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Author: Cousin, John W.
Title: A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature
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Author: John W. Cousin

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[Illustration: I WILL MAKE A PRIEF OF IT IN MY NOTE-BOOK MERRY WIVES OF
WINDSOR]




A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE

BY JOHN W. COUSIN

LONDON: PUBLISHED

by J.M. DENT & SONS. LTD

AND IN NEW YORK

BY E.P. DUTTON & CO




INTRODUCTION

The primary aim of this book is to give as much information about English
authors, including under this designation American and Colonial writers,
as the prescribed limits will admit of. At the same time an attempt has
been made, where materials exist for it, to enhance the interest by
introducing such details as tend to illustrate the characters and
circumstances of the respective writers and the manner in which they
passed through the world; and in the case of the more important, to give
some indication of the relative place which they hold and the leading
features of their work.

Including the Appendix of Living Writers, the work contains upwards of
1600 names; but large as this number is, the number of those who have
contributed something of interest and value to the vast store of English
Literature is larger still, and any attempt to make a book of this kind
absolutely exhaustive would be futile.

The word "literature" is here used in a very wide sense, and this gives
rise to considerable difficulty in drawing the line of exclusion. There
are very many writers whose claim to admission may reasonably be
considered as good as that of some who have been included; but even had
it been possible to discover all these, their inclusion would have
swelled the work beyond its limits. A line had to be drawn somewhere, and
the writer has used his best judgment in making that line as consistent
as possible. It may probably, however, be safely claimed that every
department of the subject of any importance is well represented.

Wherever practicable (and this includes all but a very few articles),
various authorities have been collated, and pains have been taken to
secure accuracy; but where so large a collection of facts and dates is
involved, it would be too sanguine to expect that success has invariably
been attained.

J.W.C.

_January_, 1910.


The following list gives some of the best known works of Biography:--


    Allibone, Critical Dictionary of English Literature and English and
    American Authors, 1859-71, Supplement, by J.F. Kirke, 1891; W.
    Hazlitt, Collections and Notes of Early English Literature, 1876-93;
    R. Chambers, Cyclopaedia of English Literature, 1876, 1901; Halkett
    and Laign, Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature,
    1882-88; Dictionary of National Biography, ed. by Leslie Stephen and
    Sidney Lee, 1885, etc., re-issue, 1908, etc.; Appleton's Cyclopaedia
    of American Biography, ed. by J. Grant Wilson and John Fiske, 1887,
    etc.; J. Thomas, Universal Dictionary of Biography and Mythology,
    1887-89; Men and Women of the Time, 15th edit., ed. by Victor G.
    Plarr, 1889.


LIST OF CONTRACTIONS USED THROUGHOUT THE WORK

   _b._       born                 Edin.        Edinburgh
   _c._      _circa_              _fl._         flourished
    Camb.     Cambridge            Glas.        Glasgow
    Coll.     College             _m._          married
   _coll._    collected            Oxf.         Oxford
   _cr._      created              pres.        president
   _d._       died                _pub._        published
   _dau._     daughter             Prof.        Professor
   _ed._      educated             sec.         secretary
            { edition             _s._          son
    ed.     { editor               Univ.        University
            { edited




ABBOTT, JACOB (1803-1879).--Educationalist and miscellaneous author,
_b._ at Hallowell, Maine, _ed._ at Bowdoin Coll. and Andover, entered the
ministry of the Congregational Church, but was best known as an
educationist and writer of religious and other books, mainly for the
young. Among them are _Beechnut Tales_ and _The Rollo Books_, both of
which still have a very wide circulation.


ABBOTT, JOHN STEVENS CABOT (1805-1877).--Historian, etc., _b._ Brunswick,
Maine, and _ed._ at Bowdoin Coll. He studied theology and became a
minister of the Congregational Church at various places in Massachusetts
and Connecticut. Owing to the success of a little work, _The Mother at
Home_, he devoted himself, from 1844 onwards, to literature, and
especially to historical writing. Among his principal works, which were
very popular, are: _History of Napoleon Bonaparte_ (1852-55), _History of
the Civil War in America_ (1863-66), and _History of Frederick the Great_
(1871).


A BECKETT, GILBERT ABBOTT (1811-1856).--Comic writer, _b._ in London, the
_s._ of a lawyer, and belonged to a family claiming descent from Thomas a
Becket. Destined for the legal profession, he was called to the Bar. In
addition to contributions to various periodicals and newspapers,
including _Punch_, _The Illustrated London News_, _The Times_, and
_Morning Herald_, he produced over fifty plays, many of which attained
great popularity, and he also helped to dramatise some of Dickens' works.
He is perhaps best known as the author of _Comic History of England_,
_Comic History of Rome_, _Comic Blackstone_, etc. He was also
distinguished in his profession, acted as a commissioner on various
important matters, and was appointed a metropolitan police magistrate.


ABERCROMBIE, JOHN (1780-1844).--Physician and writer on mental science,
_s._ of a minister, was _b._ at Aberdeen, and _ed._ at the Grammar School
and Marischal College there. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, in which
city he practised as a physician. He made valuable contributions to the
literature of his profession, and _pub._ two works, _Enquiry Concerning
the Intellectual Powers_ (1830) and _The Philosophy of the Moral
Feelings_ (1833), which, though popular at the time of their publication,
have long been superseded. For his services as a physician and
philanthropist he received many marks of distinction, including the
Rectorship of Marischal College.


ABERCROMBIE, PATRICK (1656-1716).--Antiquary and historian, was physician
to James II. in 1685; he was a Jacobite and opposed the Union in various
pamphlets. His chief work was _Martial Achievements of the Scots Nation_
(1711-16).


ACTON, JOHN EMERICH EDWARD DALBERG-ACTON, 1ST LORD
(1834-1902).--Historian, _s._ of Sir Richard A., and grandson of Sir John
A., who was Prime Minister of Naples, was _b._ at Naples. He belonged to
an ancient Roman Catholic family, and was _ed._ first at Oscott near
Birmingham under Dr. (afterwards Card.) Wiseman. Thence he went to
Edinburgh, where he studied privately, and afterwards to Munich, where he
resided in the house of Dr. Dollinger, the great scholar and subsequent
leader of the Old Catholic party, by whom he was profoundly influenced.
While at Edinburgh he endeavoured to procure admission to Cambridge, but
without success, his religion being at that time a bar. He early devoted
himself to the study of history, and is said to have been on terms of
intimacy with every contemporary historian of distinction, with the
exception of Guizot. He sat in the House of Commons 1859-65, but made no
great mark, and in 1869 was raised to the peerage as Lord Acton of
Aldenham. For a time he edited _The Rambler_, a Roman Catholic
periodical, which afterwards became the _Home and Foreign Review_, and
which, under his care, became one of the most learned publications of the
day. The liberal character of A.'s views, however, led to its stoppage in
deference to the authorities of the Church. He, however, maintained a
lifelong opposition to the Ultramontane party in the Church, and in 1874
controverted their position in four letters to _The Times_ which were
described as the most crushing argument against them which ever appeared
in so condensed a form. A.'s contributions to literature were few, and,
in comparison with his extraordinary learning, comparatively unimportant.
He wrote upon _Cardinal Wolsey_ (1877) and _German Schools of History_
(1886). He was extremely modest, and the loftiness of his ideals of
accuracy and completeness of treatment led him to shrink from tasks which
men of far slighter equipment might have carried out with success. His
learning and his position as a universally acknowledged master in his
subject were recognised by his appointment in 1895 as Professor of Modern
History at Cambridge. Perhaps his most valuable services to historical
literature were his laying down the lines of the great _Cambridge Modern
History_, and his collection of a library of 60,000 vols., which after
his death was purchased by an American millionaire and presented to Lord
Morley of Blackburn, who placed it in the University of Cambridge.


ADAMNAN, ST. (625?-704).--Historian, _b._ in Donegal, became Abbot of
Iona in 679. Like other Irish churchmen he was a statesman as well as an
ecclesiastic, and appears to have been sent on various political
missions. In the great controversy on the subject of the holding of
Easter, he sided with Rome against the Irish Church. He left the earliest
account we have of the state of Palestine in the early ages of the
Church; but of even more value is his _Vita Sancti Columbae_, giving a
minute account of the condition and discipline of the church of Iona. He
_d._ 704.


ADAMS, FRANCIS, W.L. (1862-1893).--Novelist, was _b._ at Malta, and _ed._
at schools at Shrewsbury and in Paris. In 1882 he went to Australia, and
was on the staff of _The Sydney Bulletin_. In 1884 he _publ._ his
autobiographical novel, _Leicester_, and in 1888 _Songs of the Army of
the Night_, which created a sensation in Sydney. His remaining important
work is _Tiberius_ (1894), a striking drama in which a new view of the
character of the Emperor is presented. He _d._ by his own hand at
Alexandria in a fit of depression caused by hopeless illness.


ADDISON, JOSEPH (1672-1719).--Poet, essayist and statesman, was the _s._
of Lancelot Addison, Dean of Lichfield. _B._ near Amesbury, Wilts., A.
went to the Charterhouse where he made the acquaintance of Steele
(_q.v._), and then at the age of fifteen to Oxford where he had a
distinguished career, being specially noted for his Latin verse. Intended
at first for the Church, various circumstances combined to lead him
towards literature and politics. His first attempts in English verse took
the form of complimentary addresses, and were so successful as to obtain
for him the friendship and interest of Dryden, and of Lord Somers, by
whose means he received, in 1699, a pension of L300 to enable him to
travel on the continent with a view to diplomatic employment. He visited
Italy, whence he addressed his _Epistle_ to his friend Halifax. Hearing
of the death of William III., an event which lost him his pension, he
returned to England in the end of 1703. For a short time his
circumstances were somewhat straitened, but the battle of Blenheim in
1704 gave him a fresh opportunity of distinguishing himself. The
government wished the event commemorated by a poem; A. was commissioned
to write this, and produced _The Campaign_, which gave such satisfaction
that he was forthwith appointed a Commissioner of Appeals. His next
literary venture was an account of his travels in Italy, which was
followed by the opera of _Rosamund_. In 1705, the Whigs having obtained
the ascendency, A. was made Under-Secretary of State and accompanied
Halifax on a mission to Hanover, and in 1708 was appointed Chief
Secretary for Ireland and Keeper of the Records of that country. It was
at this period that A. found his true vocation and laid the foundations
of his real fame. In 1709 Steele began to bring out the _Tatler_, to
which A. became almost immediately a contributor: thereafter he (with
Steele) started the _Spectator_, the first number of which appeared on
March 1, 1711. This paper, which at first appeared daily, was kept up
(with a break of about a year and a half when the _Guardian_ took its
place) until Dec. 20, 1714. In 1713 the drama of _Cato_ appeared, and was
received with acclamation by both Whigs and Tories, and was followed by
the comedy of the _Drummer_. His last undertaking was _The Freeholder_, a
party paper (1715-16). The later events in the life of A., viz., his
marriage in 1716 to the Dowager Countess of Warwick, to whose son he had
been tutor and his promotion to be Secretary of State did not contribute
to his happiness. His wife appears to have been arrogant and imperious;
his step-son the Earl was a rake and unfriendly to him; while in his
public capacity his invincible shyness made him of little use in
Parliament. He resigned his office in 1718, and, after a period of
ill-health, _d._ at Holland House, June 17, 1719, in his 48th year.
Besides the works above mentioned, he wrote a _Dialogue on Medals_, and
left unfinished a work on the Evidences of Christianity. The character of
A., if somewhat cool and unimpassioned, was pure, magnanimous, and kind.
The charm of his manners and conversation made him one of the most
popular and admired men of his day; and while he laid his friends under
obligations for substantial favours, he showed the greatest forbearance
towards his few enemies. His style in his essays is remarkable for its
ease, clearness, and grace, and for an inimitable and sunny humour which
never soils and never hurts. The motive power of these writings has been
called "an enthusiasm for conduct." Their effect was to raise the whole
standard of manners and expression both in life and in literature. The
only flaw in his character was a tendency to convivial excess, which must
be judged in view of the laxer manners of his time. When allowance has
been made for this, he remains one of the most admirable characters and
writers in English literature.

SUMMARY.--_B._ Amesbury, _ed._ Charterhouse and Oxford; received
travelling pension, 1699; _Campaign_ (1704) leads to political office;
goes to Ireland, 1708; assists Steele in _Tatler_, 1709; _Spectator_
started, 1711; marries Lady Warwick, 1716; Secretary of State, 1716-18;
_d._ 1719.

Lives in _Biographica Britannica_, _Dict. of Nat. Biog._, _Johnson's
Lives of Poets_, and by Lucy Aikin, Macaulay's _Essay_, Drake's _Essays
Illustrative of Tatler, Guardian, and Spectator_; Pope's and Swift's
Correspondence, etc.

The best edition of the books is that in _Bohn's British Classics_ (6
vols., 1856); others are Tickell's (4 vols., 1721); _Baskerville_ edit.
(4 vols., 1761); Hurd's (6 vols., 1811); Greene's (1856); Dent's
_Spectator_ (1907).


ADOLPHUS, JOHN (1768-1845).--Historian, studied law and was called to the
Bar in 1807. He wrote _Biographical Memoirs of the French Revolution_
(1799) and _History of England from_ 1760-1783 (1802), and other
historical and biographical works.


AELFRED (849-901).--King of the West Saxons, and writer and translator,
_s._ of Ethelwulf, _b._ at Wantage. Besides being the deliverer of his
country from the ravages of the Danes, and the restorer of order and
civil government, _AE._ has earned the title of the father of English
prose writing. The earlier part of his life was filled with war and
action, most of the details regarding which are more or less legendary.
But no sooner had he become King of Wessex, in 871, than he began to
prepare for the work of re-introducing learning into his country.
Gathering round him the few scholars whom the Danes had left, and sending
for others from abroad, he endeavoured to form a literary class. His
chief helper in his great enterprise was Asser of St. David's, who taught
him Latin, and became his biographer in a "life" which remains the best
original authority for the period. Though not a literary artist, AE. had
the best qualities of the scholar, including an insatiable love alike for
the acquisition and the communication of knowledge. He translated several
of the best books then existing, not, however, in a slavish fashion, but
editing and adding from his own stores. In all his work his main desire
was the good of his people. Among the books he translated or edited were
(1) _The Handbook_, a collection of extracts on religious subjects; (2)
_The Cura Pastoralis_, or Herdsman's book of Gregory the Great, with a
preface by himself which is the first English prose; (3) _Bede's
Ecclesiastical History of the English_; (4) _The English Chronicle_,
which, already brought up to 855, he continued up to the date of writing;
it is probably by his own hand; (5) Orosius's _History of the World_,
which he adapted for English readers with many historical and
geographical additions; (6) the _De Consolatione Philosophiae_ of
Boethius; and (7) a translation of some of the Psalms. He also made a
collection of the best laws of his predecessors, Ethelbert, Ine, and
Offa. It has been said "although King Alfred lived a thousand years ago,
a thousand years hence, if there be England then, his memory will yet be
precious to his country."


AELFRIC (955-_c._ 1022).--Called Grammaticus (10th century), sometimes
confounded with two other persons of the same name, AE. of Canterbury and
AE. of York, was a monk at Winchester, and afterwards Abbot of Cerne and
Eynsham successively. He has left works which shed an important light on
the doctrine and practice of the early Church in England, including two
books of homilies (990-94), a _Grammar_, _Glossary_, _Passiones Sanctorum_
(Sufferings of the Saints), translations of parts of the Bible with
omissions and interpolations, _Canones AElfrici_, and other theological
treatises. His writings had an influence on the formation of English
prose. He filled in his age somewhat the same position that Bede did in
his, that of a compiler and populariser of existing knowledge.


AGUILAR, GRACE (1816-1847).--Novelist and writer on Jewish history and
religion, was _b._ at Hackney of Jewish parents of Spanish descent. She
was delicate from childhood, and early showed great interest in history,
especially Jewish. The death of her _f._ threw her on her own resources.
After a few dramas and poems she _pub._ in America in 1842 _Spirit of
Judaism_, and in 1845 _The Jewish Faith_ and _The Women of Israel_. She
is, however, best known by her novels, of which the chief are _Home
Influence_ (1847) and _A Mother's Recompense_ (1850). Her health gave way
in 1847, and she _d._ in that year at Frankfort.


AIKIN, JOHN (1747-1822).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of Dr. John A.,
Unitarian divine, _b._ at Kibworth, studied medicine at Edinburgh and
London, and received degree of M.D. at Leyden. He began practice at
Yarmouth but, one of his pamphlets having given offence, he removed to
London, where he obtained some success in his profession, devoting all
his leisure to literature, to which his contributions were incessant.
These consisted of pamphlets, translations, and miscellaneous works, some
in conjunction with his sister, Mrs. Barbauld. Among his chief works are
_England Delineated_, _General Biography_ in 10 vols., and lives of Selden
and Ussher.


AIKIN, LUCY (1781-1864).--Historical and miscellaneous writer, _dau._ of
above and niece of Mrs. Barbauld (_q.v._). After _pub._ a poem,
_Epistles on Women_, and a novel, _Lorimer_, she began the historical
works on which her reputation chiefly rests, viz., _Memoirs of the Courts
of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I._ (1818-33) and a _Life of
Addison_. She also wrote lives of her father and of Mrs. Barbauld. She
was remarkable for her conversational powers, and was also an admirable
letter-writer. Like the rest of her family she was a Unitarian.


AINGER, ALFRED (1837-1904).--Biographer and critic, _s._ of an architect
in London, _grad._ at Cambridge, entered the Church, and, after holding
various minor preferments, became Master of the Temple. He wrote memoirs
of Hood and Crabbe, but is best known for his biography of Lamb and his
edition of his works in 6 vols. (1883-88).


AINSWORTH, WILLIAM HARRISON (1805-1882).--Novelist, _s._ of a solicitor,
was _b._ in Manchester. He was destined for the legal profession, which,
however, had no attraction for him; and going to London to complete his
studies made the acquaintance of Mr. John Ebers, publisher, and at that
time manager of the Opera House, by whom he was introduced to literary
and dramatic circles, and whose _dau._ he afterwards married. For a short
time he tried the publishing business, but soon gave it up and devoted
himself to journalism and literature. His first successful novel was
_Rookwood_, _pub._ in 1834, of which Dick Turpin is the leading
character, and thenceforward he continued to pour forth till 1881 a
stream of novels, to the number of 39, of which the best known are _The
Tower of London_ (1840), _Old St. Paul's_ (1841), _Lancashire Witches_,
and _The Constable of the Tower_. The titles of some of his other novels
are _Crichton_ (1837), _Jack Sheppard_ (1839), _Guy Fawkes_, _The Star
Chamber_, _The Flitch of Bacon_, _The Miser's Daughter_ (1842), and
_Windsor Castle_ (1843). A. depends for his effects on striking
situations and powerful descriptions: he has little humour or power of
delineating character.


AIRD, THOMAS (1802-1876).--Poet, _b._ at Bowden, Roxburghshire, went to
Edinburgh, where he became the friend of Professor Wilson, Carlyle, and
other men of letters. He contributed to _Blackwood's Magazine_, and was
editor of the _Dumfries Herald_ (1835-63). His chief poem is _The Captive
of Fez_ (1830); and in prose he wrote _Religious Characteristics_, and
_The Old Bachelor in the Old Scottish Village_ (1848), all of which were
received with favour. Carlyle said that in his poetry he found everywhere
"a healthy breath as of mountain breezes."


AKENSIDE, MARK (1721-1770).--Poet, _s._ of a butcher at
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, gave early indications of talent, and was sent to
the University of Edinburgh with the view of becoming a dissenting
minister. While there, however, he changed his mind and studied for the
medical profession. Thereafter he went to Leyden, where he took his
degree of M.D. in 1744. While there he wrote his principal poem, _The
Pleasures of the Imagination_, which was well received, and was
subsequently translated into more than one foreign language. After trying
Northampton, he settled as a physician in London; but was for long
largely dependent for his livelihood on a Mr. Dyson. His talents brought
him a good deal of consideration in society, but the solemn and pompous
manner which he affected laid him open to some ridicule, and he is said
to have been satirised by Smollett (_q.v._) in his _Peregrine Pickle_. He
endeavoured to reconstruct his poem, but the result was a failure. His
collected poems were _pub._ 1772. His works, however, are now little
read. Mr. Gosse has described him as "a sort of frozen Keats."


ALCOTT, LOUISA M. (1832-1888).--Writer of juvenile and other tales,
_dau._ of Amos Bronson Alcott, an educational and social theorist,
lecturer, and author, was _b._ in Pennsylvania. During the American civil
war she served as a nurse, and afterwards attained celebrity as a writer
of books for young people, of which the best is _Little Women_ (1868).
Others are _Little Men_ and _Jo's Boys_. She also wrote novels, including
_Moods_ and _Work_.


ALCUIN or EALHWINE (735-804).--Theologian and general writer, was _b._
and _ed._ at York. He wrote in prose and verse, his subjects embracing
educational, theological, and historical matters. Returning from Rome, to
which he had been sent to procure the _pallium_ for a friend, he met
Charlemagne at Parma, and made upon him so favourable an impression that
he was asked to enter his service as preceptor in the sciences to himself
and his family. His numerous treatises, which include metrical annals,
hagiographical and philosophical works, are not distinguished by
originality or profundity, but he is the best representative of the
culture and mental activity of his age, upon which, as the minister of
education of the great emperor, he had a widely-spread influence.


ALDRICH, THOMAS BAILEY (1836-1906).--Poet and novelist, _b._ at
Portsmouth, N.H., was for some time in a bank, and then engaged in
journalism. His first book was _The Bells, a Collection of Chimes_
(1855), and other poetical works are _The Ballad of Babie Bell_, _Cloth
of Gold_, _Flower and Thorn_, etc. In prose he wrote _Daisy's Necklace_,
_The Course of True Love_, _Marjorie Daw_, _Prudence Palfrey_, etc.


ALESIUS, ALEXANDER (1500-1565).--Theologian and controversialist. His
unlatinised name was Aless or Alane, and he was _b._ at Edinburgh and
_ed._ at St. Andrews, where he became a canon. Originally a strong and
able defender of the Romish doctrines, he was chosen to argue with
Patrick Hamilton, the proto-martyr of the Reformation in Scotland, with
the object of inducing him to recant. The result, however, was that he
was himself much shaken in his allegiance to the Church, and the change
was greatly accelerated by the martyrdom of H. His subsequent protest
against the immorality of the clergy led to his imprisonment, and
ultimately, in 1532, to his flying for his life to Germany, where he
became associated with Luther and Melancthon, and definitely joined the
reforming party. Coming to England in 1535, he was well received by
Cranmer and other reformers. While in England he studied medicine, and
practised as a physician in London. On the fall of T. Cromwell in 1540 he
again retired to Germany, where, at Leipzig, he obtained a professorship.
During the reign of Edward VI. he re-visited England and was employed by
Cranmer in connection with the 1st Liturgy of Edward VI. Returning to
Leipsic he passed the remainder of his days in peace and honour, and was
twice elected Rector of the University. His writings were both exegetical
and controversial, but chiefly the latter. They include _Expositio Libri
Psalmorum Davidis_ (1550). His controversial works refer to such subjects
as the translation of the Bible into the vernacular, against Servetus,
etc.


ALEXANDER, MRS. CECIL F. (HUMPHREYS) (1818-1895).--_dau._ of Maj. H.,
_b._ in Co. Waterford, _m._ the Rev. W. Alexander, afterwards Bishop of
Derry and Archbishop of Armagh. Her _Hymns for Little Children_ had
reached its 69th edition before the close of the century. Some of her
hymns, _e.g._ "There is a Green Hill" and "The Roseate Hues of Early
Dawn," are known wherever English is spoken. Her husband has also written
several books of poetry, of which the most important is _St. Augustine's
Holiday and other Poems_.


ALFORD, HENRY (1810-1871).--Theologian, scholar, poet, and miscellaneous
writer, _s._ of a clergyman, was _b._ in London. After passing through
various private schools, he proceeded to Cambridge, where he had a
distinguished career, and after entering the Church and filling various
preferments in the country, became minister of Quebec Chapel, London,
whence he was promoted to be Dean of Canterbury. His great work was his
_Greek Testament_ in 4 vols., of which the first was _pub._ in 1849 and
the last in 1861. In this work he largely followed the German critics,
maintaining, however, a moderate liberal position; and it was for long
the standard work on the subject in this country. A. was one of the most
versatile men, and prolific authors, of his day, his works consisting of
nearly 50 vols., including poetry (_School of the Heart_ and _Abbot of
Munchelnaye_, and a translation of the _Odyssey_), criticism, sermons,
etc. In addition to the works above mentioned he wrote _Chapters on the
Greek Poets_ (1841), the _Queen's English_ (1863), and many well-known
hymns, and he was the first editor of the _Contemporary Review_. He was
also an accomplished artist and musician. His industry was incessant and
induced a premature breakdown in health, which terminated in his death in
1871. He was the friend of most of his eminent contemporaries, and was
much beloved for his amiable character.


ALISON, ARCHIBALD (1757-1839).--Didactic and philosophical writer, was
_b._ in Edinburgh and _ed._ at Glasgow University and Oxford. After being
presented to various livings in England, A. came to Edinburgh as
incumbent of St. Paul's Episcopal Chapel, where he attained popularity as
a preacher of sermons characterised by quiet beauty of thought and grace
of composition. His chief contribution to literature is his _Essay on the
Nature and Principles of Taste_ (1790), in which the "association" theory
is supported.


ALISON, SIR ARCHIBALD (1792-1867).--Historian, _s._ of the above, was
_b._ at Kenley, Shropshire, and after studying under a private tutor, and
at Edinburgh University, was, in 1814, called to the Bar, at which he
ultimately attained some distinction, becoming in 1834 Sheriff of
Lanarkshire, in which capacity he rendered valuable service in times of
considerable difficulty. It was when travelling in France in 1814 that he
conceived the idea of his _History of Europe_, which deals with the
period from the outbreak of the French Revolution to the restoration of
the Bourbons, and extends, in its original form (1833-42), to 10 vols.
The work is one of vast industry, and gives a useful account of an
important epoch, but is extremely diffuse and one-sided, and often prosy.
Disraeli satirises the author in _Coningsby_ as Mr. Wordy, who wrote a
history to prove that Providence was on the side of the Tories. It had,
however, an enormous sale. A continuation of it (1852-59) brought the
story down to the accession of Louis Napoleon. A. was also the author of
a life of Marlborough, and of two standard works on the criminal law of
Scotland. In his private and official capacities he was highly respected,
and was elected Lord Rector successively of Marischal Coll., Aberdeen,
and of Glasgow University. He was created a baronet by Lord Derby in
1852.


ALLEN, CHARLES GRANT (1848-1899).--Scientific writer and novelist, _b._
in Canada, to which his _f._, a clergyman, had emigrated, and _ed._ at
Birmingham and Oxford. For a time he was a professor in a college for
negroes in Jamaica, but returning to England in 1876 devoted himself to
literature. His first books were on scientific subjects, and include
_Physiological AEsthetics_ (1877) and _Flowers and Their Pedigrees_. After
assisting Sir W.W. Hunter in his _Gazeteer of India_, he turned his
attention to fiction, and between 1884 and 1899 produced about 30 novels,
among which _The Woman Who Did_ (1895), promulgating certain startling
views on marriage and kindred questions, created some sensation. Another
work, _The Evolution of the Idea of God_, propounding a theory of
religion on heterodox lines, has the disadvantage of endeavouring to
explain everything by one theory. His scientific works also included
_Colour Sense_, _Evolutionist at Large_, _Colin Clout's Calendar_, and
the _Story of the Plants_, and among his novels may be added _Babylon_,
_In all Shades_, _Philistia_ (1884), _The Devil's Die_, and _The British
Barbarians_ (1896).


ALLINGHAM, WILLIAM (1824-1889).--Poet, the _s._ of a banker of English
descent, was _b._ at Ballyshannon, entered the customs service, and was
ultimately settled in London, where he contributed to _Leigh Hunt's
Journal_. Hunt introduced him to Carlyle and other men of letters, and in
1850 he _pub._ a book of poems, which was followed by _Day and Night
Songs_ (1854), _Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland_ (1864) (his most
ambitious, though not his most successful work), and _Collected Poems_ in
6 vols. (1888-93). He also edited _The Ballad Book_ for the _Golden
Treasury_ series in 1864. In 1870 he retired from the civil service and
became sub-editor of _Fraser's Magazine_ under Froude, whom he succeeded
as editor (1874-79). His verse is clear, fresh, and graceful. He married
Helen Paterson, the water colourist, whose idylls have made the name of
"Mrs. Allingham" famous also. He _d._ in 1889. Other works are _Fifty
Modern Poems_ (1865), _Songs, Poems, and Ballads_ (1877), _Evil May Day_
(1883), _Blackberries_ (1884), _Irish Songs and Poems_ (1887), and
_Varieties in Prose_ (1893). A selection from his diaries and
autobiography was _pub._ in 1906.


ALLSTON, WASHINGTON (1779-1843).--Painter and poet, _b._ in S. Carolina,
became a distinguished painter, and also wrote a good deal of verse
including _The Sylphs of the Seasons_, etc. (1813), and _The Two
Painters_, a satire. He also produced a novel, _Monaldi_. He was known as
"the American Titian."


AMORY, THOMAS (1691(?)-1788).--Eccentric writer, was of Irish descent. In
1755 he _publ._ _Memoirs containing the lives of several ladies of Great
Britain, a History of Antiquities and Observations on the Christian
Religion_, which was followed by the _Life of John Buncle_ (1756),
practically a continuation. The contents of these works are of the most
miscellaneous description--philology, natural science, theology, and, in
fact, whatever occurred to the writer, treated without any system, but
with occasional originality and felicity of diction. The author, who was
probably more or less insane, is described as having a very peculiar
aspect, with the manner of a gentleman, scarcely ever stirring abroad
except at dusk. He reached the age of 97.


ANDERSON, ALEXANDER (1845-1909).--Poet, _s._ of a quarrier at Kirkconnel,
Dumfriesshire, became a surfaceman on the railway. Spending all his
leisure in self-culture, he mastered German, French, and Spanish
sufficiently to read the chief masterpieces in these languages. His
poetic vein, which was true if somewhat limited in range, soon manifested
itself, and his first book, _Songs of Labour_, appeared in 1873, and
there followed _Two Angels_ (1875), _Songs of the Rail_ (1878), and
_Ballads and Sonnets_ (1879). In the following year he was made assistant
librarian in the University of Edinburgh, and after an interval as
secretary to the Philosophical Institution there, he returned as Chief
Librarian to the university. Thereafter he wrote little. Of a simple and
gentle character, he made many friends, including the Duke of Argyll,
Carlyle, and Lord Houghton. He generally wrote under the name of
"Surfaceman."


ANDREWES, LANCELOT (1555-1626).--Churchman and scholar, was _b._ in
London, and _ed._ at Merchant Taylor's School and Cambridge, where he
took a fellowship and taught divinity. After receiving various other
preferments he became Dean of Westminster, and a chaplain-in-ordinary to
Queen Elizabeth, who, however, did not advance him further on account of
his opposition to the alienation of ecclesiastical revenues. On the
accession, however, of James I., to whom his somewhat pedantic learning
and style of preaching recommended him, he rose into great favour, and
was made successively Bishop of Chichester, of Ely, and, in 1618, of
Winchester. He attended the Hampton Court Conference, and took part in
the translation of the Bible, known as the _Authorised Version_, his
special work being given to the earlier parts of the Old Testament: he
acted, however, as a sort of general editor. He was considered as, next
to Ussher, the most learned churchman of his day, and enjoyed a great
reputation as an eloquent and impassioned preacher, but the stiffness and
artificiality of his style render his sermons unsuited to modern taste.
His doctrine was High Church, and in his life he was humble, pious, and
charitable. Ninety-six of his sermons were published in 1631 by command
of Charles I.

There are lives by A.T. Russell (1863), and R.L. Ottley (1894);
_Devotions_ were edited by Rev. Dr. Whyte (1900).


ANSTEY, CHRISTOPHER (1724-1805).--Poet, _s._ of Dr. A., a wealthy
clergyman, rector of Brinkley, Cambridgeshire, was _ed._ at Eton and
Cambridge. He _pub._ in 1766 a satirical poem of considerable sparkle,
_The New Bath Guide_, from which Smollett is said to have drawn largely
in his _Humphrey Clinker_. He made many other excursions into literature
which are hardly remembered, and ended his days as a country squire at
the age of eighty.


D'ARBLAY, FRANCES (BURNEY) (1752-1840).--Novelist, _dau._ of Dr. Charles
B., a musician of some distinction, was _b._ at Lynn Regis, where her
_f._ was organist. Her mother having died while she was very young, and
her _f._, who had come to London, being too busy to give her any
attention, she was practically self-educated. Her first novel, _Evelina_,
_pub._ anonymously in 1778, at once by its narrative and comic power,
brought her fame, and, through Mrs. Thrale (_q.v._), she made the
acquaintance of Dr. Johnson, with whom she became a great favourite. Her
next literary venture was a comedy, _The Witlings_; but, by the advice of
her _f._, it was not put upon the stage. In 1782, however, she produced
_Cecilia_, which, like its predecessor, had an enormous sale, and which,
though not perhaps so popular as _Evelina_, added to her fame. She now
became the friend of Burke and other distinguished persons, including
Mrs. Delaney, through whom she became known to the royal family, and was
offered the appointment of Second Keeper of the Robes, which, with some
misgivings, she accepted. This situation did not prove a happy one, the
duties being menial, the society uncongenial, and the court etiquette
oppressive and injurious to her health, and in 1791 she obtained
permission to retire on a pension of L100. She had, during her connection
with the court, continued her _Diary_, which she had begun in girlhood,
and continued during her whole life, and which during this period
contains many interesting accounts of persons and affairs of note. She
married (1793) Gen. D'Arblay, a French _emigre_, their only income being
her slender pension. This she endeavoured to increase by producing a
tragedy, _Edwy and Elvira_, which failed. In 1795 she _pub._ by
subscription another novel, _Camilla_, which, though it did not add to
her reputation, considerably improved her circumstances, as it is said to
have brought her L3000. After some years spent in France, where her
husband had obtained employment, she returned to England and _pub._ her
last novel, _The Wanderer_, which fell flat. Her only remaining work was
a life of her father, written in an extraordinarily grandiloquent style.
She died in 1840, aged 87.


ARBUTHNOT, JOHN (1667-1735).--Physician and satirist, was _b._ in
Kincardineshire, and after studying at Aberdeen and Oxford, took his
degree of M.D. at St. Andrews. Settling in London, he taught mathematics.
Being by a fortunate accident at Epsom, he was called in to prescribe for
Prince George, who was suddenly taken ill there, and was so successful in
his treatment that he was appointed his regular physician. This
circumstance made his professional fortune, for his ability enabled him
to take full advantage of it, and in 1705 he became physician to the
Queen. He became the cherished friend of Swift and Pope, and himself
gained a high reputation as a wit and man of letters. His principal works
are the _Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus_, partly by Pope, but to which he
was the chief contributor, the _History of John Bull_ (1712), mainly
against the Duke of Marlborough, _A Treatise concerning the Altercation
or Scolding of the Ancients_, and the _Art of Political Lying_. He also
wrote various medical treatises, and dissertations on ancient coins,
weights, and measures. After the death of Queen Anne, A. lost his court
appointments, but this, as well as more serious afflictions with which he
was visited, he bore with serenity and dignity. He was an honourable and
amiable man, one of the very few who seems to have retained the sincere
regard of Swift, whose style he made the model of his own, with such
success that writings by the one were sometimes attributed to the other:
his _Art of Political Lying_ is an example. He has, however, none of the
ferocity of S.


ARGYLL, GEORGE JOHN DOUGLAS CAMPBELL, 8TH DUKE OF (1823-1900).--Statesman
and writer on science, religion, and politics, succeeded his _f._, the
7th duke, in 1847. His talents and eloquence soon raised him to
distinction in public life. He acted with the Liberal party until its
break-up under the Irish policy of Mr. Gladstone, after which he was one
of the Unionist leaders. He held the offices of Lord Privy Seal,
Postmaster-General, and Indian Secretary. His writings include _The Reign
of Law_ (1866), _Primeval Man_ (1869), _The Eastern Question_ (1879),
_The Unseen Foundations of Society_ (1893), _Philosophy of Belief_
(1896), _Organic Evolution Cross-examined_ (1898). He was a man of the
highest character, honest, courageous, and clear-sighted, and, though
regarded by some professional scientists as to a certain extent an
amateur, his ability, knowledge, and dialectic power made him a
formidable antagonist, and enabled him to exercise a useful, generally
conservative, influence on scientific thought and progress.


ARMSTRONG, JOHN, M.D. (1709-1779).--Poet, _s._ of the minister of
Castleton, Roxburghshire, studied medicine, which he practised in London.
He is remembered as the friend of Thomson, Mallet, and other literary
celebrities of the time, and as the author of a poem on _The Art of
Preserving Health_, which appeared in 1744, and in which a somewhat
unpromising subject for poetic treatment is gracefully and ingeniously
handled. His other works, consisting of some poems and prose essays, and
a drama, _The Forced Marriage_, are forgotten, with the exception of the
four stanzas at the end of the first part of Thomson's _Castle of
Indolence_, describing the diseases incident to sloth, which he
contributed.


ARNOLD, SIR EDWIN (1832-1904).--Poet, _s._ of a Sussex magistrate, was
_b._ at Gravesend, and _ed._ at King's School, Rochester, London, and
Oxford. Thereafter he was an assistant master at King Edward's School,
Birmingham, and was in 1856 appointed Principal of the Government Deccan
College, Poona. Here he received the bias towards, and gathered material
for, his future works. In 1861 he returned to England and became
connected with _The Daily Telegraph_, of which he was ultimately editor.
The literary task which he set before him was the interpretation in
English verse of the life and philosophy of the East. His chief work with
this object is _The Light of Asia_ (1879), a poem on the life and
teaching of Buddha, which had great popularity, but whose permanent place
in literature must remain very uncertain. In _The Light of the World_
(1891), he attempted, less successfully, a similar treatment of the life
and teaching of Jesus. Other works are _The Song of Songs of India_
(1875), _With Saadi in the Garden_, and _The Tenth Muse_. He travelled
widely in the East, and wrote books on his travels. He was made K.C.I.E.
in 1888.


ARNOLD, MATTHEW (1822-1888).--Poet and critic, _s._ of Dr. A., of Rugby
(_q.v._), was _b._ at Laleham and _ed._ at Rugby, Winchester, and Balliol
Coll., Oxford, becoming a Fellow of Oriel in 1845. Thereafter he was
private secretary to Lord Lansdowne, Lord President of the Council,
through whose influence he was in 1851 appointed an inspector of schools.
Two years before this he had _pub._ his first book of poetry, _The
Strayed Reveller_, which he soon withdrew: some of the poems, however,
including "Mycerinus" and "The Forsaken Merman," were afterwards
republished, and the same applies to his next book, _Empedocles on Etna_
(1852), with "Tristram and Iseult." In 1857 he was appointed to the
Professorship of Poetry at Oxford, which he held for ten years. After
this he produced little poetry and devoted himself to criticism and
theology. His principal writings are, in poetry, _Poems_ (1853),
containing "Sohrab and Rustum," and "The Scholar Gipsy;" _Poems, 2nd
Series_ (1855), containing "Balder Dead;" _Merope_ (1858); _New Poems_
(1867), containing "Thyrsis," an elegy on A.H. Clough (_q.v._), "A
Southern Night," "Rugby Chapel," and "The Weary Titan"; in prose he wrote
_On Translating Homer_ (1861 and 1862), _On the Study of Celtic
Literature_ (1867), _Essays in Celtic Literature_ (1868), _2nd Series_
(1888), _Culture and Anarchy_ (1869), _St. Paul and Protestantism_
(1870), _Friendship's Garland_ (1871), _Literature and Dogma_ (1873),
_God and the Bible_ (1875), _Last Essays on Church and Religion_ (1877),
_Mixed Essays_ (1879), _Irish Essays_ (1882), and _Discourses in America_
(1885). He also wrote some works on the state of education on the
Continent. In 1883 he received a pension of L250. The rationalistic
tendency of certain of his writings gave offence to many readers, and the
sufficiency of his equipment in scholarship for dealing with some of the
subjects which he handled was called in question; but he undoubtedly
exercised a stimulating influence on his time; his writings are
characterised by the finest culture, high purpose, sincerity, and a style
of great distinction, and much of his poetry has an exquisite and subtle
beauty, though here also it has been doubted whether high culture and
wide knowledge of poetry did not sometimes take the place of the true
poetic fire.

There is a bibliography of A.'s works by T.B. Smart (1892), and books
upon him have been written by Prof. Saintsbury (1899), H. Paul (1902),
and G.W.E. Russell (1904), also papers by Sir L. Stephen, F. Harrison,
and others.


ARNOLD, THOMAS (1795-1842).--Historian, _s._ of an inland revenue officer
in the Isle of Wight, was _ed._ at Winchester and Oxford, and after some
years as a tutor, was, in 1828, appointed Head Master of Rugby. His
learning, earnestness, and force of character enabled him not only to
raise his own school to the front rank of public schools, but to exercise
an unprecedented reforming influence on the whole educational system of
the country. A liberal in politics, and a zealous church reformer, he was
involved in many controversies, educational and religious. As a churchman
he was a decided Erastian, and strongly opposed to the High Church party.
In 1841 he was appointed Professor of Modern History at Oxford. His chief
literary works are his unfinished _History of Rome_ (three vols.
1838-42), and his _Lectures on Modern History_. He _d._ suddenly of
angina pectoris in the midst of his usefulness and growing influence. His
life, by Dean Stanley (_q.v._), is one of the best works of its class in
the language.


ASCHAM, ROGER (1515-1568).--Didactic writer and scholar, _s._ of John A.,
house-steward in the family of Lord Scrope, was _b._ at Kirby Wiske,
Yorkshire, and _ed._ first by Sir Humphrey Wingfield, and then at St.
John's Coll., Cambridge, where he devoted himself specially to the study
of Greek, then newly revived, and of which, having taken a fellowship, he
became a teacher. He was likewise noted for his skill in penmanship,
music, and archery, the last of which is the subject of his first work,
_Toxophilus_, _pub._ in 1545, and which, dedicated to Henry VIII., gained
him the favour of the King, who bestowed a pension upon him. The objects
of the book are twofold, to commend the practice of shooting with the
long bow as a manly sport and an aid to national defence, and to set the
example of a higher style of composition than had yet been attempted in
English. Soon afterwards he was made university orator, and master of
languages to the Lady (afterwards Queen) Elizabeth. He then went abroad
in various positions of trust, returning on being appointed Latin
Secretary to Edward VI. This office he likewise discharged to Mary and
then to Elizabeth--a testimony to his tact and caution in these changeful
times. His principal work, _The Schoolmaster_, a treatise on education,
was printed by his widow in 1570. He also _pub._ a book on the political
state of Germany.

Editions: of _Toxophilus_, Arber; _Schoolmaster_, Arber, also Mayer
(1883); English works, Bennet (1767), with life by Dr. Johnson; whole
works, Giles (1864-5).


ASGILL, JOHN (1659-1738).--Eccentric writer, student at the Middle
Temple, 1686, and called to the Bar 1692. In 1699 he _pub._ in an unlucky
hour a pamphlet to prove that death was not obligatory upon Christians,
which, much to his surprise, aroused the public wrath and led to his
expulsion from the Irish and English House of Commons successively. A.
thereafter fell on evil days, and passed the rest of his life between the
Fleet and the King's Bench, where, strange to say, his zeal as a
pamphleteer continued unabated. He _d._ in 1738.


ASHMOLE, ELIAS (1617-1692).--Antiquary, was _ed._ at Lichfield, and
became a solicitor in 1638. On the breaking out of the Civil War he
sided with the royalists; went to Oxford and studied science, including
astrology. The result of his studies in this region of mystery was his
_Theatrum Chymicum Britannicum_, which gained him great repute and the
friendship of John Selden. His last astrological treatise was _The Way to
Bliss_, which dealt with the subject of "the philosopher's stone." He
also wrote various works on antiquarian subjects, and a _History of the
Order of the Garter_. A. held various posts under government, and
presented to the University of Oxford a valuable collection of
curiosities now known as the Ashmolean Museum. He also bequeathed his
library to the University. His wife was a _dau._ of Sir W. Dugdale, the
antiquary.


ASSER (_d._ 909?).--Chronicler, a monk of St. David's, afterwards Bishop
of Sherborne, was the friend, helper, and biographer of AElfred. In
addition to his life of AElfred he wrote a chronicle of England from 849
to 887.


ATHERSTONE, EDWIN (1788-1872).--Poet and novelist. His works, which were
planned on an imposing scale, attracted some temporary attention and
applause, but are now forgotten. His chief poem, _The Fall of Nineveh_,
consisting of thirty books, appeared at intervals from 1828 to 1868. He
also produced two novels, _The Sea Kings in England_ and _The Handwriting
on the Wall_.


ATTERBURY, FRANCIS (1662-1732).--Controversialist and preacher, was _b._
near Newport Pagnel, Bucks, and _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxford.
He became the leading protagonist on the High Church side in the
ecclesiastical controversies of his time, and is believed to have been
the chief author of the famous defence of Dr. Sacheverell in 1712. He
also wrote most of Boyle's _Examination of Dr. Bentley's Dissertations on
the Epistles of Phalaris_, and _pub._ sermons, which, with his letters to
Swift, Pope, and other friends, constitute the foundation of his literary
reputation. During the reign of the Tories he enjoyed much preferment,
having been successively Canon of Exeter, Dean of Christ Church, Dean of
Westminster, and Bishop of Rochester. His Jacobite principles, however,
and his participation in various plots got him into trouble, and in 1722
he was confined in the Tower, deprived of all his offices, and ultimately
banished. He _d._ at Paris, Feb. 15, 1732, and was buried privately in
Westminster Abbey.


AUBREY, JOHN (1626-1697).--Antiquary, was a country gentleman who
inherited estates in several counties in England, which he lost by
litigation and otherwise. He devoted himself to the collection of
antiquarian and miscellaneous observations, and gave assistance to
Dugdale and Anthony a-Wood in their researches. His own investigations
were extensive and minute, but their value is much diminished by his
credulity, and want of capacity to weigh evidence. His only publication
is his _Miscellanies_, a collection of popular superstitions, etc., but
he left various collections, which were edited and _publ._ in the 19th
century.


AUSTEN, JANE (1775-1817).--Novelist, _dau._ of a clergyman, was _b._ at
the rectory of Steventon near Basingstoke. She received an education
superior to that generally given to girls of her time, and took early to
writing, her first tale being begun in 1798. Her life was a singularly
uneventful one, and, but for a disappointment in love, tranquil and
happy. In 1801 the family went to Bath, the scene of many episodes in her
writings, and after the death of her _f._ in 1805 to Southampton, and
later to Chawton, a village in Hants, where most of her novels were
written. A tendency to consumption having manifested itself, she removed
in May, 1817, to Winchester for the advantage of skilled medical
attendance, but so rapid was the progress of her malady that she died
there two months later. Of her six novels, four--_Sense and Sensibility_
(1811), _Pride and Prejudice_ (1813), _Mansfield Park_ (1814) and _Emma_
(1816)--were _pub._ anonymously during her life-time; and the others,
_Northanger Abbey_--written in 1798--and _Persuasion_, finished in 1816,
appeared a few months after her death, when the name of the authoress was
divulged. Although her novels were from the first well received, it is
only of comparatively late years that her genius has gained the wide
appreciation which it deserves. Her strength lies in the delineation of
character, especially of persons of her own sex, by a number of minute
and delicate touches arising out of the most natural and everyday
incidents in the life of the middle and upper classes, from which her
subjects are generally taken. Her characters, though of quite ordinary
types, are drawn with such wonderful firmness and precision, and with
such significant detail as to retain their individuality absolutely
intact through their entire development, and they are never coloured by
her own personality. Her view of life is genial in the main, with a
strong dash of gentle but keen satire: she appeals rarely and slightly to
the deeper feelings; and the enforcement of the excellent lessons she
teaches is left altogether to the story, without a word of formal
moralising. Among her admirers was Sir W. Scott, who said, "That young
lady has a talent for describing the involvements of feelings and
characters of ordinary life which is to me the most wonderful I ever met
with;" others were Macaulay (who thought that in the world there were no
compositions which approached nearer to perfection), Coleridge, Southey,
Sydney Smith, and E. FitzGerald.


AUSTIN, JOHN (1790-1859).--Jurist, served in the army in Sicily and
Malta, but, selling his commission, studied law, and was called to the
Bar 1818. He did not long continue to practise, but devoted himself to
the study of law as a science, and became Professor of Jurisprudence in
London University 1826-32. Thereafter he served on various Royal
Commissions. By his works he exercised a profound influence on the views
of jurisprudence held in England. These include _The Province of
Jurisprudence Determined_ (1832), and his _Lectures on Jurisprudence_.


AYTON, SIR ROBERT (1570-1638).--Poet, _s._ of A. of Kinaldie in Fife.
After _grad._ at St. Andrews, he studied law at Paris, became ambassador
to the Emperor, and held other court offices. He appears to have been
well-known to his literary contemporaries in England. He wrote poems in
Latin, Greek, and English, and was one of the first Scotsmen to write in
the last. His chief poem is _Diophantus and Charidora; Inconstancy
Upbraided_ is perhaps the best of his short poems. He is credited with a
little poem, _Old Long Syne_, which probably suggested Burns's famous
_Auld Lang Syne_.


AYTOUN, WILLIAM EDMONSTONE (1813-1865).--Poet and humorist, _s._ of Roger
A., a Writer to the Signet, was _b._ in Edinburgh and _ed._ there, and
was brought up to the law, which, however, as he said, he "followed but
could never overtake." He became a contributor to _Blackwood's Magazine_
in 1836, and continued his connection with it until his death. In it
appeared most of his humorous prose pieces, such as _The Glenmutchkin
Railway_, _How I Became a Yeoman_, and _How I Stood for the Dreepdaily
Burghs_, all full of vigorous fun. In the same pages began to appear his
chief poetical work, the _Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers_, and a novel,
partly autobiographical, _Norman Sinclair_. Other works were _The Bon
Gaultier Ballads_, jointly with Theodore Martin, and _Firmilian, a
Spasmodic Tragedy_, under the _nom-de-plume_ of T. Percy Jones, intended
to satirise a group of poets and critics, including Gilfillan, Dobell,
Bailey, and Alexander Smith. In 1845 A. obtained the Chair of Rhetoric
and Belles Lettres in Edinburgh University, which he filled with great
success, raising the attendance from 30 to 150, and in 1852 he was
appointed sheriff of Orkney and Shetland. He was married to a _dau._ of
Professor Wilson (Christopher North).


BACON, FRANCIS, LORD VERULAM, AND VISCOUNT ST. ALBAN'S
(1561-1626).--Philosopher and statesman, was the youngest _s._ of Sir
Nicholas B., Lord Keeper, by his second wife, a _dau._ of Sir Anthony
Cooke, whose sister married William Cecil, Lord Burghley, the great
minister of Queen Elizabeth. He was _b._ at York House in the Strand on
Jan. 22, 1561, and in his 13th year was sent with his elder brother
Anthony to Trinity Coll., Cambridge. Here he first met the Queen, who was
impressed by his precocious intellect, and was accustomed to call him
"the young Lord Keeper." Here also he became dissatisfied with the
Aristotelian philosophy as being unfruitful and leading only to
resultless disputation. In 1576 he entered Gray's Inn, and in the same
year joined the embassy of Sir Amyas Paulet to France, where he remained
until 1579. The death of his _f._ in that year, before he had completed
an intended provision for him, gave an adverse turn to his fortunes, and
rendered it necessary that he should decide upon a profession. He
accordingly returned to Gray's Inn, and, after an unsuccessful attempt to
induce Burghley to give him a post at court, and thus enable him to
devote himself to a life of learning, he gave himself seriously to the
study of law, and was called to the Bar in 1582. He did not, however,
desert philosophy, and _pub._ a Latin tract, _Temporis Partus Maximus_
(the Greatest Birth of Time), the first rough draft of his own system.
Two years later, in 1584, he entered the House of Commons as member for
Melcombe, sitting subsequently for Taunton (1586), Liverpool (1589),
Middlesex (1593), and Southampton (1597). In the Parliament of 1586 he
took a prominent part in urging the execution of Mary Queen of Scots.
About this time he seems again to have approached his powerful uncle, the
result of which may possibly be traced in his rapid progress at the Bar,
and in his receiving, in 1589, the reversion to the Clerkship of the
Star Chamber, a valuable appointment, into the enjoyment of which,
however, he did not enter until 1608. About 1591 he formed a friendship
with the Earl of Essex, from whom he received many tokens of kindness ill
requited. In 1593 the offices of Attorney-general, and subsequently of
Solicitor-general became vacant, and Essex used his influence on B.'s
behalf, but unsuccessfully, the former being given to Coke, the famous
lawyer. These disappointments may have been owing to a speech made by B.
on a question of subsidies. To console him for them Essex presented him
with a property at Twickenham, which he subsequently sold for L1800,
equivalent to a much larger sum now. In 1596 he was made a Queen's
Counsel, but missed the appointment of Master of the Rolls, and in the
next year (1597), he _pub._ the first edition of his _Essays_, ten in
number, combined with _Sacred Meditations_ and the _Colours of Good and
Evil_. By 1601 Essex had lost the Queen's favour, and had raised his
rebellion, and B. was one of those appointed to investigate the charges
against him, and examine witnesses, in connection with which he showed an
ungrateful and indecent eagerness in pressing the case against his former
friend and benefactor, who was executed on Feb. 25, 1601. This act B.
endeavoured to justify in _A Declaration of the Practices and Treasons,
etc., of ... the Earl of Essex, etc._ His circumstances had for some time
been bad, and he had been arrested for debt: he had, however, received a
gift of a fine of L1200 on one of Essex's accomplices. The accession of
James VI. in 1603 gave a favourable turn to his fortunes: he was
knighted, and endeavoured to set himself right with the new powers by
writing his _Apologie_ (defence) of his proceedings in the case of Essex,
who had favoured the succession of James. In the first Parliament of the
new king he sat for St. Alban's, and was appointed a Commissioner for
Union with Scotland. In 1605 he _pub._ _The Advancement of Learning_,
dedicated, with fulsome flattery, to the king. The following year he
married Alice Barnham, the _dau._ of a London merchant, and in 1607 he
was made Solicitor-General, and wrote _Cogita et Visa_, a first sketch of
the _Novum Organum_, followed in 1609 by _The Wisdom of the Ancients_.
Meanwhile (in 1608), he had entered upon the Clerkship of the Star
Chamber, and was in the enjoyment of a large income; but old debts and
present extravagance kept him embarrassed, and he endeavoured to obtain
further promotion and wealth by supporting the king in his arbitrary
policy. In 1613 he became Attorney-General, and in this capacity
prosecuted Somerset in 1616. The year 1618 saw him Lord Keeper, and the
next Lord Chancellor and Baron Verulam, a title which, in 1621, he
exchanged for that of Viscount St. Albans. Meanwhile he had written the
_New Atlantis_, a political romance, and in 1620 he presented to the king
the _Novum Organum_, on which he had been engaged for 30 years, and which
ultimately formed the main part of the _Instauratio Magna_. In his great
office B. showed a failure of character in striking contrast with the
majesty of his intellect. He was corrupt alike politically and
judicially, and now the hour of retribution arrived. In 1621 a
Parliamentary Committee on the administration of the law charged him with
corruption under 23 counts; and so clear was the evidence that he made no
attempt at defence. To the lords, who sent a committee to inquire
whether the confession was really his, he replied, "My lords, it is my
act, my hand, and my heart; I beseech your lordships to be merciful to a
broken reed." He was sentenced to a fine of L40,000, remitted by the
king, to be committed to the Tower during the king's pleasure (which was
that he should be released in a few days), and to be incapable of holding
office or sitting in parliament. He narrowly escaped being deprived of
his titles. Thenceforth he devoted himself to study and writing. In 1622
appeared his _History of Henry VII._, and the 3rd part of the
_Instauratio_; in 1623, _History of Life and Death_, the _De Augmentis
Scientarum_, a Latin translation of the _Advancement_, and in 1625 the
3rd edition of the _Essays_, now 58 in number. He also _pub._
_Apophthegms_, and a translation of some of the _Psalms_. His life was
now approaching its close. In March, 1626, he came to London, and shortly
after, when driving on a snowy day, the idea struck him of making an
experiment as to the antiseptic properties of snow, in consequence of
which he caught a chill, which ended in his death on 9th April 1626. He
left debts to the amount of L22,000. At the time of his death he was
engaged upon _Sylva Sylvarum_. The intellect of B. was one of the most
powerful and searching ever possessed by man, and his developments of the
inductive philosophy revolutionised the future thought of the human race.
The most popular of his works is the _Essays_, which convey profound and
condensed thought in a style that is at once clear and rich. His moral
character was singularly mixed and complex, and bears no comparison with
his intellect. It exhibits a singular coldness and lack of enthusiasm,
and indeed a bluntness of moral perception and an absence of
attractiveness rarely combined with such extraordinary mental endowments.
All that was possible to be done in defence of his character and public
conduct has been done by his accomplished biographer and editor, Mr.
Spedding (_q.v._). Singular, though of course futile, attempts, supported
sometimes with much ingenuity, have been made to claim for B. the
authorship of Shakespeare's plays, and have indeed been extended so as to
include those of Marlowe, and even the _Essays_ of Montaigne.

SUMMARY.--_B._ London 1561, _ed._ Trinity Coll., Cambridge, dissatisfied
with Aristotelean philosophy, entered Gray's Inn 1576, in France 1576-79,
called to Bar 1582, enters Parliament 1584, became friend of Essex 1591,
who presents him with estate 1593, _pub._ 1st ed. of _Essays_ 1597,
prosecutes Essex 1601, _pub._ _Advancement of Learning_ 1605,
Solicitor-Gen. 1607, _pub._ _Wisdom of the Ancients_ 1609, Attorney-Gen.
1613, prosecuted Somerset 1616, Lord Keeper 1618, Lord Chancellor with
title of Verulam 1619, Visc. St. Albans 1621, _pub._ _Novum Organum_
1620, charged with corruption, and retires from public life 1621, _pub._
_Henry VII._ and 3rd part of _Instauratio_ 1622, _d._ 1626.

The standard edition of B.'s works is that of Spedding, Ellis, and Heath
(14 vols. 1857-74), including _Life and Letters_ by Spedding. See also
Macaulay's _Essays_; Dean Church in _Men of Letters Series_; Dr. Abbott's
_Life_ (1885), etc. For philosophy Fowler's _Novum Organum_ (1878).


BACON, ROGER (1214?-1294).--Philosopher, studied at Oxford and Paris. His
scientific acquirements, regarded in that age as savouring of
witchcraft, and doubtless also his protests against the ignorance and
immorality of the clergy, excited the jealousy and hatred of the
Franciscans, and he was in consequence imprisoned at Paris for ten years.
Clement IV., who had been a sympathiser, desired on his accession to see
his works, and in response B. sent him _Opus Majus_, a treatise on the
sciences (grammar, logic, mathematics, physics, and philosophy), followed
by _Opus Secundum_ and _Opus Tertium_. Clement, however, was near death
when they arrived. B. was comparatively free from persecution for the
next ten years. But in 1278 he was again imprisoned for upwards of ten
years. At the intercession of some English noblemen he was at last
released, and spent his remaining years at Oxford. He possessed one of
the most commanding intellects of his own, or perhaps of any, age, and,
notwithstanding all the disadvantages and discouragements to which he was
subjected, made many discoveries, and came near to many more. There is
still preserved at Oxford a rectified calendar in which he approximates
closely to the truth. He received the sobriquet of the "Doctor
Mirabilis."


BAGE, ROBERT (1728-1801).--Novelist, _b._ in Derbyshire, was the _s._ of
a paper-maker. It was not until he was 53 that he took to literature; but
in the 15 years following he produced 6 novels, of which Sir Walter Scott
says that "strong mind, playful fancy, and extensive knowledge are
everywhere apparent." B., though brought up as a Quaker, imbibed the
principles of the French Revolution. He was an amiable and benevolent
man, and highly esteemed. _Hermsprong; or, Man as He is Not_ (1796) is
considered the best of his novels, of which it was the last. The names of
the others are _Mount Kenneth_ (1781), _Barham Downs_ (1784), _The Fair
Syrian_ (1787), _James Wallace_ (1788), and _Man as He is_ (1792).


BAGEHOT, WALTER (1826-1877).--Economist, _s._ of a banker, _b._ at
Langport, Somerset, _ed._ at University Coll., London, and called to the
Bar, but did not practise, and joined his _f._ in business. He wrote for
various periodicals, and from 1860 was editor of _The Economist_. He was
the author of _The English Constitution_ (1867), a standard work which
was translated into several languages; _Physics and Politics_ (1872), and
_Lombard Street_ (1873), a valuable financial work. A collection of
essays, biographical and economic, was _pub._ after his death.


BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES (1816-1902).--Poet, _s._ of a journalist, _b._ at
Nottingham, and _ed._ there and at Glasgow, of which he was made an LL.D.
in 1891. His life was a singularly uneventful one. He lived at
Nottingham, Jersey, Ilfracombe, London, and again at Nottingham, where he
_d._ He travelled a good deal on the Continent. He was by profession a
barrister, but never practised, and devoted his whole energies to poetry.
His first poem, _Festus_ (1839), is, for the daring of its theme and the
imaginative power and moral altitude which it displays, one of the most
notable of the century; as the work of one little past boyhood it is a
prodigy of intellectual precocity. Along with its great qualities it has
many faults in execution, and its final place in literature remains to
be determined. It was _pub._ anonymously, and had great success, but has
fallen into unmerited, but perhaps temporary, neglect. Among its greatest
admirers was Tennyson. The subsequent poems of B., _The Angel World_
(1850), _The Mystic_ (1855), _The Age_ (1858), and _The Universal Hymn_
(1867), were failures, and the author adopted the unfortunate expedient
of endeavouring to buoy them up by incorporating large extracts in the
later editions of _Festus_, with the effect only of sinking the latter,
which ultimately extended to over 40,000 lines. B. was a man of
strikingly handsome appearance, and gentle and amiable character.


BAILLIE, JOANNA (1762-1851).--Dramatist and poetess, _dau._ of the
minister of Bothwell, afterwards Professor of Divinity at Glasgow. Her
mother was a sister of the great anatomists, William and John Hunter, and
her brother was the celebrated physician, Matthew B., of London. She
received a thorough education at Glasgow, and at an early age went to
London, where the remainder of her long, happy, and honoured, though
uneventful, life was passed. In 1798, when she was 36, the first vol. of
her _Plays on the Passions_ appeared, and was received with much favour,
other two vols. followed in 1802 and 1812, and she also produced
_Miscellaneous Plays_ in 1804, and 3 vols. of _Dramatic Poetry_ in 1836.
In all her works there are many passages of true and impressive poetry,
but the idea underlying her _Plays on the Passions_, that, namely, of
exhibiting the principal character as acting under the exclusive
influence of one passion, is artificial and untrue to nature.


BAILLIE, LADY GRIZEL (1665-1746).--Poetess, _dau._ of Sir Patrick Home or
Hume, afterwards Earl of Marchmont, was married to George Baillie of
Jerviswoode. In her childhood she showed remarkable courage and address
in the services she rendered to her father and his friend, Robert Baillie
of Jerviswoode, the eminent Scottish patriot, when under persecution. She
left many pieces both prose and verse in MS., some of which were _pub._
The best known is the beautiful song, _Were na my heart licht I wad die_.


BAILLIE, ROBERT (1599-1662).--Historical writer, _s._ of B. of Jerviston,
_ed._ at Glasgow, he entered the Church of Scotland and became minister
of Kilwinning in Ayrshire. His abilities soon made him a leading man. He
was a member of the historic Assembly of 1638, when Presbyterianism was
re-established in Scotland, and also of the Westminster Assembly, 1643.
In 1651 he was made Professor of Divinity in Glasgow, and 10 years later
Principal. His _Letters and Journals_, edited for the Bannatyne Club by
D. Laing (_q.v._), are of the greatest value for the interesting light
they throw on a period of great importance in Scottish history. He was
one of the wisest and most temperate churchmen of his time.


BAIN, ALEXANDER (1818-1903).--Philosopher, _b._ at Aberdeen, and
graduated at Marischal Coll. there, became in 1860 Professor of Logic in
his university, and wrote a number of works on philosophy and psychology,
including _The Senses and the Intellect_ (1855), _The Emotions and the
Will_, _Mental and Moral Science_ (1868), _Logic_ (1870), and _Education
as a Science_ (1879). In 1881 he was elected Lord Rector of Aberdeen
University.


BAKER, SIR RICHARD (1568-1645).--Historian and religious writer, studied
law, was knighted in 1603, and was High Sheriff of Oxfordshire 1620. B.
was the author of _The Chronicle of the Kings of England_ (1643), which
was for long held as a great authority among the country gentlemen. It
has, however, many errors. B. fell on evil days, was thrown into the
Fleet for debt incurred by others, for which he had made himself
responsible, and _d._ there. It was during his durance that the
_Chronicle_ and some religious treatises were composed. The _Chronicle_
was continued by Edward Phillips, Milton's nephew, who became a strong
Royalist.


BAKER, SIR SAMUEL WHITE (1821-1893).--Traveller, _b._ in London, and
after being a planter in Ceylon, and superintending the construction of a
railway between the Danube and the Black Sea, went with his wife, a
Hungarian lady, in search of the sources of the Nile, and discovered the
great lake, Albert Nyanza. B. was knighted in 1866, and was for 4 years
Governor-General of the Equatorial Nile Basin. His books, which are all
on travel and sport, are well written and include _Albert Nyanza_ (1866),
_Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia_ (1867).


BALE, JOHN (1495-1563).--Historian and controversialist, _b._ at Cove,
Suffolk, and _ed._ as a Carmelite friar, but becoming a Protestant,
engaged in violent controversy with the Roman Catholics. After undergoing
persecution and flying to Flanders, he was brought back by Edward VI. and
made Bishop of Ossory. On the death of Edward he was again persecuted,
and had to escape from Ireland to Holland, but returned on the accession
of Elizabeth, who made him a Prebendary of Canterbury. His chief work is
a Latin _Account of the Lives of Eminent Writers of Great Britain_.
Besides this he wrote some dramas on scriptural subjects, and an account
of the trial and death of Sir John Oldcastle. He wrote in all 22 plays,
of which only 5 have come down, the names of certain of which give some
idea of their nature, _e.g._, _The Three Leaves of Nature_, _Moses and
Christ_, and _The Temptacyon of Our Lord_.


BALLANTINE, JAMES (1808-1877).--Artist and author, _b._ in Edinburgh,
began life as a house painter. He studied art, and became one of the
first to revive the art of glass-painting, on which subject he wrote a
treatise. He was the author of _The Gaberlunzie's Wallet_ (1843), _Miller
of Deanhaugh_ (1845), _Poems_ (1856), _100 Songs with Music_ (1865), and
a _Life of David Roberts, R.A._ (1866).


BALLANTYNE, ROBERT MICHAEL (1825-1894).--Writer of tales for boys, _b._
in Edinburgh, was a connection of the well-known printers. As a youth he
spent some years in the service of the Hudson's Bay Co., and was then a
member of Constable's printing firm. In 1856 he took to literature as a
profession, and _pub._ about 80 tales, which, abounding in interesting
adventure and information, and characterised by a thoroughly healthy
tone, had great popularity. Among them are _The Young Fur Traders_
(1856), _The Coral Island_, _Fighting the Flames_, _Martin Rattler_, _The
World of Ice_, _The Dog Crusoe_, _Erling the Bold_, and _Black Ivory_. B.
was also an accomplished water-colour artist, and in all respects lived
up to the ideals he sought to instil into his readers. He _d._ at Rome.


BANCROFT, GEORGE (1800-1891).--American historian, _b._ at Worcester,
Massachusetts, and after _grad._ at Harvard, studied in Germany, where he
became acquainted and corresponded with Goethe, Hegel, and other leaders
of German thought. Returning to America he began his _History of the
United States_ (1834-74). The work covers the period from the discovery
of the Continent to the conclusion of the Revolutionary War in 1782. His
other great work is _The History of the Formation of the Constitution of
the United States_ (1882). B. filled various political offices, and was
in 1846 Minister Plenipotentiary to England, and in 1867 Minister to
Prussia. His writing is clear and vigorous, and his facts generally
accurate, but he is a good deal of a partisan.


BANIM, JOHN (1798-1842).--Novelist, began life as a miniature painter,
but was led by the success of his first book, _Tales of the O'Hara
Family_, to devote himself to literature. The object which he set before
himself was to become to Ireland what Scott has been to Scotland, and the
influence of his model is distinctly traceable in his writings. His
strength lies in the delineation of the characters of the Irish lower
classes, and the impulses, often misguided and criminal, by which they
are influenced, and in this he has shown remarkable power. The first
series of the _O'Hara Tales_ appeared in 1825, the second in 1826. Other
works are _The Croppy_ (1828), _The Denounced_ (1830), _The Smuggler_
(1831), _The Mayor of Windgap_, and his last, _Father Connell_. Most of
these deal with the darker and more painful phases of life, but the
feeling shown in the last-named is brighter and tenderer. B. latterly
suffered from illness and consequent poverty, which were alleviated by a
pension from Government. He also wrote some poems, including _The Celt's
Paradise_, and one or two plays. In the _O'Hara Tales_, he was assisted
by his brother, MICHAEL BANIM (1796-1874), and there is difficulty in
allocating their respective contributions. After the death of John,
Michael wrote _Clough Fionn_ (1852), and _The Town of the Cascades_
(1864).


BANNATYNE, RICHARD (_d._ 1605).--Secretary to John Knox, compiled
_Memorials of Transactions in Scotland from 1569 to 1573_.


BARBAULD, ANNA LETITIA (1743-1825).--Poetess, etc., _dau._ of Dr. John
Aikin (_q.v._), was _b._ at Kibworth-Hencourt, Leicestershire. Her _f._
kept an academy for boys, whose education she shared, and thus became
acquainted with the classics. In 1773 she _pub._ a collection of
miscellaneous poems, which was well received, and in the following year
she married the Rev. R. Barbauld, a French Protestant and dissenting
minister, who also conducted a school near Palgrave in Suffolk. Into this
enterprise Mrs. B. threw herself with great energy, and, mainly owing to
her talents and reputation, it proved a success and was afterwards
carried on at Hampstead and Newington Green. Meantime, she continued her
literary occupations, and brought out various devotional works, including
her _Hymns in Prose for Children_. These were followed by _Evenings at
Home_, _Selections from the English Essayists_, _The Letters of Samuel
Richardson_, with a life prefixed, and a selection from the British
novelists with introductory essay.


BARBOUR, JOHN (1316?-1395).--Poet. Of B.'s youth nothing is certainly
known, but it is believed that he was _b._ near Aberdeen, and studied at
Oxford and Paris. He entered the Church, and rose to ecclesiastical
preferment and Royal favour. He is known to have been Archdeacon of
Aberdeen in 1357, when, and again in 1364, he went with some young
scholars to Oxford, and he also held various civil offices in connection
with the exchequer and the King's household. His principal poem, _The
Bruce_, was in progress in 1376. It consists of 14,000 octosyllabic
lines, and celebrates the praises of Robert the Bruce and James Douglas,
the flowers of Scottish chivalry. This poem is almost the sole authority
on the history it deals with, but is much more than a rhyming chronicle;
it contains many fine descriptive passages, and sings the praises of
freedom. Its style is somewhat bald and severe. Other poems ascribed to
B. are _The Legend of Troy_, and _Legends of the Saints_, probably
translations. B. devoted a perpetual annuity of 20 shillings, bestowed
upon him by the King, to provide for a mass to be sung for himself and
his parents, and this was duly done in the church of St. Machar until the
Reformation.

_The Bruce_, edited by C. Innes for Spalding Club (1856), and for Early
Engl. Text Soc. by W.W. Skeat, 1870-77; and for Scott. Text Soc. (1894);
_The Wallace_ and _The Bruce_ re-studied, J.T.T. Brown, 1900; G. Neilson
in Chambers' Cyc. Eng. Lit. (1903).


BARCLAY, ALEXANDER (1475?-1552).--Poet, probably of Scottish birth, was a
priest in England. He is remembered for his satirical poem, _The Ship of
Fools_ (1509), partly a translation, which is of interest as throwing
light on the manners and customs of the times to which it refers. He also
translated Sallust's _Bellum Jugurthinum_, and the _Mirrour of Good
Manners_, from the Italian of Mancini, and wrote five _Eclogues_. His
style is stiff and his verse uninspired.


BARCLAY, JOHN (1582-1621).--Satirist, _s._ of a Scotsman, who was
Professor of Law at Pont-a-Mousson, Lorraine, came with his _f._ to
England about 1603. He wrote several works in English and Latin, among
which are _Euphormionis Satyricon_, against the Jesuits, and _Argenis_, a
political romance, resembling in certain respects the _Arcadia_ of
Sidney, and the _Utopia_ of More.


BARCLAY, ROBERT (1648-1690).--Apologist of the Quakers, _s._ of Col.
David B. of Ury, _ed._ at the Scots Coll. in Paris, of which his uncle
was Rector, made such progress in study as to gain the admiration of his
teachers, specially of his uncle, who offered to make him his heir if he
would remain in France, and join the Roman Catholic Church. This he
refused to do, and, returning to Scotland, he in 1667 adopted the
principles of the Quakers as his _f._ had already done. Soon afterwards
he began to write in defence of his sect, by _pub._ in 1670 _Truth
cleared of Calumnies_, and _a Catechism and Confession of Faith_ (1673).
His great work, however, is his _Apology for the Quakers_, _pub._ in
Latin in 1676, and translated into English in 1678. It is a weighty and
learned work, written in a dignified style, and was eagerly read. It,
however, failed to arrest the persecution to which the Quakers were
exposed, and B. himself, on returning from the Continent, where he had
gone with Foxe and Penn, was imprisoned, but soon regained his liberty,
and was in the enjoyment of Court favour. He was one of the twelve
Quakers who acquired East New Jersey, of which he was appointed nominal
Governor. His latter years were spent at his estate of Ury, where he _d._
The essential view which B. maintained was, that Christians are
illuminated by an inner light superseding even the Scriptures as the
guide of life. His works have often been reprinted.


BARHAM, RICHARD HARRIS (1788-1845).--Novelist and humorous poet, _s._ of
a country gentleman, was _b._ at Canterbury, _ed._ at St. Paul's School
and Oxford, entered the church, held various incumbencies, and was
Divinity Lecturer, and minor canon of St. Paul's. It is not, however, as
a churchman that he is remembered, but as the author of the _Ingoldsby
Legends_, a series of comic and serio-comic pieces in verse, sparkling
with wit, and full of striking and often grotesque turns of expression,
which appeared first in _Bentley's Miscellany_. He also wrote, in
_Blackwood's Magazine_, a novel, _My Cousin Nicholas_.


BARLOW, JOEL (1754-1812).--Poet, _b._ at Reading, Connecticut, served for
a time as an army chaplain, and thereafter betook himself to law, and
finally to commerce and diplomacy, in the former of which he made a
fortune. He was much less successful as a poet than as a man of affairs.
His writings include _Vision of Columbus_ (1787), afterwards expanded
into the _Columbiad_ (1807), _The Conspiracy of Kings_ (1792), and _The
Hasty Pudding_ (1796), a mock-heroic poem, his best work. These are
generally pompous and dull. In 1811 he was _app._ ambassador to France,
and met his death in Poland while journeying to meet Napoleon.


BARNARD, LADY ANNE (LINDSAY) (1750-1825).--Poet, _e. dau._ of the 5th
Earl of Balcarres, married Andrew Barnard, afterwards Colonial Secretary
at Cape Town. On the _d._ of her husband in 1807 she settled in London.
Her exquisite ballad of _Auld Robin Gray_ was written in 1771, and _pub._
anonymously. She confessed the authorship to Sir Walter Scott in 1823.


BARNES, BARNABE (1569?-1609).--Poet, _s._ of Dr. Richard B. Bishop, of
Durham, was _b._ in Yorkshire, and studied at Oxford. He wrote
_Parthenophil_, a collection of sonnets, madrigals, elegies, and odes, _A
Divine Centurie of Spirituall Sonnets_, and _The Devil's Charter_, a
tragedy. When at his best he showed a true poetic vein.


BARNES, WILLIAM (1801-1886).--Poet and philologist, _s._ of a farmer,
_b._ at Rushay, Dorset. After being a solicitor's clerk and a
schoolmaster, he entered the Church, in which he served various cures.
He first contributed to a newspaper, _Poems in Dorset Dialect_,
separately _pub._ in 1844. _Hwomely Rhymes_ followed in 1858, and a
collected edition of his poems appeared in 1879. His philological works
include _Philological Grammar_ (1854), _Se Gefylsta, an Anglo-Saxon
Delectus_ (1849). _Tiw, or a View of Roots_ (1862), and a _Glossary of
Dorset Dialect_ (1863). B.'s poems are characterised by a singular
sweetness and tenderness of feeling, deep insight into humble country
life and character, and an exquisite feeling for local scenery.


BARNFIELD, RICHARD (1574-1627).--Poet, _e.s._ of Richard B., gentleman,
was _b._ at Norbury, Shropshire, and _ed._ at Oxford. In 1594 he _pub._
_The Affectionate Shepherd_, a collection of variations in graceful verse
of the 2nd Eclogue of Virgil. His next work was _Cynthia, with certain
Sonnets and the Legend of Cassandra_ in 1595; and in 1598 there appeared
a third vol., _The Encomion of Lady Pecunia, etc._, in which are two
songs ("If music and sweet poetrie agree," and "As it fell upon a day")
also included in _The Passionate Pilgrim_, an unauthorised collection,
and which were long attributed to Shakespeare. From this time, 1599, B.
produced nothing else, and seems to have retired to the life of a country
gentleman at Stone in Staffordshire, in the church of which he was buried
in 1627. He was for long neglected; but his poetry is clear, sweet, and
musical. His gift indeed is sufficiently attested by work of his having
passed for that of Shakespeare.


BARROW, ISAAC (1630-1677).--Divine, scholar, and mathematician, _s._ of a
linen-draper in London, was _ed._ at Charterhouse, Felsted, Peterhouse,
and Trinity Coll., Cambridge, where his uncle and namesake, afterwards
Bishop of St. Asaph, was a Fellow. As a boy he was turbulent and
pugnacious, but soon took to hard study, distinguishing himself in
classics and mathematics. Intending originally to enter the Church, he
was led to think of the medical profession, and engaged in scientific
studies, but soon reverted to his first views. In 1655 he became
candidate for the Greek Professorship at Cambridge, but was unsuccessful,
and travelled for four years on the Continent as far as Turkey. On his
return he took orders, and, in 1660, obtained the Greek Chair at
Cambridge, and in 1662 the Gresham Professorship of Geometry, which he
resigned on being appointed first Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in
the same university. During his tenure of this chair he _pub._ two
mathematical works of great learning and elegance, the first on Geometry
and the second on Optics. In 1669 he resigned in favour of his pupil,
Isaac Newton, who was long considered his only superior among English
mathematicians. About this time also he composed his _Expositions of the
Creed_, _The Lord's Prayer_, _Decalogue_, and _Sacraments_. He was made a
D.D. by royal mandate in 1670, and two years later Master of Trinity
Coll., where he founded the library. Besides the works above mentioned,
he wrote other important treatises on mathematics, but in literature his
place is chiefly supported by his sermons, which are masterpieces of
argumentative eloquence, while his treatise on the _Pope's Supremacy_ is
regarded as one of the most perfect specimens of controversy in
existence. B.'s character as a man was in all respects worthy of his
great talents, though he had a strong vein of eccentricity. He _d._
unmarried in London at the early age of 47. B.'s theological works were
edited by Napier, with memoir by Whewell (9 vols., 1839).


BARTON, BERNARD (1784-1849).--Poet, _b._ of Quaker parentage, passed
nearly all his life at Woodbridge, for the most part as a clerk in a
bank. He became the friend of Southey, Lamb, and other men of letters.
His chief works are _The Convict's Appeal_ (1818), a protest against the
severity of the criminal code of the time, and _Household Verses_ (1845),
which came under the notice of Sir R. Peel, through whom he obtained a
pension of L100. With the exception of some hymns his works are now
nearly forgotten, but he was a most amiable and estimable man--simple and
sympathetic. His _dau._ Lucy, who married Edward Fitzgerald, the
translator of _Omar Khayyam_, _pub._ a selection of his poems and
letters, to which her husband prefixed a biographical introduction.


BAYNES, THOMAS SPENCER (1823-1887).--Philosopher, _s._ of a Baptist
minister, _b._ at Wellington, Somerset, intended to study for Baptist
ministry, and was at a theological seminary at Bath with that view, but
being strongly attracted to philosophical studies, left it and went to
Edin., when he became the favourite pupil of Sir W. Hamilton (_q.v._), of
whose philosophical system he continued an adherent. After working as ed.
of a newspaper in Edinburgh, and after an interval of rest rendered
necessary by a breakdown in health, he resumed journalistic work in 1858
as assistant ed. of the _Daily News_. In 1864 he was appointed Prof. of
Logic and English Literature at St. Andrews, in which capacity his mind
was drawn to the study of Shakespeare, and he contributed to the
_Edinburgh Review_ and _Fraser's Magazine_ valuable papers (chiefly
relating to his vocabulary and the extent of his learning) afterwards
collected as _Shakespeare Studies_. In 1873 he was appointed to
superintend the ninth ed. of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, in which,
after 1880, he was assisted by W. Robertson Smith (_q.v._).


BAXTER, RICHARD (1615-1691).--Divine scholar and controversialist, was
_b._ of poor, but genteel, parents at Rowton in Shropshire, and although
he became so eminent for learning, was not _ed._ at any university.
Circumstances led to his turning his attention to a career at court under
the patronage of the Master of the Revels, but a short experience of this
sufficed; and giving himself to the Christian ministry, he was ordained
in 1638, and, after being master of a school at Dudley, exercised his
ministry successively at Bridgnorth and Kidderminster. His learning and
capacity for business made him the leader of the Presbyterian party. He
was one of the greatest preachers of his own day, and consistently
endeavoured to exert a moderating influence, with the result that he
became the object of attack by extremists of opposing views. Though
siding with the Parliament in the Civil War, he opposed the execution of
the King and the assumption of supreme power by Cromwell. During the war
he served with the army as a chaplain. On the return of Charles II., B.
was made one of his chaplains, and was offered the see of Hereford, which
he declined, and his subsequent request to be allowed to return to
Kidderminster was refused. He subsequently suffered persecution at the
hands of Judge Jeffreys. After the Revolution he had a few years of peace
and quiet. His literary activity was marvellous in spite of ill-health
and outward disturbance. He is said to have written 168 works, the best
known of which are _The Saints' Everlasting Rest_ (1650), and _Call to
the Unconverted_ (1657), manuals of practical religion; and, among his
controversial writings, _Methodus Theologiae_ (1681), and _Catholic
Theology_ (1675), in which his theological standpoint--a compromise
between Arminianism and Calvinism--is set forth. Dr. Isaac Barrow says
that "his practical writings were never mended, and his controversial
seldom confuted," and Dean Stanley calls him "the chief English
Protestant schoolman." B. left an autobiography, _Reliquiae Baxterianae_,
which was a favourite book with both Johnson and Coleridge. Other works
by him are _The Life of Faith_ (1670), _Reasons of the Christian
Religion_ (1672), and _Christian Directory_ (1675). _Practical Works_ in
23 vols. (1830) edited with memoirs by W. Orme, also _Lives_ by A.B.
Grosart (1879), Dean Boyle (1883), and J.H. Davies (1886).


BAYLY, ADA ELLEN (_d._ 1903).--Novelist, wrote several stories under the
name of "Edna Lyall," which were very popular. They include
_Autobiography of a Slander_, _Donovan_, _Hope the Hermit_, _In the
Golden Days_, _To Right the Wrong_, _We Two_, and _Won by Waiting_.


BAYLY, THOMAS HAYNES (1797-1839).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a
wealthy lawyer in Bath. Originally intended for the law, he changed his
mind and thought of entering the Church, but abandoned this idea also,
and gave himself to writing for the stage and the periodical press. He is
chiefly known for his songs, of which he wrote hundreds, which, set to
the music of Bishop and other eminent composers, found universal
acceptance. Some were set to his own music. He also wrote several novels
and a number of farces, etc. Although making a large income from his
writings, in addition to that of his wife, he fell into embarrassed
circumstances. Among the best known of his songs are _I'd be a
Butterfly_, _Oh, no, we never mention Her_, and _She wore a Wreath of
Roses_. He may be regarded as, excepting Moore, the most popular song
writer of his time.


BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, 1ST EARL of (1804-1881).--Statesman and
novelist, was the _s._ of Isaac D. (_q.v._). Belonging to a Jewish family
settled first in Spain, whence in the 15th century they migrated to
Italy, he was _b._ in London in 1804 and privately _ed._ His _f._
destined him for the law, and he was articled to a solicitor. The law
was, however, uncongenial, and he had already begun to write. After some
journalistic work, he brought himself into general notice by the
publication, in 1827, of his first novel, _Vivian Grey_, which created a
sensation by its brilliance, audacity, and slightly veiled portraits of
living celebrities. After producing a _Vindication of the British
Constitution_, and some political pamphlets, he followed up his first
success by a series of novels, _The Young Duke_ (1831), _Contarini
Fleming_ (1832), _Alroy_ (1833), _Venetia and Henrietta Temple_ (1837).
During the same period he had also written _The Revolutionary Epic_ and
three burlesques, _Ixion_, _The Infernal Marriage_, and _Popanilla_.
These works had gained for him a brilliant, if not universally admitted,
place in literature. But his ambition was by no means confined to
literary achievement; he aimed also at fame as a man of action. After
various unsuccessful attempts to enter Parliament, in which he stood,
first as a Radical, and then as a Tory, he was in 1837 returned for
Maidstone, having for his colleague Mr. Wyndham Lewis, whose widow he
afterwards married. For some years after entering on his political
career, D. ceased to write, and devoted his energies to parliamentary
work. His first speech was a total failure, being received with shouts of
laughter, but with characteristic courage and perseverance he pursued his
course, gradually rose to a commanding position in parliament and in the
country, became leader of his party, was thrice Chancellor of the
Exchequer, 1852, 1858-59, and 1866-68, in which last year he became Prime
Minister, which office he again held from 1874 till 1880. To return to
his literary career, in 1844 he had _pub._ _Coningsby_, followed by
_Sybil_ (1845), and _Tancred_ (1847), and in 1848 he wrote a life of Lord
G. Bentinck, his predecessor in the leadership of the Protectionist
party. His last novels were _Lothair_ (1870), and _Endymion_ (1880). He
was raised to the peerage as Earl of Beaconsfield in 1876, and was a
Knight of the Garter. In his later years he was the intimate friend as
well as the trusted minister of Queen Victoria. The career of D. is one
of the most remarkable in English history. With no family or political
influence, and with some personal characteristics, and the then current
prejudices in regard to his race to contend with, he rose by sheer force
of will and intellect to the highest honours attainable in this country.
His most marked qualities were an almost infinite patience and
perseverance, indomitable courage, a certain spaciousness of mind, and
depth of penetration, and an absolute confidence in his own abilities,
aided by great powers of debate rising occasionally to eloquence. Though
the object, first of a kind of contemptuous dislike, then of an intense
opposition, he rose to be universally regarded as, at all events, a great
political force, and by a large part of the nation as a great statesman.
As a writer he is generally interesting, and his books teem with striking
thoughts, shrewd maxims, and brilliant phrases which stick in the memory.
On the other hand he is often artificial, extravagant, and turgid, and
his ultimate literary position is difficult to forecast.

_Lives_ by Froude (1890), Hitchman (1885), see also _Dictionary of Nat.
Biog. etc._


BEATTIE, JAMES (1735-1803).--Poet and philosophical writer, _s._ of a
shopkeeper and small farmer at Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, and _ed._
at Aberdeen; he was, in 1760, appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy
there. In the following year he _pub._ a vol. of poems, which attracted
attention. The two works, however, which brought him most fame were: (1)
his _Essay on Truth_ (1770), intended as an answer to Hume, which had
great immediate success, and led to an introduction to the King, a
pension of L200, and the degree of LL.D. from Oxford; and (2) his poem of
_The Minstrel_, of which the first book was _pub._ in 1771 and the
second in 1774, and which constitutes his true title to remembrance. It
contains much beautiful descriptive writing. The _Essay on Truth_ and his
other philosophical works are now forgotten. B. underwent much domestic
sorrow in the death of his wife and two promising sons, which broke down
his own health and spirits.


BEAUMONT, FRANCIS (1584-1616), AND FLETCHER, JOHN (1579-1625).--Poets and
dramatists. As they are indissolubly associated in the history of English
literature, it is convenient to treat of them in one place. B. was the
_s._ of Francis B., a Judge of the Common Pleas, and was _b._ at the
family seat, Grace Dieu, Leicestershire. He was _ed._ at Oxford, but his
_f._ dying in 1598, he left without taking his degree. He went to London
and entered the Inner Temple in 1600, and soon became acquainted with Ben
Jonson, Drayton, and other poets and dramatists. His first work was a
translation from Ovid, followed by commendatory verses prefixed to
certain plays of Jonson. Soon afterwards his friendship with F. began.
They lived in the same house and had practically a community of goods
until B.'s marriage in 1613 to Ursula, _dau._ and co-heiress of Henry
Isley of Sundridge in Kent, by whom he had two _dau._ He _d._ in 1616,
and is buried in Westminster Abbey. F. was the youngest _s._ of Richard
F., Bishop of London, who accompanied Mary Queen of Scots to the
scaffold. He went to Cambridge, but it is not known whether he took a
degree, though he had some reputation as a scholar. His earliest play is
_The Woman Hater_ (1607). He is said to have died of the plague, and is
buried in St. Saviour's Church, Southwark. The plays attributed to B. and
F. number 52 and a masque, and much labour has been bestowed by critics
in endeavouring to allocate their individual shares. It is now generally
agreed that others collaborated with them to some extent--Massinger,
Rowley, Shirley, and even Shakespeare. Of those believed to be the joint
work of B. and F. _Philaster_ and _The Maid's Tragedy_ are considered the
masterpieces, and are as dramas unmatched except by Shakespeare. _The Two
Noble Kinsmen_ is thought to contain the work of Shakespeare. As regards
their respective powers, B. is held to have had the graver, solider, and
more stately genius, while F. excelled in brightness, wit, and gaiety.
The former was the stronger in judgment, the latter in fancy. The plays
contain many very beautiful lyrics, but are often stained by gross
indelicacy. The play of _Henry VIII._ included in Shakespeare's works, is
now held to be largely the work of F. and Massinger. Subjoined is a list
of the plays with the authorship according to the latest authorities.

(1) BEAUMONT.--_The Masque_. (2) FLETCHER.--_Woman Hater_ (1607),
_Faithful Shepherdess_ (1609), _Bonduca_ (_Boadicea_) (1618-19), _Wit
without Money_ (1614?), _Valentinian_ (1618-19), _Loyal Subjects_ (1618),
_Mad Lover_ (1618-19), _Humorous Lieutenant_ (1618?), _Women Pleased_
(1620?), _Island Princess_ (1621), _Pilgrim_ (1621), _Wild Goose Chase_
(1621), _Woman's Prize_ (? _pub._ 1647), _A Wife for a Month_ (1624),
_Chances_ (late, _p._ 1647), perhaps _Monsieur Thomas_ (_p._ 1639), and
_Sea Voyage_ (1622). (3) BEAUMONT and FLETCHER.--_Four Plays in One_
(1608), _King and No King_ (1611), _Cupid's Revenge_ (1611?), _Knight of
Burning Pestle_ (1611), _Maid's Tragedy_ (1611), _Philaster_ (1611),
_Coxcomb_ (1612-13), _Wits at Several Weapons_ (1614), _Scornful Lady_
(1616), doubtfully, _Thierry and Theodoret_ (1616), and _Little French
Lawyer_ (1620) perhaps by F. and Massinger, and _Laws of Candy_ (?)
perhaps by B. and Massinger. (4) FLETCHER and OTHERS.--_Honest Man's
Fortune_ (1613), F., Mass., and Field; _The Captain_ (1613), and _Nice
Valour_ (_p._ 1647), F. and Middleton (?); _Bloody Brothers_ (1616-17),
F., Mid., and Rowley or Fielding and B. Jonson (?); _Queen of Corinth_
(1618-19), F. and Row. or Mass. and Mid.; _Barneveld_ (1619), by F. and
Massinger; _Knight of Malta_ (1619), _False One_ (1620), _A Very Woman_
(1621?), _Double Marriage_ (1620), _Elder Brother_ (_p._ 1637), _Lover's
Progress_ (_p._ 1647), _Custom of the Country_ (1628), _Prophetess_
(1622), _Spanish Curate_ (1622), by F. and Shakespeare; _Henry VIII._
(1617), and _Two Noble Kinsmen_ (_p._ 1634), by F. and Rowley, or
Massinger; _Maid of the Mill_ (1625-6), _Beggar's Bush_ (?) (1622), by F.
and Shirley; _Noble Gentleman_ (?) _Night Walker_ (1633?), _Lovers
Pilgrimage_ (1623?), _Fair Maid of the Inn_ (1625-26), also with
Middleton?

The latest ed. is that of Mr. Bullen (11 vols., 1904), and A.R. Waller (7
vols., _pub._ C.U.P., 1909); Dyce (11 vols., 1843-46); _Francis
Beaumont_, G.C. Macaulay (1883); _Lyric Poems_ of B. and F., E. Rhys
(1897); _Bibliography_, A.C. Potter in _Harvard Bibliograph.
Contributions_, 1891.


BEAUMONT, SIR JOHN (1582-1627?).--Poet, elder brother of Francis B., the
dramatist (_q.v._). His poems, of which the best known is _Bosworth
Field_, _pub._ by his _s._, 1629. Another, _The Crown of Thorns_, is
lost.


BECKFORD, WILLIAM (_c._ 1760-1844).--Miscellaneous writer, only _s._ of
William B., Lord Mayor of London, the associate and supporter of John
Wilkes, inherited at the age of 9 an enormous fortune. In these
circumstances he grew up wayward and extravagant, showing, however, a
strong bent towards literature. His education was entrusted to a private
tutor, with whom he travelled extensively on the Continent. At the age of
22 he produced his oriental romance, _Vathek_ (_c._ 1781), written
originally in French and, as he was accustomed to boast, at a single
sitting of three days and two nights. There is reason, however, to
believe that this was a flight of imagination. It is an impressive work,
full of fantastic and magnificent conceptions, rising occasionally to
sublimity. His other principal writings are _Memoirs of Extraordinary
Painters_ (1780), a satirical work, and _Letters from Italy with Sketches
of Spain and Portugal_ (1835), full of brilliant descriptions of scenes
and manners. B.'s fame, however, rests nearly as much upon his eccentric
extravagances as a builder and collector as upon his literary efforts. In
carrying out these he managed to dissipate his fortune of L100,000 a
year, only L80,000 of his capital remaining at his death. He sat in
parliament for various constituencies, and one of his two _dau._ became
Duchess of Hamilton.


BEDDOES, THOMAS LOVELL (1803-1849).--Dramatic poet and physiologist, _s._
of Dr. Thos. B., an eminent physician, and nephew of Maria Edgeworth.
_Ed._ at the Charterhouse and Oxford, he _pub._ in 1821 _The
Improvisatore_, which he afterwards endeavoured to suppress. His next
venture was _The Bride's Tragedy_ (1822), which had considerable success,
and won for him the friendship of "Barry Cornwall." Thereafter he went to
Goettingen and studied medicine. He then wandered about practising his
profession, and expounding democratic theories which got him into
trouble. He _d._ at Bale in mysterious circumstances. For some time
before his death he had been engaged upon a drama, _Death's Jest Book_,
which was published in 1850 with a memoir by his friend, T.F. Kelsall. B.
had not the true dramatic instinct, but his poetry is full of thought and
richness of diction. Some of his short pieces, _e.g._: "If there were
dreams to sell," and "If thou wilt ease thine heart," are masterpieces of
intense feeling exquisitely expressed.


BEDE or BAEDA (673-735).--Historian and scholar. B., who is sometimes
referred to as "the father of English history," was in his youth placed
under the care of Benedict Biscop, Abbot of Wearmouth, and of Ceolfrith,
afterwards Abbot of Jarrow. Ordained deacon in 692 and priest in 703, he
spent most of his days at Jarrow, where his fame as a scholar and teacher
of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew brought him many disciples. Here likewise he
_d._ and was buried, but his bones were, towards the beginning of the
11th century, removed to Durham. The well-deserved title of "Venerable"
usually prefixed to his name first appears in 836. He was the most
learned Englishman of his age. His industry was marvellous, and its
results remain embodied in about 40 books, of which about 25 are
commentaries on books of Scripture. The others are lives of saints and
martyrs, and his two great works, _The Ecclesiastical History of England_
and the scientific treatise, _De Natura Rerum_. The former of these gives
the fullest and best information we have as to the history of England
down to the year 731, and the latter is an encyclopaedia of the sciences
as then known. In the anxious care with which he sought out and selected
reliable information, and referred to authorities he shows the best
qualities of the modern historian, and his style is remarkable for "a
pleasing artlessness."

_History of Early Engl. Lit._, Stopford Brooke (2 vols., 1892), etc.


BEECHER, HENRY WARD (1813-1887).--Orator and divine, _s._ of Lyman B. and
_bro._ of Harriet Beecher Stowe, was one of the most popular of American
preachers and platform orators, a prominent advocate of temperance and of
the abolition of slavery. His writings, which had a wide popularity,
include _Summer in the Soul_ and _Life Thoughts_.


BEHN, APHRA (JOHNSTON) (1640-1689).--Novelist and dramatist, _dau._ of a
barber named Johnston, but went with a relative whom she called father to
Surinam, of which he had been appointed Governor. He, however, _d._ on
the passage thither, and her childhood and youth were passed there. She
became acquainted with the celebrated slave Oronoko, afterwards the hero
of one of her novels. Returning to England in 1658 she _m._ Behn, a Dutch
merchant, but was a widow at the age of 26. She then became attached to
the Court, and was employed as a political spy at Antwerp. Leaving that
city she cultivated the friendship of various playwrights, and produced
many plays and novels, also poems and pamphlets. The former are extremely
gross, and are now happily little known. She was the first English
professional authoress. Among her plays are _The Forced Marriage_,
_Abdelazer_, _The Rover_, _The Debauchee_, etc., and her novels include
_Oronoko_ and _The Nun_. The former of these was the first book to bring
home to the country a sense of the horrors of slavery, for which let her
have credit.


BELL, HENRY GLASSFORD (1805-1874).--Poet and historian, was a member of
the Scottish Bar, and became Sheriff of Lanarkshire. He wrote a _Life of
Mary Queen of Scots_ (1830), strongly in her defence, and two vols. of
poetry, _Summer and Winter Hours_ (1831), and _My Old Portfolio_, the
latter also containing pieces in prose.


BELLENDEN, or BALLANTYNE, JOHN (_fl._ 1533-1587?).--Poet, _b._ towards
the close of the 15th century, and _ed._ at St. Andrews and Paris. At the
request of James V. he translated the _Historia Gentis Scotorum_ of
Boece. This translation, _Chroniklis of Scotland_ is a very free one,
with a good deal of matter not in the original, so that it may be almost
considered as a new work. It was _pub._ in 1536, and is the earliest
existing specimen of Scottish literary prose. He also translated the
first five books of Livy. He enjoyed the Royal favour, and was Archdeacon
of Moray. He latterly, however, became involved in controversy which led
to his going to Rome, where he _d._, according to one account, about
1550. Another authority, however, states that he was living in 1587.


BENTHAM, JEREMY (1748-1832).--Writer on jurisprudence and politics, _b._
in London, _s._ of a prosperous attorney, _ed._ at Westminster and
Oxford, was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn, but disliking the law, he
made little or no effort to practise, but devoted himself to physical
science and the theory of jurisprudence. In 1776 he _pub._ anonymously
his _Fragment on Government_, an able criticism of Blackstone's
_Commentaries_, which brought him under the notice of Lord Shelburne, and
in 1780 his _Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation_. Other
works were _Panopticon_, in which he suggested improvements on prison
discipline, _Discourse on Civil and Penal Legislation_ (1802),
_Punishments and Rewards_ (1811), _Parliamentary Reform Catechism_
(1817), and _A Treatise on Judicial Evidence_. By the death of his _f._
he inherited a competency on which he was able to live in frugal
elegance, not unmixed with eccentricity. B. is the first and perhaps the
greatest of the "philosophical radicals," and his fundamental principle
is utilitarianism or "the greatest happiness of the greatest number," a
phrase of which he is generally, though erroneously, regarded as the
author. The effect of his writings on legislation and the administration
of the law has been almost incalculable. He left his body to be
dissected; and his skeleton, clothed in his usual attire, is preserved in
University College, London.

_Life_ by Bowring in collected works (J.H. Barton, 11 vols., 1844).
_Study of Life and Work_, Atkinson, 1903.


BENTLEY, RICHARD (1662-1742).--Theologian, scholar, and critic, _b._ in
Yorkshire of humble parentage, went at the age of 14 to Camb.,
afterwards had charge of a school at Spalding, and then becoming tutor to
the _s._ of Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's, afterwards Bishop of
Worcester (_q.v.i_), accompanied his pupil to Oxf. After taking his
degree at both universities, and entering the Church, he laid the
foundation of his reputation as perhaps the greatest scholar England has
produced by his letter in Mill's ed. of the _Chronicle of John Malelas_,
and his _Dissertation on the Letters of Phalaris_ (1699), which spread
his fame through Europe. After receiving various preferments, including
the Boyle lectureship and the Keepership of the Royal Library, he was, in
1700, appointed Master of Trinity, and afterwards was, largely owing to
his own pugnacity and rapacity, which were almost equal to his learning,
involved in a succession of litigations and controversies. These lasted
for 20 years, and led to the temporary loss of his academic preferments
and honours. In 1717, however, he was appointed Regius Prof. of Divinity.
During the contentions referred to he continued his literary activity
without abatement, and _pub._ various ed. of the classics, including
Horace and Terence. He was much less successful in certain emendations of
Milton which he attempted. Having incurred the resentment of Pope he was
rewarded by being assigned a niche in _The Dunciad!_ His style is strong
and nervous, and sparkles with wit and sarcasm. His classical
controversies called forth Swift's _Battle of the Books_.

_Life_ by Monk (1833). _Life_ by Sir R. Jebb in _English Men of Letters_
(1882).


BERESFORD, JAMES (1764-1840).--Miscellaneous writer and clergyman. He
made translations and wrote religious books, but was chiefly known as the
author of a satirical work, _The Miseries of Human Life_ (1806-7.)


BERKELEY, GEORGE (1685-1753).--Philosopher, eldest _s._ of William B., a
cadet of the noble family of Berkeley, _b._ at Kilcrin near Kilkenny, and
_ed._ at the school of his native place and at Trinity Coll., Dublin,
where he graduated and took a Fellowship in 1707. His earliest
publication was a mathematical one; but the first which brought him into
notice was his _Essay towards a New Theory of Vision_, _pub._ in 1709.
Though giving rise to much controversy at the time, its conclusions are
now accepted as an established part of the theory of optics. There next
appeared in 1710 the _Treatise concerning the Principles of Human
Knowledge_, which was followed in 1713 by _Dialogues between Hylas_ and
_Philonous_, in which he propounded his system of philosophy, the leading
principle of which is that the world as represented to our senses depends
for its existence on being perceived. Of this theory the _Principles_
gives the exposition and the _Dialogues_ the defence. One of his main
objects was to combat the prevailing materialism of the time. A theory so
novel was, as might be expected, received with widespread ridicule,
though his genius was realised by some of the more elect spirits, such as
Dr. S. Clarke. Shortly afterwards B. visited England, and was received
into the circle of Addison, Pope, and Steele. He then went to the
Continent in various capacities, and on his return was made Lecturer in
Divinity and Greek in his university, D.D. in 1721, and Dean of Derry in
1724. In 1725 he formed the project of founding a college in Bermuda for
training ministers for the colonies, and missionaries to the Indians, in
pursuit of which he gave up his deanery with its income of L1100, and
went to America on a salary of L100. Disappointed of promised aid from
Government he returned, and was appointed Bishop of Cloyne. Soon
afterwards he _pub._ _Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher_, directed
against Shaftesbury, and in 1734-37 _The Querist_. His last publications
were _Siris_, a treatise on the medicinal virtues of tar-water, and
_Further Thoughts on Tar-water_. He _d._ at Oxford in 1753. His
affectionate disposition and genial manners made him much beloved. As a
thinker his is the greatest name in English philosophy between Locke and
Hume. His style is clear and dignified.

The best ed. of B. is Prof. A.C. Fraser's, with Life (4 vols., 1871, and
new, 1902); there is also a small work by the same (1881).


BERNERS, BERNES, or BARNES, JULIANA (_b._ 1388?).--Writer on heraldry and
sports. Nothing of her real history is known, but statements more or less
mythical have gathered round her name. The work attributed to her is _The
Boke of St. Albans_ (1486). It consists of four treatises on _Hawking_,
_Hunting_, _The Lynage of Coote Armiris_, and _The Blasynge of Armis_.
She was said to be the _dau._ of Sir James B., and to have been Prioress
of Sopwell Nunnery, Herts.


BERNERS, JOHN BOURCHIER, 2ND LORD (1467-1553).--Translator, _b._ at
Sherfield, Herts and _ed._ at Oxf., held various offices of state,
including that of Chancellor of the Exchequer to Henry VIII., and
Lieutenant of Calais, where he _d._ He translated, at the King's desire,
_Froissart's Chronicles_ (1523-25), in such a manner as to make distinct
advance in English historical writing, and the _Golden Book of Marcus
Aurelius_ (1534); also _The History of Arthur of Lytell Brytaine_
(Brittany), and the romance of _Huon of Bordeaux_.


BESANT, SIR WALTER (1836-1901).--Novelist and historian of London, _b._
at Portsmouth and _ed._ at King's Coll., London, and Camb., was for a few
years a professor at Mauritius, but a breakdown in health compelled him
to resign, and he returned to England and took the duties of Secretary to
the Palestine Exploration Fund, which he held 1868-85. He _pub._ in 1868
_Studies in French Poetry_. Three years later he began his collaboration
with James Rice (_q.v._). Among their joint productions are _Ready-money
Mortiboy_ (1872), and the _Golden Butterfly_ (1876), both, especially the
latter, very successful. This connection was brought to an end by the
death of Rice in 1882. Thereafter B. continued to write voluminously at
his own hand, his leading novels being _All in a Garden Fair_, _Dorothy
Forster_ (his own favourite), _Children of Gibeon_, and _All Sorts and
Conditions of Men_. The two latter belonged to a series in which he
endeavoured to arouse the public conscience to a sense of the sadness of
life among the poorest classes in cities. In this crusade B. had
considerable success, the establishment of The People's Palace in the
East of London being one result. In addition to his work in fiction B.
wrote largely on the history and topography of London. His plans in this
field were left unfinished: among his books on this subject is _London in
the 18th Century_.

Other works among novels are _My Little Girl_, _With Harp and Crown_,
_This Son of Vulcan_, _The Monks of Thelema_, _By Celia's Arbour_, and
_The Chaplain of the Fleet_, all with Rice; and _The Ivory Gate_, _Beyond
the Dreams of Avarice_, _The Master Craftsman_, _The Fourth Generation_,
etc., alone. _London under the Stuarts_, _London under the Tudors_ are
historical.


BICKERSTAFFE, ISAAC (_c._ 1735-1812?).--Dramatic writer, in early life a
page to Lord Chesterfield when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, produced
between 1756 and 1771 many dramatic pieces, which had considerable
popularity, the best known of which are _Love in a Village_ (1762), and
_The Maid of the Mill_. Owing to misconduct he was dismissed from being
an officer in the Marines, and had ultimately, in 1772, to fly the
country. The remainder of his life seems to have been passed in penury
and misery. The date of his death is unknown. He was alive in 1812.


BIRD, ROBERT MONTGOMERY (1803-1854).--Novelist, an American physician,
wrote three tragedies, _The Gladiator_, _Oraloosa_, and _The Broker of
Bogota_, and several novels, including _Calavar_, _The Infidel_, _The
Hawks of Hawk Hollow_, _Peter Pilgrim_, and _Nick of the Woods_, in the
first two of which he gives graphic and accurate details and descriptions
of Mexican history.


BISHOP, SAMUEL (1731-1795).--Poet, _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Merchant
Taylor's School and Oxf., took orders and became Headmaster of Merchant
Taylor's School. His poems on miscellaneous subjects fill two quarto
vols., the best of them are those to his wife and _dau._ He also _pub._
essays.


BLACK, WILLIAM (1841-1898).--Novelist. After studying as a landscape
painter, he took to journalism in Glasgow. In 1864 he went to London, and
soon after _pub._ his first novel, _James Merle_, which made no
impression. In the Austro-Prussian War he acted as a war correspondent.
Thereafter he began afresh to write fiction, and was more successful; the
publication of _A Daughter of Heth_ (1871) at once established his
popularity. He reached his highwater-mark in _A Princess of Thule_
(1873). Many other books were added before his death in 1898, among which
may be mentioned _In Silk Attire_ (1869), _The Strange Adventures of a
Phaeton_ (1872), _Macleod of Dare_ (1878), _White Wings_ (1880), _Shandon
Bells_ (1882), _Yolande_ (1883), _Judith Shakespeare_ (1884), _White
Heather_ (1886), _Stand Fast Craig-Royston!_ (1890), _Green Pastures and
Piccadilly_, _Three Feathers_, _Wild Eelin_ (1898).


BLACKIE, JOHN STUART (1809-1895).--Scholar and man of letters, _b._ in
Glasgow, and _ed._ at the Universities of Aberdeen and Edin., after which
he travelled and studied in Germany and Italy. Returning to Scotland he
was, in 1834, admitted to the Scottish Bar, but did not practise. His
first work was his translation of _Faust_ (1834), which won the
approbation of Carlyle. From 1841-52 B. was Prof. of Humanity (Latin) in
Aberdeen, and from 1852-82, when he retired, of Greek in Edinburgh. His
literary activity was incessant, his works consisting of translations of
_AEschylus_ and of the _Iliad_, various books of poetry, including _Lays
and Legends of Ancient Greece_, and treatises on religious,
philosophical, and political subjects, among which may be mentioned
_Self-Culture_ (1873), _Horae Hellenicae_, and a life of Burns. He was an
enthusiastic champion of Scottish nationality. Possessed of great
conversational powers and general versatility, his picturesque
eccentricity made him one of the most notable members of Scottish
society. It was owing to his efforts that a Chair of Celtic Language and
Literature was established in Edinburgh University.


BLACKLOCK, THOMAS (1721-1791).--Poet, _b._ near Annan of humble
parentage, lost his sight by smallpox when 6 months old. He began to
write poetry at the age of 12, and studied for the Church. He was
appointed Minister of Kirkcudbright, but was objected to by the
parishioners on account of his blindness, and gave up the presentation on
receiving an annuity. He then retired to Edinburgh, where he took pupils.
He _pub._ some miscellaneous poems, which are now forgotten, and is
chiefly remembered for having written a letter to Burns, which had the
effect of dissuading him from going to the West Indies. He was made D.D.
in 1767.


BLACKMORE, SIR RICHARD (_c._ 1650, _d._ 1729).--Poet, one of the Court
Physicians to William III. and Anne, wrote several very long and
well-intentioned, but dull and tedious, poems, which, though praised by
Addison and Johnson, are now utterly forgotten. They include _Prince
Arthur_, _Creation_, _Redemption_, _Alfred_. As may be imagined, they
were the subject of derision by the profaner wits of the day. B. was a
successful physician and an excellent man.


BLACKMORE, RICHARD DODDRIDGE (1825-1900).--Novelist and poet, _b._ at
Longworth, Berks, _ed._ at Tiverton School and Oxf., practised for a
short time as a lawyer but, owing to his health, gave this up, and took
to market-gardening and literature at Teddington. His first _pub._ was
_Poems by Melanter_ (1853), followed by _Epullia_ (1855), _The Bugle of
the Black Sea_ (1855), etc.; but he soon found that fiction, not poetry,
was his true vocation. Beginning with _Clara Vaughan_ in 1864, he
produced fifteen novels, all of more than average, and two or three of
outstanding merit. Of these much the best in the opinion of the public,
though not of the author, is _Lorna Doone_ (1869), the two which rank
next to it being _The Maid of Sker_ (1872) (the author's favourite) and
_Springhaven_ (1887). Others are _Cradock Nowell_ (1866), _Alice
Lorraine_ (1875), _Cripps the Carrier_ (1876), _Mary Anerley_ (1880), and
_Christowell_ (1882). One of the most striking features of B.'s writings
is his marvellous eye for, and sympathy with, Nature. He may be said to
have done for Devonshire what Scott did for the Highlands. He has been
described as "proud, shy, reticent, strong-willed, sweet-tempered, and
self-centred."


BLACKSTONE, SIR WILLIAM (1723-1780).--Legal Writer, posthumous _s._ of a
silk mercer in London, was _ed._ at Charterhouse School and Oxf., and
entered the Middle Temple in 1741. His great work is his _Commentaries on
the Laws of England_, in 4 vols. (1765-1769), which still remains the
best general history of the subject. It had an extraordinary success, and
is said to have brought the author L14,000. B. was not a man of original
mind, nor was he a profound lawyer; but he wrote an excellent style,
clear and dignified, which brings his great work within the category of
general literature. He had also a turn for neat and polished verse, of
which he gave proof in _The Lawyer's Farewell to his Muse_.


BLAIR, HUGH (1718-1800).--Divine, and man of letters, _b._ and _ed._ at
Edin. After being minister at Collessie in Fife, he was translated to
Edinburgh, where he filled various pulpits, latterly that of the High
Church. In 1759 he commenced a series of lectures on composition, and
soon after the Chair of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres was founded, to which
he was appointed. His _Lectures_ were _pub._ on his resignation of the
chair in 1783. His chief fame, however, rests upon his _Sermons_, in 4
vols., which had an extraordinary popularity, and obtained for him a
pension of L200. Time has not sustained the opinion of his
contemporaries: they have been described as feeble in thought though
elegant in style, and even as "a bucket of warm water." B. was amiable,
kind to young authors, and remarkable for a harmless, but rather
ridiculous vanity and simplicity.


BLAIR, ROBERT (1699-1746).--Poet, _b._ at Edin., where his _f._ was a
clergyman, became minister of Athelstaneford, Haddingtonshire. His sole
work was _The Grave_, a poem in blank verse extending to 767 lines of
very various merit, in some passages rising to great sublimity, and in
others sinking to commonplace. It was illustrated by William Blake
(_q.v._) B.'s _s._, Robert, was a very distinguished Scottish judge and
Lord President of the Court of Session; and his successor in his
ministerial charge was Home, the author of _Douglas_.


BLAKE, WILLIAM (1757-1827).--Poet and painter, _b._ in London, was from
earliest youth a seer of visions and a dreamer of dreams, seeing "Ezekiel
sitting under a green bough," and "a tree full of angels at Peckham," and
such he remained to the end of his days. His teeming imagination sought
expression both in verse and in drawing, and in his 14th year he was
apprenticed to James Basire, an eminent engraver, and thereafter studied
at the Royal Academy. Among his chief artistic works were illustrations
for Young's _Night Thoughts_, Blair's _Grave_, "Spiritual Portraits," and
his finest work, "Inventions to the Book of Job," all distinguished by
originality and imagination. In literature his _Songs of Innocence_
appeared in 1789, _Songs of Experience_ in 1794. These books were
literally made by Blake and his heaven-provided wife; poems and designs
alike being engraved on copper by B. and bound by Mrs. B. In like fashion
were produced his mystical books, _The Book of Thel_ (1789), _The
Marriage of Heaven and Hell_ (1790), _The Gates of Paradise_, _Visions of
the Daughters of Albion_, _Europe_, _The Book of Urizen_ (1794), _The
Book of Los_ and _The Book of Ahania_ (1795). His last books were
_Jerusalem_ and _Milton_. His earlier and shorter pieces, _e.g._ "The
Chimney-Sweeper," "Holy Thursday," "The Lamb," "The Sun-flower," "The
Tiger," etc., have an exquisite simplicity arising from directness and
intensity of feeling--sometimes tender, sometimes sublime--always
individual. Latterly he lost himself in clouds of mysticism. A truly
pious and loving soul, neglected and misunderstood by the world, but
appreciated by an elect few, he led a cheerful and contented life of
poverty illumined by visions and celestial inspirations.


BLAMIRE, SUSANNA (1747-1794).--Poetess, was of good Cumberland family,
and received the sobriquet of "The Muse of Cumberland." Her poems, which
were not collected until 1842, depict Cumbrian life and manners with
truth and vivacity. She also wrote some fine songs in the Scottish
dialect, including "Ye shall walk in Silk Attire," and "What ails this
Heart o' Mine."


BLESSINGTON, MARGARET (POWER), COUNTESS of (1789-1849).--Married as her
second husband the 1st Earl of B., with whom she travelled much on the
Continent, where she met Lord Byron, her _Conversations_ with whom she
_pub._ in 1834. This is the only one of her books which has any value.
The others were slight works on Travel, such as _The Idler in Italy_,
annuals, and novels. She became bankrupt and went to Paris, where she
lived under the protection of the Count d'Orsay.


BLIND HARRY or HENRY THE MINSTREL (_fl._ 1470-1492).--Is spoken of by
John Major in his _History of Scotland_ as a wandering minstrel, skilled
in the composition of rhymes in the Scottish tongue, who "fabricated" a
book about William Wallace, and gained his living by reciting it to his
own accompaniment on the harp at the houses of the nobles. Harry claims
that it was founded on a Latin _Life of Wallace_ written by Wallace's
chaplain, John Blair, but the chief sources seem to have been
traditionary. Harry is often considered inferior to Barbour as a poet,
and has little of his moral elevation, but he surpasses him in graphic
power, vividness of description, and variety of incident. He occasionally
shows the influence of Chaucer, and is said to have known Latin and
French.


BLIND, MATHILDE (1841-1896).--Poetess, _b._ at Mannheim, but settled in
London about 1849, and _pub._ several books of poetry, _The Prophecy of
St. Oran_ (1881), _The Heather on Fire_ (1886), _Songs and Sonnets_
(1893), _Birds of Passage_ (1895), etc. She also translated Strauss's
_Old Faith and New_, and other works, and wrote Lives of George Eliot and
Madame Roland. Her own name was Cohen, but she adopted that of her
stepfather, Karl Blind.


BLOOMFIELD, ROBERT (1766-1823).--Poet, _b._ at Honington in Suffolk, lost
his _f._ when he was a year old, and received the rudiments of education
from his mother, who kept the village school. While still a boy he went
to London, and worked as a shoemaker under an elder brother, enduring
extreme poverty. His first and chief poem, _The Farmer's Boy_, was
composed in a room where half a dozen other men were at work, and the
finished lines he carried in his head until there was time to write them
down. The manuscript, after passing through various hands, fell into
those of Capel Lofft, a Suffolk squire of literary tastes, by whose
exertions it was _pub._ with illustrations by Bewick in 1800. It had a
signal success, 26,000 copies having been sold in three years. The Duke
of Grafton obtained for him an appointment in the Seal Office, and when,
through ill-health, he was obliged to resign this, allowed him a pension
of 1s. a day. Other works were _Rural Tales_ (1804), _Wild Flowers_
(1806), _The Banks of the Wye_ (1811), and _May Day with the Muses_
(1817). An attempt to carry on business as a bookseller failed, his
health gave way, his reason was threatened, and he _d._ in great poverty
at Shefford in 1823. B.'s poetry is smooth, correct, and characterised by
taste and good feeling, but lacks fire and energy. Of amiable and simple
character, he was lacking in self-reliance.


BODENHAM, JOHN (_fl._ 1600).--Anthologist, is stated to have been the ed.
of some of the Elizabethan anthologies, viz., _Politeuphuia_ (_Wits'
Commonwealth_) (1597), _Wits' Theater_ (1598), _Belvidere, or the Garden
of the Muses_ (1600), and _England's Helicon_ (1600). Mr. Bullen says
that B. did not himself ed. any of the Elizabethan miscellanies
attributed to him by bibliographers: but that he projected their
publication, and he befriended the editors.


BOECE, or BOETHIUS, HECTOR (1465?-1536).--Historian, probably _b._ at
Dundee, and _ed._ there and at Paris, where he was a regent or professor,
1492 to 1498. While there he made the acquaintance of Erasmus. Returning
to Scotland he co-operated with Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen, in
founding the univ. there of which he was the first Principal. His
literary fame rests on two works, his _Lives of the Bishops of Mortlach
and Aberdeen_, in which his friend Elphinstone figures prominently, and
his _History of Scotland_ to the accession of James III. These works
were, of course, composed in Latin, but the _History_ was translated into
Scottish prose by John Bellenden, 1530 to 1533, and into English for
Hollinshed's _Chronicle_. The only predecessor of the work was the
compendium of Major, and as it was written in a flowing and pleasing
style it became very popular, and led to ecclesiastical preferment and
Royal favour. B. shared in the credulity of his age, but the charge of
inventing his authorities formerly brought against him has been shown to
be, to some extent at any rate, unfounded.


BOKER, GEORGE HENRY (1823-90).--Poet, was in the American Diplomatic
Service. Among his dramas, generally tragedies, are _Anne Boleyn_, _The
Betrothed_, and _Francesca da Rimini_, and among his books of poetry,
_Street Lyrics_, _Koenigsmark_, and _The Book of the Dead_. His dramas
combine poetic merit with adaptability for acting.


BOLINGBROKE, HENRY ST. JOHN, 1ST VISCOUNT (1678-1751).--Statesman and
philosopher, _s._ of Sir Henry St. J., _b._ at Battersea, and _ed._ at
Eton and perhaps Oxf., was during his youth noted chiefly for
dissipation, but entering Parliament in 1701 as a supporter of Harley,
soon made himself a name by his eloquence and talent. He held office as
War and Foreign Sec. successively, became a peer in 1712, intrigued
successfully against Harley, and formed an administration during the last
days of Queen Anne, with the intention of bringing back the Stuarts,
which was frustrated by the Queen's death. On the arrival of George I.
and the accession to power of the Whigs, B. was impeached, and his name
erased from the Roll of Peers. He went to France, and became Sec. of
State to the Pretender James, who, however, dismissed him in 1716, after
which he devoted himself to philosophy and literature. In 1723 he was
pardoned and returned to England, and an act was passed in 1725 restoring
his forfeited estates, but still excluding him from the House of Lords.
He thereupon retired to his house, Dawley, near Uxbridge, where he
enjoyed the society of Swift and Pope, on the latter of whom he exerted a
strong influence. After some ineffectual efforts to regain a position in
political life, he returned to France in 1735, where he remained for 7
years, and wrote most of his chief works.

B. was a man of brilliant and versatile talents, but selfish, insincere,
and intriguing, defects of character which led to his political ruin. His
writings, once so much admired, reflect his character in their glittering
artificiality, and his pretensions to the reputation of a philosopher
have long been exploded; the chief of them are _Reflections upon Exile_,
_Letters on the Study of History_ (in which he attacked Christianity),
_Letters on the Spirit of Patriotism_, and _Idea of a Patriot King_. He
left his MSS. to David Mallet (_q.v._), who _pub._ a complete ed. of his
works in 5 vols. (1753-54).


BONAR, HORATIUS (1808-1889).--Divine and poet, _s._ of James B.,
Solicitor of Exise for Scotland, _b._ and _ed._ in Edin., entered the
Ministry of the Church of Scotland, and was settled at Kelso. He joined
the Free Church at the Disruption in 1843, and in 1867 was translated to
Edin. In 1853 he was made D.D. of Aberdeen. He was a voluminous and
highly popular author, and in addition to many books and tracts wrote a
number of hymns, many of which, _e.g._, "I heard the voice of Jesus say,"
are known all over the English-speaking world. A selection of these was
_pub._ as _Hymns of Faith and Hope_ (3 series). His last vol. of poetry
was _My Old Letters_.


BOORDE, or BORDE, ANDREW (1490?-1549).--Traveller, _b._ near Cuckfield,
Sussex, was brought up as a Carthusian, and held ecclesiastical
appointments, then practised medicine at various places, including
Glasgow, and was employed in various capacities by T. Cromwell. He
travelled widely, going as far as Jerusalem, and wrote descriptions of
the countries he had visited. His _Dyetary_ is the first English book of
domestic medicine. The _Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge_ describes
his journeys on the Continent. Other works are _The Boke of Berdes_
(Beards), _Handbook of Europe_, and _Itinerary of England_.


BORROW, GEORGE (1803-1881).--Philologist and miscellaneous author, and
traveller, _b._ at East Dereham, Norfolk, _s._ of a recruiting officer,
had a somewhat wandering childhood. He received most of his education in
Edin., and showed a peculiar talent for acquiring languages. After being
for a short time in the office of a solicitor in Norwich, he travelled
widely on the Continent and in the East, acquainting himself with the
people and languages of the various countries he visited. He specially
attached himself to the Gipsies, with whose language he became so
familiar as to _pub._ a dictionary of it. His learning was shown by his
publishing at St. Petersburg _Targum_, a work containing translations
from 30 languages. B. became a travelling agent of the Bible Society, and
his book, _The Bible in Spain_ (1843), giving an account of his
remarkable adventures in that country, made his literary reputation. It
was followed by _Lavengro_ (1851), and its sequel, _Romany Rye_ (1857),
and _Wild Wales_ (1862), which, though works of originality and extreme
interest, and now perhaps his most popular books, were received with less
public favour. The two first give a highly coloured picture of his own
story. He translated the New Testament into Manchu. In his latter years
he settled at Oulton Broad, Norfolk, where he _d._ B. was a man of
striking appearance and great vigour and originality of character and
mind. His writings hold a unique place in English literature.


BOSTON, THOMAS (1677-1732).--Scottish divine, was successively
schoolmaster at Glencairn, and minister of Simprin in Berwickshire, and
Ettrick in Selkirkshire. In addition to his best-known work, _The
Fourfold State_, one of the religious classics of Scotland, he wrote an
original little book, _The Crook in the Lot_, and a learned treatise on
the Hebrew points. He also took a leading part in the Courts of the
Church in what was known as the "Marrow Controversy," regarding the
merits of an English work, _The Marrow of Modern Divinity_, which he
defended against the attacks of the "Moderate" party in the Church. B.,
if unduly introspective, was a man of singular piety and amiability. His
autobiography is an interesting record of Scottish life, full of
sincerity and tenderness, and not devoid of humorous touches, intentional
and otherwise.


BOSWELL, SIR ALEXANDER (1775-1822).--Antiquary and song writer, _s._ of
James B., of Auchinleck, Johnson's biographer, was interested in old
Scottish authors, some of whose works he reprinted at his private press.
He wrote some popular Scotch songs, of which _Jenny's Bawbee_ and _Jenny
dang the Weaver_ are the best known. B. _d._ in a duel with Mr. Stuart of
Dunearn.


BOSWELL, JAMES (1740-1795).--Biographer, _s._ of Alexander B. of
Auchinleck, Ayrshire, one of the judges of the Supreme Courts of
Scotland, was _ed._ at the High School and Univ. of Edin., and practised
as an advocate. He travelled much on the Continent and visited Corsica,
where he became acquainted with the patriot General Paoli. Fortunately
for posterity he was in 1763 introduced to Dr. Johnson, and formed an
acquaintance with him which soon ripened into friendship, and had as its
ultimate fruit the immortal _Life_. He was also the author of several
works of more or less interest, including an _Account of Corsica_ (1768),
and _Journal of Tour to the Hebrides_ (in the company of Johnson) (1786).
Vain and foolish in an exceptional degree, and by no means free from more
serious faults, B. has yet produced the greatest biography in the
language. _The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D._ appeared in 1791, and at
once commanded an admiration which has suffered no diminution since. But
by this time a cloud had fallen upon the author. He had lost his
excellent wife, his health had given way, the intemperance to which he
had always been subject had mastered him, and he _d._ four years after
the appearance of his great work. B. was called to the English as well as
to the Scottish Bar, but his various foibles prevented his reaching any
great success, and he had also vainly endeavoured to enter on a political
career. The question has often been raised how a man with the
characteristics of B. could have produced so unique a work, and has been
discussed at length by Macaulay and by Carlyle, the former paradoxically
arguing that his supreme folly and meanness themselves formed his
greatest qualifications; the latter, with far deeper insight, that
beneath these there lay the possession of an eye to discern excellence
and a heart to appreciate it, intense powers of accurate observation and
a considerable dramatic faculty. His letters to William Temple were
discovered at Boulogne, and _pub._ 1857.


BOUCICAULT, DION (1820-90).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ in Dublin and
_ed._ in London, joined Macready while still young, and made his first
appearance upon the stage with Benj. Webster at Bristol. Soon afterwards
he began to write plays, occasionally in conjunction, of which the first,
_London Assurance_ (1841) had an immediate success. He was an excellent
actor, especially in pathetic parts. His plays are for the most part
adaptations, but are often very ingenious in construction, and have had
great popularity. Among the best known are _The Colleen Bawn_,
_Arrah-na-Pogue_, _Faust and Marguerite_, and _The Shaughraun_. B. _d._
in America.


BOWDLER, THOMAS (1754-1825).--Editor of _The Family Shakespeare_, _b._
near Bath, _s._ of a gentleman of independent fortune, studied medicine
at St. Andrews and at Edin., where he took his degree in 1776, but did
not practise, devoting himself instead to the cause of prison reform. In
1818 he _pub._ his _Family Shakespeare_ in 10 vols., "in which nothing is
added to the original text, but those words and expressions are omitted
which cannot with propriety be read aloud in a family." The work had
considerable success, 4 editions having been _pub._ before 1824, and
others in 1831, 1853, and 1861. It was, however, subjected to some
criticism and ridicule, and gave rise to the expression "bowdlerise,"
always used in an opprobrious sense. On the other hand, Mr. Swinburne has
said, "More nauseous and foolish cant was never chattered than that which
would deride the memory or depreciate the merits of B. No man ever did
better service to Shakespeare than the man who made it possible to put
him into the hands of intelligent and imaginative children." B.
subsequently essayed a similar enterprise in regard to Gibbon, which,
however, was not so successful.


BOWER, ARCHIBALD (1686-1766).--Historian, _b._ at Dundee, and _ed._ at
the Scots Coll., Douay, became a Jesuit, but afterwards joined the Church
of England, and again became a Jesuit. He wrote a _History of Rome_
(1735-44), a _History of the Popes_ (1748-66). These works are
ill-proportioned and inaccurate. His whole life appears to have been a
very discreditable one.


BOWER, or BOWMAKER, WALTER (_d._ 1449).--Was Abbot of Inchcolm, and
continued and enlarged Fordun's _Scotichronicon_.


BOWLES, WILLIAM LISLE (1762-1850).--Poet and antiquary, _b._ at King's
Sutton, Northamptonshire, of which his _f._ was vicar, and _ed._ at
Winchester and Oxf., was for the most of his life Vicar of Bremhill,
Wilts, and became Prebendary and Canon Residentiary of Salisbury. His
first work, _pub._ in 1789, was a little vol. containing 14 sonnets,
which was received with extraordinary favour, not only by the general
public, but by such men as Coleridge and Wordsworth. It may be regarded
as the harbinger of the reaction against the school of Pope, in which
these poets were soon to bear so great a part. B. _pub._ several other
poems of much greater length, of which the best are _The Spirit of
Discovery_ (1805), and _The Missionary of the Andes_ (1815), and he also
enjoyed considerable reputation as an antiquary, his principal work in
that department being _Hermes Britannicus_ (1828). In 1807 he _pub._ a
_Life of Pope_, in the preface to which he expressed some views on poetry
which resulted in a rather fierce controversy with Byron, Campbell, and
others. He also wrote a _Life of Bishop Ken_. B. was an amiable,
absent-minded, and rather eccentric man. His poems are characterised by
refinement of feeling, tenderness, and pensive thought, but are deficient
in power and passion.

Other works are _Coombe Ellen and St. Michael's Mount_ (1798), _The
Battle of the Nile_ (1799), _The Sorrows of Switzerland_ (1801), _St.
John in Patmos_ (1833), etc.


BOWRING, SIR JOHN (1792-1872).--Linguist, writer, and traveller, was _b._
at Exeter. His talent for acquiring languages enabled him at last to say
that he knew 200, and could speak 100. He was appointed editor of the
_Westminster Review_ in 1824; travelled in various countries with the
view of reporting on their commercial position; was an M.P. 1835-37 and
1841-49, and held various appointments in China. His chief literary work
was the translation of the folk-songs of most European nations, and he
also wrote original poems and hymns, and works on political and economic
subjects. B. was knighted in 1854. He was the literary executor of Jeremy
Bentham (_q.v._).


BOYD, ANDREW KENNEDY HUTCHISON (1825-1899).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._
of Rev. Dr. B. of Glasgow, was originally intended for the English Bar,
but entered the Church of Scotland, and was minister latterly at St.
Andrews, wrote in _Fraser's Magazine_ a series of light, chirping
articles subsequently collected as the _Recreations of a Country Parson_,
also several books of reminiscences, etc., written in a pleasant chatty
style, and some sermons. He was D.D. and LL.D.


BOYD, ZACHARY (1585-1653).--Divine, belonged to the family of B. of
Pinkhill, Ayrshire, was _ed._ at Glasgow and at Saumur. He translated
many parts of Scripture into uncouth verse. Among his works are _The
Garden of Zion_ and _Zion's Flowers_.


BOYLE, THE HON. ROBERT (1627-1691).--Natural Philosopher and chemist, 7th
_s._ of the 1st Earl of Cork, was _b._ at Lismore, Co. Waterford, and
_ed._ at Eton and by private tutors, after which he pursued his studies
on the Continent. On his return to England he devoted himself to the
study of science, especially natural philosophy and chemistry. He was one
of the founders of the Royal Society, and, by his experiments and
observations added to existing knowledge, especially in regard to
pneumatics. He at the same time devoted much study to theology; so much
indeed that he was strongly urged by Lord Clarendon to enter the Church.
Thinking, however, that he could serve the cause of religion better as a
layman, he declined this advice. As a director of the East India Co. he
did much for the propagation of Christianity in the East, and for the
dissemination of the Bible. He also founded the "Boyle Lectures" in
defence of Christianity. He declined the offer of a peerage. B. was a man
of great intellectual acuteness, and remarkable for his conversational
powers. Among his writings are _Origin of Forms and Qualities_,
_Experiments touching Colour_, _Hydrostatical Paradoxes_, and
_Observations on Cold_; in theology, _Seraphic Love_. His complete works
were _pub._ in 5 vols. in 1744.


BRADLEY, EDWARD (1827-1889).--Novelist, was a clergyman. He wrote under
the name of "Cuthbert Bede" a few novels and tales, _Fairy Fables_
(1858), _Glencraggan_ (1861), _Fotheringhay_ (1885), etc.; but his most
popular book was _Verdant Green, an Oxford Freshman_, which had great
vogue.


BRADWARDINE, THOMAS (1290?-1349).--Theologian, was at Oxf., where he
became Prof. of Divinity and Chancellor, and afterwards Chaplain to
Edward III., whom he attended in his French wars. He was twice elected
Archbishop of Canterbury by the monks, and on the second occasion
accepted, but _d._ of the plague within 40 days. He wrote on geometry,
but his great work was _De Causa Dei_ (on the Cause of God against
Pelagius), in which he treated theology mathematically, and which earned
for him from the Pope the title of the Profound Doctor.


BRAITHWAITE, or BRATHWAITE, RICHARD (1588-1673).--Poet, _b._ near Kendal,
and _ed._ at Oxf., is believed to have served with the Royalist army in
the Civil War. He was the author of many works of very unequal merit, of
which the best known is _Drunken Barnaby's Four Journeys_, which records
his pilgrimages through England in rhymed Latin (said by Southey to be
the best of modern times), and doggerel English verse. _The English
Gentleman_ (1631) and _English Gentlewoman_ are in a much more decorous
strain. Other works are _The Golden Fleece_ (1611) (poems), _The Poet's
Willow_, _A Strappado for the Devil_ (a satire), and _Art Asleepe,
Husband?_


BRAMSTON, JAMES (_c._ 1694-1744).--Satirist, _ed._ at Westminster School
and Oxf., took orders and was latterly Vicar of Hastings. His poems are
_The Art of Politics_ (1729), in imitation of Horace, and _The Man of
Taste_ (1733), in imitation of Pope. He also parodied Phillips's
_Splendid Shilling_ in _The Crooked Sixpence_. His verses have some
liveliness.


BRAY, ANNA ELIZA (1790-1883).--Novelist, _dau._ of Mr. J. Kempe, was
married first to C.A. Stothard, _s._ of the famous R.A., and himself an
artist, and secondly to the Rev. E.A. Bray. She wrote about a dozen
novels, chiefly historical, and _The Borders of the Tamar and Tavy_
(1836), an account of the traditions and superstitions of the
neighbourhood of Tavistock in the form of letters to Southey, of whom she
was a great friend. This is probably the most valuable of her writings.
Among her works are _Branded_, _Good St. Louis and his Times_,
_Trelawney_, and _White Hoods_.


BRETON, NICHOLAS (1545-1626).--Poet and novelist. Little is known of his
life. He was the _s._ of William B., a London merchant, was perhaps at
Oxf., and was a rather prolific author of considerable versatility and
gift. Among his poetical works are _A Floorish upon Fancie, Pasquil's
Mad-cappe_ (1626), _The Soul's Heavenly Exercise_, and _The Passionate
Shepherd_. In prose he wrote _Wit's Trenchmour_, _The Wil of Wit_ (1599),
_A Mad World, my Masters_, _Adventures of Two Excellent Princes_,
_Grimello's Fortunes_ (1604), _Strange News out of Divers Countries_
(1622), etc. His mother married E. Gascoigne, the poet (_q.v._). His
lyrics are pure and fresh, and his romances, though full of conceits, are
pleasant reading, remarkably free from grossness.


BREWSTER, SIR DAVID (1781-1868).--Man of science and writer, _b._ at
Jedburgh, originally intended to enter the Church, of which, after a
distinguished course at the Univ. of Edin., he became a licentiate.
Circumstances, however, led him to devote himself to science, of which he
was one of the most brilliant ornaments of his day, especially in the
department of optics, in which he made many discoveries. He maintained
his habits of investigation and composition to the very end of his long
life, during which he received almost every kind of honorary distinction
open to a man of science. He also made many important contributions to
literature, including a _Life of Newton_ (1831), _The Martyrs of Science_
(1841), _More Worlds than One_ (1854), and _Letters on Natural Magic_
addressed to Sir W. Scott, and he also edited, in addition to various
scientific journals, _The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia_ (1807-29). He likewise
held the offices successively of Principal of the United Coll. of St.
Salvator and St. Leonard, St. Andrews (1838), and of the Univ. of Edin.
(1859). He was knighted in 1831. Of high-strung and nervous temperament,
he was somewhat irritable in matters of controversy; but he was
repeatedly subjected to serious provocation. He was a man of highly
honourable and fervently religious character.


BROKE, or BROOKE, ARTHUR (_d._ 1563).--Translator, was the author of _The
Tragicall Historie of Romeus and Juliett_, from which Shakespeare
probably took the story of his _Romeo and Juliet_. Though indirectly
translated, through a French version, from the Italian of Bandello, it is
so much altered and amplified as almost to rank as an original work. The
only fact known regarding him is his death by shipwreck when crossing to
France.


BROME, RICHARD (_d._ 1652?).--Dramatist, the servant and friend of Ben
Jonson, produced upwards of 20 plays, some in conjunction with Dekker and
others. Among them are _A Fault in Friendship_, _Late Lancashire Witches_
(with Heywood and Dekker), _A Jovial Crew_ (1652), _The Northern Lass_
(1632), _The Antipodes_ (1646), _City Wit_ (1653), _Court Beggar_ (1653),
etc. He had no original genius, but knew stage-craft well.


BRONTE, CHARLOTTE (1816-1855).--Novelist, _dau._ of the Rev. Patrick B.,
a clergyman of Irish descent and of eccentric habits who embittered the
lives of his children by his peculiar theories of education. Brought up
in a small parsonage close to the graveyard of a bleak, windswept village
on the Yorkshire moors, and left motherless in early childhood, she was
"the motherly friend and guardian of her younger sisters," of whom two,
Emily and Anne, shared, but in a less degree, her talents. After various
efforts as schoolmistresses and governesses, the sisters took to
literature and _pub._ a vol. of poems under the names of Currer, Ellis,
and Acton Bell, which, however, fell flat. Charlotte then wrote her first
novel, _The Professor_, which did not appear until after her death, and
began _Jane Eyre_, which, appearing in 1847, took the public by storm. It
was followed by _Shirley_ in 1849, and _Villette_ in 1852. In 1854 she
was married to her father's curate, the Rev. A. Nicholls, but after a
short though happy married life she _d._ in 1855. EMILY B.
(1818-1848).--a woman of remarkable force of character, reserved and
taciturn, _pub._ in 1848 _Wuthering Heights_, a powerful, but somewhat
unpleasing, novel, and some striking poems; and ANNE (1820-1849), was the
authoress of _The Tenant of Wildfell Hall_ and _Agnes Grey_ (1848). She
had not the intellectual force of her sisters. The novels of Charlotte
especially created a strong impression from the first, and the _pub._ of
_Jane Eyre_ gave rise to much curiosity and speculation as to its
authorship. Their strength and originality have retained for them a high
place in English fiction which is likely to prove permanent. There is a
biography of Charlotte by Mrs. Gaskell (_q.v._).

Complete ed. of the works of Charlotte B. have been issued by Mrs.
Humphrey Ward (7 vols. 1899-1900), and by Sir W.R. Nicoll, LL.D. (1903).
_Note on Charlotte Bronte_, A.C. Swinburne, 1877. A short _Life_ in Great
Writers Series by A. Birrell.


BROOKE, FULKE GREVILLE, LORD (1554-1628).--Poet and statesman, _b._ at
Beauchamp Court, Warwickshire, and _ed._ at Shrewsbury and Camb., was a
Privy Councillor, and held various important offices of state, including
that of Chancellor of the Exchequer (1614-21). In the latter year he was
created a peer. He was murdered by a servant. His works, which were
chiefly _pub._ after his death, consist of tragedies and sonnets, and
poems on political and moral subjects, including _Caelica_ (109 sonnets).
He also wrote a Life of Sir P. Sidney, whose friend he was. His style is
grave and sententious. He is buried in the church at Warwick, and the
inscription on his tomb, written by himself, is a compendious biography.
It runs: "Fulke Greville, servant to Queen Elizabeth, counsellor to King
James, friend to Sir Philip Sidney."


BROOKE, HENRY (1703-1783).--Novelist and dramatist, _b._ in Ireland, _s._
of a clergyman, studied law, but embraced literature as a career. He
wrote poems, dramas, and novels; but the only work which has kept its
place is _The Fool of Quality_ (5 vols. 1766-70), which was a favourite
book with John Wesley. His now forgotten poem, _Universal Beauty_ (1735)
was admired by Pope. His _dau._, CHARLOTTE, the only survivor of 22
children, tended him to his last days of decay, and was herself a writer,
her principal work being _Reliques of Irish Poetry_ (1789). She _d._
1793.


BROOKS, CHARLES WILLIAM SHIRLEY (1816-1874).--Journalist and novelist,
_b._ in London, began life in a solicitor's office. He early, however,
took to literature, and contributed to various periodicals. In 1851 he
joined the staff of _Punch_, to which he contributed "Essence of
Parliament," and on the death of Mark Lemon (_q.v._) he succeeded him as
editor. He _pub._ a few novels, including _Aspen Court_ and _The Gordian
Knot_.


BROOKS, MARIA (GOWAN) (1795?-1845).--American poetess, was early _m._ to
a merchant, who lost his money, and left her a young widow, after which
she wrote highly romantic and impassioned poetry. Her chief work,
_Zophiel or The Bride of Swen_, was finished under the auspices of
Southey, who called her "Maria del Occidente," and regarded her as "the
most impassioned and imaginative of all poetesses," but time has not
sustained this verdict.


BROOME, WILLIAM (1689-1745).--Poet and translator, _b._ at Haslington,
Cheshire, and _ed._ at Eton and Camb., entered the Church, and held
various incumbencies. He translated the _Iliad_ in prose along with
others, and was employed by Pope, whom he excelled as a Greek scholar, in
translating the _Odyssey_, of which he Englished the 8th, 11th, 12th,
16th, 18th, and 23rd books, catching the style of his master so exactly
as almost to defy identification, and thus annoying him so as to earn a
niche in _The Dunciad_. He _pub._ verses of his own of very moderate
poetical merit.


BROUGHAM AND VAUX, HENRY, 1ST LORD (1778-1868).--_S._ of Henry B. of
Brougham Hall, Westmoreland, _b._ in Edin., and _ed._ at the High School
and Univ. there, where he distinguished himself chiefly in mathematics.
He chose a legal career, and was called to the Scottish Bar in 1800, and
to the English Bar in 1808. His chief forensic display was his defence of
Queen Caroline in 1822. In 1810 he entered Parliament, where his
versatility and eloquence soon raised him to a foremost place. The
questions on which he chiefly exerted himself were the slave trade,
commercial, legal, and parliamentary reform, and education, and in all of
these he rendered signal service. When, in 1830, the Whigs, with whom he
had always acted, attained power, B. was made Lord Chancellor; but his
arrogance, selfishness, and indiscretion rendered him a dangerous and
unreliable colleague, and he was never again admitted to office. He
turned fiercely against his former political associates, but continued
his efforts on behalf of reform in various directions. He was one of the
founders of London Univ. and of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge. In literature he has a place as one of the original projectors
of and most voluminous contributors to _The Edinburgh Review_, and as the
author of a prodigious number of treatises on science, philosophy, and
history, including _Dialogues on Instinct_, Lives of Statesmen,
Philosophers, and Men of Science of the Time of George III., Natural
Theology, etc., his last work being an autobiography written in his 84th
year, and _pub._ 1871. His writings were far too numerous and far too
diverse in subject to be of permanent value. His fame now rests chiefly
on his services to political and specially to legal reform, and to the
diffusion of useful literature, which are his lasting monuments.


BROUGHTON, JOHN CAM HOBHOUSE, 1ST LORD (1786-1869).--Eldest _s._ of Sir
Benjamin H., _b._ at Redland near Bristol, _ed._ at Westminster School
and at Camb., where he became intimate with Byron, and accompanied him in
his journeys in the Peninsula, Greece, and Turkey, and acted as his "best
man." In 1816 he was with him after his separation from his wife, and
contributed notes to the fourth canto of _Childe Harold_, which was
dedicated to him. On his return he threw himself into politics with great
energy as an advanced Radical, and wrote various pamphlets, for one of
which he was in 1819 imprisoned in Newgate. In the following year he
entered Parliament, sitting for Westminster. After the attainment of
power by the Whigs he held various offices, including those of Sec. at
War, Chief Sec. for Ireland, and Pres. of the Board of Control. He _pub._
_Journey through Albania_ (1813), _Historical Illustrations of the Fourth
Canto of Childe Harold_ (1818), and _Recollections of a Long Life_
(1865), for private circulation, and he left in MS. _Diaries,
Correspondence, and Memoranda, etc., not to be opened till 1900_,
extracts from which were _pub._ by his _dau._, Lady Dorchester, also
under the title of _Recollections from a Long Life_ (1909).


BROWN, CHARLES BROCKDEN (1771-1810).--Novelist, _b._ in Philadelphia,
belonged to a Quaker family, became a lawyer, but exchanged law for
literature, and has the distinction of being the first American to adopt
a purely literary career. He wrote several novels, including _Wieland_
(1798), _Ormond_ (1799), _Arthur Mervyn_ (1800-1), and his last, _Jane
Talbot_ (1801). With a good deal of crudeness and sentimentality he has
occasional power, but dwells too much on the horrible and repulsive, the
result, perhaps, of the morbidity produced by the ill-health from which
he all his life suffered.


BROWN, GEORGE DOUGLAS (1869-1902).--Novelist, wrote _The House with the
Green Shutters_, which gives a strongly outlined picture of the harder
and less genial aspects of Scottish life and character. It may be
regarded as a useful supplement and corrective to the more roseate
presentations of the kail-yard school of J.M. Barrie and "Ian Maclaren."
It made a considerable impression. The author _d._ almost immediately
after its publication. There is an ed. with a memoir by Mr. Andrew Lang.


BROWN, DR. JOHN (1810-1882).--Physician and essayist, _s._ of John B.,
D.D., a distinguished dissenting minister in Edin. _B._ at Biggar, he was
_ed._ at the High School and Univ. of Edin., where practically the whole
of his uneventful life was spent as a physician, and where he was revered
and beloved in no common degree, and he was the cherished friend of many
of his most distinguished contemporaries, including Thackeray. He wrote
comparatively little; but all he did write is good, some of it perfect,
of its kind. His essays, among which are _Rab and his Friends_, _Pet
Marjorie_, _Our Dogs_, _Minchmoor_, and _The Enterkine_, were collected
along with papers on art, and medical history and biography, in _Horae
Subsecivae_ (Leisure Hours), 3 vols. In the mingling of tenderness and
delicate humour he has much in common with Lamb; in his insight into
dog-nature he is unique. His later years were clouded with occasional
fits of depression.


BROWN, THOMAS (1778-1820).--Metaphysician, _s._ of the Rev. Samuel B.,
minister of Kirkinabreck, practised for some time as a physician in
Edin., but his tastes and talents lying in the direction of literature
and philosophy, he devoted himself to the cultivation of these, and
succeeded Dugald Stewart as Professor of Moral Philosophy in the Univ. of
Edin., in which position he had remarkable popularity as a lecturer. His
main contribution to literature is his _Lectures_, _pub._ after his
death. B. was a man of attractive character and considerable talents, but
as a philosopher he is now largely superseded. He also wrote poetry,
which, though graceful, lacked force, and is now forgotten.


BROWN, THOMAS EDWARD (1830-1897).--Poet, _b._ at Douglas, Isle of Man,
_s._ of a clergyman, and _ed._ there and at Oxf., entered the Church and
held various scholastic appointments, including a mastership at Clifton.
His later years were spent in his native island. He had a true lyrical
gift, and much of his poetry was written in Manx dialect. His poems
include _Fo'c'sle Yarns_ (1881), _The Doctor_ (1887), _The Manx Witch_
(1889), and _Old John_ (1893). He was also an admirable letter-writer,
and 2 vols. of his letters have been _pub._


BROWN, TOM (1663-1704).--Satirist, was _ed._ at Oxf., and there composed
the famous epigram on Dr. Fell. He was for a few years schoolmaster at
Kingston-on-Thames, but owing to his irregularities lost the appointment,
and went to London, where he wrote satires, epigrams, and miscellaneous
pieces, generally coarse and scurrilous.


BROWNE, CHARLES FARRAR (1834-1867).--Humorist (Artemus Ward), _b._ in
Maine, U.S., worked as a compositor and reporter, and became a highly
popular humorous writer, his books being _Artemus Ward his Book_, _A.W.
His Panorama_, _A.W. among the Mormons_, and _A.W. in England_.


BROWNE, ISAAC HAWKINS (1705-1760).--Is remembered as the author of some
clever imitations of contemporary poets on the theme of _A Pipe of
Tobacco_, somewhat analogous to the _Rejected Addresses_ of a later day.
He also wrote a Latin poem on the immortality of the soul. B., who was a
country gentleman and barrister, had great conversational powers. He was
a friend of Dr. Johnson.


BROWNE, SIR THOMAS (1605-1682).--Physician and miscellaneous and
metaphysical writer, _s._ of a London merchant, was _ed._ at Winchester
and Oxf., after which he studied medicine at various Continental univs.,
including Leyden, where he _grad._ He ultimately settled and practised at
Norwich. His first and perhaps best known work, _Religio Medici_ (the
Religion of a Physician) was _pub._ in 1642. Other books are _Pseudodoxia
Epidemica: Enquiries into Vulgar Errors_ (1646), _Hydriotaphia, or
Urn-burial_ (1658); and _The Garden of Cyrus_ in the same year. After his
death were _pub._ his _Letter to a Friend_ and _Christian Morals_. B. is
one of the most original writers in the English language. Though by no
means free from credulity, and dealing largely with trivial subjects of
inquiry, the freshness and ingenuity of his mind invest everything he
touches with interest; while on more important subjects his style, if
frequently rugged and pedantic, often rises to the highest pitch of grave
and stately eloquence. In the Civil War he sided with the King's party,
and was knighted in 1671 on the occasion of a Royal visit to Norwich. In
character he was simple, cheerful, and retiring. He has had a profound if
indirect influence on succeeding literature, mainly by impressing
master-minds such as Lamb, Coleridge, and Carlyle.

There is an ed. of B.'s works by S. Wilkin (4 vols., 1835-6), _Religio
Medici_ by Dr. Greenhill, 1881. _Life_ by Gosse in Men of Letters Series,
1903.


BROWNE, WILLIAM (1590?-1645?).--Poet, _b._ at Tavistock, _ed._ at Oxf.,
after which he entered the Inner Temple. His poems, which are mainly
descriptive, are rich and flowing, and true to the phenomena of nature,
but deficient in interest. Influenced by Spenser, he in turn had an
influence upon such poets as Milton and Keats. His chief works were
_Britannia's Pastorals_ (1613), and _The Shepheard's Pipe_ (1614).


BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT (1806-1861).--Poetess, was the _dau._ of
Edward Barrett Moulton Barrett, who assumed the last name on succeeding
to the estates of his grandfather in Jamaica. She was _b._ at Coxhoe
Hall, Durham, but spent her youth at Hope End, near Great Malvern. While
still a child she showed her gift, and her _f._ _pub._ 50 copies of a
juvenile epic, on the Battle of Marathon. She was _ed._ at home, but owed
her profound knowledge of Greek and much mental stimulus to her early
friendship with the blind scholar, Hugh Stuart Boyd, who was a neighbour.
At the age of 15 she met with an injury to her spine which confined her
to a recumbent position for several years, and from the effects of which
she never fully recovered. In 1826 she _pub._ anonymously _An Essay on
Mind and Other Poems_. Shortly afterwards the abolition of slavery, of
which he had been a disinterested supporter, considerably reduced Mr.
B.'s means: he accordingly disposed of his estate and removed with his
family first to Sidmouth and afterwards to London. At the former Miss B.
wrote _Prometheus Bound_ (1835). After her removal to London she fell
into delicate health, her lungs being threatened. This did not, however,
interfere with her literary labours, and she contributed to various
periodicals _The Romaunt of Margaret_, _The Romaunt of the Page_, _The
Poet's Vow_, and other pieces. In 1838 appeared _The Seraphim and Other
Poems_ (including "Cowper's Grave.") Shortly thereafter the death, by
drowning, of her favourite brother gave a serious shock to her already
fragile health, and for a time she hovered between life and death.
Eventually, however, she regained strength, and meanwhile her fame was
growing. The _pub._ about 1841 of _The Cry of the Children_ gave it a
great impulse, and about the same time she contributed some critical
papers in prose to R.H. Horne's _New Spirit of the Age_. In 1844 she
_pub._ two vols. of _Poems_, which comprised "The Drama of Exile,"
"Vision of Poets," and "Lady Geraldine's Courtship." In 1845 she met for
the first time her future husband, Robert Browning (_q.v._). Their
courtship and marriage, owing to her delicate health and the
extraordinary objections entertained by Mr. B. to the marriage of any of
his children, were carried out under somewhat peculiar and romantic
circumstances. After a private marriage and a secret departure from her
home, she accompanied her husband to Italy, which became her home almost
continuously until her death, and with the political aspirations of which
she and her husband both thoroughly identified themselves. The union
proved one of unalloyed happiness to both, though it was never forgiven
by Mr. Barrett. In her new circumstances her strength greatly increased.
Her husband and she settled in Florence, and there she wrote _Casa Guidi
Windows_ (1851)--by many considered her strongest work--under the
inspiration of the Tuscan struggle for liberty. _Aurora Leigh_, her
largest, and perhaps the most popular of her longer poems, appeared in
1856. In 1850 _The Sonnets from the Portuguese_--the history of her own
love-story, thinly disguised by its title--had appeared. In 1860 she
issued a _coll._ ed. of her poems under the title, _Poems before
Congress_. Soon thereafter her health underwent a change for the worse;
she gradually lost strength, and _d._ on June 29, 1861. She is generally
considered the greatest of English poetesses. Her works are full of
tender and delicate, but also of strong and deep, thought. Her own
sufferings, combined with her moral and intellectual strength, made her
the champion of the suffering and oppressed wherever she found them. Her
gift was essentially lyrical, though much of her work was not so in form.
Her weak points are the lack of compression, an occasional somewhat
obtrusive mannerism, and frequent failure both in metre and rhyme. Though
not nearly the equal of her husband in force of intellect and the higher
qualities of the poet, her works had, as might be expected on a
comparison of their respective subjects and styles, a much earlier and
wider acceptance with the general public. Mrs. B. was a woman of singular
nobility and charm, and though not beautiful, was remarkably attractive.
Miss Mitford (_q.v._) thus describes her as a young woman: "A slight,
delicate figure, with a shower of dark curls falling on each side of a
most expressive face; large, tender eyes, richly fringed by dark
eyelashes, and a smile like a sunbeam."

_Life_ by J.H. Ingram (1889); _Letters of R. Browning and E.B. Browning_
(1889). _Coll._ ed. of her works, _see_ above.


BROWNING, ROBERT (1812-1889).--Poet, only _s._ of Robert B., a man of
fine intellect and equally fine character, who held a position in the
Bank of England, was _b._ in Camberwell. His mother, to whom he was
ardently attached, was the _dau._ of a German shipowner who had settled
in Dundee, and was alike intellectually and morally worthy of his
affection. The only other member of the family was a younger sister, also
highly gifted, who was the sympathetic companion of his later years. In
his childhood he was distinguished by his love of poetry and natural
history. At 12 he had written a book of poetry which he destroyed when he
could not find a publisher. After being at one or two private schools,
and showing an insuperable dislike to school life, he was _ed._ by a
tutor, and thereafter studied Greek at Univ. Coll., London. Through his
mother he inherited some musical talent, and composed settings, for
various songs. His first _pub._ was _Pauline_, which appeared anonymously
in 1833, but attracted little attention. In 1834 he paid his first visit
to Italy, in which so much of his future life was to be passed. The
publication of _Paracelsus_ in 1835, though the poem had no general
popularity, gained the notice of Carlyle, Wordsworth, and other men of
letters, and gave him a reputation as a poet of distinguished promise.
Two years later his drama of _Stratford_ was performed by his friend
Macready and Helen Faucit, and in 1840 the most difficult and obscure of
his works, _Sordello_, appeared; but, except with a select few, did
little to increase his reputation. It was followed by _Bells and
Pomegranates_ (containing _Pippa Passes_) (1841), _A Blot in the
'Scutcheon_ (drama) (1843), _Luria_ and _A Soul's Tragedy_ (1846). In
this year he married Miss Elizabeth Barrett (_q.v._), the poetess, a
union of ideal happiness. Thereafter his home until his wife's death in
1861 was in Italy, chiefly at Florence. In 1850 he wrote _Christmas Eve
and Easter Day_, and in 1855 appeared _Men and Women_. After the death of
Mrs. Browning he returned to England, paying, however, frequent visits to
Italy. Settling in London he published successively _Dramatis Personae_
(1864), _The Ring and the Book_ (1868-69), his greatest work,
_Balaustion's Adventure_, and _Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau_ (1871),
_Fifine at the Fair_ (1872), _Red Cotton Night-cap Country_ (1873), _The
Inn Album_ (1875), _Pacchiarotto_ (1876), translation of _Agamemnon_
(1879), _La Saisiaz_, etc. (1878), _Dramatic Idylls_ (1879 and 1880),
_Asolando_ (1889) appeared on the day of his death. To the great majority
of readers, probably, B. is best known by some of his short poems, such
as, to name a few, "Rabbi Ben Ezra," "How they brought the good News to
Aix," "Evelyn Hope," "The Pied Piper of Hammelin," "A Grammarian's
Funeral," "A Death in the Desert." It was long before England recognised
that in B. she had received one of the greatest of her poets, and the
causes of this lie on the surface. His subjects were often recondite and
lay beyond the ken and sympathy of the great bulk of readers; and owing,
partly to the subtle links connecting the ideas and partly to his often
extremely condensed and rugged expression, the treatment of them was not
seldom difficult and obscure. Consequently for long he appealed to a
somewhat narrow circle. As time went on, however, and work after work was
added, the circle widened, and the marvellous depth and variety of
thought and intensity of feeling told with increasing force. Societies
began to be formed for the study of the poet's work. Critics became more
and more appreciative, and he at last reaped the harvest of admiration
and honour which was his due. Many distinctions came to him. He was made
LL.D. of Edin., a life Governor of London Univ., and had the offer of the
Lord Rectorship of Glasgow. He _d._ in the house of his son at Venice,
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. The keynote of his teaching is a
wise and noble optimism. His poems were collected in 2 vols. in 1896.
Some vols. of his correspondence with Mrs. B. were also _pub._

Uniform ed. of Works (17 vols. 1888-90); Furnivall's _Browning
Bibliography_ (1883), _Lives_ by Mrs. Sutherland Orr (1891); Gosse
(1890); Dowden (1904), G.K. Chesterton (English Men of Letters), etc.;
_Poetry of Robert Browning_ by Stopford Brooke, 1902, etc.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1812, _pub._ _Paracelsus_ 1835, _Sordello_ 1840, _Bells
and Pomegranates_ 1841, _m._ to E.B.B. 1846, lives chiefly in Italy till
her _d._, 1861, when he returned to England and continued to write until
his _d._, _pub._ _Dramatis Personae_, _Ring and Book_ 1868-9, _Asolando_
1889, _d._ 1889.


BRUCE, JAMES (1730-1794).--Traveller, was _b._ at the family seat of
Kinnaird, Perthshire, and _ed._ at Harrow. After various travels in
Europe he set out in 1768 on his expedition to Abyssinia, and in 1770
reached the source of the Blue Nile. He returned to England in 1774, and
in 1790 _pub._ his _Travels_ in 5 quarto vols. His notorious vanity, the
singular adventures he related, and the generally embellished character
which he imparted to his narrative excited some degree of scepticism, and
he was subjected to a good deal of satire, to which, though much annoyed,
he did not reply. It is, however, generally allowed that he had shown
great daring, perseverance, and zeal in his explorations, and that he
made a real addition to the geographical knowledge of his day.


BRUCE, MICHAEL (1746-1767).--Poet, _s._ of a poor weaver at Kinnesswood,
Kinross-shire, as a child herded cattle, but received a good education,
including 4 sessions at the Univ. of Edin., and for a short time kept a
school. His longest poem, _Loch Leven_, shows the influence of Thomson.
His best is his _Elegy_. His promising career was cut short by
consumption in 1767. The authorship of the beautiful _Ode to the Cuckoo_
beginning "Hail, beauteous stranger of the grove" is contested, some
authorities claiming it for B. and others for the Rev. John Logan
(_q.v._), who ed. B.'s works, adding some of his own, and who claimed the
_Ode_ as his.


BRUNTON, MARY (BALFOUR) (1778-1818).--Novelist, _dau._ of Col. Balfour of
Elwick, and _m._ to the Rev. Dr. Brunton, Prof. of Oriental Languages in
the Univ. of Edin., was the authoress of two novels, _Self-Control_
(1811) and _Discipline_ (1814), which were popular in their day.


BRYANT, JACOB (1715-1804).--Scholar, _ed._ at Eton and Camb., wrote
learnedly, but paradoxically, on mythological and Homeric subjects. His
chief works were _A New System or Analysis of Ancient Mythology_
(1774-76), _Observations on the Plain of Troy_ (1795), and _Dissertation
concerning the Wars of Troy_ (1796). In the last two he endeavoured to
show that the existence of Troy and the Greek expedition were fabulous.
Though so sceptical on these points he was an implicit believer in the
authenticity of the Rowley authorship of Chatterton's fabrications. He
also wrote on theological subjects.


BRYANT, WILLIAM CULLEN (1794-1878).--Poet, was _b._ at Cummington,
Massachusetts, the _s._ of a doctor. His ancestors on both sides came
over in the _Mayflower_. His first poem was _Thanatopsis_ (1817), which
was greeted as the best poem produced in America up to that time. After
being a lawyer for some time he was induced to exchange law for
journalism, and acted as ed. of various periodicals. Among his best known
poems are _Lines to a Water-fowl_, _The Rivulet_, _The West Wind_, _The
Forest Hymn_, _The Fringed Gentian_, etc. His muse is tender and graceful,
pervaded by a contemplative melancholy, and a love of solitude and the
silence of the woods. Though he was brought up to admire Pope, and in his
early youth imitated him, he was one of the first American poets to throw
off his influence. He had a high sense of duty, was a prominent and
patriotic citizen, and enjoyed the esteem and even the reverence of his
fellow-countrymen. B. also produced a blank-verse translation of the
_Iliad_ and the _Odyssey_.


BRYDGES, SIR SAMUEL EGERTON (1762-1837).--Bibliographer and genealogist,
_ed._ at Camb., was called to the Bar in 1787. He wrote some novels and
poems, now forgotten, but rendered valuable service by his
bibliographical publications, _Censura Literaria, Titles and Opinions of
Old English Books_ (10 vols. 1805-9), his editions of E. Phillips's
_Theatrum Poetarum Anglicanorum_ (1800) Collin's _Peerage of England_
(1812), and of many rare Elizabethan authors. He was made a baronet in
1814. He _d._ at Geneva.


BUCHANAN, GEORGE (1506-1582).--Historian and scholar _b._ at Killearn,
Stirlingshire, of poor parents, was sent in 1519, with the help of an
uncle, to the Univ. of Paris, where he first came in contact with the two
great influences of the age, the Renaissance and the Reformation. His
uncle having died, he had to leave Paris, and after seeing some military
service, returned to Scotland, and in 1524 went to St. Andrews, where he
studied under John Major (_q.v._). Two years later he found means to
return to Paris, where he graduated at the Scots Coll. in 1528, and
taught grammar in the Coll. of St. Barbe. Returning to Scotland in 1536
with a great reputation for learning he was made by James V. tutor to one
of his illegitimate sons, and incited by him to satirise the vices of the
clergy, which he did in two Latin poems, _Somnium_ and _Franciscanus_.
This stirred the wrath of the ecclesiastical powers to such a heat that,
the King withholding his protection, he was obliged in 1539 to save
himself by flight first to England and then to France, where he remained
until 1547 teaching Latin at Bordeaux and Paris. In the latter year he
was invited to become a prof. at Coimbra, where he was imprisoned by the
Inquisition as a heretic from 1549-51, and wrote the greater part of his
magnificent translation of the Psalms into Latin verse, which has never
been excelled by any modern. He returned to England in 1552, but soon
re-crossed to France and taught in the Coll. of Boncourt. In 1561 he came
back to his native country, where he remained for the rest of his life.
Hitherto, though a supporter of the new learning and a merciless exposer
of the vices of the clergy, he had remained in the ancient faith, but he
now openly joined the ranks of the Reformers. He held the Principalship
of St. Leonard's Coll., St. Andrews, was a supporter of the party of the
Regent Moray, produced in 1571 his famous _Detectio Mariae Reginae_, a
scathing exposure of the Queen's relations to Darnley and the
circumstances leading up to his death, was tutor, 1570-78, to James VI.,
whom he brought up with great strictness, and to whom he imparted the
learning of which the King was afterwards so vain. His chief remaining
works were _De Jure Regni apud Scotos_ (1579), against absolutism, and
his _History of Scotland_, which was _pub._ immediately before his death.
Though he had borne so great a part in the affairs of his country, and
was the first scholar of his age, he _d._ so poor that he left no funds
to meet the expenses of his interment. His literary masterpiece is his
_History_, which is remarkable for the power and richness of its style.
Its matter, however, gave so much offence that a proclamation was issued
calling in all copies of it, as well as of the _De Jure Regni_, that they
might be purged of the "offensive and extraordinary matters" which they
contained. B. holds his great and unique place in literature not so much
for his own writings as for his strong and lasting influence on
subsequent writers.


BUCHANAN, ROBERT (1841-1901).--Poet and novelist, _b._ at Caverswall,
Staffordshire, the _s._ of a Scottish schoolmaster and socialist, and
_ed._ at Glasgow, was the friend of David Gray (_q.v._), and with him
went to London in search of fame, but had a long period of
discouragement. His first work, a collection of poems, _Undertones_
(1863), had, however, some success, and was followed by _Idylls of
Inverburn_ (1865), _London Poems_ (1866), and others, which gave him a
growing reputation, and raised high hopes of his future. Thereafter he
took up prose fiction and the drama, not always with success, and got
into trouble owing to some drastic criticism of his contemporaries,
culminating in his famous article on the _Fleshly School of Poetry_,
which appeared in the _Contemporary Review_ (Oct. 1871), and evoked
replies from Rossetti (_The Stealthy School of Criticism_), and Swinburne
(_Under the Microscope_). Among his novels are _A Child of Nature_
(1879), _God and the Man_ (1881), and among his dramas _A Nine Days'
Queen_, _A Madcap Prince_, and _Alone in London_. His latest poems, _The
Outcast_ and _The Wandering Jew_, were directed against certain aspects
of Christianity. B. was unfortunate in his latter years; a speculation
turned out ruinously; he had to sell his copyrights, and he sustained a
paralytic seizure, from the effects of which he _d._ in a few months. He
ultimately admitted that his criticism of Rossetti was unjustifiable.


BUCKINGHAM, GEORGE VILLIERS, 2ND DUKE of (1628-1687).--Dramatist, _s._ of
the 1st Duke, who was in 1628 assassinated by Felton. His life was full
of adventure and change of fortune. The Restoration gave him back his
already twice lost estates, which he again squandered by a life of wild
extravagance and profligacy at Court. He was a member of the "Cabal" and
intrigued against Clarendon. He wrote pamphlets, lampoons, and plays, but
his chief contribution to literature was _The Rehearsal_, a comedy, in
which he satirised the heroic drama of Dryden and others. It is believed
that S. Butler had a hand in it. Dryden had his revenge in his picture of
B. as _Zimri_ in _Absalom and Achitophel_.


BUCKINGHAM AND NORMANBY, JOHN SHEFFIELD, 1ST DUKE of (1648-1721).--_S._
of the 2nd Earl of Mulgrave, served in his youth as a soldier under
Prince Rupert and Turenne, and is also said to have made love to the
Princess, afterwards Queen, Anne. He was a Privy Councillor under James
II., William and Mary, and Anne, with the last of whom he remained a
favourite. His magnificent mansion was purchased and pulled down to make
way for Buckingham Palace. He wrote _An Account of the Revolution_, _An
Essay on Satire_, and _An Essay on Poetry_. He also remodelled
Shakespeare's _Julius Caesar_.


BUCKINGHAM, JAMES SILK (1786-1855).--Journalist and traveller, wrote many
books of travel, both on the Old and New World. He established, and for a
year or two ed., _The Athenaeum_, and produced many pamphlets on political
and social subjects.


BUCKLAND, FRANCIS TREVELYAN (1826-80).--Naturalist, _b._ and _ed._ at
Oxf., where his _f._ was Dean of Christchurch. He studied medicine and
was assistant-surgeon in the Life Guards. An enthusiastic lover of
natural history, he wrote largely upon it, among his works being
_Curiosities of Natural History_ (4 vols. 1857-72), _Log Book of a
Fisherman and Zoologist_ (1876), _Natural History of British Fishes_
(1881). He also founded and ed. _Land and Water_. He was for a time
Inspector of Salmon Fisheries, and served on various commissions. Though
observant, he was not always strictly scientific in his methods and modes
of expression, and he was a strong opponent of Darwin.


BUCKLE, HENRY THOMAS (1821-1862).--Historical writer, _s._ of a wealthy
shipowner in London, was _b._ at Lee in Kent. Though never at a univ. and
little at school, he received a high degree of education privately, and
inheriting an ample fortune and a large library, he devoted himself to
travel and study, with the view of preparing for a great work which he
had projected, _The History of Civilisation in England_. As an
introduction to this he entered upon the consideration of the state of
civilisation in various other countries, but this he had scarcely
completed when his death took place at Damascus in 1862. The first vol.
was _pub._ in 1857, and the second in 1861. In these the results of a
vast amount of reading are shown; but they are not free from one-sided
views and generalisations resting on insufficient data. He has, however,
the credit of having contributed a new idea of history and the method of
writing it. The completed work was to have extended to 14 vols. B. was
one of the greatest chess-players in Europe.


BUDGELL, EUSTACE (1686-1737).--Miscellaneous writer, _ed._ at Oxf., was a
cousin of Addison, who took him to Ireland and got him appointed to a
lucrative office, which, however, he was foolish enough to throw away by
lampooning the Viceroy. He assisted A. in the _Spectator_, of which he
wrote 37 numbers signed X. In these he imitates A.'s style with some
success. B., who was vain and vindictive, fell on evil days, lost a
fortune in the South Sea Bubble, was accused of forging a will, and
committed suicide by throwing himself out of a boat at London Bridge.


BULL, GEORGE (1634-1710).--Theologian, _b._ at Wells, _ed._ at Tiverton
and Oxf., took orders, was ordained by an ejected bishop in 1658, and
received the living of Suddington near Bristol. He was a strong Royalist,
and was privy to a scheme for bringing back the Royal family. After the
Restoration he obtained further preferment, and became in 1704 Bishop of
St. David's at an age when his strength had become unequal to any very
active discharge of the duties of his see. He has a high place among
Anglican theologians, and as a defender of the doctrine of the Trinity
was held in high esteem even by Continental Romanist controversialists.
Among his works are _Harmonia Apostolica_ (1669-70) in which he
endeavoured to reconcile alleged discrepancies between the teaching of
St. Paul and St. James on the relation between faith and works, in which
he assigned to the latter the higher authority, _Defensio Fidei Nicaenae_
(1685) and _Corruptions of the Church of Rome_.


BULWER, E.L., (_see_ LYTTON.)


BUNYAN, JOHN (1628-1688).--_B._ at Elstow, near Bedford, the _s._ of a
poor tinker, was _ed._ at a free school, after which he worked at his
father's trade. At 17 he was drafted as a soldier in the Civil War, and
served for two years at Newport Pagnell. At 19 he _m._ a pious young
woman, whose only dowry appears to have been two books, the _Plain Man's
Pathway to Heaven_ and the _Practice of Piety_, by which he was
influenced towards a religious life. In his autobiographical book, _Grace
Abounding_, B. describes himself as having led an abandoned life in his
youth; but there appears to be no evidence that he was, outwardly at any
rate, worse than the average of his neighbours: the only serious fault
which he specifies is profanity, others being dancing and bell-ringing.
The overwhelming power of his imagination led him to contemplate acts of
impiety and profanity, and to a vivid realisation of the dangers these
involved. In particular he was harassed by a curiosity in regard to the
"unpardonable sin," and a prepossession that he had already committed it.
He continually heard voices urging him to "sell Christ," and was tortured
by fearful visions. After severe spiritual conflicts he escaped from this
condition, and became an enthusiastic and assured believer. In 1657 he
joined the Baptist Church, began to preach, and in 1660 was committed to
Bedford Jail, at first for three months, but on his refusing to conform,
or to desist from preaching, his confinement was extended with little
interval for a period of nearly 12 years, not always, however, very
rigorous. He supported his family (wife and four children, including a
blind girl) by making tagged laces, and devoted all the time he could
spare from this to studying his few books and writing. During this period
he wrote among other things, _The Holy City_ and _Grace Abounding_. Under
the Declaration of Indulgence he was released in 1672, and became a
licensed preacher. In 1675 the Declaration was cancelled, and he was,
under the Conventicle Act, again imprisoned for six months, during which
he wrote the first part of _The Pilgrim's Progress_, which appeared in
1678, and to which considerable additions were made in subsequent
editions. It was followed by the _Life and Death of Mr. Badman_ (1680),
_The Holy War_ (1682), and the second part of _The Pilgrim's Progress_
(1684). B. was now widely known as a popular preacher and author, and
exercised a wide influence. In 1688 he set out on a journey to mediate
between a father and son, in which he was successful. On the return
journey he was drenched with rain, caught a chill and _d._ in London on
August 31. He is buried in Bunhill Fields. B. has the distinction of
having written, in _The Pilgrim's Progress_, probably the most widely
read book in the English language, and one which has been translated into
more tongues than any book except the Bible. The charm of the work, which
makes it the joy of old and young, learned and ignorant, and of readers
of all possible schools of thought and theology, lies in the interest of
a story in which the intense imagination of the writer makes characters,
incidents, and scenes alike live in that of his readers as things
actually known and remembered by themselves, in its touches of tenderness
and quaint humour, its bursts of heart-moving eloquence, and its pure,
nervous, idiomatic English, Macaulay has said, "Every reader knows the
straight and narrow path as well as he knows a road on which he has been
backwards and forwards a hundred times," and he adds that "In England
during the latter half of the seventeenth century there were only two
minds which possessed the imaginative faculty in a very eminent degree.
One of these minds produced the _Paradise Lost_, the other _The Pilgrim's
Progress_." B. wrote about 60 books and tracts, of which _The Holy War_
ranks next to _The Pilgrim's Progress_ in popularity, while _Grace
Abounding_ is one of the most interesting pieces of biography in
existence.

There are numerous Lives, the most complete being that by Dr. John Brown
of Bedford (1885 new 1888): others are Southey's (1830), on which
Macaulay's _Essay_ is based, Offor (1862), Froude (1880). On _The
Pilgrim's Progress, The People of the Pilgrimage_, by J. Kerr Bain, D.D.


BURCKHARDT, JOHN LEWIS (1784-1817).--Traveller, _b._ at Lausanne and
_ed._ in Germany, came to England in 1806 and wrote his books of travel
in English. He travelled widely in Africa and in Syria, and the adjoining
countries, became a great oriental scholar, and, disguising himself, made
the pilgrimage to Mecca, and obtained access to places not open to
Christians. He wrote accounts of his travels, and a book on Arabic
proverbs. He _d._ of dysentery at Cairo when about to start on a new
journey into the interior of Africa.


BURKE, EDMUND (1729-1797).--Statesman, orator, and political philosopher,
was the _s._ of an attorney in Dublin, where he was _b._ His _f._ was a
Protestant, but his mother, whose maiden name was Nagle, was a Roman
Catholic. He received his early _ed._ at a Quaker school at Ballitore,
and in 1743 proceeded to Trinity Coll., Dublin, where he graduated in
1748. His _f._ wished him to study for the law, and with this object he,
in 1750, went to London and entered the Middle Temple. He, however,
disliked law and spent more time in literary pursuits than in legal
study. In 1756 his first _pub._ work appeared, _A Vindication of Natural
Society_, a satire on the views of Bolingbroke, but so close was the
imitation of that writer's style, and so grave the irony, that its point
as a satire was largely missed. In the same year he _pub._ his famous
treatise _On the Sublime and Beautiful_, which attracted universal
attention, and three years later (1759) he projected with Dodsley the
publisher _The Annual Register_, for which he continued to write the
yearly Survey of Events until 1788. About the same time he was introduced
to W.G. Hamilton (known as Single-speech H.) then about to go to Ireland
as Chief Sec., and accompanied him in the capacity of private sec., in
which he remained for three years. In 1765 he became private sec. to the
Marquis of Rockingham, the Whig statesman, then Prime Minister, who
became his fast friend until his death. At the same time he entered
Parliament as member for Wendover, and began his brilliant career as an
orator and philosophic statesman. The first great subject in which he
interested himself was the controversy with the American colonies, which
soon developed into war and ultimate separation, and in 1769 he _pub._,
in reply to G. Grenville, his pamphlet on _The Present State of the
Nation_. In the same year he purchased the small estate of Gregories near
Beaconsfield. His speeches and writings had now made him famous, and
among other effects had brought about the suggestion that he was the
author of the _Letters of Junius_. It was also about this time that he
became one of the circle which, including Goldsmith, Garrick, etc., had
Johnson for its central luminary. In 1770 appeared _Thoughts on the
Causes of the Present Discontent_, directed against the growth of the
Royal power on the one hand, and of faction on the other. In 1774 he was
elected member for Bristol, and continued so until 1780, when differences
with his constituency on the questions of Irish trade and Catholic
emancipation led to his resignation, after which he sat for Malton until
his final retirement from public life. Under the administration of Lord
North (1770-1782) the American war went on from bad to worse, and it was
in part owing to the splendid oratorical efforts of B. that it was at
last brought to an end. To this period belong two of his most brilliant
performances, his speech on _Conciliation with America_ (1775), and his
_Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol_ (1777). The fall of North led to
Rockingham being recalled to power, which, however, he held for a few
months only, dying in the end of 1782, during which period B. held the
office of Paymaster of the Forces, and was made a Privy Councillor.
Thereafter he committed the great error of his political life in
supporting Fox in his coalition with North, one of the most flagitious,
as it was to those concerned in it, one of the most fatal, political acts
in our parliamentary history. Under this unhappy combination he continued
to hold during its brief existence the office of Paymaster, and
distinguished himself in connection with Fox's India Bill. The coalition
fell in 1783, and was succeeded by the long administration of Pitt, which
lasted until 1801. B. was accordingly for the remainder of his political
life in opposition. In 1785 he made his great speech on _The Nabob of
Arcot's Debts_, and in the next year (1786) he moved for papers in regard
to the Indian government of Warren Hastings, the consequence of which was
the impeachment of that statesman, which, beginning in 1787, lasted until
1794, and of which B. was the leading promoter. Meanwhile, the events in
France were in progress which led to the Revolution, and culminated in
the death of the King and Queen. By these B. was profoundly moved, and
his _Reflections on the French Revolution_ (1790) electrified England,
and even Europe. Its success was enormous. The same events and the
differences which arose regarding them in the Whig party led to its break
up, to the rupture of B's friendship with Fox, and to his _Appeal from
the New to the Old Whigs_. In 1794 a terrible blow fell upon him in the
loss of his son Richard, to whom he was tenderly attached, and in whom he
saw signs of promise, which were not patent to others, and which in fact
appear to have been non-existent. In the same year the Hastings trial
came to an end. B. felt that his work was done and indeed that he was
worn out; and he took leave of Parliament. The King, whose favour he had
gained by his attitude on the French Revolution, wished to make him Lord
Beaconsfield, but the death of his son had deprived such an honour of all
its attractions, and the only reward he would accept was a pension of
L2500. Even this modest reward for services so transcendent was attacked
by the Duke of Bedford, to whom B. made a crushing reply in the _Letter
to a Noble Lord_ (1796). His last _pub._ was the _Letter on a Regicide
Peace_ (1796), called forth by negotiations for peace with France. When
it appeared the author was dead.

B. was one of the greatest political thinkers whom England has produced,
and all his writings, like his speeches, are characterised by the welding
together of knowledge, thought, and feeling. Unlike most orators he is
more successful as a writer than as a speaker. He rose too far above the
heads of his audience, which the continued splendour of his declamation,
his inordinate copiousness, and his excessive vehemence, often passing
into fury, at length wearied, and even disgusted: but in his writings are
found some of the grandest examples of a fervid and richly elaborated
eloquence. Though he was never admitted to the Cabinet, he guided and
influenced largely the policy of his party, while by his efforts in the
direction of economy and order in administration at home, and on behalf
of kindly and just government in India, as well as by his contributions
to political philosophy, he laid his country and indeed the world under
lasting obligations.

There are _Lives_ by Prior (1824 and 1854); J. Morley (1867), and various
ed. of his works have appeared. _Select Works_ by Payne (3 vols.
1874-78).

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1729, _ed._ Trinity Coll., Dublin, enters Middle Temple
1750, _pub._ treatise _On the Sublime and Beautiful_ 1756, became friend
of Rockingham 1765, enters Parliament and engages in American
controversy, _pub._ speech on _Conciliation with America_ 1775, Paymaster
of Forces and P.C. 1782, joined coalition of Fox and North 1782, leads in
prosecution of W. Hastings 1787-94, _pub._ _Reflections on French
Revolution_ 1790 and breaks with Fox party, _pub._ _Letter on a Regicide
Peace_ 1796, _d._ 1797.


BURNET, GILBERT (1643-1715).--Theologian and historian, s. of a Royalist
and Episcopalian lawyer, who became a judge, and of the sister of
Johnston of Warristoun, a leader of the Covenanters, was _b._ in Edin.,
and _ed._ at Aberdeen and at Amsterdam, where he studied Hebrew under a
Rabbi. Returning to Scotland, he was successively Episcopal minister at
Saltoun and Prof. of Divinity in Glasgow (1669), and was then offered,
but declined, a Scotch bishopric. His energetic and bustling character
led him to take an active part in the controversies of the time, and he
endeavoured to bring about a reconciliation between Episcopacy and
Presbytery. Going to London he was in some favour with Charles II., from
whom he received various preferments. His literary reputation was greatly
enhanced by the publication in 1679 of the first vol. of his _History of
the Reformation of the Church of England_, for which he received the
thanks of Parliament, and which was completed by other two vols., in 1682
and 1714. On account of a letter of reproof which he ventured to write to
the King, he lost favour at Court, and the policy pursued by James II.
being very repugnant to him, he betook himself in 1687 to Holland, where
he became one of the advisers of the Prince of Orange. Returning to
England at the Revolution, he was made Bishop of Salisbury, which office
he adorned by liberal views and a zealous discharge of duty. The work by
which his fame is chiefly sustained, his _History of my Own Times_, was,
by his direction, not to be _pub._ until 6 years after his death. It
appeared in 1723. It gives a sketch of the history of the Civil Wars and
Commonwealth, and a detailed account of the immediately succeeding period
down to 1713. While not free from egotism and some party feeling, it is
written with a sincere desire for accuracy and fairness, and it has
largely the authority of an eye-witness. The style, if somewhat lacking
in dignity, is lively and picturesque. Among his other writings are a
_History of the Dukes of Hamilton_, and an _Exposition of the 39
Articles_.

His principal works have been repeatedly printed. Clarendon Press ed. of
_My Own Times_ by Routh (1823 and 1833).


BURNET, THOMAS (1635?-1715).--Theologian and writer on cosmogony, was
_b._ at Croft near Darlington, and _ed._ at Camb., and became Master of
Charterhouse and Clerk of the Closet to William III. His literary fame
rests on his _Telluris Theoria Sacra, or Sacred Theory of the Earth_,
_pub._ about 1692, first in Latin and afterwards in English, a work
which, in absence of all scientific knowledge of the earth's structure,
was necessarily a mere speculative cosmogony. It is written, however,
with much eloquence. Some of the views expressed in another work,
_Archaeolgiae Philosophicae_, were, however, so unacceptable to contemporary
theologians that he had to resign his post at Court.


BURNS, ROBERT (1759-1796).--Poet, was _b._ near Ayr, the _s._ of William
Burness or Burns, a small farmer, and a man of considerable force of
character and self-culture. His youth was passed in poverty, hardship,
and a degree of severe manual labour which left its traces in a premature
stoop and weakened constitution. He had little regular schooling, and got
much of what education he had from his father, who taught his children
reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and history, and also wrote for
them "A Manual of Christian Belief." With all his ability and character,
however, the elder B. was consistently unfortunate, and migrated with his
large family from farm to farm without ever being able to improve his
circumstances. In 1781 Robert went to Irvine to become a flax-dresser,
but, as the result of a New Year carousal of the workmen, including
himself, the shop took fire and was burned to the ground. This venture
accordingly came to an end. In 1784 the _f._ died, and B. with his
brother Gilbert made an ineffectual struggle to keep on the farm; failing
in which they removed to Mossgiel, where they maintained an uphill fight
for 4 years. Meanwhile, his love affair with Jean Armour had passed
through its first stage, and the troubles in connection therewith,
combined with the want of success in farming, led him to think of going
to Jamaica as bookkeeper on a plantation. From this he was dissuaded by a
letter from Dr. Thomas Blacklock (_q.v._), and at the suggestion of his
brother _pub._ his poems. This first ed. was brought out at Kilmarnock in
June 1786, and contained much of his best work, including "The Twa Dogs,"
"The Address to the Deil," "Hallowe'en," "The Cottar's Saturday Night,"
"The Mouse," "The Daisy," etc., many of which had been written at
Mossgiel. Copies of this ed. are now extremely scarce, and as much as
L550 has been paid for one. The success of the work was immediate, the
poet's name rang over all Scotland, and he was induced to go to Edin. to
superintend the issue of a new ed. There he was received as an equal by
the brilliant circle of men of letters which the city then
boasted--Dugald Stewart, Robertson, Blair, etc., and was a guest at
aristocratic tables, where he bore himself with unaffected dignity. Here
also Scott, then a boy of 15, saw him and describes him as of "manners
rustic, not clownish. His countenance ... more massive than it looks in
any of the portraits ... a strong expression of shrewdness in his
lineaments; the eye alone indicated the poetical character and
temperament. It was large, and of a dark cast, and literally glowed when
he spoke with feeling or interest." The results of this visit outside of
its immediate and practical object, included some life-long friendships,
among which were those with Lord Glencairn and Mrs. Dunlop. The new ed.
brought him L400. About this time the episode of Highland Mary occurred.
On his return to Ayrshire he renewed his relations with Jean Armour, whom
he ultimately married, took the farm of Ellisland near Dumfries, having
meanwhile taken lessons in the duties of an exciseman, as a line to fall
back upon should farming again prove unsuccessful. At Ellisland his
society was cultivated by the local gentry. And this, together with
literature and his duties in the excise, to which he had been appointed
in 1789, proved too much of a distraction to admit of success on the
farm, which in 1791 he gave up. Meanwhile he was writing at his best, and
in 1790 had produced _Tam o' Shanter_. About this time he was offered and
declined an appointment in London on the staff of the _Star_ newspaper,
and refused to become a candidate for a newly-created Chair of
Agriculture in the Univ. of Edin., although influential friends offered
to support his claims. After giving up his farm he removed to Dumfries.
It was at this time that, being requested to furnish words for _The
Melodies of Scotland_, he responded by contributing over 100 songs, on
which perhaps his claim to immortality chiefly rests, and which placed
him in the front rank of lyric poets. His worldly prospects were now
perhaps better than they had ever been; but he was entering upon the last
and darkest period of his career. He had become soured, and moreover had
alienated many of his best friends by too freely expressing sympathy
with the French Revolution, and the then unpopular advocates of reform at
home. His health began to give way; he became prematurely old, and fell
into fits of despondency; and the habits of intemperance, to which he had
always been more or less addicted, grew upon him. He _d._ on July 21,
1797.

The genius of B. is marked by spontaneity, directness, and sincerity, and
his variety is marvellous, ranging from the tender intensity of some of
his lyrics through the rollicking humour and blazing wit of _Tam o'
Shanter_ to the blistering satire of _Holy Willie's Prayer_ and _The Holy
Fair_. His life is a tragedy, and his character full of flaws. But he
fought at tremendous odds, and as Carlyle in his great Essay says,
"Granted the ship comes into harbour with shrouds and tackle damaged, the
pilot is blameworthy ... but to know _how_ blameworthy, tell us first
whether his voyage has been round the Globe or only to Ramsgate and the
Isle of Dogs."

The books about Burns, his life and writings, are innumerable. Among the
Lives are those by Currie (1800); Allan Cunningham (1834); J.G. Lockhart
(1828), on which is based Carlyle's memorable _Essay_ (which _see_).
Among the famous ed. of the _Poems_ may be mentioned the first
(Kilmarnock 1786), Edin. (1787), and the _Centenary_ (1896), by W.E.
Henley and T.F. Henderson.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1759, flax-dresser at Irvine 1781, farms at Mossgiel, has
love affair with Jean Armour, _pub._ first ed. of poems 1786, visits
Edin. 1786, goes to Ellisland, became exciseman 1789, _pub._ songs, _c._
1791, _d._ 1797.


BURTON, JOHN HILL (1809-1881).--Historian, was _b._ and _ed._ at
Aberdeen, was in 1831 called to the Bar, but had little practice, and in
1854 was appointed Sec. to the Prison Board of Scotland, and in 1877 a
Commissioner of Prisons. He became at an early period of his life a
contributor to _Blackwood's Magazine_ and other periodicals, and in 1846
_pub._ a life of Hume, which attracted considerable attention, and was
followed by Lives of Lord Lovat and Lord President Forbes. He began his
career as an historian by the publication in 1853 of _History of Scotland
from the Revolution to the Extinction of the last Jacobite Insurrection_,
to which he added (1867-70) _History of Scotland from Agricola's Invasion
to the Revolution_, in 7 vols., thus completing a continuous narrative.
Subsequently he _pub._ a _History of the Reign of Queen Anne_ (1880).
Other works of a lighter kind were _The Book-Hunter_ (1862), and _The
Scot Abroad_ (1864). B.'s historical works display much research and a
spirit of candour and honesty, and have picturesque and spirited
passages, but the style is unequal, and frequently lacks dignity. On the
whole, however, his is regarded as the most generally trustworthy and
valuable history of Scotland at present existing.


BURTON, SIR RICHARD FRANCIS (1821-1890).--Explorer and scholar, _s._ of
an officer in the army, was _b._ at Barham House, Herts, and after a
somewhat desultory education abroad as well as at home, entered upon a
life of travel, adventure, and military and civil service in almost every
quarter of the world, including India, Africa, the nearer East, and North
and South America, in the course of which he mastered 35 languages. As an
official his masterful ways and spirit of adventure frequently brought
him into collision with superior powers, by whom he not seldom considered
himself ill-used. He was the author of upwards of 50 books on a great
variety of subjects, including travels, novels, and translations, among
which are _Personal Narrative of a Journey to Mecca_ (1855), _First
Footprints in East Africa_ (1856), _Lake Regions of Equatorial Africa_
(1860), _The Nile Basin_, a translation and life of Camoens, an
absolutely literal translation of the _Arabian Nights_, with notes and
commentaries, of which his accomplished wife _pub._ an expurgated
edition. Lady B., who was the companion of his travels after 1861, also
wrote books on Syria, Arabia, and other eastern countries, as well as a
life of her husband, a number of whose manuscripts she destroyed.


BURTON, ROBERT (1577-1640).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ at Lindley,
Leicestershire, and _ed._ at Oxf., took orders, and became Vicar of St.
Thomas, Oxf., 1616, and Rector of Segrave, Leicestershire, 1630. Subject
to depression of spirits, he wrote as an antidote the singular book which
has given him fame. _The Anatomy of Melancholy_, in which he appears
under the name of _Democritus Junior_, was _pub._ in 1621, and had great
popularity. In the words of Warton, "The author's variety of learning,
his quotations from rare and curious books, his pedantry sparkling with
rude wit and shapeless elegance ... have rendered it a repertory of
amusement and information." It has also proved a store-house from which
later authors have not scrupled to draw without acknowledgment. It was a
favourite book of Dr. Johnson. B. was a mathematician and dabbled in
astrology. When not under depression he was an amusing companion, "very
merry, facete, and juvenile," and a person of "great honesty, plain
dealing, and charity."

The best ed. is that of Rev. A.R. Shilleto, with introduction by A.H.
Bullen (3 vols. 1893).


BURY, LADY CHARLOTTE (1775-1861).--Novelist, _dau._ of the 5th Duke of
Argyll, and _m._ first to Col. J. Campbell, and second to Rev. E.J. Bury,
wrote a number of novels--_Flirtation_, _Separation_, _The Divorced_,
etc., but is chiefly remembered in connection with a _Diary illustrative
of the Times of George IV._ (1838), a somewhat scandalous work generally,
and probably correctly, ascribed to her. She also wrote some poems and
two devotional works. She held for some time an appointment in the
household of the Princess of Wales.


BURY, RICHARD DE (1281-1345).--_S._ of Sir Richard Aungerville, _b._ at
Bury St. Edmunds, studied at Oxf., and was a Benedictine monk, became
tutor to Edward III. when Prince of Wales, and Bishop of Durham, and held
many offices of State. He was a patron of learning, and one of the first
English collectors of books, and he wrote his work, _Philobiblon_, in
praise of books, and founded a library at Durham.


BUTLER, JOSEPH (1692-1752).--Theologian, _b._ at Wantage, _s._ of a
Presbyterian linen-draper, was destined for the ministry of that Church,
but in 1714 he decided to enter the Church of England, and went to Oxf.
After holding various other preferments he became rector of the rich
living of Stanhope, Bishop of Bristol (1738), and Bishop of Durham
(1750), and was said to have refused the Primacy. In 1726 he _pub._
_Fifteen Sermons_, and in 1736 _The Analogy of Religion_. These two books
are among the most powerful and original contributions to ethics and
theology which have ever been made. They depend for their effect entirely
upon the force of their reasoning, for they have no graces of style. B.
was an excellent man, and a diligent and conscientious churchman. Though
indifferent to general literature, he had some taste in the fine arts,
especially architecture. B.'s works were ed. by W.E. Gladstone (2 vols.
1896), and there are Lives by Bishop W. Fitzgerald, Spooner (1902), and
others, _see_ also _History of English Thought in 18th Century_, by
Leslie Stephen.


BUTLER, SAMUEL (1612-1680).--Satirist, was the _s._ of a Worcestershire
farmer. In early youth he was page to the Countess of Kent, and
thereafter clerk to various Puritan justices, some of whom are believed
to have suggested characters in _Hudibras_. After the Restoration he
became Sec. to the Lord Pres. of Wales, and about the same time _m._ a
Mrs. Herbert, a widow with a jointure, which, however, was lost. In 1663
the first part of _Hudibras_ was _pub._, and the other two in 1664 and
1668 respectively. This work, which is to a certain extent modelled on
_Don Quixote_, stands at the head of the satirical literature of England,
and for wit and compressed thought has few rivals in any language. It is
directed against the Puritans, and while it holds up to ridicule the
extravagancies into which many of the party ran, it entirely fails to do
justice to their virtues and their services to liberty, civil and
religious. Many of its brilliant couplets have passed into the proverbial
commonplaces of the language, and few who use them have any idea of their
source. Butler, notwithstanding the popularity of his work, was neglected
by the Court, and _d._ in poverty.

Ed. of B.'s works have been issued by Bell (3 vols., 1813), and Johnson
(2 vols., 1893).


BUTLER, SAMUEL (1825-1902).--Miscellaneous writer, _ed._ at Shrewsbury
and Camb., wrote two satirical books, _Erewhon_ (nowhere) (1872), and
_Erewhon Revisited_ (1901). He translated the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ in
prose, and mooted the theory that the latter was written by a woman.
Other works were _The Fair Haven_, _Life and Habit_, _The Way of all
Flesh_ (a novel) (1903), etc., and some sonnets. He also wrote on the
Sonnets of Shakespeare.


BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, 6TH LORD BYRON (1788-1824).--Poet, was _b._ in
London, the _s._ of Captain John B. and of Catherine Gordon, heiress of
Gight, Aberdeenshire, his second wife, whom he _m._ for her money and,
after squandering it, deserted. He was also the grand-nephew of the 5th,
known as the "wicked" Lord B. From his birth he suffered from a
malformation of the feet, causing a slight lameness, which was a cause of
lifelong misery to him, aggravated by the knowledge that with proper care
it might have been cured. After the departure of his _f._ his mother went
to Aberdeen, where she lived on a small salvage from her fortune. She was
a capricious woman of violent temper, with no fitness for guiding her
volcanic son, and altogether the circumstances of his early life explain,
if they do not excuse, the spirit of revolt which was his lifelong
characteristic. In 1794, on the death of a cousin, he became
heir-presumptive to the title and embarrassed estates of the family, to
which, on the death of his great-uncle in 1798, he succeeded. In 1801 he
was sent to Harrow, where he remained until 1805, when he proceeded to
Trinity Coll., Camb., where he read much history and fiction, lived
extravagantly, and got into debt. Some early verses which he had _pub._
in 1806 were suppressed. They were followed in 1807 by _Hours of
Idleness_, which was savagely attacked in the _Edinburgh Review_. In
reply he sent forth _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1800), which
created considerable stir and shortly went through 5 ed. Meanwhile, he
had settled at Newstead Abbey, the family seat, where with some of his
cronies he was believed to have indulged in wild and extravagant orgies,
the accounts of which, however, were probably greatly exaggerated. In
1809 he left England, and passing through Spain, went to Greece. During
his absence, which extended over two years, he wrote the first two cantos
of _Childe Harold_, which were _pub._ after his return in 1812, and were
received with acclamation. In his own words, "he awoke one morning and
found himself famous." He followed up his success with some short poems,
_The Corsair_, _Lara_, etc. About the same time began his intimacy with
his future biographer, Thomas Moore (_q.v._), and about 1815 he married
Anne Isabella Milbanke, who had refused him in the previous year, a union
which, owing to the total incompatibility of the parties, and serious
provocations on the part of B., proved unhappy, and was in 1816 dissolved
by a formal deed of separation. The only fruit of it was a _dau._,
Augusta Ada. After this break-up of his domestic life, followed as it was
by the severe censure of society, and by pressure on the part of his
creditors, which led to the sale of his library, B. again left England,
as it turned out, for ever, and, passing through Belgium and up the
Rhine, went to Geneva, afterwards travelling with Shelley through
Switzerland, when he wrote the third canto of _Childe Harold_. He
wintered in Venice, where he formed a connection with Jane Clairmont, the
_dau._ of W. Godwin's second wife (_q.v._). In 1817 he was in Rome,
whence returning to Venice he wrote the fourth canto of _Childe Harold_.
In the same year he sold his ancestral seat of Newstead, and about the
same time _pub._ _Manfred_, _Cain_, and _The Deformed Transformed_. The
first five cantos of _Don Juan_ were written between 1818 and 1820,
during which period he made the acquaintance of the Countess Guiccioli,
whom he persuaded to leave her husband. It was about this time that he
received a visit from Moore, to whom he confided his MS. autobiography,
which Moore, in the exercise of the discretion left to him, burned in
1824. His next move was to Ravenna, where he wrote much, chiefly dramas,
including _Marino Faliero_. In 1821-22 he finished _Don Juan_ at Pisa,
and in the same year he joined with Leigh Hunt in starting a short-lived
newspaper, _The Liberal_, in the first number of which appeared _The
Vision of Judgment_. His last Italian home was Genoa, where he was still
accompanied by the Countess, and where he lived until 1823, when he
offered himself as an ally to the Greek insurgents. In July of that year
he started for Greece, spent some months in Cephalonia waiting for the
Greeks to form some definite plans. In January, 1824, he landed at
Missolonghi, but caught a malarial fever, of which he _d._ on April 19,
1824.

The final position of B. in English literature is probably not yet
settled. It is at present undoubtedly lower than it was in his own
generation. Yet his energy, passion, and power of vivid and
richly-coloured description, together with the interest attaching to his
wayward and unhappy career, must always make him loom large in the
assembly of English writers. He exercised a marked influence on
Continental literature, and his reputation as poet is higher in some
foreign countries than in his own.

Among ed. of the works of B. may be mentioned Murray's (13 vols.
1898-1904). Moore's _Life_ (1830), Lady Blessington's _Conversations with
Lord Byron_ (1834, new, 1894).

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1788, spent childhood in Aberdeen, _ed._ Harrow and Camb.,
_pub._ _English Bards etc._, 1809, _Childe Harold_ first two cantos 1812,
married 1815, separated 1816, owing to this and financial difficulties
leaves England, meets Shelley, _pub._ third canto of _Childe Harold_
1816, fourth canto 1817, writes _Don Juan_ cantos 1-4 1818-20, lives at
various places in Italy 1816-24 with Countess Guiccioli, finished _Don
Juan_ 1822, goes to Greece 1823 to assist insurgents, _d._ 1824.


BYRON, HENRY JAMES (1834-1884).--Dramatist, _b._ at Manchester, entered
the Middle Temple, but soon took to writing for the stage, and produced
many popular burlesques and extravaganzas. He also wrote for periodicals,
and was the first editor of _Fun_. Among his best dramatic pieces are
_Cyril's Success_ (1868), _Our Boys_ (1875), and _The Upper Crust_.


CAEDMON (_d._ 1680).--The first English poet of whom we have any
knowledge. Originally employed as cowherd at the Abbey of Whitby, he
became a singer when somewhat advanced in life. The story of how the gift
of song came to him is given by Bede, how having fallen asleep in the
stable he dreamed that one came to him desiring a song, and on his asking
"What shall I sing?" replied "Sing to me of the beginning of created
things." Therefore he began to sing and, on awaking, remembered his song
and added to it. Thereafter he told what had befallen him to the bailiff
who was over him, who repeated the tale to the Abbess Hilda. She having
called together certain learned and pious persons, C. was brought before
them, told his story, and recited his verses. A part of Scripture was
read to him, which he was asked to turn into verse; and this being done
he was received into the Abbey where, for the rest of his life, he lived
as a monk, and continued to make his holy songs. Much that was formerly
attributed to C. is now held to be of later date. All that is known to be
his is a Northumbrian version of Bede's Latin paraphrases of C.'s first
song: although by some the authorship of "The Dream of the Holy Rood,"
and of a fragment on "The Temptation and Fall of Man" is claimed for him.

_English Literature from Beginning to Norman Conquest_, Stopford Brooke
(1898), and _History of Early English Literature_, by the same (1892).


CAIRD, EDWARD (1835-1908).--Philosopher, younger brother of John C.
(_q.v._), was _b._ at Greenock, and _ed._ at Glasgow and Oxf., where he
became Fellow and Tutor of Merton Coll. In 1866 he was appointed to the
Chair of Moral Philosophy at Glasgow, which he held until 1893, when he
became Master of Balliol Coll., from which he retired in 1907. He has
written _Critical Philosophy of Kant_ (1877), _Hegel_ (1883), _Evolution
of Religion_, _Social Philosophy and Religion of Comte_ (1885),
_Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers_ (1904).


CAIRD, JOHN (1820-1898).--Theologian, _b._, at Greenock, and _ed._ at
Glasgow, entered the Church of Scotland, of which he became one of the
most eloquent preachers. After being a minister in the country and in
Edinburgh, he was translated to Glasgow, becoming in 1862 Prof. of
Divinity in the Univ. of that city, and in 1873 Principal. A sermon on
_Religion in Common Life_, preached before Queen Victoria, made him known
throughout the Protestant world. He wrote an _Introduction to the
Philosophy of Religion_ (1880), and a vol. on _Spinoza_ (1888).


CALAMY, EDMUND (1600-1666).--Puritan Divine, _b._ in London, and _ed._ at
Camb., was one of the principal authors of a famous controversial work
bearing the title _Smectymnuus_, made up of the initials of the various
writers, and _pub._ in 1641 in reply to Bishop Hall's _Divine Right of
Episcopacy_. His other chief work is _The Godly Man's Ark_. A
Presbyterian, he was a supporter of monarchy, and favoured the
Restoration, after which he was offered, but declined, the see of
Coventry and Lichfield. He was a member of the Savoy Conference. The
passing of the Act of Uniformity led to his retiring from ministerial
work. He is said to have _d._ of melancholy caused by the great fire of
London.


CALDERWOOD, DAVID (1575-1650).--Scottish Church historian, belonged to a
good family, and about 1604 became minister of Crailing, Roxburghshire.
Opposing the designs of James VI. for setting up Episcopacy, he was
imprisoned 1617, and afterwards had to betake himself to Holland, where
his controversial work, _Altare Damascenum_, against Episcopacy, was
_pub._ In 1625 he returned to Scotland, and began his great work, _The
Historie of the Kirk of Scotland_, which was _pub._ in an abridged form
(1646). The complete work was printed (1841-49) for the Woodrow Society.
C. became minister of Pencaitland, East Lothian, about 1640, and was one
of those appointed to draw up _The Directory for Public Worship in
Scotland_.


CALVERLEY, CHARLES STUART (1831-1884).--Poet and translator, _s._ of the
Rev. H. Blayds (who assumed the name of Calverley), was _ed._ at Harrow,
Oxf., and Camb. He was called to the Bar in 1865, and appeared to have a
brilliant career before him, when a fall on the ice in 1866 changed him
from a distinguished athlete to a life-long invalid. Brilliant as a
scholar, a musician, and a talker, he is perhaps best known as one of the
greatest of parodists. He _pub._ _Verses and Translations_ (1862), and
_Fly-leaves_ (1872). He also translated _Theocritus_ (1869).


CAMDEN, WILLIAM (1551-1623).--Antiquary and historian, _b._ in London,
and _ed._ at Christ's Hospital, St. Paul's School, and Oxf., was in 1575
appointed Second Master in Westminster School, and Head Master in 1593,
and spent his vacations in travelling over England collecting antiquarian
information. His great work, _Britannia_, was _pub._ in 1586, and at once
brought him fame both at home and abroad. It is a work of vast labour and
erudition, written in elegant Latin. In 1597 C. was made Clarencieux
King-at-Arms which, setting him free from his academic duties, enabled
him to devote more time to his antiquarian and historical labours. His
other principal works are _Annals of the Reign of Elizabeth_ (printed
1615-1623), _Monuments and Inscriptions in Westminster Abbey_ (1600), and
a _coll._ of _Ancient English Historians_. He was buried in Westminster
Abbey. The Camden Society for historical research, founded in 1838, is
named after him.


CAMPBELL, GEORGE (1719-1796).--Theologian and philosopher, was a minister
of the Church of Scotland at Aberdeen, and Principal and Prof. of
Divinity in Marischal Coll. there. His _Dissertation on Miracles_ (1763),
in answer to Hume, was in its day considered a masterly argument, and was
admitted to be so by Hume himself. His other principal works were _The
Philosophy of Rhetoric_ (1776), which is still a standard work, and _A
Translation of the Four Gospels with Notes_.


CAMPBELL, JOHN, 1ST LORD CAMPBELL (1779-1861).--Lawyer and biographer,
_s._ of the minister of Cupar-Fife, had a highly successful career as a
lawyer, and held the offices successively of Solicitor and
Attorney-General, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, Lord Chief Justice, and
Lord Chancellor. His contributions to literature were _Lives of the
Chancellors_ and _Lives of the Chief Justices_. These works, though
deficient in research and accuracy, often unfair in judgments of
character, and loose and diffuse in style, are interesting and full of
information.


CAMPBELL, JOHN FRANCIS (1822-1885).--Celtic scholar, _ed._ at Eton and
Edin., was afterwards Sec. to the Lighthouse Commission. He was an
authority on Celtic folk-lore, and _pub._ _Popular Tales of the West
Highlands_ (4 vols., 1860-62), and various Gaelic texts.


CAMPBELL, LEWIS (1830-1908).--Scholar, _s._ of a naval officer, _ed._ at
Edin., Glasgow, and Oxf., took orders, and was Vicar of Milford, Hants,
until 1863, when he was appointed Prof. of Greek at St. Andrews. He
brought out ed. of Sophocles and other works on the Greek classics, and
in conjunction with E. Abbott _The Life and Letters of Prof. Jowett_
(_q.v._), with whom he had collaborated in editing the _Republic of
Plato_. He also ed. the poems of Thomas Campbell, to whom he was related.


CAMPBELL, THOMAS (1777-1844).--Poet, was the youngest _s._ of Alexander
C., a merchant in Glasgow, where he was _b._ After leaving the Univ. of
that city, where he gained some distinction by his translations from the
Greek, and acting for some time as a tutor, he went to Edin. to study
law, in which, however, he did not make much progress, but gained fame by
producing in 1799, at the age of 21, his principal poem, _The Pleasures
of Hope_. In spite of some of the faults of youth, the vigour of thought
and description, and power of versification displayed in the poem, as
well as its noble feeling for liberty, made it a marvellous performance
for so young a man. His other larger poems are _Gertrude of Wyoming_
(1809), _O'Connor's Child_, and _Theodric_ (1824). It is not, however,
for these that he will be chiefly remembered, but for his patriotic and
war lyrics, _Ye Mariners of England_, _Hohenlinden_, and _The Battle of
the Baltic_, which are imperishable. C. was also distinguished as a
critic, and his _Specimens of the British Poets_ (1819) is prefaced by an
essay which is an important contribution to criticism. C. resided in
London from 1803 until the year of his death, which took place at
Boulogne, whither he had repaired in search of health. In addition to the
works mentioned he wrote various compilations, including _Annals of Great
Britain_, covering part of the reign of George III. In 1805 he received a
Government pension, and he was Lord Rector of Glasgow Univ. 1826-29. He
is buried in Westminster Abbey.

_Life and Letters_, Beattie (1840); Poems, _Aldine_ ed. (1875, new,
1890).


CAMPION, THOMAS (_c._ 1575-1620).--Poet and musician, _b._ at Witham,
Essex, and _ed._ at Camb., and on the Continent, studied law at Gray's
Inn, but discarding it, practised medicine in London. He wrote masques,
and many fine lyrics remarkable for their metrical beauty, of which
"Cherry Ripe" and "Lesbia" are well known. He also wrote _Epigrams_ in
Latin, and _Observations on the Arte of Poesie_ (1602). He composed the
music for most of his songs.


CANNING, GEORGE (1770-1827).--Statesman, was _b._ in London, the _s._ of
a lawyer. He lost his _f._ while still an infant, and was brought up by
an uncle, who sent him to Eton and Oxf. In 1793 he entered Parliament as
a supporter of Pitt, and soon became one of the most brilliant debaters
in the House. After filling various offices, including that of Foreign
Sec., with striking ability, he was in 1827 appointed Prime Minister, but
_d._, deeply mourned by the nation, a few months later. He has a place in
literature as the leading spirit in the _Anti-Jacobin_, a paper started
during the French Revolution, in support of the English Constitution, and
which, with Gifford for ed., had many of the most eminent men of the day
as contributors. C. wrote the _Needy Knife-grinder_, _The Loves of the
Triangles_, parts II. and III., a parody on E. Darwin's _Loves of the
Plants_, _The Progress of Man_, etc. His _coll._ _Poems_ were _pub._
1823.


CAPGRAVE, JOHN (1393-1464).--Historian and theologian, _b._ at Lynn,
became an Augustinian Friar, and at length Provincial of the Order in
England. He studied probably at Camb., visited Rome, and was a client of
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, whose life he wrote. He was the author of
numerous theological and historical works, some of which are of
considerable importance, including in Latin, _Nova Legenda Angliae_, _De
Illustribus Henricis_: lives of German Emperors, English Kings, etc., of
the name of Henry, and in English, monotonous and dull, lives of St.
Gilbert and St. Katharine, and a _Chronicle_ reaching to 1417.


CAREW, RICHARD (1555-1620).--Translator and antiquary, a county gentleman
of Cornwall, _ed._ at Oxf., made a translation of the first five cantos
of Tasso's _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1594), more correct than that of
Fairfax. Other works were _A Survey of Cornwall_ (1602), and an _Epistle
concerning the Excellencies of the English Tongue_ (1605).


CAREW, THOMAS (1594?-1639).--Poet, _s._ of Sir Matthew C., was _ed._ at
Oxf., entered the Middle Temple, and was one of the first and best of the
courtly poets who wrote gracefully on light themes of Court life and
gallantry. C.'s poems have often much beauty and even tenderness. His
chief work is _Coelum Britannicum_. He lived the easy and careless life
of a courtier of the day, but is said to have _d._ in a repentant frame.
His poems, consisting chiefly of short lyrics, were _coll._ and _pub._
after his death. One of the most beautiful and best known of his songs is
that beginning "He that loves a rosy cheek."


CAREY, HENRY (_d._ 1743).--Dramatist and song-writer, was believed to be
an illegitimate _s._ of George Savile, Marquis of Halifax. He wrote
innumerable burlesques, farces, songs, etc., often with his own music,
including _Chrononhotonthologos_ (1734), a burlesque on the mouthing
plays of the day, and _The Dragon of Wantley_ (1744?). His poem, _Namby
Pamby_, in ridicule of Ambrose Phillips (_q.v._), added a word to the
language, and his _Sally in our Alley_ is one of our best-known songs.
_God Save the King_ was also claimed for him, but apparently without
reason.


CARLETON, WILLIAM (1794-1869).--Novelist, _s._ of a poor Irish cottar,
_b._ and brought up among the Irish peasantry, acquired an insight into
their ideas and feelings which has never been equalled. His finest work
is in his short stories, collected under the title of _Traits and Stories
of the Irish Peasantry_, of which two series were _pub._ in 1830 and 1832
respectively. He also wrote several longer novels, of which the best is
_Fardorougha the Miser_ (1837), a work of great power. Others are _The
Misfortunes of Barny Branagan_ (1841), _Valentine M'Clutchy_ (1845),
_Rody the Rover_ (1847), _The Squanders of Castle Squander_ (1854), and
_The Evil Eye_. C. received a pension of L200 from Government.


CARLYLE, ALEXANDER (1722-1805).--Autobiographer, _s._ of the Minister of
Cummertrees, Dumfriesshire, was _ed._ at Edin. and Leyden, and entering
the Church became Minister of Inveresk, and was associated with Principal
Robertson as an ecclesiastical leader. He was a man of great ability,
shrewdness, and culture, and the friend of most of the eminent literary
men in Scotland of his day. He left an autobiography in MS., which was
ed. by Hill Burton, and _pub._ in 1860, and which is one of the most
interesting contemporary accounts of his time. His stately appearance
gained for him the name of "Jupiter" C.


CARLYLE, THOMAS (1795-1881).--Historian and essayist, was _b._ at
Ecclefechan in Dumfriesshire. His _f._, James C., was a stonemason, a
man of intellect and strong character, and his mother was, as he said,
"of the fairest descent, that of the pious, the just, and the wise." His
earliest education was received at the parish school of Ecclefechan (the
Entepfuhl of _Sartor Resartus_). Thence he went to the Grammar School of
Annan, and in 1809 to the Univ. of Edin., the 90 miles to which he
travelled on foot. There he read voraciously, his chief study being
mathematics. After completing his "Arts" course, he went on to divinity
with the view of entering the Church, but about the middle of his course
found that he could not proceed. He became a schoolmaster first at Annan
and then at Kirkcaldy, where he formed a profound friendship with Edward
Irving (_q.v._), and met Margaret Gordon, afterwards Lady Bannerman,
believed by some to be the prototype of _Blumine_ in _Sartor_. Returning
in 1819 to Edin. he for a time studied law and took pupils; but his
health was bad, he suffered from insomnia and dyspepsia, and he tired of
law. He was also sorely bestead by mental and spiritual conflicts, which
came to a crisis in Leith Walk in June 1821 in a sudden uprising of
defiance to the devil and all his works, upon which the clouds lifted.
For the next two years, 1822-24, he acted as tutor to Charles Buller
(whose promising political career was cut short by his premature death)
and his brother. On the termination of this engagement he decided upon a
literary career, which he began by contributing articles to the
_Edinburgh Encyclopaedia_. In 1824 he translated Legendre's _Geometry_ (to
which he prefixed an essay on Proportion), and Goethe's _Wilhelm
Meister_; he also wrote for the _London Magazine_ a _Life of Schiller_.
About this time he visited Paris and London, where he met Hazlitt,
Campbell, Coleridge, and others. Thereafter he returned to Dumfriesshire.
In the following year (1826) he _m._ Jane Baillie Welsh, and settled in
Edin. Here his first work was _Specimens of German Romance_ (4 vols.) A
much more important matter was his friendship with Jeffrey and his
connection with the _Edinburgh Review_, in which appeared, among others,
his essays on _Richter_, _Burns_, _Characteristics_, and _German Poetry_.
In 1828 C. applied unsuccessfully for the Chair of Moral Philosophy in
St. Andrews, and the same year he went to Craigenputtock, a small
property in Dumfriesshire belonging to Mrs. C., where they remained for
several years, and where many of his best essays and _Sartor Resartus_
were written, and where his correspondence with Goethe began. In 1831 he
went to London to find a publisher for _Sartor_, but was unsuccessful,
and it did not appear in book form until 1838, after having come out in
_Fraser's Magazine_ in 1833-34. The year last mentioned found him finally
in London, settled in Cheyne Row, Chelsea, his abode for the rest of his
life. He immediately set to work on his _French Revolution_. While it was
in progress he in 1835 lent the MS. to J.S. Mill, by whose servant nearly
the whole of the first vol. was burned, in spite of which misfortune the
work was ready for publication in 1837. Its originality, brilliance, and
vividness took the world by storm, and his reputation as one of the
foremost men of letters in the country was at once and finally
established. In the same year he appeared as a public lecturer, and
delivered four courses on _German Literature_, _Periods of European
Culture_, _Revolutions of Modern Europe_, and _Heroes and Hero-Worship_,
the last of which was _pub._ as a book in 1841. Although his writings
did not yet produce a large income, his circumstances had become
comfortable, owing to Mrs. C. having succeeded to her patrimony in 1840.
Books now followed each other rapidly, _Chartism_ had appeared in 1839,
_Past and Present_ came out in 1843, and _Letters and Speeches of Oliver
Cromwell_ in 1845, the last named being perhaps the most successful of
his writings, inasmuch as it fully attained the object aimed at in
clearing Cromwell from the ignorant or malevolent aspersions under which
he had long lain, and giving him his just place among the greatest of the
nation. In 1850 he _pub._ his fiercest blast, _Latter Day Pamphlets_,
which was followed next year by his biography of his friend John Sterling
(_q.v._). It was about this time, as is shown by the _Letters and
Memoirs_ of Mrs. C., that a temporary estrangement arose between his wife
and himself, based apparently on Mrs. C.'s part upon his friendship with
Lady Ashburton, a cause of which C. seems to have been unconscious. In
1851 he began his largest, if not his greatest work, _Frederick the
Great_, which occupied him from that year until 1865, and in connection
with which he made two visits to Germany in 1852 and 1858. It is a work
of astonishing research and abounds in brilliant passages, but lacks the
concentrated intensity of _The French Revolution_. It is, however, the
one of his works which enjoys the highest reputation in Germany. In 1865
he was elected Lord Rector of the Univ. of Edin., and delivered a
remarkable address to the students by whom he was received with
enthusiasm. Almost immediately afterwards a heavy blow fell upon him in
the death of Mrs. C., and in the discovery, from her diary, of how
greatly she had suffered, unknown to him, from the neglect and want of
consideration which, owing to absorption in his work and other causes, he
had perhaps unconsciously shown. Whatever his faults, of which the most
was made in some quarters, there can be no doubt that C. and his wife
were sincerely attached to each other, and that he deeply mourned her. In
1866 his _Reminiscences_ (_pub._ 1881) were written. The Franco-German
War of 1870-71 profoundly interested him, and evoked a plea for Germany.
From this time his health began to give way more and more. In 1872 his
right hand became paralysed. In 1874 he received the distinction of the
Prussian Order of Merit, as the biographer of its founder, and in the
same year, Mr. Disraeli offered him the choice of the Grand Cross of the
Bath or a baronetcy and a pension, all of which he declined. The
completion of his 80th year in 1875 was made the occasion of many
tributes of respect and veneration, including a gold medal from some of
his Scottish admirers. He _d._ on February 5, 1881. Burial in Westminster
Abbey was offered, but he had left instructions that he should lie with
his kindred. He bequeathed the property of Craigenputtock to the Univ. of
Edin.

C. exercised a very powerful influence upon the thought of his age, not
only by his own writings and personality, but through the many men of
distinction both in literature and active life whom he imbued with his
doctrines; and perhaps no better proof of this exists than the fact that
much that was new and original when first propounded by him has passed
into the texture of the national ideas. His style is perhaps the most
remarkable and individual in our literature, intensely strong, vivid,
and picturesque, but utterly unconventional, and often whimsical or
explosive. He had in a high degree the poetic and imaginative faculty,
and also irresistible humour, pungent sarcasm, insight, tenderness, and
fierce indignation.

All the works of C. shed light on his personality, but _Sartor Resartus_
especially may be regarded as autobiographical. Froude's _Thomas Carlyle
... First 40 Years of his Life_ (1882), _Thomas Carlyle ... His Life in
London_, by the same (1884), _Letters and Memories of Jane Welsh Carlyle_
(1883), various _Lives_ and _Reminiscences_ by Prof. Masson and Nichol,
etc.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1795, _ed._ Edin., studies for Church but gives it up,
tries law, then tutor, takes to literature and writes for encyclopaedias
and magazines, and translates, _m._ 1826 Jane Welsh, settles in Edin.,
writes essays in _Edinburgh Review_, goes to Craigenputtock 1828, writes
_Sartor_ and corresponds with Goethe, _Sartor_ appears in _Fraser's
Magazine_ 1833-4, settles in London 1834, _pub._ _French Revolution_
1837, lectures, _pub._ _Heroes_, and _Chartism_ and _Sartor_ as a book
1839, _Past and Present_ 1843, _Oliver Cromwell_ 1845, _Latter Day
Pamphlets_ 1850, writes _Frederick the Great_ 1851-65, Lord Rector of
Edin. Univ. 1865, Mrs. C. _d._ 1865, writes _Reminiscences_ 1866 (_pub._
1881), _d._ 1881.


CARRUTHERS, ROBERT (1799-1878).--Journalist and miscellaneous writer,
_b._ in Dumfriesshire, was for a time a teacher in Huntingdon, and wrote
a _History of Huntingdon_ (1824). In 1828 he became ed. of the _Inverness
Courier_, which he conducted with great ability. He ed. Pope's works with
a memoir (1853), and along with Robert Chambers (_q.v._) ed. the first
ed. of _Chambers's Cyclopedia of English Literature_ (1842-44). He
received the degree of LL.D. from Edin.


CARTE, THOMAS (1686-1754).--Historian, _b._ near Rugby, and _ed._ at
Oxf., took orders, but resigned his benefice at Bath when required to
take the oath of allegiance to George I. He was sec. to Francis Atterbury
(_q.v._), and was involved in the consequences of his conspiracy, but
escaped to France, where he remained until 1728. After his return he
_pub._ a life of the Duke of Ormonde (1736), and a _History of England to
1654_ in 4 vols. (1747-54), the latter a work of great research, though
dry and unattractive in style.


CARTER, ELIZABETH (1717-1806).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ at Deal,
_dau._ of a clergyman. Originally backward, she applied herself to study
with such perseverance that she became perhaps the most learned
Englishwoman of her time, being mistress of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and
Arabic, besides several modern European languages. She was also well read
in science. She translated Epictetus 1758, and wrote a small vol. of
poems. She was the friend of Dr. Johnson and many other eminent men. She
was of agreeable and unassuming manners.


CARTWRIGHT, WILLIAM (1611-1643).--Dramatist, _s._ of a gentleman of
Gloucestershire, who had run through his fortune and kept an inn at
Cirencester, _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf., entered the Church,
was a zealous Royalist, and an eloquent preacher, and lecturer in
metaphysics. He also wrote spirited lyrics and four plays. He was the
friend of Ben Jonson, H. Vaughan, and Izaak Walton. He _d._ at Oxf. of
camp fever. Among his plays are _The Royal Slave_, _The Siege_, and _The
Lady Errant_. His virtues, learning, and charming manners made him highly
popular in his day.


CARY, ALICE (1820-1871), and PHOEBE (1824-1871).--Were the _dau._ of a
farmer near Cincinnati. The former wrote _Clovernook Papers_ and
_Clovernook Children_, and other tales, and some poems. The latter wrote
poems and hymns. Both sisters attained considerable popularity.


CARY, HENRY FRANCIS (1772-1844).--Translator, was _b._ at Gibraltar, and
_ed._ at Oxf., where he was distinguished for his classical attainments.
His great work is his translation of the _Divina Commedia_ of Dante
(1805-1814), which is not only faithful to the original, but full of
poetic fire, and rendered into such fine English as to be itself
literature apart from its merits as a translation. He also translated
from the Greek. C., who was a clergyman, received a pension in 1841.


CATLIN, GEORGE (1796-1872).--Painter and writer, _b._ at Wilkesbarre,
Pennsylvania, practised for some time as a lawyer, but yielding to his
artistic instincts he took to painting. He spent the 7 years, 1832-39,
among the Indians of North America, of whom he painted about 500
portraits. He became thoroughly acquainted with their life, and _pub._ an
interesting work, _Illustrations of the Manners, etc., of the North
American Indians_ (1857). His later years were spent chiefly in Europe.


CAVE, EDWARD (1691-1754).--Publisher, _b._ near Rugby, started in 1731
_The Gentleman's Magazine_, for which Dr. Johnson was parliamentary
reporter from 1740. He _pub._ many of Johnson's works.


CAVENDISH, GEORGE (1500-1561).--Biographer, was Gentleman Usher to
Cardinal Wolsey, to whom he was so much attached that he followed him in
his disgrace, and continued to serve him until his death. He left in MS.
a life of his patron, which is the first separate biography in English,
and is the main original authority of the period. Admitting Wolsey's
faults, it nevertheless presents him in an attractive light. The simple
yet eloquent style gives it a high place as a biography.


CAXTON, WILLIAM (1422-1491).--Printer and translator, _b._ in the Weald
of Kent, was apprenticed to a London mercer. On his master's death in
1441 he went to Bruges, and lived there and in various other places in
the Low Countries for over 30 years, engaged apparently as head of an
association of English merchants trading in foreign parts, and in
negotiating commercial treaties between England and the Dukes of
Burgundy. His first literary labour was a translation of a French
romance, which he entitled _The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye_, and
which he finished in 1471. About this time he learned the art of
printing, and, after being in the service of Margaret Duchess of
Burgundy, an English princess, returned to his native country and set up
at Westminster in 1476 his printing press, the first in England. His
_Recuyell_ and _The Game and Playe of Chesse_ had already been
printed--the first books in English--on the Continent. Here was produced
the first book printed in England, _The Dictes and Sayings of the
Philosophers_ (1477). C. obtained Royal favour, printed from 80 to 100
separate works--many of them translations of his own--and _d._ almost
with pen in hand in 1491. His style is clear and idiomatic.


CENTLIVRE, MRS. SUSANNA (1667-1723).--Dramatist and actress, was the
_dau._ of a gentleman of the name of either Rawkins or Freeman, who
appears to have belonged either to Lincolnshire or Ireland, or was
perhaps connected with both, and who suffered at the hands of the
Stuarts. She _m._ at 16, lost her husband in a year, then _m._ an
officer, who fell in a duel in 18 months, and finally, in 1706, _m._
Joseph C., cook to Queen Anne, with whom she lived happily for the rest
of her days. She wrote 18 or 19 plays, well constructed and amusing,
among which may be mentioned _The Perjured Husband_ (1700), _The
Busybody_ (1709), _The Warder_ (1714), and _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_
(1717). She was a strong Whig, and sometimes made her plays the medium of
expressing her political opinions.


CHALKHILL, JOHN (_fl._ 1600).--Poet, mentioned by Izaak Walton as having
written a pastoral poem, _Thealma and Clearchus_. As nothing else is
known of him it has been held by some that the name was a _nom-de-plume_
of W. himself. It has been shown, however, that a gentleman of the name
existed during the reign of Elizabeth. W. says he was a friend of
Spenser, and that his life was "useful, quiet, and virtuous."


CHALMERS, GEORGE (1742-1825).--Antiquary, _b._ at Fochabers, Elginshire,
emigrated to America and practised law in Baltimore; but on the outbreak
of the Revolutionary War returned to Britain, and settled in London as a
clerk in the Board of Trade. He _pub._ in 1780 a _History of the United
Colonies_, and wrote lives of Sir David Lyndsay, De Foe, and Mary Queen
of Scots. His great work, however, is his _Caledonia_, of which 3 vols.
had been _pub._ at his death. It was to have been a complete _coll._ of
the topography and antiquities of Scotland; and, as it stands, is a
monument of industry and research, though not always trustworthy in
disputed points. Besides those mentioned, C. was the author of many other
works on political, historical, and literary subjects, and had projected
several which he was unable to carry out.


CHALMERS, THOMAS (1780-1847).--Divine, economist, and philanthropist,
_b._ at Anstruther, Fife, _s._ of a shipowner and merchant, studied at
St. Andrews and, entering the ministry of the Church of Scotland, was
first settled in the small parish of Kilmeny, Fife, but, his talents and
eloquence becoming known, he was, in 1815, translated to Glasgow, where
he was soon recognised as the most eloquent preacher in Scotland, and
where also he initiated his schemes for the management of the poor. In
1823, he became Prof. of Moral Philosophy at St. Andrews, and in 1828 of
Divinity in Edin. In 1834 he began his great scheme of Church extension,
the result of which was that in seven years L300,000 had been raised, and
220 churches built. In the same year, 1834, began the troubles and
controversies in regard to patronage and the relations of Church and
State, which in 1843 ended in the disruption of the Church, when 470
ministers with C. at their head, resigned their benefices, and founded
the Free Church of Scotland. C. was chosen its first Moderator and
Principal of its Theological Coll. in Edin. The remaining four years of
his life were spent in organising the new Church, and in works of
philanthropy. He was found dead in bed on the morning of May 30, 1847.
His chief works, which were _coll._ and _pub._ in 34 vols., relate to
natural theology, evidences of Christianity, political economy, and
general theology and science. Those which perhaps attracted most
attention were his _Astronomical Discourses_ and his _Lectures on Church
Establishments_, the latter delivered in London to audiences containing
all that was most distinguished in rank and intellect in the country. The
style of C. is cumbrous, and often turgid, but the moral earnestness,
imagination, and force of intellect of the writer shine through it and
irradiate his subjects. And yet the written is described by
contemporaries to have been immeasurably surpassed by the spoken word,
which carried away the hearer as in a whirlwind. And the man was even
greater than his achievements. His character was one of singular
simplicity, nobility, and lovableness, and produced a profound impression
on all who came under his influence. The character of his intellect was
notably practical, as is evidenced by the success of his parochial
administration and the "Sustentation Fund," devised by him for the
support of the ministry of the Free Church. He was D.D., LL.D., D.C.L.
(Oxon.), and a Corresponding Member of the Institute of France.

_Memoirs_ (Hanna, 4 vols.). Smaller works by Prof. Blaikie (1897), Mrs.
Oliphant (1893), and many others.


CHAMBERLAYNE, WILLIAM (1619-1689).--Poet, practised medicine at
Shaftesbury. On the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the Royalists and
fought at the second battle of Newbury. He wrote a play, _Loves Victory_
(1658), and an epic _Pharonnida_ (1659). With occasional beauties he is,
in the main, heavy and stiff, and is almost forgotten. He influenced
Keats.


CHAMBERS, ROBERT (1802-1871).--Historical and scientific writer, was _b._
at Peebles. Early dependent on his own exertions, he started business as
a bookseller in Edin. at the age of 16, devoting all his spare time to
study, to such purpose that in 1824 he _pub._ _Traditions of Edinburgh_,
a work in which he had the assistance of Sir W. Scott. Thereafter he
poured forth a continuous stream of books and essays on historical,
social, antiquarian, and scientific subjects. He joined his brother
William (_q.v._) in establishing the publishing firm of W. and R.
Chambers, and in starting _Chambers's Journal_, to which he was a
constant contributor. Later ventures were _The Cyclopedia of English
Literature_ (1842-44), of which several ed. have appeared (last 1903-6).
and _Chambers's Cyclopaedia_ (10 vols. 1859-68; new 1888-92). Among his
own works may be mentioned _Vestiges of Creation_, _pub._ anonymously
(1844), a precursor of Darwinism, _A Life of Burns_ (1851), _Popular
Rhymes of Scotland_ (1847), _History of the Rebellions in Scotland_,
_Domestic Annals of Scotland_ (1859-61), _Ancient Sea Margins_ (1848),
_Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen_ and _The Book of Days_ (1863). He was
LL.D. of St. Andrews.


CHAMBERS, WILLIAM (1800-1883).--Publisher and miscellaneous author, _b._
at Peebles, started in 1832 with his brother Robert (_q.v._) _Chambers's
Journal_, and soon after joined him in the firm of W. and R. Chambers.
Besides contributions to the _Journal_ he wrote several books, including
a _History of Peeblesshire_ (1864), and an autobiography of himself and
his brother. C. was a man of great business capacity, and, though of less
literary distinction than his brother, did much for the dissemination of
cheap and useful literature. He was Lord Provost of Edin. 1865-69, and
was an LL.D. of the Univ. of that city. He restored the ancient church of
St. Giles there.


CHAMIER, FREDERICK (1796-1870).--Novelist, was in the navy, in which he
rose to the rank of Captain. Retiring in 1827, he wrote several sea
novels somewhat in the style of Marryat, including _Life of a Sailor_
(1832), _Ben Brace_, _Jack Adams_, and _Tom Bowling_ (1841). He also
continued James's _Naval History_, and wrote books of travel.


CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY (1780-1842).--American Divine, _b._ at Newport,
Rhode Island, was for a time a minister in the Congregationalist Church,
but became the leader of the Unitarians in New England. He had a powerful
influence on the thought and literature of his time in America, and was
the author of books on Milton and Fenelon, and on social subjects. The
elevation and amiability of his character caused him to be held in high
esteem. He did not class himself with Unitarians of the school of
Priestley, but claimed to "stand aloof from all but those who strive and
pray for clearer light."


CHAPMAN, GEORGE (1559-1634).--Dramatist and translator, was _b._ near
Hitchin, and probably _ed._ at Oxf. and Camb. He wrote many plays,
including _The Blind Beggar of Alexandria_ (1596), _All Fools_ (1599), _A
Humerous Daye's Myrthe_ (1599), _Eastward Hoe_ (with Jonson), _The
Gentleman Usher_, _Monsieur d'Olive_, etc. As a dramatist he has humour,
and vigour, and occasional poetic fire, but is very unequal. His great
work by which he lives in literature is his translation of Homer. The
_Iliad_ was _pub._ in 1611, the _Odyssey_ in 1616, and the _Hymns_, etc.,
in 1624. The work is full of energy and spirit, and well maintains its
place among the many later translations by men of such high poetic powers
as Pope and Cowper, and others: and it had the merit of suggesting
Keats's immortal Sonnet, in which its name and memory are embalmed for
many who know it in no other way. C. also translated from Petrarch, and
completed Marlowe's unfinished _Hero and Leander_.


CHAPONE, HESTER (MULSO) (1727-1801).--Miscellaneous writer, _dau._ of a
gentleman of Northamptonshire, was _m._ to a solicitor, who _d._ a few
months afterwards. She was one of the learned ladies who gathered round
Mrs. Montague (_q.v._), and was the author of _Letters on the Improvement
of the Mind_ and _Miscellanies_.


CHARLETON, WALTER (1619-1707).--Miscellaneous writer, _ed._ at Oxf., was
titular physician to Charles I. He was a copious writer on theology,
natural history, and antiquities, and _pub._ _Chorea Gigantum_ (1663) to
prove that Stonehenge was built by the Danes. He was also one of the
"character" writers, and in this kind of literature wrote _A Brief
Discourse concerning the Different Wits of Men_ (1675).


CHATTERTON, THOMAS (1752-1770).--Poet, _b._ at Bristol, posthumous _s._
of a schoolmaster, who had been a man of some reading and antiquarian
tastes, after whose death his mother maintained herself and her boy and
girl by teaching and needlework. A black-letter Bible and an illuminated
music-book belonging to her were the first things to give his mind the
impulse which led to such mingled glory and disaster. Living under the
shadow of the great church of St. Mary Redcliffe, his mind was impressed
from infancy with the beauty of antiquity, he obtained access to the
charters deposited there, and he read every scrap of ancient literature
that came in his way. At 14 he was apprenticed to a solicitor named
Lambert, with whom he lived in sordid circumstances, eating in the
kitchen and sleeping with the foot-boy, but continuing his favourite
studies in every spare moment. In 1768 a new bridge was opened, and C.
contributed to a local newspaper what purported to be a contemporary
account of the old one which it superseded. This attracted a good deal of
attention. Previously to this he had been writing verses and imitating
ancient poems under the name of Thomas Rowley, whom he feigned to be a
monk of the 15th century. Hearing of H. Walpole's collections for his
_Anecdotes of Painting in England_, he sent him an "ancient manuscript"
containing biographies of certain painters, not hitherto known, who had
flourished in England centuries before. W. fell into the trap, and wrote
asking for all the MS. he could furnish, and C. in response forwarded
accounts of more painters, adding some particulars as to himself on which
W., becoming suspicious, submitted the whole to T. Gray and Mason
(_q.v._), who pronounced the MS. to be forgeries. Some correspondence,
angry on C.'s part, ensued, and the whole budget of papers was returned.
C. thereafter, having been dismissed by Lambert, went to London, and for
a short time his prospects seemed to be bright. He worked with feverish
energy, threw off poems, satires, and political papers, and meditated a
history of England; but funds and spirits failed, he was starving, and
the failure to obtain an appointment as ship's surgeon, for which he had
applied, drove him to desperation, and on the morning of August 25, 1770,
he was found dead from a dose of arsenic, surrounded by his writings torn
into small pieces. From childhood C. had shown a morbid familiarity with
the idea of suicide, and had written a last will and testament, "executed
in the presence of Omniscience," and full of wild and profane wit. The
magnitude of his tragedy is only realised when it is considered not only
that the poetry he left was of a high order of originality and
imaginative power, but that it was produced at an age at which our
greatest poets, had they died, would have remained unknown. Precocious
not only in genius but in dissipation, proud and morose as he was, an
unsympathetic age confined itself mainly to awarding blame to his
literary and moral delinquencies. Posterity has weighed him in a juster
balance, and laments the early quenching of so brilliant a light. His
_coll._ works appeared in 1803, and another ed. by Prof. Street in 1875.
Among these are _Elinoure and Juga_, _Balade of Charitie_, _Bristowe
Tragedie_, _AElla_, and _Tragedy of Godwin_.

The best account of his life is the Essay by Prof. Masson.


CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (1340?-1400).--Poet, was _b._ in London, the _s._ of
John C., a vintner of Thames Street, who had also a small estate at
Ipswich, and was occasionally employed on service for the King (Edward
III.), which doubtless was the means of his son's introduction to the
Court. The acquaintance which C. displays with all branches of the
learning of his time shows that he must have received an ample education;
but there is no evidence that he was at either of the Univ. In 1357 he
appears as a page to the Lady Elizabeth, wife of Lionel Duke of Clarence,
and in 1359 he first saw military service in France, when he was made a
prisoner. He was, however, ransomed in 1360. About 1366 he was married to
Philippa, _dau._ of Sir Payne Roet, one of the ladies of the Duchess of
Lancaster, whose sister Katharine, widow of Sir Hugh Swynford, became the
third wife of John of Gaunt. Previous to this he had apparently been
deeply in love with another lady, whose rank probably placed her beyond
his reach; his disappointment finding expression in his _Compleynt to
Pite_. In 1367 he was one of the valets of the King's Chamber, a post
always held by gentlemen, and received a pension of 20 marks, and he was
soon afterwards one of the King's esquires. In 1369 Blanche, the wife of
John of Gaunt, died, which gave occasion for a poem by C. in honour of
her memory, _The Dethe of Blaunche the Duchesse_. In the same year he
again bore arms in France, and during the next ten years he was
frequently employed on diplomatic missions. In 1370 he was sent to Genoa
to arrange a commercial treaty, on which occasion he may have met
Petrarch, and was rewarded by a grant in 1374 of a pitcher of wine daily.
In the same year he got from the corporation of London a lease for life
of a house at Aldgate, on condition of keeping it in repair; and soon
after he was appointed Comptroller of the Customs and Subsidy of Wool,
Skins, and Leather in the port of London; he also received from the Duke
of Lancaster a pension of L10. In 1375 he obtained the guardianship of a
rich ward, which he held for three years, and the next year he was
employed on a secret service. In 1377 he was sent on a mission to
Flanders to treat of peace with the French King. After the accession of
Richard II. in that year, he was sent to France to treat for the marriage
of the King with the French Princess Mary, and thereafter to Lombardy, on
which occasion he appointed John Gower (_q.v._) to act for him in his
absence in any legal proceedings which might arise. In 1382 he became
Comptroller of the Petty Customs of the port of London, and in 1385 was
allowed to appoint a deputy, which, enabled him to devote more time to
writing. He had in 1373 begun his _Canterbury Tales_, on which he was
occupied at intervals for the rest of his life. In 1386 C. was elected
Knight of the Shire for Kent, a county with which he appears to have had
some connection, and where he may have had property. His fortunes now
suffered some eclipse. His patron, John of Gaunt, was abroad, and the
government was presided over by his brother Gloucester, who was at feud
with him. Owing probably to this cause, C. was in December, 1386,
dismissed from his employments, leaving him with no income beyond his
pensions, on which he was obliged to raise money. His wife also died at
the same time. In 1389, however, Richard took the government into his own
hands, and prosperity returned to C., whose friends were now in power,
and he was appointed Clerk of the King's works. This office, however, he
held for two years only, and again fell into poverty, from which he was
rescued in 1394 by a pension from the King of L20. On the accession of
Henry IV. (1399) an additional pension of 40 marks was given him. In the
same year he took a lease of a house at Westminster, where he probably
_d._, October 25, 1400. He is buried in Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey,
where a monument to him was erected by Nicholas Brigham, a minor poet of
the 16th century. According to some authorities he left two sons, Thomas,
who became a man of wealth and importance, and Lewis, who died young, the
little ten-year-old boy to whom he addressed the treatise on the
_Astrolabe_. Others see no evidence that Thomas was any relation of the
poet. An Elizabeth C., placed in the Abbey of Barking by John of Gaunt,
was probably his _dau._ In person C. was inclined to corpulence, "no
poppet to embrace," of fair complexion with "a beard the colour of ripe
wheat," an "elvish" expression, and an eye downcast and meditative.

Of the works ascribed to C. several are, for various reasons, of greater
or less strength, considered doubtful. These include _The Romaunt of the
Rose_, _Chaucer's Dream_, and _The Flower and the Leaf_. After his return
from Italy about 1380 he entered upon his period of greatest
productiveness: _Troilus and Criseyde_ (1382?), _The Parlement of Foules_
(1382?), _The House of Fame_ (1384?), and _The Legende of Goode Women_
(1385), belong to this time. The first of them still remains one of the
finest poems of its kind in the language. But the glory of C. is, of
course, the _Canterbury Tales_, a work which places him in the front rank
of the narrative poets of the world. It contains about 18,000 lines of
verse, besides some passages in prose, and was left incomplete. In it his
power of story-telling, his humour, sometimes broad, sometimes sly, his
vivid picture-drawing, his tenderness, and lightness of touch, reach
their highest development. He is our first artist in poetry, and with him
begins modern English literature. His character--genial, sympathetic, and
pleasure-loving, yet honest, diligent, and studious--is reflected in his
writings.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1340, fought in France 1359, by his marriage in 1366
became connected with John of Gaunt, employed on diplomatic missions
1369-79, Controller of Customs, etc., _c._ 1374, began _Canterbury Tales_
1373, elected to Parliament 1386, loses his appointments 1386, Clerk of
King's Works 1389-91, pensioned by Richard II. and Henry IV., _d._ _c._
1400.

The best ed. of C. is _The Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer_ (6 vols.
1894), ed. by Prof. Skeat. Others are Thos. Wright's for the Percy
Society (1842), and Richard Morris's in Bell's Aldine Classics (1866).


CHERRY, ANDREW (1762-1812).--Dramatist, _s._ of a bookseller at Limerick,
was a successful actor, and managed theatres in the provinces. He also
wrote some plays, of which _The Soldier's Daughter_ is the best. His
chief claim to remembrance rests on his three songs, _The Bay of Biscay_,
_The Green Little Shamrock_, and _Tom Moody_.


CHESTERFIELD, PHILIP DORMER STANHOPE, 4TH EARL OF (1694-1773).--Statesman
and letter-writer, was the eldest _s._ of the 3rd Earl. After being at
Trinity Coll., Camb., he sat in the House of Commons until his accession
to the peerage in 1726. He filled many high offices, including those of
Ambassador to Holland, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and Sec. of State. He
was distinguished for his wit, conversational powers, and grace of
manner. His place in literature is fixed by his well-known _Letters_
addressed to his natural son, Philip Dormer Stanhope. Though brilliant,
and full of shrewdness and knowledge of the world, they reflect the low
tone of morals prevalent in the age when they were written. He was the
recipient of Johnson's famous letter as to his "patronage."


CHETTLE, HENRY (1565-1607?).--Dramatist. Very little is known of him. He
ed. R. Greene's _Groat's-worth of Wit_ (1592), is believed to have
written 13 and collaborated in 35 plays. He also wrote two satires, _Kind
Harts Dreame_ (1593), and _Pierre Plainnes Prentship_ (1595). He was
imprisoned for debt 1599.

Among his own plays, which have considerable merit, is _Hoffmann_, which
has been reprinted, and he had a hand in _Patient Grissill_ (1603) (which
may have influenced Shakespeare in the _Merry Wives of Windsor_), _The
Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green_, and _Jane Shore_.


CHILD, FRANCIS J. (1825-1896).--English scholar, _b._ at Boston, Mass.,
was a prof. at Harvard, one of the foremost students of early English,
and especially of ancient ballads in America. He ed. the American ed. of
English Poets in 130 vols., and English and Scottish Ballads. He was also
a profound student of Chaucer, and _pub._ _Observations on the Language
of Chaucer_, and _Observations on the Language of Gower's Confessio
Amantis_.


CHILD, MRS. LYDIA MARIA (FRANCIS) (1802-1880).--Was the author of many
once popular tales, _Hobomok_, _The Rebels_, _Philothes_, etc.


CHILLINGWORTH, WILLIAM (1602-1644).--Theologian and controversialist,
_b._ and _ed._ at Oxf., was godson of Archbishop Laud. Falling into
theological doubts he subsequently became a convert to Roman Catholicism,
and studied at the Jesuit Coll. at Douay, 1630. In the following year he
returned to Oxf., and after further consideration of the points at issue,
he rejoined the Church of England, 1634. This exposed him to violent
attacks on the part of the Romanists, in reply to which he _pub._ in 1637
his famous polemic, _The Religion of the Protestants a Safe Way to
Salvation_, characterised by clear style and logical reasoning. For a
time he refused ecclesiastical preferment, but ultimately his scruples
were overcome, and he became Prebendary and Chancellor of Salisbury. C.
is regarded as one of the ablest controversialists of the Anglican
Church.


CHURCH, RICHARD WILLIAM (1815-1890).--Divine, historian, and biographer,
was _b._ at Lisbon, and _ed._ at Oxf., where he became a friend of J.H.
Newman (_q.v._). He took orders, and became Rector of Whatley, Somerset,
and in 1871 Dean of St. Paul's. He was a leading member of the High
Church party, but was held in reverence by many who did not sympathise
with his ecclesiastical views. Among his writings are _The Beginning of
the Middle Ages_ (1877), and a memoir on _The Oxford Movement_ (1891),
_pub._ posthumously. He also wrote Lives of Anselm, Dante, Spenser, and
Bacon.


CHURCHILL, CHARLES (1731-1764).--Satirist, _s._ of a clergyman, was _ed._
at Westminster School, and while still a schoolboy made a clandestine
marriage. He entered the Church, and on the death of his _f._ in 1758
succeeded him in the curacy and lectureship of St. John's, Westminster.
In 1761 he _pub._ the _Rosciad_, in which he severely satirised the
players and managers of the day. It at once brought him both fame and
money; but he fell into dissipated habits, separated from his wife, and
outraged the proprieties of his profession to such an extent that he was
compelled to resign his preferments. He also incurred the enmity of those
whom he had attacked, which led to the publication of two other satirical
pieces, _The Apology_ and _Night_. He also attacked Dr. Johnson and his
circle in _The Ghost_, and the Scotch in _The Prophecy of Famine_. He
attached himself to John Wilkes, on a visit to whom, at Boulogne, he _d._
of fever.


CHURCHYARD, THOMAS (1520?-1604).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, began
life as a page to the Earl of Surrey, and subsequently passed through
many vicissitudes as a soldier in Scotland, Ireland, France, and the Low
Countries. He was latterly a hanger-on at Court, and had a pension of
eighteenpence a day from Queen Elizabeth, which was not, however,
regularly paid. He wrote innumerable pamphlets and broadsides, and some
poems, of which the best are _Shore's Wife_ (1563), _The Worthiness of
Wales_ (1587) _repub._ by the Spenser Society (1871), and _Churchyard's
Chips_ (1575), an autobiographical piece.


CIBBER, COLLEY (1671-1757).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ in London, _s._ of
a Danish sculptor, and _ed._ at Grantham School. Soon after his return to
London he took to the stage. Beginning with tragedy, in which he failed,
he turned to comedy, and became popular in eccentric _roles_. In 1696 he
brought out his first play, _Love's Last Shift_, and produced in all
about 30 plays, some of which were very successful. In 1730 he was made
Poet Laureate, and wrote some forgotten odes of no merit, also an
entertaining autobiography. Pope made him the hero of the _Dunciad_.

Among other plays are _The Nonjuror_ (1717), _Woman's Wit_, _She Would
and She Would Not_, _The Provoked Husband_ (1728) (with Vanbrugh).


CLARE, JOHN (1793-1864).--Poet, _s._ of a cripple pauper, was _b._ at
Helpstone near Peterborough. His youth is the record of a noble struggle
against adverse circumstances. With great difficulty he managed to save
one pound, with which he was able to have a prospectus of his first book
of poems printed, which led to an acquaintance with Mr. Drury, a
bookseller in Stamford, by whose help the poems were _pub._, and brought
him L20. The book, _Poems descriptive of Rural Life_ (1820), immediately
attracted attention. Various noblemen befriended him and stocked a farm
for him. But unfortunately C. had no turn for practical affairs, and got
into difficulties. He, however, continued to produce poetry, and in
addition to _The Village Minstrel_, which had appeared in 1821, _pub._
_The Shepherd's Calendar_ (1827), and _Rural Muse_ (1835). Things,
however, went on from bad to worse; his mind gave way, and he _d._ in an
asylum. C. excels in description of rural scenes and the feelings and
ideas of humble country life.


CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE, EARL of (1608-1674).--Lawyer, statesman, and
historian, _s._ of a country gentleman of good estate in Wiltshire, was
_b._ at Dinton in that county, and _ed._ at Oxf. Destined originally for
the Church, circumstances led to his being sent to London to study law,
which he did under his uncle, Sir Nicholas H., Chief Justice of the
King's Bench. In early life he was the friend of all the leading men of
the day. Entering Parliament in 1640 he at first supported popular
measures, but, on the outbreak of the Civil War, attached himself to the
King, and was the author of many of his state papers. From 1648 until the
Restoration C. was engaged in various embassies and as a counsellor of
Charles II., who made him in 1658 his Lord Chancellor, an office in which
he was confirmed at the Restoration, when he also became Chancellor of
the Univ. of Oxf., and was likewise raised to the peerage. His power and
influence came to an end, however, in 1667, when he was dismissed from
all his offices, was impeached, and had to fly to France. The causes of
his fall were partly the miscarriage of the war with Holland, and the
sale of Dunkirk, and partly the jealousy of rivals and the intrigues of
place hunters, whose claims he had withstood. In his enforced retirement
he engaged himself in completing his great historic work, _The History of
the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England_, which he had begun in 1641, and
which was not _pub._ until 1702-4. C.'s style is easy, flowing, diffuse,
and remarkably modern, with an occasional want of clearness owing to his
long and involved sentences. His great strength is in character-painting,
in which he is almost unrivalled. The _History_ was followed by a
supplementary _History of the Civil War in Ireland_ (1721). C. also wrote
an autobiography, _The Life of Edward Earl of Clarendon_ (1759), a reply
to the _Leviathan_ of Hobbes, and _An Essay on the Active and
Contemplative Life_, in which the superiority of the former is
maintained. C. _d._ at Rouen. He was a man of high personal character,
and great intellect and sagacity, but lacking in the firmness and energy
necessary for the troublous times in which he lived. His _dau._ Anne
married the Duke of York, afterwards James II., a connection which
involved him in much trouble and humiliation.

Agar Ellis's _Historical Enquiry respecting the Character of Clarendon_
(1827), _Life_ by T.H. Lister (1838), _History_ (Macray, 6 vols., 1888).


CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN (1787-1877).--Writer on Shakespeare, was a
publisher in London. He lectured on Shakespeare and on European
literature. Latterly he lived in France and Italy. His wife, MARY C.-C.
(1809-1898), _dau._ of V. Novello, musician, compiled a complete
_Concordance to Shakespeare_ (1844-45), and wrote _The Shakespeare Key_
(1879) and, with her husband, _Recollections of Writers_ (1878).


CLARKE, MARCUS (1846-1881).--Novelist, _b._ in London, the _s._ of a
barrister. After a somewhat wild youth he went to Australia where, after
more than one failure to achieve success in business, he took to
journalism on the staff of the _Melbourne Argus_, with brilliant results.
He wrote two novels, _Long Odds_ and _For the Term of his Natural Life_
(1874), the latter, which is generally considered his masterpiece,
dealing in a powerful and realistic manner with transportation and
convict labour. He also wrote many short tales and dramatic pieces. After
a turbulent and improvident life he _d._ at 35. In addition to the works
above mentioned, he wrote _Lower Bohemia in Melbourne_, _The Humbug
Papers_, _The Future Australian Race_. As a writer he was keen,
brilliant, and bitter.


CLARKE, SAMUEL (1675-1729).--Divine and metaphysician, _b._ at Norwich,
was _ed._ at Camb., where he became the friend and disciple of Newton,
whose System of the Universe he afterwards defended against Leibnitz. In
1704-5 he delivered the Boyle lectures, taking for his subject, _The
Being and Attributes of God_, and assuming an intermediate position
between orthodoxy and Deism. In 1712 he _pub._ views on the doctrine of
the Trinity which involved him in trouble, from which he escaped by a
somewhat unsatisfactory explanation. He was, however, one of the most
powerful opponents of the freethinkers of the time. In addition to his
theological writings C. _pub._ an ed. of the _Iliad_, a Latin translation
of the _Optics_ of Newton, on whose death he was offered the Mastership
of the Mint, an office worth L1500 a year, which, however, he declined.
The talents, learning, and amiable disposition of C. gave him a high
place in the esteem of his contemporaries. In the Church he held various
preferments, the last being that of Rector of St. James's, Westminster.
He was also Chaplain to Queen Anne. His style is cold, dry, and precise.


CLEVELAND, JOHN (1613-1658).--Poet, _s._ of an usher in a charity school,
was _b._ at Loughborough, and _ed._ at Camb., where he became coll. tutor
and lecturer on rhetoric at St. John's, and was much sought after. A
staunch Royalist, he opposed the election of Oliver Cromwell as member
for Camb. in the Long Parliament, and was in consequence ejected from his
coll. in 1645. Joining the King, by whom he was welcomed, he was
appointed to the office of Judge Advocate at Newark. In 1646, however,
he was deprived of this, and wandered about the country dependent on the
bounty of the Royalists. In 1655 he was imprisoned at Yarmouth, but
released by Cromwell, to whom he appealed, and went to London, where he
lived in much consideration till his death. His best work is satirical,
giving a faint adumbration of _Hudibras_; his other poems, with
occasional passages of great beauty, being affected and artificial. The
_Poems_ were _pub._ in 1656.


CLINTON, HENRY FYNES (1781-1852).--Chronologist, _b._ at Gamston, Notts,
_ed._ at Southwell, Westminster, and Oxf., where he devoted himself
chiefly to the study of Greek. Brought into Parliament by the Duke of
Newcastle in 1806, he took no active part in political life, and retired
in 1826. He bought in 1810 the estate of Welwyn, and there he entered
upon wide and profound studies bearing upon classical chronology, and
wrote various important treatises on the subject, viz., _Fasti Hellenici,
Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece_, part i. (1824), part ii.
(1827), part iii. (1830), part iv. (1841), _Fasti Romani, Civil and
Literary Chronology of Rome and Constantinople_, vol. i. (1850), vol. ii.
(1851), _An Epitome of the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece_
(1851), the same for Rome (1853). He also wrote a tragedy, _Solyman_,
which was a failure.


CLOUGH, ARTHUR HUGH (1819-1861).--Poet, _s._ of a cotton merchant in
Liverpool, he spent his childhood in America, but was sent back to
England for his education, which he received at Rugby and Oxf. While at
the Univ., where he was tutor and Fellow of Oriel, he fell under the
influence of Newman, but afterwards became a sceptic and resigned his
Fellowship in 1848. In the same year he _pub._ his poem, _The Bothie of
Tober-na-Vuolich_, written in hexameters. After travelling on the
Continent for a year, he was in 1849 appointed Warden of Univ. Hall,
London. In 1849 appeared _Amours de Voyage_, a rhymed novelette, and the
more serious work, _Dipsychus_. In 1854 he was appointed an examiner in
the Education Office, and married. His last appointment was as Sec. of a
Commission on Military Schools, in connection with which he visited
various countries, but was seized with illness, and _d._ at Florence. C.
was a man of singularly sincere character, with a passion for truth. His
poems, though full of fine and subtle thought, are, with the exception of
some short lyrics, deficient in form, and the hexameters which he
employed in _The Bothie_ are often rough, though perhaps used as
effectively as by any English verse-writer. M. Arnold's _Thyrsis_ was
written in memory of C.


COBBE, FRANCES POWER (1822-1904).--Theological and social writer, was
_b._ near Dublin. Coming under the influence of Theodore Parker, she
became a Unitarian. Her first work, _pub._ anonymously, was on _The
Intuitive Theory of Morals_ (1855). She travelled in the East, and _pub._
_Cities of the Past_ (1864). Later she became interested in social
questions and philanthropic work, and wrote many books on these and
kindred subjects, including _Criminals_, _Idiots_, _Women_ and _Minors_
(1869), _Darwinism in Morals_ (1872), and _Scientific Spirit of the Age_
(1888). She was a strong opponent of vivisection.


COBBETT, WILLIAM (1762-1835).--Essayist and political writer, _b._ at
Farnham, Surrey, _s._ of a small farmer, his youth was spent as a farm
labourer, a clerk, and in the army, in which his good conduct and
intelligence led to his promotion to the rank of sergeant-major. After
moving about between England and America, and alternating between
journalism and agriculture, in the former of which his daring opposition
to men in power got him into frequent trouble and subjected him to heavy
fines in both countries, he settled down in England in 1800, and
continued his career as a political writer, first as a Tory and then as a
Radical. His violent changes of opinion, and the force and severity with
which he expressed himself naturally raised up enemies in both camps. In
1817 he went back to America, where he remained for two years. Returning
he stood, in 1821, for a seat in Parliament, but was unsuccessful. In
1832, however, he was returned for Oldham, but made no mark as a speaker.
C. was one of the best known men of his day. His intellect was narrow,
but intensely clear, and he was master of a nervous and idiomatic English
style which enabled him to project his ideas into the minds of his
readers. His chief writings are _English Grammar_, _Rural Rides_, _Advice
to Young Men and Women_. His _Weekly Political Register_ was continued
from 1802 until his death.


COCKBURN, HENRY (1779-1854).--Scottish judge and biographer, _b._
(probably) and _ed._ in Edin., became a distinguished member of the
Scottish Bar, and ultimately a judge. He was also one of the leaders of
the Whig party in Scotland in its days of darkness prior to the Reform
Act of 1832. The life-long friend of Francis Jeffrey, he wrote his life,
_pub._ in 1852. His chief literary work, however, is his _Memorials of
his Time_ (1856), continued in his _Journal_ (1874). These constitute an
autobiography of the writer interspersed with notices of manners, public
events, and sketches of his contemporaries, of great interest and value.


COCKTON, HENRY (1807-1852).--Novelist, _b._ in London, is only remembered
as an author for his novel of _Valentine Vox_ (1840), the adventures of a
ventriloquist.


COLENSO, JOHN WILLIAM (1814-1883).--Mathematician and Biblical critic,
_b._ at St. Austell, Cornwall, and _ed._ at St. John's Coll., Camb.,
where he was a tutor, entered the Church, and _pub._ various mathematical
treatises and _Village Sermons_. In 1853 he was appointed first Bishop of
Natal. He mastered the Zulu language, introduced printing, wrote a Zulu
grammar and dictionary, and many useful reading-books for the natives.
His _Commentary on the Romans_ (1861) excited great opposition from the
High Church party, and his _Critical Examination of the Pentateuch_
(1862-1879), by its then extreme views, created great alarm and
excitement. He was in 1863 deposed and excommunicated by Bishop Gray of
Cape Town, but confirmed in his see by the Courts of Law. His theological
writings are now largely superseded; but his mathematical text-books, for
the writing of which he was much better equipped, hold their place.


COLERIDGE, HARTLEY (1796-1849).--Poet, eldest _s._ of Samuel T.C.
(_q.v._), _b._ at Clevedon, spent his youth at Keswick among the "Lake
poets." His early education was desultory, but he was sent by Southey to
Oxf. in 1815. His talents enabled him to win a Fellowship, but the
weakness of his character led to his being deprived of it. He then went
to London and wrote for magazines. From 1823 to 1828 he tried keeping a
school at Ambleside, which failed, and he then led the life of a recluse
at Grasmere until his death. Here he wrote _Essays_, _Biographia
Borealis_ (lives of worthies of the northern counties) (1832), and a
_Life of Massinger_ (1839). He is remembered chiefly for his _Sonnets_.
He also left unfinished a drama, _Prometheus_.


COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR (1772-1834).--Poet, philosopher, and critic,
_s._ of the Rev. John C., vicar and schoolmaster of Ottery St. Mary,
Devonshire, was _b._ there in 1772, the youngest of 13 children. He was
at Christ's Hospital from 1782 to 1790, and had Charles Lamb for a
schoolfellow, and the famous scholar and disciplinarian, James Boyer, for
his master. Thence he proceeded to Jesus Coll., Camb., in 1791, where he
read much, but desultorily, and got into debt. The troubles arising
thence and also, apparently, a disappointment in love, led to his going
to London and enlisting in the 15th Dragoons under the name of Silas
Tomkyn Comberbacke. He could not, however, be taught to ride, and through
some Latin lines written by him on a stable door, his real condition was
discovered, his friends communicated with, and his release accomplished,
his brothers buying him off. After this escapade he returned (1794) to
Camb. He had by this time imbibed extreme democratic or, as he termed
them, pantisocratic principles, and on leaving Camb. in the same year he
visited Oxf., where he made the acquaintance of Southey, and discussed
with him a project of founding a "pantisocracy" on the banks of the
Susquehanna, a scheme which speedily fell through, owing firstly to want
of funds, and secondly to the circumstance of the two projectors falling
in love simultaneously with two sisters, Sarah and Edith Fricker, of whom
the former became, in 1795, the wife of C., and the latter of Southey. C.
had spent one more term at Camb., and there in Sept. 1794 his first work,
_The Fall of Robespierre_, a drama, to which Southey contributed two
acts, the second and third, was _pub._ After his marriage he settled
first at Clevedon, and thereafter at Nether Stowey, Somerset, where he
had Wordsworth for a neighbour, with whom he formed an intimate
association. About 1796 he fell into the fatal habit of taking laudanum,
which had such disastrous effects upon his character and powers of will.
In the same year _Poems on various Subjects_ appeared, and a little later
_Ode to the Departing Year_. While at Nether Stowey he was practically
supported by Thomas Poole, a tanner, with whom he had formed a
friendship. Here he wrote _The Ancient Mariner_, the first part of
_Christabel_ and _Kubla Khan_, and here he joined with Wordsworth in
producing the _Lyrical Ballads_. Some time previously he had become a
Unitarian, and was much engaged as a preacher in that body, and for a
short time acted as a minister at Shrewsbury. Influenced by Josiah and
Thomas Wedgwood, who each in 1798 gave him an annuity of L75 on
condition of his devoting himself to literature, he resigned this
position, and soon afterwards went to Germany, where he remained for over
a year, an experience which profoundly influenced the future development
of his intellect. On his return he made excursions with Southey and
Wordsworth, and at the end of 1799 went to London, where he wrote and
reported for the _Morning Post_. His great translation of Schiller's
_Wallenstein_ appeared in 1800. In the same year he migrated to Greta
Hall, near Keswick, where he wrote the second part of _Christabel_. Soon
after this his health gave way, and he suffered much; and, whether as the
cause or the consequence of this, he had become a slave to opium. In 1804
he went to Malta in search of health, and there became the friend of the
governor, Sir Alexander Ball, who appointed him his sec., in which
position he showed remarkable capacity for affairs. Resigning this
occupation, of which he had become tired, he travelled in Italy, and in
the beginning of 1806 reached Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship of
Tieck, Humboldt, and Bunsen. He returned to England in the end of 1806,
and in 1808 delivered his first course of lectures on Shakespeare at the
Royal Institution, and thereafter (1809), leaving his family at Keswick,
he went to live with Wordsworth at Grasmere. Here he started _The
Friend_, a philosophical and theological periodical, which lasted for 9
months. That part of his annuity contributed by T. Wedgwood had been
confirmed to him by will in 1805, and this he allowed to his wife, but in
1811 the remaining half was stopped. He delivered a second course of
lectures in London, and in 1813 his drama, _Remorse_, was acted at Drury
Lane with success. Leaving his family dependent upon Southey, he lived
with various friends, first, from 1816 to 1819, with John Morgan at
Calne. While there he _pub._ _Christabel_ and _Kubla Khan_ in 1816, and
in 1817 _Biographia Literaria_, _Sybilline Leaves_, and an autobiography.
In 1818 he appeared for the last time as a lecturer. He found in 1819 a
final resting-place in the household of James Gillman, a surgeon, at
Highgate. His life thenceforth was a splendid wreck. His nervous system
was shattered, and he was a constant sufferer. Yet these last years were,
in some respects, his best. He maintained a struggle against opium which
lasted with his life, and though he ceased to write much, he became the
revered centre of a group of disciples, including such men as Sterling,
Maurice, and Hare, and thus indirectly continued and increased his
influence in the philosophic and theological thought of his time. He
returned to Trinitarianism, and a singular and childlike humility became
one of his most marked characteristics. In 1824 he was elected an
Associate of the Royal Society of Literature, which brought him a pension
of 100 guineas. His latest publications were _Aids to Reflection_ (1825)
and _The Constitution of Church and State_. After his death there were
_pub._, among other works, _Table Talk_ (1835), _Confessions of an
Enquiring Spirit_ (1840), _Letters_ and _Anima Poetae_ (1895).

Endowed with an intellect of the first order, and an imagination at once
delicate and splendid, C., from a weakness of moral constitution, and the
lamentable habit already referred to, fell far short of the performance
which he had planned, and which included various epic poems, and a
complete system of philosophy, in which all knowledge was to be
co-ordinated. He has, however, left enough poetry of such excellence as
to place him in the first rank of English poets, and enough philosophic,
critical, and theological matter to constitute him one of the principal
intellectually formative forces of his time. His knowledge of philosophy,
science, theology, and literature was alike wide and deep, and his powers
of conversation, or rather monologue, were almost unique. A description
of him in later life tells of "the clerical-looking dress, the thick,
waving, silver hair, the youthful coloured cheek, the indefinable mouth
and lips, the quick, yet steady and penetrating greenish-grey eye, the
slow and continuous enunciation, and the everlasting music of his tones."

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1772, _ed._ Christ's Hospital and Camb., enlists 1794 but
bought off, became intimate with Southey, and proposes to found
pantisocracy, settles at Clevedon and Nether Stowey 1795, and became
friend of Wordsworth, began to take opium 1796, writes _Ancient Mariner_,
and joins W. in _Lyrical Ballads_, became Unitarian preacher, visits
Germany 1798, _pub._ translation of _Wallenstein_ 1800, settles at Greta
Hall and finishes _Christabel_, goes to Malta 1804, lectures on
Shakespeare 1808, leaves his family and lives with W. 1809, and
thereafter with various friends, latterly with Gillman at Highgate,
returned to Trinitarianism, _pub._ various works 1808-1825, _d._ 1834.

_S.T. Coleridge, a Narrative_, J.D. Campbell (1893), also H.D. Traill
(Men of Letters Series, 1884), also Pater's _Appreciations_, De Quincey's
Works, Principal Shairp's _Studies in Poetry and Philosophy_ (1868).


COLERIDGE, SARA (1802-1852).--Miscellaneous writer, the only _dau._ of
the above, _m._ her cousin, Henry Nelson C. She translated Dobrizhoeffer's
_Account of the Abipones_, and _The Joyous and Pleasant History ... of
the Chevalier Bayard_. Her original works are _Pretty Lessons in Verse_,
etc. (1834), which was very popular, and a fairy tale, _Phantasmion_. She
also ed. her father's works, to which she added an essay on Rationalism.


COLET, JOHN (1467-1519).--Scholar and theologian, was _b._ in London, the
_s._ of a wealthy citizen, who was twice Lord Mayor. The only survivor of
a family of 22, he went to Oxf. and Paris, and thence to Italy, where he
learned Greek. He entered the Church, and held many preferments,
including the Deanery of St. Paul's. He continued to follow out his
studies, devoting himself chiefly to St. Paul's epistles. He was
outspoken against the corruptions of the Church, and would have been
called to account but for the protection of Archbishop Warham. He devoted
his great fortune to founding and endowing St. Paul's School. Among his
works are a treatise on the Sacraments and various devotional writings.
It is rather for his learning and his attitude to the advancement of
knowledge than for his own writings that he has a place in the history of
English literature.


COLLIER, JEREMY (1650-1726).--Church historian and controversialist, _b._
at Stow, Cambridgeshire, _ed._ at Ipswich and Camb., entered the Church,
and became Rector of Ampton, Suffolk, lecturer of Gray's Inn, London,
and ultimately a nonjuring bishop. He was a man of war from his youth,
and was engaged in controversies almost until his death. His first
important one was with Gilbert Burnet, and led to his being imprisoned in
Newgate. He was, however, a man of real learning. His chief writings are
his _Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain_ (1708-1714), and especially
his _Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage_
(1699), on account of which he was attacked by Congreve and Farquhar, for
whom, however, he showed himself more than a match. The work materially
helped towards the subsequent purification of the stage.


COLLINS, JOHN (_d._ 1808).--Actor and writer, was a staymaker, but took
to the stage, on which he was fairly successful. He also gave humorous
entertainments and _pub._ _Scripscrapologia_, a book of verses. He is
worthy of mention for the little piece, _To-morrow_, beginning "In the
downhill of life when I find I'm declining," characterised by Palgrave as
"a truly noble poem."


COLLINS, JOHN CHURTON (1848-1908).--Writer on literature and critic, _b._
in Gloucestershire, and _ed._ at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and
Oxf., became in 1894 Prof. of English Literature at Birmingham. He wrote
books on _Sir J. Reynolds_ (1874), _Voltaire in England_ (1886),
_Illustrations of Tennyson_ (1891), and also on Swift and Shakespeare,
various collections of essays, _Essays and Studies_ (1895), and _Studies
in Poetry and Criticism_ (1905), etc., and he issued ed. of the works of
C. Tourneur, Greene, Dryden, Herbert of Cherbury, etc.


COLLINS, MORTIMER (1827-1876).--Novelist, _s._ of a solicitor at
Plymouth, was for a time a teacher of mathematics in Guernsey. Settling
in Berkshire he adopted a literary life, and was a prolific author,
writing largely for periodicals. He also wrote a good deal of occasional
and humorous verse, and several novels, including _Sweet Anne Page_
(1868), _Two Plunges for a Pearl_ (1872), _Mr. Carrington_ (1873), under
the name of "R.T. Cotton," and _A Fight with Fortune_ (1876).


COLLINS, WILLIAM (1721-1759).--Poet, _s._ of a respectable hatter at
Chichester, where he was _b._ He was _ed._ at Chichester, Winchester, and
Oxf. His is a melancholy career. Disappointed with the reception of his
poems, especially his Odes, he sank into despondency, fell into habits of
intemperance, and after fits of melancholy, deepening into insanity, _d._
a physical and mental wreck. Posterity has signally reversed the judgment
of his contemporaries, and has placed him at the head of the lyrists of
his age. He did not write much, but all that he wrote is precious. His
first publication was a small vol. of poems, including the _Persian_
(afterwards called _Oriental_) _Eclogues_ (1742); but his principal work
was his _Odes_ (1747), including those to _Evening_ and _The Passions_,
which will live as long as the language. When Thomson died in 1748 C.,
who had been his friend, commemorated him in a beautiful ode.
Another--left unfinished--that on the _Superstitions of the Scottish
Highlands_, was for many years lost sight of, but was discovered by Dr.
Alex. Carlyle (_q.v._). C.'s poetry is distinguished by its high
imaginative quality, and by exquisitely felicitous descriptive phrases.

_Memoirs_ prefixed to Dyce's ed. of Poems (1827), Aldine ed., Moy Thomas,
1892.


COLLINS, WILLIAM WILKIE (1824-1889).--Novelist, _s._ of William C., R.A.,
entered Lincoln's Inn, and was called to the Bar 1851, but soon
relinquished law for literature. His first novel was _Antonina_ (1850), a
historical romance. He found his true field, however, in the novel of
modern life, in which his power lies chiefly in the construction of a
skilful plot, which holds the attention of the reader and baffles his
curiosity to the last. In Count Fosco, however, he has contributed an
original character to English fiction. Among his numerous novels two,
_The Woman in White_ (1860), and _The Moonstone_ (1868), stand out
pre-eminent. Others are _The Dead Secret_ (1857), _Armadale_ (1866), _No
Name_ (1862), _After Dark, "I say No,"_ etc. He collaborated with Dickens
in _No Thoroughfare_.


COLMAN, GEORGE, THE ELDER (1732-1794).--Dramatist, _b._ at Florence,
where his _f._ was British Envoy, he was a friend of Garrick, and took to
writing for the stage with success. He wrote more than 30 dramatic
pieces, of which the best known are _The Jealous Wife_ (1761), and _The
Clandestine Marriage_ (1766). C. was also manager and part proprietor of
various theatres. He was a scholar and translated Terence and the _De
Arte Poetica_ of Horace, wrote essays, and ed. Beaumont and Fletcher and
B. Jonson.


COLMAN, GEORGE, THE YOUNGER (1762-1836).--Dramatist, _s._ of the
preceding, wrote or adapted numerous plays, including _The Heir at
Law_ and _John Bull_. He was Examiner of Plays (1824-1836). Many of his
plays are highly amusing, and keep their place on the stage. His wit made
him popular in society, and he was a favourite with George IV.


COLTON, CHARLES CALEB (1780-1832).--Miscellaneous writer, _ed._ at Eton
and Camb., took orders and held various livings. He was an eccentric man
of talent, with little or no principle, took to gaming, and had to leave
the country. He _d._ by his own hand. His books, mainly collections of
epigrammatic aphorisms and short essays on conduct, etc., though now
almost forgotten, had a phenomenal popularity in their day. Among them
are _Lacon, or Many Things in Few Words_, and a few poems.


COMBE, GEORGE (1788-1858).--Writer on phrenology and education, _b._ in
Edin., where for some time he practised as a lawyer. Latterly, however,
he devoted himself to the promotion of phrenology, and of his views on
education, for which he in 1848 founded a school. His chief work was _The
Constitution of Man_ (1828).


COMBE, WILLIAM (1741-1823).--Miscellaneous writer. His early life was
that of an adventurer, his later was passed chiefly within the "rules" of
the King's Bench prison. He is chiefly remembered as the author of _The
Three Tours of Dr. Syntax_, a comic poem (?). His cleverest piece of work
was a series of imaginary letters, supposed to have been written by the
second, or "wicked" Lord Lyttelton. Of a similar kind were his letters
between Swift and Stella. He also wrote the letterpress for various
illustrated books, and was a general hack.


CONGREVE, WILLIAM (1670-1729).--Dramatist, was _b._ in Yorkshire. In
boyhood he was taken to Ireland, and _ed._ at Kilkenny and at Trinity
Coll., Dublin. In 1688 he returned to England and entered the Middle
Temple, but does not appear to have practised, and took to writing for
the stage. His first comedy, _The Old Bachelor_, was produced with great
applause in 1693, and was followed by _The Double Dealer_ (1693), _Love
for Love_ (1695), and _The Way of the World_ (1700), and by a tragedy,
_The Mourning Bride_ (1697). His comedies are all remarkable for wit and
sparkling dialogue, but their profanity and licentiousness have driven
them from the stage. These latter qualities brought them under the lash
of Jeremy Collier (_q.v._) in his _Short View of the English Stage_.
Congreve rushed into controversy with his critic who, however, proved too
strong for him. C. was a favourite at Court, and had various lucrative
offices conferred upon him. In his latter years he was blind; otherwise
his life was prosperous, and he achieved his chief ambition of being
admired as a fine gentleman and gallant. _Life_, Gosse (1888). _Works_,
ed. by Henley (1895), also Mermaid Series (1888).


CONINGTON, JOHN (1825-1869).--Translator, _s._ of a clergyman at Boston,
Lincolnshire, where he was _b._, _ed._, at Rugby and Magdalen and Univ.
Coll., Oxf., and began the study of law, but soon relinquished it, and
devoting himself to scholarship, became Prof. of Latin at Oxf.
(1854-1869). His chief work is his translation of Virgil's _AEneid_ in the
octosyllabic metre of Scott (1861-68). He also translated the _Satires_
and _Epistles_ of Horace in Pope's couplets, and completed Worsley's
_Iliad_ in Spenserian stanza. He also brought out valuable ed. of Virgil
and Perseus. C. was one of the greatest translators whom England has
produced.


CONSTABLE, HENRY (1562-1613).--Poet, _s._ of Sir Robert C., _ed._ at
Camb., but becoming a Roman Catholic, went to Paris, and acted as an
agent for the Catholic powers. He _d._ at Liege. In 1592 he _pub._
_Diana_, a collection of sonnets, and contributed to _England's Helicon_
four poems, including _Diaphenia_ and _Venus and Adonis_. His style is
characterised by fervour and richness of colour.


COOKE, JOHN ESTEN (1830-1886).--Novelist, _b._ in Virginia, illustrated
the life and history of his native state in the novels, _The Virginia
Comedians_ (1854), and _The Wearing of the Gray_, a tale of the Civil
War, and more formally in an excellent History of the State. His style
was somewhat high-flown.


COOPER, JAMES FENIMORE (1789-1851).--Novelist, _b._ at Burlington, New
Jersey, and _ed._ at Yale Coll., he in 1808 entered the U.S. Navy, in
which he remained for 3 years, an experience which was of immense future
value to him as an author. It was not until 1821 that his first novel,
_Precaution_, appeared. Its want of success did not discourage him, and
in the next year (1822), he produced _The Spy_, which at once gained him
a high place as a story-teller. He wrote over 30 novels, of which may be
mentioned _The Pioneers_ (1823), _The Pilot_ (1823), _The Last of the
Mohicans_ (1826), _The Prairie_ (1826), _The Red Rover_ (1831), _The
Bravo_ (1840), _The Pathfinder_, _The Deerslayer_ (1841), _The Two
Admirals_ (1842), and _Satanstoe_ (1845). He also wrote a _Naval History
of the United States_ (1839). C. was possessed of remarkable narrative
and descriptive powers, and could occasionally delineate character. He
had the merit of opening up an entirely new field, and giving expression
to the spirit of the New World, but his true range was limited, and he
sometimes showed a lack of judgment in choosing subjects with which he
was not fitted to deal. He was a proud and combative but honest and
estimable man.


COOPER, THOMAS (1805-1892).--Chartist poet, was _b._ at Leicester, and
apprenticed to a shoemaker. In spite of hardships and difficulties, he
_ed._ himself, and at 23 was a schoolmaster. He became a leader and
lecturer among the Chartists, and in 1842 was imprisoned in Stafford gaol
for two years, where he wrote his _Purgatory of Suicides_, a political
epic. At the same time he adopted sceptical views, which he continued to
hold until 1855, when he became a Christian, joined the Baptists, and was
a preacher among them. In his latter years he settled down into an
old-fashioned Radical. His friends in 1867 raised an annuity for him, and
in the last year of his life he received a government pension. In
addition to his poems he wrote several novels. Somewhat impulsive, he was
an honest and sincere man.


CORBET, RICHARD (1582-1635).--Poet, _s._ of a gardener, was _ed._ at
Westminster School and Oxf., and entered the Church, in which he obtained
many preferments, and rose to be Bishop successively of Oxf. and Norwich.
He was celebrated for his wit, which not seldom passed into buffoonery.
His poems, which are often mere doggerel, were not _pub._ until after his
death. They include _Journey to France_, _Iter Boreale_, the account of a
tour from Oxf. to Newark, and the _Farewell to the Fairies_.


CORNWALL, BARRY, _see_ PROCTER, B.W.


CORY, WILLIAM JOHNSON (1823-1892).--Poet, _b._ at Torrington, and _ed._
at Eton, where he was afterwards a master. He was a brilliant writer of
Latin verse. His chief poetical work is _Ionica_, containing poems in
which he showed a true lyrical gift.


CORYATE, or CORYATT, THOMAS (1577-1617).--Poet, _b._ at Odcombe,
Somerset, and _ed._ at Westminster and Oxf., entered the household of
Prince Henry. In 1608 he made a walking tour in France, Italy, and
Germany, walking nearly 2000 miles in one pair of shoes, which were,
until 1702, hung up in Odcombe Church, and known as "the thousand mile
shoes." He gave an amusing account of this in his _Coryate's Crudities
hastily gobbled up_ (1611), prefixed to which were commendatory verses by
many contemporary poets. A sequel, _Coryate's Crambe_, or _Colewort twice
Sodden_ followed. Next year (1612) C. bade farewell to his
fellow-townsmen, and set out on another journey to Greece, Egypt, and
India, from which he never returned. He _d._ at Surat. Though odd and
conceited, C. was a close observer, and took real pains in collecting
information as to the places he visited.


COSTELLO, LOUISA STUART (1799-1877).--Poet and novelist, _b._ in Ireland,
lived chiefly in Paris, where she was a miniature-painter. In 1815 she
_pub._ _The Maid of the Cyprus Isle_, etc. (poems). She also wrote books
of travel, which were very popular, as were her novels, chiefly founded
on French history. Another work, _pub._ in 1835, is _Specimens of the
Early Poetry of France_.


COTTON, CHARLES (1630-1687).--Poet and translator, succeeded to an
embarrassed estate, which his happy-go-lucky methods did not improve,
wrote burlesques on _Virgil_ and _Lucian_, and made an excellent
translation of _Montaigne's Essays_, also a humorous _Journey to
Ireland_. C. was the friend of Izaak Walton, and wrote a second part of
_The Complete Angler_. He was apparently always in difficulties, always
happy, and always a favourite.


COTTON, SIR ROBERT BRUCE (1571-1631).--Antiquary, _b._ at Denton, Hunts,
and _ed._ at Camb., was a great collector of charters and records
throwing light upon English history, and co-operated with Camden
(_q.v._). Among his works are a history of the _Raigne of Henry III._
(1627). He was the collector of the Cottonian library, now in the British
Museum, and was the author of various political tracts.


COUSIN, ANNE ROSS (CUNDELL) (1824-1906).--Poetess, only _dau._ of D.R.
Cundell, M.D., Leith, _m._ 1847 Rev. Wm. Cousin, minister of the Free
Church of Scotland, latterly at Melrose. Some of her hymns, especially
"The Sands of Time are sinking," are known and sung over the
English-speaking world. A collection of her poems, _Immanuel's Land and
Other Pieces_, was _pub._ in 1876 under her initials A.R.C., by which she
was most widely known.


COVERDALE, MILES (1488-1568).--Translator of the Bible, _b._ in
Yorkshire, and _ed._ at Camb. Originally an Augustinian monk, he became a
supporter of the Reformation. In 1535 his translation of the Bible was
_pub._, probably at Zurich. It bore the title, _Biblia, the Bible: that
is the Holy Scripture of the Olde and New Testament faithfully and newly
translated out of the Doutche and Latyn into English_. C. was made Bishop
of Exeter in 1551, but, on the accession of Mary, he was imprisoned for
two years, at the end of which he was released and went to Denmark and
afterwards to Geneva. On the death of Mary he returned to England, but
the views he had imbibed in Geneva were adverse to his preferment. He
ultimately, however, received a benefice in London, which he resigned
before his death. Besides the Bible he translated many treatises of the
Continental Reformers.


COWLEY, ABRAHAM (1618-1667).--Poet, _s._ of a grocer or stationer in
London, where he was _b._ In childhood he was greatly influenced by
reading Spenser, a copy of whose poems was in the possession of his
mother. This, he said, made him a poet. His first book, _Poetic
Blossoms_ (1633), was _pub._ when he was only 15. After being at
Westminster School he went to Camb., where he was distinguished for his
graceful translations. On the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the
Royalists, was turned out of his college, and in 1646 followed the Queen
to Paris, where he remained for 10 or 12 years, during which he rendered
unwearied service to the royal family. At the Restoration he wrote some
loyal odes, but was disappointed by being refused the Mastership of the
Savoy, and retired to the country. He received a lease of Crown lands,
but his life in the country did not yield him the happiness he expected.
He is said by Pope to have _d._ of a fever brought on by lying in the
fields after a drinking-bout. The drinking-bout, however, is perhaps an
ill-natured addition. C.'s fame among his contemporaries was much greater
than that which posterity has accorded to him. His poems are marred by
conceits and a forced and artificial brilliancy. In some of them,
however, he sings pleasantly of gardens and country scenes. They comprise
_Miscellanies_, _The Mistress, or Love Poems_ (1647), _Pindaric Odes_,
and _The Davideis_, an epic on David (unfinished). He is at his best in
such imitations of Anacreon as _The Grasshopper_. His prose, especially
in his Essays, though now almost unread, is better than his verse; simple
and manly, it sometimes rises to eloquence. C. is buried in Westminster
Abbey near Spenser.

Ed., Grosart (1881), Waller (1903).


COWPER, WILLIAM (1731-1800).--Poet, was the _s._ of the Rev. John C.,
Rector of Great Berkhampstead, Herts, and Chaplain to George II. His
grandfather was a judge, and he was the grand-nephew of the 1st Earl C.,
the eminent Lord Chancellor. A shy and timid child, the death of his
mother when he was 6 years old, and the sufferings inflicted upon him by
a bullying schoolfellow at his first school, wounded his tender and
shrinking spirit irrecoverably. He was sent to Westminster School, where
he had for schoolfellows Churchill, the poet (_q.v._), and Warren
Hastings. The powerful legal influence of his family naturally suggested
his being destined for the law, and at 18 he entered the chambers of a
solicitor, where he had for a companion Thurlow, the future Chancellor, a
truly incongruous conjunction; the pair, however, seem to have got on
well together, and employed their time chiefly in "giggling and making
giggle." He then entered the Middle Temple, and in 1754 was called to the
Bar. This was perhaps the happiest period of his life, being enlivened by
the society of two cousins, Theodora and Harriet C. With the former he
fell in love; but his proposal of marriage was opposed by her _f._, who
had observed symptoms of morbidity in him, and he never met her again.
The latter, as Lady Hesketh, was in later days one of his most intimate
friends. In 1759 he received a small sinecure appointment as Commissioner
of Bankrupts, which he held for 5 years, and in 1763, through the
influence of a relative, he received the offer of the desirable office of
Clerk of the Journals to the House of Lords. He accepted the appointment,
but the dread of having to make a formal appearance before the House so
preyed upon his mind as to induce a temporary loss of reason, and he was
sent to an asylum at St. Albans, where he remained for about a year. He
had now no income beyond a small sum inherited from his _f._, and no aims
in life; but friends supplemented his means sufficiently to enable him to
lead with a quiet mind the life of retirement which he had resolved to
follow. He went to Huntingdon, and there made the acquaintance of the
Unwins, with whom he went to live as a boarder. The acquaintance soon
ripened into a close friendship, and on the death, from an accident
(1767), of Mr. U., C. accompanied his widow (the "Mary" of his poems) to
Olney, where the Rev. John Newton (_q.v._) was curate. N. and C. became
intimate friends, and collaborated in producing the well-known _Olney
Hymns_, of which 67 were composed by C. He became engaged to Mary Unwin,
but a fresh attack of his mental malady in 1773 prevented their marriage.
On his recovery he took to gardening, and amused himself by keeping pets,
including the hares "Tiny" and "Puss," and the spaniel "Beau,"
immortalised in his works. The chief means, however, which he adopted for
keeping his mind occupied and free from distressing ideas was the
cultivation of his poetic gift. At the suggestion of Mrs. U., he wrote
_The Progress of Error_; _Truth, Table Talk, Expostulation, Hope, Charity,
Conversation_, and _Retirement_ were added, and the whole were _pub._ in
one vol. in 1782. Though not received with acclamation, its signal merits
of freshness, simplicity, graceful humour, and the pure idiomatic English
in which it was written gradually obtained recognition, and the fame of
the poet-recluse began to spread. His health had now become considerably
re-established, and he enjoyed an unwonted measure of cheerfulness, which
was fostered by the friendship of Lady Austin, who had become his
neighbour. From her he received the story of John Gilpin, which he
forthwith turned into his immortal ballad. Hers also was the suggestion
that he should write a poem in blank verse, which gave its origin to his
most famous poem, _The Task_. Before it was _pub._, however, the intimacy
had, apparently owing to some little feminine jealousies, been broken
off. _The Task_ was _pub._ in 1785, and met with immediate and
distinguished success. Although not formally or professedly, it was, in
fact, the beginning of an uprising against the classical school of
poetry, and the founding of a new school in which nature was the teacher.
As Dr. Stopford Brooke points out, "Cowper is the first of the poets who
loves Nature entirely for her own sake," and in him "the idea of Mankind
as a whole is fully formed." About this time he resumed his friendship
with his cousin, Lady Hesketh, and, encouraged by her, he began his
translation of _Homer_, which appeared in 1791. Before this he had
removed with Mrs. U. to the village of Weston Underwood. His health had
again given way; and in 1791 Mrs. U. became paralytic, and the object of
his assiduous and affectionate care. A settled gloom with occasional
brighter intervals was now falling upon him. He strove to fight it by
engaging in various translations, and in revising his _Homer_, and
undertaking a new ed. of Milton, which last was, however, left
unfinished. In 1794 a pension of L300 was conferred upon him, and in 1795
he removed with Mrs. U., now a helpless invalid, to East Dereham. Mrs. U.
_d._ in the following year, and three years later his own death released
him from his heavy burden of trouble and sorrow. His last poem was _The
Castaway_, which, with its darkness almost of despair, shows no loss of
intellectual or poetic power. In addition to his reputation as a poet C.
has that of being among the very best of English letter-writers, and in
this he shows, in an even easier and more unstudied manner, the same
command of pure idiomatic English, the same acute observation, and the
same mingling of gentle humour and melancholy. In literature C. is the
connecting link between the classical school of Pope and the natural
school of Burns, Crabbe, and Wordsworth, having, however, much more in
common with the latter.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1731, _ed._ Westminster School, entered Middle Temple and
called to the Bar, 1754, appointed Clerk of Journals of House of Lords,
but mind gave way 1763, lives with the Unwins, became intimate with J.
Newton and with him writes _Olney Hymns_, _pub._ _Poems_ (_Progress of
Error_, etc.), 1782, _Task_ 1785, _Homer_ 1791, _d._ 1731.

The standard ed. of C.'s works is Southey's, with memoir (15 vols.
1834-37). Others are the Aldine (1865), the Globe (1870). There are
_Lives_ by Hayley (2 vols., 1805), Goldwin Smith (Men of Letters Series),
and T. Wright.


COXE, WILLIAM (1747-1828).--Historian, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at
Eton and Camb. As tutor to various young men of family he travelled much
on the Continent, and _pub._ accounts of his journeys. His chief
historical work is his _Memoirs of the House of Austria_ (1807), and he
also wrote lives of Walpole, Marlborough, and others. He had access to
valuable original sources, and his books, though somewhat heavy, are on
the whole trustworthy, notwithstanding a decided Whig bias. He was a
clergyman, and _d._ Archdeacon of Wilts.


CRABBE, GEORGE (1754-1832).--Poet, _b._ at Aldborough, Suffolk, where his
_f._ was collector of salt dues, he was apprenticed to a surgeon, but,
having no liking for the work, went to London to try his fortune in
literature. Unsuccessful at first, he as a last resource wrote a letter
to Burke enclosing some of his writings, and was immediately befriended
by him, and taken into his own house, where he met Fox, Reynolds, and
others. His first important work, _The Library_, was _pub._ in 1781, and
received with favour. He took orders, and was appointed by the Duke of
Rutland his domestic chaplain, residing with him at Belvoir Castle. Here
in 1783 he _pub._ _The Village_, which established his reputation, and
about the same time he was presented by Lord Thurlow to two small
livings. He was now secured from want, made a happy marriage, and devoted
himself to literary and scientific pursuits. The _Newspaper_ appeared in
1785, and was followed by a period of silence until 1807, when he came
forward again with _The Parish Register_, followed by _The Borough_
(1810), _Tales in Verse_ (1812), and his last work, _Tales of the Hall_
(1817-18). In 1819 Murray the publisher gave him L3000 for the last named
work and the unexpired copyright of his other poems. In 1822 he visited
Sir Walter Scott at Edinburgh. Soon afterwards his health began to give
way, and he _d._ in 1832. C. has been called "the poet of the poor." He
describes in simple, but strong and vivid, verse their struggles,
sorrows, weaknesses, crimes, and pleasures, sometimes with racy humour,
oftener in sombre hues. His pathos, sparingly introduced, goes to the
heart; his pictures of crime and despair not seldom rise to the terrific,
and he has a marvellous power of painting natural scenery, and of
bringing out in detail the beauty and picturesqueness of scenes at first
sight uninteresting, or even uninviting. He is absolutely free from
affectation or sentimentality, and may be regarded as one of the greatest
masters of the realistic in our literature. With these merits he has
certain faults, too great minuteness in his pictures, too frequent
dwelling upon the sordid and depraved aspects of character, and some
degree of harshness both in matter and manner, and not unfrequently a
want of taste.

_Life_ prefixed to ed. of works by his son (1834), Ainger (Men of
Letters, 1903). Works (Ward, 3 vols., 1906-7).


CRAIGIE, MRS. PEARL MARY TERESA (RICHARDS) (1867-1906).--_Dau._ of John
Morgan, R. _b._ in Boston, Massachusetts. Most of her education was
received in London and Paris, and from childhood she was a great reader
and observer. At 19 she _m._ Mr. R.W. Craigie, but the union did not
prove happy and was, on her petition, dissolved. In 1902 she became a
Roman Catholic. She wrote, under the pseudonym of "John Oliver Hobbes," a
number of novels and dramas, distinguished by originality of subject and
treatment, brightness of humour, and finish of style, among which may be
mentioned _Some Emotions and a Moral_, _The Gods, Some Mortals and Lord
Wickenham_ (1895), _The Herb Moon_ and _The School for Saints_ (1897),
and _Robert Orange_ (1900), _The Dream and The Business_ (1907). Her
dramas include _The Ambassador_ and _The Bishop's Move_.


CRAIK, GEORGE LILLIE (1798-1866).--Writer on English literature, etc.,
_b._ at Kennoway, Fife, and _ed._ at St. Andrews, went to London in 1824,
where he wrote largely for the "Society for the Promotion of Useful
Knowledge." In 1849 he was appointed Prof. of English Literature and
History at Belfast. Among his books are _The Pursuit of Knowledge under
Difficulties_ (1831), _History of British Commerce_ (1844), and _History
of English Literature and the English Language_ (1861). He was also joint
author of _The Pictorial History of England_, and wrote books on Spenser
and Bacon.


CRANMER, THOMAS (1489-1556).--Theologian and Churchman, _b._ at Aslacton,
Notts, _ed._ at Camb., and became an eminent classical and biblical
scholar. He supported Henry VIII. in his divorce proceedings against
Queen Catherine, gained the King's favour, and obtained rapid preferment,
ending with the Primacy. He was one of the chief promoters of the
Reformation in England. On the accession of Mary, he was committed to the
Tower, and after a temporary failure of courage and constancy, suffered
martyrdom at the stake. It is largely to C. that we owe the stately forms
of the Book of Common Prayer. He also wrote over 40 works, and composed
several hymns; but the influence of the Prayer-book in fixing the
language is his great, though indirect, service to our literature.

Fox's _Book of Martyrs_, Strype's _Memorials of Cranmer_, Hook's _Lives
of Archbishops of Canterbury_, etc.


CRASHAW, RICHARD (1613?-1649).--Poet, _s._ of William C., a Puritan
divine, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Charterhouse and Camb., where he
became a Fellow of Peterhouse, from which, however, he was, in 1643,
ejected for refusing to take the Solemn League and Covenant. Thereafter
he went to France, and joined the Roman communion. He suffered great
straits, being almost reduced to starvation, but was, through the
influence of Queen Henrietta Maria, appointed Sec. to Cardinal Palotta.
About 1649 he went to Italy, and in the following year became a canon of
the Church of Loretto. He _d._ the same year. C. is said to have been an
eloquent preacher, and was a scholar as well as a poet of a high order in
the ecstatic and transcendental style. His chief work is _Steps to the
Temple_ (1646), consisting mainly of religious poems somewhat in the
style of Herbert; his _Weeping of the Magdalen_ is full of the most
extravagant conceits, a fondness for which is, indeed, his besetting sin
as a poet. His friend Cowley commemorated him in a beautiful ode.


CRAWFORD, FRANCIS MARION (1854-1909).--Novelist and historian, _s._ of
Thomas C., an American sculptor, _b._ at Bagni di Lucca, Italy, and _ed._
in America, at Camb., and in Germany, he went to India and ed. _The
Indian Herald_ (1879-80). Thereafter he settled in Italy, living chiefly
at Sorrento, and becoming a Roman Catholic. His principal historical
works are _Ave Roma Immortalis_ (1898), _The Rulers of the South_
(reprinted as _Sicily, Calabria, and Malta_, 1904), and _Venetian
Gleanings_ (1905), but his reputation rests mainly on his novels, of
which he wrote between 30 and 40, the best known of which are perhaps
_Mr. Isaacs_ (1882), _Dr. Claudius_ (1883), _A Roman Singer_ (1884),
_Marzio's Crucifix_ (1887), _Saracinesca_ (1887), _A Cigarette-maker's
Romance_ (1890), generally considered his masterpiece, _Don Orsino_
(1892), _Pietro Ghisleri_ (1893), and _The Heart of Rome_ (1903). His one
play is _Francesca, da Rimini_. His novels are all interesting, and
written in a style of decided distinction. His historical works, though
full of information, lack spirit.


CREASY, SIR EDWARD SHEPHERD (1812-1878).--Historian, _ed._ at Eton and
Camb., and called to the Bar in 1837, he became in 1840 Prof. of History,
London Univ., and in 1860 Chief Justice of Ceylon, when he was knighted.
His best known contribution to literature is his _Fifteen Decisive
Battles of the World_ (1852). Other works are _Historical and Critical
Account of the Several Invasions of England_ (1852), _History of the
Ottoman Turks_, and _Imperial and Colonial Institutions of the British
Empire_ (1872).


CREECH, THOMAS (1659-1700).--Translator, _b._ near Sherborne, _ed._ at
Oxf., became Head Master of Sherborne School. He translated _Lucretius_
in verse (1682), for which he received a Fellowship at Oxf., also Horace,
Theocritus, and other classics. Owing to a disappointment in love and
pecuniary difficulties he hanged himself.


CREIGHTON, MANDELL (1843-1901).--Churchman and historian, _b._ at
Carlisle, and _ed._ at Durham Grammar School and Merton Coll., Oxf., he
took orders, and was presented to the living of Embleton, Northumberland,
in 1875, where, in addition to zealous discharge of pastoral duties, he
pursued the historical studies on the results of which his reputation
chiefly rests. In 1882 the first two vols. of his _History of the Papacy_
appeared, followed by two more in 1887, and a fifth in 1894. In 1884 he
was appointed first Dixie Prof. of Ecclesiastical History at Camb. He ed.
the _English Historical Review_ (1886-91). In 1891, after having held
canonries at Worcester and Windsor, he became Bishop of Peterborough,
from which he was in 1897 translated to London. His duties as Bishop of
London made the completion of his great historical work an impossibility.
He wrote in addition to it various text-books on history, a life of Queen
Elizabeth, a memoir of Sir George Grey, and many articles and reviews. He
was recognised as a leading authority on the department of history to
which he had specially devoted himself, and he made his mark as a
Churchman.


CROKER, JOHN WILSON (1780-1857).--Politician and miscellaneous writer.
_Ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, he entered Parliament as a Tory, and was
appointed to various offices, including the Secretaryship of the
Admiralty, which he held for 20 years. He was one of the founders of the
_Quarterly Review_, and wrote some of its most violent political articles
and reviews. He _pub._ in 1831 an ed. of _Boswell's Life of Johnson_. He
also wrote some historical essays and satirical pieces.


CROKER, THOMAS CROFTON (1798-1854).--Irish Antiquary, _b._ at Cork, for
some years held a position in the Admiralty. He devoted himself largely
to the collection of ancient Irish poetry and folk-lore. Among his
publications are _Researches in the South of Ireland_ (1824), _Fairy
Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland_ (1825-27), _Popular Songs
of Ireland_ (1837), _Daniel O'Rourke_ (1829), and _Barney Mahoney_
(1832). He assisted in founding the "Camden" and "Percy" Societies.


CROLY, GEORGE (1780-1860).--Poet, novelist, historian, and divine, _b._
at Dublin, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll. there, he took orders and became
Rector of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, and had a high reputation as a
preacher. He wrote poems, dramas, satires, novels, history, and
theological works, and attained some measure of success in all. Perhaps
his best known works are his novels, _Salathiel_ (1829), founded on the
legend of "the wandering Jew," and _Mareton_ (1846). His chief
contribution to theological literature is an exposition of the
Apocalypse.


CROWE, CATHERINE (STEVENS) (1800-1876).--Wrote dramas, children's books,
and one or two novels, including _Susan Hopley_ (1841), and _Lilly
Dawson_ (1847), but is chiefly remembered for her _Night-side of Nature_
(1848), a collection of stories of the supernatural. Though somewhat
morbid she had considerable talent.


CROWE, EYRE EVANS (1799-1868).--Historian and novelist, _s._ of an
officer in the army, _b._ near Southampton, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll.,
Dublin. He wrote several novels, including _Vittoria Colonna_, _To-day in
Ireland_ (1825), _The English in France_ (1828), and _Charles Dalmer_
(1853). Among his historical works are a _History of France_ in
_Lardner's Cabinet Encyclopaedia_, afterwards enlarged and separately
_pub._, and a _History of Louis XVIII. and Charles X._


CROWE, SIR JOSEPH ARCHER (1825-1896).--Writer on art, _s._ of the above,
was _b._ in London. Most of his childhood was spent in France, and on his
return to England in 1843 he became a journalist. He was then for some
years engaged in educational work in India, and was afterwards war
correspondent for the _Times_ on various occasions, and filled various
important consular posts, for which he was in 1890 made K.C.M.G. In
collaboration with G.B. Cavalcasselle, an Italian refugee, he was the
author of several authoritative works on art, including _The Early
Flemish Painters_ (1856), _A New History of Painting in Italy_ (1864-68),
_A History of Painting in North Italy_ (1871), _Titian, His Life and
Times_ (1877), and _Raphael, His Life and Works_ (1883-85). The actual
writing of all these was the work of C.


CROWE, WILLIAM (1745-1829).--Poet, _b._ at Midgham, Berks, the _s._ of a
carpenter, was _ed._ as a foundationer at Winchester, whence he proceeded
to Oxf., where he became Public Orator. He wrote a smooth, but somewhat
conventional poem, _Lewesdon Hill_ (1789), ed. Collins's Poems (1828),
and lectured on poetry at the Royal Institution. His poems were _coll._
in 1827. C. was a clergyman and Rector of Alton Barnes, Wilts.


CROWNE, JOHN (1640?-1703).--Dramatist, returned from Nova Scotia, to
which his _f._, a Nonconformist minister, had emigrated, and became
gentleman usher to a lady of quality. His first play, _Juliana_, appeared
in 1671. He wrote in all about 17 dramatic pieces, of which the best is
_Sir Courtly Nice_ (1685), adapted from the Spanish. It is amusing, and
enjoyed a long continued vogue. In general, however, C. is dull.


CUDWORTH, RALPH (1617-1688).--Divine and philosopher, _b._ at Aller,
Somerset, and _ed._ at Camb., where, after being a tutor, he became
Master of Clare Hall 1645, Prof. of Hebrew (1645-88), and Master of
Christ's Coll., 1654. His great work is _The True Intellectual System of
the Universe_ (1678). A work of vast learning and acuteness, it is
directed against the infidelity of the age. C.'s candour in his statement
of the opposing position was so remarkable that Dryden remarked "that he
raised such strong objections against the being of a God and Providence
that many thought he had not answered them." He also left in MS. a
_Treatise concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality_, _pub._ in 1731.


CUMBERLAND, RICHARD (1732-1811).--Novelist and dramatist, _ed._ at
Westminster and Camb., entered the diplomatic service, and filled several
government appointments. His best play is _The West Indian_. His novels
do not rise much above mediocrity. Along with Sir J.B. Burges he wrote an
epic entitled _The Exodiad_, and he also made some translations from the
Greek.


CUMMINS, MARIA SUSANNA (1827-1866).--_B._ at Salem, Mass., was well-known
as the authoress of _The Lamplighter_, a somewhat sentimental tale which
had very wide popularity. She wrote others, including _Mabel Vaughan_,
none of which had the same success.


CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN (1784-1842).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, _b._ near
Dalswinton, Dumfriesshire, in his youth knew Burns, who was a friend of
his father's. He was apprenticed to a stonemason, but gave his leisure to
reading and writing imitations of old Scottish ballads, which he
contributed to Cromek's _Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway Song_, _pub._
in 1810, and which gained for him the friendship of Scott and Hogg.
Thereafter he went to London, and became a parliamentary reporter, and
subsequently assistant to Chantrey, the sculptor, but continued his
literary labours, writing three novels, a life of Sir D. Wilkie, and
_Lives of Eminent British Painters, Sculptors, and Architects_, besides
many songs, of which the best is _A wet sheet and a flowing Sea_. He also
brought out an ed. of Burns's Works. He had four sons, all of whom rose
to important positions, and inherited in some degree his literary gifts.


CURTIS, GEORGE WILLIAM (1824-1892).--American essayist, editor, and
journalist, contributed to _New York Tribune_, and to _Putnam's_ and
_Harper's_ monthlies, in which most of his books first appeared. Among
these are _Trumps_, a story of New York life, _Prue and I_,
_Lotus-eating_, and the _Potiphar Papers_. C. was also one of the
finest American orators of his day.


CYNEWULF (_fl._ 750).--Anglo-Saxon poet. He was probably a Northumbrian,
though sometimes thought to have been a Mercian. His poems, and some
others, more or less doubtfully attributed to him, are contained in the
Exeter Book and the Vercelli Book. The poems which are considered to be
certainly his are the _Riddles_, from hints and allusions in which is
derived nearly all that is known of him, or at least of the earlier part
of his life, which appears to have been that of a joyous and poetical
nature, rejoicing in the beauty of the world. His next poem, _Juliana_,
the legend of a virgin-martyr, indicates a transition in his spiritual
life; sorrow and repentance are its predominant notes, and in these
respects another poem, _St. Guthlac_, resembles it. In the _Crist_
(Christ), C. has passed through the clouds to an assured faith and peace.
_The Phoenix_, and the second part of _Guthlac_, though not certainly
his, are generally attributed to him. _The Fates of the Apostles_ and
_Elene_ (the legend of St. Helena) are his; the _Andreas_ and _The Dream
of the Roode_ are still in some respects the subject of controversy. In
several of the poems the separate letters of C.'s name are introduced in
a peculiar manner, and are regarded as an attesting signature. _Juliana_,
_Crist_, _The Apostles_, and _Elene_ are thus said to be signed. The
Exeter and Vercelli Books are collections of ancient English poems, and
they are named from the places where they were found.


DALLING AND BULWER, WILLIAM HENRY LYTTON EARLE BULWER, 1ST LORD
(1801-1872).--Elder brother of Lord Lytton (_q.v._), and a distinguished
diplomatist. He represented England at Madrid, Washington (where he
concluded the Bulwer-Clayton Treaty), Florence, Bucharest, and
Constantinople, and was raised to the peerage in 1871. He was the author
of a number of books of travel and biography, including _An Autumn in
Greece_ (1826), a _Life of Byron_ (1835), _Historical Characters_
(1868-70), and an unfinished life of Lord Palmerston.


DAMPIER, WILLIAM (1652-1715).--Discoverer and buccaneer, _b._ near
Yeovil. After various seafaring adventures, and leading a semi-piratical
life, he was in 1688 marooned on Nicobar Island, but escaped to Acheen,
returned to England in 1691. He _pub._ his _Voyage Round the World_
(1697), and _A Discourse of Winds_ (1699). He was then employed by
government on a voyage of survey and discovery (1699-1700), in the course
of which he explored the north-west coast of Australia and the coasts of
New Guinea and New Britain. In 1701 he was wrecked upon Ascension Island,
from which he was rescued by an East Indiaman. He was afterwards
court-martialled for cruelty, and wrote an angry but unconvincing
vindication. His _Voyage_ is written in a style plain and homely, but is
perspicuous and interesting.


DANA, RICHARD HENRY (1787-1879).--Novelist and critic, _b._ at Camb.,
Mass., was called to the Bar in 1817. Among his novels are _Tom Thornton_
and _Paul Felton_, both somewhat violent and improbable tales, and his
poems, which are better, include _The Buccaneer_ (1827), and _The Dying
Raven_. He is, however, stronger as a critic than as a writer. He wrote
largely in _The North American Review_, and for a time conducted a paper,
_The Idle Man_, which contains some of his best work.


DANA, RICHARD HENRY, JR. (1815-1882).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of the
above, _ed._ at Harvard, but on his eyesight giving way shipped as a
common sailor, and gave his experiences in _Two Years before the Mast_
(1840). Called to the Bar in 1840, he became an authority on maritime
law. Other books by him are _The Seaman's Friend_ (1841), and _Vacation
Voyage to Cuba_ (1859).


DANIEL, SAMUEL (1562-1619).--Poet, _s._ of a music master, was _b._ near
Taunton, and _ed._ at Oxf., but did not graduate. He attached himself to
the Court as a kind of voluntary laureate, and in the reign of James I.
was appointed "Inspector of the children of the Queen's revels," and a
groom of the Queen's chamber. He is said to have enjoyed the friendship
of Shakespeare and Marlowe, but was "at jealousies" with Ben Jonson. In
his later years he retired to a farm which he owned in Somerset, where he
_d._ D. bears the title of the "well-languaged," his style is clear and
flowing, with a remarkably modern note, but is lacking in energy and
fire, and is thus apt to become tedious. His works include sonnets,
epistles, masques, and dramas. The most important of them is _The History
of the Civil Wars between York and Lancaster_ in 8 books, _pub._ in 1604.
His _Epistles_ are generally considered his best work, and his sonnets
have had some modern admirers. Among his poems may be mentioned the
_Complaynt of Rosamund_, _Tethys Festival_ (1610), and _Hymen's Triumph_
(1615), a masque, and _Musophilus_, a defence of learning, _Defence of
Rhyme_ (1602).


DARLEY, GEORGE (1795-1846).--Poet, novelist, and critic, _b._ at Dublin,
and _ed._ at Trinity Coll. there, he early decided to follow a literary
career, and went to London, where he brought out his first poem, _Errors
of Ecstasie_ (1822). He also wrote for the _London Magazine_, under the
pseudonym of John Lacy. In it appeared his best story, _Lilian of the
Vale_. Various other books followed, including _Sylvia, or The May
Queen_, a poem (1827). Thereafter he joined the _Athenaeum_, in which he
showed himself a severe critic. He was also a dramatist and a profound
student of old English plays, editing those of Beaumont and Fletcher in
1840. So deeply was he imbued with the spirit of the 17th century that
his poem, "It is not beauty I desire," was included by F.T. Palgrave in
the first ed. of his _Golden Treasury_ as an anonymous lyric of that age.
He was also a mathematician of considerable talent, and _pub._ some
treatises on the subject. D. fell into nervous depression and _d._ in
1846.


DARWIN, CHARLES ROBERT (1809-1882).--Naturalist, _s._ of a physician, and
grandson of Dr. Erasmus D. (_q.v._), and of Josiah Wedgwood, the famous
potter, was _b._ and was at school at Shrewsbury. In 1825 he went to
Edin. to study medicine, but was more taken up with marine zoology than
with the regular curriculum. After two years he proceeded to Camb., where
he _grad._ in 1831, continuing, however, his independent studies in
natural history. In the same year came the opportunity of his life, his
appointment to accompany the _Beagle_ as naturalist on a survey of South
America. To this voyage, which extended over nearly five years, he
attributed the first real training of his mind, and after his return
_pub._ an account of it, _Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle_ (1840).
After spending a few years in London arranging his collections and
writing his _Journal_, he removed to Down, a retired village near the
Weald of Kent, where, in a house surrounded by a large garden, his whole
remaining life was passed in the patient building up, from accurate
observations, of his theory of Evolution, which created a new epoch in
science and in thought generally. His industry was marvellous, especially
when it is remembered that he suffered from chronic bad health. After
devoting some time to geology, specially to coral reefs, and exhausting
the subject of barnacles, he took up the development of his favourite
question, the transformation of species. In these earlier years of
residence at Down he _pub._ _The Structure and Distribution of Coral
Reefs_ (1842), and two works on the geology of volcanic islands, and of
South America. After he had given much time and profound thought to the
question of evolution by natural selection, and had written out his notes
on the subject, he received in 1858 from Mr. A.R. Wallace (_q.v._) a
manuscript showing that he also had reached independently a theory of the
origin of species similar to his own. This circumstance created a
situation of considerable delicacy and difficulty, which was ultimately
got over by the two discoverers presenting a joint paper, _On the
Tendency of Species to form Varieties_, and _On the Perpetuation of
Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection_. The publication in
1859 of _The Origin of Species_ gave D. an acknowledged place among the
greatest men of science, and the controversies which, along with other of
his works, it raised, helped to carry his name all over the civilised
world. Among his numerous subsequent writings may be mentioned _The
Fertilisation of Orchids_ (1862), _Variation of Plants and Animals under
Domestication_ (1868), _The Descent of Man, and Selection in relation to
Sex_ (1871), _The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals_ (1872),
_Insectivorous Plants_ (1875), _Climbing Plants_ (1875), _Different Forms
of Flowers_ (1877), _The Power of Movement in Plants_ (1880), and _The
Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms_ (1881). D.,
with a modesty which was one of his chief characteristics, disclaimed for
himself the possession of any remarkable talents except "an unusual power
of noticing things which easily escape attention, and of observing them
carefully." In addition, however, to this peculiar insight, he had a
singular reverence for truth and fact, enormous industry, and great
self-abnegation: and his kindliness, modesty, and magnanimity attracted
the affection of all who knew him.

_Life and Letters_, by his son, F. Darwin, 3 vols., 1887; _C. Darwin and
the Theory of Natural Selection_. E.B. Poulton, 1896; various short Lives
by Grant Allen and others.


DARWIN, ERASMUS (1731-1802).--Poet, physician, and scientist, was _b._ at
Elston, Notts, and _ed._ at Camb. and at Edin., where he took his degree
of M.D. He ultimately settled in Lichfield as a physician, and attained a
high professional reputation, so much so that he was offered, but
declined, the appointment of physician to George III. In 1778 he formed a
botanical garden, and in 1789 _pub._ his first poem, _The Loves of the
Plants_, followed in 1792 by _The Economy of Vegetation_, which combined
form _The Botanic Garden_. Another poem, _The Temple of Nature_, was
_pub._ posthumously. He also wrote various scientific works in prose. The
poems of D., though popular in their day, are now little read. Written in
polished and sonorous verse, they glitter with startling similes and
ingenious, though often forced, analogies, but have little true poetry or
human interest.


DASENT, SIR GEORGE WEBBE (1817-1896).--Scandinavian scholar, _b._ in the
island of St. Vincent, of which his _f._ was Attorney-general, _ed._ at
Westminster School, King's Coll., London, and Oxf., he entered the
diplomatic service, and was for several years Sec. to the British Embassy
at Stockholm, where he became interested in Scandinavian literature and
mythology. Returning to England he was appointed Assistant Ed. of _The
Times_ (1845-1870). In 1852 he was called to the Bar, and in the
following year was appointed Prof. of English Literature and Modern
History at King's Coll., London, an office which he held for 13 years. He
was knighted in 1876. His principal writings have to do with Scandinavian
language, mythology, and folk-lore, and include an _Icelandic Grammar_,
_The Prose or Younger Edda_ (1842), _Popular Tales from the Norse_
(1859), _The Saga of Burnt Njal_ (1861), and _The Story of Gisli the
Outlaw_ (1866), mostly translated from the Norwegian of Asbjoernsen. He
also translated the Orkney and Hacon Sagas for the Rolls Series, and
wrote four novels, _Annals of an Eventful Life_, _Three to One_, _Half a
Life_, and _The Vikings of the Baltic_. His style is pointed and clear.


DAVENANT, or D'AVENANT, SIR WILLIAM (1606-1668).--Poet and dramatist, was
_b._ at Oxf., where his _f._ kept an inn, which Shakespeare was in the
habit of visiting. This had some influence on the future poet, who
claimed to be Shakespeare's natural son. D., _ed._ at Lincoln Coll., was
afterwards in the service of Lord Brooke, became involved in the troubles
of the Civil War, in which he took the Royalist side, and was imprisoned
in the Tower, escaped to France, and after returning was, in 1643,
knighted. Later D. was employed on various missions by the King and
Queen, was again in the Tower from 1650 to 1652, when he _pub._ his poem
_Gondibert_. He is said to have owed his release to the interposition of
Milton. In 1656 he practically founded the English Opera by his _Siege of
Rhodes_ (1656). In 1659 he was again imprisoned, but after the
Restoration he seems to have enjoyed prosperity and Royal favour, and
established a theatre, where he was the first habitually to introduce
female players and movable scenery. D. wrote 25 dramatic pieces, among
which are _Albovine, King of the Lombards_ (1629), _Platonick Lovers_
(1636), _The Wits_ (1633), _Unfortunate Lovers_ (1643), _Love and Honour_
(1649). None of them are now read; and the same may be said of
_Gondibert_, considered a masterpiece by contemporaries. D. succeeded Ben
Jonson as Poet Laureate, and collaborated with Dryden in altering (and
debasing) _The Tempest_. He _coll._ his miscellaneous verse under the
title of _Madagascar_. He is said to have had the satisfaction of
repaying in kind the good offices of Milton when the latter was in danger
in 1660. He joined with Waller and others in founding the classical
school of English poetry.


DAVIDSON, JOHN (1837-1909).--Poet and playwright, _b._ at Barrhead,
Renfrewshire, _s._ of a Dissenting minister, entered the chemical
department of a sugar refinery in Greenock in his 13th year, returning
after one year to school as a pupil teacher. He was afterwards engaged in
teaching at various places, and having taken to literature went in 1890
to London. He achieved a reputation as a writer of poems and plays of
marked individuality and vivid realism. His poems include _In a Music
Hall_ (1891), _Fleet Street Eclogues_ (1893), _Baptist Lake_ (1894), _New
Ballads_ (1896), _The Last Ballad_ (1898), _The Triumph of Mammon_
(1907), and among his plays are _Bruce_ (1886), _Smith: a Tragic Farce_
(1888), _Godfrida_ (1898). D. disappeared on March 27, 1909, under
circumstances which left little doubt that under the influence of mental
depression he had committed suicide. Among his papers was found the MS.
of a new work, _Fleet Street Poems_, with a letter containing the words,
"This will be my last book." His body was discovered a few months later.


DAVIES, JOHN (1565?-1618).--Called "the Welsh Poet," was a
writing-master, wrote very copiously and rather tediously on theological
and philosophical themes. His works include _Mirum in Modum_,
_Microcosmus_ (1602), and _The Picture of a Happy Man_ (1612). _Wit's
Bedlam_ (1617), and many epigrams on his contemporaries which have some
historical interest.


DAVIES, SIR JOHN (1569-1626).--Lawyer and poet, _s._ of a lawyer at
Westbury, Wiltshire, was _ed._ at Winchester and Oxf., and became a
barrister of the Middle Temple, 1595. He was a member successively of the
English and Irish Houses of Commons, and held various legal offices. In
literature he is known as the writer of two poems, _Orchestra: a Poem of
Dancing_ (1594), and _Nosce Teipsum_ (Know Thyself), in two elegies (1)
Of Humane Knowledge (2) Of the Immortality of the Soul. The poem consists
of quatrains, each containing a complete and compactly expressed thought.
It was _pub._ in 1599. D. was also the author of treatises on law and
politics.


DAVIS, or DAVYS, JOHN (1550?-1605).--Navigator, known as D. of Sandridge
to distinguish him from another of the same name. He was one of the most
enterprising of the Elizabethan sailors, who devoted themselves to the
discovery of the North-west Passage. Davis Strait was discovered by, and
named after, him. He made many voyages, in the last of which he met his
death at the hands of a Japanese pirate. He was the author of a book, now
very scarce, _The World's Hydrographical Description_, and he also wrote
a work on practical navigation, _The Seaman's Secrets_, which had great
repute.


DAVIS, THOMAS OSBORNE (1814-1845).--Poet, _b._ at Mallow, _ed._ at
Trinity Coll., Dublin, and called to the Irish Bar 1838. He was one of
the founders of _The Nation_ newspaper, and of the Young Ireland party.
He wrote some stirring patriotic ballads, originally contributed to _The
Nation_, and afterwards republished as _Spirit of the Nation_, also a
memoir of Curran the great Irish lawyer and orator, prefixed to an ed. of
his speeches; and he had formed many literary plans which were brought to
naught by his untimely death.


DAVY, SIR HUMPHREY (1778-1829).--Chemist and man of letters, _s._ of a
wood-carver, was _b._ at Penzance. He early showed an enthusiasm for
natural science, and continued to pursue his studies when apprenticed in
1795 to a surgeon. He became specially interested in chemistry, to which
in 1797 he began more exclusively to devote himself. Thereafter he
assisted Dr. Beddoes in his laboratory at Bristol, and entered upon his
brilliant course of chemical discovery. His _Researches, Chemical, and
Philosophical_ (1799), led to his appointment as Director of the Chemical
Laboratory at the Royal Institution, where he also delivered courses of
scientific lectures with extraordinary popularity. Thereafter his life
was a succession of scientific triumphs and honours. His great discovery
was that of the metallic bases of the earths and alkalis. He also
discovered various metals, including sodium, calcium, and magnesium. In
1812 he was knighted, and _m._ a wealthy widow. Thereafter he
investigated volcanic action and fire-damp, and invented the safety lamp.
In 1818 he was _cr._ a baronet, and in 1820 became Pres. of the Royal
Society, to which he communicated his discoveries in electro-magnetism.
In addition to his scientific writings, which include _Elements of
Agricultural Chemistry_ (1813), and _Chemical Agencies of Electricity_,
he wrote _Salmonia, or Days of Fly Fishing_ (1828), somewhat modelled
upon Walton, and _Consolations in Travel_ (1830), dialogues on ethical
and religious questions. D. sustained an apoplectic seizure in 1826,
after which his health was much impaired, and after twice wintering in
Italy, he _d._ at Geneva, where he received a public funeral. Though not
attached to any Church, D. was a sincerely religious man, strongly
opposed to materialism and scepticism. He holds a foremost place among
scientific discoverers.


DAY, JOHN (_b._ 1574).--Dramatist, _s._ of a Norfolk yeoman, was at
Camb., 1592-3. It is only since 1881 that his works have been identified.
He collaborated with Dekker and others in plays, and was the author of
_The Isle of Gulls_ (1606), _Law Trickes_ (1608), and _Humour out of
Breath_ (1608), also of an allegorical masque, _The Parliament of Bees_.


DAY, THOMAS (1748-1789).--Miscellaneous writer, was _b._ in London, _ed._
at the Charterhouse and at Oxf., and called to the Bar 1775, but having
inherited in infancy an independence, he did not practise. He became a
disciple of Rousseau in his social views, and endeavoured to put them in
practice in combination with better morality. He was a benevolent
eccentric, and used his income, which was increased by his marriage with
an heiress, in schemes of social reform as he understood it. He is
chiefly remembered as the author of the once universally-read _History of
Sandford and Merton_.


DEFOE, DANIEL (1661?-1731).--Journalist and novelist, _s._ of a butcher
in St. Giles, where he was _b._ His _f._ being a Dissenter, he was _ed._
at a Dissenting coll. at Newington with the view of becoming a
Presbyterian minister. He joined the army of Monmouth, and on its defeat
was fortunate enough to escape punishment. In 1688 he joined William III.
Before settling down to his career as a political writer, D. had been
engaged in various enterprises as a hosier, a merchant-adventurer to
Spain and Portugal, and a brickmaker, all of which proved so unsuccessful
that he had to fly from his creditors. Having become known to the
government as an effective writer, and employed by them, he was appointed
Accountant in the Glass-Duty Office, 1659-1699. Among his more important
political writings are an _Essay on Projects_ (1698), and _The True-born
Englishman_ (1701), which had a remarkable success. In 1702 appeared _The
Shortest Way with the Dissenters_, written in a strain of grave irony
which was, unfortunately for the author, misunderstood, and led to his
being fined, imprisoned, and put in the pillory, which suggested his
_Hymns to the Pillory_ (1704). Notwithstanding the disfavour with the
government which these disasters implied, D.'s knowledge of commercial
affairs and practical ability were recognised by his being sent in 1706
to Scotland to aid in the Union negotiations. In the same year _Jure
Divino_, a satire, followed by a _History of the Union_ (1709), and _The
Wars of Charles XII._ (1715). Further misunderstandings and
disappointments in connection with political matters led to his giving up
this line of activity, and, fortunately for posterity, taking to fiction.
The first and greatest of his novels, _Robinson Crusoe_, appeared in
1719, and its sequel (of greatly inferior interest) in 1720. These were
followed by _Captain Singleton_ (1720), _Moll Flanders_, _Colonel
Jacque_, and _Journal of the Plague Year_ (1722), _Memoirs of a Cavalier_
(1724), _A New Voyage Round the World_ (1725), and _Captain Carlton_
(1728). Among his miscellaneous works are _Political History of the
Devil_ (1726), _System of Magic_ (1727), _The Complete English Tradesman_
(1727), and _The Review_, a paper which he ed. In all he _pub._,
including pamphlets, etc., about 250 works. All D.'s writings are
distinguished by a clear, nervous style, and his works of fiction by a
minute verisimilitude and naturalness of incident which has never been
equalled except perhaps by Swift, whose genius his, in some other
respects, resembled. The only description of his personal appearance is
given in an advertisement intended to lead to his apprehension, and runs,
"A middle-sized, spare man about forty years old, of a brown complexion,
and dark brown-coloured hair, but wears a wig; a hooked nose, a sharp
chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth." His mind was a
peculiar amalgam of imagination and matter-of-fact, seeing strongly and
clearly what he did see, but little conscious, apparently, of what lay
outside his purview.

_Lives_ by Chalmers (1786), H. Morley (1889), T. Wright (1894), and
others; shorter works by Lamb, Hazlitt, L. Stephens, and Prof. Minto,
Bohn's _British Classics_, etc.


DEKKER, THOMAS (1570?-1641?).--Dramatist and miscellaneous writer, was
_b._ in London. Few details of D.'s life have come down to us, though he
was a well-known writer in his day, and is believed to have written or
contributed to over 20 dramas. He collaborated at various times with
several of his fellow-dramatists, including Ben Jonson. Ultimately Jonson
quarrelled with Marston and D., satirising them in _The Poetaster_
(1601), to which D. replied in _Satiromastix_ (1602). D.'s best play is
_Old Fortunatus_ (1606), others are _The Shoemaker's Holiday_ (1600),
_Honest Whore_ (1604), _Roaring Girl_ (1611), _The Virgin Martyr_ (1622)
(with Massinger), and _The Witch of Edmonton_ (1658) (with Ford and
Rowley), _History of Sir Thomas Wyat_, _Westward Ho_, and _Northward Ho_,
all with Webster. His prose writings include _The Gull's Hornbook_
(1609), _The Seven Deadly Sins of London_, and _The Belman of London_
(1608), satirical works which give interesting glimpses of the life of
his time. His life appears to have been a somewhat chequered one,
alternating between revelry and want. He is one of the most poetical of
the older dramatists. Lamb said he "had poetry enough for anything."


DE LOLME, JOHN LOUIS (1740?-1807).--Political writer, _b._ at Geneva, has
a place in English literature for his well-known work, _The Constitution
of England_, written in French, and translated into English in 1775. He
also wrote a comparison of the English Government with that of Sweden, a
_History of the Flagellants_ (1777), and _The British Empire in Europe_
(1787). He came to England in 1769, lived in great poverty, and having
inherited a small fortune, returned to his native place in 1775.


DELONEY, THOMAS (1543-1600).--Novelist and balladist, appears to have
worked as a silk-weaver in Norwich, but was in London by 1586, and in the
course of the next 10 years is known to have written about 50 ballads,
some of which involved him in trouble, and caused him to lie _perdue_ for
a time. It is only recently that his more important work as a novelist,
in which he ranks with Greene and Nash, has received attention. He
appears to have turned to this new field of effort when his original one
was closed to him for the time. Less under the influence of Lyly and
other preceding writers than Greene, he is more natural, simple, and
direct, and writes of middle-class citizens and tradesmen with a light
and pleasant humour. Of his novels, _Thomas of Reading_ is in honour of
clothiers, _Jack of Newbury_ celebrates weaving, and _The Gentle Craft_
is dedicated to the praise of shoemakers. He "dy'd poorely," but was
"honestly buried."


DE MORGAN, AUGUSTUS (1806-1871).--Mathematician, _b._ in India, and _ed._
at Camb., was one of the most brilliant of English mathematicians. He is
mentioned here in virtue of his _Budget of Paradoxes_, a series of papers
originally _pub._ in _The Athenaeum_, in which mathematical fallacies are
discussed with sparkling wit, and the keenest logic.


DENHAM, SIR JOHN (1615-1669).--Poet, _s._ of the Chief Baron of Exchequer
in Ireland, was _b._ in Dublin, and _ed._ at Oxf. He began his literary
career with a tragedy, _The Sophy_ (1641), which seldom rises above
mediocrity. His poem, _Cooper's Hill_ (1642), is the work by which he is
remembered. It is the first example in English of a poem devoted to local
description. D. received extravagant praise from Johnson; but the place
now assigned him is a much more humble one. His verse is smooth, clear,
and agreeable, and occasionally a thought is expressed with remarkable
terseness and force. In his earlier years D. suffered for his Royalism;
but after the Restoration enjoyed prosperity. He, however, made an
unhappy marriage, and his last years were clouded by insanity. He was an
architect by profession, coming between Inigo Jones and Wren as King's
Surveyor.


DENNIS, JOHN (1657-1734).--Critic, etc., _s._ of a saddler, was _b._ in
London, and _ed._ at Harrow and Caius Coll., Camb., from the latter of
which he was expelled for stabbing a fellow-student, and transferred
himself to Trinity Hall. He attached himself to the Whigs, in whose
interest he wrote several bitter and vituperative pamphlets. His attempts
at play-writing were failures; and he then devoted himself chiefly to
criticising the works of his contemporaries. In this line, while showing
some acuteness, he aroused much enmity by his ill-temper and jealousy.
Unfortunately for him, some of those whom he attacked, such as Pope and
Swift, had the power of conferring upon him an unenviable immortality.
Embalmed in _The Dunciad_, his name has attained a fame which no work of
his own could have given it. Of Milton, however, he showed a true
appreciation. Among his works are _Rinaldo and Armida_ (1699), _Appius
and Virginia_ (1709), _Reflections Critical and Satirical_ (1711), and
_Three Letters on Shakespeare_. He _d._ in straitened circumstances.


DE QUINCEY, THOMAS (1785-1859).--Essayist and miscellaneous writer, _s._
of a merchant in Manchester, was _b._ there. The aristocratic "De" was
assumed by himself, his _f._, whom he lost while he was still a child,
having been known by the name of Quincey, and he claimed descent from a
Norman family. His _Autobiographic Sketches_ give a vivid picture of his
early years at the family residence of Greenheys, and show him as a
highly imaginative and over-sensitive child, suffering hard things at the
hands of a tyrannical elder brother. He was _ed._ first at home, then at
Bath Grammar School, next at a private school at Winkfield, Wilts, and
in 1801 he was sent to the Manchester Grammar School, from which he ran
away, and for some time rambled in Wales on a small allowance made to him
by his mother. Tiring of this, he went to London in the end of 1802,
where he led the strange Bohemian life related in _The Confessions_. His
friends, thinking it high time to interfere, sent him in 1803 to Oxf.,
which did not, however, preclude occasional brief interludes in London,
on one of which he made his first acquaintance with opium, which was to
play so prominent and disastrous a part in his future life. In 1807 he
became acquainted with Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Southey, and soon
afterwards with C. Lamb. During the years 1807-9 he paid various visits
to the Lakes, and in the latter year he settled at Townend, Grasmere,
where Wordsworth had previously lived. Here he pursued his studies,
becoming gradually more and more enslaved by opium, until in 1813 he was
taking from 8000 to 12,000 drops daily. John Wilson (Christopher North),
who was then living at Elleray, had become his friend, and brought him to
Edinburgh occasionally, which ended in his passing the latter part of his
life in that city. His marriage to Margaret Simpson, _dau._ of a farmer,
took place in 1816. Up to this time he had written nothing, but had been
steeping his mind in German metaphysics, and out-of-the-way learning of
various kinds; but in 1819 he sketched out _Prolegomena of all future
Systems of Political Economy_, which, however, was never finished. In the
same year he acted as ed. of the _Westmoreland Gazette_. His true
literary career began in 1821 with the publication in the _London
Magazine_ of _The Confessions of an English Opium-Eater_. Thereafter he
produced a long series of articles, some of them almost on the scale of
books, in _Blackwood's_ and _Tait's_ magazines, the _Edinburgh Literary
Gazette_, and _Hogg's Instructor_. These included _Murder considered as
one of the Fine Arts_ (1827), and in his later and more important period,
_Suspiria De Profundis_ (1845), _The Spanish Military Nun_ (1847), _The
English Mail-Coach_, and _Vision of Sudden Death_ (1849). In 1853 he
began a _coll._ ed. of his works, which was the main occupation of his
later years. He had in 1830 brought his family to Edinburgh, which,
except for two years, 1841-43, when he lived in Glasgow, was his home
till his death in 1859, and in 1837, on his wife's death, he placed them
in the neighbouring village of Lasswade, while he lived in solitude,
moving about from one dingy lodging to another.

De Q. stands among the great masters of style in the language. In his
greatest passages, as in the _Vision of Sudden Death_ and the _Dream
Fugue_, the cadence of his elaborately piled-up sentences falls like
cathedral music, or gives an abiding expression to the fleeting pictures
of his most gorgeous dreams. His character unfortunately bore no
correspondence to his intellectual endowments. His moral system had in
fact been shattered by indulgence in opium. His appearance and manners
have been thus described: "A short and fragile, but well-proportioned
frame; a shapely and compact head; a face beaming with intellectual
light, with rare, almost feminine beauty of feature and complexion; a
fascinating courtesy of manner, and a fulness, swiftness, and elegance of
silvery speech." His own works give very detailed information regarding
himself. _See_ also Page's _Thomas De Quincey: his Life and Writings_
(1879), Prof. Masson's _De Quincey_ (English Men of Letters). _Collected
Writings_ (14 vols. 1889-90).


DERMODY, THOMAS (1775-1802).--Poet, _b._ at Ennis, showed great capacity
for learning, but fell into idle and dissipated habits, and threw away
his opportunities. He _pub._ two books of poems, which after his death
were _coll._ as _The Harp of Erin_.


DE VERE, AUBREY THOMAS (1814-1902).--Poet, _s._ of Sir Aubrey de V.,
himself a poet, was _b._ in Co. Limerick, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll.,
Dublin. In early life he became acquainted with Wordsworth, by whom he
was greatly influenced. On the religious and ecclesiastical side he
passed under the influence of Newman and Manning, and in 1851 was
received into the Church of Rome. He was the author of many vols. of
poetry, including _The Waldenses_ (1842), _The Search for Proserpine_
(1843), etc. In 1861 he began a series of poems on Irish subjects,
_Inisfail_, _The Infant Bridal_, _Irish Odes_, etc. His interest in
Ireland and its people led him to write prose works, including _English
Misrule and Irish Misdeeds_ (1848); and to criticism he contributed
_Essays chiefly on Poetry_ (1887). His last work was his _Recollections_
(1897). His poetry is characterised by lofty ethical tone, imaginative
power, and grave stateliness of expression.


DIBDIN, CHARLES (1745-1814).--Dramatist and song writer, _b._ at
Southampton, began his literary career at 16 with a drama, _The
Shepherd's Artifice_. His fame, however, rests on his sea songs, which
are unrivalled, and include _Tom Bowling_, _Poor Jack_, and _Blow High
Blow Low_. He is said to have written over 1200 of these, besides many
dramatic pieces and two novels, _Hannah Hewitt_ (1792), and _The Younger
Brother_ (1793), and a _History of the Stage_ (1795).


DICKENS, CHARLES (1812-1870).--Novelist, _b._ at Landport, near
Portsmouth, where his _f._ was a clerk in the Navy Pay-Office. The
hardships and mortifications of his early life, his want of regular
schooling, and his miserable time in the blacking factory, which form the
basis of the early chapters of _David Copperfield_, are largely accounted
for by the fact that his _f._ was to a considerable extent the prototype
of the immortal Mr. Micawber; but partly by his being a delicate and
sensitive child, unusually susceptible to suffering both in body and
mind. He had, however, much time for reading, and had access to the older
novelists, Fielding, Smollett, and others. A kindly relation also took
him frequently to the theatre, where he acquired his life-long interest
in, and love of, the stage. After a few years' residence in Chatham, the
family removed to London, and soon thereafter his _f._ became an inmate
of the Marshalsea, in which by-and-by the whole family joined him, a
passage in his life which furnishes the material for parts of _Little
Dorrit_. This period of family obscuration happily lasted but a short
time: the elder D. managed to satisfy his creditors, and soon after
retired from his official duties on a pension. About the same time D. had
two years of continuous schooling, and shortly afterwards he entered a
law office. His leisure he devoted to reading and learning shorthand, in
which he became very expert. He then acted as parliamentary reporter,
first for _The True Sun_, and from 1835 for the _Morning Chronicle_.
Meanwhile he had been contributing to the _Monthly Magazine_ and the
_Evening Chronicle_ the papers which, in 1836, appeared in a _coll._ form
as _Sketches by Boz_; and he had also produced one or two comic
burlettas. In the same year he _m._ Miss Ann Hogarth; and in the
following year occurred the opportunity of his life. He was asked by
Chapman and Hall to write the letterpress for a series of sporting plates
to be done by Robert Seymour who, however, _d._ shortly after, and was
succeeded by Hablot Browne (Phiz), who became the illustrator of most of
D.'s novels. In the hands of D. the original plan was entirely altered,
and became the _Pickwick Papers_ which, appearing in monthly parts during
1837-39, took the country by storm. Simultaneously _Oliver Twist_ was
coming out in _Bentley's Miscellany_. Thenceforward D.'s literary career
was a continued success, and the almost yearly publication of his works
constituted the main events of his life. _Nicholas Nickleby_ appeared in
serial form 1838-39. Next year he projected _Master Humphrey's Clock_,
intended to be a series of miscellaneous stories and sketches. It was,
however, soon abandoned, _The Old Curiosity Shop_ and _Barnaby Rudge_
taking its place. The latter, dealing with the Gordon Riots, is, with the
partial exception of the _Tale of Two Cities_, the author's only
excursion into the historical novel. In 1841 D. went to America, and was
received with great enthusiasm, which, however, the publication of
_American Notes_ considerably damped, and the appearance of _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ in 1843, with its caustic criticisms of certain features of
American life, converted into extreme, though temporary, unpopularity.
The first of the Christmas books--the _Christmas Carol_--appeared in
1843, and in the following year D. went to Italy, where at Genoa he wrote
_The Chimes_, followed by _The Cricket on the Hearth_, _The Battle of
Life_, and _The Haunted Man_. In January, 1846, he was appointed first
ed. of _The Daily News_, but resigned in a few weeks. The same year he
went to Switzerland, and while there wrote _Dombey and Son_, which was
_pub._ in 1848, and was immediately followed by his masterpiece, _David
Copperfield_ (1849-50). Shortly before this he had become manager of a
theatrical company, which performed in the provinces, and he had in 1849
started his magazine, _Household Words_. _Bleak House_ appeared in
1852-53, _Hard Times_ in 1854, and _Little Dorrit_ 1856-57. In 1856 he
bought Gadshill Place, which, in 1860, became his permanent home. In 1858
he began his public readings from his works, which, while eminently
successful from a financial point of view, from the nervous strain which
they entailed, gradually broke down his constitution, and hastened his
death. In the same year he separated from his wife, and consequent upon
the controversy which arose thereupon he brought _Household Words_ to an
end, and started _All the Year Round_, in which appeared _A Tale of Two
Cities_ (1859), and _Great Expectations_ (1860-61). _Our Mutual Friend_
came out in numbers (1864-65). D. was now in the full tide of his
readings, and decided to give a course of them in America. Thither
accordingly he went in the end of 1867, returning in the following May.
He had a magnificent reception, and his profits amounted to L20,000; but
the effect on his health was such that he was obliged, on medical advice,
finally to abandon all appearances of the kind. In 1869 he began his last
work, _The Mystery of Edwin Drood_, which was interrupted by his death
from an apoplectic seizure on June 8, 1870.

One of D.'s most marked characteristics is the extraordinary wealth of
his invention as exhibited in the number and variety of the characters
introduced into his novels. Another, especially, of course, in his entire
works, is his boundless flow of animal spirits. Others are his marvellous
keenness of observation and his descriptive power. And the English race
may well, with Thackeray, be "grateful for the innocent laughter, and the
sweet and unsullied pages which the author of _David Copperfield_ gives
to [its] children." On the other hand, his faults are obvious, a tendency
to caricature, a mannerism that often tires, and almost disgusts, fun
often forced, and pathos not seldom degenerating into mawkishness. But at
his best how rich and genial is the humour, how tender often the pathos.
And when all deductions are made, he had the laughter and tears of the
English-speaking world at command for a full generation while he lived,
and that his spell still works is proved by a continuous succession of
new editions.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1812, parliamentary reporter _c._ 1835, _pub._ _Sketches
by Boz_ 1836, _Pickwick_ 1837-39, and his other novels almost
continuously until his death, visited America 1841, started _Household
Words_ 1849, and _All the Year Round_ 1858, when also he began his public
readings, visiting America again in 1867, _d._ 1870.

_Life_ by John Foster (1872), _Letters_ ed. by Miss Hogarth (1880-82).
Numerous Lives and Monographs by Sala, F.T. Marzials (Great Writers
Series), A.W. Ward (Men of Letters Series), F.G. Kitton, G.K. Chesterton,
etc.


DIGBY, SIR KENELM (1603-1665).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ near Newport
Pagnell, _s._ of Sir Everard D., one of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators,
was _ed._ at Oxf., travelled much, and was engaged in sea-fighting.
Brought up first as a Romanist, then as a Protestant, he in 1636 joined
the Church of Rome. During the Civil War he was active on the side of the
King, and on the fall of his cause was for a time banished. He was the
author of several books on religious and quasi-scientific subjects,
including one on the _Choice of a Religion_, on the _Immortality of the
Soul_, _Observations on Spenser's Faery Queen_, and a criticism on Sir T.
Browne's _Religio Medici_. He also wrote a _Discourse on Vegetation_, and
one _On the Cure of Wounds_ by means of a sympathetic powder which he
imagined he had discovered.


DILKE, CHARLES WENTWORTH (1789-1864).--Critic and writer on literature,
served for many years in the Navy Pay-Office, on retiring from which he
devoted himself to literary pursuits. He had in 1814-16 made a
continuation of Dodsley's _Collection of English Plays_, and in 1829 he
became part proprietor and ed. of _The Athenaeum_, the influence of which
he greatly extended. In 1846 he resigned the editorship, and assumed that
of _The Daily News_, but contributed to _The Athenaeum_ his famous papers
on _Pope_, _Burke_, _Junius_, etc., and shed much new light on his
subjects. His grandson, the present Sir C.W. Dilke, _pub._ these
writings in 1875 under the title, _Papers of a Critic_.


DISRAELI, B., (_see_ BEACONSFIELD).


D'ISRAELI, ISAAC (1766-1848).--Miscellaneous writer, was descended from a
Jewish family which had been settled first in Spain, and afterwards at
Venice. _Ed._ at Amsterdam and Leyden, he devoted himself to literature,
producing a number of interesting works of considerable value, including
_Curiosities of Literature_, in 3 series (1791-1823), _Dissertation on
Anecdotes_ (1793), _Calamities of Authors_ (1812), _Amenities of
Literature_ (1841); also works dealing with the lives of James I. and
Charles I.D. was latterly blind. He was the _f._ of Benjamin D., Earl of
Beaconsfield (_q.v._).


DIXON, RICHARD WATSON (1833-1900).--Historian and poet, _s._ of Dr. James
D., a well-known Wesleyan minister and historian of Methodism, _ed._ at
King Edward's School, Birmingham, and Oxf., took Anglican orders, was
Second Master at Carlisle School, Vicar of Hayton and Warkworth, and
Canon of Carlisle. He _pub._ 7 vols. of poetry, but is best known for his
_History of the Church of England from the Abolition of Roman
Jurisdiction_ (1877-1900).


DIXON, WILLIAM HEPWORTH (1821-1879).--Historian and traveller, _b._ near
Manchester, went to London in 1846, and became connected with _The Daily
News_, for which he wrote articles on social and prison reform. In 1850
he _pub._ _John Howard and the Prison World of Europe_, which had a wide
circulation, and about the same time he wrote a _Life of Peace_ (1851),
in answer to Macaulay's onslaught. Lives of _Admiral Blake_ and _Lord
Bacon_ followed, which received somewhat severe criticisms at the hands
of competent authorities. D. was ed. of _The Athenaeum_, 1853-69, and
wrote many books of travel, including _The Holy Land_ (1865), _New
America_ (1867), and _Free Russia_ (1870). His later historical works
include _Her Majesty's Tower_, and _The History of Two Queens_ (Catherine
of Arragon and Anne Boleyn). Though a diligent student of original
authorities, and sometimes successful in throwing fresh light on his
subjects, D. was not always accurate, and thus laid himself open to
criticism; and his book, _Spiritual Wives_, treating of Mormonism, was so
adversely criticised as to lead to an action. He wrote, however, in a
fresh and interesting style. He was one of the founders of the Palestine
Exploration Fund, and was a member of the first School Board for London
(1870). He was called to the Bar in 1854, but never practised.


DOBELL, SYDNEY THOMPSON (1824-1874).--Poet, _b._ at Cranbrook, Kent, _s._
of a wine-merchant, who removed to Cheltenham, where most of the poet's
life was passed. His youth was precocious (he was engaged at 15 and _m._
at 20). In 1850 his first work, _The Roman_, appeared, and had great
popularity. _Balder, Part I._ (1854), _Sonnets on the War_, jointly with
Alexander Smith (_q.v._) (1855), and _England in Time of War_ (1856)
followed. His later years were passed in Scotland and abroad in search of
health, which, however, was damaged by a fall while exploring some ruins
at Pozzuoli. D.'s poems exhibit fancy and brilliancy of diction, but
want simplicity, and sometimes run into grandiloquence and other faults
of the so-called spasmodic school to which he belonged.


DODD, WILLIAM (1729-1777).--Divine and forger, _ed._ at Camb., became a
popular preacher in London, and a Royal Chaplain, but, acquiring
expensive habits, got involved in hopeless difficulties, from which he
endeavoured to escape first by an attempted simoniacal transaction, for
which he was disgraced, and then by forging a bond for L4200, for which,
according to the then existing law, he was hanged. Great efforts were
made to obtain a commutation of the sentence, and Dr. Johnson wrote one
of the petitions, but on D.'s book, _Thoughts in Prison_, appearing
posthumously, he remarked that "a man who has been canting all his days
may cant to the last." D. was the author of a collection of _Beauties of
Shakespeare_, _Reflections on Death_, and a translation of the _Hymns of
Callimachus_.


DODDRIDGE, PHILIP (1702-1751).--Nonconformist divine and writer of
religious books and hymns, _b._ in London, and _ed._ for the ministry at
a theological institution at Kibworth, became minister first at Market
Harborough, and afterwards at Northampton, where he also acted as head of
a theological academy. D., who was a man of amiable and joyous character,
as well as an accomplished scholar, composed many standard books of
religion, of which the best known is _The Rise and Progress of Religion
in the Soul_ (1745). In 1736 he received the degree of D.D. from
Aberdeen. He _d._ at Lisbon, whither he had gone in search of health.
Several of his hymns, _e.g._, _Ye Servants of the Lord_, _O Happy Day_,
and _O God of Bethel_, are universally used by English-speaking
Christians, and have been translated into various languages.


DODGSON, CHARLES LUTWIDGE ("LEWIS CARROLL") (1832-1898).--Mathematician
and writer of books for children, _s._ of a clergyman at Daresbury,
Cheshire, was _ed._ at Rugby and Oxf. After taking orders he was
appointed lecturer on mathematics, on which subject he _pub._ several
valuable treatises. His fame rests, however, on his books for children,
full of ingenuity and delightful humour, of which _Alice's Adventures in
Wonderland_, and its sequel, _Through the Looking-glass_, are the best.


DODSLEY, ROBERT (1703-1764).--Poet, dramatist, and bookseller, _b._ near
Mansfield, and apprenticed to a stocking-weaver, but not liking this
employment, he ran away and became a footman. While thus engaged he
produced _The Muse in Livery_ (1732). This was followed by _The Toy
Shop_, a drama, which brought him under the notice of Pope, who
befriended him, and assisted him in starting business as a bookseller. In
this he became eminently successful, and acted as publisher for Pope,
Johnson, and Akenside. He projected and _pub._ _The Annual Register_, and
made a collection of _Old English Plays_, also of _Poems by Several
Hands_ in 6 vols. In addition to the original works above mentioned he
wrote various plays and poems, including _The Blind Beggar of Bethnal
Green_ (1741), and _Cleone_ (1758).


DONNE, JOHN (1573-1631).--Poet and divine, _s._ of a wealthy ironmonger
in London, where he was _b._ Brought up as a Roman Catholic, he was sent
to Oxf. and Camb., and afterwards entered Lincoln's Inn with a view to
the law. Here he studied the points of controversy between Romanists and
Protestants, with the result that he joined the Church of England. The
next two years were somewhat changeful, including travels on the
Continent, service as a private sec., and a clandestine marriage with the
niece of his patron, which led to dismissal and imprisonment, followed by
reconciliation. On the suggestion of James I., who approved of
_Pseudo-Martyr_ (1610), a book against Rome which he had written, he took
orders, and after executing a mission to Bohemia, he was, in 1621, made
Dean of St. Paul's. D. had great popularity as a preacher. His works
consist of elegies, satires, epigrams, and religious pieces, in which,
amid many conceits and much that is artificial, frigid, and worse, there
is likewise much poetry and imagination of a high order. Perhaps the best
of his works is _An Anatomy of the World_ (1611), an elegy. Others are
_Epithalamium_ (1613), _Progress of the Soul_ (1601), and _Divine Poems_.
Collections of his poems appeared in 1633 and 1649. He exercised a strong
influence on literature for over half a century after his death; to him
we owe the unnatural style of conceits and overstrained efforts after
originality of the succeeding age.


DORAN, JOHN (1807-1878).--Miscellaneous writer, of Irish parentage, wrote
a number of works dealing with the lighter phases of manners,
antiquities, and social history, often bearing punning titles, _e.g._,
_Table Traits with Something on Them_ (1854), and _Knights and their
Days_. He also wrote _Lives of the Queens of England of the House of
Hanover_ (1855), and _A History of Court Fools_ (1858), and ed. Horace
Walpole's _Journal of the Reign of George III._ His books contain much
curious and out-of-the-way information. D. was for a short time ed. of
_The Athenaeum_.


DORSET, CHARLES SACKVILLE, 6TH EARL of (1638-1706).--Poet, was one of the
dissolute and witty courtiers of Charles II., and a friend of Sir C.
Sedley (_q.v._), in whose orgies he participated. He was, however, a
patron of literature, and a benefactor of Dryden in his later and less
prosperous years. He wrote a few satires and songs, among the latter
being the well-known, _To all you Ladies now on Land_. As might be
expected, his writings are characterised by the prevailing indelicacy of
the time.


DORSET, THOMAS SACKVILLE, 1ST EARL of, AND LORD BUCKHURST
(1536-1608).--Poet and statesman, was _b._ at Buckhurst, Sussex, the only
_s._ of Sir Richard S., and _ed._ at Oxf. and Camb. He studied law at the
Inner Temple, and while there wrote, in conjunction with Thomas Norton,
_Ferren and Porrex_ or _Gerboduc_ (1561-2), the first regular English
tragedy. A little later he planned _The Mirror for Magistrates_, which
was to have been a series of narratives of distinguished Englishmen,
somewhat on the model of Boccaccio's _Falls of Princes_. Finding the plan
too large, he handed it over to others--seven poets in all being engaged
upon it--and himself contributed two poems only, one on _Buckingham_, the
confederate, and afterwards the victim, of Richard III., and an
_Induction_ or introduction, which constitute nearly the whole value of
the work. In these poems S. becomes the connecting link between Chaucer
and Spenser. They are distinguished by strong invention and imaginative
power, and a stately and sombre grandeur of style. S. played a prominent
part in the history of his time, and held many high offices, including
those of Lord Steward and Lord Treasurer, the latter of which he held
from 1599 till his death. It fell to him to announce to Mary Queen of
Scots the sentence of death.


DOUCE, FRANCIS (1757-1834).--Antiquary, _b._ in London, was for some time
in the British Museum. He _pub._ _Illustrations of Shakespeare_ (1807),
and a dissertation on _The Dance of Death_ (1833).


DOUGLAS, GAVIN (1474?-1522).--Poet, 3rd _s._ of the 5th Earl of Angus,
was _b._ about 1474, and _ed._ at St. Andrews for the Church. Promotion
came early, and he was in 1501 made Provost of St. Giles, Edin., and in
1514 Abbot of Aberbrothock, and Archbishop of St. Andrews. But the times
were troublous, and he had hardly received these latter preferments when
he was deprived of them. He was, however, named Bishop of Dunkeld in 1514
and, after some difficulty, and undergoing imprisonment, was confirmed in
the see. In 1520 he was again driven forth, and two years later _d._ of
the plague in London. His principal poems are _The Palace of Honour_
(1501), and _King Hart_, both allegorical; but his great achievement was
his translation of the _AEneid_ in ten-syllabled metre, the first
translation into English of a classical work. D.'s language is more
archaic than that of some of his predecessors, his rhythm is rough and
unequal, but he had fire, and a power of vivid description, and his
allegories are ingenious and felicitous.

_Coll._ ed. of works by John Small, LL.D., 4 vols., 1874.


DOYLE, SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS (1810-1888).--Poet, belonged to a military
family which produced several distinguished officers, including his _f._,
who bore the same name. He was _b._ near Tadcaster, Yorkshire, and _ed._
at Eton and Oxf. Studying law he was called to the Bar in 1837, and
afterwards held various high fiscal appointments, becoming in 1869
Commissioner of Customs. In 1834 he _pub._ _Miscellaneous Verses_,
followed by _Two Destinies_ (1844), _Oedipus, King of Thebes_ (1849), and
_Return of the Guards_ (1866). He was elected in 1867 Prof. of Poetry at
Oxf. D.'s best work is his ballads, which include _The Red Thread of
Honour_, _The Private of the Buffs_, and _The Loss of the Birkenhead_. In
his longer poems his genuine poetical feeling was not equalled by his
power of expression, and much of his poetry is commonplace.


DRAKE, JOSEPH RODMAN (1795-1820).--Poet, _b._ at New York, studied
medicine, _d._ of consumption. He collaborated with F. Halleck in the
_Croaker Papers_, and wrote "The Culprit Fay" and "The American Flag."


DRAPER, JOHN WILLIAM (1811-1882).--Historian, _b._ at St. Helen's,
Lancashire, emigrated to Virginia, and was a prof. in the Univ. of New
York. He wrote _History of the American Civil War_ (1867-70), _History of
the Intellectual Development of Europe_ (1863), and _History of the
Conflict between Science and Religion_ (1874), besides treatises on
various branches of science.


DRAYTON, MICHAEL (1563-1631).--Poet, _b._ in Warwickshire, was in early
life page to a gentleman, and was possibly at Camb. or Oxf. His earliest
poem, _The Harmonie of the Church_, was destroyed. His next was _The
Shepherd's Garland_ (1593), afterwards reprinted as _Eclogues_. Three
historical poems, _Gaveston_ (1593), _Matilda_ (1594), and _Robert, Duke
of Normandie_ (1596) followed, and he then appears to have collaborated
with Dekker, Webster, and others in dramatic work. His _magnum opus_,
however, was _Polyolbion_ (1613?), a topographical description of England
in twelve-syllabled verse, full of antiquarian and historical details, so
accurate as to make the work an authority on such matters. The rushing
verse is full of vigour and gusto. Other poems of D. are _The Wars of the
Barons_ (1603), _England's Heroical Epistles_ (1598) (being imaginary
letters between Royal lovers such as Henry II. and Rosamund), _Poems,
Lyric and Heroic_ (1606) (including the fine ballad of "Agincourt"),
_Nymphidia_, his most graceful work, _Muses Elizium_, and _Idea's
Mirrour_, a collection of sonnets, Idea being the name of the lady to
whom they were addressed. Though often heavy, D. had the true poetic
gift, had passages of grandeur, and sang the praises of England with the
heart of a patriot.


DRUMMOND, HENRY (1851-1897).--Theological and scientific writer, _b._ at
Stirling, and _ed._ at Edin., he studied for the ministry of the Free
Church. Having a decided scientific bent he gave himself specially to the
study of geology, and made a scientific tour in the Rocky Mountains with
Sir A. Geikie. Some years later he undertook a geological exploration of
Lake Nyassa and the neighbouring country for the African Lakes
Corporation, and brought home a valuable Report. He also _pub._ _Tropical
Africa_, a vivid account of his travels. He became much associated with
the American evangelist, D.L. Moody, and became an extremely effective
speaker on religious subjects, devoting himself specially to young men.
His chief contribution to literature was his _Natural Law in the
Spiritual World_, which had extraordinary popularity. _The Ascent of Man_
was less successful. D. was a man of great personal fascination, and
wrote in an interesting and suggestive manner, but his reasoning in his
scientific works was by no means unassailable.


DRUMMOND, WILLIAM (1585-1649).--Poet, was descended from a very ancient
family, and through Annabella D., Queen of Robert III., related to the
Royal House. _Ed._ at Edin. Univ., he studied law on the Continent, but
succeeding in 1610 to his paternal estate of Hawthornden, he devoted
himself to poetry. _Tears on the Death of Meliades_ (Prince Henry)
appeared in 1613, and in 1616 _Poems, Amorous, Funerall, Divine, etc._
His finest poem, _Forth Feasting_ (1617), is addressed to James VI. on
his revisiting Scotland. D. was also a prose-writer, and composed a
_History of the Five Jameses, Kings of Scotland from 1423-1524_, and _The
Cypress Grove_, a meditation on death. He was also a mechanical genius,
and patented 16 inventions. D., though a Scotsman, wrote in the classical
English of the day, and was the friend of his principal literary
contemporaries, notably of Ben Jonson, who visited him at Hawthornden, on
which occasion D. preserved notes of his conversations, not always
flattering. For this he has received much blame, but it must be
remembered that he did not _pub._ them. As a poet he belonged to the
school of Spenser. His verse is sweet, flowing, and harmonious. He
excelled as a writer of sonnets, one of which, on _John the Baptist_, has
a suggestion of Milton.

_Life_ by Prof. Masson (1873), _Three Centuries of Scottish Literature_,
Walker, 1893. _Maitland Club_ ed. of _Poems_ (1832).


DRYDEN, JOHN (1631-1700).--Poet, dramatist, and satirist, was _b._ at
Aldwincle Rectory, Northamptonshire. His _f._, from whom he inherited a
small estate, was Erasmus, 3rd _s._ of Sir Erasmus Driden; his mother was
Mary Pickering, also of good family; both families belonged to the
Puritan side in politics and religion. He was _ed._ at Westminster School
and Trinity Coll., Camb., and thereafter, in 1657, came to London. While
at coll. he had written some not very successful verse. His _Heroic
Stanzas on the Death of Oliver Cromwell_ (1658) was his first
considerable poem. It was followed, in 1660, by _Astraea Redux_, in honour
of the Restoration. The interval of 18 months had been crowded with
events, and though much has been written against his apparent change of
opinion, it is fair to remember that the whole cast of his mind led him
to be a supporter of _de facto_ authority. In 1663 he _m._ Lady Elizabeth
Howard, _dau._ of the Earl of Berkshire. The Restoration introduced a
revival of the drama in its most debased form, and for many years D. was
a prolific playwright, but though his vigorous powers enabled him to work
effectively in this department, as in every other in which he engaged, it
was not his natural line, and happily his fame does not rest upon his
plays, which are deeply stained with the immorality of the age. His first
effort, _The Wild Gallant_ (1663), was a failure; his next, _The Rival
Ladies_, a tragi-comedy, established his reputation, and among his other
dramas may be mentioned _The Indian Queene_, _Amboyna_ (1673), _Tyrannic
Love_ (1669), _Almanzar and Almahide_ (ridiculed in Buckingham's
_Rehearsal_) (1670), _Arungzebe_ (1675), _All for Love_ (an adaptation of
Shakespeare's _Antony and Cleopatra_) (1678). During the great plague,
1665, D. left London, and lived with his father-in-law at Charleton. On
his return he _pub._ his first poem of real power, _Annus Mirabilis_, of
which the subjects were the great fire, and the Dutch War. In 1668
appeared his _Essay on Dramatic Poetry_ in the form of a dialogue, fine
alike as criticism and as prose. Two years later (1670) he became Poet
Laureate and Historiographer Royal with a pension of L300 a year. D. was
now in prosperous circumstances, having received a portion with his wife,
and besides the salaries of his appointments, and his profits from
literature, holding a valuable share in the King's play-house. In 1671 G.
Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, produced his _Rehearsal_, in ridicule of
the overdone heroics of the prevailing drama, and satirising D. as Mr.
Bayes. To this D. made no immediate reply, but bided his time. The next
years were devoted to the drama. But by this time public affairs were
assuming a critical aspect. A large section of the nation was becoming
alarmed at the prospect of the succession of the Duke of York, and a
restoration of popery, and Shaftesbury was supposed to be promoting the
claims of the Duke of Monmouth. And now D. showed; his full powers. The
first part of _Absalom and Achitophel_ appeared in 1681, in which Charles
figures as "David," Shaftesbury as "Achitophel," Monmouth as "Absalom,"
Buckingham as "Zimri," in the short but crushing delineation of whom the
attack of the _Rehearsal_ was requited in the most ample measure. The
effect; of the poem was tremendous. Nevertheless the indictment against
Shaftesbury for high treason was ignored by the Grand Jury at the Old
Bailey, and in honour of the event a medal was struck, which gave a title
to D.'s next stroke. His _Medal_ was issued in 1682. The success of these
wonderful poems raised a storm round D. Replies were forthcoming in
Elkanah Settle's _Absalom and Achitophel Transposed_, and Pordage's
_Azaria and Hushai_. These compositions, especially Pordage's, were
comparatively moderate. Far otherwise was Shadwell's _Medal of John
Bayes_, one of the most brutal and indecent pieces in the language. D.'s
revenge--and an ample one--was the publication of _MacFlecknoe_, a satire
in which all his opponents, but especially Shadwell, were held up to the
loathing and ridicule of succeeding ages, and others had conferred, upon
them an immortality which, however unenviable, no efforts of their own
could have secured for them. Its immediate effect was to crush and
silence all his assailants. The following year, 1683, saw the publication
of _Religio Laici_ (the religion of a layman). In 1686 D. joined the
Church of Rome, for which he has by some been blamed for time-serving of
the basest kind. On the other hand his consistency and conscientiousness
have by others been as strongly maintained. The change, which was
announced by the publication, in 1687 of _The Hind and the Panther, a
Defence of the Roman Church_, at all events did not bring with it any
worldly advantages. It was parodied by C. Montague and Prior in the _Town
and Country Mouse_. At the Revolution D. was deprived of all his pensions
and appointments, including the Laureateship, in which he was succeeded
by his old enemy Shadwell. His latter years were passed in comparative
poverty, although the Earl of Dorset and other old friends contributed by
their liberality to lighten his cares. In these circumstances he turned
again to the drama, which, however, was no longer what it had been as a
source of income. To this period belong _Don Sebastian_, and his last
play, _Love Triumphant_. A new mine, however, was beginning to be opened
up in the demand for translations which had arisen. This gave D. a new
opportunity, and he produced, in addition to translations from Juvenal
and Perseus, his famous "Virgil" (1697). About the same time appeared
_The Ode for St. Cecilia's Day_, and _Alexander's Feast_, and in 1700,
the year of his death, the _Fables_, largely adaptations from Chaucer and
Boccaccio. In his own line, that of argument, satire, and declamation, D.
is without a rival in our literature: he had little creative imagination
and no pathos. His dramas, which in bulk are the greatest part of his
work, add almost nothing to his fame; in them he was meeting a public
demand, not following the native bent of his genius. In his satires, and
in such poems as _Alexander's Feast_, he rises to the highest point of
his powers in a verse swift and heart-stirring. In prose his style is
clear, strong, and nervous. He seems to have been almost insensible to
the beauty of Nature.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1631, _ed._ Westminster and Camb., became prolific
playwright, _pub._ _Annus Mirabilis_ _c._ 1666, Poet Laureate 1667,
_pub._ _Absalom and Achitophel_ (part 1) 1681, _Medal_ 1682,
_MacFlecknoe_ 1682, _Religio Laici_ 1683, joined Church of Rome 1686,
_pub._ _Hind and Panther_ 1687, deprived of offices and pensions at
Revolution 1688, _pub._ translations including "Virgil" 1697, _St.
Cecilia's Day_ and _Alexander's Feast_ _c._ 1697, and _Fables_ 1700, when
he _d._

Sir W. Scott's ed. with _Life_ 1808, re-edited in 18 vols. by Prof.
Saintsbury (1883-93); Aldine ed. (5 vols., 1892), Johnson's _Lives of the
Poets_, etc.


DUFF, SIR MOUNTSTUART E. GRANT (1829-1906).--Miscellaneous writer, was
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs, and Lieut.-Governor of Madras. He _pub._
_Studies of European Politics_, books on Sir H. Maine, Lord de Tabley,
and Renan, and a series of _Notes from a Diary_, perhaps his most
interesting work.


DUFFERIN, HELEN SELENA (SHERIDAN), COUNTESS OF (1807-1867).--Eldest
_dau._ of Tom S., grand-daughter of Richard Brinsley S. (_q.v._), and
sister of Mrs. Norton (_q.v._). She and her two sisters were known as
"the three Graces," the third being the Duchess of Somerset. She shared
in the family talent, and wrote a good deal of verse, her best known
piece being perhaps _The Lament of the Irish Emigrant_, beginning "I'm
sittin' on the stile, Mary." She also wrote _Lispings from Low Latitudes,
or Extracts from the Journal of the Hon. Impulsia Gushington_, _Finesse,
or a Busy Day at Messina_, etc.


DUFFY, SIR CHARLES GAVAN (1816-1903).--Poet, _b._ in Monaghan, early took
to journalism, and became one of the founders of the _Nature_ newspaper,
and one of the leaders of the Young Ireland movement. Thereafter he went
to Australia, where he became a leading politician, and rose to be
Premier of Victoria. His later years were spent chiefly on the Continent.
He did much to stimulate in Ireland a taste for the national history and
literature, started _The Library of Ireland_, and made a collection, _The
Ballad Poetry of Ireland_, which was a great success. He also _pub._ an
autobiography, _My Life in Two Hemispheres_.


DUGDALE, SIR WILLIAM (1605-1686).--Herald and antiquary, was _b._ at
Coleshill, Warwickshire, and _ed._ at Coventry School. From early youth
he showed a strong bent towards heraldic and antiquarian studies, which
led to his appointment, in 1638, as a Pursuivant-extraordinary, from
which he rose to be Garter-King-at-Arms. In 1655, jointly with Roger
Dodsworth, he brought out the first vol. of _Monasticon Anglicanum_ (the
second following in 1661, and the third in 1673), containing the charters
of the ancient monasteries. In 1656 he _pub._ the _Antiquities of
Warwickshire_, which maintains a high place among county histories, and
in 1666 _Origines Judiciales_. His great work, _The Baronage of England_,
appeared in 1675-6. Other works were a _History of Imbanking and
Drayning_, and a _History of St. Paul's Cathedral_. All D.'s writings are
monuments of learning and patient investigation.


DU MAURIER, GEORGE LOUIS PALMELLA BUSSON (1834-1896).--Artist and
novelist, _b._ and _ed._ in Paris, in 1864 succeeded John Leech on the
staff of _Punch_. His three novels, _Peter Ibbetson_ (1891), _Trilby_
(1894), and _The Martian_ (1896), originally appeared in _Harper's
Magazine_.


DUNBAR, WILLIAM (1465?-1530?).--Poet, is believed to have been _b._ in
Lothian, and _ed._ at St. Andrews, and in his earlier days he was a
Franciscan friar. Thereafter he appears to have been employed by James
IV. in some Court and political matters. His chief poems are _The
Thrissil and the Rois (The Thistle and the Rose_) (1503), _The Dance of
the Seven Deadly Sins_, a powerful satire, _The Golden Targe_, an
allegory, and _The Lament for the Makaris_ (poets) (_c._ 1507). In all
these there is a vein of true poetry. In his allegorical poems he follows
Chaucer in his setting, and is thus more or less imitative and
conventional: in his satirical pieces, and in the _Lament_, he takes a
bolder flight and shows his native power. His comic poems are somewhat
gross. The date and circumstances of his death are uncertain, some
holding that he fell at Flodden, others that he was alive so late as
1530. Other works are _The Merle_ and _The Nightingale_, and the
_Flyting_ (scolding) of Dunbar and Kennedy. Mr. Gosse calls D. "the
largest figure in English literature between Chaucer and Spenser." He has
bright strength, swiftness, humour, and pathos, and his descriptive touch
is vivid and full of colour.


DUNLOP, JOHN COLIN (_c._ 1785-1842).--Historian, _s._ of a Lord Provost
of Glasgow, where and at Edin. he was _ed._, was called to the Bar in
1807, and became Sheriff of Renfrewshire. He wrote a _History of Fiction_
(1814), a _History of Roman Literature to the Augustan Age_ (1823-28),
and _Memoirs of Spain during the Reigns of Philip IV. and Charles II._
(1834). He also made translations from the Latin Anthology.


DUNS, SCOTUS JOHANNES (1265?-1308?).--Schoolman. The dates of his birth
and death and the place of his birth are alike doubtful. He may have been
at Oxf., is said to have been a regent or prof. at Paris, and was a
Franciscan. He was a man of extraordinary learning, and received the
sobriquet of Doctor Subtilis. Among his many works on logic and theology
are a philosophic grammar, and a work on metaphysics, _De Rerum
Principio_ (of the beginning of things). His great opponent was Thomas
Aquinas, and schoolmen of the day were divided into Scotists and
Thomists, or realists and nominalists.


D'URFEY, THOMAS (1653-1723).--Dramatist and song-writer, was a well-known
man-about-town, a companion of Charles II., and lived on to the reign of
George I. His plays are now forgotten, and he is best known in connection
with a collection of songs entitled, _Pills to Purge Melancholy_. Addison
describes him as a "diverting companion," and "a cheerful, honest,
good-natured man." His writings are nevertheless extremely gross. His
plays include _Siege of Memphis_ (1676), _Madame Fickle_ (1677),
_Virtuous Wife_ (1680), and _The Campaigners_ (1698).


DWIGHT, TIMOTHY (1752-1817).--Theologian and poet, _b._ at Northampton,
Mass., was a grandson of Jonathan Edwards, became a Congregationalist
minister, Prof. of Divinity, and latterly Pres. of Yale. His works
include, besides theological treatises and sermons, the following poems,
_America_ (1772), _The Conquest of Canaan_ (1785), and _The Triumph of
Infidelity_, a satire, admired in their day, but now unreadable.


DYCE, ALEXANDER (1798-1869).--Scholar and critic, _s._ of Lieut.-General
Alexander D., was _b._ in Edin., and _ed._ there and at Oxf. He took
orders, and for a short time served in two country curacies. Then,
leaving the Church and settling in London, he betook himself to his
life-work of ed. the English dramatists. His first work, _Specimens of
British Poetesses_, appeared in 1825; and thereafter at various intervals
ed. of Collins's _Poems_, and the dramatic works of _Peele, Middleton,
Beaumont and Fletcher, Marlowe, Greene, Webster_, and others. His great
ed. of _Shakespeare_ in 9 vols. appeared in 1857. He also ed. various
works for the Camden Society, and _pub._ _Table Talk of Samuel Rogers_.
All D.'s work is marked by varied and accurate learning, minute research,
and solid judgment.


DYER, SIR EDWARD (1545?-1607).--Poet, _b._ at Sharpham Park, Somerset,
and _ed._ at Oxf., was introduced to the Court by the Earl of Leicester,
and sent on a mission to Denmark, 1589. He was in 1596 made Chancellor of
the Order of the Garter, and knighted. In his own day he had a reputation
for his elegies among such judges as Sidney and Puttenham. For a long
time there was doubt as to what poems were to be attributed to him, but
about a dozen pieces have now been apparently identified as his. The best
known is that on contentment beginning, "My mind to me a kingdom is."


DYER, JOHN (1700-1758).--Poet, was _b._ in Caermarthenshire. In his early
years he studied painting, but finding that he was not likely to attain a
satisfactory measure of success, entered the Church. He has a definite,
if a modest, place in literature as the author of three poems, _Grongar
Hill_ (1727), _The Ruins of Rome_ (1740), and _The Fleece_ (1757). The
first of these is the best, and the best known, and contains much true
natural description; but all have passages of considerable poetical
merit, delicacy and precision of phrase being their most noticeable
characteristic. Wordsworth had a high opinion of D. as a poet, and
addressed a sonnet to him.


EARLE, JOHN (1601-1665).--Divine and miscellaneous writer, _b._ at York,
and _ed._ at Oxf., where he was a Fellow of Merton. He took orders, was
tutor to Charles II., a member of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster,
1643, Chaplain and Clerk of the Closet to Charles when in exile. On the
Restoration he was made Dean of Westminster, in 1662 Bishop of Worcester,
and the next year Bishop of Salisbury. He was learned and eloquent, witty
and agreeable in society, and was opposed to the "Conventicle" and "Five
Mile" Acts, and to all forms of persecution. He wrote _Hortus
Mertonensis_ (the Garden of Merton) in Latin, but his chief work was
_Microcosmographie, or a Piece of the World discovered in Essays and
Characters_ (1628), the best and most interesting of all the "character"
books.


EASTLAKE, ELIZABETH, LADY (RIGBY) (1809-1893).--_dau._ of Dr. Edward
Rigby of Norwich, a writer on medical and agricultural subjects, spent
her earlier life on the Continent and in Edin. In 1849 she _m._ Sir
Charles L. Eastlake, the famous painter, and Pres. of the Royal Academy.
Her first work was _Letters from the Shores of the Baltic_ (1841). From
1842 she was a frequent contributor to the _Quarterly Review_, in which
she wrote a very bitter criticism of _Jane Eyre_. She also wrote various
books on art, and Lives of her husband, of Mrs. Grote, and of Gibson the
sculptor, and was a leader in society.


ECHARD, LAURENCE (_c._ 1670-1730).--Historian, _b._ at Barsham, Suffolk,
and _ed._ at Camb., took orders and became Archdeacon of Stow. He
translated Terence, part of Plautus, D'Orleans' _History of the
Revolutions in England_, and made numerous compilations on history,
geography, and the classics. His chief work, however, is his _History of
England_ (1707-1720). It covers the period from the Roman occupation to
his own times, and continued to be the standard work on the subject until
it was superseded by translations of Rapin's French _History of England_.


EDGEWORTH, MARIA (1767-1849).--Novelist, only child of Richard E., of
Edgeworthstown, Co. Longford, was _b._ near Reading. Her _f._, who was
himself a writer on education and mechanics, bestowed much attention on
her education. She showed early promise of distinction, and assisted her
_f._ in his literary labours, especially in _Practical Education_ and
_Essay on Irish Bulls_ (1802). She soon discovered that her strength lay
in fiction, and from 1800, when her first novel, _Castle Rackrent_,
appeared, until 1834, when her last, _Helen_, was _pub._, she continued
to produce a series of novels and tales characterised by ingenuity of
invention, humour, and acute delineation of character. Notwithstanding a
tendency to be didactic, and the presence of a "purpose" in most of her
writings, their genuine talent and interest secured for them a wide
popularity. It was the success of Miss E. in delineating Irish character
that suggested to Sir W. Scott the idea of rendering a similar service to
Scotland. Miss E., who had great practical ability, was able to render
much aid during the Irish famine. In addition to the works above
mentioned, she wrote _Moral Tales_ and _Belinda_ (1801), _Leonora_
(1806), _Tales of Fashionable Life_ (1809 and 1812), and a Memoir of her
_f._


EDWARDS, JONATHAN (1702?-1758).--Theologian, _s._ of a minister, was _b._
at East Windsor, Connecticut, _ed._ at Yale Coll., and licensed as a
preacher in 1722. The following year he was appointed as tutor at Yale, a
position in which he showed exceptional capacity. In 1726 he went to
Northampton, Conn., as minister of a church there, and remained for 24
years, exercising his ministry with unusual earnestness and diligence. At
the end of that time, however, he was in 1750 dismissed by his
congregation, a disagreement having arisen on certain questions of
discipline. Thereafter he acted as a missionary to the Indians of
Massachusetts. While thus engaged he composed his famous treatises, _On
the Freedom of the Will_ (1754), and _On Original Sin_ (1758).
Previously, in 1746, he had produced his treatise, _On the Religious
Affections_. In 1757 he was appointed Pres. of Princeton Coll., New
Jersey, but was almost immediately thereafter stricken with small-pox, of
which he _d._ on March 22, 1757. E. possessed an intellect of
extraordinary strength and clearness, and was capable of sustaining very
lengthened chains of profound argument. He is one of the ablest defenders
of the Calvinistic system of theology, which he developed to its most
extreme positions. He was a man of fervent piety, and of the loftiest and
most disinterested character.


EDWARDS, RICHARD (1523?-1566).--Poet, was at Oxf., and went to Court,
where he was made a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and master of the
singing boys. He had a high reputation for his comedies and interludes.
His _Palaman and Arcite_ was acted before Elizabeth at Oxf. in 1566, when
the stage fell and three persons were killed and five hurt, the play
nevertheless proceeding. _Damon and Pythias_ (1577), a comedy, is his
only extant play.


EGAN, PIERCE (1772-1849).--Humorist, _b._ in London, he satirised the
Prince Regent in _The Lives of Florizel and Perdita_ (1814), but is best
remembered by _Life in London: or the Day and Night Scenes of Jerry
Hawthorn and his elegant friend, Corinthian Tom_, a collection of
sketches which had great success at the time, and which gives a picture
of the sports and amusements of London in the days of the Regency. It was
illustrated by George Cruikshank.


EGGLESTON, EDWARD (1837-1902).--Novelist, _b._ at Vevay, Indiana, was a
Methodist minister. He wrote a number of tales, some of which, specially
the "Hoosier" series, attracted much attention, among which are _The
Hoosier Schoolmaster_, _The Hoosier Schoolboy_, _The End of the World_,
_The Faith Doctor_, _Queer Stories for Boys and Girls_, etc.


"ELIOT, GEORGE," _see_ EVANS.


ELIZABETH, QUEEN (1533-1603).--Was one of the scholar-women of her time,
being versed in Latin, Greek, French, and Italian. Her translation of
Boethius shows her exceptional art and skill. In the classics Roger
Ascham was her tutor. She wrote various short poems, some of which were
called by her contemporaries "sonnets," though not in the true sonnet
form. Her original letters and despatches show an idiomatic force of
expression beyond that of any other English monarch.


ELLIOT, MISS JEAN (1727-1805).--Poetess, _dau._ of Sir Gilbert Elliot of
Minto, has a small niche in literature as the authoress of the beautiful
ballad, _The Flowers of the Forest_, beginning, "I've heard the lilting
at our yowe-milking." Another ballad with the same title beginning, "I've
seen the smiling of fortune beguiling" was written by Alicia Rutherford,
afterwards Mrs. Cockburn.


ELLIOT, EBENEZER (1781-1849).--Poet, _b._ at Masborough, Yorkshire, in
his youth worked in an iron-foundry, and in 1821 took up the same
business on his own account with success. He is best known by his poems
on behalf of the poor and oppressed, and especially for his denunciations
of the Corn Laws, which gained for him the title of the Corn Law Rhymer.
Though now little read, he had considerable poetic gift. His principal
poems are _Corn Law Rhymes_ (1831), _The Ranter_, and _The Village
Patriarch_ (1829).


ELLIS, GEORGE (1753-1815).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a West Indian
planter, gained some fame by _Poetical Tales by Sir Gregory Gander_
(1778). He also had a hand in the _Rolliad_, a series of Whig satires
which appeared about 1785. Changing sides he afterwards contributed to
the _Anti-Jacobin_. He accompanied Sir J. Harris on his mission to the
Netherlands, and there _coll._ materials for his _History of the Dutch
Revolution_ (1789). He ed. _Specimens of the Early English Poets_ (1790),
and _Specimens of the Early English Romances_, both works of scholarship.
He was a friend of Scott, who dedicated the fifth canto of _Marmion_ to
him.


ELLWOOD, THOMAS (1639-1713).--A young Quaker who was introduced to Milton
in 1662, and devoted much of his time to reading to him. It is to a
question asked by him that we owe the writing of _Paradise Regained_. He
was a simple, good man, ready to suffer for his religious opinions, and
has left an autobiography of singular interest alike for the details of
Milton's later life, which it gives, and for the light it casts on the
times of the writer. He also wrote _Davideis_ (1712), a sacred poem, and
some controversial works.


ELPHINSTONE, MOUNTSTUART (1779-1859).--Fourth _s._ of the 11th Lord E.,
was _ed._ at Edin., and entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1795. He had
a very distinguished career as an Indian statesman, and did much to
establish the present system of government and to extend education. He
was Governor of Bombay (1819-1827), and prepared a code of laws for that
Presidency. In 1829 he was offered, but declined, the position of
Governor-General of India. He wrote a _History of India_ (1841), and _The
Rise of the British Power in the East_, _pub._ in 1887.


ELWIN, WHITWELL (1816-1900).--Critic and editor, _s._ of a country
gentleman of Norfolk, studied at Camb., and took orders. He was an
important contributor to the _Quarterly Review_, of which he became
editor in 1853. He undertook to complete Croker's ed. of Pope, and
brought out 5 vols., when he dropped it, leaving it to be finished by Mr.
Courthope. As an ed. he was extremely autocratic, and on all subjects had
pronounced opinions, and often singular likes and dislikes.


ELYOT, SIR THOMAS (1490-1546).--Diplomatist, physician, and writer, held
many diplomatic appointments. He wrote _The Governor_ (1531), a treatise
on education, in which he advocated gentler treatment of schoolboys, _The
Castle of Health_ (1534), a medical work, and _A Defence of Good Women_
(1545). He also in 1538 _pub._ the first _Latin and English Dictionary_,
and made various translations.


EMERSON, RALPH WALDO (1803-1882).--Philosopher, was _b._ at Boston,
Massachusetts. His _f._ was a minister there, who had become a Unitarian,
and who _d._ in 1811, leaving a widow with six children, of whom Ralph,
then aged 8, was the second. Mrs. E. was, however, a woman of energy, and
by means of taking boarders managed to give all her sons a good
education. E. entered Harvard in 1817 and, after passing through the
usual course there, studied for the ministry, to which he was ordained in
1827, and settled over a congregation in his native city. There he
remained until 1832, when he resigned, ostensibly on a difference of
opinion with his brethren on the permanent nature of the Lord's Supper as
a rite, but really on a radical change of view in regard to religion in
general, expressed in the maxim that "the day of formal religion is
past." About the same time he lost his young wife, and his health, which
had never been robust, showed signs of failing. In search of recovery he
visited Europe, where he met many eminent men and formed a life-long
friendship with Carlyle. On his return in 1834 he settled at Concord, and
took up lecturing. In 1836 he _pub._ _Nature_, a somewhat transcendental
little book which, though containing much fine thought, did not appeal to
a wide circle. _The American Scholar_ followed in 1837. Two years
previously he had entered into a second marriage. His influence as a
thinker rapidly extended, he was regarded as the leader of the
transcendentalists, and was one of the chief contributors to their organ,
_The Dial_. The remainder of his life, though happy, busy, and
influential, was singularly uneventful. In 1847 he paid a second visit to
England, when he spent a week with Carlyle, and delivered a course of
lectures in England and Scotland on "Representative Men," which he
subsequently _pub._ _English Traits_ appeared in 1856. In 1857 _The
Atlantic Monthly_ was started, and to it he became a frequent
contributor. In 1874 he was nominated for the Lord Rectorship of the
Univ. of Glasgow, but was defeated by Disraeli. He, however, regarded his
nomination as the greatest honour of his life. After 1867 he wrote
little. He _d._ on April 27, 1882. His works were _coll._ in 11 vols.,
and in addition to those above mentioned include _Essays_ (two series),
_Conduct of Life_, _Society and Solitude_, _Natural History of
Intellect_, and _Poems_. The intellect of E. was subtle rather than
robust, and suggestive rather than systematic. He wrote down the
intuitions and suggestions of the moment, and was entirely careless as to
whether these harmonised with previous statements. He was an original and
stimulating thinker and writer, and wielded a style of much beauty and
fascination. His religious views approached more nearly to Pantheism than
to any other known system of belief. He was a man of singular elevation
and purity of character.


ERCILDOUN, THOMAS of, or "THOMAS THE RHYMER" (_fl._ 1220-1297).--A
minstrel to whom is ascribed _Sir Tristrem_, a rhyme or story for
recitation. He had a reputation for prophecy, and is reported to have
foretold the death of Alexander III., and various other events.


ERIGENA, or SCOTUS, JOHN (_fl._ 850).--Philosopher, _b._ in Scotland or
Ireland, was employed at the Court of Charles the Bald, King of France.
He was a pantheistic mystic, and made translations from the Alexandrian
philosophers. He was bold in the exposition of his principles, and had
both strength and subtlety of intellect. His chief work is _De Divisione
Naturae_, a dialogue in which he places reason above authority.


ERSKINE, RALPH (1685-1752).--Scottish Divine and poet, was _b._ near
Cornhill, Northumberland, where his _f._, a man of ancient Scottish
family, was, for the time, a nonconforming minister. He became minister
of Dunfermline, and, with his brother Ebenezer, was involved in the
controversies in the Church of Scotland, which led to the founding of the
Secession Church in 1736. He has a place in literature as the writer of
devotional works, especially for his _Gospel Sonnets_ (of which 25 ed.
had appeared by 1797), and _Scripture Songs_ (1754).


ERSKINE, THOMAS (1788-1870).--Theologian, _s._ of David E., of Linlathen,
to which property he succeeded, his elder brother having _d._ He was
called to the Bar in 1810, but never practised. Having come under
unusually deep religious impressions he devoted himself largely to the
study of theology, and _pub._ various works, including _The Internal
Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion_ (1820), _Unconditional
Freeness of the Gospel_, and _The Spiritual Order_. He was a man of
singular charm of character, and wielded a great influence on the
religious thought of his day. He enjoyed the friendship of men of such
different types as Carlyle, Chalmers, Dean Stanley, and Prevost Paradol.
His _Letters_ were ed. by Dr. W. Hanna (1877-78).


ETHEREGE, SIR GEORGE (1635?-1691).--Dramatist, was at Camb., travelled,
read a little law, became a man-about-town, the companion of Sedley,
Rochester, and their set. He achieved some note as the writer of three
lively comedies, _Love in a Tub_ (1664), _She would if she Could_ (1668),
and _The Man of Mode_ (1676), all characterised by the grossness of the
period. He was sent on a mission to Ratisbon, where he broke his neck
when lighting his guests downstairs after a drinking bout.


EVANS, MARY ANN or MARIAN ("GEORGE ELIOT") (1819-1880).--Novelist, was
_b._ near Nuneaton, Warwickshire, _dau._ of Robert E., land agent, a man
of strong individuality. Her education was completed at a school in
Coventry, and after the death of her mother in 1836, and the marriage of
her elder sister, she kept house for her _f._ until his death in 1849. In
1841 they gave up their house in the country, and went to live in
Coventry. Here she made the acquaintance of Charles Bray, a writer on
phrenology, and his brother-in-law Charles Hennell, a rationalistic
writer on the origin of Christianity, whose influence led her to renounce
the evangelical views in which she had been brought up. In 1846 she
engaged in her first literary work, the completion of a translation begun
by Mrs. Hennell of Strauss's _Life of Jesus_. On her _f.'s_ death she
went abroad with the Brays, and, on her return in 1850, began to write
for the _Westminster Review_, of which from 1851-53 she was
assistant-editor. In this capacity she was much thrown into the society
of Herbert Spencer and George Henry Lewes (_q.v._), with the latter of
whom she in 1854 entered into an irregular connection which lasted until
his death. In the same year she translated Feuerbach's _Essence of
Christianity_, the only one of her writings to which she attached her
real name. It was not until she was nearly 40 that she appears to have
discovered the true nature of her genius; for it was not until 1857 that
_The Sad Fortunes of the Rev. Amos Barton_ appeared in _Blackwood's
Magazine_, and announced that a new writer of singular power had arisen.
It was followed by _Mr. Gilfil's Love Story_ and _Janet's Repentance_,
all three being reprinted as _Scenes from Clerical Life_ (1857); _Adam
Bede_ was _pub._ in 1859, _The Mill on the Floss_, in its earlier
chapters largely autobiographical, in 1860, _Silas Marner_, perhaps the
most artistically constructed of her books, in 1861. In 1860 and 1861 she
visited Florence with the view of preparing herself for her next work,
_Romola_, a tale of the times of Savonarola, which appeared in 1863 in
the _Cornhill Magazine_. _Felix Holt the Radical_ followed in 1866. Miss
E. now for a time abandoned novel-writing and took to poetry, and between
1868 and 1871 produced _The Spanish Gipsy_, _Agatha_, _The Legend of
Jubal_, and _Armgart_. These poems, though containing much fine work, did
not add to her reputation, and in fact in writing them she had departed
from her true vocation. Accordingly, she returned to fiction, and in
_Middlemarch_, which appeared in parts in 1871-72, she was by many
considered to have produced her greatest work. _Daniel Deronda_, which
came out in 1874-76, was greatly inferior, and it was her last novel. In
1878 she _pub._ _The Impressions of Theophrastus Such_, a collection of
miscellaneous essays. In the same year Mr. Lewes _d._, an event which
plunged her into melancholy, which was, however, alleviated by the
kindness of Mr. John Cross, who had been the intimate friend of both L.
and herself, and whom she _m._ in March, 1880. The union was a short one,
being terminated by her death on December 22 in the same year.

George Eliot will probably always retain a high place among writers of
fiction. Her great power lies in the minute painting of character,
chiefly among the lower middle classes, shopkeepers, tradesmen, and
country folk of the Midlands, into whose thoughts and feelings she had an
insight almost like divination, and of whose modes of expression she was
complete mistress. Her general view of life is pessimistic, relieved by a
power of seizing the humorous elements in human stupidity and ill-doing.
There is also, however, much seriousness in her treatment of the phases
of life upon which she touches, and few writers have brought out with
greater power the hardening and degrading effects of continuance in evil
courses, or the inevitable and irretrievable consequences of a wrong act.
Her descriptions of rural scenes have a singular charm.

_Life_, ed. by J.W. Cross (1885-6). Books on her by Oscar Browning, 1890,
and Sir Leslie Stephen (Men of Letters), 1902.


EVELYN, JOHN (1620-1706).--Diarist, and miscellaneous writer, was of an
old Surrey family, and was _ed._ at a school at Lewes and at Oxf. He
travelled much on the Continent, seeing all that was best worth seeing in
the way of galleries and collections, both public and private, of which
he has given an interesting account in his _Diary_. He was all his life
a staunch Royalist, and joined the King as a volunteer in 1642, but soon
after repaired again to the Continent. After 1652 he was at home, settled
at Sayes Court, near Deptford, where his gardens were famous. After the
Restoration he was employed in various matters by the Government, but his
lofty and pure character was constantly offended by the manners of the
Court. In addition to his _Diary_, kept up from 1624-1706, and which is
full of interesting details of public and private events, he wrote upon
such subjects as plantations, _Sylva_ (1664), gardening, _Elysium
Britannicum_ (_unpub._), architecture, prevention of smoke in London,
engraving, _Sculptura_ (1662), and he was one of the founders of the
Royal Society, of which he was for a time sec. The dignity and purity of
E'.s character stand forth in strong relief against the laxity of his
times.


EWING, MRS. JULIANA HORATIA (GATTY) (1842-1885).--Writer of children's
stories, _dau._ of Mrs. Alfred Gatty (_q.v._), also a writer for
children. Among her tales, which have hardly been excelled in sympathetic
insight into child-life, and still enjoy undiminished popularity, are: _A
Flat Iron for a Farthing_, _Jackanapes_, _Jan of the Windmill_, _Mrs.
Overtheway's Remembrances_, and _The Story of a Short Life_.


FABER, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1814-1863).--Theologian and hymn-writer, was
_b._ at Calverley, Yorkshire, and _ed._ at Harrow and Oxf., where he came
under the influence of Newman, whom he followed into the Church of Rome.
He wrote various theological treatises, but has a place in literature for
his hymns, which include _The Pilgrims of the Night_, _My God how
wonderful thou art_, and _Sweet Saviour, bless us ere we go_.


FABYAN, ROBERT (_d._ 1513).--Chronicler, was _b._ in London, of which he
became an Alderman and Sheriff. He kept a diary of notable events, which
he expanded into a chronicle, which he entitled, _The Concordance of
Histories_. It covers the period from the arrival of Brutus in England to
the death of Henry VII., and deals mainly with the affairs of London. It
was not printed until 1515, when it appeared under the title of _The New
Chronicles of England and France_.


FAIRFAX, EDWARD (1580?-1635).--Translator, natural _s._ of Sir Thomas F.,
lived at Fuystone, near Knaresborough, in peace and prosperity. His
translation of Tasso's _Jerusalem Delivered_, on which his fame is
founded, is a masterpiece, one of the comparatively few translations
which in themselves are literature. It was highly praised by Dryden and
Waller. The first ed. appeared in 1600, and was dedicated to Queen
Elizabeth. F. also wrote a treatise on _Demonology_, in which he was a
devout believer.


FALCONER, WILLIAM (1732-1769).--Poet, _s._ of a barber in Edin., where he
was _b._, became a sailor, and was thus thoroughly competent to describe
the management of the storm-tossed vessel, the career and fate of which
are described in his poem, _The Shipwreck_ (1762), a work of genuine,
though unequal, talent. The efforts which F. made to improve the poem in
the successive ed. which followed the first were not entirely
successful. The work gained for him the patronage of the Duke of York,
through whose influence he obtained the position of purser on various
warships. Strangely enough, his own death occurred by shipwreck. F. wrote
other poems, now forgotten, besides a useful _Nautical Dictionary_.


FANSHAWE, CATHERINE MARIA (1765-1834).--Poetess, _dau._ of a Surrey
squire, wrote clever occasional verse. Her best known production is the
famous _Riddle on the Letter H_, beginning "'Twas whispered in heaven,
'twas muttered in hell" often attributed to Lord Byron.


FANSHAWE, SIR RICHARD (1608-1666).--Diplomatist, translator, and poet,
_b._ at Ware Park, Herts, and _ed._ at Camb., travelled on the Continent,
and when the Civil War broke out sided with the King and was sent to
Spain to obtain money for the cause. He acted as Latin Sec. to Charles
II. when in Holland. After the Restoration he held various appointments,
and was Ambassador to Portugal and Spain successively. He translated
Guarini's _Pastor Fido_, _Selected Parts of Horace_, and _The Lusiad_ of
Camoens. His wife, _nee_ Anne Harrison, wrote memoirs of her own life.


FARADAY, MICHAEL (1791-1867).--Natural philosopher, _s._ of a blacksmith,
was _b._ in London, and apprenticed to a book-binder. He early showed a
taste for chemistry, and attended the lectures of Sir H. Davy (_q.v._),
by whom he was, in 1813, appointed his chemical assistant in the Royal
Institution. He became one of the greatest of British discoverers and
popularisers of science, his discoveries being chiefly in the department
of electro-magnetism. He had an unusual power of making difficult
subjects clearly understood. Among his writings are _History of the
Progress of Electro-Magnetism_ (1821), _The Non-metallic Elements_, _The
Chemical History of a Candle_, and _The Various Forces in Nature_. F. was
a man of remarkable simplicity and benevolence of character, and deeply
religious.


FARMER, RICHARD (1735-1797).--Shakespearian scholar, _b._ at Leicester,
and _ed._ at Camb., where he ultimately became Master of Emanuel Coll. He
wrote an _Essay on the Learning of Shakespeare_ (1767), in which he
maintained that Shakespeare's knowledge of the classics was through
translations, the errors of which he reproduced. It is a production of
great ability. F. was a clergyman, and held a prebend in St. Paul's.


FARQUHAR, GEORGE (1678-1707).--Dramatist, _b._ at Londonderry, _s._ of a
clergyman, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, on leaving which he took
to the stage, but had no great success as an actor. This, together with
an accident in which he wounded a fellow-actor with a sword, led to his
relinquishing it, and giving himself to writing plays instead of acting
them. Thereafter he joined the army. _Love and a Bottle_ (1698) was his
first venture, and others were _The Constant Couple_ (1700), _Sir Harry
Wildair_ (1701), _The Inconstant_ (1703), _The Recruiting Officer_
(1706), and _The Beau's Stratagem_ (1707). F.'s plays are full of wit and
sparkle and, though often coarse, have not the malignant pruriency of
some of his predecessors. He made an unfortunate marriage, and _d._ in
poverty.


FARRAR, FREDERIC WILLIAM (1831-1903).--Theological writer, _b._ in
Bombay, and _ed._ at London Univ. and Camb., was for some years a master
at Harrow, and from 1871-76 Head Master of Marlborough School. He became
successively Canon of Westminster and Rector of St. Margaret's,
Archdeacon of Westminster and Dean of Canterbury. He was an eloquent
preacher and a voluminous author, his writings including stories of
school life, such as _Eric_ and _St. Winifred's_, a _Life of Christ_,
which had great popularity, a _Life of St. Paul_, and two historical
romances.


FAWCETT, HENRY (1833-1884).--Statesman and economist, _b._ at Salisbury,
and _ed._ at Camb., where he became Fellow of Trinity Hall. In 1858 he
was blinded by a shooting accident, in spite of which he continued to
prosecute his studies, especially in economics, and in 1863 _pub._ his
_Manual of Political Economy_, becoming in the same year Prof. of
Political Economy in Camb. Having strong political views he desired to
enter upon a political career, and after repeated defeats was elected
M.P. for Brighton. He soon attained a recognised position, devoting
himself specially to parliamentary reform and Indian questions, and was
in 1880 appointed Postmaster-General, in which office he approved himself
a capable administrator. His career was, however, cut short by his
premature death, but not before he had made himself a recognised
authority on economics, his works on which include _The Economic Position
of the British Labourer_ (1871), _Labour and Wages_, etc. In 1867 he _m._
Miss Millicent Garrett, a lady highly qualified to share in all his
intellectual interests, and who collaborated with him in some of his
publications. There is a life of him by Sir L. Stephen.


FAWKES, FRANCIS (1721-1777).--Poet and translator, _b._ near Doncaster,
and _ed._ at Camb., after which he took orders. He translated Anacreon,
Sappho, and other classics, modernised parts of the poems of Gavin
Douglas, and was the author of the well-known song, _The Brown Jug_, and
of two poems, _Bramham Park_ and _Partridge Shooting_.


FELTHAM, OWEN (1602?-1668).--Religious writer, author of a book entitled
_Resolves, Divine, Moral, and Political_ (_c._ 1620), containing 146
short essays. It had great popularity in its day. Though sometimes stiff
and affected in style, it contains many sound, if not original or
brilliant, reflections, and occasional felicities of expression. F. was
for a time in the household of the Earl of Thomond as chaplain or sec.,
and _pub._ (1652), _Brief Character of the Low Countries_.


FENTON, ELIJAH (1683-1730).--Poet and translator, _ed._ at Camb., for a
time acted as sec. to the Earl of Orrery in Flanders, and was then Master
of Sevenoaks Grammar School. In 1707 he _pub._ a book of poems. He is
best known, however, as the assistant of Pope in his translation of the
_Odyssey_, of which he Englished the first, fourth, nineteenth, and
twentieth books, catching the manner of his master so completely that it
is hardly possible to distinguish between their work; while thus engaged
he _pub._ (1723) a successful tragedy, _Marianne_. His latest
contributions to literature were a _Life of Milton_, and an ed. of
_Waller's Poems_ (1729).


FERGUSON, ADAM (1723-1816).--Philosopher and historian, _s._ of the
parish minister of Logierait, Perthshire, studied at St. Andrews and
Edin. Univ., in the latter of which he was successively Professor of
Mathematics, and Moral Philosophy (1764-1785). As a young man he was
chaplain to the 42nd Regiment, and was present at the Battle of Fontenoy.
In 1757 he was made Keeper of the Advocates' Library. As a Prof. of
Philosophy he was highly successful, his class being attended by many
distinguished men no longer students at the Univ. In 1778-9 he acted as
sec. to a commission sent out by Lord North to endeavour to reach an
accommodation with the American colonists. F.'s principal works are
_Essay on the History of Civil Society_ (1765), _Institutes of Moral
Philosophy_ (1769), _History of the Progress and Termination of the Roman
Republic_ (1782), and _Principles of Moral and Political Science_ (1792),
all of which have been translated into French and German. F. spent his
later years at St. Andrews, where he _d._ in 1816 at the age of 92. He
was an intimate friend of Sir Walter Scott. The French philosopher Cousin
gave F. a place above all his predecessors in the Scottish school of
philosophy.


FERGUSON, SIR SAMUEL (1810-1886).--Poet and antiquary, _b._ at Belfast,
the _s._ of parents of Scottish extraction, he was _ed._ at Trinity
Coll., Dublin, from which he received in 1865 the honorary degree of
LL.D. He practised with success as a barrister, became Q.C. in 1859, and
Deputy Keeper of the Irish Records 1867, an appointment in which he
rendered valuable service, and was knighted in 1878. He was a contributor
to _Blackwood's Magazine_, in which appeared his best known poem, _The
Forging of the Anchor_, and was one of the chief promoters of the Gaelic
revival in Irish literature. His _coll._ poems appeared under the title
of _Lays of the Western Gael_ (1865), _Congal, an epic poem_ (1872), and
his prose tales posthumously (1887), as _Hibernian Nights'
Entertainments_. His principal antiquarian work was _Ogham Inscriptions
in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland_.


FERGUSSON, JAMES (1808-1886).--Writer on architecture, _b._ at Ayr, was
engaged in commercial pursuits in India, where he became interested in
the architecture of the country, and _pub._ his first work, _Picturesque
Illustrations of Ancient Architecture in Hindustan_ (1840), which was
followed by _An Historical Inquiry into the True Principles of Beauty in
Art_ (1849), and _A History of Architecture in all Countries from the
Earliest Times to the Present Day_ (1865-67). He also wrote _Fire and
Serpent Worship_, etc., and a book on the use of earthworks in
fortification.


FERGUSSON, ROBERT (1750-1774).--Scottish poet, _s._ of a bank clerk, was
_ed._ at the Univ. of St. Andrews. His _f._ dying, he became a copying
clerk in an Edin. lawyer's office. Early displaying a talent for humorous
descriptive verse, he contributed to _Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine_, then
the principal Scottish receptacle for fugitive poetry. His verses,
however, attracted attention by their merit, and he _pub._ some of them
in a _coll._ form. Unfortunately he fell into dissipated habits, under
which his delicate constitution gave way, and he _d._ insane in his 24th
year. His poems influenced Burns, who greatly admired them.


FERRIER, JAMES FREDERICK (1808-1864).--Metaphysician, _b._ in Edin., and
_ed._ there and at Oxf., he was called to the Scottish Bar in 1832, but
devoted himself to literature and philosophy. In 1842 he was appointed
Prof. of History in Edin., and in 1845 translated to the Chair of Moral
Philosophy and Political Economy at St. Andrews. He _pub._ in 1854
_Institutes of Metaphysics_, and ed. the _coll._ works of his
father-in-law, Prof. Wilson ("Christopher North.")


FERRIER, SUSAN EDMONSTOUNE (1782-1854).--Novelist, _dau._ of James F.,
one of the principal clerks of the Court of Session, in which office he
was the colleague of Sir Walter Scott. Miss F. wrote three excellent
novels, _Marriage_ (1818), _The Inheritance_ (1824), and _Destiny_
(1831), all characterised by racy humour and acute character-painting.
Her cheerful and tactful friendship helped to soothe the last days of Sir
W. Scott.


FIELD, NATHANIEL (1587-1633).--Dramatist and actor, was one of "the
children of the Queen's Revels," who performed in Ben Jonson's _Cynthia's
Revels_ in 1600. He wrote _A Woman's a Weathercock_ (1612), _Amends for
Ladies_ (1618), and (with Massinger) _The Fatal Dowry_ (1632).


FIELDING, HENRY (1707-1754).--Novelist, was _b._ at Sharpham Park, near
Glastonbury. His father was General Edmund F., descended from the Earls
of Denbigh and Desmond, and his mother was the _dau._ of Sir Henry Gould
of Sharpham Park. His childhood was spent at East Stour, Dorset, and his
education was received at first from a tutor, after which he was sent to
Eton. Following a love affair with a young heiress at Lyme Regis he was
sent to Leyden to study law, where he remained until his _f._, who had
entered into a second marriage, and who was an extravagant man, ceased to
send his allowance. Thrown upon his own resources, he came to London and
began to write light comedies and farces, of which during the next few
years he threw off nearly a score. The drama, however, was not his true
vein, and none of his pieces in this kind have survived, unless _Tom
Thumb_, a burlesque upon his contemporary playwrights, be excepted. About
1735 he _m._ Miss Charlotte Cradock, a beautiful and amiable girl to
whom, though he gave her sufficient cause for forbearance, he was
devotedly attached. She is the prototype of his "Amelia" and "Sophia."
She brought him L1500, and the young couple retired to East Stour, where
he had a small house inherited from his mother. The little fortune was,
however, soon dissipated; and in a year he was back in London, where he
formed a company of comedians, and managed a small theatre in the
Haymarket. Here he produced successfully _Pasquin, a Dramatic Satire on
the Times_, and _The Historical Register for 1736_, in which Walpole was
satirised. This enterprise was brought to an end by the passing of the
Licensing Act, 1737, making the _imprimatur_ of the Lord Chamberlain
necessary to the production of any play. F. thereupon read law at the
Middle Temple, was called to the Bar in 1740, and went the Western
Circuit. The same year saw the publication of Richardson's _Pamela_,
which inspired F. with the idea of a parody, thus giving rise to his
first novel, _Joseph Andrews_. As, however, the characters, especially
Parson Adams, developed in his hands, the original idea was laid aside,
and the work assumed the form of a regular novel. It was _pub._ in 1742,
and though sharing largely in the same qualities as its great successor,
_Tom Jones_, its reception, though encouraging, was not phenomenally
cordial. Immediately after this a heavy blow fell on F. in the death of
his wife. The next few years were occupied with writing his
_Miscellanies_, which contained, along with some essays and poems, two
important works, _A Journey from this World to the Next_, and _The
History of Jonathan Wild the Great_, a grave satire; and he also
conducted two papers in support of the Government, _The True Patriot_ and
_The Jacobite Journal_, in consideration of which he was appointed
Justice of the Peace for Middlesex and Westminster, and had a pension
conferred upon him. In 1746 he set convention at defiance by marrying
Mary MacDaniel, who had been his first wife's maid, and the nurse of his
children, and who proved a faithful and affectionate companion. F. showed
himself an upright, diligent, and efficient magistrate, and his _Inquiry
into the Increase of Robbers_ (1751), with suggested remedies, led to
beneficial results. By this time, however, the publication of his great
masterpiece, _The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling_ (1749), had given
him a place among the immortals. All critics are agreed that this book
contains passages offensive to delicacy, and some say to morality. This
is often excused on the plea of the coarser manners of the age; but a
much stronger defence is advanced on the ground that, while other
novelists of the time made immorality an incentive to merriment, F.'s
treatment of such subjects, as Lowell has said, "shocks rather than
corrupts," and that in his pages evil is evil. On the other hand, there
is universal agreement as to the permanent interest of the types of
character presented, the profound knowledge of life and insight into
human nature, the genial humour, the wide humanity, the wisdom, and the
noble and masculine English of the book. His only other novel, _Amelia_,
which some, but these a small minority, have regarded as his best, was
_pub._ in 1751. His health was now thoroughly broken, and in 1753, as a
forlorn hope, he went in search of restoration to Lisbon, where he _d._
on October 8, and was buried in the English cemetery. His last work was a
_Journal_ of his voyage. Though with many weaknesses and serious faults,
F. was fundamentally a man of honest and masculine character, and though
improvident and reckless in his habits, especially in earlier life, he
was affectionate in his domestic relations, and faithful and efficient in
the performance of such public duties as he was called to discharge.
Thackeray thus describes his appearance, "His figure was tall and
stalwart, his face handsome, manly, and noble-looking; to the last days
of his life he retained a grandeur of air and, though worn down by
disease, his aspect and presence imposed respect upon people round about
him."

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1707, _ed._ Eton, studied law at Leyden, came to London
and wrote dramas, called to Bar 1740, _pub._ _Joseph Andrews_ 1742,
became journalist, appointed a magistrate for Middlesex, etc., and _pub._
_Inquiry into Increase of Robbers_ 1751, _pub._ _Tom Jones_ 1749,
_Amelia_ 1751, _d._ at Lisbon 1754.

His works are included in Ballantyne's Novelists' Library with a
biography by Scott (1821). An ed. in 10 vols. with a study by L. Stephen
was _pub._ by Smith, Elder and Co. (1882); another in 12 vols. by Prof.
Saintsbury, Dent and Co. (1893), and various others. There are various
Lives by Watson (1807). Lawrence (1855), and A. Dobson (Men of Letters,
1883).


FIELDING, SARAH (1710-1768).--Novelist, was the sister of the above, who
had a high opinion of her talents. She wrote several novels, including
_David Simple_ (1744), _The Governess_, and _The Countess_ of _Dellwyn_.
She also translated Xenophon's _Memorabilia_ and _Apologia_ (1762).


FILMER, SIR ROBERT (_d._ 1653?).--Political writer, _s._ of Sir Edward
F., of East Sutton, Kent, was _ed._ at Camb. He was an enthusiastic
Royalist, was knighted by Charles I. and, in 1671, was imprisoned in
Leeds Castle, Kent. He is notable as the defender, in its most extreme
form, of the doctrine of the divine right of kings, which he expounded in
a succession of works, of which the latest and best known, _Patriarcha_,
appeared in 1679. His theory is founded on the idea that the government
of a family by the father is the original and method of all government.
His doctrines were afterwards attacked by Locke in his _Treatise on
Government_. He was opposed to the persecution of old women for supposed
witchcraft.


FINLAY, GEORGE (1799-1875).--Historian, of Scottish descent, was _b._ at
Faversham, Kent, where his _f._, an officer in the army, was inspector of
government powder mills. Intended for the law, he was _ed._ at Glasgow,
Goettingen, and Edin., but becoming an enthusiast in the cause of Greece,
he joined Byron in the war of independence, and thereafter bought a
property near Athens, where he settled and busied himself with schemes
for the improvement of the country, which had little success. His
_History of Greece_, produced in sections between 1843 and 1861, did not
at first receive the recognition which its merits deserved, but it has
since been given by students in all countries, and specially in Germany,
a place among works of permanent value, alike for its literary style and
the depth and insight of its historical views. It was re-issued in 1877
as _A History of Greece from the Roman Conquest to the Present Time_ (146
B.C. _to_ 1864).


FISHER, JOHN (_c._ 1469-1535).--Controversialist and scholar, _b._ at
Beverley, and _ed._ at Camb., entered the Church, and became in 1504
Bishop of Rochester. He wrote in Latin against the doctrines of the
Reformation, but was a supporter of the New Learning, and endeavoured to
get Erasmus to teach Greek at Camb. Through his influence the Lady
Margaret Professorship of Divinity were founded at both the Univ. by
Margaret Countess of Richmond, and in 1502 he became first prof. at
Camb., where he was also (1505-8) Head of Queen's Coll. He was also
instrumental in founding Christ's and St. John's Coll. For opposing the
divorce proceedings of Henry VIII. he was burned. Made a cardinal in
1535, he was beatified in 1886.


FISKE, JOHN (1842-1901).--Miscellaneous writer, was _b._ at Hartford,
Connecticut. The family name was Green; but this he dropped, and adopted
that of his mother's family. After being at Harvard he studied for, and
was admitted to, the Bar, but did not practise. He wrote on a variety of
subjects, including mythology, history, and evolution. Among his books on
these subjects are, _Myths and Mythmakers_ (1872), _Cosmic Philosophy_,
_Darwinism_, _The Idea of God_, _Origin of Evil_. He was also the author
of many works on America. These include _Old Virginia_, _New France and
New England_, _The American Revolution_, and _Discovery of America_
(1892).


FITZGERALD, EDWARD (1809-1883).--Translator and letter-writer, was _b._
near Woodbridge, Suffolk, _s._ of John Purcell, who took his wife's
surname on the death of her _f._. in 1818. He was _ed._ at Bury St.
Edmunds and Camb. Thereafter he lived in retirement and study with his
parents until 1838, when he took a neighbouring cottage. In 1856 he _m._
a _dau._ of Bernard Barton, the poet, from whom, however, he soon
separated. Afterwards he lived at various places in the East of England,
continuing his studies, with yachting for his chief recreation. By this
time, however, he had become an author, having written a life of his
father-in-law prefixed to his _coll._ poems (1849), _Euphranor_, a
dialogue on youth (1851), and _Polonius, a Collection of Wise Saws and
Modern Instances_ (1852). Becoming interested in Spanish literature, he
_pub._ translations of _Six Dramas of Calderon_. Thereafter turning his
attention to Persian, he produced (1859), anonymously, his famous
translation of the _Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam_. He also _pub._
translations of the _Agamemnon_ of AEschylus, and the _Oedipus Tyrannus_
and _Oedipus Coloneus_ of Sophocles. In his translations F. aimed not so
much at a mere literal reproduction of the sense of the original, as at
reproducing its effect on the reader, and in this he was extraordinarily
successful. In the department of letter-writing also he attained an
excellence perhaps unequalled in his day.


FITZSTEPHEN, WILLIAM (_d._ 1190).--Was a servant of Thomas a Becket,
witnessed his murder, and wrote his biography, which contains an
interesting account of London in the 12th century.


FLAVEL, JOHN (1627-1691).--Divine, _b._ at Bromsgrove, studied at Oxf.,
was a Presbyterian, and was settled at Dartmouth, but ejected from his
living in 1662, continuing, however, to preach there secretly. He was a
voluminous and popular author. Among his works are _Husbandry
Spiritualised_ and _Navigation Spiritualised_, titles which suggest some
of his characteristics as an expositor.


FLECKNOE, RICHARD (_d._ 1678).--Poet, said to have been an Irish priest.
He wrote several plays, now forgotten, also miscellaneous poems, some of
them sacred, and a book of travels. His name has been preserved in
Dryden's satire, _MacFlecknoe_, as "throughout the realms of nonsense
absolute;" but according to some authorities his slighter pieces were not
wanting in grace and fancy.


FLETCHER, ANDREW (1655-1716).--Scottish statesman and political writer,
_s._ of Sir Robert F. of Saltoun, East Lothian, to which estate he
succeeded at an early age. He was _ed._ under the care of Bishop Burnet,
who was then minister of Saltoun. Being firmly opposed to the arbitrary
measures of the Duke of York, afterwards James II., he went to Holland,
where he joined Monmouth, whom he accompanied on his ill-starred
expedition. Happening to kill, in a quarrel, one Dare, another of the
Duke's followers, he fled to the Continent, travelled in Spain and
Hungary, and fought against the Turks. After the Revolution he returned
to Scotland, and took an active part in political affairs. He opposed the
Union, fearing the loss of Scottish independence, and advocated
federation rather than incorporation. He introduced various improvements
in agriculture. His principal writings are _Discourse of Government_
(1698), _Two Discourses concerning the Affairs of Scotland_ (1698),
_Conversation concerning a right Regulation of Government for the Common
Good of Mankind_ (1703), in which occurs his well-known saying, "Give me
the making of the songs of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws."


FLETCHER, GILES, AND PHINEAS (1588?-1623) (1582-1650).--Poets, were the
sons of Giles F., himself a minor poet, and Envoy to Russia. Phineas, the
elder, was _ed._ at Eton and Camb., and entered the Church, becoming
Rector of Hilgay, Norfolk. He wrote _The Purple Island_ (1633), a poem in
10 books, giving an elaborate allegorical description of the body and
mind of man, which, though tedious and fanciful, contains some fine
passages, recalling the harmonious sweetness of Spenser, whose disciple
the poet was. He was also the author of _Piscatory Dialogues_. GILES, the
younger, was also _ed._ at Camb., and, like his brother, became a country
parson, being Rector of Alderton. His poem, _Christ's Victory and
Triumph_ (1610), which, though it contains passages rising to sublimity,
is now almost unknown except to students of English literature, is said
to have influenced Milton.

Both brothers, but especially Giles, had a genuine poetic gift, but alike
in the allegorical treatment of their subjects and the metre they
adopted, they followed a style which was passing away, and thus missed
popularity. They were cousins of John F., the dramatist.


FLORENCE of WORCESTER (_d._ 1118).--Chronicler, was a monk of Worcester.
His work is founded upon that of Marianus, an Irish chronicler,
supplemented by additions taken from the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_, Bede's
_Lives of the Saints_, and Asser's _Life of Alfred_. After his death it
was brought down to 1295.


FLORIO, JOHN (1553?-1625).--Translator, _s._ of an Italian preacher,
exiled for his Protestantism, but who appears to have lost credit owing
to misconduct, _b._ in London, was, about 1576, a private tutor of
languages at Oxf. In 1581 he was admitted a member of Magdalen Coll.,
and teacher of French and Italian. Patronised by various noblemen, he
became in 1603 reader in Italian to Anne of Denmark, Queen of James I. He
_pub._ _First Fruites_ (1578). _Second Fruites_ (1591), consisting of
Italian and English Dialogues, and his great Italian dictionary entitled
_A World of Wonder_, in 1598. His chief contribution to pure literature
is his famous translation of _The Essays of Montaigne_, in stately if
somewhat stiff Elizabethan English.


FONBLANQUE, ALBANY WILLIAM (1793-1872).--Journalist and political writer,
was of Huguenot descent, the _s._ of a Commissioner in Bankruptcy. He was
bred to the law, but deserted it for journalism, in which he took a high
place. He wrote much for _The Times_, and _Westminster Review_, and
subsequently became ed. and proprietor of the _Examiner_. His best
articles were republished as _England under Seven Administrations_
(1837). He also wrote _How we are Governed_. In 1847 he was appointed
Statistical Sec. to the Board of Trade.


FOOTE, SAMUEL (1720-1777).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ at Truro of a good
family, and _ed._ at Oxf., succeeded by his extravagance and folly in
running through two fortunes. To repair his finances he turned to the
stage, and began with tragedy, in which he failed. He then took to
comedy, and the mimetic representation of living characters, for which
his extraordinary comic powers highly qualified him. He also became a
prolific author of dramatic pieces. He wrote 20 plays, and claimed to
have added 16 original characters to the stage. Several of his pieces,
owing to the offence they gave to persons of importance, were suppressed,
but were usually revived in a slightly modified form. His conversation
was agreeable and entertaining in the highest degree. Among his best
works are _An Auction of Pictures_, _The Liar_, and _The Mayor of
Garratt_ (1763), _The Lame Lover_ (1770), _The Knights_ (1749), _Author_
(suppressed) 1757, _Devil upon Two Sticks_ (1768), _The Nabob_ (1779),
_The Capuchin_ (1776).


FORBES, JAMES DAVID (1809-1868).--Natural Philosopher, _s._ of Sir
William F., of Pitsligo, was _b._ and _ed._ at Edin. He studied law, and
was called to the Bar, but devoted himself to science, in which he gained
a great reputation both as a discoverer and teacher. He was Prof. of
Natural Philosophy at Edin., 1833-1859, when he succeeded Sir D.
Brewster, as Principal of the United Coll. at St. Andrews. He was one of
the founders of the British Association in 1831. His scientific
investigations and discoveries embraced the subjects of heat, light,
polarisation, and specially glaciers. In connection with the last of
these he wrote _Travels through the Alps_ (1843), _Norway and its
Glaciers_ (1853), _Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa_ (1855), and _Papers
on the Theory of Glaciers_.


FORD, JOHN (_c._ 1586?).--Dramatist, _b._ probably at Ilsington,
Devonshire, was admitted to the Middle Temple in 1602, and appears to
have practised as a lawyer. His chief plays are _The Lover's Melancholy_
(1629), _'Tis Pity_, _The Broken Heart_, and _Love's Sacrifice_ (1633),
_Perkin Warbeck_ (1634), _The Lady's Trial_ (1639), and _Fancies Chaste
and Noble_ (1638). He also collaborated with Dekker and Rowley in _The
Witch of Edmonton_ (1624). F. has a high position as a dramatist, though
rather for general intellectual power and austere beauty of thought than
for strictly dramatic qualities. C. Lamb says, "F. was of the first order
of poets." He had little humour; his plays, though the subjects are
painful, and sometimes horrible, are full of pensive tenderness expressed
in gently flowing verse. The date of his death is uncertain.


FORD, PAUL LEICESTER (1865-1902).--Novelist and biographer, was _b._ in
Brooklyn. He wrote Lives of Washington, Franklin, and others, ed. the
works of Jefferson, and wrote a number of novels, which had considerable
success, including _Peter Sterling_ (1894), _Story of an Untold Love_,
_Janice Meredith_, _Wanted a Matchmaker_, and _Wanted a Chaperone_. He
_d._ by his own hand.


FORD, RICHARD (1796-1858).--Writer on art and travel, _ed._ at Winchester
and Camb., and travelled for several years in Spain, becoming intimately
acquainted with the country and people. He wrote a _Handbook for
Travellers in Spain_ (1845), which is much more than a mere guide-book,
and _Gatherings from Spain_ (1846). An accomplished artist and art
critic, he was the first to make the great Spanish painter, Velasquez,
generally known in England.


FORDUN, JOHN (_d._ 1384?).--Chronicler, said to have been a chantry
priest and Canon of Aberdeen. He began the _Scotichronicon_, for which he
prepared himself, it is said, by travelling on foot through Britain and
Ireland in search of materials. He also compiled _Gesta Annalia_, a
continuation. He brought the history down to 1153, leaving, however,
material to the time of his own death, which was subsequently worked up
by Walter Bower (_q.v._).


FORSTER, JOHN (1812-1876).--Historian and biographer, _b._ at Newcastle,
_ed._ at the Grammar School there, and at Univ. Coll., London, became a
barrister of the Inner Temple, but soon relinquished law for literature.
In 1834 he accepted the post of assistant ed. of the _Examiner_, and was
ed. 1847-55. In this position F. exercised a marked influence on public
opinion. He also ed. the _Foreign Quarterly Review_ 1842-3, the _Daily
News_ in 1846, and was Sec. to the Lunacy Commission and a Commissioner
1861-72. His historical writings were chiefly biographies, among which
are _Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England_ (1836-9), _Life of
Goldsmith_ (1854), _Biographical and Historical Essays_ (1859), _Sir John
Eliot_ (1864), _Lives of Walter S. Landor_ (1868), and _Charles Dickens_
(1871-4). He also left the first vol. of a Life of Swift. F., who was a
man of great decision and force of character, concealed an unusually
tender heart under a somewhat overbearing manner.


FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN (1394?-1476?).--Political writer, was descended from
a Devonshire family. He was an eminent lawyer, and held the office of
Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench (1442). During the Wars of the
Roses he was a staunch Lancastrian. On the triumph of Edward IV. at
Towton he was attainted, and followed the fortunes of the fallen
Lancastrians, accompanying Queen Margaret to Scotland and Flanders. He
fought at Tewkesbury, was captured, but pardoned on condition of writing
in support of the Yorkish claims, which he did, considering that his own
party appeared to be hopelessly ruined. He is said to have been at one
time Lord Chancellor; but it is probable that this was only a titular
appointment given him by the exiled family. His works are various
defences of the Lancastrian title to the crown, and two treatises, _De
Laudibus Legum Angliae_ (1537) (in praise of the laws of England), and _On
the Governance of the Kingdom of England_, not printed till 1714, the
former for the instruction of Edward, Prince of Wales.


FORSTER, JOHN (1770-1843).--Essayist, was _b._ at Halifax, and _ed._ at
Bristol for the Baptist ministry. Though a man of powerful and original
mind he did not prove popular as a preacher, and devoted himself mainly
to literature, his chief contribution to which is his four Essays (1) _On
a Man's Writing Memoirs of Himself_, (2) _On Decision of Character_, (3)
_On the Epithet "Romantic_," (4) _On Evangelical Religion, etc._, all of
which attracted much attention among the more thoughtful part of the
community, and still hold their place. These Essays were _pub._ in 1805,
and in 1819. F. added another on the _Evils of Popular Ignorance_, in
which he advocated a national system of education.


FOSTER, STEPHEN COLLINS (1826-1864).--Song-writer, was _b._ in
Pittsburgh. He wrote over 100 songs, many of which had extraordinary
popularity, among which may be mentioned _The Old Folks at Home_, _Nelly
Bly_, _Old Dog Tray_, _Camp Town Races_, _Massa's in de cold, cold
Ground_, and _Come where my Love lies Dreaming_. He composed the music to
his songs.


FOX, CHARLES JAMES (1749-1806).--Statesman and historian, _s._ of Henry
F., 1st Lord Holland, was one of the greatest orators who have ever sat
in the House of Commons. His only serious literary work was a fragment of
a proposed _History of the Reign of James the Second_. An introductory
chapter sketching the development of the constitution from the time of
Henry VII., and a few chapters conducting the history up to the execution
of Monmouth are all which he completed.


FOX, GEORGE (1624-1691).--Religious enthusiast, and founder of the
Society of Friends, _b._ at Drayton, Leicestershire, was in youth the
subject of peculiar religious impressions and trances, and adopted a
wandering life. The protests which he conceived himself bound to make
against the prevailing beliefs and manners, and which sometimes took the
form of interrupting Divine service, and the use of uncomplimentary forms
of address to the clergy, involved him in frequent trouble. The clergy,
the magistrates, and the mob alike treated him with harshness amounting
to persecution. None of these things, however, moved him, and friends,
many of them influential, among them Oliver Cromwell, extended favour
towards him. From 1659 onwards he made various missionary journeys in
Scotland, Ireland, America, and Holland. Later he was repeatedly
imprisoned, again visited the Continent, and _d._ in 1691. F.'s literary
works are his _Journal_, _Epistles_, and _Doctrinal Pieces_. He was not a
man of strong intellect, and the defence of his doctrines was undertaken
by the far more competent hand of his follower, Barclay (_q.v._). The
_Journal_, however, is full of interest as a sincere transcript of the
singular experiences, religious and others, of a spiritual enthusiast and
mystic.

The best Life is that by Hodgkin, 1896. _Journal_ (reprint, 1885).


FOXE, JOHN (1516-1587).--Martyrologist, was _b._ at Boston, Lincolnshire,
and _ed._ at Oxf., where he became a Fellow of Magdalen Coll. While there
he gave himself to the study of the theological questions then in debate,
and ended by becoming a Protestant, in consequence of which he in 1545
left his coll. He then became tutor in the family of Sir T. Lucy of
Charlecote, and afterwards to the children of the recently executed Earl
of Surrey. During the reign of Mary he retired to the Continent, and
_pub._, at Strasburg, his _Commentarii_ (the first draft of the _Acts and
Monuments_). Removing to Basel he was employed as a reader for the press
by the famous printer Oporinus, who _pub._ some of his writings. On the
accession of Elizabeth, F. returned to England, was received with
kindness by the Duke of Norfolk, one of his former pupils, and soon
afterwards (1563) _pub._ the work on which his fame rests, the English
version of the _Acts and Monuments_, better known as _The Book Martyrs_.
Received with great favour by the Protestants, it was, and has always
been, charged by the Roman Catholics with gross and wilful perversion of
facts. The truth of the matter appears to be that while Foxe was not, as
in the circumstances he could hardly have been, free from party spirit or
from some degree of error as to facts, he did not intentionally try to
mislead; and comparison of his citations from authorities with the
originals has shown him to have been careful and accurate in that matter.
F., who had been ordained a priest in 1560, became Canon of Salisbury in
1563. He wrote sundry other theological works, and _d._ in 1587. There is
a memoir of him attributed to his _s._, but of doubtful authenticity.
Some of his papers, used by Strype (_q.v._), are now in the British
Museum.


FRANCIS, SIR PHILIP (1740-1818).--Reputed author of _The Letters of
Junius_, _s._ of the Rev. Philip F., a scholar of some note, was _b._ in
Dublin. On the recommendation of Lord Holland he received an appointment
in the office of the Sec. of State, and was thereafter private sec. to
Lord Kinnoull in Portugal, and to Pitt in 1761-2. He was then transferred
to the War Office, where he remained from 1762-72, during which period he
contributed to the press under various pseudonyms. His next appointment
was that of a member of Council of Bengal, which he held from 1773-80.
While in India he was in continual conflict with the Governor-General,
Warren Hastings, by whom he was wounded in a duel in 1779. He returned to
England in 1780 with a large fortune, and entered Parliament as a Whig.
In 1787 he was associated with Burke in the impeachment of Hastings,
against whom he showed extraordinary vindictiveness. Later he was a
sympathiser with the French Revolution, and a member of the association
of the Friends of the People. He retired from public life in 1807, and
_d._ in 1818. He was the author of about 20 political pamphlets, but the
great interest attaching to him is his reputed authorship of the _Letters
of Junius_. These letters which, partly on account of the boldness and
implacability of their attacks and the brilliance of their literary
style, and partly because of the mystery in which their author wrapped
himself, created an extraordinary impression, and have ever since
retained their place as masterpieces of condensed sarcasm. They appeared
in _The Public Advertiser_, a paper _pub._ by Woodfall, the first on
January 21, 1769, and the last on the corresponding day of 1772, and were
chiefly directed against the Dukes of Grafton and Bedford, and Lord
Mansfield; but even the king himself did not escape. Not only were the
public actions of those attacked held up to execration, but every
circumstance in their private lives which could excite odium was dragged
into the light. Their authorship was attributed to many distinguished
men, _e.g._ Burke, Lord Shelburne, J. Wilkes, Horne Tooke, and Barre, and
recently to Gibbon; but the evidence appears to point strongly to F.,
and, in the opinion of Macaulay, would "support a verdict in a civil,
nay, in a criminal trial." It rests upon such circumstances as the
similarity of the MS. to what is known to be the disguised writing of F.,
the acquaintance of the writer with the working of the Sec. of State's
Office and the War Office, his denunciation of the promotion of a Mr.
Chamier in the War Office, which was a well-known grievance of F., his
acquaintance with Pitt, and the existence of a strong tie to Lord
Holland, the silence of Junius when F. was absent, and resemblances in
the style and the moral character of the writer to those of F.


FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN (1706-1790).--American statesman, philosopher, and
writer, was one of a numerous family. His _f._ was a soap-boiler at
Boston, where F. was _b._ He was apprenticed at the age of 13 to his
brother, a printer, who treated him harshly. After various changes,
during which he lived in New York, London, and Philadelphia, he at last
succeeded in founding a successful business as a printer. He also started
a newspaper, _The Gazette_, which was highly popular, _Poor Richard's
Almanac_, and the _Busybody Papers_, in imitation of the _Spectator_.
After holding various minor appointments, he was made deputy
Postmaster-General for the American Colonies. In 1757 he went to London
on some public business in which he was so successful that various
colonies appointed him their English agent. In the midst of his varied
avocations he found time for scientific investigation, especially with
regard to electricity. For these he became known over the civilised
world, and was loaded with honours. In 1762 he returned to America, and
took a prominent part in the controversies which led to the Revolutionary
War and the independence of the Colonies. In 1776 he was U.S. Minister to
France, and in 1782 was a signatory of the treaty which confirmed the
independence of the States. He returned home in 1785, and, after holding
various political offices, retired in 1788, and _d._ in 1790. His
autobiography is his chief contribution to literature, and is of the
highest interest.

Works (10 vols., Bigelow, 1887-9), Autobiography (1868), Lives by
M'Master (1887), and Morse (1889).


FREEMAN, EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1823-1892).--Historian, _s._ of John F., was
_b._ at Harborne, Staffordshire. He lost both his parents in childhood,
and was brought up by his paternal grandmother. He was _ed._ at private
schools, and as a private pupil of the Rev. R. Gutch, whose _dau._ he
afterwards _m._ In 1841 he was elected to a scholarship at Oxf. He had
inherited an income sufficient to make him independent of a profession,
and a prepossession in favour of the celibacy of the clergy disinclined
him to enter the Church, of which he had at one time thought. He settled
ultimately at Somerleaze, near Wells, where he occupied himself in study,
writing for periodicals, and with the duties of a magistrate. He was a
strong Liberal, and on one occasion stood unsuccessfully as a candidate
for Parliament. He was also twice unsuccessful as an applicant for
professional chairs, but ultimately, in 1884, succeeded Stubbs as Prof.
of Modern History at Oxf. He had always been an enthusiastic traveller,
and it was when on a tour in Spain that he took ill and _d._ on May 16,
1892. F. was a voluminous author, and a keen controversialist. His first
book was a _History of Architecture_ (1849), and among the very numerous
publications which he issued the most important were _History of Federal
Government_ (1863), _The History of the Norman Conquest_ (6 vols.,
1867-79), _The Historical Geography of Europe_ (1881-2), _The Reign of
William Rufus_ (1882), and an unfinished _History of Sicily_. Besides
these he wrote innumerable articles in periodicals, many of which were
separately _pub._ and contain much of his best work. He was laborious and
honest, but the controversial cast of his mind sometimes coloured his
work. His short books, such as his _William I._, and his _General Sketch
of European History_, are marvels of condensation, and show him at his
best. His knowledge of history was singularly wide, and he sometimes
showed a great power of vivid presentation.


FRENEAU, PHILIP (1752-1832).--Poet, _b._ in New York, produced two vols.
of verse (1786-8), the most considerable contribution to poetry made up
to that date in America. He fought in the Revolutionary War, was taken
prisoner, and confined in a British prison-ship, the arrangements of
which he bitterly satirised in _The British Prison Ship_ (1781). He also
wrote vigorous prose, of which _Advice to Authors_ is an example. Amid
much commonplace and doggerel, F. produced a small amount of genuine
poetry in his short pieces, such as _The Indian Burying Ground_, and _The
Wild Honeysuckle_.


FRERE, JOHN HOOKHAM (1769-1846).--Diplomatist, translator, and author,
eldest _s._ of John F., a distinguished antiquary, was _b._ in London,
and _ed._ at Eton and Camb. He became a clerk in the Foreign Office, and
subsequently entering Parliament was appointed Under Foreign Sec. In 1800
he was Envoy to Portugal, and was Ambassador to Spain 1802-4, and again
1808-9. In 1818 he retired to Malta, where he _d._ He was a contributor
to the _Anti-Jacobin_, to Ellis's _Specimens of the Early English Poets_
(1801), and to Southey's _Chronicle of the Cid_. He also made some
masterly translations from _Aristophanes_; but his chief original
contribution to literature was a burlesque poem on _Arthur and the Round
Table_, purporting to be by William and Robert Whistlecraft. All F.'s
writings are characterised no less by scholarship than by wit.


FROUDE, JAMES ANTHONY (1818-1894).--Historian and essayist, 3rd _s._ of
the Archdeacon of Totnes, Devonshire, near which he was _b._, and
brother of Richard Hurrell. F., one of the leaders of the Tractarian
party, was _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf., where for a short time
he came under the influence of Newman, and contributed to his _Lives of
the English Saints_, and in 1844 he took Deacon's orders. The connection
with Newman was, however, short-lived; and the publication in 1848 of
_The Nemesis of Faith_ showed that in the severe mental and spiritual
conflict through which he had passed, the writer had not only escaped
from all Tractarian influences, but was in revolt against many of the
fundamental doctrines of Christianity. One result of the book was his
resignation of his Fellowship at Oxf.: another was his loss of an
appointment as Head Master of the Grammar School of Hobart Town,
Tasmania. In the same year began his friendship with Carlyle, and about
the same time he became a contributor to the _Westminster Review_ and to
_Fraser's Magazine_, of which he was ed. from 1860-74. These papers were
afterwards _coll._ and _pub._ in the 4 vols. of _Short Studies on Great
Subjects_. In 1856 he _pub._ the first 2 vols. of the great work of his
life, _The History of England from the Fall of Cardinal Wolsey to the
Spanish Armada_, which extended to 12 vols., the last of which appeared
in 1870. As literature this work has a place among the greatest
productions of the century; but in its treatment it is much more
dramatic, ethical, and polemical than historical in the strict sense; and
indeed the inaccuracy in matters of fact to which F. was liable, combined
with his tendency to idealise and to colour with his own prejudices the
characters who figure in his narrative, are serious deductions from the
value of his work considered as history. _The English in Ireland in the
Eighteenth Century_ appeared in 1872-4. On the death of Carlyle in 1881,
F. found himself in the position of his sole literary executor, and in
that capacity _pub._ successively the _Reminiscences_ (1881), _History of
the First Forty Years of Carlyle's Life_ (1882), _Letters and Memorials
of Jane Welsh Carlyle_ (1883), _History of Carlyle's Life in London_
(1884). The opinion is held by many that in the discharge of the duties
entrusted to him by his old friend and master he showed neither
discretion nor loyalty; and his indiscreet revelations and gross
inaccuracies evoked a storm of controversy and protest. F. did not
confine his labours to purely literary effort. In 1874-5 he travelled as
a Government Commissioner in South Africa with the view of fostering a
movement in favour of federating the various colonies there; in 1876 he
served on the Scottish Univ. Commission; in 1884-5 he visited Australia,
and gave the fruit of his observations to the world in _Oceana_ (1886),
and in 1886-7 he was in the West Indies, and _pub._ _The English in the
West Indies_ (1888). The year 1892 saw his appointment as Prof. of Modern
History at Oxf., and his lectures there were _pub._ in his last books,
_Life and Letters of Erasmus_ (1894), _English Seamen in the Sixteenth
Century_ (1895), and _The Council of Trent_ (1896). F. was elected in
1869 Lord Rector of the Univ. of St. Andrews, and received the degree of
LL.D. from Edinburgh in 1884. By his instructions no Biography was to be
written.


FULLER, SARAH MARGARET (1810-1850).--Was _b._ in Massachusetts, _dau._ of
a lawyer, who encouraged her in over-working herself in the acquisition
of knowledge with life-long evil results to her health. On his death she
supported a large family of brothers and sisters by teaching. Her early
studies had made her familiar with the literature not only of England but
of France, Spain, and Italy; she had become imbued with German philosophy
and mysticism, and she co-operated with Theodore Parker in his revolt
against the Puritan theology till then prevalent in New England, and
became the conductor of the Transcendentalist organ, _The Dial_, from
1840-2. She made various translations from the German, and _pub._ _Summer
on the Lakes_ (1844), and _Papers on Literature and Art_ (1846). In the
same year she went to Europe, and at Rome met the Marquis Ossoli, an
Italian patriot, whom she _m._ in 1847. She and her husband were in the
thick of the Revolution of 1848-9, and in the latter year she was in
charge of a hospital at Rome. After the suppression of the Revolution she
escaped with her husband from Italy, and took ship for America. The
voyage proved most disastrous: small-pox broke out on the vessel, and
their infant child _d._, the ship was wrecked on Fire Island, near New
York, and she and her husband were lost. Destitute of personal
attractions, she was possessed of a singular power of conciliating
sympathy. She was the intimate friend of Emerson, Hawthorn, Channing, and
other eminent men.


FULLER, THOMAS (1608-1661).--Divine and antiquary, _s._ of a clergyman of
the same name, was _b._ at Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire. Possessed of
exceptional intelligence and a wonderful memory, he became a good
scholar, and distinguished himself at Camb., where he was sent. Entering
the Church, he obtained rapid preferment, including the lectureship at
the Savoy, and a chaplaincy to Charles II. He was a voluminous author,
his works dealing with theology, morals, history, and antiquities. Among
the chief are _History of the Holy War_, _i.e._ the Crusades (1643), _The
Holy State and the Profane State_ (1642), _A Pisgah Sight of Palestine_
(1650), _Church History of Britain_, _History of Cambridge University_
(1655), _Worthies of England_ (1662), and _Good Thoughts in Bad Times_.
The outstanding characteristic of F.'s writings is shrewd observation
conveyed in a style of quaint humour. Lamb says, "His conceits are
oftentimes deeply steeped in human feeling and passion." But in addition
there is much wisdom and a remarkable power of casting his observations
into a compact, aphoristic form. The _Worthies_, though far from being a
systematic work, is full of interesting biographical and antiquarian
matter which, but for the pains of the author, would have been lost.
Coleridge says of him, "He was incomparably the most sensible, the least
prejudiced great man in an age that boasted a galaxy of great men." F.,
who was of a singularly amiable character, was a strong Royalist, and
suffered the loss of his preferments during the Commonwealth. They were,
however, given back to him at the Restoration.

Lives by Russell (1844), J.E. Bailey (1874), and M. Fuller (1886).


FULLERTON, LADY GEORGIANA (LEVESON-GOWER) (1812-1885).--Novelist, _dau._
of the 1st Earl Granville, and sister of the eminent statesman. She wrote
a number of novels, some of which had considerable success. They include
_Ellen Middleton_ (1844), _Grantley Manor_ (1847), and _Too Strange not
to be True_ (1864). She also _pub._ two vols. of verse. She joined the
Church of Rome in 1846.


GAIMAR, GEOFFREY (_fl._ 1140?).--Chronicler, translated the chronicle of
Geoffrey of Monmouth into French verse for the wife of his patron, Ralph
Fitz-Gilbert, and added a continuation dealing with the Saxon Kings. His
work is entitled _L'Estoire des Engles_.


GALT, JOHN (1779-1839).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer, _s._ of the
captain of a West Indiaman, was _b._ at Irvine, Ayrshire, but while still
a young man he went to London and formed a commercial partnership, which
proved unfortunate, and he then entered Lincoln's Inn to study law. A
little before this he had produced his first book, a poem on the Battle
of Largs, which, however, he soon suppressed. He then went to various
parts of the Continent in connection with certain commercial schemes, and
met Lord Byron, with whom he travelled for some time. Returning home he
_pub._ _Letters from the Levant_, which had a favourable reception, and
some dramas, which were less successful. He soon, however, found his true
vocation in the novel of Scottish country life, and his fame rests upon
the _Ayrshire Legatees_ (1820), _The Annals of the Parish_ (1821), _Sir
Andrew Wylie_ (1822), _The Entail_ (1824), and _The Provost_. He was not
so successful in the domain of historical romance, which he tried in
_Ringan Gilbaize_, _The Spae-wife_, _The Omen_, etc., although these
contain many striking passages. In addition to his novels G. produced
many historical and biographical works, including a _Life of Wolsey_
(1812), _Life and Studies of Benjamin West_ (1816), _Tour of Asia_, _Life
of Byron_ (1830), _Lives of the Players_, and an Autobiography (1834). In
addition to this copious literary output, G. was constantly forming and
carrying out commercial schemes, the most important of which was the
Canada Company, which, like most of his other enterprises, though
conducted with great energy and ability on his part, ended in
disappointment and trouble for himself. In 1834 he returned from Canada
to Greenock, broken in health and spirits, and _d._ there in 1839 of
paralysis. G. was a man of immense talent and energy, but would have held
a higher place in literature had he concentrated these qualities upon
fewer objects. Most of his 60 books are forgotten, but some of his
novels, especially perhaps _The Annals of the Parish_, have deservedly a
secure place. The town of Galt in Canada is named after him.


GARDINER, SAMUEL RAWSON (1829-1902).--Historian, _b._ at Alresford,
Hants, was _ed._ at Winchester and Oxf. In 1855 he _m._ Isabella, _dau._
of Edward Irving (_q.v._), the founder of the Catholic Apostolic Church,
which he joined, and in which he ultimately held high office. About the
time of his leaving Oxf. he had planned his great work, _The History of
England from the Accession of James I. to the Restoration_, and the
accomplishment of this task he made the great object of his life for more
than 40 years. The first two vols. appeared in 1863 as _The History of
England from the Accession of James I. to the Disgrace of Chief Justice
Cooke_, and subsequent instalments appeared under the following titles:
_Prince Charles and The Spanish Marriage_ (1867), _England under
Buckingham and Charles I._ (1875), _Personal Government of Charles I._
(1877), _The Fall of the Government of Charles I._ (1881); these were in
1883-4 re-issued in a consolidated form entitled _History of England from
the Accession of James I. to the Outbreak of the Civil War_. The second
section of the work, _History of the Great Civil War_, followed in three
vols. _pub._ in 1886, 1889, and 1891 respectively, and three more vols.,
_History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate_ in 1894, 1897, and 1901,
brought the story down to 1656, when the health of the indefatigable
writer gave way, and he _d._ in 1902. In addition to this monumental work
G. wrote many school and college historical text-books, and contributed
to the Epochs of Modern History Series, _The Thirty Years' War_ (1874),
and _The First Two Stuarts_ (1876); he also wrote _Outlines of English
History_, three parts (1881-3), and _Students' History of England_, three
parts (1891). From 1871-85 he was Prof. of History at King's Coll.,
London, and lecturer on history for the London Society for the Extension
of Univ. Teaching. He also ed. many of the historical documents which he
unearthed in his investigations, and many of those issued by the
"Camden," "Clarendon," and other societies. He was ed. of _The English
Historical Review_, and contributed largely to the _Dictionary of
National Biography_. The sober and unadorned style of G.'s works did
little to commend them to the general reader, but their eminent learning,
accuracy, impartiality, and the laborious pursuit of truth which they
exhibited earned for him, from the first, the respect and admiration of
scholars and serious students of history; and as his great work advanced
it was recognised as a permanent contribution to historical literature.
In 1882 he received a civil list pension, and was elected to Research
Fellowships, first by All Souls' Coll., and subsequently by Merton. He
held honorary degrees from the Univ. of Oxford, Gottingen, and Edinburgh.


GARNETT, RICHARD (1835-1906).--Biographer and writer on literature, _s._
of Richard G., an assistant keeper of Printed Books in the British
Museum. _B._ at Lichfield, and _ed._ at a school in, Bloomsbury, he
entered the British Museum in 1851 as an assistant librarian. There he
remained for nearly 50 years, and rose to be Keeper of Printed Books. He
acquired a marvellous knowledge of books, and of everything connected
with pure literature. He made numerous translations from the Greek,
German, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, and wrote books of graceful
verse, _The Twilight of the Gods and other Tales_ (1888), various
biographical works on Carlyle, Milton, Blake, and others, _The Age of
Dryden_, a _History of Italian Literature_, and contributed many articles
to encyclopaedias, and to the _Dictionary of National Biography_.


GARRICK, DAVID (1717-1779).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ at Hereford, but
got most of his education at Lichfield, to which his _f._ belonged. He
was also one of the three pupils who attended Johnson's School at Edial.
With his great preceptor, whom he accompanied to London, he always
remained on friendly terms. He took to the stage, and became the greatest
of English actors. He also wrote various plays, and adaptations, and did
not scruple to undertake "improved" versions of some of Shakespeare's
greatest plays including _Cymbeline_, _The Taming of the Shrew_, and
_The Winter s Tale_, performing the same service for Jonson and
Wycherley, in the last case with much more excuse. Of his original plays
_The Lying Valet_ and _Miss in her Teens_ are perhaps the best.


GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD (1805-1879).--Orator, was _b._ at Newburyport,
Mass. Though chiefly known for his eloquent advocacy of negro
emancipation, he is also remembered for his _Sonnets and other Poems_
(1847).


GARTH, SIR SAMUEL (1661-1719).--Physician and poet, _b._ at Bolam in the
county of Durham, and _ed._ at Camb., he settled as a physician in
London, where he soon acquired a large practice. He was a zealous Whig,
the friend of Addison and, though of different political views, of Pope,
and he ended his career as physician to George I., by whom he was
knighted in 1714. He is remembered as the author of _The Dispensary_, a
satire, which had great popularity in its day, and of _Claremont_, a
descriptive poem. He also ed. a translation of Ovid's _Metamorphoses_, to
which Addison, Pope, and others contributed. Perhaps, however, the
circumstance most honourable to him is his intervention to procure an
honourable burial for Dryden, over whose remains he pronounced a eulogy.


GASCOIGNE, GEORGE (1525 or 1535-1577).--Poet and dramatist, _s._ of Sir
John G., and descended from Sir William G., the famous Chief Justice to
Henry IV., he was _ed._ at Camb., and entered Gray's Inn 1555. While
there he produced two plays, both translations, _The Supposes_ (1566)
from Ariosto, and _Jocasta_ (1566) from Euripides. Disinherited on
account of his prodigality, he _m._ in order to rehabilitate his
finances, a widow, the mother of Nicholas Breton (_q.v._). He had,
nevertheless, to go to Holland to escape from the importunities of his
creditors. While there he saw service under the Prince of Orange, and was
taken prisoner by the Spaniards. Released after a few months, he returned
to England, and found that some of his poems had been surreptitiously
_pub._ He thereupon issued an authoritative ed. under the title of _An
Hundred Sundrie Floures bound up in one Poesie_ (1572). Other works are
_Notes of Instruction_, for making English verse, _The Glasse of
Government_ (1575), and _The Steele Glasse_ (1576), a satire. He also
contributed to the entertainments in honour of Queen Elizabeth at
Kenilworth and appears to have had a share of Court favour. G. was a man
of originality, and did much to popularise the use of blank verse in
England.


GASKELL, ELIZABETH CLEGHORN (STEVENSON) (1810-1865).--Novelist, _dau._ of
William Stevenson, a Unitarian minister, and for some time Keeper of the
Treasury Records. She _m._ William G., a Unitarian minister, at
Manchester, and in 1848 _pub._ anonymously her first book, _Mary Barton_,
in which the life and feelings of the manufacturing working classes are
depicted with much power and sympathy. Other novels followed, _Lizzie
Leigh_ (1855), _Mr. Harrison's Confessions_ (1865), _Ruth_ (1853),
_Cranford_ (1851-3), _North and South_ (1855), _Sylvia's Lovers_ (1863),
etc. Her last work was _Wives and Daughters_ (1865), which appeared in
the _Cornhill Magazine_, and was left unfinished. Mrs. G. had some of
the characteristics of Miss Austen, and if her style and delineation of
character are less minutely perfect, they are, on the other hand, imbued
with a deeper vein of feeling. She was the friend of Charlotte Bronte
(_q.v._), to whom her sympathy brought much comfort, and whose _Life_ she
wrote. Of _Cranford_ Lord Houghton wrote, "It is the finest piece of
humoristic description that has been added to British literature since
Charles Lamb."


GATTY, MRS. ALFRED (MARGARET SCOTT) (1809-1873).--_Dau._ of Rev. A.J.
Scott, D.D., a navy chaplain, who served under, and was the trusted
friend of, Nelson. She _m._ the Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D., Ecclesfield,
Yorkshire, and became a highly useful and popular writer of tales for
young people. Among her books may be mentioned _Parables from Nature_,
_Worlds not Realised_, _Proverbs Illustrated_, and _Aunt Judy's Tales_.
She also conducted _Aunt Judy's Magazine_, and wrote a book on British
sea-weeds. Juliana Ewing (_q.v._) was her daughter.


GAUDEN, JOHN (1605-1662).--Theologian, _b._ at Mayfield in Essex, and
_ed._ at Camb. His claim to remembrance rests on his being the reputed
author of _Eikon Basilike_ (the Royal Image), a book purporting to be
written by Charles I. during his imprisonment, and containing religious
meditations and defences of his political acts. _Pub._ immediately after
the King's execution, it produced an extraordinary effect, so much so
that Charles II. is reported to have said that, had it been _pub._ a week
earlier, it would have saved his father's life. There seems now to be
little doubt that Gauden was the author. At all events he claimed to be
recompensed for his services, and was made Bishop successively of Exeter
and Worcester, apparently on the strength of these claims. The work
passed through 50 ed. within a year, and was answered by Milton in his
_Iconoclastes_ (the Image-breaker).


GAY, JOHN (1685-1732).--Poet and dramatist, _b._ near Barnstaple of a
good but decayed family. His parents dying while he was a child he was
apprenticed to a silk-mercer in London, but not liking the trade, was
released by his master. In 1708 he _pub._ a poem, _Wine_, and in 1713
_Rural Sports_, which he dedicated to Pope, whose friendship he obtained.
A little before this he had received an appointment as sec. in the
household of the Duchess of Monmouth. His next attempts were in the
drama, in which he was not at first successful; but about 1714 he made
his first decided hit in _The Shepherd's Week_, a set of six pastorals
designed to satirise Ambrose Philips, which, however, secured public
approval on their own merits. These were followed by _Trivia_ (1716), in
which he was aided by Swift, an account in mock heroic verse of the
dangers of the London streets, and by _The Fan_. G. had always been
ambitious of public employment, and his aspirations were gratified by his
receiving the appointment of sec. to an embassy to Hanover, which,
however, he appears to have resigned in a few months. He then returned to
the drama in _What d'ye call It_, and _Three Hours after Marriage_,
neither of which, however, took the public fancy. In 1720 he _pub._ a
collection of his poems, which brought him L1000, but soon after lost
all his means in the collapse of the South Sea Company. After producing
another drama, _The Captive_, he _pub._ his _Fables_ (1727), which added
to his reputation, and soon after, in 1728, achieved the great success of
his life in _The Beggar's Opera_, a Newgate pastoral, suggested by Swift,
in which the graces and fantasticalities of the Italian Opera were
satirised. A sequel, _Polly_, was suppressed by the Lord Chamberlain as
reflecting upon the Court, but was _pub._ and had an enormous sale. The
last few years of his life were passed in the household of the Duke of
Queensberry, who had always been his friend and patron. He _d._ after
three days' illness, aged 47. G. was an amiable, easy-going man, who
appears to have had the power of attracting the strong attachments of his
friends, among whom were Pope and Swift. He seems to have been one of the
very few for whom the latter had a sincere affection. He is buried in
Westminster Abbey. Of all he has written he is best remembered by one or
two songs, of which the finest is _Black-eyed Susan_.


GEDDES, ALEXANDER (1737-1802).--Theologian and scholar, of Roman Catholic
parentage, was _b._ at Ruthven, Banffshire, and _ed._ for the priesthood
at the local seminary of Scalan, and at Paris, and became a priest in his
native county. His translation of the _Satires_ of Horace made him known
as a scholar, but his liberality of view led to his suspension. He then
went to London, where he became known to Lord Petre, who enabled him to
proceed with a new translation of the Bible for English Roman Catholics,
which he carried on as far as Ruth, with some of the Psalms, and which
was _pub._ in 3 vols. (1792-6). This was followed by _Critical Remarks on
the Hebrew Scriptures_, in which he largely anticipated the German school
of criticism. The result of this publication was his suspension from all
ecclesiastical functions. G. was also a poet, and wrote _Linton: a
Tweedside Pastoral_, _Carmen Seculare pro Gallica Gente_ (1790), in
praise of the French Revolution. He _d._ without recanting, but received
absolution at the hands of a French priest, though public mass for his
soul was forbidden by the ecclesiastical powers.


GEOFFREY of MONMOUTH (1100?-1154).--Chronicler, was probably a
Benedictine monk, and became Bishop of St. Asaph. He wrote a Latin
_History of British Kings_. _Merlin's Prophecies_, long attributed to
him, is now held to be not genuine. The history is rather a historical
romance than a sober history, and gave scandal to some of the more
prosaic chroniclers who followed him. It was subsequently translated into
Anglo-Norman by Gaimar and Wace, and into English by Layamon.


GERARD, ALEXANDER (1728-1795).--Philosophical writer, _s._ of Rev.
Gilbert G., was _ed._ at Aberdeen, where he became Prof., first of
Natural Philosophy, and afterwards of Divinity, and one of the ministers
of the city. As a prof. he introduced various reforms. In 1756 he gained
the prize for an _Essay on Taste_ which, together with an _Essay on
Genius_, he subsequently _pub._ These treatises, though now superseded,
gained for him considerable reputation.


GIBBON, EDWARD (1737-1794).--Historian, was _b._ at Putney of an ancient
Kentish family. His _f._ was Edward G., and his mother Judith Porten. He
was the only one of a family of seven who survived infancy, and was
himself a delicate child with a precocious love of study. After receiving
his early education at home he was sent to Westminster School, and when
15 was entered at Magdalen Coll., Oxf., where, according to his own
account, he spent 14 months idly and unprofitably. Oxf. was then at its
lowest ebb, and earnest study or effort of any kind had little
encouragement. G., however, appears to have maintained his wide reading
in some degree, and his study of Bossuet and other controversialists led
to his becoming in 1753 a Romanist. To counteract this his _f._ placed
him under the charge of David Mallet (_q.v._), the poet, deist, and ed.
of Bolingbroke's works, whose influence, not unnaturally, failed of the
desired effect, and G. was next sent to Lausanne, and placed under the
care of a Protestant pastor, M. Pavilliard. Various circumstances appear
to have made G. not unwilling to be re-converted to Protestantism; at all
events he soon returned to the reformed doctrines. At Lausanne he
remained for over four years, and devoted himself assiduously to study,
especially of French literature and the Latin classics. At this time also
he became engaged to Mademoiselle Suzanne Curchod; but on the match being
peremptorily opposed by his _f._ it was broken off. With the lady, who
eventually became the wife of Necker, and the mother of Madame de Stael,
he remained on terms of friendship. In 1758 G. returned to England, and
in 1761 _pub._ _Essai sur l'Etude de la Litterature_, translated into
English in 1764. About this time he made a tour on the Continent,
visiting Paris, where he stayed for three months, and thence proceeding
to Switzerland and Italy. There it was that, musing amid the ruins of the
Capitol at Rome on October 15, 1764, he formed the plan of writing the
history of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He returned to
England in 1765, and in 1770 his _f._ _d._, leaving him the embarrassed
estate of Buriton, which had been his usual home when in England. With a
view to recovering his affairs, he left his estate and lived in London
where, in 1772, he seriously set himself to realise the great plan which,
since its conception, had never been out of his thoughts. The first
chapter was written three times, and the second twice before he could
satisfy himself that he had found the style suited to his subject. The
progress of the work was delayed by the fact that G. had meanwhile (1774)
entered the House of Commons, where, as member for Liskeard, he was a
steady, though silent, supporter of Lord North in his American policy. He
subsequently sat for Lymington, and held office as a Commissioner of
Trade and Plantations 1779-82. The first vol. of the _Decline and Fall_
appeared in 1776, and was received with acclamation, and it was not until
some time had elapsed that the author's treatment of the rise of
Christianity excited the attention and alarm of the religious and
ecclesiastical world. When, however, the far-reaching nature of his views
was at length realised, a fierce and prolonged controversy arose, into
which G. himself did not enter except in one case where his fidelity as
an historian was impugned. The second and third vols. appeared in 1781,
and thereafter (1783) G. returned to Lausanne, where he lived tranquilly
with an early friend, M. Deyverdun, devoting his mornings to the
completion of his history, and his evenings to society. At length, on
the night of June 27, 1787, in the summer-house of his garden, the last
words were penned, and the great work of his life completed. Of the
circumstances, and of his feelings at the moment, he has himself given an
impressive account. The last three vols. were issued in 1788, G. having
gone to London to see them through the press. This being done he returned
to Lausanne where, within a year, his beloved friend Deyverdun _d._ His
last years were clouded by ill-health, and by anxieties with regard to
the French Revolution. In 1793, though travelling was a serious matter
for him, he came to England to comfort his friend Lord Sheffield on the
death of his wife, took ill, and _d._ suddenly in London on January 16,
1794.

The place of G. among historians is in the first rank, and if the vast
scale of his work and the enormous mass of detail involved in it are
considered along with the learning and research employed in accumulating
the material, and the breadth of view, lucidity of arrangement, and sense
of proportion which have fused them into a distinct and splendid picture,
his claims to the first place cannot be lightly dismissed. His style,
though not pure, being tinged with Gallicisms, is one of the most noble
in our literature, rich, harmonious, and stately; and though sources of
information not accessible to him have added to our knowledge, and have
shown some of his conclusions to be mistaken, his historical accuracy has
been comparatively little shaken, and his work is sure of permanence. As
a man G. seems to have been somewhat calm and cool in his feelings,
though capable of steady and affectionate friendships, such as those with
Deyverdun and the Sheffields, which were warmly reciprocated, and he
appears to have been liked in society, where his brilliant conversational
powers made him shine. He was vain, and affected the manners of the fine
gentleman, which his unattractive countenance and awkward figure, and
latterly his extreme corpulence, rendered somewhat ridiculous. He left an
interesting _Autobiography_.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1737, _ed._ Westminster and Oxf., became Romanist and sent
to Lausanne 1753, where he returned to Protestantism, _pub._ _Essay on
Study of Literature_ 1761, visited Rome 1764 and resolved to write his
_Decline and Fall of Roman Empire_, began to write it 1772, _pub._
1776-87, _d._ 1794.

_Decline and Fall_ (Sir W. Smith, 8 vols., 1854-55), another (J.B. Bury,
7 vols., 1896-1900). _Autobiography_ (Lord Sheffield, 1796), often
reprinted.


GIFFORD, RICHARD (1725-1807).--Poet, was _ed._ at Oxford and took orders.
He was the author of a poem, _Contemplation_. He also wrote theological
and controversial works.


GIFFORD, WILLIAM (1756-1826).--Critic and poet, was _b._ of humble
parentage at Ashburton, Devonshire, and after being for a short time at
sea, was apprenticed to a cobbler. Having, however, shown signs of
superior ability, and a desire for learning, he was befriended and _ed._,
ultimately at Oxf., where he _grad._ Becoming known to Lord Grosvenor, he
was patronised by him, and in course of time produced his first poem,
_The Baviad_ (1794), a satire directed against the Delia Cruscans, a
clique of very small and sentimental poets, which at once quenched their
little tapers. This was followed by another satire, _The Maeviad_,
against some minor dramatists. His last effort in this line was his
_Epistle to Peter Pindar_ (Dr. Walcot), inspired by personal enmity,
which evoked a reply, _A Cut at a Cobbler_. These writings had
established the reputation of G. as a keen, and even ferocious critic,
and he was appointed in 1797 ed. of the _Anti-Jacobin_, which Canning and
his friends had just started, and of the _Quarterly Review_ (1809-24). He
also brought out ed. of Massinger, Ben Jonson, and Ford. As a critic he
had acuteness; but he was one-sided, prejudiced, and savagely bitter, and
much more influenced in his judgments by the political opinions than by
the literary merits of his victims. In his whole career, however, he
displayed independence and spirit in overcoming the disadvantages of his
early life, as well as gratitude to those who had served him. He held
various appointments which placed him above financial anxiety.


GILDAS (516?-570?).--British historian, was a monk who is believed to
have gone to Brittany about 550, and founded a monastery. He wrote a
history, _De Excidio Britanniae_ (concerning the overthrow of Britain). It
consists of two parts, the first from the Roman invasion until the end of
the 4th century, and the second a continuation to the writer's own time.
It is obscure and wordy, and not of much value.


GILDER, RICHARD WATSON (1844-1909).--Poet, _b._ at Borderstown, New
Jersey, was successively a lawyer, a soldier, and a journalist, in which
last capacity he ed. _Scribner's_ (afterwards the _Century_) _Magazine_.
He holds a high place among American poets as the author of _The New Day_
(1875), _The Celestial Passion_, _The Great Remembrance_, _Five Books of
Song_ (1894), _In Palestine_ (1898), _In the Heights_ (1905), _A Book of
Music_ (collection) (1906), etc.


GILDON, CHARLES (1665-1724).--Critic and dramatist, belonged to a Roman
Catholic family, and was an unsuccessful playwright, a literary hack, and
a critic of little acumen or discrimination. He attacked Pope as "Sawny
Dapper," and was in return embalmed in _The Dunciad_. He also wrote a
Life of Defoe.


GILFILLAN, GEORGE (1813-1878).--Poet and critic, _s._ of a dissenting
minister at Comrie, Perthshire, studied at Glasgow Univ., and was
ordained minister of a church in Dundee. He was a voluminous author.
Among his writings are _Gallery of Literary Portraits_, and a Series of
British Poets with introductions and notes in 48 vols. He also wrote
Lives of Burns, Scott, and others, and _Night_ (1867), a poem in nine
books. His style was somewhat turgid, and his criticism rather
sympathetic than profound.


GILFILLAN, ROBERT (1798-1850).--Poet, _b._ at Dunfermline, was latterly
Collector of Police Rates in Leith. He wrote a number of Scottish songs,
and was favourably mentioned in _Noctes Ambrosianae_ (see Wilson, J.). He
was the author of the beautiful song, _Oh, why left I my Hame?_


GILLESPIE, GEORGE (1613-1648).--Scottish Theologian, was _b._ at
Kirkcaldy, and studied at St. Andrews. He became one of the ministers of
Edin., and was a member of the Westminster Assembly, in which he took a
prominent part. A man of notable intellectual power, he exercised an
influence remarkable in view of the fact that he _d._ in his 36th year.
He was one of the most formidable controversialists of a highly
controversial age. His best known work is _Aaron's Rod Blossoming_, a
defence of the ecclesiastical claims of the high Presbyterian party.


GILLIES, JOHN (1747-1836).--Historian, _b._ at Brechin and _ed._ there
and at Glasgow, wrote a _History of Greece_ (1786) from a strongly
anti-democratic standpoint, a _History of the World from Alexander to
Augustus_ (1807), and a _View of the Reign of Frederick II. of Prussia_.
He also made various translations from the Greek. He succeeded Principal
Robertson as Historiographer Royal for Scotland.


GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS (literary name of GERALD DE BARRI)
(1146?-1220?).--Geographer and historian, was _b._ of a Norman family
settled in Wales, which intermarried with the Royal family of that
country. He was an eminent scholar and Churchman, whose object of
ambition was the Bishopric of St. David's, to which he was twice elected
by the chapter, but from which he was kept out by the opposition of the
King. When travelling in Ireland with Prince John (1185) he wrote
_Topographia Hibernica_, a valuable descriptive account of the country,
and in 1188 he wrote _Itinerarium Cambriae_, a similar work on Wales. He
left several other works, including an autobiography, _De Rebus a se
Gestis_ (concerning his own doings).


GISSING, GEORGE (1857-1903).--Novelist, _b._ at Wakefield. In his novels
he depicted the environment and struggles of the lower and lower middle
classes with a somewhat pessimistic and depressing realism, although his
last work, _The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft_, seemed to usher in the
dawn of a somewhat brighter outlook. His other novels include _Demos_
(1886), _Thyrza_ (1887), _The Nether World_ (1889), _New Grub Street_
(1891), _Born in Exile_ (1892), _In the Year of Jubilee_ (1894), and _The
Town Traveller_ (1898). He _d._ at St. Jean de Luz in the Pyrenees.


GLADSTONE, WILLIAM EWART (1809-1898).--Statesman, scholar, and man of
letters, fourth _s._ of Sir John G., a merchant in Liverpool, was of
Scottish ancestry. He was _ed._ at Eton and Christ Church, Oxf. From his
youth he was deeply interested in religious and ecclesiastical questions,
and at one time thought of entering the Church. In 1832 he entered
Parliament as a Tory, and from the first gave evidence of the splendid
talents for debate and statesmanship, especially in the department of
finance, which raised him to the position of power and influence which he
afterwards attained. After holding the offices of Pres. of the Board of
Trade, Colonial Sec., and Chancellor of the Exchequer, he attained the
position of Prime Minister, which he held four times 1868-74, 1880-85,
1885-86, and 1892-93. His political career was one of intense energy and
activity in every department of government, especially after he became
Prime Minister, and while it gained him the enthusiastic applause and
devotion of a large portion of the nation, it exposed him to a
correspondingly intense opposition on the part of another. The questions
which involved him in the greatest conflicts of his life and evoked his
chief efforts of intellect were the disestablishment of the Irish Church,
the foreign policy of his great rival Disraeli, and Home Rule for
Ireland, on the last of which the old Liberal party was finally broken
up. In the midst of political labours which might have been sufficient to
absorb even his tireless energy, he found time to follow out and write
upon various subjects which possessed a life-long interest for him. His
first book was _The State in its Relations with the Church_ (1839), which
formed the subject of one of Macaulay's essays. _Studies on Homer and the
Homeric Age_ (1858), _Juventus Mundi_ (1869), and _Homeric Synchronism_
(1876), _The Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture_ (1890), _The Vatican
Decrees and Vaticanism_ (1874-75), and _Gleanings of Past Years_ (1897),
8 vols., were his other principal contributions to literature. G.'s
scholarship, though sound and even brilliant, was of an old-fashioned
kind, and his conclusions on Homeric questions have not received much
support from contemporary scholars. In his controversies with Huxley and
others his want of scientific knowledge and of sympathy with modern
scientific tendencies placed him at a disadvantage. His character was a
singularly complex one, and his intellect possessed a plasticity which
made it possible to say of him that he never _was_ anything, but was
always _becoming_ something. His life was a singularly noble and
stainless one, and he must probably ever remain one of the great figures
in the history of his country.

_Life_ by J. Morley (3 vols.), others by J. M'Carthy, Sir Wemyss Reid,
and many others.


GLANVILL, JOSEPH (1636-1680).--Controversialist and moral writer, _b._ at
Plymouth, and _ed._ at Oxf., took orders, and held various benefices,
including the Rectory of Bath Abbey and a prebend at Worcester. He came
under the influence of the Camb. Platonists, especially of Henry More
(_q.v._). His contendings were chiefly with the English Nonconformists,
against whom (with the exception of Baxter whom he held in great esteem)
he exhibited great bitterness. His chief work is the _Vanity of
Dogmatizing_ (1661) which contains the story of "The Scholar Gipsy," in
later days turned to such fine account by Matthew Arnold. G. wrote a fine
literary style, at its best recalling that of Sir Thomas Browne.


GLAPTHORNE, HENRY (_fl._ 1640).--Dramatist, had a high reputation among
his contemporaries, though now almost forgotten. He wrote two comedies,
three tragedies, and a book of poems, which were all reprinted in two
vols. in 1874. His best work, is _Argalus and Parthenia_ (1639), based
upon Sidney's _Arcadia_. Others were _The Hollander_, _Wit is a
Constable_, and _The Ladies' Privilege_ (all 1640).


GLASCOCK, WILLIAM NUGENT (1787-1847).--Novelist. He saw a good deal of
service in the navy with credit, and from this drew the inspiration of
his vigorous and breezy sea-stories, which include _Sailors and Saints_
(1829), _Tales of a Tar_ (1836), and _Land Sharks and Sea Gulls_ (1838).


GLEIG, GEORGE ROBERT (1796-1888).--_S._ of George G., Bishop of Brechin,
entered the army, and served in the Peninsula and America. In 1820 he
took orders, and after serving various cures _bec._, in 1834, Chaplain of
Chelsea Hospital, and in 1844 Chaplain-General of the Forces, which
office he held until 1875. He was a frequent contributor to reviews and
magazines, especially _Blackwood's_, in which his best known novel, _The
Subaltern_, appeared, and he was also the author of Lives of Warren
Hastings, Clive, and Wellington, _Military Commanders_, _Chelsea
Pensioners_, and other works.


GLEN, WILLIAM (1789-1826).--Poet, _b._ in Glasgow, was for some years in
the West Indies. He _d._ in poverty. He wrote several poems, but the only
one which has survived is his Jacobite ballad, _Wae's me for Prince
Charlie_.


GLOVER, RICHARD (1712-1785).--Poet and dramatist, was a London merchant,
and M.P. for Weymouth. A scholarly man with a taste for literature, he
wrote two poems in blank verse, _Leonidas_ (1737), and _The Athenaid_
(1787). Though not without a degree of dignity, they want energy and
interest, and are now forgotten. He also produced a few dramas, which had
little success. He is best remembered by his beautiful ballad, _Hosier's
Ghost_, beginning "As near Portobello lying." G. had the reputation of a
useful and public-spirited citizen.


GODWIN, MRS. MARY (WOLLSTONECRAFT) (1759-1797).--Miscellaneous writer,
was of Irish extraction. Her _f._ was a spend-thrift of bad habits, and
at 19 Mary left home to make her way in the world. Her next ten years
were spent as companion to a lady, in teaching a school at Newington
Green, and as governess in the family of Lord Kingsborough. In 1784 she
assisted her sister to escape from a husband who ill-treated her. In 1788
she took to translating, and became literary adviser to Johnson the
publisher, through whom she became known to many of the literary people
of the day, as well as to certain Radicals, including Godwin, Paine,
Priestly, and Fuseli, the painter. She then, 1792, went to Paris, where
she met Captain Imlay, with whom she formed a connection, the fruit of
which was her daughter Fanny. Captain Imlay having deserted her, she
tried to commit suicide at Putney Bridge, but was rescued. Thereafter she
resumed her literary labours, and lived with W. Godwin, who married her
in 1797. Their _dau._, Mary, whose birth she did not survive, became the
second wife of Shelley. Her chief original writings are a _Reply_ to
Burke's _Reflections on the French Revolution_ (1791), _Vindication of
the Rights of Women_ (1792), and _Original Stories for Children_,
illustrated by W. Blake. Her _Vindication_ received much adverse
criticism on account of its extreme positions and over-plainness of
speech.


GODWIN, WILLIAM (1756-1836).--Philosopher and novelist, _b._ at Wisbeach,
and _ed._ at a school in Norwich, to which city his _f._, a Presbyterian
minister, had removed, and subsequently at a Presbyterian coll. at
Hoxton, with a view to the ministry. From 1778 to 1783 he acted as
minister of various congregations near London; but his theological views
having undergone important changes, he resigned his pastorate, and
devoted himself to a literary career. His first work, a series of
historical sketches in the form of sermons, failed. He then found
employment as one of the principal writers in the _New Annual Register_,
and became otherwise prominent as an advocate of political and social
reform. Many of his views were peculiar and extreme, and even tended, if
fully carried out in practice, to subvert morality; but they were
propounded and supported by their author with a whole-hearted belief in
their efficacy for the regeneration of society: and the singular
circumstances of his connection with and ultimate marriage to Mary
Wollstonecraft showed at least that he had the courage of his opinions.
His _Enquiry concerning Political Justice_ (1793) made him famous. A year
later he _pub._ his masterpiece, _Caleb Williams_, a novel exhibiting a
sombre strength rarely equalled. The next few years were occupied in
political controversy, for which G. was, by his sincerity and his
masculine style, well fitted; and it was in the midst of these--in
1797--that his first marriage, already alluded to, and the death of his
wife, of whom he _pub._ a singular but interesting Life, occurred. In
1799 his second great novel, _St. Leon_, based upon the philosopher's
stone and the elixir of life, appeared. His other novels, _Fleetwood_
(1804), _Mandeville_ (1817), and _Cloudesley_ (1830), are much inferior.
In addition to these works G. brought out an elaborate _Life of Chaucer_
in 2 vols. (1803), _An Essay on Sepulchres_ (1808), containing much fine
thought finely expressed, _A History of the Commonwealth_, an Essay
against the theories of Malthus (_q.v._), and his last work, _Lives of
the Necromancers_. For some time he engaged in the publishing business,
in which, however, he ultimately proved unsuccessful. In his later years
he had the office of Yeoman Usher of the Exchequer conferred upon him. G.
entered in 1801 into a second marriage with a widow, Mrs. Clairmont, by
whom he had a _dau._ This lady had already a _s._ and _dau._, the latter
of whom had an irregular connection with Byron. His _dau._ by his first
marriage--Mary Wollstonecraft G.,--became in 1816 the wife of Shelley. G.
was a man of simple manners and imperturbable temper.


GOLDING, ARTHUR (1535?-1605?).--Translator, _s._ of a gentleman of Essex,
was perhaps at Camb., and was diligent in the translation of theological
works by Calvin, Beza, and others, but is chiefly remembered for his
versions of Caesar's _Commentaries_ (1565), and specially of Ovid's
_Metamorphoses_ (1565-67), the latter in ballad metre. He also translated
Justin's _History_, and part of Seneca.


GOLDSMITH, OLIVER (1728-1774).--Poet, dramatist, and essayist, _s._ of an
Irish clergyman, was _b._ at Pallasmore in Co. Longford. His early
education was received at various schools at Elphin, Athlone, and
Edgeworthstown. At the age of 8 he had a severe attack of smallpox which
disfigured him for life. In 1744 he went to Trinity Coll., Dublin,
whence, having come into collision with one of the coll. tutors, he ran
away in 1746. He was, however, induced to return, and _grad._ in 1749.
The Church was chosen for him as a profession--against his will be it
said in justice to him. He presented himself before the Bishop of Elphin
for examination--perhaps as a type of deeper and more inward
incongruencies--in scarlet breeches, and was rejected. He next figured as
a tutor; but had no sooner accumulated L30 than he quitted his employment
and forthwith dissipated his little savings. A long-suffering uncle named
Contarine, who had already more than once interposed on his behalf, now
provided means to send him to London to study law. He, however, got no
farther than Dublin, where he was fleeced to his last guinea, and
returned to the house of his mother, now a widow with a large family.
After an interval spent in idleness, a medical career was perceived to be
the likeliest opening, and in 1752 he steered for Edin., where he
remained on the usual happy-go-lucky terms until 1754, when he proceeded
to Leyden. After a year there he started on a walking tour, which led him
through France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. How he lived it is hard
to say, for he left Leyden penniless. It is said that he disputed at
Univ., and played the flute, and thus kept himself in existence. All this
time, however, he was gaining the experiences and knowledge of foreign
countries which he was afterwards to turn to such excellent account. At
one of the Univ. visited at this time, he is believed to have secured the
medical degree, of which he subsequently made use. Louvain and Padua have
both been named as the source of it. He reached London almost literally
penniless in 1756, and appears to have been occupied successively as an
apothecary's journeyman, a doctor of the poor, and an usher in a school
at Peckham. In 1757 he was writing for the _Monthly Review_. The next
year he applied unsuccessfully for a medical appointment in India; and
the year following, 1759, saw his first important literary venture, _An
Enquiry into the State of Polite Learning in Europe_. It was _pub._
anonymously, but attracted some attention, and brought him other work. At
the same time he became known to Bishop Percy, the collector of the
_Reliques of Ancient Poetry_, and he had written _The Bee_, a collection
of essays, and was employed upon various periodicals. In 1761 began his
friendship with Johnson, which led to that of the other great men of that
circle. His _Chinese Letters_, afterwards republished as _The Citizen of
the World_, appeared in _The Public Ledger_ in 1762. _The Traveller_, the
first of his longer poems, came out in 1764, and was followed in 1766 by
_The Vicar of Wakefield_. In 1768 he essayed the drama, with _The
Good-natured Man_, which had considerable success. The next few years saw
him busily occupied with work for the publishers, including _The History
of Rome_ (1769), Lives of Parnell the poet, and Lord Bolingbroke (1770),
and in the same year _The Deserted Village_ appeared; _The History of
England_ was _pub._ in 1771. In 1773 he produced with great success his
other drama, _She Stoops to Conquer_. His last works were _The
Retaliation_, _The History of Greece_, and _Animated Nature_, all _pub._
in 1774. In that year, worn out with overwork and anxiety, he caught a
fever, of which he _d._ April 4. With all his serious and very obvious
faults--his reckless improvidence, his vanity, and, in his earlier years
at any rate, his dissipated habits--G. is one of the most lovable
characters in English literature, and one whose writings show most of
himself--his humanity, his bright and spontaneous humour, and "the
kindest heart in the world." His friends included some of the best and
greatest men in England, among them Johnson, Burke, and Reynolds. They
all, doubtless, laughed at and made a butt of him, but they all admired
and loved him. At the news of his death Burke burst into tears, Reynolds
laid down his brush and painted no more that day, and Johnson wrote an
imperishable epitaph on him. The poor, the old, and the outcast crowded
the stair leading to his lodgings, and wept for the benefactor who had
never refused to share what he had (often little enough) with them. Much
of his work--written at high pressure for the means of existence, or to
satisfy the urgency of duns--his histories, his _Animated Nature_, and
such like, have, apart from a certain charm of style which no work of his
could be without, little permanent value; but _The Traveller_ and _The
Deserted Village_, _She Stoops to Conquer_, and, above all, _The Vicar of
Wakefield_, will keep his memory dear to all future readers of English.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1728, _ed._ Trinity Coll., Dublin, went to Edin. 1752, and
to Leyden 1754, travelled on foot over large part of Continent, reached
London 1756, and wrote for magazines, etc., and after publishing various
other works produced _The Citizen of the World_ in 1762, _pub._ _Vicar of
Wakefield_ 1766, _Deserted Village_ 1770, and _She Stoops to Conquer_
1773, _d._ 1774.

There are many ed. of G.'s works by Prior, 1837, Cunningham, 1854, Prof.
Masson (Globe), 1869, Gibb (Bohn's Standard Library), 1885. Biographies
by Prior, 1837, Foster, 1848-71, Washington Irving, and others. _See_
also Boswell's _Johnson_, and Thackeray's _English Humorists_.


GOODALL, WALTER (1706?-1766).--Historical writer, _b._ in Banffshire, and
_ed._ King's Coll., Aberdeen, became assistant librarian to the
Advocates' Library in Edin. In 1754 he _pub._ an _Examination of the
Letters said to have been written by Mary Queen of Scots_, in which he
combats the genuineness of the "Casket Letters." He also ed., among other
works, Fordun's _Scotichronicon_ (1759).


GOODWIN, THOMAS (1600-1680).--Divine, was _b._ in Norfolk, and _ed._ at
Camb., where he was Vicar of Trinity Church. Becoming an Independent, he
ministered to a church in London, and thereafter at Arnheim in Holland.
Returning to England he was made Chaplain to Cromwell's Council of State,
and Pres. of Magdalen Coll., Oxf. At the Restoration he was deprived, but
continued to preach in London. He was the author of various commentaries
and controversial pamphlets, was a member of the Westminster Assembly,
and assisted in drawing up the amended Confession, 1658. He attended
Oliver Cromwell on his deathbed.


GOOGE, BARNABE (1540-1594).--Poet and translator, _b._ at Lincoln,
studied at both Camb. and Oxf. He was a kinsman of Cecil, who gave him
employment in Ireland. He translated from the Latin of Manzolli _The
Zodiac of Life_, a satire against the Papacy, and _The Popish Kingdome_
by T. Kirchmayer, a similar work; also _The Foure Bookes of Husbandrie_
of Conrad Heresbach. In 1563 he _pub._ a vol. of original poems, _Eglogs,
Epytaphes_, and _Sonnettes_.


GORDON, ADAM LINDSAY (1833-1870).--Poet, was _b._ in the Azores, the _s._
of an officer in the army. He went to Australia, where he had a varied
career in connection with horses and riding, for which he had a passion.
He betook himself to the Bush, got into financial trouble, and _d._ by
his own hand. In the main he derives his inspiration (as in the _Rhyme of
Joyous Garde_, and _Britomarte_) from mediaeval and English sources, not
from his Australian surroundings. Among his books are _Sea-spray and
Smoke-drift_ (1867), _Bush Ballads_ (containing _The Sick Stock-rider_)
(1870), _Ashtaroth_ (1867). In many of his poems, _e.g._ _An Exile's
Farewell_, and _Whispering in the Wattle Boughs_, there is a strong vein
of sadness and pathos.


GORE, MRS. CATHERINE GRACE FRANCES (MOODY) (1799-1861).--Novelist, _dau._
of a wine merchant at Retford, where she was _b._ She _m._ a Captain
Gore, with whom she resided mainly on the Continent, supporting her
family by her voluminous writings. Between 1824 and 1862 she produced
about 70 works, the most successful of which were novels of fashionable
English life. Among these may be mentioned _Manners of the Day_ (1830),
_Cecil, or the Adventures of a Coxcomb_ (1841), and _The Banker's Wife_
(1843). She also wrote for the stage, and composed music for songs.


GOSSON, STEPHEN (1554-1624).--Poet, actor, and satirist, _b._ in Kent,
and _ed._ at Oxf., he went to London, and wrote plays, which are now
lost, and pastorals; but, moved by a sermon preached at Paul's Cross in
1577 during a plague, he deserted the theatre, and became one of its
severest critics in his prose satire, _The School of Abrose_ (1579),
directed against "poets, pipers, players, jesters, and such-like
Caterpillars of a Commonwealth." Dedicated to Sir P. Sidney, it was not
well received by him, and is believed to have evoked his _Apologie for
Poetrie_ (1595). G. entered the Church, and _d._ Rector of St. Botolph's,
London.


GOUGH, RICHARD (1735-1809).--Antiquary, was _b._ in London, and studied
at Camb. For many years he made journeys over England in pursuit of his
antiquarian studies. He _pub._ about 20 works, among which are _British
Topography_ (1768), _Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain_ (1786-99), an
ed. of Camden's _Britannia_, a translation of _The Arabian Nights_
(1798), and various other treatises on archaeology, topography, and
numismatics.


GOWER, JOHN (1325?-1408).--Poet. Although few details of his life have
come down to us, he appears to have been a man of wealth and importance,
connected with Kent, well known at Court, and in possession of more than
one estate. He was the friend of Chaucer, who gives him the title of "the
moral Gower," which has clung to him ever since. His first principal work
was _Speculum Meditantis_ (the Mirror of one meditating) written in
French on the subject of married life. It was long believed to have been
lost. It was followed by _Vox Clamantis_ (the Voice of one crying)
written in Latin, giving an account of the peasants' revolt of 1381, and
attacking the misgovernment and social evils which had led to it. His
third, and only English poem, was _Confessio Amantis_ (Lover's
Confession), a work of 30,000 lines, consisting of tales and meditations
on love, written at the request of Richard II. It is the earliest large
collection of tales in the English tongue. In his old age G. became
blind. He had, when about 70, retired to the Priory of St. Mary Overies,
the chapel of which is now the Church of St. Saviour, Southwark, where he
spent his last years, and to which he was a liberal benefactor. G.
represented the serious and cultivated man of his time, in which he was
reckoned the equal of Chaucer, but as a poet he is heavy and prolix.


GRAFTON, RICHARD (_d._ 1572).--Printer and chronicler, printed various
ed. of the Bible and Prayer-book; also the Proclamation of the Accession
of Lady Jane Grey, for which he was cast into prison, where he compiled
an _Abridgement of the Chronicles of England_ (1563). To this he added in
1568 _A Chronicle at Large_. Neither holds a high place as authorities.


GRAHAME, JAMES (1765-1811).--Poet, _s._ of a lawyer, was _b._ and _ed._
in Glasgow. After spending some time in a law office in Edin., he was
called to the Scottish Bar. His health being delicate, and his
circumstances easy, he early retired from practice, and taking orders in
the Church of England in 1809, was appointed curate successively of
Shipton, Gloucestershire, and Sedgefield, Durham. He wrote several
pleasing poems, of which the best is _The Sabbath_ (1804). He _d._ on a
visit to Glasgow in his 47th year. His poems are full of quiet
observation of country sights expressed in graceful verse.


GRAHAME, SIMON or SIMION (1570-1614).--_B._ in Edin., led a dissolute
life as a traveller, soldier, and courtier on the Continent. He appears
to have been a good scholar, and wrote the _Passionate Sparke of a
Relenting Minde_, and _Anatomy of Humours_, the latter of which is
believed to have suggested to Burton his _Anatomy of Melancholie_. He
became an austere Franciscan.


GRAINGER, JAMES (1721-1766).--Poet, of a Cumberland family, studied
medicine at Edin., was an army surgeon, and on the peace settled in
practice in London, where he became the friend of Dr. Johnson, Shenstone,
and other men of letters. His first poem, _Solitude_, appeared in 1755.
He subsequently went to the West Indies (St. Kit's), where he made a rich
marriage, and _pub._ his chief poem, _The Sugar-Cane_ (1764).


GRANGER, JAMES (1723-1776).--Biographer, was at Oxf. and, entering the
Church, became Vicar of Shiplake, Oxon. He _pub._ a _Biographical History
of England from Egbert the Great to the Revolution_ (1769). He insisted
on the importance of collecting engravings of portraits and himself
gathered 14,000, and gave a great impulse to the practice of making such
collections.


GRANT, MRS. ANNE (M'VICAR) (1755-1838).--Was _b._ in Glasgow, and in 1779
_m._ the Rev. James Grant, minister of Laggan, Inverness-shire. She
_pub._ in 1802 a vol. of poems. She also wrote _Letters from the
Mountains_, and _Essays on the Superstitions of the Highlands_. After
1810 she lived in Edin., where she was the friend of Sir W. Scott and
other eminent men, through whose influence a pension of L100 was bestowed
upon her.


GRANT, JAMES (1822-1887).--Novelist, was the _s._ of an officer in the
army, in which he himself served for a short time. He wrote upwards of 50
novels in a brisk, breezy style, of which the best known are perhaps _The
Romance of War_ (1845), _Adventures of an Aide-de-Camp_, _Frank Hilton_,
_Bothwell_, _Harry Ogilvie_, and _The Yellow Frigate_. He also wrote
biographies of _Kirkcaldy of Grange_, _Montrose_, and others which,
however, are not always trustworthy from an historical point of view.


GRANT, JAMES AUGUSTUS (1827-1892).--Traveller, was an officer in the
army, and was sent by the Royal Geographical Society along with Captain
JOHN HANNING SPEKE (1827-1864), to search for the equatorial lakes of
Africa. Grant wrote _A Walk across Africa_, _The Botany of the Speke and
Grant Expedition_, and _Khartoum as I saw it in_ 1863. Speke wrote
_Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile_ (1863), and _What
led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile_ (1864).


GRATTAN, THOMAS COLLEY (1792-1864).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ in
Dublin, and _ed._ for the law, but did not practise. He wrote a few
novels, including _The Heiress of Bruges_ (4 vols., 1830); but his best
work was _Highways and Byways_, a description of his Continental
wanderings, of which he _pub._ three series. He also wrote a history of
the Netherlands and books on America. He was for some time British Consul
at Boston, U.S.


GRAY, DAVID (1838-1861).--Poet, _s._ of a hand-loom weaver at
Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire. He gave early promise at school, was
destined for the service of the Church, and was for 4 years at Glasgow
Univ. while he maintained himself by teaching. His first poems appeared
in the _Glasgow Citizen_. In 1860, however, he went with his friend
Robert Buchanan to London, where he soon fell into consumption. He was
befriended by Mr. Monckton Milnes, afterwards Lord Houghton, but after a
sojourn in the South of England, returned home to die. His chief poem,
_The Luggie_ (the river of his birthplace) contains much beautiful
description; but his genius reached its highest expression in a series of
30 sonnets written in full view of an early death and blighted hopes, and
bearing the title, _In the Shadow_. They breathe a spirit of the deepest
melancholy unrelieved by hope.


GRAY, THOMAS (1716-1771).--Poet, was _b._ in London, the _s._ of a
scrivener, who, though described as "a respectable citizen," was of so
cruel and violent a temper that his wife had to separate from him. To his
mother and her sister, who carried on a business, G. was indebted for his
liberal education at Eton (where he became a friend of Horace Walpole),
and Camb. After completing his Univ. course he accompanied Walpole to
France and Italy, where he spent over two years, when a difference
arising G. returned to England, and went back to Camb. to take his degree
in law without, however, any intention of practising. He remained at
Camb. for the rest of his life, passing his time in the study of the
classics, natural science, and antiquities, and in visits to his friends,
of whom Walpole was again one. It was in 1747 that his first poem, the
_Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College_, appeared, and it was
followed between 1750 and 1757 by his _Pindaric Odes_, including _The
Progress of Poesy_, and _The Bard_, which were, however, somewhat coldly
received. Nevertheless he had, on the death of Colley Cibber, the offer
of the laureateship, which he declined; but in 1768 he accepted the
Professorship of Modern History in his Univ., worth L400 a year. Having
been drawn to the study of Icelandic and Celtic poetry he produced _The
Fatal Sisters_, and _The Descent of Odin_, in which are apparent the
first streaks of the dawn of the Romantic Revival. G.'s poems occupy
little space, but what he wrote he brought to the highest perfection of
which he was capable, and although there is a tendency on the part of
some modern critics to depreciate him, it is probable that his place will
always remain high among all but the first order of poets. Probably no
poem has had a wider acceptance among all classes of readers than his
_Elegy in a Country Churchyard_. In addition to his fame as a poet, he
enjoys that of one of the greatest of English letter-writers, and of a
really great scholar. He _d._ at Camb. after a short illness following
upon a gradually declining state of health.

_Life_ by Gosse (Men of Letters Series, 1882).


GREELEY, HORACE (1811-1872).--Journalist and miscellaneous writer, was
the _s._ of a small farmer in New Hampshire. His early life was passed
first as a printer, and thereafter in editorial work. He started in 1841,
and conducted until his death, the _New York Tribune_. He was long a
leader in American politics, and in 1872 was an unsuccessful candidate
for the Presidency. His writings, which are chiefly political and
economical, include _Essays on Political Economy_ (1870), and
_Recollections of a Busy Life_ (1868).


GREEN, JOHN RICHARD (1837-1883).--Historian, was the _s._ of a tradesman
in Oxf., where he was _ed._, first at Magdalen Coll. School, and then at
Jesus Coll. He entered the Church, and served various cures in London,
under a constant strain caused by delicate health. Always an enthusiastic
student of history, his scanty leisure was devoted to research. In 1869
he finally gave up clerical work, and received the appointment of
librarian at Lambeth. He had been laying plans for various historical
works, including a History of the English Church as exhibited in a series
of Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and, what he proposed as his
_magnum opus_, A History of England under the Angevin Kings. The
discovery, however, that his lungs were affected, necessitated the
abridgment of all his schemes, and he concentrated his energies on the
preparation of his _Short History of the English People_, which appeared
in 1874, and at once gave him an assured place in the first rank of
historical writers. In 1877 he _m._ Miss Alice Stopford, by whose talents
and devotion he was greatly assisted in carrying out and completing such
work as his broken health enabled him to undertake during his few
remaining years. Abandoning his proposed history of the Angevins, he
confined himself to expanding his _Short History_ into _A History of the
English People_ in 4 vols. (1878-80), and writing _The Making of
England_, of which one vol. only, coming down to 828, had appeared when
he _d._ at Mentone in March 1883. After his death appeared _The Conquest
of England_. The _Short History_ may be said to have begun a new epoch
in the writing of history, making the social, industrial, and moral
progress of the people its main theme. To infinite care in the gathering
and sifting of his material G. added a style of wonderful charm, and an
historical imagination which has hardly been equalled.


GREEN, MATTHEW (1696-1737).--Poet, is known as the author of _The
Spleen_, a lively and original poem in octosyllabic verse on the subject
of low spirits and the best means of prevention and cure. It has
life-like descriptions, sprightliness, and lightness of touch, and was
admired by Pope and Gray. The poem owes its name to the use of the term
in the author's day to denote depression. G., who held an appointment in
the Customs, appears to have been a quiet, inoffensive person, an
entertaining companion, and a Quaker.


GREEN, THOMAS HILL (1836-1882).--Philosopher, was _b._ at Birken Rectory,
Yorkshire, and _ed._ at Rugby and Balliol Coll., Oxf., where he became
Whyte Prof. of Moral Philosophy and, by his character, ability, and
enthusiasm on social questions, exercised a powerful influence. His chief
works are an _Introduction to Hume's Treatise on Human Nature_ (Clarendon
Press ed.), in which he criticised H.'s philosophy severely from the
idealist standpoint, and _Prolegomena to Ethics_, _pub._ posthumously.


GREENE, ROBERT (1560?-1592).--Poet, dramatist, and pamphleteer, was _b._
at Norwich, and studied at Camb., where he _grad._ A.B. He was also
incorporated at Oxf. in 1588. After travelling in Spain and Italy, he
returned to Camb. and took A.M. Settling in London he was one of the wild
and brilliant crew who passed their lives in fitful alternations of
literary production and dissipation, and were the creators of the English
drama. He has left an account of his career in which he calls himself
"the mirror of mischief." During his short life about town, in the course
of which he ran through his wife's fortune, and deserted her soon after
the birth of her first child, he poured forth tales, plays, and poems,
which had great popularity. In the tales, or pamphlets as they were then
called, he turns to account his wide knowledge of city vices. His plays,
including _The Scottish History of James IV._, and _Orlando Furioso_,
which are now little read, contain some fine poetry among a good deal of
bombast; but his fame rests, perhaps, chiefly on the poems scattered
through his writings, which are full of grace and tenderness. G. _d._
from the effects of a surfeit of pickled herrings and Rheinish wine. His
extant writings are much less gross than those of many of his
contemporaries, and he seems to have given signs of repentance on his
deathbed, as is evidenced by his last work, _A Groat's worth of Wit
bought with a Million of Repentance_. In this curious work occurs his
famous reference to Shakespeare as "an upstart crow beautified with our
feathers." Among his other works may be mentioned _Euphues' censure to
Philautus_, _Pandosto, the Triumph of Time_ (1588), from which
Shakespeare borrowed the plot of _The Winter's Tale_, _A Notable
Discovery of Coosnage_, _Arbasto, King of Denmark_, _Penelope's Web_,
_Menaphon_ (1589), and _Coney Catching_. His plays, all _pub._
posthumously, include _Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay_, _Alphonsus, King of
Aragon_, and _George-a-Greene, the Pinner of Wakefield_. His tales are
written under the influence of Lyly, whence he received from Gabriel
Harvey the nickname of "Euphues' Ape."

Plays ed. by Dyce (2 vols., 1831, new ed., 1861). His works are included
in Grosart's "Huth Library."


GREG, WILLIAM RATHBONE (1809-1881).--Essayist, _b._ in Manchester, and
_ed._ at Bristol and Edin., was for some years engaged in his father's
business as a millowner at Bury. Becoming deeply interested in political
and social questions he contributed to reviews and magazines many papers
and essays on these subjects, which were _repub._ in three collections,
viz., _Essays on Political and Social Science_ (1854), _Literary and
Social Judgments_ (1869), and _Miscellaneous Essays_ (1884). Other works
of his are _Enigmas of Life_ (1872), _Rocks Ahead_ (1874), and _Mistaken
Aims, etc._ (1876). In his writings he frequently manifested a distrust
of democracy and a pessimistic view of the future of his country. He held
successively the appointments of Commissioner of Customs and Controller
of H.M. Stationery Office.


GREVILLE, CHARLES CAVENDISH FULKE (1794-1865).--Political annalist, _ed._
at Eton and Oxf., was a page to George III., sec. to Earl Bathurst, and
afterwards held the sinecure office of Sec. of Jamaica. In 1821 he became
Clerk to the Privy Council, an office which brought him into close
contact with the leaders of both political parties, and gave him unusual
opportunities of becoming acquainted with all that was passing behind the
scenes. The information as to men and events thus acquired he fully
utilised in his _Journal of the Reigns of George IV., William IV., and
Queen Victoria_, which, ed. by Henry Reeve, of the _Edinburgh Review_,
was _pub._ in three series between 1874 and 1887. The _Journal_ covers
the period, from 1820-60, and constitutes an invaluable contribution to
the history of the time.


GRIFFIN, BARTHOLOMEW? (_fl._ 1596).--Poet, of whom almost nothing is
known, _pub._ in 1596 a collection of 62 sonnets under the title of
_Fidessa_, of which some are excellent.


GRIFFIN, GERALD (1803-1840).--Dramatist, novelist, and poet, _s._ of a
tradesman, _b._ and _ed._ in Limerick, he went in 1823 to London, where
most of his literary work was produced. In 1838 he returned to Ireland
and, dividing his property among his brothers, devoted himself to a
religious life by joining the Teaching Order of the Christian Brothers.
Two years thereafter he _d._, worn out by self-inflicted austerities. His
chief novel, _The Collegians_, was adapted by Boucicault as _The Colleen
Bawn_, and among his dramas is _Gisippus_. His novels depict southern
Irish life.


GRIMOALD, NICHOLAS (1519-1562).--Poet, was at Camb. and Oxf., and was
chaplain to Bishop Ridley. He contributed to Tottel's _Songs and
Sonnettes_ (1557), wrote two dramas in Latin, _Archi-propheta_ and
_Christus Redivivus_, and made translations.


GROOME, FRANCIS HINDES (1851-1902).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a
clergyman, wrote for various encyclopaedias, etc. He was a student of the
gipsies and their language, and _pub._ _In Gypsy Tents_ (1880), _Gypsy
Folk Tales_ (1899), and an ed. of Borrow's _Lavengro_ (1900). Other works
were _A Short Border History_ (1887), _Kriegspiel_ (1896), a novel, and
_Two Suffolk Friends_ (his _f._ and Edward Fitzgerald, _q.v._).


GROSART, ALEXANDER BALLOCH (1827-1899).--Was a minister of the English
Presbyterian Church. He wrote Lives of various Puritan divines, ed. their
works, and also issued ed., with Lives, of the poems of Michael Bruce
(_q.v._) and Robert Fergusson (_q.v._). But his chief service to
literature was his reprints, with notes, of rare Elizabethan and Jacobean
literature, including _Fuller's Worthies Library_, 39 vols. (1868-76),
_Occasional Issues of Unique and Very Rare Books_, 38 vols. 1875-81,
_Huth Library_, 33 vols. (1886), Spenser's _Works_, 10 vols., _Daniel's
Works_, etc.


GROSE, FRANCIS (1731-1791).--Antiquary and lexicographer, of Swiss
extraction, was Richmond Herald 1755-63. He _pub._ _Antiquities of
England and Wales_ (1773-87), which was well received, and thereafter,
1789, set out on an antiquarian tour through Scotland, the fruit of which
was _Antiquity of Scotland_ (1789-91). He afterwards undertook a similar
expedition to Ireland, but _d._ suddenly at Dublin. In addition to the
works above mentioned he wrote _A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar
Tongue_ (1785), _A Provincial Glossary_ (1787), a _Treatise on Ancient
Armour and Weapons_, etc. He was an accomplished draughtsman, and
illustrated his works.


GROSSETESTE, ROBERT (_d._ 1253).--Theologian and scholar, was _b._ of
poor parents at Stradbrook, Suffolk, and studied at Oxf. and possibly
Paris. His abilities and learning procured him many preferments; but
after an illness he refused to be longer a pluralist, and resigned all
but a prebend at Lincoln. Later he was a strenuous and courageous
reformer, as is shown by his refusing in 1253 to induct a nephew of the
Pope to a canonry at Lincoln, of which he had been Bishop since 1235. He
was equally bold in resisting the demand of Henry III. for a tenth of the
Church revenues. Amid his absorbing labours as a Churchman, he found time
to be a copious writer on a great variety of subjects, including
husbandry, physical and moral philosophy, as also sermons, commentaries,
and an allegory, the _Chateau d'Amour_. Roger Bacon was a pupil of his,
and testifies to his amazing variety of knowledge.


GROTE, GEORGE (1794-1871).--Historian, _s._ of a wealthy banker in
London, was _b._ at Beckenham, and _ed._ at Charterhouse School. In 1810
he entered the bank, of which he became head in 1830. In 1832 he was
elected one of the members of Parliament for the City of London. In 1841
he retired from Parliament, and in 1843 from the bank, thenceforth
devoting his whole time to literature, which, along with politics, had
been his chief interest from his youth. He early came under the influence
of Bentham and the two Mills, and was one of the leaders of the group of
theorists known as "philosophical Radicals." In 1820 he _m._ Miss Harriet
Lewin who, from her intellectual powers, was fitted to be his helper in
his literary and political interests. In 1826 he contributed to the
_Westminster Review_ a severe criticism of Mitford's _History of Greece_,
and in 1845 _pub._ the first 2 vols. of his own, the remaining 6 vols.
appearing at intervals up to 1856. G. belongs to the school of
philosophical historians, and his _History_, which begins with the
legends, ends with the fall of the country under the successors of
Alexander the Great. It is one of the standard works on the subject,
which his learning enabled him to treat in a full and thorough manner;
the style is clear and strong. It has been repeatedly re-issued, and has
been translated into French and German. G. also _pub._, in 1865, _Plato
and other Companions of Socrates_, and left unfinished a work on
_Aristotle_. In political life G. was, as might be expected, a consistent
and somewhat rigid Radical, and he was a strong advocate of the ballot.
He was one of the founders of the first London Univ., a Trustee of the
British Museum, D.C.L. of Oxf., LL.D. of Camb., and a Foreign Associate
of the Academie des Sciences. He was offered, but declined, a peerage in
1869, and is buried in Westminster Abbey.


GRUB, GEORGE (1812-1892).--Historian, was _b._ in Old Aberdeen, and _ed._
at King's Coll. there. He studied law, and was admitted in 1836 to the
Society of Advocates, Aberdeen, of which he was librarian from 1841 until
his death. He was appointed Lecturer on Scots Law in Marischal Coll., and
was Prof. of Law in the Univ. (1881-91). He has a place in literature as
the author of an _Ecclesiastical History of Scotland_ (1861), written
from the standpoint of a Scottish Episcopalian, which, though dry, is
concise, clear, fair-minded, and trustworthy. G. also ed. (along with
Joseph Robertson) Gordon's _Scots Affairs_ for the Spalding Club, of
which he was one of the founders.


GUEST, LADY CHARLOTTE (BERTIE) (1812-1895).--_Dau._ of the 9th Earl of
Lindsey, _m._ in 1833 Sir Josiah J. Guest, a wealthy ironmaster, after
whose death in 1852 she managed the works. She was an enthusiastic
student of Welsh literature, and aided by native scholars translated with
consummate skill the _Mabinogion_, the manuscript of which in Jesus
Coll., Oxf., is known as the _Red Book of Hergest_, and which is now a
recognised classic of mediaeval romance. She also prepared a 'Boys'
_Mabinogion_ containing the earliest Welsh tales of Arthur. She was also
noted as a collector of china, fans, and playing cards, on which subjects
she wrote several volumes. She entered into a second marriage in 1855
with Dr. C. Schreiber, but in literature she is always referred to under
her first married name.


GUTHRIE, THOMAS (1803-1873).--Divine and philanthropist, _b._ at Brechin,
studied for the Church, and became a minister in Edin. Possessed of a
commanding presence and voice, and a remarkably effective and picturesque
style of oratory, he became perhaps the most popular preacher of his day
in Scotland, and was associated with many forms of philanthropy,
especially temperance and ragged schools, of the latter of which he was
the founder. He was one of the leaders of the Free Church, and raised
over L100,000 for manses for its ministers. Among his writings are _The
Gospel in Ezekiel_, _Plea for Ragged Schools_, and _The City, its Sins
and Sorrows_.


HABINGTON, WILLIAM (1605-1654).--Poet, _s._ of a Worcestershire Roman
Catholic gentleman, was _ed._ at St. Omer's, but refused to become a
Jesuit. He _m._ Lucia, _dau._ of Lord Powis, whom he celebrated in his
poem _Castara_ (1634), in which he sang the praises of chaste love. He
also wrote a tragi-comedy, _The Queen of Arragon_ (1640), and a _Historie
of Edward IV._ His verse is graceful and tender.


HAILES, DALRYMPLE DAVID, LORD (1726-1792).--Scottish judge and historical
writer, was _b._ at Edin. Belonging to a family famous as lawyers, he was
called to the Bar in 1748, and raised to the Bench in 1766. An excellent
judge, he was also untiring in the pursuit of his favourite studies, and
produced several works of permanent value on Scottish history and
antiquities, including _Annals of Scotland_ (1776), and _Canons of the
Church of Scotland_ (1769). He was a friend and correspondent of Dr.
Johnson.


HAKE, THOMAS GORDON (1809-1895).--Poet, _b._ at Leeds, _ed._ at Christ's
Hospital, was a physician, and practised at various places. His books
include _Madeline_ (1871), _Parables and Tales_ (1873), _The Serpent
Play_ (1883), _New Day Sonnets_ (1890), and _Memoirs of Eighty Years_
(1893).


HAKLUYT, RICHARD (1553?-1616).--Collector of voyages, belonged to a good
Herefordshire family of Dutch descent, was _b._ either at Eyton in that
county or in London, and _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf. The sight
of a map of the world fired his imagination and implanted in his mind the
interest in geography and the lives and adventures of our great
navigators and discoverers, which became the ruling passion of his life;
and in order to increase his knowledge of these matters he studied
various foreign languages and the art of navigation. He took orders, and
was chaplain of the English Embassy in Paris, Rector of Witheringsett,
Suffolk, 1590, Archdeacon of Westminster, 1602, and Rector of Gedney,
Lincolnshire, 1612. After a first collection of voyages to America and
the West Indies he compiled, while at Paris, his great work, _The
Principal Navigations, Voyages ... and Discoveries of the English Nation
made by Sea or over Land to the Remote and Farthest Distant Quarters of
the Earth ... within the Compass of these 1500 Years_. It appeared in its
final form (three folio vols.) in 1599. Besides it he _pub._ _A Discourse
of Western Planting_, and he left a vast mass of MS. afterwards used (in
far inferior style) by S. Purchas (_q.v._). In all his work H. was
actuated not only by the love of knowledge, but by a noble patriotism: he
wished to see England the great sea-power of the world, and he lived to
see it so. His work, as has been said, is "our English epic." In addition
to his original writings he translated various works, among them being
_The Discoveries of the World_, from the Portuguese of Antonio Galvano.


HALE, SIR MATTHEW (1609-1676).--Jurist and miscellaneous writer, has left
a great reputation as a lawyer and judge. Steering a neutral course
during the political changes of his time, he served under the
Protectorate and after the Restoration, and rose to be Chief Justice of
the King's Bench. He is mentioned here as the author of several works on
science, divinity, and law. Among them are _The Primitive Origination of
Mankind_, and _Contemplations, Moral and Divine_. His legal works are
still of great authority. Though somewhat dissipated in early youth, he
has handed down a high reputation for wisdom and piety.


HALES, JOHN (1584-1656).--Theologian, _b._ at Bath, and _ed._ there and
at Oxf., became one of the best Greek scholars of his day, and lectured
on that language at Oxf. In 1616 he accompanied the English ambassador to
the Hague in the capacity of chaplain, and attended the Synod of Dort,
where he was converted from Calvinism to Arminianism. A lover of quiet
and learned leisure, he declined all high and responsible ecclesiastical
preferment, and chose and obtained scholarly retirement in a Fellowship
of Eton, of which his friends Sir Henry Savile and Sir Henry Wotton were
successively Provost. A treatise on _Schism and Schismatics_ (1636?) gave
offence to Laud, but H. defended himself so well that Laud made him a
Prebendary of Windsor. Refusing to acknowledge the Commonwealth, he was
deprived, fell into poverty, and had to sell his library. After his death
his writings were _pub._ in 1659 as _The Golden Remains of the
Ever-Memorable Mr. John Hales of Eton College_.


HALIBURTON, THOMAS CHANDLER (1796-1865).--_B._ at Windsor, Nova Scotia,
was a lawyer, and rose to be Judge of the Supreme Court of the Colony. He
was the author of _The Clock-maker, or Sayings and Doings of Samuel Slick
of Slickville_, and a continuation, _The Attache, or Sam Slick in
England_. In these he made a distinctly original contribution to English
fiction, full of shrewdness and humour. He may be regarded as the pioneer
of the American school of humorists. He wrote various other works,
including _The Old Judge_, _Nature and Human Nature_, _A Historical and
Statistical Account of Nova Scotia_, etc. In 1856 he settled in England,
and sat in the House of Commons for Launceston.


HALIFAX, CHARLES MONTAGU, 1ST EARL of (1661-1715).--A famous wit,
statesman, and patron of literature, was _ed._ at Westminster School and
Trinity Coll., Camb. Entering Parliament he became Chancellor of the
Exchequer in 1694, and First Lord of the Treasury 1697. Vain and
arrogant, he soon lost popularity and power. His chief literary effort
was his collaboration with Prior in _The Town and Country Mouse_ (1687),
a parody of and reply to Dryden's _Hind and Panther_. H. was the friend
and patron of Addison, Steele, Congreve, and many other of the classical
writers of his day. He became a peer in 1701.


HALL, MRS. ANNA MARIA (FIELDING) (1800-1881).--Novelist, was _b._ in
Dublin, but left Ireland at the age of 15. Nevertheless, that country
gave her the motive of several of her most successful books, such as
_Sketches of Irish Character_ (1829), _Lights and Shadows of Irish
Character_ (1838), _Marian_ (1839), and _The White Boy_ (1845). Other
works are _The Buccaneer_, and _Midsummer Eve_, a fairy tale, and many
sketches in the _Art Journal_, of which her husband, SAMUEL CARTER HALL
(1800-1889), was ed. With him she also collaborated in a work entitled
_Ireland, its Scenery, Character, etc._ Mrs. H. was a very voluminous
writer; her descriptive talents were considerable, as also was her power
of depicting character. Her husband was likewise a writer of some note,
chiefly on art.


HALL, BASIL (1788-1844).--Traveller, _s._ of Sir James H., an eminent man
of science, was in the navy, and rose to be captain. He was one of the
first to visit Corea, and wrote _Voyage of Discovery to Corea_ (1818),
also _Travels in North America in 1827-28_, a lively work which gave some
offence in the U.S., _Fragments of Voyages and Travels_ (1831-40), and
some tales and romances. He was latterly insane.


HALL, or HALLE, EDWARD (1499?-1547).--Chronicler, _b._ in London, studied
successively at Camb. and Oxf. He was a lawyer, and sat in Parliament for
Bridgnorth, and served on various Commissions. He wrote a history of _The
Union of the two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre and Yorke_,
commonly called _Hall's Chronicle_. It was _pub._ after the author's
death by Richard Grafton, and was prohibited by Queen Mary.


HALL, JOSEPH (1574-1656).--Divine, _b._ at Ashby-de-la-Zouche, and _ed._
at Camb., he entered the Church, and became in 1627 Bishop of Exeter, and
in 1641 Bishop of Norwich. He had a chequered career. He accompanied
James I. to Scotland in 1617, and was a Deputy to the Synod of Dort.
Accused of Puritanism, and at enmity with Laud, he fell on troublous
days, and was, in 1641, imprisoned in the Tower for joining those bishops
who protested against the validity of laws passed during their exclusion
(owing to tumult in the streets) from Parliament. Returning to Norwich he
found that his revenues had been sequestrated, and his private property
seized. In 1647 he retired to a small farm near Norwich, where he passed
the remainder of his life. Among his works are _Contemplations_,
_Characters of Virtues and Vices_ (1614), and his _Virgidemiarum, or
Satires_ (1597-8), the last written before he was in orders, and
condemned by Archbishop Whitgift to be burned. Pope, however, thought
them "the best poetry and truest satire in the English language." H.'s
_Divine Right of Episcopacy_ gave rise to much controversy, in which
Archbishop Ussher, Milton, and the writers who called themselves
"Smectymnuus" (a combination of their initials) took part.


HALL, ROBERT (1764-1831).--Divine, _b._ at Arnsby, Leicestershire, the
_s._ of a Baptist minister of some note, was _ed._ at a Baptist Academy,
and at the Univ. of Aberdeen, from which he received the degree of D.D.
in 1817. He ministered to congregations at Bristol, Cambridge, Leicester,
and again at Bristol, and became one of the greatest pulpit orators of
his day. His most famous sermon was that on the _Death of the Princess
Charlotte_ (1817). Another which created a great impression was that on
_Modern Infidelity_. H. was a life-long sufferer, and was occasionally
insane, yet his intellectual activity was unceasing. After his death a
collection of 50 of his sermons was _pub._ (1843), and _Miscellaneous
Works and Remains_ (1846).


HALLAM, HENRY (1777-1859).--Historian, _s._ of a Dean of Wells, was _b._
at Windsor, and _ed._ at Eton and Oxf. He was called to the Bar at the
Inner Temple, and appointed a Commissioner of Stamps. Among his earliest
writings were papers in the _Edinburgh Review_; but in 1818 he leaped
into a foremost place among historical writers by the publication of his
_View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages_. This was followed
in 1827 by _The Constitutional History of England from the Accession of
Henry VII. to the Death of George II._, and his third great work,
_Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the 15th, 16th, and 17th
Centuries_, in 4 vols., appeared in 1837-39. All these, which have gone
through several ed., and have been translated into the principal
languages of Europe, are characterised by wide and profound learning,
indefatigable research, and judicial impartiality. They opened a new
field of investigation in which their author has had few, if any,
superiors. In politics H. was a Whig; but he took no active share in
party warfare. He had two sons of great promise, both of whom predeceased
him. Of these the elder, ARTHUR HENRY, is the subject of Tennyson's _In
Memoriam_, and of him his _f._ wrote a touching memoir prefixed to his
literary remains.


HALLECK, FITZGREENE (1790-1867).--Poet, _b._ at Guilford, Conn., wrote,
with Rodman Drake, a young poet who _d._ at 25, _The Croaker Papers_, a
series of satirical and humorous verses, and _Fanny_, also a satire. In
1822 he visited Europe, and the traces of this are found in most of his
subsequent poetry, _e.g._ his lines on Burns, and on Alnwick Castle.


HALLIWELL-PHILLIPS, JAMES ORCHARD (1820-1889).--Archaeologist and
Shakespearian scholar, _ed._ at Camb., was the author of a _Life of
Shakespeare_ (1848), _New Boke about Shakespeare and Stratford upon Avon_
(1850), _Folio Edition of Shakespeare_ (1853-65), and various other works
relative to him, also _Dictionary of Old English Plays_ (1860). He also
ed. works for the Camden and Percy Societies, and compiled a _Dictionary
of Archaic and Provincial Words_. In 1872 he added his wife's name of
Phillips to his own.


HAMERTON, PHILIP GILBERT (1834-1894).--Artist and writer on aesthetics,
_s._ of a solicitor, was _b._ near Oldham. Originally intended for the
Church, he decided for art and literature. After working as an artist in
the Highlands with his wife, who was a Frenchwoman, he settled in France,
and devoted himself to writing on art. Among his works are _Etching and
Etchers, etc._ (1868), _Painting in France after the Decline of
Classicism_ (1869), _The Intellectual Life_ (1873), _Human Intercourse_
(1884), _The Graphic Arts_ (1882), _Landscape_ (1885), some of which were
magnificently illustrated. He also left an autobiography. His writings
had a great influence upon artists, and also in stimulating and diffusing
the love of art among the public.


HAMILTON, ALEXANDER (1757-1804).--Statesman and political writer, _b._ in
the West Indies, was one of the framers of the Constitution of the United
States, and was the first Sec. of the national Treasury. He was one of
the greatest of American statesmen, and has also a place in literature as
the principal writer in the _Federalist_, a periodical founded to expound
and defend the new Constitution, which was afterwards _pub._ as a
permanent work. He contributed 51 of its 85 articles.


HAMILTON, ELIZABETH (1758-1816).--Wrote _The Cottagers of Glenburnie_, a
tale which had much popularity in its day, and perhaps had some effect in
the improvement of certain aspects of humble domestic life in Scotland.
She also wrote _Letters on Education_, _Essays on the Human Mind_, and
_The Hindoo Rajah_.


HAMILTON, THOMAS (1789-1842).--Novelist, brother of Sir William Hamilton
(_q.v._), wrote a novel, _Cyril Thornton_ (1827), which was received with
great favour. He was an officer in the army, and, on his retirement,
settled in Edin., and became a contributor to _Blackwood_. He was also
the author of _Annals of the Peninsular Campaign_ (1829), and _Men and
Manners in America_ (1833).


HAMILTON, WILLIAM (OF BANGOUR) (1704-1754).--Poet, was _b._ at the family
seat in Linlithgowshire. Cultivated and brilliant, he was a favourite of
society, and began his literary career by contributing verses to Allan
Ramsay's _Tea Table Miscellany_. He joined the Pretender in 1745, and
celebrated the Battle of Prestonpans in _Gladsmuir_. After Culloden he
wandered in the Highlands, where he wrote his _Soliloquy_, and escaped to
France. His friends, however, succeeded in obtaining his pardon, and he
returned to his native country. In 1750, on the death of his brother, he
succeeded to the family estate, which, however, he did not long live to
enjoy. He is best remembered for his fine ballad of _The Braes of
Yarrow_. He also wrote _The Episode of the Thistle_. He _d._ at Lyons.


HAMILTON, WILLIAM (OF GILBERTFIELD) (1665?-1751).--Poet, served in the
army, from which he retired with the rank of Lieutenant. He wrote
poetical _Epistles_ to Allan Ramsay, and an abridgment in modern Scotch
of Blind Harry's _Life of Sir William Wallace_.


HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM (1788-1856).--Metaphysician, _b._ in Glasgow, in
the Univ. of which his _f._ and grandfather successively filled the Chair
of Anatomy and Botany, _ed._ there and at Balliol Coll., Oxf., was called
to the Scottish Bar, at which he attained little practice, but was
appointed Solicitor of Teinds. In 1816 he established his claim to the
baronetcy of H. of Preston. On the death of Dr. Thomas Brown in 1820, he
was an unsuccessful candidate for the Chair of Moral Philosophy in Edin.,
but in the following year he was appointed Prof. of History. It was not
until 1829 that he gave full proof of his remarkable powers and
attainments as a philosopher in a famous article in the _Edinburgh
Review_, a critique of Victor Cousin's doctrine of the Infinite. This
paper carried his name over Europe, and won for him the homage of
continental philosophers, including Cousin himself. After this H.
continued to contribute to the _Review_, many of his papers being
translated into French, German, and Italian. In 1852 they were _coll._
with notes and additions, and _pub._ as _Discussions in Philosophy and
Literature_, _etc._ In 1836 H. was elected Professor of Logic and
Metaphysics at Edinburgh, which office he held with great reputation
until his death, after which the lectures he had delivered were edited
and _pub._ by Prof. Mansel and Veitch. His _magnum opus_ was his edition
of the _Works of Dr. Thomas Reid_, left unfinished, and completed by
Mansel. H. was the last, and certainly the most learned and accomplished,
of the Scottish school of philosophy, which he considered it his mission
to develop and correlate to the systems of other times and countries. He
also made various important contributions to the science of logic. During
his later years he suffered from paralysis of one side, which, though it
left his mind unaffected, impaired his powers of work. A Memoir of H. by
Prof. Veitch appeared in 1869.


HANNA, WILLIAM (1808-1882).--Divine and biographer, _s._ of Samuel H.,
Prof. of Divinity in the Presbyterian Coll., Belfast, was _b._ there,
became a distinguished minister of the Free Church of Scotland, and
colleague of Dr. T. Guthrie (_q.v._). He wrote an admirable _Life of Dr.
Chalmers_, whose son-in-law he was, and ed. his works. He also ed. the
_Letters of Thomas Erskine of Linlathen_ (_q.v._), and wrote various
theological works.


HANNAY, JAMES (1827-1873).--Novelist and journalist, was _b._ at
Dumfries, and after serving for some years in the navy took to
literature, and became ed. of the _Edinburgh Courant_. He wrote two
novels, _Singleton Fontenoy_ (1850), and _Eustace Conyers_ (1855); also
_Lectures on Satire and Satirists_, and _Studies on Thackeray_. For the
last five years of his life he was British Consul at Barcelona.


HARE, AUGUSTUS JOHN CUTHBERT (1834-1903).--Youngest _s._ of Francis H.,
and nephew of Aug. and Julius H. (_q.v._), _b._ at Rome, practically
adopted by his aunt, the widow of Aug. H., and _ed._ at Harrow. He was
the author of a large number of books, which fall into two classes:
biographies of members and connections of his family, and descriptive and
historical accounts of various countries and cities. To the first belong
_Memorials of a Quiet Life_ (his adoptive mother's), _Story of Two Noble
Lives_ (Lady Canning and Lady Waterford), _The Gurneys of Earlham_, and
an inordinately extended autobiography; to the second, _Walks in Rome_,
_Walks in London_, _Wanderings in Spain_, _Cities of Northern, Southern,
and Central Italy_ (separate works), and many others. His writings are
all interesting and informing, but in general suffer from his tendency to
diffuseness.


HARE, AUGUSTUS WILLIAM (1792-1834).--Was the _s._ of Francis Hare-Naylor,
who _m._ a cousin of the famous Duchess of Devonshire, and was the author
of a history of Germany. He was sent by the widow of Sir W. Jones, whose
godson he was, to Winchester, and New Coll., Oxf., in the latter of which
he was for some time a tutor. Entering the Church he became incumbent of
the rural parish of Alton Barnes where, leading an absolutely unselfish
life, he was the father and friend of his parishioners. In addition to
writing in conjunction with his brother Julius (_q.v._), _Guesses at
Truth_, a work containing short essays on multifarious subjects, which
attracted much attention, he left two vols. of sermons.


HARE, JULIUS CHARLES (1795-1855).--Essayist, etc., younger brother of the
above, was _b._ at Vicenza. When two years old his parents left him to
the care of Clotilda Tambroni, female Prof. of Greek at Bologna. _Ed._ at
Charterhouse and Camb., he took orders and, in 1832, was appointed to the
rich family living of Hurstmonceau, which Augustus had refused. Here he
had John Sterling (_q.v._) for curate, and Bunsen for a neighbour. He was
also Archdeacon of Lewes and a Chaplain to the Queen. His first work was
_Guesses at Truth_ (1827), jointly with his brother, and he also _pub._,
jointly with Thirlwall (_q.v._), a translation of Niebuhr's _History of
Rome_, wrote _The Victory of Faith_ and other theological books and
pamphlets on Church and other questions, _A Life of Sterling_, and a
_Vindication of Luther_. H., though a lovable, was an eccentric, man of
strong antipathies, unmethodical, and unpunctual.


HARINGTON, SIR JOHN (1561-1612).--Miscellaneous writer, and translator,
_b._ at Kelston Park near Bath, and _ed._ at Eton and Camb., became a
courtier of Queen Elizabeth, whose godson he was. In 1599 he served in
Ireland under Essex, by whom he was knighted on the field, a stretch of
authority which was much resented by the Queen. While there he wrote _A
Short View of the State of Ireland_, first _pub._ 1880. He was in repute
for his epigrams, of which some have wit, but others are only indelicate.
His translation of the _Orlando Furioso_ of Ariosto, in the metre of the
original, is a somewhat free paraphrase, and is now superseded. It first
appeared in the form of extracts, which were handed in MS. about the
Court until they reached the Queen, who reprimanded the translator for
corrupting the morals of her ladies by translating the most unedifying
passages, and banished him to his country seat until he should have
translated the whole poem. His most valuable work is one which was _pub._
in 1769 by a descendant, under the title of _Nugae Antiquae_ (Old-time
Trifles), a miscellaneous collection from his writings and papers,
containing many things of interest, _e.g._, a minute account of the
Queen's last illness, and letters and verses by her and other eminent
persons.


HARLAND, HENRY (1861-1905).--Novelist, _b._ of American parentage at St.
Petersburg, and _ed._ at Rome. Thereafter he went to Paris, and thence to
America, where he graduated at Harvard, and settled in New York. His
literary career falls into two distinctly marked sections, very diverse
in character. During the first of these he produced, under the pseudonym
of "Sidney Luska," a series of highly sensational novels, thrown off with
little regard to literary quality, and which it was his wish should be
forgotten; but about 1890 his aspirations underwent a complete change,
and he became an enthusiast in regard to style and the _mot propre_. The
first novels of this new era, _Mademoiselle Miss_ (1893), _Grey Roses_
(1895), and _Comedies and Errors_ (1898), though obtaining the approval
of the literary elect, had little general popularity; but the tide turned
with the appearance of _The Cardinal's Snuff-box_ (1900), which was
widely admired. It was followed by _The Lady Paramount_ (1901), and _My
Friend Prospero_ (1903). H. _d._ at San Remo after a prolonged illness.


HARRINGTON, JAMES (1611-1677).--Political theorist, _s._ of Sir Sapcotes
H., was _b._ at Upton, Northamptonshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., where he was
a pupil of Chillingworth. After leaving the university he travelled on
the Continent, visiting, among other places, The Hague and Venice, where
he imbibed republican principles. He was for some time a groom of the
bedchamber to Charles I. On the outbreak of the Civil War he sided with
the Parliament, but disapproved of the execution of the King, for whom he
appears, notwithstanding his political theories, to have cherished a
personal attachment. Thereafter he withdrew from active life, and devoted
himself to composing his political romance (as it may be called) of
_Oceana_, which he _pub._ in 1656, and in which Oceana represents
England, Marpesia Scotland, and Panopaea Ireland. In this work he
propounds the theory that the natural element of power in states is
property, of which land is the most important. He further endeavoured to
propagate his views by establishing a debating society called the Rota,
and by his conversations with his friends. After the Restoration he was
confined in the Tower, and subsequently at Plymouth. He issued several
defences of _Oceana_, and made translations from Virgil. In his later
years he laboured under mental delusions. Aubrey describes him as of
middle stature, strong, well-set, with quick, fiery hazel eyes, and thick
curly hair.


HARRIS, JAMES (1709-1780).--Grammarian, was a wealthy country gentleman
and member of Parliament, who held office in the Admiralty and the
Treasury. He was the author of a singular and learned work entitled
_Hermes, or a Philosophical Inquiry concerning Universal Grammar_. For
the purpose which it had in view it is useless; but it contains much
curious matter. His _s._ was the eminent diplomatist, James H., 1st Earl
of Malmesbury.


HARRIS, JOEL CHANDLER (1848-1908).--Writer of tales, etc., _b._ at
Eatonton, Georgia, was successively printer, lawyer, and journalist. He
struck out an original line in his stories of animal life as it presents
itself to the mind of the Southern negro, in whose dialect they are
written. These not only achieved and retain an exceptional popularity
among children, to whom they were in the first instance addressed, but
attracted the attention of students of folklore and anthology. Among his
writings are _Uncle Remus_ (1880), _Nights with Uncle Remus_ (1884), _Mr.
Rabbit at Home_ (1895), _Aaron in the Wild Woods_ (1897), _Chronicles of
Aunt Minervy Ann_ (1899), etc.


HARTE, FRANCIS BRET (1839-1902).--American humorist, _b._ in Albany,
N.Y., but when still a boy went to California. He had a somewhat varied
career as a teacher, miner, and journalist, and it is as a realistic
chronicler of the gold-field and an original humorist that his chief
literary triumphs were achieved. Among his best known writings are
_Condensed Novels_, in which he showed great skill as a parodist, _The
Luck of Roaring Camp_, _The Idyll of Red Gulch_, and _The Heathen
Chinee_. In 1880 he came to Glasgow as U.S. Consul, and from 1885 he
lived in London. His writings often show the tenderness and fine feeling
that are allied to the higher forms of humour, and he may be said to have
created a special form of short story in his Californian tales and prose
idylls.


HARTLEY, DAVID (1705-1757).--Philosopher, _b._ at Luddenden, Yorkshire,
and _ed._ at Camb., studied for the Church, but owing to theological
difficulties turned to medicine as a profession, and practised with
success at various places, including London and Bath. He also attained
eminence as a writer on philosophy, and indeed may be said to have
founded a school of thought based upon two theories, (1) the Doctrine of
Vibrations, and (2) that of Association of Ideas. These he developed in
an elaborate treatise, _Observations on Man, his Frame, his Duty, and his
Expectations_. Though his system has long been discarded, its main ideas
have continued to influence thought and investigation.


HARVEY, GABRIEL (1545?-1630).--Poet, _s._ of a ropemaker, was _b._ at
Saffron Walden, _ed._ at Camb., and became the friend of Spenser, being
the Hobbinol of _The Shepheard's Calendar_. He wrote various satirical
pieces, sonnets, and pamphlets. Vain and ill-tempered, he was a
remorseless critic of others, and was involved in perpetual controversy,
specially with Greene and Nash, the latter of whom was able to silence
him. He wrote treatises on rhetoric, claimed to have introduced
hexameters into English, was a foe to rhyme, and persuaded Spenser
temporarily to abandon it.


HAWES, STEPHEN (_d._ 1523?).--Poet; very little concerning him is known
with certainty. He is believed to have been _b._ in Suffolk, and may have
studied at Oxf. or Camb. He first comes clearly into view as a Groom of
the Chamber in 1502, in which year he dedicated to Henry VII. his
_Pastyme of Pleasure_, first printed in 1509 by Wynkyn de Worde. In the
same year appeared the _Convercyon of Swerers_ (1509), and _A Joyful
Meditacyon of all England_ (1509), on the coronation of Henry VIII. He
also wrote the _Exemple of Vertu_. H. was a scholar, and was familiar
with French and Italian poetry. No great poet, he yet had a considerable
share in regularising the language.


HAWKER, ROBERT STEPHEN (1804-1875).--Poet and antiquary, _ed._ at
Cheltenham and Oxf., became parson of Morwenstow, a smuggling and
wrecking community on the Cornish coast, where he exercised a reforming
and beneficent, though extremely unconventional, influence until his
death, shortly before which he was received into the Roman Catholic
Church. He wrote some poems of great originality and charm, _Records of
the Western Shore_ (1832-36), and _The Quest of the Sangraal_ (1863)
among them, besides short poems, of which perhaps the best known is
_Shall Trelawny Die?_ which, based as it is on an old rhyme, deceived
both Scott and Macaulay into thinking it an ancient fragment. He also
_pub._ a collection of papers, _Footprints of Former Men in Cornwall_
(1870).


HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL (1804-1864).--Novelist, _b._ at Salem,
Massachusetts, _s._. of a sea captain, who _d._ in 1808, after which his
mother led the life of a recluse. An accident when at play conduced to an
early taste for reading, and from boyhood he cherished literary
aspirations. His education was completed at Bowdoin Coll., where he had
Longfellow for a fellow-student. After graduating, he obtained a post in
the Custom-House, which, however, he did not find congenial, and soon
gave up, betaking himself to literature, his earliest efforts, besides a
novel, _Fanshawe_, which had no success, being short tales and sketches,
which, after appearing in periodicals, were _coll._ and _pub._ as
_Twice-told Tales_ (1837), followed by a second series in 1842. In 1841
he joined for a few months the socialistic community at Brook Farm, but
soon tired of it, and in the next year he _m._ and set up house in
Concord in an old manse, formerly tenanted by Emerson, whence proceeded
_Mosses from an Old Manse_ (1846). It was followed by _The Snow Image_
(1851), _The Scarlet Letter_ (1850), his most powerful work, _The House
of Seven Gables_, and _The Blithedale Romance_ (1852), besides his
children's books, _The Wonder Book_, and _The Tanglewood Tales_. Such
business as he had occupied himself with had been in connection with
Custom-House appointments at different places; but in 1853 he received
from his friend Franklin Pierce, on his election to the Presidency, the
appointment of United States Consul at Liverpool, which he retained for
four years, when, in consequence of a threatened failure of health, he
went to Italy and began his story of _The Marble Faun_, _pub._ in England
in 1860 under the title of _The Transformation_. The last of his books
_pub._ during his lifetime was _Our Old Home_ (1863), notes on England
and the English. He had returned to America in 1860, where, with failing
health and powers, he passed his remaining four years. After his death
there were _pub._ _The Ancestral Footstep_, _Septimus Felton_, _Dr.
Grimshawe's Secret_, and _The Dolliver Romance_, all more or less
fragmentary. Most of H.'s work is pervaded by a strong element of
mysticism, and a tendency to dwell in the border-land between the seen
and the unseen. His style is characterised by a distinctive grace and
charm, rich, varied, suggestive, and imaginative. On the whole he is
undoubtedly the greatest imaginative writer yet produced by America.

There are several ed. of the _Works_, _e.g._ Little Classics, 25 vols.;
Riverside, 15 vols.; Standard Library, 15 vols.; the two last have
biographies. _Lives_ by his son Julian, H. James (English Men of Letters,
1850), M.D. Conway (Great Writers, 1890), etc.


HAY, JOHN (1838-1906).--Diplomatist and poet, _b._ at Salem, Indiana,
_ed._ at Brown Univ., and called to the Illinois Bar, served in the army,
and was one of President Lincoln's secs. He then held diplomatic posts at
Paris, Madrid, and Vienna, was Ambassador to Great Britain, and was in
1898 appointed Sec. of State. He has a place in literature by virtue of
his _Pike County Ballads_, and _Castilian Days_ (1871).


HAYLEY, WILLIAM (1745-1820).--Poet and biographer, was _b._ at
Chichester, and _ed._ at Eton and Camb. Though overstrained and romantic,
he had some literary ability, and was a good conversationalist. He was
the friend of Cowper, whose Life he wrote; and it was to his influence
with Pitt that the granting of a pension to the poet was due. He was the
author of numerous poems, including _The Triumph of Temper_, and of
_Essays_ on _History_ and _Epic Poetry_, and, in addition to his
biography of Cowper, wrote a _Life of Milton_. On the death of Thos.
Warton in 1790 he was offered, but declined, the Laureateship. Of him
Southey said, "Everything about that man is good except his poetry."


HAYNE, PAUL HAMILTON (1830-1886).--Poet, _b._ at Charleston, S. Carolina,
of an old family, contributed to various magazines, and _pub._ _Poems_
(1885), containing "Legends and Lyrics." His graceful verses show the
influence of Keats. His sonnets are some of his best work.


HAYWARD, ABRAHAM (1802-1884).--Miscellaneous writer, belonged to an old
Wiltshire family and was _ed._ at Tiverton School. He studied law at the
Inner Temple, and was called to the Bar 1832. He had a great reputation
as a _raconteur_ and sayer of good things, and he was a copious
contributor to periodicals, especially the _Quarterly Review_. Many of
his articles were reprinted as _Biographical and Critical Essays_, and
_Eminent Statesmen and Writers_; he also wrote Lives of George Selwyn and
Lord Chesterfield, and books on Whist, Junius, and _The Art of Dining_.
His _Select Correspondence_ appeared posthumously.


HAYWARD, SIR JOHN (1564?-1627).--Historian, _b._ at Felixstowe, was the
author of various historical works, the earliest of which, _The First
Part of the Life and Reign of King Henry IV._, was _pub._ in 1599, and
gave such offence to Queen Elizabeth that the author was imprisoned. He,
however, managed to ingratiate himself with James I. by supporting his
views of kingly prerogative. He also, at the request of Prince Henry,
wrote a _History of the three Norman Kings of England_ (William I.,
William II., and Henry I.) _The Life and Reign of Edward VI._ was _pub._
posthumously in 1630.


HAYWOOD, MRS. ELIZA (FOWLER) (1693-1756).--Dramatist and novelist, _b._
in London, was early _m._ to a Mr. H., but the union turning out
unhappily, she took to the stage, upon which she appeared in Dublin about
1715. She afterwards settled in London, and produced numerous plays and
novels, into which she introduced scandalous episodes regarding living
persons whose identity was very thinly veiled, a practice which, along
with her political satires, more than once involved her in trouble, and
together with certain attacks upon Pope, made in concert with Curll the
bookseller, procured for her a place in _The Dunciad_. Her enemies called
her reputation in question, but nothing very serious appears to have been
proved. She is repeatedly referred to by Steele, and has been doubtfully
identified with his "Sappho." Some of her works, such as _The History of
Jemmy and Jenny Jessamy_ had great popularity. Others were _The Fair
Captive_ (1721), _Idalia_ (1723), _Love in Excess_ (1724), _Memoirs of a
Certain Island adjacent to Utopia_ (anonymously) (1725), _Secret History
of Present Intrigues at the Court of Caramania_ (anonymously) (1727). She
also conducted _The Female Spectator_, and other papers.


HAZLITT, WILLIAM (1778-1830).--Essayist and critic, _b._ at Maidstone,
was the _s._ of a Unitarian minister. At his father's request he studied
for the ministry at a Unitarian Coll. at Hackney. His interests, however,
were much more philosophical and political than theological. The turning
point in his intellectual development was his meeting with Coleridge in
1798. Soon after this he studied art with the view of becoming a painter,
and devoted himself specially to portraiture, but though so good a judge
as his friend, J. Northcote, R.A., believed he had the talent requisite
for success, he could not satisfy himself, and gave up the idea, though
always retaining his love of art. He then definitely turned to
literature, and in 1805 _pub._ his first book, _Essay on the Principles
of Human Action_, which was followed by various other philosophical and
political essays. About 1812 he became parliamentary and dramatic
reporter to the _Morning Chronicle_; in 1814 a contributor to the
_Edinburgh Review_; and in 1817 he _pub._ a vol. of literary sketches,
_The Round Table_. In the last named year appeared his _Characters of
Shakespeare's Plays_, which was severely attacked in the _Quarterly
Review_ and _Blackwood's Magazine_, to which his democratic views made
him obnoxious. He defended himself in a cutting _Letter to William
Gifford_, the ed. of the former. The best of H.'s critical work--his
three courses of Lectures, _On the English Poets_, _On the English Comic
Writers_, and _On the Dramatic Literature of the Age of Queen
Elizabeth_--appeared successively in 1818, 1819, and 1820. His next works
were _Table Talk_, in which he attacked Shelley (1821-22), and _The
Spirit of the Age_ (1825), in which he criticised some of his
contemporaries. He then commenced what he intended to be his chief
literary undertaking, a life of _Napoleon Buonaparte_, in 4 vols.
(1828-30). Though written with great literary ability, its views and
sympathies were unpopular, and it failed in attaining success. His last
work was a _Life of Titian_, in which he collaborated with Northcote. H.
is one of the most subtle and acute of English critics, though, when
contemporaries came under review, he sometimes allowed himself to be
unduly swayed by personal or political feeling, from which he had himself
often suffered at the hands of others. His chief principle of criticism
as avowed by himself was that "a genuine criticism should reflect the
colour, the light and shade, the soul and body of a work." In his private
life he was not happy. His first marriage, entered into in 1807, ended in
a divorce in 1822, and was followed by an amour with his landlady's
_dau._, which he celebrated in _Liber Amoris_, a work which exposed him
to severe censure. A second marriage with a Mrs. Bridgewater ended by the
lady leaving him shortly after. The fact is that H. was possessed of a
peculiar temper, which led to his quarrelling with most of his friends.
He was, however, a man of honest and sincere convictions. There is a
_coll._ ed. of his works, the "Winterslow," by A.R. Waller and A. Glover,
12 vols., with introduction by W.E. Henley, etc.


HEAD, SIR FRANCIS BOND (1793-1875).--Traveller, essayist, and biographer,
served in the Engineers, went to South America as manager of a mining
company, which failed, and then turned to literature, and made
considerable reputation by a book of travels, _Rapid Journeys across the
Pampas and among the Andes_ (1827), which was followed by _Bubbles from
the Brunnens of Nassau_ (1834). He was Governor of Upper Canada 1835-37,
but was not a great success. Thereafter he contributed to the _Quarterly
Review_, and _repub._ his articles as _Stokers and Pokers--Highways and
Byways_, and wrote a _Life of Bruce_, the Abyssinian traveller. He was
made a Baronet in 1836.


HEARN, LAFCADIO (1850-1906).--Journalist and writer on Japan, _s._ of an
Irish Army surgeon and of a Greek lady, _b._ in Leucadia, Ionian
Islands, lost his parents early, and was sent home to be taken charge of
by an aunt in Wales, a Roman Catholic. On her death, when he was still a
boy, he was left penniless, delicate, and half blind, and after
experiencing great hardships, in spite of which he _ed._ himself, he took
to journalism. Going to New Orleans he attained a considerable reputation
as a writer with a distinctly individual style. He came under the
influence of Herbert Spencer, and devoted himself largely to the study of
social questions. After spending three years in the French West Indies,
he was in 1890 sent by a publisher to Japan to write a book on that
country, and there he remained, becoming a naturalised subject, taking
the name of Yakomo Koizumi, and marrying a Japanese lady. He lectured on
English literature in the Imperial Univ. at Tokio. Though getting nearer
than, perhaps, any other Western to an understanding of the Japanese, he
felt himself to the end to be still an alien. Among his writings, which
are distinguished by acute observation, imagination, and descriptive
power of a high order, are _Stray Leaves from Strange Literature_ (1884),
_Some Chinese Ghosts_ (1887), _Gleanings in Buddha Fields_ (1897),
_Ghostly Japan_, _Kokoro_, _Hints and Echoes of Japanese Inner Life_, etc.
He was also an admirable letter-writer.


HEARNE, THOMAS (1678-1735).--Antiquary, _b._ at White Waltham.,
Berkshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., where in 1712 he became second keeper of
the Bodleian Library. A strong Jacobite, he was deprived of his post in
1716, and afterwards he refused, on political grounds, the chief
librarianship. He _pub._ a large number of antiquarian works, including
_Reliquiae Bodleianae_ (1703), and ed. of Leland's _Itinerary_ and
_Collectanea_, Camden's _Annals_, and Fordun's _Scotochronicon_. Some of
his own collections were _pub._ posthumously.


HEBER, REGINALD (1783-1826).--Poet, _s._ of the Rector of Malpas, a man
of family and wealth, and half-brother of Richard H., the famous
book-collector, was _ed._ at Oxf., where he gained the Newdigate prize
for his poem, _Palestine_, and was elected in 1805 Fellow of All Souls.
After travelling in Germany and Russia, he took orders in 1807, and
became Rector of the family living of Hodnet. In 1822, after two
refusals, he accepted the Bishopric of Calcutta, an office in which he
showed great zeal and capacity. He _d._ of apoplexy in his bath at
Trichinopoly in 1826. In addition to _Palestine_ he wrote _Europe_, a
poem having reference specially to the Peninsular War, and left various
fragments, including an Oriental romance based on the story of Bluebeard.
H.'s reputation now rests mainly on his hymns, of which several, _e.g._,
_From Greenland's Icy Mountains_, _Brightest and Best of the Sons of the
Morning_, and _Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty_, are sung wherever
the English language is known. He also wrote a _Life of Jeremy Taylor_
(1822). H. was a scholar and wit as well as a devoted Christian and
Churchman.


HELPS, SIR ARTHUR (1813-1875).--Essayist and historian, was _b._ at
Streatham, Surrey, and _ed._ at Eton and Camb. After leaving the Univ. he
was private sec. to various public men, and in 1841, his circumstances
rendering him independent of employment, he retired to Bishop's Waltham,
and devoted himself for 20 years to study and writing. Appointed, in
1860, Clerk to the Privy Council, he became known to, and a favourite of,
Queen Victoria, who entrusted him with the task of editing the _Speeches
and Addresses of the Prince Consort_ (1862), and her own book, _Leaves
from the Journal of our Life in the Highlands_ (1868). Of his own
publications the first was _Thoughts in the Cloister and the Crowd_
(1835), a series of aphorisms, and there followed, among others, _Essays
written in the Intervals of Business_ (1841), _Friends in Council_, 4
series (1847-59), _Realmah_ (1869), and _Conversations on War and General
Culture_ (1871). In history H. wrote _The Conquerors of the New World_
(1848-52), and _The Spanish Conquests in America_, 4 vols. (1855-61). He
also wrote a _Life of Thos. Brassey_, and, as the demand for his
historical works fell off, he _repub._ parts of them as individual
biographies of Las Casas, Columbus, Pizarro, and Cortez. He also tried
the drama, but without success. His essays are his most successful work,
containing as they do the thoughts and opinions of a shrewd, experienced,
and highly cultivated man, written in what Ruskin called "beautiful quiet
English." They have not, however, any exceptional depth or originality.


HEMANS, FELICIA DOROTHEA (BROWNE) (1793-1835).--Poetess, _dau._ of a
Liverpool merchant, who, owing to reverses, retired to North Wales. While
yet little more than a child she _pub._ her first poems, the reception of
which was not encouraging. In the same year, 1808, a further publication
appeared which drew a letter from Shelley. Her first important work, _The
Domestic Affections_, appeared in 1812, in which year she was _m._ to
Captain Hemans, an Irish officer. The union, however, was not a happy
one, and her husband practically deserted her and her five sons in 1818.
Her literary activity was continued during the whole of her short life,
and her works include, _The Vespers of Palermo_, a drama, which was not
successful, _The Forest Sanctuary_ (1826), her best poem, _Records of
Woman_, _Lays of Leisure Hours_, _Songs of the Affections_, _Hymns for
Childhood_, and _Thoughts during Sickness_ (1834), her last effort. In
1829 she visited Scotland, where she was the guest of Scott, who held her
in affectionate regard. She also enjoyed the friendship of Wordsworth.
Always somewhat delicate, her health latterly entirely gave way, and she
_d._ of a decline in 1835. Her shorter pieces enjoyed much popularity,
and still, owing to their grace and tenderness, retain a certain place,
but her long poems are lacking in energy and depth, and are forgotten.


HENLEY, WILLIAM ERNEST (1849-1903).--Poet and critic, _b._ at Gloucester,
made the acquaintance of Robert Louis Stevenson (_q.v._), and
collaborated with him in several dramas, including _Deacon Brodie_, and
_Robert Macaire_. He engaged in journalism, and became ed. of _The
Magazine of Art_, _The National Observer_, and _The New Review_, compiled
_Lyra Heroica_, an anthology of English poetry for boys, and, with Mr.
Farmer, ed. a _Dictionary of Slang_. His poems, which include _Hospital
Rhymes_, _London Voluntaries_, _The Song of the Sword_, _For England's
Sake_, and _Hawthorn and Lavender_, are very unequal in quality, and
range from strains of the purest music to an uncouth and unmusical
realism of no poetic worth. He wrote with T.F. Henderson a _Life of
Burns_, in which the poet is set forth as a "lewd peasant of genius."

Complete works, 7 vols., 1908.


HENRY VIII. (1491-1547).--Besides writing songs including _The Kings
Ballad_, was a learned controversialist, and contended against Luther in
_Assertio Septem Sacramentorum_ (Defence of the Seven Sacraments), a
treatise which gained for him the title of Defender of the Faith.


HENRY of HUNTINGDON (1084-1155).--Historian, was Archdeacon of Huntingdon
from 1109. His _Historia Anglorum_ (History of the English) comes down to
1154. He also wrote a treatise, _De Contemptu Mundi_ (on Contempt of the
World).


HENRY, MATTHEW (1662-1714).--Commentator, _s._ of Philip H., a learned
Nonconformist divine, was _b._ in Flintshire. He was originally destined
for the law, and studied at Gray's Inn, but turned his mind to theology,
and, in 1687, became minister of a Nonconformist church at Chester. Here
he remained until 1712, when he went to take the oversight of a
congregation at Hackney, where he _d._ two years later. He wrote many
religious works, but is chiefly remembered by his _Exposition of the Old
and New Testaments_, which he did not live to complete beyond the Acts.
The comment on the Epistles was, however, furnished after his death by 13
Nonconformist divines. Though long superseded from a critical point of
view, the work still maintains its place as a book of practical religion,
being distinguished by great freshness and ingenuity of thought, and
pointed and vigorous expression.


HENRY, ROBERT (1718-1790).--Historian, _b._ at St. Ninians,
Stirlingshire, entered the Church of Scotland, becoming one of the
ministers of Edin. He wrote the _History of Great Britain on a New Plan_
(1771-93), in 6 vols., covering the period from the Roman invasion until
the reign of Henry VIII. The novelty consisted in dividing the subjects
into different heads, civil history, military, social, and so on, and
following out each of them separately. The work was mainly a compilation,
having no critical qualities, and is now of little value. Notwithstanding
the persistent and ferocious attacks of Dr. Gilbert Stewart (_q.v._), it
had a great success, and brought the author over L3000, and a government
pension of L100.


HENRY, THE MINSTREL, (_see_ BLIND HARRY).


HENRYSON, ROBERT (1430?-1506?).--Scottish poet. Few details of his life
are known, even the dates of his birth and death being uncertain. He
appears to have been a schoolmaster, perhaps in the Benedictine Convent,
at Dunfermline, and was a member of the Univ. of Glasgow in 1462. He also
practised as a Notary Public, and may have been in orders. His principal
poems are _The Moral Fables of Esope the Phrygian_, _The Testament of
Cresseide_, a sequel to the _Troilus and Cressida_ of Chaucer, to whom it
was, until 1721, attributed, _Robene and Makyne_, the first pastoral, not
only in Scottish vernacular, but in the English tongue, _The Uplandis
Mous and The Burges Mous_ (Country and Town Mouse), and the _Garmond of
Gude Ladeis_. H., who was versed in the learning and general culture of
his day, had a true poetic gift. His verse is strong and swift, full of
descriptive power, and sparkling with wit. He is the first Scottish
lyrist and the introducer of the pastoral to English literature.


HENTY, GEORGE ALFRED (1832-1902).--Boys' novelist, wrote over 80 books
for boys, which had great popularity. Among them are _By England's Aid_,
_Dash for Khartoum_, _Facing Death_, _In Freedom's Cause_, _Out on the
Pampas_, etc., all full of adventure and interest, and conveying
information as well as amusement.


HERAUD, JOHN ABRAHAM (1799-1887).--Poet, _b._ in London, of Huguenot
descent, he contributed to various periodicals, and _pub._ two poems,
which attracted some attention, _The Descent into Hell_ (1830), and _The
Judgment of the Flood_ (1834). He also produced a few plays,
miscellaneous poems, books of travel, etc.


HERBERT, of CHERBURY, EDWARD, 1ST LORD (1583-1648).--Philosopher and
historian, was the eldest _s._ of Richard H., of Montgomery Castle, and
was _b._ there or at Eyton, Shropshire. He was at Oxf., and while there,
at the age of 16, he _m._ a kinswoman four years his senior, the _dau._
of Sir William H. Thereafter he returned to the Univ. and devoted himself
to study, and to the practice of manly sports and accomplishments. At his
coronation in 1603 James I. made him a Knight of the Bath, and in 1608 he
went to the Continent, where for some years he was engaged in military
and diplomatic affairs, not without his share of troubles. In 1624 he was
_cr._ an Irish, and a few years later, an English, peer, as Baron H., of
Cherbury. On the outbreak of the Civil War he sided, though somewhat
half-heartedly, with the Royalists, but in 1644 he surrendered to the
Parliament, received a pension, held various offices, and _d._ in 1648.
It was in 1624 that he wrote his treatise, _De Veritate_, "An empirical
theory of knowledge," in which truth is distinguished from (1)
revelation, (2) the probable, (3) the possible, (4) the false. It is the
first purely metaphysical work written by an Englishman, and gave rise to
much controversy. It was reprinted in 1645, when the author added two
treatises, _De Causis Errorum_ (concerning the Causes of Errors), and _De
Religione Laici_ (concerning the Religion of a Layman). His other chief
philosophical work was _De Religione Gentilium_ (1663), of which an
English translation appeared in 1705, under the title of _The Ancient
Religion of the Gentiles and Cause of their Errors considered_. It has
been called "the charter of the Deists," and was intended to prove that
"all religions recognise five main articles--(1) a Supreme God, (2) who
ought to be worshipped, (3) that virtue and purity are the essence of
that worship, (4) that sin should be repented of, and (5) rewards and
punishments in a future state." Among his historical works are _Expeditio
Buckinghamii Ducis_ (1656), a vindication of the Rochelle expedition, a
_Life of Henry VIII._ (1649), extremely partial to the King, his
_Autobiography_, which gives a brilliant picture of his contemporaries,
and of the manners and events of his time, and a somewhat vainglorious
account of himself and his doings. He was also the author of some poems
of a metaphysical cast. On the whole his is one of the most shining and
spirited figures of the time.

Autobiography ed. by S. Lee (1886). Poems ed. by J. Churton Collins, etc.


HERBERT, GEORGE (1593-1633).--Poet, brother of above, was _ed._ at
Westminster School and Trinity Coll., Camb., where he took his degree in
1616, and was public orator 1619-27. He became the friend of Sir H.
Wotton, Donne, and Bacon, the last of whom is said to have held him in
such high esteem as to submit his writings to him before publication. He
acquired the favour of James I., who conferred upon him a sinecure worth
L120 a year, and having powerful friends, he attached himself for some
time to the Court in the hope of preferment. The death of two of his
patrons, however, led him to change his views, and coming under the
influence of Nicholas Ferrar, the quietist of Little Gidding, and of
Laud, he took orders in 1626 and, after serving for a few years as
prebendary of Layton Ecclesia, or Leighton Broomswold, he became in 1630
Rector of Bemerton, Wilts, where he passed the remainder of his life,
discharging the duties of a parish priest with conscientious assiduity.
His health, however, failed, and he _d._ in his 40th year. His chief
works are _The Temple, or Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations_ (1634),
_The Country Parson_ (1652), and _Jacula Prudentium_, a collection of
pithy proverbial sayings, the two last in prose. Not _pub._ until the
year after his death, _The Temple_ had immediate acceptance, 20,000
copies, according to I. Walton, who was H.'s biographer, having been sold
in a few years. Among its admirers were Charles I., Cowper, and
Coleridge. H. wrote some of the most exquisite sacred poetry in the
language, although his style, influenced by Donne, is at times
characterised by artificiality and conceits. He was an excellent
classical scholar, and an accomplished musician.

Works with _Life_ by Izaak Walton, ed. by Coleridge, 1846, etc.


HERBERT, SIR THOMAS (1606-1682).--Traveller and historian, belonged to an
old Yorkshire family, studied at Oxf. and Camb., and went in connection
with an embassy to Persia, of which, and of other Oriental countries, he
_pub._ a description. On the outbreak of the Civil War he was a
Parliamentarian, but was afterwards taken into the household of the King,
to whom he became much attached, was latterly his only attendant, and was
with him on the scaffold. At the Restoration he was made a Baronet, and
in 1678 _pub._ _Threnodia Carolina_, an account of the last two years of
the King's life.


HERD, DAVID (1732-1810).--Scottish anthologist, _s._ of a farmer in
Kincardineshire, was clerk to an accountant in Edin., and devoted his
leisure to collecting old Scottish poems and songs, which he first _pub._
in 1769 as _Ancient Scottish Songs, Heroic Ballads, etc._ Other and
enlarged ed. appeared in 1776 and 1791. Sir W. Scott made use of his MS.
collections in his _Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border_.


HERRICK, ROBERT (1591-1674).--Poet, _b._ in London, was apprenticed as a
goldsmith to his uncle, Sir William H., with whom he remained for 10
years. Thereafter he went to Camb., took orders, and was in 1629
presented by Charles I. to the living of Dean Prior, a remote parish in
Devonshire, from which he was ejected in 1647, returning in 1662. In the
interval he appears to have lived in Westminster, probably supported,
more or less, by the gifts of wealthy Royalists. His _Noble Numbers or
Pious Pieces_ was _pub._ in 1647, his _Hesperides or Works both Human and
Divine_ in 1648, and the two together in one vol. in the latter year.
Over 60, however, of the lighter poems included in _Hesperides_ had
previously appeared anonymously in a collection entitled _Wit's
Recreations_. H.'s early life in London had been a free one, and his
secular poems, in which he appears much more at ease than in his sacred,
show him to have been a thorough Epicurean, though he claims that his
life was not to be judged by his muse. As a lyric poet H. stands in the
front rank for sweetness, grace, and true poetic fire, and some of his
love songs, _e.g._ _Anthea_, and _Gather ye Rose-buds_, are unsurpassed in
their kind; while in such exquisite little poems as _Blossoms,
Daffodils_, and others he finds a classic expression for his love of
nature and country life. In his epigrams, however, he falls much below
himself. He has been described as "the most frankly pagan of English
poets."

Poems ed. by Nutt (1810), Grosart (1876), Pollard (preface by Swinburne,
1891).


HERSCHEL, SIR JOHN FREDERICK WILLIAM (1792-1871).--_S._ of Sir William
H., the eminent astronomer and discoverer of the planet Uranus, was _b._
at Slough, and _ed._ at Camb., where he was Senior Wrangler and first
Smith's prizeman. He became one of the greatest of English astronomers.
Among his writings are treatises on Sound and Light, and his _Astronomy_
(1831) was for long the leading manual on the subject. He also _pub._
_Popular Lectures_ and _Collected Addresses_, and made translations from
Schiller, and from the _Iliad_.


HERVEY, JAMES (1714-1758).--Religious writer, Rector of Weston Favell,
Northants, was the author of _Meditations among the Tombs_ (1745-47),
_Theron and Aspasio_, and other works, which had a great vogue in their
day. They are characterised by over-wrought sentiment, and overloaded
with florid ornament. H. was a devout and unselfish man, who by his
labours broke down a delicate constitution.


HERVEY, JOHN, LORD (1696-1743).--Writer of memoirs, was a younger _s._ of
the 1st Earl of Bristol. Entering Parliament he proved an able debater,
and held various offices, including that of Lord Privy Seal. He was a
favourite with Queen Caroline, and a dexterous and supple courtier. He
wrote _Memoirs of the Reign of George II._, which gives a very
unfavourable view of the manners and morals of the Court. It is written
in a lively, though often spiteful style, and contains many clever and
discriminating character sketches. He was satirised by Pope under the
name of "Sporus" and "Lord Fanny."


HEYLIN, PETER (1600-1662).--Ecclesiastical writer, _b._ at Burford,
Oxon., was one of the clerical followers of Charles I., who suffered for
his fidelity, being deprived under the Commonwealth of his living of
Alresford, and other preferments. After the Restoration he was made
sub-Dean of Westminster, but the failure of his health prevented further
advancement. He was a voluminous writer, and a keen and acrimonious
controversialist against the Puritans. Among his works are a _History of
the Reformation_, and a Life of Laud (_Cyprianus Anglicanus_) (1668).


HEYWOOD, JOHN (1497?-1580?).--Dramatist and epigrammatist, is believed to
have been _b._ at North Mimms, Herts. He was a friend of Sir Thomas More,
and through him gained the favour of Henry VIII., and was at the Court of
Edward VI. and Mary, for whom, as a young Princess, he had a great
regard. Being a supporter of the old religion, he enjoyed her favour, but
on the accession of Elizabeth, he left the country, and went to Mechlin,
where he _d._ He was famous as a writer of interludes, a species of
composition intermediate between the old "moralities" and the regular
drama, and displayed considerable constructive skill, and a racy, if
somewhat broad and even coarse, humour. Among his interludes are _The
Play of the Wether_ (1532), _The Play of Love_ (1533), and _The Pardoner
and the Frere_. An allegorical poem is _The Spider and the Flie_ (1556),
in which the Spider stands for the Protestants, and the Flie for the
Roman Catholics. H. was likewise the author of some 600 epigrams, whence
his title of "the old English epigrammatist."


HEYWOOD, THOMAS (_d._ 1650).--Dramatist. Few facts about him have come
down, and these are almost entirely derived from his own writings. He
appears to have been _b._ in Lincolnshire, and was a Fellow of
Peterhouse, Camb., and an ardent Protestant. His literary activity
extends from about 1600 to 1641, and his production was unceasing; he
claims to have written or "had a main finger in" 220 plays, of which only
a small proportion (24) are known to be in existence, a fact partly
accounted for by many of them having been written upon the backs of
tavern bills, and by the circumstance that though a number of them were
popular, few were _pub._ Among them may be mentioned _The Four Prentices
of London_ (1600) (ridiculed in Fletcher's _Knight of the Burning
Pestle_), _Edward IV._ (2 parts) in 1600 and 1605, _The Royal King and
the Loyal Subject_ (1637), _A Woman Killed with Kindness_ (1603), _Rape
of Lucrece_ (1608), _Fair Maid of the Exchange_ (1607), _Love's Mistress_
(1636), and _Wise Woman of Hogsdon_ (1638). H. also wrote an _Apology for
Actors_ (1612), a poem, _Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels_ (1635), and
made various translations. He was thoroughly English in his subjects and
treatment, and had invention, liveliness, and truth to nature, but lacked
the higher poetic sense, and of course wrote far too much to write
uniformly well.


HIGDEN, RANULF or RALPH (_d._ 1364).--Chronicler, is believed to have
been _b._ in the West of England, took the monastic vow (Benedictine), at
Chester in 1299, and seems to have travelled over the North of England.
His fame rests on his _Polychronicon_, a universal history reaching down
to contemporary events. The work is divided into 7 books and, though of
no great value as an authority, has an interest as showing the state of
historical and geographical knowledge at the time. Written in Latin, it
was translated into English by John of Trevisa (_q.v._) (1387), and
printed by Caxton (1482), and by others. Another translation of the 15th
century was issued in the Rolls Series. For two centuries it was an
approved work. H. wrote various other treatises on theology and history.


HILL, AARON (1685-1750).--Dramatist and miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a
country gentleman of Wiltshire, was _ed._ at Westminster School, and
thereafter made a tour in the East. He was the author of 17 dramatic
pieces, some of them, such as his versions of Voltaire's _Zaire_ and
_Merope_, being adaptations. He also wrote a quantity of poetry, which,
notwithstanding some good passages, is as a general rule dull and
pompous. Having written some satiric lines on Pope he received in return
a niche in _The Dunciad_, which led to a controversy, in which H. showed
some spirit. Afterwards a reconciliation took place. He was a friend and
correspondent of Richardson, whose _Pamela_ he highly praised. In
addition to his literary pursuits H. was a great projector, but his
schemes were usually unsuccessful. He was a good and honourable man, but
over-impressed with his own importance.


HINTON, JAMES (1822-1875).--Writer on sociology and psychology, _s._ of a
Baptist minister, became a successful aurist, but his attention being
arrested by social questions, he gave more and more of his time to the
consideration and exposition of these. Open-minded and altruistic, his
books are full of thought and suggestion. Among his writings may be
mentioned _Man and his Dwelling-place_ (1859), _The Mystery of Pain_
(1866), _The Law of Human Life_ (1874), _Chapters on the Art of Thinking_
(1879), and _Philosophy and Religion_ (1881).


HOADLEY, BENJAMIN (1676-1761).--Theologian and controversialist, _ed._ at
Camb., entered the Church, and became Bishop successively of Bangor,
Hereford, Salisbury, and Winchester. He was a great supporter of the
Revolution, and controvertor of the doctrines of divine right and passive
obedience. His works were generally either the causes of controversy or
elicited by it. One of his sermons, _On the Nature of the Kingdom or
Church of Christ_ was the originating cause of what was known as the
Bangorian controversy, which raged for a long time with great bitterness.


HOBBES, THOMAS (1588-1679).--Philosopher, was _b._ at Malmesbury, the
_s._ of a clergyman, and _ed._ at Oxf. Thereafter he travelled as tutor
through France, Italy, and Germany, with William Lord Cavendish,
afterwards 2nd Earl of Devonshire, with whom he remained as sec. after
the completion of the tour. While engaged in this capacity he became
acquainted with Bacon (whose amanuensis he is said to have been), Herbert
of Cherbury, and Ben Jonson. In 1629 he _pub._ a translation of
_Thucydides_. After the death of his patron, which took place in 1626, he
went in 1628 to Paris, where he remained for 18 months, and in 1631 he
assumed the position of tutor to his _s._, afterwards the 3rd Earl, with
whom he went in 1634 to France, Italy, and Savoy. When in Italy he was
the friend of Galileo, Gassendi, and other eminent men. Returning to
England he remained in the Earl's service, and devoted himself to his
studies on philosophy and politics. The commotions of the times, however,
disturbed him; and his Royalist principles, expounded in his treatise,
_De Corpore Politico_, led to his again, in 1641, leaving England and
going to Paris, where he remained until 1652. While there, he entered
into controversy on mathematical subjects with Descartes, _pub._ some of
his principal works, including _Leviathan_, and received, in 1647, the
appointment of mathematical tutor to the Prince of Wales, afterwards
Charles II., who was then in that city. The views expressed in his works,
however, brought him into such unpopularity that the Prince found it
expedient to break the connection, and H. returned to England. In 1653 he
resumed his relations with the Devonshire family, living, however, in
London in habits of intimacy with Selden, Cowley, and Dr. Harvey. On the
Restoration the King conferred upon him a pension of L100, but like most
of the Royal benefactions of the day, it was but irregularly paid. His
later years were spent in the family of his patron, chiefly at
Chatsworth, where he continued his literary activity until his death,
which occurred in 1679, in his 91st year. H. was one of the most
prominent Englishmen of his day, and has continued to influence
philosophical thought more or less ever since, generally, however, by
evoking opposition. His fundamental proposition is that all human action
is ultimately based upon selfishness (more or less enlightened), allowing
no place to the moral or social sentiments. Similarly in his political
writings man is viewed as a purely selfish being who must be held in
restraint by the strong hand of authority. His chief philosophical works
are _De Corpore Politico_, already mentioned, _pub._ in 1640;
_Philosophical Rudiments concerning Government and Society_, originally
in Latin, translated into English in 1650; _Leviathan, or the Matter,
Form, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil_ (1651);
_Treatise on Human Nature_ (1650); and _Letters upon Liberty and
Necessity_ (1654). Generally speaking, all his works led him into
controversy, one of his principal opponents being Clarendon. The _Letters
upon Liberty and Necessity_, which is one of the ablest of them, and
indeed one of the ablest ever written on the subject, brought him into
collision with Bramhall, Bishop of Londonderry, whom he completely
overthrew. He was not, however, so successful in his mathematical
controversies, one of the chief of which was on the Quadrature of the
Circle. Here his antagonist was the famous mathematician Wallis, who was
able easily to demonstrate his errors. In 1672, when 84, H. wrote his
autobiography in Latin verse, and in the same year translated 4 books of
the _Odyssey_, which were so well received that he completed the
remaining books, and also translated the whole of the _Iliad_. Though
accurate as literal renderings of the sense, these works fail largely to
convey the beauties of the original, notwithstanding which three ed. were
issued within 10 years, and they long retained their popularity. His last
work was _Behemoth_, a history of the Civil War, completed just before
his death, which occurred at Hardwick Hall, one of the seats of the
Devonshire family. Although a clear and bold thinker, and a keen
controversialist, he was characterised by a certain constitutional
timidity believed to have been caused by the alarm of his mother near
the time of his birth at the threatened descent of the Spanish Armada.
Though dogmatic and impatient of contradiction, faults which grew upon
him with age, H. had the courage of his opinions, which he did not trim
to suit the times.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1588, _ed._ Oxf., became acquainted with Bacon, went to
Paris 1628, in Italy 1634, _pub._ _De Corpore Politico_ (1640), again in
Paris 1641-52, and while there was in controversy with Descartes, and
_pub._ _Leviathan_ (1651), appointed mathematical tutor to Charles II.
1647, returned to England 1652, pensioned at Restoration, later years
spent at Chatsworth, _pub._ _Human Nature_ 1650, _Liberty and Necessity_
1654, controversy with Bramhall and Wallis, writes autobiography 1672,
translates _Homer_, _pub._ _Behemoth_ 1679, _d._ 1679.

_Works_ ed. by Sir W. Molesworth (16 vols. 1839-46), monograph by Croom
Robertson. _Life_ by L. Stephen (English Men of Letters Series).


HOBY, SIR THOMAS (1530-1566).--Translator, _b._ at Leominster, and _ed._
at Camb., translated Bucer's _Gratulation to the Church of England_, and
_The Courtyer of Count Baldessar Castilio_, the latter of which had great
popularity. H. _d._ in Paris while Ambassador to France.


HOCCLEVE, or OCCLEVE, THOMAS (1368?-1450?).--Poet, probably _b._ in
London, where he appears to have spent most of his life, living in
Chester's Inn in the Strand. Originally intended for the Church, he
received an appointment in the Privy Seal Office, which he retained until
1424, when quarters were assigned him in the Priory of Southwick, Hants.
In 1399 a pension of L10, subsequently increased to L13, 6s. 8d., had
been conferred upon him, which, however, was paid only intermittently,
thus furnishing him with a perpetual grievance. His early life appears to
have been irregular, and to the end he was a weak, vain, discontented
man. His chief work is _De Regimine Principum_ or _Governail of Princes_,
written 1411-12. The best part of this is an autobiographical prelude
_Mal Regle de T. Hoccleve_, in which he holds up his youthful follies as
a warning. It is also interesting as containing, in the MS. in the
British Museum, a drawing of Chaucer, from which all subsequent portraits
have been taken.


HOFFMAN, CHARLES FENNO (1806-1884).--Poet, etc., _b._ in New York, _s._
of a lawyer, was bred to the same profession, but early deserted it for
literature. He wrote a successful novel, _Greyslaer_, and much verse,
some of which displayed more lyrical power than any which had preceded it
in America.


HOGG, JAMES (THE ETTRICK SHEPHERD) (1770-1835).--Poet, and writer of
tales, belonged to a race of shepherds, and began life by herding cows
until he was old enough to be trusted with a flock of sheep. His
imagination was fed by his mother, who was possessed of an inexhaustible
stock of ballads and folk-lore. He had little schooling, and had great
difficulty in writing out his earlier poems, but was earnest in giving
himself such culture as he could. Entering the service of Mr. Laidlaw,
the friend of Scott, he was by him introduced to the poet, and assisted
him in collecting material for his _Border Minstrelsy_. In 1796 he had
begun to write his songs, and when on a visit to Edin. in 1801 he _coll._
his poems under the title of _Scottish Pastorals, etc._, and in 1807
there followed _The Mountain Bard_. A treatise on the diseases of sheep
brought him L300, on the strength of which he embarked upon a
sheep-farming enterprise in Dumfriesshire which, like a previous smaller
venture in Harris, proved a failure, and he returned to Ettrick bankrupt.
Thenceforward he relied almost entirely on literature for support. With
this view he, in 1810, settled in Edin., _pub._ _The Forest Minstrel_,
and started the _Spy_, a critical journal, which ran for a year. In 1813
_The Queen's Wake_ showed his full powers, and finally settled his right
to an assured place among the poets of his country. He joined the staff
of _Blackwood_, and became the friend of Wilson, Wordsworth, and Byron.
Other poems followed, _The Pilgrims of the Sun_ (1815), _Madoc of the
Moor_, _The Poetic Mirror_, and _Queen Hynde_ (1826); and in prose
_Winter Evening Tales_ (1820), _The Three Perils of Man_ (1822), and _The
Three Perils of Woman_. In his later years his home was a cottage at
Altrive on 70 acres of moorland presented to him by the Duchess of
Buccleuch, where he _d._ greatly lamented. As might be expected from his
almost total want of regular education, H. was often greatly wanting in
taste, but he had real imagination and poetic faculty. Some of his lyrics
like _The Skylark_ are perfect in their spontaneity and sweetness, and
his _Kilmeny_ is one of the most exquisite fairy tales in the language.
Hogg was vain and greedy of praise, but honest and, beyond his means,
generous. He is a leading character, partly idealised, partly
caricatured, in Wilson's _Noctes Ambrosianae_.


HOGG, THOMAS JEFFERSON (1792-1862).--Biographer, _s._ of John H., a
country gentleman of Durham, _ed._ at Durham Grammar School, and Univ.
Coll., Oxf., where he made the acquaintance of Shelley, whose lifelong
friend and biographer he became. Associated with S. in the famous
pamphlet on _The Necessity of Atheism_, he shared in the expulsion from
the Univ. which it entailed, and thereafter devoted himself to the law,
being called to the Bar in 1817. In 1832 he contributed to Bulwer's _New
Monthly Magazine_ his _Reminiscences of Shelley_, which was much admired.
Thereafter he was commissioned to write a biography of the poet, of which
he completed 2 vols., but in so singular a fashion that the material with
which he had been entrusted was withdrawn. The work, which is probably
unique in the annals of biography, while giving a vivid and credible
picture of S. externally, shows no true appreciation of him as a poet,
and reflects with at least equal prominence the humorously eccentric
personality of the author, which renders it entertaining in no common
degree. Other works of H. were _Memoirs of Prince Alexy Haimatoff_, and a
book of travels, _Two Hundred and Nine Days_ (1827). He _m._ the widow of
Williams, Shelley's friend, who was drowned along with him.


HOLCROFT, THOMAS (1745-1809).--Dramatist, _s._ of a small shoemaker in
London, passed his youth as a pedlar, and as a Newmarket stable boy. A
charitable person having given him some education he became a
schoolmaster, but in 1770 went on the provincial stage. He then took to
writing plays, and was the first to introduce the melodrama into England.
Among his plays, _The Road to Ruin_ (1792) is the best, and is still
acted; others were _Duplicity_ (1781), and _A Tale of Mystery_. Among his
novels are _Alwyn_ (1780), and _Hugh Trevor_, and he wrote the well-known
song, _Gaffer Gray_. H. was a man of stern and irascible temper,
industrious and energetic, and a sympathiser with the French Revolution.


HOLINSHED, or HOLLINGSHEAD, RAPHAEL or RALPH _d._ (1580?).--Belonged to a
Cheshire family, and is said by Anthony Wood to have been at one of the
Univ., and to have been a priest. He came to London, and was in the
employment of Reginald Wolf, a German printer, making translations and
doing hack-work. His _Chronicles of Englande, Scotlande, and Irelande_,
from which Shakespeare drew much of his history, was based to a
considerable extent on the collections of Leland, and he had the
assistance of W. Harrison, R. Stanyhurst, and others. The introductory
description of England and the English was the work of Harrison,
Stanyhurst did the part relating to Ireland, and H. himself the history
of England and Scotland, the latter being mainly translated from the
works of Boece and Major. _Pub._ in 1577 it had an eager welcome, and a
wide and lasting popularity. A later ed. in 1586 was ed. by J. Hooker and
Stow. It is a work of real value--a magazine of useful and interesting
information, with the authorities cited. Its tone is strongly Protestant,
its style clear.


HOLLAND, JOSIAH GILBERT (1819-1881).--Novelist and poet, _b._ in
Massachusetts, helped to found and ed. _Scribner's Monthly_ (afterwards
the _Century Magazine_), in which appeared his novels, _Arthur
Bonnicastle_, _The Story of Sevenoaks_, _Nicholas Minturn_. In poetry he
wrote _Bitter Sweet_ (1858), _Kathrina_, etc.


HOLLAND, PHILEMON (1552-1637).--Translator, _b._ at Chelmsford, and _ed._
at Camb., was master of the free school at Coventry, where he also
practised medicine. His chief translations, made in good Elizabethan
English, are of Pliny's _Natural History_, Plutarch's _Morals_,
Suetonius, Xenophon's _Cyropaedia_, and Camden's _Britannia_. There are
passages in the second of these which have hardly been excelled by any
later prose translator of the classics. His later years were passed in
poverty.


HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL (1809-1894).--Essayist, novelist, and poet, was
_b._ of good Dutch and English stock at Camb., Massachusetts, the seat of
Harvard, where he graduated in 1829. He studied law, then medicine, first
at home, latterly in Paris, whence he returned in 1835, and practised in
his native town. In 1838 he was appointed Prof. of Anatomy and Physiology
at Dartmouth Coll., from which he was in 1847 transferred to a similar
chair at Harvard. Up to 1857 he had done little in literature: his first
book of poems, containing "The Last Leaf," had been _pub._ But in that
year the _Atlantic Monthly_ was started with Lowell for ed., and H. was
engaged as a principal contributor. In it appeared the trilogy by which
he is best known, _The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table_ (1857), _The
Professor_, _The Poet_ (1872), all graceful, allusive, and pleasantly
egotistical. He also wrote _Elsie Venner_ (1861), which has been called
"the snake story of literature," and _The Guardian Angel_. By many
readers he is valued most for the poems which lie imbedded in his books,
such as "The Chambered Nautilus," "The Last Leaf," "Homesick in Heaven,"
"The Voiceless," and "The Boys."


HOME, JOHN (1722-1808).--Dramatist, _s._ of the Town-Clerk of Leith,
where he was _b._, _ed._ there and at Edin., and entered the Church.
Before doing so, however, he had fought on the Royalist side in the '45,
and had, after the Battle of Falkirk, been a prisoner in Doune Castle,
whence he escaped. His ministerial life, which was passed at
Athelstaneford, East Lothian, was brought to an end by the action of the
Church Courts on his producing the play of _Douglas_. This drama, which
had been rejected by Garrick, but brought out in Edin. in 1756, created
an immense sensation, and made its appearance in London the following
year. H. then became private sec. to the Earl of Bute, who gave him the
sinecure of Conservator of Scots Privileges at Campvere in Holland.
Thereafter he was tutor to the Prince of Wales (George III.), who on his
accession conferred upon him a pension of L300. Other plays were _The
Siege of Aquileia_, _The Fatal Discovery_ (1769), _Alonzo_, and _Alfred_
(1778), which was a total failure. He also wrote a _History of the
Rebellion_. In 1778 he settled in Edin., where he was one of the
brilliant circle of literary men of which Robertson was the centre. He
supported the claims of Macpherson to be the translator of Ossian.


HONE, WILLIAM (1780-1842).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ at Bath, in his
youth became a convinced and active democrat. His zeal in the propagation
of his views, political and philanthropic, was so absorbing as to lead to
a uniform want of success in his business undertakings. He _pub._ many
satirical writings, which had immense popularity, among which were _The
Political House that Jack Built_ (1819), _The Man in the Moon_ (1820),
_The Political Showman_ (1821), and _The Apocryphal New Testament_. For
one of his earliest satires, _The Political Litany_, _pub._ in 1817, he
was prosecuted, but acquitted. Later he brought out _Ancient Mysteries_
(1823), _Every Day Book_ (1826-27), _Table Book_ (1827-28), and _Year
Book_ (1828). These works, in which he had the assistance of other
writers, are full of curious learning on miscellaneous subjects, such as
ceremonies, dress, sports, customs, etc. His last literary enterprise was
an ed. of _Strutt's Sports and Pastimes_ (1830). Always a
self-sacrificing and honest man, he was originally an unbeliever, but in
his latter years he became a sincere Christian.


HOOD, THOMAS (1799-1845).--Poet and comic writer, _s._ of a bookseller in
London, where he was _b._, was put into a mercantile office, but the
confinement proving adverse to his health, he was sent to Dundee, where
the family had connections, and where he obtained some literary
employment. His health being restored, he returned to London, and entered
the employment of an uncle as an engraver. Here he acquired an
acquaintance with drawing, which he afterwards turned to account in
illustrating his comic writings. After working for a short time on his
own account he became, at the age of 22, sub-editor of the _London
Magazine_, and made the acquaintance of many literary men, including De
Quincey, Lamb, and Hazlitt. His first separate publication, _Odes and
Addresses to Great People_, appeared in 1825, and had an immediate
success. Thus encouraged he produced in the next year _Whims and
Oddities_, and in 1829, he commenced _The Comic Annual_, which he
continued for 9 years, and wrote in _The Gem_ his striking poem, _Eugene
Aram_. Meanwhile he had _m._ in 1824, a step which, though productive of
the main happiness and comfort of his future life, could not be
considered altogether prudent, as his health had begun to give way, and
he had no means of support but his pen. Soon afterwards the failure of
his publisher involved him in difficulties which, combined with his
delicate health, made the remainder of his life a continual struggle. The
years between 1834 and 1839 were the period of most acute difficulty, and
for a part of this time he was obliged to live abroad. In 1840 friends
came to his assistance, and he was able to return to England. His health
was, however, quite broken down, but his industry never flagged. During
the five years which remained to him he acted as ed. first of the _New
Monthly Magazine_, and then of _Hood's Monthly Magazine_. In his last
year a Government pension of L100 was granted to his wife. Among his
other writings may be mentioned _Tylney Hall_, a novel which had little
success, and _Up the Rhine_, in which he satirised the English tourist.
Considering the circumstances of pressure under which he wrote, it is
little wonder that much of his work was ephemeral and beneath his powers,
but in his particular line of humour he is unique, while his serious
poems are instinct with imagination and true pathos. A few of them, such
as _The Song of the Shirt_, and _The Bridge of Sighs_ are perfect in
their kind.

_Life_ by his _s._ and _dau._ Ed. of _Works_ by same (7 vols. 1862).
Selections, with Biography, by Ainger, 1897.


HOOK, THEODORE EDWARD (1788-1841).--Dramatist and novelist, _s._ of James
H., music-hall composer, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Harrow. As a
boy he wrote words for his father's comic dramas. In 1805 he produced a
comic opera, _The Soldier's Return_, which was followed by _Catch Him who
Can_. Both of them were highly successful, and were followed by many
others. His marvellous powers as a conversationalist and _improvisatore_
made him a favourite in the highest circles. In 1812 he received the
appointment of Accountant-General of Mauritius, which he held for 5
years, when serious irregularities were discovered, and he was sent home
in disgrace, prosecuted by Government for a claim of L12,000, and
imprisoned. It subsequently appeared that the actual peculation had been
the work of a subordinate, and that H. himself was only chargeable with
gross neglect of duty, but though he was released the claims against him
were not departed from. He then became ed. of _John Bull_, a journal of
high Tory and aristocratic proclivities, which he conducted with great
ability; he also ed. the _New Monthly Magazine_, and wrote many novels,
among which were _Sayings and Doings_ (3 series), _Gilbert Gurney_, and
_Jack Brag_. Though making a large income, he was always in difficulties,
and, after a long struggle with broken health and spirits, he _d._ at
Fulham in 1841.


HOOK, WALTER FARQUHAR (1798-1875).--Biographer, _s._ of James H., Dean of
Worcester, _b._ at Worcester, and _ed._ at Winchester and Oxf. Entering
the Church, he held various benefices, and became Vicar of Leeds (where,
largely owing to his exertions, 20 new churches and many schools were
built), and afterwards Dean of Chichester. Besides his labours as a
churchman he was a voluminous author, his works including _Church
Dictionary_ (1842), _Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Biography_ (1845-52),
and _Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury_ (1860-75), on which he was
still engaged at his death, and which he had brought down to Juxon, vol.
xi. His sermon _Hear the Church_ (1838), in which he affirmed the
Apostolical succession of the Anglican episcopate, attracted much
attention.


HOOKER, RICHARD (1554?-1600).--Theologian, _b._ near Exeter, of a family
the original name of which was Vowell. His ability and gentleness as a
schoolboy recommended him to the notice of Bishop Jewel, who sent him to
Corpus Christi Coll., Oxf., where he graduated and became a Fellow in
1577. His proficiency in Hebrew led to his appointment in 1579 as Deputy
Prof. Two years later, 1581, he took orders, and soon thereafter
advantage was taken of his simplicity to entrap him into an unsuitable
marriage with a woman named Joan Churchman, whose mother had nursed him
in an illness. As might have been expected, the connection turned out
unhappily, his wife being a scold, and, according to Anthony Wood, "a
silly, clownish woman." His fate may, however, have been mitigated by the
fact that his own temper was so sweet that he is said never to have been
seen angry. Some doubt, moreover, has been cast on some of the reported
details of his domestic life. In 1584 he received the living of
Drayton-Beauchamp, in Bucks, and in the following year was appointed
Master of the Temple. Here he had for a colleague as evening lecturer
Walter Travers, a man of mark among the Puritans. Though both men were of
the finest moral character, their views on ecclesiastical questions were
widely different, and as neither was disposed to conceal his opinions, it
came to be said that in the Temple "the pulpit spake pure Canterbury in
the morning and Geneva in the afternoon." Things developed into an
animated controversy, in which H. was considered to have triumphed, and
the Archbishop (Whitgift) suspended Travers. The position, however, had
become intolerable for H. who respected his opponent in spite of their
differences, and he petitioned Whitgift that he might retire to the
country and find time and quiet to complete his great work, the
_Ecclesiastical Polity_, on which he was engaged. He was accordingly, in
1591, presented to the living of Boscombe near Amesbury, and made
sub-Dean and a minor Prebendary of Salisbury. Here he finished _The Four
Books of the Lawes of Ecclesiastical Polity_, _pub._ in 1594. The
following year he was presented by Queen Elizabeth to the living of
Bishopsbourne, Kent. Here the fifth book was _pub._ (1597), and here he
_d._ in 1600. The sixth and eighth books were not _pub._ until 1648, and
the seventh only appeared in 1662. The _Ecclesiastical Polity_ is one of
the greatest achievements alike in English theology and English
literature, a masterpiece of reasoning and eloquence, in a style stately
and sonorous, though often laborious and involved. Hallam considered that
no English writer had better displayed the capacities of the language.
The argument is directed against the Romanists on the one hand and the
Puritans on the other, and the fundamental idea is "the unity and all
embracing character of law as the manifestation of the divine order of
the universe." The distinguishing note of H.'s character was what Fuller
calls his "dove-like simplicity." Izaak Walton, his biographer, describes
him as "an obscure, harmless man, in poor clothes, of a mean stature and
stooping ... his body worn out, not with age, but study, and holy
mortification, his face full of heat-pimples ... and tho' not purblind,
yet short, or weak, sighted." In his calling as a parish priest he was
faithful and diligent. In preaching "his voice was low ... gesture none
at all, standing stone-still in the pulpit." The sixth book of the
_Ecclesiastical Polity_ has been considered of doubtful authority, and to
have no claim to its place, and the seventh and eighth are believed to
have been put together from rough notes. Some of his MSS. were destroyed
after his death by his wife's relatives. The epithet "judicious" attached
to his name first appears in the inscription on his monument at
Bishopsbourne.

_Works_, ed. by Keble (1836); new ed. revised by Church, etc. (1888). It
includes the _Life_ by I. Walton.


HOOLE, JOHN (1727-1803).--Translator, _s._ of a watch-maker and inventor,
was _b._ in London, and was in the India House, of which he rose to be
principal auditor (1744-83). He translated Tasso's _Jerusalem Delivered_
(1763), and Ariosto's _Orlando Furioso_ (1773-83), as well as other works
from the Italian. He was also the author of three dramas, which failed.
He is described by Scott as "a noble transmuter of gold into lead."


HOPE, THOMAS (1770-1831).--Novelist and writer on art, was a wealthy
merchant of Amsterdam, of Scotch descent, his family having emigrated to
Holland in the 17th century. In early life he spent much time in travel,
studying architecture, and collecting objects of art. Returning, he
settled in London, and occupied himself in arranging his vast
collections. In 1807 he _pub._ a work on _Household Furniture and
Decoration_, which had a great effect in improving the public taste in
such matters. This was followed by two magnificent works, _On the Costume
of the Ancients_ (1809), and _Designs of Modern Costumes_ (1812). Up to
this time his reputation had been somewhat that of a transcendent
upholsterer, but in 1819 he astonished the literary world by his novel,
_Anastasius; or, Memoirs of a Modern Greek_, a work full of imagination,
descriptive power, and knowledge of the world. This book, which was
_pub._ anonymously, was attributed to Byron, and only credited to the
author on his avowing it in _Blackwood's Magazine_. H. also wrote a
treatise on the _Origin and Prospects of Man_, and _Essays on
Architecture_. He was a munificent and discerning patron of rising
artists.


HORNE, RICHARD HENRY or HENGIST (1803-1884).--Eccentric poet, was _b._ in
London, and _ed._ at Sandhurst for the East India Company Service, but
failed to get a nomination. After a youth of adventure, partly in the
Mexican Navy, he returned to England, and began in 1828 a highly
combative literary career with a poem, _Hecatompylos_, in the _Athenaeum_.
His next appearance, _The False Medium_ (1833), an exposition of the
obstacles thrown in the way of "men of genius" by literary middlemen,
raised a nest of hornets; and _Orion_, an "epic poem," _pub._ 1843 at the
price of one farthing, followed. His plays, which include _Cosmo de
Medici_ (1837), _The Death of Marlowe_ (1837), and _Judas Iscariot_, did
not add greatly to his reputation. In _The New Spirit of the Age_ (1844),
he had the assistance of Mrs. Browning. Though a writer of talent, he was
not a poet.


HORNE, THOMAS HARTWELL (1780-1862).--Theologian, _ed._ at Christ's
Hospital, was for a time in the law, but became a great biblical scholar,
and in 1818 _pub._ _Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of
the Holy Scriptures_ (1818), in consideration of which he was admitted to
orders without the usual preliminaries, and in 1833 obtained a benefice
in London and a prebend in St. Paul's, and was senior assistant in the
printed books department of the British Museum (1824-60). He wrote an
_Introduction to the Study of Bibliography_ (1814), and various other
works, but he is chiefly remembered in connection with that first
mentioned, which was frequently reprinted, and was very widely used as a
text-book both at home and in America.


HOUGHTON, RICHARD MONCKTON MILNES, 1ST LORD (1809-1885).--Poet, _s._ of
Robert (known as "single-speech") M., _b._ in London, and _ed._ privately
and at Camb. He sat in the House of Commons for Pontefract from 1837-63,
when he was raised to the Peerage. His interests were, however, mainly
literary and philanthropic, and it was said of him that he "knew
everybody worth knowing at home and abroad;" and his sympathies being of
the widest, he was able to bring together the most opposite extremes of
life and opinion. He championed the cause of oppressed nationalities, and
of the slave. He _pub._ many vols. of poetry, among which were _Poetry
for the People_ (1840), and _Palm Leaves_ (1848). He also wrote a Life of
Keats, and various books of travels. Though he had not the depth of mind
or intensity of feeling to make a great poet, his verse is the work of a
man of high culture, graceful and refined, and a few of his shorter
poems--such as _The Beating of my own Heart_, and _Strangers Yet_, strike
a true note which gained for them wide acceptance.


HOWARD, EDWARD (_d._ 1841).--Novelist, a sea-comrade of Captain Marryat,
and as sub ed. assisted him in conducting the _Metropolitan Magazine_. He
wrote several sea novels, of which _Rattlin the Reefer_, sometimes
attributed to Marryat, is the best known. Others were _Outward Bound_ and
_Jack Ashore_.


HOWARD, SIR ROBERT (1626-1698).--Dramatist, _s._ of the Earl of
Berkshire, and brother-in-law of Dryden. On the outbreak of the Civil War
he was of the King's party, and was imprisoned during the Commonwealth.
After the Restoration, however, he was in favour with the Court, and held
many important posts. He wrote some plays, of which the best was _The
Committee_, and collaborated with Dryden in _The Indian Queen_. He was at
odds with him, however, on the question of rhyme, the use of which he
wrote against in very indifferent blank verse.


HOWE, JOHN (1630-1705).--Puritan divine, _b._ at Loughborough, of which
his _f._ was curate, studied at Camb., and became, in 1652, minister of
Great Torrington, Devonshire, where he was famous for the unusual length
of his sermons and prayers. In 1657 Oliver Cromwell made him his resident
chaplain at Whitehall, a position which he retained under Richard C., so
long as the latter held the office of Protector. On the Restoration H.
returned to Great Torrington, from which, however, he was ejected in
1662. Thereafter he wandered from place to place, preaching in secret
until 1671, when he went to Ireland as chaplain to Lord Massareene, and
in 1675 he became minister of a dissenting congregation in London. In
1685 he travelled with Lord Wharton on the Continent, but returned in
1687 to London, where he _d._ in 1705. H. was the author of many
excellent works of practical divinity, among which are _The Living
Temple_, _Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Trinity_, and _The Divine
Presence_. The substance of his writings is better than their style,
which is involved and extremely diffuse, and evinces much vigour of mind.
H. is described as of a fine presence and dignified manners.


HOWELL, JAMES (1594?-1666).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a clergyman at
Abernant, Caermarthenshire, was at Oxf. and spent the greater part of his
earlier life travelling in various Continental countries, including the
Low Countries, France, Spain, and Italy, on various matters of business,
during which he became versed in many languages, and amassed stores of
information and observations on men and manners. He was a keen Royalist,
and was on this account imprisoned in the Fleet, 1643-51. He wrote a
large number of books, including _Dodona's Grove_, a political allegory,
_Instructions for Foreign Travel_ (1642), _England's Tears for the
Present Wars_, _A Trance, or News from Hell_, and above all, _Epistolae
Ho-Elianae, Familiar Letters_, chiefly written in the Fleet to imaginary
correspondents, but no doubt based upon notes of his own travels. It is
one of the most interesting and entertaining books in the language.


HOWIE, JOHN (1735-1793).--Biographer, a Renfrewshire farmer, who claimed
descent from an Albigensian refugee, wrote Lives of the martyrs of
Scotland from Patrick Hamilton, the first, to James Renwick, the last,
under the title of _Scots Worthies_. The work of an unlettered man, it
has considerable merit as regards both matter and style, and was long a
classic among the Scottish peasantry as well as higher orders of the
people.


HOWITT, WILLIAM (1792-1879), HOWITT, MARY (BOTHAM)
(1799-1888).--Miscellaneous writers. William H. was _b._ at Heanor,
Derbyshire, and was apprenticed to a builder; Mary was _b._ at Coleford,
Gloucestershire; they _m._ in 1821, and settled at Hanley, where they
carried on business as chemists. Two years later they removed to
Nottingham, where they remained for 12 years, and where much of their
literary work was accomplished. Thereafter they lived successively at
Esher, London, Heidelberg, and Rome, at the last of which they both _d._
Their literary work, which was very voluminous, was done partly in
conjunction, partly independently, and covered a considerable variety of
subjects--poetry, fiction, history, translations, and social and
economical subjects. Useful and pleasing in its day, little of it is
likely to survive. William's works include _A History of Priestcraft_
(1833), _Rural Life in England_ (1837), _Visits to Remarkable Places_,
_Homes and Haunts of the Poets_, _Land, Labour, and Gold_ (1855), _Rural
Life in Germany_, _History of the Supernatural_, and _History of
Discovery in Australia_. Mary translated the Swedish novels of Frederica
Bremer, H.C. Andersen's _Improvisatore_, and wrote novels, including
_Wood Leighton_ and _The Cost of Caergwyn_, many successful tales and
poems for children, and a _History of the United States_. Their joint
productions include _The Forest Minstrel_, _Book of the Seasons_, and
_Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain_. Both brought up as Quakers,
they left that communion in 1847, and became believers in spiritualism;
and in 1882 Mary joined the Church of Rome.


HUCHOWN, or SIR HUGH of EGLINTON (_fl._ 14th cent.).--Unless identified
with Sir Hugh, Huchown is shrouded in mystery. He was a writer of
alliterative verse, referred to by Andrew of Wyntoun. If he be identified
with Sir Hugh, he was an Ayrshire nobleman related to Robert II., _b.c._
1300-20, Chamberlain of Cunningham, Justiciar of Lothian, and
Commissioner for the Borders. He also held office under David II. In that
case also he is believed by some scholars to have translated the poems
bearing the titles _The Destruction of Troy_ and _The Wars of Alexander_.


HUGHES, JOHN (1677-1720).--Essayist and dramatist, was a clerk in the
Ordnance Office, then sec. for the Commission of the Peace. He
contributed to the _Spectator_, _Tatler_, and _Guardian_, ed. Spenser,
and wrote several dramas, of which the best is _The Siege of Damascus_.
It was his last, he having _d._ on the first night of its performance.
Addison thought so well of his dramatic talent that he requested him to
write the conclusion of _Cato_. He, however, finished it himself. H. was
a highly respectable person, and is affectionately commemorated by Sir
Richard Steele.


HUGHES, THOMAS (1823?-1896).--Novelist and biographer, _s._ of a
Berkshire squire, was _ed._ at Rugby and Oxf., and called to the Bar in
1848. Much the most successful of his books was _Tom Brown's School-days_
(1856), which had an immense popularity, and perhaps remains the best
picture of English public-school life in the language. Its sequel, _Tom
Brown at Oxford_ (1861), was a comparative failure, but his _Scouring of
the White Horse_ deals in a charming way with his own countryside. He
also wrote Lives of Alfred the Great, Bishop Fraser, and D. Macmillan,
the publisher. H. devoted much attention to philanthropic work in
conjunction with Kingsley and Maurice. In 1882 he was appointed a County
Court Judge.


HUME, ALEXANDER (1560-1609).--Poet, _s._ of Patrick, 5th Lord Polwarth,
_ed._ at St. Andrews, and on the Continent, was originally destined for
the law, but devoted himself to the service of the Church, and was
minister of Logie in Stirlingshire. He _pub._ in 1599 _Hymns and Sacred
Songs_, including the beautiful "Day Estival," descriptive of a summer
day.


HUME, DAVID, (1711-1776).--Philosopher and historian, second _s._ of
Joseph H., of Ninewells, Berwickshire, was _b._ and _ed._ in Edin., and
was intended for the law. For this, however, he had no aptitude, and
commercial pursuits into which he was initiated in a counting-house in
Bristol proving equally uncongenial, he was permitted to follow out his
literary bent, and in 1734 went to France, where he passed three years at
Rheims and La Fleche in study, living on a small allowance made him by
his _f._ In 1739 he _pub._ anonymously his _Treatise on Human Nature_,
which attracted little attention. Having returned to Scotland, he wrote
at Ninewells his _Essays, Moral and Philosophical_ (1741-42). He now
became desirous of finding some employment which would put him in a
position of independence, and having been unsuccessful in his candidature
for the Chair of Moral Philosophy in Edin., he became in 1745 governor to
the Marquis of Annandale, a nobleman whose state was little removed from
insanity. Two years later he accepted the more congenial appointment of
Judge-Advocate-General to General St. Clair on his expedition to Port
L'Orient, and in 1748 accompanied him on a diplomatic mission to France,
whence he passed on to Vienna and Turin. About the same time he produced
his _Philosophical Essays_ (1748), including the famous _Essay in
Miracles_ which gave rise to so much controversy. These were followed in
1751 by his _Enquiry into the Principles of Morals_, which he considered
his best work; and in 1752 by his _Political Discourses_, which alone of
his works had an immediate success. In the same year he applied
unsuccessfully for the Chair of Logic in Glasgow, but was appointed
Keeper of the Advocates' Library in Edin. The access to books and
original authorities which this position gave him appears to have
suggested to his mind the idea of writing a history, and the first vol.
of his _History of England_, containing the reigns of James I. and
Charles I., was _pub._ in 1754. Its reception was not favourable, and the
disappointment of the author was so great that, had it not been for the
state of war between the two countries, he would have left his native
land, changed his name, and settled permanently in France. The second
vol., which appeared in 1757, dealing with the Commonwealth, and the
reigns of Charles II. and James II., had a better reception, and had the
effect of "buoying up its unfortunate brother." Thereafter the tide
completely turned, and the remaining four vols., 1759 and 1762, in which
he turned back and finished the history from the invasion of Julius Caesar
to the accession of Henry VII., attained a vast popularity, which
extended to the whole work. During the progress of the history H. _pub._
in 1757 _Four Dissertations: the Natural History of Religion; of the
Passions; of Tragedy; of the Standard of Taste_. Two others on _Suicide_
and on _The Immortality of the Soul_ were cancelled, but _pub._
posthumously. In 1763 H. accompanied Lord Hertford to Paris, and for a
few months acted as _Charge d'Affaires_. While there he was introduced to
the brilliant literary society for which the French capital was then
famous. Among other acquaintances which he made was that of Rousseau,
whom he persuaded to accompany him on his return home, and for whom he
procured a pension. The suspicious and fickle character of R., however,
soon brought the friendship to an end. Soon after his return H. received
a pension, and from 1767-68 he was under-sec. to General Conway, then
Sec. of State. In 1769 he retired, and returned to Edin. with an income
of L1000 a year which, time and place considered, was an ample
competence, and there he spent the remainder of his days, the recognised
head of the intellectual and literary society of the city.

The mind of H. was one of the most original and operative of his age. His
philosophy was largely a questioning of the views of previous
metaphysicians, and he occupied towards mind, considered as a
self-subsisting entity, a position analogous to that assumed by Berkeley
towards matter similarly considered. He profoundly influenced European
thought, and by indirectly calling into being the philosophy of Kant on
the one hand, and that of the Scottish School on the other, created a new
era of thought. As a historian he showed the same originality. He
introduced a new and higher method of writing history than had previously
been practised. Until his time chronicles and contemporary memoirs had,
generally speaking, been all that had been produced; and though his great
work cannot, from its frequent inaccuracies and the fact that it is not
based upon original documents, claim the character of an authority, its
clear, graceful, and spirited narrative style, and its reflection of the
individuality of the writer, constitute it a classic, and it must always
retain a place among the masterpieces of historical literature. In
character H. was kindly, candid, and good-humoured, and he was beloved as
a man even by many who held his views in what was little short of
abhorrence.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1711, _ed._ at Edin., tries law and commerce, but decides
for literature, goes to France 1734-37, _pub._ _Human Nature_ 1739,
_Essays Moral and Philosophical_ 1741-2, governor to M. of Annandale
1745, accompanies expedition to L'Orient, engaged diplomatically 1748,
_pub._ _Philosophical Essays_, including _Miracles_ 1748, _Enquiry into
Principles of Morals_ 1751, _Political Discourses_ 1752, Keeper of
Advocates' Library 1752, _pub._ _History of England_ 1754-62, _Four
Dissertations_ 1757, _Charge d'Affaires_ at Paris 1763, became acquainted
with Rousseau, under-sec. of State 1767-8, retires and settles in Edin.
1769.

_Life_ by Hill Burton (2 vols., 1846), shorter ones by Huxley, Knight,
and Calderwood. _Works_ ed. by Green and Grose (4 vols., 1874). _History_
often reprinted with Smollett's continuations.


HUNNIS, WILLIAM (_d._ 1597).--Poet, was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal
to Edward VI., imprisoned during the reign of Mary, but after the
accession of Elizabeth was released, and in 1566 made "master of the
children" of the Chapel Royal. He wrote metrical versions of the Psalms,
and some vols. of verse, _A Hiveful of Honey_, and _A Handful of
Honeysuckles_.


HUNT, JAMES HENRY LEIGH (1784-1859).--Essayist and poet, was _b._ at
Southgate, and _ed._ at Christ's Hospital. A selection of his earliest
poems was _pub._ by his _f._ in 1801 under the title of _Juvenilia_. In
1805 he joined his brother John in conducting a paper, the _News_, which
the latter had started. Thereafter the brothers embarked upon the
_Examiner_, a paper of pronounced Radical views. The appearance in this
journal of an article on the Prince Regent in which he was described in
words which have been condensed into "a fat Adonis of fifty," led to H.
being fined L500 and imprisoned for two years. With his customary genial
philosophy, however, the prisoner made the best of things, turned his
cell into a study, with bookcases and a piano, and his yard into a
garden. He had the sympathy of many, and received his friends, including
Byron, Moore, and Lamb. On his release he _pub._ his poem, _The Story of
Rimini_. Two other vols. of poetry followed, _The Feast of the Poets_ and
_Foliage_, in 1814 and 1818 respectively. In the latter year he started
the _Indicator_, a paper something in the style of the _Spectator_ or
_Tatler_, and after this had run its course the _Companion_, conceived on
similar lines, took its place in 1828. In 1822 H. went to Italy with
Byron, and there established the _Liberal_, a paper which did not prove a
success. Disillusioned with Byron, H. returned home, and _pub._ in 1828
_Lord Byron and his Contemporaries_, a work which gave great offence to
Byron's friends, who accused the author of ingratitude. In 1834 H.
started the _London Journal_, which he ed. for two years. Among his later
works are _Captain Sword and Captain Pen_ (1835), _The Palfrey_, a poem,
_A Legend of Florence_ (drama), _Imagination and Fancy_ (1844), _Wit and
Humour_ (1846), _A Jar of Honey from Mount Hybla_ (1848), _The Old Court
Suburb_ (1855), _The Town_, _Sir Ralph Esher_, a novel, and his
Autobiography (1850). Although his poems have considerable descriptive
power and brightness, he had not the depth and intensity to make a poet,
and his reputation rests rather upon his essays, which are full of a
genial philosophy, and display a love of books, and everything pleasant
and beautiful. He did much to popularise the love of poetry and
literature in general among his fellow-countrymen.


HURD, RICHARD (1720-1808).--Divine, and miscellaneous writer, _b._ at
Congreve, Staffordshire, was _ed._ at Camb., and entering the Church,
became Bishop successively of Lichfield and Worcester. He produced an ed.
of the _Ars Poetica_ of Horace, _Dissertations on Poetry_, _Dialogues on
Sincerity_, _Letters on Chivalry and Romance_, and _An Introduction to
the Prophecies_. He was in 1783 offered, but declined, the Primacy.


HUTCHESON, FRANCIS (1694-1746).--Philosopher, _b._ in Ireland, and _ed._
for the Presbyterian ministry at Glasgow Univ. After keeping an academy
at Dublin for some years he _pub._ his _Enquiry into Beauty and Virtue_,
which won for him a great reputation. In 1729 he became Prof. of Moral
Philosophy at Glasgow, where he exercised a great influence over his
students, and also upon the Scottish system of philosophy. In his
philosophical views he was to some extent a disciple of Shaftesbury. He
introduced the term, "moral sense," which he defined as a power of
perceiving moral attributes in action. His _System of Moral Philosophy_
appeared posthumously in two vols.


HUTCHINSON, MRS. LUCY (_b._ 1620).--Biographer, _dau._ of Sir Allan
Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower of London, _m._ in 1638 John, afterwards
Colonel, Hutchinson, one of those who signed the death-warrant of Charles
I., but who afterwards protested against the assumption of supreme power
by Cromwell. She has a place in literature for her Life of her husband,
one of the most interesting biographies in the language, not only on
account of its immediate subject, but of the light which it throws upon
the characteristics and conditions of the life of Puritans of good
family. Originally intended for her family only, it was printed by a
descendant in 1806, and did much to clear away the false impressions as
to the narrowness and austerity of the educated Puritans which had
prevailed. Colonel H. and his wife were noble representatives of their
class.


HUTTON, RICHARD HOLT (1826-1897).--Essayist and miscellaneous writer, was
brought up as a Unitarian, and for some time was a preacher of that body,
but coming under the influence of F.D. Maurice and others of his school,
joined the Church of England. He was a frequent contributor to various
magazines and reviews, and assisted Walter Bagehot in ed. the _National
Review_. In 1861 he became joint-proprietor and ed. of the _Spectator_.
Among his other writings may be mentioned _Essays, Theological and
Literary_ (1871), _Modern Guides of English Thought_ (1887), and
_Contemporary Thought and Thinkers_ (1894), which were more or less
reprints or expansions of his work in periodicals, and a memoir of
Bagehot prefixed to an ed. of his works.


HUXLEY, THOMAS HENRY (1825-1895).--Scientific writer, _s._ of an
assistant master in a public school, was _b._ at Ealing. From childhood
he was an insatiable reader. In his 13th year he became a medical
apprentice, and in 1842 entered Charing Cross Hospital. Thereafter he was
for a few months surgeon on board the _Victory_ at Haslar, and was then
appointed surgeon on H.M.S. _Rattlesnake_, which was sent to make surveys
at Torres Strait. While in this position he made numerous observations,
which he communicated to the Linnaean Society. In 1851 he became a Fellow
of the Royal Society, and in 1854 Prof. of Natural History at the School
of Mines. Henceforth his life was a very full one, divided between
scientific investigation and public work. He was recognised as the
foremost English biologist, and was elected Pres. of the Royal Society
1883. He served on the London School Board and on various Royal
Commissions. His writings are in the main distinguished by a clearness,
force, and charm which entitle them to a place in literature; and besides
the addition which they made to the stock of human knowledge, they did
much to diffuse a love and study of science. H. was a keen
controversialist, contending for the strictly scientific view of all
subjects as distinguished from the metaphysical or theological, and
accordingly encountered much opposition, and a good deal of abuse.
Nevertheless, he was not a materialist, and was in sympathy with the
moral and tender aspects of Christianity. He was a strong supporter of
the theory of evolution. Among the more eminent of his opponents were
Bishop Wilberforce and Mr. Gladstone. His _pub._ works, including
scientific communications, are very numerous. Among the more important
are those on the _Medusae_, _Zoological Evidences of Man's Place in
Nature_ (1863), _Elementary Lessons on Physiology_ (1866), _Evolution and
Ethics_ (1893), _Collected Essays_ (9 vols. 1893-4). He was also an
admirable letter-writer, as appears from the _Life and Letters_, ed. by
his son, and to him we owe the word, and almost the idea, "Agnostic."


INCHBALD, MRS. ELIZABETH (SIMPSON) (1753-1821).--Novelist and dramatist,
_dau._ of a Suffolk farmer. In a romantic fit she left her home at the
age of 16, and went to London, where she became acquainted with Inchbald
the actor, who _m._ her in 1772. Seven years later her husband _d._, and
for the next ten years she was on the stage, chiefly in Scotland and
Ireland. She produced many plays, including _Mogul Tale_ (1784), _I'll
Tell you What_ (1785), _Appearance is against Them_ (1785), _Such Things
Are_, _The Married Man_, _The Wedding Day_, and two novels, _A Simple
Story_ (1791), and _Nature and Art_ (1796), which have been frequently
reprinted. She also made a collection of plays, _The Modern Theatre_, in
10 vols. Her life was remarkable for its simplicity and frugality, and a
large part of her earnings was applied in the maintenance of a delicate
sister. Though of a somewhat sentimental and romantic nature, she
preserved an unblemished reputation.


INGELOW, JEAN (1820-1897).--Poetess and novelist, _dau._ of a banker at
Boston, Lincolnshire, _pub._ three vols. of poems, of which perhaps the
best known individual piece is "The High Tide on the Coast of
Lincolnshire," and several successful novels, including _Off the
Skelligs_ (1872), _Fated to be Free_ (1875), and _Sarah de Berenger_
(1879). She also wrote excellent stories for children, _Mopsa the Fairy_,
_Stories told to Children_, etc. Her poems show a considerable lyric
gift.


INNES, COSMO (1798-1874).--Historian and antiquary, was called to the
Scottish Bar in 1822, and was appointed Prof. of Constitutional Law and
History in the Univ. of Edin. in 1846. He was the author of _Scotland in
the Middle Ages_ (1860), and _Sketches of Early Scottish History_ (1861).
He also ed. many historical MSS. for the Bannatyne and other antiquarian
clubs. Much learning is displayed in his works.


INNES, THOMAS (1662-1744).--Historian, was descended from an old Roman
Catholic family in Aberdeenshire. He studied in Paris at the Scots Coll.,
of which he became Principal. He was the author of two learned works,
_Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of the Northern Parts of
Britain_ (1729), and _Civil and Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, 80 to
818_ (_pub._ by the Spalding Club, 1853).


IRELAND, WILLIAM HENRY (1777-1835).--Forger of Shakespeare manuscripts,
_s._ of an antiquarian bookseller in London. He claimed to have
discovered the MSS. in the house of a gentleman of fortune. The forgeries
included various deeds, a Protestant confession of faith by Shakespeare,
letters to Ann Hathaway, Southampton, and others, a new version of _King
Lear_, and a complete drama, _Vortigern and Rowena_. He completely
deceived his _f._ and various men of letters and experts, but was
detected by Malone, and the representation of _Vortigern_ on the stage
completed the exposure. I. then tried novel-writing, in which he failed.
He _pub._ a confession in regard to the forgeries, in which he asserted
that his _f._ had no part in the imposture, but had been completely
deceived by it.


IRVING, EDWARD (1792-1834).--Theologian and orator, _b._ at Annan,
Dumfriesshire, and _ed._ at Edin. Univ., for some years thereafter was
engaged in teaching at Kirkcaldy. Ordained to the ministry of the Church
of Scotland he became, in 1819, assistant to Dr. Chalmers in Glasgow,
after which he went to the Scotch Church in Hatton Gardens, London, where
he had an almost unprecedented popularity, his admirers including De
Quincey, Coleridge, Canning, Scott, and others. The effect of his spoken
oratory is not preserved in his writings, and was no doubt in a
considerable degree due to his striking appearance and fine voice. He is
described as "a tall, athletic man, with dark, sallow complexion and
commanding features; long, glossy black hair, and an obvious squint."
Soon after removing to a new church in Regent Square he began to develop
his views relative to the near approach of the Second Advent; and his
_Homilies on the Sacraments_ involved him in a charge of heretical views
on the person of Christ, which resulted in his ejection from his church,
and ultimately in his deposition from the ministry. Thereafter his views
as to the revival, as in the early Church, of the gifts of healing and of
tongues, to which, however, he made no personal claim, underwent rapid
development, and resulted in the founding of a new communion, the
Catholic Apostolic Church, the adherents of which are commonly known as
"Irvingites." Whether right or mistaken in his views there can be no
doubt of the personal sincerity and nobility of the man. His _pub._
writings include _For the Oracles of God_, _For Judgment to Come_, and
_The Last Days_, and contain many passages of majestic eloquence.


IRVING, WASHINGTON (1783-1859).--Essayist and historian, _b._ in New
York, _s._ of William I. who had emigrated from Scotland. He was in his
youth delicate, and his education was somewhat desultory, but his _f._
had a fine library, of which he had the run, and he was an omnivorous
reader. In 1799 he entered a law office, but a threatening of consumption
led to his going, in 1804, on a European tour in search of health. On his
return in 1806 he was admitted to the Bar. He did not, however, prosecute
law, but joined his brothers in business as a sleeping partner, while he
devoted himself to literature. In 1807 he conducted _Salmagundi_, an
amusing miscellany, and in 1809 appeared _A History of New York by
Diedrich Knickerbocker_, a burlesque upon the old Dutch settlers, which
has become a classic in America. He made in 1815 a second visit to
Europe, from which he did not return for 17 years. In England he was
welcomed by Thomas Campbell, the poet, who introduced him to Scott, whom
he visited at Abbotsford in 1817. The following year the firm with which
he was connected failed, and he had to look to literature for a
livelihood. He produced _The Sketch-Book_ (1819), which was, through the
influence of Scott, accepted by Murray, and had a great success on both
sides of the Atlantic. In 1822 he went to Paris, where he began
_Bracebridge Hall_, followed in 1824 by _Tales of a Traveller_. In 1826
Everett, the American minister at Madrid, invited him to come and assist
him by making translations relative to Columbus, which opened up to him a
new field hitherto little cultivated. The result was a series of
fascinating historical and romantic works, beginning with _History of the
Life and Voyages of Columbus_ (1828), and including _The Conquest of
Granada_ (1829), _Voyages of the Companions of Columbus_ (1831), _The
Alhambra_ (1832), _Legends of the Conquest of Spain_ (1835), and _Mahomet
and his Successors_ (1849). Meanwhile he had returned to England in 1829,
and to America in 1832. In 1842 he was appointed Minister to Spain, and
in 1846 he finally returned to America. In the same year he _pub._ a
_Life of Goldsmith_, and his great work, the _Life of Washington_, came
out 1855-59, _Wolfert's Roost_, a collection of tales and essays,
appeared in 1855. I. was never _m._: in his youth he had been engaged to
a girl who _d._, and whose memory he faithfully cherished. His last years
were spent at Sunnyside, an old Dutch house near his "sleepy hollow," and
there he _d._ suddenly on Nov. 28, 1859. Though not, perhaps, a writer of
commanding power or originality, I., especially in his earlier works,
imparted by his style and treatment a singular charm to every subject he
touched, and holds a high place among American men of letters, among whom
he is the first who has produced what has, on its own merits, living
interest in literature. He was a man of high character and amiable
disposition.


JAMES I., KING of SCOTLAND (1394-1437).--Poet, the third _s._ of Robert
III., was _b._ at Dunfermline. In 1406 he was sent for safety and
education to France, but on the voyage was taken prisoner by an English
ship, and conveyed to England, where until 1824 he remained confined in
various places, but chiefly in the Tower of London. He was then ransomed
and, after his marriage to Lady Jane or Joan Beaufort, _dau._ of the Duke
of Somerset, and the heroine of _The King's Quhair_ (or Book), crowned at
Scone. While in England he had been carefully _ed._, and on his return to
his native country endeavoured to reduce its turbulent nobility to due
subjection, and to introduce various reforms. His efforts, however, which
do not appear to have been always marked by prudence, ended disastrously
in his assassination in the monastery of the Black Friars, Perth, in
February, 1437. J. was a man of great natural capacity both intellectual
and practical--an ardent student and a poet of no mean order. In addition
to _The King's Quhair_, one of the finest love poems in existence, and _A
Ballad of Good Counsel_, which are very generally attributed to him, he
has been more doubtfully credited with _Peeblis to the Play_ and
_Christis Kirke on the Greene_.


JAMES, GEORGE PAYNE RAINSFORD (1801-1860).--Novelist and historical
writer, _s._ of a physician in London, was for many years British Consul
at various places in the United States and on the Continent. At an early
age he began to write romances, and continued his production with such
industry that his works reach to 100 vols. This excessive rapidity was
fatal to his permanent reputation; but his books had considerable
immediate popularity. Among them are _Richelieu_ (1829), _Philip
Augustus_ (1831), _The Man at Arms_ (1840), _The Huguenot_ (1838), _The
Robber_, _Henry of Guise_ (1839), _Agincourt_ (1844), _The King's
Highway_ (1840). In addition to his novels he wrote _Memoirs of Great
Commanders_, a _Life of the Black Prince_, and other historical and
biographical works. He held the honorary office of Historiographer Royal.


JAMESON, MRS. ANNA BROWNELL (MURPHY) (1794-1860).--Writer on art, _dau._
of Denis B.M., a distinguished miniature painter, _m._ Robert Jameson, a
barrister (afterwards Attorney-General of Ontario). The union, however,
did not turn out happily: a separation took place, and Mrs. J. turned her
attention to literature, and specially to subjects connected with art.
Among many other works she produced _Loves of the Poets_ (1829),
_Celebrated Female Sovereigns_ (1831), _Beauties of the Court of Charles
II._ (1833), _Rubens_ (translated from the German), _Hand Book to the
Galleries of Art_, _Early Italian Painters_, _Sacred and Legendary Art_
(1848), etc. Her works show knowledge and discrimination and, though now
in many respects superseded, still retain interest and value.


JEBB, SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE (1841-1905).--_B._ at Dundee, and _ed._ at
St. Columba's Coll., Dublin, Charterhouse, and Camb., at the last of
which he lectured on the classics, and was in 1869 elected Public Orator.
After being Prof. of Greek at Glasgow, he held from 1889 the
corresponding chair at Camb., and for a time represented the Univ. in
Parliament. He was one of the founders of the British School of
Archaeology at Athens. Among his works are _The Attic Orators_, _An
Introduction to Homer_, _Lectures on Greek Poetry_, _Life of Richard
Bentley_ (English Men of Letters Series), and he ed. the works of
Sophocles, and the Poems and Fragments of Bacchylides, discovered in
1896. J. was one of the most brilliant of modern scholars.


JEFFERIES, RICHARD (1848-1887).--Naturalist and novelist, _s._ of a
farmer, was _b._ at Swindon, Wilts. He began his literary career on the
staff of a local newspaper, and first attracted attention by a letter in
the _Times_ on the Wiltshire labourer. Thereafter he wrote for the _Pall
Mall Gazette_, in which appeared his _Gamekeeper at Home_, and _Wild Life
in a Southern County_ (1879), both afterwards _repub._ Both these works
are full of minute observation and vivid description of country life.
They were followed by _The Amateur Poacher_ (1880), _Wood Magic_ (1881),
_Round about a Great Estate_ (1881), _The Open Air_ (1885), and others on
similar subjects. Among his novels are _Bevis_, in which he draws on his
own childish memories, and _After London, or Wild England_ (1885), a
romance of the future, when London has ceased to exist. _The Story of My
Heart_ (1883) is an idealised picture of his inner life. J. _d._ after a
painful illness, which lasted for six years. In his own line, that of
depicting with an intense sense for nature all the elements of country
and wild life, vegetable and animal, surviving in the face of modern
civilisation, he has had few equals. Life by E. Thomas.


JEFFREY, FRANCIS (1773-1850).--Critic and political writer, _s._ of a
legal official, _b._ in Edinburgh, _ed._ at the High School there, and at
Glasgow and Oxf., where, however, he remained for a few months only.
Returning to Edinburgh he studied law, and was called to the Bar in 1794.
Brought up as a Tory, he early imbibed Whig principles, and this, in the
then political state of Scotland, together with his strong literary
tendencies, long hindered his professional advancement. Gradually,
however, his ability, acuteness, and eloquence carried him to the front
of his profession. He was elected Dean of the Faculty of Advocates in
1829 and, on the accession to power of the Whigs in 1830, became Lord
Advocate, and had a large share in passing the Reform Bill, in so far as
it related to Scotland. In 1832 he was elected M.P. for Edinburgh, and
was raised to the Bench as Lord Jeffrey in 1834. His literary fame rests
on his work in connection with the _Edinburgh Review_, which he edited
from its commencement in 1802 until 1829, and to which he was a constant
contributor. The founding of this periodical by a group of young men of
brilliant talents and liberal sympathies, among whom were Brougham,
Sydney Smith, and F. Horner, constituted the opening of a new epoch in
the literary and political progress of the country. J.'s contributions
ranged over literary criticism, biography, politics, and ethics and,
especially in respect of the first, exercised a profound influence; he
was, in fact, regarded as the greatest literary critic of his age, and
although his judgments have been far from universally supported either by
the event or by later critics, it remains true that he probably did more
than any of his contemporaries to diffuse a love of literature, and to
raise the standard of public taste in such matters. A selection of his
papers, made by himself, was _pub._ in 4 vols. in 1844 and 1853. J. was a
man of brilliant conversational powers, of vast information and sparkling
wit, and was universally admired and beloved for the uprightness and
amiability of his character.


JERROLD, DOUGLAS WILLIAM (1803-1857).--Dramatist and miscellaneous
writer, _s._ of an actor, himself appeared as a child upon the stage.
From his 10th to his 12th year he was at sea. He then became apprentice
to a printer, devoting all his spare time to self-education. He early
began to contribute to periodicals, and in his 18th year he was engaged
by the Coburg Theatre as a writer of short dramatic pieces. In 1829 he
made a great success by his drama of _Black-eyed Susan_, which he
followed up by _The Rent Day_, _Bubbles of the Day_, _Time works
Wonders_, etc. In 1840 he became ed. of a publication, _Heads of the
People_, to which Thackeray was a contributor, and in which some of the
best of his own work appeared. He was one of the leading contributors to
_Punch_, in which _Mrs. Caudle's Curtain Lectures_ came out, and from
1852 he ed. _Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper_. Among his novels are _St. Giles
and St. James_, and _The Story of a Feather_. J. had a great reputation
as a wit, was a genial and kindly man, and a favourite with his fellow
_litterateurs_, who raised a fund of L2000 for his family on his death.


JESSE, JOHN HENEAGE (1815-1874).--Historical writer, _ed._ at Eton, was a
clerk in the Admiralty. He wrote _Memoirs_ of the Court of England, of
G. Selwyn and his contemporaries (1843), of the Pretender (1845), etc.,
and _Celebrated Etonians_ (1875).


JEVONS, WILLIAM STANLEY (1835-1882).--Logician and economist, _b._ in
Liverpool, _s._ of an iron merchant, his mother was the _dau._ of W.
Roscoe (_q.v._). He was _ed._ at the Mechanics Institute High School,
Liverpool, and at University Coll., London. After studying chemistry for
some time he received in 1853 the appointment of assayer to the mint at
Sydney, where he remained until 1859, when he resigned his appointment,
and came home to study mathematics and economics. While in Australia he
had been a contributor to the _Empire_ newspaper, and soon after his
return home he _pub._ _Remarks on the Australian Goldfields_, wrote in
various scientific periodicals, and from time to time _pub._ important
papers on economical subjects. The position which he had attained as a
scientific thinker and writer was recognised by his being appointed in
1863 tutor, and in 1866, Prof. of Logic, Political Economy, and Mental
and Moral Philosophy in Owen's Coll., Manchester. In 1864 he _pub._ _Pure
Logic_ and _The Coal Question_; other works were _Elementary Lessons in
Logic_ (1870), _Principles of Science_ (1874), and _Investigations in
Currency and Finance_ (1884), posthumously. His valuable and promising
life was brought to a premature close by his being drowned while bathing.
His great object in his writings was to place logic and economics in the
position of exact sciences, and in all his work he showed great industry
and care combined with unusual analytical power.


JEWSBURY, GERALDINE ENDSOR (1812-1880).--Novelist, wrote several novels,
of which _Zoe_, _The Half-Sisters_, and _Constance Herbert_ may be
mentioned. She also wrote stories for children, and was a contributor to
various magazines.


JOHN of SALISBURY (1120?-1180?).--_B._ at Salisbury, studied at Paris. He
became sec. to Theobald Archbishop of Canterbury, and retained the office
under Becket. In 1176 he was made Bishop of Chartres. He wrote in Latin,
in 8 books, _Polycraticus, seu De Nugis Curialium et Vestigiis
Philosophorum_ (on the Trifles of the Courtiers, and the Footsteps of the
Philosophers). In it he treats of pastimes, flatterers, tyrannicide, the
duties of kings and knights, virtue and vice, glory, and the right of the
Church to remove kings if in its opinion they failed in their duty. He
also wrote a Life of Anselm. He was one of the greatest scholars of the
Middle Ages.


JOHNSON, LIONEL (1867-1902).--Poet and critic. _Ireland and other Poems_
(2 vols.) (1897), _The Art of Thomas Hardy_, and miscellaneous critical
works.


JOHNSON, SAMUEL (1649-1703).--Political writer, sometimes called "the
Whig" to distinguish him from his great namesake. Of humble extraction,
he was _ed._ at St. Paul's School and Camb., and took orders. He attacked
James II. in _Julian the Apostate_ (1682), and was imprisoned. He
continued, however, his attacks on the Government by pamphlets, and did
much to influence the public mind in favour of the Revolution. Dryden
gave him a place in _Absalom and Achitophel_ as "Benjochanan." After the
Revolution he received a pension, but considered himself insufficiently
rewarded by a Deanery, which he declined.


JOHNSON, SAMUEL (1709-1784).--Moralist, essayist, and lexicographer, _s._
of a bookseller at Lichfield, received his early education at his native
town, and went in 1728 to Oxf., but had, owing to poverty, to leave
without taking a degree. For a short time he was usher in a school at
Market Bosworth, but found the position so irksome that he threw it up,
and gained a meagre livelihood by working for a publisher in Birmingham.
In 1735, being then 26, he _m._ Mrs. Porter, a widow of over 40, who
brought him L800, and to whom he was sincerely attached. He started an
academy at Ediol, near Lichfield, which, however, had no success, only
three boys, one of whom was David Garrick (_q.v._), attending it.
Accordingly, this venture was given up, and J. in 1737 went to London
accompanied by Garrick. Here he had a hard struggle with poverty,
humiliation, and every kind of evil, always, however, quitting himself
like the true man he was. He contributed to the _Gentleman's Magazine_,
furnishing the parliamentary debates in very free and generally much
improved form, under the title of "Debates of the Senate of Lilliput." In
1738 appeared _London_, a satire imitated from Juvenal which, _pub._
anonymously, attracted immediate attention, and the notice of Pope. His
next work was the life of his unfortunate friend Savage (_q.v._) (1744);
and in 1747 he began his great _English Dictionary_. Another satire, _The
Vanity of Human Wishes_, appeared in 1749, and in the same year _Irene_,
a tragedy. His next venture was the starting of the _Rambler_, a paper
somewhat on the lines of the _Spectator_; but, sententious and grave, it
had none of the lightness and grace of its model, and likewise lacked its
popularity. It was almost solely the work of J. himself, and was carried
on twice a week for two years. In 1752 his wife, "his dear Tetty" _d._,
and was sincerely mourned; and in 1755 his _Dictionary_ appeared. The
patronage of Lord Chesterfield (_q.v._), which he had vainly sought, was
then offered, but proudly rejected in a letter which has become a
classic. The work made him famous, and Oxf. conferred upon him the degree
of M.A. He had become the friend of Reynolds and Goldsmith; Burke and
others were soon added. The _Idler_, a somewhat less ponderous successor
of the _Rambler_, appeared in 1758-60, and _Rasselas_, his most popular
work, was written in 1759 to meet the funeral expenses of his mother, who
then _d._ at the age of 90. At last the tide of his fortunes turned. A
pension of L300 was conferred upon him in 1762, and the rest of his days
were spent in honour, and such comfort as the melancholy to which he was
subject permitted. In 1763 he made the acquaintance, so important for
posterity, of James Boswell; and it was probably in the same year that he
founded his famous "literary club." In 1764 he was introduced to Mr.
Thrale, a wealthy brewer, and for many years spent much of his time, an
honoured guest, in his family. The kindness and attentions of Mrs. T.,
described by Carlyle as "a bright papilionaceous creature, whom the
elephant loved to play with, and wave to and fro upon his trunk," were a
refreshment and solace to him. In 1765 his ed. of Shakespeare came out,
and his last great work was the _Lives of the Poets_, in 10 vols.
(1779-81). He had in 1775 _pub._ his _Journey to the Western Isles of
Scotland_, an account of a tour made in the company of Boswell. His last
years were darkened by the loss of friends such as Goldsmith and Thrale,
and by an estrangement from Mrs. T., on her marriage with Piozzi, an
Italian musician. Notwithstanding a lifelong and morbid fear of death,
his last illness was borne with fortitude and calmness, soothed by the
pious attentions of Reynolds and Burke, and he _d._ peacefully on
December 13, 1784. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, and a monument in
St. Paul's was erected by the "club." Statues of him were also erected in
Lichfield and Uttoxeter. He had received from Oxf. and Dublin the degree
of LL.D.

Though of rough and domineering manners, J. had the tenderest of hearts,
and his house was for years the home of several persons, such as Mrs.
Williams and Levett, the surgeon, who had no claim upon him but their
helplessness and friendlessness. As Goldsmith aptly said, he "had nothing
of the bear but his skin." His outstanding qualities were honesty and
courage, and these characterise all his works. Though disfigured by
prejudice and, as regards matters of fact, in many parts superseded, they
remain, as has been said, "some excellent, all worthy and genuine works;"
and he will ever stand one of the greatest and most honourable figures in
the history of English literature. Boswell's marvellous _Life_ has made
J.'s bodily appearance, dress, and manners more familiar to posterity
than those of any other man--the large, unwieldy form, the face seamed
with scrofula, the purblind eyes, the spasmodic movements, the sonorous
voice, even the brown suit, metal buttons, black worsted stockings, and
bushy wig, the conversation so full of matter, strength, sense, wit, and
prejudice, superior in force and sparkle to the sounding, but often
wearisome periods of his written style. Of his works the two most
important are the _Dictionary_, which, long superseded from a
philological point of view, made an epoch in the history of the language,
and the _Lives of the Poets_, many of them deformed by prejudice and
singularly inadequate criticism, others, almost perfect in their kind,
and the whole written in a style less pompous and more natural and lively
than his earlier works.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1709, _ed._ Oxf., usher and hack writer, starts academy at
Ediol, goes to London 1737, reports parliamentary debates, _pub._
_London_ 1738, _Life of Savage_ 1744, began _Dictionary_ 1747, _pub._
_Vanity of Human Wishes_ and _Irene_ 1749, conducts _Rambler_ 1750-52,
_pub._ _Dictionary_ 1755, _Idler_ appears 1758-60, _pub._ _Rasselas_
1759, receives pension 1762, became acquainted with Boswell 1763, _pub._
ed. of _Shakespeare_ 1765, and _Lives of Poets_ 1779-81, _d._ 1784.

Recollections, etc., by Mrs. Piozzi, Reynolds, and others, also
_Johnsoniana_ (Mrs. Napier, 1884), Boswell's _Life_, various ed.,
including that of Napier, 1884, and Birkbeck Hill, 1889.


JOHNSTON, ARTHUR (_c._ 1587-1641).--Poet in Latin, _b._ near Aberdeen,
studied medicine at Padua, where he graduated. After living for about 20
years in France, he returned to England, became physician to Charles I.,
and was afterwards Rector of King's Coll., Aberdeen. He attained a
European reputation as a writer of Latin poetry. Among his works are
_Musae Aulicae_ (1637), and a complete translation of the Psalms, and he
ed. _Deliciae Poetarum Scotorum_, a collection of Latin poetry by Scottish
authors.


JOHNSTONE, CHARLES (1719?-1800).--Novelist. Prevented by deafness from
practising at the Irish Bar, he went to India, where he was proprietor of
a newspaper. He wrote one successful book, _Chrysal, or the Adventures of
a Guinea_, a somewhat sombre satire, and some others now utterly
forgotten.


JONES, EBENEZER (1820-1860).--Poet, wrote a good deal of poetry of very
unequal merit, but at his best shows a true poetic vein. He was
befriended by Browning and Rossetti. His chief work was _Studies of
Sensation and Event_ (1843). His most widely appreciated poems were "To
the Snow," "To Death," and "When the World is Burning." He made an
unhappy marriage, which ended in a separation.


JONES, ERNEST CHARLES (1819-1869).--Poet, novelist, and Chartist, _s._ of
Major J., equerry to the Duke of Cumberland, afterwards King of Hanover,
was _b._ at Berlin. He adopted the views of the Chartists in an extreme
form, and was imprisoned for two years for seditious speeches, and on his
release conducted a Chartist newspaper. Afterwards, when the agitation
had died down, he returned to his practice as a barrister, which he had
deserted, and also wrote largely. He produced a number of novels,
including _The Maid of Warsaw_, _Woman's Wrongs_, and _The Painter of
Florence_, also some poems, _The Battle Day_ (1855), _The Revolt of
Hindostan_ (1857), and _Corayda_ (1859). Some of his lyrics, such as _The
Song of the Poor_, _The Song of the Day Labourers_, and _The Factory
Slave_, were well known.


JONES, SIR WILLIAM (1746-1794).--Orientalist and jurist, was _b._ in
London, and _ed._ at Harrow and Oxf. He lost his _f._, an eminent
mathematician, at 3 years of age. He early showed extraordinary aptitude
for acquiring languages, specially those of the East, and learned 28.
Devoting himself to the study of law he became one of the most profound
jurists of his time. He was appointed one of the Judges in the Supreme
Court of Bengal, knighted in 1783, and started for India, whence he never
returned. While there, in addition to his judicial duties, he pursued his
studies in Oriental languages, from which he made various translations.
Among his original works are _The Enchanted Fruit_, and _A Treatise on
the Gods of Greece, Italy, and India_. He founded the Bengal Asiatic
Society. He left various works unfinished which, with his other writings,
were _coll._ and ed. by Lord Teignmouth. He _d._ universally beloved and
honoured at the early age of 48. His chief legal work was _The Institutes
of Hindu Law or the Ordinances of Manu_.


JONSON, BEN or BENJAMIN (1573-1637).--Poet and dramatist, was probably
_b._ in Westminster. His _f._, who _d._ before Ben was four, seems to
have come from Carlisle, and the family to have originally belonged to
Annandale. He was sent to Westminster School, for which he seems to have
been indebted to the kindness of W. Camden (_q.v._), who was one of the
masters. His mother, meanwhile, had _m._ a bricklayer, and he was for a
time put to that trade, but disliking it, he ran away and joined the
army, fighting against the Spaniards in the Low Countries. Returning to
England about 1592 he took to the stage, both as an actor and as a
playwright. In the former capacity he was unsuccessful. In 1598, having
killed a fellow-actor in a duel, he was tried for murder, but escaped by
benefit of clergy. About the same time he joined the Roman Catholic
Church, in which he remained for 12 years. It was in 1598 also that his
first successful play, _Every Man in his Humour_, was produced, with
Shakespeare as one of the players. _Every Man out of his Humour_ (1599),
_Cynthia's Revels_ (1600), and _The Poetaster_ (1601), satirising the
citizens, the courtiers, and the poets respectively, followed. The last
called forth several replies, the most notable of which was the
_Satiromastix_ (Whip for the Satirist) of Dekker (_q.v._), a severe,
though not altogether unfriendly, retort, which J. took in good part,
announcing his intention of leaving off satire and trying tragedy. His
first work in this kind was _Sejanus_ (1603), which was not very
favourably received. It was followed by _Eastward Ho_, in which he
collaborated with Marston and Chapman. Certain reflections on Scotland
gave offence to James I., and the authors were imprisoned, but soon
released. From the beginning of the new reign J. devoted himself largely
to the writing of Court masques, in which he excelled all his
contemporaries, and about the same time entered upon the production of
the three great plays in which his full strength is shown. The first of
these, _Volpone, or the Fox_, appeared in 1605; _Epicaene, or the Silent
Woman_ in 1609, and _The Alchemist_ in 1610. His second and last tragedy,
_Catiline_, was produced in 1611. Two years later he was in France as
companion to the son of Sir W. Raleigh, and on his return he held up
hypocritical Puritanism to scorn in _Bartholomew Fair_, which was
followed in 1616 by a comedy, _The Devil is an Ass_. In the same year he
_coll._ his writings--plays, poems, and epigrams--in a folio entitled his
_Works_. In 1618 he journeyed on foot to Scotland, where he was received
with much honour, and paid his famous visit to Drummond (_q.v._) at
Hawthornden. His last successful play, _The Staple of Newes_, was
produced in 1625, and in the same year he had his first stroke of palsy,
from which he never entirely recovered. His next play, _The New Inn_, was
driven from the stage, for which in its rapid degeneracy he had become
too learned and too moral. A quarrel with Inigo Jones, the architect, who
furnished the machinery for the Court masques, lost him Court favour, and
he was obliged, with failing powers, to turn again to the stage, for
which his last plays, _The Magnetic Lady_ and _The Tale of a Tub_, were
written in 1632 and 1633. Town and Court favour, however, turned again,
and he received a pension of L100; that of the best poets and lovers of
literature he had always kept. The older poets were his friends, the
younger were proud to call themselves, and be called by him, his sons. In
1637, after some years of gradually failing health, he _d._, and was
buried in Westminster Abbey. An admirer caused a mason to cut on the slab
over his grave the well-known inscription, "O Rare Ben Jonson." He left a
fragment, _The Sad Shepherd_. His works include a number of epigrams and
translations, collections of poems (_Underwoods_ and _The Forest_); in
prose a book of short essays and notes on various subjects,
_Discoveries_.

J. was the founder of a new style of English comedy, original, powerful,
and interesting, but lacking in spontaneity and nature. His characters
tend to become mere impersonations of some one quality or "humour," as he
called it. Thus he is the herald, though a magnificent one, of decadence.
He painted in general with a powerful, but heavy hand; in his masques,
however, he often shows a singular gracefulness, especially in the lyrics
which he introduces. His character, as given by Drummond, is not a
particularly attractive one, "a great lover and praiser of himself, a
contemner and scorner of others, given rather to lose a friend than a
jest, jealous of every word and action of those about him, especially
after drink ... a dissembler of ill parts which reign in him, a bragger
of some good that he wanteth ... passionately kind and angry ...
oppressed with fantasy which hath ever mastered his reason." There must,
however, have been far other qualities in a man who could command, as J.
undoubtedly did, the goodwill and admiration of so many of the finest
minds of his time. In person he was tall, swarthy, marked with small-pox,
and in later years burly.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1573, _ed._ Westminster School, serves in Low Countries,
returns to England 1592, and takes to stage, kills actor in brawl 1598, a
Romanist _c._ 1598-_c._ 1610, _Every Man in his Humour_ 1598, _Every Man
out of his Humour_ 1599, and other plays till 1633, _coll._ works _pub._
1616, visits Drummond 1618, loses and recovers Court favour, _d._ 1637.

Among the ed. of J.'s works may be mentioned those of Gifford (9 vols.,
1816), re-issued (1875), selected plays Mermaid Series (3 vols., 1893-5),
Morley (1884), and Symonds (1886). Lives and studies by Symonds (English
Worthies), and Swinburne (1890).


JORTIN, JOHN (1698-1770).--Ecclesiastical historian, _ed._ at Camb., and
entering the Church held various benefices, becoming in 1764 Archdeacon
of London. He _pub._ _Remarks on Ecclesiastical History_ (1751-54), a
Life of Erasmus, and various miscellaneous pamphlets and tracts; 7 vols.
of sermons appeared after his death. All his works show learning, and are
written in a lively style.


JOWETT, BENJAMIN (1817-1893).--Scholar, was _b._ at Camberwell, and _ed._
at St. Paul's School and Balliol Coll., where he had a distinguished
career, becoming Fellow 1838, Tutor 1840, and Master 1870. He held the
Regius Professorship of Greek 1855-93, though for the first 10 years he
was, owing to the opposition of his theological opponents in the Univ.,
deprived of a large part of the usual emoluments. He was a keen and
formidable controversialist, and was usually found on what was, for the
time, the unpopular side. His contribution (an essay on _The
Interpretation of Scripture_) to the famous _Essays and Reviews_, which
appeared in 1860, brought him into strong collision with powerful
sections of theological opinion, to which he had already given offence by
his commentaries on the _Epistles to the Thessalonians, Galatians, and
Romans_. His views were, indeed, generally considered to be extremely
latitudinarian. Latterly he exercised an extraordinary influence in the
Univ., and was held in reverence by his pupils, many of whom have risen
to eminence. His chief works are translations, with learned
introductions, of _The Dialogues_ of Plato, of Thucydides, and of the
_Politics_ of Aristotle. He also, in conjunction with Prof. Campbell,
brought out an ed. of _The Republic_ of Plato. He held the degree of
LL.D. from the Univ. of Edin. (1884), and Camb. (1890), and Doctor of
Theology of Leyden (1875).


JUDD, SYLVESTER (1813-1853).--Novelist, _b._ at Westhampton, Mass.,
studied for the ministry at Yale, and became a Unitarian pastor. He
_pub._ _Philo_, a religious poem, followed by _Margaret, a Tale of the
Real and the Ideal_ (1845), _Richard Edney, A Rus-Urban Tale_ (1850). He
also produced some theological works. His work is very unequal, but
often, as in _Margaret_, contains fine and true descriptive passages both
of nature and character.


KAMES, HENRY HOME, LORD (1696-1782).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of Geo.
H., of Kames, Berwickshire, was admitted an advocate in 1723, and raised
to the Bench in 1752. In 1748 he _pub._ a collection of Decisions of the
Court of Session. It is, however, on his philosophical and historical
writings that his literary fame rests. His writings include _Essays on
the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion_ (1751), _The Elements of
Criticism_ (1762), in which he sought for principles based on the
elements of human nature; _Sketches of the History of Man_ (1774), and
_Loose Hints on Education_, in which many modern views are anticipated.
In all these works, while the style is stiff and crabbed, there is much
original thought. Lord K. was also an eminent authority upon agriculture,
on which he in 1777 _pub._ a work entitled _The Gentleman Farmer_.


KAVANAGH, JULIA (1824-1877).--Novelist, _dau._ of Morgan K., poet, and
philologist, wrote many novels, of which the scene is usually in France,
among which are _Madeleine_ (1848), _Adele_, and _Daisy Burns_; also
biographical works, _Woman in France in the 18th Century_ (1850), etc.


KAYE, SIR JOHN WILLIAM (1814-1876).--Historian and biographer, _s._ of a
London solicitor, was _ed._ at Eton and Addiscombe. After serving for
some time in the Bengal Artillery, he succeeded J.S. Mill as sec. to the
political and secret department in the East India Office. His first
literary work was a novel _pub._ in 1845, and he then began his valuable
series of histories and biographies illustrative of the British
occupation of India, including _The War in Afghanistan_ (1851), and _The
Sepoy War in India_, which he did not live to finish, and which was
completed by G.B. Malleson as _The History of the Indian Mutiny_ (6
vols., 1890); also histories of the East India Company and of
Christianity in India, and Lives of Sir John Malcolm and other Indian
soldiers and statesmen. All his writings are characterised by painstaking
research, love of truth, and a style suited to the importance of his
subjects. He was made K.C.S.I. in 1871.


KEARY, ANNIE (1825-1879).--Novelist, wrote some good novels, including
_Castle Daly_, _A Doubting Heart_, and _Oldbury_, also books for children
and educational works.


KEATS, JOHN (1795-1821).--Poet, _s._ of the chief servant at an inn in
London, who _m._ his master's _dau._, and _d._ a man of some substance.
He was sent to a school at Enfield, and having meanwhile become an
orphan, was in 1810 apprenticed to a surgeon at Edmonton. In 1815 he went
to London to walk the hospitals. He was not, however, at all enthusiastic
in his profession, and having become acquainted with Leigh Hunt, Hazlitt,
Shelley, and others, he gave himself more and more to literature. His
first work--some sonnets--appeared in Hunt's _Examiner_, and his first
book, _Poems_, came out in 1817. This book, while containing much that
gave little promise of what was to come, was not without touches of
beauty and music, but it fell quite flat, finding few readers beyond his
immediate circle. _Endymion_, begun during a visit to the Isle of Wight,
appeared in 1818, and was savagely attacked in _Blackwood_ and the
_Quarterly Review_. These attacks, though naturally giving pain to the
poet, were not, as was alleged at the time, the cause of his health
breaking down, as he was possessed of considerable confidence in his own
powers, and his claim to immortality as a poet. Symptoms of hereditary
consumption, however, began to show themselves and, in the hope of
restored health, he made a tour in the Lakes and Scotland, from which he
returned to London none the better. The death soon after of his brother
Thomas, whom he had helped to nurse, told upon his spirits, as did also
his unrequited passion for Miss Fanny Brawne. In 1820 he _pub._ _Lamia
and Other Poems_, containing _Isabella_, _Eve of St. Agnes_, _Hyperion_,
and the odes to the _Nightingale_ and _The Grecian Urn_, all of which had
been produced within a period of about 18 months. This book was warmly
praised in the _Edinburgh Review_. His health had by this time completely
given way, and he was likewise harassed by narrow means and hopeless
love. He had, however, the consolation of possessing many warm friends,
by some of whom, the Hunts and the Brawnes, he was tenderly nursed. At
last in 1821 he set out, accompanied by his friend Severn, on that
journey to Italy from which he never returned. After much suffering he
_d._ at Rome, and was buried in the Protestant cemetery there. The
character of K. was much misunderstood until the publication by R.M.
Milnes, afterwards Lord Houghton (_q.v._), of his _Life and Letters_,
which gives an attractive picture of him. This, together with the
accounts of other friends, represent him as "eager, enthusiastic, and
sensitive, but humorous, reasonable, and free from vanity, affectionate,
a good brother and friend, sweet-tempered, and helpful." In his political
views he was liberal, in his religious, indefinite. Though in his
life-time subjected to much harsh and unappreciative criticism, his place
among English poets is now assured. His chief characteristics are
intense, sensuous imagination, and love of beauty, rich and picturesque
descriptive power, and exquisitely melodious versification.

_Life, Letters, etc._, by R.M. Milnes (1848), _Poems and Letters_
(Forman, 5 vols., 1900). Keats (Men of Letters Series, Colvin, 1887),
etc. _Poems_ (1817), _Endymion_ (1818), _Lamia and Other Poems_ (1820).


KEBLE, JOHN (1792-1866).--Poet and divine, _s._ of the Rev. John K.,
Vicar of Coln St. Aldwyn's, Gloucestershire, _b._ at Fairford in the same
county, _ed._ by his _f._ and at Oxf., where he was elected a Fellow of
Oriel Coll., and was for some years tutor and examiner in the Univ. His
ideal life, however, was that of a country clergyman, and having taken
orders in 1815, he became curate to his _f._ Meantime he had been writing
_The Christian Year_, which appeared in 1827, and met with an almost
unparalleled acceptance. Though at first anonymous, its authorship soon
became known, with the result that K. was in 1831 appointed to the Chair
of Poetry at Oxf., which he held until 1841. In 1833 his famous sermon on
"national apostasy" gave the first impulse to the Oxf. movement, of
which, after the secession of Newman to the Church of Rome, he, along
with Pusey, was regarded as the leader, and in connection with which he
contributed several of the more important "tracts" in which were enforced
"deep submission to authority, implicit reverence for Catholic tradition,
firm belief in the divine prerogatives of the priesthood, the real nature
of the sacraments, and the danger of independent speculation." His _f._
having _d._, K. became in 1836 Vicar of Hursley, near Winchester, where
he remained until his death. In 1846 he _pub._ another book of poems,
_Lyra Innocentium_. Other works were a Life of Wilson, Bishop of Sodor
and Man, and an ed. of the Works of Hooker. After his death appeared
_Letters of Spiritual Counsel_, and 12 vols. of _Parish Sermons_. The
literary position of K. must mainly rest upon _The Christian Year_,
_Thoughts in Verse for the Sundays_, and _Holidays throughout the Year_,
the object of which was, as described by the author, to bring the
thoughts and feelings of the reader into unison with those exemplified in
the Prayer Book. The poems, while by no means of equal literary merit,
are generally characterised by delicate and true poetic feeling, and
refined and often extremely felicitous language; and it is a proof of the
fidelity to nature with which its themes are treated that the book has
become a religious classic with readers far removed from the author's
ecclesiastical standpoint and general school of thought. K. was one of
the most saintly and unselfish men who ever adorned the Church of
England, and, though personally shy and retiring, exercised a vast
spiritual influence upon his generation.

_Life_ by J.D. Coleridge (1869), another by Rev. W. Lock (1895).


KEIGHTLEY, THOMAS (1789-1872).--Historian, _ed._ at Trinity Coll.,
Dublin, wrote works on mythology and folklore, and at the request of Dr.
Arnold of Rugby, a series of text-books on English, Greek, and other
histories. His _History of Greece_ was translated into modern Greek.
Among his other books are _Fairy Mythology_ (1850), and _Mythology of
Ancient Greece and Italy_, and a work on Popular Tales and their
transmission from one country to another.


KEITH, ROBERT (1681-1757).--Historian, _b._ in Kincardineshire, belonged
to the family of the Earls Marischal, and was Bishop of Fife in the
Scottish Episcopal Church. He was deeply versed in Scottish antiquities,
and _pub._ _History of the Affairs of Church and State in Scotland_
during the Reformation. He also compiled _A Catalogue of the Bishops of
Scotland_ (1755).


KELLY, HUGH (1739-1777).--Dramatist, _s._ of a Dublin publican, worked in
London as a staymaker, 1760, and after ed. various journals, wrote
_Memoirs of a Magdalen_ (1767). His play, _False Delicacy_ (1768), had an
extraordinary success, and was translated into French, German, and
Portuguese. His other plays had no great success. He left off writing for
the stage in 1774, and endeavoured to practise as a barrister, but
without success. He also wrote political pamphlets, for which he received
a pension from Government.


KEN, THOMAS (1637-1711).--Religious writer, _s._ of an attorney, was _b._
at Little Berkhampstead, _ed._ at Winchester and Oxf., and entering the
Church received the living of Brightstone, Isle of Wight, where he
composed his _Morning, Evening, and Midnight Hymns_, perhaps the most
widely known of English hymns. These he was accustomed to sing daily to
the lute. After holding other benefices he became Bishop of Bath and
Wells, and a Chaplain to Charles II. He was one of the "Seven Bishops"
sent to the Tower by James II. Refusing to take the oaths to William and
Mary, he was deprived, and spent his later years in comparative poverty,
though he found an asylum at Longleat with Lord Weymouth. Izaak Walton
was his brother-in-law. K. wrote a manual of prayers for Winchester
School, and other devotional works.


KENNEDY, JOHN PENDLETON (1795-1870).--Novelist, _b._ in Baltimore, was
distinguished as a lawyer and politician. He wrote three novels, _Swallow
Barn_ (1832), _Horse Shoe Robinson_ (1835), and _Rob of the Bowl_ (1838),
which give a vivid presentation of life in the Southern States.


KENNEDY, WALTER (_fl._ 1500).--_S._ of Lord K., was _ed._ at Glasgow, and
is perhaps best known as Dunbar's antagonist in the _Flyting of Dunbar
and Kennedy_. Other poems are _Praise of Aige_ (Age), _Ane Ballat in
Praise of Our Lady_, and _The Passion of Christ_. Most of his work is
probably lost.


KILLIGREW, THOMAS (1612-1683).--Dramatist, _s._ of Sir Robert K., of
Hanworth, was a witty, dissolute courtier of Charles II., and wrote nine
plays, each in a different city. Of them the best known is _The Parson's
Wedding_.


KING, HENRY (1592-1669).--Poet, _s._ of a Bishop of London, was _ed._ at
Westminster School and Oxf. He entered the Church, and rose in 1642 to be
Bishop of Chichester. The following year he was deprived, but was
reinstated at the Restoration. He wrote many elegies on Royal persons and
on his private friends, who included Donne and Ben Jonson. A selection
from his _Poems and Psalms_ was _pub._ in 1843.


KINGLAKE, ALEXANDER WILLIAM (1809-1891).--_B._ near Taunton, _ed._ at
Eton and Camb., was called to the Bar in 1837, and acquired a
considerable practice, which in 1856 he abandoned in order to devote
himself to literature and public life. His first literary venture had
been _Eothen_, a brilliant and original work of Eastern travel, _pub._ in
1844; but his _magnum opus_ was his _Invasion of the Crimea_, in 8 vols.
(1863-87), which is one of the most effective works of its class. It has,
however, been charged with being too favourable to Lord Raglan, and
unduly hostile to Napoleon III., for whom the author had an extreme
aversion. Its great length is also against it.


KINGSFORD, WILLIAM (1819-1898).--Historian, _b._ in London, served in the
army, and went to Canada, where he was engaged in surveying work. He has
a place in literature for his _History of Canada_ in 10 vols., a work of
careful research, though not distinguished for purely literary merits.


KINGSLEY, CHARLES (1819-1875).--Novelist and historian, _s._ of a
clergyman, was _b._ at Holne Vicarage near Dartmoor, but passed most of
his childhood at Barnack in the Fen country, and Clovelly in Devonshire,
_ed._ at King's Coll., London, and Camb. Intended for the law, he entered
the Church, and became, in 1842, curate, and two years later rector, of
Eversley, Hampshire. In the latter year he _pub._ _The Saints' Tragedy_,
a drama, of which the heroine is St. Elizabeth of Hungary. Two novels
followed, _Yeast_ (1848) and _Alton Locke_ (1850), in which he deals with
social questions as affecting the agricultural labouring class, and the
town worker respectively. He had become deeply interested in such
questions, and threw himself heart and soul, in conjunction with F.D.
Maurice and others, into the schemes of social amelioration, which they
supported under the name of Christian socialism, contributing many tracts
and articles under the signature of "Parson Lot." In 1853 appeared
_Hypatia_, in which the conflict of the early Christians with the Greek
philosophy of Alexandria is depicted; it was followed in 1855 by
_Westward Ho_, perhaps his most popular work; in 1857 by _Two Years Ago_,
and in 1866 by _Hereward the Wake_. _At Last_ (1870), gave his
impressions of a visit to the West Indies. His taste for natural history
found expression in _Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Shore_ (1855), and
other works. _The Water Babies_ is a story for children written to
inspire love and reverence of Nature. K. was in 1860 appointed to the
Professorship of Modern History at Camb., which he held until 1869. The
literary fruit of this was _Roman and Teuton_ (1864). In the same year he
was involved in a controversy with J.H. Newman, which resulted in the
publication by the latter of his _Apologia_. K., who had in 1869 been
made a Canon of Chester, became Canon of Westminster in 1873. Always of a
highly nervous temperament, his over-exertion resulted in repeated
failures of health, and he _d._ in 1875. Though hot-tempered and
combative, he was a man of singularly noble character. His type of
religion, cheerful and robust, was described as "muscular Christianity."
Strenuous, eager, and keen in feeling, he was not either a profoundly
learned, or perhaps very impartial, historian, but all his writings are
marked by a bracing and manly atmosphere, intense sympathy, and great
descriptive power.


KINGSLEY, HENRY (1830-1876).--Novelist, brother of the above, _ed._ at
King's Coll., London, and Oxf., which he left without graduating, and
betook himself to the Australian gold-diggings, being afterwards in the
mounted police. On his return in 1858 he devoted himself industriously to
literature, and wrote a number of novels of much more than average merit,
including _Geoffrey Hamlyn_ (1859), _The Hillyars and the Burtons_
(1865), _Ravenshoe_ (1861), and _Austin Elliot_ (1863). Of these
_Ravenshoe_ is generally regarded as the best. In 1869 he went to
Edinburgh to ed. the _Daily Review_, but he soon gave this up, and became
war correspondent for his paper during the Franco-German War.


KINGSLEY, MARY HENRIETTA (1862-1900).--Traveller, _dau._ of George Henry
K. (himself a traveller, and author of _South Sea Bubbles_, a very
successful book), and niece of Charles K. (_q.v._). She travelled in West
Africa, where she made valuable observations and collections. Her
_Travels in West Africa_ is one of the most original and stimulating
books of its class. Miss K. had a singular power of viewing the religious
rites of savage peoples from their point of view. She was about to
undertake another journey, but stopped to nurse Boer prisoners, and _d._
of fever.


KINGSTON, WILLIAM HENRY GILES (1814-1880).--Writer of tales for boys,
_b._ in London, but spent much of his youth in Oporto, where his _f._ was
a merchant. His first book, _The Circassian Chief_, appeared in 1844. His
first book for boys, _Peter the Whaler_, was _pub._ in 1851, and had such
success that he retired from business and devoted himself entirely to the
production of this kind of literature, in which his popularity was
deservedly great; and during 30 years he wrote upwards of 130 tales,
including _The Three Midshipmen_ (1862), _The Three Lieutenants_ (1874),
_The Three Commanders_ (1875), _The Three Admirals_ (1877), _Digby
Heathcote_, etc. He also conducted various papers, including _The
Colonist_, and _Colonial Magazine and East India Review_. He was also
interested in emigration, volunteering, and various philanthropic
schemes. For services in negotiating a commercial treaty with Portugal he
received a Portuguese knighthood, and for his literary labours a
Government pension.


KIRKLAND, JOSEPH (1830-1894).--Novelist, _b._ in New York State, was a
lawyer in Chicago, then served in the war. He is remembered as the author
of two very vivid and life-like novels of pioneer life in the Far West,
_Illinois Zury_ and _The McVeys_. Other works are _The Captain of Company
K._ and _The Story of Chicago_.


KITTO, JOHN (1804-1854).--Biblical scholar, _s._ of a Cornish stonemason,
was _b._ at Plymouth. At the age of 12 a fall led to his becoming totally
deaf. From poverty and hardship he was rescued by friends, to whom his
mental powers had become known, and the means of education were placed
within his reach. By these he profited so remarkably that he became a
valuable contributor to Biblical scholarship. He travelled much in the
East in the pursuit of his favourite studies. Among his works are
_Scripture Lands_, _Daily Bible Illustrations_, and _The Lost Senses_ in
2 vols., one dealing with Deafness and the other with Blindness. He also
ed. _The Pictorial Bible_, _The Journal of Sacred Literature_, _The
Cyclopaedia of Bible Literature_, and contributed to various periodicals.
He received a pension of L100 from Government. In 1844 the Univ. of
Giessen conferred upon him the degree of D.D.


KNIGHT, CHARLES (1791-1873).--Publisher and writer, _b._ at Windsor,
where his _f._. was a bookseller. After serving his apprenticeship with
him he went to London, and in 1823 started business as a publisher, and
co-operated effectively with Brougham and others in connection with The
Society for Diffusing Useful Knowledge. He was publisher for the Society,
and issued _The Penny Magazine_, _Penny Cyclopaedia_, _Pictorial History
of England_, etc. He ed. with success _The Pictorial Shakespeare_, and
was the author of a vol. of essays, _Once upon a Time_, an autobiography,
_Passages from a Working Life_ (1863), a _History of the Thirty Years'
Peace_, which was completed by Miss Harriet Martineau, and various other
works.


KNIGHT, HENRY GALLY (1786-1846).--A country gentleman of Yorkshire, _ed._
at Eton and Camb., was the author of several Oriental tales, _Ilderim, a
Syrian Tale_ (1816), _Phrosyne, a Grecian Tale_, and _Alashtar, an
Arabian Tale_ (1817). He was also an authority on architecture, and wrote
various works on the subject, including _The Ecclesiastical Architecture
of Italy_, and _The Normans in Sicily_, which brought him more reputation
than his novels.


KNOLLES, RICHARD (1550?-1610).--Historian, _b._ at Coldashby,
Northamptonshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., _pub._ in 1603 _The History of the
Turks_, which went through many ed. Its principal value now is as a piece
of fine English of its time, for which it is ranked high by Hallam. K.
was master of a school at Sandwich. The History was continued by Sir Paul
Rycaut (1628-1700).


KNOWLES, HERBERT (1798-1817).--Poet, author of the well-known _Stanzas
written in Richmond Churchyard_, which gave promise of future excellence.
But he _d._ a few weeks after he had been enabled, through the help of
Southey to whom he had sent some of his poems, to go to Camb.


KNOWLES, JAMES SHERIDAN (1784-1862).--Dramatist, _s._ of James K.,
schoolmaster and lexicographer, was _b._ at Cork. He was the author of a
ballad, _The Welsh Harper_, which had great popularity, and gained for
him the notice of Hazlitt and others. For some years he studied medicine,
which, however, he abandoned for literature, and produced several plays,
including _Caius Gracchus_ (1815), _Virginius_ (1820), _The Hunchback_
(1832), and _The Love Chase_ (1837), in some of which he acted. He gave
up the stage in 1843, became a preacher in connection with the Baptist
communion, and enjoyed great popularity. He _pub._ two polemical works,
_The Rock of Rome_, and _The Idol demolished by its own Priests_.


KNOX, JOHN (1505?-1572).--Reformer and historian, was _b._ near
Haddington, and _ed._ at the Grammar School there and at Glasgow. He is
believed to have had some connection with the family of K. of Ranfurly in
Renfrewshire. The year of his birth was long believed to be 1505, but of
late some writers have found reason to hold that he was really _b._ some
years later, 1510 or even 1513. At Glasgow he was the pupil of John Major
(_q.v._), and became distinguished as a disputant. He is believed to have
been ordained a priest about 1530, after which he went to St. Andrews and
taught. About this time, however, there is a gap of 12 years or more,
during which almost nothing is known of his life. About 1545 he came
under the influence of George Wishart, who was burned as a heretic at
St. Andrews in the following year, and embraced the Reformation
principles, of which he became a champion on the Continent, in England,
and finally and especially in Scotland. He joined the reforming party in
St. Andrews in 1547, and was, much against his will, elected their
minister. The next year he was made prisoner, sent to France, and
condemned to the galleys, where he remained for nearly two years. For the
next five years he was in England, chiefly at Newcastle and Berwick,
where he was zealously engaged in propagating and defending the reformed
doctrines. On the accession of Mary in 1553 K. escaped to the Continent,
where he remained--at Dieppe, Frankfort on the Maine, and Geneva--until
1559. During this period, in addition to his pastoral and ecclesiastical
activities, he wrote copiously, the best known of his works of that time
being his _First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment
[government] of Women_. The first, it proved also the last, as he never
produced the other two which he promised or threatened. He finally
returned to Scotland in 1559, and was at once the chief actor and the
chief narrator of the crowded and pregnant events which culminated in the
abdication of Queen Mary and the establishment of Protestantism in
Scotland. As minister of the High Church of Edin. K. was at the centre of
events, which he probably did more to mould than any other man. As
Carlyle says, "He is the one Scotchman to whom, of all others, his
country and the world owe a debt." Here, after his long battle with
principalities and powers, and spiritual wickedness in high places, his
triumphs, and disappointments, after growing weakness and becoming "weary
of the world," he _d._ on November 24, 1572. His place in literature he
has by virtue of his _Historie of the Reformation in Scotland_. It
extends from 1558-67. Its language is much more English than that spoken
and written in Scotland at the time. It is of the highest historical
value, and in style terse, vigorous, with flashes of a quiet, somewhat
saturnine humour, and of vivid description--the writing of a great man of
action dealing with the events in which he had been the leading actor.
His own figure and that of the Queen are those round which the drama
turns. The leading features of his character were courage and intense
earnestness. "Here," said the Regent Morton, "lies a man who never feared
the face of man." And with all his sternness there was in him a vein of
cordial friendliness and humour. He has been accused of intolerance, and
of harshness in his dealings with the Queen. But as Carlyle has said, as
regards the second accusation, "They are not so coarse, these speeches;
they seem to me about as fine as the circumstances would permit. It was
unfortunately not possible to be polite with the Queen of Scotland unless
one proved untrue to the nation."

_Lives_ by M'Crie (1812), and Prof. Hume Brown (1895). _Works_ ed. by D.
Laing.


KNOX, VICESIMUS (1752-1821).--Essayist, etc., _ed._ at Oxf., took orders,
and became Head Master of Tunbridge School. He _pub._ _Essays Moral and
Literary_ (1778), and compiled the formerly well-known _Elegant
Extracts_, often reprinted.


KNOX, WILLIAM (1789-1825).--Poet, _s._ of a farmer in Roxburghshire,
wrote several books of poetry, _The Lonely Hearth_, _Songs of Israel_,
_Harp of Zion_, etc., which gained him the friendship of Scott. He fell
into dissipated habits, was latterly a journalist in Edin., and _d._ at
36.


KYD, THOMAS (1558-1595).--Dramatist, _s._ of a London scrivener, _ed._ at
Merchant Taylor's School, appears to have led the life of hardship so
common with the dramatists of his time, was for a short time imprisoned
for "treasonable and Atheistic views," and made translations from the
French and Italian. His drama, _The Spanish Tragedy_ (1594), had
extraordinary popularity, and was translated into Dutch and German. Some
of the scenes are believed to have been contributed by another hand,
probably by Ben Jonson. He also produced a play on the story of Hamlet,
not now in existence, and he may have written the first draft of _Titus
Andronicus_. Other plays which have been attributed to him are _The First
Part of Jeronimo_ (1605), _Cornelia_ (1594), _The Rare Triumphs of Love
and Fortune_, and _The Tragedye of Solyman and Perseda_ (1599). But,
although one of the best known dramatists in his day, very little is now
certain either as to his personal history or his works.


LAIDLAW, WILLIAM (1780-1845).--Poet, _s._ of a border farmer, became
steward and amanuensis to Sir W. Scott, and was the author of the
beautiful and well-known ballad, _Lucy's Flittin'_.


LAING, DAVID (1793-1878).--Antiquary, _s._ of a bookseller in Edin., with
whom he was in partnership until his appointment, in 1837, as librarian
of the Signet Library. He ed. many of the publications of the Bannatyne
Club, of which he was sec. (1823-61). He was also Honorary Prof. of
Antiquities to the Royal Scottish Academy. Among the more important works
which he ed. were _Baillie's Letters and Journals_ (1841-2), _John Knox's
Works_ (1846-64), and the poems of Sir D. Lyndsay, Dunbar, and Henryson.


LAING, MALCOLM (1762-1818).--Was a country gentleman in Orkney. He
completed Henry's _History of Great Britain_, and wrote a _History of
Scotland from the Union of the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms_
(1802). He was an assailant of the authenticity of the Ossianic poems,
and wrote a dissertation on the Participation of Mary Queen of Scots in
the Murder of Darnley. He did much to improve the agriculture of Orkney.


LAMB, LADY CAROLINE (1785-1828).--Novelist, _dau._ of 3rd Earl of
Bessborough, _m._ the Hon. William Lamb, afterwards Lord Melbourne and
Prime Minister. She wrote three novels, which, though of little literary
value, attracted much attention. The first of these, _Glenarvon_ (1816),
contained a caricature portrait of Lord Byron, with whom the authoress
had shortly before been infatuated. It was followed by _Graham Hamilton_
(1822), and _Ada Reis_ (1823). Happening to meet the hearse conveying the
remains of Byron, she became unconscious, and fell into mental
alienation, from which she never recovered.


LAMB, CHARLES (1775-1834).--Essayist and poet, was _b._ in London, his
_f._ being confidential clerk to Samuel Salt, one of the benchers of the
Inner Temple. After being at a school in the neighbourhood, he was sent
by the influence of Mr. Salt to Christ's Hospital, where he remained from
1782-89, and where he formed a lifelong friendship with Coleridge. He was
then for a year or two in the South Sea House, where his elder brother
John was a clerk. Thence he was in 1792 transferred to the India House,
where he remained until 1825, when he retired with a pension of
two-thirds of his salary. Mr. Salt _d._ in 1792, and the family,
consisting of the _f._, mother, Charles, and his sister Mary, ten years
his senior, lived together in somewhat straitened circumstances. John,
comparatively well off, leaving them pretty much to their own resources.
In 1796 the tragedy of L.'s life occurred. His sister Mary, in a sudden
fit of insanity, killed her mother with a table-knife. Thenceforward,
giving up a marriage to which he was looking forward, he devoted himself
to the care of his unfortunate sister, who became, except when separated
from him by periods of aberration, his lifelong and affectionate
companion--the "Cousin Bridget" of his essays. His first literary
appearance was a contribution of four sonnets to Coleridge's _Poems on
Various Subjects_ (1796). Two years later he _pub._, along with his
friend Charles Lloyd, _Blank Verse_, the little vol. including _The Old
Familiar Faces_, and others of his best known poems, and his romance,
_Rosamund Gray_, followed in the same year. He then turned to the drama,
and produced _John Woodvil_, a tragedy, and _Mr. H._, a farce, both
failures, for although the first had some echo of the Elizabethan music,
it had no dramatic force. Meantime the brother and sister were leading a
life clouded by poverty and by the anxieties arising from the condition
of the latter, and they moved about from one lodging to another. L.'s
literary ventures so far had not yielded much either in money or fame,
but in 1807 he was asked by W. Godwin (_q.v._) to assist him in his
"Juvenile Library," and to this he, with the assistance of his sister,
contributed the now famous _Tales from Shakespeare_, Charles doing the
tragedies and Mary the comedies. In 1808 they wrote, again for children,
_The Adventures of Ulysses_, a version of the _Odyssey, Mrs. Leicester's
School_, and _Poetry for Children_ (1809). About the same time he was
commissioned by Longman to ed. selections from the Elizabethan
dramatists. To the selections were added criticisms, which at once
brought him the reputation of being one of the most subtle and
penetrating critics who had ever touched the subject. Three years later
his extraordinary power in this department was farther exhibited in a
series of papers on Hogarth and Shakespeare, which appeared in Hunt's
_Reflector_. In 1818 his scattered contributions in prose and verse were
_coll._ as _The Works of Charles Lamb_, and the favour with which they
were received led to his being asked to contribute to the _London
Magazine_ the essays on which his fame chiefly rests. The name "Elia"
under which they were written was that of a fellow-clerk in the India
House. They appeared from 1820-25. The first series was printed in 1823,
the second, _The Last Essays of Elia_, in 1833. In 1823 the L.'s had left
London and taken a cottage at Islington, and had practically adopted Emma
Isola, a young orphan, whose presence brightened their lives until her
marriage in 1833 to E. Moxon, the publisher. In 1825 L. retired, and
lived at Enfield and Edmonton. But his health was impaired, and his
sister's attacks of mental alienation were ever becoming more frequent
and of longer duration. During one of his walks he fell, slightly hurting
his face. The wound developed into erysipelas, and he _d._ on December
29, 1834. His sister survived until 1847.

The place of L. as an essayist and critic is the very highest. His only
rival in the former department is Addison, but in depth and tenderness of
feeling, and richness of fancy L. is the superior. In the realms of
criticism there can be no comparison between the two. L. is here at once
profound and subtle, and his work led as much as any other influence to
the revival of interest in and appreciation of our older poetry. His own
writings, which are self-revealing in a quite unusual and always charming
way, and the recollections of his friends, have made the personality of
Lamb more familiar to us than any other in our literature, except that of
Johnson. His weaknesses, his oddities, his charm, his humour, his
stutter, are all as familiar to his readers as if they had known him, and
the tragedy and noble self-sacrifice of his life add a feeling of
reverence for a character we already love.

Life and Letters and Final Memorials by Talfourd, also Memoir by B.W.
Proctor and A. Ainger prefixed to ed. of _Works_ (1883-88). Life, Works,
and Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb, in 9 vols., E.V. Lucas, and 12
vols. ed. W. Macdonald.


LANDON, LETITIA ELIZABETH (1802-1838).--Poetess, _dau._ of an army agent,
was _b._ in London. She was a prolific and, in her day, remarkably
popular writer, but she wrote far too easily and far too much for
permanent fame. Many of her poems appeared in the _Literary Gazette_, and
similar publications, but she _pub._ separately _The Fate of Adelaide_
(1821), _The Improvisatrice_ (1824), _The Troubadour_ (1825), _The
Venetian Bracelet_ (1829), etc. She also wrote a few novels, of which
_Ethel Churchill_ was the best, and a tragedy _Castruccio Castracani_
(1837). She _m._ a Mr. Maclean, Governor of one of the West African
Colonies, where, shortly after her arrival, she was found dead from the
effects of an overdose of poison, which it was supposed she had taken as
a relief from spasms to which she was subject. She was best known by her
initials, L.E.L., under which she was accustomed to write.


LANDOR, WALTER SAVAGE (1775-1864).--Poet and miscellaneous author, _s._
of a physician, was _b._ at Ipsley Court, Warwick, the property of his
mother, and _ed._ at Rugby and Oxf., where he earned the nickname of "the
mad Jacobin," and whence he was rusticated. His whole long life
thereafter was a series of quarrels, extravagances, and escapades of
various kinds, the result of his violent prejudices, love of paradox, and
ungovernable temper. He quarrelled with his _f._, his wife, most of his
relations, and nearly all his friends, ran through a large fortune, and
ended his days in Italy supported by a pension granted by his brothers.
Yet he was not devoid of strong affections and generosity. His earliest
publication was _Poems_ (1795); _Gebir_ (1798), an epic, had little
success, but won for him the friendship of Southey. In 1808 he went to
Spain to take part in the war against Napoleon, and saw some service. His
first work to attract attention was his powerful tragedy of _Don Julian_
(1811). About the same time he _m._ Miss Julia Thuillier--mainly, as
would appear, on account of her "wonderful golden hair"--and purchased
the estate of Llantony Abbey, Monmouthshire, whence, after various
quarrels with the local authorities, he went to France. After a residence
of a year there, he went in 1815 to Italy, where he lived until 1818 at
Como, which, having insulted the authorities in a Latin poem, he had to
leave. At Florence, which was his residence for some years, he commenced
his famous _Imaginary Conversations_, of which the first two vols.
appeared 1824, the third 1828, fourth and fifth 1829. Other works were
_The Examination of W. Shakespeare touching Deer-stealing_ (1834),
_Pericles and Aspasia_ (1836), _Pentameron_ (1837), _Hellenics_ (1847),
and _Poemata et Inscriptiones_ (1847). He quarrelled finally with his
wife in 1835, and returned to England, which, however, he had to leave in
1858 on account of an action for libel arising out of a book, _Dry Sticks
Fagoted_. He went to Italy, where he remained, chiefly at Florence, until
his death. L. holds one of the highest places among the writers of
English prose. His thoughts are striking and brilliant, and his style
rich and dignified.

_Works_ ed. C.G. Crump, 10 vols.


LANE, EDWARD WILLIAM (1801-1876).--Arabic scholar, _s._ of a prebendary
of Hereford, where he was _b._, began life as an engraver, but going to
Egypt in search of health, devoted himself to the study of Oriental
languages and manners, and adopted the dress and habits of the Egyptian
man of learning. He _pub._ _Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians_
(1836), which remains a standard authority, and a translation of _The
Thousand and One Nights_ (1838-40) (Arabian Nights). What was intended to
be the great work of his life, his _Arabic Lexicon_, was left unfinished
at his death, but was completed by his nephew, Prof. S.L. Poole. L. was
regarded as the chief European Orientalist of his day.


LANGHORNE, JOHN (1735-1779).--Poet, _s._ of a clergyman, was _b._ at
Kirkby Stephen; having taken orders, he was for two years a curate in
London, and from 1776 Rector of Blagdon, Somerset, and Prebendary of
Wells. He is chiefly remembered as being the translator, jointly with his
brother, Rev. William L., of _Plutarch's Lives_, but in his day he had
some reputation as a poet, his chief work in poetry being _Studley Park_
and _Fables of Flora_. In his _Country Justice_ (1774-77) he dimly
foreshadows Crabbe, as in his descriptive poems he dimly foreshadows
Wordsworth. He was twice married, and both of his wives _d._ in giving
birth to a first child.


LANGLAND, WILLIAM (OR WILLIAM of LANGLEY) (1330?-1400?).--Poet. Little
can be gleaned as to his personal history, and of that little part is
contradictory. In a note of the 15th century written on one MS. he is
said to have been _b._ in Oxfordshire, the _s._ of a freeman named Stacy
de Rokayle, while Bale, writing in the 16th century, makes his name
Robert (certainly an error), and says he was _b._ at Cleobury Mortimer
in Shropshire. From his great poem, _Piers the Plowman_, it is to be
gathered that he was bred to the Church, and was at one time an inmate of
the monastery at Great Malvern. He _m._, however, and had a _dau._,
which, of course, precluded him from going on to the priesthood. It has
further been inferred from his poem that his f., with the help of
friends, sent him to school, but that on the death of these friends the
process of education came to an end, and he went to London, living in a
little house in Cornhill and, as he says, not only _in_ but _on_ London,
supporting himself by singing _requiems_ for the dead. "The tools I
labour with ... [are] _Paternoster_, and my primer _Placebo_, and
_Dirige_, and my _Psalter_, and my seven Psalms." References to legal
terms suggest that he may have copied for lawyers. In later life he
appears to have lived in Cornwall with his wife and _dau._ Poor himself,
he was ever a sympathiser with the poor and oppressed. His poem appears
to have been the great interest of his life, and almost to the end he was
altering and adding to, without, however, improving it. The full title of
the poem is _The Vision of Piers Plowman_. Three distinct versions of it
exist, the first _c._ 1362, the second _c._ 1377, and the third 1393 or
1398. It has been described as "a vision of Christ seen through the
clouds of humanity." It is divided into nine dreams, and is in the
unrhymed, alliterative, first English manner. In the allegory appear such
personifications as Meed (worldly success), Falsehood, Repentance, Hope,
etc. Piers Plowman, first introduced as the type of the poor and simple,
becomes gradually transformed into the Christ. Further on appear Do-well,
Do-bet, Do-best. In this poem, and its additions, L. was able to express
all that he had to say of the abuses of the time, and their remedy. He
himself stands out as a sad, earnest, and clear-sighted onlooker in a
time of oppression and unrest. It is thought that he may have been the
author of a poem, _Richard the Redeless_: if so he was, at the time of
writing, living in Bristol, and making a last remonstrance to the
misguided King, news of whose death may have reached him while at the
work, as it stops in the middle of a paragraph. He is not much of an
artist, being intent rather on delivering his message than that it should
be in a perfect dress. Prof. Manley, in the _Cambridge History of English
Literature_, advances the theory that _The Vision_ is not the work of
one, but of several writers, W.L. being therefore a dramatic, not a
personal name. It is supported on such grounds as differences in metre,
diction, sentence structure, and the diversity of view on social and
ecclesiastic matters expressed in different parts of the poem.


LANIER, SIDNEY (1842-1881).--Miscellaneous writer, _s._ of a lawyer of
Huguenot descent, was _b._ at Macon, Georgia. He had a varied career,
having been successively soldier, shopman, teacher, lawyer, musician, and
prof. His first literary venture was a novel, _Tiger Lilies_ (1867).
Thereafter he wrote mainly on literature, his works including _The
Science of English Verse_ (1881), _The English Novel_ (1883), and
_Shakespeare and his Forerunners_ (1902); also some poems which have been
greatly admired, including "Corn," "The Marshes of Glynn," and "The Song
of the Chattahoochee"; ed. of Froissart, and the Welsh _Mabinogion_ for
children. He worked under the shadow of serious lung trouble, which
eventually brought about his death.


LARDNER, DIONYSIUS (1793-1859).--Scientific writer, _s._ of a solicitor
in Dublin, and _b._ there, was intended for the law, but having no taste
for it, he entered Trinity Coll., Dublin, and took orders, but devoted
himself to literary and scientific pursuits, and became a contributor to
the _Edinburgh Review_, and various Encyclopaedias. In 1827 he was
appointed Prof. of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in the Univ. of
London (afterwards Univ. Coll.), and in 1829 began his great work, _The
Cabinet Cyclopaedia_, which was finished in 133 vols. 20 years later. In
his literary undertakings, which included various other schemes of
somewhat similar character, he was eminently successful, financially and
otherwise. He lived in Paris from 1845 until his death.


LATIMER, HUGH (1485-1555).--Reformer and divine, _s._ of a Leicestershire
yeoman, went to Camb. in 1500, and became Fellow of Clare Hall. Taking
orders, he was at first a defender of the ancient faith, but convinced by
the arguments of Bilney, embraced the reformed doctrines. He was called
to appear before Wolsey, but dismissed on subscribing certain articles.
His opposition to the Pope, and his support of the King's supremacy,
brought him under the notice of Henry, and he was appointed chaplain to
Anne Boleyn, and in 1535 Bishop of Worcester. For preaching in favour of
the reformed doctrines he was twice imprisoned in the Tower, 1539 and
1546, and on the former occasion resigned his bishopric, which he
declined to resume on the accession of Edward VI. On the accession of
Mary he was with Ridley, Bishop of London, thrown into prison (1554), and
on October 16, 1555, burned at Oxf. His words of encouragement to his
fellow-martyr are well known, "Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and
play the man; we shall this day light such a candle by God's grace in
England as I trust shall never be put out." He holds his place in English
literature by virtue of his sermons--especially that on _The
Ploughers_--which, like himself, are outspoken, homely, and popular, with
frequent touches of kindly humour.


LAUDER, SIR THOMAS DICK (1784-1848).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer,
_s._ of a Scottish baronet, wrote two novels, _Lochandhu_ (1825), and
_The Wolf of Badenoch_ (1827), but is best known for his _Account of the
Great Floods in Morayshire in 1829_. He also wrote _Legendary Tales of
the Highlands_, and contributed to scientific journals and magazines.


LAW, WILLIAM (1686-1761).--Divine, _s._ of a grocer at Kingscliffe,
Northamptonshire, was _ed._ at Camb., and in 1727 became tutor to the
_f._ of Edward Gibbon, the historian. About 1728 he _pub._ his best known
book, _A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life_, a work which has had a
profound influence upon the religious life of England, largely owing to
the impression which it produced upon such minds as those of Dr. Johnson,
the Wesleys, and others. In 1737 he became a student of the works of
Jacob Boehmen, the German mystic, and devoted himself largely to the
exposition of his views. The theological position of L. was a
complicated one, combining High Churchism, mysticism, and Puritanism: his
writings are characterised by vigorous thought, keen logic, and a lucid
and brilliant style, relieved by flashes of bright, and often sarcastic,
humour. His work attacking Mandeville's _Fable of the Bees_ (1723) is
perhaps that in which these qualities are best displayed in combination.
He retired in 1740 to Kingscliffe, where he had founded a school for 14
girls.


LAWRENCE, GEORGE ALFRED (1827-1876).--Novelist, was a barrister. He wrote
several novels, of which one--_Guy Livingstone_ (1857)--had great
popularity. On the outbreak of the American Civil War he went to America
with the intention of joining the Confederate Army, but was taken
prisoner and only released on promising to return to England.


LAYAMON (_fl._ 1200).--Metrical historian, the _s._ of Leovenath. All
that is known of him is gathered from his own writings. He was a priest
at Ernley (now Areley Regis), Worcestershire. In his day the works of
Geoffrey of Monmouth and Wace, in French, were the favourite reading of
the educated, and "it came to him in mind" that he would tell the story
of _Brut_ in English verse. He set out in search of books and, founding
his poem on the earlier writers, he added so much from his own knowledge
of Welsh and West of England tradition that while Wace's poem consists of
15,000 lines, his extends to 32,000. Among the legends he gives are those
of _Locrine_, _Arthur_, and _Lear_. The poem is in the old English
unrhymed, alliterative verse, and "marks the revival of the English mind
and spirit."


LAYARD, SIR AUSTIN HENRY (1817-1894).--Explorer of Nineveh, _b._ at
Paris, _s._ of a Ceylon civilian. After spending some years in the office
of a London solicitor, he set out in search of employment in Ceylon, but
passing through Western Asia, became interested in the work of excavating
the remains of ancient cities. Many of his finds--human-headed bulls,
etc.--were sent to the British Museum. Two books--_Nineveh and its
Remains_ (1848-49), and _The Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon_
(1853)--brought him fame, and on his return home he received many
honours, including the freedom of the City of London, the degree of
D.C.L. from Oxf., and the Lord Rectorship of Aberdeen Univ. He entered
Parliament, where he sat as a Liberal. He held the offices of
Under-Foreign Sec. (1861-66), and Chief Commissioner of Works (1868-69),
and was Ambassador to Spain 1869, and Constantinople 1877; and on his
retirement in 1878 he was made G.C.B. He was a very successful excavator,
and described his work brilliantly, but he was no great linguist, and
most of the deciphering of the inscriptions was done by Sir H. Rawlinson.
His last work was _Early Adventures in Persia, etc._, and he left an
autobiography, _pub._ in 1903. He also wrote on Italian art.


LEAR, EDWARD (1812-1888).--Artist and miscellaneous author, _b._ in
London, and settled in Rome as a landscape painter. He was an
indefatigable traveller, and wrote accounts, finely illustrated, of his
journeys in Italy, Greece, and Corsica. His best known works are,
however, his _Book of Nonsense_ (1840) (full of wit and _good_ sense),
_More Nonsense Rhymes_ (1871), and _Laughable Lyrics_ (1876). L. had also
a remarkable faculty for depicting birds.


LECKY, WILLIAM EDWARD HARTPOLE (1838-1903).--Historian, the _s._ of a
landed gentleman of Carlow, was _b._ near Dublin, and _ed._ at Cheltenham
and Trinity Coll., Dublin. Originally intended for the Church, he devoted
himself to a literary career. His first work of importance was _Leaders
of Public Opinion in Ireland_ (1861) (essays on Swift, Flood, Grattan,
and O'Connell). The study of Buckle's _History of Civilisation_ to some
extent determined the direction of his own writings, and resulted in the
production of two important works, _History of the Rise and Influence of
the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe_ (1865), and _History of European
Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne_ (1869), both remarkable for
learning, clearness, and impartiality. Both, however, gave rise to
considerable controversy and criticism. His principal work is _The
History of England in the Eighteenth Century_ (1878-90). Characterised by
the same sterling qualities as his preceding books, it deals with a
subject more generally interesting, and has had a wide acceptance. His
view of the American war, and the controversies which led to it, is more
favourable to the English position than that of some earlier historians.
Other works are _Democracy and Liberty_ (1896), and _The Map of Life_
(1899). Though of warm Irish sympathies, L. was strongly opposed to Home
Rule. He sat in Parliament for his Univ. from 1895 until his death. He
received many academical distinctions, and was a Corresponding Member of
the Institute of France, and one of the original members of the Order of
Merit.


LEE, NATHANIEL (1653?-1692).--Dramatist, _s._ of a clergyman at Hatfield,
was _ed._ at Westminster School and Camb. After leaving the Univ. he went
to London, and joined the stage both as actor and author. He was taken up
by Rochester and others of the same dissolute set, led a loose life, and
drank himself into Bedlam, where he spent four years. After his recovery
he lived mainly upon charity, and met his death from a fall under the
effects of a carouse. His tragedies, which, with much bombast and
frequent untrained flights of imagination, have occasional fire and
tenderness, are generally based on classical subjects. The principal are
_The Rival Queens_, _Theodosius_, and _Mithridates_. He also wrote a few
comedies, and collaborated with Dryden in an adaptation of _Oedipus_, and
in _The Duke of Guise_.


LEE, SOPHIA (1750-1824), LEE, HARRIET (1757-1851).--Novelists and
dramatists, _dau._ of John L., an actor, were the authors of various
dramatic pieces and novels. By far their most memorable work was _The
Canterbury Tales_, 5 vols. (1797-1805) which, with the exception of two,
_The Young Lady's_ and _The Clergyman's_, were all by Harriet. The most
powerful of them, _Kruitzner_, fell into the hands of Byron in his
boyhood, and made so profound an impression upon him that, in 1821, he
dramatised it under the title of _Werner, or the Inheritance_. The
authoress also adapted it for the stage as _The Three Strangers_. The
tales are in general remarkable for the ingenuity of their plots. Harriet
lived to the age of 94, preserving to the last her vigour of mind and
powers of conversation. Godwin made her an offer of marriage to which,
however, his religious opinions presented an insuperable barrier.
Sophia's chief work was _The Chapter of Accidents_, a comedy, which had a
great run, the profits of which enabled the sisters to start a school at
Bath, which proved very successful, and produced for them a competence on
which they were able to retire in their later years.


LE FANU, JOSEPH SHERIDAN (1814-1873).--Novelist, _s._ of a Dean of the
Episcopal Church of Ireland, and grand-nephew of Richard Brinsley
Sheridan, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, and became a contributor
and ultimately proprietor of the _Dublin University Magazine_, in which
many of his novels made their first appearance. Called to the Bar in
1839, he did not practise, and was first brought into notice by two
ballads, _Phaudrig Croohoore_ and _Shamus O'Brien_, which had
extraordinary popularity. His novels, of which he wrote 12, include _The
Cock and Anchor_ (1845), _Torlough O'Brien_ (1847), _The House by the
Churchyard_ (1863), _Uncle Silas_ (perhaps the most popular) (1864), _The
Tenants of Malory_ (1867), _In a Glass Darkly_ (1872), and _Willing to
Die_ (posthumously). They are generally distinguished by able
construction, ingenuity of plot, and power in the presentation of the
mysterious and supernatural. Among Irish novelists he is generally ranked
next to Lever.


LEIGHTON, ROBERT (1611-1684).--Divine, was the _s._ of Alexander L.,
physician, and writer on theology, who, on account of his anti-prelatic
books, was put in the pillory, fined, and had his nose slit and his ears
cut off. Robert was _ed._ at Edin., after which he resided for some time
at Douay. Returning to Scotland he received Presbyterian ordination, and
was admitted minister of Newbattle, near Edin. In 1653 he was appointed
Principal and Prof. of Divinity in the Univ. of Edin., which offices he
held until 1662 when, having separated himself from Presbyterianism, he
was appointed Bishop of Dunblane, under the new Episcopal establishment.
He repeatedly but unsuccessfully endeavoured to bring about an
ecclesiastical union in Scotland on the basis of combining the best
elements in each system. Discouraged by his lack of success in his
well-meant efforts, he offered in 1665 to resign his see, but was
persuaded by Charles II. to remain in it, and in 1669 was promoted to be
Archbishop of Glasgow, from which position, wearied and disappointed, he
finally retired in 1674, and lived with his widowed sister, Mrs.
Lightmaker, at Broadhurst Manor, Sussex. On a visit to London he was
seized with a fatal illness, and _d._ in the arms of his friend, Bishop
Burnet, who says of him, "he had the greatest elevation of soul, the
largest compass of knowledge, the most mortified and heavenly disposition
that I ever saw in mortal." His sermons and commentaries, all _pub._
posthumously, maintain a high place among English religious classics,
alike for thought and style. They consist of his _Commentary on St.
Peter_, _Sermons_, and _Spiritual Exercises, Letters, etc._ His _Lectures
and Addresses_ in Latin were also _pub._


LELAND, CHARLES GODFREY (1824-1903).--American humorist, _b._ at
Philadelphia, was _ed._ at Princeton, and in Europe. In his travels he
made a study of the gipsies, on whom he wrote more than one book. His
fame rests chiefly on his _Hans Breitmann Ballads_ (1871), written in the
_patois_ known as Pennsylvania Dutch. Other books of his are _Meister
Karl's Sketch-book_ (1855), _Legends of Birds_ (1864), _Algonquin
Legends_ (1884), _Legends of Florence_ (1895), and _Flaxius, or Leaves
from the Life of an Immortal_.


LELAND or LEYLAND, JOHN (1506-1552).--Antiquary, _b._ in London, and
_ed._ at St. Paul's School and at Camb., Oxf., and Paris. He was a good
linguist, and one of the first Englishmen to acquire Greek, and he was
likewise acquainted with French, Italian, Spanish, Welsh, and
Anglo-Saxon. He became chaplain and librarian to Henry VIII., from whom
he received the Rectory of Poppeling, near Calais, and in 1533 the
appointment of King's Antiquary. Soon afterwards he was permitted to do
his work in France by deputy, and was commissioned to go over England in
search of documents and antiquities; and on the strength of this made his
famous tour, which lasted for about six years. He was able to do
something to stem the destruction of manuscripts on the dissolution of
the monasteries, and made vast collections of documents and information
regarding the monuments and general features of the country, which,
however, he was unable fully to digest and set in order. They formed,
nevertheless, an almost inexhaustible quarry in which succeeding workers
in the same field, such as Stow, Camden, and Dugdale, wrought. In his
last years he was insane, and hence none of his collections appeared in
his lifetime. His _Itinerary_ was, however, at length _pub._ by T. Hearne
in 9 vols. (1710-12), and his _Collectanea_ in 6 vols. (1715).


LEMON, MARK (1809-1870).--Journalist and humorist, _b._ in London, wrote
many theatrical pieces, and a few novels, of which the best is _Falkner
Lyle_, others being _Leyton Hall_, and _Loved at Last_. He also wrote
stories for children, lectured and gave public readings, and contributed
to various periodicals. He is best known as one of the founders and, from
1843 until his death, the ed. of _Punch_. His _Jest Book_ appeared in
1864.


LENNOX, CHARLOTTE (RAMSAY) (1720-1804).--Was _b._ in New York, of which
her _f._, Colonel Ramsay, was Governor. She wrote a novel, _The Female
Quixote_ (1752), which had considerable vogue in its day. Her other
writings--novels, translations, and a play--are now forgotten. She was
befriended by Dr. Johnson. Mrs. Thrale (_q.v._) said that "everybody
admired Mrs. L., but nobody liked her."


LESLIE, or LESLEY, JOHN (1527-1596).--Historian, studied at Aberdeen and
Paris, at the former of which he became, in 1562, Prof. of Canon Law. He
was a Privy Councillor 1565, and Bishop of Ross 1566, and was the
confidential friend of Queen Mary, who made him her ambassador to Queen
Elizabeth. He was thrown into the Tower for his share in promoting a
marriage between Mary and the Duke of Norfolk, whence being released on
condition of leaving England, he went first to Paris and then to Rome,
where he busied himself on behalf of his mistress. He became
Vicar-General of the diocese of Rouen in 1579, and _d._ at the monastery
of Guirtenburg near Brussels. While in England he wrote in Scots
vernacular his _History of Scotland_ from the death of James I. (where
Boece left off) to his own time. At Rouen he rewrote and expanded it in
Latin (1575), from which it was re-translated into Scots by James
Dalrymple in 1596.


L'ESTRANGE, SIR ROGER (1616-1704).--Journalist and pamphleteer, youngest
_s._ of a Norfolk baronet, was probably at Camb., and in 1638 took arms
for the King. Six years later he was captured, imprisoned in Newgate, and
condemned to death. He, however, escaped, endeavoured to make a rising in
Kent, and had to flee to Holland, where he was employed in the service of
Charles II. On receiving a pardon from Cromwell he returned to England in
1653. In view of the Restoration he was active in writing on behalf of
monarchy, and in 1663 _pub._ _Considerations and Proposals in order to
Regulating of the Press_, for which he was appointed Surveyor of
Printing-Presses and Licenser of the Press, and received a grant of the
sole privilege of printing public news. His first newspaper, _The
Intelligencer_, appeared in the same year, and was followed by _The News_
and the _City Mercury, or Advertisements concerning Trade_. Thereafter
his life was spent in ed. newspapers and writing political pamphlets in
support of the Court and against the Whigs and Dissenters. In 1685 he was
knighted. His controversies repeatedly got him into trouble, and after
the Revolution he lost his appointments, and was more than once
imprisoned. In addition to his political writings he translated _AEsop's
Fables_, Seneca's _Morals_, and Cicero's _Offices_. His _AEsop_ contains
much from other authors, including himself. In his writings he was lively
and vigorous but coarse and abusive.


LEVER, CHARLES JAMES (1806-1872).--Novelist, _b._ at Dublin, and _ed._ at
Trinity Coll. there. He studied medicine at Goettingen, and practised at
various places in Ireland. In 1837 he contributed to the _Dublin
University Magazine_ his first novel, _Harry Lorrequer_, and the
immediate and wide acceptance which it found decided him to devote
himself to literature. He accordingly followed it with _Charles O'Malley_
(1840), his most popular book. After this scarcely a year passed without
an addition to the list of his light-hearted, breezy, rollicking stories,
among which may be mentioned _Jack Hinton_ (1842), _Tom Burke of Ours_,
_Arthur O'Leary_, and _The Dodd Family Abroad_. _The O'Donoghue_ and _The
Knight of Gwynne_ (1847) are more in the nature of historical romances.
In 1864 he contributed to _Blackwood's Magazine_ a series of
miscellaneous papers, _Cornelius O'Dowd on Men, Women, and Things in
General_. L.'s life was largely spent abroad. After practising his
profession in Brussels 1840-42 he returned to Dublin to ed. the _Dublin
University Magazine_, which he did until 1845, after which he went to
Italy, settled at Florence, and thereafter was British Consul
successively at Spezzia and Trieste, at the latter of which he _d._ He
continued to produce novels up to the end of his life. Among the later
ones are _Sir Brooke Fosbrooke_, _The Bramleighs of Bishop's Folly_, and
_Lord Kilgobbin_ (1872).


LEWES, GEORGE HENRY (1817-1878).--Philosopher and miscellaneous writer,
_b._ in London, and _ed._ at Greenwich, and in Jersey and Brittany. His
early life was varied; he tried law, commerce, and medicine successively,
and was then for two years in Germany, on returning from which he tried
the London stage, and eventually settled down to journalism, writing for
the _Morning Chronicle_, for the _Penny Encyclopaedia_, and various
periodicals. Thereafter he ed. the _Leader_ (1851-54), and the
_Fortnightly Review_ (which he founded) (1865-66). His articles deal with
an extraordinary variety of subjects--criticism, the drama, biography,
and science, both physical and mental. His chief works are _The History
of Philosophy from Thales to Comte_, _Comte's Philosophy of the Sciences_
(1853), _The Psychology of Common Life_ (1859), _Studies in Animal Life_
(1862), _Problems of Life and Mind_ (1873-79). L. was an exceptionally
able dramatic critic, and in this department he produced _Actors and the
Art of Acting_ (1875), and a book on the Spanish Drama. By far his
greatest work, however, is his _Life and Works of Goethe_ (1855), which
remains the standard English work on the subject, and which by the end of
the century had, in its German translation, passed into 16 ed. He also
wrote two novels, _Ranthorpe_ (1847), and _Rose, Blanche, and Violet_
(1848), neither of which attained any success. In his writings he is
frequently brilliant and original; but his education and training,
whether in philosophy or biology, were not sufficiently thorough to give
him a place as a master in either. L.'s life was in its latter section
influenced by his irregular connection with Miss Evans ("George Eliot"),
with whom he lived for the last 24 years of it, in close intellectual
sympathy. To his appreciation and encouragement were largely due her
taking up prose fiction.


LEWIS, SIR GEORGE CORNEWALL (1806-1863).--Scholar and statesman, _s._ of
Sir Thomas F.L., a Radnorshire baronet, was _ed._ at Eton and Oxf. He
studied law, was called to the Bar in 1831, and entered Parliament in
1847, where his intellect and character soon gained him great influence.
After serving on various important commissions and holding minor offices,
he became Chancellor of the Exchequer 1855-58, Home Sec. 1859-61, and War
Sec. 1861-63. His official labours did not prevent his entering into
profound and laborious studies, chiefly in regard to Roman history, and
the state of knowledge among the ancients. In his _Inquiry into the
Credibility of Ancient Roman History_ (1855), he combated the methods and
results of Niebuhr. Other works are _On the Use and Abuse of Political
Terms_, _Authority in Matters of Opinion_, _The Astronomy of the
Ancients_, and a _Dialogue on the best Form of Government_. The somewhat
sceptical turn of his mind led him to sift evidence minutely, and the
labour involved in his wide range of severe study and his public duties
no doubt shortened his valuable life.


LEWIS, MATTHEW GREGORY (1775-1818).--Novelist, _s._ of Matthew L., Deputy
Sec. in the War Office, was _ed._ at Westminster and Oxf. Thereafter he
went to Germany. From his childhood tales of witchcraft and the
supernatural had a powerful fascination for him, and in Germany he had
ample opportunities for pursuing his favourite study, with the result
that at the age of 20 he became the author of _The Monk_, a tale in which
the supernatural and the horrible predominate to an unprecedented
extent, and from which he is known as "Monk L." The same characteristic
appears in all his works, among which may be mentioned _Tales of Terror_
(1779), _Tales of Wonder_ (to which Sir W. Scott contributed), and
_Romantic Tales_ (1808). Though affected and extravagant in his manners,
L. was not wanting in kindly and generous feelings, and in fact an
illness contracted on a voyage to the West Indies to inquire into and
remedy some grievances of the slaves on his estates there was the cause
of his death.


LEYDEN, JOHN (1775-1811).--Poet and Orientalist, _b._ at Denholm,
Roxburghshire, gave early evidence of superior ability, and his _f._, who
was a shepherd, destined him for the Church. He accordingly entered the
Univ. of Edin., where he had a brilliant career, showing a special
aptitude for languages and natural history. In 1800 he became a
licentiate of the Church, but continued his scientific and linguistic
studies, and also began to write. In 1799 he had _pub._ a sketch of the
_Discoveries and Settlements of the Europeans in Northern and Western
Africa_, and he contributed to Scott's _Minstrelsy of the Scottish
Border_, and to "Monk" Lewis's _Tales of Wonder_. His enthusiasm for
Oriental learning led to application being made on his behalf to
Government for some situation which would make his acquirements available
for the public service, but the only opening which could be obtained was
that of a ship's surgeon. By extraordinary exertions L. qualified himself
for this in a few months, and set sail for the East, after finishing his
poem, _Scenes of Infancy_. Soon after his arrival at Madras his health
gave way, and after some time passed in Prince of Wales Island he visited
the Malay Peninsula, and some of the East Indian Islands, collecting vast
stores of linguistic and ethnographical information, on which was founded
his great _Dissertation on the Indo-Persian, Indo-Chinese, and Dekkan
Languages_ (1807). Soon after this L. was appointed a prof. in the Bengal
Coll., and a little later a judge in Calcutta. In 1811 he accompanied the
Governor-General, Lord Minto, to Java. His health, however, had been
undermined by his almost super-human exertions, and immediately after
landing he contracted a fever, of which he _d._ in three days at the
early age of 36. Two Oriental works translated by him, _Sejarah Malayu_
(Malay Annals) and _Commentaries of Baber_ were _pub._ respectively in
1821 and 1826.


LIDDELL, HENRY GEORGE (1811-1898).--Historian, etc. _Ed._ at Charterhouse
and Christ Church, Oxf., of which in 1855 he became Dean. He wrote a
_History of Ancient Rome_ (1855), and, along with R. Scott, _pub._ a
_Greek-English Lexicon_ (1843).


LIDDON, HENRY PARRY (1829-1890).--Divine, _s._ of a captain in the navy,
was _b._ at North Stoneham, Hants, and _ed._ at King's Coll. School,
London, and Oxf. He took orders 1853, was Vice-Principal of Cuddesdon
Theological Coll. 1854-59, Prebendary of Salisbury 1864, and Canon of St.
Paul's 1870. He was also Ireland Prof. of Exegesis at Oxf. 1870-82. In
1866 he delivered his Bampton Lectures on _The Divinity of Our Lord_, and
came to be recognised as one of the ablest and most eloquent
representatives of the High Church party. His sermons in St. Paul's were
among the leading features of the religious life of London. L. was an
ardent protagonist in the various controversies of his time bearing upon
ecclesiastical and moral questions.


LIGHTFOOT, JOSEPH BARBER (1828-1889).--Theologian and scholar, _b._ at
Liverpool, and _ed._ at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and Camb.,
entered the Church, and was successively Hulsean Prof. of Divinity 1861,
Chaplain to Queen Victoria 1862, member of the New Testament Company of
Revisers 1870-80, Margaret Prof. of Divinity, Camb., 1875, and Bishop of
Durham 1879. He was probably the greatest scholar of his day in England,
especially as a grammarian and textual critic. Among his works are
_Commentaries_ on several of the minor Pauline epistles, a fragmentary
work on the Apostolic Fathers, _Leaders in the Northern Church_ (1890),
and _The Apostolic Age_ (1892).


LILLO, GEORGE (1693-1739).--Dramatist, of Dutch descent, was _b._ in
London, succeeded his _f._ in business as a jeweller, in which he had
good speed, and devoted his leisure to the composition of plays in the
line of what was known as the "domestic drama." He wrote in all seven of
these, among which are _The London Merchant, or the History of George
Barnewell_, acted 1731, _The Christian Hero_ (1735), and _Fatal
Curiosity_ (1736). He was a friend of Fielding, who said of him that "he
had the spirit of an old Roman joined to the innocence of a primitive
Christian."


LINDSAY, or LYNDSAY, SIR DAVID (1490-1555).--Scottish poet and satirist,
_s._ of David L. of Garmylton, near Haddington, was _b._ either there or
at The Mount in Fife, and _ed._ at St. Andrews. Early in life he was at
the Court of James IV., and on the King's death was appointed to attend
on the infant James V., whose friend and counsellor he remained, though
his advice was, unhappily for his country, not always given heed to. In
1529 he was knighted and made Lyon King at Arms. He was employed on
various missions to the Emperor Charles V., and to Denmark, France, and
England. He was always in sympathy with the people as against the nobles
and the clergy, and was their poet, with his words in their mouths. He
favoured the Reformers, and was one of those who urged Knox to become a
preacher. He did not, however, adhere to the reformed congregation, and
_d._ at least nominally in the Roman Church. Yet he lashed the vices of
the clergy as they had never been lashed before, and only escaped their
vengeance by the protection of the King, who also condoned the severities
directed against himself. His latter days were spent at The Mount, where
he _d._ His chief writings are _The Dreme_, written 1528, _The Complaynt
to the King_ (1529), _The Testament and Complaynt of our Soverane Lord's
Papyngo_ (Parrot) (1530), _Ane Pleasant Satyre of the Three Estaitis_, _A
Dialogue betwixt Experience and a Courtier_ (1552), _The Monarchy_
(1554), and _The History of Squyer Meldrum_. L. was a true poet, gifted
with fancy, humour, and a powerful satiric touch and a love of truth and
justice. He had a strong influence in turning the minds of the common
people in favour of the Reformation.

_Works_ ed. by Chalmers (3 vols., 1806), and D. Laing (3 vols., 1879).


LINDSAY, or LINDESAY, ROBERT (1500?-1565?).--Historian, Laird or tenant
of Pitscottie, Fife, wrote a history entitled _The Chronicles of
Scotland_, intended as a continuation of that of Boece. It deals with the
period 1436-1515, and though often inaccurate in detail, is often vivid
and quaint.


LINGARD, JOHN (1771-1851).--Historian, _b._ at Winchester of humble Roman
Catholic parentage, was in 1782 sent to the English Coll. at Douay,
whence he escaped from the revolutionaries in 1793, and returning to
England, went to Crookhall Coll., near Durham, and afterwards to Ushaw.
Ordained a priest in 1795, he became Vice-Pres. and Prof. of Philosophy
at the latter coll. In 1806 he _pub._ _The Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon
Church_, and while a missioner at Hornby, Lancashire, began his _History
of England to the Accession of William and Mary_ (8 vols., 1819-30). In
the preparation of this work L. had access to material hitherto _unpub._,
and not available for Protestant historians, such as documents in the
Vatican and other Roman Catholic sources, and was consequently able to
throw new light on various parts of his subject. The work was attacked by
various writers from the Protestant standpoint. L. replied to his critics
with the result that it is now generally admitted that the history, while
in parts coloured by the theological and political point of view of the
author, is generally an impartial and valuable work, and it remains a
leading authority on the Reformation period viewed from the side of the
enlightened Roman Catholic priesthood. This opinion is supported by the
fact that the Ultramontane party among the Roman Catholics regarded the
book as a dangerous one in respect of the interests of their Church.


LINTON, MRS. ELIZA LYNN (1822-1898).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer,
_dau._ of a clergyman, settled in London in 1845, and next year produced
her first novel, _Azeth, the Egyptian; Amymone_ (1848), and _Realities_
(1851), followed. None of these had any great success, and she then
joined the staff of the _Morning Chronicle_, and _All the Year Round_. In
1858 she _m._ W.J. Linton, an eminent wood-engraver, who was also a poet
of some note, a writer upon his craft, and a Republican. In 1867 they
separated in a friendly way, the husband going to America, and the wife
devoting herself to novel-writing, in which she attained wide popularity.
Her most successful works were _The True History of Joshua Davidson_
(1872), _Patricia Kemball_ (1874), and _Christopher Kirkland_. She was a
severe critic of the "new woman."


LISTER, THOMAS HENRY (1800-1842).--Novelist, _ed._ at Westminster and
Camb., was latterly the first Registrar-General for England and Wales. He
wrote several novels, among which are _Granby_ (1826), _Herbert Lacy_
(1828), _Arlington_ (1832). He was also the author of a Life of
Clarendon.


LITHGOW, WILLIAM (1582-1645).--Traveller, _b._ at Lanark, claimed at the
end of his various peregrinations to have tramped 36,000 miles on foot.
Previous to 1610 he had visited Shetland, Switzerland, and Bohemia. In
that year he set out for Palestine and Egypt. His next journey, 1614-16,
was in Tunis and Fez; but his last, 1619-21, to Spain, ended
unfortunately in his apprehension at Malaga and torture as a spy. He
gave an account of his travels in _Rare Adventures and Paineful
Peregrinations_, and wrote _The Siege of Breda_, _The Siege of
Newcastle_, and _Poems_.


LIVINGSTONE, DAVID (1813-1873).--Missionary explorer, _b._ at Blantyre,
Lanarkshire, spent the years between 10 and 24 as an operative in a
cotton mill there. Becoming interested in foreign missions he qualified
himself, and entering the service of the London Missionary Society, set
out in 1846 to South Africa. He subsequently made journeys into the
interior, which ultimately developed into his great pioneering and
exploration expeditions, in which he discovered Lake Ngami 1849, and the
river Zambesi 1851. In 1856 he visited England, _pub._ his _Missionary
Travels_ (1857), and retired from the service of the London Missionary
Society. He was Consul at Quilimane 1858-64, and in 1858 commanded an
expedition for exploring Eastern and Central Africa, in the course of
which he discovered Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa 1859. Again visiting England
he _pub._ his second book, _The Zambesi and its Tributaries_ (1865).
Returning to Africa he organised an expedition to the Nile basin,
discovered Lake Bangweolo, explored the cannibal country, enduring
terrible sufferings and dangers, from which he was rescued just in time
by H.M. Stanley. His last journey was to discover the sources of the
Nile, but it proved fatal, as he _d._ at a village in Ilala. His remains
were brought home and buried in Westminster Abbey. L. was a man of
indomitable courage, and of a simple nobility of character. His writings
are plain, unadorned statements of his work and experiences. He ranks
among the greatest explorers and philanthropists. The diary which he kept
was _pub._ as _Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa_
(1874). His view of his duty in the circumstances in which he found
himself was to be a pioneer opening up new ground, and leaving native
agents to work it up.


LLOYD, ROBERT (1733-1764).--Poet, _ed._ at Westminster and Camb., _pub._
_The Actor_ (1760), a poem which had considerable popularity, some
miscellaneous verses, and a comic opera, _The Conscious Lovers_ (1764).
He was a friend of Churchill, who showed him much kindness in his
frequent misfortunes; and on hearing of C.'s death he took to bed, and
soon _d._, apparently of a broken heart.


LOCKE, DAVID Ross (PETROLEUM V. NASBY) (1833-1888).--Humorist, _b._ in
New York State. His political satires really influenced opinion during
the war. He was a printer and then a journalist, and his writings include
_Swingin' round the Cirkle_, _Struggles of P.V. Nasby_, _Nasby in Exile_,
and two novels, _A Paper City_ and _The Demagogue_.


LOCKE, JOHN (1632-1704).--Philosopher, _s._ of a landsteward, was _b._ at
Wrington, near Bristol, and _ed._ at Westminster School and Oxf. In 1660
he became lecturer on Greek, in 1662 on Rhetoric, and in 1664 he went as
sec. to an Embassy to Brandenburg. While a student he had turned from the
subtleties of Aristotle and the schoolmen, had studied Descartes and
Bacon, and becoming attracted to experimental science, studied medicine,
and practised a little in Oxf. At the same time his mind had been much
exercised by questions of morals and government, and in 1667 he wrote
his _Essay on Toleration_. In the same year he became known to Lord
Ashley (afterwards 1st Earl of Shaftesbury), in whose house he went to
reside. Here he made the acquaintance of Buckingham, Halifax, and other
leading men of the time, and was entrusted by Ashley with the education
of his _s._, and afterwards of his grandson, the famous 3rd Earl of
Shaftesbury (_q.v._). He was also employed by him to draw up a
constitution for the new colony of Carolina, the provisions of which in
regard to religion were regarded as too liberal and were, at the instance
of the Established Church, departed from. In 1672 when Ashley became
Chancellor he bestowed upon L. the office of Sec. of Presentations, and
afterwards a post at the Board of Trade. In 1675 L. graduated M.B., and
in the same year went for the benefit of his health, which had always
been delicate, to Montpelier, where there was then a celebrated medical
school, and subsequently to Paris, where he became acquainted with most
of the eminent Frenchmen of the day. Recalled by Shaftesbury in 1679 he
returned to England but, his patron having in 1682 been obliged to take
refuge in Holland from a prosecution for high treason, he followed him
there. In consequence of this he became obnoxious to the Government, and
was in 1684 deprived of his studentship at Christ Church. Shaftesbury
having _d._ in Holland, L. remained there until the Revolution, when he
returned to England in the fleet which carried the Princess of Orange. He
was now in favour with Government, and had the offer of diplomatic
employment which, on account of his health, he declined, but was
appointed a Commissioner of Appeals. In 1698 he was an adviser of the
Government on the question of the coinage, and was made a member of the
newly instituted Council on Trade, which position he resigned in 1700.
During his last years he lived with Sir Francis and Lady Masham at Gates
in Essex, where Lady M., who was a _dau._ of Ralph Cudworth (_q.v._), and
an old friend, assiduously tended his last years. The services of L. to
his country in civil and religious matters were various and great; but it
is upon his philosophical writings, and chiefly on his _Essay on the
Human Understanding_ (1690) that his fame rests. It is divided into four
books, of which the first treats of innate ideas (the existence of which
he denies), the second traces the origin of ideas, the third deals with
language, and the fourth lays down the limits of the understanding. Other
works of his are _Thoughts concerning Education_ (1693), _On the Conduct
of the Understanding_ (_pub._ posthumously), _The Reasonableness of
Christianity_ (1695), _Treatise on Government_, and _Letters on
Toleration_. If not a very profound or original philosopher L. was a
calm, sensible, and reasonable writer, and his books were very
influential on the English thought of his day, as well as on the French
philosophy of the next century. His style is plain and clear, but lacking
in brightness and variety.

_Lives_ by Lord King (1829), and Bourne (1876). _Works_ ed. by Prof. A.C.
Fraser (1894). _See_ also T.H. Green's Introduction to Hume (1874).


LOCKER-LAMPSON, FREDERICK (1821-1895).--Poet, _s._ of the sec. of
Greenwich Hospital, held appointments in Somerset House and the
Admiralty. He wrote a number of clever _vers de societe_, which were
_coll._ as _London Lyrics_ (1857). He also compiled _Lyra Elegantiarum_,
an anthology of similar verse by former authors, and _Patchwork_, a book
of extracts, and wrote an autobiography, _My Confidences_ (1896).


LOCKHART, JOHN GIBSON (1794-1854).--Novelist and biographer, _s._ of a
minister of the Church of Scotland of good family, was _b._ at
Cambusnethan, Lanarkshire, and _ed._ at Glasgow and Oxf. He studied law
at Edin., and was called to the Scottish Bar in 1816, but had little
taste for the profession. Having, however, already tried literature (he
had translated Schlegel's _Lectures on the History of Literature_), he
devoted himself more and more to a literary life. He joined John Wilson,
and became one of the leading contributors to _Blackwood's Magazine_.
After bringing out _Peter's Letters to his Kinsfolk_ (1819), sketches
mainly of Edinburgh society, he produced four novels, _Valerius_ (1821),
_Adam Blair_ (1822), _Reginald Dalton_ (1824), and _Matthew Wald_ (1824).
His _Life of Burns_ appeared in 1828. He was ed. of the _Quarterly
Review_ 1824-53. In 1820 he had _m._ Sophia, _dau._ of Sir Walter Scott,
which led to a close friendship with the latter, and to his writing his
famous _Life of Scott_, undoubtedly one of the greatest biographies in
the language. His later years were overshadowed with deep depression
caused by the death of his wife and children. A singularly reserved and
cold manner led to his being regarded with dislike by many, but his
intimate friends were warmly attached to him.


LODGE, THOMAS (1558?-1625).--Poet and dramatist, _s._ of Sir Thomas L.,
Lord Mayor of London, was _ed._ at Merchant Taylor's School and Oxf. He
was a student of Lincoln's Inn, but abandoned law for literature,
ultimately studied medicine, and took M.D. at Oxf. 1603; having become a
Roman Catholic, he had a large practice, chiefly among his
co-religionists. In 1580 he _pub._ _A Defence of Plays_ in reply to
Gosson's _School of Abuse_; and he wrote poems, dramas, and romances. His
principal dramatic works are _The Wounds of Civil War_, and (in
conjunction with Greene, _q.v._) _A Looking-glass for London and England_.
Among his romances may be mentioned _Euphues' Shadow_, _Forbonius
and Prisceria_ (1584), and _Rosalynde, Euphues' Golden Legacie_ (1590).
His poems include _Glaucus and Scilia_ (1589), _Phillis honoured with
Pastoral Sonnets, Elegies, and Amorous Delights_ (1593). _Rosalynde_, his
best known work, and the source from which Shakespeare is said to have
drawn _As you like It_, was written to beguile the tedium of a voyage to
the Canaries. _Robin the Divell_ and _William Longbeard_ are historical
romances. L. was also a voluminous translator. He was one of the founders
of the regular English drama, but his own plays are heavy and tedious.
His romances, popular in their day, are sentimental and over-refined in
language, but are enlivened by lyrical pieces in which he is far more
successful than in his dramatic work.


LOGAN, JOHN (1748-1788).--Poet, _s._ of a small farmer at Soutra,
Midlothian, was destined for the ministry of a small Dissenting sect to
which his _f._ belonged, but attached himself to the Church of Scotland,
and became minister of South Leith in 1773. He read lectures on the
philosophy of history in Edin., and was the author of a vol. of poems.
He also ed. those of his friend, Michael Bruce (_q.v._), in such a way,
however, as to lead to a controversy, still unsettled, as to the
authorship of certain of the pieces inserted. L., in fact, suppressed
some of Bruce's poems and introduced others of his own. Unfortunately for
the reputation of both poets the disputed authorship extends to the gem
of the collection, the exquisite _Ode to the Cuckoo_, beginning "Hail,
beauteous stranger of the grove," which Burke considered the most
beautiful lyric in the language. L. fell into dissipated habits, resigned
his ministerial charge, and went to London, where he took an active part
in the controversy regarding the impeachment of Warren Hastings.


LONG, GEORGE (1800-1879).--Classical scholar, _ed._ at Camb. He was Prof.
of Ancient Languages in the Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1824-28,
of Greek at University Coll., London, 1828-31, and of Latin there,
1842-46. He did much for the diffusion of education, was one of the
founders and sec. of the Royal Geographical Society, and ed. of the
_Penny Cyclopaedia_. He translated Marcus Aurelius (1862), and _The
Discourses of Epictetus_ (1877), and wrote _Two Discourses on Roman Law_
(1847), a subject on which he was the greatest English authority.


LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH (1807-1882).--Poet, was _b._ at Portland,
Maine, the _s._ of Stephen L., a lawyer. From childhood he cared little
for games, but was always devoted to reading. In 1822 he was sent to
Bowdoin Coll., of which his _f._ was a Trustee, and after graduating was
appointed to a new Chair of Modern Languages, which the coll. had decided
to establish, and with the view of more completely qualifying him for his
duties, he was sent to Europe for a three years' course of study. He
accordingly went to France, Spain, and Italy. Returning in 1829 he
commenced his professional duties, writing also in the _North American
Review_. In 1831 he entered into his first marriage, and in 1833 he
_pub._ his first books, a translation from the Spanish, followed by the
first part of _Outre Mer_, an account of his travels. At the end of the
year L. was invited to become Prof. of Modern Languages at Harvard, an
offer which he gladly accepted. He paid a second visit to Europe
accompanied by his wife, who, however, _d._ at Amsterdam. He returned to
his duties in 1836, and in 1838 appeared _Voices of the Night_,
containing the "Psalm of Life" and "Excelsior," which had extraordinary
popularity, and gave him a place in the affections of his countrymen
which he held until his death. The same year saw the publication of
_Hyperion_. His next work was _Ballads and other Poems_, containing "The
Wreck of the Hesperus" and "The Village Blacksmith." In 1843 he _m._ his
second wife, and in the same year appeared _The Spanish Student_, a
drama. The _Belfry of Bruges_ and _Evangeline_ (1847), generally
considered his masterpiece, followed. In 1849 he _pub._ _Kavanagh_, a
novel which added nothing to his reputation, and in 1851 _Seaside and
Fireside_, and _The Golden Legend_. Having now a sufficient and secure
income from his writings, he resigned his professorship, and devoted
himself entirely to literature. _Hiawatha_ appeared in 1855, and _The
Courtship of Miles Standish_ in 1858. In 1861 he lost his wife under
tragic circumstances, a blow which told heavily upon him. His latest
works were a translation of Dante's _Divina Commedia_, _Tales of a
Wayside Inn_, _The New England Tragedies_, and _The Divine Tragedy_, the
last two of which he combined with _The Golden Legend_ into a trilogy,
which he named _Christus_. In 1868 he paid a last visit to England, where
he was received with the highest honour. Later works were _Three Books of
Song_, _Aftermath_, and _Ultima Thule_. He _d._ on March 14, 1882. L.
lacked the intensity of feeling and power of imagination to make him a
great poet; but few poets have appealed to a wider circle of readers. If
he never soars to the heights or sounds the deeps of feeling he touches
the heart by appealing to universal and deep-seated affections. He was a
man of noble and chivalrous character.

_Lives_ by S. Longfellow in Riverside ed. of works (11 vols. 1886-90),
Robertson (Great Writers Series), and Higginson (American Men of
Letters).


LOVELACE, RICHARD (1618-1658).--Poet, _b._ at Woolwich, _s._ of Sir
William L., was _ed._ at Oxf., where he is described by Anthony Wood as
"the most amiable and beautiful person that eye ever beheld." He was an
enthusiastic Royalist, and spent his whole fortune in support of that
cause. For presenting "the Kentish petition" in favour of the King, he
was imprisoned in 1642, when he wrote his famous song, _When Love with
unconfined wings_. After his release he served in the French army, and
was wounded at Dunkirk. Returning, he was again imprisoned, 1648, and
produced his _Lucasta: Epodes, Odes_, etc. He lives in literature by a
few of his lyrics which, though often careless, are graceful and tender.
He _d._ in poverty.


LOVER, SAMUEL (1797-1868).--Song-writer and novelist, was a painter of
portraits, chiefly miniatures. He produced a number of Irish songs, of
which several--including _The Angel's Whisper_, _Molly Bawn_, and _The
Four-leaved Shamrock_--attained great popularity. He also wrote some
novels, of which _Rory O'More_ (in its first form a ballad), and _Handy
Andy_ are the best known, and short Irish sketches, which, with his
songs, he combined into a popular entertainment called _Irish Nights_. He
joined with Dickens in founding _Bentley's Magazine_.


LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL (1819-1891).--Poet and essayist, _b._ at Camb.,
Massachusetts, _s._ of a Unitarian minister, was _ed._ at Harvard. He
began active life as a lawyer, but soon abandoned business, and devoted
himself mainly to literature. In 1841 he _pub._ a vol. of poems, _A
Year's Life_, and in 1843 a second book of verses appeared. He also wrote
at this time political articles in the _Atlantic_ and _North American
Review_. In 1848 he _pub._ a third vol. of _Poems_, _A Fable for
Critics_, _The Biglow Papers_, and _The Vision of Sir Launfal_; and he
was in 1855 appointed Professor of Modern Languages at Harvard in
succession to Longfellow. _Among my Books_ appeared in 2 series, in 1870
and 1876. His later poems included various _Odes_ in celebration of
national events, some of which were _coll._ in _Under the Willows_, _The
Cathedral_, and _Heartsease and Rue_. In 1877 he was appointed United
States minister to Spain, and he held a similar appointment in England
1880-85. He _d._ at Elmwood, the house in which he was _b._ L. was a man
of singularly varied gifts, wit, humour, scholarship, and considerable
poetic power, and he is the greatest critic America has yet produced. He
was a strong advocate of the abolition of slavery.


LOWTH, ROBERT (1710-1787).--Theologian and scholar, _s._ of William L.,
Prebendary of Winchester, and author of a _Commentary on the Prophets_,
was _b._ at Winchester, and _ed._ there and at Oxf. Entering the Church
he became Bishop successively of St. David's, Oxf., and London. In 1753
he _pub._ _De Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum_. He also wrote a _Life of William of
Wykeham_, the founder of Winchester Coll., and made a new translation of
Isaiah.


LYDGATE, JOHN (1370?-1451?).--Poet, _b._ in Suffolk, was ordained a
priest in 1397. After studying at Oxf., Paris, and Padua, he taught
literature in his monastery at Bury St. Edmunds. He appears to have been
a bright, clear-minded, earnest man, with a love of the beautiful, and a
faculty of pleasant, flowing verse. He wrote copiously and with tiresome
prolixity whatever was required of him, moral tales, legends of the
saints, and histories, and his total output is enormous, reaching 130,000
lines. His chief works are _Troy Book_ (1412-20), written at the request
of Henry V. when Prince of Wales, _The Falls of Princes_ (1430-38), and
_The Story of Thebes_ (_c._ 1420). These books were first _printed_ in
1513, 1494, and _c._ 1500 respectively. L. also wrote many miscellaneous
poems. He was for a time Court poet, and was patronised by Humphrey, Duke
of Gloucester; but the greater part of his life was spent in the
monastery at Bury St. Edmunds. He was an avowed admirer of Chaucer,
though he largely follows the French romancists previous to him.


LYELL, SIR CHARLES (1797-1875).--Geologist and writer, _s._ of Charles
L., of Kinnordy, Forfarshire (a distinguished botanist and student of
Dante), was brought up near the New Forest. After going to school at
various places in England, he was sent to Oxf., where under Buckland he
imbibed a taste for science. He studied law, and was called to the Bar,
but soon devoted himself to geology, and made various scientific tours on
the Continent, the results of his investigations being _pub._ chiefly in
the Transactions of the Geological Society, of which he was afterwards
repeatedly Pres. His two chief works are _The Principles of Geology_
(1830-33), and _The Elements of Geology_ (1838). In these books he
combated the necessity of stupendous convulsions, and maintained that the
greatest geologic changes might be produced by remote causes still in
operation. He also _pub._, among other works, _Geological Evidence of the
Antiquity of Man_ (1863). He was Prof. of Geology in King's Coll.,
London, 1831-33, Pres. of the British Association 1864, knighted in 1848,
and _cr._ a Baronet in 1864. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. In his
later years he was generally recognised as the greatest of living
geologists.


LYLY, JOHN (1554?-1606).--Dramatist and miscellaneous writer, was _b._ in
the Weald of Kent, and _ed._ at both Oxf. and Camb. He wrote several
dramas, most of which are on classical and mythological subjects,
including _Campaspe_ and _Sapho and Phao_ (1584), _Endymion_ (1591), and
_Midas_ (1592). His chief fame, however, rests on his two didactic
romances, _Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit_ (1579), and _Euphues and his
England_ (1580). These works, which were largely inspired by Ascham's
_Toxophilus_, and had the same objects in view, viz., the reform of
education and manners, exercised a powerful, though temporary, influence
on the language, both written and spoken, commemorated in our words
"euphuism" and "euphuistic." The characteristics of the style have been
set forth as "pedantic and far-fetched allusion, elaborate indirectness,
a cloying smoothness and drowsy monotony of diction, alliteration,
punning, and such-like puerilities, which do not, however, exclude a good
deal of wit, fancy, and prettiness." Many contemporary authors, including
Shakespeare, made game of it, while others, _e.g._ Greene, admired and
practised it. L. also wrote light dramatic pieces for the children of the
Chapel Royal, and contributed a pamphlet, _Pappe with an Hatchet_ (1589)
to the Mar-prelate controversy in which he supported the Bishops. He sat
in Parliament for some years.


LYNDESAY, SIR D., (_see_ LINDSAY.)


LYTE, HENRY FRANCIS (1793-1847).--Hymn-writer, _b._ at Ednam, near Kelso,
of an ancient Somersetshire family, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin,
took orders, and was incumbent of Lower Brixham, Devonshire. He _pub._
_Poems: chiefly religious_ (1833). He is chiefly remembered for his
hymns, one of which, _Abide with Me_, is universally known and loved.


LYTTELTON, GEORGE, 1ST LORD LYTTELTON (1709-1773).--Poet, _s._ of Sir
Thomas L., of Hagley, Worcestershire, _ed._ at Eton and Oxf., was the
patron of many literary men, including Thomson and Mallet, and was
himself a somewhat voluminous author. Among his works are _Letters from a
Persian in England to his friend in Ispahan_ (1735), a treatise _On the
Conversion of St. Paul_ (1746), _Dialogues of the Dead_ (1760), which had
great popularity, and a _History of the Reign of Henry II._,
well-informed, careful, and impartial, but tedious. He is chiefly
remembered by his _Monody_ on the death of his wife. The stanza in _The
Castle of Indolence_ in which Thomson is playfully described (canto 1,
st. lxviii.), is by L., who is himself referred to in lxv. He took some
part in public affairs, and was Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1756.


LYTTON, EDWARD GEORGE EARLE LYTTON-BULWER, 1ST LORD
(1803-1873).--Novelist and statesman, third son of General Earle Bulwer
of Heydon and Dalling, Norfolk, and of Elizabeth Lytton, heiress of
Knebworth, Herts, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ privately and at Camb. He
began to write when still a boy, and _pub._, in 1820, _Ismael and other
Poems_. His marriage in 1825 to Rosina Wheeler, an Irish beauty, caused a
quarrel with his mother, and the loss of his income, and thus
incidentally gave the impulse to his marvellous literary activity. The
marriage proved an unhappy one, and was terminated by a separation in
1836. During its continuance, however, his life was a busy and productive
one, its literary results including _Falkland_ (1827), _Pelham_ (1828),
_Paul Clifford_ (1830), _Eugene Aram_ (1832), _The Pilgrims of the
Rhine_, _Last Days of Pompeii_, _Rienzi_ (1835), besides _England and the
English_, _Athens its Rise and Fall_, and innumerable tales, essays, and
articles in various reviews and magazines, including the _New Monthly_,
of which he became ed. in 1831. In the same year he entered Parliament as
a Liberal, but gradually gravitated towards Conservatism, and held office
in the second government of Lord Derby as Colonial Sec. 1858-59. As a
politician he devoted himself largely to questions affecting authors,
such as copyright and the removal of taxes upon literature. He continued
his literary labours with almost unabated energy until the end of his
life, his works later than those already mentioned including the _Last of
the Barons_ (1843), _Harold_ (1848), the famous triad of _The Caxtons_
(1850), _My Novel_ (1853), and _What will he do with it?_ (1859); and his
studies in the supernatural, _Zanoni_ (1842), and _A Strange Story_
(1862). Later still were _The Coming Race_ (1870) and _Kenelm Chillingly_
(1873). To the drama he contributed three plays which still enjoy
popularity, _The Lady of Lyons_, _Richelieu_, both (1838), and _Money_
(1840). In poetry he was less successful. _The New Timon_, a satire, is
the best remembered, largely, however, owing to the reply by Tennyson
which it brought down upon the author, who had attacked him. In his
works, numbering over 60, L. showed an amazing versatility, both in
subject and treatment, but they have not, with perhaps the exception of
the Caxton series, kept their original popularity. Their faults are
artificiality, and forced brilliancy, and as a rule they rather dazzle by
their cleverness than touch by their truth to nature. L. was raised to
the peerage in 1866.

_Life, Letters, etc._, of Lord Lytton by his son, 2 vols., comes down to
1832 only. Political Memoir prefaced to _Speeches_ (2 vols., 1874).


LYTTON, EDWARD ROBERT BULWER, 1ST EARL OF LYTTON (1831-1891).--Poet and
statesman, _s._ of the above, was _ed._ at Harrow and Bonn, and
thereafter was private sec. to his uncle, Sir H. Bulwer, afterwards Lord
Dalling and Bulwer (_q.v._), at Washington and Florence. Subsequently he
held various diplomatic appointments at other European capitals. In 1873
he succeeded his _f._ in the title, and in 1876 became Viceroy of India.
He was _cr._ an Earl on his retirement in 1880, and was in 1887 appointed
Ambassador at Paris, where he _d._ in 1891. He valued himself much more
as a poet than as a man of affairs; but, though he had in a considerable
degree some of the qualities of a poet, he never quite succeeded in
commanding the recognition of either the public or the critics. His
writings, usually appearing under the pseudonym of "Owen Meredith,"
include _Clytemnestra_ (1855), _The Wanderer_ (1857), _Lucile_ (1860),
_Chronicles and Characters_ (1868), _Orval, or the Fool of Time_ (1869),
_Fables in Song_ (1874), and _King Poppy_ (1892). As Viceroy of India he
introduced important reforms, and his dispatches were remarkable for
their fine literary form.


MACAULAY, MRS. CATHERINE (SAWBRIDGE) (1731-1791).--_Dau._ of a landed
proprietor of Kent, was an advocate of republicanism, and a sympathiser
with the French Revolution. She wrote a _History of England from the
Accession of James I. to the Elevation of the House of Hanover_ (8 vols.,
1763-83), which had great popularity in its day, some critics, _e.g._
Horace Walpole, placing it above Hume. Though a work of no real research
or authority, it is in the main well written.


MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON, LORD (1800-1859).--Historian, essayist, and
statesman, _s._ of Zachary M., a wealthy merchant, and one of the leaders
of the anti-slavery party, was _b._ at Rothley Temple, Leicestershire,
and _ed._ at a private school and at Trinity Coll., Camb., of which he
became a Fellow in 1824, and where, though he gained distinction as a
classical scholar and debater, he did not take a high degree, owing to
his weakness in mathematics. About the time of his leaving the Univ. his
prospects were entirely changed by the failure of his father's firm. He
accordingly read law, and in 1826 was called to the Bar, which led to his
appointment two years later as a Commissioner in Bankruptcy. He had by
this time made his first appearance in print, in _Knight's Quarterly
Magazine_, and in 1825 he formed the connection with the _Edinburgh
Review_ which redounded so greatly to the fame of both. His first
contribution was the famous essay on Milton, which, although he
afterwards said of it that "it contained scarcely a paragraph which his
matured judgment approved," took the reading public by storm, and at once
gave him access to the first society in London, in which his
extraordinary conversational powers enabled him to take a leading place.
He now began to turn his mind towards public life, and by favour of Lord
Lansdowne sat in the House of Commons for his family borough of Calne.
Entering the House in 1830 in the thick of the Reform struggle, M. at
once leaped into a foremost place as a debater, and after the passage of
the Reform Bill sat as one of the two members for the new borough of
Leeds, and held office as Sec. to the Board of Control. The acquaintance
with Indian affairs which he thus gained led to his appointment as a
member of the Supreme Council of India, whither he went in 1834. Here his
chief work was the codification of the criminal law, which he carried out
with great ability, and by which he wrote his name on the history of the
empire. By the regard for the rights of the natives which he showed, he
incurred much ill-will in interested quarters. For this he consoled
himself with the pleasures of literature, which gradually assumed the
preponderance in his mind over political ambitions. In 1838 he returned
to England. The next year he began _The History of England_, but for some
time to come his energies were still divided between this task, the
demands of the _Edinburgh Review_, and politics. He was elected for
Edin., for which he sat until 1847, when he was thrown out on the
Maynooth question, and from 1839-41 was Sec. for War. The _Lays of
Ancient Rome_ were _pub._ in 1842, and a collection of his essays in _The
Edinburgh_ the following year. In 1846 he joined the government of Lord
John Russell as Paymaster-General, an office with light duties, his
retirement from which, however, followed the loss of his seat in the next
year. He was now finally set free for his great work, which became
thenceforth the leading interest of his life. The first and second vols.
appeared in 1848, and were received with extraordinary applause. In 1852
he was offered, but declined, a seat in the coalition government of Lord
Aberdeen, accepting, however, the seat in Parliament which Edin., now
repentant, gave him unsolicited. His health began about this time to
show symptoms of failure, and he spoke in the House only once or twice.
In 1855 the third and fourth vols. of the _History_ came out, and meeting
with a success both at home and in America unprecedented in the case of
an historical work, were translated into various foreign languages. In
1857 M. was raised to the Peerage, a distinction which he appreciated and
enjoyed. His last years were spent at Holly Lodge, Kensington, in
comparative retirement, and there he _d._ on December 28, 1859. Though
never _m._, M. was a man of the warmest family affections. Outside of his
family he was a steady friend and a generous opponent, disinterested and
honourable in his public life. Possessed of an astonishing memory,
knowledge of vast extent, and an unfailing flow of ready and effective
speech, he shone alike as a parliamentary orator and a conversationalist.
In his writings he spared no pains in the collection and arrangement of
his materials, and he was incapable of deliberate unfairness.
Nevertheless, his mind was strongly cast in the mould of the orator and
the pleader: and the vivid contrasts, antitheses, and even paradoxes
which were his natural forms of expression do not always tend to secure a
judicial view of the matter in hand. Consequently he has been accused by
some critics of party-spirit, inaccuracy, and prejudice. He has not
often, however, been found mistaken on any important matter of fact, and
in what he avowedly set himself to do, namely, to give a living picture
of the period which he dealt with, he has been triumphantly successful.
Unfortunately, strength and life failed before his great design was
completed. He is probably most widely known by his _Essays_, which retain
an extraordinary popularity.

_Life_ by his nephew, Sir G.O. Trevelyan. _See_ also J.C. Monson's _Life_
(English Men of Letters).


MACCARTHY, DENIS FLORENCE (1817-1882).--Poet, _b._ at Dublin, and _ed._
at Maynooth with a view to the priesthood, devoted himself, however, to
literature, and contributed verses to _The Nation_. Among his other
writings are _Ballads, Poems, and Lyrics_ (1850), _The Bell Founder_
(1857), and _Under-Glimpses_. He also ed. a collection of Irish lyrics,
translated Calderon, and wrote _Shelley's Early Life_ (1872).


M'COSH, JAMES (1811-1894).--Philosophical writer, _s._ of an Ayrshire
farmer, was a minister first of the Church of Scotland, and afterwards of
the Free Church. From 1851-68 he was Prof. of Logic at Queen's Coll.,
Belfast, and thereafter Pres. of Princeton Coll., New Jersey. He wrote
several works on philosophy, including _Method of the Divine Government_
(1850), _Intuitions of the Mind inductively investigated_ (1860), _Laws
of Discursive Thought_ (1870), _Scottish Philosophy_ (1874), and
_Psychology_ (1886).


M'CRIE, THOMAS (1772-1835).--Biographer and ecclesiastical historian,
_b._ at Duns, and _ed._ at the Univ. of Edin., became the leading
minister of one of the Dissenting churches of Scotland. His _Life of
Knox_ (1813) ranks high among biographies for the ability and learning
which it displays, and was the means of vindicating the great Reformer
from a cloud of prejudice and misunderstanding in which he had been
enveloped. It was followed by a _Life of Andrew Melville_ (1819), Knox's
successor as the leader of the Reformers in Scotland, also a work of
great merit. M'C. also _pub._ histories of the Reformation in Italy and
Spain. He received the degree of D.D. in 1813.


MACDONALD, GEORGE (1824-1905).--Poet and novelist, _s._ of a farmer, was
_b._ at Huntly, Aberdeenshire, and _ed._ at the Univ. of Aberdeen, and at
the Independent Coll., Highbury. He became minister of a congregation at
Arundel, but after a few years retired, on account partly of theological
considerations, partly of a threatened, breakdown of health. He then took
to literature, and _pub._ his first book, _Within and Without_ (1856), a
dramatic poem, _Poems_ followed in 1857, and _Phantasies, a Faerie
Romance_, in 1858. He then turned to fiction, and produced numerous
novels, of which _David Elginbrod_ (1862), _Alec Forbes_ (1865), _Robert
Falconer_ (1868), _The Marquis of Lossie_ (1877), and _Sir Gibbie_
(1879), are perhaps the best. He also wrote stories for children of great
charm and originality, including _The Princess and the Goblin_, _At the
Back of the North Wind_, and _Ranald Bannerman's Boyhood_. As a novelist
he had considerable narrative and dramatic power, humour, tenderness, a
genial view of life and character, tinged with mysticism, and within his
limits was a true poet. On retiring from the ministry he attached himself
to the Church of England, but frequently preached as a layman, never
accepting any remuneration for his sermons.


MACKAY, CHARLES (1814-1889).--Poet and journalist, _s._ of a naval
officer, was _b._ at Perth, and _ed._ at the Royal Caledonian Asylum,
London, and at Brussels, but much of his early life was spent in France.
Coming to London in 1834, he engaged in journalism, _pub._ _Songs and
Poems_ (1834), wrote a _History of London_, _Popular Delusions_, and a
romance, _Longbeard_. His fame, however, chiefly rests upon his songs,
some of which, including _Cheer, Boys, Cheer_, were in 1846 set to music
by Henry Russell, and had an astonishing popularity. In 1852 he became
ed. of the _Illustrated London News_, in the musical supplement to which
other songs by him were set to old English music by Sir H.R. Bishop. M.
acted as _Times_ correspondent during the American Civil War, and in that
capacity discovered and disclosed the Fenian conspiracy. He had the
degree of LL.D. from Glasgow in 1846.


MACKENZIE, SIR GEORGE (1636-1691).--Lawyer and miscellaneous writer, _s._
of Sir Simon M., of Lochslin, a brother of the Earl of Seaforth, was
_ed._ at St. Andrews, Aberdeen, and Bourges, called to the Bar in 1659,
in 1677 became Lord Advocate, in which capacity he was the subservient
minister of the persecuting policy of Charles II. in Scotland, and the
inhumanity and relentlessness of his persecution of the Covenanters
gained for him the name of "Bloody Mackenzie." In private life, however,
he was a cultivated and learned gentleman with literary tendencies, and
is remembered as the author of various graceful essays, of which the best
known is _A Moral Essay preferring Solitude to Public Employment_ (1665).
He also wrote legal, political, and antiquarian works of value, including
_Institutions of the Law of Scotland_ (1684), _Antiquity of the Royal
Line of Scotland_ (1686), _Heraldry_, and _Memoirs of the Affairs of
Scotland from the Restoration of Charles II._, a valuable work which was
not _pub._ until 1821. M. was the founder of the Advocates' Library in
Edin. He retired at the Revolution to Oxf., where he _d._


MACKENZIE, HENRY (1745-1831).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer, _s._ of
a physician in Edin., where he was _b._ and _ed._ He studied for the law,
and became Controller of Taxes for Scotland. He was the author of three
novels, _The Man of Feeling_ (1771), _The Man of the World_ (1773), and
_Julia de Roubigne_ (1777), all written in a strain of rather
high-wrought sentimentalism, in which the influence of Sterne is to be
seen. He was also a leading contributor to _The Mirror_ and _The
Lounger_, two periodicals somewhat in the style of the _Spectator_. In
his later days he was one of the leading members of the literary society
of Edinburgh.


MACKINTOSH, SIR JAMES (1765-1832).--Philosopher and historian, was _b._
at Aldowrie, Inverness-shire, _s._ of an officer in the army and
landowner, _ed._ at Aberdeen, whence he proceeded to Edinburgh to study
medicine, in which he _grad._ in 1787. In the following year he went to
London, where he wrote for the press and studied law, and in 1791 he
_pub._ _Vindiciae Gallicae_ in answer to Burke's _Reflections on the French
Revolution_, which was well received by those who, in its earlier stages,
sympathised with the Revolution, and procured for him the friendship of
Fox, Sheridan, and other Whigs. Called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in
1795, he delivered before that society in 1799 a brilliant course of
lectures on _The Law of Nature and Nations_, which greatly increased his
reputation. In 1804 he went out to India as Recorder of Bombay, and two
years later was appointed a Judge of the Admiralty Court. He remained in
India until 1811, discharging his official duties with great efficiency.
After his return he entered Parliament in 1813 as member for Nairnshire,
and attained a considerable reputation as a forcible and informing
speaker on questions of criminal law and general politics. On the
accession of the Whigs in 1830 he was made a member of the Board of
Control for India. He also held from 1818-24 the Professorship of Law and
General Politics at Haileybury. His true vocation, however, was to
literature, and it is to be regretted that so much of his time and
strength was withdrawn from it, his writings being confined to a
_Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy_ in the _Encyclopaedia
Britannica_, a sketch of the History of England for Lardner's _Cabinet
Cyclopaedia_, a Life of Sir Thomas More for the same, a fragment of a
projected _History of the Revolution of 1688_, and some articles in the
_Edinburgh Review_.


MACKLIN, CHARLES (1697?-1797).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ in the north of
Ireland, was one of the most distinguished actors of his day, shining
equally in tragedy and comedy. Having killed another actor in a quarrel
he was tried for murder, but acquitted, and _d._ a centenarian. He wrote,
among other comedies, _Love a la Mode_ (1759) and _The Man of the World_
(1781), which were the only ones printed. He was the creator of Sir
Pertinax Macsycophant, a famous burlesque character.


M'LENNAN, JOHN FERGUSON (1827-1881).--Sociologist, _b._ at Inverness, and
_ed._ at Aberdeen and Camb., was in 1857 called to the Scottish Bar, and
was subsequently Parliamentary Draftsman for Scotland. His main
contribution to literature is his original and learned book, _Primitive
Marriage_ (1865). Another work, _The Patriarchal Theory_, left
unfinished, was completed by his brother (1884). These works and other
papers by M. gave a great impulse to the study of the problems with which
they deal, and cognate questions. M. received the degree of LL.D. from
Aberdeen in 1874.


"MACLEOD, FIONA," (_see_ SHARP, WILLIAM).


MACLEOD, NORMAN (1812-1872).--Scottish divine and miscellaneous writer,
_s._ of the Rev. Norman M., D.D., a distinguished minister of the
Scottish Church, studied at Edin., and was ordained in 1838. He became
one of the most distinguished ministers, and most popular preachers of
his Church, was made one of the Royal Chaplains in Scotland in 1857, and
became a trusted friend of Queen Victoria. He was the first ed. of _Good
Words_, to which he contributed many articles and stories, including _Wee
Davie_, _The Starling_, and _The Old Lieutenant and his Son_.


MACNEILL, HECTOR (1746-1818).--Poet, was in the West Indies 1780-86, and
clerk on a flagship. He wrote various political pamphlets, two novels,
and several poems, _The Harp_ (1789), _The Carse of Forth_, and
_Scotland's Skaith_, the last against drunkenness, but is best known for
his songs, such as _My Boy Tammy_, _I lo'ed ne'er a Laddie but ane_, and
_Come under my Plaidie_.


MACPHERSON, JAMES (1736?-1796).--Alleged translator of the Ossianic
poems, _s._ of a small farmer at Ruthven, Inverness-shire, studied for
the Church at Aberdeen and Edin., became teacher of the school in his
native parish, and afterwards tutor in a gentleman's family. In 1758 he
_pub._ _The Highlander_, an ambitious poem in 6 cantos, which, however,
attracted no attention. But in the following year he submitted to John
Home (_q.v._), the author of _Douglas_, certain writings which he
represented to be translations from ancient Gaelic poems. By the help of
Home and some of his friends M. was enabled to _pub._ a considerable
number of his _Fragments of Poetry translated from the Gaelic and Erse
Languages_. These were received with profound and widely-spread interest,
and gave rise to a controversy which can hardly yet be said to be
settled. While some authorities received them with enthusiastic
admiration, others immediately called their genuineness in question. In
the first instance, however, a subscription was raised to enable M. to
make a journey in search of further poetic remains, the result of which
was the production in 1761 of _Fingal_, an epic in 6 books, and in 1763
of _Temora_, also an epic, in 8 books. The fame which these brought to
their discoverer was great, and the sales enormous. In 1764 M. went as
sec. to the Governor of Pensacola in Florida. Returning in 1766 he
settled in London, became an energetic pamphleteer in support of the
Government, and in 1780 entered Parliament, and was next year appointed
to the lucrative post of Agent for the Nabob of Arcot. He retired in
1789, and bought an estate in his native parish, where he _d._ in 1796.
Great doubt still rests upon the subject of the Ossianic poems: it is,
however, generally admitted that M. took great liberties with the
originals, even if they ever really existed in anything at all resembling
the form given in the alleged translations. No manuscripts in the
original have ever been forthcoming. Few, however, will deny that M.
either discovered, or composed, a body of poetry unlike anything that has
preceded it, of unequal merit, indeed, but containing many striking and
beautiful passages, and which unquestionably contributed to break up the
tyranny of the classical school and thus prepare the way for the romantic
revival.


MAGINN, WILLIAM (1793-1842).--Journalist and miscellaneous writer, _b._
at Cork, became a contributor to _Blackwood's Magazine_, and afterwards
foreign correspondent to _The Representative_, a paper started by J.
Murray, the publisher, and when its short career was run, one of the
leading supporters of _Fraser's Magazine_. One of the most brilliant
periodical writers of his time, he has left no permanent work behind him.
In his later years he fell into intemperate habits, and _d._ in poverty.


MAHONY, FRANCIS SYLVESTER (FATHER PROUT) (1804-1866).--Humorist, _b._ at
Cork, and _ed._ at the Jesuit Coll. at Clongoweswood, Co. Kildare, at
Amiens, and at Rome, becoming a member of the society, was Prof. of
Rhetoric at Clongoweswood, but was soon after expelled from the order. He
then came to London, and became a leading contributor to _Fraser's
Magazine_, under the signature of "Father Prout." He was witty and
learned in many languages. One form which his humour took was the
professed discovery of the originals in Latin, Greek, or mediaeval French
of popular modern poems and songs. Many of these _jeux d'esprit_ were
_coll._ as _Reliques of Father Prout_. He wittily described himself as
"an Irish potato seasoned with Attic salt." Latterly he acted as foreign
correspondent to various newspapers, and _d._ at Paris reconciled to the
Church.


MAINE, SIR HENRY JAMES SUMNER (1822-1888).--Jurist, _ed._ at Christ's
Hospital and at Camb., where he became Regius Prof. of Civil Law 1847-54.
Called to the Bar in 1850, he went in 1862 to India as legal member of
the Government. On his return he was in 1870 appointed Prof. of
Comparative Jurisprudence at Oxf., which office he held until his
election in 1878 as Master of Trinity Hall. He became Whewell Prof. of
International Law at Camb. in 1887, and was the author of many valuable
works on law and the history of political institutions, and profoundly
influenced the study of jurisprudence. Among his writings are _Ancient
Law_ (1861), _Village Communities_ (1871), _Early History of
Institutions_ (1875), and _Dissertations on Early Law and Customs_
(1883).


MAIR, or MAJOR, JOHN (1469?-1550).--Historian, studied at Camb. and
Paris, was the teacher of John Knox and George Buchanan. In 1506 he was a
Doctor of the Sorbonne, and in 1519 became Prof. of Divinity at St.
Andrews. He wrote, in Latin, treatises on divinity and morals, and a
_History of Greater Britain_, in which the separate histories of England
and Scotland were brought together, _pub._ at Paris (1521). In his
writings, while upholding the doctrinal teaching of Rome, he was
outspoken in condemning the corruptions of the clergy.


MAITLAND, SIR RICHARD (1496-1586).--Poet, _f._ of M. of Lethington, Sec.
of State to Mary Queen of Scots. In his later years he was blind, and
occupied himself in composing a _History of the House of Seaton_, and by
writing poems, _e.g._ _On the New Year_, _On the Queene's Maryage_, etc.
He held various offices, chiefly legal, but appears to have kept as far
as possible out of the fierce political struggles of his time, and to
have been a genially satirical humorist.


MALCOLM, SIR JOHN (1769-1833).--Indian soldier, statesman, and historian,
_b._ at Burnfoot, Dumfriesshire, went to India in 1782, studied Persian,
was employed in many important negotiations and held various
distinguished posts, being Ambassador to Persia and Governor of Bombay
1826-30. He was the author of several valuable works regarded as
authorities, viz., _A History of Persia_ (1815), _Memoir of Central
India_ (1823), _Political History of India from 1784 to 1823_ (1826), and
_Life of Lord Clive_ (1836).


MALLET, originally MALLOCH, DAVID (1705-1765).--Poet and miscellaneous
writer, _ed._ at Crieff parish school and the Univ. of Edin., where he
became acquainted with James Thomson, and in 1723 went to London as tutor
in the family of the Duke of Montrose. In the following year appeared his
ballad of _William and Margaret_, by which he is chiefly remembered, and
which made him known to Pope, Young, and others. In 1726 he changed his
name to Mallet to make it more pronounceable by Southern tongues. His
_Excursion_, an imitation of Thomson, was _pub._ in 1728. At the request
of the Prince of Wales, whose sec. he had become, he wrote with Thomson a
masque, _Alfred_ (1740), in which _Rule Britannia_ first appeared, which,
although he claimed the authorship, is now generally attributed to
Thomson. He also wrote a _Life of Bacon_; and on Bolingbroke bequeathing
to him his manuscripts and library, he _pub._ an ed. of his works (1754).
On the accession of George III., M. became a zealous supporter of Lord
Bute, and was rewarded with a sinecure. In addition to the works above
named M. wrote some indifferent dramas, including _Eurydice_, _Mustapha_,
and _Elvira_. Dr. Johnson said of him that he was "the only Scotsman whom
Scotsmen did not commend."


MALONE, EDMUND (1741-1812).--Critic, _s._ of an Irish judge, _b._ in
Dublin, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll. there, studied for the law, but coming
into a fortune, decided to follow a literary career. Acute, careful, and
sensible, he was a useful contributor to the study of Shakespeare, of
whose works he _pub._ a valuable ed. in 1790. He also aided in the
detection of the Rowley forgeries of Chatterton, and the much less
respectable Shakespeare ones of Ireland. At his death he was engaged upon
another ed. of Shakespeare, which was brought out under the editorship of
James Boswell (_q.v._). M. also wrote Lives of Dryden and others, and was
the friend of Johnson, Goldsmith, Reynolds, and Burke.


MALORY, SIR THOMAS (_fl._ 1470).--Translator of _Morte d'Arthur_. Very
little is known of him. An endeavour has been made to identify him with a
Sir Thomas Malory of Warwickshire, who fought successively on both sides
in the Wars of the Roses, sat in Parliament 1444-45, and _d._ 1471. In
his book he strove to make a continuous story of the Arthurian legends,
and showed judgment alike in what he included and omitted.


MALTHUS, THOMAS ROBERT (1766-1834).--Economist, _s._ of a landed
proprietor, was _b._ near Dorking, and _ed._. at Jesus Coll., Camb., of
which he became a Fellow. Taking orders he became incumbent of Albury,
Essex. He travelled much on the continent, collecting information as to
the means of livelihood and mode of life of various peoples. In 1798 the
first ed. of his famous _Essay on Population_ appeared, and in 1803 a
second greatly enlarged. Its leading proposition, supported by much
learning, is that while population increases approximately in a
geometrical ratio, the means of subsistence do so in an arithmetical
ratio only, which, of course, opened up an appalling prospect for the
race. It necessarily failed to take into account the then undreamed-of
developments whereby the produce of the whole world has been made
available for all nations. The work gave rise to a great deal of
controversy, much of it based on misunderstanding. M. was Prof. of
Political Economy at Haileybury.


MANDEVILLE, BERNARD DE (1670-1733).--Satirist, a native of Dort in
Holland, who having studied medicine at Leyden, came over to England to
practise his profession. In 1705 he _pub._ a short poem, _The Grumbling
Hive_, which in 1714 reappeared with a prose commentary, and various
dissertations on the origin of moral virtue, etc., as _The Fable of the
Bees, or Private Vices Public Benefits_, and in 1729 was made the subject
of a persecution for its immoral tendency. It was also vigorously
combated by, among others, Bishop Berkeley and William Law, author of
_The Serious Call_. While the author probably had no intention of
subverting morality, his views of human nature were assuredly cynical and
degrading in a high degree. Another of his works, _A Search into the
Nature of Society_ (1723), appended to the later versions of the _Fable_,
also startled the public mind, which his last works, _Free Thoughts on
Religion_ and _An Enquiry into the Origin of Honour and the Usefulness of
Christianity_ did little to reassure.


MANDEVILLE, SIR JOHN.--Was the ostensible author only of a book of
travels bearing his name, written about the middle of the 14th century,
giving an account of journeys in the East, including India and the Holy
Land. It appears to have been compiled from the writings of William of
Boldensele, Oderic of Pordenone, and Vincent de Beauvais. The name of
Mandeville was probably fictitious.


MANGAN, JAMES CLARENCE (1803-1849).--Poet, _b._ at Dublin, _s._ of a
small grocer, was brought up in poverty, and received most of his
education from a priest who instructed him in several modern languages.
He then became a lawyer's clerk, and was later an assistant in the
library of Trinity College, Dublin. He contributed verses of very
various merit to a number of Irish newspapers, and translations from the
German to _The Dublin University Magazine_. By some critics his poetical
powers were considered to be such as to have gained for him the first
place among Irish poets; but his irregular and intemperate habits
prevented him from attaining any sure excellence. His best work,
generally inspired by the miseries of his country, often rises to a high
level of tragic power, and had his strength of character been equal to
his poetic gift it is difficult to say to what heights he might have
attained. He _d._ of cholera.


MANLEY, MRS. MARY DE LA RIVIERE (1663 or 1672-1724).--Novelist,
dramatist, and political writer, _dau._ of Sir Roger Manley, was decoyed
into a bigamous connection with her cousin, John M. Her subsequent career
was one of highly dubious morality, but considerable literary success.
Her principal works are _The New Atalantis_ (_sic_) (1709), a satire in
which great liberties were taken with Whig notabilities, _Memoirs of
Europe_ (1710), and _Court Intrigues_ (1711). She also wrote three plays,
_The Royal Mischief_, _The Lost Lover_, and _Lucius_, and conducted the
_Examiner_. In her writings she makes great havoc with classical names
and even with spelling. She was a vivacious and effective political
writer.


MANNING, ANNE (1807-1879).--Miscellaneous writer. Her best known works
are _Mistress Mary Powell_, which first appeared in _Sharpe's Magazine_
in 1849, and _The Household of Sir Thomas More_, a delightful picture of
More's home life told in the form of a diary written by his daughter
Margaret. Her writings have much literary charm, and show a delicate
historical imagination.


MANNING, HENRY EDWARD (1808-1892).--Cardinal and theologian. _B._ at
Totteridge, Herts, and _ed._ at Harrow and Oxf., where he became notable
as an eloquent preacher, and as one of the ablest of the Tractarian
party. He was rector of Woollavington-cum-Graffham 1833, and Archdeacon
of Chichester 1840. In 1851 he entered the Church of Rome, in which he
attached himself to the Ultramontane party. More even than Newman he was
the leading spirit of the Roman Church in England. His writings consist
of sermons, of which he _pub._ several vols. before his secession from
the Church of England, and controversial works, including _Petri
Privilegium_ (1871), _The Vatican Decrees_ (1875), in answer to
Gladstone's _Vaticanism_, and _The Eternal Priesthood_ (1883). He became
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster 1865, and Cardinal 1875.


MANNYNG, ROBERT, or ROBERT DE BRUNNE (_fl._ 1288-1338).--Was a Canon of
the Gilbertine Order. His work, _Handlynge Sinne_ (_c._ 1300), translated
with original additions from the _Manuel des Peches_, a book written in
French verse by William of Waddington, is practically a collection of
tales and short stories on the Commandments, Seven Deadly Sins,
Sacraments, etc., and is of value as giving a contemporary picture of the
time. He also made (_c._ 1335) a translation in verse of the French
_Chronicle_ of Peter Langtoft, the second and more interesting part of
which covers the period from the death of Cadwallader to the end of the
reign of Edward I.


MANSEL, HENRY LONGUEVILLE (1820-1871).--Metaphysician, _s._ of a
clergyman, was _b._ at Cosgrave, Northamptonshire, and _ed._ at Merchant
Taylors' School and Oxf. He took orders, was Reader in Theology at
Magdalen Coll. 1855, Bampton Lecturer 1858, Prof. of Ecclesiastical
History 1867, and Dean of St. Paul's 1869. Among his writings are
_Prolegomena Logica_ (1851), _The Limits of Demonstrative Science_
(1853), _Man's Conception of Eternity_ (1854), _Limits of Religious
Thought_ (1858), _Philosophy of the Conditioned_ (1866). He was also
joint ed. of Sir. W. Hamilton's _Lectures_.


MAP, or MAPES, WALTER DE (_fl._ 1200).--Ecclesiastical statesman and
romancist. Most of the facts about him are gleaned from his _De Nugis
Curialium_ (Of the Trifles of the Courtiers), a miscellany of
contemporary notes and anecdotes, throwing much light on the manners and
opinions of the Court of Henry II. He was _b._ probably in Herefordshire,
and had Celtic blood in his veins, his _f._ had rendered service to the
King, and he had studied at Paris, and on his return attended the Court,
where he found favour, and obtained preferment both in Church and State,
and in 1173 was a travelling justice. Thereafter he attended the King,
probably as chaplain, on his foreign wars, represented him at the French
Court, and went to Rome to the Lateran Council of 1179. After the death
of Henry II. he seems to have continued in favour under Richard I. and
John, and was Archdeacon of Oxf. in 1196. M. is the reputed author of
some at least of the _Golias_ poems, rough satires on the vices of the
clergy, but his great work, which has influenced the future of English
literature, was his systematising and spiritualising the Arthurian
legends with additions of his own, including the legends of _Launcelot_,
of the _Quest of the Holy Grail_, and of the _Morte d' Arthur_.


MARKHAM, GERVASE (1568?-1637).--Translator and miscellaneous writer,
served as a soldier in the Low Countries and Ireland. Retiring into civil
life about 1593 he displayed extraordinary industry as a translator,
compiler, and original writer. Among his original writings are a poem on
the _Revenge_ (1595) (Sir R. Grenville's ship), a continuation of
Sidney's _Arcadia_, _The Discourse of Horsemanshippe_ (1593), _The Young
Sportsman's Instructor_, _Country Contentments_ (1611), and various books
on agriculture; also plays and poems, some of the latter of which are
religious.


MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER (1564-1593).--Dramatist, _s._ of a shoemaker at
Canterbury, where he was _b._, was _ed._ at the King's School there, and
in 1581 went to Benet's (now Corpus Christi) Coll., Camb., where he
graduated B.A. 1583, and M.A. in 1587. Of his life after he left the
Univ. almost nothing is known. It has, however, been conjectured, partly
on account of his familiarity with military matters, that he saw service,
probably in the Low Countries. His first play, _Tamburlaine_, was acted
in 1587 or 1588. The story is drawn from the Spanish Life of Timur by
Pedro Mexia. Its resounding splendour, not seldom passing into bombast,
won for it immediate popularity, and it long held the stage. It was
followed in 1604 by _Faustus_, a great advance upon _Tamburlaine_ in a
dramatic sense. The absence of "material horror" in the treatment, so
different in this respect from the original legend, has often been
remarked upon. M.'s handling of the subject was greatly admired by
Goethe, who, however, in his own version, makes the motive knowledge,
while M. has power, and the mediaeval legend pleasure. In his next play,
_The Jew of Malta_, M. continues to show an advance in technical skill,
but the work is unequal, and the Jew Barabas is to Shylock as a monster
to a man. In _Edward II._, M. rises to his highest display of power. The
rhodomontade of _Tamburlaine_ and the piled-up horror of _The Jew_ are
replaced by a mature self-restraint, and in the whole workmanship he
approaches more nearly to Shakespeare than any one else has ever done.
Speaking of it Lamb says, "The death scene of Marlowe's King moves pity
and terror beyond any scene, ancient or modern, with which I am
acquainted." M. is now almost certainly believed to have had a large
share in the three parts of _Henry VI._, and perhaps also he may have
collaborated in _Titus Andronicus_. His next plays, _The Massacre of
Paris_ and _The Tragedy of Dido_ (written with Nash, _q.v._), both show a
marked falling off; and it seems likely that in his last years, perhaps,
breaking down under the effects of a wild life, he became careless of
fame as of all else. Greene, in his _Groat's Worth of Wit_, written on
his deathbed, reproaches him with his evil life and atheistic opinions,
and a few days before his hapless death an information was laid against
him for blasphemy. The informer was next year hanged for an outrageous
offence, and his witness alone might not be conclusive, but M.'s life and
opinions, which he made no secret of, were notorious. On the other hand,
his friends, Shakespeare, Nash, Drayton, and Chapman, all make kindly
reference to him. To escape the plague which was raging in London in
1593, he was living at Deptford, then a country village, and there in a
tavern brawl he received a wound in the head, his own knife being turned
against him by a serving man, upon whom he had drawn it. The quarrel was
about a girl of the town. The parish record bears the entry, "Christopher
Marlowe, slain by ffrancis Archer, the 1 of June 1593." M. is the father
of the modern English drama, and the introducer of the modern form of
blank verse. In imagination, richness of expression, originality, and
general poetic and dramatic power he is inferior to Shakespeare alone
among the Elizabethans. In addition to his plays he wrote some short
poems (of which the best known is _Come live with me and be my love_),
translations from Ovid's _Amores_ and Lucan's _Pharsalia_, and a glowing
paraphrase of Musaeus' _Hero and Leander_, a poem completed by Chapman.

Ed. of _Works_ by Dyce, Cunningham, and Bullen; Ingram's _C. Marlowe and
his Associates_, etc.


MARMION, SHACKERLEY (1603-1639).--Dramatist, _s._ of a country gentleman
of Northamptonshire, was _ed._ at Oxford. After a youth of extravagance,
he fought in the Low Countries. His writings consist of an epic, _Cupid
and Psyche_, and three comedies, _Holland's Leaguer_, _A Fair Companion_,
and _The Antiquary_. His plays show some power of satire, and were
popular, but he had little of the dramatist.


MARRYAT, FREDERICK (1792-1848).--Novelist, _s._ of a West India merchant,
was _b._ in London. In 1806 he entered the navy as a midshipman under
Lord Cochrane (afterwards Earl of Dundonald), and saw much service in the
Mediterranean, at Walcheren, and in the Burmese War of 1824. He returned
in 1830 as a Captain and C.B. The scenes and experiences through which
he had passed were the preparation for and the foundation of his numerous
novels, of which the first, _Frank Mildmay_, was _pub._ in 1829. It was
followed by over 30 others, of which perhaps the best are _Peter Simple_,
_Jacob Faithful_ (1834), _Mr. Midshipman Easy_ (1836), _The Dog Fiend_
(1837), and _The Phantom Ship_ (1839). M. is the prince of sea
story-tellers; his knowledge of the sea, vigorous definition of
character, and hearty and honest, if somewhat broad, humour never failing
to please.


MARSH, HERBERT (1757-1839).--Theologian and controversialist, _s._ of a
clergyman, _ed._ at Canterbury, Cambridge, and Leipsic, was the first to
introduce the German methods of Biblical criticism into England, and gave
lectures on the subject at Camb., which excited great interest and
controversy. In 1816 he was made Bishop of Llandaff, and was translated
to Peterborough in 1819. His critical views and his opposition to the
evangelical party in the Church, to the Bible Society, to hymns in Divine
service, and to Catholic emancipation, involved him in controversy with
high, low, and broad churchmen alike. He was the author of a _History of
the Politics of Great Britain and France_ (1799), _Comparative View of
the Churches of England and Rome_, and _Horae Pelasgicae_.


MARSTON, JOHN (1575?-1634).--Dramatist and satirist, _b._ at Coventry,
was _ed._ at Oxf. In later life he gave up writing for the stage, took
orders, and was incumbent of Christchurch, Hants, 1616-31. He began his
literary career in 1598 with satire, _The Scourge of Villanie_ and _The
Metamorphosis of Pygmalion's Image_ (1598), the latter of which was
burned by order of Archbishop Whitgift. In 1602 appeared _The History of
Antonio and Mellida_, and its sequel, _Antonio's Revenge_, ridiculed by
Ben Jonson. In repayment of this M. co-operated with Dekker in attacking
Jonson in _Satiromastix_ (a Whip for the Satirist). A reconciliation,
however, took place, and his comedy, _The Malcontent_ (1604), was
dedicated to J., another, _Eastward Ho_ (1605), was written in
collaboration with him and Chapman. Other plays of his are _Sophonisba_,
_What You Will_ (1607), and possibly _The Insatiate Countess_ (1613).
Amid much bombast and verbiage there are many fine passages in M.'s
dramas, especially where scorn and indignation are the motives. Sombre
and caustic, he has been called "a screech-owl among the singing birds."


MARSTON, PHILIP BOURKE (1850-1887).--Poet, was _b._ in London, and lost
his sight at the age of 3. His poems, _Song-tide_, _All in All_, and
_Wind Voices_ bear, in their sadness, the impress of this affliction, and
of a long series of bereavements. He was the friend of Rossetti and of
Swinburne, the latter of whom has written a sonnet to his memory.


MARTIN, SIR THEODORE (1816-1909).--Poet, biographer, and translator, _s._
of James M., solicitor in Edin., where he was _b._ and _ed._ at the High
School and Univ. He practised as a solicitor in Edin. 1840-45, after
which he went to London and became head of the firm of Martin and Leslie,
parliamentary agents. His first contribution to literature was _The Bon
Gaultier Ballads_, written along with W.E. Aytoun (_q.v._), full of wit
and humour, which still retain their popularity; originally contributed
to a magazine, they appeared in book form in 1855. His translations
include _Dante's Vila Nuova_, Oehlenschlaeger's _Correggio_ and _Aladdin_,
Heine's _Poems and Ballads_, Schiller's _Song of the Bell_, and Hertz's
_King Rene's Daughter_. He also _pub._ a complete translation of Horace
with a Life, and one of Catullus. He is, however, perhaps best known for
his _Life of the Prince Consort_ (1874-80), the writing of which was
committed to him by Queen Victoria, a work which he executed with such
ability and tact as to win for him her lifelong friendship. He also wrote
Lives of Prof. Aytoun and Lord Lyndhurst. He _m._ in 1851 Miss Helen
Faucit (_d._ 1898), the well-known actress, and authoress of studies on
_Shakespeare's Female Characters_, whose Life he _pub._ in 1901. M. kept
up his intellectual activity into old age, _pub._ in 1905 a translation
of Leopardi's poems, and _Monographs_ (1906). He was Lord Rector of St.
Andrews 1881, LL.D. of Edin. 1875, and K.C.B. 1880.


MARTINEAU, HARRIET (1802-1876).--Novelist and economist, _b._ at Norwich,
where her _f._, descended from a French family, was a manufacturer. From
her earliest years she was delicate and very deaf, and took to literary
pursuits as an amusement. Afterwards, when her _f._ had fallen into
difficulties, they became her means of support. Her first publication was
_Devotional Exercises for Young Persons_ (1823). Becoming interested in
political economy, she endeavoured to illustrate the subject by tales, of
which two were _The Rioters_ and _The Turn-out_. Later she _pub._ a more
serious treatment of it in _Illustrations of Political Economy_ (1832-4),
_Poor Law and Paupers_ (1833), and _Illustrations of Taxation_ (1834).
About this time she went to London, and was regarded as an authority on
economic questions, being occasionally consulted by Cabinet Ministers.
Among her books of travel are _Society in America_ (1837), and _Eastern
Life, Present and Past_ (1848), which she considered her best book: in it
she declared herself no longer a believer in revelation. She also wrote
two novels, _Deerbrook_ (1839), and _The Hour and the Man_ (1840), also a
number of books for children. Perhaps her most important work is her
_History of England during the Thirty Years' Peace_, 1816-46, which
appeared in 1849. She translated Comte's _Philosophy_ (1853), and _pub._
a collection of letters between herself and Mr. H.G. Atkinson _On the
Laws of Man's Nature and Development_, which encountered severe
criticism. In addition to her separate publications she wrote innumerable
articles for newspapers, specially the _Daily News_, and for periodicals.
In 1845 she settled in the Lake District, where she died.


MARTINEAU, JAMES (1805-1900).--Unitarian theologian, younger brother of
the above, was _b._ at Norwich. Possessed of considerable inventive and
mathematical talents, he was originally intended for engineering, but
studied for the Unitarian ministry, to which he was ordained in 1828.
After serving as pastor in various places he became in 1840 Prof. of
Mental and Moral Philosophy in the Manchester New Coll. (subsequently
removed to London), and Principal 1869-85. Among his writings, which were
very influential, are _Rationale of Religious Inquiry_ (1836), _Ideal
Substitutes for God_ (1879), _Study of Spinoza_ (1882), _Types of Ethical
Theory_ (1885), _Study of Religion_ (1888), _Seat of Authority in
Religion_ (1890), and religious poems and hymns. M. was a man of very
elevated character and powerful intellect; of great acuteness, candour,
and openness to new ideas. He was D.D. of Edin. 1884, and D.C.L. of Oxf.
1888.


MARVELL, ANDREW (1621-1678).--Poet and satirist, _s._ of the Rector of
Winestead, Yorkshire, where he was _b._, _ed._ Camb., and thereafter
travelled in various Continental countries. He sat in Parliament for
Hull, proving himself an assiduous and incorruptible member, with strong
republican leanings. In spite of this he was a favourite of Charles II.,
who took pleasure in his society, and offered him a place at Court, and a
present of L1000, which were both declined. In his own day he was best
known as a powerful and fearless political writer, and for some time from
1657 was assistant to Milton as Latin Sec. After the Restoration he wrote
against the Government, his chief work in this kind being on the _Growth
of Popery and Arbitrary Government in England_ (1677). He was also the
author of an _Historical Essay regarding General Councils_. His
controversial style was lively and vigorous, but sometimes coarse and
vituperative. His fame now rests on his poems which, though few, have
many of the highest poetical qualities. Among the best known are _The
Emigrants in the Bermudas_, _The Nymph complaining for the Death of her
Fawn_, and _Thoughts in a Garden_. Of the last Palgrave says that "it may
be regarded as a test of any reader's insight into the most poetical
aspects of poetry," and his _Horatian Ode on Cromwell's Return from
Ireland_. The town of Hull voted him a monument, which was, however,
forbidden by the Court. His appearance is thus described, "He was of
middling stature, pretty strong-set, roundish-faced, cherry-cheeked,
hazel-eyed, brown-haired."

_Life and Works_ by Cooke, 1726, reprinted 1772; Thomson, 1726; Dove,
1832; and specially Grosart (4 vols., 1872-74).


MASON, WILLIAM (1724-1797).--Poet, _s._ of a clergyman, was _b._ at Hull,
and _ed._ at Camb. He took orders and rose to be a Canon of York. His
first poem was _Musaeus_, a monody on the death of Pope, and his other
works include _Elfrida_ (1752), and _Caractacus_ (1759), dramas--an
_Heroic Epistle_ to Sir William Chambers, the architect, in which he
satirised some modern fashions in gardening, _The English Garden_, his
largest work, and some odes. He was a close friend of Gray, whose Life he
wrote. His language was too magnificent for his powers of thought, but he
has passages where the rich diction has a pleasing effect.


MASSEY, GERALD (1828-1907).--Poet, _b._ near Tring, Herts. As a boy he
worked in a silk-factory, and as a straw-plaiter and errand boy. When he
was 15 he came to London, where he was taken up by Maurice and Kingsley.
His first book was _pub._ in 1851, but he first attracted attention by
_Babe Christabel_ (1854). This was followed by _War Waits_, _Craigcrook
Castle_, and _Havelock's March_. A selection from these was _pub._ 1889,
under the title of _My Lyrical Life_. Later he wrote and lectured on
spiritualism, and produced prose works on the origin of myths and
mysteries in _The Book of Beginnings_ (1881), _The Natural Genesis_
(1883), and _Ancient Egypt: the Light of the World_ (1907). He also wrote
a book on the sonnets of Shakespeare. M. had a true lyrical vein, but
though often musical, he was at times harsh and rugged, and did not give
sufficient attention to form and finish.


MASSINGER, PHILIP (1583-1640).--Dramatist, was probably _b._ at
Salisbury. His _f._ appears to have been a retainer of the Earl of
Pembroke, by whom and by Queen Elizabeth he was employed in a
confidential capacity. M. was at Oxf., but quitted the Univ. suddenly
without graduating. He is next found in London writing for the stage,
frequently in collaboration with others. Few details of his life have
come down, but it seems that he was on the whole unfortunate. He was
found dead in bed on March 16, 1640, and was buried in St. Saviour's,
Southwark, by some of the actors. The burial register has the entry,
"buried Philip Massinger, a stranger." Of the many plays which he wrote
or had a hand in, 15 believed to be entirely his are extant, other 8 were
burned by a servant in the 18th century. He, however, collaborated so
much with others--Fletcher, Dekker, etc., that much fine work probably
his can only be identified by internal evidence. Among his plays may be
mentioned _The Unnatural Combat_ (_pr._ 1639), _The Virgin Martyr_ (1622)
(partly by Dekker), which contains perhaps his finest writing. His best
plays on the whole, however, are _The City Madam_ (1632), and _A New Way
to pay Old Debts_ (_pr._ 1633), which latter kept the stage until the
19th century. He is believed to have joined with Fletcher and Shakespeare
in _Henry VIII._ and _The Two Noble Kinsmen_. Other plays which he wrote
or had a hand in are _The Duke of Milan_, _The Bondman_, _The Renegado_,
_The Roman Actor_, _The Great Duke of Florence_, _The Maid of Honour_,
_The Picture_, and _The Fatal Dowry_. His verse is fluent and sweet, and
in his grave and reflective passages he rises to a rich and stately
music. He often repeats himself, has little humour, and is not seldom
coarse. He has, however, much skill in the construction and working out
of a story.


MASSON, DAVID (1822-1907).--Biographer and historian, _b._ at Aberdeen,
and _ed._ at Marischal Coll. there and at Edin., where he studied
theology under Chalmers. He did not, however, enter the Church, but began
a literary career by ed. a newspaper in Aberdeen. He then returned to
Edin., where he worked for the brothers Chambers, the eminent publishers,
and where he became acquainted with Wilson, Sir William Hamilton, and
Chalmers, for the last of whom he cherished an extraordinary veneration.
Going to London in 1847 he wrote extensively in reviews, magazines, and
encyclopaedias. In 1852 he became Prof. of English Literature in Univ.
Coll., and in 1858 ed. of _Macmillan's Magazine_. He was appointed in
1865 Prof. of English Literature in Edin., where he exercised a profound
influence on his students, many of whom have risen to high positions in
literature. Though a most laborious student and man of letters, M. took a
warm interest in various public questions, including Italian
emancipation, and the higher education of women. He was the author of
many important works, including _Essays Biographical and Critical_
(1856), _British Novelists_ (1859), and _Recent British Philosophy_
(1865). His _magnum opus_ is his monumental _Life of John Milton_ (6
vols., 1859-80) the most complete biography of any Englishman, dealing as
it does not only with the personal life of the poet, but with the
history, political, social, and religious of his time. Other books are
_Drummond of Hawthornden_ (1873), _De Quincey_ (in English Men of Letters
Series) (1878), _Edinburgh Sketches and Memories_ (1892), and _Carlyle
Personally and in his Writings_. He also ed. the standard ed. of De
Quincey's works, and the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, his
introductions in connection with which are of great historical value. He
was appointed Historiographer for Scotland in 1893. M. was full of
learning guided by sagacity, genial, broad-minded, and sane in his
judgments of men and things, and thoroughly honest and sincere.


MATHER, COTTON (1663-1728).--Divine, _s._ of Increase M., a leading
American divine, was _ed._ at Harvard, became a minister, and was
colleague to his _f._ He was laborious, able, and learned, but extremely
bigoted and self-sufficient. He carried on a persecution of so-called
"witches," which led to the shedding of much innocent blood; on the other
hand he was so much of a reformer as to advocate inoculation for
small-pox. He was a copious author, his chief work being _Magnalia
Christi Americana_ (1702), an ecclesiastical history of New England.
Others were _Late Memorable Providences relating to Witchcraft and
Possession_ (1689), and _The Wonders of the Invisible World_ (1693). In
his later years he admitted that "he had gone too far" in his crusade
against witches.


MATHIAS, THOMAS JAMES (1754?-1835).--Satirist, _ed._ at Camb., and held
some minor appointments in the Royal household. He was an accomplished
Italian scholar, and made various translations from the English into
Italian, and _vice versa_. He also produced a fine ed. of Gray, on which
he lost heavily. His chief work, however, was _The Pursuits of
Literature_ (1794), an undiscriminating satire on his literary
contemporaries which went through 16 ed., but is now almost forgotten.


MATURIN, CHARLES ROBERT (1782-1824).--Novelist, _b._ in Dublin of
Huguenot ancestry, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll. there, and taking orders
held various benefices. He was the author of a few dramas, one of which,
_Bertram_, had some success. He is, perhaps, better known for his
romances in the style of Mrs. Radcliffe and "Monk" Lewis. The first of
these, _The Fatal Revenge_ appeared in 1807, and was followed by, among
others, _The Milesian Chief_ (1812), _Women_, which was the most
successful, and lastly by _Melmoth_, in which he outdoes his models in
the mysterious, the horrible, and indeed the revolting, without, except
very occasionally, reaching their power. His last work, _The Albigenses_,
in a somewhat different style, was _pub._ in the year of his death.


MAURICE, FREDERICK DENISON (1805-1872).--Divine, _s._ of a Unitarian
minister, was _b._ at Normanston, near Lowestoft, and studied at Camb.,
but being then a Dissenter, could not graduate. He went to London, and
engaged in literary work, writing for the _Westminster Review_ and other
periodicals, and for a short time ed. the _Athenaeum_. His theological
views having changed, he joined the Church of England, went to Oxf.,
graduated, and was ordained 1834. He became Chaplain to Guy's Hospital,
and held other clerical positions in London. In 1840 he was appointed
Prof. of English Literature and History at King's Coll., and
subsequently Prof. of Theology. He became a leader among the Christian
socialists, and for a short time ed. their paper. On the publication of
his _Theological Essays_ in 1853 he was asked to resign his professorship
at King's Coll. In 1854 he was one of the founders of the Working Men's
Coll., of which he became Principal, and in 1866 he was made Prof. of
Moral Philosophy at Camb. Among his writings are _The Religions of the
World and their Relation to Christianity_, _Moral and Metaphysical
Philosophy_, _The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament_ (1853), _The
Doctrine of Sacrifice_, and _Theological Essays_. M.'s style was copious,
and was often blamed as obscure; nevertheless, he exercised an
extraordinary influence over some of the best minds of his time by the
originality of his views, and the purity and elevation of his character.


MAXWELL, WILLIAM HAMILTON (1792-1850).--Novelist, a Scoto-Irishman, _b._
at Newry, and _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin, entered the army, and saw
service in the Peninsula, and at Waterloo. Afterwards he took orders, but
was deprived of his living for non-residence. His novels, _O'Hara_, and
_Stories from Waterloo_, started the school of rollicking military
fiction, which culminated in the novels of Lever. M. also wrote a Life of
the Duke of Wellington, and a _History of the Irish Rebellion_.


MAX-MUeLLER, FRIEDRICH (1823-1900).--Philologist, _s._ of the German poet,
Wilhelm M., was _b._ at Dessau, and _ed._ at Leipzig, Berlin, and Paris.
In 1846 he was requested by the East India Company to ed. the _Rig Veda_.
He settled at Oxf. in 1848, and in 1850 was appointed deputy Taylorian
Prof. of Modern European languages, becoming Prof. 4 years later, and
Curator of the Bodleian Library in 1856. In 1868 he was elected first
Prof. of Comparative Philology. He ed. _Sacred Books of the East_, and
wrote in English _Chips from a German Workshop_ (1867-75). He did much to
stimulate the study of comparative religion and philology. He was made a
Privy Councillor in 1896.


MAY, THOMAS (1595-1650).--Poet and historian, _b._ in Sussex, _s._ of Sir
Thomas M., of Mayfield, went to Camb., and thence to Gray's Inn, but
discarded law for literature. In 1622 he produced his first comedy, _The
Heir_, and also a translation of Virgil's _Georgics_. Six years later,
1627, appeared his translation of _Lucan_, which gained him the favour of
Charles I. at whose command he wrote two poems, _The Reigne of King Henry
II._, and _The Victorious Reigne of King Edward III._, each in 7 books.
When the Civil War broke out M., to the disappointment of his friends,
took the side of the Parliament, and was made Sec. to the Long
Parliament, the historian of which he became, _pub._ 1647, _The History
of the Parliament of England, which began Nov. 3, 1640_. This work he
prefaced with a short review of the preceding reigns from that of
Elizabeth. The narrative closes with the Battle of Newbury, 1643, and is
characterised by fulness of information and candour. M. was also the
author of several tragedies, including _Antigone_, of no great merit.


MAY, SIR THOMAS ERSKINE, 1ST BARON FARNBOROUGH (1815-1886).--Jurist and
historian, _ed._ at Bedford School, and after holding various minor
offices became in 1871 clerk to the House of Commons, retiring in 1886,
when he was raised to the peerage. He had previously, 1866, been made
K.C.B. He was the author of a treatise on the laws, privileges, etc., of
Parliament, which, first _pub._ in 1844, reached in 1901 its tenth ed.,
and was translated into various languages. His _Constitutional History of
England_, 1760-1860 is practically a continuation of Hallam's great work.
He also wrote _Democracy in Europe_. As an historical writer M. was
learned, painstaking, and impartial.


MAYNE, JASPER (1604-1672).--Dramatist, was at Oxf., entered the Church,
and became Archdeacon of Chichester. He wrote two dramas, _The City
Match_ (1639), and _The Amorous War_ (1648), in neither of which did he
sustain the clerical character. He had, however, some humour.


MAYNE, JOHN (1759-1836).--Poet, was _b._ in Dumfries. In 1780 he _pub._
the _Siller Gun_ in its original form in _Ruddiman's Magazine_. It is a
humorous poem descriptive of an ancient custom in Dumfries of shooting
for the "Siller Gun." He was continually adding to it, until it grew to 5
cantos. He also wrote a poem on _Hallowe'en_, and a version of the
ballad, _Helen of Kirkconnel_. His verses were admired by Scott.


MELVILLE, HERMAN (1819-1891).--Novelist, _b._ in New York, and took to
the sea, which led to strange adventures, including an imprisonment of
some months in the hands of cannibals in the Marquesas Islands. His first
novel, _Typee_ (1846), is based upon this experience. _Omoo_ followed in
1847, _Moby Dick, or the White Whale_, a powerful sea story, in 1852, and
_Israel Potter_ in 1855. He was a very unequal writer, but occasionally
showed considerable power and originality.


MELVILLE, JAMES (1556-1614).--Scottish divine and reformer, _s._ of the
laird of Baldovie, in Forfarshire, and nephew of the great reformer and
scholar, Andrew M., by whom, when Principal of the Univ. of Glasgow, he
was chosen to assist him as a regent or professor. When, in 1580, Andrew
became Principal of St. Mary's Coll., St. Andrews, James accompanied him,
and acted as Prof. of Hebrew and Oriental Languages. He wrote many poems,
but his chief work was his _Diary_, an original authority for the period,
written with much naivete, and revealing a singularly attractive
personality. M., who for his part in Church matters, had been banished to
England, _d._ at Berwick on his way back to Scotland.


MELVILLE, SIR JAMES (1535-1617).--Historian, _s._ of Sir John M., of
Hallhill, was a page to Mary Queen of Scots at the French Court, and
afterwards one of her Privy Council. He also acted as her envoy to Queen
Elizabeth and the Elector Palatine. He was the author of an autobiography
which is one of the original authorities for the period. The MS., which
lay for long hidden in Edin. Castle, was discovered in 1660, and _pub._
1683. A later ed. was brought out in 1827 by the Bannatyne Club. The work
is written in a lively style, but is not always to be implicitly relied
upon in regard either to facts or the characters attributed to
individuals.


MEREDITH, GEORGE (1828-1909).--Novelist and poet, _b._ at Portsmouth,
_s._ of Augustus M., a naval outfitter, who afterwards went to Cape Town,
and _ed._ at Portsmouth and Neuwied in Germany. Owing to the neglect of a
trustee, what means he had inherited were lost, and he was in his early
days very poor. Articled to a lawyer in London, he had no taste for law,
which he soon exchanged for journalism, and at 21 he was writing poetry
for magazines, his first printed work, a poem on the Battle of
Chillianwallah, appearing in _Chambers's Journal_. Two years later he
_pub._ _Poems_ (1851), containing _Love in the Valley_. Meantime he had
been ed. a small provincial newspaper, and in 1866 he was war
correspondent in Italy for the _Morning Post_, and he also acted for many
years as literary adviser to Chapman and Hall. By this time, however, he
had produced several of his novels. _The Shaving of Shagpat_ had appeared
in 1856, _Farina_ in 1857, _The Ordeal of Richard Feverel_ in 1859, _Evan
Harrington_ in 1861, _Emilia in England_ (also known as _Sandra Belloni_)
in 1864, its sequel, _Vittoria_, in 1866, and _Rhoda Fleming_ in 1865. In
poetry he had produced _Modern Love and Poems of the English Roadside_
(1862), generally regarded as his best poetical work. These were followed
by _The Adventures of Harry Richmond_ (1871), _Beauchamp's Career_
(1875), said to be the author's favourite, _The Egoist_ (1879), which
marks the beginning of a change in style characterised by an even greater
fastidiousness in the choice of words, phrases, and condensation of
thought than its predecessors, _The Tragic Comedians_ (1880), and _Diana
of the Crossways_, the first of the author's novels to attain anything
approaching general popularity. The same period yielded in poetry, _Poems
and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth_ (1883), _Ballads and Poems of Tragic
Life_ (1887), and _A Reading of Earth_ (1888). His later novels, _One of
our Conquerors_ (1891), _Lord Ormont and his Aminta_ (1894), and _The
Amazing Marriage_ (1895), exhibit a tendency to accentuate those
qualities of style which denied general popularity to all of M.'s works,
and they did little to add to his reputation. The contemporary poems
include _The Empty Purse_ and _Jump to Glory Jane_ (1892). In 1905 he
received the Order of Merit, and he _d._ on May 19, 1909. He was twice
_m._, his first wife, who _d._ 1860, being a _dau._ of Thomas Love
Peacock (_q.v._). This union did not prove in all respects happy. His
second wife was Miss Vulliamy, who _d._ 1885. In his earlier life he was
vigorous and athletic, and a great walker; latterly he lost all power of
locomotion.

Though the writings of M. never were and probably never will be generally
popular, his genius was, from the very first, recognised by the best
judges. All through he wrote for the reader who brought something of
mind, thought, and attention, not for him who read merely to be amused
without trouble; and it is therefore futile to attribute failure to him
because he did not achieve what he did not aim at. Nevertheless, the long
delay in receiving even the kind of recognition which he sought was a
disappointment to him. Few writers have striven to charge sentences and
even words so heavily with meaning, or to attain so great a degree of
condensation, with the result that links in the chain of thought are not
seldom omitted and left for the careful reader to supply. There is also a
tendency to adopt unusual words and forms of expression where plainness
and simplicity would have served as well, and these features taken
together give reason for the charges of obscurity and affectation so
often made. Moreover, the discussion of motive and feeling is often out
of proportion to the narrative of the events and circumstances to which
they stand related. But to compensate us for these defects he offers
humour, often, indeed, whimsical, but keen and sparkling, close
observation of and exquisite feeling for nature, a marvellous power of
word-painting, the most delicate and penetrating analysis of character,
and an invincible optimism which, while not blind to the darker aspects
of life, triumphs over the depression which they might induce in a weaker
nature. In matters of faith and dogma his standpoint was distinctly
negative.


MERES, FRANCIS (1565-1647).--Miscellaneous author, was of a Lincolnshire
family, studied at Camb. and Oxf., and became Rector of Wing in Rutland.
He _pub._ in 1598 _Palladis Tamia: Wit's Treasury_, containing a
comparison of English poets with Greek, Latin, and Italian.


MERIVALE, CHARLES (1808-1893).--Historian, _s._ of John Herman M., a
translator and minor poet, _b._ in London, _ed._ at Harrow, Haileybury,
and Camb., he took orders, and among other preferments held those of
chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons, 1863-69, and Dean of
Ely. From his college days he was a keen student of Roman history, and
between 1850 and 1864 he _pub._ his _History of the Romans under the
Empire_, an able and scholarly work, though considered by some critics to
be too favourable to the Emperors, and the imperial idea. An earlier work
was _The Fall of the Roman Republic_ (1853).


MERRIMAN, H. SETON, (_see_ SCOTT, H.S.).


MESTON, WILLIAM (1688?-1745).--_S._ of a blacksmith, was _ed._ at
Marischal Coll., Aberdeen, took part in the '15, and had to go into
hiding. His _Knight of the Kirk_ (1723) is an imitation of _Hudibras_. It
has little merit.


MICKLE, WILLIAM JULIUS (1735-1788).--Poet, _s._ of the minister of
Langholm, Dumfriesshire, was for some time a brewer in Edin., but failed.
He went to Oxf., where he was corrector for the Clarendon Press. After
various literary failures and minor successes he produced his translation
of the _Lusiad_, from the Portuguese of Camoens, which brought him both
fame and money. In 1777 he went to Portugal, where he was received with
distinction. In 1784 he _pub._ the ballad of _Cumnor Hall_, which
suggested to Scott the writing of _Kenilworth_. He is perhaps best
remembered, however, by the beautiful lyric, _There's nae luck aboot the
Hoose_, which, although claimed by others, is almost certainly his.


MIDDLETON, CONYERS (1683-1750).--Divine and scholar, _b._ at Richmond,
Yorkshire, and _ed._ at Camb. He was the author of several latitudinarian
treatises on miracles, etc., which brought him into controversy with
Waterland (_q.v._) and others, and of a _Life of Cicero_ (1741), largely
plagiarised from William Bellenden, a Scottish writer of the 17th
century. Another of his controversies was with Bentley on college
administration. He was master of a very fine literary style.


MIDDLETON, THOMAS (1570-1627).--Dramatist, was a Londoner and city
chronologer, in which capacity he composed a chronicle of the city, now
lost. He wrote over 20 plays, chiefly comedies, besides masques and
pageants, and collaborated with Dekker, Webster, and other playwrights.
His best plays are _The Changeling_, _The Spanish Gipsy_ (both with
Rowley), and _Women beware Women_. Another, _The Game of Chess_ (1624),
got the author and the players alike into trouble on account of its
having brought the King of Spain and other public characters upon the
stage. They, however, got off with a severe reprimand. M. was a keen
observer of London life, and shone most in scenes of strong passion. He
is, however, unequal and repeats himself. Other plays are: _The Phoenix_,
_Michaelmas Term_ (1607), _A Trick to Catch the old One_ (1608), _The
Familie of Love_ (1608), _A Mad World, My Masters_ (1608), _The Roaring
Girl_ (1611) (with Dekker), _The Old Law_ (1656) (with Massinger and
Rowley), _A Faire Quarrel_ (1617); and among his pageants and masques are
_The Triumphs of Truth_ (1613), _The Triumphs of Honour and Industry_
(1617), _The Inner Temple Masque_ (1619), etc.


MILL, JAMES (1773-1836).--Philosopher and historian, _s._ of a shoemaker,
was _b._ at Montrose, and showing signs of superior ability, was sent to
the Univ. of Edin. with a view to the ministry. He was licensed as a
preacher in 1798, but gave up the idea of the Church, and going to London
in 1802 engaged in literary work, ed. the _St. James's Chronicle_, and
wrote for the _Edinburgh Review_. In 1806 he began his _History of
British India_ (1817-18), and in 1819 received the appointment of
Assistant Examiner to the India Office, and in 1834 became head of the
department. M. had meanwhile become the intimate friend of Jeremy
Bentham, was perhaps the chief exponent of the utilitarian philosophy,
and was also one of the founders of the London Univ. His philosophical
writings include _Elements of Political Economy_ (1821), and _Analysis of
the Human Mind_ (1824). M.'s intellect was powerful, though rigid and
somewhat narrow; his style was clear and precise, and his conversational
powers very remarkable, and influential in moulding the opinions of those
who came into contact with him, especially his distinguished son, John
Stuart (_q.v._).


MILL, JOHN STUART (1806-1873).--Philosopher, _s._ of the above, _b._ in
London, was _ed._ by his _f._ with the view of making him the successor
of Bentham and himself, as the exponent of the Utilitarian philosophy. In
all respects he proved an apt pupil, and by his 15th year had studied
classical literature, logic, political economy, and mathematics. In that
year he went to France, where he was under the charge of Sir S. Bentham,
a brother of Jeremy. His studies had led him to the adoption of the
utilitarian philosophy, and after his return he became acquainted with
Grote, the Austins, and other Benthamites. In 1823 he entered the India
House as a clerk, and, like his _f._, rose to be examiner of Indian
correspondence; and, on the dissolution of the Company, retired on a
liberal pension. In 1825 he ed. Bentham's _Rationale of Judicial
Evidence_. During the following years he was a frequent contributor to
Radical journals, and ed. the _London Review_. His _Logic_ appeared in
1843, and produced a profound impression; and in 1848 he _pub._
_Principles of Political Economy_. The years between 1858 and 1865 were
very productive, his treatises on _Liberty_, _Utilitarianism_,
_Representative Government_, and his _Examination of Sir W. Hamilton's
Philosophy_ being _pub._ during this period. In 1865 he entered the House
of Commons as one of the members for Westminster, where, though highly
respected, he made no great mark. After this political parenthesis he
returned to his literary pursuits, and wrote _The Subjection of Women_
(1869), _The Irish Land Question_ (1870), and an _Autobiography_. M. had
_m._ in 1851 Mrs. Taylor, for whom he showed an extraordinary devotion,
and whom he survived for 15 years. He _d._ at Avignon. His
_Autobiography_ gives a singular, and in some respects painful account of
the methods and views of his _f._ in his education. Though remaining all
his life an adherent of the utilitarian philosophy, M. did not transmit
it to his disciples altogether unmodified, but, finding it too narrow and
rigid for his own intellectual and moral requirements, devoted himself to
widening it, and infusing into it a certain element of idealism.

Bain's _Criticism with Personal Recollections_ (1882), L. Courtney's
_John Stuart Mill_ (1889), _Autobiography_, Stephens's _Utilitarians_, J.
Grote's _Examination of the Utilitarian Philosophy of Mill_, etc.


MILLER, HUGH (1802-1856).--Geologist, and man of letters, _b._ at
Cromarty, had the ordinary parish school education, and early showed a
remarkable love of reading and power of story-telling. At 17 he was
apprenticed to a stonemason, and his work in quarries, together with
rambles among the rocks of his native shore, led him to the study of
geology. In 1829 he _pub._ a vol. of poems, and soon afterwards threw
himself as an ardent and effective combatant into the controversies,
first of the Reform Bill, and thereafter of the Scottish Church question.
In 1834 he became accountant in one of the local banks, and in the next
year brought out his _Scenes and Legends in the North of Scotland_. In
1840 the popular party in the Church, with which he had been associated,
started a newspaper, _The Witness_, and M. was called to be ed., a
position which he retained till the end of his life, and in which he
showed conspicuous ability. Among his geological works are _The Old Red
Sandstone_ (1841), _Footprints of the Creator_ (1850), _The Testimony of
the Rocks_ (1856), and _Sketch-book of Popular Geology_. Other books are:
_My Schools and Schoolmasters_, an autobiography of remarkable interest,
_First Impressions of England and its People_ (1847), and _The Cruise of
the Betsy_. Of the geological books, perhaps that on the old red
sandstone, a department in which M. was a discoverer, is the best: but
all his writings are distinguished by great literary excellence, and
especially by a marvellous power of vivid description. The end of his
life was most tragic. He had for long been overworking his brain, which
at last gave way, and in a temporary loss of reason, he shot himself
during the night.

_Life and Letters_, P. Bayne (1871), etc.


MILLER, THOMAS (1807-1874).--Poet and novelist, of humble parentage,
worked in early life as a basket-maker. He _pub._ _Songs of the Sea
Nymphs_ (1832). Going to London he was befriended by Lady Blessington
(_q.v._) and S. Rogers (_q.v._), and for a time engaged in business as a
bookseller, but was unsuccessful and devoted himself exclusively to
literature, producing over 40 vols., including several novels, _e.g._,
_Royston Gower_ (1838), _Gideon Giles the Roper_, and _Rural Sketches_.
In his stories he successfully delineated rural characters and scenes.


MILMAN, HENRY HART (1791-1868).--Poet and historian, _s._ of Sir Francis
M., a distinguished physician, _ed._ at Eton and Oxf. Taking orders he
became in 1835 Rector of St. Margaret's, Westminster, and in 1849 Dean of
St. Paul's. He also held the professorship of Poetry at Oxf. 1821-31.
Among his poetical works may be mentioned _Fazio_ (drama) (1815), _Samor_
(epic) (1818), _The Fall of Jerusalem_ (1820), _The Martyr of Antioch_
(1822), and _Anne Boleyn_ (1826). It is, however, on his work as an
historian that his literary fame chiefly rests, his chief works in this
department being his _History of the Jews_ (1830), _History of
Christianity_ (1840), and especially _The History of Latin Christianity_
(6 vols. 1854-56), which is one of the most important historical works of
the century, characterised alike by literary distinction and by learning
and research. M. also brought out a valuable ed. of Gibbon's _Decline and
Fall_, and wrote a _History of St. Paul's Cathedral_.


MILNES, R. MONCKTON, (_see_ HOUGHTON).


MILTON, JOHN (1608-1674).--Poet, was _b._ 9th December 1608 in Bread
Street, London. His _f._, also John, was the _s._ of a yeoman of
Oxfordshire, who cast him off on his becoming a Protestant. He had then
become a scrivener in London, and grew to be a man of good estate. From
him his illustrious _s._ inherited his lofty integrity, and his love of,
and proficiency in, music. M. received his first education from a Scotch
friend of his father's, Thomas Young, a Puritan of some note, one of the
writers of _Smectymnuus_. Thereafter he was at St. Paul's School, and in
1625 went to Christ's Coll., Camb., where for his beauty and his delicacy
of mind he was nicknamed "the lady." His sister Anne had _m._ Edward
Phillips, and the death of her first child in infancy gave to him the
subject of his earliest poem, _On the death of a Fair Infant_ (1626). It
was followed during his 7 years' life at the Univ., along with others, by
the poems, _On the Morning of Christ's Nativity_ (1629), _On the
Circumcision_, _The Passion_, _Time_, _At a Solemn Music_, _On May
Morning_, and _On Shakespeare_, all in 1630; and two sonnets, _To the
Nightingale_ and _On arriving at the Age of Twenty-three_, in 1631. In
1632, having given up the idea of entering the Church, for which his _f._
had intended him, he lived for 6 years at Horton, near Windsor, to which
the latter had retired, devoted to further study. Here he wrote
_L'Allegro_ and _Il Penseroso_ in 1632, _Arcades_ (1633), _Comus_ in
1634, and _Lycidas_ in 1637. The first celebrates the pleasures of a life
of cheerful innocence, and the second of contemplative, though not
gloomy, retirement, and the last is a lament for a lost friend, Edward
King, who perished at sea. _Arcades_ and _Comus_ are masques set to music
by Henry Lawes, having for their motives respectively family affection
and maiden purity. Had he written nothing else these would have given him
a place among the immortals. In 1638 he completed his education by a
period of travel in France and Italy, where he visited Grotius at Paris,
and Galileo at Florence. The news of impending troubles in Church and
State brought him home the following year, and with his return may be
said to close the first of three well-marked divisions into which his
life falls. These may be called (1) the period of preparation and of the
early poems; (2) the period of controversy, and of the prose writings;
and (3) the period of retirement and of the later poems. Soon after his
return M. settled in London, and employed himself in teaching his
nephews, Edward and John Phillips, turning over in his mind at the same
time various subjects as the possible theme for the great poem which, as
the chief object of his life, he looked forward to writing. But he was
soon to be called away to far other matters, and to be plunged into the
controversies and practical business which were to absorb his energies
for the next 20 years. The works of this period fall into three
classes--(1) those directed against Episcopacy, including _Reformation of
Church Discipline in England_ (1641), and his answers to the writings of
Bishop Hall (_q.v._), and in defence of _Smectymnuus_ (_see_ under
Calamy); (2) those relating to divorce, including _The Doctrine and
Discipline of Divorce_ (1643), and _The Four Chief Places of Scripture
which treat of Marriage_ (1645); and (3) those on political and
miscellaneous questions, including the _Tractate on Education_ (1644),
_Areopagitica_ (1644), _A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing_
(his greatest prose work), _Eikonoklastes_, an answer to the _Eikon
Basilike_ of Dr. Gauden (_q.v._), _The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates_
(1649), in defence of the execution of Charles I., which led to the
furious controversy with Salmasius, the writing of _Pro Populo Anglicano
Defensio_ (1650), the second _Defensio_ (1654), which carried his name
over Europe, and _The Ready and Easy Way to establish a Free
Commonwealth_, written on the eve of the Restoration. In 1643 M. had _m._
Mary Powell, the _dau._ of an Oxfordshire cavalier, a girl of 17, who
soon found her new life as the companion of an austere poet, absorbed in
severe study, too abrupt a change from the gay society to which she had
been accustomed, and in a month returned to her father's house on a
visit. When the time fixed for rejoining her husband arrived, she showed
no disposition to do so, upon which he began to aim at a divorce, and to
advocate in the works above mentioned "unfitness and contrariety of mind"
as a valid ground for it, views which incurred for him much notoriety and
unpopularity. A reconciliation, however, followed in 1645, and three
_dau._ were born of the marriage. In 1649 the reputation of M. as a
Latinist led to his appointment as Latin or Foreign Sec. to the Council
of State, in the duties of which he was, after his sight began to fail,
assisted by A. Marvell (_q.v._) and others, and which he retained until
the Restoration. In 1652 his wife _d._, and four years later he entered
into a second marriage with Katharine Woodcock, who _d._ in child-birth
in the following year. To her memory he dedicated one of the most
touching of his sonnets. At the Restoration he was, of course, deprived
of his office, and had to go into hiding; but on the intercession of
Marvell (_q.v._), and perhaps Davenant (_q.v._), his name was included in
the amnesty. In 1663, being now totally blind and somewhat helpless, he
asked his friend Dr. Paget to recommend a wife for him. The lady chosen
was Elizabeth Minshull, aged 25, who appears to have given him domestic
happiness in his last years. She survived him for 53 years. The
Restoration closed his second, and introduced his third, and for his
fame, most productive period. He was now free to devote his whole powers
to the great work which he had so long contemplated. For some time he had
been in doubt as to the subject, had considered the Arthurian legends,
but had decided upon the Fall of Man. The result was _Paradise Lost_,
which was begun in 1658, finished in 1664, and _pub._ in 1667. A remark
of his friend, Thomas Ellwood (_q.v._), suggested to him the writing of
_Paradise Regained_, which, along with _Samson Agonistes_, was _pub._ in
1671. Two years before he had printed a _History of Britain_, written
long before, which, however, is of little value. The work of M. was now
done. In addition to his blindness he suffered from gout, to which it was
partly attributable, and, his strength gradually failing, but with mind
unimpaired and serene, he _d._ peacefully on November 8, 1674. In M. the
influences of the Renaissance and of Puritanism met. To the former he
owed his wide culture and his profound love of everything noble and
beautiful, to the latter his lofty and austere character, and both these
elements meet in his writings. Leaving Shakespeare out of account, he
holds an indisputable place at the head of English poets. For strength of
imagination, delicate accuracy and suggestiveness of language, and
harmony of versification, he is unrivalled, and almost unapproached; and
when the difficulties inherent in the subject of his great masterpiece
are considered, the power he shows in dealing with them appears almost
miraculous, and we feel that in those parts where he has failed, success
was impossible for a mortal. In his use of blank verse he has, for
majesty, variety, and music, never been approached by any of his
successors. He had no dramatic power and no humour. In everything he
wrote, a proud and commanding genius manifests itself, and he is one of
those writers who inspire reverence rather than affection. His personal
appearance in early life has been thus described, "He was a little under
middle height, slender, but erect, vigorous, and agile, with light brown
hair clustering about his fair and oval face, with dark grey eyes."

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1608, _ed._ at St. Paul's School and Camb., and while at
the latter wrote earlier poems including _The Nativity_ and Sonnets,
lived for 6 years at Horton and wrote _L'Allegro_, _Il Penseroso_,
_Arcades_, _Comus_, and _Lycidas_, travelled in France and Italy 1638,
settled in London, entered on his political and controversial labours,
and wrote _inter alia_ on _Reform of Discipline_ 1641, _Divorce_ 1643-45,
_Education_ 1644, _Areopagitica_ 1644, and the two _Defences_ 1650 and
1654, appointed Latin Sec. 1649, this period closed by Restoration 1660,
_Paradise Lost_ written 1658-64, _pub._ 1667, _Paradise Regained_ and
_Samson Agonistes_ 1671, _d._ 1674, _m._ first 1643 Mary Powell, second
1652 Katharine Woodcock, third 1663 Eliz. Minshull, who survived till
1727.

_Life_ by Prof. Masson (_6_ vols. 1859-80), also short Lives by M.
Patteson (1880), Garnett (1889). Ed. of _Works_ by Boydell, Sir E.
Brydges, and Prof. Masson.


MINOT, LAURENCE (1300?-1352?).--Poet. Nothing is certainly known of him.
He may have been a soldier. He celebrates in northern English and with a
somewhat ferocious patriotism the victories of Edward III. over the Scots
and the French.


MINTO, WILLIAM (1845-1893).--Critic and biographer, _b._ at Alford,
Aberdeenshire, and _ed._ at Aberdeen and Oxf., went to London, and became
ed. of the _Examiner_, and also wrote for the _Daily News_ and the _Pall
Mall Gazette_. In 1880 he was appointed Prof. of Logic and Literature at
Aberdeen. He wrote a _Manual of English Prose Literature_ (1873),
_Characteristics of the English Poets_ (1874), and a _Life of Defoe_ for
the Men of Letters Series.


MITCHELL, JOHN (1815-1875).--Journalist and political writer, _s._ of a
Presbyterian minister, was _b._ in Ulster. For some time he practised as
a solicitor, but becoming acquainted with Thomas Davis (_q.v._), he
associated himself with the Young Ireland party, and was a leading
contributor to the _Nation_ newspaper. His political sympathies and acts
were carried so far as to bring about in 1848 his trial for
treason-felony, and his transportation for 14 years. After his release he
resided chiefly at New York, and ed. various papers, and opposed the
abolition of slavery; but in 1874 he was elected M.P. for Tipperary, for
which, however, he was declared incapable of sitting. On a new election
he was again returned, but _d._ before the resulting petition could be
heard. He wrote a _Jail Journal_, a work of great power, _The Last
Conquest of Ireland_ (_perhaps_) (1860), and a _History of Ireland_ of
little value.


MITFORD, MARY RUSSELL (1787-1855).--Poetess and novelist, _b._ at
Alresford, Hants, _dau._ of a physician, without practice, selfish and
extravagant, who ran through three fortunes, his own, his wife's, and his
daughter's, and then lived on the industry of the last. After a vol. of
poems which attracted little notice, she produced her powerful tragedy,
_Julian_. In 1812, what ultimately became the first vol. of _Our Village_
appeared in the _Lady's Magazine_. To this four additional vols. were
added, the last in 1832. In this work Miss M. may be said to have created
a new branch of literature. Her novel, _Belford Regis_ (1835), is
somewhat on the same lines. She added two dramas, _Rienzi_ (1828), and
_Foscari_, _Atherton and other Tales_ (1852), and _Recollections of a
Literary Life_, and _d._ at her cottage at Swallowfield, much beloved for
her benevolent and simple character, as well as valued for her
intellectual powers.


MITFORD, WILLIAM (1744-1827).--Historian, _e.s._ of John M. of Exbury,
Hants, descended from an old Northumbrian family, was _b._ in London, and
_ed._ at Cheam School and Oxf. He studied law, but on succeeding to the
family estates devoted himself to study and literature, and to his duties
as an officer of the militia. His first _pub._ was an _Essay on the
Harmony of Language_ (1774). His great work, _The History of Greece_, is
said to have been undertaken at the suggestion of Gibbon, who was a
fellow-officer in the South Hants Militia. This work, the successive
vols. of which appeared at considerable intervals between 1784 and 1810,
was long a standard one, though it is now largely superseded by the
histories of Thirwall and Grote. M. wrote with strong prejudices against
democracy, and in defence of tyrants, but his style is forcible and
agreeable, and he brought learning and research to bear on his subject.
He sat for many years in Parliament.


MOIR, DAVID MACBETH (1798-1851).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, was a
doctor at Musselburgh, near Edin., and a frequent contributor, under the
signature of [Greek: D], to _Blackwood's Magazine_ in which appeared
_Mansie Waugh_, a humorous Scottish tale. He also wrote _The Legend of
Genevieve_ (1824), _Domestic Verses_ (1843), and sketches of the poetry
of the earlier half of the 19th century. His poetry was generally grave
and tender, but occasionally humorous.


MONBODDO, JAMES BURNETT, LORD (1714-1799).--Philosopher and philologist,
_b._ at the family seat in Kincardineshire, was _ed._ at the Univ. of
Aberdeen, Edin., and Groningen, and called to the Scottish Bar in 1737.
Thirty years later he became a judge with the title of Lord Monboddo. He
was a man of great learning and acuteness, but eccentric and fond of
paradox. He was the author of two large works alike learned and
whimsical, _An Essay on the Origin and Progress of Language_ (6 vols.
1773-92), and _Ancient Metaphysics_ (6 vols. 1779-99). He mooted and
supported the theory that men were originally monkeys, and gradually
attained to reason, language, and civilisation by the pressure of
necessity. His doctrines do not sound so absurd now as they did in his
own day. He was visited by Dr. Johnson at Monboddo.


MONTAGU, ELIZABETH (ROBINSON) (1720-1800).--Critic, _dau._ of a gentleman
of Yorkshire, _m._ a grandson of Lord Sandwich. She was one of the
original "blue-stockings," and her house was a literary centre. She wrote
an _Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shakespeare_ (1769), in which she
compared him with the classical and French dramatists, and defended him
against the strictures of Voltaire. It had great fame in its day, but has
long been superseded.


MONTAGU, LADY MARY WORTLEY (PIERREPONT) (1690-1762).--Letter-writer, was
the eldest _dau._ of the 1st Duke of Kingston. In her youth she combined
the attractions of a reigning beauty and a wit. Her early studies were
encouraged and assisted by Bishop Burnet, and she was the friend of Pope,
Addison, and Swift. In 1712 she _m._, against the wishes of her family,
Edward Wortley-Montagu, a cousin of the celebrated Charles Montagu,
afterwards Earl of Halifax. Her husband having been appointed Ambassador
to the Porte, she accompanied him, and wrote the sparkling _Letters from
the East_ which have given her a place high among the great
letter-writers of the world. While in Turkey she became acquainted with
the practice of inoculation against smallpox, which she did much to
introduce into western countries. After her return to England she settled
at Twickenham, and renewed her friendship with Pope, which, however,
ended in a violent quarrel, arising out of her publication of _Town
Eclogues_. She was furiously attacked by both Pope and Swift, and was not
slow to defend herself. In 1737, for reasons which have never been
explained, she left her husband and country, and settled in Italy. Mr.
M. having _d._ 1761, she returned at the request of her _dau._, the
Countess of Bute, but _d._ the following year.


MONTGOMERIE, ALEXANDER (1545?-1610?).--Poet, probably _b._ in Ayrshire,
was in the service of the Regent Morton and James VI., by whom he was
pensioned. He is sometimes styled "Captain," and was laureate of the
Court. He appears to have fallen on evil days, was imprisoned on the
Continent, and lost his pension. His chief work is _The Cherrie and the
Slae_ (1597), a somewhat poor allegory of Virtue and Vice, but with some
vivid description in it, and with a comparatively modern air. He also
wrote _Flyting_ (scolding) _betwixt Montgomerie and Polwart_, _pub._
1621, and other pieces.


MONTGOMERY, JAMES (1771-1854).--Poet, _s._ of a pastor and missionary of
the Moravian Brethren, was _b._ at Irvine, Ayrshire, and _ed._ at the
Moravian School at Fulneck, near Leeds. After various changes of
occupation and abode, he settled in Sheffield in 1792 as clerk to a
newspaper. In 1796 he had become ed. of the _Sheffield Iris_, and was
twice imprisoned for political articles for which he was held
responsible. In 1797 he _pub._ _Prison Amusements_; but his first work to
attract notice was _The Wanderer of Switzerland_ (1806). It was followed
by _The West Indies_ (1809), _The World before the Flood_ (1812),
_Greenland_ (1819), and _The Pelican Island_ (1828), all of which contain
passages of considerable imaginative and descriptive power, but are
lacking in strength and fire. He himself expected that his name would
live, if at all, in his hymns, and in this his judgment has proved true.
Some of these, such as _For ever with the Lord_, _Hail to the Lord's
Anointed_, and _Prayer is the Soul's sincere Desire_, are sung wherever
the English language is spoken. M. was a good and philanthropic man, the
opponent of every form of injustice and oppression, and the friend of
every movement for the welfare of the race. His virtues attained wide
recognition.


MONTGOMERY, ROBERT (1807-1855).--Poet, a minister of the Scottish
Episcopal Church, wrote some ambitious religious poems, including _The
Omnipresence of the Deity_ and _Satan_, which were at first outrageously
puffed, and had a wide circulation. Macaulay devoted an essay to the
demolition of the author's reputation, in which he completely succeeded.


MOORE, EDWARD (1712-1757).--Fabulist and dramatist, _s._ of a dissenting
minister, was _b._ at Abingdon. After being in business as a
linen-draper, in which he was unsuccessful, he took to literature, and
wrote a few plays, of which _The Gamester_ (1753) had a great vogue, and
was translated into various languages. He is best known by his _Fables
for the Female Sex_ (1744), which rank next to those of Gay (_q.v._).


MOORE, JOHN (1729 or 1730-1802).--Physician and miscellaneous writer,
_s._ of an Episcopal minister, was _b._ in Stirling. After studying
medicine at Glasgow, he acted as a surgeon in the navy and the army, and
ultimately settled in Glasgow as a physician. In 1779 he _pub._ _View of
Manners and Society in France, Switzerland, and Germany_, which was well
received. A similar work, relating to Italy, followed in 1781. He is,
however, chiefly remembered by his romance _Zeluco_ (1786?). One or two
other novels followed, and his last works are a _Journal during a
Residence in France_ (1792), and _Causes and Progress of the French
Revolution_ (1795), the latter of which was used both by Scott and
Carlyle. M. was one of the friends of Burns, and was the _f._ of Sir John
M., the hero of Corunna.


MOORE, THOMAS (1779-1852).--Poet, _b._ in Dublin, _s._ of a grocer and
wine-merchant in a small way, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll., after which he
went to London, and studied law at the Middle Temple, 1799. He took with
him a translation of _Anacreon_, which appeared, dedicated to the Prince
Regent, in 1800, was well received, and made a position for him. In the
following year appeared _Poems by Thomas Little_. In 1803 he received the
appointment of Admiralty Registrar at Bermuda, and after visiting the
island and travelling in America, he committed his official duties to a
deputy (an unfortunate step as it proved), and returned to England. The
literary fruit of this journey was _Epistles, Odes, and other Poems_
(1806). In 1807 M. found his true poetic vocation in his
_Irish-Melodies_--the music being furnished by Sir John Stevenson, who
adapted the national airs. The reception they met with was enthusiastic,
and M. was carried at once to the height of his reputation. They
continued to appear over a period of 25 years, and for each of the 130
songs he received 100 guineas. His charming singing of these airs, and
his fascinating conversational and social powers made him sought after in
the highest circles. In 1815 there appeared _National Airs_ which,
however, cannot be considered equal to the _Melodies_. After making
various unsuccessful attempts at serious satire, he hit upon a vein for
which his light and brilliant wit eminently qualified him--the satirical
and pungent verses on men and topics of the day, afterwards _coll._ in
_The Twopenny Post Bag_, in which the Prince Regent especially was
mercilessly ridiculed, and about the same time appeared _Fables for the
Holy Alliance_. In 1818 he produced the _Fudge Family in Paris_, written
in that city, which then swarmed with "groups of ridiculous English."
_Lalla Rookh_, with its gorgeous descriptions of Eastern scenes and
manners, had appeared in the previous year with great applause. In 1818
the great misfortune of his life occurred through the dishonesty of his
deputy in Bermuda, which involved him in a loss of L6000, and
necessitated his going abroad. He travelled in Italy with Lord John
Russell, and visited Byron. Thereafter he settled for a year or two in
Paris, where he wrote _The Loves of the Angels_ (1823). On the death of
Byron his memoirs came into the hands of Moore, who, in the exercise of a
discretion committed to him, destroyed them. He afterwards wrote a _Life
of Byron_ (1830), which gave rise to much criticism and controversy, and
he also ed. his works. His last imaginative work was _The Epicurean_
(1827). Thereafter he confined himself almost entirely to prose, and
_pub._ Lives of Sheridan (1827), and Lord Edward Fitzgerald (1831). His
last work, written in failing health, was a _History of Ireland_ for
Lardner's _Cabinet Cyclopaedia_, which had little merit. Few poets have
ever enjoyed greater popularity with the public, or the friendship of
more men distinguished in all departments of life. This latter was
largely owing to his brilliant social qualities, but his genuine and
independent character had also a large share in it. He left behind him a
mass of correspondence and autobiographical matter which he committed to
his friend Lord John (afterwards Earl) Russell for publication. They
appeared in 8 vols. (1852-56).

_Memoir, Journal, and Correspondence_, by Lord John Russell (1856).


MORE, HANNAH (1745-1833).--Miscellaneous and religious writer, was one of
the five daughters of a schoolmaster at Stapleton, Gloucestershire. The
family removed to Bristol, where Hannah began her literary efforts. Some
early dramas, including _The Search after Happiness_ and the _Inflexible
Captive_ brought her before the public, and she went to London in 1774,
where, through her friend, Garrick, she was introduced to Johnson, Burke,
and the rest of that circle, by whom she was highly esteemed. After
publishing some poems, now forgotten, and some dramas, she resolved to
devote herself to efforts on behalf of social and religious amelioration,
in which she was eminently successful, and exercised a wide and salutary
influence. Her works written in pursuance of these objects are too
numerous to mention. They included _Hints towards forming the Character
of a young Princess_ (1805), written at the request of the Queen for the
benefit of the Princess Charlotte, _Coelebs in search of a Wife_ (1809),
and a series of short tales, the _Cheap Repository_, among which was the
well-known _Shepherd of Salisbury Plain_. This enterprise, which had
great success, led to the formation of the Religious Tract Society. The
success of Miss M.'s literary labours enabled her to pass her later years
in ease, and her sisters having also retired on a competency made by
conducting a boarding-school in Bristol, the whole family resided on a
property called Barley Grove, which they had purchased, where they
carried on with much success philanthropic and educational work among the
people of the neighbouring district of Cheddar. Few persons have devoted
their talents more assiduously to the well-being of their
fellow-creatures, or with a greater measure of success.


MORE, HENRY (1614-1687).--Philosopher, _b._ at Grantham, and _ed._ at
Camb., took orders, but declined all preferment, including two deaneries
and a bishopric; and also various appointments in his Univ., choosing
rather a quiet life devoted to scholarship and philosophy, especially the
study of writings of Plato and his followers. He led a life of singular
purity and religious devotion, tinged with mysticism, and his writings
had much popularity and influence in their day. Among them may be
mentioned _Psychozoia Platonica_ (1642), _repub._ (1647) as
_Philosophicall Poems_, _Divine Dialogues_ (prose) (1668), _The Mystery
of Godliness_, and _The Mystery of Iniquity_. His life was written by his
friend Richard Ward.


MORE, SIR THOMAS (1478-1535).--Historical and political writer, _s._ of
Sir John M., a Justice of the King's Bench, was _b._ in London. In his
16th year he was placed in the household of Morton, Archbishop of
Canterbury, who was wont to say, "This child here waiting at the table
... will prove a marvellous man." In 1497 he went to Oxf., where he
became the friend of Erasmus and others, and came in contact with the new
learning. He studied law at New Inn and Lincoln's Inn, and for some time
thought of entering the Church. He was, however, in 1504 sent up to
Parliament, where his powerful speaking gained for him a high place.
Meanwhile, he had brilliant success in the Law Courts, and was introduced
by Wolsey to Henry VIII., with whom he soon rose into high favour. He
became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Speaker of the House of
Commons, 1523, and was sent on missions to Charles V. and Francis I. At
length, on the fall of Wolsey, M. was, much against his will, appointed
Lord Chancellor, an office which he filled with singular purity and
success, though he was harsh in his dealings with persons accused of
heresy. But differences with the King soon arose. M. disapproved of
Henry's ecclesiastical policy, as well as of his proceedings in regard to
the Queen, and in 1532 he resigned his office. In 1534 he refused the
oath which pledged him to approval of the King's marriage to Anne Boleyn,
and for this he was imprisoned in the Tower, and on July 7, 1535,
beheaded. His body was buried in St. Peter's in the Tower, and his head
exhibited on London Bridge, whence it was taken down and preserved by his
_dau._, the noble Margaret Roper. All Catholic Europe was shocked at the
news of what was truly a judicial murder. Among his works are a Life of
_Picus, Earl of Mirandula_ (1510), and a _History of Richard III._,
written about 1513. His great work, _Utopia_, was written in Latin in two
books--the second 1515, and the first 1516. It had immediate popularity,
and was translated into French 1530, English 1551, German 1524, Italian
1548, and Spanish 1790. It gives an account of an imaginary island and
people, under cover of which it describes the social and political
condition of England, with suggested remedies for abuses. The opinions on
religion and politics expressed in it are not, however, always those by
which he was himself guided. M. wrote many works of controversy, among
which are _Dyaloge concerning Heresies_, also epigrams and dialogues in
Latin. His pure and religious character, his sweet temper, his wit, his
constancy and fortitude under misfortune combine to render him one of the
most attractive and admirable figures in English history.

_Life_ by W. Roper (son-in-law), Lord Campbell, _Lives of Chancellors,
Utopia_ was translated by Robinson (1551, etc.), Bishop Burnet (1684,
etc.), and ed. by Lupton (1895), and Michelis (1896).


MORGAN, LADY (SYDNEY OWENSON) (1780?-1859).--Novelist, _dau._ of Robert
Owenson, an actor, was the author of several vivacious Irish tales,
including _The Wild Irish Girl_ (1806), _O'Donnel_ (1814), and _The
O'Briens and the O'Flaherties_ (1827); also two books on society in
France and in Italy characterised by "more vivacity and point than
delicacy," and a Life of Salvator Rosa.


MORIER, JAMES JUSTINIAN (1780?-1849).--Traveller and novelist, _s._ of
Isaac M., descended from a Huguenot family resident at Smyrna, where he
was _b._, was _ed._ at Harrow. Returning to the East he became in 1809
Sec. of Legation in Persia. He wrote accounts of travels in Persia,
Armenia, and Asia Minor; also novels, in which he exhibits a marvellous
familiarity with Oriental manners and modes of thought. The chief of
these are _The Adventures of Hajji Baba_ (1824), and _Hajji Baba in
England_ (1828), _Zohrab the Hostage_ (1832), _Ayesha_ (1834), and _The
Mirza_ (1841). All these works are full of brilliant description,
character-painting, and delicate satire.


MORISON, JAMES COTTER (1832-1888).--Was _ed._ at Oxf. He wrote _Lives of
Gibbon_ (1878), and _Macaulay_ (1882); but his best work was his _Life of
St. Bernard_ (1863). _The Service of Man_ (1887) is written from a
Positivist point of view.


MORLEY, HENRY (1822-1894).--Writer on English literature, _s._ of an
apothecary, was _b._ in London, _ed._ at a Moravian school in Germany,
and at King's Coll., London, and after practising medicine and keeping
schools at various places, went in 1850 to London, and adopted literature
as his profession. He wrote in periodicals, and from 1859-64 ed. the
_Examiner_. From 1865-89 he was Prof. of English Literature at Univ.
Coll. He was the author of various biographies, including Lives of
_Palissy_, _Cornelius Agrippa_, and _Clement Marot_. His principal work,
however, was _English Writers_ (10 vols. 1864-94), coming down to
Shakespeare. His _First Sketch of English Literature_--the study for the
larger work--had reached at his death a circulation of 34,000 copies.


MORRIS, SIR LEWIS (1833-1907).--Poet, _b._ at Penrhyn, Carnarvonshire,
and _ed._ at Sherborne and Oxf., was called to the Bar, and practised as
a conveyancer until 1880, after which he devoted himself to the promotion
of higher education in Wales, and became honorary sec. and treasurer of
the New Welsh Univ. In 1871 he _pub._ _Songs of Two Worlds_, which showed
the influence of Tennyson, and was well received, though rather by the
wider public than by more critical circles. It was followed in 1876-77 by
_The Epic of Hades_, which had extraordinary popularity, and which,
though exhibiting undeniable talent both in versification and narrative
power, lacked the qualities of the higher kinds of poetry. It deals in a
modern spirit with the Greek myths and legends. Other works are _A Vision
of Saints_, _Gwen_, _The Ode of Life_, and _Gycia_, a tragedy.


MORRIS, WILLIAM (1834-1896).--Poet, artist, and socialist, _b._ at
Walthamstow, and _ed._ at Marlborough School and Oxf. After being
articled as an architect he was for some years a painter, and then joined
in founding the manufacturing and decorating firm of Morris, Marshall,
Faulkner and Co., in which Rossetti, Burne-Jones, and other artists were
partners. By this and other means he did much to influence the public
taste in furnishing and decoration. He was one of the originators of the
_Oxford and Cambridge Magazine_, to which he contributed poems, tales,
and essays, and in 1858 he _pub._ _Defence of Guenevere and other Poems_.
_The Life and Death of Jason_ followed in 1867, _The Earthly Paradise_ in
1868-70, and _Love is Enough_ in 1875. In the last mentioned year he made
a translation in verse of Virgil's _AEneid_. Travels in Iceland led to the
writing of _Three Northern Love Stories_, and the epic of _Sigurd the
Volsung_ (1876). His translation of the _Odyssey_ in verse appeared 1887.
A series of prose romances began with _The House of the Wolfings_ (1889),
and included _The Roots of the Mountains_, _Story of the Glittering
Plain_, _The Wood beyond the World_, _The Well at the World's End_
(1896), and posthumously _The Water of the Wondrous Isles_, and _Story of
the Sundering Flood_. In addition to poems and tales M. produced various
illuminated manuscripts, including two of Fitzgerald's _Omar Khayyam_,
and many controversial writings, among which are tales and tracts in
advocacy of Socialism. To this class belong the _Dream of John Ball_
(1888), and _News from Nowhere_ (1891). In 1890 M. started the Kelmscott
Press, for which he designed type and decorations. For his subjects as a
writer he drew upon classic and Gothic models alike. He may perhaps be
regarded as the chief of the modern romantic school, inspired by the love
of beauty for its own sake; his poetry is rich and musical, and he has a
power of description which makes his pictures live and glow, but his
narratives sometimes suffer from length and slowness of movement.

_Life_ by J.W. Mackail (2 vols., 1899), _The Books of W. Morris_, Forman,
etc.


MORTON, THOMAS (1764-1838).--Dramatist, _b._ in Durham, came to London to
study law, which he discarded in favour of play-writing. He wrote about
25 plays, of which several had great popularity. In one of them, _Speed
the Plough_, he introduced Mrs. Grundy to the British public.


MOTHERWELL, WILLIAM (1797-1835).--Poet, _b._ and _ed._ in Glasgow, he
held the office of depute sheriff-clerk at Paisley, at the same time
contributing poetry to various periodicals. He had also antiquarian
tastes, and a deep knowledge of the early history of Scottish ballad
literature, which he turned to account in _Minstrelsy, Ancient and
Modern_ (1827), a collection of Scottish ballads with an historical
introduction. In 1830 he became ed. of the _Glasgow Courier_, and in 1832
he _coll._ and _pub._ his poems. He also joined Hogg in ed. the Works of
Burns.


MOTLEY, JOHN LOTHROP (1814-1877).--Historian, _b._ at Dorchester, a
suburb of Boston, Massachusetts, was _ed._ at Harvard, where O.W. Holmes
(_q.v._), afterwards his biographer, was a fellow-student. After
graduating he went to Europe, studied at Goettingen and Berlin, and
visited Italy. On his return he studied law, and was admitted to the Bar
in 1837. He did not, however, practise, and was in 1840 sent to St.
Petersburg as Sec. of Legation. Meanwhile, having _pub._ two novels,
_Morton's Hope_ and _Merry Mount_, which had little success, he turned to
history, and attracted attention by some essays in various reviews.
Having decided to write an historical work on Holland, he proceeded in
1851 to Europe to collect materials, and in 1856 _pub._ _The Rise of the
Dutch Republic_. It was received with the highest approval by such
critics as Froude and Prescott, and at once took its place as a standard
work. It was followed in 1860 by the first two vols. of _The United
Netherlands_. The following year M. was appointed Minister at Vienna, and
in 1869 at London. His latest works were a _Life of Barneveldt_, the
Dutch statesman, and _A View of ... the Thirty Years' War_. M. holds a
high place among historical writers both on account of his research and
accuracy, and his vivid and dramatic style, which shows the influence of
Carlyle.


MOULTRIE, JOHN (1799-1874).--Poet, _ed._ at Eton and Camb., took orders
and was Rector of Rugby. He wrote several books of poetry, his best known
pieces are _My Brother's Grave_, and _Godiva_.


MULOCK, DINAH MARIA (MRS. CRAIK) (1826-1887).--Novelist, _dau._ of a
Nonconformist minister of Irish descent. Beginning with stories for
children, she developed into a prolific and popular novelist. Her best
and most widely known book is _John Halifax, Gentleman_ (1857), which had
a wide popularity, and was translated into several languages. Others are
_The Head of the Family_, _Agatha's Husband_, _A Life for a Life_, and
_Mistress and Maid_. She also wrote one or two vols. of essays.


MUNDAY, ANTHONY (1553-1633).--Dramatist, poet, and pamphleteer, _s._ of a
draper in London, appears to have had a somewhat chequered career. He
went to Rome in 1578, and _pub._ _The Englyshe Romayne Life_, in which he
gives descriptions of rites and other matters fitted to excite Protestant
feeling; and he appears to have acted practically as a spy upon Roman
Catholics. He had a hand in 18 plays, of which four only are extant,
including two on _Robert, Earl of Huntingdon_ (_Robin Hood_) (1598), and
one on the _Life of Sir John Oldcastle_. He was ridiculed by Ben Jonson
in _The Case is Altered_. He was also a ballad-writer, but nothing of his
in this kind survives, unless _Beauty sat bathing in a Spring_ be
correctly attributed to him. He also wrote city pageants, and translated
popular romances, including _Palladino of England_, and _Amadis of
Gaule_. He was made by Stow the antiquary (_q.v._) his literary executor,
and _pub._ his _Survey of London_ (1618).


MURE, WILLIAM (1799-1860).--Scholar, laird of Caldwell, Ayrshire, _ed._
at Westminster, Edin., and Bonn, sat in Parliament for Renfrewshire
1846-55. He was a sound classical scholar, and _pub._ _A Critical History
of the Language and Literature of Ancient Greece_ (5 vols., 1850-57). He
held the view that the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ are now substantially as
they were originally composed. M. was Lord Rector of Glasgow Univ.
1847-48.


MURPHY, ARTHUR (1727-1805).--Actor and dramatist, _b._ in Ireland, and
_ed._ at St. Omer, went on the stage, then studied for the Bar, to which
he was ultimately admitted after some demur on account of his connection
with the stage. His plays were nearly all adaptations. They include _The
Apprentice_ (1756), _The Spouter_, and _The Upholsterer_. He also wrote
an essay on Dr. Johnson, and a Life of Garrick.


MURRAY, LINDLEY (1745-1826).--Grammarian, was _b._ in Pennsylvania, and
practised as a lawyer. From 1785 he lived in England, near York, and was
for his last 16 years confined to the house. His _English Grammar_ (1795)
was long a standard work, and his main claim to a place in literature.
His other writings were chiefly religious.


MYERS, FREDERIC WILLIAM HENRY (1843-1901).--Poet and essayist, _s._ of a
clergyman, was _b._ at Keswick, and _ed._ at Cheltenham and Camb. He
became an inspector of schools, and was the author of several vols. of
poetry, including _St. Paul_ (1867). He also wrote _Essays Classical and
Modern_, and Lives of Wordsworth and Shelley. Becoming interested in
mesmerism and spiritualism he aided in founding the Society for Psychical
Research, and was joint author of _Phantasms of the Living_. His last
work was _Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death_ (1903).


NABBES, THOMAS (_fl._ 1638).--Dramatist, was at Oxf. in 1621. He lived in
London, and wrote comedies, satirising bourgeois society. He was most
successful in writing masques, among which are _Spring's Glory_ and
_Microcosmus_. He also wrote a continuation of Richard Knolles' _History
of the Turks_.


NAIRNE, CAROLINA (OLIPHANT), BARONESS (1766-1845).--_B._ at the House of
Gask ("the auld house"), _m._ in 1806 her second cousin, Major Nairne,
who on reversal of attainder became 5th Lord Nairne. On his death, after
residing in various places in England, Ireland, and on the Continent, she
settled at the new house of Gask (the old one having been pulled down in
1801). Of her songs--87 in number--many first appeared anonymously in
_The Scottish Minstrel_ (1821-24); a collected ed. with her name, under
the title of _Lays' from Strathearn_, was _pub._ after her death.
Although the songs, some of which were founded on older compositions, had
from the first an extraordinary popularity, the authoress maintained a
strict anonymity during her life. For direct simplicity and poetic
feeling Lady N. perhaps comes nearer than any other Scottish song-writer
to Burns, and many of her lyrics are enshrined in the hearts of her
fellow-countrymen. Among the best of them are _The Land of the Leal_
(1798), _Caller Herrin'_, _The Laird o' Cockpen_, _The Auld House_, _The
Rowan Tree_, _The Hundred Pipers_, and _Will ye no come back Again?_ The
Jacobitism of some of these and many others was, of course, purely
sentimental and poetical, like that of Scott. She was a truly religious
and benevolent character, and the same modesty which concealed her
authorship withdrew from public knowledge her many deeds of charity.


NAPIER, MARK (1798-1879).--Historian, _s._ of a lawyer in Edinburgh, was
called to the Bar, practised as an advocate, and was made Sheriff of
Dumfries and Galloway. He _pub._ Memoirs of the Napiers, of Montrose, and
of Graham of Claverhouse, the last of which gave rise to much
controversy. N. wrote from a strongly Cavalier and Jacobite standpoint,
and had remarkably little of the judicial spirit in his methods. His
writings, however, have some historical value.


NAPIER, SIR WILLIAM FRANCIS PATRICK (1785-1860).--was one of the sons of
Col. the Hon. George N. and Lady Sarah Lennox, _dau._ of the 2nd Duke of
Richmond, and the object of a romantic attachment on the part of George
III. One of his brothers was Sir Charles N., the conqueror of Scinde.
Entering the army at 15, he served with great distinction in the
Peninsula under Moore and Wellington. His experiences as a witness and
participator in the stupendous events of the war combined with the
possession of remarkable acumen and a brilliant style to qualify him for
the great work of his life as its historian. _The History of the War in
the Peninsula and in the South of France from 1807-14_ (1828-40) at once
took rank as a classic, and superseded all existing works on the subject.
Though not free from prejudice and consequent bias, it remains a
masterpiece of historical writing, especially in the description of
military operations. It was translated into French, German, Spanish,
Italian, and Persian. N. also _pub._ _The Conquest of Scinde_ (1844-46),
mainly a defence of his brother Charles, whose life he subsequently
wrote. He became K.C.B. in 1848, and General 1859.


NASH, THOMAS (1567-1601).--Satirist, etc., _b._ at Lowestoft, _ed._ at
Camb. A reckless life kept him in perpetual poverty, and a bitter and
sarcastic tongue lost him friends and patrons. He cherished an undying
hatred for the Puritans, and specially for Gabriel Hervey, with whom he
maintained a lifelong controversy, and against whose attacks he defended
Robert Greene (_q.v._). Among his writings are _Anatomy of Absurdities_
(1589), _Have with you to Saffron Walden_, and _Pierce Pennilesse, his
Supplication to the Divell_ (1592), all against the Puritans. In
_Summer's_ (a jester of Henry VIII.) _Last Will and Testament_ occurs the
well-known song, "Spring, the sweet Spring, is the year's pleasant King."
_Christ's Tears over Jerusalem_ (1593) may have indicated some movement
towards repentance. Another work in a totally different style, _The
Unfortunate Traveller, or the Life of Jack Wilton_ (1594), a wild tale,
may be regarded as the pioneer of the novel of adventure. It had,
however, so little success that the author never returned to this kind of
fiction. A comedy, _The Isle of Dogs_ (now lost), adverted so pointedly
to abuses in the state that it led to his imprisonment. His last work was
_Lenten Stuffe_ (1599), a burlesque panegyric on Yarmouth and its red
herrings. N.'s verse is usually hard and monotonous, but he was a man of
varied culture and great ability.


NAYLER, JAMES (1617?-1660).--Quaker theologian, _s._ of a Yorkshire
yeoman, who, after serving in the Parliamentary army, joined the Quakers
in 1651, became one of Foxe's most trusted helpers, and exercised a
powerful influence. By some of the more enthusiastic devotees of the sect
he was honoured with such blasphemous titles as "the Lamb of God," which,
however, he did not arrogate to himself, but asserted that they were
ascribed to "Christ in him." He was found guilty of blasphemy, pilloried,
whipped, and branded, and cast into prison, from which he was not
released until after the death of Cromwell, when he made public
confession and resumed preaching. He was the author of a number of short
works both devotional and controversial. He ranks high among the Quakers
for eloquence, insight, and depth of thought.


NEAL, JOHN (1793-1876).--Novelist and poet, _b._ at Portland, Maine, was
self-educated, kept a dry goods store, and was afterwards a lawyer. He
wrote several novels, which show considerable native power, but little
art, and are now almost forgotten. Among those which show the influence
of Byron and Godwin are _Keep Cool_ (1818), _Logan_ (1822), and
_Seventy-six_ (1823). His poems have the same features of vigour and want
of finish. In 1823 he visited England, and became known to Jeremy
Bentham. He contributed some articles on American subjects to
_Blackwood's Magazine_.


NEAVES, CHARLES, LORD (1800-1876).--Miscellaneous author, _b._ and _ed._
in Edinburgh, was called to the Bar, and became a judge. He was a
frequent contributor to _Blackwood's Magazine_. His verses, witty and
satirical, were _coll._ as _Songs and Verses, Social and Scientific_. He
wrote also on philology, and _pub._ a book on the Greek Anthology.


NECKHAM, ALEXANDER (1157-1217).--Scholar, _b._ at St. Albans, was
foster-brother to Richard Coeur de Lion. He went to Paris in 1180, where
he became a distinguished teacher. Returning, to England in 1186 he
became an Augustinian Canon, and in 1213 Abbot of Cirencester. He is one
of our earliest men of learning, and wrote a scientific work in Latin
verse. _De Naturis Rerum_ (_c._ 1180-94) in 10 books. Other works are _De
Laudibus Divinae Sapientiae_ (in Praise of the Divine Wisdom), and _De
Contemptu Mundi_ (on Despising the World), and some grammatical
treatises.


NEWCASTLE, MARGARET, DUCHESS of (1624?-1674).--_Dau._ of Sir Thomas
Lucas, and a maid of honour to Queen Henrietta. Maria, _m._ in 1645 the
1st Duke of Newcastle (then Marquis), whom she regarded in adversity and
prosperity with a singular and almost fantastic devotion, which was fully
reciprocated. The noble pair collaborated (the Duchess contributing by
far the larger share) in their literary ventures, which filled 12 vols.,
and consisted chiefly of dramas (now almost unreadable), and
philosophical exercitations which, amid prevailing rubbish, contain some
weighty sayings. One of her poems, _The Pastimes and Recreations of the
Queen of Fairies in Fairyland_ has some good lines. Her Life of her
husband, in which she rates him above Julius Caesar, was said by Lamb to
be "a jewel for which no casket was good enough."


NEWMAN, FRANCIS WILLIAM (1805-1897).--Scholar and theological writer,
brother of Cardinal N., _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Oxf. After spending
three years in the East, he became successively classical tutor in
Bristol Coll., Professor of Classical Literature in Manchester New Coll.
(1840), and of Latin in Univ. Coll., London, 1846-63. Both brought up
under evangelical influences, the two brothers moved from that standpoint
in diametrically opposite directions, Francis through eclecticism towards
scepticism. His writings include a _History of the Hebrew Monarchy_
(1847), _The Soul_ (1849), and his most famous book, _Phases of Faith_
(1850), a theological autobiography corresponding to his brother's
_Apologia_, the publication of which led to much controversy, and to the
appearance of Henry Rogers' _Eclipse of Faith_. He also _pub._
_Miscellanea_ in 4 vols., a Dictionary of modern Arabic, and some
mathematical treatises. He was a vegetarian, a total abstainer, and enemy
of tobacco, vaccination, and vivisection. Memoir by I.G. Sieveking, 1909.


NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY (1801-1890).--Theologian, _s._ of a London banker, and
brother of the above, was _ed._ at Ealing and Trinity Coll., Oxf., where
he was the intimate friend of Pusey and Hurrell Froude. Taking orders he
was successively curate of St. Clement's 1824, and Vicar of St. Mary's,
Oxford, 1828. He was also Vice-principal of Alban Hall, where he assisted
Whately, the Principal, in his _Logic_. In 1830 he definitely broke with
the evangelicalism in which he had been brought up; and in 1832,
accompanied by H. Froude, went to the South of Europe, and visited Rome.
During this lengthened tour he wrote most of his short poems, including
"Lead Kindly Light," which were _pub._ 1834 as _Lyra Apostolica_. On his
return he joined with Pusey, Keble, and others in initiating the
Tractarian movement, and contributed some of the more important tracts,
including the fateful No. xc., the publication of which brought about a
crisis in the movement which, after two years of hesitation and mental
and spiritual conflict, led to the resignation by N. of his benefice. In
1842 he retired to Littlemore, and after a period of prayer, fasting, and
seclusion, was in 1845 received into the Roman Catholic Church. In the
following year he went to Rome, where he was ordained priest and made
D.D., and returning to England he established the oratory in Birmingham
in 1847, and that in London in 1850. A controversy with C. Kingsley, who
had written that N. "did not consider truth a necessary virtue," led to
the publication of his _Apologia pro Vita Sua_ (1864), one of the most
remarkable books of religious autobiography ever written. N.'s later
years were passed at the oratory at Birmingham. In 1879 he was summoned
to Rome and _cr._ Cardinal of St. George in Velabro. Besides the works
above mentioned he wrote, among others, _The Arians of the Fourth
Century_ (1833), _Twelve Lectures_ (1850), _Lectures on the Present
Position of Catholics_ (1851), _Idea of a University_, _Romanism and
Popular Protestantism_, _Disquisition on the Canon of Scripture_, and his
poem, _The Dream of Gerontius_. Possessed of one of the most keen and
subtle intellects of his age, N. was also master of a style of marvellous
beauty and power. To many minds, however, his subtlety not seldom
appeared to pass into sophistry; and his attitude to schools of thought
widely differing from his own was sometimes harsh and unsympathetic. On
the other hand he was able to exercise a remarkable influence over men
ecclesiastically, and in some respects religiously, most strongly opposed
to him. His sermons place him in the first rank of English preachers.

_Lives_ or books about him by R.H. Hutton, E.A. Abbott. _Works_ (36
vols., 1868-81), _Apologia pro Vita Sua_ (1864), etc.


NEWTON, SIR ISAAC (1642-1727).--Natural philosopher, _b._ at Woolsthorpe,
Lincolnshire, the _s._ of a small landed proprietor, and _ed._ at the
Grammar School of Grantham and at Trinity Coll., Camb. By propounding the
binomial theorem, the differential calculus, and the integral calculus,
he began in 1665 the wonderful series of discoveries in pure mathematics,
optics, and physics, which place him in the first rank of the
philosophers of all time. He was elected Lucasian Prof. of Mathematics at
Camb. in 1669, and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672, over which body
he presided for 25 years from 1703. In the same year his new theory of
flight was _pub._ in a paper before the society. His epoch-making
discovery of the law of universal gravitation was not promulgated until
1687, though the first glimpse of it had come to him so early as 1665.
The discovery of fluxions, which he claimed, was contested by Leibnitz,
and led to a long and bitter controversy between the two philosophers. He
twice sat in Parliament for his Univ., and was Master of the Mint from
1699, in which capacity he presented reports on the coinage. He was
knighted in 1705, and _d._ at Kensington in 1727. For a short time, after
an unfortunate accident by which a number of invaluable manuscripts were
burned, he suffered from some mental aberration. His writings fall into
two classes, scientific and theological. In the first are included his
famous treatises, _Light and Colours_ (1672), _Optics_ (1704), the
_Principia_ (1687), in Latin, its full title being _Philosophiae Naturalis
Principia Mathematica_. In the second are his _Observations upon the
Prophecies of Holy Writ_ and _An Historical Account of Two Notable
Corruptions of Scripture_. In character N. was remarkable for simplicity,
humility, and gentleness, with a great distaste for controversy, in
which, nevertheless, he was repeatedly involved. _Life_ by Sir D.
Brewster, second ed., 1855, etc.


NEWTON, JOHN (1725-1807).--Divine and hymn-writer, _s._ of a shipmaster,
was _b._ in London, and for many years led a varied and adventurous life
at sea, part of the time on board a man-of-war and part as captain of a
slaver. In 1748 he came under strong religious convictions, and after
acting as a tide-waiter at Liverpool for a few years, he applied for
orders in 1758, and was ordained curate of Olney in 1764. Here he became
the intimate and sympathetic friend of Cowper, in conjunction with whom
he produced the _Olney Hymns_. In 1779 he was translated to the Rectory
of St. Mary, Woolnoth, London, where he had great popularity and
influence, and wrote many religious works, including _Cardiphonia_, and
_Remarkable Passages in his Own Life_. He lives, however, in his hymns,
among which are some of the best and most widely known in the language,
such as _In evil long I took delight_, _Glorious things of Thee are
Spoken_, _How Sweet the Name of Jesus sounds_, and many others. In his
latter years N. was blind.


NICHOL, JOHN (1833-1894).--Poet and biographer, _s._ of John P.N., Prof.
of Astronomy in Glasgow, _ed._ at Glasgow and Oxf., and held the chair of
English Literature in Glasgow, 1862-1889. Among his writings are
_Hannibal_ (1873), a drama, _Death of Themistocles and other Poems_
(1881), _Fragments of Criticism_, and _American Literature_; also Lives
of Bacon, Burns, Carlyle, and Byron.


NOEL, HON. RODEN BERKELEY WRIOTHESLEY (1834-1894).--Poet, _s._, of the
1st Earl of Gainsborough, was _ed._ at Camb. He wrote _Behind the Veil_
(1863), _The Red Flag_ (1872), _Songs of the Heights and Deeps_ (1885),
and _Essays_ on various poets, also a Life of Byron.


NORRIS, JOHN (1657-1711).--Philosopher and poet, _ed._ at Oxf., took
orders, and lived a quiet and placid life as a country parson and
thinker. In philosophy he was a Platonist and mystic, and was an early
opponent of Locke. His poetry, with occasional fine thoughts, is full of
far-fetched metaphors and conceits, and is not seldom dull and prosaic.
From 1692 he held G. Herbert's benefice of Bemerton. Among his 23 works
are _An Idea of Happiness_ (1683), _Miscellanies_ (1687), _Theory and
Regulation of Love_ (1688), _Theory of the Ideal and Intelligible World_
(1701-4), and a _Discourse concerning the Immortality of the Soul_
(1708).


NORTH, SIR THOMAS (1535?-1601?).--Translator, 2nd _s._ of the 1st Lord
N., may have studied at Camb. He entered Lincoln's Inn 1557, but gave
more attention to literature than to law. He is best known by his
translation of _Plutarch_, from the French of Amyot, in fine, forcible,
idiomatic English, which was the repertory from which Shakespeare drew
his knowledge of ancient history: in _Antony and Cleopatra_ and
_Coriolanus_ North's language is often closely followed. Another
translation was from an Italian version of an Arabic book of fables, and
bore the title of _The Morale Philosophie of Doni_.


NORTON, CAROLINE ELIZABETH SARAH (SHERIDAN) (1808-1877).--Grand-daughter
of Richard Brinsley S. (_q.v._), _m._ in 1827 the Hon. G.C. Norton, a
union which turned out most unhappy, and ended in a separation. Her first
book, _The Sorrows of Rosalie_ (1829), was well received. _The Undying
One_ (1830), a romance founded upon the legend of the Wandering Jew,
followed, and other novels were _Stuart of Dunleath_ (1851), _Lost and
Saved_ (1863), and _Old Sir Douglas_ (1867). The unhappiness of her
married life led her to interest herself in the amelioration of the laws
regarding the social condition and the separate property of women and the
wrongs of children, and her poems, _A Voice from the Factories_ (1836),
and _The Child of the Islands_ (1845), had as an object the furtherance
of her views on these subjects. Her efforts were largely successful in
bringing about the needed legislation. In 1877 Mrs. N. _m._ Sir W.
Stirling Maxwell (_q.v._).


NORTON, CHARLES ELIOT, LL.D., D.C.L., etc. (1827-1909).--American
biographer and critic. _Church Building in the Middle Ages_ (1876),
translation of the _New Life_ (1867), and _The Divine Comedy_ of Dante
(1891); has ed. _Correspondence of Carlyle and Emerson_ (1883),
_Carlyle's Letters and Reminiscences_ (1887), etc.


OCCAM or OCKHAM, WILLIAM (1270?-1349?).--Schoolman, _b._ at Ockham,
Surrey, studied at Oxf. and Paris, and became a Franciscan. As a
schoolman he was a Nominalist and received the title of the Invincible
Doctor. He attacked the abuses of the Church, and was imprisoned at
Avignon, but escaped and spent the latter part of his life at Munich,
maintaining to the last his controversies with the Church, and with the
Realists. He was a man of solid understanding and sense, and a masterly
logician. His writings, which are of course all in Latin, deal with the
Aristotelean philosophy, theology, and specially under the latter with
the errors of Pope John XXII., who was his _bete-noir_.


OCCLEVE, (_see_ HOCCLEVE).


OCKLEY, SIMON (1678-1720).--Orientalist, _b._ at Exeter, and _ed._ at
Camb., became the greatest Orientalist of his day, and was made in 1711
Prof. of Arabic in his Univ. His chief work is the _Conquest of Syria,
Persia, and Egypt by the Saracens_ (3 vols., 1708-57), which was largely
used by Gibbon. The original documents upon which it is founded are now
regarded as of doubtful authority. O. was a clergyman of the Church of
England.


O'KEEFFE, JOHN (1747-1833).--Dramatist, wrote a number of farces and
amusing dramatic pieces, many of which had great success. Among these are
_Tony Lumpkin in Town_ (1778), _Wild Oats_, and _Love in a Camp_. Some of
his songs set to music by Arnold and Shield, such as _I am a Friar of
Orders Grey_, and _The Thorn_, are still popular. He was blind in his
later years.


OLDHAM, JOHN (1653-1683).--Satirist and translator, _s._ of a
Nonconformist minister, was at Oxf., and was the friend of most of the
literary men of his time, by whom his early death from smallpox was
bewailed. He made clever adaptations of the classical satirists, wrote an
ironical _Satire against Virtue_, and four severe satires against the
Jesuits. He is cynical to the verge of misanthropy, but independent and
manly.


OLDMIXON, JOHN (1673-1742).--Historical and miscellaneous writer,
belonged to an old Somersetshire family, wrote some, now forgotten,
dramas and poems which, along with an essay on criticism, in which he
attacked Addison, Swift, and Pope, earned for him a place in _The
Dunciad_. He was also the author of _The British Empire in America_
(1708), _Secret History of Europe_ (against the Stuarts), and in his
_Critical History_ (1724-26) attacked Clarendon's _History of the
Rebellion_. All these works are partisan in their tone. O. was one of the
most prolific pamphleteers of his day.


OLDYS, WILLIAM (1696-1761).--Antiquary, wrote a Life of Sir W. Raleigh
prefixed to an ed. of his works (1736), a _Dissertation on Pamphlets_
(1731), and was joint ed. with Dr. Johnson of the _Harleian Miscellany_.
He amassed many interesting facts in literary history, the fruits of
diligent, though obscure, industry. The only poem of his that still lives
is the beautiful little anacreontic beginning "Busy, curious, thirsty
Fly." O. held the office of Norroy-King-at-Arms. He produced in 1737 _The
British Librarian_, a valuable work left unfinished.


OLIPHANT, LAURENCE (1829-1888).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer, _s._
of Sir Anthony O., Chief Justice of Ceylon. The first 38 years of his
life were spent in desultory study, travel, and adventure, varied by
occasional diplomatic employment. His travels included, besides
Continental countries, the shores of the Black Sea, Circassia, where he
was _Times_ correspondent, America, China, and Japan. He was in the
Crimean War, Indian Mutiny, Chinese War, the military operations of
Garibaldi, and the Polish insurrection, and served as private sec. to
Lord Elgin in Washington, Canada, and China, and as Sec. of Legation in
Japan. In 1865 he entered Parliament, and gave promise of political
eminence, when in 1867 he came under the influence of Thomas L. Harris,
an American mystic of questionable character, went with him to America,
and joined the Brotherhood of the New Life. In 1870-71 he was
correspondent for the _Times_ in the Franco-German War. Ultimately he
broke away from the influence of Harris and went to Palestine, where he
founded a community of Jewish immigrants at Haifa. After revisiting
America he returned to England, but immediately fell ill and _d._ at
Twickenham. O. was a voluminous and versatile author, publishing books
of travel, novels, and works on mysticism. The most important are as
follows: _The Russian Shores of the Black Sea_ (1853), _Minnesota and the
Far West_ (1855), _The Transcaucasian Campaign_ (1856), _Patriots and
Fillibusters_ (adventures in Southern States) (1860), _Narrative of a
Mission to China and Japan_ (1857-59), _The Land of Gilead_ (1880),
_Piccadilly_ (1870), and _Altiora Peto_ (1883) (novels), and _Scientific
Religion_.


OLIPHANT, MRS. MARGARET OLIPHANT (WILSON) (1828-1897).--Novelist and
miscellaneous writer, was _b._ near Musselburgh. Her literary output
began when she was little more than a girl, and was continued almost up
to the end of her life. Her first novel, _Mrs. Margaret Maitland_,
appeared in 1849, and its humour, pathos, and insight into character gave
the author an immediate position in literature. It was followed by an
endless succession, of which the best were the series of _The Chronicles
of Carlingford_ (1861-65), including _Salem Chapel_, _The Perpetual
Curate_, and _Miss Marjoribanks_, all of which, as well as much of her
other work, appeared in _Blackwood's Magazine_, with which she had a
lifelong connection. Others of some note were _The Primrose Path_,
_Madonna Mary_ (1866), _The Wizard's Son_, and _A Beleaguered City_. She
did not, however, confine herself to fiction, but wrote many books of
history and biography, including _Sketches of the Reign of George II._
(1869), _The Makers of Florence_ (1876), _Literary History of England_
1790-1825, _Royal Edinburgh_ (1890), and Lives of _St. Francis of
Assisi_, _Edward Irving_, and _Principal Tulloch_. Her generosity in
supporting and educating the family of a brother as well as her own two
sons rendered necessary a rate of production which was fatal to the
permanence of her work. She was negligent as to style, and often wrote on
subjects to which her intellectual equipment and knowledge did not enable
her to do proper justice. She had, however, considerable power of
painting character, and a vein of humour, and showed untiring industry in
getting up her subjects.


OPIE, MRS. AMELIA (ALDERSON) (1769-1853).--Novelist, _dau._ of a medical
man, was _b._ at Norwich. In 1798 she _m._ John Opie, the painter. Her
first acknowledged work was _Father and Daughter_ (1801), which had a
favourable reception, and was followed by _Adeline Mowbray_ (1804),
_Temper_ (1812), _Tales from Real Life_ (1813), and others, all having
the same aim of developing the virtuous affections, the same merit of
natural and vivid painting of character and passions, and the same fault
of a too great preponderance of the pathetic. They were soon superseded
by the more powerful genius of Scott and Miss Edgeworth. In 1825 she
became a Quaker. After this she wrote _Illustrations of Lying_ (1825),
and _Detraction Displayed_ (1828). Her later years, which were singularly
cheerful, were largely devoted to philanthropic interests.


ORDERICUS VITALIS (1075-1143?).--Chronicler, _b._ near Shrewsbury, was in
childhood put into the monastery of St. Evroult, in Normandy, where the
rest of his life was passed. He is the author of a chronicle,
_Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy_ (_c._ 1142) in 13 books.
Those from the seventh to the thirteenth are invaluable as giving a
trustworthy, though not very clear, record of contemporary events in
England and Normandy. It was translated into English in 1853-55.


ORM, or ORMIN (_fl._ 1200).--Was an Augustinian canon of Mercia, who
wrote the _Ormulum_ in transition English. It is a kind of mediaeval
_Christian Year_, containing a metrical portion of the Gospel for each
day, followed by a metrical homily, largely borrowed from AElfric and
Bede. Its title is thus accounted for, "This boc iss nemmed the
_Ormulum_, forthi that Orm it wrohhte."


ORME, ROBERT (1728-1801).--Historian, _s._ of an Indian army doctor, _b._
at Travancore, and after being at Harrow, entered the service of the East
India Company. Owing to failure of health he had to return home in 1760,
and then wrote his _History of the Military Transactions of the British
Nation in Indostan from 1745_ (1763-78), a well-written and accurate
work, showing great research. He also _pub._ _Historical Fragments of the
Mogul Empire, the Morattoes and English Concerns in Indostan from 1659_
(1782). His collections relating to India are preserved at the India
Office.


ORRERY, ROGER BOYLE, 1ST EARL of (1621-1679).--Statesman and dramatist,
third _s._ of the Earl of Cork, was _ed._ at Trinity Coll., Dublin. After
having fought on the Royalist side he was, on the death of the King,
induced by Cromwell to support him in his Irish wars and otherwise. After
the death of the Protector he secured Ireland for Charles II., and at the
Restoration was raised to the peerage. He wrote a romance in 6 vols.,
entitled _Parthenissa_, some plays, and a treatise on the _Art of War_.
He has the distinction of being the first to introduce rhymed tragedies.


O'SHAUGHNESSY, ARTHUR WILLIAM EDGAR (1844-1881).--Poet, _b._ in London,
entered the library of the British Museum, afterwards being transferred
to the natural history department, where he became an authority on fishes
and reptiles. He _pub._ various books of poetry, including _Epic of
Women_ (1870), _Lays of France_ (1872), and _Music and Moonlight_ (1874).
Jointly with his wife he wrote _Toyland_, a book for children. He was
associated with D.G. Rossetti and the other pre-Raphaelites. There is a
certain remoteness in his poetry which will probably always prevent its
being widely popular. He has a wonderful mastery of metre, and a
"haunting music" all his own.


OTWAY, CAESAR (1780-1842).--Writer of Irish tales. His writings, which
display humour and sympathy with the poorer classes in Ireland, include
_Sketches in Ireland_ (1827), and _A Tour in Connaught_ (1839). He was
concerned in the establishment of various journals.


OTWAY, THOMAS (1651 or 1652-1685).--Dramatist, _s._ of a clergyman, was
_b._ near Midhurst, Sussex, and _ed._ at Oxf., which he left without
graduating. His short life, like those of many of his fellows, was marked
by poverty and misery, and he appears to have _d._ practically of
starvation. Having failed as an actor, he took to writing for the stage,
and produced various plays, among which _Don Carlos, Prince of Spain_
(1676), was a great success, and brought him some money. Those by which
he is best remembered, however, are _The Orphan_ (1680), and _Venice
Preserved_ (1682), both of which have been frequently revived. O. made
many adaptations from the French, and in his tragedy of _Caius Marius_
incorporated large parts of _Romeo and Juliet_. He has been called "the
most pathetic and tear-drawing of all our dramatists," and he excelled in
delineating the stronger passions. The grossness of his comedies has
banished them from the stage. Other plays are _The Cheats of Scapin_,
_Friendship in Fashion_, _Soldier's Fortune_ (1681), and _The Atheist_.


OUIDA, (_see_ RAMEE).


OUTRAM, GEORGE (1805-1856).--Humorous poet, was a Scottish advocate, a
friend of Prof. Wilson, and for some time ed. of the _Glasgow Herald_. He
printed privately in 1851 _Lyrics, Legal and Miscellaneous_, which were
_pub._ with a memoir in 1874. Many of his pieces are highly amusing, the
_Annuity_ being the best.


OVERBURY, SIR THOMAS (1581-1613).--Poet and miscellaneous writer, _ed._
at Oxf., became the friend of Carr, afterwards Earl of Rochester and
Somerset, and fell a victim to a Court intrigue connected with the
proposed marriage of Rochester and Lady Essex, being poisoned in the
Tower with the connivance of the latter. He wrote a poem, _A Wife, now a
Widowe_, and _Characters_ (1614), short, witty descriptions of types of
men. Some of those _pub._ along with his are by other hands.


OWEN, JOHN (1560-1622).--Epigrammatist, _b._ at Plas Dhu, Carnarvonshire,
_ed._ at Winchester and Oxf., and became head master of King Henry VIII.
School at Warwick. His Latin epigrams, which have both sense and wit in a
high degree, gained him much applause, and were translated into English,
French, German, and Spanish.


OWEN, JOHN (1616-1683).--Puritan divine, _b._ at Stadhampton,
Oxfordshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., from which he was driven by Laud's
statutes. Originally a Presbyterian, he passed over to Independency. In
1649 he accompanied Cromwell to Ireland, and in 1650 to Edinburgh. He was
Dean of Christ Church, Oxf. (1651-60), and one of the "triers" of
ministers appointed by Cromwell. After the Restoration he was ejected
from his deanery, but was favoured by Clarendon, who endeavoured to
induce him to conform to the Anglican Church by offers of high
preferment. Strange to say Charles II. also held him in regard, and gave
him money for the Nonconformists; and he was allowed to preach to a
congregation of Independents in London. His great learning and ability
rendered him a formidable controversialist, specially against Arminianism
and Romanism. His works fill 28 vols; among the best known being _The
Divine Original, etc., of the Scriptures_, _Indwelling Sin_,
_Christologia_, or ... The Person of Christ_, and a commentary
on Hebrews.


OWEN, ROBERT (1771-1858).--Socialist and philanthropist, _b._ at Newton,
Montgomeryshire, had for his object the regeneration of the world on the
principles of socialism. His sincerity was shown by the fact that he
spent most of the fortune, which his great capacity for business enabled
him to make, in endeavours to put his theories into practice at various
places both in Britain and America. He was sincerely philanthropic, and
incidentally did good on a considerable scale in the course of his more
or less impracticable schemes. He propounded his ideas in _New Views of
Society, or Essays on the Formation of the Human Character_ (1816).


OXFORD, EDWARD DE VERE, EARL of (1550-1604).--Was a courtier of Queen
Elizabeth, who lost his friends by his insolence and pride, and his
fortune by his extravagance. He _m._ a _dau._ of Lord Burghley, who had
to support his family after his death. He had some reputation as a writer
of short pieces, many of which are in the _Paradise of Dainty Devices_.


PAINE, THOMAS (1737-1809).--Political and anti-Christian writer, _s._ of
a stay-maker and small farmer of Quaker principles at Thetford, became
with large classes perhaps the most unpopular man in England. After
trying various occupations, including those of schoolmaster and
exciseman, and having separated from his wife, he went in 1774 to America
where, in 1776, he _pub._ his famous pamphlet, _Common Sense_, in favour
of American independence. He served in the American army, and also held
some political posts, including that of sec. to a mission to France in
1781. Returning to England in 1787 he _pub._ his _Rights of Man_
(1790-92), in reply to Burke's _Reflections on the French Revolution_. It
had an enormous circulation, 1,500,000 copies having been sold in England
alone; but it made it necessary for him to escape to France to avoid
prosecution. Arrived in that country he was elected to the National
Convention. He opposed the execution of Louis XVI., and was, in 1794,
imprisoned by Robespierre, whose fall saved his life. He had then just
completed the first part of his _Age of Reason_, of which the other two
appeared respectively in 1795 and 1807. It is directed alike against
Christianity and Atheism, and supports Deism. Becoming disgusted with the
course of French politics, he returned to America in 1802, but found
himself largely ostracised by society there, became embroiled in various
controversies, and is said to have become intemperate. He _d._ at New
York in 1809. Though apparently sincere in his views, and courageous in
the expression of them, P. was vain and prejudiced. The extraordinary
lucidity and force of his style did much to gain currency for his
writings.


PAINTER, WILLIAM (1540?-1594).--Translator, etc., _ed._ at Camb., was
then successively schoolmaster at Sevenoaks, and Clerk of the Ordnance,
in which position his intromissions appear to have been of more advantage
to himself than to the public service. He was the author of _The Palace
of Pleasure_ (1566), largely consisting of translations from Boccaccio,
Bandello, and other Italian writers, and also from the classics. It
formed a quarry in which many dramatists, including Shakespeare, found
the plots for their plays.


PALEY, WILLIAM (1743-1805).--Theologian, _s._ of a minor canon of
Peterborough, where he was _b._, went at 15 as a sizar to Christ's Coll.,
Camb., where he was Senior Wrangler, and became a Fellow and Tutor of
his coll. Taking orders in 1767 he held many benefices, and rose to be
Archdeacon of Carlisle, and Sub-Dean of Lincoln. P., who holds one of the
highest places among English theologians, was the author of four
important works--_Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy_ (1785),
_Horae Paulinae_, his most original, but least popular, book (1790), _View
of the Evidences of Christianity_ (1794), and _Natural Theology_ (1802).
Though now to a large extent superseded, these works had an immense
popularity and influence in their day, and are characterised by singular
clearness of expression and power of apt illustration. The system of
morals inculcated by P. is Utilitarian, modified by theological ideas.
His view of the "divine right of Kings" as on a level with "the divine
right of constables" was unpleasing to George III., notwithstanding which
his ecclesiastical career was eminently successful. His manners were
plain and kindly.


PALGRAVE, SIR FRANCIS (1788-1861).--Historian, _s._ of Meyer Cohen, a
Jewish stockbroker, but at his marriage in 1823, having previously become
a Christian, assumed his mother-in-law's name of Palgrave. He studied
law, and was called to the Bar in 1827. From 1838 until his death in 1861
he was Deputy Keeper of the Records, and in that capacity arranged a vast
mass of hitherto inaccessible documents, and ed. many of them for the
Record Commission. His historical works include a _History of England in
Anglo-Saxon Times_ (1831), _Rise and Progress of the English
Commonwealth_ (1832), and _History of Normandy and England_ (4 vols.,
1851-64), _pub._ posthumously. He was knighted in 1832. His works are of
great value in throwing light upon the history and condition of mediaeval
England.


PALGRAVE, FRANCIS TURNER (1824-1897).--Poet and critic, _s._ of the
above, _ed._ at Oxf., was for many years connected with the Education
Department, of which he rose to be Assistant Sec.; and from 1886-95 he
was Prof. of Poetry at Oxf. He wrote several vols. of poetry, including
_Visions of England_ (1881), and _Amenophis_ (1892), which, though
graceful and exhibiting much poetic feeling, were the work rather of a
man of culture than of a poet. His great contribution to literature was
his anthology, _The Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics_ (1864), selected
with marvellous insight and judgment. A second series showed these
qualities in a less degree. He also _pub._ an anthology of sacred poetry.


PALTOCK, ROBERT (1697-1767).--Novelist, was an attorney, and wrote _The
Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins, a Cornish Man_ (1751), admired by
Scott, Coleridge, and Lamb. It is somewhat on the same plan as _Robinson
Crusoe_, the special feature being the _gawry_, or flying woman, whom the
hero discovered on his island, and married. The description of
Nosmnbdsgrutt, the country of the flying people, is a dull imitation of
Swift, and much else in the book is tedious.


PARDOE, JULIA (1806-1862).--Novelist and miscellaneous writer, _b._ at
Beverley, showed an early bias towards literature, and became a
voluminous and versatile writer, producing in addition to her lively and
well-written novels many books of travel, and others dealing with
historical subjects. She was a keen observer, and her Oriental travels
had given her an accurate and deep knowledge of the peoples and manners
of the East. Among her books are _The City of the Sultan_ (1836),
_Romance of the Harem_, _Thousand and One Days_, _Louis XIV. and the
Court of France_, _Court of Francis I._, etc.


PARIS, MATTHEW (_c._ 1195-1259).--Chronicler, entered in 1217 the
Benedictine Monastery of St. Albans, and continued the work of Roger de
Wendover (_q.v._) as chronicler of the monastery. In 1248 he went on the
invitation of Hacon King of Norway to reform the Abbey of St. Benet Holm.
In this he was successful, and on his return to England enjoyed the
favour of Henry III., who conversed familiarly with him, and imparted
information as to matters of state, which constitutes a valuable element
in his histories. He had a high reputation for piety and learning, was a
patriotic Englishman, and resisted the encroachments of Rome. His chief
work is _Historia Major_, from the Conquest until 1259. In it he embodied
the _Flores Historiarum_ of his predecessor Roger, and the original part
is a bold and vigorous narrative of the period (1235-59). He also wrote
_Historia Minor_ and _Historia Anglorum_, a summary of the events
(1200-1250).


PARK, MUNGO (1771-1806).--Traveller, _b._ near Selkirk, studied medicine
at Edin. As a surgeon in the mercantile marine he visited Sumatra, and on
his return attracted the attention of various scientific men by his
botanical and zoological investigations. In 1795 he entered the service
of the African Association, and made a voyage of discovery on the Niger.
His adventures were _pub._ in _Travels in the Interior of Africa_ (1799),
which had great success. He _m._ and set up in practice in Peebles; but
in 1805 accepted an invitation by Government to undertake another journey
in Africa. From this he never returned, having perished in a conflict
with natives. His narratives, written in a straightforward and pleasing
style, are among the classics of travel.


PARKER, THEODORE (1810-1860).--Theologian, _b._ at Lexington,
Massachusetts, _ed._ at Harvard, was an indefatigable student, and made
himself master of many languages. In 1837 he was settled at West Roxbury
as a Unitarian minister, but the development of his views in a
rationalistic direction gradually separated him from the more
conservative portion of his co-religionists. He lectured on theological
subjects in Boston in 1841, travelled in Europe, and in 1845 settled in
Boston, where he lectured to large audiences, and exercised a wide
influence. He took a leading part in the anti-slavery crusade, and
specially in resisting the Fugitive Slave Act. In 1859 his health, which
had never been robust, gave way; he went to Italy in search of
restoration, but _d._ at Florence. Although he was a powerful theological
and social influence, his writings are not of corresponding importance:
it was rather as a speaker that he influenced his countrymen, and he left
no contribution to literature of much permanent account, though his
_coll._ works fill 14 vols. Among the most outstanding of his writings
are _A Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion_, and _Sermons for the
Times_.


PARKMAN, FRANCIS (1823-1893).--Historian, _s._ of a Unitarian minister in
Boston, Massachusetts, graduated at Harvard, and qualified as a lawyer,
but never practised, and though hampered by a state of health which
forbade continuous application, and by partial blindness, devoted himself
to the writing of the history of the conflict between France and England
in North America. This he did in a succession of works--_The Conspiracy
of Pontiac_ (1851), _The Pioneers of France in the New World_ (1865),
_The Jesuits in North America_ (1867), _La Salle and the Discovery of the
Great West_ (1869), _The Old Regime in Canada_ (1874), _Count Frontenac
and New France_ (1877), _Montcalm and Wolfe_ (1884), and _A Half Century
of Conflict_ (1892). In these the style, at first somewhat turgid,
gradually improved, and became clear and forcible, while retaining its
original vividness. P. spared no labour in collecting and sifting his
material, much of which was gathered in the course of visits to the
places which were the scenes of his narrative, and his books are the most
valuable contribution in existence to the history of the struggle for
Canada and the other French settlements in North America. He also wrote
two novels, which had little success, and a book upon rose-culture.


PARNELL, THOMAS (1679-1718).--Poet, _b._ and _ed._ in Dublin, took orders
in 1700, and was Vicar of Finglas and Archdeacon of Clogher. The death of
his young wife in 1706 drove him into intemperate habits. He was a friend
of Swift and Pope, a contributor to the _Spectator_, and aided Pope in
his translation of the _Iliad_. He wrote various isolated poems showing a
fine descriptive touch, of which the most important are _The Hermit_,
_The Night Piece_, and _The Hymn to Contentment_. P. was a scholar, and
had considerable social gifts. His Life was written by Goldsmith.


PARR, DR. SAMUEL (1747-1825).--Scholar, _s._ of an apothecary at Harrow,
where and at Camb. he was _ed._ He was successively an assistant-master
at Harrow and headmaster of schools at Colchester and Norwich, and having
taken orders, finally settled down at Hatton, Warwickshire, where he took
private pupils. He was undoubtedly a great Latinist, but he has left no
work to account for the immense reputation for ability which he enjoyed
during his life. His chief power appears to have been in conversation, in
which he was bold, arrogant, and epigrammatic. He was nicknamed "the Whig
Johnson," but fell very far short of his model. His writings, including
correspondence, were _pub._ in 8 vols.


PATER, WALTER HORATIO (1839-1894).--Essayist and critic, _s._ of Richard
G.P., of American birth and Dutch extraction, a benevolent physician,
_b._ at Shadwell, and _ed._ at the King's School, Canterbury, and at
Queen's Coll., Oxf., after leaving which he made various tours in Germany
and Italy where, especially in the latter, his nature, keenly sensitive
to every form of beauty, received indelible impressions. In 1864 he was
elected a Fellow of Brasenose, and in its ancient and austere precincts
found his principal home. As a tutor, though conscientious, he was not
eminently successful; nevertheless his lectures, on which he bestowed
much pains, had a fit audience, and powerfully influenced a few select
souls. He resigned his tutorship in 1880, partly because he found himself
not entirely in his element, and partly because literature was becoming
the predominant interest in his life. In 1885 he went to London, where he
remained for 8 years, continuing, however, to reside at Brasenose during
term. The reputation as a writer which he had gained made him welcome in
whatever intellectual circles he found himself. Leaving London in 1893 he
settled in a house in St. Giles, Oxf. In the spring of 1894 he went to
Glasgow to receive the honorary degree of LL.D., a distinction which he
valued. In the summer he had an attack of rheumatic fever, followed by
pleurisy. From these he had apparently recovered, but he succumbed to an
attack of heart-failure which immediately supervened. Thus ended
prematurely in its 55th year a life as bare of outward events as it was
rich in literary fruit and influence.

P. is one of the greatest modern masters of style, and one of the
subtlest and most penetrating of critics. Though not a philosopher in the
technical sense, he deeply pondered the subjects with which philosophy
sets itself to deal; but art was the dominating influence in his
intellectual life, and it was said of him that "he was a philosopher who
had gone to Italy by mistake instead of to Germany." He may also be
called the prophet of the modern aesthetic school. His attitude to
Christianity, though deeply sceptical, was not unsympathetic. As a boy he
came under the influence of Keble, and at one time thought of taking
orders, but his gradual change of view led him to relinquish the idea.
Among his works may be mentioned an article on Coleridge, and others on
Winckelmann, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Botticelli, etc., which
were _coll._ and _pub._ as _Studies in the History of the Renaissance_
(1873); _Appreciations_ (1889) contained his great essays on _AEsthetic
Poetry_ and _Style_, various Shakespearian studies and papers on Lamb and
Sir T. Browne; _Imaginary Portraits_, and _Greek Studies_ (1894); _Plato
and Platonism_ (1893). His masterpiece, however, is _Marius the
Epicurean_ (1885), a philosophical romance of the time of Marcus
Aurelius. The style of P. is characterised by a subdued richness, and
complicated, but perfect structure of sentences. In character he was
gentle, refined, and retiring, with a remarkable suavity of manner and
dislike of controversy.


PATMORE, COVENTRY KERSEY DIGHTON (1823-1896).--Poet, _s._ of Peter George
P., also an author, _b._ at Woodford, Essex, was in the printed book
department of the British Museum. He _pub._ _Tamerton Church Tower_
(1853), and between 1854 and 1862 the four poems which, combined, form
his masterpiece, _The Angel in the House_, a poetic celebration of
married love. In 1864 he entered the Church of Rome. Thereafter he _pub._
_The Unknown Eros_ (1877), _Amelia_ (1878), and _Rod, Root, and Flower_
(1895), meditations chiefly on religious subjects. His works are full of
graceful and suggestive thought, but occasionally suffer from length and
discursiveness. He was successful in business matters, and in character
was energetic, masterful, and combative. He numbered Tennyson and Ruskin
among his friends, was associated with the pre-Raphaelites, and was a
contributor to their organ, the _Germ_.


PATTISON, MARK (1813-1884).--Scholar and biographer, _b._ at Hornby,
Yorkshire, _s._ of a clergyman, _ed._ privately and at Oxf., where in
1839 he became Fellow of Lincoln Coll., and acquired a high reputation as
a tutor and examiner. At first strongly influenced by Newman and the
Tractarian movement, he ultimately abandoned that school. In 1851,
failing to be elected head of his coll., he threw up his tutorship, and
devoted himself to severe study, occasionally writing on educational
subjects in various reviews. In 1861, however, he attained the object of
his ambition, being elected Rector of Lincoln Coll. In 1883 he dictated a
remarkable autobiography, coming down to 1860. In 1875 he had _pub._ a
_Life of Isaac Casaubon_, and he left materials for a Life of Scaliger,
which he had intended to be his _magnum opus_. He also wrote _Milton_ for
the English Men of Letters Series, and produced an ed. of his sonnets.


PAULDING, JAMES KIRKE (1779-1860).--Novelist, etc., _b._ in the state of
New York, was chiefly self-educated. He became a friend of W. Irving, and
was part author with him of _Salmagundi_--a continuation of which by
himself proved a failure. Among his other writings are _John Bull and
Brother Jonathan_ (1812), a satire, _The Dutchman's Fireside_ (1831), a
romance which attained popularity, a _Life of Washington_ (1835), and
some poems.


PAYN, JAMES (1830-1898).--Novelist, _s._ of an official in the Thames
Commission, _ed._ at Eton, Woolwich, and Camb. He was a regular
contributor to _Household Words_ and to _Chambers's Journal_, of which he
was ed. 1859-74, and in which several of his works first appeared; he
also ed. the _Cornhill Magazine_ 1883-96. Among his novels--upwards of 60
in number--may be mentioned _Lost Sir Massingberd_, _The Best of
Husbands_, _Walter's Word_, _By Proxy_ (1878), _A Woman's Vengeance_,
_Carlyon's Year_, _Thicker than Water_, _A Trying Patient_, etc. He also
wrote a book of poems and a volume of literary reminiscences.


PEACOCK, THOMAS LOVE (1785-1866).--Novelist, _b._ at Weymouth, the only
child of a London merchant, was in boyhood at various schools, but from
the age of 13 self-educated. Nevertheless, he became a really learned
scholar. He was for long in the India Office, where he rose to be Chief
Examiner, coming between James Mill and John Stuart Mill. He was the
author of several somewhat whimsical, but quite unique novels, full of
paradox, prejudice, and curious learning, with witty dialogue and
occasional poems interspersed. Among them are _Headlong Hall_ (1816),
_Nightmare Abbey_ (1818), _Maid Marian_ (1822), _Misfortunes of Elphin_
(1829), _Crotchet Castle_ (1831), and _Gryll Grange_ (1860). He was the
intimate friend of Shelley, memoirs of whom he contributed to _Fraser's
Magazine_.


PEARSON, CHARLES HENRY (1830-1894).--_B._ at Islington, _ed._ at Rugby
and King's Coll., London, at the latter he became Prof. of Modern
History. Owing to a threatened failure of sight he went to Australia,
where he remained for 20 years, and was for a time Minister of Education
of Victoria. Returning to England in 1892 he wrote his _National Life
and Character: a Forecast_, in which he gave utterance to very
pessimistic views as to the future of the race. He also wrote a _History
of England during the Early and Middle Ages_ (1867).


PEARSON, JOHN (1613-1686).--Theologian, _s._ of an archdeacon of Suffolk,
_b._ at Great Snoring, Norfolk, _ed._ at Eton and Camb., took orders, and
after holding various preferments, including the archdeaconry of Surrey,
the mastership of Jesus Coll., and of Trinity Coll., Camb., was made, in
1673, Bishop of Chester. His _Exposition of the Creed_ (1659) has always
been regarded as one of the most finished productions of English
theology, remarkable alike for logical argument and arrangement, and
lucid style. He was also the author of other learned works, including a
defence of the authenticity of the epistles of Ignatius. In his youth P.
was a Royalist, and acted in 1645 as a chaplain in the Royal army. He was
one of the commissioners in the Savoy Conference.


PECOCK, REGINALD (1395?-1460?).--Theologian, _b._ in Wales, entered the
Church, and rose to be successively Bishop of St. Asaph 1444, and of
Chichester 1450. He was a strenuous controversialist, chiefly against the
Lollards; but his free style of argument, and especially his denial of
the infallibility of the Church, led him into trouble, and on being
offered the choice of abjuration or death at the stake, he chose the
former, but nevertheless was deprived of his bishopric, had his books
burned, and spent his latter days in the Abbey of Thorney,
Cambridgeshire. His chief work is _The Repressor of overmuch blaming of
the Clergy_ (1455), which, from its clear, pointed style, remains a
monument of 15th century English. _The Book of Faith_ (1456) is another
of his writings.


PEELE, GEORGE (1558?-1597?).--Dramatist and poet, _s._ of a salter in
London, _ed._ at Christ's Hospital and Oxf., where he had a reputation as
a poet. Coming back to London about 1581 he led a dissipated life. He
appears to have been a player as well as a playwright, and to have come
into possession of some land through his wife. His works are numerous and
consist of plays, pageants, and miscellaneous verse. His best plays are
_The Arraignment of Paris_ (1584), and _The Battle of Alcazar_ (1594),
and among his poems _Polyhymnia_ (1590), and _The Honour of the Garter_
(1593). Other works are _Old Wives' Tale_ (1595), and _David and Fair
Bethsabe_ (1599). P. wrote in melodious and flowing blank verse, with
abundance of fancy and brilliant imagery, but his dramas are weak in
construction, and he is often bombastic and extravagant.


PENN, WILLIAM (1644-1718).--Quaker apologist, _s._ of Sir William P., a
celebrated Admiral, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at Oxf., where he
became a Quaker, and was in consequence expelled from the Univ. His
change of views and his practice of the extremest social peculiarities
imposed by his principles led to a quarrel with his _f._, who is said to
have turned him out of doors. Thereafter he began to write, and one of
his books, _The Sandy Foundation Shaken_ (_c._ 1668), in which he
attacked the doctrines of the Trinity, the atonement, and justification
by faith, led to his being, in 1668, imprisoned in the Tower, where he
wrote his most popular work, _No Cross, No Crown_ (1668), and a defence
of his own conduct, _Innocency with her Open Face_ (1668), which resulted
in his liberation. Shortly after this, in 1670, on the death of his _f._,
who had been reconciled to him, P. succeeded to a fortune, including a
claim against the Government amounting to L15,000, which was ultimately
in 1681 settled by a grant of the territory now forming the state of
Pennsylvania. Meanwhile, however, he had again suffered imprisonment for
preaching, and employed his enforced leisure in writing four treatises,
of which one, _The Great Cause of Liberty of Conscience_ (_c._ 1671), is
an able defence of religious toleration. In 1682, having obtained the
grant above referred to, he set sail for America, with the view of
founding a community based upon the principles of toleration. Having
established a Constitution and set matters in working order there, P.
returned to England in 1684 and busied himself in efforts for the relief
of those Quakers who had remained at home. The peculiar position of
affairs when James II. was endeavouring to use the Dissenters as a means
of gaining concessions to the Roman Catholics favoured his views, and he
was to some extent successful in his efforts. His connection with the
Court at that time has, however, led to his conduct being severely
animadverted upon by Macaulay and others. In 1690 and for some time
thereafter he was charged with conspiring against the Revolution
Government, but after full investigation was completely acquitted. His
later years were embittered by troubles in Pennsylvania, and by the
dishonesty and ingratitude of an agent by whose defalcations he was
nearly ruined, as a consequence of which he was imprisoned for debt. He
_d._ soon after his release in 1718.


PENNANT, THOMAS (1726-1798).--Naturalist and traveller, _b._ in
Flintshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., was one of the most distinguished
naturalists of the 18th century, and _pub._, among other works on natural
history, _British Zoology_ (1768), and _History of Quadrupeds_ (1781). In
literature he is, however, best remembered by his _Tours in Scotland_
(1771-75), which did much to make known the beauties of the country to
England. He also travelled in Ireland and Wales, and on the Continent,
and _pub._ accounts of his journeys. Dr. Johnson said of him, "he
observes more things than any one else does."


PEPYS, SAMUEL (1633-1703).--Diarist, _s._ of John P., a London tailor,
but of good family and connected with Sir E. Montague, afterwards Earl of
Sandwich, was _ed._ at St. Paul's School and at Camb. After leaving the
Univ. he entered the household of Montagu, who became his life long
patron. He held various Government posts, including that of
Surveyor-General of the Victualling Office, in which he displayed great
administrative ability and reforming zeal, and in 1672 he became Sec. of
the Admiralty. After being imprisoned in the Tower on a charge in
connection with the Popish plot, and deprived of his office, he was in
1686 again appointed Sec. of the Admiralty, from which, however, he was
dismissed at the Revolution. Thereafter he lived in retirement chiefly at
Clapham. P. was a man of many interests, combining the characters of the
man of business, man of pleasure, and _virtuoso_, being skilled in music
and a collector of books, manuscripts, and pictures, and he was Pres. of
the Royal Society for two years. He wrote _Memoirs of the Royal Navy_
(1690), but his great legacy to literature is his unique and inimitable
_Diary_, begun January 1, 1660, and coming down to May 31, 1669, when the
failure of his sight prevented its further continuance. As an account by
an eye-witness of the manners of the Court and of society it is
invaluable, but it is still more interesting as, perhaps, the most
singular example extant of unreserved self-revelation--all the foibles,
peccadilloes, and more serious offences against decorum of the author
being set forth with the most relentless _naivete_ and minuteness, it was
written in a cypher or shorthand, which was translated into long-hand by
John Smith in 1825, and ed. by Lord Braybrooke, with considerable
excisions. Later and fuller ed. have followed. P. left his books, MSS.,
and collections to Magdalene Coll., Camb., where they are preserved in a
separate library.


PERCIVAL, JAMES GATES (1795-1854).--Poet, _b._ at Berlin, Conn., was a
precocious child, and a morbid and impractical, though versatile man,
with a fatal facility in writing verse on all manner of subjects and in
nearly every known metre. His sentimentalism appealed to a wide circle,
but his was one of the tapers which were extinguished by Lowell. He had
also a reputation as a geologist. His poetic works include _Prometheus_
and _The Dream of a Day_ (1843).


PERCY, THOMAS (1729-1811).--Antiquary and poet, _s._ of a grocer at
Bridgnorth, where he was _b._, _ed._ at Oxf., entered the Church, and
became in 1778 Dean of Carlisle, and in 1782 Bishop of Dromore. He _pub._
various antiquarian works, chiefly with reference to the North of
England; but is best remembered for his great service to literature in
collecting and ed. many ancient ballads, _pub._ in 1765 as _Reliques of
Ancient Poetry_, which did much to bring back interest in the ancient
native literature, and to usher in the revival of romanticism.


PHILIPS, AMBROSE (1675?-1749).--Poet, _b._ in Shropshire and _ed._ at
Camb., wrote pastorals and dramas, was one of the Addison circle, and
started a paper, the _Freethinker_, in imitation of the _Spectator_. He
also made translations from Pindar and Anacreon, and a series of short
complimentary verses, which gained for him the nickname of "Namby Pamby."
His _Pastorals_, though poor enough, excited the jealousy of Pope, who
pursued the unfortunate author with life-long enmity. P. held various
Government appointments in Ireland.


PHILIPS, JOHN (1676-1709).--Poet, _s._ of an archdeacon of Salop, and
_ed._ at Oxf. His _Splendid Shilling_, a burlesque in Miltonic blank
verse, still lives, and _Cyder_, his chief work, an imitation of Virgil's
_Georgics_, has some fine descriptive passages. P. was also employed by
Harley to write verses on Blenheim as a counterblast to Addison's
_Campaign_. He _d._ at 33 of consumption.


PHILLIPS, SAMUEL (1814-1854).--Novelist, of Jewish descent, studied for
the Church at Goettingen and Camb., but his _f._ dying, he was obliged to
give up his intention and take to business, in which, however, he was
unsuccessful, and fell into great straits. He then tried writing, and
produced some novels, of which the best known was _Caleb Stukely_, which
appeared in _Blackwood_ in 1842. He was latterly a leader-writer for the
_Times_.


PICKEN, ANDREW (1788-1833).--Miscellaneous writer, _b._ in Paisley, was
in business in the West Indies, and in Glasgow and Liverpool, but not
being successful, went to London to try his fortunes in literature. His
earlier writings, _Tales and Sketches of the West of Scotland_ and _The
Sectarian_ (1829), gave offence in dissenting circles: his next, _The
Dominie's Legacy_ (1830), had considerable success, and a book on
_Travels and Researches of Eminent Missionaries_ (1830) did something to
rehabilitate him with those whom he had offended. His last work, _The
Black Watch_ (1833), had just appeared when he _d._ of an apoplectic
seizure. His best work is somewhat like that of Galt (_q.v._).


PIERPONT, JOHN (1785-1860).--Poet, _b._ at Litchfield, Conn., was first a
lawyer, then a merchant, and lastly a Unitarian minister. His chief poem
is _The Airs of Palestine_.


PIKE, ALBERT (1809-1891).--Poet, _b._ at Boston, Mass., was in his early
days a teacher, and afterwards a successful lawyer. His now
little-remembered poems were chiefly written under the inspiration of
Coleridge and Keats. His chief work, _Hymns to the Gods_, which appeared
in _Blackwood's Magazine_, closely imitates the latter. He also wrote
prose sketches.


PINDAR, PETER, (_see_ WOLCOT, J.).


PINKERTON, JOHN (1758-1826).--Historian and Antiquary, _b._ in Edin., was
apprenticed to a lawyer, but took to literature, and produced a number of
works distinguished by painstaking research, but disfigured by a
controversial and prejudiced spirit. His first publication was _Select
Scottish Ballads_ (1783), some of which, however, were composed by
himself. A valuable _Essay on Medals_ (1784) introduced him to Gibbon and
Horace Walpole. Among his other works are _Ancient Scottish Poems_
(1786), _Dissertation on the Goths_ (1787), _Medallic History of England_
(1790), _History of Scotland_ (1797), and his best work, _Treatise on
Rocks_ (1811). One of his most inveterate prejudices was against Celts of
all tribes and times. He _d._ in obscurity in Paris.


PINKNEY, EDWARD COATE (1802-1828).--_B._ in London, where his _f._ was
U.S. ambassador. He wrote a number of light, graceful short poems, but
fell a victim to ill-health and a morbid melancholy at 25. His longest
poem is _Rudolph_ (1825).


PIOZZI, HESTER LYNCH (SALUSBURY) (1741-1821).--Miscellaneous writer, _m._
Henry Thrale, a wealthy brewer, and, after his death, Gabriel Piozzi, an
Italian musician. Her chief distinction is her friendship with Dr.
Johnson, who was for a time almost domesticated with the Thrales. Her
second marriage in the year of Johnson's death, 1784, broke up the
friendship. She wrote _Anecdotes of Dr. Johnson_, a work which had a
favourable reception, and gives a lifelike picture of its subject, and
left an _Autobiography_. Her poem, _The Three Warnings_, is supposed to
have been touched up by Johnson. Many details of her friendship with J.
are given in the _Diary_ of Madame D'Arblay (_q.v._).


PLANCHE, JAMES ROBINSON (1796-1880).--Dramatist and miscellaneous writer,
_b._ in London of Huguenot descent, was in the Herald Office, and rose to
be Somerset Herald, in which capacity he was repeatedly sent on missions
to invest foreign princes with the Order of the Garter. He produced
upwards of 90 adaptations, and about 70 original pieces for the stage. He
also wrote a _History of British Costumes_, _The Pursuivant of Arms_
(1852), and _The Conqueror and his Companions_ (1874), besides
autobiographical _Recollections_ (1872).


POE, EDGAR ALLAN (1809-1849).--Poet and writer of tales, was _b._ at
Boston, where his parents, who were both actors, were temporarily living.
He was left an orphan in early childhood in destitute circumstances, but
was adopted by a Mr. Allan of Richmond, Virginia. By him and his wife he
was treated with great indulgence, and in 1815 accompanied them to
England, where they remained for five years, and where he received a good
education, which was continued on their return to America, at the Univ.
of Virginia. He distinguished himself as a student, but got deeply into
debt with gaming, which led to his being removed. In 1829 he _pub._ a
small vol. of poems containing _Al Araaf_ and _Tamerlane_. About the same
time he proposed to enter the army, and was placed at the Military
Academy at West Point. Here, however, he grossly neglected his duties,
and fell into the habits of intemperance which proved the ruin of his
life, and was in 1831 dismissed. He then returned to the house of his
benefactor, but his conduct was so objectionable as to lead to a rupture.
In the same year P. _pub._ an enlarged ed. of his poems, and in 1833 was
successful in a competition for a prize tale and a prize poem, the tale
being the _MS. found in a Bottle_, and the poem _The Coliseum_. In the
following year Mr. Allan _d._ without making any provision for P., and
the latter, being now thrown on his own resources, took to literature as
a profession, and became a contributor to various periodicals. In 1836 he
entered into a marriage with his cousin Virginia Clemm, a very young
girl, who continued devotedly attached to him notwithstanding his many
aberrations, until her death in 1847. _The Narrative of Arthur Gordon
Pym_ appeared in 1838, and in 1839 P. became ed. of the _Gentleman's
Magazine_, in which appeared as _Tales of the Arabesque and Grotesque_
many of his best stories. In 1845 his famous poem, _The Raven_, came out,
and in 1848 _Eureka, a Prose Poem_, a pseudo-scientific lucubration. The
death of his wife gave a severe shock to his constitution, and a violent
drinking bout on a visit to Baltimore led to his death from brain fever
in the hospital there. The literary output of P., though not great in
volume, limited in range, and very unequal in merit, bears the stamp of
an original genius. In his poetry he sometimes aims at a musical effect
to which the sense is sacrificed, but at times he has a charm and a magic
melody all his own. His better tales are remarkable for their originality
and ingenuity of construction, and in the best of them he rises to a high
level of imagination, as in _The House of Usher_, while _The Gold
Beetle_ or _Golden Bug_ is one of the first examples of the cryptogram
story; and in _The Purloined Letters_, _The Mystery of Marie Roget_, and
_The Murders in the Rue Morgue_ he is the pioneer of the modern detective
story.

_Life_, Woodberry (American Men of Letters). _Works_ ed. by Woodberry and
Stedman (10 vols.), etc.


POLLOK, ROBERT (1789-1827).--Poet, _b._ in Refrewshire, studied for the
ministry of one of the Scottish Dissenting communions. After leaving the
Univ. of Glasgow he _pub._ anonymously _Tales of the Covenanters_, and in
1827, the year of his untimely death from consumption, appeared his poem,
_The Course of Time_, which contains some fine passages, and occasionally
faintly recalls Milton and Young. The poem went through many ed. in
Britain and America. He _d._ at Shirley, near Southampton, whither he had
gone in search of health.


POMFRET, JOHN (1667-1702).--Poet, _s._ of a clergyman, entered the
Church. He wrote several rather dull poems, of which the only one
remembered, though now never read, is _The Choice_, which celebrates a
country life free from care, and was highly popular in its day.


POPE, ALEXANDER (1688-1744).--Poet, was _b._ in London, of Roman Catholic
parentage. His _f._ was a linen-merchant, who _m._ as his second wife
Edith Turner, a lady of respectable Yorkshire family, and of some
fortune, made a competence, and retired to a small property at Binfield,
near Windsor. P. received a somewhat desultory education at various Roman
Catholic schools, but after the age of 12, when he had a severe illness
brought on by over-application, he was practically self-educated. Though
never a profound or accurate scholar, he had a good knowledge of Latin,
and a working acquaintance with Greek. By 1704 he had written a good deal
of verse, which attracted the attention of Wycherley (_q.v._), who
introduced him to town life and to other men of letters. In 1709 his
_Pastorals_ were _pub._ in Tonson's _Miscellany_, and two years later
_The Essay on Criticism_ appeared, and was praised by Addison. The _Rape
of the Lock_, which came out in 1714, placed his reputation on a sure
foundation, and thereafter his life was an uninterrupted and brilliant
success. His industry was untiring, and his literary output almost
continuous until his death. In 1713 _Windsor Forest_ (which won him the
friendship of Swift) and _The Temple of Fame_ appeared, and in 1715 the
translation of the _Iliad_ was begun, and the work _pub._ at intervals
between that year and 1720. It had enormous popularity, and brought the
poet L5000. It was followed by the _Odyssey_ (1725-26), in which he had
the assistance of Broome and Fenton (_q.v._), who, especially the former,
caught his style so exactly as almost to defy identification. It also was
highly popular, and increased his gains to about L8000, which placed him
in a position of independence. While engaged upon these he removed to
Chiswick, where he lived 1716-18, and where he issued in 1717 a _coll._
ed. of his works, including the _Elegy on an Unfortunate Lady_ and the
_Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard_. In 1718, his _f._ having _d._, he again
removed with his mother to his famous villa at Twickenham, the adornment
of the grounds of which became one of his chief interests, and where, now
the acknowledged chief of his art, he received the visits of his friends,
who included the most distinguished men of letters, wits, statesmen, and
beauties of the day. His next task was his ed. of Shakespeare (1725), a
work for which he was not well qualified, though the preface is a fine
piece of prose. The _Miscellanies_, the joint work of Pope and Swift,
were _pub._ in 1727-28, and drew down upon the authors a storm of angry
comment, which in turn led to the production of _The Dunciad_, first
_pub._ in 1728, and again with new matter in 1729, an additional
book--the fourth--being added in 1742. In it he satirised with a wit,
always keen and biting, often savage and unfair, the small wits and
poetasters, and some of a quite different quality, who had, or whom he
supposed to have, injured him. Between 1731 and 1735 he produced his
_Epistles_, the last of which, addressed to Arbuthnot, is also known as
the _Prologue to the Satires_, and contains his ungrateful character of
Addison under the name of "Atticus;" and also, 1733, the _Essay on Man_,
written under the influence of Bolingbroke. His last, and in some
respects best, works were his _Imitations of Horace_, _pub._ between 1733
and 1739, and the fourth book of _The Dunciad_ (1742), already mentioned.
A naturally delicate constitution, a deformed body, extreme
sensitiveness, over-excitement, and overwork did not promise a long life,
and P. _d._ on May 30, 1744, aged 56.

His position as a poet has been the subject of much contention among
critics, and on the whole is lower than that assigned him by his
contemporaries and immediate successors. Of the higher poetic qualities,
imagination, sympathy, insight, and pathos, he had no great share; but
for the work which in his original writings, as distinguished from
translations, he set himself to do, his equipment was supreme, and the
medium which he used--the heroic couplet--he brought to the highest
technical perfection of which it is capable. He wrote for his own age,
and in temper and intellectual and spiritual outlook, such as it was, he
exactly reflected and interpreted it. In the forging of condensed,
pointed, and sparkling maxims of life and criticism he has no equal, and
in painting a portrait Dryden alone is his rival; while in the _Rape of
the Lock_ he has produced the best mock-heroic poem in existence. Almost
no author except Shakespeare is so often quoted. His extreme vanity and
sensitiveness to criticism made him often vindictive, unjust, and
venomous. They led him also into frequent quarrels, and lost him many
friends, including Lady M. Wortley Montagu, and along with a strong
tendency to finesse and stratagem, of which the circumstances attending
the publication of his literary correspondence is the chief instance,
make his character on the whole an unamiable one. On the other hand, he
was often generous; he retained the friendship of such men as Swift and
Arbuthnot, and he was a most dutiful and affectionate son.

SUMMARY.--_B._ 1688, _ed._ at various Romanist schools, introduced to
Wycherley 1704, _pub._ _Pastorals_ 1709, _Essay on Criticism_ 1711, _Rape
of the Lock_ 1714, _Windsor Forest_ and _Temple of Fame_ 1713,
translation of _Iliad_ 1715-20, _Odyssey_ 1725-26, _coll._ _Works_ 1717,
buys villa at Twickenham 1718, _pub._ ed. of _Shakespeare_ 1725,
_Miscellanies_ 1727-28, _Dunciad_ 1728 (fourth book 1742), _Epistles_
1731-35, _Essay on Man_ 1733, _Imitations of Horace_ 1733-39, _d._ 1744.

The best ed. of the _Works_ is that of Elwin and Courthope, with _Life_
by Courthope (10 vols., 1871-89).


PORDAGE, SAMUEL (1633-1691?).--Poet, _s._ of a clergyman in Berks, _ed._
at Merchant Taylor's School, studied law at Lincoln's Inn, and made
various translations, wrote some poems, two tragedies, _Herod and
Mariamne_ (1673), and _The Siege of Babylon_ (1678), and a romance,
_Eliana_. He is best known by his _Azaria and Hushai_ (1682), in reply to
Dryden's _Absalom and Achitophel_, distinguished from the other replies
by its moderation and freedom from scurrility.


PORSON, RICHARD (1759-1808).--Scholar, _s._ of the parish clerk of E.
Ruston, Norfolk, was distinguished from childhood by a marvellous
tenacity of memory which attracted the attention of the curate of the
parish, who _ed._ him, after which he was sent by a gentleman to Eton.
Subsequently a fund was collected for the purpose of maintaining him at
Camb., where he had a brilliant career, and became a Fellow of Trinity
Coll. This position he lost by refusing to take orders. In 1792 he was
appointed Prof. of Greek in the Univ., but resided for the most part in
London, where he was much courted by literary men, but unfortunately fell
into extremely intemperate habits. P. was one of the very greatest of
Greek scholars and critics; but he has left little permanent work of his
own. He ed. four plays of Euripides, viz., _Hecuba_, _Orestes_,
_Phoenissae_, and _Medea_. His most widely read work was his _Letters_
to Archdeacon Travis on the disputed passage, 1 John v. 7, which is
considered a masterpiece of acute reasoning. He is buried in the chapel
of Trinity Coll.


PORTER, ANNA MARIA (1780-1832), PORTER, JANE (1776-1850).--Novelists,
were the _dau._ of an Irish army surgeon, and sisters of Sir Robert Ker
P., the painter and traveller. After the death of the _f._ the family
settled in Edin., where they enjoyed the friendship of Scott. ANNA at the
age of 12 _pub._ _Artless Tales_, the precursor of a series of tales and
novels numbering about 50, the best being _Don Sebastian_ (1809). JANE,
though the elder by four years, did not _pub._ until 1803, when her first
novel, _Thaddeus of Warsaw_, appeared. _The Scottish Chiefs_ followed in
1810. Both of these works, especially the latter, had remarkable
popularity, the _Chiefs_ being translated into German and Russian. She
had greater talent than her sister, but like her, while possessed of
considerable animation and imagination, failed in grasping character, and
imparting local verisimilitude. Both were amiable and excellent women. A
romance, _Sir Edward Seaward's Diary_ (1831), purporting to be a record
of actual circumstances, and ed. by Jane, is generally believed to have
been written by a brother, Dr. William Ogilvie P.


POWELL, FREDERICK YORK (1850-1904).--Historian, _ed._ at Rugby and Oxf.,
called to the Bar at the Middle Temple 1874, became an ardent student of
history, and succeeded Froude as Prof. of Modern History at Oxf. in 1894.
Absorbed in study, he wrote less than his wide and deep learning
qualified him for. Among his works are _A History of England to_ 1509,
and he also wrote on Early England up to the Conquest, and on Alfred and
William the Conqueror.


PRAED, WINTHROP MACKWORTH (1802-1839).--Poet, _s._ of a sergeant-at-law,
was _b._ in London, _ed._ at Eton and Camb., and called to the Bar 1829.
He sat in Parliament for various places, and was Sec. to the Board of
Control 1834-35. He appeared to have a brilliant career before him, when
his health gave way, and he _d._ of consumption in 1839. His poems,
chiefly bright and witty skits and satirical pieces, were _pub._ first in
America 1844, and appeared in England with a memoir by Derwent Coleridge
in 1864. His essays appeared in 1887.


PRESCOTT, WILLIAM HICKLING (1796-1859).--Historian, _b._ at Salem,
Massachusetts, the _s._ of an eminent lawyer, was _ed._ at Harvard, where
he graduated in 1814. While there he met with an accident to one of his
eyes which seriously affected his sight for the remainder of his life. He
made an extended tour in Europe, and on his return to America he _m._,
and abandoning the idea of a legal career, resolved to devote himself to
literature. After ten years of study, he _pub._ in 1837 his _History of
Ferdinand and Isabella_, which at once gained for him a high place among
historians. It was followed in 1843 by the _History of the Conquest of
Mexico_, and in 1847 by the _Conquest of Peru_. His last work was the
_History of Philip II._, of which the third vol. appeared in 1858, and
which was left unfinished. In that year he had an apoplectic shock, and
another in 1859 was the cause of his death, which took place on January
28 in the last-named year. In all his works he displayed great research,
impartiality, and an admirable narrative power. The great disadvantage at
which, owing to his very imperfect vision, he worked, makes the first of
these qualities specially remarkable, for his authorities in a foreign
tongue were read to him, while he had to write on a frame for the blind.
P. was a man of amiable and benevolent character, and enjoyed the
friendship of many of the most distinguished men in Europe as well as in
America.


PRICE, RICHARD (1723-1791).--Writer on morals, politics, and economics,
_s._ of a dissenting minister, was _b._ at Tynton in Wales, _ed._ at a
dissenting coll. in London, and was then for some years chaplain to a Mr.
Streatfield, who left him some property. Thereafter he officiated as
minister to various congregations near London. In 1758 his _Review of the
Principal Questions and Difficulties in Morals_, a work of considerable
metaphysical power, appeared; and it was followed in 1766 by a treatise
on _The Importance of Christianity_. In 1769 his work on _Reversionary
Payments_ was _pub._, and his Northampton Mortality Table was about the
same time constructed. These, though long superseded, were in their day
most valuable contributions to economical science. His most popular work,
_Observations on Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War with
America_, appeared in 1776, had an enormous sale, and led to his being
invited to go to America and assist in establishing the financial system
of the new Government. This he declined chiefly on the score of age.
Simplicity, uprightness, and toleration of opinions opposed to his own
appear to have been marked traits in his character.


PRIDEAUX, HUMPHREY (1648-1724).--Divine and scholar, belonged to an
ancient Cornish family, was _b._ at Padstow, and _ed._ at Westminster
School and at Oxf. He first attracted notice by his description of the
Arundel Marbles (1676), which gained for him powerful patrons, and he
rose to be Dean of Norwich. Among his other works are a _Life of Mahomet_
(1697), and _The Old and New Testament connected in the History of the
Jews and Neighbouring Nations_ (1715-17), long an important work, of
which many ed. were brought out.


PRIESTLY, JOSEPH (1733-1804).--Chemist, theologian, and political writer,
_s._ of a draper at Fieldhead, Yorkshire, where he was _b._ Brought up as
a Calvinist, he gradually became a modified Unitarian, and after
attending a dissenting academy at Daventry, he became minister to various
congregations. About 1756 he _pub._ _The Scripture Doctrine of
Remission_, denying the doctrine of atonement, and in 1761 succeeded Dr.
Aiken as teacher of languages and _belles-lettres_ in the dissenting
academy at Warrington. About the same time he became acquainted with
Franklin and Dr. Price (_q.v._), and began to devote himself to science,
the fruits of which were his _History and Present State of Electricity_
(1767), and _Vision, Light, and Colours_. He also became a distinguished
chemist, and made important discoveries, including that of oxygen. In
1773 he travelled on the Continent as companion to Lord Shelburne, where
he was introduced to many men of scientific and literary eminence, by
some of whom he was rallied upon his belief in Christianity. In reply to
this he wrote _Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever_ (1774), and in
answer to the accusations of Atheism brought against him at home, he
_pub._ (1777) _Disquisition relating to Matter and Spirit_. In 1780 he
settled in Birmingham, in 1782 _pub._ his _Corruptions of Christianity_,
and in 1786 his _History of Early Opinions concerning Jesus Christ_. He
was one of those who wrote replies to Burke's _Reflections on the French
Revolution_, one consequence of which was his election as a French
citizen, and another the destruction of his chapel, house, papers, and
instruments by a mob. Some years later he went to America, where he _d._
P. has been called the father of modern chemistry. He received many
scientific and academic honours, being a member of the Royal Society, of
the Academies of France, and of St. Petersburg, and an LL.D. of Edin. He
was a man of powerful and original mind, of high character, and of
undaunted courage in maintaining his opinions, which were usually
unpopular.


PRINGLE, THOMAS (1789-1834).--Poet, _b._ in Roxburghshire, studied at
Edin., and became known to Scott, by whose influence he obtained a grant
of land in South Africa, to which he, with his _f._ and brothers,
emigrated. He took to literary work in Cape Town, and conducted two
papers, which were suppressed for their free criticisms of the Colonial
Government. Thereupon he returned and settled in London, where he _pub._
_African Sketches_. He also produced a book of poems, _Ephemerides_.


PRIOR, MATTHEW (1664-1721).--Poet, _b._ near Wimborne Minster, Dorset,
_s._ of a joiner who, having _d._, he was _ed._ by an uncle, and sent to
Westminster School. Befriended by the Earl of Dorset he proceeded to
Camb., and while there wrote, jointly with Charles Montague, _The Town
and Country Mouse_, a burlesque of Dryden's _Hind and Panther_. After
holding various diplomatic posts, in which he showed ability and
discretion, he entered Parliament in 1700, and, deserting the Whigs,
joined the Tories, by whom he was employed in various capacities,
including that of Ambassador at Paris. On the death of Queen Anne he was
recalled, and in 1715 imprisoned, but after two years released. In 1719 a
folio ed. of his works was brought out, by which he realised L4000, and
Lord Harley having presented him with an equal sum, he looked forward to
the peace and comfort which were his chief ambition. He did not, however,
long enjoy his prosperity, dying two years later. Among his poems may be
mentioned _Solomon_, which he considered his best work, _Alma, or the
Progress of the Mind_, _The Female Phaeton_, _To a Child of Quality_, and
some prose tales. His chief characteristic is a certain elegance and easy
grace, in which he is perhaps unrivalled. His character appears to have
been by no means unimpeachable, but he was amiable and free from any
trace of vindictiveness.


PROCTER, ADELAIDE ANN (1825-1864).--Poetess, eldest _dau._ of Bryan W.P.
(_q.v._). Many of her poems were first _pub._ in _Household Words_ and
_All the Year Round_, and afterwards _coll._ under the title of _Legends
and Lyrics_ (1858), of which many ed. appeared. In 1851 Miss P. became a
Roman Catholic. She took much interest in social questions affecting
women. She wrote the well-known songs, _Cleansing Fires_ and _The Lost
Chord_, and among her many hymns are, _I do not ask, O Lord, that Life
may be_, and _My God, I thank Thee who hast made_.


PROCTER, BRYAN WALLER ("BARRY CORNWALL") (1787-1874).--Poet, _b._ at
Leeds, and _ed._ at Harrow, went to London and practised successfully as
a solicitor. Thereafter he became a barrister, and was, 1832-61, a
Commissioner of Lunacy. By 1823 he had produced four vols. of poetry and
a tragedy, _Mirandola_ (1821). His works include _Dramatic Scenes_
(1819), _A Sicilian Story_, _Marcian Colonna_ (1820), _The Flood of
Thessaly_ (1823), and _English Songs_ (1832), which last will perhaps
survive his other writings. P. was the friend of most of his literary
contemporaries, and was universally beloved.


PROUT, FATHER, (_see_ MAHONY, F.S.).


PRYNNE, WILLIAM (1600-1669).--Controversial writer, _b._ near Bath, _ed._
at Oxf., studied law at Lincoln's Inn, of which he became a bencher, but
soon became immersed in the writing of controversial pamphlets. After the
_Unloveliness of Lovelocks_ and _Health's Sicknesse_ (1627-30) appeared
his best known controversial work, _Histrio-Mastix_, or a _Scourge for
Stage Players_ (1633), a bitter attack on most of the popular amusements
of the day. It was punished with inhuman severity. P. was brought before
the Star Chamber, fined L5000, pilloried, and had both his ears cut off.
Undeterred by this he issued from his prison a fierce attack upon Laud
and the hierarchy, for which he was again fined, pilloried, and branded
on both cheeks with the letters S.L. (seditious libeller). Removed to
Carnarvon Castle he remained there until liberated in 1641 by the Long
Parliament. He soon after became a member of the House, and joined with
extreme, but not inexcusable, rancour in the prosecution of Laud. After
this he turned his attention to the Independents, whom he hated scarcely
less than the Prelatists, and was among those expelled from the House of
Commons by Cromwell, whom he had opposed in regard to the execution of
the King with such asperity that he again suffered imprisonment, from
which he was released in 1652. He supported the Restoration, and was by
Charles II. appointed Keeper of the Records in the Tower. Here he did
good service by compiling the _Calendar of Parliamentary Writs_ and
_Records_. He _pub._ in all about 200 books and pamphlets.


PSALMANAZAR, GEORGE (1679?-1763).--Literary impostor. His real name is
unknown. He is believed to have been a native of France or Switzerland,
but represented himself as a native of the island of Formosa, and palmed
off a Formosan language of his own construction, to which he afterwards
added a description of the island. For a time he was in the military
service of the Duke of Mecklenburg, and formed a connection with William
Innes, chaplain of a Scottish regiment, who collaborated with him in his
frauds, and introduced various refinements into his methods. Innes,
however, was appointed chaplain to the forces in Portugal, and P. was
unable to maintain his impositions, and was exposed. After a serious
illness in 1728 he turned over a new leaf and became a respectable and
efficient literary hack; his works in his latter days included a _General
History of Printing_, contributions to the _Universal History_, and an
_Autobiography_ containing an account of his impostures.


PURCHAS, SAMUEL (1575?-1626).--Compiler of travels, _b._ at Thaxton, and
_ed._ at Camb., took orders, and held various benefices, including the
rectory of St. Martin's, Ludgate Hill. The papers of R. Hakluyt (_q.v._)
came into his hands, and he made several compilations relating to man,
his nature, doings, and surroundings. His three works are (1) _Purchas
his Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World and the Religions observed in
all Ages and Places, etc._; (2) _Purchas his Pilgrim, Microcosmus, or the
History of Man, etc._; and (3) _Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his
Pilgrimes, containing a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Land
Travels, etc._ Although credulous, diffuse, and confused, these works
have preserved many interesting and curious matters which would otherwise
have been lost.


PUSEY, EDWARD BOUVERIE (1800-1882).--Scholar and theologian, _b._ at
Pusey, Berks, _ed._ at Eton and Oxf., belonged to the family of Lord
Folkstone, whose name was Bouverie, his _f._ assuming that of P. on
inheriting certain estates. After studying in Germany, he became in 1828
Regius Prof. of Hebrew at Oxf. His first important work was an _Essay on
the Causes of Rationalism in German Theology_, and the arrest of similar
tendencies in England became one of the leading objects of his life. He
was one of the chief leaders of the Tractarian movement, and contributed
tracts on _Baptism_ and on _Fasting_. In consequence of a sermon on the
Eucharist, he was in 1843 suspended from the office of Univ. Preacher
which he then held. Later writings related to _Confession_ and _The
Doctrine of the Real Presence_, and in 1865 he issued an _Eirenicon_ in
support of union with the Church of Rome. He was prominent in all
movements and controversies affecting the Univ., and was foremost among
the prosecutors of Jowett (_q.v._). Among his other literary labours are
commentaries on Daniel and the minor Prophets, a treatise on Everlasting
Punishment, and a Catalogue of the Arabic MS. in the Bodleian Library.


PUTTENHAM, GEORGE (1530?-1590).--Was one of the _s._ of Robert P., a
country gentleman. There has been attributed to him the authorship of
_The Arte of Poesie_, a treatise of some length divided into three parts,
(1) of poets and poesy, (2) of proportion, (3) of ornament. It is now
thought rather more likely that it was written by his brother RICHARD
(1520?-1601). George was the author of an _Apologie_ for Queen
Elizabeth's treatment of Mary Queen of Scots.


PYE, HENRY JAMES (1745-1813).--A country gentleman of Berkshire, who
_pub._ _Poems on Various Subjects_ and _Alfred, an Epic_, translated the
_Poetics_ of Aristotle, and was Poet Laureate from 1790. In the last
capacity he wrote official poems of ludicrous dulness, and was generally
a jest and a byword in literary circles.


QUARLES, FRANCIS (1592-1644).--Poet, _b._ at the manor-house of Stewards
near Romford, was at Camb., and studied law at Lincoln's Inn. Thereafter
he went to the Continent, and at Heidelberg acted as cup-bearer to
Elizabeth of Bohemia, _dau._ of James I. He next appears as sec. to
Archbishop Ussher in Ireland, and was in 1639 Chronologer to the City of
London. On the outbreak of the Civil War he sided with the Royalists, and
was plundered by the Parliamentarians of his books and rare manuscripts,
which is said to have so grieved him as to bring about his death. His
first book of poems was _A Feast for Worms_ (1620); others were _Hadassa_
(Esther) (1621), _Sion's Elegies_ (1625), and _Divine Emblems_ (1635), by
far his most popular book. His style was that fashionable in his day,
affected, artificial, and full of "conceits," but he had both real
poetical fire and genuine wit, mixed with much that was false in taste,
and though quaint and crabbed, is seldom feeble or dull. He was twice
_m._, and had by his first wife 18 children.


RADCLIFFE, MRS. ANN (WARD) (1764-1823).--Novelist, only _dau._ of parents
in a respectable position, in 1787 _m._ Mr. William Radcliffe, ed. and
proprietor of a weekly newspaper, the _English Chronicle_. In 1789 she
_pub._ her first novel, _The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne_, of which
the scene is laid in Scotland. It, however, gave little promise of the
future power of the author. In the following year appeared _The Sicilian
Romance_, which attracted attention by its vivid descriptions and
startling incidents. Next came _The Romance of the Forest_ (1791),
followed by _The Mysteries of Udolpho_ (1794), and _The Italian_ (1797),
a story of the Inquisition, the last of her works _pub._ during her
life-time. _Gaston de Blondeville_, ed. by Sergeant Talfourd, was brought
out posthumously. Mrs. R. has been called the Salvator Rosa of British
novelists. She excels in the description of scenes of mystery and terror
whether of natural scenery or incident: in the former displaying a high
degree of imaginative power, and in the latter great ingenuity and
fertility of invention. She had, however, little power of delineating
character. Though her works belong to a type now out of fashion, they
will always possess an historical interest as marking a stage in the
development of English fiction.


"RAINE, ALLEN" (MRS. BEYNON PUDDICOMBE).--Novelist. _A Welsh Singer_
(1897), _Tom Sails_ (1898), _A Welsh Witch_ (1901), _Queen of the Rushes_
(1906), etc.


RALEIGH, SIR WALTER (1552?-1618).--Explorer, statesman, admiral,
historian, and poet, _s._ of Walter R., of Fardel, Devonshire, was _b._
at Hayes Barton in that county. In 1568 he was sent to Oxf., where he
greatly distinguished himself. In the next year he began his career of
adventure by going to France as a volunteer in aid of the Huguenots,
serving thereafter in the Low Countries. The year 1579 saw him engaged in
his first voyage of adventure in conjunction with his half-brother, Sir
Humphrey Gilbert. Their object was to discover and settle lands in North
America; but the expedition failed, chiefly owing to opposition by the
Spaniards. The next year he was fighting against the rebels in Ireland;
and shortly thereafter attracted the notice of Queen Elizabeth, in whose
favour he rapidly rose. In 1584 he fitted out a new colonising expedition
to North America, and succeeded in discovering and occupying Virginia,
named after the Queen. On his return he was knighted. In the dark and
anxious days of the Armada, 1587-88, R. was employed in organising
resistance, and rendered distinguished service in action. His favour with
the Queen, and his haughty bearing, had, however, been raising up enemies
and rivals, and his intrigue and private marriage with Elizabeth
Throckmorton, one of the maids of honour, in 1593, lost him for a time
the favour of the Queen. Driven from the Court he returned to the schemes
of adventure which had so great a charm for him, and fired by the Spanish
accounts of the fabulous wealth of Guiana, he and some of his friends
fitted out an expedition which, however, though attended with various
brilliant episodes, proved unsuccessful. Restored to the favour of the
Queen, he was appointed an Admiral in the expeditions to Cadiz, 1596, and
in the following year was engaged in an attack on the Azores, in both of
which he added greatly to his reputation. The death of Elizabeth in 1603
was the turning point in R.'s fortunes. Thenceforward disaster clouded
his days. The new sovereign and his old enemies combined to compass his
ruin. Accused of conspiring against the former he was, against all
evidence, sentenced to death, and though this was not at the time carried
out, he was imprisoned in the Tower and his estates confiscated. During
this confinement he composed his _History of the World_, which he brought
down to 130 B.C. It is one of the finest specimens of Elizabethan prose,
reflective in matter and dignified and grave in style. Released in 1615
he set out on his last voyage, again to Guiana, which, like the former,
proved a failure, and in which he lost his eldest _s._ He returned a
broken and dying man, but met with no pity from his ungenerous King who,
urged, it is believed, by the King of Spain, had him beheaded on Tower
Hill, October 29, 1618. R. is one of the most striking and brilliant
figures in an age crowded with great men. Of a noble presence, he was
possessed of a commanding intellect and a versatility which enabled him
to shine in every enterprise to which he set himself. In addition to his
great fragment the _History of the World_, he wrote _A Report of the
Truth of the Fight about the Azores_, and _The Discoverie of the Empire
of Guiana_, besides various poems chiefly of a philosophic cast, of which
perhaps the best known are _The Pilgrimage_, and that beginning "Go,
Soul, the Body's Guest."

The most recent _Lives_ are by Stebbing (1892), and Hume (1898). _Works_
(1829), with _Lives_ by Oldys and Birch.


RAMEE, LOUISE DE LA ("OUIDA") (1840?-1908).--Novelist, _b._ at Bury St.
Edmunds, _dau._ of an English _f._ and a French mother. For many years
she lived in London, but about 1874 she went to Italy, where she _d._ She
wrote over 40 novels, which had considerable popularity. Among the best
known of them are _Under Two Flags_, _Puck_, _Two Little Wooden Shoes_, _In
a Winter City_, _In Maremma_. She also wrote a book of stories for
children, _Bimbi_. Occasionally she shows considerable power, but on the
whole her writings have an unhealthy tone, want reality, and are not
likely to have any permanent place in literature.


RAMSAY, ALLAN (1686-1758).--Poet, _s._ of a mine-manager at Leadhills,
Dumfriesshire, who claimed kin with the Ramsays of Dalhousie. In his
infancy he lost his _f._, and his mother _m._ a small "laird," who gave
him the ordinary parish school education. In 1701 he came to Edinburgh as
apprentice to a wig-maker, took to writing poetry, became a member of the
"Easy Club," of which Pitcairn and Ruddiman, the grammarian, were
members, and of which he was made "laureate." The club _pub._ his poems
as they were thrown off, and their appearance soon began to be awaited
with interest. In 1716 he _pub._ an additional canto to _Christ's Kirk on
the Green_, a humorous poem sometimes attributed to James I., and in 1719
he became a bookseller, his shop being a meeting-place of the _literati_
of the city. A _coll._ ed. of his poems appeared in 1720, among the
subscribers to which were Pope, Steele, Arbuthnot, and Gay. It was
followed by _Fables and Tales_, and other poems. In 1724 he began the
_Tea Table Miscellany_, a collection of new Scots songs set to old
melodies, and the _Evergreen_, a collection of old Scots poems with which
R. as ed. took great liberties. This was a kind of work for which he was
not qualified, and in which he was far from successful. _The Gentle
Shepherd_, by far his best known and most meritorious work, appeared in
1725, and had an immediate popularity which, to a certain extent, it
retains. It is a pastoral drama, and abounds in character, unaffected
sentiment, and vivid description. After this success R., satisfied with
his reputation, produced nothing, more of importance. He was the first to
introduce the circulating library into Scotland, and among his other
enterprises was an unsuccessful attempt to establish a theatre in Edin.
On the whole his life was a happy and successful one, and he had the
advantage of a cheerful, sanguine, and contented spirit. His foible was
an innocent and good-natured vanity.


RAMSAY, EDWARD BANNERMAN (1793-1872).--A clergyman of the Scottish
Episcopal Church, and Dean of Edinburgh in that communion from 1841, has
a place in literature by his _Reminiscences of Scottish Life and
Character_, which had gone through 22 ed. at his death. It is a book
full of the engaging personality of the author, and preserves many
interesting and entertaining traits and anecdotes which must otherwise,
in all probability, have perished. The Dean was deservedly one of the
most popular men in Scotland.


RANDOLPH, THOMAS (1605-1635).--Poet and dramatist, _ed._ at Westminster
School and Camb., was a friend of Ben Jonson, and led a wild life in
London. He wrote six plays, including _The Jealous Lovers_, _Amyntas_,
and _The Muses' Looking-glass_, and some poems. He was a scholar as well
as a wit, and his plays are full of learning and condensed thought in a
style somewhat cold and hard.


RAPIN DE THOYRAS, PAUL (1661-1725).--Historian, _b._ at Castres,
Languedoc, belonged to a Protestant Savoyard family, and came to England
on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1686. He afterwards served
with William III. in Holland, and accompanied him to England in 1688. His
_History of England_, written in French, was translated into English, and
continued by various writers, and was the standard history until the
appearance of Hume's.


RASPE, RUDOLF ERIC- (1737-1794).--_B._ in Hanover, was a prof. in Cassel,
and keeper of the Landgrave of Hesse's antique gems and medals, in the
purloining of some of which he was detected, and fled to England. Here he
won for himself a certain place in English literature by the publication
in 1785 of _Baron Munchausen's Narrative_. Only a small portion of the
work in its present form is by R., the rest having been added later by
another hand. He appears to have maintained more or less during life his
character of a rogue, and is the prototype of Douster-swivel in Scott's
_Antiquary_.


RAWLINSON, GEORGE (1812-1902).--Historian, _b._ at Chadlington.
Oxfordshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., took orders, and was Canon of Canterbury
from 1872. He held the Camden Professorship of Ancient History at Oxf.
from 1861. Among his works are a translation of Herodotus (1858-62) (with
his brother, Sir Henry R., _q.v._), _Historical Evidences of the Truth of
the Scripture Records_, _The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern
World_ (1862-67), _Manual of Ancient History_ (1869), _The Sixth and
Seventh Great Oriental Monarchies_ (1873-77), _History of Ancient Egypt_
(1881), _Histories of the Phoenicians and Parthians_, _Memoirs of Sir
H.C. Rawlinson_ (1898).


RAWLINSON, SIR HENRY CRESSWICKE (1810-1895).--Brother of the above,
entered the service of the East India Company, and held many important
diplomatic posts. He studied the cuneiform inscriptions, and _pub._ _The
Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia_ (1861-80), _Outlines of the
History of Assyria_ (1852). He deciphered most of the inscriptions
discovered by Sir A.H. Layard (_q.v._).


RAY, JOHN (1627-1705).--Naturalist, _s._ of a blacksmith at Black Notley,
Essex, was at Camb., where he became a Fellow of Trinity, and
successively lecturer on Greek and mathematics. His first publication
was a Latin catalogue of plants growing near Cambridge, which appeared in
1660. Thereafter he made a tour of Great Britain, and _pub._ in 1670 his
_Catalogue of the Plants of England and the adjacent Isles_. In 1663 he
had travelled on the Continent for three years with his pupil-friend, F.
Willughby, and in 1673 appeared _Observations_ on his journeys, which
extended over the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France, with a
catalogue of plants not native to England. On the death of Willughby, R.
_ed._ his sons, and in 1679 retired to his native village, where he
continued his scientific labours until his death. These included the ed.
of W.'s _History of Birds and Fishes_, a collection of English proverbs,
_Historia Plantarum Generalis_ (1686-1704), and _Synopsis Methodica
Animalium_. He was for long popularly known by his treatise, _The Wisdom
of God manifested in the works of the Creation_ (1691), a precursor of
Paley's _Natural Theology_. R. is the father of English botany, and
appears to have grasped the idea of the natural classification of plants,
afterwards developed by Jussieu and other later naturalists. His greatest
successors, including Cuvier, highly commended his methods and
acquirements.


READ, THOMAS BUCHANAN (1822-1872).--American poet, was a
portrait-painter, and lived much abroad. He wrote a prose romance, _The
Pilgrims of the Great St. Bernard_, and several books of poetry,
including _The New Pastoral_, _The House by the Sea_, _Sylvia_, and _A
Summer Story_. Some of the shorter pieces included in these, _e.g._,
"Sheridan's Ride," "Drifting," and "The Closing Scene," have great merit.


READE, CHARLES (1814-1884).--Novelist, _s._ of a country gentleman of
Oxfordshire, _ed._ at Oxf., and called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn 1843.
He did not, however, practise, but began his literary career with some
dramas, of which the most remarkable were _Masks and Faces_, _Gold_, and
_Drink_. He afterwards rewrote the first of these as a novel, _Peg
Woffington_ (1852), which attained great popularity. _It is never too
late to Mend_ appeared in 1856, his historical novel, _The Cloister and
the Hearth_, generally regarded as his masterpiece (1861), _Hard Cash_
(1863), _Griffith Gaunt_ (1867), _Foul Play_ (1869), _Put Yourself in his
Place_ (1870), and _A Terrible Temptation_ (1871). Critics have differed
very widely as to the merits of R. as a novelist, and have attributed to,
and denied him the same qualities; but it will be generally admitted
that, while very unequal, he was at his best a writer of unusual power
and vividness. Nearly all are agreed as to the great excellence of _The
Cloister and the Hearth_, Mr. Swinburne placing it "among the very
greatest masterpieces of narrative." Many of his novels were written with
a view to the reformation of some abuse. Thus _Hard Cash_ exposes certain
private asylums, and _Foul Play_, written in collaboration with Dion
Boucicault, is levelled against ship-knackers.


REED, HENRY (1808-1854).--Critic, was Prof. of English Literature in the
Univ. of Pennsylvania. He _d._ in a shipwreck. He was a sympathetic and
delicate critic, and was among the first of American men of letters to
appreciate the genius of Wordsworth, of whose works he brought out an ed.
in 1837. His lectures on English Literature, English History, and English
Poets were _pub._


REEVE, CLARA (1729-1807).--Novelist, was the author of several novels, of
which only one is remembered--_The Old English Baron_ (1777), written in
imitation of, or rivalry with, H. Walpole's _Castle of Otranto_, with
which it has often been printed.


REEVE, HENRY (1813-1895).--Editor, etc., _s._ of a physician, was on the
staff of the _Times_, the foreign policy of which he influenced for many
years. He was ed. of the _Edinburgh Review_ 1855-95, and of the Greville
Memoirs 1865. He held a leading place in society, and had an unusually
wide acquaintance with men of letters all over the continent.


REID, MAYNE (1818-1883).--Novelist, _b._ in the north of Ireland, he set
off at the age of 20 for Mexico to push his fortunes, and went through
many adventures, including service in the Mexican War. He also was for a
short time settled in Philadelphia engaged in literary work. Returning to
this country he began a long series of novels of adventure with _The
Rifle Rangers_ (1849). The others include _The Scalp Hunters_, _Boy
Hunters_, and _Young Voyagers_, and had great popularity, especially with
boys.


REID, THOMAS (1710-1796).--Philosopher, was the _s._ of the minister of
Strachan, Kincardineshire, where he was _b._ His mother was one of the
gifted family of the Gregorys. At the age of 12 he was sent to Marischal
Coll., Aberdeen, where he graduated, and thereafter resided for some time
as librarian, devoting himself to study, especially of mathematics and
the Newtonian philosophy. He was in 1737 ordained minister of New Machar,
Aberdeen, and in 1748 he communicated to the Royal Society an _Essay on
Quantity_. Four years later he became one of the Prof. of Philosophy
(including mathematics and natural philosophy) in King's Coll., Aberdeen,
and in 1763 he was chosen to succeed Adam Smith as Prof. of Moral
Philosophy in Glasgow. In the following year he _pub._ his great work,
_Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense_, directed
against Hume's _Essay on Human Nature_. Up to the appearance of the
latter work in 1739 R. had been a follower of Berkeley, but the
conclusions drawn therein from the idealistic philosophy led him to
revise his theories, and to propound what is usually known as the "common
sense" philosophy, by which term is meant the beliefs common to rational
beings as such. In 1785 he _pub._ his _Essay on the Intellectual Powers_,
which was followed in 1788 by that _On the Active Powers_. R., who,
though below the middle size, was strong and fond of exercise, maintained
his bodily and mental vigour until his death at 86. His writings,
distinguished by logical rigour of method and clearness of style,
exercised a profound influence in France as well as at home; but his
attempted refutation of Berkeley is now generally considered to have
failed.

_Works_ ed. by Sir W. Hamilton and H.L. Mansel. Sketch by Prof. A.C.
Fraser (1898).


REID, SIR THOMAS WEMYSS (1842-1905).--Novelist and biographer, _b._ at
Newcastle, and after being connected with various provincial newspapers
came to London in 1887 as manager for Cassell and Co. Thereafter he was,
1890-99, ed. of _The Speaker_. Among his more permanent writings are _The
Land of the Bey_ (1882), _Gladys Fane_ (1883), and Lives of W.E. Forster
(1888), and Lords Houghton (1891), and Playfair (1899), and William Black
(1902). He was knighted in 1894.


REYNOLDS, SIR JOSHUA (1723-1792).--Painter and writer on art, _s._ of a
clergyman and schoolmaster at Plympton, Devonshire. After studying art in
Italy, he settled in London, where he attained extraordinary fame as a
portrait-painter. He is regarded as the greatest English representative
of that art, and was first Pres. of the Royal Academy. He was the
intimate friend of Johnson, Burke, Goldsmith, and indeed of most of the
celebrated men of his time. He has also a place in literature for his
_Fifteen Discourses_ on painting, delivered to the Academy. He also
contributed to the _Idler_, and translated Du Fresney's _Art of
Painting_. He suffered from deafness, and in his latter years from
failure of sight. He was a man of great worth and amiability. He was
knighted in 1769.


RHODES, WILLIAM BARNES (1772-1826).--Dramatist, was in the Bank of
England, of which he became Chief Teller. He wrote a burlesque,
_Bombastes Furioso_, which achieved great popularity.


RHYMER, THOMAS THE, (_see_ ERCILDOUN).


RICARDO, DAVID (1772-1823).--Political economist, _s._ of a Jewish
stockbroker, himself followed the same business, in which he acquired a
large fortune. On his marriage he conformed to Christianity. He was an
original and powerful writer on economic subjects, his chief work being
_The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation_ (1817). After retiring
from business he entered the House of Commons, where, owing to his
remarkable power of lucid exposition, combined with his reputation as a
highly successful man of business, he acquired great influence. The
writings of R. are among the classics of his subject.


RICE, JAMES (1844-1882).--Novelist, was _ed._ at Camb., and studied law,
from which he drifted into literature. He wrote a number of successful
novels in collaboration with W. Besant (_q.v._).


RICH, BARNABE (1540?-1620?).--Writer of romances, _b._ in Essex, saw
military service in the Low Countries. He began to write in 1574, and
took Lyly's _Euphues_ as his model. Among his numerous romances is _The
Strange and Wonderful Adventures of Simonides, a Gentleman Spaniard_ and
_Riche, his Farewell to the Military Profession_ (1581), which furnished
Shakespeare with the plot for _Twelfth Night_.


RICHARDSON, SAMUEL (1689-1761).--Novelist, _s._ of a joiner, was _b._ at
Derby. His _f._ had intended him for the Church, but means failed, and at
the age of 17 he went to London, and was apprenticed to a printer.
Careful and diligent, he prospered in business, became printer of the
Journals of the House of Commons, and in the year before his death
purchased the moiety of the patent of King's Printer. He was twice _m._,
and each of his wives brought him six children, of whom, however, only
four daughters were living at his death. R., who was the originator of
the modern novel, did not take seriously to literature until he was past
50 when, in 1740, _Pamela_ appeared. It originated in a proposal by two
printers that R. should write a collection of model letters for the use
of persons unaccustomed to correspondence, but it soon developed in his
hands into a novel in which the story is carried on in the form of a
correspondence. With faults and absurdities, it struck a true note of
sentiment, and exploded the prevalent idea that dukes and princesses were
the only suitable heroes and heroines (Pamela was a maid-servant), and it
won immediate and phenomenal popularity. In 1748 _Clarissa Harlow_, his
masterpiece, was _pub._, and in 1753 _Sir Charles Grandison_, in which
the author embodies his ideal of a Christian gentleman. All these surfer
from an elaboration of detail which often becomes tedious; but in deep
acquaintance with the motives of conduct, and especially of the workings
of the female heart, they are almost unrivalled; their pathos also is
genuine and deep. R. had an unusual faculty as the platonic friend and
counsellor of women, and was the centre of an admiring circle of the sex,
who ministered to a vanity which became somewhat excessive. R. has also
the distinction of evoking the genius of Fielding, whose first novel,
_Joseph Andrews_, was begun as a skit or parody upon _Pamela_. R. is
described as "a stout, rosy, vain, prosy little man." _Life_ by Sir W.
Scott in Ballantyne's _Novelists Library_. _Works_ with preface by L.
Stephen (12 vols., 1883), etc.


RITCHIE, LEITCH (1800?-1865).--Novelist, _b._ at Greenock and in business
as a clerk in Glasgow, but about 1820 adopted literature as his
profession. He wrote several novels of which the best known is _Wearyfoot
Common_; others were _The Robber of the Rhine_ and _The Magician_. In his
later years he ed. _Chambers's Journal_.


RITSON, JOSEPH (1752-1803).--Antiquary and critic, _b._ at
Stockton-on-Tees, settled in London as a conveyancer, at the same time
devoting himself to the study of ancient English poetry. By his diligence
as a collector and acuteness as a critic he rendered essential service to
the preservation and appreciation of our ancient poetry. His chief works
are _A Collection of English Songs_ (1783), _Ancient Songs from Henry
III. to the Revolution_ (1790), _A Collection of Scottish Songs_ (1794),
and _A Collection of all the Ancient Poems, etc., relating to Robin Hood_
(1795). Of a jealous and quarrelsome temper, R. was continually in
controversy with his fellow-collectors and critics, including Johnson,
Warton, and Percy. His acuteness enabled him to detect the Ireland
forgeries. He _d._ insane.


ROBERTSON, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1816-1853).--Divine, _s._ of Captain
Frederick R., of the Royal Artillery, was _b._ in London, and _ed._ at
Edin. and Oxf. After holding various curacies he became in 1847 incumbent
of Trinity Chapel, Brighton, where his preaching, though it brought him
under the suspicion both of the High and Evangelical parties in the
Church, had an extraordinary influence. Always of delicate and
highly-strung constitution, his health gave way after his ministry in
Brighton had extended to six years, and he _d._ in 1853. The beauty of
his life and character had almost conquered the suspicion and dislike
with which his views had inspired many. His sermons, of which five series
were _pub._ posthumously, have had a very wide popularity.


ROBERTSON, THOMAS WILLIAM (1829-1871).--Dramatist, belonged to a family
famous for producing actors. Never a successful actor himself, he
produced a number of plays, which had unusual popularity. Among these are
_David Garrick_, _Society_, _Caste_, and _School_.


ROBERTSON, WILLIAM (1721-1793).--Historian, _s._ of the parish minister
of Borthwick, Midlothian, where he was _b._, received his earlier _ed._
at Dalkeith, which then had a school of some repute; but his _f._ being
translated to Edin., he attended school, and afterwards the Univ. there,
studying for the Church. In 1743 he became minister of Gladsmuir, near
Prestonpans. In the '45 he showed his loyalty by offering himself to Sir
J. Cope as a volunteer, a service which was, however, declined. He soon
began to take a prominent part in the debates of the General Assembly, of
which he rose to be the undisputed leader. In 1758 he became one of the
city ministers of Edin., and in the following year _pub._ his _History of
Scotland_, which had an extraordinary success, and at once raised him to
a foremost place among British historians. Preferment immediately
followed: he was made Chaplain of Stirling Castle 1759, King's Chaplain
for Scotland 1760, Principal of the Univ. of Edin. 1761, and
Historiographer for Scotland 1763. In 1769 appeared the _History of the
Reign of the Emperor Charles V._, in 1777 _The History of America_, and
in 1791 _Historical Disquisition on Ancient India_. In 1780 R. retired
from the management of Church affairs, in which he had shown conspicuous
ability, and gave himself to study, and the society of his friends, among
whom were most of his distinguished contemporaries. As a writer he
possessed a finished style, clear, measured, and stately, which carried
his well-arranged narrative as on a full and steady stream; he was also
cool and sagacious but, like Hume, he was apt to take his facts at second
hand, and the vast additional material which has been in course of
accumulation since his day has rendered the value of his work more and
more literary, and less and less historical.

_Lives_ by Dugald Stewart (1801), Bishop Gleig (1812), and Lord Brougham
in _Men of Letters_.


ROBINSON, HENRY CRABB (1775-1867).--Diarist, _b._ at Bury St. Edmunds,
was articled to an attorney in Colchester. Between 1800 and 1805 he
studied at various places in Germany, and became acquainted with nearly
all the great men of letters there, including Goethe, Schiller, Herder,
Wieland, etc. Thereafter he became war correspondent to the _Times_ in
the Peninsula. On his return to London he studied for the Bar, to which
he was called in 1813, and became leader of the Eastern Circuit. Fifteen
years later he retired, and by virtue of his great conversational powers
and other qualities, became a leader in society, going everywhere and
knowing everybody worth knowing. He _d._ unmarried, aged 91, and his
_Diary, Reminiscences and Correspondence_, which stands in the forefront
of its class, was _pub._ in 1869.


ROCHESTER, JOHN WILMOT (2ND EARL OF) (1647-1680).--Poet, _s._ of the 1st
Earl, _b._ at Ditchley in Oxfordshire, and _ed._ at Oxf., saw some naval
service when he showed conspicuous bravery. He became one of the most
dissolute of the courtiers of Charles II., and wore himself out at 33 by
his wild life. He was handsome, and witty, and possessed a singular charm
of manner. He wrote a number of light, graceful poems, many of them
extremely gross. Bishop Burnet, who attended him on his deathbed,
believed him to have been sincerely repentant. In addition to his short
pieces he wrote a _Satyr against Mankind_, and a tragedy, _Valentinian_,
adapted from Beaumont and Fletcher.


ROGERS, HENRY (1806-1877).--Critic and theologian, was a minister of the
Congregationalist Church, and ultimately Prof. of English Literature in
Univ. Coll., London. He was a contributor to the _Edinburgh Review_, and
is best known by his _Eclipse of Faith_ (1852), a reply to F.W. Newman's
_Phases of Faith_. This work, which displays remarkable acuteness and
logical power, had great popularity.


ROGERS, SAMUEL (1763-1855).--Poet, _s._ of a banker in London, received a
careful private education, and entered the bank, of which, on his
father's death, he became the principal partner. From his early youth he
showed a marked taste for literature and the fine arts, which his wealth
enabled him to gratify; and in his later years he was a well-known leader
in society and a munificent patron of artists and men of letters, his
breakfasts, at which he delighted to assemble celebrities in all
departments, being famous. He was the author of the following poems: _The
Pleasures of Memory_ (1792), _Columbus_ (1810), _Jacqueline_ (1814),
_Human Life_ (1819), and _Italy_ (1822). R. was emphatically the poet of
taste, and his writings, while full of allusion and finished description,
rarely show passion or intensity of feeling; but are rather the
reflections and memory-pictures of a man of high culture and refinement
expressed in polished verse. He had considerable powers of conversation
and sarcasm. He was offered, but declined, the laureateship.


ROLLE, RICHARD (1290?-1349).--Hermit and poet, _b._ at Thornton,
Yorkshire, was at Oxf. Impressed by the uncertainty and the snares of
life he decided to become a hermit, a resolution which he carried out
with somewhat romantic circumstances. He wrote various religious
treatises in Latin and English, turned the Psalms into English verse, and
composed a poem--_The Pricke of Conscience_--in 7 books, in which is
shown the attitude of protest which was rising against certain Papal
pretensions and doctrines.


ROLLOCK, ROBERT (1555?-1599).--Theologian and scholar, _b._ in
Stirlingshire, was first a Prof. in St. Andrews, and then the first
Principal of the Univ. of Edin. He also held office as Prof. of Theology,
and was one of the ministers of the High Church. He was one of the
earliest of Protestant commentators. He wrote chiefly in Latin, but some
of his sermons and commentaries are in vernacular Scotch.


ROPER, WILLIAM (1496-1578).--Biographer, _s._ of a Kentish gentleman,
_m._ Margaret, _dau._ of Sir Thomas More.