some little counts and countesses, really dull and sleepy
children, who cared but little if anything for music. However the
twelve hours spent in the train each week, were not lost, as he
composed the greater part of his Second Modern Suite for piano, Op.
14; the First Modern Suite had been written in Frankfort the year
before. He was reading at this period a great deal of poetry, both
German and English, and delving into the folk and fairy lore of
romantic Germany. All these imaginative studies exerted great
influence on his subsequent compositions, both as to subject and
content.

MacDowell found that the confining labors at Darmstadt were telling
on his strength, so he gave up the position and remained in Frankfort,
dividing his time between private teaching and composing. He hoped
to secure a few paying concert engagements, as those he had already
filled had brought in no money.

One day, as he sat dreaming before his piano, some one knocked at
the door, and the next instant in walked his master Raff, of whom the
young American stood in great awe. In the course of a few moments,
Raff suddenly asked what he had been writing. In his confusion the boy
stammered he had been working on a concerto. When Raff started to go,
he turned back and told the boy to bring the concerto to him the next
Sunday. As even the first movement was not finished, its author set to
work with vigor. When Sunday came only the first movement was ready.
Postponing the visit a week or two, he had time to complete the work,
which stands today, as he wrote it then, with scarcely a correction.

At Raff's suggestion, MacDowell visited Liszt in the spring of 1882.
The dreaded encounter with the master proved to be a delightful
surprise, as Liszt treated him with much kindness and courtesy. Eugen
D'Albert, who was present, was asked to accompany the orchestral part
of the concerto on a second piano. Liszt commended the work in warm
terms: "You must bestir yourself," he warned D'Albert, "if you do not
wish to be outdone by our young American." Liszt praised his piano
playing too, and MacDowell returned to Frankfort in a happy frame of
mind.

At a music Convention, held that year in Zurich, in July, MacDowell
played his First Piano Suite, and won a good success. The following
year, upon Liszt's recommendation, both the First and Second Modern
Suites were brought out by Breitkopf and Haertel. "Your two Piano
Suites are admirable," wrote Liszt from Budapest, in February, 1883,
"and I accept with sincere pleasure and thanks the dedication of your
piano Concerto."

The passing of Raff, on June 25, 1882, was a severe blow to MacDowell.
It was in memory of his revered teacher that he composed the "Sonata
Tragica," the first of the four great sonatas he has left us. The slow
movement of this Sonata especially embodies his sorrow at the loss of
the teacher who once said to him: "Your music will be played when mine
is forgotten."

For the next two years MacDowell did much composing. Then in June 1884
he returned to America, and in July was married to his former pupil,
Miss Marian Nevins, a union which proved to be ideal for both. Shortly
after this event the young couple returned to Europe.

The next winter was spent in Frankfort, instructing a few private
pupils, but mostly in composing, with much reading of the literature
of various countries, and, in the spring, with long walks in the
beautiful woods about Frankfort. Wiesbaden became their home during
the winter of 1885-6. The same year saw the completion of the second.
Piano Concerto, in D minor.

In the spring of 1887, MacDowell, in one of his walks about the town,
discovered a deserted cottage on the edge of the woods. It overlooked
the town, with the Rhine beyond, and woods on the other side of the
river. Templeton Strong, an American composer, was with him at the
time, and both thought the little cottage an ideal spot for a home.
It was soon purchased, and the young husband and wife lived an idyllic
life for the next year. A small garden gave them exercise out of
doors, the woods were always enticing and best of all, MacDowell was
able to give his entire time to composition. Many beautiful songs
and piano pieces were the result, besides the symphonic poem "Lamia,"
"Hamlet and Ophelia," the "Lovely Aida," "Lancelot and Elaine," and
other orchestral works.

In September, 1888, the MacDowells sold their Wiesbaden cottage and
returned to America, settling in Boston. Here MacDowell made himself
felt as a pianist and teacher. He took many pupils, and made a
conspicuous number of public appearances. He also created some of his
best work, among which were the two great Sonatas, the "Tragica" and
"Eroica." One of the important appearances was his playing of the
Second Concerto with the Philharmonic Orchestra of New York, under
Anton Seidl, in December, 1894.

In the spring of 1896 a Department of Music was founded at Columbia
University, of New York, the professorship of which was offered to
MacDowell. He had now been living eight years in Boston; his fame as a
pianist and teacher was constantly growing; indeed more pupils came to
him than he could accept. The prospect of organizing a new department
from the very beginning was a difficult task to undertake. At first he
hesitated; he was in truth in no hurry to accept the offer, and wished
to weigh both sides carefully. But the idea of having an assured
income finally caused him to decide in favor of Columbia, and he moved
from Boston to New York the following autumn.

He threw himself into this new work with great ardor and entire
devotion. With the founding of the department there were two distinct
ideas to be carried out. First, to train musicians who would be able
to teach and compose. Second, to teach musical history and aesthetics.

All this involved five courses, with many lectures each week,
taking up form, harmony, counterpoint, fugue, composition, vocal and
instrumental music, both from the technical and interpretative
side. It was a tremendous labor to organize and keep all this going,
unaided. After two years he was granted an assistant, who took over
the elementary classes. But even with this help, MacDowell's labors
were increasingly arduous. He now had six courses instead of five,
which meant more classes and lectures each week. Perhaps the most
severe drain on his time and strength was the continual correction of
exercise books and examination papers, a task which he performed with
great patience and thoroughness. Added to all this, he devoted every
Sunday morning to his advanced students, giving them help and advice
in their piano work and in composition.

Amid all this labor his public playing had to be given up, but
composition went steadily on. During the eight years of the Columbia
professorship, some of the most important works of his life were
produced; among them were, Sea Pieces the two later Sonatas, the Norse
and the Keltic, Fireside Tales, and New England Idyls. The Woodland
Sketches had already been published and some of his finest songs.
Indeed nearly one quarter of all his compositions were the fruit of
those eight years while he held the post at Columbia.

In 1896 he bought some property near Peterboro, New Hampshire--fifteen
acres with a small farmhouse and other buildings, and fifty acres of
forest. The buildings were remodeled into a rambling but comfortable
dwelling, and here, amid woods and hills he loved, he spent the summer
of each year. He built a little log cabin in the woods near by, and
here he wrote some of his best music.

In 1904 MacDowell left Columbia, but continued his private piano
classes, and sometimes admitted free such students as were unable
to pay. After his arduous labors at Columbia, which had been a great
drain on his vitality, he should have had a complete rest and change.
Had he done so, the collapse which was imminent might have been
averted. But he took no rest though in the spring of 1905 he began to
show signs of nervous breakdown. The following summer was spent, as
usual, in Peterboro but it seemed to bring no relief to the exhausted
composer. In the fall of that year his ailment appeared worse.
Although he seemed perfectly well in body, his mind gradually became
like that of a child. The writer was privileged to see him on one
occasion, and retains an ineffaceable memory of the composer in his
white flannels, seated in a large easy chair, taking little notice
of what was passing about him, seldom recognizing his friends or
visitors, but giving the hand of his devoted wife a devoted squeeze
when she moved to his side to speak to him.

This state continued for over two years, until his final release,
January 23, 1908, as he had just entered his forty-seventh year. The
old Westminster Hotel had been the MacDowell home through the long
illness. From here is but a step to St. George's Episcopal Church,
where a simple service was held. On the following day the composer was
taken to Peterboro, his summer home, a spot destined to play its part,
due to the untiring efforts of Mrs. MacDowell, in the development of
music in America.

Mr. Gilman tells us:

"His grave is on an open hill-top, commanding one of the spacious and
beautiful views he had loved. On a bronze tablet are these lines of
his own, used as a motto for his 'From a Log Cabin,' the last music he
ever wrote:

  'A house of dreams untold
  It looks out over the whispering tree-tops
  And faces the setting sun.'"




XXII

CLAUDE ACHILLE DEBUSSY

    "_I love music too much to speak of it otherwise than
    passionately_."
                                                     DEBUSSY


    "_Art is always progressive; it cannot return to the past,
    which is definitely dead. Only imbeciles and cowards look
    backward. Then--Let us work_!"
                                                     DEBUSSY


It is difficult to learn anything of the boyhood and youth of this
rare French composer. Even his young manhood and later life were so
guarded and secluded that few outside his intimate circle knew much
of the man, except as mirrored in his music. After all that is just as
the composer wished, to be known through his compositions, for in
them he revealed himself. They are transparent reflections of his
character, his aims and ideals.

Only the barest facts of his early life can be told. We know that he
was born at Saint Germain-en-Laye, France, August 22, 1862. From the
very beginning he seemed precociously gifted in music, and began at a
very early age to study the piano. His first lessons on the instrument
were received from Mme. de Sivry, a former pupil of Chopin. At ten he
entered the Paris Conservatoire, obtaining his Solfege medals in 1874,
'75, and '76, under Lavignac; a second prize for piano playing
from Marmontel in 1877, a first prize for accompanying in 1880; an
accessory prize for counterpoint and fugue in 1882, and finally the
Grande Prix de Rome, with his cantata, "L'Enfant Prodigue," in 1884,
as a pupil of Guirand.

Thus in twelve years, or at the age of twenty-two, the young
musician was thoroughly furnished for a career. He had worked through
carefully, from the beginning to the top, with thoroughness and
completeness, gaining his honors, slowly, step by step. All this
painstaking care, this overcoming of the technical difficulties of his
art, is what gave him such complete command and freedom in using the
medium of tone and harmony, in his unique manner.

While at work in Paris, young Debussy made an occasional side trip to
another country. In 1879 he visited Russia, where he learned to know
the music of that land, yet undreamed of by the western artists. When
his turn came to go to Rome, for which honor he secured the prize, he
sent home the required compositions, a Symphonic Suite "Spring," and
a lyric poem for a woman's voice, with chorus and orchestra, entitled
"La Demoiselle Elue."

From the first Claude Debussy showed himself a rare spirit, who looked
at the subject of musical art from a different angle than others
had done. For one thing he must have loved nature with whole souled
devotion, for he sought to reflect her moods and inspirations in his
compositions. Once he said: "I prefer to hear a few notes from an
Egyptian shepherd's flute, for he is in accord with his scenery and
hears harmonies unknown to your treatises. Musicians too seldom turn
to the music inscribed in nature. It would benefit them more to watch
a sunrise than to listen to a performance of the Pastorale Symphony.
Go not to others for advice but take counsel of the passing breezes,
which relate the history of the world to those who can listen."

Again he says, in a way that shows what delight he feels in beauty
that is spontaneous and natural:

"I lingered late one autumn evening in the country, irresistibly
fascinated by the magic of old world forests. From yellowing leaves,
fluttering earthward, celebrating the glorious agony of the trees,
from the clangorous angelus bidding the fields to slumber, rose a
sweet persuasive voice, counseling perfect oblivion. The sun was
setting solitary. Beasts and men turned peacefully homeward, having
accomplished their impersonal tasks."

When as a youth Debussy was serving with his regiment in France, he
relates of the delight he experienced in listening to the tones of
the bugles and bells. The former sounded over the camp for the various
military duties; the latter belonged to a neighboring convent and
rang out daily for services. The resonance of the bugles and the
far-reaching vibrations of the bells, with their overtones and
harmonics, were specially noted by the young musician, and used by him
later in his music. It is a well-known fact that every tone or
sound is accompanied by a whole series of other sounds; they are
the vibrations resulting from the fundamental tone. If the tone C
is played in the lower octave of the piano, no less than sixteen
overtones vibrate with it. A few of these are audible to the ordinary
listener, but very keen ears will hear more of them. In Claude
Debussy's compositions, his system of harmony and tonality is
intimately connected with these laws of natural harmonics. His chords,
for instance, are remarkable for their shifting, vapory quality; they
seem to be on the border land between major and minor--consonance and
dissonance; again they often appear to float in the air, without any
resolution whatever. It was a new aspect of music, a new style of
chord progression. At the same time the young composer was well versed
in old and ancient music; he knew all the old scales, eight in number,
and used them in his compositions with compelling charm. The influence
of the old Gregorian chant has given his music a certain fluidity,
free rhythm, a refinement, richness and variety peculiarly its own.

We can trace impressions of early life in Debussy's music, through his
employment of the old modes, the bell sounds which were familiar to
his boyhood, and also circumstances connected with his later life.
As a student in Rome, he threw himself into the study of the music
of Russian composers, especially that of Moussorgsky; marks of the
Oriental coloring derived from these masters appear in his own later
music. When he returned to Paris for good, he reflected in music the
atmosphere of his environment. By interest and temperament he was
in sympathy with the impressionistic school in art, whether it be in
painting, literature or in music. In Debussy's music the qualities of
impressionism and symbolism are very prominent. He employs sounds as
though they were colors, and blends them in such a way as literally to
paint a picture in tones, through a series of shaded, many-hued chord
progressions. Fluid, flexible, vivid, these beautiful harmonies,
seemingly woven of refracted rays of light, merge into shadowy melody,
and free, flowing rhythm.

What we first hear in Debussy's music, is the strangeness of the
harmony, the use of certain scales, not so much new as unfamiliar.
Also the employment of sequences of fifths or seconds. He often takes
his subjects from nature, but in this case seems to prefer a sky less
blue and a landscape more atmospheric than those of Italy, more like
his native France. His music, when known sufficiently, will reveal a
sense of proportion, balance and the most exquisite taste. It may lack
strength at times, it may lack outbursts of passion and intensity, but
it is the perfection of refinement.

Mr. Ernest Newman, in writing of Debussy, warmly praises the
delightful naturalness of his early compositions. "One would feel
justified in building the highest hopes on the young genius who can
manipulate so easily the beautiful shapes his imagination conjures
up."

The work of the early period shows Debussy developing freely and
naturally. The independence of his thinking is unmistakable, but it
does not run into wilfulness. There is no violent break with the past,
but simply the quickening of certain French qualities by the infusion
of a new personality. It seemed as if a new and charming miniaturist
had appeared, who was doing both for piano and song what had never
been done before. The style of the two Arabesques and the more
successful of the Ariettes oubliees is perfect. A liberator seemed to
have come into music, to take up, half a century later, the work of
Chopin--the work of redeeming the art from the excessive objectivity
of German thought, of giving it not only a new soul but a new body,
swift, lithe and graceful. And that this exquisitely clear, pellucid
style could be made to carry out not only gaiety and whimsicality but
emotion of a deeper sort, is proved by the lovely "Clair de Lune."

Among Debussy's best known compositions are "The Afternoon of a Faun,"
composed in 1894 and called his most perfect piece for orchestra,
which he never afterward surpassed. There are also Three Nocturnes for
orchestra. In piano music, as we have briefly shown, he created a
new school for the player. All the way from the two Arabesques just
mentioned, through "Gardens in the Rain," "The Shadowy Cathedral," "A
Night in Granada," "The Girl with Blond Hair," up to the two books of
remarkable Preludes, it is a new world of exotic melody and harmony to
which he leads the way. "Art must be hidden by art," said Rameau, long
ago, and this is eminently true in Debussy's music.

Debussy composed several works for the stage, one of which was
"Martyrdom of Saint Sebastien," but his "Pelleas and Melisande" is
the one supreme achievement in the lyric drama. As one of his critics
writes: "The reading of the score of 'Pelleas and Melisande' remains
for me one of the most marvelous lessons in French art: it would be
impossible for him to express more with greater restraint of means."
The music, which seems so complicated, is in reality very simple. It
sounds so shadowy and impalpable, but it is really built up with
as sure control as the most classic work. It is indeed music which
appeals to refined and sensitive temperaments.

This mystical opera was produced in Paris, at the Opera Comique,
in April, 1902, and at once made a sensation. It had any number of
performances and still continues as one of the high lights of the
French stage. Its fame soon reached America, and the first performance
was given in New York in 1907, with a notable cast of singing actors,
among whom Mary Garden, as the heroine gave an unforgettable, poetic
interpretation.

Many songs have been left us by this unique composer. He was
especially fond of poetry and steeped himself in the verse of
Verlaine, Villon, Baudelaire and Mallarme. He chose the most
unexpected, the most subtle, and wedded it to sounds which invariably
expressed the full meaning. He breathed the breath of life into these
vague, shadowy poems, just as he made Maeterlinck's "Pelleas" live
again.

As the years passed, Claude Debussy won more and more distinction as
a unique composer, but also gained the reputation of being a very
unsociable man. Physically it has been said that in his youth he
seemed like an Assyrian Prince; through life he retained his somewhat
Asiatic appearance. His eyes were slightly narrowed, his black hair
curled lightly over an extremely broad forehead. He spoke little
and often in brusque phrase. For this reason he was frequently
misunderstood, as the irony and sarcasm with which he sometimes spoke
did not tend to make friends. But this attitude was only turned toward
those who did not comprehend him and his ideals, or who endeavored to
falsify what he believed in and esteemed.

A friend of the artist writes:

"I met Claude Debussy for the first time in 1906. Living myself in
a provincial town, I had for several years known and greatly admired
some of the songs and the opera, 'Pelleas and Melisande,' and I
made each of my short visits to Paris an opportunity of improving my
acquaintance with these works. A young composer, Andre Caplet, with
whom I had long been intimate, proposed to introduce me to Debussy;
but the rumors I had heard about the composer's preferred seclusion
always made me refuse in spite of my great desire to know him. I
now had a desire to express the feelings awakened in me, and
to communicate to others, by means of articles and lectures, my
admiration for, and my belief in, the composer and his work. The
result was that one day, in 1906, Debussy let me know through
a friend, that he would like to see me. From that day began our
friendship."

Later the same friend wrote:

"Debussy was invited to appear at Queen's Hall with the London
Symphony Orchestra, on February 1, 1908, to conduct his 'Afternoon
of a Faun,' and 'The Sea.' The ovation he received from the English
public was exceptional. I can still see him in the lobby, shaking
hands with friends after the concert, trying to hide his emotion, and
saying repeatedly: 'How nice they are--how nice they are!'"

He went again the next year to London, but the state of his health
prevented his going anywhere else. For a malady, which finally proved
fatal, seemed to attack the composer when in his prime, and eventually
put an end to his work. We cannot guess what other art works he might
have created. But there must be some that have not yet seen the light.
It is known that he was wont to keep a composition for some time in
his desk, correcting and letting it ripen, until he felt it was ready
to be brought out.

One of his cherished dreams had been to compose a "Tristan."

The characters of Tristan and Iseult are primarily taken from a French
legend. Debussy felt the story was a French heritage and should be
restored to its original atmosphere and idea. This it was his ardent
desire to accomplish.

Debussy passed away March 26, 1918.

Since his desire to create a Tristan has been made impossible, let us
cherish the rich heritage of piano, song and orchestral works, which
this original French artist and thinker has left behind, to benefit
art and his fellow man.




XXIII

ARTURO TOSCANINI


The sharp rap of Arturo Toscanini's baton that cuts the ear like a
whiplash brought the rehearsal of the NBC Symphony Orchestra to
a sudden, shocking stop. Overtones from chords of Wagner's "Faust
Overture," killed in mid-career, vibrated through the throat-gripping
silence.

The men stared at their music, bowed their heads a little in
anticipation of the storm. "Play that again," the Maestro commanded
William Bell, the bass tuba player, who had just finished a solo. On
Mr. Bell's face there was an expression of mixed worry and wonderment.
Mr. Toscanini noticed the troubled anxious look.

"No, no, no," he said, with that childlike smile of his that suffuses
his whole face with an irresistible light. "There is nothing wrong.
Play it again; please, play it again, just for me. It is so beautiful.
I have never heard these solo passages played with such a lovely
tone."

There you have a side of Mr. Toscanini that the boys have forgotten to
tell you about. For years newspaper and magazine writers (in the last
couple of seasons the Maestro has even "made" the Broadway columns!)
have doled out anecdotes concerning his terrible temper.

From these stories there emerged a demoniacal little man with the
tantrums of a dozen prima donnas, a temperamental tyrant who, at
the dropping of a stitch in the orchestral knitting, tore his hair,
screamed at the top of his inexhaustible Latin lungs, doused his
trembling players with streams of blistering invective.

That's how you learned that, to the king of conductors, a musician
playing an acid note is a "shoemaker," a "swine," an "assassin" or
even something completely unprintable.

So far as they went the stories were true. Mr. Toscanini, as all the
world knows by now, is the world's No. 1 musical purist. Nothing but
perfection satisfies him. He hates compromise, loathes the half-baked
and mediocre, refuses to put up with "something almost as good."

As Stefan Zweig puts it: "In vain will you remind him that the
perfect, the absolute, are rarely attainable in this world; that,
even to the sublimest will, no more is possible than an approach to
perfection.... His glorious unwisdom makes it impossible to recognize
this wise dispensation."

His rages, then, are the spasms of pain of a perfectionist wounded
by imperfection. It was his glorious unwisdom that caused him, at a
rehearsal not long ago, to fling a platinum watch to the floor, where,
of course, it was smashed into fragments.

In the shadows of the studio that afternoon lurked John F. Royal,
program director of NBC. Next day he presented the Maestro with two $1
watches, both inscribed, "For Rehearsals Only." Mr. Toscanini was so
amused that he forgot to get angry with Mr. Royal for breaking
the grimly enforced rule barring all but orchestra members from
rehearsals.

The sympathetic program director also had the shattered platinum watch
put together by what must have been a Toscanini among watchmakers. By
that time the incident had become such a joke that the orchestra
men dared to give the Maestro a chain, of material and construction
guaranteed to be unbreakable, to attach the brace of Ingersolls to the
dark, roomy jacket which for years he has worn at rehearsals.

Less than a week later that same choleric director, with the burning
deep-set black eyes, the finely chiseled features and the halo of
silver hair surrounding a bald spot that turns purple in his passions,
walked into a room where a girl of this reporter's acquaintance stood
beside a canary cage, making a rather successful attempt at whistling,
in time and tune with the bird.

For a moment the man who can make music like no one else on earth
listened to the girl and her pet. Then he sighed and said:

"Oh, if I could only whistle!"

Those who know Mr. Toscanini intimately find in those six simple words
the key to his character. He is, they say, the most modest man who
ever lived, a man sincerely at a loss to understand the endless fuss
that is made about him.

Time and again he has told his friends that he has no fonder desire
than to be able to walk about undisturbed, to saunter along the
avenue, look into shop-windows, do the thousand-and-one common little
things that are permitted other human beings.

That same humility, that same incurable bewilderment at public acclaim
must have been apparent to all who ever attended a Toscanini concert,
saw him at the close of a superb interpretation bowing as one of the
group of players and making deprecating gestures that seemed to
say: "What you have heard was a great score brought to life by these
excellent musicians--why applaud me?"

At rehearsals he is the strictest of disciplinarians but not a prima
donna conductor. He demands the utmost attention and concentration
from his men, brooks no disturbance or interruption. On the other
hand, he is punctual to a fault, arrives fifteen minutes ahead of
time, never asks for special privileges of any kind.

He has been described as the world's most patient and impatient
orchestral director. In rehearsal he will take the men through a
passage, a mere phrase, innumerable times to achieve a certain tonal
or dynamic effect. But he explodes when he feels that he is faced with
stupidity or stubbornness.

Some famous conductors have added the B of Barnum to the three
immortal B's of music--Bach, Beethoven and Brahms. Those wielders of
the stick are great showmen as well as great musicians.

Not so Mr. Toscanini. In his platform manner there is nothing
calculated for theatrical effect. He doesn't care in the least what he
looks like "from out front." His gestures are designed not to impress,
enrapture or englamour the musical groundlings, but to convey his
sharply defined wishes to his men and transmit to them the flaming
enthusiasm that consumes him.

His motions are patiently sincere, almost unconscious. He enters
carrying his baton under his right arm, like a riding crop. Orchestra
and audience rise. He acknowledges this mark of respect and the
tumultuous applause with a quick bow, an indulgent smile and a gesture
that plainly say: "Thanks, thanks, all this is very nice, you're a
lot of kind, good children, but for heaven's sake let's get down to
business."

While waiting a few seconds for listeners and players to settle
themselves he rests his baton against his right shoulder, like a
sword. Then the sharp rap. The Maestro closes his eyes. Another rap,
sharper than the first. Oppressive, electrical silence. He lifts the
baton as if saluting the orchestra. The concert begins.

As a rule the right hand gives the tempo and tracks down every
smallest melody, wherever it may hide in the score. In passages for
the strings, the baton indicates the type of bowing the conductor
wants from the violins, violas or cellos.

The left hand, with the long thumb separate from the other fingers,
is the orchestra's guide to the Maestro's interpretative desires. It
wheedles the tone from the men. It coaxes, hushes, demands increased
volume. It moves, trembling, to the heart to ask for feeling, closes
into a fist to get sound and fury from the brasses, thunder from the
drums. Through it all, the Maestro talks, sings, whistles and blows
out his cheeks for the benefit of trumpeters and trombonists.

After a concert, keyed to feverish excitement, he often plays over
piano scores of every number that appeared on the program. Then he
may lie awake all night, worrying over two possible tempi in which
he might have taken some passage--shadings in rhythm that the average
listener would not, could not discern.

He is never satisfied with himself. Some years ago, when he was still
conducting at the Scala in Milan, he came home one night after the
opera. Mr. Toscanini does not eat before a performance, and his family
wait with the evening meal until he joins them.

As he stepped into the hall he saw his wife and daughters walking into
the dining room. "Where are you going?" he asks them. "In to supper,
of course," one of them told him. The Maestro exploded: "What? After
THAT performance? Oh, no, you're not. It shall never be said of my
family that they could eat after such a horrible show!" All of them,
including the great man himself, went to bed without supper that
night.

It stands to reason that a man of this type detests personal
publicity. The interviews he has granted in the fifty-six years of
his career--Mr. Toscanini, who is seventy-five, began conducting at
nineteen--can be counted on the fingers of one hand. He feels and has
often told friends that all he has to say he can say in musical terms;
that he gladly leaves to others what satisfaction they may derive from
publicly bandying words.

But his frequent brushes with news photographers don't come under this
head. The existence of numerous fine camera studies of the Maestro
proves that he doesn't dislike being photographed. Nor does he dislike
photographers. But he hates flashlights because they hurt his eyes.

This has bolstered the popular notion--based on the fact that he
conducts from memory--that his sight is so poor as to amount almost to
blindness.

Mr. Toscanini is neither blind nor half-blind. He does not use a
strong magnifying glass to study his scores, note by note. He is
near-sighted, but not more so than millions of others, and reads with
the aid of ordinary spectacles.

He has always conducted from memory because he believes that having
the score in his head gives a conductor greater freedom and authority
to impose his musical will upon his men. At rehearsals the score is
kept on a stand a few feet from the Maestro. From time to time he
consults it to verify a point at dispute. He has never been known to
be wrong.

His memory is, of course, phenomenal. Anything he has once seen,
read and particularly, heard, he not only remembers but is unable to
forget. The other day he and a friend were discussing the concerto
played by a certain pianist on his American debut in 1911. Mr.
Toscanini remembered it as Beethoven's Fourth Piano Concerto; the
friend maintained it was the Second.

The Maestro said: "I recall the concert very well. He was soloist with
the Philharmonic." And he reeled off all the other compositions on
that program of twenty-seven years ago.

To settle the argument the skeptical friend called the office of
the Philharmonic. Mr. Toscanini had been right about the Beethoven
Concerto and had correctly remembered the purely orchestral numbers as
well.

He is a profound student, not only of music but of all available
literature bearing upon it. A music critic who visited him in
Salzburg a few years ago, just before he was to conduct Wagner's "Die
Meistersinger," found him in a room littered with books on the opera,
books on Wagner, volumes of the composer's correspondence.

The Maestro, who has been coming to this country since 1908, speaks
better English than most of us. He knows his English literature and is
in the sometimes disconcerting habit of quoting by the yard from the
works of Shakespeare, Keats, Shelley and Swinburne.

Almost as great a linguist as he is a musician, he coaxes and curses
his men in perfect, idiomatic French, German and Spanish as well as
English and Italian.

He likes reading, listening to the radio--he is fond of good jazz--and
driving out in the country. He loves speed. An American friend who
some years ago accompanied him on a motor trip from Milan to Venice
groaned when the speedometer began hovering around 78. "What's the
matter with you?" the Maestro wanted to know. "We're only jogging
along." Whenever possible he flies.

Since 1926 he and Mrs. Toscanini have occupied an apartment in the
Astor--the same suite of four smallish rooms. The place is
furnished by the hotel, but the Maestro always brings his beloved
knickknacks--his miniature of Beethoven, his Wagner and Verdi
manuscripts, his family photographs.

He has no valet and dislikes being pawed by barbers. He shaves
himself, and Mrs. Toscanini or one of the daughters cuts his hair. He
eats very little--two plates of soup (preferably minestrone), a piece
of bread and a glass of chianti do him nicely for dinner.

He begrudges the time spent in eating and sleeping. Like the child
he is at heart, he loves staying up late. Occasionally he takes a
nocturnal prowl.

The other night, after a concert, he asked a friend to take him
somewhere--"some place where they won't know me and make a fuss over
me."

The friend took him to a little place in the Village. The moment Mr.
Toscanini entered, the proprietor dashed forward, bowed almost to the
ground and said: "Maestro, I am greatly honored ... I'll never forget
this hour ..." Then he led the party to the most conspicuous spot in
the room.

Mr. Toscanini wanted a nip of brandy, but the innkeeper insisted that
he try some very special wine of the house's own making. From a
huge jug he poured a brownish-red, viscous liquid into a couple of
tumblers. The Maestro's companion says it tasted like a mixture of
castor oil, hair tonic and pitch.

Turning white at the first sip, Mr. Toscanini drained his glass at
a gulp. Outside, his friend asked him: "Why did you drink that vile
stuff?"

The Maestro said: "The poor fellow meant well, and I didn't want to
refuse. A man can do anything."




XXIV

LEOPOLD STOKOWSKI


Many years ago this reporter was traveling, as a non-fiddling,
non-tooting member of the Philadelphia Orchestra, on a train that
carried the organization on one of its Pennsylvania-Maryland-Ohio
tours.

It was 2 o'clock in the morning, Mr. Stokowski, the conductor, was
secluded in his drawing room, perhaps asleep, but more likely trying
to digest three helpings of creamed oysters in which he had indulged
at the home of an effusive Harrisburg hostess. Mr. Stokowski in those
days couldn't let creamed oysters alone, but neither could he take
them.

In the Pullman smoker sat the handsome gentleman who was then manager
of the orchestra and your correspondent. "Tell me," said the reporter,
"just between you and me--where did Stoky get that juicy accent?"

The manager removed his cigar to reply:

"God alone knows."

Mr. Stokowski then had been in this country nearly twenty years. He
has been here now more than thirty years, and still no one on earth,
with the possible exception of Mr. Stokowski himself, can tell you
where he dug up his rich luscious accent that trickles down the
portals of the ear as the sauce of creamed oysters trickles down the
gullet.

Surely he didn't get it in London where, on April 18, 1882, he was
born. Nor did he learn it in Queens College, Oxford, where he was
considered a bright student, or on Park Avenue, New York, where he
landed in 1905 to play the organ at St. Bartholomew's.

Mr. Stokowski's dialectic vagaries are among the mysteries in which,
for his own good reasons, he has chosen to wrap himself. Another one
concerns his name and origin. Is he really Leopold Antoni Stanislaw
Stokowski? Was his father one Joseph Boleslaw Kopernicus Stokowski, a
Polish emigre who became a London stockbroker? Was his mother an Irish
colleen and the granddaughter of Tom Moore, who wrote "Believe Me
If All Those Endearing Young Charms"? Or is Stoky just plain Lionel
Stokes, the sprout of a humble cockney family?

Nobody knows. But everybody knows that Leopold Stokowski is one of the
world's really great orchestra conductors, a true poet of the stick
(though he has dispensed with the baton in recent years), and that he
has made the name of the Philadelphia Orchestra synonymous with superb
singing, beauty of tone and dazzling brilliance.

Everybody knows, too, that he has few peers as an interpreter of Bach,
many of whose compositions he unearthed from the organ repertoire and
gave to the general public in shimmering orchestral arrangements, and
that critics trot out their choicest adjectives to praise his playing
of Brahms and all Russian composers.

Everybody knows, further, that he and his orchestra have made a larger
number of phonograph recordings of symphonic music than any other
conductor and band, and that the Philadelphia organization was the
first of its kind to dare the raised eyebrows of the musical tories by
going on the air as a commercially sponsored attraction.

The list, here necessarily condensed, is one of impressive musical
achievements, which many an artist of a more placid temperament than
Mr. Stokowski's would have considered ample to insure his fame.

But the slender, once golden-locked, now white-thatched Leopold is
and always was a restless fellow, a bundle of nervous energy, an
insatiable lover of experiment, innovation and--the limelight.

Those traits began to come to the surface in 1922, when he had been
bossing the Philadelphia band for ten years. About that time he seemed
no longer satisfied with merely playing to his audiences--he started
talking to them.

There were (and still are) two groups of Philadelphia Orchestra
subscribers--the Friday afternoon crowd, consisting largely of stuffy
dowagers, and the Saturday night clientele, composed mostly of persons
genuinely interested in music.

The old society gals went to the Friday matinees because it was
the thing to do. While "that dear, handsome boy" and his men on the
platform were discoursing Beethoven, Schubert and Wagner, the ladies
swapped gossip, recipes and lamented the scarcity of skillful, loyal
but inexpensive domestics.

It was at one of those whispering bees (your reporter, who was there,
swears it really happened) that, during the playing of a gossamer
pianissimo passage, a subscriber informed her neighbor in a resonant
contralto:

"I always mix butter with MINE!" Mr. Stokowski did not address the
audience on that occasion. He gave his first lecture at another
concert, and then he scolded the women not for talking but for
applauding.

Many of the Friday afternoon customers were in such a rush to catch
trains for their Main Line suburbs that they seldom remained long
enough to give conductor and orchestra a well-deserved ovation. So
nobody ever quite knew whether the dead-pan Stoky was in earnest
or moved by an impish sense of humor when, following the usual thin
smattering of applause, he said:

"This strange beating together of hands has no meaning, and to me
it is very disturbing. I do not like it. It destroys the mood my
colleagues and I have been trying to create with our music."

Shortly afterward, the Philadelphia Orchestra and its blond, romantic
conductor invaded New York. Their Tuesday night concerts at Carnegie
Hall became the rage. The uninhibited music lovers of this town not
only applauded Stoky but cheered, yelled and stamped to express their
frenzied approval. He never lectured THEM.

But in Philadelphia he continued his extra-conductorial antics. When
the audience hissed an ultra-modern composition, he told them: "I am
glad you are hissing. It is so much better than apathy." Another time,
when they booed an atonal piece, he repeated it immediately.

He scolded the audience for coming late. He scolded them for leaving
early. Once he scolded them for coughing. They continued the rasping
noise. After the intermission, on Stoky's orders, the 100-odd men of
the orchestra walked out on the stage barking as if in the last stages
of an epidemic bronchial disease.

All those didoes promptly made the front page. Thereafter Mr.
Stokowski, who had tasted blood, or rather, printer's ink, came out on
the average of once a month with a new notion to astound the Quakers.

He shocked them with a demand for Sunday concerts--then a heresy in
Philadelphia. He changed the seating arrangement of the orchestra. He
discarded the wooden amphitheatre on which, since the dark symphonic
ages, the players had sat in tiers, and put them on chairs directly on
the stage. Then he shuffled the men, making the cellos change places
with the second violins, the battery with the basses. There must have
been some merit in all this switching, for several conductors copied
it.

Next he announced that light was a distraction at a concert.
Henceforth, the Philadelphia Orchestra would play in darkness. Wails
of dismay from the Friday afternoon dowagers. How on earth was any one
going to see what her friends were wearing?

At the next matinee the Academy of Music was black as a crypt. On
the stage, at each of the players' desks, hung a small, green-shaded
light. Then Mr. Stokowski walked out on the podium. The moment he had
mounted the dais, a spotlight was trained on his head, turning his
hair into a glittering golden halo. The ladies forgot all about their
friends' dresses. Why, the darling boy looked like an angel descended
into a tomb to waken the dead!

Stoky explained to the press that the spot was necessary to enable his
men to follow the play of his facial expressions.

Most conductors make their appearance in a leisurely manner. Carrying
the stick, they stride out on the platform, acknowledge the audience's
reception with a courtly bow, say a few kind words to the men, and
when musicians and listeners have composed themselves, begin the
concert.

Leopold changed all that. Leander-like, he leaped from the wings,
dashed to the center of the stage, nodded curtly to the customers,
then accepted the baton which was handed to him, with a flourish, by
one of the viola players, and, before you could say "Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart," plunged into the opening number.

His audiences, particularly the ladies, doted on his conducting
technique. His slim, youthful, virile figure was held erect, his feet
remained still as if nailed to the floor, while his arms went through
a series of sensuously compelling, always graceful motions. The view
from the back was enhanced by the fact that the tailor who cut his
morning and evening coats was almost as great as Stoky himself. And
his hands! Ah, my dear, those hands----!

There was so much ecstatic comment on those slender, nervous,
expressive hands that Mr. Stokowski decided to give the gals a full,
unhampered view. He did away with the baton.

About the same time he invented a new way of rehearsing the
orchestra--the remote-control method. An assistant conductor wielded
the stick while Stoky sat in the rear of the dark hall manipulating an
intricate system of colored lights that made known his wishes to his
understudy on the platform.

Mr. Stokowski is inordinately fond of gadgets and fancies himself as
quite a technical expert. When he first conducted for the radio he
strenuously objected to the arrangement whereby the engineers in the
control room had the last word as to the volume of sound that was to
go out on the air.

Radio executives pacified him by rigging up an elaborate set of dials
on his desk. These he happily twirled, completely unaware that the
doodads were dead.

Meanwhile--and please don't lose sight of this cardinal fact--he made
transcendently beautiful music. His stature as a conductor grew
with the years and so did the repertoire of scores he conducted from
memory. This feat involved heartbreaking work, for his memory, while
good, is not unusually retentive. In the middle years of his career,
he devoted from ten to twelve hours a day to studying scores.

In periods when the Stokowski brain was unproductive of new stunts,
his private life and his recurrent rows with the directors of the
orchestra about matters of salary and control kept him in the papers.

His divorce from Mme. Olga Samaroff, the pianist, a Texan born as Lucy
Hickenlooper, whom he married in the dim days when he conducted in
Cincinnati, provided Rittenhouse Square with chit-chat for a whole
winter. So did his marriage to Evangeline Brewster Johnson, an
extremely wealthy, eccentric and independent young woman, who later
divorced him.

Mr. Stokowski's doings of the last few years can no longer be classed
as minor-league musical sensations. They have become Hot Hollywood
Stuff. First, there was his appearance in films. Then his
collaboration with Mickey Mouse. Then his friendship with Greta Garbo.
Then his five-month sentimental journey over half of Europe with the
Duse of the screen. Today he is as big a feature of the fan magazines
as Clark Gable and Robert Taylor.

Upon his return from Europe in August, Stoky made the most amusing
remark of a long amusing career. He told this reporter:

"I am not interested in publicity."




XXV

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY


In the official biographies of Serge Alexandrovitch Koussevitzky you
will find that the boss of the Boston Symphony learned the art and
mystery of conducting at the Royal Hochschule in Berlin under the
great Artur Nikisch, but in this town there lives and breathes a
rather well-known Russian pianist who tells a different story.

Long ago, says this key-tickler, when he was a youth, he was hired by
Koussevitzky, then also a young fellow, to play the piano scores of
the entire standard symphony repertoire.

He pounded away by the hour, the day and the week, while Koussevitzky
conducted, watching himself in a set of three tall mirrors in a corner
of the drawing room of his Moscow home.

The job lasted just about a year, and our pianist has never looked at
a conductor since.

There's also an anecdote to the effect that, much earlier, when Serge
was still a little boy in his small native town in the province of
Tver, in northern Russia, he would arrange the parlor chairs in rows
and, with some score open in front of him, conduct them. Once in
a while he'd stop short and berate the chairs. Then little Serge's
language was something awful.

Whether these stories are true or not, the fact remains that Mr.
Koussevitzky became a conductor and a great one--one of the greatest.
The yarn of the mirrors is the most credible of the lot, for the
Russian batonist's platform appearance is so meticulous and his
movements are so obviously studied to produce the desired effects that
he seems to conduct before an imaginary pier glass.

For elegant tailoring he has no peer among orchestral chiefs, except,
perhaps, Mr. Stokowski. It's a toss-up between the two. Both are as
sleek as chromium statues. Mr. Stokowski, slim, lithe, romantic in
a virile way, looks as a poet should look, but never does. Mr.
Koussevitzky, broad-shouldered, narrow-waisted, extremely military and
virile in a dramatic way, looks as a captain of dragoons in civvies
should have looked but never did.

Mr. Koussevitzy's conductorial gestures are literally high, wide and
handsome. His wing-spread, so to speak, is much larger than that of
either Mr. Stokowski or Mr. Toscanini, and he has a greater repertoire
of unpredictable motions than both of them put together. Time cannot
wither, nor custom stale, the infinite variety of his shadow boxing.

Those who knew his history look upon Mr. Koussevitzky's joyous,
unrestrained gymnastics with tolerant eyes. They realize that, for
years, he was forced to hide his fine figure and athletic prowess from
thousands of potential admirers.

For Mr. Koussevitzky, before he became a conductor, was a world-famous
performer on the double bass, that big growling brute of an instrument
popularly known as the bull fiddle. In those days all that was visible
of his impressive person was his head, one of his shoulders and his
arms.

He didn't want to be a bull fiddler any more than you or you or
you, and it's greatly to his credit and indicative of his iron will,
consuming ambition and extraordinary musicianship that he developed,
according to authoritative opinion, into the best bull fiddler of his
time.

Here's what happened:

Serge was the son of a violinist who scratched away for a meager
living in a third-rate theatre orchestra. The boy, intensely musical,
wished to be a fiddler like his father. When he was fourteen, his
family gave him their blessing, which was all they had to give,
and sent him to Moscow to try for a scholarship at the Philharmonic
School.

He arrived with three rubles in his pocket. At the school he was told
that the only available scholarship was one in bull fiddling. Serge
tried for it and won. He was, so far as is known, the first musician
to make the barking monster into a solo instrument.

An overburdened troubadour, he dragged the cumbersome thing all over
Russia and played it in recitals with amazing success. In 1903, when
Mr. Koussevitzky was twenty-nine (he's sixty-eight now but looks
a mettlesome fifty), the Czar decorated him--the only instance in
history of a decoration bestowed for bull fiddling.

That same year, while giving a concert in Moscow, the virtuoso
happened to look into the audience and his eyes met those of a
stunning brunette in the front row. The owner of the lovely eyes,
Natalya Konstantinova Ushkova, became his wife two years later.

Natalya, the daughter of a wealthy merchant and a rich girl in her own
right, promised him anything he wanted for a wedding gift. "Give me a
symphony orchestra." was Koussevitzky's startling request. The bride
was taken aback, for it was with the bull fiddle that he had wooed and
won her and she hated to see him give it up, but she kept her word.

Now here is where our old pianist comes in. It was at that time, he
says, that Mr. Koussevitzky sent for him and began an intensive course
of study before the triple mirror.

A year or so later Natalya hired eighty-five of the best musicians in
Moscow. After a season of rehearsals Mr. Koussevitzky took his band on
tour aboard a steamer--a little gift from his father-in-law.

They rode up and down the Volga. Every evening the vessel--a sort of
musical showboat--tied up at a different city, town or village and the
orchestra gave a concert, often before peasants and small-town
folk who had never heard symphony music before. In seven years Mr.
Koussevitzky and his men traveled some 3,000 miles.

Came the revolution. Kerensky ordered Koussevitzy and his men: "Keep
up with your music." They did, but it wasn't easy. It was a terribly
severe winter; the country was in the killing grip of cold and famine.

Koussevitzky and his players starved for weeks on end. The boss
conducted in mittens. The men wore mittens, too, but they had holes in
them, so they could finger the strings and keys of their instruments.

The Bolsheviks made Mr. Koussevitzky director of the state orchestras
which, in those early Soviet days, were at low musical ebb. He labored
in that job for three years, from 1917 to 1920, but he was out of
sympathy with the Lenin-Trotzky regime and asked permission to leave
the country. It was refused because officials said, "Russia needs your
music."

The fiery Koussevitzky told the Government that, unless he were
allowed to travel abroad, he'd never play or conduct another note in
Russia. They let him go.

Mr. Koussevitzky says that the Bolsheviks robbed him of about a
million in money, land and other property. In illustration of the
state of things that impelled him to leave his native land, he likes
to tell this story:

A minor Bolshevik official came in one day to check up on the affairs
of the orchestra. "Who are those people?" he asked, pointing to a
group of players at the conductor's left. "Those," said Koussevitzky,
"are the first violins."

"And those over there?" asked the inspector, indicating a group at the
conductor's right. "The second violins," was the reply.

"What!" yelled the official. "Second violins in a Soviet state
orchestra? Clear them out!"

Mr. Koussevitzky went to Paris, where he conducted a series of
orchestral concerts and performances of Moussorgsky's "Boris
Godounoff" and Tschaikowsky's "Pique Dame" at the Opera. Between 1921
and 1924 he also appeared in Barcelona, Rome and Berlin. In Paris
he established a music publishing house (still in existence), which
issued the works of such modern Russian composers as Stravinsky,
Scriabine, Medtner, Prokofieff and Rachmaninoff.

In 1924, the offer of a $50,000 salary and the opportunity of
rebuilding the Boston Symphony Orchestra, which had sadly deteriorated
since the days of Dr. Karl Muck, lured him to this country.

American customs, he now admits, at first appalled him. He was amazed
to find musicians smoking in intermissions at rehearsals and concert.
This he called "an insult to art." He forbade smoking. The players
raised an unholy rumpus, but Koussevitzky persisted. The men haven't
taken a puff in Symphony Hall since that time.

The next unpopular move he made was to fire a number of the old
standbys who had sat in the orchestra for most of its forty-four-year
history. "I vant yongk blott!" he cried in his then still very thick
accent. "If dose old chentlemen vant to sleep, let dem sleep in deir
houses!"

The Boston music lovers didn't like it. To them the Symphony is a
sacred cow and they regarded the older members in the light of
special pets. But when, at the opening of the new season, they heard
a brilliant, completely rejuvenated orchestra, they forgave the new
conductor. Since then, he has restored the Symphony to its old-time
glory. Today Beacon Hill has no greater favorite than Serge
Alexandrovitch Koussevitzky.

The orchestra men, too, learned to like him. They discovered that,
with all his public histrionics, he was on the level as a musician.
He is a merciless task master, but in rehearsals he gives himself no
airs. Dressed in an old pair of pants and a disreputable brown woolen
sweater, which he has worn in private since the day he landed in
Boston, he works like a stevedore. When he, the pants and the sweater
had been with the Symphony ten years, the men gave him a testimonial
dinner.

Next to Mr. Toscanini he's the world's most temperamental conductor,
but he has the ability to keep himself in check--when he wants to.
"Koussevitzky," says Ernest Newman, the eminent English music critic,
"has a volcanic temperament, yet never have I known it to run away
with him. It is precisely when his temperament is at the boiling point
that his hand on the regulator is steadiest."

At a concert in Carnegie Hall four years ago he gave a dramatic
demonstration of self-control. He was conducting Debussy's "Prelude
to the Afternoon of a Faun," when smoke from an incinerator fire in a
neighboring building penetrated the hall. The smoke grew dense. People
rose, rushed for the exits in near-panic. Women screamed.

He stopped the orchestra, turned to the audience, held up his hand and
shouted:

"Come back! Sit down! Sit down--all of you! Everything is all right!"

The customers meekly resumed their seats. Mr. Koussevitzky swung
'round and continued playing Debussy's brooding, sensuous dreampiece
as if nothing had happened.

Because he has done so much, both as conductor and publisher, for
living composers (he is the high priest of the Sibelius cult), he has
been called a modernist. The label infuriates him.

"Nonsense!" he snarls. "I'm not a modernist and I'm not a classicist.
I'm a musician! The first movement of the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven
is the greatest music ever written and George Gershwin's 'Rhapsody in
Blue' is a masterpiece."

"There you are! Make the best of it!"

[Transcriber's Notes:
a. The spelling of names and places are noted as having changed
between the publication of this book and the year 2004:
Chapter I (Palestrina):
'Michael Angelo' vs. 'Michaelangelo' (also in Chapter VI)
Chapter II (Bach):
Leipsic vs. Leipzig (repeated in following chapters)
Lueneberg vs. Lueneburg
Chapter X (Mendelssohn):
'Dreifaltigkeit Kirch-hof' vs. 'Dreifaltigkeit Kirchhof'
'Wiemar' vs. 'Weimar'
Chapter XIII (Berlioz):
Academie vs. Academie
Chapter XIV (Verdi):
'Sant' Agata' vs. 'Sant'Agata'
'Apeninnes' vs. 'Apennines'
'Corsia di Servi' vs. 'Corsia dei Servi'
Chpater XXI (McDowell):
Frankfort vs. Frankfurt (Germany)
Peterboro vs. Peterborough (New Hampshire)
      *        *        *        *        *
b. Spelling errors found, not corrected:
beseiged (besieged);
Esterhazy (spelled unaccented twice) vs. Esterhazy (spelled with accent
6 times)
Carreno vs. Carreno (Teresa; each spelling used once.)
Academie (Academie)
Scandanavia (Scandinavia)
      *        *        *        *        *
c. Obvious spelling errors corrected:
Lueneberg (in 1 place) to Lueneburg (this spelling found in 3 places)
Febuary to February (One day in February ...);
obsorbed to absorbed (... soon became so absorbed ...);
polish to Polish (... a Polish emigre ...);
Intrumental to Instrumental (Instrumental music no longer satisfied ...);
Opportunties to opportunities (... greater opportunties for an
ambitious ...);
financee to fiancee (... assisted by his
financee ...);
turing to turning (... turing his hair ...)
      *        *        *        *        *
d. Chapter numbers (Roman numerals) omitted
for start of chapters on Toscanini, Stokowski and Koussevitzky,
but were present in the Table of Contents;
so the proper numbers (XXIII, XXIV, XXV) were entered in the proper
places.]





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