Infomotions, Inc.What to See in England / Home, Gordon, 1878-1969



Author: Home, Gordon, 1878-1969
Title: What to See in England
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Title: What to See in England

Author: Gordon Home

Release Date: March 19, 2004  [eBook #11642]

Language: English

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***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK WHAT TO SEE IN ENGLAND***


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WHAT TO SEE IN ENGLAND

A GUIDE TO PLACES OF HISTORIC INTEREST, NATURAL BEAUTY,
OR LITERARY ASSOCIATION

BY GORDON HOME

1908






[Illustration: BOOTHAM BAR, AND YORK MINSTER.]


[Illustration: SKETCH PLAN OF LONDON SHOWING RAILWAY STATIONS]


[Illustration: REFERENCE TO RAILWAY STATIONS


Broad Street
Cannon St. (South Eastern & Chatham)
Charing Cross (South Eastern & Chatham)
Euston Station (London & North Western)
Fenchurch St. (London, Tilbury, & Southend)
Great Central Station
Great Eastern (Liverpool St.)
Great Western Station
King's Cross (Great Northern)
Liverpool St. (Great Eastern)
London Bridge (South Eastern & Chatham & Brighton & South Coast)
London & North Western (Euston Station)
London & South Western (Waterloo)
London, Tilbury, & Southend (Fenchurch St.)
Marylebone Station (Great Central)
Paddington Station (Great Western)
St Pancras (Midland)
South Eastern & Chatham:
  Cannon Street
  Charing Cross
  Holborn Viaduct
  London Bridge
  Ludgate Hill
  Victoria
  Waterloo
South Western Railway (Waterloo)
Victoria (London, Brighton, & South Coast & South Eastern & Chatham)
Waterloo (London & South Western)]



PREFACE


This book is intended to put in the smallest possible space the means by
which one may reach the chief places of interest in England and Wales.
It will possibly make many holidays, week-ends, or isolated days more
enjoyable by placing a defined objective before the rambler. Places
within an hour or two of London are in the front of the book, so that as
one turns over the pages one is taken further and further afield. The
brief summary of the interests of each place, and the many
illustrations, may help to memorise the impressions obtained.

The first edition of a book of this nature must of necessity be
incomplete, and the author is prepared to hear of long lists of places
which should have been included, and also to hear criticisms on his
choice of those appearing. It is to some extent natural that special
familiarity with certain places and certain writers or heroes of the
past may distort one's vision, and perhaps induce a choice of subjects
which may not seem so comprehensive to some individuals as to others.
Future editions will, however, give ample scope for embracing all the
good suggestions which may be made.

G.H.



HAM HOUSE AND PETERSHAM


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Richmond (1-1/4 miles from Petersham Church).
=Distance from London.=--10 miles.
=Average Time.=--1/2 hour.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  1s. 3d.  1s. 0d.  0s. 9d.
          Return  2s. 0d.  1s. 6d.  1s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," "Roebuck Hotel,"
  Richmond. "Dysart Arms" at Petersham.

The little church at Petersham is interesting on account of the memorial
it contains to the memory of Vancouver, the discoverer, in 1792, of the
island bearing his name, on the west coast of the North American
continent. It is said that "the unceasing exertions which Vancouver
himself made to complete the gigantic task of surveying 9000 miles of
unknown and intricate coasts--a labour chiefly performed in open
boats--made an inroad on his constitution from which he never recovered,
and, declining gradually, he died in May 1798." The church is also the
burying-place of the Duchess of Lauderdale, whose residence was Ham
House. This fine old Jacobean mansion stands at no great distance from
Petersham Church. It was built as a residence for Prince Henry, the
eldest son of James I., who, however, died early, the gossips of the
time hinting at poison. The house is still said to be haunted by the
spirit of the old Duchess of Lauderdale, who lived in the time of
Charles II.



WALTON-ON-THAMES (SCOLD'S BRIDLE)


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Walton.
=Distance from London.=--17 miles.
=Average Time.=--3/4 hour.

                    1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 10d.  1s. 10d.  1s. 5d.
          Return  4s.  0d.  3s.  0d.  2s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Ashley" at station; "Swan," on
  the river; "Duke's Head," in the town, etc.

Walton-on-Thames is a little riverside town, very much surrounded by
modern villas. The church contains in a glass case in the vestry a
"scold's bridle." This rusty iron contrivance is one of the few
specimens of this mediaeval instrument of torture to be seen in this
country, and it is certainly the nearest to London.

In Elizabethan times a "scold" was looked upon in much the same light as
a witch, and this bridle was applied to those women who obtained for
themselves the undesirable reputation.

[Illustration: THE GARDEN FRONT OF HAM HOUSE.]

[Illustration: THE SCOLD'S BRIDLE IN WALTON-ON-THAMES CHURCH.

  "Chester presents Walton with a bridle
  To curb women's tongues when they are idle."]



HARROW


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Harrow.
=Distance from London.=--11-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--1/2 hour.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  1s. 6d.  1s. 0d.  0s. 9d.
          Return  2s. 3d.  1s. 6d.  1s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"King's Head," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Baker Street, Metropolitan Railway.
  Train from Broad Street, L. and N.W. Railway. Train from
  Marylebone, Great Central Railway.

Harrow, from its high position, 200 feet above the sea, was selected by
the Romans as an important military station. By the Saxons it was called
Hereways, and was purchased in 822 by Wilfred, Archbishop of Canterbury.
The ancient manor-house, of which no traces now remain, was formerly the
residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and it was here that Thomas
a Becket resided during his banishment from Court. Cardinal Wolsey, who
was once Rector of Harrow, resided at Pinner, and is said to have
entertained Henry VIII. during his visit to Harrow. The manor was
exchanged by Archbishop Cranmer with the king for other lands, and was
subsequently given to Sir Edmund Dudley, afterwards Lord North.

At the bottom of the hill, and spreading rapidly in all directions, are
quantities of modern houses and villas, but the point of greatest
interest in Harrow is the celebrated school, wonderfully situated on the
very summit of the hill, with views extending over thirteen counties.
Founded in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by John Lyon, a yeoman of the
parish, the school has now grown enormously, the oldest portion being
that near the church, which was erected three years after the founder's
death. In the wainscotting of the famous schoolroom are the carvings cut
by many generations of Harrovians, among them being the names of Peel,
Byron, Sheridan, the Marquess of Hastings, Lord Normanby, and many
others.

The church stands on the extreme summit of the hill, and from the
churchyard the view is simply magnificent. In the building are some
interesting tombs and brasses, and a monument to John Lyon, the founder
of the school.

The grave shown on the opposite page is known as "Byron's tomb," on
account of his fondness for the particular spot it occupied in the
churchyard, from whence the fascinating view just mentioned can be seen,
from the shade of the trees growing on either side.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

"BYRON'S TOMB" IN HARROW CHURCHYARD.]



HOLWOOD HOUSE, KESTON

THE HOME OF WILLIAM PITT


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, and
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Hayes (2 miles from Keston village). About 3
  miles from Holwood House.
=Distance from London.=--12 miles.
=Average Time.=--35 minutes.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 0d.  1s. 3d.  1s. 0-1/2d.
          Return  3s. 3d.  2s. 4d.  1s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Fox Inn," "The George."
=Alternative Route.=--To Orpington Station by the South-Eastern and
  Chatham Railway, about 4 miles distant.

_Visitors are able to pass through the park on a public footpath._

About 3 miles' walk from Hayes Station by a pleasant road over Hayes
Common is Holwood House, a stately, classic building, for many years the
home of William Pitt, the famous statesman and son of the Earl of
Chatham. He owned the estate between 1785 and 1802, and it was during
this period that the British camp in the park suffered so severely. The
earth-works were occupied by some early British tribe before Caesar
crossed the Channel, and the place probably owed its strength to its
well-chosen position. Pitt, however, caused these fascinating remains to
be levelled to a considerable extent, in order to carry out some of his
ideas of landscape gardening. A magnificent tree growing near the house
is known as "Pitt's Oak," from the tradition that Pitt was specially
fond of spending long periods of quiet reading beneath its overshadowing
boughs. Another tree of more interest still stands quite near the public
footpath through the park. This is known as "Wilberforce's Oak," and is
easily distinguished from the surrounding trees by the stone seat
constructed in its shade. The momentous decision which makes this tree
so interesting is given in Wilberforce's diary for the year 1788. He
writes, "At length, I well remember after a conversation with Mr. Pitt
in the open air at the root of an old tree at Holwood, just above the
steep descent into the vale of Keston, I resolved to give notice on a
fit occasion in the House of Commons of my intention to bring forward
the abolition of the slave-trade."

With the exception of Knole Park, Holwood boasts some of the finest
beeches in the country. The present house took the place of the one
occupied by Pitt in 1825; the architect was Decimus Burton.

[Illustration: WILBERFORCE'S OR "EMANCIPATION OAK" IN HOLWOOD PARK,
KESTON.]



CHIGWELL, ESSEX


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street.
  Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chigwell.
=Distance from London.=--12-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--55 minutes. Quickest train, 31 minutes.

                    1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  1s. 10d.  1s.  4d.  0s. 11d.
          Return  2s.  6d.  1s. 10d.  1s.  4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The King's Head."

In 1844 Charles Dickens wrote to Forster: "Chigwell, my dear fellow, is
the greatest place in the world. Name your day for going. Such a
delicious old inn facing the church--such a lovely ride--such forest
scenery--such an out-of-the-way rural place--such a sexton! I say again,
Name your day." This is surely sufficient recommendation for any place;
and when one knows that the "delicious old inn" is still standing, and
that the village is as rural and as pretty as when Dickens wrote over
sixty years ago, one cannot fail to have a keen desire to see the place.
"The King's Head" illustrated here is the inn Dickens had in his mind
when describing the "Maypole" in _Barnaby Rudge_, and the whole of the
plot of that work is so wrapped up in Chigwell and its immediate
surroundings that one should not visit the village until one has read
the story. One may see the panelled "great room" upstairs where Mr.
Chester met Mr. Geoffrey Haredale. This room has a fine mantelpiece,
great carved beams, and beautiful leaded windows. On the ground floor is
the cosy bar where the village cronies gathered with Mr. Willett, and
one may also see the low room with the small-paned windows against which
John Willett flattened his nose looking out on the road on the dark
night when the story opens.

Chigwell School, built in 1629, and founded by Archbishop Harsnett,
still remains, although there have been several modern additions. Here
William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, was educated. (See Index for
Jordans and Penn's Chapel at Thakeham.)

Chigwell Church, facing "The King's Head," has a dark avenue of yews
leading from the road to the porch. A brass to the memory of Archbishop
Harsnett may be seen on the floor of the chancel. The epitaph in Latin
was ordered to be so written in the will of the archbishop. Translated,
the first portion may be read: "Here lieth Samuel Harsnett, formerly
vicar of this church. First the unworthy Bishop of Chichester, then the
more unworthy Bishop of Norwich, at last the very unworthy Archbishop of
York."

[Illustration: THE KING'S HEAD INN AT CHIGWELL.

The "Maypole" of Dickens's _Barnaby Rudge_.]



WALTHAM ABBEY AND CROSS


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Waltham.
=Distance from London.=--12-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--40 minutes. Quickest train, 23 minutes.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 0d.  1s. 6d.  1s. 1d.
          Return  3s. 3d.  2s. 6d.  1s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The New Inn," etc.

Waltham Abbey is a market town in Essex on the banks of the Lea, which
here divides into several branches which are used as motive power for
some gunpowder and flour mills. Harold II. founded the stately Abbey
Church in May 1060. William the Conqueror disputed Harold's claim to the
throne and landed in England at Pevensey in 1066. At Waltham Abbey,
troubled and anxious, Harold prayed for victory in England's name before
the fatal battle of Hastings, where he was slain. William at first
refused to give up Harold's body to his mother, Gytha, but he afterwards
allowed two monks from Waltham to search for the body of the king. They
were unable to find it amongst the nameless dead, but his favourite,
Edith the swan-necked, whose eye of affection was not to be deceived,
discovered it. His weeping mother buried the disfigured corpse probably
about 120 feet from the east end of the old church.

At Waltham is one of the many crosses erected by Edward I. in memory of
his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, wherever her body rested on its way
to Westminster from Lincoln. At Northampton is another of these famous
crosses. When the king asked the Abbot of Cluny to intercede for her
soul, he said, "We loved her tenderly in her lifetime; we do not cease
to love her in death."

A little way to the left of Waltham Cross, now a gateway to the park of
Theobalds, stands Temple Bar, stone for stone intact as it was in the
days when traitors' heads were raised above it in Fleet Street, although
the original wooden gates have gone. A portion of the richly-carved top
of the gate is still in existence in London. Waltham Abbey is probably
close to that part of the river Lea where King Alfred defeated the
Danes. They had penetrated far up the river when King Alfred diverted
the waters of the river from underneath their black vessels and left
them high and dry in a wilderness of marsh and forest. The gentle
Charles Lamb was very fond of the country all round Waltham Abbey,
especially Broxbourne and Amwell.

[Illustration: THE ABBEY GATE AT WALTHAM.

Waltham Abbey was founded in 1060 by Harold II.]



DOWNE

THE HOME OF DARWIN


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Orpington (3-1/2 to 4 miles from Downe).
=Distance from London.=--13-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--35 minutes.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 4d.  1s. 6d.  1s. 2-1/2d.
          Return  4s. 0d.  3s. 0d.     ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Queen's Head," at Downe, facing the
  church. Hotels at Farnborough--"White Lion," "George and
  Dragon."

The home of the great scientist is still standing in the little village
of Downe in Kent. The road to the hamlet is through Farnborough, and the
walk takes an hour. Downe is a pleasant place, possessing a large
village pond and a small church with a shingled spire. Darwin's home,
known as Downe House, was built in the eighteenth century. Its front is
of white stucco, relieved by ivy and other creepers. The wing on the
west side of the house was added by Darwin shortly after he came to live
there. This new portion of the house was used partly to accommodate his
library. On the north side is the room used by Darwin as a study, in
which he wrote some of his most important works. The garden of the house
is sheltered and reposeful, and from the old wall-garden to the south
there is a beautiful view over the delightful stretch of country in the
direction of Westerham.

The life led by Darwin when at Downe was exceedingly quiet and regular,
for he always went to bed at an early hour, and rising at six was
enabled to get in a walk and breakfast before commencing work at eight
o'clock. At some other time of the day he would manage to get an
opportunity for another walk, and part of the evening would be given up
to his family and friends who were privileged to enjoy conversation with
the great author of _The Origin of Species_. Professor Haeckel,
describing a visit to Darwin's home, says, "There stepped out to meet me
from the shady porch ... the great naturalist himself, a tall and
venerable figure, with the broad shoulders of an Atlas supporting a
world of thought, his Jupiter-like forehead, highly and broadly arched
... and deeply furrowed with the plough of mental labour; his kindly,
mild eyes looking forth under the shadow of prominent brows."

[Illustration: DOWNE HOUSE AT DOWNE, KENT.

The Home of Charles Darwin.]



EPSOM: ITS RACES AND ITS SALTS


=How to get there.=--From Waterloo, South-Western Railway. From
  London Bridge or Victoria, London, Brighton, and South Coast Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Epsom.
=Distance from London.=--14 miles.
=Average Time.=--3/4 hour.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 3d.  1s. 6d.  1s. 2d.
          Return  3s. 0d.  2s. 6d.  2s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"King's Head," "Spread Eagle," etc.

One must choose any other than a race-day if one wishes to see the
charming old town of Epsom at its best. But if, on the other hand, one
wishes, to see something of the scene on the race-course depicted in Mr.
Frith's famous picture, one gets no suggestion of the great spectacle
except on race-days. On these occasions, at the Spring meeting and
during Derby week, one has merely to follow the great streams of
humanity which converge on the downs from the roads from London and from
the railway stations. On ordinary days the wide rolling downs are
generally left alone to the health-giving breezes which blow over them.
In the town itself there is much to be seen of the seventeenth-century
architecture associated with the days of Epsom's fame as a
watering-place. The wide portion of the High Street at once attracts
one's notice, for with one or two exceptions its whole length is full of
the quaintest of buildings with cream walls and mossy tiled roofs. The
clock-tower was built in 1848, when it replaced a very simple old
watch-house with a curious little tower rising from it. The "Spread
Eagle" is one of the oldest of the Epsom inns; its irregular front and
its position looking up the High Street make it more conspicuous than
the "King's Head," an equally old and very interesting hostelry facing
the clock-tower. Pepys stayed there in 1667, for in his diary of July 14
of that year he writes, "To Epsom, by eight o'clock, to the well; where
much company. And to the towne to the King's Head; and hear that my Lord
Buckhurst and Nelly (Gwynne) are lodged at the next house, and Sir
Charles Sedley with them: and keep a merry house." This house, next to
the "King's Head," is still standing. A little further along the street
is the large red-brick building known to-day as Waterloo House. It was
built about the year 1680, and was then known as the New Inn. The old
banqueting-hall it contains is divided up now, for the building is
converted into shops.

Durdans, the residence of Lord Rosebery, is about ten minutes' walk from
the High Street. One can see the house and grounds from the narrow lane
leading to the downs.

[Illustration: HIGH STREET, EPSOM.

Showing one of the famous inns which flourished in the seventeenth
century.]



EPPING FOREST


=How to get there.=--From Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street.
  Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Theydon Bois.  Other stations near the forest
  are Chingford, Loughton, and Epping.
=Distance from London.=--15 miles.
=Average Time.=--1 hour. Quickest train, 38 minutes.

                    1st      2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 8d.  1s. 11d.  1s. 3-1/2d.
          Return  3s. 9d.  2s. 11d.  1s. 11d.

Those who wish to ramble through Epping Forest off the beaten paths
should carry a compass and a map, so that they do not merely keep in one
section of the forest, and thus miss some of the tracts which are quite
distinct in character to others. The best days during the summer for
having the glades to one's self are Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday, but
during the winter the whole place is left to the keepers and the
feathered inhabitants of the forest. During spring and autumn one also
finds that the grassy walks are left almost entirely alone, and at these
periods the forest is at its very best. Those who have only visited it
in the height of summer, when the foliage is perhaps drooping a little,
when the birds are not singing, and when there are traces of more than
one picnic party, have no idea of the true beauty of the forest. A herd
of deer are allowed to breed in the wilder and less frequented portions
if the forest, and these add much to the charm of some of the umbrageous
by-paths when one suddenly disturbs a quietly grazing group. Queen
Elizabeth's hunting lodge, which adjoins the Forest Hotel at Chingford,
is a restored three-storied and much gabled building, constructed of
plastered brickwork and framed with oak. It seems that the building
originally had no roof, but merely an open platform, from which one
could obtain a good comprehensive view of any sport going on in the
vicinity. The lodge has now been made the home of a museum of objects of
antiquity discovered in the forest. The special points of Epping Forest
which should be included in a long day's ramble are Connaught Water, a
lake near Chingford; High Beach, an elevated portion of the forest
possessing some splendid beeches; the earthwork known as Loughton Camp,
which probably belongs to pre-Roman times, and Ambresbury Banks, towards
Epping. This camp is said to have been the last fortress of the Britons
under Boadicea. From here they are believed to have marched against the
Romans to receive the crushing defeat inflicted upon them.

[Illustration: A GLADE AMONG THE BEECHES IN EPPING FOREST.]



HAMPTON COURT


=How to get there.=--South-Western Railway. Waterloo Station.
=Nearest Station.=--Hampton Court.
=Distance from London.=--15 miles.
=Average Time.=--3/4 hour.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 0d.  1s. 6d.  1s.  2-1/2d.
          Return  2s. 9d.  2s. 0d.  1s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," "Mitre Hotel," "The
  King's Arms Hotel," "Greyhound Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--By steamboats from London Bridge, etc., during
  the summer months.

Within a few hundred yards of the Hampton Court station on the London
and South-Western Railway stands the magnificent palace of Hampton
Court, originally erected by Cardinal Wolsey for his own residence, and
after his sudden downfall appropriated by his ungrateful master Henry
VIII. for his private use and property.

The approach from the station lies through a pair of finely designed
wrought-iron gates to the north frontage of the palace, erected by
Wolsey himself. This front is all in the fine red-brick architecture of
the period, with quaint gables, small mullioned windows, and a
collection of moulded and twisted red-brick chimneys of wonderfully
varied designs. The entrance through the gatehouse, flanked by two
towers, is under a massive Tudor gateway, and leads into an inner
quadrangle and thence into a second court, both of the same picturesque
character. In these inner courts are the suites of rooms given as
residences by royal favour, and on the left-hand side is Wolsey's great
banqueting-hall, with a magnificent open timber roof.

The southern and eastern portions, with the Fountain Court and the
splendid frontage to the gardens, were designed by Sir Christopher Wren,
and form one of the best examples of his work. In this part of the
building are the picture galleries, containing a priceless collection of
works, comprising Sir Peter Lely's Beauties of King Charles II.'s time,
valuable specimens of Holbein, Kneller, West, Jansen, Vandyck, Reynolds,
and other masters, and seven wonderful cartoons by Raphael.

The splendidly kept gardens, about 44 acres in extent, are still very
much as they were in the time of William III. Hampton Court "Maze" is
one of the most intricate in the country.

The palace, grounds, and picture galleries are open to the public daily,
free, except on Fridays; summer, 10 to 6; winter, 10 to 4. Sundays,
summer, 2 to 6; winter, 2 to 4.

[Illustration: THE EAST SIDE OF THE CLOCK TOWER, HAMPTON COURT.]



RYE HOUSE, BROXBOURNE


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Broxbourne (quite close to Rye House).
=Distance from London.=--17 miles.
=Average Time.=--50 minutes. Quickest train, 39 minutes.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 3d.  2s. 3d.  1s. 6d. } reduced during
          Return  4s. 9d.  3s. 6d.  2s. 6d. } summer months.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Rye House has been converted into
  an hotel.

Rye House stands close to the banks of the river Lea, and is now perhaps
more of a resort than some would wish it to be, for it has been altered
from a manor-house into an hotel. It has not, however, quite lost its
picturesqueness, as one will see from the illustration given here, and
within one may see the fine old dining-hall and the famous "Great bed of
Ware," large enough, it is said, to contain twelve people! The
historical interest which attaches itself to Rye House, though well
known, may be briefly given here. It was in 1683 the scene of a plot, in
Charles II.'s reign, to assassinate the king and his brother the Duke of
York, afterwards James II., on their way to London from Newmarket.
Charles, though restored to the throne, was giving great dissatisfaction
to many in the country. Though professedly a Protestant, it was well
known that his leanings were towards Roman Catholicism, and his brother
the Duke of York was an avowed Catholic. Then it was discovered that
Charles had been receiving a pension from Louis XIV. of France, on
condition that this country did not go to war with the French, an
arrangement which was most humiliating to the English people. The nation
was thoroughly alarmed, and at the next meeting of Parliament the
Commons brought in a bill to exclude the Duke of York from ever coming
to the throne. Many of the leading Whigs, including Lord William
Russell, Algernon Sidney, and the Earl of Essex, formed a confederacy.
It has never been proved that they ever meant the country to rise
against the king, but unfortunately, just at the same time, some bolder
and fiercer spirits of the Whig party determined to kill both Charles
and James at the lonely Rye House belonging to Rumbolt. The plot failed
from the fact that the house which the king occupied at Newmarket
accidentally caught fire, and Charles was obliged to leave Newmarket a
week sooner than was expected. This conspiracy as well as the meetings
of the Whig party were betrayed to the king's ministers. Russell was
beheaded in 1683, and Sidney shared the same fate.

[Illustration: RYE HOUSE.

The scene of the famous Rye House Plot in 1683.]



HATFIELD HOUSE, HERTS


=How to get there.=--From King's Cross. Great Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Hatfield.
=Distance from London.=--17-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--35 minutes.

                    1st     2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 6d.   ...   1s.  5-1/2d.
          Return  5s. 0d.   ...   2s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Red Lion Hotel," etc.

Permission to see the interior of Hatfield House can be obtained when
the Marquess of Salisbury is not in residence.

After the Norman Conquest Hatfield, the _Haethfield_ of the Saxons,
became the property of the bishops of Ely, and was known as Bishops
Hatfield, as indeed it is marked on many maps. There was here a
magnificent palace, which at the Reformation became the property of
Henry VIII., and was afterwards given to the Cecils by James I., who
received Theobalds in exchange.

The town of Hatfield is a quaint, straggling place, with narrow streets
and many antique houses. A steep declivity leads up to the old church,
dedicated to St. Etheldreda, just outside one of the entrances to the
grounds of Hatfield House. The church contains a monument to Sir Robert
Cecil, first Earl of Salisbury, also tombs of the Botelers, Brockets,
and Reads of Brocket Hall.

The entrance gateway, close to the churchyard, leads to what are now the
stables of Hatfield House, a fine red-brick structure, once the
banqueting-hall of the Bishop's Palace. This building, with its fine
open timber roof, is perhaps the only example of its kind in England
used as a stable.

Hatfield House is one of the most perfect and magnificent of Elizabethan
mansions in the kingdom. It was built by the first Earl of Salisbury in
1611, and is practically unaltered. The fine oak panelling and carving,
the plaster ceilings, and much of the furniture, all remain as they were
in the days of the great Lord Burleigh. The great hall, with its
splendid timber roof, and the gallery, with a fine collection of
pictures and curios, are two striking features. The staircase is
magnificent in design and detail, and is furnished with gates at the
bottom, placed there originally for preventing the dogs from wandering
upstairs.

The paintings in the hall and other rooms in Hatfield House include
portraits of the great Burleigh, Sir Robert and other Cecils, by Lely
and Kneller; Henry VIII., Anne Boleyn, Mary Queen of Scots, the Earl of
Leicester, and Queen Elizabeth.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

HATFIELD HOUSE.]



RUNNYMEAD, THE SIGNING OF MAGNA CHARTA


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Staines.
=Distance from London.=--19 miles.
=Average Time.=--50 minutes.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 0d.  2s. 0d.  1s. 6d.
          Return  5s. 0d.  3s. 6d.  2s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Staines--"Pack Horse Hotel,"
  "Swan Hotel," "Bridge Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington to Staines. G.W.R.

Runnymede takes a prominent place among the many historical spots which
crowd the banks of the Thames. The river at this point is winding and
picturesque. Some doubt attaches to the exact spot where John, in 1215,
realising at last that the barons were too strong for him, confirmed
their articles with his hand and seal, with the full intention of
breaking his word as soon as it was possible. It was either on the south
side of the river, or on an island opposite the end of the meadow, now
known as Magna Carta Island, that this early bulwark of freedom was
granted by the king. Though there is strong tradition in favour of the
meadows on the opposite bank, possibly the balance of favour is with the
island. On the island there is a rough stone bearing an inscription
stating that this is the celebrated spot.

The island is now private property. Above it, on the left, is a low
wooded ridge known as Cooper's Hill, from which one can enjoy some
exquisite views of the Thames valley.



THE OLDEST BRASS IN ENGLAND


=How to get there.=--Train to Leatherhead by South-Western or
  London, Brighton and South Coast lines.
=Distance from London.=--19 miles.
=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Swan Hotel," etc., at Leatherhead.

Two and a half miles from Leatherhead is situated the ancient church of
Stoke d'Abernon, famous for possessing the oldest brass in England. It
shows a complete figure of Sir John d'Abernoun, who died in 1277. The
church, restored externally, overlooks the river Mole.

[Illustration: IN STOKE D'ABERNON CHURCH

Twelfth Century Parish Chest, with slot for inserting Peter's Pence. The
three locks were for the rector and two churchwardens.

The brass to Sir John d'Abernoun on the floor of the Chancel showing the
chain armour worn between 1250 and 1300 A.D.

Jacobean hour-glass stand.]



ST. ALBANS

VERULAMIUM AND GORHAMBURY


=How to get there.=--Through train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--St. Albans.
=Distance from London.=--20 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1/2 to 1 hour.

                    1st     2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single  2s. 8d.   ...   1s. 7-1/2d.
          Return  5s. 4d.   ...   3s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Peahen," "Red Lion Hotel,"
  "The George," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Euston, L. and N.W. Railway.
  Train from King's Cross, Great Northern Railway.

St. Albans is an ancient town of much historic interest, being built
close to the site of the old Roman city of Verulamium. West of the town;
by a little stream, the Ver, some remains of the old Roman wall may be
seen, and the frequent discoveries made there are placed in the museum
in the town. St. Alban, or Albanus, who has given his name to the town,
was the first British martyr. He lived in the reign of Diocletian, and
was beheaded on the site of the abbey raised in his honour. The
Benedictine monastery which arose became the wealthiest and most popular
in England through the fame of the saint. Most of the kings from Saxon
times until the dissolution of the monastery in Henry VIII.'s reign,
visited this shrine. In later times the Abbey Church was made parochial,
and finally a cathedral.

St. Albans owes some of its importance to its situation on the famous
northward road; Watling Street runs through it. Owing to its proximity
to London, it was the scene of two battles in its High Street during the
Wars of the Roses.

The cathedral occupies the highest site of any in England. The square
Norman tower owes its red hue to the Roman bricks used in its
construction. One remarkable feature is the length of the nave, which is
only exceeded by Winchester. Every style of architecture is represented
in the interior from Early Norman to Late Perpendicular, and in the
triforium of the north transept are to be seen some Saxon balusters and
columns. The shrine of St. Alban is in the Saint's Chapel, with the
interesting watching-loft on the north side. The west end has been very
much renovated by Lord Grimthorpe.

At Gorhambury can be seen the tower of the ruined house formerly
occupied by Sir Nicholas Bacon, and visited by Queen Elizabeth. In the
antique church of St. Michael in Verulamium is Lord Bacon's monument.

[Illustration: _F. Frith & Co., Ltd._

ST. ALBANS ABBEY.

Showing the Central Tower constructed of Roman bricks from Verulamium.]



STOKE POGES CHURCH, BUCKS


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Slough (2-1/2 miles from Stoke Poges).
=Distance from London.=--21-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3/4 to 1 hour.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 0d.  2s. 0d.  1s. 6d.
          Return  5s. 0d.  3s. 6d.    ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Windsor--"White Hart Hotel,"
  "Castle Hotel," "Bridge House Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo to Windsor, 3 miles from
  Stoke Poges. London and South-Western Railway.

"The curfew tolls the knell of parting day" has immortalised the
otherwise unimportant district of Stoke Poges--a parish embracing
numerous small hamlets.

Leaving Slough by the north end of the railway bridge, one turns first
to the right and then to the left, and soon after leaving the
uninteresting bricks and mortar of the town, one enters some of the most
beautiful lanes in the home counties. At the first cross road one turns
to the right, and again through an open gate to the left, and thence a
field path leads to the churchyard.

The little church, which is always open, has walls of old red brick and
flint, with patches of rough plaster. It is wonderfully picturesque,
with its partial covering of ivy and beautiful background of fine old
trees, and no one can view the scene at sunset without recalling Gray's
immortal _Elegy written in a Country Churchyard_--those exquisite verses
which breathe in every line the peace of an ideal country scene. To a
lover of Nature there can be nothing more beautiful than the lines--

  Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,
  And all the air a solemn stillness holds;
  Save where the beetle wheels his drony flight,
  And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds.

Near the east wall of the church is the red brick tomb where Gray sleeps
his last sleep, and in the meadow by the chancel window stands the huge
cenotaph raised to his memory by John Penn. Of the little cottage where
he spent his summer vacations and wrote the _Elegy_ nothing now remains.
Gray was born in London in 1716, and died at Cambridge in 1771.

The interior of the church has lost its high old pews and galleries, so
that it lacks the interest it might have had, for until these were
removed the building was almost exactly what Gray knew so well.

[Illustration: _Mackenzie Fine Art Co._

STOKE POGES CHURCHYARD.

Associated with Gray's _Elegy_.]



WINDSOR


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Windsor.
=Distance from London.=--21-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1/2 to 1 hour.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 6d.  2s. 3d.  1s. 9d.
          Return  5s. 6d.  4s. 0d.  3s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"White Hart Hotel," "Bridge House
  Hotel," "Castle Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

The chief interest of Windsor centres in its castle, without which
visitors to the town would probably be few in number. Some of the old
streets are narrow, and there are many architecturally interesting
buildings. The business portion of the town lies nearest to the Castle,
the residential parts being chiefly round the Great Park. The Town Hall,
in the High Street, was commenced in 1686, and was completed under the
direction of Sir Christopher Wren.

The history of Windsor Castle commences with the granting of the site of
the castle and town to the Abbot of Westminster by Edward the Confessor.
William the Conqueror, was, however, so struck with its splendid
military position, that he revoked the grant, and where the castle now
stands built a fortress of considerable size. Of this there is no
description extant. The first court was held at Windsor by Henry I., and
during his reign many splendid functions took place there. Edward III.
employed William of Wykeham to rebuild almost the whole castle. Henry
VII., Henry VIII., and Elizabeth all made additions to the buildings.
Many magnificent paintings were added during the reign of Charles I.
George I. made Windsor Castle his chief residence, and appointed a Royal
Commission to rebuild the castle in its present form at a cost of more
than one million sterling. About 1860, Wolsey's Chapel, now known as the
Albert Memorial Chapel, was restored in memory of the Prince Consort,
and the Duchess of Kent's mausoleum was erected. St. George's Chapel, a
splendid specimen of ecclesiastical architecture, was originally built
by Edward III., and was finally restored in 1887. The State apartments,
which can be seen when the Royal family are absent, are sumptuously
furnished and contain much beautiful tapestry and a valuable collection
of pictures.

Windsor Great Park, the chief feature of which is the Long Walk, is well
stocked with deer.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WINDSOR CASTLE.]



JORDANS AND WILLIAM PENN


=How to get there.=--Train from Baker Street. Metropolitan Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chalfont Road (3 miles from Jordans).
=Distance from London.=--22 miles.
=Average Time.=--51 minutes. (Convenient trains, 10.27 A.M., 12.17
  and 2.27 P.M.)

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 2d.  2s. 4d.  1s. 7d.
          Return  4s. 9d.  3s. 5d.  2s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--None at Jordans.
=Alternative Route.=--Train to Uxbridge. Great Western Railway.

Jordans, the burial-place of William Penn, the great English Quaker and
philanthropist, lies on a by-road in Buckinghamshire, leading from
Chalfont St. Peter to Beaconsfield. The place itself, though full of the
typical charm of English scenery in the home counties, does not contain
anything of particular interest, and it owes its reputation to the
associations with the wonderful man who lived and died there. Jordans is
visited by many hundreds of tourists during the summer, mainly
Americans. One of these offered to remove Penn's remains to
Philadelphia, capital of Pennsylvania, and there build a mausoleum over
them; but the offer was declined.

The road runs south-west from the village of Chalfont St. Peter, and
after a sharp curve brings the visitor to the Meeting House, a very
plain and unobtrusive structure, dating from about the end of the
seventeenth century. In the secluded burying-ground surrounded and
overhung by great trees lies William Penn. Five of his children also
rest among these quiet surroundings; and here are buried two well-known
Quaker leaders, Isaac Penington and Thomas Ellwood. At the actual time
of burial there were no gravestones, but these have since been added.
Though the house as a regular place of meeting has long fallen into
disuse, there is still an annual gathering of Quakers there in memory of
the great dead.

Penn was the son of Sir William Penn, an eminent admiral, and was born
in 1644. His violent advocacy of the Quaker creeds led him into
continual trouble and several times into prison. In 1681 he obtained, in
lieu of the income left by his father, a grant from the Crown of the
territory now forming the state of Pennsylvania. Penn wished to call his
new property Sylvania, on account of the forest upon it, but the king,
Charles II., good-naturedly insisted on the prefix Penn. The great man
left his flourishing colony for the last time in 1701, and after a
troublous time in pecuniary matters, owing to the villany of an agent in
America, Penn died at Ruscombe in Berkshire in 1718.

[Illustration: _H.C. Shelley._

THE JORDANS.

The burial-place of William Penn.]



KNOLE HOUSE AND SEVENOAKS


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Sevenoaks (Knole House is just outside Sevenoaks).
=Distance from London.=--22 miles.
=Average Time.=--45 minutes.

                    1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 10d.  2s.  5d.  1s. 11d.
          Return  6s.  8d.  4s. 10d.  3s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Sevenoaks--"Royal Crown Hotel,"
  "Royal Oak Hotel," "Bligh's Private Hotel," etc.

Sevenoaks is famous for its beautiful situation near the Weald of Kent.
It possesses still some old inns, relics of coaching days. The Grammar
School was founded in 1432 by Sir William Sevenoke, who, from being a
foundling, became Lord Mayor. St. Nicholas' Church is a large building
in the Decorated and Perpendicular style, much restored.

The chief charm of Sevenoaks is Knole House, a splendid example of the
baronial dwellings that were erected after the Wars of the Roses, when
the fortress was no longer so necessary. The demesne of Knole was
purchased in the fifteenth century by Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of
Canterbury, who rebuilt the mansion on it. It was taken from Cranmer by
the Crown and granted in 1603 to Thomas Sackville, Baron Buckhurst,
afterwards Earl of Dorset, who is now represented by the Sackville-West
family, the present owners.

The first Earl of Dorset greatly improved Knole, employing, it is said,
200 workmen constantly. The building surrounds three square courts and
occupies about 5 acres. Knole possesses an extremely valuable collection
of paintings, and the mediaeval furniture is untouched from the time of
James I. There are famous pictures by Flemish, Dutch, Venetian, and
Italian painters. In the dressing-room of the Spangled Bedroom are to be
seen some of Sir Peter Lely's beauties. The Cartoon Gallery has copies
of Raphael's cartoons by Mytens, and in the Poet's Parlour are portraits
of England's famous poets--some by Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds.
The banqueting-hall has a screened music gallery. It is said that there
are as many rooms in the house as there are days in the year. The drives
and walks of the large park are always open, and the house is shown on
Fridays from 10 A.M. to 5 P.M., and on Thursdays and Saturdays from 2 to
5 P.M. at a charge of 2s.; there is a reduction for a party. Tickets are
procurable at the lodge.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

KNOLE HOUSE.

One of the finest examples of a baronial residence of the period
immediately succeeding the Wars of the Roses.]



GREENSTEAD CHURCH

A SAXON CHURCH WITH WOODEN WALLS


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or Fenchurch Street.
  Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chipping Ongar (1 mile from Greenstead Church).
=Distance from London.=--22-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

                    1st        2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 11d.  2s. 10d.  1s. 11-1/2d.
          Return  5s.  9d.  4s.  2d.  3s.  1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Inn, etc., at Ongar.

Entering Ongar from the railway station one finds on the right a
footpath leading into a fine avenue. About ten minutes' walk down this
brings one to Greenstead Hall, a red brick Jacobean house, with the
church adjoining it. Set among a profusion of foliage, the simple little
building would be quite interesting as an ideally situated little rustic
church, but when one realises how unique it is, the spot at once becomes
fascinating. The walls of the diminutive nave, as one may see from the
illustration given here, consist of the trunks of large oak trees split
down the centre and roughly sharpened at each end. They are raised from
the ground by a low foundation of brick, and inside the spaces between
the trees are covered with fillets of wood. On top the trees are
fastened into a frame of rough timber by wooden pins. The interior of
the building is exceedingly dark, for there are no windows in the wooden
walls, and the chief light comes from the porch and a dormer window.
This window in the roof, however, was not in the original design, for
the rude structure was only designed as a temporary resting-place for
the body of St. Edmund the Martyr. It was in A.D. 1010 that the saint's
body was removed from Bury to London, its protectors fearing an
incursion of the Danes at that time. Three years afterwards, however,
the body was brought back to Bury, and on its journey rested for a time
at Greenstead--a wooden chapel being erected in its honour. The remains
of this chapel, built nearly half a century before the Conquest, are
still to be seen in the wooden walls just referred to. The length of the
original structure was 29 feet 9 inches long by 14 feet wide. The walls,
5 feet 6 inches high, supported the rough timber roof, which possessed
no windows. The chancel and tower were added afterwards.

Ongar Castle, a huge artificial mound surrounded by a moat, is close to
the main street. The church contains in the chancel, hidden by a carpet,
the grave of Oliver Cromwell's daughter. A house in the High Street is
associated with Livingstone.

[Illustration: GREENSTEAD CHURCH, ESSEX.

Built in 1013, is remarkable for its nave, constructed of solid tree
trunks.]



CHALFONT ST. GILES

HOME OF MILTON


=How to get there.=--Train from Baker Street. Metropolitan Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chalfont Road (2-1/2 miles from Chalfont St. Giles).
  An omnibus runs between the village and the station during
  the summer months.
=Distance from London.=--23-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--51 minutes. (Convenient trains, 10.27 A.M., 12.17
  and 2.27 P.M.)

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 2d.  2s. 4d.  1s. 7d.
          Return  4s. 9d.  3s. 5d.  2s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Merlin's Cave Inn," etc.

This pretty little Buckinghamshire village has become almost as
celebrated as its neighbour Stoke Poges, on account of having been the
home of John Milton. The poet's cottage is the last on the left side at
the top of the village street. As one may see from the illustration, it
is a very picturesque, half-timbered house, whose leaded windows look
into a typical country garden. In 1887 a public subscription was raised
and the cottage was purchased. Visitors are therefore able to see the
interior as well as the exterior of Milton's home, which, it should be
mentioned, is the only one existing to-day of the various houses he
occupied. For those who are not residents in the parish a charge of
sixpence is made for admission. The poet's room, which is on the right
on entering, is rather dark, and has a low ceiling. One notices the
wide, open fireplace where the white-bearded old man would sit in winter
days, and the lattice-paned windows through which in summer-time came
the humming of bees and the scent of the flowers growing in the
old-fashioned garden. The pleasant indications of his surroundings must
have been a great solace to the blind old man. In these simple
surroundings one must picture Milton dictating his stately verse, with
his thoughts concentrated on the serried ranks of the hosts of heaven.

Milton came to Chalfont in 1665, in order to escape from the plague. His
eldest daughter was at that time about seventeen years of age, and as
she and her sisters are supposed to have remained with their father
until about 1670, it is probable that they came to Chalfont with him.

The church of Chalfont St. Giles has a Norman font, and there are other
traces of Norman work in the bases of the pillars and elsewhere. The
south wall of the nave and the north chapel are specially interesting on
account of their frescoes.

[Illustration: MILTON'S COTTAGE, CHALFONT ST. GILES.

Milton moved here from London in 1665, to avoid the Plague.]



WESTERHAM

THE HOME OF GENERAL WOLFE


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Westerham.
=Distance from London.=--25 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 to 2 hours.

                    1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  3s. 10d.  2s.  5d.  2s. 0d.
          Return  6s.  8d.  4s. 10d.  4s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The King's Arms," "The Bull,"
  "The George and Dragon," etc.

Westerham as a small country town is not very remarkable in itself,
although not devoid of interest, but as containing the birthplace of
General Wolfe it becomes a place worthy of a pilgrimage. Colonel and
Mrs. Wolfe, the parents of the hero of Quebec, had just come to
Westerham, and occupied the vicarage at the time of the birth of their
son James in 1727. This, being previous to 1752, was during the old
style, when the year began on March 25. The day was December 22, now
represented by January 2. Colonel Wolfe's infant was christened in
Westerham Church by the vicar, the Rev. George Lewis; but although born
at the vicarage, James's parents must have moved into the house now
known as Quebec House almost immediately afterwards, for practically the
whole of the first twelve years of the boy's life were spent in the fine
old Tudor house which is still standing to-day. The vicarage is also to
be seen, and though much altered at the back, the front portion,
containing the actual room in which Wolfe was born, is the same as in
the past. It has a three-light window towards the front, and two small
windows in the gable at the side. Quebec House is near the vicarage. It
does not bear its name upon it, but it will be pointed out on inquiry.
The front is a most disappointing stucco affair, but this merely hides
the beautiful Elizabethan gables which originally adorned the house from
every point of view. Two private tenants now occupy the house, but the
interior is on the whole very little altered since little James Wolfe
played hide-and-seek in the old passages and rooms. Squerryes Court, the
seat of Lieut.-Colonel C.A.M. Warde, J.P., is the local storehouse of
Wolfe relics. Numbers of letters, portraits, and other interesting
objects are all carefully preserved there. Young Wolfe was constantly at
Squerryes, and the spot in the park where he received his first
commission is marked by a stone cenotaph.

[Illustration: QUEBEC HOUSE, WESTERHAM.

Where General James Wolfe spent the first twelve years of his life.]



GUILDFORD, SURREY


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Guildford.
=Distance from London.=--29-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 50 minutes to 1-1/2 hours.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  5s. 0d.  3s. 2d.  2s. 6d.
          Return  8s. 9d.  5s. 6d.  5s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Angel," "White Lion," "Castle,"
  etc.
=Alternative Route.=--South-Eastern and Chatham Railway from
  Charing Cross Station, and other South-Eastern and Chatham
  Railway termini.

Guildford High Street is without doubt one of the most picturesque in
England. When one stands beneath the shadow of the quaint
seventeenth-century town hall, with its great clock projecting half-way
across the street towards the Corn Exchange, with its classic stone
portico, a most charming picture is spread before one. The steep street
dropping down to the river Wey, with the great green slopes of the Hog's
Back rising immediately beyond, framed in with quaint gabled fronts and
projecting windows. The castle, though very much in ruins, still
possesses its huge square keep standing upon an artificial mound. Both
the keep and the other portions of the fortress were probably built in
the reign of Henry II. Those who are endeavouring to read the history of
the castle should bear in mind that in 1623 it was converted into a
private dwelling-house, and this accounts for the red brick mullions in
the upper windows of the keep. From the highest portion of the walls
there is an exceedingly pretty view up the winding course of the Wey.
Abbot's Hospital, at the top of the High Street, was built in 1619. It
is an exceedingly picturesque old structure of red brick, with
conspicuously fine chimney-stacks. The buildings enclose a beautiful
courtyard full of the richest architectural detail. The dining-hall is
oak-panelled almost to the ceiling, and contains oak tables, benches,
and stools. The chapel in the north-east corner contains an alms-box and
a "Vinegar" Bible, and two of the windows are remarkable for their fine
old glass.

The Angel Hotel in the High Street is built over a thirteenth-century
crypt and contains much panelling.

The old stone grammar school in Spital Street was founded by Edward VI.
St. Mary's Church, in the centre of the town, has a painted roof to one
of its chapels and some Saxon features.

[Illustration: HIGH STREET, GUILDFORD.

Showing the Town Hall, with its projecting clock, and the Corn
Exchange.]



GAD'S HILL

THE HOME OF CHARLES DICKENS


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria or Holborn Viaduct. South-Eastern
  and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Rochester. (Gad's Hill lies 1-1/2 miles from
  Rochester).
=Distance from London.=--31 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 and 1-1/2 hours.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  5s. 4d.  3s. 4d.  2s. 8d.
          Return  9s. 4d.  6s. 8d.  5s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Rochester--"King's Head Hotel,"
  "Royal Victoria Hotel," "Bull Hotel," "Royal Crown Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.

Mr. Latham, the present occupier, kindly admits visitors on Wednesday
afternoons.

Lovers of Charles Dickens naturally have a pleasure in seeing the places
near Rochester so familiar to them through his works. A mile and a half
from this ancient city with its cathedral and castle is Gad's Hill
Place, where the great author resided from 1856 till the day of his
death in 1870. When Dickens was a small boy the house had always a
curious interest for him, for he thought it the most beautiful house he
had ever seen. His father, then living in Rochester, used to bring him
to look at it, and used to tell the little fellow that if he grew up to
be a clever man he might own that or another such house. Gad's Hill
Place is a comfortable old-fashioned house, built, it is said, about
1775. Facing it is a shrubbery containing huge cedars. This was
connected with the grounds opposite by an underground passage still
existing, and here Dickens erected a chalet given to him by his friend
Mr. Fechter, in which he worked till the time of his sudden death. Gad's
Hill had a peculiar fascination for Dickens, for it was on the highway
there that he obtained his wonderful insight into the character and
manners of the various tramps and showmen he portrays in his books.

Dickens liked nothing better than taking his friends over this district.
He thought the seven miles between Rochester and Maidstone one of the
most beautiful walks in England. Dickens would compress into infinitely
few days an enormous amount of sight-seeing and country enjoyment:
castles, cathedrals, lunches and picnics among cherry orchards and
hop-gardens.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

GAD'S HILL PLACE, NEAR ROCHESTER.

The home of Charles Dickens.]



IGHTHAM MOTE, KENT


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, and Ludgate
  Hill. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Wrotham (2 miles from Ightham Mote).
=Distance from London.=--31 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

                    1st       2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  5s.  1d.  3s. 2d.  2s. 6d.
          Return  8s. 11d.  6s. 4d.  5s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The George and the Dragon,"
  Ightham.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

In a lovely green hollow, surrounded by splendid old trees and velvet
turf, stands Ightham Mote, a gem among old English moated manor-houses.
It is the home of Mr. J.C. Colyer-Fergusson, who allows the public to
see the house and grounds on Fridays, between 11 and 1, and 2 and 6. A
charge of 6d. is made.

Crossing a bridge over the moat, one enters the courtyard of the house
through the great Tudor gate illustrated here. Standing in this
courtyard one can scarcely imagine anything more beautiful and
picturesque. The great square battlemented tower, through which one has
just passed, is pierced with leaded windows, and its weather-beaten old
walls are relieved by all sorts of creepers, which have been allowed to
adorn without destroying the rich detail of stone and half-timber work.
Those who find pleasure in gazing on architectural picturesqueness can
satisfy themselves in the richness of colour and detail revealed in this
beautiful courtyard. The crypt with its fine groined roof, the chapel
which dates from 1520, the drawing-room with its two hundred years old
Chinese wall-paper--believed to be one of the earliest occasions when
wall-papers were used in this country--and many other interesting
features are shown to visitors.

The original Ightham Mote seems to have been built in 1180 by Sir Ivo de
Haut. The Hall, it is known, was built by Sir Thomas Cawne in 1340.
Richard de Haut, who owned the place later on, was beheaded in 1484 at
Pontefract. His estate was confiscated and came into the hands of Sir
Robert Brackenbury, governor of the Tower, who lost his life at the
battle of Bosworth. However, during the reign of Henry VII., Ightham
once more came into the possession of the de Hauts; and it should be
mentioned that throughout the seven centuries of its existence the house
has always been inhabited.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

IGHTHAM--THE MOAT AND BRIDGE.]



PENSHURST


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Penshurst.
=Distance from London.=--32 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  5s. 0d.  3s. 3d.  2s. 6d.
          Return  8s. 8d.  6s. 2d.  4s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Leicester Arms Hotel."

The pleasant little village of Penshurst, situated 6 miles north-west
from Tunbridge Wells, is renowned for the beautiful fourteenth-century
mansion known as Penshurst Place. From Norman times a house has occupied
the site, but the present building did not come into existence until
1349, when Sir John de Poultenay, who was four times Lord Mayor of
London, built the present historic seat. Having come into the possession
of the Crown, the estate was given by Edward VI. to Sir William Sidney,
who had fought at Flodden Field. The unfortunate young King Edward died
in the arms of Sir William's son Henry, whose grief was so excessive
that he retired to Penshurst and lived there in seclusion. Sir Henry
Sidney had three children, one of whom being Sir Philip Sidney, the type
of a most gallant knight and perfect gentleman. It was at Penshurst that
Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip's friend, wrote his first work, the
_Shepherd's Calendar_, and though Sidney did not actually write his
famous poem _Arcadia_ in his beautiful Kentish home, its scenery must
have suggested many of the descriptions. Algernon Sidney, who was
illegally put to death through Judge Jeffreys, was the nephew of Sir
Philip, and he is supposed to be buried in Penshurst Church, though no
monument remains. The present owner of Penshurst is Lord De Lisle and
Dudley (Sir Philip Charles Sidney (died 1851) was given the peerage in
1835), who allows visitors to view the historic mansion on Tuesdays,
Thursdays, and Fridays, from 3 P.M. to 6 P.M. (admission 1s.). The great
feature of the house is the baronial hall, built in 1341, which has a
hearth in the centre of the room. The Queen's drawing-room, said to have
been furnished by Queen Elizabeth, contains some interesting Tudor
furniture, and the satin tapestry which adorns the walls is also
believed to be the work of the virgin queen and her maidens. There are
many valuable and interesting portraits of the famous members of the
Sidney family. In the beautiful grounds of Penshurst is an oak tree,
planted, says tradition, at the time of Sir Philip Sidney's birth.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

PENSHURST PLACE.

Which was built in 1349, was the home of Sir Philip Sidney.]



ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT AND MARAZION


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Marazion.
=Distance from London.=--324-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 8-1/2 to 11-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  50s.  2d.  31s. 6d.  25s. 1d.
          Return  87s. 10d.  55s. 0d.  50s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Godolphin Hotel," "Marazion Hotel,"
  etc.

Marazion, the nearest town to St. Michael's Mount, is situated on the
eastern side of Mount's Bay, and was in the Middle Ages a place of some
importance, being the headquarters of the pilgrims to St. Michael's
Mount. Marazion is connected with St. Michael's Mount by a causeway 120
feet in width, formed of rocks and pebbles, and passable only at low
tide for three or four hours.

The mount itself is a remarkable granite rock, about a mile in
circumference and 250 feet high. It was referred to by Ptolemy, and is
supposed to have been the island Iclis of the Greeks, noticed by
Diodorus Siculus as the place near the promontory of Belerium to which
the tin, when refined, was brought by the Britons to be exchanged with
the Phoenician merchants. Its British name was equivalent to "the grey
rock in the woods," a traditional name, apparently confirmed by the
discovery of a submarine forest extending for some miles round the base
of the mount. The beauty of the spot caused it to be selected by the
ancient Britons as a favourite resort for worship, and shortly after the
introduction of Christianity it became a place of pilgrimage, and was
visited in the fifth century by St. Kelna, a British princess, who
founded a hermitage there. Some sort of military defences protected the
mount at a very early date, for Edward the Confessor's charter in 1047
to the Benedictine monks, whom he settled here, especially mentions its
_castella_ and other buildings.

In Charles II.'s reign the estate was purchased from the Basset family
by the St. Aubyns, who still remain its owners. In the castle itself,
which crowns the mount, the chief feature is the old hall, now known as
the "Chevy Chase" room, from its being adorned with carvings of various
field sports. There is some fine old furniture and good pictures.
Visitors are allowed to see the principal rooms of the castle when the
family are from home, and at all times to see the quaint old Gothic
chapel. There is a small fishing village with a pier and harbour at the
foot of the rock.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT.

The rock is 250 feet in height, and has possessed a castle since 1047.]



ROCHESTER CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, or St.
  Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Rochester.
=Distance from London.=--33 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

                    1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  5s. 4d.  3s. 4d.  2s. 8d.
          Return  9s. 4d.  6s. 3d.  5s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"King's Head Hotel," "Royal Victoria,"
  "Bull Hotel," "Royal Crown Hotel," etc.

Rochester, a most picturesque old town on the river Medway, has been a
place of importance from the earliest times. The cathedral, which is not
very impressive externally, and is much surrounded by houses, is best
seen from the castle. It was the first church built after Augustine
settled in Canterbury, but of this building no trace now remains except
some foundations. The Norman Bishop Gundulf in 1080 built a large
portion of the Norman work of the present cathedral. In 1201 it was
largely rebuilt by money obtained from thank-offerings for miracles
wrought by St. William, a baker of Perth, who was murdered near
Rochester on his way to Canterbury, and buried in the cathedral. The
Norman castle, standing on the banks of the river, was built by Bishop
Gundulf, and though it is now in ruins, the interior having been
destroyed for its timber, the walls remain firm. The castle was besieged
by William Rufus and Simon de Montfort, and on both occasions suffered
considerable damage. One of the many interesting buildings in the High
Street is the three-gabled house of Watts's Charity, which has become
famous from Dickens's Christmas story of _The Seven Poor Travellers_.
According to the inscription above the doorway, Richard Watts in 1579
founded this "Charity for Six Poor Travellers, who not being Rogues or
Proctors, may receive gratis for one night, Lodging, Entertainment, and
Fourpence each." Restoration House, an old red-brick mansion on the
Maidstone Road, is so named from the visit of Charles II. on his way to
London in 1660. To all admirers of Charles Dickens, Rochester is full of
memories (see Index, Gad's Hill). Not only did Dickens make Rochester
the scene of his last unfinished work, _Edwin Drood_, but he made many
allusions to it elsewhere. Mr. Jingle, for instance, in the _Pickwick
Papers_ says, "Ah! fine place, glorious pile--frowning walls--tottering
arches--dark nooks--crumbling staircases--old cathedral too--earthy
smell--pilgrims' feet worn away the old steps."

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ROCHESTER CATHEDRAL.

A considerable portion was built in 1080 by Bishop Gundulf.]



TUNBRIDGE WELLS


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Tunbridge Wells.
=Distance from London.=--34-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 to 2 hours.

                     1st       2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   5s. 10d.  3s. 8d.  2s. 8-1/2d.
          Return  10s.  0d.  7s. 4d.  5s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Spa Hotel," "The Swan Hotel,"
  "Castle Hotel," "Carlton Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, and St.
  Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.

At the same time that Epsom began to become known as a watering-place,
Tunbridge Wells was rapidly growing into a famous inland resort. The
wells were discovered by Lord North in 1606, while he was staying at
Eridge, and in a few years Tunbridge Wells became the resort of the
monied and leisured classes of London and other parts of the kingdom.
From that time to this the town has been one of the most popular of
England's inland watering-places.

The Tunbridge Wells of to-day is a charming and picturesque town. "The
Pantiles," with its row of stately limes in the centre and the colonnade
in front of its shops, is unique among English towns. Readers of
Thackeray's _Virginians_ will remember his description of the scene on
the Pantiles in the time of powdered wigs, silver buckles, and the
fearful and wonderful "hoop."

At the end of the Pantiles is the red brick church of
King-Charles-the-Martyr, the only one with any claim to antiquity in the
town; the rest are all quite modern.

Walks and excursions around Tunbridge Wells are numerous. The common,
with its mixture of springy turf, golden gorse, with here and there a
bold group of rocks, is one of the most beautiful in the home counties,
and in whatever direction one wanders there are long views over
far-stretching wooded hills and dales.

Rusthall Common, about a mile from the town, though somewhat smaller
than that of Tunbridge Wells, commands more extensive views.

One great feature of interest at Rusthall Common is the group of rocks,
of which the largest, the Toad Rock, bears a most singular resemblance
to the reptile from which it is named. The High Rocks, situated further
on, and just in the county of Sussex, are also very remarkable, rising
from 30 to 60 feet in height.

[Illustration: THE TOAD ROCK

On Rusthall Common, Tunbridge Wells.]

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE PANTILES, TUNBRIDGE WELLS.]



THE QUINTAIN POST AT OFFHAM AND MALLING ABBEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, Ludgate
  Hill, or St. Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--West Malling (1 mile from Offham).
=Distance from London.=--36 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   5s. 11d.  3s. 9d.  2s. 11-1/2d.
          Return  10s.  4d.  7s. 6d.  3s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"George Hotel" at West Malling.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

On the green at Offham, an out-of-the-way Kentish village, stands the
only quintain post in England. It consists of a tall white post, having
a spike at the top, upon which revolves a cross-bar. This portion, which
turns on the spike, has a fairly broad square end covered with small
holes, while at the opposite end hangs a billet of wood.

The pastime consisted in riding on horseback at the broad end and aiming
a lance at one of the holes. The rider had to duck his head at the same
instant, in order to save himself from the billet which swung round
immediately the lance-point caught the opposite end. Only those who were
very agile saved themselves from a nasty blow. Instead of a billet, a
bag containing sand or mould would sometimes be suspended on the
cross-bar. This would swing round with sufficient force to unseat the
rider.

This quintain post is undoubtedly one of the most interesting survivals
of the pastimes of the "good old days." The owners of the adjoining
house have been required to keep the quintain post in a good state of
repair, and it is doubtless to this stipulation in the title-deeds of
the property that we owe the existence of this unique relic.

The ruins of Malling Abbey, now the property of an Anglican sisterhood,
are extremely interesting. The abbey was founded in 1090, and was given
to the nun Avicia by the famous Gundulf of Rochester. The keep of St.
Leonard, not far from the abbey, was also built by Gundulf, who is
responsible for the White Tower of the Tower of London. This St.
Leonard's Tower is said to be of earlier character than any keep in
Normandy. Permission to see the ruins must be obtained from the abbess
or chaplain, and visitors are expected to give a small contribution
towards the restoration fund.

[Illustration: OFFHAM.

The Quintain Post on the Green.]



EVERSLEY

THE HOME OF CHARLES KINGSLEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Stations.=--Wokingham, 5 miles; Winchfield, 7 miles.
=Distance from London.=--Wokingham, 36-1/2 miles; Winchfield, 39 miles.
=Average Time.=--Wokingham, 2 hours; Winchfield, 1-1/2 hours.

=Fares.=--
                      Single.                    Return.
              1st      2nd      3rd       1st      2nd      3rd
Wokingham   5s. 6d.  3s. 9d.  3s. 0d.   9s. 0d.  6s. 6d.  6s. 0d.
Winchfield  6s. 6d.  4s. 0d.  3s. 3d.  11s. 6d.  7s. 2d.  6s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Small village inn at Eversley. "George
  Hotel" at Odiham, 2 miles from Winchfield Station; very old
  and picturesque.
=Alternative route.=--Train to Wellington College. S.E. and C. Rly.

The drive from Winchfield (7 miles) is chiefly across beautiful heathery
commons; from Wokingham the road is more enclosed with hedges. Eversley
Church and rectory stand almost alone, save for a farmhouse and barns,
being nearly a mile from the other portions of the village. The church
is very picturesquely situated on sloping ground, an avenue of yews
leading from the lych gate to the porch. Inside, the building has
suffered a good deal from restoration, but the pulpit from which
Kingsley preached his stirring sermons remains unaltered. The rectory is
a very old building which has been modernised on the side fronting on
the road. On the lawn stands the group of glorious Scotch firs which
Kingsley was never tired of watching. Their boughs sweep downwards and
almost touch the grass, and their great red trunks are a strong contrast
to the dense green of the surrounding foliage.

In one of the sitting-rooms is a set of drawers in which Kingsley kept a
collection of fossils. His grave is on the side of the church yard
nearest the overshadowing branches of the Scotch firs. The Runic cross
of white marble is a beautiful one. The head is ornamented with a spray
of passion flower and bears upon it the words "God is Love." On the base
are the words "Amavimus, amamus, amabimus."

The neighbouring district of Bramshill has still the little thatched
cottage where Kingsley used to conduct a little simple service on Sunday
afternoons. The whole of the country surrounding Bramshill Park is
closely covered with self-sown firs, and the commons interspersed among
the forest lands are covered with heather and gorse. This was the
country Kingsley loved, whether he was riding over it with the local
pack of foxhounds or on a visit to one of his parishioners.

[Illustration: EVERSLEY RECTORY.

The scene of the labours of Charles Kingsley.]



FARNHAM, SURREY

THE HOME OF WILLIAM COBBETT


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Farnham.
=Distance from London.=--37-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   6s. 3d.  4s. 0d.  3s. 1-1/2d.
          Return  10s. 0d.  7s. 0d.  6s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Bush," "The Railway Hotel,"
  "The Lion and Lamb," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

In 1762 William Cobbett, one of the great writers and reformers of the
eighteenth century, was born at Farnham, in Surrey. The house is still
standing, and is now known as the "Jolly Farmer" Inn. Cobbett gives a
very clear account of his early years at Farnham, and some of his
youthful escapades are very amusing. One game which he and two of his
brothers were never tired of playing was that of rolling each other like
barrels down the very steep sandy hill which one may see rising sharply
from the back of the "Jolly Farmer." Cobbett left Farnham for London
when he was twenty-one, but often revisited his native town in later
years. When he died, in 1835, he was buried in Farnham churchyard. The
grave faces the porch on the north side of the church. The Rev. Augustus
Toplady, who wrote the universally known hymn "Rock of Ages," was born
in a little house in West Street, Farnham, which was rebuilt some years
ago.

Overlooking the town from the hills to the north is Farnham Castle, the
historic seat of the Bishops of Winchester for many generations past. A
portion of the buildings, including the keep, are of Norman origin, the
rest having been chiefly built by Bishop Fox in the early part of the
sixteenth century. During the Parliamentary war Farnham Castle was for
some time the headquarters of the Roundhead army operating in this part
of the country, Sir William Waller having overcome the garrison placed
there by the High Sheriff of Surrey.

Vernon House, in West Street, is notable by reason of the visit paid to
it by Charles I. when on his way to London as a prisoner in the hands of
the Parliamentary troops. The silk cap which King Charles presented to
his host is still preserved in the house by the present owner, a
descendant of the Vernon family.

[Illustration: THE BIRTHPLACE OF WILLIAM COBBETT AT FARNHAM.]



HINDHEAD, SURREY


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Haslemere.
=Distance from London.=--43 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   7s. 2d.  4s. 6d.  3s. 7d.
          Return  12s. 6d.  8s. 0d.  6s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Old Swan Hotel," "The Hindhead
  Beacon," "White Horn Hotel," Haslemere. "Hindhead
  Hotel," "Royal Anchor Hotel," Liphook, etc.

The Hindhead district, not long ago one of the wildest in the home
counties, has of late been much encroached upon by the erection of
modern villas and houses. A few years back there was scarcely a vestige
of human habitation to be seen from the road skirting the "Devil's
Punchbowl," or the descent on the other side, but since the time
Professor Tyndall built his house there, the aspect of the country has
been in places considerably changed.

From Haslemere Station one may take a direct road to the Hindhead
summit, but the most interesting route is through Shottermill, about a
mile distant (see p. 64). From here an easy walk takes one into the main
Portsmouth road close to the Seven Thorns Inn, where there is a long
ascent to the summit of Hindhead, with its inn, the Royal Huts Hotel.
Close by is the village of Grayshott, now fast growing into a place of
considerable residential importance. Following the road Londonwards, one
arrives in a few hundred yards at the very highest point of the road
over Hindhead, after which it drops gently, skirting the magnificent
hollow known as the "Devil's Punchbowl." On the left-hand side, in the
loneliest part of the road, is the gruesome tombstone which marks the
spot where an unknown sailor was murdered and robbed while tramping from
Portsmouth to London. This stone and its surroundings, it will be
remembered, are mentioned in _Nicholas Nickleby_, in the account of the
walk of Nicholas and Smike from London to Portsmouth. Close by, on the
opposite side of the road, there is a rough sandy track--once the old
coach road--which leads up to the stone cross on the extreme summit of
the Hindhead--900 feet above sea-level--where the murderers of the
sailor were executed, and hung in chains. The view from this point,
aptly named Gibbet Hill, is quite magnificent for Surrey.

On the northern slope of Blackdown--the high ridge of hills towards the
south-east--is Aldworth House, where Tennyson resided in his latter
years.

[Illustration: THE PORTSMOUTH ROAD.

Near the highest point, where it crosses Hindhead.]



SHOTTERMILL

THE HOME OF GEORGE ELIOT


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo Station. L. and S.W.
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Haslemere (1 mile by road from Shottermill
  village).
=Distance from London.=--43 miles.
=Average Time.=--From 1-1/2 to 2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   7s. 2d.  4s. 6d.  3s. 7d.
          Return  12s. 6d.  8s. 0d.  6s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Haslemere--"White Horse Hotel,"
  "Swan Hotel," etc. "Oakland's Mansion Private Hotel."

This lovely little village, on the slopes of Hindhead, with its breezy
uplands, its hills covered with Scotch firs and its undulating tracts of
land, so beautiful in the autumn with the glorious purple heather, was
much beloved by George Eliot, known to the whole world as the writer of
_Adam Bede_ and the _Mill on the Floss_. In 1871, while _Middlemarch_
was appearing in parts, George Eliot, who as Mr. Lewes said, "never
seemed at home except under a broad sweep of sky," spent part of the
spring and summer at Brookbank,--an old-fashioned gabled cottage in the
village (close to the church) with delightful lattice-paned
windows,--belonging to a Mrs. Gilchrist. At this time George Eliot was
in a delicate state of health and scarcely equal to finishing her new
story. One cannot call it a novel, for it had no plot. It was simply a
remarkable picture of provincial life in the first half of the
nineteenth century. George Eliot greatly enjoyed her quiet life at
Shottermill, although many of her friends thought it incomprehensible
that she could endure such a secluded life. One can scarcely read her
graphic description of the sweet beauty of a Warwickshire lane, with its
hedgerows all radiant in summer beauty, without feeling how much this
remarkable woman loved it all, and in some degree one may understand how
restful were the village surroundings. They led a most uneventful life,
but occasionally would pay a visit to Tennyson, whose house at Aldworth
was only 3 miles off. George Eliot rarely went out in the daytime, but
sometimes she would go to see some cottagers and have a chat with them.
A farmer's wife was greatly astonished at her knowledge of
butter-making, and of the growth of fruit and vegetables, little
imagining that in her early days, after her mother's death, the great
authoress had managed the dairy in her own home at Griff House.

[Illustration: BROOKBANK.

George Eliot's cottage at Shottermill, near Haslemere.]



PENN'S CHAPEL AT THAKEHAM, SUSSEX


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria or London Bridge. L.B.
  and S.C. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Billingshurst (3 miles from Thakeham).
=Distance from London.=--44 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 to 2-1/2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   7s. 2d.  4s. 8d.  3s. 6-1/2d.
          Return  11s. 5d.  8s. 2d.  7s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--None at Thakeham. "King's Arms"
  at Billingshurst.

The little chapel where the great William Penn used to worship when he
lived at the old mansion of Warminghurst is so entirely buried in the
country that one must make careful inquiries in order to find one's way
to it from Billingshurst. When one reaches the cottage at last, one
finds a gate right across the road, for beyond it the lane gradually
deteriorates to a mere grassy track between hedges. Locally this
Thakeham meeting-house is known as the "Blue Idol," a name not
altogether explained when one discovers that for a long period the
interior of the chapel had blue-washed walls.

As one may see from the drawing given here, it is an exceedingly quaint
old building, the portion shown being used as a meeting-house, the other
half being a cottage occupied by the family who act as caretakers. The
cream-washed walls are broken up by the richly mellowed half-timber
work, and above is the roof of grey green Horsham slabs splashed over
with bright orange lichen.

Inside there are the very old oaken settles as well as less ancient
ones. The timber framing shows on the walls and roof, here, as on the
exterior, and the general quaintness of the place is enhanced by the old
stone-flagged floor. Of William Penn's house at Warminghurst no traces
whatever remain, but this only helps to increase the interest in the
little chapel which has remained entirely unaltered for over two
centuries. Penn, who bought the house in 1682, probably chose its site
on account of its remoteness, for those were the days when their
meetings were at any moment liable to interruption--when the members of
the congregation met together knowing well that discovery meant
imprisonment. In the quaint little meeting-house it is easy to feel the
spirit of the Quakers, and one may almost imagine that one hears outside
the rumble of the wheels of the heavy ox-waggon in which Penn drove over
from Warminghurst Place.

[Illustration: THE OLD CHAPEL AT THAKEHAM NEAR BILLINGSHURST.

Where William Penn used to worship.]



CHAWTON THE HOME OF JANE AUSTEN


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Alton (1 mile from Chawton).
=Distance from London.=--46-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-3/4 to 2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   7s. 9d.  5s. 0d.  3s. 10-1/2d.
          Return  13s. 6d.  8s. 8d.  7s.  9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Alton--"Swan Hotel," "Crown
  Hotel," etc.

Situated about a mile from Alton Station, on the main line of the
South-Western Railway, is the little village of Chawton, the residence
of Jane Austen at the time when she was producing her best literary
work. A walk along the main Winchester road brings one to the charming
old-world place, and, keeping on past the thatched cottages of the
village, one reaches a small brick house on the right-hand side, near a
pond, just before the road divides for Winchester and Gosport. This
building, which is now tenanted by a workman's club, was Chawton
Cottage, where Jane Austen spent some of the brightest days of her life,
and wrote her most successful novels, books which are more highly
appreciated at the present day than they were during the lifetime of the
authoress.

Her father was rector of Steventon, another Hampshire village, at which
place his daughter was born in 1775, and where her early days were
spent. Jane Austen's novels are remarkable for the truthfulness and
charm with which they reproduce the everyday life of the upper middle
classes in England in her time, and for delicate and yet distinct
insight into every variety of the human character. Miss Austen's first
four novels, _Sense and Sensibility_, _Pride and Prejudice_, _Mansfield
Park_, and _Emma_, were published anonymously.

A short distance along the Gosport road is Chawton Park, a remarkably
fine Elizabethan mansion, occupied in Miss Austen's time by Edward
Knight, the lord of the manor. This country seat, which is not
accessible to visitors, was most probably the original of _Mansfield
Park_, and in the little church close by are several monuments to the
Knight family. Miss Austen died at Winchester on July 24, 1817, and is
buried in the cathedral. The brass to her memory is in the north aisle.

Within easy walking distance is Gilbert White's home at Selborne, which
is treated under a separate heading (p. 70).

[Illustration: JANE AUSTEN'S COTTAGE AT CHAWTON.

_Sense and Sensibility_, _Pride and Prejudice_, and _Northanger Abbey_
were revised and partly rewritten here; and _Emma_, _Mansfield Park_,
and _Persuasion_ were entirely produced at the cottage.]



SELBORNE

THE HOME OF GILBERT WHITE


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Alton (4 miles from Selborne).
=Distance from London.=--46-1/2 miles. East Tisted, 2 miles from Selborne,
  shortly to be available.
=Average Time.=--1-3/4 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   7s. 9d.  5s. 0d.  3s. 10-1/2d.
          Return  13s. 6d.  8s. 8d.  7s.  9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Alton--"Swan Hotel," "Crown
  Hotel," etc.

Selborne, the birthplace of the famous naturalist, Gilbert White, is
situated in the extreme eastern corner of the county of Hampshire. A
vast chalk hill rises some 300 feet above the south-western side of the
village, part of which is covered with an extensive beech wood, called
"The Hanger," and a down or sheep-walk. This down is a beautiful
park-like spot, with a delightful woodland, now bounded by the Sussex
Downs. The village lies at the foot of the chalk hill parallel with the
Hanger, and contains only one straggling street, nearly a mile in
length, a small rivulet rising at each end. The stream at the
north-western end often fails, but the other, known as the "Well-Head,"
is a fine spring, seldom influenced by drought. Wolmer Forest, near by,
is famed for its timber. In the centre of the village, on a piece of
ground commonly known as "The Plestor," there stood, until the fearful
storm of 1703, a colossal oak tree, with a short body and enormous
horizontally spreading arms. The stone steps, with seats above them,
surrounding the tree, formed a favourite resort for both old and young
during summer evenings. This oak, together with an equally large elm
tree, are mentioned by White.

Gilbert White was born in 1720. He began his education at Basingstoke,
from whence he proceeded in 1739 to Oriel College, Oxford, and finally
became one of the senior proctors of the university in 1752. On his
father's death, White became the occupier of his house in Selborne known
as "The Wakes," and afterwards became curate of the parish. He never
married, but lived a happy and uneventful life, wrapped up in the
wonderfully exact observations of nature which were the basis of his
numerous letters forming _The Natural History of Selborne_. His final
resting-place is unobtrusively marked by a simple grey stone bearing the
initials "G.W.," a monument entirely in keeping with Gilbert White's
quiet and retiring nature and refreshingly simple style of writing.

[Illustration: THE WAKES.

Gilbert White's house at Selborne.]



ELSTOW

THE HOME OF JOHN BUNYAN


=How to get there.=--Through train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Bedford (1 mile from Elstow).
=Distance from London.=--50 miles.
=Average Time.=--An hour.

                     1st     2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single   6s. 7d.   ...   3s. 11-1/2d.
          Return  13s. 2d.   ...   7s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Embankment Hotel," "Lion Hotel,"
  "Swan Hotel," etc., at Bedford.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

The little village of Elstow, near Bedford, will always be remembered as
the birthplace of John Bunyan, and the cottage is still shown where the
"immortal dreamer" was born. It was while in Bedford jail for
"conscience' sake" that Bunyan ministered to all posterity by writing
the _Pilgrim's Progress from this World to the World to Come_, under the
similitude of a dream. As an allegory of the soul's conflicts and
struggles with evil in its journey through life, it is unsurpassed. It
is believed that no other book except the Bible has gone through so many
editions or attained such a popularity in all languages. It has been
generally understood that Bunyan's early life was a very profligate one,
but some have thought that his terrible self-accusations in after years
may have arisen from the height of his religious fervour and Puritan
strictness, which made him look on dancing and bell-ringing as deadly
sins. This idea is satisfactorily given by Macaulay.

Bunyan was of poor parentage, his father being a tinker. At one time he
was in the Parliamentary Army, and in 1645, was present at the siege of
Leicester. Having left the army, he married. Then after a time of great
spiritual agony and doubt, with quieter intervals, he became a member
and then minister of the Baptist congregation at Bedford. His labours
were stopped by the Act of Conventicles, and Bunyan was a prisoner in
Bedford jail for twelve years. While in prison Bunyan assisted in
providing for the wants of his wife and family by making tagged laces.
The only books he had during his confinement were the Bible and Foxe's
_Book of Martyrs_. Through the kind interposition of Bishop Barlow of
Lincoln, Bunyan was released, and resumed his work of a preacher until
his death from fever in London in 1688. Bunyan also wrote the _Holy War_
and _Grace Abounding_, an autobiographical narrative.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

BUNYAN'S COTTAGE AT ELSTOW.

The cottage is structurally the same as in Bunyan's time.]



LEWES, SUSSEX


=How to get there.=--Train from London Bridge or Victoria. London,
  Brighton, and South-Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lewes.
=Distance from London.=--50 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/4 to 2-1/4 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   8s. 6d.  5s. 0d.  4s. 2d.
          Return  15s. 0d.  9s. 0d.  8s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The White Hart Hotel," "Crown,"
  "Commercial," "Temperance Hotel," etc.

Lewes, a prosperous agricultural centre, situated on the Sussex Ouse, is
a place of great antiquity, in spite of its present modern appearance.
Its early history is vague, but it is known that it was of importance
even under the Saxon kings, and was fortified in Alfred's time. William
the Conqueror gave Lewes to Earl William de Warenne, who had married
Gundrada, said to be the daughter of Queen Matilda and the Conqueror. De
Warenne built the castle, or considerably enlarged the old Saxon
fortress, which is now in ruins. The castle possessed a curious feature,
of which no other examples now remain, in having two keeps, each built
upon a mound. Only one of these keeps (admission 6d.) still exists, its
towers covered with ivy. From its summit a splendid view of the
surrounding country can be obtained towards the chalk bluffs of the
South Downs and the valley of the Ouse. The great gateway of the castle
still stands, and in Southover, the suburb of Lewes, are the remains of
the once large and wealthy Priory of St. Pancras. This was the first
Cluniac establishment in England. It was founded by De Warenne and
Gundrada, and continued to be of great importance up to the dissolution.
Until about sixty years ago the old pigeon-house of the priory,
containing 3228 pigeon-holes, was still standing. When excavations were
going on during the construction of the railway, which passes through
the priory grounds, the workmen came upon two leaden coffins, which were
discovered to be those of William de Warenne and his wife. These were
removed to Southover Church, and Gundrada's grave has now its original
tombstone of black marble, which was found in Isfield Church. On the
site of the race-course was fought in 1264 the battle of Lewes, between
Henry III. and the insurgent barons, led by Simon de Montfort, Earl of
Leicester. There are a few old houses left, and the modern town hall
contains a beautiful oak staircase and panelling taken from the old Star
Inn.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BARBICAN AT LEWES CASTLE.

The castle was built by William de Warenne, who had received Lewes from
William the Conqueror.]



BODIAM CASTLE, SUSSEX


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Robertsbridge (4 miles from Bodiam). From
  Robertsbridge take train to Bodiam Station (which is close to
  the castle) on Rother Valley Light Railway.
=Distance from London.=--51 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/2 to 3 hours.

                     1st       2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   8s. 4d.   5s. 3d.  4s. 2-1/2d.
          Return  14s. 8d.  10s. 6d.  8s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Bodiam Castle is open to the public every day of the week except Sundays
(tickets, obtainable at the keeper's cottage, 6d. each; Thursdays, 1s.
each).

There is practically no other moated castle in England which compares
with Bodiam in its completeness. It was built about the year 1386, but
its usefulness for defensive purposes, in view of the increasing
destructiveness of weapons at that time, has been doubted. However, the
knight who was responsible for its construction was Sir Edward
Dalyngrudge, who fought at both Crecy and Poictiers, and must therefore
have seen the primitive forerunner of the modern field-gun in use. The
walls of the castle now enclose a grassy quadrangle, to which access is
gained through a fine gateway, which still retains its outer iron
portcullis. The three others, through which an attacking force was
obliged to penetrate, have all disappeared. Although it has been stated
that the parliamentary forces under Waller captured Bodiam Castle during
the Civil War, it seems to be unlikely that such an attack was ever
made; for in March 1645 the property was conveyed by the Earl of Thanet
to one Nathaniel Powell of London, who was strongly in favour of the
Commonwealth.

Lord Ashcombe, the present owner, has restored the walls very carefully,
and the chapel and various private apartments with their fireplaces
remain intact.

The castle buildings as a whole are a rectangular block entirely
surrounded by the wide moat shown in the illustration. One crosses to
the main gateway by a narrow raised pathway. The surface of the water
during the summer is generally bright with water-lilies.

Bodiam Church is an Early English structure, now very much restored. It
is on the hill, a few minutes' walk from the castle.

[Illustration: BODIAM CASTLE.

One of the most perfect moated castles in England.]



COLCHESTER, ESSEX


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Colchester.
=Distance from London.=--51-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 1 hr. 4 m. to 2 hours.

                     1st     2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single   9s. 9d.   ...   4s. 4-1/2d.
          Return  14s. 8d.   ...   8s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The George," "Red Lion," "The
  Cups," etc.

Modern Colchester is the direct descendant of the ancient British town
of Camulodunum, referred to by Tacitus and other Roman historians.
Various kings of the Trinobantes seem to have caused much trouble during
the early period of the Roman occupation. Cunobelinus, one of their
kings, reigned from about 5 B.C. to A.D. 42 or 43, and numerous coins
bearing the abbreviated form of his name, CVNO, have been discovered.
After his death the Emperor Claudius came over to England, subdued the
Trinobantes, and established a Roman colony at Camulodunum. The new
colony, under the name of Colonia Victriensis, was, however, attacked by
a huge horde of the British under Boadicea in A.D. 61. They slaughtered
all the inhabitants and destroyed the temple of Claudius.

The Romans, however, soon turned the tables again on the Britons, and at
once surrounded the town with a very strong wall. From this time onwards
for several centuries the place was one of the strongest Roman stations
in the country. It is not surprising, therefore, that the remains of the
Roman occupation at Colchester are the most perfect of the kind in the
country. The coins range from Asupa, 6 B.C., to Valentinian, who died
A.D. 455, while very great quantities of Roman glass, pottery, and
tiles, all sorts of domestic vessels and personal ornaments have been
discovered. Some idea of the richness of these finds can be obtained
from the collection in the museum in the old Norman castle.

The story of King Coel in connection with Colchester is not altogether
accepted by historians, yet there are so many references to it in
Anglo-Saxon writings that it cannot be quite ignored.

Colchester suffered terribly in the Civil War, and sustained a fearful
siege lasting seventy-six days, the townsfolk and Royalist forces being
eventually forced to surrender to Fairfax. The Saxon doorway of Trinity
Church, and St. Botolph's Priory, are exceedingly interesting.

[Illustration: COLCHESTER CASTLE.

Which now contains a magnificent collection of the Roman remains found
in the town.]



LAYER MARNEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Great Eastern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Colchester (7 miles from Layer Marney).
=Distance from London.=--51-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1 and 2-1/4 hours.

                     1st     2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single   9s. 9d.   ...   4s. 4-1/2d.
          Return  14s. 8d.   ...   8s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Red Lion Hotel," "George
  Hotel," "The Cups Hotel," etc., all at Colchester.

The unfinished home of the Marneys rises in lonely grandeur in an
out-of-the-way part of Essex. To the north runs the road to Colchester;
southwards the ground slopes away in the direction of the Blackwater.
The great gateway has stood in these peaceful surroundings quite
untouched for 400 years. A small portion of the mansion is by the side
of the gateway, and the church with the Marney monuments is further to
the left.

Lord Marney fought for Henry VII. in France, and was one of the court
counsellors at the time of his son's accession. He became a great
favourite with Henry VIII., and was created a baron, besides being made
a Knight of the Garter and Captain of the Bodyguard. He came of an old
Norman stock, but had not overmuch land. At Layer Marney, his chief
estate, he determined to build a fitting abode for himself. It was one
of the earliest buildings since Roman times to be built of brick. The
terra-cotta mouldings are a peculiar feature. It is thought that Lord
Marney brought over Italian workmen to make the terra-cotta, for there
is a classic touch about the ornaments. The gateway has two towers, one
ivy-clad. The whole structure is strikingly original in style. It was
commenced in 1500, but Lord Marney died before the work was done. John,
his son, died the next year, and with him the line of Marneys became
extinct.

In the church are three monuments of the Marneys. The tomb of Henry,
Lord Marney, is in the arch leading to the Marney Chapel, which was
founded by him. The figure is of dark marble, clad in armour, and
wearing the robes of a Knight of the Garter. An ancestor of Lord Marney,
who died in 1414, lies near. The effigy is clothed in mail. The figure
of John, the last of the Marneys, is of black marble. There are some
curious frescoes in the church, and an oak screen. The interior of the
building is probably older than the exterior, which is of about the same
date as the towers.

The church keys may be procured at the rectory.

[Illustration: LAYER MARNEY TOWER, ESSEX.

Commenced by the first Lord Marney about the year 1500, but owing to the
death of Lord Marney and of his only son, the year following, the
buildings were never finished.]



BATTLE ABBEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross or Cannon Street.
  South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Battle.
=Distance from London.=--55-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 hours and 1-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single   9s. 4d.   5s. 10d.  4s. 8-1/2d.
          Return  16s. 4d.  11s.  8d.  9s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"George" and "Star" Hotels.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Battle Abbey is open to the public on Tuesdays only, between 12 and 4.
There is no charge for admission, tickets being obtained from the
stationer's shop bearing the name Ticehurst. It is situated close to the
main entrance to the abbey. The great gateway through which one enters
is illustrated here. It was probably built by Abbot Retlynge in the
first half of the fourteenth century. The original abbey was built in
fulfilment of a vow which William the Norman made just before the battle
of Senlac Hill, the building being arranged so that the high altar was
placed on the exact spot where the body of Harold II. was discovered on
the awful field of slaughter. The sixty monks who started the monastery
were brought over by William from the Benedictine monastery of
Marmontier in Normandy. They were granted many extraordinary privileges,
including the right of treasure-trove. A further privilege was given to
the abbots in the form of authority to pardon any sentenced criminal
whom they might chance to meet on the road. The abbey was not completed
until after the death of William the Conqueror.

On the left, as one goes through the great gateway, are the portions of
the abbey which have been converted into the house which was, until her
death, the home of the Duchess of Cleveland. At right angles to these
buildings runs a terrace, from which one looks towards the sea across
the battlefield on which was decided one of the most momentous issues
which have affected the English nation.

One must have read Lord Lytton's _Harold_ to fully realise the
tremendous pathos of the struggle to the death between the English and
the Normans. The green facing the great gateway has half hidden on its
surface an old bull ring. In wet weather this is scarcely discoverable,
the ring being easily hidden in the small puddles of water which
accumulate.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE GATEWAY OF BATTLE ABBEY.

The high altar of Battle Abbey was placed exactly over the spot where
the body of Harold II. was discovered after the battle of Senlac Hill.]



CAMBRIDGE


=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras or Liverpool Street.
  Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Cambridge.
=Distance from London.=--55-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/4 and 2-1/2 hours. Quickest train,
  1 h. 13 m.

                     1st      2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single   8s.  9d.   ...   4s. 7-1/2d.
          Return  15s. 10d.   ...   9s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bull Hotel,"  "Lion Hotel,"
  "University Arms Hotel," "Hoop Hotel," "Bath Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Routes=.--From Euston by L. and N.W. Railway.
  From King's Cross, Great Northern Railway.  From St.
  Pancras, Midland Railway.

Cambridge shares with its sister university, Oxford, the honour of being
one of the two most ancient seats of learning in Great Britain. The town
itself is of very remote origin, and stands on the site of the Roman
station _Camboricum_, on the _Via Devana_. By the Saxons, Cambridge
appears to have been known as Grantabrycge, which was probably later
abbreviated into Cantbrigge. The true history of the town as a
university began at the opening of the twelfth century, when Joffred,
Abbot of Crowland, sent over to Cottenham, near Cambridge, four monks,
who, in a hired barn, started their teachings, which soon became
excessively popular. The first regular society of students was founded
in 1257.

Cambridge abounds in features of interest and contains a large number of
old churches, perhaps the most interesting being that of St. Sepulchre,
one of the four circular churches remaining in England. This church,
which is in Bridge Street, was erected in the reign of Henry I., and
founded, like the one at Northampton, by the Knights Templars in
imitation of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.

The colleges are, of course, the glory of Cambridge, and one is almost
bewildered by the beauty and variety of their architecture. King's
College Chapel is one of the most magnificent examples in the town, but
nearly all the more important collegiate buildings are beautiful types
of mediaeval work. The visitor should on no account omit to walk through
the "Backs," which is the 'varsity term for the backs of the colleges,
with the "Fellows' Gardens" reaching down to the quiet Cam. The Great
Court, Trinity College, is one of the most imposing of the numerous
quadrangles, and is the largest of any at either Oxford or Cambridge.
The Master's Lodge here is the residence of the sovereign on all royal
visits.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ST. JOHN'S GATEWAY, CAMBRIDGE.]



ARUNDEL CASTLE


=How to get there.=--Trains from Victoria and London Bridge. By
  London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Arundel.
=Distance from London.=--58-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--2 hours.

                     1st        2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   9s.  2d.   6s. 0d.  4s. 8d.
          Return  14s. 10d.  10s. 7d.  9s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Norfolk Hotel," "Eagle Inn,"
  "Bridge Hotel," "Granville Boarding House," etc.

The interior of the castle is not shown to visitors without special
permission from the Duke of Norfolk, the keep alone being thrown open to
all on Mondays and Fridays between 12 and 4 P.M.--tickets being obtained
at the Norfolk Hotel. The park, however, is open to the public.

The town of Arundel is one of the oldest and most beautifully situated
in Sussex, that county of ancient towns, and its castle, a wonderful
feudal fortress, was originally bequeathed by Alfred the Great to his
nephew Adhelm. After the Conquest, it came into the possession of Roger
de Montgomery, who rebuilt it, and in 1097 it was held for a short time
by William II. It was at Arundel Castle that Adeliza, the widow of Henry
I., entertained Queen Maud in 1139. The castle came afterwards to the
Fitzalans, and from them by marriage to the Howard family, who still
hold it. It was the object of several fierce attacks during the
Parliamentary War, for having been captured by Waller and garrisoned for
the Parliament, it was retaken by the Royalists under Lord Hopton, and
soon after taken once more by Waller. The castle was much damaged by all
these assaults, and was almost in ruins at the commencement of the last
century, when it was taken in hand and restored by the then Duke of
Norfolk. Of the ancient buildings, the keep, the entrance gateway, and
parts of the walls, are all that now remain. The keep or Bevis Tower is
an old Norman structure with walls 8 to 10 feet thick, having in the
centre the castle dungeon, reached by a narrow staircase in the wall.
The restoration was made as much as possible in conformity with the
style of the old fortress, and the interior is a good example of modern
Gothic art, the new chapel being an interesting example of this. The
Baron's Hall, with its open chestnut roof and stained-glass windows, is
perhaps one of the most striking features in the castle.

A fine stone bridge of three arches connects the two portions of the
town. It spans the river Arun, which is navigable up to Arundel for
vessels of 150 tons burden.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ARUNDEL CASTLE.

Built soon after the Conquest by Roger de Montgomery. It was much
damaged during the Parliamentary War, but was repaired by a former Duke
of Norfolk early in the 19th century.]



OLNEY, BUCKS

THE HOME OF COWPER


=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Change trains at Bedford.
  Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Olney.
=Distance from London.=--60-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--1-1/2 hours.

                     1st     2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single   8s. 1d.   ...   4s. 9-1/2d.
          Return  16s. 2d.   ...   9s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bull Hotel," etc.

Olney was for a period the home of the delicate and sensitive poet
William Cowper, who was born at the parsonage of Great Berkhampstead.
His father was chaplain to George II. Cowper lost his mother at a very
early age, and the sad event made a deep impression on his mind. In
after years he wrote a poem addressed to his mother's portrait which it
is said has drawn more tears than any other poem in the English
language. Cowper was sent to school at six years of age, but was very
unhappy there, and it laid the foundation of that settled gloom which
oppressed him all through life. When Cowper had finished his studies at
the Westminster School he commenced the study of law, and was afterwards
called to the bar; but he never practised, for he hated law. Cowper was
offered several appointments, but failed in examinations for them from
extreme nervousness. By the kindness of friends an income was secured
for him and he went to reside at Huntingdon. Here he formed an
acquaintance with Mrs. Unwin, the "Mary" of his poems, which ripened
into deepest friendship. He enjoyed much tranquil happiness during the
time of his residence with the Unwin family.

When Cowper and his friends moved to Olney they lived in the
old-fashioned regular fronted house illustrated opposite. Here Cowper is
said to have amused himself with his hares and in the making of boxes
and tables. He was also interested in the bees in the old-fashioned
garden at the back of the house, where one may still see the little
rustic summer-house in which _John Gilpin_ and some of the _Task_ were
written. The house now contains a Cowper museum, and visitors thus have
an opportunity of seeing the parlour and other rooms, besides many other
interesting objects connected with the poet. His great friend at Olney
was the Rev. John Newton. They were constantly together in their walks,
in their homes, and at church, and both wrote a number of hymns.

[Illustration: _Thornborough._

COWPER'S HOME AT OLNEY.

The house now contains a Cowper museum.]



WANTAGE AND THE COUNTRY OF ALFRED THE GREAT


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Wantage Road.
=Distance from London.=--60-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/2 to 2-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  10s. 0d.   6s. 4d.   5s. 0-1/2d.
          Return  17s. 8d.  11s. 0d.  10s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Good posting and hotels. "Bear
  Hotel" and "Blue Boar."

The chalk ridge in the north of Berkshire is rich in memories of Alfred.
First in importance is Wantage, a peaceful town at the foot of the
hills, and famous as the birthplace of the great king. There is a statue
by Count Gleichen in the wide market-place representing Alfred with a
battle-axe and a charter in his hands. The church is a fine example of
Early English architecture, and interesting besides as the burying-place
of many famous Fitz-warens, among them Ivo, whose daughter married
Richard Whittington, Lord Mayor of London. Dr. Butler of _The Analogy_
was born in the town, and the house is still to be seen.

Leaving Wantage, one may go along the breezy downs to Uffington Castle,
a large fort, presumably of British origin. It was one of many similar
forts along the Roman way called Ichenilde Street, that stretches
straight as an arrow along the whole ridge. Near the fort is the famous
White Horse cut in the chalk, which, since its recent cleansing, gleams
brilliantly from the hillside. It was cut out to commemorate the
magnificent victory of Ethelred the Unready and Alfred over the Danes at
Ashdown in 871. Readers of _Tom Brown's School Days_ will recall the
story of the Berkshire revels in 1857, when the scouring of the Horse
took place. Judge Hughes was born here, under the shadow of the downs,
and near by is the round hill where tradition says St. George slew the
dragon.

In _Kenilworth_ Sir Walter Scott has immortalised Wayland Smith's Cave,
a neolithic burial-place of some ancient chieftain which lies to the
west of Uffington Castle. It is a circle of stone slabs with flat stones
on the top. Wayland was the "Vulcan" of the men of the north, and
Alfred, in one of his translations, altered the "Fabricius" of the Roman
account into the northern "Wayland," the fairy smith who replaced lost
shoes on horses. It was in this cave that Scott made Flibbertigibbet
play tricks on Tressilian.

[Illustration: THE STATUE OF ALFRED THE GREAT AT WANTAGE.

It was designed by Count Gleichen.]



CANTERBURY AND ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, Charing
  Cross, or Cannon Street. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Canterbury (East).
=Distance from London.=--61-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-3/4 to 2-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  10s. 4d.   6s. 6d.   5s. 2d.
          Return  18s. 0d.  13s. 0d.  10s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"County Hotel," "The Fleece
  Family and Commercial Hotel," Baker's "Temperance Hotel,"
  "The Royal Fountain Hotel," "Falstaff Hotel," etc.

The city of Canterbury, originally an important station in Watling
Street, the _Durovernum_ of the Romans, was one of the earliest places
occupied by the Saxons, by whom it was named _Cantwarabyrig_, or "town
of the Kentish men," and made the capital of the Saxon kingdom of Kent,
and a royal residence. About 597 the abbey was founded by St. Augustine
and his royal convert King Ethelbert. Canterbury was then constituted
the seat of the primacy in England, a dignity it retains to this day.

At the period of the Norman Conquest the city was of considerable size,
and the castle, of which very little now remains, is reputed to be the
work of William the Conqueror. The cathedral was burnt down at least
twice before the present building was erected, but under the influence
of the Norman archbishops, Lanfranc and Anselm, the erection of the new
"Church of Christ" proceeded apace. But it was not until the end of the
twelfth century that the murder of Becket set the whole of Europe
ringing with excitement, and Canterbury rose at once into the front rank
as an ecclesiastical city and pilgrims' shrine.

At the time when Chaucer wrote his _Canterbury Tales_ the city was
surrounded by a strong wall with twenty-one towers and six gates. Of the
wall there are some remains in Broad Street; of the gates "West Gate,"
through which the pilgrims entered from London, is the only survivor.

Canterbury teems with interesting relics of the past, and weeks may be
spent in its old-world streets, where one is continually coming across
unexpected little bits of half-timber work, weather-beaten gables, and
grotesque oak carving. The cathedral, whose "Bell Harry" or central
tower seems to dominate the whole city, should be approached through
Mercery Lane, at the corner of which are some slight remains of
Chaucer's hostelry, "The Chequers of Hope." At the bottom of the lane
the cathedral close is entered by the famous Christ Church Gateway,
erected by Prior Goldstone in 1517. Once inside the close gate the
visitor gets some idea of the amazing beauty of the structure, which is
certainly unsurpassed by any other cathedral in the kingdom. The
building exhibits almost every style of architecture, from the Norman
work of William of Lens to the late Perpendicular of Prior Goldstone,
and yet the work of composition and design has been so exquisitely
carried out that there is no hint of any want of harmony in the
magnificent whole. The interior is no less remarkable, the arches and
vaulting of the nave being some of the most beautiful in existence.
Becket's shrine was despoiled at the Reformation, but the number of
pilgrims who visited it may be imagined from the fact that the broad
stone steps are worn hollow, and this only by the knees of his
worshippers. The Angel doorway in the cloisters, by which the archbishop
entered the sacred building pursued by his murderers, gives access on to
the north-west or martyrdom transept. Here is shown the spot where the
primate made his last stand and fell under the blows of the Norman
knights. Another object of special interest is the tomb of Edward, the
Black Prince, who died in the city in 1376. There is so much to see in
and about the cathedral and its precincts, however, that a trustworthy
guide-book is a _sine qua non_. The building is open from 9.30 to the
end of evening service--the nave and two west transepts free; the choir
and crypt, 6d. each person. Sketching orders, 2s. 6d. per day, and
photographing orders, 5s. per day.

In the city itself the most interesting of the old churches is St.
Martin's, reputed to be the oldest in England (admission, 6d.). Here St.
Augustine first preached Christianity before the cathedral was built.
St. Martin's Hill, near the church, should be noticed. It was over this
ascent that Augustine with his Roman monks passed into Canterbury in
697.

In Monastery Street is the fine gateway of the once rich and powerful
St. Augustine's Abbey; and near it, not many years ago, was a fine
example of Saxon work, known as Ethelbert's Tower, which some of the
intelligent busybodies of the time had removed with a battering-ram.

In Broad Street is the Hospital of St. John, with its quaint entrance
and fine old timbered gateway.

The Grammar School, known as the King's School, was founded at the close
of the seventh century. The most remarkable portion of what remains of
the old buildings is an almost unique Norman staircase.

[Illustration: THE WEST GATE, CANTERBURY.

The only one left standing of the six in existence in the days of
Chaucer.]

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE TRANSEPT OF MARTYRDOM.

In Canterbury Cathedral.]



RECULVERS


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, or St.
  Paul's. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Herne Bay. (Reculvers lies 3 miles along the coast.)
=Distance from London.=--62-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-3/4 to 3 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  10s. 6d.   6s. 6d.   5s. 2-1/2d.
          Return  18s. 5d.  13s. 0d.  10s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Herne Bay--"The Dolphin Hotel,"
  "The Connaught," "The Grand," "St. George's Cliff," "Pier
  Hotel," "Herne Bay Hotel," etc.; also the "Bungalow Hotel,"
  etc., at Birchington.

About 3 miles to the east of Herne Bay, the twin towers of an old Roman
church stand prominently out from the flat marsh-land which stretches
between the villages of Herne and Birchington, some 5 miles from the
well-known health resort of Margate. Regulbium, now known as Reculver,
and Rutupium, or Richborough, near Sandwich, were two Roman stations
guarding the entrances to the estuary which formerly separated the Isle
of Thanet from the mainland. Regulbium was also used as a lighthouse and
watch-tower, because of its commanding position near the mouths of both
the Thames and Medway.

After the Roman occupation, Regulbium became one of the chief seats of
the Saxon kings, and when, after his conversion to Christianity by St.
Augustine, King Ethelbert gave up his palace at Canterbury, he lived
there with his court, and his remains were interred in the first church
erected on the spot. In the ninth century a Benedictine abbey was
founded at Regulbium by a priest named Bapa. A few years after, King
Edred granted the abbey to the Monastery of Christchurch at Canterbury,
but the society was either removed or dissolved before the Norman
Conquest. This practically ends the history of Regulbium, for owing to
the steady encroachments of the sea, and to the fact that the estuary
continued to fill up, the once populous Roman city was gradually
deserted. The present remains consist of parts of the earth-works of the
Roman station, and the twin towers and ruined walls of the church.
Though the church formerly occupied the centre of the Roman city, the
sea has now reached the base of the bank on which the towers stand. In
his famous "Brothers of Birchington," Thomas Ingoldsby says of the twin
towers--

  They were tall and upright
  And just equal in height.

Reculvers and the neighbourhood were at one time a favourite resort for
smugglers.

[Illustration: RECULVERS FROM THE EAST.]



OXFORD


=How to get there=.--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station=.--Oxford.
=Distance from London=.--63-1/2 miles.
=Average Time=.--Varies between 1-1/4 to 2-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares=.--Single  10s. 6d.   6s. 8d.   5s. 3-1/2d.
          Return  18s. 6d.  11s. 8d.  10s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Randolph Hotel," "Mitre Hotel,"
  "The Roebuck Hotel," "Railway Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

Oxford was a centre of learning in the time of Alfred. Walter de Merton
_founded_ the first college there, and others started the collegiate
system of corporate colleges which makes English universities unique.
The most celebrated colleges are Christ Church, Magdalen, New College,
and Merton. Keble, Mansfield, and Hertford were established in Victorian
times. In one part of the High Street the scene is architecturally
magnificent. On the south side is University College, which claims the
oldest foundation, although the present building only dates from the
seventeenth century. Opposite is Queen's College, then comes All Souls'.
On the same side is St. Mary's Church, and a little further All Souls'
Church. A turning by St. Mary's Church leads to the Bodleian Library,
the Sheldonian Theatre, and the Ashmolean Museum. At one end of St.
Giles' Street is the Martyrs' Memorial and the Taylor Institution.
Returning to High Street, and going towards the stations, a turning on
the left leads to Oriel, Corpus Christi, and Merton Colleges, and still
further on, St. Aldate's Street, on the left, leads to Pembroke College
and the fourteenth-century church of St. Aldate's. Opposite the church
are the buildings known as Christ Church, which has the Cathedral Church
of St. Frideswide for its chapel. In the principal entrance is "Great
Tom," the famous bell that tolls at 9.5 P.M. Christ Church, though the
smallest cathedral in England, and possibly in Europe, is of great
interest on account of its very distinct transitional style. Magdalen
College, near the bridge over the River Cherwell, and the Botanic
Gardens, are at the other end of the High Street.

There was a monastery in Oxford in the eighth century. A castle was
built by William I. after he captured the town, and from that time it
was often visited by English kings. Several parliaments have been held
there, and the courts of law as well as the parliament removed to Oxford
during the plague of 1665. Charles I. made it his headquarters until
Fairfax took the town.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

MAGDALEN COLLEGE, OXFORD.]



MIDHURST

AND THE HOME OF RICHARD COBDEN


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Midhurst.
=Distance from London.=--64-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3-1/4 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  10s.  2d.   6s. 6d.   5s. 0-1/2d.
          Return  17s. 10d.  11s. 3d.  10s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Angel," "Spread Eagle,"
  "New Inn," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Victoria and London Bridge.
  London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway.

Though only a small town, Midhurst is a place of some antiquity, and was
of some size prior to the Conquest. It is situated in Mid-Sussex on the
Rother, and on a site close by it, now marked only by a mound, was the
castle of the Bohuns, a powerful Norman family, who were lords of the
manor here. In 1547, King Edward VI. was entertained with great
splendour here. It is curious to note that the custom of ringing the
curfew bell is still maintained at Midhurst.

The town is picturesque, and contains many old houses and buildings of
interest, notably those in West Street and Wool Lane, near the church,
and the Grammar School at the further end of the town, where Sir Charles
Lyell and Richard Cobden were educated. Cobden was born at Durnford,
close to Midhurst. Durnford House, built for him by the nation, is still
standing, and at Cocking Causeway is a monument to his memory.

In Cowdray Park, within easy walking distance, are the ruins of the
magnificent Tudor mansion, Cowdray House, destroyed by fire in 1793.
There was an old tradition, "The Curse of Cowdray," that the building
should perish by fire and water, and this was curiously fulfilled, for
the house was burnt and the last Lord Montague drowned almost on the
same day.

A custodian who shows visitors over Cowdray House has a cottage here.
Over what remains of the entrance gateway are the arms of Sir Anthony
Browne, the favourite of King Henry VIII.; and on the porch are the
initials of the Earl of Southampton.

West Lavington Church, beautifully situated on a height two miles south
of Midhurst, has in its churchyard the grave of Richard Cobden, the
political reformer, and originator of Free Trade. Cardinal Manning was
rector here at one period.

[Illustration: _F. Coze, Midhurst._

COBDEN'S PEW IN HEYSHOTT CHURCH.

The pew is immediately beneath the pulpit, in which a small brass plate
may be noticed. Here Cobden regularly worshipped.]



PEVENSEY CASTLE

LANDING-PLACE OF WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR


=How to get there.=--Train from London Bridge or Victoria. London,
  Brighton, and South Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Pevensey and West Ham.
=Distance from London.=--65 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 and 3 hours.

                     1st       2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  10s. 0d.   6s. 2d.  4s. 8d.
          Return  17s. 6d.  11s. 8d.  9s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Oak Inn" at Pevensey village.

Pevensey, the scene of so many notable events in English history, was
probably a fishing-port in prehistoric times. It is situated on flat and
low-lying marsh-land, about 15 miles westward along the coast from
Hastings. Here the Romans built a town and fortress. Entering Pevensey
Castle by the main gateway, you stand on the site of the Roman city of
Anderida, of which many evidences remain in the shape of Roman cement
and tiles in a wall which surrounds the enclosure. The Romans retired
from Anderida in the fifth century, when it was destroyed by the Saxons
under Ella, and the inhabitants slain for their obstinate resistance.

A fortnight before the great battle on Senlac Hill, William of Normandy
landed at the old Roman city. After the Conquest, Roger, Earl of
Mortmain and Cornwall, half-brother of the Conqueror, built the Norman
building whose shattered walls are to be seen to-day. William Rufus,
Simon de Montfort, and Stephen each attacked the castle, and it remained
a fortress until the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In the south-eastern
corner of the Brito-Roman city, there still stands an interesting old
culverin, bearing the crown, Tudor rose, and the initials of Queen
Elizabeth. It is one of two cannon placed there in 1587 in readiness for
the Spaniards. The present castle shows the different work of several
centuries. The remains of a much-weathered stone font, surrounded by an
iron cage, stand in the centre of the enclosure. Near by, within a
palisade, is the old castle well, with hart's-tongue ferns growing on
the damp brick lining.

At one time Pevensey formed, with Hastings, one of the Cinque Ports. It
began to decline as a seafaring place with the loss of its harbour,
owing to the receding of the sea along the Sussex shore--the walls,
which were formerly almost washed by the waves, being now quite a mile
inland. Visitors may enter the castle on week days without charge.

[Illustration: PEVENSEY CASTLE.

Before the sea receded the waves almost reached the Castle walls.]



WINCHESTER & ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Winchester.
=Distance from London.=--66-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/2 to 2-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  11s. 0d.   7s. 0d.   5s. 6d.
          Return  19s. 3d.  12s. 2d.  10s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"George Hotel," "Royal Hotel,"
  "Black Swan Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

Winchester, the ancient Saxon capital of England, is situated near the
foot of the chalk uplands surrounding the river Itchin. It is a city
full of historical interest, and its two most striking features are the
cathedral and college. Long before the Norman Conquest there was a
grammar school at Winchester under the care of the monks. Bishop William
of Wykeham was educated at this earlier school, and it was he who
re-established it on a larger scale. The new college was founded at the
end of the fourteenth century, under the direction of a corporation, and
was allied to one of the colleges at Oxford. For five centuries this
college, the most ancient of the public schools in England, has kept a
foremost place among the many educational centres that now exist. Many
of the college buildings remain almost the same as they were originally
founded.

The cathedral, which is the largest in England, shows every style of
architecture from pure Norman to Early Renaissance. It was founded by
Walkelin, the first Norman bishop, whose carved font is one of the
finest treasures of the building. Bishop Wykeham, at the end of the
fourteenth century, continued the building, which had been steadily
progressing for a considerable time, and commenced the partial casing of
the Norman columns with Perpendicular mouldings. The vaulting shafts of
the nave rise from the ground, and owing to the thickness of the Norman
masonry, there is no proper triforium. The reredos was built by Cardinal
Beaufort in the fifteenth century, and the Lady Chapel was added about
the same time. Though it suffered much damage during the Parliamentary
wars, the cathedral is wonderfully rich in monuments, all its various
architects being buried there, and among the many shrines is that of
William Rufus.

Winchester's associations with King Alfred, and its numerous examples of
architecture of all the centuries, make the city one of the most
interesting in England.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL.

Showing the Norman north transept and the west end.]



SAVERNAKE FOREST


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Savernake.
=Distance from London.=--70 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3 hours.

                     1st       2nd        3rd
=Fares.=--Single  11s. 8d.   7s.  4d.   5s. 10d.
          Return  20s. 6d.  12s. 10d.  11s.  8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Forest Hotel" (near railway station),
  "Ailesbury Arms Hotel," etc., in Marlborough.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

Savernake is said to be the only forest in England possessed by a
subject. It occupies a piece of country 16 miles in circumference, is
entirely open to all, and the Marquess of Ailesbury also allows
Savernake Forest House to be seen by strangers when the family are
absent. At Savernake Station one is brought within sight of the forest,
and entering it at this point one is able to enjoy a lovely walk of 6 or
7 miles, which brings one out close to Marlborough Station, with the
town on the further side of the railway. The forest is specially famous
for its glorious avenue of beech 4 miles in length, and there is little
doubt that there is no finer in the kingdom.

If one enters through the park gates, near Savernake Station, the house
(formerly known as Tottenham House) lies on the right, and in the
opposite direction one may notice, at the end of a perspective formed by
great masses of elms and beeches, the column erected in 1781 by the
first Earl of Ailesbury (the marquisate was not created until 1821),
commemorating the recovery of George III. and other circumstances.

If one crosses the avenue and bears off to the right across the turf the
church of St. Catherine will soon appear in sight. It is a very richly
ornamented structure, and was built by a former Marchioness of
Ailesbury, in memory of her mother the Countess of Pembroke. Returning
to the avenue, one may continue down it for about 3 miles to the "eight
walks," where an opening in the ranks of the stately trees reveals a
number of grassy glades running off to the chief points of the compass.
The walk going off to the south-west leads to the King's Oak, a gigantic
tree whose hollow trunk is 24 feet in circumference. This oak is
surrounded by a number of grand old trees, their bold outlines enriched
with velvety moss. On an autumn afternoon, when the forest is a blaze of
crimson and yellow, this spot is seen at its loveliest--the long shadows
and the golden sunlight giving the scene a painted, almost too brilliant
effect.

[Illustration: _E.H. Roberts._

THE AVENUE IN SAVERNAKE FOREST.]



ELY CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--From Liverpool Street or St. Pancras. Great
  Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ely.
=Distance from London.=--70-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 1-3/4 to 3-1/4 hours. Quickest train 1 hour
  38 minutes.

                     1st     2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single  11s. 3d.   ...   5s. 11-1/2d.
          Return  20s. 0d.   ...  11s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bell Hotel" and others.

Ely is situated on an eminence in the midst of the flat district forming
the centre of the county of Cambridge, and was originally a settlement
termed by the Saxons _Eleg_ or _Elge_, _i.e._ "an eel," from the number
of eels found in the fenny district around. St. Etheldreda, daughter of
a king of the East Angles, founded an abbey here, where she died in 679,
being afterwards canonised as a saint. The monastery was destroyed by
the Danes in 870, and did not regain importance till one hundred years
later.

In _Hereward the Wake_ Kingsley tells us how gallantly the Isle of Ely
was defended against the attacks of William the Conqueror, but the
chieftain was at last forced to surrender, and the monastery was seized.
Ely was created a bishopric by Henry I. in 1107.

The cathedral is one of the most beautiful and remarkable in England.
The oldest portion was erected in the reign of William Rufus and Henry
I., and additions were continually made to the fabric until 1534, so
that it contains an almost unbroken series of the architectural styles
prevailing from the Conquest, yet so wonderfully has the design been
managed that no disagreeable effect is produced.

The nave of the cathedral, considered one of the finest specimens of
Norman work in England, was completed about 1174, and the west front,
built by Geoffrey Ridel, the third bishop, about ten years later.
Originally there stood a square tower in the centre of the building, but
this fell in 1322, crushing three arches of the choir. The repair of
this misfortune was undertaken by the sacrist, Alan de Walsingham, who
erected in 1342 the octagonal tower now existing.

The choir contains much rich decorated Gothic; and the east end of the
cathedral, with its two tiers of lancet windows, is very beautiful.
Another most interesting feature is the Lady Chapel, with a magnificent
fan-vaulted roof; the walls were originally decorated with countless
niches and statues of saints and martyrs, not one of which escaped the
destroying hand of the Puritan.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ELY CATHEDRAL.

The remarkable octagonal tower was rebuilt in 1342 by Alan de
Walsingham.]



ST. IVES, HUNTINGDONSHIRE


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or St. Pancras. G.E.R.
=Nearest Station.=--St. Ives.
=Distance from London.=--70-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3 hours.

                     1st     2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single   8s. 9d.   ...   4s. 10-1/2d.
          Return  17s. 6d.   ...   9s.  9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At St. Ives, "The Golden Lion Hotel,"
  "White Horse Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--From King's Cross to Huntingdon. G.N. Rly.

St. Ives is a town of considerable antiquity, and in Saxon times was
known as _Slepe_, which name is still retained by one of the two manors
included in the parish, and it is applied to the town in the Domesday
book. The more modern name is derived from Ivo, or St. Ives, a Persian
who is said to have visited England in the sixth century, and to have
been buried here.

A considerable part of the place was destroyed by fire in 1689, but
there are still a number of quaint and interesting buildings. Over the
Ouse is a stone bridge of six arches, supposed to have been built by the
abbots of Ramsey. The approach to the bridge on the south side is by a
causeway raised on arches to admit the passage of the waters in time of
floods, which have on different occasions caused much damage here; and
over one of the arches, near the centre of the bridge, is a mediaeval
building, originally intended for a chapel.

The first church, built by Abbot Ednoth in the reign of King Edgar, was
burnt in 1207, and rebuilt. The present structure, dedicated to All
Saints, occupies the same site, close to the river, where it forms with
the old houses adjoining a very charming picture. Until quite recent
years, by a quaint bequest, dicing for bibles on the altar of the church
took place every Whit Tuesday. The dicing is now done on a small table.

The interest in St. Ives and the neighbouring town of Huntingdon chiefly
centres in the fact of their associations with Oliver Cromwell, who was
born at the latter town in 1599. Cromwell went to school at Huntingdon,
and from thence to Cambridge, but his father dying shortly afterwards,
he returned home to manage family affairs. In 1628 he was elected for
the borough of Huntingdon, but after the dissolution of Parliament,
Cromwell returned to his native county and devoted himself to farming on
the Ouse at Huntingdon and St. Ives. During his residence at St. Ives,
Cromwell occupied the manor-house, Slepe Hall, which has been ruthlessly
pulled down to allow of the erection of modern houses.

[Illustration: THE BRIDGE AT ST. IVES, HUNTINGTON.]



WINCHELSEA AND RYE


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, or
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Winchelsea.
=Distance from London.=--72 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/4 to 3 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  12s. 0d.   7s. 6d.   6s. 0d.
          Return  21s. 0d.  15s. 0d.  12s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The New Inn," etc., Winchelsea.
=Routes.=--_Via_ Ashford or _via_ Hastings.

Winchelsea, situated about 8 miles from Hastings, though now a small
village, was once an important seaport, being one of the Cinque Ports.
It has suffered severely from the sea, having been completely destroyed
in 1287 by an inundation. It was afterwards rebuilt by Edward I. on
higher ground. The French made several attempts on the town, and in 1380
succeeded in capturing and burning it. The gradual decay of the port was
due to the retiring of the sea in the fifteenth century, which rendered
the harbour useless. Winchelsea is a pretty place with massive gateways,
survivals of the old fortified town. In the centre of the village is a
square containing the remains of the old Parish Church built in 1288 in
the Decorated style. The nave and transepts have gone, having been
destroyed by the French, and only the chancel remains. It contains some
interesting canopied tombs, one being to Gervase Alard, Admiral of the
Cinque Ports in 1383. John Wesley preached his last open-air sermon in
the churchyard.

Rye lies 2 miles east of Winchelsea, and though more flourishing than
the latter place, has much dwindled in importance, since it too was a
Cinque Port. The town is built on a hill, and the steep, narrow streets
are filled with quaint houses. The harbour is still visited by small
fishing-boats. The French constantly attacked Rye, and in 1380 they
succeeded in burning it. Overlooking the sea and belonging to the old
wall is the Ypres Tower, built in the reign of Stephen by William de
Ypres.

Close to the tower is the large Parish Church, which contains much
Decorated Gothic work, although its oldest portions are Norman, the
church having been partly rebuilt after the destruction caused by the
French in 1380. It contains a wonderful clock, made in Queen Elizabeth's
reign, and said to be the oldest in England still in working order. It
has a long pendulum which comes through the ceiling and swings in the
church.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WINCHELSEA CHURCH.

The French did much damage to the building in 1380, and portions of it
are still in ruins.]



BLENHEIM PALACE


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Blenheim.
=Distance from London.=--72-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--2-1/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  12s. 0d.   7s. 6d.  6s. 0-1/2d.
          Return  21s. 2d.  13s. 4d.    ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bear Inn," Woodstock, "King's Arms
  Hotel," "Marlborough Hotel," "Star Hotel," etc.

Blenheim Palace, the magnificent seat of the Duke of Marlborough, was,
like Strathfieldsaye, erected at the public expense. On the 2nd of
August 1704, the great Duke of Marlborough gained a decisive victory
over the combined forces of the French and Bavarians near the village of
Blenheim, on the banks of the Danube. The French and Bavarians left
10,000 killed and wounded on the field, huge numbers were drowned in the
river, and about 13,000 taken prisoners. The victory was complete, and
immediately afterwards Queen Anne presented the victorious general with
a "grant of the honour of Woodstock," this being followed by a vote of
L500,000 for the erection of the palace and the laying out of the
grounds. The building was erected from the designs of Sir John Vanbrugh,
the great architect and dramatist. It is of enormous size, the frontage
being 350 feet from wing to wing, and the entire structure covers about
7 acres. The gateway to the park on the Woodstock side is a fine
Corinthian triumphal arch, giving access to a magnificent avenue more
than 2 miles in length.

Among the principal apartments of the palace are the lofty entrance
hall, with a fine painted ceiling by Thornhill; the bay-window room with
its famous tapestry; the dining-room, containing many family portraits
by Sir Joshua Reynolds; the marble saloon, the ceilings and walls of
which are painted by La Guerre; and the library, a magnificent room
nearly 200 feet long, containing about 20,000 volumes. In addition to
these, there are the chapel and theatre, as well as the state and other
drawing-rooms. The Titian room was totally destroyed by fire, with a
large portion of the north-east section of the palace, in February 1861.

The ancient road, called Akeman Street, runs across the park, and Roman
remains have been discovered near it.

The palace is open every day (except Saturdays and Sundays) from 11 to
1, and the gardens from 11 to 2. Either can be seen separately by
tickets, 1s. each, obtainable at the porter's lodge.

[Illustration: _Taunt, Oxford._

BLENHEIM PALACE.

Built for the Duke of Marlborough at the public expense, after his
famous victory over the French and Bavarians.]



PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL AND CROWLAND


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Peterborough.
=Distance from London.=--76-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-1/4 to 2-1/4 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  11s. 3d.   ...    6s. 4d.
          Return  22s. 6d.   ...   12s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Great Northern Railway Company's
  Hotel," "Golden Lion Hotel," "Angel Hotel," "Grand Hotel,"
  etc., at Peterborough.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Liverpool Street, _via_ Ely. Great
  Eastern Railway.

Nine miles north of Peterborough the ruins of Crowland Abbey arise out
of the flat fen country like a lighthouse out of the sea. With only the
nave and north aisle standing, it breathes the very spirit of romance
even in its decay. It is easy to picture the time when four streams
surrounded the monastery and church and formed an island in the fens,
and to recall how Hereward the Wake demanded entrance to the abbey to
see Torfrida, and was refused admittance by the Abbot Ulfketyl. In those
days two rivers met in the High Street of the little town that grew
round St. Guthlac's Monastery. Now the country is drained, Crowland is a
decayed little town with many thatched roofs, situated in an
agricultural district; the island exists no longer, and the old
triangular bridge rises over the dry Square at a place where three roads
meet. This bridge is older and more peculiar than any bridge in Europe
that is not of Roman origin. It is believed to have been built in 870,
and consists of three pointed arches rising steeply in the centre to
permit the rush of water in flood times. It is too steep to admit of its
use by any sort of vehicle, and one ascends by steps to the top. At the
end of one portion of the bridge there is a stone image of a Saxon
king--possibly Ethelbert--with a loaf in one hand.

In the time of Ethelbald, King of Mercians, a young noble named Guthlac,
weary of life's rough way, sought peace in the ascetic life. He drifted
in a boat to Crowland Isle, and there lived a hermit's life till his
death in 817. On the spot where he died Ethelbald founded and endowed a
monastery on the island, and it flourished exceedingly. The larger part
of the conventual church is now destroyed, but the north aisle is used
as the Parish Church of Crowland.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CROWLAND ABBEY.

The building rises above the little thatched village, which stands on
slightly raised ground in the midst of the fens.]



PETERBOROUGH


As was the case with Wells, Peterborough would have had no existence but
for its cathedral, which was reared in the midst of the fertile fen
country near the slow-flowing river Ness. But the coming of the railways
has roused the country town, and in the last fifty years its population
has increased fivefold. It is situated in a rich agricultural district,
and has a good trade in farm products. Its annual wool and cattle
markets are well known in the eastern counties.

On the site of the present cathedral a minster was built in 870 by a
king of Mercia. On its being destroyed by Danes, a new building was
erected, which was burned down in 1116. The foundations of the Saxon
church can be seen in the crypt. The new Norman building was consecrated
in 1237, and has remained with few alterations to the present day. While
the interior of St. Albans Cathedral shows every phase of Norman and
Gothic architecture, that of Peterborough is remarkable as showing
practically one style throughout the entire building. The west front has
been described as the "grandest portico in Europe." It is Early English
in style, and the finest feature of the cathedral. Its three colossal
arches are flanked and strengthened by two turreted towers with spires.
It needs a close observer to perceive that the central gable of the west
front is smaller than the side ones, for the difficulty has been
cleverly overcome. The northern gable and part of the arch below have
been repaired very carefully amid an outcry from all parts of England
against the restoration. However, the work was proved to be necessary,
as the mortar had crumbled to dust, and many stones were merely resting
one on the other. The Perpendicular Galilee Porch over the small doorway
adds strength to the facade. The room over it is used as a library.

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the interior is the
twelfth-century wooden vaulting of the nave. There is no Lady Chapel at
the east end as is usually the case. When the ritual demanded a
retro-choir for processions, the Norman apse fortunately was not pulled
down, but the new building, Tudor in style, and with a beautiful
stone-vaulted roof, was built round it. After Ely's Tower fell, the
Norman central tower of Peterborough was pulled down as if a similar
fate was feared for it, and a shorter tower was erected in its place.
Two queens have been buried in the church, namely, Catherine of Arragon
and Mary Queen of Scots. The remains of both queens have been removed to
Westminster Abbey.

Other places worth visiting in Peterborough are the Parish Church and a
well-preserved thirteenth-century manor-house at Longthorpe.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL

The magnificent west front, which has recently been restored.]



SOUTHAMPTON


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Stations.=--Southampton Docks or Southampton West.
=Distance from London.=--78-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/4 to 3-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  13s. 0d.   8s. 2d.   6s. 6d.
          Return  23s. 0d.  14s. 6d.  11s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Royal Hotel," "Radley's Hotel,"
  "London and South-Western Hotel," "Dolphin Hotel," "Royal
  Pier Hotel," "Flower's Temperance," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--From Paddington. Fares as above.

The earliest accounts of Southampton are vague and uncertain. On the
opposite bank of the Itchen, at Bitterne, was the Roman station of
Clausentum, but Southampton itself seems to have been originally a
settlement of the West Saxons. In the reign of William the Conqueror,
Southampton, owing to its situation, became the principal port of
embarkation for Normandy. In 1295 it first returned representatives to
Parliament, and in 1345 was strongly fortified, and able to contribute
twenty-one ships to the Royal Navy, Portsmouth only supplying five. Many
expeditions for Normandy embarked here during the reigns of the
Plantagenets, and the men who fought and won at Crecy and Agincourt must
have passed, on the way to their ships, under the old West Gate, which
still remains much as it was in those stirring times.

The town is full of interesting relics of every description, one of the
most remarkable being the old wall, of which a considerable portion
remains; that known as The Arcades, built in a series of arches, being
specially noticeable. Close by, in Blue Anchor Lane, is a Norman house,
reputed to be King John's palace, and claiming, with several others, to
be the oldest house in England.

The town was formerly entered by several gates, two of which, Westgate
and Bargate, are still in a good state of preservation.

The Bargate stands in the centre of the High Street, and is an excellent
example of mediaeval fortification.

At the head of Blue Anchor Lane is the remarkably picturesque and
substantial Tudor house, once the residence of Henry VIII. and Anne
Boleyn, and nearly opposite rises the tall tower of St. Michael's, the
oldest church in Southampton. The building is open all day (the keys
being obtainable on inquiry), and contains a remarkable carved black
marble font, reputed to be of Byzantine origin, and a fine eagle lectern
of the fifteenth century.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BARGATE IN THE HIGH STREET OF SOUTHAMPTON.]



HELMINGHAM HALL


=How to get there.=--Great Eastern Railway. Liverpool Street.
=Nearest Station.=--Woodbridge (10 miles).
=Distance from London.=--79 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 2-1/2 hours. Quickest train
  1 hour 56 minutes.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  14s. 9d.   ...    6s. 8d.
          Return  22s. 2d.   ...   13s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Bull Hotel," etc., at Woodbridge.

Helmingham Hall, the seat of Lord Tollemache, lies in a beautiful park,
ten miles from Woodbridge, in Suffolk, and has been one of the homes of
the family for generations. The Tollemache family own two of the finest
Tudor houses in this country, Ham House near Richmond, the property of
the Earls of Dysart, and Helmingham, which now belongs to the other
branch of the Tollemache peerage. Helmingham came to them in the reign
of Henry VIII., by the marriage of Lionel Tollemache with the daughter
and heiress of Sir William Joyce, who owned a home called Creke Hall.
The present mansion he rebuilt on the same site, in all probability
retaining the ancient moat.

The hall is approached through an entrance gateway, giving access to a
fine avenue leading directly up a gentle slope to the moat and main
drawbridge of the hall. The house, of red brick, wonderfully tinted by
the hand of time, is remarkably picturesque, with its twisted chimneys,
finely proportioned gables, and beautiful bay windows; and its charm is
considerably enhanced by the brickwork, with sturdy buttresses here and
there, rising sheer out of the clear and tranquil waters of the moat.
The hall is entered by two bridges, each ending in a drawbridge, which
is kept in full working order, and both drawbridges are, and have been
for some hundreds of years, hauled up at ten o'clock every night, when
the house can only be approached from the park by means of a boat.

On crossing the main bridge, one enters the inner court, a fine red
brick quadrangle, much after the style of those at Hampton Court. From
this access is gained to the various wings and apartments of the
mansion, the finest room being the hall, with its deep oak dado,
fireplace, and open timber roof. The best suite of rooms looks out
across the moat to the beautiful gardens. These are some of the most
magnificent in the county, and they are most carefully and elaborately
arranged, and always kept in fine condition. The garden is divided into
two portions by a strip of water covered with lilies.

[Illustration: HELMINGHAM HALL.

An Elizabethan moated mansion. Its drawbridge has been lowered and
raised every day for about 400 years.]



STONEHENGE, WILTSHIRE


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Amesbury (1-1/2 miles from Stonehenge).
=Distance from London.=--80 miles.
=Average Time.=--3 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  13s. 2d.   8s. 3d.   6s. 7-1/2d.
          Return  23s. 2d.  14s. 8d.  13s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The George Hotel" at Amesbury.
  "Railway Hotel" (small) at Porton.
=Alternative Route.=--Porton Station, 5-1/2 miles, and Salisbury Station,
  8 miles from Stonehenge.

One of the earliest and most enduring works of man in the British
Islands is to be seen in the circles of giant stones on Salisbury Plain.
They stand in two concentric circles. The outer ring of monoliths
encloses an inner one of blue stones about half their height. These in
turn surround a horseshoe formation consisting of the remains of five
great trilithons. Some of these stones have fallen across the flat one
known as the altar stone, occupying a central position at the head of
the horseshoe. On the 21st of June the sun rises exactly in a line with
the centre of the horseshoe and the long earthen avenue leading towards
the stones, and thus throws a ray between two of the outer monoliths and
touches the altar stone. This orientation on the plan of so many eastern
shrines proves that Stonehenge was the temple of some early
sun-worshipping race of men in Britain.

Sir Norman Lockyer's recent observations at the summer solstice have
placed the date of erection at about 1680 B.C., and the discovery of
flint implements beneath some Roman remains also points to neolithic
times. The upright stones and those resting upon them were originally
all mortised and tenoned together, and from the fact that no similar
stone is found nearer than Marlborough Downs the primitive men must have
hauled the stones considerable distances by means of long leather ropes.
The small blue stones were possibly brought from Normandy.

Other stone circles and similar remains are to be seen at Avebury,
Rollright, and Kit's Coty House, a few miles from Rochester. Also in
Shropshire there is a district rich in stone circles and prehistoric
remains. This is in a line north of Bishops Castle and Shelve, and to
those who appreciate wild scenery this part of the county may be
specially recommended.

[Illustration: STONEHENGE.

Looking towards the east from the altar stone. The point on the horizon
where the sun rises on June 21 is indicated by the small stone seen
through the arches.]



NETLEY ABBEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo _via_ Southampton.  L. and
  S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Netley (about a mile from the abbey).
=Distance from London.=--82-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-3/4 to 4-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  13s.  6d.   8s. 6d.   6s. 9-1/2d.
          Return  23s. 10d.  15s. 0d.  12s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," "Radley's Hotel,"
  "Dolphin," "South-Western," etc., Southampton (3 miles from
  Netley).

Netley is a small village on Southampton Water, about 3 miles south-east
of the town of Southampton. It is famous for the ruins of Netley Abbey,
which are not far from the shore, in a wooded and picturesque nook. The
abbey is supposed to have been founded by Peter des Roches, Bishop of
Winchester in Henry III.'s reign, and the monks belonged to the
Cistercian order. It was neither a rich nor famous establishment, and
the monks possessed but one book, Cicero's _Treaty on Rhetoric_. Since
the Dissolution the abbey has belonged to many different families. Only
the walls are now standing, but enough remains to show how beautiful it
once was. The buildings formed a square of which the south wall of the
church formed the side opposite the entrance. Various buildings in
connection with the monastery formed the rest of the quadrangle, which
was known as Fountain Court. The kitchen is still roofed in, although it
has lost its stone groining. Other buildings are, conjecturally, the
buttery and the refectory. Near the kitchen is a curious underground
passage leading to the castle (erected by Henry VIII.), which stands
nearer the shore than the abbey. It is thought to be a drain.

The church is of cruciform shape, in Early English style. Though the
west end is now in a very ruinous condition, the great east window is
fairly well preserved. It has two lights, and is very beautifully
proportioned. Outside the court is the garden, with lawns and trees, too
often desecrated by picnic parties, and the ponds that supplied the
monks with fish are now choked up. It is said that a carpenter who
bought the materials of the church from Sir Bartlet Lucy was warned in a
dream by a monk not to destroy the building. He paid no heed, and was
killed by the west window falling on him.

The Royal Victoria Hospital for Sick Soldiers, erected after the Crimean
War, can be seen at Netley.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NETLEY ABBEY, LOOKING EAST.]



SALISBURY AND ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Salisbury.
=Distance from London.=--83-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 1-3/4 and 3-1/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  14s. 0d.   8s. 9d.   6s. 11-1/2d.
          Return  24s. 6d.  15s. 4d.  12s.  0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Angel Hotel," "Crown Hotel,"
  "White Hart Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

Salisbury Cathedral is, in the opinion of many, the finest of all the
English cathedrals, and it certainly has many claims to be considered
so. The vast building was completed within fifty years, and is therefore
practically in one style throughout, an advantage not shared by any
other cathedral in the kingdom. Its situation, too, is unique, standing
as it does in the fine old close, entirely separated from any other
buildings, and with its grey walls and buttresses rising sheer up from
such velvety turf as is seen in England alone. The tower and spire are
perhaps the most beautiful in this country.

Passing into the close by the gate at the end of the High Street, one
reaches the west front, which is very rich in effect, with its tiers of
canopied statues and wonderfully proportioned windows. Through the
beautiful north porch one passes into the nave, which, though
exceedingly beautiful, has a certain air of coldness owing to the
absence of stained glass. It seems hardly credible that this beautiful
glass, the making of which is now a lost art, was deliberately destroyed
at the end of the eighteenth century by the so-called "architect" James
Wyatt. In addition to this, "Wyatt swept away screens, chapels, and
porches, desecrated and destroyed the tombs of warriors and prelates;
obliterated ancient paintings, flung stained glass by cartloads into the
city ditch, and razed to the ground the beautiful old campanile which
stood opposite the north porch."

The Lady Chapel of the cathedral is one of the most beautiful in the
kingdom.

Although the cathedral is the great glory of Salisbury, there are plenty
of interesting mediaeval buildings in the city. In the close itself are
the King's House and the King's Wardrobe, both old gabled houses of
great beauty. St. Thomas's and St. Edmund's are the two most interesting
churches in the city.

About 2 miles north of Salisbury is a group of pretty cottages on the
Avon, forming the village of Milston. Here, on May 1, 1672, Joseph
Addison was born in the old rectory, now unfortunately pulled down. His
father, Lancelot Addison, was rector of the parish.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SALISBURY CATHEDRAL.

The spire is one of the most graceful in the world, and the whole
building, commenced in 1220, was completed within fifty years.]



SANDWICH, KENT


=How to get there.=--Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, and
  London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Sandwich.
=Distance from London.=--84-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 3 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  13s. 0d.   8s. 4d.   6s. 6d.
          Return  22s. 8d.  16s. 8d.  13s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bell," "Bell and Anchor," "Fleur
  de Lys," etc.

It is difficult to realise that Sandwich, now 1-1/2 miles from the
coast, was yet once situated on the sea, and was the second in
importance of the Cinque Ports. In Roman and early Saxon times a wide
arm of the Thames, called the Wantsume, flowed from Reculver (then known
as Regulbium), where it was a mile wide, southwards to what is now the
mouth of the Stour. Between Ebbsfleet and Worth it was over 4 miles
wide. The Roman fortress of Ritupiae (Richborough) guarded it on the
south, and the river Stour flowed into it at Stourmouth. This stream
caused so much alluvial deposit that the sea receded from Richborough in
early Saxon times, and part of the population removed to Sandwich. The
repeated attacks by the Danes and the French did not check the growth of
the town, which attained its maximum prosperity in Edward IV.'s reign,
when it was walled. But the sea left its shores, and the town declined
to again rise in importance, when the 400 Flemish emigrants settled
there in Elizabeth's reign and introduced silk-weaving, flannel
manufactures, and market-gardening.

Sandwich contains some of the richest bits of mediaeval architecture in
England. There are some traces of the walls to be seen, and one ancient
gateway is perfect, Fisher's Gate, near the quay. On the north is the
Tudor barbican gate. St. Clement's Church possesses a central Norman
tower. The nave is in the Perpendicular style, and the chancel is
Decorated. Both have fine roofs. St. Peter's Church (thirteenth century)
has a tower, but its south aisle was destroyed in 1661. The session-room
at the town hall has some curious seats for the mayor and aldermen, and
the hospital of St. Bartholomew's has an Early English chapel. The best
of the ancient houses in the town are in Strand Street and Lucksboat
Street. Manswood Grammar School dates from 1564, and has a Flemish
front.

At Richborough can be seen some Roman rectangular walls about 10 feet
high, with a subterranean concrete building in the centre.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

FISHER'S GATE, SANDWICH.

A picturesque survival of the days of the town's importance as a Cinque
Port.]



NEW FOREST, HAMPSHIRE


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lyndhurst Road Station (3 miles).
=Distance from London.=--85-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/4 to 3-3/4 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  14s.  2d.   9s. 0d.   7s. 1d.
          Return  24s. 10d.  15s. 8d.  14s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Grand Hotel," Lyndhurst; "Crown
  Hotel," Lyndhurst; "Rose and Crown," Brockenhurst, etc.

The popular story as to the creation of what was then the "New" Forest
by William the Conqueror has been probably much exaggerated, although we
all believed in our school days the old chroniclers, who averred that
the king destroyed fifty or so churches and numerous villages, and
exterminated their inhabitants. The fact is that the harsh feudal forest
laws were rigidly enforced by the Conqueror, who no doubt in some places
swept away the villages and churches of rebellious foresters, but the
very qualities of the forest soil disprove the fact that the land was
once all "smiling pastures and golden cornfields," as some of the old
historians would have us believe.

The New Forest of the present day forms a triangle about 20 miles long
and 12 broad, of which the base is a line drawn westward from the mouth
of the Beaulieu river to within a mile or two of the Avon, the apex
reaching to the confines of Wiltshire. The forest scenery is extremely
diversified, but always very beautiful; glades and reaches of gentle
park and meadow, and open heath-like stretches, contrast wonderfully
with the actual masses of huge beeches, under some of which daylight
never penetrates.

Lyndhurst, the little capital of the New Forest, is situated in its
centre, and is one of the best points from which to explore the beauties
of the district. The church at Lyndhurst is modern, rebuilt in 1863; but
it should be visited in order to see the large altar-fresco of the Ten
Virgins executed by the late Lord Leighton. A little way beyond the
church is the Queen's House, built in Charles II.'s reign. Here resides
the Deputy-Surveyor, who administers under the Crown, while six elected
Verderers, in their courts of Swain-mote, represent the Commoners. In
the hall is kept what is known as William Rufus's stirrup-iron.

Close to the village of Minsted is Malwood Lodge, Sir William Harcourt's
New Forest seat. From a ridge near this there are grand views of the
forest, till one comes to the Compton Arms Hotel, a completely isolated
inn, near the Rufus Stone, which marks the spot where William II. fell
by the arrow of Walter Tyrell.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE RUFUS STONE IN THE NEW FOREST.

Marking the spot where William II. fell by Walter Tyrell's arrow.]



OSBORNE HOUSE


=How to get there.=--Train from London Bridge or Victoria. London,
  Brighton, and South Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Cowes.
=Distance from London.=--87 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4 to 5-1/4 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  16s.  0d.  10s. 5d.   8s. 10d.
          Return  27s. 10d.  18s. 2d.  16s.  4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Cowes--"Fountain Hotel," "The
  Gloster," "Royal Marine Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo _via_ Southampton. L. and
  S.W. Railway.

Osborne House having been presented to the nation by King Edward,
portions of the buildings and grounds are, or will be, available to the
public on week days.

This stately marine residence of the late Queen Victoria is situated in
the Isle of Wight, an island remarkable for the variety and beauty of
its scenery. The Queen purchased the estate in 1845 from Lady Elizabeth
Blachford, and the palace was finished in 1851. Since that time many
additions have been made. The main gates are about three-quarters of a
mile up the hill from the ferry, and the Prince of Wales's Gate further
south, opposite the hotel. Osborne House has a melancholy interest
attached to it, for here, on January 22, 1901, Queen Victoria breathed
her last. A portion of every year was spent by the Queen at her seaside
home, which had many associations of her happy life there with her
husband, the late Prince Consort, "Albert the Good." Surrounded with
their children, they forgot the splendours and fatigues of Court, and
devoted themselves to training their family in all that was useful and
good. The Queen nearly always spoke of Osborne as "her island home." She
and Prince Albert delighted in the fact that it was their own, that they
could make their own plans, exercise their own taste in the laying out
of the gardens, and in the building--in fact, in everything in this
seaside home. The building is in the Palladian style, and was designed
by Thomas Cubitt and the late Prince Consort. The grounds, covering 5000
acres, are 8 miles in extent, with a sea front of 1-1/3 miles. The
terrace gardens are ornamented with statuary, and the grounds lead down
to the water's edge, where there are sea baths and a private pier. The
last journey of Victoria the Good from Osborne to the mausoleum at
Frogmore, in the grounds of Windsor Castle, was a spectacle never to be
forgotten.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

OSBORNE HOUSE.

Built by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1851.]



CARISBROOKE CASTLE


=How to get there.=--Train from Victoria or London Bridge _via_
  Portsmouth and Ryde. London, Brighton, and South Coast
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Carisbrooke.
=Distance from London.=--88 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  16s. 4d.  10s. 8d.   9s. 1d.
          Return  28s. 4d.  18s. 6d.  16s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Red Lion Hotel," "Waverley Hotel,"
  "Eight Bells Hotel," "Castle Hotel," "Temperance Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo _via_ Cowes and Ryde.
  L. and S.W. Railway.

Carisbrooke village is a charming place delightfully situated in the
centre of the island. The castle (the charge for entering is 4d.) stands
on a wooded hill at an elevation of 150 feet. The summit of the hill
forms a level plateau about 20 acres in extent, all enclosed by the
castle walls. Sir Walter Scott is said to have had this castle in his
mind when writing _Marmion_. Beyond the great interest attached to the
fact that it was here that Charles I. was confined, the castle does not
figure very prominently in history. The fact, however, that this
unfortunate monarch was imprisoned here in 1647 by the Parliament will
be always sufficient to give its ancient walls and battlements a
never-dying interest. When Charles was brought to the castle he was
treated more as a guest than a prisoner, but after his attempted escape
the king was much more closely watched and his pleasures curtailed. The
story of the king attempting in vain to get through his bedroom window
is known to all. Everything was in readiness, the details of rescue were
all carefully prepared. Captain Titus and others of the guard had been
won over to assist the king, and had King Charles negotiated the narrow
window, in all probability the escape would have been a success. In
1650, the year after Charles I. was beheaded, Henry Duke of Gloucester
and the Princess Elizabeth were brought to the castle. Shortly after her
arrival the princess, who was of a sickly constitution, took a severe
chill and was found one morning by her attendants lying dead on a couch.
Queen Victoria had a beautiful monument erected to her memory in Newport
Church. The Well House, where the water is drawn from the depth of 150
feet by a clever donkey and draw-wheel, is an interesting feature of the
castle. Princess Beatrice is the present Governor of the Island.

[Illustration: CARISBROOKE CASTLE.

Where Charles I. was imprisoned in 1647.]



LUTTERWORTH

THE HOME OF JOHN WYCLIFF


=How to get there.=--Train from Marylebone. Great Central Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lutterworth.
=Distance from London.=--90 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/4 to 3 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  12s. 4d.   ...    7s. 0d.
          Return  24s. 0d.   ...   14s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Hind Hotel," "Denbigh Arms,"
  "Fox," etc.

Situated in typical English midland scenery, the quiet little country
town of Lutterworth rises from the surrounding undulating pasture-land.
Here, in the beginning of the fourteenth century, when it was probably
merely a fair-sized village, John Wycliff, the "Morning Star of the
Reformation," and founder of the Lollards, was born. The main street
slopes down the hill, beyond the houses, till it reaches the river side,
where it is carried over the little river Swift on a small bridge.

A good proportion of the church, which is so closely associated with
Wycliff, dates from the fourteenth century. It is a large building, with
a tower and belfry stage, and four crocketed pinnacles. The tower was
formerly surmounted by a wooden belfry, but this was destroyed by the
great gale of 1703. The nave is lighted by a clerestory, and the aisles
are divided by high arches. The church is built in Early Perpendicular
style, but there is a good decorated window at the eastern end of the
south aisle, where there used to be a Lady Chapel. The lower portions of
the walls date from before the time of Wycliff. At the eastern end of
the chancel are an aumbry and piscina. About thirty years ago the church
was restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, when much new stone was inserted.

There are three interesting frescoes in the interior: one is believed to
represent Queen Philippa asking Edward III. to give the living of
Lutterworth to Wycliff. The roof of the nave is formed of fine woodwork
of the Perpendicular period, but the pulpit, a splendid piece of
fourteenth-century oak carving, claims the chief interest, being the
same from which the great reformer preached. The base has been renewed,
and the rest has been much repaired, but the same pulpit has been in use
for more than 500 years. A fragment of Wycliff's cope or chasuble is
preserved in a glass case in the vestry, but some doubt attaches to the
origin of "Wycliff's chair," which seems of considerably later date.

[Illustration: WYCLIFF'S PULPIT IN LUTTERWORTH CHURCH.

It is a fine piece of fourteenth-century oak carving.]



COMPTON WYNYATES


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. London and North-Western
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Kineton (5 miles from Compton Wynyates).
=Distance from London.=--91-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  14s. 4d.   9s.  0d.  7s. 8d.
          Return  26s. 6d.  16s. 11d.    ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Kineton--"Red Lion Hotel,"
  "Swan Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Compton Wynyates, the seat of the Marquess of Northampton, is one of the
most beautiful Tudor houses in England, and although Warwickshire is
exceedingly rich in castles and fine old houses, it can show nothing to
surpass this time-worn pile of red brick and stone. Though the moat,
which was the outer guard of the place, has been partly filled in and
converted into smooth lawns, one of the most romantic aspects of the
house is to be seen across an angle of the watery enclosure. The
buildings surround a quadrangle, the entrance being made through a
beautiful Tudor gateway. In the spandrils of its archway are carved the
arms of Henry VIII., with the griffin and greyhound for supporters and
the royal crown above.

The house was built by Sir William Compton during the reign of Henry
VIII., with the exception of some additions, including the great parlour
panelled with oak, which dates from the days of Queen Elizabeth.

To touch on half the glories of this perfect Tudor house would occupy
many pages of this book--its beautiful chapel with its curious carvings
with the seven deadly sins represented as knights in armour, the great
hall in which Henry VIII. was welcomed by Sir William Compton, the
drawing-room with its fine plaster ceiling--all are so full of beauty
and interest that they can merely be referred to here.

The situation of the house in a richly timbered hollow adds infinitely
to its charm. The gardens, too, are of the beautiful type that one
learns to expect in conjunction with so lovely a dwelling, while
flowering creepers on the towers and on the gabled walls complete an
ideal picture of all that is loveliest in an old English mansion.

Permission to see Compton Wynyates can only be obtained by a written
application.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

COMPTON WYNYATES.

The seat of the Marquess of Northampton, is one of the most beautiful
mediaeval homes in England.]



KENILWORTH CASTLE


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Kenilworth.
=Distance from London.=--99 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 4 hours.

                     1st       2nd        3rd
=Fares.=--Single  15s. 3d.  10s.  2d.   8s. 1-1/2d.
          Return  28s. 3d.  17s. 10d.  16s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Abbey Hotel," "King's Arms,"
  "Castle Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Kenilworth is a small town, situated midway between Coventry and
Warwick, about 5 miles from either town. It is chiefly noted for the
ruins of the famous castle, so celebrated from its association with Sir
Walter Scott's romance. The castle was built in the reign of Henry I.,
the site having been granted to Geoffrey de Clinton, Lord Chief Justice
of England. The fortress at one time belonged to Simon de Montfort, who
imprisoned Henry III. and his son Edward during the War of the Barons.
Edward II. also was forced to sign his abdication there. Queen Elizabeth
gave the castle as a present to her favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of
Leicester, who spent large sums in making great alterations and
additions, and entertained the Queen on four different occasions. The
memorable visit that has been described by Scott took place in 1575,
when Dudley not only lodged Queen Elizabeth, her court, and 400 servants
for seventeen days, but provided a series of pageants and festivities to
please his royal mistress. During the Civil War the castle was taken by
Cromwell and given by him to Colonel Hawkesworth and some other officers
belonging to his army. They destroyed the place very much, draining the
lake, besides pulling down walls and towers. The estate now belongs to
the Earl of Clarendon, to whose ancestor, Lawrence Hyde, Earl of
Rochester, it was given by Charles II. The only building which has still
preserved its roof is the gatehouse, built by Robert Dudley. It is now
used as a dwelling-house, and contains some beautiful panelling and also
a wonderful chimney-piece. The rest of the castle is very ruined, but
the remains are of great interest, being sufficient to convey an
impression of the castle as it originally stood. Close to the parish
church are the ruins of the priory, which was founded at the same time
as the castle, by Geoffrey de Clinton. At the Dissolution it was
completely destroyed, and only the gatehouse remains.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

KENILWORTH CASTLE.

Where Queen Elizabeth was entertained for seventeen days by Robert
Dudley, Earl of Leicester.]



BELVOIR CASTLE

THE SEAT OF THE DUKE OF RUTLAND


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Grantham (7 miles from Belvoir Castle).
=Distance from London.=--105-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 and 2-3/4 hours.

                     1st      2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single  15s. 10d.   ...   8s. 9d.
          Return  31s.  8d.   ...  17s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Angel Hotel," etc., at Grantham.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Belvoir Castle, the Leicestershire seat of the Duke of Rutland, stands
on a lofty eminence, commanding a magnificent view over the rich vale of
Belvoir. It was originally founded by Robert de Todeni, a Norman noble,
and a standard-bearer to William the Conqueror. In the reign of Henry
III. the property passed to Robert de Roos, and in the time of Henry
VIII. to the family of Manners, who have held it ever since. The
building suffered much damage during the Wars of the Roses and the
Parliamentary Civil War. James I. was entertained there in 1603, on his
way from Scotland to London, by Roger, the fifth Earl. In 1814, George
IV., then Prince Regent, visited the castle, in commemoration of which
one of the towers was named Regent Tower. In 1816, alterations were
being carried out in the interior, under the direction of James Wyatt,
the architect, when a fire broke out and almost entirely destroyed the
castle. The picture gallery and the grand staircase perished utterly,
and the damage was reckoned at L120,000. The final restoration was
completed by Matthew Wyatt, who succeeded in building one of the finest
palaces in the length and breadth of England. One of the features of the
mansion is a magnificent picture gallery in which hang priceless works
by Nicolas Poussin, Claude, Murillo, Reynolds, Gainsborough, and other
old masters. The name "Belvoir" is derived from the magnificent
prospects lying around it in all directions, the view extending over the
level country for 30 miles; more than 170 towns and villages are visible
within its horizon. The castle is situated in the midst of a fine
sporting country, the Belvoir hounds being one of the finest packs in
the country.

Near the mansion, and below it, are some remains of a priory also
founded by the Norman owner, Robert de Todeni, about 1076. This priory
was dedicated to St. Mary, and was annexed to the Abbey of St. Albans.

[Illustration: _G.W. Wilson & Co._

BELVOIR CASTLE.

It was originally founded by Robert de Todeni, a standard-bearer to
William the Conqueror.]



BATH


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Bath.
=Distance from London.=--107 miles.
=Average Time.=--2-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  17s. 10d.  11s. 2d.   8s. 11d.
          Return  31s.  3d.  19s. 6d.  17s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Empire Hotel," "Pulteney Hotel,"
  "York House Family Hotel," "Royal Station Hotel," "Railway
  Hotel," "Waldron's Private Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.

Bath, one of the largest towns in Somersetshire, is beautifully situated
on the Avon in a wooded valley in the north-east of the county. The city
is of great antiquity, and was one of the most powerful Roman stations,
being at the intersection of two very important roads,--the Fosse Way,
which extended from the coast of Devonshire to the north-east coast of
Lincolnshire, and the Via Julia, the great road between London and
Wales. The story of the British king Bladud and his connection with Bath
is immortalised in the _Pickwick Papers_, but is more or less legendary;
however, as to the greatness of the city during the Roman occupation
there is ample evidence. Even in those times the great natural feature
of the place was its mineral waters, and in the first century the Romans
built some luxurious baths there, and now the extensive remains have
made the place notable. The Saxons quaintly named the city _Akeman
Ceaster_, or town of invalids.

In the original Abbey Church took place the coronation of King Edgar as
King of England by the famous St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury.
This church stands on the site of the old conventual church, on the spot
where once stood the Roman temple of Minerva. It was rebuilt in the
fifteenth century by Bishop Oliver King, and completed by Bishop
Montague at the beginning of the seventeenth century. On the west front
are sculptures representing the angels upon Jacob's Ladder, and the
whole building teems with interest; but the original purity of its
architecture has been much marred by faulty and ignorant restoration.

Till the middle of the eighteenth century Bath covered no larger area
than that contained within the Roman walls, but Queen Anne and Prince
George of Denmark having conceived a great partiality for the place, and
the medicinal quality of the waters being much advocated, the city
rapidly grew in favour and size, until it reached its heyday in the time
of Beau Nash and the Prince Regent.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE RESTORED ROMAN BATH AT BATH.

The bases of the columns are chiefly untouched Roman work.]



BOSTON AND THE PILGRIM FATHERS


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Boston.
=Distance from London.=--107-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--3 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  15s. 4d.   ...    8s. 11d.
          Return  30s. 8d.   ...   17s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Peacock and Royal," "Red Lion"
  Hotels, etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

The English Boston, which gave its name to the great American seaport,
was at one time--although it is hard to believe--of as relatively great
importance as its mighty namesake of to-day. In the time of Edward III.
it was considered the third most important town in England, for during
that reign it contributed no fewer than seventeen ships to the great
fleet which was raised by Edward III. But Boston declined through its
river--the Witham--becoming scarcely navigable for more than small
ships, and after a time was placed on the list of decayed seaports. At
the present time it should be mentioned that its trade is steadily
reviving.

The town has a quiet, old-fashioned aspect, and many of its houses date
from the days when the Pilgrim Fathers made their first attempt to leave
England. The very first effort failed, through the treachery of the
captain of the vessel in which they were to take passage. They suffered
a month's imprisonment, but shortly afterwards made another attempt to
get away from the coast on a Dutch ship. This was only partially
successful, for William Brewster and a few others only, reached
Amsterdam, the women and the rest of the party having fallen into the
hands of a detachment of soldiers. Brewster, however, by untiring
efforts got all the rest over to Holland.

It was in 1620 that the Pilgrim Fathers finally set out on their voyage
to America. (See Index, Plymouth.) The greatest glory of Boston is "The
Stump," the highly unsuitable name given to its magnificent church
tower, 300 feet high, and a landmark all over the surrounding fen-lands
and even out at sea. It seems strangely slight when one is standing
within the tower and notices that no floor breaks the great sweep of
walls for a great height. The large perpendicular windows also help to
give an impression of frailty. The foundation stone, however, was laid
as long ago as 1309, and the structure is not so many years younger.

[Illustration: BOSTON, LINCOLNSHIRE.

From whence the Pilgrim Fathers sailed in the _Mayflower_.]



WARWICK


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Warwick.
=Distance from London.=--108 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd        3rd
=Fares.=--Single  15s. 3d.  10s. 2d.    8s. 1-1/2d.
          Return  28s. 3d.  17s. 10d.  16s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Warwick Arms Hotel," "Woolpack
  Hotel," "Globe Hotel," etc.

A charge of one shilling is made for admission to Warwick Castle, the
gardens and state apartments being shown to visitors.

Warwick is a small but historic town, charmingly situated on the River
Avon, and dominated by its castle, one of the very few baronial castles
still remaining entire. The town was destroyed by the Danes, but it was
rebuilt by King Alfred's Ethelfleda, who also built a fortress on an
artificial mound, overlooking the river. By the orders of William I. the
castle was enlarged, and afterwards given by the Conqueror to Henry de
Newburgh, whom he made the first Earl of Warwick of the Norman line. The
castle was of such strength that when, in the reign of Henry III., it
became the property of Margery, sister of Thomas de Newburgh, she was
informed that she would not be allowed to marry any one in whom the king
had not great confidence. The castle afterwards passed into the hands of
the Beauchamps, in whose family it remained until 1445, when the
heiress, Anne, married Richard Neville, the "King-maker," who took the
title of Earl of Warwick. The title without the estates was given by
James I. to Robert, Lord Rich. The castle was given to Sir Fulke
Greville, afterwards Lord Brooke. In 1759, when Edward Rich died without
issue, Francis Greville was made Earl of Warwick, with whose descendants
the estates have since remained. The entrance to the castle is along a
winding road cut for more than 100 yards out of the solid rock. The
castle as it now stands is a splendid specimen of the fourteenth-century
stronghold built in the transition period, when the mere fortress was
being superseded by a building of more grace and comfort. St. Mary's
Church in Warwick was rebuilt in the reign of Queen Anne, the former
church, built by Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, having been
destroyed by fire in 1694. Guy's Cliff, situated 1-1/4 miles from
Warwick, is a most picturesque spot, and is celebrated, according to
tradition, as the retreat of Guy of Warwick.

A charge of threepence each person (no fee less than sixpence) is made,
for admission to St. Mary's Church.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WARWICK CASTLE ON THE AVON.

One of the very few baronial castles still remaining entire.]



GLOUCESTER AND ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Gloucester.
=Distance from London.=--114 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-3/4 to 3-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  19s. 0d.  12s. 0d.  9s. 6d.
          Return  33s. 3d.  21s. 0d.    ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Bell Hotel," "New Inn Hotel,"
  "The Wellington Hotel," and others.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

Gloucester is one of the most thriving cities in the south of England.
It has been a town of some description from quite early times, for the
British had a fortress on the site which the Romans are believed to have
occupied as a strong position on the road into Wales. The Danes
repeatedly made incursions into this part of the country, and Gloucester
suffered very much from their ravages; but probably through the fact
that the kings of Mercia instituted a palace and priory there, the city
seems to have had sufficient strength to recover after each disaster.
Gloucester was even of sufficient importance for Edward the Confessor to
have kept his courts there for a considerable time. Being in the west
country, it naturally suffered severely during the parliamentary
struggle, and a great portion of the city was destroyed. But although
the town lost many of its old buildings at this time, it has still a
good deal of antiquity to boast, and for this reason alone is attractive
to the stranger. Its main streets are modelled on the Roman plan of a
cross, the four arms bearing the names North, South, East and West-gate
Streets.

The cathedral is not many minutes' walk from the railway station, and is
remarkable for its influence upon the English architecture which
succeeded it, for it directed the course of the curvilinear movement in
the direction of the Perpendicular style of Gothic. After remaining
uncopied for a few years, the new style spread over the length and
breadth of England. The east window is remarkable as being one of the
largest in the world. Portions of the cathedral may possibly date from
pre-Norman days, but according to the records, the earliest date is
1088. The tower was completed in 1518, and is with the cloisters almost
without equal in this country for beauty and perfection. The cathedral
contains the tomb of Osric, King of Northumbria, which was recently
opened and found to contain the bones within a wooden coffin.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

GLOUCESTER CATHEDRAL.

Showing the east window, which is one of the largest in the world.]



NORFOLK BROADS


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street. Gt. Eastern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Norwich.
=Distance from London.=--114 miles.
=Average Time.--Varies between 2-1/2 to 4-1/4 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  20s.  6d.   ...    9s. 5-1/2d.
          Return  31s. 10d.   ...   18s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Norwich--"Royal Family Hotel,"
  "Maid's Head." Yarmouth--"Royal," "Queen's," etc. Cantley--"Red
  House Hotel." Brundall--"Yare Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--To Norwich from King's Cross, Great Northern
  Railway. Train to Great Yarmouth, Lowestoft, Beccles, Cantley,
  Reedham, etc., from Liverpool Street, Great Eastern Railway.

The charm of the Norfolk Broads consists to a great extent in the fact
that they present different scenery to almost any other county in
England, although the salt marshes of Essex and Suffolk possess the
family likeness obtaining throughout East Anglia. The Norfolk Broads
occupy the stretch of country north of a line drawn between Norwich and
Yarmouth, and both towns offer great advantages for getting into the
Broad country. A "broad," it should be mentioned, is a local name for a
shallow lake connected with others, and finally with the sea by such
rivers as the Yare, the Bure, or Ant. These rivers and their various
tributaries form excellent sailing grounds, for after tacking for some
time in a rush-fringed river, one suddenly enjoys the contrast of a
broad lagoon where there is plenty of space to sail more freely.

The separate characteristics of the different broads give a choice of
surroundings capable of satisfying every one. Oulton Broad, for
instance, is generally to be found full of smart yachts, while Heigham
forms a contrast in its solemn loneliness. Wroxham Broad is always
bright with white sails going to or from Surlingham, Rockland, or
Salhouse Broads. The last mentioned a beautiful piece of water, the
quieter portions of its surface being generally thick with yellow iris
and purple loosestrife and many other species of water herb. It is
shaded by trees, and makes charming pictures from many points of view.
Crome, it is said, commenced a picture of this broad on the day of his
death, and anticipated that it would be his best work.

Irstead is another beautiful broad surrounded by feathery reeds and
thick with rushes where kingfishers and wild duck are to be found. The
ruins of St. Benet's Abbey are an interesting feature along the river
Bure. Within the monastic walls a windmill has been built, and this too
is now an old ruin, having lost its sails many years ago.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

AMONG THE NORFOLK BROADS.

A typical scene on one of the rivers connecting the broads.]



NORWICH CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Station _via_ Colchester.
  Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Norwich.
=Distance from London.=--114 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 4-1/4 hours. Quickest train 2
  hours 32 minutes.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  20s.  6d.   ...    9s. 5-1/2d.
          Return  31s. 10d.   ...   18s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Family Hotel," "Maid's
  Head Hotel," "Bell Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.

The city of Norwich has a unique charm from its combination of the
mediaeval with the modern, and "improvements" so called have not spoilt
it. The chief object of interest is the cathedral, which was founded in
1094 by Bishop Herbert Losinga, who was at one time prior at Fecamp in
Normandy, and chaplain to William II. It is regarded as one of the
greatest existing examples of Norman work, and has the finest cloisters
in England. It is 411 feet long and 191 feet broad at the transepts, and
is crowned with a spire second only to that of Salisbury. Near the
cathedral are a number of ancient and interesting structures more or
less in ruins. Chief of these may be mentioned St. Ethelbert's and the
Erpingham Gate, by the west front of the cathedral, the former in
Decorated English, the latter in Late Perpendicular, and both are
valuable and rich specimens of these styles. It was Sir Thomas Erpingham
whom Henry V. in Shakespeare's play addresses as "Good old Knight," and
it was he who gave the signal to the English at the Battle of Agincourt,
saying, as he threw up his truncheon, "Now, strike!"

Norwich occupies a place in history from the time of the earlier Danish
invasions. First its castle was erected as a stronghold by the East
Anglican kings, and resorted to as a place of safety by the inhabitants,
who gave it the name of North-wic, or northern station or town. The
bishopric of the East Angles was removed hither in 1094, when the
magnificent cathedral was founded. Evelyn in his _Diary_ gives an
account of a visit he paid to that famous scholar and physician, Dr.
Thomas Browne, author of the _Religio Medici_ and _Vulgar Errors_, then
living in Norwich. It is a pleasant picture of the fine old cathedral
town which he gives. After seeing all the rare curiosities in Sir Thomas
Browne's house, he was shown all the remarkable places of the city, and
speaks of the "venerable cathedrall, the stately churches, and the
cleannesse of the streetes."

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NORWICH CATHEDRAL.

It was founded in 1094, and is considered one of the finest examples of
Norman architecture.]



LICHFIELD

THE BIRTHPLACE OF DR. JOHNSON


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lichfield.
=Distance from London.=--118 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2 to 3-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  16s. 9d.  10s. 9d.   9s. 8-1/2d.
          Return  33s. 6d.  21s. 5d.  19s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Swan Hotel," "George Hotel," etc.

Lichfield, though an ancient town, has now a modern appearance, but is
interesting on account of its beautiful cathedral and its association
with Dr. Johnson. The house where the "great lexicographer" was born is
still to be seen in the market-place, very little altered from its
original condition. Next to this house is the Three Crowns Inn, where
Dr. Johnson and Boswell stayed when they visited Lichfield in 1776.
Among the few old houses that are remaining are St. John's Hospital,
rebuilt in 1495, and the Friary, part of an establishment of Grey
Friars, now forming a portion of a private house.

Lichfield has been a bishop's see since Anglo-Saxon times, and among its
earliest bishops was St. Chad, who advanced Christianity in England. For
a short period Lichfield boasted an archbishop, during the reign of
Offa, king of Mercia, who persuaded the Pope to grant his kingdom this
honour. No trace of any Anglo-Saxon building is left, and of the Norman
church that was next erected only the west part of the choir remains.
The present cathedral, built in the Early English style of Gothic, was
commenced about 1200, and was not finished until 1325, builders being
employed all the time. Though numbered among the smaller cathedrals,
Lichfield is very beautiful, possessing a great charm in the ruddiness
of the stone used in its construction. Its most striking features are
the three graceful spires, the sculptured west front, and the large Lady
Chapel. Owing, unfortunately, to its being fortified, the cathedral
suffered much damage when besieged by the Roundheads during the Civil
War. Windows and statues were broken, brass stripped from the tombs,
registers burned, but the worst calamity was the destruction of the
central tower. After the Restoration the cathedral was carefully
repaired, greatly due to the efforts of good Bishop Hacket, who spent
his time and money upon the work. The central spire was rebuilt by Sir
Christopher Wren.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL.

Showing the richly-sculptured west front, and the central tower rebuilt
by Sir Christopher Wren.]



SHERBORNE AND ITS ABBEY CHURCH


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo, _via_ Salisbury. L. and
  S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Sherborne.
=Distance from London.=--118 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/4 to 6 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  19s. 8d.  12s. 4d.   9s. 10d.
          Return  34s. 6d.  21s. 6d.  19s.  8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Digby Hotel," "Antelope," "Half
  Moon," etc.

Sherborne is full of archaeological interest, for besides its wonderful
Abbey Church, it has the ruins of its castle on a rocky height at the
east end of the town and a good number of ancient houses. The town
itself is situated on the side of a hill sloping down to the Yeo, and
has a clean and quaint aspect. About 705, it was chosen as the seat of a
bishopric. The see was removed to Old Sarum in 1078, but the castle
continued to be used as an episcopal residence until it was besieged by
Stephen, when it became Crown property. The Abbey Church of St. Mary the
Virgin is Norman in origin, but it has been so rebuilt and remodelled
that it is now practically Perpendicular. The whole church, with the
exception of the Lady Chapel, was very carefully restored between 1848
and 1851.

Adjoining the Abbey Church, at the west end, are the remains of the
parochial church of Alhalows, a three-aisled church in Decorated or
Early Perpendicular style. The monks and the parishioners had many
quarrels, one resulting in a fire which destroyed much of the abbey. The
Abbey Church was granted by Henry VIII. to Sir John Horsley, who sold it
to the parish for L250. There being no further use for Alhalows Church,
it was taken down.

The exterior of Sherborne Church has been called unpicturesque, owing to
its low central tower and insignificant pinnacles. It is, however, a
huge building, and its interior is so richly decorated that it more
resembles a cathedral than a parish church. It possesses the finest
fan-vault in existence, covered with gilded bosses and heraldic arms.
Contrasting with this wonderful richness of decoration are three plain
Norman arches.

The nave is divided into five bays by panelled arches, the irregular
widths of which are due to the fact that the Norman arches are cased in
with Perpendicular work. The south transept has a wonderful roof of
black Irish oak.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SHERBORNE ABBEY CHURCH.

It contains Norman work and some of the finest fan-vaulting in
existence.]



NEWARK


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Newark.
=Distance from London.=--120 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-1/2 to 3-1/4 hours.

                     1st     2nd    3rd
=Fares.=--Single  17s. 6d.   ...    10s.
          Return  35s. 0d.   ...    20s.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Ram Hotel," "Clinton Arms,"
  "Saracen's Head," "White Hart," "Swan and Salmon," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Euston, _via_ Market Harboro',
  L. and N.W. Railway. Train from St. Pancras, Midland Rly.

Newark-upon-Trent is believed by some antiquaries to have been built in
Roman times; others state its origin to have been Saxon, but the first
absolutely certain record of it is in the time of Edward the Confessor.
The castle, which was built in the reign of Stephen, stands on the bank
of the river, and on that side is still tolerably perfect. Of the
interior nothing remains except the foundations of a great hall,
probably built in later times than the rest of the fortress. A flight of
steps leads from the hall to the crypt beneath, which has loop-holes
looking towards the river. The eastern wall has disappeared, but those
remaining are fairly intact. The architecture of the castle varies, part
being Norman, and other portions dating from before the Parliamentary
War. The space enclosed by the castle walls is now used for a
bowling-green, and also as a large cattle-market.

During King John's reign the castle was besieged by the Barons, and
John, coming to relieve them, was taken ill and died there in 1216.
During the reign of Henry III. the fortress, which had been taken from
the See of Lincoln by Stephen, was restored, and remained ecclesiastical
property until the reign of Edward VI.

In the time of Charles I. the castle sustained several sieges. It was at
Newark that Charles I. was deserted by his nephews Rupert and Maurice,
after his defeat at Naseby. The king withdrew to Oxford at the approach
of the Scots and Parliamentary armies, and Newark was besieged by the
Scots. After the king's surrender in 1646, Newark was delivered up by
his orders, and the fortifications, which were 2-1/4 miles long, were
destroyed by the Parliamentary troops.

Newark Parish Church is built chiefly in the Perpendicular style, but
contains some traces of Norman work. In the town there are also the
remains of a chapel of an ancient hospital of the Knights Templars, some
walls of an Augustine priory, and a Gothic cross.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NEWARK CASTLE.

King John died here, and in the Parliamentary War the castle underwent
several sieges.]



WELLS AND ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Wells.
=Distance from London.=--120-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 5-3/4 hours.

=Fares.=--_Via_ Chippenham and Westbury.

           1st       2nd       3rd
Single  20s. 0d.  12s. 6d.  10s. 0-1/2d.
Return  35s. 2d.  22s. 0d.  20s. 0d.

_Via_ Yatton--

Single  24s. 8d.  15s. 6d.  12s. 4d.
Return  41s. 0d.  27s. 0d.  24s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Swan Hotel," "Mitre Hotel,"
  "Star Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

Wells is essentially an ecclesiastical town. It has no history of its
own, no great family has ever lived there, and it has no
manufactures,--it has simply grown up round the cathedral. For these
reasons the quiet little Somersetshire town has preserved much of its
antiquity and fascination. The presence of the natural wells, which
still are to be found in the gardens of the Bishop's Palace, probably
induced King Ina in 704 to found a college of secular canons. Here a
monastery grew, and subsequently became a bishop's see. John de Villula
transferred his seat to Bath in (_circa_) 1092, and in 1139 the title
was altered to Bishop of Bath and Wells. Wells is one of the smallest of
the English cathedrals, and is in many ways the most beautiful. The
clear space in front emphasises the glorious way in which the three
massive towers harmonise with the ruins of the Bishop's Palace, the
remains of the Vicar's Close, and the chapter-house. The present
building was commenced in 1121, but Bishop Joceline of Wells (1206-1242)
rebuilt it from the middle of the choir to the west end. The Early
English work shows considerable differences to that in Salisbury and Ely
Cathedrals, being carried out by a local school of masons, who show
considerable originality in design. The glory of Wells is centred in its
west front. The deep buttresses on the towers cast shadows which only
serve to show up the marvellous sculptured figures of saints and kings,
which may represent a Te Deum in stone. The inside of the cathedral is
remarkable for the inverted arches which were put in the chancel to
support the towers. Bishop Beckington built the three arches to the
close.

A charge of 6d. is made for admission to the choir of the cathedral.

[Illustration: _F. Frith & Co._

WELLS CATHEDRAL.

Commenced in 1121, but chiefly rebuilt between 1206 and 1242. It is one
of the smallest cathedrals in England.]



STRATFORD-ON-AVON

THE BIRTHPLACE OF SHAKESPEARE


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Stratford-on-Avon.
=Distance from London.=--121-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3 to 4-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  16s. 0d.  10s. 6d.   8s.  5d.
          Return  29s. 3d.  18s. 6d.  16s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Red Horse Hotel," "Shakespeare
  Hotel," "Golden Lion Hotel," "Red Lion," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

Stratford-on-Avon, a picturesque town situated on the river Avon, in
Warwickshire, is visited yearly by thousands of people desirous of
seeing the birthplace of William Shakespeare. John Shakespeare, the
father of William, bought the two half-timbered houses in Henley Street,
where he practised his trade of wool-stapler, and it was in one of these
houses that William Shakespeare was born in 1564. These houses are now
practically in their original condition, although at one time the
wool-shop was turned into an inn. The desk, said to have been used by
Shakespeare when at school, is to be seen in the former wool-shop, now
converted into a museum. The King Edward VI. Grammar School, to which
Shakespeare went, occupies the first floor of the old Guildhall, built
in the thirteenth century, but much altered in the fifteenth century. It
was in this Guildhall that Shakespeare saw for the first time a
theatrical performance given by travelling players. Close to the
Guildhall is the site of New Place, which was bought by Shakespeare.
Only the foundations of this house remain, as in 1753 the owner, the
Rev. Francis Gastrell, being angry at having to pay some rates, was not
content with cutting down the famous mulberry tree planted by the poet,
but caused the whole house to be razed and the materials sold.

The Church of Holy Trinity, most beautifully situated on the river Avon,
is cruciform in plan. In the chancel is Shakespeare's grave, with the
stone slab having the well-known lines:--

  GOOD FREND, FOR IESVS SAKE FORBEARE,
  TO DIGG THE DUST ENCLOASED HEARE;
  BLESTE BE YE MAN YT SPARES THES STONES,
  AND CVRST BE HE YT MOVES MY BONES.

At Shottery, one mile from Stratford, is the half-timbered cottage where
Anne Hathaway, the wife of Shakespeare, was born.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

TRINITY CHURCH, STRATFORD-ON-AVON.

From the river. In the chancel is Shakespeare's grave.]



BURNHAM THORPE, NORFOLK

THE BIRTHPLACE OF NELSON


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or St. Pancras. Great
  Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Burnham Market (1 mile from Burnham Thorpe).
=Distance from London.=--122 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 and 4-1/2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  19s. 10d.   ...   10s. 3d.
          Return  34s.  0d.   ...   20s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Hoste Arms" at Burnham Market.

Burnham Thorpe, the native village of the great Admiral Nelson, is
within walking distance of either Holkham, Burnham Market, or
Wells-next-the-Sea. Horatio Nelson, the fourth son of Edmund and
Catherine Nelson, was born on September 29, 1758, at the Parsonage
House, which has unfortunately been pulled down. There are, however,
many interesting relics of Nelson in the village church, and it is
interesting to see the surroundings among which Nelson's childhood was
passed. In the parish register may be seen the signature of Nelson as a
witness to a marriage in the year 1769, when he was eleven years old.
There is a lectern constructed from the wood of the old _Victory_, which
was presented by the Lords of the Admiralty in 1881. The old Purbeck
marble font in which Horatio was baptized is still to be seen in the
church. How much Nelson loved his native village can be understood from
his remark as the _Victory_ was going into action, "This is the happiest
day of my life; what a happy day, too, for Burnham Thorpe, for it is the
day of their fair."

Nelson's father was not by any means well off, and the question of
providing for his sons was a very serious one. Horatio, however, solved
the question as to his own career. At the Grammar School at Norwich,
Nelson said to his brother, "Do, William, write to my father and tell
him that I should like to go to sea with Uncle Maurice." Captain Maurice
Suckling is said to have heard of Horatio's decision with some surprise,
for he said, "What has poor Horatio done, who is so weak, that he, above
all the rest, should be sent to rough it out at sea? But let him come,
and the first time we go into action a cannon-ball may knock off his
head and provide for him at once."

In January 1771, when at school at North Walsham, Nelson heard that he
was to join the _Raisonnable_, of 64 guns, at Chatham. He was then only
twelve years old.

[Illustration: _G.W. Wilson & Co._

BURNHAM THORPE CHURCH.

It still contains the old marble font in which Nelson was baptized.]



LULWORTH COVE, DORSETSHIRE


=How to get there.=--By rail from Waterloo Station. South-Western
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Wool, 5 miles. (Corfe Castle, Wareham, and
  Swanage are very convenient, though the drive is a little longer.)
=Distance from London.=--126 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/2 to 5-1/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  21s. 0d.  13s. 2d.  10s. 6d.
          Return  36s. 9d.  23s. 0d.  21s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Cove Hotel," West Lulworth.
  "Banke's Arms Hotel" at Corfe Castle.
=Alternative Route.=--_Via_ Bournemouth. Train direct from Waterloo.
  Steamers run once a week or oftener during the summer months
  (weather permitting) to Swanage and Lulworth Cove.

The remarkable cove at West Lulworth consists of a completely circular
basin, hollowed out of the bold cliffs of the southern coast-line of
Purbeck Island. It is of sufficient depth to allow small ships of from
sixty to eighty tons to enter. The narrow opening to the cove is between
two bluffs of Portland stone, forming a portion of what was the barrier
to the sea in former times. Once, however, did the waves eat through the
Portland stone in this place, it was easy work to gradually batter down
and wash out, through the narrow opening, a circular bay from the soft
strata of Hastings sands lying in the protection of the Portland stone.
On the west side of the cove one may notice rocks with such peculiarly
contorted strata as those shown in the foreground of the illustration
opposite.

A most interesting and rugged portion of the coast lies to the west of
Lulworth Cove. After leaving the coastguard signal station one reaches
Stair Hole, a cavity walled off from the sea by Portland limestone. At
high tide, however, the sea enters the chasm through a number of small
apertures, and is probably carving out at this spot a circular basin
after the manner of Lulworth Cove. Passing Dungy Head and Oswald or
Horsewall Bay, with its towering chalk cliffs, one reaches a low
promontory known as Tongue Beach. It is formed of layers of limestone
tilted into curved or perpendicular positions. Crossing this promontory
one enters Durdle Bay, with the Barndoor, an archway 30 feet high, in a
massive cliff.

At East Lulworth, a little way inland from the cove, stands Lulworth
Castle, an imposing-looking building with circular towers at each
corner. It was built about three hundred years ago on the site of an
earlier castle.

[Illustration: LULWORTH COVE FROM THE WEST.

The circular basin has been eaten out of the sandy soil after the sea
had cut an opening in the Portland stone which forms the actual
coast-line at this point.]



CORFE CASTLE

IN THE ISLE OF PURBECK, DORSETSHIRE


=How to get there=.--By rail from Waterloo Station. South-Western
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Corfe Castle--quite close to the ruins.
=Distance from London.=--130 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3 to 5 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  21s. 2d.  13s. 3d.  10s. 7d.
          Return  37s. 0d.  23s. 3d.  21s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= "The Banke's Arms Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--_Via_ Bournemouth and steamer to Swanage.

Corfe Castle on its great hill, with the little hamlet which goes by the
same name which clusters at its foot, is one of the most spectacular of
the ruined fortresses to be found in Southern England. At the periods of
the year when there are no strangers in the village, the ruins and the
village leave an impression on the mind which is not so palpable when
there are the distractions caused by other visitors. But even then, the
grand view across the wild downs forming the backbone of the island of
Purbeck, over which one gazes from the shattered towers and curtain
walls, is sufficiently memorable. Its position, commanding the whole
Purbeck range of hills, made the spot famous in Saxon days, when it was
known as Corfe Gate. Shortly after the days of Alfred the Great the hill
was strongly fortified by King Edgar, who made it his residence and
probably built the central keep, whose ruins still crown the summit of
the hill. Edgar left the castle to his widow Elfrida, whose name has
been handed down as the murderer of her stepson Edward--afterwards named
Edward the Martyr. He visited Corfe Castle in order to see his brother,
but while drinking a goblet of wine in the gateway between the two
circular towers shown in the illustration, he was stabbed by command of
Elfrida. During the civil war between Stephen and Maud, the fortress
defied all attempts to take it by Stephen's adherents; and up to the
struggle between Charles I. and his Parliament, when for a space of six
weeks Lady Bankes held the castle with a handful of retainers, Corfe
Castle has figured prominently in English history.

The village is almost entirely composed of cottages whose stone walls
and thick slate roofs are beautifully mellowed by the hand of time.
Nowhere does there appear anything new to jar with the silver greys and
the grey greens of the old cottages, the church, and the castle ruins.

A charge of sixpence each person is made for admission to the castle.

[Illustration: CORFE CASTLE.

Showing on the left the massive round towers flanking the gateway,
where, in Saxon times, Edward is said to have been stabbed by command of
his stepmother, Elfrida.]



LINCOLN AND ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Lincoln.
=Distance from London.=--130 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 2-3/4 to 3-1/2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  18s. 10d.   ...   10s. 9d.
          Return  37s.  8d.   ...   21s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Great Northern Hotel," and others.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Marylebone, Great Central Railway.
  Train from Liverpool Street, Great Eastern Railway. Train
  from St. Pancras, _via_ Nottingham, Midland Railway.

Lincoln stands on a hill surrounded by level country. First a British
settlement, it became a Roman colony. In 1074 the decree that all
bishoprics should be in fortified places caused the removal of the See
of Dorchester to Lincoln. Even at this time Lincoln was an important
commercial town. Many parliaments have been held in its chapter-house,
and Henry VII. offered his thanksgivings after Bosworth in the
cathedral.

The mighty fane, with its three massive towers, rises majestically over
the red roofs of the town. Its most striking feature is the great Norman
screen, running up without buttresses or projections to the parapet and
hiding the bases of the square, richly decorated towers of the west
front. The plain centre of the screen is the work of Remigius, the first
bishop. The rest of it is relieved with rich arcading of Late Norman and
Early English periods. The wooden spires which crowned the towers were
removed in 1807.

In 1192 Hugh of Avalon determined to rebuild the Norman building of
Remigius, which an earthquake had shaken. To him we owe the choir and
eastern transept. His successors completed the western transept and
began the west end of the nave. So much money had to be spent in
rebuilding the central tower, which fell in 1239, that the canons could
not rebuild the nave entirely, but had to incorporate the Norman end by
Remigius. Unfortunately the axis of the west front does not correspond
to that of the nave, which is too wide for its height. The low vaulting
is a serious defect in the choir built by St. Hugh, but of the superb
beauty of the Angel Choir, which encloses his shrine, there can be no
doubt. In its richness of sculpture it is one of the masterpieces of
Gothic architecture in England. The interior of the cathedral is
remarkable for the harmony of its style, which is Lancet-Gothic, and the
dim lighting of the nave only adds to its impressiveness.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

LINCOLN CATHEDRAL.

The original Norman building was built by Remigius, but the structure
having been weakened by an earthquake shock, Hugh of Avalon in 1192
built the Choir and Eastern Transept, and his successors finished the
work.]



SOMERSET, THE BIRTHPLACE OF TENNYSON


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Horncastle (6 miles from Somersby).
=Average Time.=--from 3 to 4-1/2 hours.
=Distance from London.=--130 miles.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  18s. 4d.   ...   10s. 10d.
          Return  36s. 8d.   ...   21s.  8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--No inn at Somersby. Paying guests
  accommodated at Baumber's Manor House at Somersby. Hotels
  at Spilsby.

On August 6, 1809, Alfred Tennyson was born at the rectory at Somersby.
His grandfather, Mr. George Tennyson, M.P., resided at Bayon's Manor,
where the family had for a long period been known in Lincolnshire.
Alfred was the fourth of the twelve children of the Rev. George Clayton
Tennyson. Although there seems little reason for not believing that the
scenery which surrounded him in his youth impressed itself on his mind,
yet it is now stated with authority that the localities associated with
his subject poems, "which had been ingeniously identified with real
brooks and granges, were wholly imaginary." Those who visit Somersby,
therefore, would be wise in avoiding what is pointed out as "Tennyson's
Brook," merely gaining instead a general idea of the appearance of the
country which impressed itself on the poet's mind.

When he was six years old Tennyson was sent to the grammar school at
Louth, a town his mother was connected with, her father having been
vicar there. After five years at school at Louth, Tennyson returned to
Somersby Rectory to be trained by his father. The rectory possessed a
good library, and here the poet obtained his extensive knowledge of the
English classics. When only twelve years old he wrote an epic of 6000
lines, and two years later a drama in blank verse. Tennyson's early
knowledge of the sea was obtained at Mablethorpe on the Lincolnshire
coast, where the family spent their summer holidays. His father would
not allow him to leave Somersby until he could recite from memory the
whole of the odes of Horace.

In the early part of 1831 he returned to Somersby from Cambridge, and
within a few days his father died. The new incumbent, however, allowed
the family to continue at the rectory for some years. In 1837 they were
finally obliged to leave, and for the next three years they lived at
High Beach, Epping Forest.

[Illustration: SOMERSBY RECTORY.

Where Alfred Tennyson was born in 1809.]



GLASTONBURY ABBEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Glastonbury and Street.
=Distance from London.=--132-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 3-1/2 to 5 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  21s. 0d.   ...   10s. 6d.
          Return  36s. 9d.   ...   21s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"George Hotel," "Red Lion Hotel,"
  "Crown Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

In the early days of Christianity in Britain this celebrated abbey,
according to tradition, was established in A.D. 63. Joseph of Arimathea
was supposed to be the founder, and the "miraculous thorn," which
flowered on Christmas Day, was believed to be holy by the common people
even up to the time of the Puritans. During the wars between Charles I.
and his Parliament the thorn was destroyed, but sturdy trees grown from
cuttings of the original still flourish in some of the neighbouring
gardens. This thorn was believed by the people to be the staff used by
Joseph in his journey to Britain from the Holy Land. At one time
Glastonbury Abbey covered 60 acres, and was the lengthiest
ecclesiastical building in England, but as many of the houses in
Glastonbury, and also a causeway across Sedgemoor (where the unhappy
Duke of Monmouth was defeated) were constructed of the materials, the
ruins are of necessity much diminished. The most interesting remains are
the Abbey Church, with St. Joseph's Chapel, St. Mary's Chapel, and the
Abbot's Kitchen. St. Joseph's Chapel is supposed to have been erected in
the time of Henry II. and Richard I. It is one of the finest specimens
in existence of transitional Norman work. It is now roofless, and even
the vaulting of the crypt is nearly destroyed. The windows and archways
of St. Mary's Chapel are beautiful, although roofless. The Abbot's
Kitchen, a square massive structure with strong buttresses, was built
about 1450. The roof is of stone and is surmounted by a louvre, through
which the smoke escaped during the great culinary preparations in the
days of the abbey's prosperity. The gargoyles around the building,
representing the heads of sheep and oxen, are suggestive of the purpose
of the building. Henry VIII., who coveted the treasures of the abbey, in
1539 summoned Abbot Whiting to surrender, and on his refusal ordered him
to be drawn and quartered. This was carried out on Glastonbury Tor.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

GLASTONBURY ABBEY.

The doorway of St. Joseph's Chapel.]



WALSINGHAM, NORFOLK

THE PRIORY OF OUR LADY OF WALSINGHAM


=How to get there.=--Train from Liverpool Street or St. Pancras.
  Great Eastern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Walsingham.
=Distance from London.=--133 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4 and 5-1/2 hours. Quickest train 3
  hours 50 minutes.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  19s. 7d.   ...   10s. 3d.
          Return  33s. 3d.   ...   20s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Black Lion Hotel," "Abbeygate
  Temperance Hotel," etc.

The ruins of the famous priory are now included in the extensive grounds
of Walsingham Abbey, the property of Mr. Henry Lee Warner. Visitors have
permission to see these ruins on Wednesdays and Fridays, by application
at the lodge of the abbey.

Walsingham is a pretty village 5 miles from Wells-on-Sea. It possesses a
noble church in the Perpendicular style, an ancient town pump, and two
wishing wells, which were formerly believed to possess miraculous
powers, for the legend is that they sprang from the ground at command of
the Virgin. Walsingham was an important place for many centuries, for it
contained the famous shrine of the Virgin, or, as it was called, "Our
Lady of Walsingham." This far-famed chapel of the Virgin was founded by
Ricoldie, the mother of Geoffrey de Faverches. When Geoffrey set out on
a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he granted to God and St. Mary, and to Edwy,
his clerk, the chapel which his mother Ricoldie had built at Walsingham,
with other possessions, requesting him to found a priory there. It
became one of the richest in the world. From the very commencement there
was an unceasing flow of pilgrims from all nations to it. Several kings
and queens of England, and among them Henry VIII., paid their devotions
there. Erasmus, who visited the priory in 1511, derided its enormous
wealth. Parts of the road leading to this priory are known to this day
as the "Walsingham Way" and the "Palmer's Way." It is said more pilgrims
came to Walsingham than to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket at
Canterbury. The monks taught the people that the "Milky Way" pointed to
the shrine. Hence the Norfolk people called it the "Walsingham Way."
This shrine was destroyed at the dissolution of monasteries in 1539.

[Illustration: _Rev. W. Martin, Walsingham._

EAST WINDOW OF THE PRIORY AT WALSINGHAM.]



CHEDDAR CAVES, CHEDDAR, SOMERSET


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Cheddar.
=Distance from London.=--134 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/4 to 5-1/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  21s. 4d.  13s. 4d.  10s. 8d.
          Return  37s. 4d.  23s. 4d.    ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Cliff Hotel," etc.

The village of Cheddar, a name which reminds one of the cheese for which
the district is famous, is situated under the Mendip Hills, on the
Cheddar river, a tributary of the Axe. The place was once a market town
of considerable note, as the fine market-cross still testifies, but is
now chiefly celebrated as a starting-point for visiting the wonderful
natural beauties of the neighbourhood, the tremendous gorge through the
Cheddar cliffs and the stalactite caves being the most remarkable. The
road from the village rises gradually, passing the masses of rock known
as the "Lion," the "Castle Rock," the "Pulpit," and others, named from
their wonderful resemblance to the work of human hands. The way winds
between steep limestone walls and towering pinnacles, rising here and
there to a height of between four and five hundred feet, and absolutely
shutting one in from even the merest glimpse of the magnificent scenery
in the valley below. There are paths here and there leading up to points
of vantage, but the way is difficult and dangerous owing to the manner
in which the passes are honeycombed with caverns and fissures.

In the midst of the gorge on the right hand of the way lie the entrances
to the marvellous stalactite caves, the first of which was discovered in
1837, and the second in comparatively recent times. It is needless to
say that the proprietor of each cave affirms his to be the better--as a
matter of fact, both are well worth seeing. One looks with something
like awe on the fantastic shapes of the stalagmites and stalactites in
these huge caverns, where the moisture, percolating through the earth,
has been dripping in the darkness for countless centuries, each
lime-laden drop lengthening imperceptibly the stalactite overhead and
the stalagmite beneath, while the consequent splashings, and, in some
parts, more sluggish dripping, make hundreds of quaint and suggestive
forms above and below. The caverns are well lit up to display their
beauties, and the admission is 2s. for a single visitor, or 1s. each for
members of a party.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CHEDDAR CLIFFS.

The road leading to the limestone caves.]



NEWSTEAD ABBEY

THE BIRTHPLACE OF BYRON


=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Change trains at
  Nottingham. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Newstead.
=Distance from London.=--134-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/4 to 4-1/4 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  17s. 6d.   ...   10s. 9-1/2d.
          Return  35s. 0d.   ...   21s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Station Hotel,"* Newstead. "Swan
  Hotel,"* Mansfield. "Midland," "White Hart," and "Green
  Dragon," and others.

Near Sherwood Forest, and not far from the town of Mansfield, is
Newstead Abbey, the ancestral seat of the Byrons. Founded in 1170 by
Henry II. as an expiation for the murder of Thomas a Becket, the abbey,
at the dissolution of the monasteries, was given by Henry VIII. to Sir
John Byron. The latter made it his home, altering it very little, but
allowing the church to fall into ruins. The monks, before leaving their
old home, hid the charters in the lectern, which they threw into the
lake. About 100 years ago the lectern, still containing the charters,
was discovered, and is now being used at Southwell. The "Wicked Lord
Byron," the grand-uncle of the poet, allowed the abbey to fall into
decay, and to spite his sons cut down a large number of splendid oaks.
Byron succeeded to the estate when a mere boy, and loved it so much
that, even when in great need of money, he refused to part with it. At
last he was obliged to sell the home, which he has so vividly portrayed
in verse, to his old school friend Colonel Wildman. After the loss of
the abbey, Byron left England, and died six years afterwards, in 1824,
at Missolonghi, fighting for the independence of the Greeks.

The Abbey Church, though in ruins, is a very good example of Early
English work. The abbey itself is full of interesting and historic
rooms, one being the bedroom where Charles II. slept, retaining still
the state bed, whose coverlet was embroidered by Mary Queen of Scots.
Edward I. is known to have stayed in the abbey, and the room which he
occupied contains some splendid oak carving. Lord Byron's bedroom is
just as he left it, with his college pictures on the walls and the
writing-table that he used. Newstead is open to the public on Tuesday
and Friday when the family are not in residence. Tickets may be obtained
at the two hotels mentioned above which are marked with an asterisk.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NEWSTEAD ABBEY.

It contains Lord Byron's bedroom in exactly the condition he left it in
1818.]



THE WESSEX OF THOMAS HARDY'S ROMANCES


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Dorchester.
=Distance from London.=--135-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3 to 5-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd        3rd
=Fares.=--Single  22s. 8d.  14s.  2d.  11s. 4d.
          Return  39s. 8d.  24s. 10d.  22s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Antelope," "King's Arms," and
  other hotels.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

The centre of the district in the south-west of England which has been
labelled with its ancient Saxon name of Wessex, may be found at the
old-fashioned town of Dorchester. This is the Mecca of the whole
countryside so vividly portrayed in Mr. Hardy's numerous romances
dealing with the rustic life of the west country. On market-days,
Dorchester is crowded with carriers' vans and innumerable vehicles which
have brought in the farmers and their families from remote corners of
the surrounding country, and it is then that one is able to select
examples of many of the characters created by the novelist. To get at
these folk in their homes, one may journey in almost any direction from
Dorchester. The streets of Dorchester are suggestive of Mr. Hardy's
works at every turn, so much so that the wayfarer may almost feel that
he is taking an expurgated part in _The Mayor of Casterbridge_. A large
old-fashioned house near St. Peter's Church seems to correspond to
Lucetta's residence--High Place Hall. Then, the comfortable bay-windows
of the "King's Arms," an old hostelry belonging to coaching days,
suggests recollections of Henchard, who dined there on the occasion of
the memorable banquet, when he threw down the challenge so quickly taken
up by Farfrae.

Going up South Street one passes on the right the Grammar School,
founded in 1579 by a certain Thomas Hardy, an ancestor of all the Dorset
Hardys--Nelson's friend and the Wessex novelist being the most
distinguished among them. Mr. Thomas Hardy lives in a new red house
known as "Max Gate," which is situated a short distance from Dorchester.
Eight miles away from the town is the village of Puddletown, known as
"Weatherbury" in _Far from the Madding Crowd_. The church Mr. Hardy
describes in his novel can be seen, but Warren's malt-house was
destroyed more than twenty years ago. St. Peter's Church, Dorchester, of
the Perpendicular period, has a Norman porch and contains two
cross-legged recumbent effigies.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

DORCHESTER.

The centre of Mr. Thomas Hardy's "Wessex."]



TINTERN ABBEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Tintern.
=Distance from London.=--145-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-3/4 to 6 hours.

                     1st       2nd        3rd
=Fares.=--Single  24s. 6d.  15s.  4d.  12s. 2-1/2d.
          Return  42s. 9d.  26s. 10d.  24s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Beaufort Arms Hotel," "Royal
  George Hotel," "Rose and Crown Hotel," at Chepstow, 5-1/2 miles
  distant by road.

Tintern Abbey is situated in a level valley, surrounded on all sides by
high green pastures and wooded hills, at the bottom of which the
glorious river Wye glides in its circuitous course to the sea. The abbey
is said to share with Melrose the distinction of being the most
picturesque and beautiful ecclesiastical ruin in Great Britain. When the
sun is setting, or better still, under the mystic light of the harvest
moon, the picture formed by the roofless abbey in its perfect setting,
needs a Wordsworth to do it justice.

An abbey for Cistercian monks was established on this spot in 1131 by
Walter Fitz-Richard de Clare and dedicated to St. Mary. None of this
building remains, as the whole edifice was rebuilt about 1260. The chief
part of the ruins, now standing, is the church, though in 1847, when
excavations were being carried on in an adjoining orchard, the remains
of the Hospitium were discovered. This was an oblong building, supported
on pillars, in which it was the custom for the monks to entertain
strangers or travellers of their order. In the middle of the nave are
the four arches which supported the tower, now mere skeletons, yet
sufficiently preserved to show their form. The walls are nearly
complete, and many of the columns still stand, as well as the bases of
those whioh have fallen. All the pavement has disappeared, and the whole
of the former floor is reduced to one level, now carpeted with turf.

The church is cruciform in plan and measures 228 feet from east to west.
The remains of the dormitory, chapter-house, cloisters, and the
refectory, which still has its lectern for the use of the reader during
meals, are to be found on the north side of the church. Walking on the
walls is forbidden. The vast extent of the ruins of the Hospitium
recalls the fact that Tintern Abbey was for a long period distinguished
for its luxurious style of living and its great hospitality.

When in the neighbourhood of Tintern one should visit Monmouth for its
remarkable old bridge with its interesting gatehouse.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

TINTERN ABBEY.

The beautiful river Wye is seen flowing just beyond the ruins.]



CHESTERFIELD, DERBYSHIRE


=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chesterfield.
=Distance from London.=--146 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3 to 3-3/4 hrs.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  19s. 2d.   ...   12s. 1d.
          Return  38s. 4d.   ...   24s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Angel Hotel," "Station Hotel,"
  "Midland Hotel," "Hotel Portland," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Marylebone. Great Central Rly.

Chesterfield, now the second largest town in its own county, was at the
time of the Doomsday survey merely a bailiwick to Newbold, which at the
present time has dwindled down to a small hamlet to the west of the
parish. In the middle of the thirteenth century a battle was fought here
between the Earl of Derby and Prince Henry, nephew of Henry III., in
which the Earl was defeated and taken prisoner. It was also the scene of
a fierce engagement during the civil wars of Charles I., in which the
Earl of Newcastle routed the Parliamentary forces in 1643.

The great feature of interest in Chesterfield is the parish church of
All Saints, with its extraordinary twisted spire 230 feet in height.
This "crooked" spire, which leans over to the south-west, has been the
object of much discussion amongst antiquaries, as to whether it was
designed in such a fashion, or whether the present state of affairs has
been brought about by a warping of the timber frame under the outside
covering of lead. The latter seems the more feasible theory.

There was a church at Chesterfield in the eleventh century, but the
present structure is mainly of the fourteenth century, with later
additions. In the interior there are several features of interest, among
them being the screen separating the transept from the chancel. This is
carved with a set of mysterious figures, supposed to be emblematical of
the crucifixion.

There are many extremely fine and interesting monuments in the church,
especially two belonging to the Foljambe family. At the east end is a
very good modern stained-glass window, erected as a memorial to a former
vicar, the late Archdeacon Hill.

In the neighbourhood of Chesterfield there are a number of interesting
places, notably the fine old churches at Old Brampton and Wingerworth,
and a small disused chapel with a Norman doorway at Newbold.

[Illustration: _G.W. Wilson & Co._

CHESTERFIELD CHURCH.

With its strangely-distorted spire, probably due to the unequal
shrinking of its timbers.]



DUKERIES


=How to get there.=--From King's Cross. Great Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Worksop Station.
=Distance from London.=--146-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--3-1/2 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  20s. 1d.   ...   12s. 2-1/2d.
          Return  40s. 2d.   ...   24s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," etc., at Worksop.
=Alternative Route.=--From Marylebone or to Dukeries Junction from
  King's Cross.

The district known as the "Dukeries" is undoubtedly the finest portion
of what remains of the famous Sherwood Forest associated with Robin Hood
and his "merrie men." The name "Dukeries" arises from the fact that
within the boundaries of the forest were once the homes of the Dukes of
Portland, Newcastle, Norfolk, Leeds, and Kingston. The Dukes of Norfolk
and Leeds no longer hold their property, and Earl Manvers, as a
representative of the Kingston family, preserves at Thoresby the
traditions of his race. At Welbeck the Duke of Portland, and at Clumber
the Duke of Newcastle, still keep up their magnificent homes. To the
latter noblemen the majority of the "Dukeries" belongs. The drive round
this lovely part of the forest is nearly 30 miles, through beautiful
scenery.

Worksop, with its fine old priory church, is one of the best
starting-points for a tour round the Dukeries. Clumber House, the seat
of the Duke of Newcastle, is 4 miles from Worksop, and orders to see the
interior can be obtained from the Newcastle agent, in Park Street, by
writing a day or two beforehand. The mansion, built in 1772, is very
magnificent and contains some priceless pictures.

Thoresby House, the seat of Earl Manvers, is not far distant from
Clumber. The present house, which was designed by Salvin in 1868, is the
third home of the Manvers which has occupied this site.

Welbeck Abbey, the home of the Duke of Portland, is another of the
important seats in the district, standing in the centre of one of the
finest parks in the kingdom. The mansion itself is not a showplace, but
when the family is not in residence various parts of it are exhibited
upon payment of 1s., any weekday except Saturday. An extra shilling will
enable the visitor to view the underground apartments.

The whole of the "Dukeries" district teems with interesting places,
ancient and modern. From Mansfield one may visit Hardwick Hall, Bolsover
Castle, and Newstead Abbey, beloved of Byron (see Index), while Belvoir
Castle (see Index) and Woolaton Hall are within easy distance.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CLUMBER HOUSE

The seat of the Duke of Newcastle. It was built in 1772.]



HADDON HALL, DERBYSHIRE


=How to get there.=--Through train from St. Pancras or change at
  Derby. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Rowsley (1-1/2 miles distant).
=Distance from London.=--149-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--4 to 4-1/3 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  19s. 11d.   ...   12s. 4-1/2d.
          Return  39s. 10d.   ...   24s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Bakewell--"Rutland Arms Hotel,"
  "Red Lion," "Castle," etc.

Haddon Hall, the most perfect of baronial mansions existing in England,
is situated in a wonderfully picturesque position on a limestone rock
overlooking the river Wye in Derbyshire. The manor was originally given
by William the Conqueror to William Peveril, the famous "Peveril of the
Peak" of Scott's novel. In the reign of Henry II. the lands reverted to
the Crown, and the property was granted to the Avenalls, from whom it
passed by marriage to the Vernons, of whom the last, Sir George, known
as the "King of the Peak," died in 1567. His daughter, the celebrated
Dorothy Vernon, married John Manners, son of the Earl of Rutland, and
thus the property passed to the Rutland family, who are still the
owners.

The mansion is approached by a small bridge crossing the river Wye,
whence one enters, under a lofty archway, the first courtyard. In this
beautiful quadrangle one of the most interesting features is the chapel
at the south-west corner. This chapel, which is one of the oldest
portions of the structure, is Norman, with some later work. Almost
opposite, on the left, is the magnificent porch and bay-window leading
into the great hall. It is exactly as it was in the days of the Vernons,
with its dais and table at which the "lord of the feast" sat, its huge
fireplace, timber roof, and minstrels' gallery. Adjoining it is the
dining-room, a magnificent apartment erected by the "King of the Peak."
Here there is a remarkably fine oriel window, richly ornamented with
carving.

Among other interesting features in the second courtyard are the
drawing-room, hung with the original arras, the long gallery, and the
ancient state-room, adjoining which is the Peveril Tower, the highest
point and oldest portion of the hall. The long gallery, with its stately
bay-windows, looks on to the well-known terrace and the magnificent
garden, made so familiar by photographs.

Haddon Hall may be seen by visitors from nine till dusk, a gratuity
being generally given to the attendant.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BALL-ROOM AT HADDON HALL]



THE ISLE OF ATHELNEY, AND SEDGEMOOR

THE SCENE OF MONMOUTH'S DEFEAT


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Athelney.
=Distance from London.=--150-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 5-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  26s. 8d.  16s. 8d.  13s. 4d.
          Return  53s. 4d.  33s. 4d.  26s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Railway Hotel."

The Isle of Athelney, the hiding-place of Alfred the Great, at the time
when the fortunes of England lay trembling in the balance, is a slightly
elevated plot of land where the river Parret joins the Tone. In Alfred's
days it was a small island surrounded by an impenetrable morass, and
thickly grown with alders. Here tradition places the hut in which the
king, deep in thought, allowed the good wife's cakes to burn. Soon a
little band of faithful followers joined Alfred, and together they built
a causeway over the marshes, eventually constructing a fort from which
successful sallies were made against the Danes in the vicinity. The
rally of the Saxons round their intrepid king resulted in the victory of
Ethandune, and out of gratitude for his success, Alfred built on the
island an abbey, of which a few relics, including the famous Alfred
Jewel, remain to-day. A monument erected by Mr. John Slade marks the
spot.

A mile to the north is Boroughbridge with its solitary hill, on which
many believe that Alfred built his chief fort. The hill is now crowned
by the ruins of St. Michael's Church, St. Michael being the saint whose
name is associated with most of our hill-top shrines. Ling, the next
village, is thought to be a corruption of Atheling.

Athelney is on the edge of the flat valley of Sedgemoor, the scene of
Monmouth's defeat in 1685. The royal troops were quartered in the
villages of Weston Zoyland, Middlezoy, and Chedzoy, their headquarters
being Weston Zoyland, round which the battle raged most fiercely.
Knowing the carelessness that prevailed in the royal camp, Monmouth
attempted a night attack. On Sunday night, July 5, therefore, his troops
stole out. But they were foiled and trapped by the broad ditches called
"rhines," in which they lost their way in a helpless fashion, and a
pistol that went off in the confusion roused the Royalists, with the
result that Monmouth's followers were hopelessly routed, a thousand
being slain.

[Illustration: THE "ISLAND" OF ATHELNEY.

The Alfred memorial is in the foreground, and in the distance is the
"Mump," the lonely hill surmounted by the ruined church of
Boroughbridge.]



RAGLAN CASTLE


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Raglan.
=Distance from London.=--151-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 5-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  26s.  9d.  16s. 9d.  18s. 4-1/2d.
          Return  46s. 10d.  29s. 4d.  26s. 9d.
Fares _via_ Monmouth are slightly cheaper.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Beaufort Arms."

Raglan Castle stands on a hill near a tributary of the Usk. It is the
most celebrated ruin on the borders of Wales, and is well preserved.
There is a six-sided keep with walls 10 feet thick, and a gateway with
two ivy-clad towers. It dates probably from Edward IV.'s reign, although
some writers give an earlier time. Before its destruction by the
Parliamentarians the castle was a magnificent structure. A massive
gateway leads to the arched bridge over the moat by which entrance was
gained to the castle. The moat, 30 feet broad, surrounded the keep. The
great hall had a fine roof of Irish bog oak, and the gallery was of
great length.

This fortress was garrisoned for Charles I. by the sturdy old Earl of
Worcester, who was created a marquess in 1642. He collected an army of
1500 foot-soldiers and 500 horse, which was commanded by his son, the
second marquess. After his defeat at Naseby, in July 1645, Charles fled
to Raglan and stayed till September. Sir Thomas Fairfax besieged the
castle in June 1646, and after a three months' siege the marquess
honourably surrendered to the Parliamentary forces.

This was the last stronghold in the west to hold out for Charles. The
walls of the keep were destroyed, and, in defiance of the terms of
surrender, the aged marquess was imprisoned. He died the following year,
and was buried in Windsor Castle.

The second marquess was a mechanical genius, who invented what was known
as a "Water-commanding Engine." He erected an apparatus in the moat
which spouted water as high as the top of the castle. This was the first
practical attempt to use steam as a mechanical agent. The marquess also
used his various mechanical contrivances to terrify a body of villagers
who came to search the castle for arms in the cause of the Parliament.
When the machines were set agoing the rustics fled, believing lions or
some other forms of wild animals were after them. This marquess died in
London in 1667, and was buried in Raglan Church.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RAGLAN CASTLE.

It probably dates from the reign of Edward IV.]



DOVEDALE


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Thorpe Cloud, at the south end of Dovedale.
=Distance from London.=--152 miles.
=Average Time.=--About 4 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  20s.  6d.   ...   12s. 1-1/2d.
          Return  39s. 10d.   ...      ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Izaak Walton Hotel," at Ham;
  "The Peveril Hotel," near Thorpe; "Green Man," "White Hart,"
  etc., at Ashbourne.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway
  to Ashbourne, thence by coach; or train from King's Cross,
  Great Northern Railway.

Dovedale is the apt name given to the valley of the Dove, a river rising
on the borders of Derby and Stafford, near Buxton and Axe Edge Hill,
and, after a course of 45 miles, joining the Trent at Newton Solney. The
portion of its course chiefly associated with the name begins half a
mile from the village of Thorpe, which may be reached from Ashbourne,
the nearest station, by coach. From Thorpe the river is approached by a
stony declivity on the east of Thorpe Cloud.

The footpath is throughout on the Derbyshire side of the stream, and may
be reached from the Staffordshire side either by crossing the narrow
bridge or some stepping-stones at Thorpe Cloud. For some distance after
entering the valley the footpath follows the margin of the river, whose
banks are a mass of magnificent foliage, intermixed with a tangle of
brambles, honeysuckle, and wild roses. On the Staffordshire bank, a
little further up, the foliage suddenly changes to a mass of sheer
cliff, changing again to a mass of rifted rocks, divided into curious
turret-like terminations. This striking formation is known as Dovedale
Church, and is accompanied on the Derbyshire side by a number of rocks
which appear from below to terminate in sharp pinnacles, and have been
named "Tissington Spires," from the village close by. About 200 yards
beyond the "Church," on the Derbyshire bank, is the entrance to
Reynard's Cave, a huge cavern with an entrance 40 feet high by 20 wide,
from which the view over the dale is superb.

Throughout its whole length of nearly 3 miles the Dovedale scenery is
the extraordinary mixture of ruggedness and soft beauty, which makes it
unequalled, in its particular style, in the kingdom.

Dovedale is associated with the name of Izaak Walton and his friend
Charles Cotton, the poet.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

TISSINGTON SPIRES, DOVEDALE.]



WELLINGTON AND THE WREKIN, SHROPSHIRE


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Wellington.
=Distance from London.=--152-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 4-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  22s. 8d.  15s. 0d.  12s. 0-1/2d.
          Return  42s. 2d.  26s. 6d.  24s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Wrekin Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

To reach the top of the Wrekin from Wellington--a distance of 3
miles--one must follow the main road to Shrewsbury for a mile; then
turning to the left, having skirted a ridge of the hills, and following
a lane one reaches the foot of the ascent. The Wrekin, although it rises
in such a compact and lonely fashion from the level country, is not one
single height, but a range consisting of four hills. Those on the
north-east are called the Ercall and Lawrence hills, while those on the
west are the Wrekin and Primrose hills.

The Wrekin is composed of igneous rocks, and is one of the most
remarkable examples of eruptive trap in England. Its shoulders are of
silurian and carboniferous strata. The sedimentary deposits within the
influence of the volcanic action have passed through considerable
changes, the sandstone having become granitic quartz rock, chiefly
composed of pure white quartz with particles of decomposed felspar.

Close to the valleys of Little Wenlock, to the south-east of the Wrekin,
are irregularly shaped bosses of basaltic greenstone.

The folk-lore concerning the Wrekin is, of course, rich and full of
detail. One legend says that two giants set to work to make themselves a
citadel, and dug out the earth required for the purpose from the bed of
the Severn. The top of the Wrekin is 1335 feet high, and owing to its
remarkably isolated position the horizon on a clear day has a
circumference of 350 miles. It is not surprising, therefore, that the
hill was used as a beacon station in early days. The great sweeping
prospect from the summit includes the Malvern Hills, Caradoc and the
Brown Clee group, Plinlimmon, Cader Idris, the Brecknock Beacons, Arran
Fowdy, and the Berwin chain of mountains, overtopped by the Snowdon
range.

Wellington is chiefly modern, and its old church was rebuilt in 1789.
The chief industry is nail-making.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

THE WREKIN FROM WELLINGTON.]



WROXETER AND THE ROMAN CITY OF URICONIUM, SALOP


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Upton Magna _via_ Shrewsbury (Wroxeter lies 2-1/2
  miles south of Upton Magna).
=Distance from London.=--159 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/4 to 5 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  23s. 10d.  15s. 9d.  12s. 7d.
          Return  44s.  0d.  27s. 6d.  25s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Shrewsbury, "Raven Hotel," "Lion
  Hotel," "George Hotel," etc.

The village of Wroxeter would not be of exceptional interest but for the
proximity of the site of the Roman city of Uriconium. It is owing to
this fact that the churchyard gate is composed of Roman pillars and
capitals. A summer-house in an adjoining garden is also made of Roman
materials, and the church contains a font in the form of an adapted
Roman capital, obtained with the rest from Uriconium. The church is
chiefly Norman, but probably a portion of the south wall of the chancel
is Saxon.

The little village occupies the southern extremity of the Roman city
whose circumference measures about 3 miles. One can trace the limits of
the place by the indications of the vallum and fosse.

There is no doubt that Uriconium was the Romanised capital of the
Cornavii, a British tribe, and it is equally well known that the town
became the centre of a network of great roads leading in different
directions. The walls enclosed an area more than twice the size of Roman
London, and one may easily gauge its importance and its princely style
of buildings from the traces of its forum and its amphitheatre, as well
as from its wide streets.

The huge destruction brought about when the city was overwhelmed by the
West Saxons left the place a mass of ruins, for there are evident signs
that the place was plundered and burned. During the Middle Ages there
must have been, however, more than mere rubbish heaps, and the many
walls then standing were probably destroyed by monks in order to furnish
cheap material for ecclesiastical buildings. There is, notwithstanding
this, a great piece of wall 72 feet long by 20 feet high. The other
remains consist of a blacksmith's shop and the site of a market-place. A
warming apparatus under one of the floors is even more perfect than is
usually discovered in Rome. The key of the enclosure containing the
chief portion of the remains is obtainable at the neighbouring cottage.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

WROXETER.

Remains of the Roman city of Uriconium at Wroxeter. The wall is 20 feet
high in places. A warming apparatus in the foundation of one of the
houses is more perfect than those usually found in Rome.]



BUILDWAS ABBEY, SHROPSHIRE


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Buildwas Junction (1/2 mile from Abbey).
=Distance from London.=--160 miles.
=Average Time.=--4-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single  24s. 2d.  16s. 3d.   13s.
          Return  45s. 6d.  28s. 6d.   26s.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Abbey Inn."

The village of Buildwas is situated at the foot of the Wrekin, on the
banks of the Severn, half a mile distant from the ruined abbey lying on
the south bank of the river. It was one of the oldest Cistercian
monasteries in England, and was founded by Roger de Clinton the Crusader
Bishop of Chester in 1135, for monks of the Cistercian order. The
building, erected on the site of a hermitage, to which an early bishop
of Lincoln had retired in the time of King Offa, was destined to become
one of the richest establishments in the kingdom. It was partly
destroyed in 1536 and the site granted to Edward Grey, Lord Powis, who
married Anne, daughter of Charles Brandon, Duke of Sussex.

But though the monastery itself was destroyed, the outer walls of the
noble church remain, together with a great portion of the massive
central tower, the choir chapels, and the east end, with its delicate
lancet-windows. The clerestory, with its Norman windows, is also intact
on both sides of the nave, and between the columns are remains of the
screen which once shut off the eastern aisle. The door on the south side
leading to the dormitories of the monks may still be traced.

The ruins of the chapter-house are remarkably fine, and in good
preservation, with a beautiful early Gothic groined roof. Beyond the
chapter-house are the refectory and kitchen, and on the side next to the
river were the cloisters. In the outer court of the abbey stood the
lodge, and there was formerly a fine gatehouse, which collapsed in
1828, and is now almost entirely gone.

The brook, that once flowed across the abbey court, still works the mill
close by; but the fine old bridge over the Severn, built by the monks,
was taken down in 1690.

A good way of seeing Buildwas is to go there from Shrewsbury by an early
train, walking to Leighton and Eaton Constantine, both charming
villages, and rejoining the train at Cressage for Shrewsbury. An
alternative route is from Shrewsbury to Much Wenlock, where there are
the ruins of a fine Abbey.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

BUILDWAS ABBEY.

The ruins of the Church. This was one of the oldest Cistercian
monasteries in England.]



LUDLOW AND ITS CASTLE


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Ludlow.
=Distance from London.=--162 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 7 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  24s. 4d.  15s. 6d.  12s. 4-1/2d.
          Return  43s. 4d.  27s. 2d.  24s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Feathers Hotel," "Angel
  Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

Beautifully situated in a lovely valley surrounded by wooded hills,
Ludlow presents a picture of an ancient but prosperous city. The town is
placed at the meeting of two small rivers, the Teme and Corve, which
flow into the Severn. On the top of a hill in the western part of the
town is the old castle, which was a royal residence from early times. It
was built at the time of the Conquest, and was the most important of all
the castles that guarded the Welsh border. The eldest son of Edward IV.
lived in the castle under the guardianship of his uncle, Lord Rivers,
and he was proclaimed king there when only twelve years old. Prince
Arthur, the first husband of Katharine of Aragon, and the eldest son of
Henry VII., was also brought up and educated in the castle. In the Civil
War the Parliamentary troops partially destroyed the castle, but it was
not until the reign of George I. that the buildings were unroofed for
the sake of their lead.

Sir Henry Sidney, the father of the famous Sir Philip Sidney, resided at
Ludlow, being President of the Council of Wales. In the Great Hall, now
roofless, Milton's masque _Comus_ was performed for the first time, and
Samuel Butler is said to have written part of _Hudibras_ in a little
room over the entrance gateway.

The Parish Church, also situated at the top of the hill, is mainly a
fifteenth-century building, although it contains some earlier work. The
fine east window, occupying the whole breadth of the chancel, is filled
with very old stained glass, depicting the life of St. Lawrence. There
is a round church in the castle, said to be one of the earliest circular
churches in England. The streets are full of picturesque old houses, the
most celebrated being the "Feathers Inn," a beautiful Jacobean house
containing a coffee-room which has a most elaborately decorated plaster
ceiling and fine oak-panelled walls. The appearance of the room is
exceedingly rich. The Grammar School, founded by the Guild of Palmers,
claims to be the oldest in England.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

LUDLOW, SHOWING THE PARISH CHURCH.]



SHREWSBURY


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Shrewsbury.
=Distance from London.=--162-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/4 to 5 hours.

                     1st       2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single  24s. 4d.  16s. 3d.   13s.
          Return  45s. 6d.  28s. 6d.   26s.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Raven Hotel," "George Inn,"
  "Lion Inn," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

The ancient city of Shrewsbury, surrounded on three sides by the river
Severn, is most beautifully situated on a lofty peninsula. It was a
British stronghold before the Conquest, when it was given by William the
Conqueror to Roger de Montgomery, who built the castle which stands on
the narrow isthmus leading to the town. Henry IV. stayed in the castle
in 1403, before the battle with Harry Hotspur, which was fought at
Battlefield, about 3 miles from the town. Only the keep of the old
Norman castle remains, and that is now used as a modern residence. The
quaint streets of Shrewsbury not only retain their old names, such as
Wyle Cop and Dogpole, but are filled with half-timbered houses of the
fifteenth century.

At the old Grammar School, built in 1630, and now converted into a free
library and museum, many distinguished scholars have been educated,
among them Sir Philip Sidney and Judge Jeffreys. Outside this school is
erected a statue to Charles Darwin, a former scholar, who was born in
the old suburb of Frankwell. (For Darwin's home at Downe, see Index).
The Elizabethan Market House and the Council House, which was visited by
both Charles I. and James II. on different occasions, are two of the
numerous fascinating old buildings to be seen in Shrewsbury.

The Church of St. Mary, founded in Saxon times, is the most important of
the many churches of Salop, by which name Shrewsbury is still known. The
present building contains examples of almost every period of English
architecture. Dr. Burney, the father of Fanny Burney, was baptized in
this church. Of Shrewsbury Abbey, which once occupied 10 acres, very
little remains, with the exception of the Abbey Church, of which only
the nave is left. The west end has a great tower with a beautiful Gothic
window. Along the banks of the river is a public park known as the
Quarry, which has a wonderful avenue of lime trees, planted in 1719 by
one Wright of Bicton, who, with the help of two men, planted them all in
one night.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SHREWSBURY.

A group of fine old half-timbered houses.]



BUXTON AND THE PEAK DISTRICT


=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Buxton; then by train to Castleton, by Dore
  and Chinley Railway.
=Distance from London.=--164-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 4-3/4 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  21s. 8d.   ...   13s. 7d. }  To
          Return  43s. 4d.   ...   27s. 2d. }  Buxton.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Empire Hotel," "Crescent Hotel,"
  Buxton. "Castle Hotel," "Bull's Head," Castleton.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.

The town of Buxton, which is one of the best points from which to visit
the beautiful Peak Country, ranks among the best of English inland
watering-places, and is the highest town of any importance in the
kingdom.

The town is divided into two portions, the higher and lower, or old and
new, the latter 80 feet lower than the former, being the fashionable
modern resort. Here are the celebrated baths, reputed to be a sovereign
cure for all rheumatic complaints, and celebrated since the time of the
Roman occupation of Britain. The spring which supplies the baths may be
considered one of the wonders of the Peak district, for, by means of a
cleverly-arranged pump, hot and cold water are obtained within a few
inches of each other.

The neighbourhood of Buxton abounds in the most wild and romantic
scenery--steep rocks, dark chasms, and wooded hills, mixed in delightful
confusion. Among the favourite places of resort are Ashwood Dale, with
its famous Lover's Leap rock; Shirbrook Dale, with its fissure and
cascade; Diamond Hill, so called from the quartz crystals or "Buxton
diamonds" found there; Chee Tor, a huge limestone rock 350 feet high,
which rises sheer from the bed of the Wye, washing its base; and Axe
Edge, 2-1/2 miles from Buxton, rising to a height of 1800 feet above the
level of the sea. From this point, in clear weather, a marvellous view
is obtained, embracing the mountains of North Wales to the westward and
Lincoln Cathedral to the eastward. From the sides of this rock issue
four rivers in opposite directions--the Dove and the Wye, ultimately
falling into the Humber, and the Dane and the Goyle, tributaries of the
Mersey. The view north from Axe Edge extends over countless heights and
ridges to The Peak itself, the highest point of all.

Another famous resort on account of its remarkable view is the Cat and
Fiddle Inn, on the Macclesfield Road, 5 miles from Buxton.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CASTLETON PEAK CAVERN.]



TEWKESBURY


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Tewkesbury.
=Distance from London.=--171 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 6 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  19s. 3d.   ...    9s. 6d.
          Return  33s. 9d.   ...   19s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Swan Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from Paddington _via_ Gloucester, Great
  Western Railway. Train from St. Pancras, Midland Railway.

Tewkesbury is famous for its magnificent conventual church, for the
historic battle fought close to the town, and for the ancient timbered
and pargetted houses in the centre of the town and down by the
riverside, which rival even Chester. The population of the town is
decreasing; it is no longer famous for the mustard which made
Shakespeare say, "His wit is thick as Tewkesbury mustard" (_Henry IV._),
but it has a considerable local trade in agricultural produce. Situated
on the banks of the Avon, near its junction with the Severn, it is
almost insulated by these rivers and two tributaries. The old
many-arched bridge over the Avon is extremely picturesque. In a county
famed for its rich monasteries, Tewkesbury was among the most important.
The name is believed to come from Theoc, a Saxon missionary monk, who
founded a hermitage here. The abbey was originally a dependency of
Cranbourne Abbey in Dorsetshire, but being richly endowed, Tewkesbury
became the leading monastic establishment. Fitz-Hamon, Earl of
Gloucester, began the rebuilding of the church. The choir was
reconstructed in 1350 in Gothic style, but the nave and massive central
tower are Norman. The whole building is cruciform, and the choir, having
an hexagonal end, is surrounded by an ambulatory and numerous beautiful
chapels as in Westminster. The nave is extraordinarily long, and the
height of its columns has led to a squat appearance in the triforium,
but the choir has short columns and plenty of height in the triforium.
The colossal arch over the perpendicular window of the west front
forcibly reminds one of Peterborough. The Duke of Clarence and Isabel
his duchess, the king-maker's daughter; the Duke of Somerset, executed
after the battle of Tewkesbury; Abbot Alear, Becket's friend, are all
buried here. There is a fine gatehouse near the west end of the church.
At the battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, which proved so disastrous to the
Lancastrian cause, Prince Edward, Henry III.'s son, was slain while
fleeing from the field.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

TEWKESBURY ABBEY.

Its chief feature is the huge arch over the west window, just appearing
above the trees in the picture.]



EXETER AND ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--South-Western Railway, Waterloo Station.
=Nearest Station.=--Queen Street, Exeter.
=Distance from London.=--171-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  28s. 6d.  18s. 0d.  14s. 3-1/2d.
          Return  50s. 0d.  31s. 6d.  28s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Clarence Hotel," "Rougemont
  Hotel," "Half Moon Hotel," Pople's "New London Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Great Western Railway, from Paddington
  Station, London, to St. Davids, Exeter.

Exeter, the metropolis of the west, was known as a city even when the
Romans came to Britain. There are no important Roman buildings left now,
but coins and pottery testify to the Roman occupation. The first actual
historic records date from the reign of King Alfred, whose grandson,
Athelstane, made Exeter into a strong city, fortifying it with walls.
Exeter made a stubborn resistance to William the Conqueror, but when
besieged by him was forced to yield. The city suffered siege on two
other notable occasions. In the reign of Henry VII., Perkin Warbeck, the
pretender, made an attack on the castle, but was defeated. In 1646 the
city was blockaded by the Parliamentary forces under Fairfax and
compelled to surrender.

In the centre of the city is the cathedral, which was commenced in A.D.
1107 by Bishop Warelwast, who built the massive Norman towers. Bishop
Quivil, who died in 1292, completely remodelled the cathedral, changing
the somewhat heavy Norman structure into the present graceful Gothic
one. The successor of Bishop Quivil carried out the plans he left behind
him, and the cathedral was finished in 1350, although some minor work
remained to be done. Unlike so many of the early cathedrals, Exeter has
no central tower, therefore its interior is famous for having the most
uninterrupted vista of any cathedral in England, having no tower-piers
to hinder the view. One of the most beautiful features is the carved
west front.

Standing on the highest ground in Exeter, though not now conspicuous,
are the ruined walls of the Norman castle, called Rougemont (Red Mount),
which obtained its name from the red clay found there. The High Street
contains many old and picturesque buildings, the most important of which
is the Guildhall, built in the fifteenth century, but altered during the
late Renaissance period. Many of the parish churches of Exeter are
worthy of note.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE WEST FRONT OF EXETER CATHEDRAL.

Exeter has no central tower, but is unique in having one over each
transept.]



MARKET DRAYTON, SALOP

AND THE BIRTHPLACE OF ROBERT CLIVE


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Market Drayton.
=Distance from London.=--178 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/4 to 5-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  24s. 2d.  15s. 5d.  13s. 2d.
          Return  46s. 0d.  29s. 0d.  26s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Corbet Arms," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

In the parish of Moreton Say, 3 miles west of Market Drayton, is Styche
Hall, the birthplace of Robert Clive. The family of Clive took their
name from the little town of Clive in Cheshire, removing to Styche when
the heiress of the latter place married James Clive in the reign of
Henry VI. Robert Clive, the hero of Plassey, born in 1725, was educated
for a few years at Market Drayton before he went to the Merchant
Taylors' School. His father not being at all wealthy, Clive accepted a
writership in the East India Company and went out to Madras, but soon
changed his post for a commission in the army. After a brilliant career
in India, which he won for the English, raising them from the position
of mere traders to be the rulers of an Eastern Empire, he returned to
England in 1767. Worn out by the persecutions of his enemies, he died by
his own hand in 1774, when only in his forty-ninth year. "Great in
council, great in war, great in his exploits, which were many, and great
in his faults, which were few," Sir Charles Wilson says, "Clive will
ever be remembered as the man who laid deeply the foundations of our
Indian Empire, and who, in a time of national despondency, restored the
tarnished honour of the British arms."

The parish church of Moreton Say contains Clive's tomb besides other old
monuments dating from 1600, though the church itself is chiefly
eighteenth-century work. Market Drayton, sometimes thought to be the
Roman Mediolanum, still has a few timbered houses, but its church has
been much restored.

Close to the town, standing on a wooded hill, is Buntingsdale, a stately
red brick and stone house built in Georgian times, belonging to the
Tayleurs. Situated 2-1/2 miles from Market Drayton is Audley Cross,
marking the site of the battle of Blore Heath, fought between the
Yorkists and Lancastrians, when many Cheshire gentlemen were slain.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

MARKET DRAYTON FROM THE RIVER.

Where Clive was educated before he went to the Merchant Taylors'
School.]



CHESTER


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Chester.
=Distance from London.=--179 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  27s. 10d.  18s. 8d.  14s. 11d.
          Return  51s.  9d.  32s. 8d.  29s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Queen's Hotel," "Grosvenor Hotel,"
  "Talbot Hotel," "Blossoms Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

The city of Chester, one of the most picturesque in the kingdom, was
known in the Roman era as the "Camp of the Great Legion," and was called
by the Romans _Deunana_ or _Deva_, being half surrounded by the Dee.
After the Conquest, the city fell to the share of Hugh Lupus, a nephew
of William the Conqueror, who was created Earl of Chester, and was the
builder of the first castle. His descendants were Earls of Chester until
the reign of Henry III., when the earldom was conferred upon Prince
Edward, whose son, Edward of Carnarvon, was the first Prince of Wales.
The title is still used by the eldest son of the sovereign.

The streets of Chester are exceedingly picturesque, Old Bridge Street
and Watergate Street being perhaps two of the best examples, abounding
as they do in mediaeval timber work and oak carving. But the most
remarkable architectural features of the city are the "Rows," which are
certainly unique in this country. These Rows, which contain the chief
shops, are level with the first floors of the houses; the second floor
projects over them, forming a covered way. The streets were cut into the
red sandstone by the Romans to a depth of 10 feet, the Rows marking the
natural level.

The old walls of the city are among the most perfect in the kingdom, and
measure nearly 2 miles in circumference, with four gates, one marking
each point of the compass. The east gate, showing the termination of the
great Roman Watling Street, was rebuilt in 1769.

Chester Cathedral, though not of great exterior beauty, should be
visited for the sake of its antiquity and its associations. It is said
to have been founded by Ethelfleda, the daughter of Alfred the Great, on
the site of a nunnery built in 875. The west front, with the Bishop's
Palace on its left, is perhaps the best feature of the exterior; while
the Bishop's Throne, in the cathedral, is a wonderfully early piece of
carving, ornamented with figures of the kings of Mercia.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ONE OF THE MOST PICTURESQUE OF THE ROWS AT CHESTER.

The upper floors project over these covered footways.]



EXMOOR


=How to get there.=--Great Western Railway, Paddington Station.
=Nearest Stations.=--Dulverton or Minehead. For both stations
  change at Taunton.
=Distance from London.=--180 miles to Dulverton; 188 miles to
  Minehead.
=Average Time.=--To Dulverton varies between 5 to 6-1/2 hours. To
  Minehead varies between 5-1/2 to 7 hours.

=Fares.=--        Single                            Return
              1st       2nd       3rd           1st        2nd       3rd
Dulverton  30s. 9d.  19s. 3d.  15s. 4-1/2d.  53s. 10d.  33s. 9d.  30s. 9d.
Minehead   31s. 4d.  19s. 6d.  15s. 8d.      54s. 10d.  34s. 4d.  31s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Dulverton--"Carnarvon Arms,"
  "Lamb," etc. Minehead--"Metropole," "Beach," "Wellington,"
  "Plume of Feathers," etc. Porlock--"The Ship," etc.
  Simonsbath--"Exmoor Forest Hotel."

Exmoor, like Dartmoor, can be approached from many different places, but
to reach some of the finest and most typical stretches of the moor one
cannot do better than choose Dulverton or Minehead. Porlock, six or
seven miles by road (there is no railway) from Minehead, is a third
place admirably suited for getting on to Exmoor; it is the nearest place
of any size to Dunkery Beacon, which is the highest shoulder of the moor
(1707 feet). The drawing given here shows the valley of the Horner, a
small stream rising on the heathery slopes of Dunkery Beacon, which
appears in the distance. This valley is one of the most romantic spots
on Exmoor. After a long ride or ramble on foot over the open heather,
with sweeping views which include Dartmoor, South Wales, the hills
around Bath, as well as Brown Willy in Cornwall, one finds the ground
falling steeply, and before long one is climbing down a water-worn path
among sturdy oaks. The air also becomes full of the music of the rushing
Horner below. The stream is eventually discovered boiling over mossy
stones in the green shade of the close-growing trees filling the deep
valley. The quieter pools are frequently taken advantage of by a
hard-pressed stag, for this particular piece of country is frequently
hunted over by the Devon and Somerset staghounds, some of the most
popular meets of the season being held at Cloutsham farm, on one of the
slopes of the Horner valley. The neighbourhood of Dulverton includes
some fine bits of river scenery--the Barle, the Haddeo, and the Exe
meeting one another in the midst of lovely wooded hills. Many of the
villages on the margin of Exmoor are exceedingly pretty. The churches,
too, are generally of great interest.

[Illustration: ON EXMOOR.

Looking up the Horner valley towards Dunkery Beacon, which is shown
under shadow.]



KNUTSFORD

THE HOME OF MRS. GASKELL


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston _via_ Crewe. L. and N.W. Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Knutsford.
=Distance from London.=--180 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4 to 5-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  24s. 6d.  16s. 6d.  14s. 3-1/2d.
          Return  49s. 0d.  31s. 6d.  28s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal George Hotel," etc.

Knutsford still retains the air of old-world quaintness which Mrs.
Gaskell has made so familiar in her delightful _Cranford_. The whole of
Knutsford breathes the fresh and bright tidiness one always
involuntarily associates with such ladies as "Miss Jenkyns," and every
house rejoices in a beautifully neat garden. The Royal George Hotel, in
the High Street, is a perfect feast to the eye of panelled wainscotting,
oak settles, and Chippendale cabinets. The richness, all over the town,
of ancient carvings, staircases, and chimney-pieces, is due to the
prosperity which the coach traffic between Liverpool and Manchester
brought to the place for many years.

Mrs. Gaskell was born in Chelsea in 1810, but her mother dying soon
after, she went to live under the care of her mother's sister, who lived
at Knutsford in Cheshire. Mrs. Gaskell, as a child, was brought up in a
tall red house, standing alone in the midst of peaceful fields and
trees, on the Heath, with a wide view reaching to the distant hills. In
a green hollow near this house there stand an old forge and mill, the
former having existed for more than two hundred years. Mrs. Gaskell had
a lonely childhood, occasionally relieved by a visit to her cousins at
the old family house of Sandlebridge. This old house is now dismantled,
but contains many interesting features. A shuffle-board, or extremely
long table, with drawers and cupboards underneath, of which there now
exist scarcely any specimens, a cradle of great antiquity, and the fine
old wooden chimney-pieces in the front parlour, still remain.

A few places in Knutsford claim association with _Cranford_. One house
is pointed out as being Miss Matty's tea-shop. The Knutsford ladies
still gossip over toasted cheese and bezique. Mrs. Gaskell spent her
married life in Manchester, where most of her books were written, but
she used often to return and stay with her cousins, from whom she learnt
many of the quaint stories still told in Knutsford.

[Illustration: _F. Frith & Co._

KNUTSFORD.

The village described by Mrs. Gaskell in _Cranford_.]



TORR STEPS ON THE BARLE, SOMERSET


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington Station. Great Western
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Dulverton.
=Distance from London.=--180 miles to Dulverton.
=Average Time.=--To Dulverton varies between 5 and 6-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  30s.  9d.  19s. 3d.  15s. 4-1/2d.
          Return  53s. 10d.  33s. 9d.  30s. 9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Dulverton--"Carnarvon Arms,"
  "Lamb," etc.

One of the very earliest forms of bridge in England is to be seen on the
beautiful river Barle, about 7 miles above Dulverton. Torr Steps (the
name is locally pronounced Tarr) are a distinct advance upon
stepping-stones, for although the entire bridge is submerged in
flood-time, there are, in ordinary conditions, seventeen spans raised
clear above the level of the water. The great stones which form the
piers support slabs averaging from 6 to 8 feet in length. In the centre
these are about 3 feet 6 inches wide, and the piers are supported by
sloping stones to resist the force of the current. At the ends of the
bridge the slabs are narrower, and are placed in pairs side by side,
thus giving the advantage of the greatest weight where the force of the
stream is most strongly felt. No traces of cement can be found among the
stones, so that the structure has preserved itself purely by the weight
of its individual parts.

Although it is impossible to make any definite statement as to the date
of Torr Steps, it is probable that they were built by the Celtish
inhabitants of this part of the west country, the bridge having been on
the beaten track between one or two important centres. The size of the
stones does not raise any obstacle to this theory, for though of great
weight, they are not so unwieldy as the majority of those forming
Stonehenge, which is generally accepted as the work of an exceedingly
early race of sun-worshipping men. The name "Torr" is possibly derived
from the Celtic word "Tochar," a causeway, modified to "Toher" and then
to "Torr." The lanes leading from Dulverton to the village of Hawkridge,
about 1-1/2 miles from the steps, are exceedingly beautiful, and the
whole course of the river Barle is remarkable for the striking charm of
its woodland scenery, which is frequently contrasted with the wild
moorland commons on the hillsides above.

[Illustration: TORR STEPS ON THE RIVER BARLE.

An early form of bridge, probably of Celtic origin.]



CLEEVE ABBEY, SOMERSET


=How to get there.=--From Paddington. Great Western Station. To
  Washford Station _via_ Taunton.
=Nearest Station.=--Washford (2 or 3 minutes' walk).
=Distance from London.=--182-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/2 to 7 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  30s. 4d.  19s. 0d.  15s. 3d.
          Return  53s. 0d.  33s. 3d.  30s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Luttrell Arms Hotel," "Dunster,"
  4-1/2 miles from Washford. "Metropole," "Beach," "Plume of
  Feathers," etc., at Minehead, 6-1/2 miles from Washford.

At Cleeve the Cistercian abbey church has disappeared, save for the
bases of the pillars in the nave, but the conventual buildings are some
of the most perfect in England, those of Beaulieu in Hampshire and
Fountains in Yorkshire being the only ones able to compare with them.
One first passes through the magnificent old gatehouse pictured here.
Inside is a large grassy space, with the mass of buildings facing one.
They are arranged in a quadrangular form, enclosing a grassy cloister
garth. On the south side is the refectory, a magnificent hall above some
small rooms on the ground floor. It is believed to have been built by
Abbot Dovell in the sixteenth century. The roof, of carved walnut, is in
a perfect state of preservation. From the refectory one may pass into
the Abbots' Lodge, then descending to the cloister garth again, one may
penetrate all the different portions of the buildings--the day-room,
where the monks did all sorts of work; the dormitory, where they slept;
the chapter-house, where they conducted the business of the abbey; the
sacristy, the parlour, and other smaller rooms. The buildings are so
perfect that it is quite easy to obtain a comprehensive idea of the
inner workings of one of these great mediaeval institutions.

The monks' day-room is a large building 60 feet long by 22 feet wide.
The upper floor, forming one half of the dormitory, has disappeared, but
there still remain the bases of the two central pillars which supported
the groined roof. The restoration of Cleeve Abbey was carried out
several years ago by Mr. G.F. Luttrell of Dunster Castle. Before that
time the whole place was used as a farm, and floors of encaustic tiles
were buried deep in farm-yard rubbish. There is practically no recorded
history of Cleeve Abbey.

One shilling is charged for admission for one person, or sixpence each
for a party of two or more.

[Illustration: THE GATE-HOUSE OF CLEEVE ABBEY.

The monastic buildings are all beyond the grassy space inside the
gateway.]



HAWARDEN


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston _via_ Chester. L. and N.W. Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Hawarden.
=Distance from London.=--186 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4 to 5 hours.

=Fares.=--To Chester--            1st        2nd       3rd
                   Single      27s. 10d.  18s. 8d.  14s. 11d.
                   Return      51s.  9d.  32s. 8d.  29s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Glynne Arms," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington _via_ Wrexham. Great
  Western Railway.

Hawarden is a small town, about 6-1/2 miles from Chester. The great
interest of the place centres in Hawarden Castle, the home, until his
death, of the Rt. Hon. W.E. Gladstone. There are really two castles, but
little remains of the old one except the large circular keep and part of
the banqueting-hall. On the spot previously occupied by the old
battlements a modern wall has been built, from which a fine view across
the Dee estuary can be obtained. The castle was probably built before
the time of Edward I. Here Simon de Montfort surrendered the castle to
Llewelyn. After its reversion to the Crown it was again taken by
Llewelyn's brother, and it was about this time that the present keep was
built. After its dismantling during the Parliamentary War, it was
purchased by Serjeant Glynne, in whose family it still remains.

Within full view of the old castle, and enclosed by the same park,
stands the modern mansion, constructed in the style of a castellated
Gothic building of the thirteenth century. It was originally a square
brick building, but it has had so many additions, besides being turreted
and encased in stone, that it is almost impossible to trace the former
structure. The south-east front looks on a gravel walk surrounding some
formal flower-beds, which was one of Mr. Gladstone's favourite walks
when he was unable to take other exercise. Visitors are not admitted to
the modern castle.

Euloe Castle, some two or three miles from Hawarden, is said to be
connected with the few remains of the old chapel by means of an
underground passage. It is a picturesque, ivy-mantled ruin, but little
is known of its history.

Hawarden Church has a central tower, surmounted by a short spire; it was
restored by Sir Gilbert Scott in 1857. A window to the memory of Mr.
Gladstone, by the late Sir Edward Burne-Jones, has just been placed in
the west end.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

HAWARDEN CASTLE.

The home, until his death, of the Rt. Hon. W.E. Gladstone.]



YORK MINSTER


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--York.
=Distance from London.=--188-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 5 hours.

                   1st    2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single   27s.   ...   15s. 8d.
          Return   54s.   ...   31s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Harker's York Hotel," "Black Swan
  Hotel," "Station Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from St. Pancras _via_ Sheffield, Midland
  Railway. Train from Liverpool Street, Great Eastern Railway.

The city of York is one of the most famous and interesting in the
kingdom. It was originally the _Eborac_ of the British and the
_Eboracum_ of the Romans, who made it an imperial colony, and the
capital of _Maxima Caesariensis_. Later the place changed hands many
times between Danes and Saxons until the time of William the Conqueror,
who built the castle. The whole city was burnt in 1137, with the
cathedral and forty churches, and in the Wars of the Roses it was
continually the scene of sanguinary conflicts between the rival parties.
It has been visited at various times by nearly all our kings, and
numerous insurrections have been quelled within its walls. The
cathedral--the chief glory of York--dates from Saxon times. The first
church was founded by Edwin, the fifth king of Northumbria, but before
it was finished he was slain, and the work thenceforward was carried out
by his successor Oswald. The present cathedral was mainly built in the
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Its chief features are a nave with
the most magnificent side-aisles in the kingdom, two transepts, a choir,
a lady chapel, a large central tower, two bell towers, and a wonderfully
fine chapter-house. During the last century it was twice nearly
destroyed by fire, first by the act of a lunatic, and then by the
carelessness of a workman.

The present structure takes rank with the finest specimens of Gothic
architecture in the world.

Apart from the minster, the whole city teems with archaeological
interest. There are many fine old churches, and much mediaeval
architecture, including the gates of the city, which are wonderfully
well preserved, one of the best being Micklegate Bar, where Richard Duke
of York's head was exhibited. The city walls built by Edward I. still
remain in a remarkably good state of preservation. Many of the towers,
of which Leland stated there were forty, still exist.

[Illustration: BOOTHAM BAR AND YORK MINSTER.]



COXWOLD, YORKSHIRE

THE HOME OF STERNE


=How to get there.=--Great Northern Railway, King's Cross Station.
=Nearest Station.=--Easingwold _via_ York and Alne; from thence runs
  a branch line to Easingwold.
=Distance from London.=--199 miles.
=Average Time.=--About 5 hours.
=Fares.=--No through fares in operation.
=Accommodation Obtainable.=--The village inn--"The Fauconberg
  Arms."

The pretty little village of Coxwold, where the Rev. Laurence Sterne
wrote _A Sentimental Journey_, lies about 18 miles north of York. The
hamlet stands on slightly rising ground. At the bottom of the hill is
the village smithy, the well, a farm, and facing a big elm tree is the
inn, bearing a great hatchment-like signboard showing the Fauconberg
arms and motto. The cottages of the villagers are on the slope of the
hill, and at the top is the church to which Sterne was appointed vicar
in 1760. Close at hand is the quaint seventeenth-century house he
occupied. It is a singularly picturesque little building, with its mossy
stone-covered roof, its wide gables, and massive chimney-stacks. Sterne,
in his humorous way, called it "Shandy Hall." The stone tablet over the
doorway states that Sterne wrote _Tristram Shandy_ and _A Sentimental
Journey_ at Shandy Hall; but this is not quite accurate, for he entered
upon the incumbency of Coxwold in 1760, whereas two volumes of _Tristram
Shandy_ had already been published in 1759. Of his life at Coxwold one
gathers that the vicar was more devoted to his books than to his parish.
In the intervals of writing and his clerical duties he amused himself
with painting, fiddling, dining out and telling stories, at the same
time suffering from ill-health and other discomforts. His gift of
humour, however, helped him to bear his troubles better than might
otherwise have been the case. He was firmly persuaded that "every time a
man smiles, but much more so when he laughs, he adds something to the
fragment of life." Sterne's study may still be seen. It is a tiny room
with a low ceiling, although it undoubtedly possesses the charm of
cosiness. On one occasion Sterne writes: "I have a hundred hens and
chickens about my yard, and not a parishioner catches a hare or a rabbit
or a trout but he brings it as an offering to me." Sterne died in London
in 1768 at the age of 55 years.

[Illustration: "SHANDY HALL" AT COXWOLD.

Where the Rev. Laurence Sterne lived while he was Vicar of Coxwold. Part
of _Tristram Shandy_ was written here.]



LLANGOLLEN AND VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Llangollen. Valle Crucis Abbey lies 2 miles
  from Llangollen.
=Distance from London.=--203 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 4-1/2 to 7-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  28s. 10d.  19s. 3d.  15s. 4-1/2d.
          Return  53s.  6d.  33s. 9d.     ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Llangollen--"Hand Hotel," "Royal
  Hotel," "The Eagle Hotel," etc.

The scenery of Llangollen can scarcely be called mountainous, but the
little town is situated in the most beautiful part of the hill district
of Wales. Its chief charm, in common with all other Welsh villages, is
in its contrasts,--deep lanes with fern and flower-clad banks lead you
past picturesque cottages and farms, surrounded with low stone walls,
half hidden by brilliantly coloured creepers; bold crags, high above the
valley, give place to bright green sheep pastures, they in turn changing
to thick woods of oak and ash.

Llangollen Bridge, across which runs the chief thoroughfare, is one of
the so-called "wonders of Wales." It was built in 1346 by John Trevor,
afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph, and was the first stone bridge in Wales.
It is borne by five stone arches, and beneath them rushes the fine river
Dee. The church is dedicated to St. Collen, but is of no particular
interest. In the churchyard is a monument to the two fashionable ladies
who at an early age tired of the vanities of this world, and lived in
complete seclusion at Plas Newydd, a house just beyond the village,
famed for its old oak.

Valle Crucis Abbey, which can be reached either by walking along the
canal from Llangollen, or by train to Berwyn, lies in a beautiful wooded
valley surrounded by some of the best scenery in the neighbourhood of
Llangollen. A little to the east, a very picturesque view of the ruins,
which are the finest of their kind in Wales, may be obtained over a
quiet pool of water. The abbey was founded in the thirteenth century by
Madoc-ap-Gryffydd Moelor, who was a supporter of Llewelyn in the cause
of Welsh independence. The buildings are in Early English style, and
some of the finest remains are a circular gable window and three
decorated Gothic ones, also part of the west end with dog-tooth
moulding, and a piscina and canopy in the south transept. Stretching at
right angles from the south side of the church are the old monastic
buildings.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

VALLE CRUCIS ABBEY.

The ruins of the Church. The monastic buildings are on the south side.]



KNARESBOROUGH, DRIPPING WELL


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Knaresborough.
=Distance from London.=--204 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5 to 7 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  28s.  5d.   ...   17s. 0-1/2d.
          Return  56s. 10d.   ...   34s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Commercial Hotel," "Crown Hotel,"
  etc.

Knaresborough, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is a town of great
interest and antiquity, and occupies part of the site of an ancient
forest which was 20 miles in length. It was a crown manor before the
Conquest, and was given by William the Conqueror to Serlo de Burgh, a
Norman baron, by whom the stately castle was first erected. The place
was afterwards held by Richard Plantagenet, who founded a priory in the
vicinity, Piers Gaveston, and John of Gaunt, and the castle was for some
time the place of confinement of Henry II. During the Civil War it was
held for the King; but after the battle of Marston Moor it was taken by
Fairfax, and dismantled by order of Parliament in 1648.

The castle, one of the finest of its kind, is situated in a remarkable
position on a lofty rock, and was once practically inaccessible. It was
formerly flanked by eleven towers, of which only one remains. The other
ruins consist of a small portion of the keep and some very beautiful and
elaborate vaulted apartments, in which the murderers of Thomas a Becket
took refuge. On the cliffs opposite the castle is the famous
Knaresborough "Dripping Well," whose waters have the property of
"turning into stone" any articles left for a time under the dripping
waters of the well. The water being highly charged with limestone in a
state of impervious powder, rapidly encrusts the object until it appears
to be made of solid rock, and various specimens of this result may be
obtained.

About half a mile below the castle are the remains of the priory for
brothers of the Holy Trinity, founded by Richard Plantagenet; and
further south, hewn out of the solid rock, at a considerable height
above the river Nidd, is St. Robert's Chapel, with a fine groined roof.
It has an altar on the east side and contains carvings of the Trinity
and the Virgin Mary.

Knaresborough was at one time a place of fashionable resort on account
of the efficacy of its mineral waters, but they have long since been
abandoned for those of Harrogate.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE DRIPPING WELL AT KNARESBOROUGH.

The water contains limestone, and coats over whatever substance it falls
upon.]



FOUNTAINS ABBEY


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross _via_ Leeds. Great
  Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ripon (2 miles from the Abbey).
=Distance from London.=--214 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5 to 8 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  29s. 9d.   ...   17s.  5d.
          Return  59s. 6d.   ...   34s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Ripon--"Black Bull Hotel,"
  "Black Swan Hotel," "Bradford Hotel," etc.

Fountains Abbey, about 2 miles south-west from Ripon in Yorkshire,
stands in a beautiful wooded valley, through which runs a pretty stream
known as the Skell. The abbey is noted for the great extent of its
remains, which seem to have escaped any wanton destruction. A fine tower
at the north end of the transept still stands, but the central one has
fallen into great decay. Besides the church there are many remains of
this famous abbey, which at the time of the dissolution of the
monasteries was one of the richest in the country. The cloisters, 300
feet long, are unsurpassed in England. They extend across an archway
over the stream, and are lit by lancet windows. There are also remains
of the chapter-house, the refectory, and the kitchen with its two wide
fireplaces.

The history of the foundation of Fountains Abbey is of considerable
interest. In the twelfth century some monks of the Benedictine monastery
of St. Mary at York, being attracted by the sanctity of the inmates of
the Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx in Yorkshire, became dissatisfied with
their own form of government, and wished to adopt the rules of Rievaulx
Abbey and withdraw from their own monastery. This naturally did not
please their abbot; but eventually, after appealing to the Archbishop of
York, some land in a lonely valley, known as Skell Dale, was granted to
them. Here, in the depth of winter, without shelter or means of
subsistence, the pious monks suffered great hardship. After a few years
Hugh, Dean of York, left all his possessions to the Abbey of Fountains,
and after this endowments and benefactions flowed in.

In 1140 the abbey was burnt down, but in 1204 the restoration was
recommenced, and the foundations of a new church, of which the present
ruins are the remains, were laid. The great tower, however, was not
completed till the end of the fourteenth century.

At the Dissolution Sir Richard Gresham bought the estates, and they are
now owned by the descendants of Mr. William Aislabie of Studley Royal.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

FOUNTAINS ABBEY.

One of the finest ruined monasteries in England.]



RIPON CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross _via_ Leeds. Great
  Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ripon.
=Distance from London.=--214 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5 to 7 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  29s. 9d.   ...   17s.  5d.
          Return  59s. 6d.   ...   34s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Black Bull Hotel," "Black Swan
  Hotel," "Bradford Hotel," etc.

Ripon is situated on the little river Ure in a picturesque valley in the
west of Yorkshire. Its past history has been eventful enough, for it was
burnt by the Danes in the ninth century, destroyed by King Edred, and
laid waste by the Conqueror. It recovered quickly from all these
adversities, and is now a peaceful town given up to agricultural
pursuits. Besides possessing a small but interesting old cathedral and
some ancient houses in its town, many places of historic importance lie
in its immediate neighbourhood. Fountains Abbey is 3 miles distant (see
Index), and also Fountains Hall, a fifteenth-century building. An
interesting relic of old times is the blowing of the horn at nine in the
evening by a constable outside the mayor's house and at the
market-cross.

Ripon's minster became a cathedral in 1836. In the seventh century a
monastery was established here, and St. Wilfrid, the famous Archbishop
of York, built the minster. Of this building only the crypt remains,
consisting of a central chamber with niches in the walls, and a window
known as "St. Wilfrid's Needle" looking into the passage outside. It is
reached by steps and a long passage leading from the nave of the present
cathedral. Only the chapter-house and vestry remain of Archbishop
Thurstan's Norman church, erected in the place of the Anglo-Saxon one,
for Roger, Archbishop of York, pulled it down and began to erect the
present building in (_circa_) 1154. Being only a Collegiate Church in
those days, it was not built in a cathedral fashion, and it had no
aisles to its wide and low-roofed nave. The present aisles were added in
the sixteenth century, with the intention of giving a cathedral aspect
to the minster church. Much of Roger's work has been altered by
subsequent bishops, and the result is a strange succession of styles of
architecture. Ripon is the only cathedral that has glass in the
triforium of the choir.

The exterior, viewed from a distance, is a little squat, for it needs
the timber spires that formerly crowned the three towers.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RIPON CATHEDRAL--THE MINSTER BRIDGE.]



DARTMOOR


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Bovey Tracey.
=Distance from London.=--215-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 to 7 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  33s. 0d.  20s. 6d.  16s.  5-1/2d.
          Return  57s. 9d.  36s. 0d.  32s. 11d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Bovey Tracey--"The Dolphin,"
  "The Railway," "The Moorland" Hotels.
=Alternative Route.=--Train to Okehampton from Waterloo. L. and
  S.W. Railway. Okehampton is 5 miles from Sourton and 10
  from Lydford.

While only two places are mentioned above as starting-places from which
to get at Dartmoor, a dozen others, such as Tavistock and Ashburton,
might be mentioned. Bovey Tracey, however, has many advantages, for the
moment one alights from the train one sees only four miles distant two
of the most rugged tors of the moor--Hey Tor and Rippon Tor--the last
with its great logan stone balanced near the summit. A coach from the
"Dolphin," which runs three days a week in the season, takes one through
scenery which grows more and more desolate and grand as the summit of
Hey Tor is approached. From Hey Tor the coach goes on to Buckland
Beacon, whence a wide view is obtained, including the shining roofs of
Princetown right away in the distance. Princetown, with its convict
prison, is considered by the people of the moor to be its most important
town. Holne, which is included in some of the coach drives from Bovey
Tracey, contains the birthplace of Charles Kingsley. Dartmoor is so huge
that one must be born and spend a lifetime in or near it to really know
it, and the visitor can merely endeavour to see typical examples of its
granite tors, its peaty streams, its great stretches of boulder-strewn
heather, and its strangely isolated villages.

Eight miles from Bovey Tracey is Widdecombe, the lonely little village
possessing a church which is known as "the Cathedral of the Moor." The
great tower of the church was struck by lightning one Sunday in October
1638, and a contemporary account can be seen on some panels in the
tower.

Brent Tor, illustrated opposite, is quite close to the station on the L.
and S.W. Railway of that name. The little battlemented church on the
summit, which has nave, aisles, and chancel, has a legendary origin and
is dedicated to St. Michael. The rock composing the tor is volcanic
trap.

[Illustration: BRENT TOR, DARTMOOR.

The little church standing on Brent Tor is very prominently situated and
can be seen for many miles across the moor.]



HAWORTH

THE HOME OF CHARLOTTE BRONTE


=How to get there.=--Train from St. Pancras. Change at Keighley.
  Midland Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Haworth.
=Distance from London.=--216 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/2 to 6-1/2 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  28s. 7d.   ...   16s. 6-1/2d.
          Return  57s. 2d.   ...   33s. 1d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Keighley--"Devonshire Hotel."

Haworth is a long straggling village 4 miles from Keighley, a large
manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The road is very
steep to the village--"four tough, scrambling miles." It consists of one
street, so steep that the flagstones with which it is paved are placed
end-ways that the horses may not stumble. Past the church and the lonely
parsonage are the wide moors, high, wild, and desolate, up above the
world, solitary and silent. This gray, sad-looking parsonage, so close
to the still sadder churchyard, is a spot of more than ordinary
interest, for it was the home of the Brontes--that wonderfully gifted
and extraordinary family! Charlotte Bronte shared with her sisters their
intense love for the wild, black, purple moors, rising and sweeping away
yet higher than the church which is built at the summit of the one long
narrow street. All round the horizon are wave-like hills. _Jane Eyre_,
published in 1847, written with extraordinary power and wonderful
genius, astonished the entire reading world. Little did any one imagine
that the authoress lived far away from the busy haunts of men in a quiet
northern parsonage, leading a gentle, sad life; for her two sisters,
whom Charlotte loved as her own life, were very delicate, and their one
brother, in whom they had placed great hopes, had given way to drink.
Charlotte was known to the literary world as Currer Bell, her sisters as
Acton and Ellis Bell. After _Jane Eyre_ came _Shirley_, written in a
period of great sorrow, for her two loved sisters died within a short
space of each other, not long after the death of their unhappy brother,
and Charlotte was left alone in the quiet, sad parsonage with only her
aged father. _Villette_ was well received. It was her last work.
Charlotte Bronte married, in 1854, the Rev. Arthur Nichols, and after a
few brief months of happiness passed away on March 31, 1855, at the
early age of thirty-nine.

Haworth has been much influenced by the growth of Keighley.

[Illustration: _W.T. Stead, Heckmondwike._

THE PARSONAGE AT HAWORTH, FROM THE CHURCHYARD.

Where Charlotte Bronte and her family lived.]



RIEVAULX ABBEY


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Helmsley.
=Distance from London.=--219-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 3-3/4 to 5 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  31s. 3d.   ...   18s. 3-1/2d.
          Return  62s. 6d.   ...   36s. 7d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Black Swan" and "Crown" Hotels
  at Helmsley. There is no inn at Rievaulx.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras _via_ Sheffield. Midland.

The little village of Rievaulx--the name is Norman-French, but is
pronounced Rivers--is situated close to the river Rye, and 2-1/2 miles
from Helmsley, on the Thirsk road. The great point of interest in
connection with the village is the fact that close by are the ruins of
the once magnificent abbey for monks of the Cistercian order, founded by
Sir Walter D'Espec in 1131. The founder eventually became a monk at
Rievaulx, and at his death was buried there. After the Dissolution the
site was granted to the Villiers family, from whom it came to the
Duncombes in 1695.

The most striking view of the abbey is obtained by leaving the main road
and taking the footpath across Duncombe Park, where a sudden turn brings
one in sight of a bend in the Rye, with the great roofless church rising
on the left bank of the river. The principal remains of the fine old
abbey, one of the most beautiful ruins in the kingdom, consist of the
choir and transept of the church, and the refectory. The hospitium or
guest house was formerly on the right of the lane leading to Helmsley.
The great nave of the church is now a shapeless ruin, but from certain
indications it may be seen that it was Norman, and probably the work of
D'Espec. The lower parts of the transept are Norman, and the remainder
Early English.

The magnificent tower arch, 75 feet high, is still standing, and one of
the most striking views of the ancient fabric is the crumbling nave as
it appears framed in this lofty and wonderfully-proportioned opening,
with a background of rich English foliage and landscape.

West of the nave were the cloisters, of which only a few arches now
remain, and opening from their west wall is the fine Early English
refectory, with the reading-desk still existing. Underneath the
refectory there are the remains of the Norman dormitory.

Near the bridge, at the lower end of the village of Rievaulx, a place
still called the "Forge," was possibly an ironworks under the
superintendence of the monks.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RIEVAULX ABBEY.]



BRIXHAM, DEVON

LANDING-PLACE OF WILLIAM III.


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Brixham.
=Distance from London.=--222-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/4 to 6-3/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  34s. 0d.  21s. 4d.  17s. 0-1/2d.
          Return  59s. 8d.  37s. 4d.      ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Queen's Hotel," "The Bolton,"
  "The George Hotel," "The Globe," etc.

On the southern side of Tor Bay is Brixham, the fishing village selected
by William of Orange as a landing-place when in 1688, at the request of
the English Parliament, he brought over an army raised in Holland. It
was from here, too, that he commenced his victorious march to London
with thirteen thousand men--Exeter, Bristol, and other towns throwing
open their gates to welcome the Prince of Orange. The French, on the
momentous occasion of the visit of Admiral Tourville to the English
coast during the reign of James II., found Tor Bay a safe place for
their fleet to anchor, and William of Orange, probably having heard of
this, chose the same portion of the Devonshire seaboard. The exact spot
on which the Dutch prince first placed his foot on shore is marked by a
brass footprint, and close by stands the statue of England's third
William, overlooking the quaint quay, the brown-sailed fishing-boats,
and the old-world village.

Brixham is just such another town as Newlyn or Port Isaac, for its
streets are narrow and winding, and there are flights of stone steps
here and there which add considerably to the picturesqueness of the
place.

Brixham can easily be visited at the same time as Dartmouth, which is
dealt with on another page. Totnes can also be reached by taking the
train to Paignton, whence run two omnibuses at various intervals
throughout the day. It is a delightful drive, occupying less than an
hour. Totnes has a very quaint little main street which rises steeply
from the bridge over the Dart. Near the highest portion the roadway is
crossed by one of the old gateways of the town. This feature and the
many quaint gabled houses give a charm to the place, making it
attractive to all who love old architecture. Fragments of the old walls,
a second gateway, and the shell of the castle, which is possibly
pre-Norman, are also in existence.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

BRIXHAM HARBOUR.

Showing the statue of William of Orange on the spot where he landed in
1688.]



CONWAY CASTLE


=How to get there.=--From Euston Station. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Conway.
=Distance from London.=--225 miles.
=Average Time.=--6-1/2 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  35s. 9d.  20s. 7d.  18s. 8d.
          Return  65s. 0d.  36s. 6d.  33s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," "Erskine Arms,"
  "Bridge Hotel," "Harp Hotel," "Aberconway Temperance
  Hotel" (old house containing coffee-room dated 1400), and others.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington, _via_ Chester. Great
  Western Railway.

The castle at Conway is one of the noblest fortresses in the kingdom,
the only one to approach it in size being the famous building at
Carnarvon. The present town of Conway has gradually sprung up round the
castle, built by Edward I. in 1284 to intimidate the Welsh. It was
unsuccessfully besieged by them in 1290. At the commencement of the
Parliamentarian War, the castle was garrisoned for the King by Williams,
Archbishop of York, but was taken by Mytton in 1646. The building was
comparatively unhurt during the war, but the lead and timber were
removed at the Restoration by Lord Conway, who dismantled the beautiful
fortress in a most barbarous manner, and the edifice was allowed to fall
more or less into decay.

The castle stands on the verge of a precipitous rock on the south-east of
the town, one side bounded by the river, a second by a tidal creek; the
other frontages overlook the town. It constitutes part of the walls of
Conway, which, with the castle, form the finest examples extant of
thirteenth-century military fortification. The castle itself was a
perfect specimen of a fortress, with walls of enormous thickness,
flanked by eight huge embattled towers. There are some traces still
remaining of the royal features of "Queen Eleanor's Oratory."

Near the Castle Hotel, in a side street, stands _Plas Mawe_, the "Great
House," a rich example of domestic Elizabethan architecture, built in
1585 by Robert Wynn of Gwydir. The rooms contain much oak panelling and
carving. A charge of 6d. is made for admission to the house.

Conway has a station of its own within the walls of the town, but the
visitor will do well to get out at Llandudno Junction, where a walk of a
few hundred yards leads to the famous Suspension Bridge, designed by
Telford in 1826.

The charge for admission to the castle is 3d.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CONWAY CASTLE.

It is one of the finest of the ruined castles England possesses. The
suspension bridge was designed by Telford in 1826.]



THE DOONE VALLEY, EXMOOR

ASSOCIATED WITH "LORNA DOONE"


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo _via_ Barnstaple. L. and
  S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Lynton (about 6 miles distant).
=Distance from London.=--225 miles.
=Average Time.=--7 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  37s. 10d.  24s. 0d.  18s. 10-1/2d.
          Return  65s.  6d.  42s. 0d.  37s.  9d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--Lynton--"The Tors Hotel," "Valley
  of Rocks," "Royal Castle," "Kensington," "Crown," "Globe,"
  etc. Minehead--"Metropole," "Beach," "Plume of Feathers,"
  etc. Porlock--"The Ship," "The Castle," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington to Minehead, Great
  Western Rly. By coach from Minehead _via_ Porlock, 12 miles.

Every one who has read the late Mr. R.D. Blackmore's _Lorna Doone_ has a
keen interest in what is frequently called the Doone Country. This
comprises the north-west corner of Exmoor, bordering on the boundaries
of Devonshire. But those who visit the little village of Oare and
Badgworthy Water must not expect to see all that the novelist's
imagination conjured up. Nevertheless, though some have been
disappointed, there is much to be seen which is of interest. The church
at Oare, for instance, is closely associated with John Ridd and Lorna,
and the Snowe family, mentioned by the novelist, are commemorated in the
church. Then, too, the feats of a "Great John Ridd" are obscurely
traditional in the district.

The Doone valley, with Badgworthy (pronounced _Badgery_) Water running
through it, is about half-an-hour's walk from Malmsmead Bridge, which is
close to the village of Oare. Keeping up the course of the stream one
reaches a wood of oaks, and near it one finds a tributary of the brook
falling down a series of miniature cascades. This is the "water slide"
up which Blackmore took his hero on the occasion of his first meeting
with Lorna Doone. If one crosses a bridge near this the path will be
found to continue for about a mile. At this distance one turns to the
right by another stream, and enters a combe containing the ruins of the
Doone Houses as they are called. A lonely cottage looks down upon all
that is to be seen of the famous stronghold of the Doones. The narrow
approach to the place never existed outside the pages of the romance.
The scenery of this portion of Exmoor is exceedingly wild.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE DOONE VALLEY, EXMOOR.

Associated with Blackmore's _Lorna Doone_.]



LLANDOVERY, SOUTH WALES

A CENTRE FOR THE FINE SCENERY OF THE DISTRICT


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Llandovery.
=Distance from London.=--228 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-3/4 to 8-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  33s. 11d.  21s. 1d.  16s. 10d.
          Return  58s.  9d.  37s. 0d.  33s.  8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

The town of Llandovery, chiefly interesting by reason of the interesting
and picturesque excursions in its vicinity, is situate in the county of
Carmarthenshire, 24 miles north-east of Carmarthen. The town stands on
the river Bran, near its junction with the Towy, in a beautiful valley,
surrounded by wooded hills. Besides these two rivers, some smaller
streams join in the neighbourhood, and from this fact comes the name of
the place, a corruption of the Welsh _Llan ym Ddy fri_, or Church among
the Waters.

There are two churches of some interest, the more important being the
one in the main street, where the famous Rhys Pritchard was vicar in
1602. The other church stands on higher ground to the north of the town,
on the site of the old Roman station.

On a grassy knoll, adjoining the Castle Hotel and overlooking the river
Bran, are the remains of Llandovery Castle, built about the twelfth
century, and dismantled by Cromwell's orders.

Llandovery is a good starting-place for the ascent of the
Carmarthenshire Van (_i.e._ Beacon), about 13 miles distant, one of the
highest peaks in South Wales. The view from the summit of the Van in
clear weather is magnificent. Near at hand are the Black Mountains, a
rather gloomy sandstone range, and in the distance are the mountains of
North Wales, Swansea Bay, and the Devonshire coast. An easy descent may
be effected on the south-eastern side of the mountain to Penwyllt
station, on the Brecon-Swansea line. Just below this is Craig-y-Nos
Castle, the home of Madame Patti-Nicolini.

Among other interesting excursions from Llandovery are those to
Irecastle, a village in the valley of the Usk; Ystradffyn, near which a
splendid panorama of the valley of the Towy is obtained; and Pumpsaint,
a romantic village with a gold-mine near at hand.

[Illustration: _H.F. Dann._

LLANDOVERY CASTLE.

It was built in the twelfth century, and dismantled by Cromwell's
orders.]



DARTMOUTH, DEVON


=How to get there.=--From Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Dartmouth (by steam ferry from Kingswear).
=Distance from London.=--229 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/2 to 7 hours.

                     1st       2nd        3rd
=Fares.=--Single  34s. 6d.  21s.  6d.  17d. 3d.
          Return  60s. 3d.  37s. 10d.     ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Castle Hotel," "Raleigh
  Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

There is scarcely a more romantic spot in the whole of England than
Dartmouth. Spread out on one of the steep slopes of the Dart, it
overlooks the deep-set river towards the sea and inland towards Totnes.
Steep wooded banks rising out of the water's edge give the windings of
the estuary the feeling of solemn mystery which is not obtainable from
meadows or ploughlands. In the midst of scenery of this character--and
it must have been richer still a few centuries back--the inhabitants of
Dartmouth made history.

Perhaps the earliest mention of Dartmouth is by Chaucer. Among his
Canterbury Pilgrims he says:--

  A schipman was ther, wonyng fer by weste;
  For ought I wost, he was of Dertemouthe.

Whether this particular "schipman" was given over to piracy it is not
possible to say, but the nature of their splendid harbour, which they
protected with a great chain drawn across the narrow outlet to the sea,
led the Dartmouth men into a trade which to-day goes by that name. Thus
in the days of Queen Elizabeth, and even in more recent times, these
lusty sailors gained a livelihood by periodical harryings of the
opposite coast of Brittany, suffering in the chances of such warfare the
disadvantages of sudden incursions of the Bretons, which, despite the
chain and the two little castles at the mouth of the inlet, were
sometimes so successful that when the Frenchmen retired there were a
good many heaps of smoking ashes where comfortable homes had stood.
Despite the varied turns of fortune's wheel, there are still many fine
old gabled houses in Dartmouth, with overhanging upper stories rich in
carved oak.

The church of St. Saviour contains a finely carved pulpit, and is full
of indications of the wealth and importance of Dartmouth in the past.

Though a chain is no longer used to close the entrance to the Dart, the
remains of the two little towers are still to be seen.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BUTTER MARKET AT DARTMOUTH.

Although the town possesses many fine old seventeenth-century houses,
these in the Butter Market are the finest examples.]



RICHMOND, YORKSHIRE


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Richmond.
=Distance from London.=--237 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 9-1/2 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  33s. 6d.   ...   19s. 9d.
          Return  67s. 0d.   ...   39s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Fleece Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras _via_ Sheffield. Midland
  Railway.

Richmond was a place of considerable importance at the time of the
Norman Conquest, when William I. gave the title of Richmond to his
kinsman, Alan Rufus, on his obtaining the estates of the Saxon Earl
Edwin, which then extended over nearly a third of the North Riding of
Yorkshire. When Henry VII., who was Earl of Richmond, came to the
throne, these possessions reverted to the Crown, and many years later
Charles II. gave the title to the Lennoxes, with whose descendants it
still remains.

The castle, which is the most striking feature of Richmond, stands on an
almost perpendicular rock, 100 feet above the level of the Swale, and in
its best days must have been practically impregnable. The structure is
now in ruins, though the Norman keep with pinnacled corner towers is
still intact, the walls being over 100 feet high and 11 feet thick. At
the south-east corner is the ruin of a smaller tower, beneath which is a
dungeon 15 feet deep, and at the south-western corner is another lofty
tower. The castle originally covered five acres, and from its
magnificent position commanded the whole of the surrounding country.

The church, standing on the hillside near the castle, is full of
interest, and has been admirably restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, who used
the old materials as far as possible. The greater part of the choir and
the tower are Perpendicular, the rest Decorated, and two of the old
Norman piers remain at the west end. The screen and stall work brought
from Easby Abbey are of great beauty, and the carvings on the subsellia
are quaint and humorous.

Besides the castle, there are the remains of a Grey Friars' monastery,
founded in 1258 by Ralph Fitz-Randal, and situated at the back of
French-gate; and about a mile from the town the ruins of the monastery
of St. Martin and the abbey of St. Agatha, on the north bank of the
Swale, in the adjoining parish of Easby.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RICHMOND CASTLE.

It stands upon a perpendicular rock one hundred feet above the river
Swale.]



TINTAGEL


=How to get there.=--Train from Waterloo, L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Camelford. Thence by omnibus to Tintagel (4-1/2
  miles distant) twice daily.
=Distance from London.=--241 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 8 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  41s. 0d.  26s. 3d.  21s. 3d.
          Return  72s. 2d.  46s. 4d.  42s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"King Arthur's," "Castle Hotel,"
  "Tintagel," etc.

Tintagel Castle is situated near Bossiney, a place of some importance in
bygone times, to judge from the number of ruins of houses to be seen
there. Situated as the castle is, high up on a mass of dark, slaty rock
in one of the wildest parts of the coast of Northern Cornwall, it is a
suitable spot to be the legendary birthplace of King Arthur. The
formation of the rocky ground is very interesting. Tintagel itself is
almost an island, but a low isthmus connects it with the mainland. On
both sides of the chasm are the ruins of the castle, and wide as the gap
is, the buildings on the mainland and on the rock are in an exact line,
and present the same characteristic features, thus showing that there
has probably been a considerable subsidence of the land at that point.
The castle must have been almost inaccessible. In the time of Leland a
chapel occupied part of the keep. Some doubt is entertained as to the
date of the building of the castle, opinion being divided between a
Norman, a Saxon, or a Roman origin.

The remains of a British or Saxon church are to be found on the summit
of the island. The church is supposed to have belonged to the abbey and
convent of Fontevrault, in Normandy. It was afterwards given by Edward
IV. to the Collegiate Church of Windsor, the dean and the chapter being
the patrons. Parts of the church of Tintagel have recently been restored
by the vicar of the parish.

About 3 miles from Tintagel is the Slaughter Bridge, which derives its
names from the two great battles which were fought there, one between
King Arthur and his nephew, who died in 542, when Arthur was said to
have been mortally wounded, and the other between the Britons and Saxons
in 823. Other ancient relics in the form of barrows and stone crosses
are to be found in this neighbourhood.

For Stonehenge and other prehistoric remains, see Index.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

KING ARTHUR'S CASTLE, TINTAGEL.

One of the wildest spots on the north coast of Cornwall.]



WHITBY


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Whitby.
=Distance from London.=--244-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 7-1/2 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  34s. 6d.   ...   20s. 4d.
          Return  69s. 0d.   ...   40s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," "Crown Hotel,"
  "Metropole Hotel," etc.

Whitby is renowned for its ancient abbey and its beautiful situation on
the high and rocky coast of Yorkshire, just where the river Esk finds a
way to the sea. The Esk cuts the town into two portions. East Cliff is
on the one side, with its hoary abbey and quaint parish church on its
summit, towering over the old fishing hamlet which clusters so
picturesquely at its base. West Cliff is on the other side, a modern,
fashionable seaside resort. Close by are the heather-clad moors with
their keen, invigorating air.

From the bottom of East Cliff one ascends by 199 steps to the abbey,
which was founded in (_circa_) 658. Its first abbess was the saintly
Lady Hilda. During her rule, the poor cowherd, Caedmon, sleeping among
the cattle, being ashamed that he could not take harp and sing among the
rest, had his wonderful dream. An angel appeared to him and told him to
sing the Beginning of the Creation. Immediately the cowherd went to the
Abbess Hilda and sang his song. He became our first English poet.

In 870 the abbey and town were destroyed by the Danes. The
ecclesiastical buildings were deserted for two hundred years, but the
town was rebuilt and prospered. The foundations of the present buildings
were laid in 1220, and the abbey flourished till the Dissolution, when
it was despoiled. Even in its ruinous condition it is a marvellous
specimen of Gothic architecture. The choir, with its north aisle and
transept, parts of the north aisle, and the west front are standing.

The Parish Church of St. Mary is worth a visit because of its extreme
age (it dates from Norman times) and its quaint ugliness. Whitby built
the ship in which Captain Cook sailed round the world. The house where
he served his apprenticeship to a shipbuilder is in Grape Lane. The jet
works are only carried on to a limited extent. In the Scaur, below East
Cliff, ammonites are to be found.

A charge of threepence is made for admission to the abbey.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

WHITBY.

The old town from across the harbour.]



CARNARVON CASTLE


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Carnarvon.
=Distance from London.=--246 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 7 and 9-1/2 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  39s. 11d.  22s. 9d.  20s. 7-1/2d.
          Return  72s.  0d.  38s. 6d.  35s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," "Royal Sportsman
  Hotel," "Castle Hotel," "Queen's Hotel," "Prince of Wales
  Hotel," "Arvonia Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--From Paddington _via_ Chester, 282 miles. Fares
  as from Euston.

The town of Carnarvon is situated on the east side of the Menai Straits,
close by the side of the Roman station of _Segontium_, which was
connected with Chester by Watling Street. There is said to have been a
fortress here shortly after the Conquest, but the real beginning of the
importance of Carnarvon was the erection of the magnificent castle there
by Edward I., immediately after his conquest of the principality. The
work was commenced in 1283, and occupied more than ten years. In 1284,
the birth of Edward II., the first Prince of Wales, took place at
Carnarvon. During the Civil War the castle changed hands several times;
at length, in 1646, it was taken and held by the Parliamentary forces
under General Mytton.

Portions of the old Roman wall of the city still exist, and numerous
interesting relics have been found. Traces of the old Roman forts or
outposts are also to be seen.

The remains of the castle are very extensive, covering nearly three
acres. The outer walls, from 8 to 10 feet thick, are nearly perfect, and
have thirteen towers, with turrets of five, six, or eight sides. The
five-sided Eagle Tower is one of the loftiest, and takes its name from
the finely sculptured figure of an eagle which surmounts it. This tower
is entered by the Water Gate. The other entrances to the castle are by a
gateway on the north side, under a tower bearing a statue of Edward I.,
and by Queen Eleanor's Gate, which looks northward and is defended by
four portcullises.

The enclosure originally formed two courts, and though the interior
buildings are in a very decayed state, the outer walls have been
preserved to a great extent by judicious restoration. Thus Carnarvon
Castle is a prominent feature in the general aspect of the town, and
shares with the magnificent remains at Conway the honour of being one of
the two finest castles in the kingdom.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CARNARVON CASTLE.

The birth of Edward II., the first Prince of Wales, took place here.]



PLYMOUTH


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Plymouth (North Road Station).
=Distance from London.=--246 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/4 to 6-1/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd        3rd
=Fares.=--Single  37s. 4d.  23s.  4d.  18s. 8d.
          Return  65s. 4d.  40s. 10d.  37s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Hotel," "Central Hotel,"
  "Chubb's Hotel," "Grand Hotel," "The Lockyer Hotel," "Duke
  of Cornwall Hotel," "Mount Pleasant Hotel," "Great Western
  Hotel," "Westminster Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.

Down by Sutton Pool is the portion of the quay known as the Barbican,
famous as the spot from which the _Mayflower_ cast off her moorings and
commenced her momentous voyage across the Atlantic. The place is marked
by a stone inserted among the granite sets, bearing the inscription
"_Mayflower_ 1620."

The Pilgrim Fathers had started from Delfshaven, in Holland, in July,
and after coming to Southampton, started their voyage in the _Mayflower_
and _Speedwell_. The _Speedwell_, however, proved unseaworthy, and both
ships were obliged to put into Dartmouth, where the _Speedwell_
underwent repairs. When they started again, however, it became evident
that the _Speedwell_ would not be able to stand the long Atlantic
voyage, so once more the Puritans put back to the shelter of a
port--this time Plymouth--and there abandoned the _Speedwell_. On 6th
September 1620 (old style) they finally started, having reduced their
numbers to 101 persons--48 men, the rest women and children.

After sailing for sixty days they reached the coast of America, but it
was a portion of the coast not covered by the charter of the Company,
whose assistance they had sought; they thereupon declared their
intention to "plant this colony for the glory of God and the advancement
of the Christian Faith." The spot where they landed they named Plymouth
Rock.

Plymouth Hoe, with a magnificent view down Plymouth Sound and its
associations with Drake's game of bowls during the approach of the
Spanish Armada, is one of the chief glories of Plymouth. The view
includes Mount Edgcumbe Castle, the breakwater built across the mouth of
the harbour and Drake's Island. The Hamoaze--the estuary of the
Tamar--is always full of the activity of England's great naval port.

[Illustration: THE BARBICAN AT PLYMOUTH.

From this quay the _Mayflower_ finally left England for her long voyage
across the Atlantic.]



DURHAM AND ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Durham.
=Distance from London.=--256 miles.
=Average Time.=--6-1/2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  35s. 10d.   ...   21s. 2d.
          Return  71s.  8d.   ...   42s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal County Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

For the magnificent position it occupies, Durham Cathedral is without a
rival in this country; and even if one includes the Continent, the
cathedral of Albi in France will alone bear comparison in respect to its
position. Overlooking the Wear from a considerable height appear the two
massive western towers and the magnificent central tower of the
cathedral, and when these and the masses of foliage beneath them are
reflected on the calm surface of the river, the scene is one of rare and
astonishing beauty.

The origin of the cathedral and city of Durham may be directly traced to
the desire on the part of Bishop Eardulph and his monks to erect some
building in which to place the coffin containing the body of St.
Cuthbert. They had travelled with their sacred charge for seven years,
and at the end of that time, in 997, having reached the rocky plateau
overlooking the river Wear, they decided to build a chapel there. Bishop
Aldhun went further, and by 999 he had finished a large building known
as the "White Church." Of this, however, there are no authentic remains;
for in 1081, William of St. Carileph had been appointed bishop, and
after he had remained in exile in Normandy for some years he returned to
Durham fired with the desire to build a cathedral on the lines of some
of the great structures then appearing in France. In 1093, therefore,
the foundations of the new church were laid, and the present building
from that day forward began to appear. Only the walls of the choir, part
of the transepts, and the tower arches had been constructed at the time
of Carileph's death in 1096, but the work went on under Ralph Flambard,
and when he too was gathered to his fathers, the aisles were finished
and the nave also, excepting its roof. Flambard also saw the two western
towers finished as high as the roof of the nave. The beautiful
transitional Norman Galilee Chapel at the west end was built prior to
1195 by Hugh Pudsey. This narrowly escaped destruction at the hands of
Wyatt, who in 1796 pulled down the splendid Norman chapter-house.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

DURHAM CATHEDRAL.

It has the finest situation of any English cathedral.]



RABY CASTLE, DURHAM


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Durham. (Raby Castle is close to the town of
  Staindrop.)
=Distance from London.=--256 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-3/4 to 7-1/2 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  35s. 10d.   ...   21s. 2d.
          Return  71s.  8d.   ...   42s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Durham--"Rose and Crown
  Hotel," "Royal County Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

Raby Castle, the ancestral home of the Nevilles and an almost perfect
specimen of a fourteenth-century castle, is situated close to the little
town of Staindrop in the county of Durham. Canute, the Danish king, is
said to have had a house in Staindrop; and it was he who presented Raby
Castle to the shrine of St. Cuthbert. The castle passed from the
possession of the monks in 1131, when they granted it to Dolphin, who
belonged to the royal family of Northumberland, for the yearly rental of
L4. Dominus de Raby, a descendant of Dolphin, married Isabel Neville,
the heiress of the Saxon house of Balmer, and their son, Geoffrey, took
the surname of Neville. The present castle was built by John, Lord
Neville, about the year 1379, when he had permission to fortify.

There is very little history attaching to the fortress, for, with the
exception of two insignificant attacks during the Civil War, it
sustained no sieges. It belonged to the Nevilles until 1570, when
Charles Neville, Earl of Westmorland, lost the castle, together with all
his estates, for the share which he took in the rising in the North for
the restoration of the Roman Catholic religion in England. Not being
situated on high ground, the chief defence of Raby Castle, apart from
the strength of its walls, must have been the abundance of water which
completely surrounded it.

The chapel is the oldest portion; but the castle was almost entirely
built in one man's lifetime, and bears scarcely any traces of earlier or
later work. The interior, however, has been much altered by modern
architects, who have obliterated a great portion of John Neville's work.
The Baron's Hall used to be a fine room, with beautiful windows, an oak
roof, and a stone music-gallery. The kitchen, which occupies the whole
interior of a large tower, is one of the most interesting and perfect
features of the castle, though it has no longer the original fireplaces.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RABY CASTLE.

Built by John, Lord Neville, about the year 1379.]



SNOWDON


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Llanberis (5 miles distant). This is the easiest
  of the ascents by a well-marked path.
=Distance from London.=--257 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 8 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  41s. 6d.  23s. 7d.  21s. 4-1/2d.
          Return  74s. 9d.  40s. 9d.  37s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Royal Victoria Hotel," Llanberis.
  "Castle Hotel," "Snowdon Valley," "Dolbadarn," "Padarn
  Villa." Snowdon Summit Hotel is 3560 feet above the sea.

Snowdon is the name not only of the highest mountain in Wales, but it is
itself a mountain range, broken up by valleys and river courses into
four mountain groups of which Moel-y-Wyddfa is the central and highest
one. The best spot from which a good view of the whole group can be seen
is Capel Curig. The Llanberis ascent to Snowdon is the easiest, but not
so interesting as the other routes. From Capel Curig the ascent is the
steepest and finest, and is unsurpassed for grandeur of scenery. In
respect of foreground Snowdon is not so fine as Cader Idris, and the
mountains of Scotland and the English lake district. There is an absence
of rich valley scenery in the mid-distance, which the Scottish mountains
possess and which so adds to the beauty of the Cumberland and
Westmorland mountains. But the glory of Snowdon is that it commands such
an extended view of other mountain peaks and ridges. It well repays the
holiday-maker to spend a night on the summit of Snowdon to see the grand
panorama which gradually unfolds itself as the sunrise dispels the
mist--sea, lakes, and mountain ridges standing out by degrees in the
clear morning light. Naturally the view is dependent on atmospheric
conditions for its extent. On a clear day one sees the coast-line from
Rhyl to the furthest extremity of Cardigan Bay, also the southern part
of the Menai Straits, nearly all the Isle of Anglesey, and part of the
Tubular Bridge.

One of the mountain lakes is Llyn Llydaw, a fine sheet of water 1500
feet above the sea, and surrounded except on one side by the precipitous
arms of Snowdon, and there are also the Capel Curig lakes. Snowdon is
3571 feet in height. All the ascents are free from danger. From
Llanberis there is a pony-track all the way to the top, but it is not
the most interesting of the various routes. The new mountain railway
follows fairly closely the pathway leading from Llanberis.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SNOWDON.

It is 3571 feet to the summit.]



HARLECH CASTLE


=How to get there.=--L. and N.W. Railway from Euston.
=Nearest Station.=--Harlech.
=Distance from London.=--259 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 8-1/4 and 12-1/4 hours.

                     1st        2nd        3rd
=Fares.=--Single  37s. 10d.  24s.  0d.  20s. 4d.
          Return  70s.  3d.  43s. 10d.     ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Castle Hotel," "Lion," "Belle
  Vue," "Cambrian" (Temperance), etc.

Harlech Castle is about 10 miles from the pleasant town of Barmouth in
North Wales. The name implies "on the rock," and every year it is a
great attraction to the many visitors to Wales, because of the fine
mountain and sea view obtained from this commanding height. Like many
other Welsh castles it owes its origin to Edward I. after his conquest
of Wales. Owen Glyndwr or Glendower, a Welsh prince and a descendant of
Llewelyn, had rebelled against Henry IV. in consequence of repeated
injustice done to him by Lord Grey de Ruthin, who had appropriated his
estates. As Owen could obtain no redress from the king he took his cause
into his own hands, and in 1404 seized the important stronghold of
Harlech Castle. Four years later it was retaken by the royal forces. At
first Owen Glendower was successful, but eventually he had to flee to
the mountains. During the Wars of the Roses, when the Duke of York
defeated Henry VI., Queen Margaret fled to Harlech Castle, but after a
lengthened siege in 1468, the defenders had to yield to the victorious
forces of the "White Rose." It is said that this siege gave rise to the
favourite Welsh air known as the "March of the Men of Harlech." The
castle stands high, is square, with a round tower at each corner, and
gives one the impression of massive proportions and enormous strength.
The main entrance to the inner ward is between two huge round towers,
and the passage was defended at one end by two, and at the inner
extremity by a third, portcullis. The ascent to the top of the walls is
made by a stair from the courtyard. There is a well-protected walk on
the battlements. The view from the castle is magnificent and extensive,
and should the day be fine it is one vast panorama of mountain, sea, and
coast-line--a sight not easily forgotten. Across the bay, 7 miles off,
can be seen the equally ancient castle of Criccieth, although its ruins
cannot compare to Harlech. On the other side is a glorious range of
heights culminating in Snowdon, while to the left are the graceful
Rivals, mountain heights which should not be missed.

[Illustration: HARLECH CASTLE.]



GRASMERE AND RYDAL MOUNT

THE HOMES OF WILLIAM WORDSWORTH


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ambleside (4 miles from Grasmere).
=Distance from London.=--260 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 to 8 hours.

                     1st       2nd     3rd
=Fares.=--Single  39s. 0d.  25s. 2d.   23s.
          Return  76s. 4d.  49s. 4d.   45s.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Prince of Wales Hotel," on lake,
  1/2 mile from village. "Rothay Hotel," near church. "Red Lion
  Hotel," "Mossgrove" (Temperance), "Grasmere Hotel" (Temperance),
  all in village. No inn at Rydal village.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

Grasmere is the name of a village and lake in Westmorland, about 3 miles
north-west of Ambleside. The lovely village, beautifully situated at the
head of the lake, has an old church containing the grave of Wordsworth.
Wordsworth's cottage (a charge of 6d. is made for admission) is only
half a mile from the church. It is restored, as far as possible, to its
condition in Wordsworth's day, and contains a number of relics of the
poet's family. The lake, a mile in length, and surrounded by mountains,
forms one of the most beautiful scenes in England. Wordsworth afterwards
removed to Rydal Mount (two or three miles off), which place remains
especially associated with his memory. It is a somewhat remarkable fact
that this quiet and thoughtful interpreter of nature was in the early
years of his life, while going on a pedestrian tour through France,
thrust into the early fervours of its great Revolution. Wordsworth's
sympathy with the aims of the Gironde party might have cost him his
life, for many of his friends in Paris suffered death, but happily
circumstances caused him to return to England. It was his noble sister
Dorothy, his constant and devoted companion, who met him on his return
from Paris, broken-hearted, and induced him to return to nature.

Wordsworth's poetry was not appreciated for a considerable time, but he
calmly wrote on, undismayed by the ridicule poured forth on the "Lake
School of Poets," which included Coleridge and Southey, and gradually
his calm and dignified descriptions of nature asserted their rightful
influence. After publishing his greatest poem, _The Excursion_, the tide
of generous appreciation set in. In 1843, Wordsworth was made Poet
Laureate. His pure and fervent poetry was a protest against the diseased
sentimentality of the age.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

RYDAL WATER.]



THE LAKE DISTRICT


=How to get there.=--Train to Ambleside from Euston. London and
  N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Ambleside (for visiting Coniston, Grasmere, Hawkshead,
  Patterdale, and Windermere).
=Distance from London.=--260 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 to 8 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  39s. 0d.  25s. 2d.  23s. 0d.
          Return  76s. 4d.  49s. 4d.  45s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Ambleside--"Queen's Hotel,"
  "White Lion Hotel," "Royal Oak Inn," "Robinson's Temperance
  Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

Ambleside, situated in the very centre of the Lake District, is by many
regarded as the most tempting spot in the whole region.

It is a long and straggling town of about 2000 inhabitants. The old
church stands up the hill, in the more picturesque part of the town. The
old ceremony of "rush-bearing," dating from the time of Gregory IV., is
still, in a modified form, an annual function in Ambleside, which, with
one or two Westmorland villages, can claim the custom as unique.

About a mile south from Ambleside is the northern extremity of Lake
Windermere, 10-1/2 miles long, and varying in breadth from a mile in the
widest part to a few hundred yards in the narrowest. The surrounding
scenery is magnificent, of a soft and graceful beauty, which forms a
wonderful contrast to the wild and sublime grandeur of other parts of
the Lake District. There are a number of beautiful islands in the lake,
which is very plentifully stocked with fish.

The little lake at Grasmere, a village to the north of Ambleside, is one
of the gems of the Lakeland scenery; indeed, Grasmere is an excellent
centre from which to visit some of the points of interest in the
district. Wordsworth's cottage stands half a mile outside the village.

Within easy reach of Ambleside are Coniston village and lake, upon which
a little steamer plies. Near the head of the lake is Coniston Hall, now
a farmhouse, but for long the seat of the Le Flemings, a well-known
Westmorland family.

Among the numerous other places of interest near Ambleside are
Hawkshead, the scene of Wordsworth's school life, and a most charmingly
picturesque village; Patterdale and the surrounding district; Langdale
Pikes, Shap Fells, and Stockgill Force, a fine waterfall 150 feet high.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

WINDERMERE.

It is ten and a half miles in length, and is surrounded by the most
beautiful wooded scenery.]



ST. DAVIDS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Haverfordwest (16 miles from St. Davids), thence
  by coach to St. Davids, past Roch Castle.
=Distance from London.=--To Haverfordwest, 261 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6-1/2 to 9 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  42s. 0d.  26s. 3d.  21s. 0d.
          Return  72s. 3d.  46s. 0d.  42s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Grove Hotel," "City Hotel," etc.

St. Davids, the most western town in Wales, is situated on the little
river Alan, a mile from its mouth, near St. Davids Head, on the north
side of St. Brides Bay. The place is now little more than a village,
though in the Middle Ages it was a large city, the great resort of
pilgrims to St. David's shrine. The city, which was the =Menevia= of
the Romans, is almost as isolated now as it was in their days, the only
available communication being by the daily mail-cart from Haverfordwest,
and an omnibus twice a week during the season.

The modern "city" of St. Davids is a mere village, consisting of one
principal street and two at right angles, with a fine old cross at their
junction, but the chief attractions are its grand old cathedral and the
ruins of its once famous Episcopal palace. The cathedral, originally
built in 1176, is curiously situated in a deep dell, so that only the
upper part of the lofty tower is visible from the village, and the close
is entered by descending thirty-nine steps, locally known as the
thirty-nine articles. The entrance to the close is through a fine old
tower-gateway, 60 feet high, where the records were formerly kept and a
consistory court held.

The west front of the cathedral, which has been well restored, is one of
the finest features of the building. Among the more interesting objects
in the cathedral are Bishop Morgan's throne, of remarkable workmanship;
the fine rood screen, the work of Bishop Gower; Bishop Vaughan's
beautiful Tudor chapel and monument; and the shrine of St. David.

The Bishop's Palace, on the opposite bank of the river, was one of the
finest in the kingdom. It was founded by Bishop Gower in the fourteenth
century, and, together with the cathedral, St. Mary's College, and other
ecclesiastical buildings, was enclosed by a lofty wall having four
gateways, of which only one remains.

In mediaeval days the shrine of St. David was regarded with great
veneration, and was visited by William the Conqueror, Henry II., and by
Edward I. and his queen.

[Illustration: _G.W. Wilson & Co._

ST. DAVIDS CATHEDRAL FROM THE NORTH-EAST.]



FURNESS ABBEY, LANCASHIRE


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Furness Abbey.
=Distance from London.=--262 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 and 7-1/2 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  38s. 2d.   ...   21s. 9d
          Return  75s. 4d  (available for one month).

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Furness Abbey Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

In the days of its prosperity Furness must have been one of the most
important monastic establishments in the kingdom, although its
completeness did not come about until many years after the date of its
foundation in 1127 by Stephen, at that time Earl of Mortain and
Boulogne. The situation chosen was on the banks of a stream flowing
through a narrow fertile valley--the favourite position for Cistercian
abbeys. The monks came originally from Savigny in Normandy. Having
become very richly endowed, the foundation of the abbey was confirmed by
the charters of twelve successive sovereigns and the bulls of various
popes. Remarkable privileges were given to the abbot, who had great
authority in the whole of the surrounding district, even the military
element being, to a certain extent, dependent upon him.

A register known as the Abbot's Mortuary was kept at Furness throughout
three centuries. This was almost unique among Cistercian monasteries,
for only names of those abbots who, having presided for ten years,
continued at the abbey and died abbots there, were entered in the
register. During 277 years, therefore, only ten names were written upon
the pages. When Henry VIII., in 1537, suppressed Furness Abbey, it was
surrendered by Roger Pyke, who was abbot at the time.

The ruins of the abbey to be seen to-day are of Norman and Early English
character, and the general hue of the stone-work is a ruddy brown. Their
massive appearance almost suggests a shattered castle; but the share the
abbey took in military matters is better illustrated from the fact that
they built a watch-tower on the top of a hill rising from the walls of
the monastery, and commanding a view over the sea and the whole district
known as Low Furness. From this height the monks on watch were enabled
to give warning by signals of the approach of an enemy. The painted
glass, formerly in the east window, was removed many years ago to the
east window of Bowness Church in Westmorland.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

FURNESS ABBEY.

It was founded in 1127, and gradually grew in importance until even the
military element in the district became to some extent dependent upon
the abbot.]



MONKWEARMOUTH, NEAR JARROW

THE HOME OF THE "VENERABLE BEDE"


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Jarrow (2 miles north-east from Monkton).
=Distance from London.=--268 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/4 to 7-1/2 hours.

                    1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares=--Single  37s. 7d.   ...   22s. 3d.
         Return  75s. 2d.   ...   44s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Jarrow--"Ben Lomond Hotel,"
  "Burkett's Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

Monkwearmouth, a little town 2 miles distant from Jarrow, the large
shipbuilding town on the southern bank of the river Tyne, is famous for
being the birthplace of the Venerable Bede. Bede, who was born in 673
A.D., was placed, at the age of seven years, in the monastery at
Monkwearmouth, from which he went to Jarrow, to the new monastery just
built by Benedict Biscop. He remained at Jarrow for the rest of his
life, studying the Scriptures and writing books. His greatest work was
the _Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation_, which has given him
his position as the father of English history. The story of his death is
very beautiful. He was translating St. John's Gospel into English when
he was attacked by a sudden illness, and felt he was dying. He kept on
with his task, however, and continued dictating to his scribe, bidding
him write quickly. When he was told that the book was finished he said,
"You speak truth, all is finished now," and after singing "Glory to
God," he quietly passed away.

The abbey churches of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow are interesting, because
they have remained practically unaltered from their construction in the
seventh century. The monasteries never grew sufficiently to require
great enlargements, and thus they would have been to-day very nearly as
the Anglo-Saxon monks saw them. Monkwearmouth Church was built in the
Romanesque style by Benedict Biscop, who sent to France for workmen to
put in the glass for the church windows. Besides the church, no trace
remains of any monastic building at Monkwearmouth. The chancel and tower
of the abbey church at Jarrow bear a great resemblance to those of
Monkwearmouth, both being the work of Benedict Biscop. The domestic part
of the monastery at Jarrow, where Bede lived and died, has disappeared,
for the present ruins show Norman and not Saxon work. Monkwearmouth
possesses one of the earliest Christian gravestones in England.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

MONKWEARMOUTH CHURCH.

Partly built by Bishop Biscop in Bede's time.]



THE ISLE OF MAN


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston, King's Cross, St. Pancras, or
  Paddington _via_ Liverpool, and thence by steamer.
=Nearest Station.=--Douglas, on Isle of Man.
=Distance from London.=--205 miles to Liverpool (75 miles by sea from
  Liverpool to Douglas, 90 to Ramsey).
=Average Time.=--12 hours.

                  1st and   2nd and   3rd and    3rd and
                  saloon    saloon    saloon     fore cabin
=Fares.=--Single  35s. 0d.  26s. 8d.  22s. 6d.      ...
          Return  68s. 0d.  46s. 3d.  39s. 6d.   35s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable=.--At Douglas--"Grand," "Metropole,"
  "Regent," "Central," "Granville," and many others. At
  Ramsey--"Mitre," "Queen's," "Prince of Wales," "Albert,"
  "Albion," etc. At Castletown--"George," "Union," etc. At
  Peel--"Creg Melin," "Marine," "Peel Castle," etc.

The Isle of Man is much visited because of its mild and equable climate,
its scenery, and its quaint laws and customs. The island is 30 miles
long, and is mountainous in the centre. From the highest point,
Snaefell, one can see four countries. Picturesque wooded glens are to be
found in many parts of the island, and these having become well known as
attractive resorts, a small charge is made to enter each glen. At Glen
Darragh there is a circle of stones, and at Laxey, famous for its
gigantic wheel for pumping water from the mines, there is another small
circle called the "Cloven Stones." In many cases the churchyards possess
old Runic crosses.

Douglas, on the east of the island, is the chief town. It is a modern
seaside resort, much frequented by Lancashire folk in August. Ramsey,
further north, is quieter, and pleasantly situated on the only river of
importance in Man. It is an old town, with yellow sands and a harbour
crowded with herring-boats. Castletown lies to the south, a quiet old
place, with narrow, crooked streets. Castle Rushen, built in the
thirteenth century, shows no signs of decay. It consists of a keep and
massive outer wall. Here the kings and lords of Manxland lived, though
until lately it was the prison of the island. Peel, on the west, is
chiefly remarkable for its rocky island near the shore, on which there
are the ruins of a castle and churches surrounded by a battlemented
wall. St. Patrick probably landed here, and the ruined cathedral is the
oldest see in Britain.

The most famous king of "Mona" was Orry, son of a Danish king of the
tenth century. The island became subject to England in 1290. The
National Assembly, or House of Keys, was founded by Orry.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CASTLE RUSHEN, ISLE OF MAN.

Built in the thirteenth century, it was for a long period the residence
of the kings and lords of Manxland.]



BRANTWOOD

THE HOME OF JOHN RUSKIN


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Coniston Lake (Brantwood is on the eastern side
  of Coniston Lake).
=Distance from London.=--279 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 8-1/4 to 9-1/4 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  41s. 1d.   ...   23s. 2-1/2d.
          Return  80s. 5d.   ...   46s. 5d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Waterhead Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

The road to Brantwood from Coniston runs under the shade of beautiful
trees, at the head of Coniston Water. After leaving behind the village
and the Thwaite, with its peacocks strutting in its old-world gardens,
one skirts the grounds of Monk Coniston. Soon afterwards Tent Lodge,
where Tennyson once lived, is passed. Afterwards comes Low Bank Ground,
which is only a short distance from Brantwood. The situation, as one may
see from the drawing given opposite, is one of great natural advantages,
while the house is quite unassuming; its simple white walls, however,
give one the sense of a comfortable if unpretending home. The interior
has been described as giving an impression "of solid, old-fashioned
furniture, of amber-coloured damask curtains and coverings." There were
Turner's and other water-colours in curly frames upon the drawing-room
walls.

Writing of his earliest recollections of Coniston, in _Praeterita_,
Ruskin says: "The inn at Coniston was then actually at the upper end of
the lake, the road from Ambleside to the village passing just between it
and the water, and the view of the long reach of lake, with its
softly-wooded, lateral hills, had for my father a tender charm, which
excited the same feeling as that with which he afterward regarded the
lakes of Italy." Ruskin's death in 1900 took place at Brantwood. George
Eliot, in speaking of him, said, "I venerate Ruskin as one of the
greatest teachers of the age. He teaches with the inspiration of a
Hebrew prophet."

Ruskin was the son of a wealthy wine merchant, and was born in London in
1819. He studied at Oxford, where he gained the Newdigate prize for
English poetry in 1839. After taking his degree, in the following year
appeared his first volume of _Modern Painters_, the design of which was
to prove the great superiority of modern landscape-painters,
particularly Turner, over the old masters.

[Illustration: RUSKIN'S HOUSE AT BRANTWOOD.

The room with the turret window was Ruskin's bedroom.]



FOWEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Fowey.
=Distance from London.=--282 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies from 7 to 8 hours.

                     1st        2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  43s.  4d.  27s. 0d.  21s. 8d.
          Return  75s. 10d.  47s. 6d.     ...

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"The Fowey Hotel," "St. Catherine's
  Private Hotel," "Cotswold House," etc.

Fowey, now little more than a fishing village and holiday resort, was
once the chief port in Cornwall, and the equal of Plymouth and
Dartmouth, a position it owed to its fine harbour, formed by the mouth
of the river Fowey, on which it stands. On the west side of the harbour
stands St. Catherine's Castle, dating from the reign of Henry VIII., and
on the east the ruins of St. Saviour's Chapel, an old church. There are
also remains of two square stone towers, erected for the protection of
the entrance to the harbour in the reign of Edward IV. Between these
forts, in mediaeval days, the men of Fowey used to draw a chain as an
additional security. The houses are built chiefly of stone, but the
streets are so narrow and full of angles that it is difficult for a
vehicle of any size to pass through them. In the reign of Edward III. it
sent forty-seven vessels to assist in the siege of Calais.

A heavy blow was dealt to the town by Edward IV. After he had concluded
peace with France, the men of Fowey continued to make prizes of whatever
French ships they could capture, and refused to give up their piratical
ways. This so incensed the king, that the ringleaders in the matter were
summarily executed, a heavy fine was levied upon the town, and its
vessels handed over to the port of Dartmouth, as a lesson against
piracy. This treatment of Fowey seems a little hard in view of the fact
that Dartmouth men were constantly raiding the coasts of Brittany.

The church, built in the reign of Edward IV. and restored in 1876, has
one of the highest towers in Cornwall. The interior has a good timber
roof, a carved oak pulpit, an old font, and several interesting
monuments to the Treffry and Rashleigh families.

The finest and most interesting house in the town is Place House, the
seat of the Treffrys, who have been connected with Fowey for many
generations. Many of the apartments are exceedingly interesting,
especially the hall, with its fine oak roof. The present owner allows
the hall and other portions to be shown to visitors.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd._

FOWEY.

Showing the two little forts at the mouth of the harbour, across which
in mediaeval time a chain was drawn.]



HEXHAM AND HADRIAN'S WALL


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross and St. Pancras _via_
  Newcastle-on-Tyne. Great Northern Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Hexham.
=Distance from London.=--289 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 5-1/2 to 8 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  40s. 10d.   ...   24s. 4d.
          Return  81s.  8d.   ...   48s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Tynedale Hydropathic Mansion," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--Train from Euston and St. Pancras _via_ Carlisle.
  London and North-Western Railway.

Hexham has a beautiful position, surrounded with woods and hills on
three sides, while the broad Tyne flows past the historic town. Above
the surrounding roofs the hoary Abbey Church rises, with its one low
central tower and flat roofs.

The history of Hexham begins with the granting of some land to St.
Wilfrid in 674, on which he built a monastery and church. A few years
later Hexham was made a See, and the "Frithstool" still remains from the
time when its cathedral received the right of sanctuary.

This early cathedral was destroyed by the Danes, and the building left a
battered ruin. When monasticism rose to its height, after the Norman
Conquest, a priory of Canons of St. Augustine was founded there. Its
wealth and numbers gradually increased until, at the end of the
thirteenth century, an entirely new building replaced the Saxon one, and
Hexham became exceedingly powerful.

Hadrian's Wall.--Three miles north of Hexham, at Chollerford, one may
see the remains of the piers of a Roman bridge over the North Tyne, and
close at hand is one of the best preserved forts of Hadrian's Wall. It
was about 124 A.D. that Hadrian started Aulus Plautorius Nepos on the
building of the line of continuous fortifications running from the mouth
of the Tyne to the Solway, a distance of over seventy miles. This was
built on the chain of hills overlooking the valley which runs from
Newcastle to Carlisle. The massive and astonishing ruins to be seen
to-day fill one with surprise, for they suggest to a considerable extent
the Great Wall of China. The remains of the wall proper are, as a rule,
8 feet thick, and are composed of hewn stone (the total height of the
wall was probably about 18 feet). Turrets and small forts are built into
the wall at frequent intervals. The object of the wall was undoubtedly
to act as a military defence against the unconquerable tribes of the
north.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

A PORTION OF HADRIAN'S WALL.

The continuous line of fortifications built across England by Aulus
Plautorius Nepos about 124 A.D.]



THE LAKE DISTRICT


=How to get there.=--Train to Keswick from Euston. L. and N.W.R.
=Nearest Station.=--Keswick (for visiting Derwentwater, Skiddaw,
  Bassenthwaite, Buttermere, Cockermouth, Wytheburn).
=Distance from London.=--300 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 to 10 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  42s. 0d.  26s. 7d.  24s. 1d.
          Return  81s. 0d.  47s. 6d.  43s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Keswick Hotel," "Royal Oak,"
  "Queen's," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from King's Cross to Keswick, Great
Northern Railway. Train from St. Pancras, Midland Railway.

Keswick, usually regarded as the capital of the north-western portion of
the Lake District, is situated in the lovely vale of Derwentwater, on
the river Greta, shut in on all sides by mountain walls, the highest
summit being the lofty Skiddaw, which crowns the range to the north of
the valley. The old portion of the town is picturesque and interesting,
especially the quaint old town hall in the market-place, marking the
centre of the town.

Foremost among the attractions in the vicinity of Keswick is Lake
Derwentwater, within less than a mile of the town, and separated from it
by rising ground. The lake is 3-1/2 miles in length and 1-1/2 wide, and
is remarkable for the transparency of its waters, the shingle and rocks
at the bottom being clearly visible at a depth of 15 or 20 feet. The
scenery of the lake is beyond description beautiful. "Here is
Derwentwater," says De Quincey, "with its lovely islands in one
direction, Bassenthwaite in another; the mountains of Newlands; the
gorgeous confusion of Borrowdale revealing its sublime chaos through the
narrow vista of its gorge; the sullen rear closed by the vast and
towering masses of Skiddaw and Blencathra." The valley of Borrowdale is
to the south of the lake, and near the south-eastern extremity are the
famous Falls of Lodore, so wonderfully described in Southey's celebrated
poem.

Bassenthwaite Water, connected with Derwentwater by the Derwent, is a
smaller lake, but exceedingly beautiful, and Buttermere has a quaint
little village which goes by the same name.

Among the many places within easy reach of Keswick are Cockermouth, the
birthplace of Wordsworth; Wytheburn, the nearest village to Thirlmere;
and Skiddaw, the ascent of which can be accomplished with comparative
ease on pony-back. The summit is over 3000 feet above sea-level.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CRUMMOCK WATER AND BUTTERMERE.]



KESWICK

AND THE HOME OF ROBERT SOUTHEY


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston. L. and N.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Keswick.
=Distance from London.=--300 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 7 to 10-1/4 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares=.--Single  42s. 0d.  26s. 7d.  24s. 1d.
          Return  81s. 0d.  53s. 0d.  48s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Keswick Hotel," "Royal Oak,"
  "Queen's," etc.
=Alternative Routes.=--Train from King's Cross, Great Northern
  Railway. Train from St. Pancras, Midland Railway.

Keswick is much resorted to by visitors, as it forms convenient
headquarters for exploring the Cumberland part of the Lake District. It
is a small and not very beautiful town, containing several large hotels.
It is situated in a flat valley through which the Derwent and its
tributaries flow, and lies near the north end of Derwentwater Lake.
Hills surround it on every side, while the mountains of Skiddaw shield
it on the north. Since the discovery of plumbago in the district,
Keswick has been famed for its lead-pencils. A renowned week of
religious services, known as the "Keswick Convention," takes place here.

Crosthwaite, to the north-west of the town, is famous for its
twelfth-century church dedicated to St. Kentigern. It has a long
battlemented roof and massive square tower, and possesses many old
brasses and monuments, besides a font of the time of Edward III. To most
people the monument to Southey will be the chief object of interest. It
is a recumbent figure, with an epitaph in verse by his life-long friend
Wordsworth.

Robert Southey was the son of a Bristol linen-draper, and was educated
at Westminster and Balliol. Southey and Coleridge were much associated
with Lovell, a Bristol Quaker. These three friends made a plan--never
carried out--of going to the wilds of America and returning to the
patriarchal manner of living. They all married three sisters named
Fricker. Unfortunately Southey's wife died insane, and he then married a
very talented lady named Catherine Bowles. In the beginning of the
eighteenth century the Southeys and Coleridges settled in the same house
at Greta, near Keswick, and Mrs. Lovell, widow of Robert Lovell, and her
son joined the household. Here Southey lived till his death in 1843. In
1813 he was made Poet Laureate, and later was given a pension of L300 a
year.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ASHNESS BRIDGE, DERWENTWATER.]



ALNWICK CASTLE


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Alnwick.
=Distance from London.=--309 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 7 and 8 hours.

                     1st     2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  43s. 1d.   ...   25s. 9d.
          Return  86s. 2d.   ...   51s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Northumberland Arms," "Star
  Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras _via_ Sheffield and York.
  Midland Railway.

Standing in a magnificent position overlooking the town from which it
takes its name, Alnwick Castle occupies the site of one of the oldest of
the border points of defence. It is believed that a fort existed here
during the Roman occupation, and that a castle was erected on its site
by the Saxons, who named the place _Ealnwic_. Just before the Conquest
the castle and barony were the property of one Gilbert Tyson, who was
slain at the battle of Hastings. His possessions passed into the hands
of the Norman lords De Vesci, who held them till about 1297, when the
castle and barony were bequeathed by the licence of Edward I. to the
Bishop of Durham. Shortly afterwards they were purchased by Lord Henry
de Percy, from whom they have descended regularly to the present owner,
the Duke of Northumberland. The castle is one of the finest examples of
a feudal fortress in England, the walls enclosing an area of five acres,
and the grounds, watered by the Alne, presenting scenes of the most
varied and romantic beauty.

The two north-western round towers of the keep, together with the
Armourer's and Falconer's towers, have recently been swept away in order
to accommodate the new Prudhoe Tower. During the last six years 200
workmen have been employed in transforming the feudal interior of the
castle into a Roman palazzo.

Alnwick, situated so near the border, was the scene of countless raids
and conflicts during the Middle Ages, and with these fights the castle
was always closely associated. It was besieged in 1093 by Malcolm III.,
King of Scotland, and defended by Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland. The
Scottish king and his son Prince Edward both fell during the siege. King
David gained possession of the town in 1135. William the Lion, who took
part with young Richard, afterwards Coeur de Lion, against his father
Henry II., entered Northumberland in 1174, with 80,000 men, and laid
siege to Alnwick; but the attempt was a failure, and William was taken
prisoner.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ALNWICK CASTLE.

One of the finest examples of a feudal fortress in England.]



LANERCOST PRIORY, CUMBERLAND


=How to get there.=--Train from Euston _via_ Carlisle. L. and N.W.
  Railway.
=Nearest Station.=--Brampton (Lanercost Abbey is situated 2 miles
  north of Brampton).
=Distance from London.=--317 miles.
=Average Time.=--Varies between 6 to 9 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  40s. 10d.   ...   24s. 4d.
          Return  81s.  8d.   ...   48s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--At Brampton--"Howard Arms,"
  "White Lion Hotel."
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras. Midland Railway.

Lanercost Priory is situated in a singularly beautiful sylvan valley
watered by the river Irthing. Only the shell of the chancel remains, but
the nave has been restored, and is now used as the church of the parish.
The walls of the roofless transepts as well as the central tower are
still standing. The pillars on the south side support a much decayed
clerestory, but on the opposite side both the triforium and clerestory
are in a fairly good state of preservation.

A side chapel in the choir contains some very finely carved but battered
altar-tombs belonging to the Dacre family--one of them is believed to be
that of Lord William Howard. Under what was the refectory of the
conventual buildings, one may find the crypt in a very good state of
preservation. In it are preserved some Roman altars and carvings
discovered at various times in the locality. A number of Roman
inscriptions having been discovered on the walls of the Priory Church;
it is generally supposed that much of the building material was obtained
from the Roman wall. The Rev. J. Maughan has argued for the existence of
a Roman station at this point, and its name is believed to have been
_Petriana_.

The monastery adjoining the Priory Church belonged to the order of St.
Augustine, and its endowments consisted of all the land lying between
the Picts' wall and the river Irthing, upon which the buildings stood,
and between Burgh and Poltross.

After the dissolution the monastic buildings were put into a proper
state of repair, and were converted into a private residence by Lord
Thomas Dacre, who built the castellated portion towards the south, which
of course did not belong to the original structure. Half a mile distant
from the priory is Naworth Castle, the historic seat of the Earl of
Carlisle, and Brampton is famous for its _mote_, which was possibly a
Danish fort.

[Illustration: _Valentine & Sons, Ltd_.

LANERCOST PRIORY AND STEPPING-STONES.]



CHILLINGHAM CASTLE, NORTHUMBERLAND

=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Belford (6 miles from Chillingham).
=Distance from London.=--323 miles.
=Average Time.=--About 9 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  44s. 11d.   ...   26s. 11d.
          Return  89s. 10d.   ...   53s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras _via_ Newcastle-on-Tyne.
  Midland Railway.

The castle at Chillingham, the seat of the Earl of Tankerville, is a
remarkably picturesque building, erected in the reign of Elizabeth, on
the site of an older fortress. The castle, which is now in the
occupation of Sir Andrew Noble, to whom it has been let by Lord
Tankerville, contains many valuable portraits.

An ancestor of the Earl of Tankerville, Charles Lord Ossulston, came
into the property in 1695 by marriage with the daughter and heiress of
Lord Grey, Earl of Tankerville, a descendant of the Greys of Chillingham
and Wark, who had much property in Glendale.

The herds of cattle at Chillingham are believed to be survivors of _Bos
primigenius_, the wild ox of Europe, which is the supposed progenitor of
our domestic cattle. This fact is of great scientific interest and is
analogous to the preservation of the few remaining buffaloes in America,
only in this case these wild cattle have been preserved through much
changed conditions for a vastly longer period.

The King, when Prince of Wales, shot one of these animals, but in doing
so had a rather narrow escape. The chief external appearances
distinguishing the cattle from all others are as follows--"their colour
is invariably white; muzzles black, the whole of the inside of the ear
and about one-third of the outside, from the lips downwards, red; horns
white with black tips, very fine and bent upwards; some of the bulls
have a thin upright mane about an inch and a half or two inches long."

It should be pointed out that there is some danger in encountering any
of the herd in the absence of the park-keepers. The calves have been
noticed to have the wild characteristic of dropping when suddenly
surprised.

A reproduction is given opposite of Landseer's picture of the wild
cattle.

[Illustration: _Collection A. Rischgitz._

THE WILD CATTLE AT CHILLINGHAM.

From the painting by Landseer. The herd are survivors of the wild ox or
_Bos primigenius_.]



ST. IVES, CORNWALL


=How to get there.=--Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--St. Ives.
=Distance from London.=--325 miles.
=Average Time.=--About 9 hours.

                     1st       2nd       3rd
=Fares.=--Single  50s. 3d.  31s. 6d.  25s. 1-1/2d.
          Return  88s. 0d.  55s. 0d.  50s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--"Tregenna Castle," "Porthminster,"
  "Western," "Queen's," etc.
=Alternative Route.=--None.

St. Ives is a quiet, old-world fishing town on the northern coast of
Cornwall. The town occupies the western limb of the wide bay of St.
Ives. On the narrow neck of land joining the promontory known as The
Island to the mainland, most of the houses of the fishing town are
packed away in picturesque confusion, while the streets are tortuous in
the extreme. On either side of this isthmus the land rises; behind it
thunder the waves on Porthmeor beach; in front are the deep green waters
of the harbour, protected by two piers. The beach is of firm, hard sand,
upon which the boats are hauled up in safety. The fifteenth-century
church, standing on the site of the former Norman chapel, is a large
building near the harbour. It is said that the Norman structure was
dedicated to St. Ivo, a Persian bishop, who is supposed to have
Christianised the Britons in Cornwall in the ninth century, and to have
erected six chapels. Others think that St. Ia was the daughter of an
Irish chieftain, and was murdered at Hayle. The beautiful font is
thought to be a relic from the former chapel. A fifteenth-century cross
has been dug up in the churchyard and re-erected. On the island is a
little building which is thought to be the remains of one of St. Ivo's
chapels. There is also a fort of Cornu-British origin, and a
grass-covered battery on the hill, whose green slopes are covered with
fishing-nets. Half-way across the bay the river Hayle enters the sea,
and at the furthest extremity is Godrevy Point with its lighthouse.

St. Ives became an important town in the time of Edward III., and its
present church was erected in Henry VI.'s reign. Perkin Warbeck from
Ireland and the Duke of Monmouth from Holland each landed at St. Ives on
their ill-fated ventures.

During recent years St. Ives and the neighbouring fishing villages have
attracted numerous artists of considerably varying merit, and an
exhibition of the Royal Academy is now almost certain to contain at
least one picturesque glimpse of the place.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

ST. IVES.

A quaint little Cornish fishing village.]



BAMBOROUGH CASTLE, NORTHUMBERLAND


=How to get there.=--Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.=--Belford (4-1/2 miles from Bamborough).
=Distance from London.=--393 miles.
=Average Time.=--About 9 hours.

                     1st      2nd      3rd
=Fares.=--Single  43s. 11d.   ...   26s. 11d.
          Return  87s. 10d.   ...   33s. 10d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.=--
=Alternative Route.=--Train from St. Pancras to Belford (Midland
  Railway) _via_ Newcastle-on-Tyne.

Standing on an almost perpendicular mass of basaltic rock, overlooking
the sea at a height of 150 feet, is Bamborough Castle. The stately keep
belongs to the original stronghold, which was built on the site of what
was probably one of a chain of fortresses raised by the Romans for the
protection of the coast. For many centuries the castle was possessed of
great strength, and was frequently used as a place of refuge by the
Kings and Earls of Northumberland. It was founded by Ida, king of the
Angles, about A.D. 547, and suffered considerably at the hands of the
Danes in 933. Earlier than this, however, in the seventh century,
Bamborough was besieged by Penda, the pagan king of Mercia, who,
although having recently gained several victories, made great efforts to
burn down the castle. Having set his men to work to accumulate a great
mass of brushwood, Penda had huge piles heaped up beneath the walls. As
soon as the wind was in the right quarter he set alight the brushwood.
Shortly afterwards, however, the wind veered round until it blew in the
opposite direction, to the discomfiture of his own people, who were thus
obliged to abandon their camp.

Afterwards the castle was repaired again, and was besieged by William
II. when Robert Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, took refuge there.
During the Wars of the Roses Bamborough was frequently captured and
recaptured, and in the various sieges suffered very severely.

In 1720 Nathaniel, Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, having purchased the
castle, bequeathed it in his will for charitable purposes. The Bishop's
trustees carried out a considerable amount of repairs, and at the
present time the residential portion is frequently let by the trustees
to tenants for varying periods.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

BAMBOROUGH CASTLE.]



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