Infomotions, Inc.The Delights of Wisdom Pertaining to Conjugial Love / Swedenborg, Emanuel, 1688-1772



Author: Swedenborg, Emanuel, 1688-1772
Title: The Delights of Wisdom Pertaining to Conjugial Love
Publisher: Project Gutenberg
Tag(s): conjugial; conjugial love; truly conjugial; spiritual; wisdom; conjugial principle; marriage; adulterous love; love; married partners; heaven; lord
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Title: The Delights of Wisdom Pertaining to Conjugial Love

Author: Emanuel Swedenborg

Release Date: February 23, 2004 [EBook #11248]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE DELIGHTS OF WISDOM ***




Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Keren Vergon, David King, and the Online
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The Delights of Wisdom

Pertaining To

Conjugial Love

_To Which is Added_

The Pleasures of Insanity

Pertaining To

Scortatory Love

By

Emanuel Swedenborg

_A Swede_

_Being a translation of his work_

"Delitiae Sapientiae de Amore Conjugiali; post quas sequuntur Voluptates
Insaniae de Amore Scortatorio" (Amstelodami 1768)


1892

_Published_ A.D. 1850




PRELIMINARY RELATIONS RESPECTING THE JOYS OF HEAVEN AND NUPTIALS THERE.


1. "I am aware that many who read the following pages and the Memorable
Relations annexed to the chapters, will believe that they are fictions
of the imagination; but I solemnly declare they are not fictions, but
were truly done and seen; and that I saw them, not in any state of the
mind asleep, but in a state of perfect wakefulness: for it has pleased
the Lord to manifest himself to me, and to send me to teach the things
relating to the New Church, which is meant by the New Jerusalem in the
Revelation: for which purpose he has opened the interiors of my mind and
spirit; by virtue of which privilege it has been granted me to be in the
spiritual world with angels, and at the same time in the natural world
with men, and this now (1768) for twenty-five years."

2. On a certain time there appeared to me an angel flying beneath the
eastern heaven, with a trumpet in his hand, which he held to his mouth,
and sounded towards the north, the west, and the south. He was clothed
in a robe, which waved behind him as he flew along, and was girt about
the waist with a band that shone like fire and glittered with
carbuncles, and sapphires: he flew with his face downwards, and alighted
gently on the ground, near where I was standing. As soon as he touched
the ground with his feet, he stood erect, and walked to and fro: and on
seeing me he directed his steps towards me. I was in the spirit, and was
standing in that state on a little eminence in the southern quarter of
the spiritual world. When he came near, I addressed him and asked him
his errand, telling him that I had heard the sound of his trumpet, and
had observed his descent through the air. He replied, "My commission is
to call together such of the inhabitants of this part of the spiritual
world, as have come hither from the various kingdoms of Christendom, and
have been most distinguished for their learning, their ingenuity, and
their wisdom, to assemble on this little eminence where you are now
standing, and to declare their real sentiments, as to what they had
thought, understood, and inwardly perceived, while in the natural world,
respecting Heavenly Joy and Eternal Happiness. The occasion of my
commission is this: several who have lately come from the natural world,
and have been admitted into our heavenly society, which is in the east,
have informed us, that there is not a single person throughout the whole
Christian world that is acquainted with the true nature of heavenly joy
and eternal happiness; consequently that not a single person is
acquainted with the nature of heaven. This information greatly surprised
my brethren and companions; and they said to me, 'Go down, call together
and assemble those who are most eminent for wisdom in the world of
spirits, (where all men are first collected after their departure out of
the natural world,) so that we may know of a certainty, from the
testimony of many, whether it be true that such thick darkness, or dense
ignorance, respecting a future life, prevails among Christians.'" The
angel then said to me, "Wait awhile, and you will see several companies
of the wise ones flocking together to this place, and the Lord will
prepare them a house of assembly." I waited, and lo! in the space of
half an hour, I saw two companies from the north, two from the west, and
two from the south; and as they came near, they were introduced by the
angel that blew the trumpet into the house of assembly prepared for
them, where they took their places in the order of the quarters from
which they came. There were six groups or companies, and a seventh from
the east, which, from its superior light, was not visible to the rest.
When they were all assembled, the angel explained to them the reason of
their meeting, and desired that each company in order would declare
their sentiments respecting Heavenly Joy and Eternal Happiness. Then
each company formed themselves into a ring, with their faces turned one
towards another, that they might recall the ideas they had entertained
upon the subject in the natural world, and after examination and
deliberation might declare their sentiments.

3. After some deliberation, the First Company, which was from the north,
declared their opinion, that heavenly joy and eternal happiness
constitute the very life of heaven; so much so that whoever enters
heaven, enters, in regard to his life, into its festivities, just as a
person admitted to a marriage enters into all the festivities of a
marriage. "Is not heaven," they argued, "before our eyes in a particular
place above us? and is there not there and nowhere else a constant
succession of satisfactions and pleasures? When a man therefore is
admitted into heaven, he is also admitted into the full enjoyment of all
these satisfactions and pleasures, both as to mental perception and
bodily sensation. Of course heavenly happiness, which is also eternal
happiness, consists solely in admission into heaven, and that depends
purely on the divine mercy and favor." They having concluded, the Second
Company from the north, according to the measure of the wisdom with
which they were endowed, next declared their sentiments as follows:
"Heavenly joy and eternal happiness consist solely in the enjoyment of
the company of angels, and in holding sweet communications with them, so
that the countenance is kept continually expanded with joy; while the
smiles of mirth and pleasure, arising from cheerful and entertaining
conversation, continually enliven the faces of the company. What else
can constitute heavenly joys, but the variations of such pleasures to
eternity?" The Third Company, which was the first of the wise ones from
the western quarter, next declared their sentiments according to the
ideas which flowed from their affections: "In what else," said they, "do
heavenly joy and eternal happiness consist but in feasting with Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob; at whose tables there will be an abundance of rich and
delicate food, with the finest and most generous wines, which will be
succeeded by sports and dances of virgins and young men, to the tunes of
various musical instruments, enlivened by the most melodious singing of
sweet songs; the evening to conclude with dramatic exhibitions, and this
again to be followed by feasting, and so on to eternity?" When they had
ended, the Fourth Company, which was the second from the western
quarter, declared their sentiments to the following purpose: "We have
entertained," said they, "many ideas respecting heavenly joy and eternal
happiness; and we have examined a variety of joys, and compared them one
with another, and have at length come to the conclusion, that heavenly
joys are paradisiacal joys: for what is heaven but a paradise extended
from the east to the west, and from the south to the north, wherein are
trees laden with fruit, and all kinds of beautiful flowers, and in the
midst the magnificent tree of life, around which the blessed will take
their seats, and feed on fruits most delicious to the taste, being
adorned with garlands of the sweetest smelling flowers? In this paradise
there will be a perpetual spring; so that the fruits and flowers will be
renewed every day with an infinite variety, and by their continual
growth and freshness, added to the vernal temperature of the atmosphere,
the souls of the blessed will be daily fitted to receive and taste new
joys, till they shall be restored to the flower of their age, and
finally to their primitive state, in which Adam and his wife were
created, and thus recover their paradise, which has been transplanted
from earth to heaven." The Fifth Company, which was the first of the
ingenious spirits from the southern quarter, next delivered their
opinion: "Heavenly joys and eternal happiness," said they, "consist
solely in exalted power and dignity, and in abundance of wealth, joined
with more than princely magnificence and splendor. That the joys of
heaven, and their continual fruition, which is eternal happiness,
consist in these things, is plain to us from the examples of such
persons as enjoyed them in the former world; and also from this
circumstance, that the blessed in heaven are to reign with the Lord, and
to become kings and princes; for they are the sons of him who is King of
kings and Lord of lords, and they are to sit on thrones and be
ministered to by angels. Moreover, the magnificence of heaven is plainly
made known to us by the description given of the New Jerusalem, wherein
is represented the glory of heaven; that it is to have gates, each of
which shall consist of a single pearl, and streets of pure gold, and a
wall with foundations of precious stones; consequently, every one that
is received into heaven will have a palace of his own, glittering with
gold and other costly materials, and will enjoy dignity and dominion,
each according to his quality and station: and since we find by
experience, that the joys and happiness arising from such things are
natural, and as it were, innate in us, and since the promises of God
cannot fail, we therefore conclude that the most happy state of heavenly
life can be derived from no other source than this." After this, the
Sixth Company, which was the second from the southern quarter, with a
loud voice spoke as follows: "The joy of heaven and its eternal
happiness consist solely in the perpetual glorification of God, in a
never-ceasing festival of praise and thanksgiving, and in the
blessedness of divine worship, heightened with singing and melody,
whereby the heart is kept in a constant state of elevation towards God,
under a full persuasion that he accepts such prayers and praises, on
account of the divine bounty in imparting blessedness." Some of the
company added further, that this glorification would be attended with
magnificent illuminations, with most fragrant incense, and with stately
processions, preceded by the chief priest with a grand trumpet, who
would be followed by primates and officers of various orders, by men
carrying palms, and by women with golden images in their hand.

4. The Seventh Company, which, from its superior light, was invisible to
the rest, came from the east of heaven, and consisted of angels of the
same society as the angel that had sounded the trumpet. When these heard
in their heaven, that not a single person throughout the Christian world
was acquainted with the true nature of heavenly joy and eternal
happiness, they said one to another, "Surely this cannot be true; it is
impossible that such thick darkness and stupidity should prevail amongst
Christians: let us even go down and hear whether it be true; for if it
be so, it is indeed wonderful." Then those angels said to the one that
had the trumpet, "You know that every one that has desired heaven, and
has formed any definite conception in his mind respecting its joys, is
introduced after death into those particular joys which he had imagined;
and after he experiences that such joys are only the offspring of the
vain delusions of his own fancy, he is led out of his error, and
instructed in the truth. This is the case with most of those in the
world of spirits, who in their former life have thought about heaven,
and from their notions of its joys have desired to possess them." On
hearing this, the angel that had the trumpet said to the six companies
of the assembled wise ones, "Follow me; and I will introduce you into
your respective joys, and thereby into heaven."

5. When the angel had thus spoken, he went before them; and he was first
attended by the company who were of opinion that the joys of heaven
consisted solely in pleasant associations and entertaining conversation.
These the angel introduced to an assembly of spirits in the northern
quarter, who, during their abode in the former world, had entertained
the same ideas of the joys of heaven. There was in the place a large and
spacious house, wherein all these spirits were assembled. In the house
there were more than fifty different apartments, allotted to different
kinds and subjects of conversation: in some of these apartments they
conversed about such matters as they had seen or heard in the public
places of resort and the streets of the city; in others the conversation
turned upon the various charms of the fair sex, with a mixture of wit
and humor, producing cheerful smiles on the countenances of all present;
in others they talked about the news relating to courts, to public
ministers, and state policy, and to various matters which had transpired
from privy councils, interspersing many conjectures and reasonings of
their own respecting the issues of such councils; in others again they
conversed about trade and merchandise; in others upon subjects of
literature; in others upon points of civil prudence and morals; and in
others about affairs relating to the Church, its sects, &c. Permission
was granted me to enter and look about the house; and I saw people
running from one apartment to another, seeking such company as was most
suited to their own tempers and inclinations; and in the different
parties I could distinguish three kinds of persons; some as it were
panting to converse, some eager to ask questions, and others greedily
devouring what was said. The house had four doors, one towards each
quarter; and I observed several leaving their respective companies with
a great desire to get out of the house. I followed some of them to the
east door, where I saw several sitting with great marks of dejection on
their faces; and on my inquiring into the cause of their trouble, they
replied, "The doors of this house are kept shut against all persons who
wish to go out; and this is the third day since we entered, to be
entertained according to our desire with company and conversation; and
now we are grown so weary with continual discoursing, that we can
scarcely bear to hear the sound of a human voice; wherefore, from mere
irksomeness, we have betaken ourselves to this door; but on our knocking
to have it opened, we were told, that the doors of this house are never
opened to let any persons out, but only to let them in, and that we must
stay here and enjoy the delights of heaven; from which information we
conclude, that we are to remain here to eternity; and this is the cause
of our sorrow and lowness of spirits; now too we begin to feel an
oppression in the breast, and to be overwhelmed with anxiety." The angel
then addressing them said: "These things in which you imagined the true
joys of heaven to consist, prove, you find, the destruction of all
happiness; since they do not of themselves constitute true heavenly
joys, but only contribute thereto." "In what then," said they to the
angel, "does heavenly joy consist?" The angel replied briefly, "In the
delight of doing something that is useful to ourselves and others; which
delight derives its essence from love and its existence from wisdom. The
delight of being useful, originating in love, and operating by wisdom,
is the very soul and life of all heavenly joys. In the heavens there are
frequent occasions of cheerful intercourse and conversation, whereby the
minds (_mentes_) of the angels are exhilarated, their minds (_animi_)
entertained, their bosoms delighted, and their bodies refreshed; but
such occasions do not occur, till they have fulfilled their appointed
uses in the discharge of their respective business and duties. It is
this fulfilling of uses that gives soul and life to all their delights
and entertainments; and if this soul and life be taken away, the
contributory joys gradually cease, first exciting indifference, then
disgust, and lastly sorrow and anxiety." As the angel ended, the door
was thrown open, and those who were sitting near it burst out in haste,
and went home to their respective labors and employments, and so found
relief and refreshment to their spirits.

6. After this the angel addressed those who fancied the joys of heaven
and eternal happiness consisted of partaking of feasts with Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob, succeeded by sports and public exhibitions, and these
by other feasts, and so on to eternity. He said, "Follow me; and I will
introduce you into the possession of your enjoyments:" and immediately
he led them through a grove into a plain floored with planks, on which
were set tables, fifteen on one side and fifteen on the other. They then
asked, "What is the meaning of so many tables?" and the angel replied,
"The first table is for Abraham, the second for Isaac, the third for
Jacob, and the rest in order for the twelve apostles: on the other side
are the same number of tables for their wives; the first three are for
Sarah, Abraham's wife, for Rebecca, the wife of Isaac, and for Leah and
Rachel, the wives of Jacob; and the other twelve are for the wives of
the twelve apostles." They had not waited long before the tables were
covered with dishes; between which, at stated distances, were ornaments
of small pyramids holding sweetmeats. The guests stood around the tables
waiting to see their respective presidents: these soon entered according
to their order of precedency, beginning with Abraham, and ending with
the last of the apostles; and then each president, taking his place at
the head of his own table, reclined on a couch, and invited the
bystanders to take their places, each on his couch: accordingly the men
reclined with the patriarchs and apostles, and the women with their
wives: and they ate and drank with much festivity, but with due decorum.
When the repast was ended, the patriarchs and apostles retired; and then
were introduced various sports and dances of virgins and young men; and
these were succeeded by exhibitions. At the conclusion of these
entertainments, they were again invited to feasting; but with this
particular restriction, that on the first day they should eat with
Abraham, on the second with Isaac, on the third with Jacob, on the
fourth with Peter, on the fifth with James, on the sixth with John, on
the seventh with Paul, and with the rest in order till the fifteenth
day, when their festivity should be renewed again in like order, only
changing their seats, and so on to eternity. After this the angel called
together the company that had attended him, and said to them, "All those
whom you have observed at the several tables, had entertained the same
imaginary ideas as yourselves, respecting the joys of heaven and eternal
happiness; and it is with the intent that they may see the vanity of
such ideas, and be withdrawn from them, that those festive
representations were appointed and permitted by the Lord. Those who with
so much dignity presided at the tables, were merely old people and
feigned characters, many of them husbandmen and peasants, who, wearing
long beards, and from their wealth being exceedingly proud and arrogant,
were easily induced to imagine that they were those patriarchs and
apostles. But follow me to the ways that lead from this place of
festivity." They accordingly followed, and observed groups of fifty or
more, here and there, surfeited with the load of meat which lay on their
stomachs, and wishing above all things to return to their domestic
employments, their professions, trades, and handicraft works; but many
of them were detained by the keepers of the grove, who questioned them
concerning the days they had feasted, and whether they had as yet taken
their turns with Peter and Paul; representing to them the shame and
indecency of departing till they had paid equal respect to the apostles.
But the general reply was, "We are surfeited with our entertainment; our
food has become insipid to us, we have lost all relish for it, and the
very sight of it is loathsome to us; we have spent many days and nights
in such repasts of luxury, and can endure it no longer: we therefore
earnestly request leave to depart." Then the keepers dismissed them, and
they made all possible haste to their respective homes.

After this the angel called the company that attended him, and as they
went along he gave them the following information respecting
heaven:--"There are in heaven," says he, "as in the world, both meats
and drinks, both feasts and repasts; and at the tables of the great
there is a variety of the most exquisite food, and all kinds of rich
dainties and delicacies, wherewith their minds are exhilarated and
refreshed. There are likewise sports and exhibitions, concerts of music,
vocal and instrumental, and all these things in the highest perfection.
Such things are a source of joy to them, but not of happiness; for
happiness ought to be within external joys, and to flow from them. This
inward happiness abiding in external joys, is necessary to give them
their proper relish, and make them joys; it enriches them, and prevents
their becoming loathsome and disgusting; and this happiness is derived
to every angel from the use he performs in his duty or employment. There
is a certain vein latent in the affection of the will of every angel,
which attracts his mind to the execution of some purpose or other,
wherein his mind finds itself in tranquillity, and is satisfied. This
tranquillity and satisfaction form a state of mind capable of receiving
from the Lord the love of uses; and from the reception of this love
springs heavenly happiness, which is the life of the above-mentioned
joys. Heavenly food in its essence is nothing but love, wisdom, and use
united together; that is, use effected by wisdom and derived from love;
wherefore food for the body is given to every one in heaven according to
the use which he performs; sumptuous food to those who perform eminent
uses; moderate, but of an exquisite relish, to those who perform less
eminent uses; and ordinary to such as live in the performance of
ordinary uses; but none at all to the slothful."

7. After this the angel called to him the company of the so-called wise
ones, who supposed heavenly joys, and the eternal happiness thence
derived, to consist in exalted power and dominion, with the possession
of abundant treasures, attended with more than princely splendor and
magnificence, and who had been betrayed into this supposition by what is
written in the Word,--that they should be kings and princes, and should
reign for ever with Christ, and should be ministered unto by angels;
with many other similar expressions. "Follow me," said the angel to
them, "and I will introduce you to your joys." So he led them into a
portico constructed of pillars and pyramids: in the front there was a
low porch, through which lay the entrance to the portico; through this
porch he introduced them, and lo! there appeared to be about twenty
people assembled. After waiting some time, they were accosted by a
certain person, having the garb and appearance of an angel, and who said
to them, "The way to heaven is through this portico; wait awhile and
prepare yourselves; for the elder among you are to be kings, and the
younger princes." As he said this, they saw near each pillar a throne,
and on each throne a silken robe, and on each robe a sceptre and crown;
and near each pyramid a seat raised three feet from the ground, and on
each seat a massive gold chain, and the ensigns of an order of
knighthood, fastened at each end with diamond clasps. After this they
heard a voice, saying, "Go now and put on your robes; be seated, and
wait awhile:" and instantly the elder ones ran to the thrones, and the
younger to the seats; and they put on their robes and seated themselves.
When lo! there arose a mist from below, which, communicating its
influence to those on the thrones and the seats, caused them instantly
to assume airs of authority, and to swell with their new greatness, and
to be persuaded in good earnest that they were kings and princes. That
mist was an _aura_ of phantasy or imagination with which their minds
were possessed. Then on a sudden, several young pages presented
themselves, as if they came on wings from heaven; and two of them stood
in waiting behind every throne, and one behind every seat. Afterwards at
intervals a herald proclaimed:--"Ye kings and princes, wait a little
longer; your palaces in heaven are making ready for you; your courtiers
and guards will soon attend to introduce you." Then they waited and
waited in anxious expectation, till their spirits were exhausted, and
they grew weary with desire.

After about three hours, the heavens above them were seen to open, and
the angels looked down in pity upon them, and said, "Why sit ye in this
state of infatuation, assuming characters which do not belong to you?
They have made a mockery of you, and have changed you from men into mere
images, because of the imagination which has possessed you, that you
should reign with Christ as kings and princes, and that angels should
minister unto you. Have you forgotten the Lord's words, that whosoever
would be the greatest in the kingdom of heaven must be the least of all,
and the servant of all? Learn then what is meant by kings and princes,
and by reigning with Christ; that it is to be wise and perform uses. The
kingdom of Christ, which is heaven, is a kingdom of uses; for the Lord
loves every one, and is desirous to do good to every one; and good is
the same thing as use: and as the Lord promotes good or use by the
mediation of angels in heaven, and of men on earth, therefore to such as
faithfully perform uses, he communicates the love thereof, and its
reward, which is internal blessedness; and this is true eternal
happiness. There are in the heavens, as on earth, distinctions of
dignity and eminence, with abundance of the richest treasures; for there
are governments and forms of government, and consequently a variety of
ranks and orders of power and authority. Those of the highest rank have
courts and palaces to live in, which for splendor and magnificence
exceed every thing that the kings and princes of the earth can boast of;
and they derive honor and glory from the number and magnificence of
their courtiers, ministers, and attendants; but then these persons of
high rank are chosen from those whose heartfelt delight consists in
promoting the public good, and who are only externally pleased with the
distinctions of dignity for the sake of order and obedience; and as the
public good requires that every individual, being a member of the common
body, should be an instrument of use in the society to which he belongs,
which use is from the Lord and is effected by angels and men as of
themselves, it is plain that this is meant by reigning with the Lord."
As soon as the angels had concluded, the kings and princes descended
from their thrones and seats, and cast away their sceptres, crowns, and
robes; and the mist which contained the _aura_ of phantasy was
dispersed, and a bright cloud, containing the _aura_ of wisdom
encompassed them, and thus they were presently restored to their sober
senses.

8. After this the angel returned to the house of assembly, and called to
him those who had conceived the joys of heaven and eternal happiness to
consist in paradisiacal delights; to whom he said, "Follow me, and I
will introduce you into your paradisiacal heaven, that you may enter
upon the beatitudes of your eternal happiness." Immediately he
introduced them through a lofty portal, formed of the boughs and shoots
of the finest trees interwoven with each other. After their admission,
he led them through a variety of winding paths in different directions.
The place was a real paradise, on the confines of heaven, intended for
the reception of such as, during their abode on earth, had fancied the
whole heaven to be a single paradise, because it is so called, and had
been led to conceive that after death there would be a perfect rest from
all kinds of labor; which rest would consist in a continual feast of
pleasures, such as walking among roses, being exhilarated with the most
exquisite wines, and participating in continual mirth and festivity; and
that this kind of life could only be enjoyed in a heavenly paradise. As
they followed the angel, they saw a great number of old and young, of
both sexes, sitting by threes and tens in a company on banks of roses;
some of whom were wreathing garlands to adorn the heads of the seniors,
the arms of the young, and the bosoms of the children; others were
pressing the juice out of grapes, cherries, and mulberries, which they
collected in cups, and then drank with much festivity; some were
delighting themselves with the fragrant smells that exhaled far and wide
from the flowers, fruits, and odoriferous leaves of a variety of plants;
others were singing most melodious songs, to the great entertainment of
the hearers; some were sitting by the sides of fountains, and directing
the bubbling streams into various forms and channels; others were
walking, and amusing one another with cheerful and pleasant
conversation; others were retiring into shady arbors to repose on
couches; besides a variety of other paradisiacal entertainment. After
observing these things, the angel led his companions through various
winding paths, till he brought them at length to a most beautiful grove
of roses, surrounded by olive, orange, and citron trees. Here they found
many persons sitting in a disconsolate posture, with their heads
reclined on their hands, and exhibiting all the signs of sorrow and
discontent. The companions of the angel accosted them, and inquired into
the cause of their grief. They replied, "This is the seventh day since
we came into this paradise: on our first admission we seemed to
ourselves to be elevated into heaven, and introduced into a
participation of its inmost joys; but after three days our pleasures
began to pall on the appetite, and our relish was lost, till at length
we became insensible to their taste, and found that they had lost the
power of pleasing. Our imaginary joys being thus annihilated we were
afraid of losing with them all the satisfaction of life, and we began to
doubt whether any such thing as eternal happiness exists. We then
wandered through a variety of paths and passages, in search of the gate
at which we were admitted; but our wandering was in vain: for on
inquiring the way of some persons we met, they informed us, that it was
impossible to find the gate, as this paradisiacal garden is a spacious
labyrinth of such a nature, that whoever wishes to go out, enters
further and further into it; 'wherefore,' said they, 'you must of
necessity remain here to eternity; you are now in the middle of the
garden, where all delights are centred.'" They further said to the
angel's companions, "We have now been in this place for a day and a
half, and as we despair of ever finding our way out, we have sat down to
repose on this bank of roses, where we view around us olive-trees,
vines, orange and citron-trees, in great abundance; but the longer we
look at them, the more our eyes are wearied with seeing, our noses with
smelling, and our palates with tasting: and this is the cause of the
sadness, sorrow, and weeping, in which you now behold us." On hearing
this relation, the attendant angel said to them, "This paradisiacal
labyrinth is truly an entrance into heaven; I know the way that leads
out of it; and if you will follow me, I will shew it you." No sooner had
he uttered those words than they arose from the ground, and, embracing
the angel, attended him with his companions. The angel as they went
along, instructed them in the true nature of heavenly joy and eternal
happiness thence derived. "They do not," said he, "consist in external
paradisiacal delights, unless they are also attended with internal.
External paradisiacal delights reach only the senses of the body; but
internal paradisiacal delights reach the affections of the soul; and the
former without the latter are devoid of all heavenly life, because they
are devoid of soul; and every delight without its corresponding soul,
continually grows more and more languid and dull, and fatigues the mind
more than labor. There are in every part of heaven paradisiacal gardens,
in which the angels find much joy; and so far as it is attended with a
delight of the soul, the joy is real and true." Hereupon they all asked,
"What is the delight of the soul, and whence is it derived?" The angel
replied, "The delight of the soul is derived from love and wisdom
proceeding from the Lord; and as love is operative, and that by means of
wisdom, therefore they are both fixed together in the effect of such
operation; which effect is use. This delight enters into the soul by
influx from the Lord, and descends through the superior and inferior
regions of the mind into all the senses of the body, and in them is full
and complete; becoming hereby a true joy, and partaking of an eternal
nature from the eternal fountain whence it proceeds. You have just now
seen a paradisiacal garden; and I can assure you that there is not a
single thing therein, even the smallest leaf, which does not exist from
the marriage of love and wisdom in use: wherefore if a man be in this
marriage, he is in a celestial paradise, and therefore in heaven."

9. After this, the conducting angel returned to the house of assembly,
and addressed those who had persuaded themselves that heavenly joy and
eternal happiness consist in a perpetual glorification of God, and a
continued festival of prayer and praise to eternity; in consequence of a
belief they had entertained in the world that they should then see God,
and because the life of heaven, originating in the worship of God, is
called a perpetual sabbath. "Follow me," said the angel to them, "and I
will introduce you to your joy." So he led them into a little city, in
the middle of which was a temple, and where all the houses were said to
be consecrated chapels. In that city they observed a great concourse of
people flocking together from all parts of the neighboring country; and
among them a number of priests, who received and saluted them on their
arrival, and led them by the hand to the gates of the temple, and from
thence into some of the chapels around it, where they initiated them
into the perpetual worship of God; telling them that the city was one of
the courts leading to heaven, and that the temple was an entrance to a
most spacious and magnificent temple in heaven, where the angels glorify
God by prayers and praises to eternity. "It is ordained," said they,
"both here and in heaven, that you are first to enter into the temple,
and remain there for three days and three nights and after this
initiation you are to enter the houses of the city, which are so many
chapels consecrated by us to divine worship, and in every house join the
congregation in a communion of prayers, praises, and repetitions of holy
things; you are to take heed also that nothing but pious, holy, and
religious subjects enter into your thoughts, or make a part of your
conversation." After this the angel introduced his companions into the
temple, which they found filled and crowded with many persons, who on
earth had lived in exalted stations, and also with many of an inferior
class: guards were stationed at the doors to prevent any one from
departing until he had completed his stay of three days. Then said the
angel, "This is the second day since the present congregation entered
the temple: examine them, and you will see their manner of glorifying
God." On their examining them, they observed that most of them were fast
asleep, and that those who were awake were listless and yawning; many of
them, in consequence of the continual elevation of their thoughts to
God, without any attention to the inferior concerns of the body, seemed
to themselves, and thence also to others, as if their faces were
unconnected with their bodies; several again had a wild and raving look
with their eyes, because of their long abstraction from visible objects;
in short, every one, being quite tired out, seemed to feel an oppression
at the chest, and great weariness of spirits, which showed itself in a
violent aversion to what they heard from the pulpit, so that they cried
out to the preacher to put an end to his discourse, for their ears were
stunned, they could not understand a single word he said, and the very
sound of his voice was become painful to them. They then all left their
seats, and, crowding in a body to the doors, broke them open, and by
mere violence made their way through the guards. The priests hereupon
followed, and walked close beside them, teaching, praying, sighing, and
encouraging them to celebrate the solemn festival, and to glorify God,
and sanctify themselves; "and then," said they, "we will initiate you
into the eternal glorification of God in that most magnificent and
spacious temple which is in heaven, and so will introduce you to the
enjoyment of eternal happiness." These words, however, made but little
impression upon them, on account of the listlessness of their minds,
arising from the long elevation of their thoughts above their ordinary
labors and employments. But when they attempted to disengage themselves
from them, the priests caught hold of their hands and garments, in order
to force them back again into the temple to a repetition of their
prayers and praises; but in vain: they insisted on being left to
themselves to recruit their spirits; "we shall else die," they said,
"through mere faintness and weariness." At that instant, lo! there
appeared four men in white garments, with mitres on their heads; one of
them while on earth had been an archbishop, and the other three bishops,
all of whom had now become angels. As they approached, they addressed
themselves to the priests, and said, "We have observed from heaven how
you feed these sheep. Your instruction tends to their infatuation. Do
you not know that to glorify God means to bring forth the fruits of
love; that is, to discharge all the duties of our callings with
faithfulness, sincerity, and diligence? for this is the nature of love
towards God and our neighbor; and this is the bond and blessing of
society. Hereby God is glorified, as well as by acts of worship at
stated times after these duties. Have you never read these words of the
Lord, _Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bring forth much fruit; so
shall ye be my disciples_, John xv. 8. Ye priests indeed may glorify God
by your attendance on his worship, since this is your office, and from
the discharge of it you derive honor, glory, and recompense; but it
would be as impossible for you as for others thus to glorify God, unless
honor, glory, and recompense were annexed to your office." Having said
this, the bishops ordered the doorkeepers to give free ingress and
egress to all, there being so great a number of people, who, from their
ignorance of the state and nature of heaven, can form no other idea of
heavenly joy than that it consists in the perpetual worship of God.

10. After this the angel returned with his companions to the place of
assembly, where the several companions of the wise ones were still
waiting; and next he addressed those who fancied that heavenly joy and
eternal happiness depend only on admittance into heaven, which is
obtained merely by divine grace and favor; and that in such case the
persons introduced would enter into the enjoyments of heaven, just as
those introduced to a court-festival or a marriage, enter into the
enjoyment of such scenes. "Wait here awhile," said the angel, "until I
sound my trumpet, and call together those who have been most
distinguished for their wisdom in regard to the spiritual things of the
Church." After some hours, there appeared nine men, each having a wreath
of laurel on his head as a mark of distinction: these the angel
introduced into the house of assembly, where all the companies before
collected were still waiting; and then in their presence he addressed
the nine strangers, and said, "I am informed, that in compliance with
your desire, you have been permitted to ascend into heaven, according to
your ideas thereof, and that you have returned to this inferior or
sub-celestial earth, perfectly well informed as to the nature and state
of heaven: tell us therefore what you have seen, and how heaven appeared
to you." Then they replied in order; and the First thus began: "My idea
of heaven from my earliest infancy to the end of my life on earth was,
that it was a place abounding with all sorts of blessings,
satisfactions, enjoyments, gratifications, and delights; and that if I
were introduced there, I should be encompassed as by an atmosphere of
such felicities, and should receive it with the highest relish, like a
bridegroom at the celebration of his nuptials, and when he enters the
chamber with his bride. Full of this idea, I ascended into heaven, and
passed the first guard and also the second; but when I came to the
third, the captain of the guard accosted me and said, 'Who are you,
friend?' I replied, 'Is not this heaven? My longing desire to ascend
into heaven has brought me hither; I pray you therefore permit me to
enter.' Then he permitted me; and I saw angels in white garments, who
came about me and examined me, and whispered to each other, 'What new
guest is this, who is not clothed in heavenly raiment?' I heard what
they said, and thought within myself, This is a similar case to that
which the Lord describes, of the person who came to the wedding, and had
not on a wedding garment: and I said, 'Give me such garments;' at which
they smiled: and instantly one came from the judgment-hall with this
command: 'Strip him naked, cast him out, and throw his clothes after
him;' and so I was cast out." The Second in order then began as follows:
"I also supposed that if I were but admitted into heaven, which was over
my head, I should there be encompassed with joys, which I should partake
of to eternity. I likewise wished to be there, and my wish was granted;
but the angels on seeing me fled away, and said one to another, 'What
prodigy is this! how came this bird of night here?' On hearing which, I
really felt as if I had undergone some change, and was no longer a man:
this however was merely imaginary, and arose from my breathing the
heavenly atmosphere. Presently, however, there came one running from the
judgment-hall, with an order that two servants should lead me out, and
conduct me back by the way I had ascended, till I had reached my own
home; and when I arrived there, I again appeared to others and also to
myself as a man." The Third said, "I always conceived heaven to be some
place of blessedness independent of the state of the affections;
wherefore as soon as I came into this world, I felt a most ardent desire
to go to heaven. Accordingly I followed some whom I saw ascending
thither, and was admitted along with them; but I did not proceed far;
for when I was desirous to delight my mind (_animus_) according to my
idea of heavenly blessedness, a sudden stupor, occasioned by the light
of heaven, which is as white as snow, and whose essence is said to be
wisdom, seized my mind (_mens_) and darkness my eyes, and I was reduced
to a state of insanity: and presently, from the heat of heaven, which
corresponds with the brightness of its light, and whose essence is said
to be love, there arose in my heart a violent palpitation, a general
uneasiness seized my whole frame, and I was inwardly excruciated to such
a degree that I threw myself flat on the ground. While I was in this
situation, one of the attendants came from the judgment-hall with an
order to carry me gently to my own light and heat; and when I came there
my spirit and my heart presently returned to me." The Fourth said that
he also had conceived heaven to be some place of blessedness independent
of the state of the affections. "As soon therefore," said he, "as I came
into the spiritual world, I inquired of certain wise ones whether I
might be permitted to ascend into heaven, and was informed that this
liberty was granted to all, but that there was need of caution how they
used it, lest they should be cast down again. I made light of this
caution, and ascended in full confidence that all were alike qualified
for the reception of heavenly bliss in all its fulness: but alas! I was
no sooner within the confines of heaven, than my life seemed to be
departing from me, and from the violent pains and anguish which seized
my head and body, I threw myself prostrate on the ground, where I
writhed about like a snake when it is brought near the fire. In this
state I crawled to the brink of a precipice, from which I threw myself
down, and being taken up by some people who were standing near the place
where I fell, by proper care I was soon brought to myself again." The
other Five then gave a wonderful relation of what befell them in their
ascents into heaven, and compared the changes they experienced as to
their states of life, with the state of fish when raised out of water
into air, and with that of birds when raised out of air into ether; and
they declared that, after having suffered so much pain, they had no
longer any desire to ascend into heaven, and only wished to live a life
agreeable to the state of their own affections, among their like in any
place whatever. "We are well informed," they added, "that in the world
of spirits, where we now are, all persons undergo a previous
preparation, the good for heaven, and the wicked for hell; and that
after such preparation they discover ways open for them to societies of
their like, with whom they are to live eternally; and that they enter
such ways with the utmost delight, because they are suitable to their
love." When those of the first assembly had heard these relations, they
all likewise acknowledged, that they had never entertained any other
notion of heaven than as of a place where they should enter upon the
fruition of never-ceasing delights. Then the angel who had the trumpet
thus addressed them: "You see now that the joys of heaven and eternal
happiness arise not from the place, but from the state of the man's
life; and a state of heavenly life is derived from love and wisdom; and
since it is use which contains love and wisdom, and in which they are
fixed and subsist, therefore a state of heavenly life is derived from
the conjunction of love and wisdom in use. It amounts to the same if we
call them charity, faith, and good works; for charity is love, faith is
truth whence wisdom is derived, and good works are uses. Moreover in our
spiritual world there are places as in the natural world; otherwise
there could be no habitations and distinct abodes; nevertheless place
with us is not place, but an appearance of place according to the state
of love and wisdom, or of charity and faith. Every one who becomes an
angel, carries his own heaven within himself, because he carries in
himself the love of his own heaven; for a man from creation is the
smallest effigy, image, and type of the great heaven, and the human form
is nothing else; wherefore every one after death comes into that society
of heaven of whose general form he is an individual effigy;
consequently, when he enters into that society he enters into a form
corresponding to his own; thus he passes as it were from himself into
that form as into another self, and again from that other self into the
same form in himself, and enjoys his own life in that of the society,
and that of the society in his own; for every society in heaven may be
considered as one common body, and the constituent angels as the similar
parts thereof, from which the common body exists. Hence it follows, that
those who are in evils, and thence in falses, have formed in themselves
an effigy of hell, which suffers torment in heaven from the influx and
violent activity of one opposite upon another; for infernal love is
opposite to heavenly love, and consequently the delights of those two
loves are in a state of discord and enmity, and whenever they meet they
endeavor to destroy each other."

11. After this a voice was heard from heaven, saying to the angel that
had the trumpet, "Select ten out of the whole assembly, and introduce
them to us. We have heard from the Lord that He will prepare them so as
to prevent the heat and light, or the love and wisdom, of our heaven,
from doing them any injury during the space of three days." Ten were
then selected and followed the angel. They ascended by a steep path up a
certain hill, and from thence up a mountain, on the summit of which was
situated the heaven of those angels, which had before appeared to them
at a distance like an expanse in the clouds. The gates were opened for
them; and after they had passed the third gate, the introducing angel
hastened to the prince of the society, or of that heaven, and announced
their arrival. The prince said, "Take some of my attendants, and carry
them word that their arrival is agreeable to me, and introduce them into
my reception-room, and provide for each a separate apartment with a
chamber, and appoint some of my attendants and servants to wait upon
them and attend to their wishes:" all which was done. On being
introduced by the angel, they asked whether they might go and see the
prince; and the angel replied, "It is now morning, and it is not
allowable before noon; till that time every one is engaged in his
particular duty and employment: but you are invited to dinner, and then
you will sit at table with our prince; in the meantime I will introduce
you into his palace, and show you its splendid and magnificent
contents."

12. When they were come to the palace, they first viewed it from
without. It was large and spacious, built of porphyry, with a foundation
of jasper; and before the gates were six lofty columns of lapis lazuli;
the roof was of plates of gold, the lofty windows, of the most
transparent crystal, had frames also of gold. After viewing the outside
they were introduced within, and were conducted from one apartment to
another; in each of which they saw ornaments of inexpressible elegance
and beauty; and beneath the roof were sculptured decorations of
inimitable workmanship. Near the walls were set silver tables overlaid
with gold, on which were placed various implements made of precious
stones, and of entire gems in heavenly forms, with several other things,
such as no eye had ever seen on earth, and consequently such as could
never be supposed to exist in heaven. While they were struck with
astonishment at these magnificent sights, the angel said, "Be not
surprised; the things which you now behold are not the production and
workmanship of any angelic hand, but are framed by the Builder of the
universe, and presented as a gift to our prince; wherefore the
architectonic art is here in its essential perfection, and hence are
derived all the rules of that art which are known and practised in the
world." The angel further said, "You may possibly conceive that such
objects charm our eyes, and infatuate us by their grandeur, so that we
consider them as constituting the joys of our heaven: this however is
not the case; for our affections not being set on such things, they are
only contributory to the joys of our hearts; and therefore, so far as we
contemplate them as such, and as the workmanship of God, so far we
contemplate in them the divine omnipotence and mercy."

13. After this the angel said to them, "It is not yet noon: come with me
into our prince's garden, which is near the palace." So they went with
him; and as they were entering, he said, "Behold here the most
magnificent of all the gardens in our heavenly society!" But they
replied, "How! there is no garden here. We see only one tree, and on its
branches and at its top as it were golden fruit and silver leaves, with
their edges adorned with emeralds, and beneath the tree little children
with their nurses." Hereupon the angel, with an inspired voice said,
"This tree is in the midst of the garden; some of us call it the tree of
our heaven, and some, the tree of life. But advance nearer, and your
eyes will be opened, and you will see the garden." They did so, and
their eyes were opened, and they saw numerous trees bearing an abundance
of fine flavored fruit, entwined about with young vines, whose tops with
their fruit inclined towards the tree of life in the midst. These trees
were planted in a continuous series, which, proceeding from a point, and
being continued into endless circles, or gyrations, as of a perpetual
spiral, formed a perfect spiral of trees, wherein one species
continually succeeded another, according to the worth and excellence of
their fruit. The circumgyration began at a considerable distance from
the tree in the midst, and the intervening space was radiant with a beam
of light, which caused the trees in the circle to shine with a graduated
splendor that was continued from the first to the last. The first trees
were the most excellent of all, abounding with the choicest fruits, and
were called paradisiacal trees, being such as are never seen in any
country of the natural world, because none such ever grew or could grow
there. These were succeeded by olive-trees, the olives by vines, these
by sweet-scented shrubs, and these again by timber trees, whose wood was
useful for building. At stated intervals in this spiral or gyre of
trees, were interspersed seats, formed of the young shoots of the trees
behind, brought forward and entwined in each other, while the fruit of
the trees hanging over at the same time enriched and adorned them. At
this perpetually winding circle of trees, there were passages which
opened into flower-gardens, and from them into shrubberies, laid out
into areas and beds. At the sight of all these things the companions of
the angels exclaimed, "Behold heaven in form! wherever we turn our eyes
we feel an influx of somewhat celestially-paradisiacal, which is not to
be expressed." At this the angel rejoicing said, "All the gardens of our
heaven are representative forms or types of heavenly beatitudes in their
origins; and because the influx of these beatitudes elevated your minds,
therefore you exclaimed, 'Behold heaven in form!' but those who do not
receive that influx, regard these paradisiacal gardens only as common
woods or forests. All those who are under the influence of the love of
use receive the influx; but those who are under the influence of the
love of glory not originating in use, do not receive it." Afterwards he
explained to them what every particular thing in the garden represented
and signified.

14. While they were thus employed, there came a messenger from the
prince, with an invitation to them to dine with him; and at the same
time two attendants brought garments of fine linen, and said, "Put on
these; for no one is admitted to the prince's table unless he be clothed
in the garments of heaven." So they put them on, and accompanied their
angel, and were shewn into a drawing-room belonging to the palace, where
they waited for the prince; and there the angel introduced them to the
company and conversation of the grandees and nobles, who were also
waiting for the prince's appearing. And lo! in about an hour the doors
were opened, and through one larger than the rest, on the western side,
he was seen to enter in stately procession. His inferior counsellors
went before him, after them his privy-counsellors, and next the chief
officers belonging to the court; in the middle of these was the prince;
after him followed courtiers of various ranks, and lastly the guards; in
all they amounted to a hundred and twenty. Then the angel, advancing
before the ten strangers, who by their dress now appeared like inmates
of the place, approached with them towards the prince, and reverently
introduced them to his notice; and the prince, without stopping the
procession, said to them, "Come and dine with me." So they followed him
into the dining-hall, where they saw a table magnificently set out,
having in the middle a tall golden pyramid with a hundred branches in
three rows, each branch having a small dish, or basket, containing a
variety of sweetmeats and preserves, with other delicacies made of bread
and wine; and through the middle of the pyramid there issued as it were
a bubbling fountain of nectareous wine, the stream of which, falling
from the summit of the pyramid separated into different channels and
filled the cups. At the sides of this pyramid were various heavenly
golden forms, on which were dishes and plates covered with all kinds of
food. The heavenly forms supporting the dishes and plates were forms of
art, derived from wisdom, such as cannot be devised by any human art, or
expressed by any human words: the dishes and plates were of silver, on
which were engraved forms similar to those that supported them; the cups
were transparent gems. Such was the splendid furniture of the table.

15. As regards the dress of the prince and his ministers, the prince
wore a long purple robe, set with silver stars wrought in needle-work;
under this robe he had a tunic of bright silk of a blue or hyacinthine
color; this was open about the breast, where there appeared the forepart
of a kind of zone or ribbon, with the ensign of his society; the badge
was an eagle sitting on her young at the top of a tree; this was wrought
in polished gold set with diamonds. The counsellors were dressed nearly
after the same manner, but without the badge; instead of which they wore
sapphires curiously cut, hanging from their necks by a golden chain. The
courtiers wore brownish cloaks, wrought with flowers encompassing young
eagles; their tunics were of an opal-colored silk, so were also their
lower garments; thus were they dressed.

16. The privy-counsellors, with those of inferior order, and the
grandees stood around the table, and by command of the prince folded
their hands, and at the same time in a low voice said a prayer of
thanksgiving to the Lord; and after this, at a sign from the prince,
they reclined on couches at the table. The prince then said to the ten
strangers, "Do ye also recline with me; behold, there are your couches:"
so they reclined; and the attendants, who were before sent by the prince
to wait upon them, stood behind them. Then said the prince to them,
"Take each of you a plate from its supporting form, and afterwards a
dish from the pyramid;" and they did so; and lo! instantly new plates
and dishes appeared in the place of those that were taken away; and
their cups were filled with wine that streamed from the fountain out of
the tall pyramid: and they ate and drank. When dinner was about half
ended, the prince addressed the ten new guests, and said, "I have been
informed that you were convened in the country which is immediately
under this heaven, in order to declare your thoughts respecting the joys
of heaven and eternal happiness thence derived, and that you professed
different opinions each according to his peculiar ideas of delight
originating in the bodily senses. But what are the delights of the
bodily senses without those of the soul? The former are animated by the
latter. The delights of the soul in themselves are imperceptible
beatitudes; but, as they descend into the thoughts of the mind, and
thence into the sensations of the body, they become more and more
perceptible: in the thoughts of the mind they are perceived as
satisfactions, in the sensations of the body as delights, and in the
body itself as pleasures. Eternal happiness is derived from the latter
and the former taken together; but from the latter alone there results a
happiness not eternal but temporary, which quickly comes to an end and
passes away, and in some cases becomes unhappiness. You have now seen
that all your joys are also joys of heaven, and that these are far more
excellent than you could have conceived; yet such joys do not inwardly
affect our minds. There are three things which enter by influx from the
Lord as a one into our souls; these three as a one, or this trine, are
love, wisdom, and use. Love and wisdom of themselves exist only ideally,
being confined to the affections and thoughts of the mind; but in use
they exist really, because they are together in act and bodily
employment; and where they exist really, there they also subsist. And as
love and wisdom exist and subsist in use, it is by use we are affected;
and use consists in a faithful, sincere, and diligent discharge of the
duties of our calling. The love of use, and a consequent application to
it, preserve the powers of the mind, and prevent their dispersion; so
that the mind is guarded against wandering and dissipation, and the
imbibing of false lusts, which with their enchanting delusions flow in
from the body and the world through the senses, whereby the truths of
religion and morality, with all that is good in either, become the sport
of every wind; but the application of the mind to use binds and unites
those truths, and disposes the mind to become a form receptible of the
wisdom thence derived; and in this case it extirpates the idle sports
and pastimes of falsity and vanity, banishing them from its centre
towards the circumference. But you will hear more on this subject from
the wise ones of our society, when I will send to you in the afternoon."
So saying, the prince arose, and the new guests along with him, and
bidding them farewell, he charged the conducting angel to lead them back
to their private apartments, and there to show them every token of
civility and respect, and also to invite some courteous and agreeable
company to entertain them with conversation respecting the various joys
of this society.

17. The angel executed the prince's charge; and when they were turned to
their private apartments, the company, invited from the city to inform
them respecting the various joys of the society, arrived, and after the
usual compliments entered into conversation with them as they walked
along in a strain at once entertaining and elegant. But the conducting
angel said, "These ten men were invited into this heaven to see its
joys, and to receive thereby a new idea concerning eternal happiness.
Acquaint us therefore with some of its joys which affect the bodily
senses; and afterwards, some wise ones will arrive, who will acquaint us
with what renders those joys satisfactory and happy." Then the company
who were invited from the city related the following particulars:--"1.
There are here days of festivity appointed by the prince, that the mind,
by due relaxation, may recover from the weariness which an emulative
desire may occasion in particular cases. On such days we have concerts
of music and singing in the public places, and out of the city are
exhibited games and shows: in the public places at such times are raised
orchestras surrounded with balusters formed of vines wreathed together,
from which hang bunches of ripe grapes; within these balusters in three
rows, one above another, sit the musicians, with their wind and stringed
instruments of various tones, both high and low, loud and soft; and near
them are singers of both sexes who entertain the citizens with the
sweetest music and singing, both in concert and solo, varied at times as
to its particular kind: these concerts continue on those days of
festivity from morning till noon, and afterwards till evening. 2.
Moreover, every morning from the houses around the public places we hear
the sweetest songs of virgins and young girls, which resound though the
whole city. It is an affection of spiritual love, which is sung every
morning; that is, it is rendered sonorous by modifications of the voice
in singing, or by modulations. The affection in the song is perceived as
the real affection, flowing into the minds of the hearers, and exciting
them to a correspondence with it: such is the nature of heavenly
singing. The virgin-singers say, that the sound of their song is as it
were self-inspired and self-animated from within, and exalted with
delight according to the reception it meets with from the hearers. When
this is ended, the windows of the houses around the public places, and
likewise of those in the streets, are shut, and so also are the doors;
and then the whole city is silent, and no noise heard in any part of it,
nor is any person seen loitering in the streets, but all are intent on
their work and the duties of their calling. 3. At noon, however, the
doors are opened, and in the afternoon also the windows in some houses,
and boys and girls are seen playing in the streets, while their masters
and mistresses sit in the porches of their houses, watching over them,
and keeping them in order. 4. At the extreme parts of the city there are
various sports of boys and young men, as running, hand-ball, tennis,
&c.; there are besides trials of skill among the boys, in order to
discover the readiness of their wit in speaking, acting, and perceiving;
and such as excel receive some leaves of laurel as a reward; not to
mention other things of a like nature, designed to call forth and
exercise the latent talents of the young people. 5. Moreover out of the
city are exhibited stage-entertainments, in which the actors represent
the various graces and virtues of moral life, among whom are inferior
characters for the sake of relatives." And one of the ten asked, "How
for the sake of relatives?" And they replied, "No virtue with its graces
and beauties, can be suitably represented except by means of relatives,
in which are comprised and represented all its graces and beauties, from
the greatest to the least; and the inferior characters represent the
least, even till they become extinct; but it is provided by law, that
nothing of the opposite, which is indecorous and dishonorable, should be
exhibited, except figuratively, and as it were remotely. The reason of
which provision is, because nothing that is honorable and good in any
virtue can by successive progressions pass over to what is dishonorable
and evil: it only proceeds to its least, when it perishes; and when that
is the case, the opposite commences; wherefore heaven, where all things
are honorable and good, has nothing in common with hell, where all
things are dishonorable and evil."

18. During this conversation, a servant came in and brought word, that
the eight wise ones, invited by the prince's order, were arrived, and
wished to be admitted; whereupon the angel went out to receive and
introduce them: and presently the wise ones, after the customary
ceremonies of introduction, began to converse with them on the
beginnings and increments of wisdom, with which they intermixed various
remarks respecting its progression, shewing, that with the angels it
never ceases or comes to a period, but advances and increases to
eternity. Hereupon the attendant angel said to them, "Our prince at
table while talking with these strangers respecting the seat or abode of
wisdom, showed that it consists in use: if agreeable to you, be pleased
to acquaint them further on the same subject." They therefore said,
"Man, at his first creation, was endued with wisdom and its love, not
for the sake of himself, but that he might communicate it to others from
himself. Hence it is a maxim inscribed on the wisdom of the wise, that
no one is wise for himself alone, or lives for himself, but for others
at the same time: this is the origin of society, which otherwise could
not exist. To live for others is to perform uses. Uses are the bonds of
society, which are as many in number as there are good uses; and the
number of uses is infinite. There are spiritual uses, such as regard
love to God and love towards our neighbour; there are moral and civil
uses, such as regard the love of the society and state to which a man
belongs, and of his fellow-citizens among whom he lives; there are
natural uses, which regard the love of the world and its necessities;
and there are corporeal uses, such as regard the love of
self-preservation with a view to superior uses. All these uses are
inscribed on man, and follow in order one after another; and when they
are together, one is in the other. Those who are in the first uses,
which are spiritual, are in all the succeeding ones, and such persons
are wise; but those who are not in the first, and yet are in the second,
and thereby in the succeeding ones, are not so highly principled in
wisdom, but only appear to be so by virtue of an external morality and
civility; those who are neither in the first nor second, but only in the
third and fourth, have not the least pretensions to wisdom; for they are
satans, loving only the world and themselves for the sake of the world;
but those who are only in the fourth, are least wise of all; for they
are devils, because they live to themselves alone, and only to others
for the sake of themselves. Moreover, every love has its particular
delight; for it is by delight that love is kept alive; and the delight
of the love of uses is a heavenly delight, which enters into succeeding
delights in their order, and according to the order of succession,
exalts them and makes them eternal." After this they enumerated the
heavenly delights proceeding from the love of uses, and said, that they
are a thousand times ten thousand; and that all who enter heaven enter
into those delights. With further wise conversation on the love of use,
they passed the day with them until evening.

19. Towards evening there came a messenger clothed in linen to the ten
strangers who attended the angel, and invited them to a
marriage-ceremony which was to be celebrated the next day, and the
strangers were much rejoiced to think that they were also to be present
at a marriage-ceremony in heaven. After this they were conducted to the
house of one of the counsellors, and supped with him; and after supper
they returned to the palace, and each retired to his own chamber, where
they slept till morning. When they awoke, they heard the singing of the
virgins and young girls from the houses around the public places of
resort, which we mentioned above. They sung that morning the affection
of conjugial love; the sweetness of which so affected and moved the
hearers, that they perceived sensibly a blessed serenity instilled into
their joys, which at the some time exalted and renewed them. At the hour
appointed the angel said, "Make yourselves ready, and put on the
heavenly garments which our prince sent you;" and they did so, and lo!
the garments were resplendent as with a flaming light; and on their
asking the angel, "Whence is this?" he replied, "Because you are going
to a marriage-ceremony; and when that is the case, our garments always
assume a shining appearance, and become marriage garments."

20. After this the angel conducted them to the house where the nuptials
were to be celebrated, and the porter opened the door; and presently
being admitted within the house, they were received and welcomed by an
angel sent from the bridegroom, and were introduced and shewn to the
seats intended for them: and soon after they were invited into an
ante-chamber, in the middle of which they saw a table, and on it a
magnificent candlestick with seven branches and sconces of gold: against
the walls there were hung silver lamps, which being lighted made the
atmosphere appear of a golden hue: and they observed on each side of the
candlestick two tables, on which were set loaves in three rows; there
were tables also at the four corners of the room, on which were placed
crystal cups. While they were viewing these things, lo! a door opened
from a closet near the marriage-chamber, and six virgins came out, and
after them the bridegroom and the bride, holding each other by the hand,
and advancing towards a seat placed opposite to the candlestick, on
which they seated themselves, the bridegroom on the left hand, and the
bride on the right, while the six virgins stood by the seat near the
bride. The bridegroom was dressed in a robe of bright purple, and a
tunic of fine shining linen, with an ephod, on which was a golden plate
set round with diamonds, and on the plate was engraved a young eagle,
the marriage-ensign of that heavenly society; on his head he wore a
mitre: the bride was dressed in a scarlet mantle, under which was a
gown, ornamented with fine needle-work, that reached from her neck to
her feet, and beneath her bosom she wore a golden girdle, and on her
head a golden crown set with rubies. When they were thus seated, the
bridegroom turning himself towards the bride, put a golden ring on her
finger; he then took bracelets and a pearl necklace, and clasped the
bracelets about her wrists, and the necklace about her neck, and said,
"_Accept these pledges_;" and as she accepted them he kissed her, and
said, "Now thou art mine;" and he called her his wife. On this all the
company cried out, "May the divine blessing be upon you!" These words
were first pronounced by each separately, and afterwards by all
together. They were pronounced also in turn by a certain person sent
from the prince as his representative; and at that instant the
ante-chamber was filled with an aromatic smoke, which was a token of
blessing from heaven. Then the servants in waiting took loaves from the
two tables near the candlestick, and cups, now filled with wine, from
the tables at the corners of the room, and gave to each of the guests
his own loaf and his own cup, and they ate and drank. After this the
husband and his wife arose, and the six virgins attended them with the
silver lamps, now lighted, in their hands to the threshold; and the
married pair entered their chamber; and the door was shut.

21. Afterwards the conducting angel talked with the guests about his ten
companions, acquainting them how he was commissioned to introduce them,
and shew them the magnificent things contained in the prince's palace,
and other wonderful sights; and how they had dined at table with him,
and afterwards had conversed with the wise ones of the society; and he
said, "May I be permitted to introduce them also to you, in order that
they may enjoy the pleasure of your conversation?" So he introduced
them, and they entered into discourse together. Then a certain wise
personage, one of the marriage-guests, said, "Do you understand the
meaning of what you have seen?" They replied, "But little;" and then
they asked him, "Why was the bridegroom, who is now a husband, dressed
in that particular manner?" He answered, "Because the bridegroom, now a
husband, represented the Lord, and the bride, who is now a wife,
represented the church; for marriages in heaven represent the marriage
of the Lord with the church. This is the reason why he wore a mitre on
his head, and was dressed in a robe, a tunic, and an ephod, like Aaron;
and why the bride had a crown on her head, and wore a mantle like a
queen; but to-morrow they will be dressed differently, because this
representation lasts no longer than to-day." They further asked, "Since
he represented the Lord, and she the church, why did she sit at his
right hand?" The wise one replied, "Because there are two things which
constitute the marriage of the Lord with the church--love and wisdom;
the Lord is love, and the church is wisdom; and wisdom is at the right
hand of love; for every member of the church is wise as of himself, and
in proportion as he is wise he receives love from the Lord. The right
hand also signifies power; and love has power by means of wisdom; but,
as we have just observed, after the marriage-ceremony the representation
is changed; for then the husband represents wisdom, and the wife the
love of his wisdom. This love however is not primary, but secondary
love; being derived from the Lord to the wife through the wisdom of the
husband: the love of the Lord, which is the primary love, is the
husband's love of being wise; therefore after marriage, both together,
the husband and his wife, represent the church." They asked again, "Why
did not you men stand by the bridegroom, now the husband, as the six
virgins stood by the bride, now the wife?" The wise one answered,
"Because we to-day are numbered among the virgins; and the number six
signifies all and what is complete." But they said, "Explain your
meaning." He replied, "Virgins signify the church; and the church
consists of both sexes: therefore also we, with respect to the church,
are virgins. That this is the case, is evident from these words in the
Revelation: '_These are those who were not defiled with women; for they
are Virgins: and they follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth_,' chap.
xiv. 4. And as virgins signify the church, therefore the Lord likened it
to ten Virgins invited to a marriage, Mat. xxv. And as Israel, Zion, and
Jerusalem, signify the church, therefore mention is so often made in the
Word, of the Virgin and Daughter of Israel, of Zion, and of Jerusalem.
The Lord also describes his marriage with the church in these words:
'_upon thy right hand did stand the Queen in gold of Ophir: her clothing
is of wrought gold: she shall be brought unto the king in raiment of
needlework: the Virgins her companions that follow her shall enter into
the king's palace_.' Psalm xlv. 9-16." Lastly they asked, "Is it not
expedient that a priest be present and minister at the marriage
ceremony?" The wise one answered, "This is expedient on the
earth, but not in the heavens, by reason of the representation of the
Lord himself and the church. On the earth they are not aware of this;
but even with us a priest ministers in whatever relates to betrothings,
or marriage contracts, and hears, receives, confirms, and consecrates
the consent of the parties. Consent is the essential of marriage; all
succeeding ceremonies are its formalities."

22. After this the conducting angel went to the six virgins, and gave
them an account of his companions, and requested that they would
vouchsafe to join company with them. Accordingly they came; but when
they drew near, they suddenly retired, and went into the ladies'
apartment to the virgins their companions. On seeing this, the
conducting angel followed them, and asked why they retired so suddenly
without entering into conversation? They replied. "We cannot approach:"
and he said, "Why not?" They answered, "We do not know; but we perceived
something which repelled us and drove us back again. We hope they will
excuse us." The angel then returned to his companions, and told them
what the virgins had said, and added, "I conjecture that your love of
the sex is not chaste. In heaven we love virgins for their beauty and
the elegance of their manners; and we love them intensely, but
chastely." Hereupon his companions smiled and said, "You conjecture
right: who can behold such beauties near and not feel some excitement?"

23. After much entertaining conversation the marriage-guests departed,
and also the ten strangers with their attendant angel; and the evening
being far advanced, they retired to rest. In the morning they heard a
proclamation, TO-DAY IS THE SABBATH. They then arose and asked the angel
what it meant: he replied, "It is for the worship of God, which returns
at stated periods, and is proclaimed by the priests. The worship is
performed in our temples and lasts about two hours; wherefore if it
please you, come along with me, and I will introduce you." So they made
themselves ready, and attended the angel, and entered the temple. It was
a large building capable of containing about three thousand persons, of
a semicircular form, with benches or seats carried round in a continued
sweep according to the figure of the temple; the hinder ones being more
elevated than those in front. The pulpit in front of the seats was drawn
a little from the centre; the door was behind the pulpit on the left
hand. The ten strangers entered with their conducting angel, who pointed
out to them the places where they were to sit; telling them, "Every one
that enters the temple knows his own place by a kind of innate
perception; nor can he sit in any place but his own: in case he takes
another place, he neither hears nor perceives anything, and he also
disturbs the order; the consequence of which is, that the priest is not
inspired."

24. When the congregation had assembled, the priest ascended the pulpit,
and preached a sermon full of the spirit of wisdom. The discourse was
concerning the sanctity of the Holy Scriptures, and the conjunction of
the Lord with both worlds, the spiritual and the natural, by means
thereof. In the illustration in which he then was, he fully proved, that
that holy book was dictated by Jehovah the Lord, and that consequently
He is in it, so as to be the wisdom it contains; but that the wisdom
which is Himself therein, lies concealed under the sense of the letter,
and is opened only to those who are in the truths of doctrine, and at
the same time in goodness of life, and thus who are in the Lord, and the
Lord in them. To his discourse he added a votive prayer and descended.
As the audience were going out, the angel requested the priest to speak
a few words of peace with his ten companions; so he came to them, and
they conversed together for about half an hour. He discoursed concerning
the divine trinity--that it is in Jesus Christ, in whom all the fulness
of the Godhead dwells bodily, according to the declaration of the
apostle Paul; and afterwards concerning the union of charity and faith;
but he said, "the union of charity and truth;" because faith is truth.

25. After expressing their thanks they returned home; and then the angel
said to them, "This is the third day since you came into the society of
this heaven, and you were prepared by the Lord to stay here three days;
it is time therefore that we separate; put off therefore the garments
sent you by the prince, and put on your own." When they had done so,
they were inspired with a desire to be gone; so they departed and
descended, the angel attending them to the place of assembly; and there
they gave thanks to the Lord for vouchsafing to bless them with
knowledge, and thereby with intelligence, concerning heavenly joys and
eternal happiness.

26. "I again solemnly declare, that these things were done and said as
they are related; the former in the world of spirits, which is
intermediate between heaven and hell, and the latter in the society of
heaven to which the angel with the trumpet and the conductor belonged.
Who in the Christian world would have known anything concerning heaven,
and the joys and happiness there experienced, the knowledge of which is
the knowledge of salvation, unless it had pleased the Lord to open to
some person the sight of his spirit, in order to shew and teach them?
That similar things exist in the spiritual world is very manifest from
what were seen and heard by the apostle John, as described in the
Revelation; as that he saw the Son of Man in the midst of seven
candlesticks; also a tabernacle, temple, ark, and altar in heaven; a
book sealed with seven seals; the book opened, and horses going forth
thence; four animals around the throne; twelve thousand chosen out of
every tribe; locusts ascending out of the bottomless pit; a dragon, and
his combat with Michael; a woman bringing forth a male child, and flying
into a wilderness on account of the dragon; two beasts, one ascending
out of the sea, the other out of the earth; a woman sitting upon a
scarlet beast; the dragon cast out into a lake of fire and brimstone; a
white horse and a great supper; a new heaven and a new earth, and the
holy Jerusalem descending described as to its gates, wall, and
foundation; also a river of the water of life, and trees of life bearing
fruits every month; besides several other particulars; all which things
were seen by John, while as to his spirit he was in the spiritual world
and in heaven: not to mention the things seen by the apostles after the
Lord's resurrection; and what were afterwards seen and heard by Peter,
Acts xi.; also by Paul; moreover by the prophets; as by Ezekiel, who saw
four animals which were cherubs, chap i. and chap x.; a new temple and a
new earth, and an angel measuring them, chap. xl.-xlviii.; and was led
away to Jerusalem, and saw there abominations: and also into Chaldea
into captivity, chap. viii. and chap. xi. The case was similar with
Zechariah, who saw a man riding among myrtles; also four horns, chap. i.
8, and following verses; and afterwards a man with a measuring-line in
his hand, chap. ii. 1, and following verses; likewise a candlestick and
two olive trees, chap. iv. 2, and following verses; also a flying roll
and an ephah, chap. v. 1, 6; also four chariots going forth between two
mountains, and horses, chap. vi. 1, and following verses. So likewise
with Daniel, who saw four beasts coming up out of the sea, chap. vii. 1,
and following verses; also combats of a ram and he-goat, chap. viii. 1,
and following verses; who also saw the angel Gabriel, and had much
discourse with him, chap. ix.: the youth of Elisha saw chariots and
horses of fire round about Elisha, and saw them when his eyes were
opened, 2 Kings vi. 15, and following verses. From these and several
other instances in the Word, it is evident, that the things which exist
in the spiritual world, appeared to many both before and after the
Lord's coming: is it any wonder then, that the same things should now
also appear when the church is commencing, or when the New Jerusalem is
coming down from the Lord out of heaven?"

ON MARRIAGES IN HEAVEN.

27. That there are marriages in heaven cannot be admitted as an article
of faith by those who imagine that a man after death is a soul or
spirit, and who conceive of a soul or spirit as of a rarefied ether or
vapor; who imagine also, that a man will not live as a man till after
the day of the last judgment; and in general who know nothing respecting
the spiritual world, in which angels and spirits dwell, consequently in
which there are heavens and hells: and as that world has been heretofore
unknown, and mankind have been in total ignorance that the angels of
heaven are men, in a perfect form, and in like manner infernal spirits,
but in an imperfect form, therefore it was impossible for anything to be
revealed concerning marriages in that world; for if it had it would have
been objected, "How can a soul be joined with a soul, or a vapor with a
vapor, as one married partner with another here on earth?" not to
mention other similar objections, which, the instant they were made,
would take away and dissipate all faith respecting marriages in another
life. But now, since several particulars have been revealed concerning
that world, and a description has also been given of its nature and
quality, in the treatise on HEAVEN AND HELL, and also in the APOCALYPSE
REVEALED, the assertion, that marriages take place in that world, may be
so far confirmed as even to convince the reason by the following
propositions: I. _A man (homo) lives a man after death._ II. _In this
case a male is a male, and a female a female._ III. _Every one's
peculiar love remains with him after death._ IV. _The love of the sex
especially remains; and with those who go to heaven, which is the case
with all who become spiritual here on earth, conjugial love remains._ V.
_These things fully confirmed by ocular demonstration._ VI.
_Consequently that there are marriages in the heavens._ VII. _Spiritual
nuptials are to be understood by the Lord's words, where he says, that
after the resurrection they are not given in marriage._ We will now give
an explanation of these propositions in their order.

28. I. A MAN LIVES A MAN AFTER DEATH. That a man lives a man after death
has been heretofore unknown in the world, for the reasons just now
mentioned; and, what is surprising, it has been unknown even in the
Christian world, where they have the Word, and illustration thence
concerning eternal life, and where the Lord himself teaches, _That all
the dead rise again; and that God is not the God of the dead but of the
living_, Matt. xxii. 31, 32. Luke xx. 37, 38. Moreover, a man, as to the
affections and thoughts of his mind, is in the midst of angels and
spirits, and is so consociated with them that were he to be separated
from them he would instantly die. It is still more surprising that this
is unknown, when yet every man that has departed this life since the
beginning of creation, after his decease has come and does still come to
his own, or, as it is said in the Word, has been gathered and is
gathered to his own: besides every one has a common perception, which is
the same thing as the influx of heaven into the interiors of his mind,
by virtue of which he inwardly perceives truths, and as it were sees
them, and especially this truth, that he lives a man after death; a
happy man if he has lived well, and an unhappy one if he has lived ill.
For who does not think thus, while he elevates his mind in any degree
above the body, and above the thought which is nearest to the senses; as
is the case when he is interiorly engaged in divine worship, and when he
lies on his death-bed expecting his dissolution; also when he hears of
those who are deceased, and their lot? I have related a thousand
particulars respecting departed spirits, informing certain persons that
are now alive concerning the state of their deceased brethren, their
married partners, and their friends. I have written also concerning the
state of the English, the Dutch, the Papists, the Jews, the Gentiles,
and likewise concerning the state of Luther, Calvin, and Melancthon; and
hitherto I never heard any one object, "How can such be their lot, when
they are not yet risen from their tombs, the last judgement not being
yet accomplished? Are they not in the meantime mere vaporous and
unsubstantial souls residing, in some place of confinement (_in quodam
pu seu ubi_)?" Such objections I have never yet heard from any quarter;
whence I have been led to conclude, that every one perceives in himself
that he lives a man after death. Who that has loved his married partner
and his children when they are dying or are dead, will not say within
himself (if his thought be elevated above the sensual principles of the
body) that they are in the hand of God, and that he shall see them again
after his own death, and again be joined with them in a life of love and
joy?

29. Who, that is willing, cannot see from reason, that a man after death
is not a mere vapor, of which no idea can be formed but as of a breath
of wind, or of air and ether, and that such vapor constitutes or
contains in it the human soul, which desires and expects conjunction
with its body, in order that it may enjoy the bodily senses and their
delights, as previously in the world? We cannot see, that if this were
the case with a man after death, his state would be more deplorable than
that of fishes, birds, and terrestrial animals, whose souls are not
alive, and consequently are not in such anxiety of desire and
expectation? Supposing a man after death to be such a vapor, and thus a
breath of wind, he would either fly about in the universe, or according
to certain traditions, would be reserved in a place of confinement, or
in the _limbo_ of the ancient fathers, until the last judgement. Who
cannot hence from reason conclude, that those who have lived since the
beginning of creation, which is computed to be about six thousand years
ago, must be still in a similar anxious state, and progressively more
anxious, because all expectation arising from desire produces anxiety,
and being continued from time to time increases it; consequently, that
they must still be either floating about in the universe, or be kept
shut up in confinement, and thereby in extreme misery; and that must be
the case with Adam and his wife, with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and
with all who have lived since that time? All this being supposed true,
it must needs follow, that nothing would be more deplorable than to be
born a man. But the reverse of this is provided by the Lord, who is
Jehovah from eternity and the Creator of the universe; for the state of
the man that conjoins himself with him by a life according to his
precepts, becomes more blessed and happy after death than before it in
the world; and it is more blessed and happy from this circumstance, that
the man then is spiritual, and a spiritual man is sensible of and
perceives spiritual delight, which is a thousand times superior to
natural delight.

30. That angels and spirits are men, may plainly appear from those seen
by Abraham, Gideon, Daniel, and the prophets, and especially by John
when he wrote the Revelation, and also by the women in the Lord's
sepulchre, yea, from the Lord himself as seen by the disciples after his
resurrection. The reason of their being seen was, because the eyes of
the spirits of those who saw them were opened; and when the eyes of the
spirit are opened, angels appear in their proper form, which is the
human; but when the eyes of the spirit are closed, that is, when they
are veiled by the vision of the bodily eyes, which derive all their
impressions from the material world, then they do not appear.

31. It is however to be observed, that a man after death is not a
natural, but a spiritual man; nevertheless he still appears in all
respects like himself; and so much so, that he knows not but, that he is
still in the natural world: for he has a similar body, countenance,
speech, and senses; for he has a similar affection and thought, or will
and understanding. He is indeed actually not similar, because he is a
spiritual, and consequently an interior man; but the difference does not
appear to him, because he cannot compare his spiritual state with his
former natural state, having put off the latter, and being in the
former; therefore I have often heard such persons say, that they know
not but that they are in the former world, with this difference,
however, that they no longer see those whom they had left in that world;
but that they see those who had departed out of it, or were deceased.
The reason why they now see the latter and not the former, is, because
they are no longer natural men, but spiritual or substantial; and a
spiritual or substantial man sees a spiritual or substantial man, as a
natural or material man sees a natural or material man, but not _vice
versa_, on account of the difference between what is substantial and
what is material, which is like the difference between what is prior and
what is posterior; and what is prior, being in itself purer, cannot
appear to what is posterior, which in itself is grosser; nor can what is
posterior, being grosser, appear to what is prior, which in itself is
purer; consequently an angel cannot appear to a man of this world, nor a
man of this world to an angel. The reason why a man after death is a
spiritual or substantial man, is, because this spiritual or substantial
man lay inwardly concealed in the natural or material man; which natural
or material man was to it as a covering, or as a skin about to be cast
off; and when the covering or skin is cast off, the spiritual or
substantial man comes forth, a purer, interior, and more perfect man.
That the spiritual man is still a perfect man, notwithstanding his being
invisible to the natural man, is evident from the Lord's being seen by
the apostles after his resurrection, when he appeared, and presently he
did not appear; and yet he was a man like to himself both when seen and
when not seen: it is also said, that when they saw him, their eyes were
opened.

32. II. IN THIS CASE A MALE IS A MALE, AND A FEMALE A FEMALE. Since a
man (_homo_) lives a man after death, and man is male and female, and
there is such a distinction between the male principle and the female
principle, that the one cannot be changed into the other, it follows,
that after death the male lives a male, and the female a female, each
being a spiritual man. It is said that the male principle cannot be
changed into the female principle, nor the female into the male, and
that therefore after death the male is a male, and the female a female;
but as it is not known in what the masculine principle essentially
consists, and in what the feminine, it may be expedient briefly to
explain it. The essential distinction between the two is this: in the
masculine principle, love is inmost, and its covering is wisdom; or,
what is the same, the masculine principle is love covered (or veiled) by
wisdom; whereas in the feminine principle, the wisdom of the male is
inmost, and its covering is love thence derived; but this latter love is
feminine, and is given by the Lord to the wife through the wisdom of the
husband; whereas the former love is masculine, which is the love of
growing wise, and is given by the Lord to the husband according to the
reception of wisdom. It is from this circumstance, that the male is the
wisdom of love, and the female is the love of that wisdom; therefore
from creation there is implanted in each a love of conjunction so as to
become a one; but on this subject more will be said in the following
pages. That the female principle is derived from the male, or that the
woman was taken out of the man, is evident from these words in Genesis:
_Jehovah God took out one of the man's ribs, and closed up the flesh in
the place thereof; and he builded the rib, which he had taken out of the
man, into a woman; and he brought her to the man; and the man said, This
is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; hence she shall be called
Eve, because she was taken out of man_, chap. ii. 21-23: the
signification of a rib and of flesh will be shewn elsewhere.

33. From this primitive formation it follows, that by birth the
character of the male is intellectual, and that the female character
partakes more of the will principle; or, what amounts to the same, that
the male is born into the affection of knowing, understanding, and
growing wise, and the female into the love of conjoining herself with
that affection in the male. And as the interiors form the exteriors to
their own likeness, and the masculine form is the form of intellect, and
the feminine is the form of the love of that intellect, therefore the
male and the female differ as to the features of the face, the tone of
the voice, and the form of the body; the male having harder features, a
harsher tone of voice, a stronger body, and also a bearded chin, and in
general a form less beautiful than that of the female; they differ also
in their gestures and manners; in a word, they are not exactly similar
in a single respect; but still, in every particular of each, there is a
tendency to conjunction; yea, the male principle in the male, is male in
every part of his body, even the most minute, and also in every idea of
his thought, and every spark of his affection; the same is true of the
female principle in the female; and since of consequence the one cannot
be changed into the other, it follows, that after death a male is a
male, and a female a female.

34. III. EVERY ONE'S PECULIAR LOVE REMAINS WITH HIM AFTER DEATH. Man
knows that there is such a thing as love; but he does not know what love
is. He knows that there is such a thing from common discourse; as when
it is said, that such a one loves me, that a king loves his subjects,
and subjects love their king; that a husband loves his wife, and a
mother her children, and _vice versa_; also when it is said, that any
one loves his country, his fellow citizens, and his neighbour; in like
manner of things abstracted from persons; as when it is said that a man
loves this or that. But although the term love is thus universally
applied in conversation, still there is scarcely any one that knows what
love is: even while meditating on the subject, as he is not then able to
form any distinct idea concerning it, and thus not to fix it as present
in the light of the understanding, because of its having relation not to
light but to heat, he either denies its reality, or he calls it merely
an influent effect arising from the sight, the hearing, and the
conversation, and thus accounts for the motions to which it gives birth;
not being at all aware, that love is his very life, not only the common
life of his whole body and of all his thoughts, but also the life of all
their particulars. A wise man may perceive this from the consideration,
that if the affection of love be removed, he is incapable both of
thinking and acting; for in proportion as that affection grows cold, do
not thought, speech, and action grow cold also? and in proportion as
that affection grows warm, do not they also grow warm in the same
degree? Love therefore is the heat of the life of man (_hominis_), or
his vital heat. The heat of the blood, and also its redness, are from
this source alone. The fire of the angelic sun, which is pure love,
produces this effect.

35. That every one has his own peculiar love, or a love distinct from
that of another; that is, that no two men have exactly the same love,
may appear from the infinite variety of human countenances, the
countenance being a type of the love; for it is well known that the
countenance is changed and varied according to the affection of love; a
man's desires also, which are of love, and likewise his joys and
sorrows, are manifested in the countenance. From this consideration it
is evident, that every man is his own peculiar love; yea, that he is the
form of his love. It is however to be observed, that the interior man,
which is the same with his spirit which lives after death, is the form
of his love, and not so the exterior man which lives in this world,
because the latter has learnt from infancy to conceal the desires of his
love; yea, to make a pretence and show of desires which are different
from his own.

36. The reason why every one's peculiar love remains with him after
death, is, because, as was said just above, n. 34, love is a man's
(_hominis_) life; and hence it is the man himself. A man also is his own
peculiar thought, thus his own peculiar intelligence and wisdom; but
these make a one with his love; for a man thinks from this love and
according to it; yea, if he be in freedom, he speaks and acts in like
manner; from which it may appear, that love is the _esse_ or essence of
a man's life, and that thought is the _existere_ or existence of his
life thence derived; therefore speech and action, which are said to flow
from the thought, do not flow from the thought, but from the love
through the thought. From much experience I have learned that a man
after death is not his own peculiar thought, but that he is his own
peculiar affection and derivative thought; or that he is his own
peculiar love and derivative intelligence; also that a man after death
puts off everything which does not agree with his love; yea, that he
successively puts on the countenance, the tone of voice, the speech, the
gestures, and the manners of the love proper to his life: hence it is,
that the whole heaven is arranged in order according to all the
varieties of the affections of the love of good, and the whole hell
according to all the affections of the love of evil.

37. IV. THE LOVE OF THE SEX ESPECIALLY REMAINS; AND WITH THOSE WHO GO TO
HEAVEN, WHICH IS THE CASE WITH ALL WHO BECOME SPIRITUAL HERE ON EARTH,
CONJUGIAL LOVE REMAINS. The reason why the love of the sex remains with
man (_homo_) after death, is, because after death a male is a male and a
female a female; and the male principle in the male is male (or
masculine) in the whole and in every part thereof; and so is the female
principle in the female; and there is a tendency to conjunction in all
their parts, even the most singular; and as this conjunctive tendency
was implanted from creation, and thence perpetually influences, it
follows, that the one desires and seeks conjunction with the other.
Love, considered itself, is a desire and consequent tendency to
conjunction; and conjugial love to conjunction into a one; for the
male-man and the female-man were so created, that from two they may
become as it were one man, or one flesh; and when they become a one,
then, taken together they are a man (_homo_) in his fulness; but without
such conjunction, they are two, and each is a divided or half-man. Now
as the above conjunctive tendency lies concealed in the inmost of every
part of the male, and of every part of the female, and the same is true
of the faculty and desire to be conjoined together into a one, it
follows, that the mutual and reciprocal love of the sex remains with men
(_homines_) after death.

38. We speak distinctively of the love of the sex and of conjugial love,
because the one differs from the other. The love of the sex exists with
the natural man; conjugial love with the spiritual man. The natural man
loves and desires only external conjunctions, and the bodily pleasures
thence derived; whereas the spiritual man loves and desires internal
conjunctions and the spiritual satisfactions thence derived; and these
satisfactions he perceives are granted with one wife, with whom he can
perpetually be more and more joined together into a one: and the more he
enters into such conjunction the more he perceives his satisfactions
ascending in a similar degree, and enduring to eternity; but respecting
anything like this the natural man has no idea. This then is the reason
why it is said, that after death conjugial love remains with those who
go to heaven, which is the case with all those who become spiritual here
on earth.

39. V. THESE THINGS FULLY CONFIRMED BY OCULAR DEMONSTRATION. That a man
(_homo_) lives as a man after death, and that in this case a male is a
male, and a female a female; and that every one's peculiar love remains
with him after death, especially the love of the sex and conjugial love,
are positions which I have wished hitherto to confirm by such arguments
as respect the understanding, and are called rational; but since man
(_homo_) from his infancy, in consequence of what has been taught him by
his parents and masters, and afterwards by the learned and the clergy,
has been induced to believe, that he shall not live a man after death
until the day of the last judgement, which has now been expected for six
thousand years; and several have regarded this article of faith as one
which ought to be believed, but not intellectually conceived, it was
therefore necessary that the above positions should be confirmed also by
ocular proofs; otherwise a man who believes only the evidence of his
senses, in consequence of the faith previously implanted, would object
thus: "If men lived men after death, I should certainly see and hear
them: who has ever descended from heaven, or ascended from hell, and
given such information?" In reply to such objections it is to be
observed, that it never was possible, nor can it ever be, that any angel
of heaven should descend, or any spirit of hell ascend, and speak with
any man, except with those who have the interiors of the mind or spirit
opened by the Lord; and this opening of the interiors cannot be fully
effected except with those who have been prepared by the Lord to receive
the things which are of spiritual wisdom: on which accounts it has
pleased the Lord thus to prepare me, that the state of heaven and hell,
and of the life of men after death, might not remain unknown, and be
laid asleep in ignorance, and at length buried in denial. Nevertheless,
ocular proofs on the subjects above mentioned, by reason of their
copiousness, cannot here be adduced; but they have been already adduced
in the treatise on HEAVEN and HELL, and in the CONTINUATION RESPECTING
THE SPIRITUAL WORLD, and afterwards in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED; but
especially, in regard to the present subject of marriages, in the
MEMORABLE RELATIONS which are annexed to the several paragraphs or
chapters of this work.

40. VI. CONSEQUENTLY THERE ARE MARRIAGES IN HEAVEN. This position having
been confirmed by reason, and at the same time by experience, needs no
further demonstration.

41. VII. SPIRITUAL NUPTIALS ARE TO BE UNDERSTOOD BY THE LORD'S WORDS,
"AFTER THE RESURRECTION THEY ARE NOT GIVEN IN MARRIAGE." In the
Evangelists are these words, _Certain of the Sadducees, who say that
there is no resurrection, asked Jesus, saying, Master, Moses wrote, If a
man die, having no children, his brother shall take his wife, and raise
up seed unto his brother. Now there were with us seven brethren and the
first, when he had married a wife, deceased, and having no issue, left
his wife unto his brother; likewise the second also, and the third unto
the seventh; last of all the woman died also; therefore in the
resurrection whose wife shall she be of the seven? But Jesus answering,
said unto them, The sons of this generation marry, and are given in
marriage; but those who shall be accounted worthy to attain to another
generation, and the resurrection from the dead, shall neither marry nor
be given in marriage, neither can they die any more; for they are like
unto the angels, and are the sons of God, being sons of the
resurrection. But that the dead rise again, even Moses shewed at the
bush, when he called the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac,
and the God of Jacob; for he is not the God of the dead, but of the
living; for all live unto him_, Luke xx. 27-38, Matt. xxii. 22-32; Mark
xii. 18-27. By these words the Lord taught two things; first, that a man
(_homo_) rises again after death; and secondly, that in heaven they are
not given in marriage. That a man rises again after death, he taught by
these words, _God is not the God of the dead, but of the living_, and
when he said that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, are alive: he taught the
same also in the parable concerning the rich man in hell, and Lazarus in
heaven, Luke xvi. 22-31. Secondly, that in heaven they are not given in
marriage, he taught by these words, "_Those who shall be accounted
worthy to attain to another generation, neither marry nor are given in
marriage_." That none other than spiritual nuptials are here meant, is
very evident from the words which immediately follow--"_neither can they
die any more; because they are like unto the angels, and are the sons of
God, being sons of the resurrection_." Spiritual nuptials mean
conjunction with the Lord, which is effected on earth; and when it is
effected on earth, it is also effected in the heavens; therefore in the
heavens there is no repetition of nuptials, nor are they again given in
marriage: this is also meant by these words, "_The sons of this
generation marry and are given in marriage; but those who are accounted
worthy to attain to another generation, neither marry nor are given in
marriage_". The latter are also called by the Lord "_sons of nuptials_"
Matt, ix. 15; Mark ii. 19; and in this place, _angels, sons of God, and
sons of the resurrection_. That to celebrate nuptials, signifies to be
joined with the Lord, and that to enter into nuptials is to be received
into heaven by the Lord, is manifest from the following passages: _The
kingdom of heaven is like unto a man, a king, who made a marriage
(nuptials) his son, and sent out servants and invited to the marriage_.
Matt. xxii. 2-14. _The kingdom of heaven is like unto ten virgins, who
went forth to meet the bridegroom: of whom five being prepared entered
into the marriage (nuptials)_, Matt. xxv. 1, and the following verses.
That the Lord here meant himself, is evident from verse 13, where it is
said, _Watch ye; because ye know not the day and hour in which the Son
of Man will come_: also from the Revelation, _The time of the marriage
of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready; blessed are
those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb_, xix. 7, 9.
That there is a spiritual meaning in everything which the Lord spake,
has been fully shewn in the DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE
SACRED SCRIPTURE, published at Amsterdam in the year 1763.

       *       *       *       *       *

42. To the above I shall add two MEMORABLE RELATIONS RESPECTING THE
SPIRITUAL WORLD. The first is as follows: One morning I was looking
upwards into heaven and saw over me three expanses one above another; I
saw that the first expanse, which was nearest, opened, and presently the
second which was above it, and lastly the third which was highest; and
by virtue of illustration thence, I perceived, that above the first
expanse were the angels who compose the first or lowest heaven; above
the second expanse were the angels who compose the second or middle
heaven; and above the third expanse were the angels who compose the
third or highest heaven. I wondered at first what all this meant: and
presently I heard from heaven a voice as of a trumpet, saying, "We have
perceived, and now see, that you are meditating on CONJUGIAL LOVE; and
we are aware that no one on earth as yet knows what true conjugial love
is in its origin and in its essence; and yet it is of importance that it
should be known: therefore it has pleased the Lord to open the heavens
to you in order that illustrating light and consequent perception may
flow into the interiors of your mind. With us in the heavens, especially
in the third heaven, our heavenly delights are principally derived from
conjugial love; therefore, in consequence of leave granted us, we will
send down to you a conjugial pair for your inspection and observation;"
and lo! instantly there appeared a chariot descending from the highest
or third heaven, in which I saw one angel; but as it approached I saw
therein two. The chariot at a distance glittered before my eyes like a
diamond, and to it were harnessed young horses white as snow; and those
who sat in the chariot held in their hands two turtle-doves, and called
to me, saying, "Do you wish us to come nearer to you? but in this case
take heed, lest the radiance, which is from the heaven whence we have
descended, and is of a flaming quality, penetrate too interiorly; by its
influence the superior ideas of your understanding, which are in
themselves heavenly, may indeed be illustrated; but these ideas are
ineffable in the world in which you dwell: therefore what you are about
to hear, receive rationally, that you may explain it so that it may be
understood." I replied, "I will observe your caution; come nearer:" so
they came nearer; and lo! it was a husband and his wife; who said, "We
are a conjugial pair: we have lived happy in heaven from the earliest
period, which you call the golden age, and have continued during that
time in the same bloom of youth in which you now see us." I viewed each
of them attentively, because I perceived they represented conjugial love
in its life and in its decoration; in its life in their faces, and in
its decoration in their raiment; for all the angels are affections of
love in a human form. The ruling affection itself shines forth from
their faces; and from the affection, and according to it, the kind and
quality of their raiment is derived and determined: therefore it is said
in heaven, that every one is clothed by his own affection. The husband
appeared of a middle age, between manhood and youth: from his eyes
darted forth sparkling light derived from the wisdom of love; by virtue
of which light his face was radiant from its inmost ground; and in
consequence of such radiance the surface of his skin had a kind of
refulgence, whereby his whole face was one resplendent comeliness. He
was dressed in an upper robe which reached down to his feet and
underneath it was a vesture of hyacinthine blue, girded about with a
golden band, upon which were three precious stones, two sapphires on the
sides, and a carbuncle in the middle; his stockings were of bright
shining linen, with threads of silver interwoven, and his shoes were of
velvet: such was the representative form of conjugial love with the
husband. With the wife it was this; I saw her face, and I did not see
it; I saw it as essential beauty, and I did not see it because this
beauty was inexpressible; for in her face there was a splendor of
flaming light, such as the angels in the third heaven enjoy, and this
light made my sight dim; so that I was lost in astonishment: she
observing this addressed me, saying, "What do you see?" I replied, "I
see nothing but conjugial love and the form thereof; but I see, and I do
not see." Hereupon she turned herself sideways from her husband; and
then I was enabled to view her more attentively. Her eyes were bright
and sparkling from the light of her own heaven, which light, as was
said, is of a flaming quality, which it derives from the love of wisdom;
for in that heaven wives love their husbands from their wisdom, and in
it, and husbands love their wives from that love of wisdom and in it, as
directed towards themselves; and thus they are united. This was the
origin of her beauty; which was such that it would be impossible for any
painter to imitate and exhibit it in its form, for he has no colors
bright and vivid enough to express its lustre; nor is it in the power of
his art to depict such beauty: her hair was arranged in becoming order
so as to correspond with her beauty; and in it were inserted diadems of
flowers; she had a necklace of carbuncles, from which hung a rosary of
chrysolites; and she wore pearl bracelets: her upper robe was scarlet,
and underneath it she had a purple stomacher, fastened in front with
clasps of rubies; but what surprised me was, that the colors varied
according to her aspect in regard to her husband, being sometimes more
glittering, sometimes less; if she were looking towards him, more, if
sideways, less. When I had made these observations, they again talked
with me; and when the husband was speaking, he spoke at the same time as
from his wife; and when the wife was speaking, she spoke at the same
time as from her husband; such was the union of their minds from whence
speech flows; and on this occasion I also heard the tone of voice of
conjugial love; inwardly it was simultaneous, and it proceeded from the
delights of a state of peace and innocence. At length they said, "We are
recalled; we must depart;" and instantly they again appeared to be
conveyed in a chariot as before. They went by a paved way through
flowering shrubberies, from the beds of which arose olive and
orange-trees laden with fruit: and when they approached their own
heaven, they were met by several virgins, who welcomed and introduced
them.

43. After this I saw an angel from that heaven holding in his hand a
roll of parchment, which he unfolded, saying, "I see that you are
meditating on conjugial love; in this parchment are contained arcana of
wisdom respecting that love, which have never yet been disclosed in the
world. They are now to be disclosed, because it is of importance that
they should be: those arcana abound more in our heaven than in the rest,
because we are in the marriage of love and wisdom; but I prophesy that
none will appropriate to themselves that love, but those who are
received by the Lord into the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem."
Having said this, the angel let down the unfolded parchment, which a
certain angelic spirit received from him, and laid on a table in a
certain closet, which he instantly locked, and holding out the key to
me, said, "Write."

44. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. I once saw three spirits recently
deceased, who were wandering about in the world of spirits, examining
whatever came in their way, and inquiring concerning it. They were all
amazement to find that men lived altogether as before, and that the
objects they saw were similar to those they had seen before: for they
knew that they were departed out of the former or natural world, and
that in that world they believed that they should not live as men until
after the day of the last judgement, when they should be again clothed
with the flesh and bones that had been laid in the tomb; therefore, in
order to remove all doubt of their being really and truly men, they by
turns viewed and touched themselves and others, and felt the surrounding
objects and by a thousand proofs convinced themselves that they now were
men as in the former world; besides which they saw each other in a
brighter light, and the surrounding objects in superior splendor, and
thus their vision was more perfect. At that instant two angelic spirits
happening to meet them, accosted them, saying, "Whence are you?" They
replied, "We have departed out of a world, and again we live in a world;
thus we have removed from one world to another; and this surprises us."
Hereupon the three novitiate spirits questioned the two angelic spirits
concerning heaven; and as two of the three novitiates were youths, and
there darted from their eyes as it were a sparkling fire of lust for the
sex, the angelic spirit said, "Possibly you have seen some females;" and
they replied in the affirmative; and as they made inquiry respecting
heaven, the angelic spirits gave them the following information: "In
heaven there is every variety of magnificent and splendid objects, and
such things as the eye had never seen; there are also virgins and young
men; virgins of such beauty that they may be called personifications of
beauty, and young men of such morality that they may be called
personifications of morality; moreover the beauty of the virgins and the
morality of the young men correspond to each other, as forms mutually
suited to each other." Hereupon the two novitiates asked, "Are there in
heaven human forms altogether similar to those in the natural world?"
And it was replied, "They are altogether similar; nothing is wanting in
the male, and nothing in the female; in a word, the male is a male, and
the female a female, in all the perfection of form in which they were
created: retire, if you please, and examine if you are deficient in
anything, and whether you are not a complete man as before." Again, the
novitiates said, "We have been told in the world we have left, that in
heaven they are not given in marriage, because they are angels:--is
there then the love of the sex there?" And the angelic spirits replied,
"In heaven _your_ love of the sex does not exist; but we have the
angelic love of the sex, which is chaste, and devoid all libidinous
allurement." Hereupon the novitiates observed, "If there be a love of
the sex devoid of all allurement, what in such cases is the love of the
sex?" And while they were thinking about this love they sighed, and
said, "Oh, how dry and insipid is the joy of heaven! What young man, if
this be the case, can possibly wish for heaven? Is not such love barren
and devoid of life?" To this the angelic spirits replied, with a smile,
"The angelic love of the sex, such as exists in heaven, is nevertheless
full of the inmost delights: it is the most agreeable expansion of all
the principles of the mind, and thence of all the parts of the breast,
existing inwardly in the breast, and sporting therein as the heart
sports with the lungs, giving birth thereby to respiration, tone of
voice, and speech; so that the intercourse between the sexes, or between
youths and virgins, is an intercourse of essential celestial sweets,
which are pure. All novitiates, on ascending into heaven, are examined
as to the quality of their chastity, being let into the company of
virgins, the beauties of heaven, who from their tone of voice, their
speech, their face, their eyes, their gesture, and their exhaling
sphere, perceive what is their quality in regard to the love of the sex;
and if their love be unchaste, they instantly quit them, and tell their
fellow angels that they have seen satyrs or priapuses. The new comers
also undergo a change, and in the eyes of the angels appear rough and
hairy, and with feet like calves' or leopards', and presently they are
cast down again, lest by their lust they should defile the heavenly
atmosphere." On receiving this information, the two novitiates again
said, "According to this, there is no love of the sex in heaven; for
what is a chaste love of the sex, but a love deprived of the essence of
its life? And must not all the intercourse of youths and virgins, in
such case, consist of dry insipid joys? We are not stocks and stones,
but perceptions and affections of life." To this the angelic spirits
indignantly replied, "You are altogether ignorant what a chaste love of
the sex is; because as yet you are not chaste. This love is the very
essential delight of the mind, and thence of the heart; and not at the
same time of the flesh beneath the heart. Angelic chastity, which is
common to each sex, prevents the passage of that love beyond the
enclosure of the heart; but within that and above it, the morality of a
youth is delighted with the beauty of a virgin in the delights of the
chaste love of the sex: which delights are of too interior a nature, and
too abundantly pleasant, to admit of any description in words. The
angels have this love of the sex, because they have conjugial love only;
which love cannot exist together with the unchaste love of the sex. Love
truly conjugial is chaste, and has nothing in common with unchaste love,
being confined to one of the sex, and separate from all others; for it
is a love of the spirit and thence of the body, and not a love of the
body and thence of the spirit; that is, it is not a love infesting the
spirit." On hearing this, the two young novitiates rejoiced, and said,
"There still exists in heaven a love of the sex; what else is conjugial
love?" But the angelic spirits replied, "Think more profoundly, weigh
the matter well in your minds, and you will perceive, that your love of
the sex is a love extra-conjugial, and quite different from conjugial
love; the latter being as distinct from the former, as wheat is from
chaff, or rather as the human principle is from the bestial. If you
should ask the females in heaven, 'What is love extra-conjugial?' I take
upon me to say, their reply will be, 'What do you mean? What do you say?
How can you utter a question which so wounds our ears? How can a love
that is not created be implanted in any one?' If you should then ask
them, 'What is love truly conjugial?' I know they will reply, 'It is not
the love of the sex, but the love of one of the sex; and it has no other
ground of existence than this, that when a youth sees a virgin provided
by the Lord, and a virgin sees a youth, they are each made sensible of a
conjugial principle kindling in their hearts, and perceive that each is
the other's, he hers, and she his; for love meets love and causes them
to know each other, and instantly conjoins their souls, and afterwards
their minds, and thence enters their bosoms, and after the nuptials
penetrates further, and thus becomes love in its fulness, which grows
every day into conjunction, till they are no longer two, but as it were
one.' I know also that they will be ready to affirm in the most solemn
manner, that they are not acquainted with any other love of the sex; for
they say, 'How can there be a love of the sex, unless it be tending
mutually to meet, and reciprocal, so as to seek an eternal union, which
consists in two becoming one flesh?'" To this the angelic spirits added,
"In heaven they are in total ignorance what whoredom is; nor do they
know that it exists, or that its existence is even possible. The angels
feel a chill all over the body at the idea of unchaste or
extra-conjugial love; and on the other hand, they feel a genial warmth
throughout the body arising from chaste or conjugial love. With the
males, all the nerves lose their proper tension at the sight of a
harlot, and recover it again at the sight of a wife." The three
novitiates, on hearing this, asked, "Does a similar love exist between
married partners in the heavens as in the earths?" The two angelic
spirits replied, that it was altogether similar; and as they perceived
in the novitiates an inclination to know, whether in heaven there were
similar ultimate delights, they said, that they were exactly similar,
but much more blessed, because angelic perception and sensation is much
more exquisite than human: "and what," added they, "is the life of that
love unless derived from a flow of vigor? When this vigor fails, must
not the love itself also fail and grow cold? Is not this vigor the very
measure, degree, and basis of that love? Is it not its beginning, its
support, and its fulfilment? It is a universal law, that things primary
exist, subsist, and persist from things ultimate: this is true also of
that love; therefore unless there were ultimate delights, there would be
no delights of conjugial love." The novitiates then asked, whether from
the ultimate delights of that love in heaven any offspring were
produced; and if not, to what use did those delights serve? The angelic
spirit answered, that natural offspring were not produced, but spiritual
offspring: and the novitiates said, "What are spiritual offspring?" They
replied, "Two conjugial partners by ultimate delights are more and more
united in the marriage of good and truth, which is the marriage of love
and wisdom; and love and wisdom are the offspring produced therefrom: in
heaven the husband is wisdom, and the wife is the love thereof, and both
are spiritual; therefore, no other than spiritual offspring can be there
conceived and born: hence it is that the angels, after such delights, do
not experience sadness, as some do on earth, but are cheerful; and this
in consequence of a continual influx of fresh powers succeeding the
former, which serve for their renovation, and at the same time
illustration: for all who come into heaven, return into their vernal
youth, and into the vigor of that age, and thus continue to eternity."
The three novitiates, on hearing this, said, "Is it not written in the
Word, that in heaven they are not given in marriage, because they are
angels?" To which the angelic spirits replied, "Look up into heaven and
you will receive an answer:" and they asked, "Why are we to look up into
heaven?" They said, "Because thence we receive all interpretations of
the Word. The Word is altogether spiritual and the angels being
spiritual, will teach the spiritual understanding of it." They did not
wait long before heaven was opened over their heads, and two angels
appeared in view, and said, "There are nuptials in the heavens, as on
earth; but only with those in the heavens who are in the marriage of
good and truth; nor are any other angels: therefore it is spiritual
nuptials, which relate to the marriage of good and truth, that are there
understood. These (viz. spiritual nuptials) take place on earth, but not
after departure thence, thus not in the heavens; as it is said of the
live foolish virgins, who were also invited to the nuptials, that they
could not enter, because they were not in the marriage of good and
truth; for they had no oil, but only lamps. Oil signifies good, and
lamps truth; and to be given in marriage denotes to enter heaven, where
the marriage of good and truth takes place." The three novitiates were
made glad by this intelligence; and being filled with a desire of
heaven, and with the hope of heavenly nuptials, they said, "We will
apply ourselves with all diligence to the practice of morality and a
becoming conduct of life, that we may enjoy our wishes."

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE STATE OF MARRIED PARTNERS AFTER DEATH.

45. That there are marriages in the heavens, has been shewn just above;
it remains now to be considered, whether the marriage-covenant ratified
in the world will remain and be in force after death, or not. As this is
a question not of judgement but of experience, and as experience herein
has been granted me by consociation with angels and spirits, I will here
adduce it; but yet so that reason may assent thereto. To have this
question determined, is also an object of the wishes and desires of all
married persons; for husbands who have loved their wives, in case they
die, are desirous to know whether it be well with them, and whether they
shall ever meet again; and the same is true of wives in regard to their
husbands. Many married pairs also wish to know beforehand whether they
are to be separated after death, or to live together: those who have
disagreed in their tempers, wish to know whether they are to be
separated; and those who have agreed, whether they are to live together.
Information on this subject then being much wished for, we will now
proceed to give it in the following order: I. _The love of the sex
remains with every man (homo) after death, according to its interior
quality; that is, such as it had been in his interior will and thought
in the world._ II. _The same is true of conjugial love._ III. _Married
partners most commonly meet after death, know each other, again
associate and for a time live together: this is the case in the first
state, thus while they are in externals as in the world._ IV. _But
successively, as they put off their externals, and enter into their
internals, they perceive what had been the quality of their love and
inclination for each other, and consequently whether they can live
together or not._ V. _If they can live together, they remain married
partners; but if they cannot they separate; sometimes the husband from
the wife, sometimes the wife from the husband, and sometimes each from
the other._ VI. _In this case there is given to the man a suitable wife,
and to the woman a suitable husband._ VII. _Married partners enjoy
similar communications with each other as in the world, but more
delightful and blessed, yet without prolification; in the place of which
they experience spiritual prolification, which is that of love and
wisdom._ VIII. _This is the case with those who go to heaven; but it is
otherwise with those who go to hell._ We now proceed to an explanation
of these propositions, by which they may be illustrated and confirmed.

46. I. THE LOVE OF THE SEX REMAINS WITH EVERY MAN AFTER DEATH, ACCORDING
TO ITS INTERIOR QUALITY; THAT IS, SUCH AS IT HAD BEEN IN HIS INTERIOR
WILL AND THEREBY IN THE WOMAN. Every love follows a man after death,
because it is the _esse_ of his life; and the ruling love, which is the
head of the rest, remains with him to eternity, and together with it the
subordinate loves. The reason why they remain, is, because love properly
appertains to the spirit of man, and to the body by derivation from the
spirit; and a man after death becomes a spirit and thereby carries his
love along with him; as love is the _esse_ of a man's life, it is
evident, that such as a man's life has been in the world, such is his
lot after death. The love of the sex is the most universal of all loves,
being implanted from creation in the very soul of man, from which the
essence of the whole man is derived, and this for the sake of the
propagation of the human race. The reason why this love chiefly remains
is, because after death a male is a male, and a female a female, and
because there is nothing in the soul, the mind, and the body, which is
not male (or masculine) in the male, and female (or feminine) in the
female; and these two (the male and female) are so created, that they
have a continual tendency to conjunction, yea, to such a conjunction as
to become a one. This tendency is the love of the sex, which precedes
conjugial love. Now, since a conjunctive inclination is inscribed on
every part and principle of the male and of the female, it follows, that
this inclination cannot be destroyed and die with the body.

47. The reason why the love of the sex remains such as it was interiorly
in the world, is, because every man has an internal and an external,
which are also called the internal and external man; and hence there is
an internal and an external will and thought. A man when he dies, quits
his external, and retains his internal; for externals properly belong to
his body, and internals to his spirit. Now since every man is his own
love, and love resides in the spirit, it follows, that the love of the
sex remains with him after death, such as it was interiorly with him; as
for example, if the love interiorly had been conjugial and chaste, it
remains such after death; but if it had been interiorly adulterous
(anti-conjugial), it remains such also after death. It is however to be
observed that the love of the sex is not the same with one person as
with another; its differences are infinite: nevertheless, such as it is
in any one's spirit, such it remains.

48. II. CONJUGIAL LOVE IN LIKE MANNER REMAINS SUCH AS IT HAD BEEN
INTERIORLY; THAT IS, SUCH AS IT HAD BEEN IN THE MAN'S INTERIOR WILL AND
THOUGHT IN THE WORLD. As the love of the sex is one thing, and conjugial
love another, therefore mention is made of each; and it is said, that
the latter also remains after death such as it has been internally with
a man, during his abode in the world: but as few know the distinction
between the love of the sex and conjugial love, therefore, before we
proceed further in the subject of this treatise, it may be expedient
briefly to point it out. The love of the sex is directed to several, and
contracted with several of the sex; but conjugial love is directed to
only one, and contracted with one of the sex; moreover, love directed to
and contracted with several is a natural love; for it is common to man
with beasts and birds, which are natural: but conjugial love is a
spiritual love, and peculiar and proper to men; because men were
created, and are therefore born to become spiritual; therefore, so far
as a man becomes spiritual, so far he puts off the love of the sex, and
puts on conjugial love. In the beginning of marriage the love of the sex
appears as if conjoined with conjugial love; but in the progress of
marriage they are separated; and in this case, with such as are
spiritual, the love of the sex is removed, and conjugial love is
imparted; but with such as are natural, the contrary happens. From these
observations it is evident, that the love of the sex, being directed to
and contracted with several and being in itself natural, yea, animal, is
impure and unchaste, and being vague and indeterminate in its object, is
adulterous; but the case is altogether different with conjugial love.
That conjugial love is spiritual, and truly human, will manifestly
appear from what follows.

[Transcriber's Note: The out-of-order section numbers which follow are
in the original text, as are the asterisks which do not seem to indicate
footnotes. There are several cases of this in the text, apparently
indicating insertions by the author.]

47.* III. MARRIED PARTNERS MOST COMMONLY MEET AFTER DEATH, KNOW EACH
OTHER, AGAIN ASSOCIATE, AND FOR A TIME LIVE TOGETHER: THIS IS THE CASE
IN THE FIRST STATE, THUS WHILE THEY ARE IN EXTERNALS AS IN THE WORLD.
There are two states in which a man (_homo_) enters after death, an
external and an internal state. He comes first into his external state,
and afterwards into his internal; and during the external state, married
partners meet each other, (supposing they are both deceased,) know each
other, and if they have lived together in the world, associate again,
and for some time live together; and while they are in this state they
do not know the inclination of each to the other, this being concealed
in the internals of each; but afterwards, when they come into their
internal state, the inclination manifests itself; and if it be in mutual
agreement and sympathy, they continue to live together a conjugial life;
but if it be in disagreement and antipathy, their marriage is dissolved.
In case a man had had several wives, he successively joins himself with
them, while he is in his external state; but when he enters into his
internal state, in which lie perceives the inclinations of his love, and
of what quality they are, he then either adopts one or leaves them all;
for in the spiritual world, as well as in the natural, it is not
allowable for any Christian to have more than one wife, as it infests
and profanes religion. The case is the same with a woman that had had
several husbands: nevertheless the women in this case do not join
themselves to their husbands; they only present themselves, and the
husbands join them to themselves. It is to be observed that husbands
rarely know their wives, but that wives well know their husbands, women
having an interior perception of love, and men only an exterior.

48.* IV. BUT SUCCESSIVELY, AS THEY PUT OFF THEIR EXTERNALS AND ENTER
INTO THEIR INTERNALS, THEY PERCEIVE WHAT HAD BEEN THE QUALITY OF THEIR
LOVE AND INCLINATION FOR EACH OTHER, AND CONSEQUENTLY WHETHER THEY CAN
LIVE TOGETHER OR NOT. There is no occasion to explain this further, as
it follows from what is shewn in the previous section; suffice it here
to shew how a man (_homo_) after death puts off his externals and puts
on his internals. Every one after death is first introduced into the
world which is called the world of spirits, and which is intermediate
between heaven and hell; and in that world he is prepared, for heaven if
he is good, and for hell if he is evil. The end or design of this
preparation is, that the internal and external may agree together and
make a one, and not disagree and make two: in the natural world they
frequently make two, and only make a one with those who are sincere in
heart. That they make two is evident from the deceitful and the cunning;
especially from hypocrites, flatterers, dissemblers, and liars: but in
the spiritual world it is not allowable thus to have a divided mind; for
whoever has been internally wicked must also be externally wicked; in
like manner, whoever has been good, must be good in each principle: for
every man after death becomes of such a quality as he had been
interiorly, and not such as he had been exteriorly. For this end, after
his decease, he is let alternately into his external and his internal;
and every one, while he is in his external, is wise, that is, he wishes
to appear wise, even though he be wicked; but a wicked person internally
is insane. By those changes he is enabled to see his follies, and to
repent of them: but if he had not repented in the world, he cannot
afterwards; for he loves his follies, and wishes to remain in them:
therefore he forces his external also to be equally insane: thus his
internal and his external become a one; and when this is effected, he is
prepared for hell. But it is otherwise with a good spirit: such a one,
as in the world he had looked unto God and had repented, was more wise
in his internal than in his external: in his external also, through the
allurements and vanities of the world, he was sometimes led astray;
therefore his external is likewise reduced to agreement with his
internal, which, as was said, is wise; and when this is effected he is
prepared for heaven. From these considerations it may plainly appear,
how the case is in regard to putting off the external and putting on the
internal after death.

49. V. IF THEY CAN LIVE TOGETHER, THEY REMAIN MARRIED PARTNERS; BUT IF
THEY CANNOT, THEY SEPARATE; SOMETIMES THE HUSBAND FROM THE WIFE,
SOMETIMES THE WIFE FROM THE HUSBAND, AND SOMETIMES EACH FROM THE OTHER.
The reason why separations take place after death is, because the
conjunctions which are made on earth are seldom made from any internal
perception of love, but from an external perception, which hides the
internal. The external perception of love originates in such things as
regard the love of the world and of the body. Wealth and large
possessions are peculiarly the objects of worldly love, while dignities
and honors are those of the love of the body: besides these objects,
there are also various enticing allurements, such as beauty and an
external polish of manners, and sometimes even an unchasteness of
character. Moreover, matrimonial engagements are frequently contracted
within the particular district, city, or village, in which the parties
were born, and where they live; in which case the choice is confined and
limited to families that are known, and to such as are in similar
circumstances in life: hence matrimonial connections made in the world
are for the most part external, and not at the same time internal; when
yet it is the internal conjunction, or the conjunction of souls, which
constitutes a real marriage; and this conjunction is not perceivable
until the man puts off the external and puts on the internal; as is the
case after death. This then is the reason why separations take place,
and afterwards new conjunctions are formed with such as are of a similar
nature and disposition; unless these conjunctions have been provided on
earth, as happens with those who from an early age have loved, have
desired, and have asked of the Lord an honorable and lovely connection
with one of the sex, shunning and abominating the impulses of a loose
and wandering lust.

50. VI. IN THIS CASE THERE IS GIVEN TO THE MAN A SUITABLE WIFE, AND TO
THE WOMAN A SUITABLE HUSBAND. The reason of this is, because no married
partners can be received into heaven, so as to remain there, but such as
have been interiorly united, or as are capable of being so united; for
in heaven two married partners are not called two, but one angel; this
is understood by the Lord's words "_They are no longer two, but one
flesh_." The reason why no other married partners are there received is,
because in heaven no others can live together in one house, and in one
chamber and bed; for all in the heavens are associated according to the
affinities and relationships of love, and have their habitations
accordingly. In the spiritual world there are not spaces, but the
appearance of spaces; and these appearances are according to the states
of life of the inhabitants, which are according to their states of love;
therefore in that world no one can dwell but in his own house, which is
provided for him and assigned to him according to the quality of his
love: if he dwells in any other, he is straitened and pained in his
breast and breathing; and it is impossible for two to dwell together in
the same house unless they are likenesses; neither can married partners
so dwell together, unless they are mutual inclinations; if they are
external inclinations, and not at the same time internal, the very house
or place itself separates, and rejects and expels them. This is the
reason why for those who after preparation are introduced into heaven,
there is provided a marriage with a consort whose soul inclines to
mutual union with the soul of another, so that they no longer wish to be
two lives, but one. This is the reason why after separation there is
given to the man a suitable wife and to the woman in like manner a
suitable husband.

51. VII. MARRIED PAIRS ENJOY SIMILAR COMMUNICATIONS WITH EACH OTHER AS
IN THE WORLD, BUT MORE DELIGHTFUL AND BLESSED, YET WITHOUT
PROLIFICATION; IN THE PLACE OF WHICH THEY EXPERIENCE SPIRITUAL
PROLIFICATION, WHICH IS THAT OF LOVE AND WISDOM. The reason why married
pairs enjoy similar communications as in the world, is, because after
death a male is a male, and a female a female, and there is implanted in
each at creation an inclination to conjunction; and this inclination
with man is the inclination of his spirit and thence of his body;
therefore after death, when a man becomes a spirit, the same mutual
inclination remains, and this cannot exist without similar
communications; for after death a man is a man as before; neither is
there any thing wanting either in the male or in the female: as to form
they are like themselves, and also as to affections and thoughts; and
what must be the necessary consequence, but that they must enjoy like
communications? And as conjugial love is chaste, pure, and holy,
therefore their communications are ample and complete; but on this
subject see what was said in the MEMORABLE RELATION, n. 44. The reason
why such communications are more delightful and blessed than in the
world, is, because conjugial love, as it is the love of the spirit,
becomes interior and purer, and thereby more perceivable; and every
delight increases according to perception, and to such a degree that its
blessedness is discernible in its delight.

52. The reason why marriages in the heavens are without prolification,
and that in place thereof there is experienced spiritual prolification,
which is that of love and wisdom, is, because with the inhabitants of
the spiritual world, the third principle--the natural, is wanting; and
it is this which contains the spiritual principles; and these without
that which contains them have no consistence, like the productions of
the natural world: moreover spiritual principles, considered in
themselves, have relation to love and wisdom; therefore love and wisdom
are the births produced from marriages in the heavens. These are called
births, because conjugial love perfects an angel, uniting him with his
consort, in consequence whereof he becomes more and more a man (_homo_)
for, as was said above, two married partners in heaven are not two but
one angel; wherefore by conjugial unition they fill themselves with the
human principle, which consists in desiring to grow wise, and in loving
whatever relates to wisdom.

53. VIII. THIS IS THE CASE WITH THOSE WHO GO TO HEAVEN; BUT IT IS
OTHERWISE WITH THOSE WHO GO TO HELL. That after death a suitable wife is
given to a husband, and a suitable husband to a wife, and that they
enjoy delightful and blessed communications, but without prolification,
except of a spiritual kind, is to be understood of those who are
received into heaven and become angels; because such are spiritual, and
marriages in themselves are spiritual and thence holy: but with respect
to those who go to hell, they are all natural; and marriages merely
natural are not marriages, but conjunctions which originate in unchaste
lust. The nature and quality of such conjunctions will be shewn in the
following pages, when we come to treat of the chaste and the unchaste
principles, and further when we come to treat of adulterous love.

54. To what has been above related concerning the state of married
partners after death, it may be expedient to add the following
circumstances. I. That all those married partners who are merely
natural, are separated after death; because with them the love of
marriage grows cold, and the love of adultery grows warm: nevertheless
after separation, they sometimes associate as married partners with
others; but after a short time they withdraw from each other: and this
in many cases is done repeatedly; till at length the man is made over to
some harlot, and the woman to some adulterer; which is effected in an
infernal prison: concerning which prison, see the APOCALYPSE REVEALED,
n. 153, Sec. x., where promiscuous whoredom is forbidden each party under
certain pains and penalties. II. Married partners, of whom one is
spiritual and the other natural, are also separated after death; and to
the spiritual is given a suitable married partner: whereas the natural
one is sent to the resorts of the lascivious among his like. III. But
those, who in the world have lived a single life, and have altogether
alienated their minds from marriage, in case they be spiritual, remain
single; but if natural, they become whoremongers. It is otherwise with
those, who in their single state have desired marriage, and especially
if they have solicited it without success; for such, if they are
spiritual, blessed marriages are provided, but not until they come into
heaven. IV. Those who in the world have been shut up in monasteries,
both men and women, at the conclusion of the monastic life, which
continues some time after death, are let loose and discharged, and enjoy
the free indulgence of their desires, whether they are disposed to live
in a married state or not: if they are disposed to live in a married
state, this is granted them; but if otherwise, they are conveyed to
those who live in celibacy on the side of heaven; such, however, as have
indulged the fires of prohibited lust, are cast down. V. The reason why
those who live in celibacy are on the side of heaven, is, because the
sphere of perpetual celibacy infests the sphere of conjugial love, which
is the very essential sphere of heaven; and the reason why the sphere of
conjugial love is the very essential sphere of heaven, is, because it
descends from the heavenly marriage of the Lord and the church.

       *        *        *        *        *

55. To the above, I shall add two MEMORABLE RELATIONS: the FIRST is
this. On a certain time I heard from heaven the sweetest melody, arising
from a song that was sung by wives and virgins in heaven. The sweetness
of their singing was like the affection of some kind of love flowing
forth harmoniously. Heavenly songs are in reality sonorous affections,
or affections expressed and modified by sounds; for as the thoughts are
expressed by speech, so the affections are expressed by songs; and from
the measure and flow of the modulation, the angels perceive the object
of the affection. On this occasion there were many spirits about me; and
some of them informed me that they heard this delightful melody, and
that it was the melody of some lovely affection, the object of which
they did not know: they therefore made various conjectures about it, but
in vain. Some conjectured that the singing expressed the affection of a
bridegroom and bride when they sign the marriage-articles; some that it
expressed the affection of a bridegroom and a bride at the solemnizing
of the nuptials; and some that it expressed the primitive love of a
husband and a wife. But at that instant there appeared in the midst of
them an angel from heaven, who said, that they were singing the chaste
love of the sex. Hereupon some of the bystanders asked, "What is the
chaste love of the sex?" And the angel answered, "It is the love which a
man bears towards a beautiful and elegant virgin or wife, free from
every lascivious idea, and the same love experienced by a virgin or a
wife towards a man." As he said this, he disappeared. The singing
continued; and as the bystanders then knew the subject of the affection
which it expressed, they heard it very variously, every one according to
the state of his love. Those who looked upon women chastely, heard it as
a song of symphony and sweetness; those who looked upon them unchastely,
heard it as a discordant and mournful song; and those who looked upon
them disdainfully, heard it as a song that was harsh and grating. At
that instant the place on which they stood was suddenly changed into a
theatre, and a voice was heard, saying, "INVESTIGATE THIS LOVE:" and
immediately spirits from various societies presented themselves, and in
the midst of them some angels in white. The latter then said, "We in
this spiritual world have inquired into every species of love, not only
into the love which a man has for a man, and a woman for a woman; and
into the reciprocal love of a husband and a wife; but also into the love
which a man has for woman, and which a woman has for men; and we have
been permitted to pass through societies and examine them, and we have
never yet found the common love of the sex chaste, except with those who
from true conjugial love are in continual potency, and these are in the
highest heavens. We have also been permitted to perceive the influx of
this love into the affections of our hearts, and have been made sensible
that it surpasses in sweetness every other love, except the love of two
conjugial partners whose hearts are as one: but we have besought you to
investigate this love, because it is new and unknown to you; and since
it is essential pleasantness, we in heaven call it heavenly sweetness."
They then began the investigation; and those spoke first who were unable
to think chastely of marriages. They said, "What man when he beholds a
beautiful and lovely virgin or wife, can so correct or purify the ideas
of his thought from concupiscence, as to love the beauty and yet have no
inclination to taste it, if it be allowable? Who can convert
concupiscence, which is innate in every man, into such chastity, thus
into somewhat not itself, and yet love? Can the love of the sex, when it
enters by the eyes into the thoughts, stop at the face of a woman? Does
it not descend instantly into the breast, and beyond it? The angels talk
idly in saying that this love is chaste, and yet is the sweetest of all
loves, and that it can only exist with husbands who are in true
conjugial love, and thence in an extreme degree of potency with their
wives. Do such husbands possess any peculiar power more than other men,
when they see a beautiful woman, of keeping the ideas of their thought
in a state of elevation, and as it were of suspending them, so that they
cannot descend and proceed to what constitutes that love?" The argument
was next taken up by those who were in cold and in heat; in cold towards
their wives, and in heat towards the sex; and they said, "What is the
chaste love of the sex? Is it not a contradiction in terms to talk of
such a love? If chastity be predicated of the love of the sex, is not
this destroying the very thing of which it is predicated? How can the
chaste love of the sex be the sweetest of all loves, when chastity
deprives it of its sweetness? You all know where the sweetness of that
love resides; when therefore the idea connected therewith is banished
from the mind, where and whence is the sweetness?" At that instant
certain spirits interrupted them, and said, "We have been in company
with the most beautiful females and have had no lust; therefore we know
what the chaste love of the sex is." But their companions, who were
acquainted with their lasciviousness, replied, "You were at those times
in a state of loathing towards the sex, arising from impotence; and this
is not the chaste love of the sex, but the ultimate of unchaste love."
On hearing what had been said, the angels were indignant and requested
those who stood on the right, or to the south, to deliver their
sentiments. They said, "There is a love of one man to another, and also
of one woman to another; and there is a love of a man to a woman, and of
a woman to a man; and these three pairs of loves totally differ from
each other. The love of one man to another is as the love of
understanding and understanding; for the man was created and
consequently born to become understanding; the love of one woman to
another is as the love of affection and affection of the understanding
of men; for the woman was created and born to become a love of the
understanding of a man. These loves, viz., of one man to another, and of
one woman to another, do not enter deeply into the bosom, but remain
without, and only touch each other; thus they do not interiorly conjoin
the two parties: wherefore also two men, by their mutual reasonings,
sometimes engage in combat together like two wrestlers; and two women,
by their mutual concupiscences, are at war with each other like two
prize-fighters. But the love of a man and a woman is the love of the
understanding and of its affection; and this love enters deeply and
effects conjunction, which is that love; but the conjunction of minds,
and not at the same time of bodies, or the endeavour towards that
conjunction alone, is spiritual love, and consequently chaste love; and
this love exists only with those who are in true conjugial love, and
thence in an eminent degree of potency; because such, from their
chastity, do not admit an influx of love from the body of any other
woman than of their own wives; and as they are in an extreme degree of
potency, they cannot do otherwise than love the sex, and at the same
time hold in aversion whatever is unchaste. Hence they are principled in
a chaste love of the sex, which, considered in itself, is interior
spiritual friendship, deriving its sweetness from an eminent degree of
potency, but still being chaste. This eminent degree of potency they
possess in consequence of a total renunciation of whoredom; and as each
loves his own wife alone, the potency is chaste. Now, since this love
with such partakes not of the flesh, but only of the spirit, therefore
it is chaste; and as the beauty of the woman, from innate inclination,
enters at the same time into the mind, therefore the love is sweet." On
hearing this, many of the bystanders put their hands to their ears,
saying, "What has been said offends our ears; and what you have spoken
is of no account with us." These spirits were unchaste. Then again was
heard the singing from heaven, and sweeter now than before; but to the
unchaste it was so grating and discordant that they hurried out of the
theatre and fled, leaving behind them only the few who from wisdom loved
conjugial chastity.

56. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. As I was conversing with angels some
time ago in the spiritual world, I was inspired with a desire, attended
with a pleasing satisfaction, to see the TEMPLE OF WISDOM, which I had
seen once before; and accordingly I asked them the way to it. They said,
"Follow the light and you will find it." I said, "What do you mean by
following the light?" They replied, "Our light grows brighter and
brighter as we approach that temple; wherefore, follow the light
according to the increase of its brightness; for our light proceeds from
the Lord as a sun, and thence considered in itself is wisdom." I
immediately directed my course, in company with two angels, according to
the increase of the brightness of the light, and ascending by a steep
path to the summit of a hill in the southern quarter. There we found a
magnificent gate, which the keeper, on seeing the angels with me,
opened; and lo! we saw an avenue of palm-trees and laurels, according to
which we directed our course. It was a winding avenue, and terminated in
a garden, in the middle of which was the TEMPLE OF WISDOM. On arriving
there, and looking about me, I saw several small sacred buildings,
resembling the temple, inhabited by the WISE. We went towards one of
them, and coming to the door accosted the person who dwelt there, and
told him the occasion and manner of our coming. He said, "You are
welcome; enter and be seated, and we will improve our acquaintance by
discourses respecting wisdom." I viewed the building within, and
observed that it was divided into two, and still was but one; it was
divided into two by a transparent wall; but it appeared as one from its
translucence, which was like that of the purest crystal. I inquired the
reason of this? He said, "I am not alone; my wife is with me, and we are
two; yet still we are not two, but one flesh." But I replied, "I know
that you are a wise one; and what has a wise one or a wisdom to do with
a woman?" Hereupon our host, becoming somewhat indignant, changed
countenance, and beckoned his hand, and lo! instantly other wise ones
presented themselves from the neighboring buildings, to whom he said
humorously, "Our stranger here asks, 'What has a wise one or a wisdom to
do with a woman?'" At this they smiled and said, "What is a wise one or
a wisdom without a woman, or without love, a wife being the love of a
wise man's wisdom?" Our host then said, "Let us now endeavor to improve
our acquaintance by some discourse respecting wisdom; and let it be
concerning causes, and at present concerning the cause of beauty in the
female sex." Then they spoke in order; and the first assigned as a
cause, that women were created by the Lord's affections of the wisdom of
men, and the affection of wisdom is essential beauty. A second said,
that the woman was created by the Lord through the wisdom of the man,
because from the man; and that hence she is a form of wisdom inspired
with love-affection; and since love-affection is essential life, a
female is the life of wisdom, whereas a male is wisdom; and the life of
wisdom is essential beauty. A third said, that women have a perception
of the delights of conjugial love; and as their whole body is an organ
of that perception, it must needs be that the habitation of the delights
of conjugial love, with its perception, be beauty. A fourth assigned
this cause; that the Lord took away from the man beauty and elegance of
life, and transferred it to the woman; and that hence the man, unless he
be re-united with his beauty and elegance in the woman, is stern,
austere, joyless, and unlovely; so one man is wise only for himself, and
another is foolish; whereas, when a man is united with his beauty and
elegance of life in a wife, he becomes engaging, pleasant, active, and
lovely, and thereby wise. A fifth said, that women were created
beauties, not for the sake of themselves, but for the sake of the men;
that men, who of themselves are hard, might be made soft; that their
minds, of themselves grave and severe, might become gentle and cheerful;
and that their hearts, of themselves cold, might be made warm; which
effects take place when they become one flesh with their wives. A sixth
assigned as a cause, that the universe was created by the Lord a most
perfect work; but that nothing was created in it more perfect than a
beautiful and elegant woman, in order that man may give thanks to the
Lord for his bounty herein, and may repay it by the reception of wisdom
from him. These and many other similar observations having been made,
the wife of our host appeared beyond the crystal wall, and said to her
husband, "Speak if you please;" and then when he spoke, the life of
wisdom from the wife was perceived in his discourse; for in the tone of
his speech was her love: thus experience testified to the truth. After
this we took a view of the temple of wisdom, and also of the
paradisiacal scenes which encompassed it, and being thereby filled with
joy, we departed, and passed through the avenue to the gate, and
descended by the way we had ascended.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL.

57. There are infinite varieties of conjugial love, it being in no two
persons exactly similar. It appears indeed as if it were similar with
many; but this appearance arises from corporeal judgement, which, being
gross and dull, is little qualified to discern aright respecting it. By
corporeal judgement we mean the judgement of the mind from the evidence
of the external senses; but to those whose eyes are opened to see from
the judgment of the spirit, the differences are manifest; and more
distinctly to those who are enabled to elevate the sight arising from
such judgement to a higher degree, which is effected by withdrawing it
from the senses, and exalting it into a superior light; these can at
length confirm themselves in their understanding, and thereby see that
conjugial love is never exactly similar in any two persons. Nevertheless
no one can see the infinite varieties of this love in any light of the
understanding however elevated, unless he first know what is the nature
and quality of that love in its very essence and integrity, thus what
was its nature and quality when, together with life, it was implanted in
man from God. Unless this its state, which was most perfect, be known,
it is in vain to attempt the discovery of its differences by any
investigation; for there is no other fixed point, from which as a first
principle those differences may be deduced, and to which as the focus of
their direction they may be referred, and thus may appear truly and
without fallacy. This is the reason why we here undertake to describe
that love in its essence; and as it was in this essence when, together
with life from God, it was infused into man, we undertake to describe it
such as it was in its primeval state; and as in this state it was truly
conjugial, therefore we have entitled this section, ON LOVE TRULY
CONJUGIAL. The description of it shall be given in the following order:
I. _There exists a love truly conjugial, which at this day is so rare
that it is not known what is its quality, and scarcely that it exists._
II. _This love originates in the marriage of good and truth._ III.
_There is a correspondence of this love with the marriage of the Lord
and the church._ IV. _This love from its origin and correspondence, is
celestial, spiritual, holy, pure, and clean, above every other love
imparted by the Lord to the angels of heaven and the men of the church._
V. _It is also the foundation love of all celestial and spiritual loves,
and thence of all natural loves._ VI. _Into this love are collected all
joys and delights from first to last._ VII. _None however come into this
love, and can be in it, but those who approach the Lord, and love the
truths of the church and practise its goods._ VIII. _This love was the
love of loves with the ancients, who lived in the golden, silver, and
copper ages; but afterwards it successively departed._ We now proceed to
the explanation of each article.

58. I. THERE EXISTS A LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, WHICH AT THIS DAY IS SO RARE
THAT IS NOT KNOWN WHAT IS ITS QUALITY, AND SCARCELY THAT IT EXISTS. That
there exists such conjugial love as is described in the following pages,
may indeed be acknowledged from the first state of that love, when it
insinuates itself, and enters into the hearts of a youth and a virgin;
thus from its influence on those who begin to love one alone of the sex,
and to desire to be joined therewith in marriage; and still more at the
time of courtship and the interval which precedes the marriage-ceremony;
and lastly during the marriage-ceremony and some days after it. At such
times who does not acknowledge and consent to the following positions;
that this love is the foundation of all loves, and also that into it are
collected all joys and delights from first to last? And who does not
know that, after this season of pleasure, the satisfactions thereof
successively pass away and depart, till at length they are scarcely
sensible? In the latter case, if it be said as before, that this love is
the foundation of all loves, and that into it are collected all joys and
delights, the positions are neither agreed to nor acknowledged, and
possibly it is asserted that they are nonsense or incomprehensible
mysteries. From these considerations it is evident, that primitive
marriage love bears a resemblance to love truly conjugial, and presents
it to view in a certain image. The reason of which is, because then the
love of the sex, which is unchaste, is put away, and in its place the
love of one of the sex, which is truly conjugial and chaste, remains
implanted: in this case, who does not regard other women with
indifference, and the one to whom he is united with love and affection?

59. The reason why love truly conjugial is notwithstanding so rare, that
its quality is not known, and scarcely its existence, is, because the
state of pleasurable gratifications before and at the time of marriage,
is afterwards changed into a state of indifference arising from an
insensibility to such gratifications. The causes of this change of state
are too numerous to be here adduced; but they shall be adduced in a
future part of this work, when we come to explain in their order the
causes of coldnesses, separations, and divorces; from which it will be
seen, that with the generality at this day this image of conjugial love
is so far abolished, and with the image the knowledge thereof, that its
quality and even its existence are scarcely known. It is well known,
that every man by birth is merely corporeal, and that from corporeal he
becomes natural more and more interiorly, and thus rational, and at
length spiritual. The reason why this is effected progressively is,
because the corporeal principle is like ground, wherein things natural,
rational, and spiritual are implanted in their order; thus a man becomes
more and more a man. The case is nearly similar when he enters into
marriage; on this occasion a man becomes a more complete man, because he
is joined with a consort, with whom he acts as one man: but this, in the
first state spoken of above, is effected only in a sort of image: in
like manner he then commences from what is corporeal, and proceeds to
what is natural as to conjugial life, and thereby to a conjunction into
a one. Those who, in this case, love corporeal natural things, and
rational things only as grounded therein, cannot be conjoined to a
consort as into a one, except as to those externals: and when those
externals fail, cold takes possession of the internals; in consequence
whereof the delights of that love are dispersed and driven away, as from
the mind so from the body, and afterwards as from the body so from the
mind; and this until there is nothing left of the remembrance of the
primeval state of their marriage, consequently no knowledge respecting
it. Now since this is the case with the generality of persons at this
day, it is evident that love truly conjugial is not known as to its
quality, and scarcely as to its existence. It is otherwise with those
who are spiritual. With them the first state is an initiation into
lasting satisfactions, which advance in degree, in proportion as the
spiritual rational principle of the mind, and thence the natural sensual
principle of the body, in each party, conjoin and unite themselves with
the same principles in the other party; but such instances are rare.

60. II. THIS LOVE ORIGINATES IN THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH. That all
things in the universe have relation to good and truth, is acknowledged
by every intelligent man, because it is a universal truth; that likewise
in every thing in the universe good is conjoined with truth, and truth
with good, cannot but be acknowledged, because this also is a universal
truth, which agrees with the former. The reason why all things in the
universe have relation to good and truth, and why good is conjoined with
truth, and truth with good, is, because each proceeds from the Lord, and
they proceed from him as a one. The two things which proceed from the
Lord, are love and wisdom, because these are himself, thus from himself;
and all things relating to love are called good, or goods, and all
things relating to wisdom are called true, or truths; and as these two
proceed from him as the creator, it follows that they are in the things
created. This may be illustrated by heat and light which proceed from
the sun: from them all things appertaining to the earth are derived,
which germinate according to their presence and conjunction; and natural
heat corresponds to spiritual heat, which is love, as natural light
corresponds to spiritual light, which is wisdom.

61. That conjugial love proceeds from the marriage of good and truth,
will be shewn in the following section or paragraph: It is mentioned
here only with a view of shewing that this love is celestial, spiritual,
and holy, because it is from a celestial, spiritual, and holy origin. In
order to see that the origin of conjugial love is from the marriage of
good and truth, it may be expedient in this place briefly to premise
somewhat on the subject. It was said just above, that in every created
thing there exists a conjunction of good and truth; and there is no
conjunction unless it be reciprocal; for conjunction on one part, and
not on the other in its turn, is dissolved of itself. Now as there is a
conjunction of good and truth, and this is reciprocal, it follows that
there is a truth of good, or truth grounded in good, and that there is a
good of truth, or good grounded in truth; that the truth of good, or
truth grounded in good, is in the male, and that it is the very
essential male (or masculine) principle, and that the good of truth, or
good grounded in truth, is in the female, and that it is the very
essential female (or feminine) principle; also that there is a conjugial
union between those two, will be seen in the following section: it is
here only mentioned in order to give some preliminary idea on the
subject.

62. III. THERE IS A CORRESPONDENCE OF THIS LOVE WITH THE MARRIAGE OF THE
LORD AND THE CHURCH; that is, that as the Lord loves the church, and is
desirous that the church should love him, so a husband and a wife
mutually love each other. That there is a correspondence herein, is well
known in the Christian world: but the nature of that correspondence as
yet is not known; therefore we will explain it presently in a particular
paragraph. It is here mentioned in order to shew that conjugial love is
celestial, spiritual, and holy, because it corresponds to the celestial,
spiritual, and holy marriage of the Lord and the church. This
correspondence also follows as a consequence of conjugial love's
originating in the marriage of good and truth, spoken of in the
preceding article; because the marriage of good and truth constitutes
the church with man: for the marriage of good and truth is the same as
the marriage of charity and faith; since good relates to charity, and
truth to faith. That this marriage constitutes the church must at once
be acknowledged, because it is a universal truth; and every universal
truth is acknowledged as soon as it is heard, in consequence of the
Lord's influx and at the same time of the confirmation of heaven. Now
since the church is the Lord's, because it is from him, and since
conjugial love corresponds to the marriage of the Lord and the church,
it follows that this love is from the Lord.

63. But in what manner the church from the Lord is formed with two
married partners, and how conjugial love is formed thereby, shall be
illustrated in the paragraph spoken of above: we will at present only
observe, that the church from the Lord is formed in the husband, and
through the husband in the wife; and that when it is formed in each, it
is a full church; for in this case is effected a full conjunction of
good and truth; and the conjunction of good and truth constitutes the
church. That the uniting inclination, which is conjugial love, is in a
similar degree with the conjunction of good and truth, which is the
church, will be proved by convincing arguments in what follows in the
series.

64. IV. THIS LOVE, FROM ITS ORIGIN AND CORRESPONDENCE, IS CELESTIAL,
SPIRITUAL, HOLY, PURE, AND CLEAN, ABOVE EVERY OTHER LOVE IMPARTED BY THE
LORD TO THE ANGELS OF HEAVEN AND THE MEN OF THE CHURCH. That such is the
nature and quality of conjugial love from its origin, which is the
marriage of good and truth, was briefly shewn above; but the subject was
then barely touched upon: in like manner that such is the nature and
quality of that love, from its correspondence with the marriage of the
Lord and the church. These two marriages, from which conjugial love, as
a slip or shoot, descends, are essentially holy, therefore if it be
received from its author, the Lord, holiness from him follows of
consequence, which continually cleanses and purifies it: in this case,
if there be in the man's will a desire and tendency to it, this love
becomes daily and continually cleaner and purer. Conjugial love is
called celestial and spiritual because it is with the angels of heaven;
celestial, as with the angels of the highest heaven, these being called
celestial angels; and spiritual, as with the angels beneath that heaven,
these being called spiritual angels. Those angels are so called, because
the celestial are loves, and thence wisdoms, and the spiritual are
wisdoms and thence loves; similar thereto is their conjugial principle.
Now as conjugial love is with the angels of both the superior and the
inferior heavens, as was also shewn in the first paragraph concerning
marriages in heaven, it is manifest that it is holy and pure. The reason
why this love in its essence, considered in regard to its origin, is
holy and pure above every other love with angels and men, is, because it
is as it were the head of the other loves: concerning its excellence
something shall be said in the following article.

65. V. IT IS ALSO THE FOUNDATION LOVE OF ALL CELESTIAL AND SPIRITUAL
LOVES, AND THENCE OF ALL NATURAL LOVES. The reason why conjugial love
considered in its essence is the foundation love of all the loves of
heaven and the church, is, because it originates in the marriage of good
and truth, and from this marriage proceed all the loves which constitute
heaven and the church with man: the good of this marriage constitutes
love, and its truth constitutes wisdom; and when love draws near to
wisdom, or joins itself therewith, then love becomes love; and when
wisdom in its turn draws near to love, and joins itself therewith, then
wisdom becomes wisdom. Love truly conjugial is the conjunction of love
and wisdom. Two married partners, between or in whom this love subsists,
are an image and form of it: all likewise in the heavens, where faces
are the genuine types of the affections of every one's love, are
likenesses of it; for, as was shewn above, it pervades them in the whole
and in every part. Now as two married partners are an image and form of
this love, it follows that every love which proceeds from the form of
essential love itself, is a resemblance thereof; therefore if conjugial
love be celestial and spiritual, the loves proceeding from it are also
celestial and spiritual. Conjugial love therefore is as a parent, and
all other loves are as the offspring. Hence it is, that from the
marriages of the angels in the heavens are produced spiritual offspring,
which are those of love and wisdom, or of good and truth; concerning
which production, see above, n. 51, 52.

66. The same is evident from man's having been created for this love,
and from his formation afterwards by means of it. The male was created
to become wisdom grounded in the love of growing wise, and the female
was created to become the love of the male grounded in his wisdom, and
consequently was formed according thereto; from which consideration it
is manifest, that two married partners are the very forms and images of
the marriage of love and wisdom, or of good and truth. It is well to be
observed, that there is not any good or truth which is not in a
substance as in its subject: there are no abstract goods and truths;
for, having no abode or habitation, they no where exist, neither can
they appear as airy unfixed principles; therefore in such case they are
mere entities, concerning which reason seems to itself to think
abstractedly; but still it cannot conceive of them except as annexed to
subjects: for every human idea, however elevated, is substantial, that
is, affixed to substances. It is moreover to be observed, that there is
no substance without a form; an unformed substance not being any thing,
because nothing can be predicated of it; and a subject without
predicates is also an entity which has no existence in reason. These
philosophical considerations are adduced in order to shew still more
clearly, that two married partners who are principled in love truly
conjugial, are actually forms of the marriage of good and truth, or of
love and wisdom.

67. Since natural loves flow from spiritual, and spiritual from
celestial, therefore it is said that conjugial love is the foundation
love of all celestial and spiritual loves, and thence of all natural
loves. Natural loves relate to the loves of self and of the world;
spiritual loves to love towards the neighbour; and celestial loves to
love to the Lord; and such as are the relations of the loves, it is
evident in what order they follow and are present with man. When they
are in this order, then the natural loves live from the spiritual, and
the spiritual from the celestial, and all in this order from the Lord,
in whom they originate.

68. VI. INTO THIS LOVE ARE COLLECTED ALL JOYS AND DELIGHTS FROM FIRST TO
LAST. All delights whatever, of which a man (_homo_) has any perception,
are delights of his love; the love manifesting itself, yea, existing and
living thereby. It is well known that the delights are exalted in
proportion as the love is exalted, and also in proportion as the
incident affections touch the ruling love more nearly. Now as conjugial
love is the foundation love of all good loves, and as it is inscribed on
all the parts and principles of man, even the most particular, as was
shewn above, it follows that its delights exceed the delights of all
other loves, and also that it gives delight to the other loves,
according to its presence and conjunction with them; for it expands the
inmost principles of the mind, and at the same time the inmost
principles of the body, as the delicious current of its fountain flows
through and opens them. The reason why all delights from first to last
are collected into this love, is on account of the superior excellence
of its use, which is the propagation of the human race, and thence of
the angelic heaven; and as this use was the chief end of creation, it
follows that all the beatitudes, satisfactions, delights,
pleasantnesses, and pleasures, which the Lord the Creator could possibly
confer upon man, are collected into this his love. That delights follow
use, and are also communicated to man according to the love thereof, is
manifest from the delights of the five senses, seeing, hearing,
smelling, taste, and touch: each of these has its delights with
variations according to the specific uses of each; what then must be the
delight annexed to the sense of conjugial love, the use of which
comprehends all other uses?

69. I am aware that few will acknowledge that all joys and delights from
first to last are collected into conjugial love; because love truly
conjugial, into which they are collected, is at this day so rare that
its quality is not known, and scarcely its existence, agreeably to what
was explained and confirmed above, n. 58, 59; for such joys and delights
exist only in genuine conjugial love; and as this is so rare on earth,
it is impossible to describe its super-eminent felicities any otherwise
than from the mouth of angels, because they are principled in it. They
have declared, that the inmost delights of this love, which are delights
of the soul, into which the conjugial principle of love and wisdom, or
of good and truth from the Lord, first flows, are imperceptible and
thence ineffable, because they are the delights of peace and innocence
conjointly; but that in their descent they become more and more
perceptible; in the superior principles of the mind as beatitudes, in
the inferior as satisfactions, in the breast as delights thence derived;
and that from the breast they diffuse themselves into every part of the
body, and at length unite themselves in ultimates and become the delight
of delights. Moreover the angels have related wonderful things
respecting these delights; adding further, that their varieties in the
souls of conjugial pairs, and from their souls in their minds, and from
their minds in their breasts, are infinite and also eternal; that they
are exalted according to the prevalence of wisdom with the husband; and
this, because they live to eternity in the bloom of their age, and
because they know no greater blessedness than to grow wiser and wiser.
But a fuller account of these delights, as given by the angels, may be
seen in the MEMORABLE RELATIONS, especially in those added to some of
the following chapters.

70. VII. NONE HOWEVER COME INTO THIS LOVE, AND CAN REMAIN IN IT, BUT
THOSE WHO APPROACH THE LORD, AND LOVE THE TRUTHS OF THE CHURCH AND
PRACTISE ITS GOODS. The reason why none come into that love but those
who approach the Lord, is, because monogamical marriages, which are of
one husband with one wife, correspond to the marriage of the Lord and
the church, and because such marriages originate in the marriage of good
and truth; on which subject, see above, n. 60 and 62. That from this
origin and correspondence it follows, that love truly conjugial is from
the Lord, and exists only with those who come directly to him, cannot be
fully confirmed unless these two arcana be specifically treated of, as
shall be done in the chapters which immediately follow; one of which
will treat on the origin of conjugial love as derived from the marriage
of good and truth, and the other on the marriage of the Lord and the
church, and on its correspondence. That it hence follows, that,
conjugial love with man (_homo_) is according to the state of the church
with him, will also be seen in those chapters.

71. The reason why none can be principled in love truly conjugial but
those who receive it from the Lord, that is, who come directly to him,
and by derivation from him live the life of the church, is, because this
love, considered in its origin and correspondence, is celestial,
spiritual, holy, pure, and clean, above every love implanted in the
angels of heaven and the men of the church; as was shewn above, n. 64;
and these its distinguishing characters and qualities cannot possibly
exist, except with those who are conjoined to the Lord, and by him are
consociated with the angels of heaven; for these shun extra-conjugial
loves, which are conjunctions with others than their own conjugial
partner, as they would shun the loss of the soul and the lakes of hell;
and in proportion as married partners shun such conjunctions, even as to
the libidinous desires of the will and the intentions thence derived, so
far love truly conjugial is purified with them, and becomes successively
spiritual, first during their abode on earth, and afterwards in heaven.
It is not however possible that any love should become perfectly pure
either with men or with angels; consequently neither can this love:
nevertheless, since the intention of the will is what the Lord
principally regards, therefore so far as any one is in this intention,
and perseveres in it, so far he is initiated into its purity and
sanctity, and successively advances therein. The reason why none can be
principled in spiritual conjugial love, but those who are of the above
description by virtue of conjunction with the Lord, is, because heaven
is in this love; and the natural man, whose conjugial love derives its
pleasure only from the flesh, cannot approach to heaven nor to any
angel, no, nor to any man principled in this love, it being the
foundation of all celestial and spiritual loves; which may be seen
above, n. 65-67. That this is the case, has been confirmed to me by
experience. I have seen genii in the spiritual world, who were in a
state of preparation for hell, approaching to an angel while he was
being entertained by his consort; and at a distance, as they approached,
they became like furies, and sought out caverns and ditches as asylums,
into which they cast themselves. That wicked spirits love what is
similar to their affection, however unclean it is, and hold in aversion
the spirits of heaven, as what is dissimilar, because it is pure, may be
concluded from what was said in the PRELIMINARY MEMORABLE RELATION, n.
10.

72. The reason why those who love the truths of the church and practise
its goods, come into this love and are capable of remaining in it, is,
because no others are received by the Lord; for these are in conjunction
with him, and thereby are capable of being kept in that love by
influence from him. The two constituents of the church and heaven in man
(_homo_) are the truth of faith and the good of life; the truth of faith
constitutes the Lord's presence, and the good of life according to the
truths of faith constitutes conjunction with him, and thereby the church
and heaven. The reason why the truth of faith constitutes the Lord's
presence, is, because it relates to light, spiritual light being nothing
else; and the reason why the good of life constitutes conjunction, is,
because it relates to heat; and spiritual heat is nothing but the good
of life, for it is love; and the good of life originates in love; and it
is well known, that all light, even that of winter, causes presence, and
that heat united to light causes conjunction; for gardens and
shrubberies appear in all degrees of light, but they do not bear flowers
and fruits unless when heat joins itself to light. From these
considerations the conclusion is obvious, that those are not gifted by
the Lord with love truly conjugial, who merely know the truths of the
church, but those who know them and practise their good.

73. VIII. THIS LOVE WAS THE LOVE OF LOVES WITH THE ANCIENTS, WHO LIVED
IN THE GOLDEN, SILVER, AND COPPER AGES. That conjugial love was the love
of loves with the most ancient and the ancient people, who lived in the
ages thus named, cannot be known from historical records, because their
writings are not extant; and there is no account given of them except by
writers in succeeding ages, who mention them, and describe the purity
and integrity of their lives, and also the successive decrease of such
purity and integrity, resembling the debasement of gold to iron: but an
account of the last or iron age, which commenced from the time of those
writers, may in some measure be gathered from the historical records of
the lives of some of their kings, judges, and wise men, who were called
_sophi_ in Greece and other countries. That this age however should not
endure, as iron endures in itself, but that it should be like iron mixed
with clay, which do not cohere, is foretold by Daniel, chap. ii. 43. Now
as the golden, silver, and copper ages passed away before the time when
writing came into use, and thus it is impossible on earth to acquire any
knowledge concerning their marriages, it has pleased the Lord to unfold
to me such knowledge by a spiritual way, by conducting me to the heavens
inhabited by those most ancient people, that I might learn from their
own mouths the nature and quality of their marriages during their abode
here on earth in their several ages: for all, who from the beginning of
creation have departed by death out of the natural world, are in the
spiritual world, and as to their loves resemble what they were when
alive in the natural world, and continue such to eternity. As the
particulars of this knowledge are worthy to be known and related, and
tend to confirm the sanctity of marriages, I am desirous to make them
public as they were shown me in the spirit when awake, and were
afterwards recalled to my remembrance by an angel, and thus described.
And as they are from the spiritual world, like the other accounts
annexed to each chapter, I am desirous to arrange them so as to form six
MEMORABLE RELATIONS according to the progressions of the several periods
of time.

       *       *       *       *       *

74. THESE SIX MEMORABLE RELATIONS from the spiritual world, concerning
conjugial love, discover the nature and quality of that love in the
earliest times and afterwards, and also at the present day; whence it
appears that that love has successively fallen away from its sanctity
and purity, until it became adulterous; but that nevertheless there is a
hope of its being brought back again to its primeval or ancient
sanctity.

75. THE FIRST MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time, while I was meditating on
conjugial love, my mind was seized with a desire of knowing what had
been the nature and quality of that love among those who lived in the
GOLDEN AGE, and afterwards among those who lived in the following ages,
which have their names from silver, copper, and iron: and as I knew that
all who lived well in those ages are in the heavens, I prayed to the
Lord that I might be allowed to converse with them and be informed: and
lo! an angel presented himself and said, "I am sent by the Lord to be
your guide and companion: I will first lead and attend you to those who
lived in the first age or period of time, which is called golden:" and
he said, "The way to them is difficult; it lies through a shady forest,
which none can pass unless he receive a guide from the Lord." I was in
the spirit, and prepared myself for the journey; and we turned our faces
towards the east; and as we advanced I saw a mountain, whose height
extended beyond the region of the clouds. We passed a great wilderness,
and came to the forest planted with various kinds of trees and rendered
shady by their thickness, of which the angel had advertised me. The
forest was divided by several narrow paths; and the angel said, that
according to the number of those paths are the windings and intricacies
of error: and that unless his eyes were opened by the Lord, so as to see
olives entwined with vine tendrils, and his steps were directed from
olive to olive, the traveller would miss his way, and fall into the
abodes of Tartarus, which are round about at the sides. This forest is
of such a nature, to the end that the passage may be guarded; for none
but a primeval nation dwells upon that mountain. After we had entered
the forest, our eyes were opened, and we saw here and there olives
entwined with vines, from which hung bunches of grapes of a blue or
azure color, and the olives were ranged in continual wreaths; we
therefore made various circuits as they presented themselves to our
view; and at length we saw a grove of tall cedars and some eagles
perched on their branches; on seeing which the angel said, "We are now
on the mountain not far from its summit:" so we went forward, and lo!
behind the grove was a circular plain, where there were feeding he and
she-lambs, which were representative forms of the state of innocence and
peace of the inhabitants of the mountain. We passed over this plain, and
lo! we saw tabernacles, to the number of several thousands in front on
each side in every direction as far as the eye could reach. And the
angel said, "We are now in the camp, where are the armies of the Lord
Jehovah; for so they call themselves and their habitations. These most
ancient people, while they were in the world, dwelt in tabernacles;
therefore now also they dwell in the same. But let us bend our way to
the south, where the wiser of them live, that we may meet some one to
converse with." In going along I saw at a distance three boys and three
girls sitting at a door of a certain tent; but as we approached, the
boys and girls appeared like men and women of a middle stature. The
angel then said, "All the inhabitants of this mountain appear at a
distance like infants, because they are in a state of innocence; and
infancy is the appearance of innocence." The men on seeing us hastened
towards us and said, "Whence are you; and how came you here? Your faces
are not like those of our mountain." But the angel in reply told them
how, by permission, we had had access through the forest, and what was
the cause of our coming. On hearing this, one of the three men invited
and introduced us into his tabernacle. The man was dressed in a blue
robe and a tunic of white wool: and his wife had on a purple gown, with
a stomacher under it of fine linen wrought in needle-work. And as my
thought was influenced by a desire of knowing the state of marriages
among the most ancient people, I looked by turns on the husband and the
wife, and observed as it were a unity of their souls in their faces; and
I said, "You are one:" and the man answered, "We are one; her life is in
me, and mine in her; we are two bodies, but one soul: the union between
us is like that of the two viscera in the breast, which are called the
heart and the lungs; she is my heart and I am her lungs; but as by the
heart we here mean love, and by the lungs wisdom, she is the love of my
wisdom, and I am the wisdom of her love; therefore her love from without
veils my wisdom, and my wisdom from within enters into her love: hence,
as you said, there is an appearance of the unity of our souls in our
faces." I then asked, "If such a union exists, is it possible for you to
look at any other woman than your own?" He replied, "It is possible but
as my wife is united to my soul, we both look together, and in this case
nothing of lust can enter; for while I behold the wives of others, I
behold them by my own wife, whom alone I love: and as my own wife has a
perception of all my inclinations, she, as an intermediate, directs my
thoughts and removes every thing discordant, and therewith impresses
cold and horror at every thing unchaste; therefore it is as impossible
for us to look unchastely at the wife of any other of our society, as it
is to look from the shades of Tartarus to the light of our heaven
therefore neither have we any idea of thought, and still less any
expression of speech, to denote the allurements of libidinous love." He
could not pronounce the word whoredom, because the chastity of their
heaven forbade it. Hereupon my conducting angel said to me, "You hear
now that the speech of the angels of this heaven is the speech of
wisdom, because they speak from causes." After this, as I looked around,
I saw their tabernacle as it were overlaid with gold; and I asked,
"Whence is this?" He replied, "It is in consequence of a flaming light,
which, like gold, glitters, irradiates, and glances on the curtains of
our tabernacle while we are conversing about conjugial love; for the
heat from our sun, which in its essence is love, on such occasions bares
itself, and tinges the light, which in its essence is wisdom, with its
golden color; and this happens because conjugial love in its origin is
the sport of wisdom and love; for the man was born to be wisdom, and the
woman to be the love of the man's wisdom: hence spring the delights of
that sport, in and derived from conjugial love between us and our wives.
We have seen clearly for thousands of years in our heaven, that those
delights, as to quantity, degree, and intensity, are excellent and
eminent according to our worship of the Lord Jehovah, from whom flows
that heavenly union or marriage, which is the union and marriage of love
and wisdom." As he said this, I saw a great light upon the hill in the
middle of the tabernacles; and I inquired, "Whence is that light?" And
he said, "It is from the sanctuary of the tabernacle of our worship." I
asked whether I might approach it; to which he assented. I approached
therefore, and saw the tabernacle without and within, answering exactly
to the description of the tabernacle which was built for the sons of
Israel in the wilderness; the form of which was shewed to Moses on Mount
Sinai, Exod. xxv. 40; chap. xxvi. 30. I then asked, "What is within in
that sanctuary, from which so great a light proceeds?" He replied, "It
is a tablet with this inscription, THE COVENANT BETWEEN JEHOVAH AND THE
HEAVENS:" he said no more. And as by this time we were ready to depart,
I asked, "Did any of you, during your abode in the natural world, live
with more than one wife?" He replied, "I know not one; for we could not
think of more. We have been told by those who had thought of more, that
instantly the heavenly blessedness of their souls withdrew from their
inmost principles to the extreme parts of their bodies, even to the
nails, and together therewith the honorable badges of manhood; when this
was perceived they were banished the land." On saying this, the man ran
to his tabernacle, and returned with a pomegranate, in which there was
abundance of seeds of gold: and he gave it me, and I brought it away
with me, as a sign that we had been with those who had lived in the
golden age. And then, after a salutation of peace, we took our leave,
and returned home.

76. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. The next day the same angel came to
me, and said, "Do you wish me to lead and attend you to the people who
lived in the SILVER AGE OR PERIOD, that we may hear from them concerning
the marriages of their time?" And he added, "Access to these also can
only be obtained by the Lord's favor and protection." I was in the
spirit as before, and accompanied my conductor. We first came to a hill
on the confines between the east and the south; and while we were
ascending it, he shewed me a great extent of country: we saw at a
distance an eminence like a mountain, between which and the hill on
which we stood was a valley, and behind the valley a plain, and from the
plain a rising ground of easy ascent. We descended the hill intending to
pass through the valley, and we saw here and there on each side pieces
of wood and stone, carved into the figures of men, and of various
beasts, birds, and fishes; and I asked the angel what they meant, and
whether they were idols? He replied, "By no means: they are
representative forms of various moral virtues and spiritual truths. The
people of that age were acquainted with the science of correspondences;
and as every man, beast, bird, and fish, corresponds to some quality,
therefore each particular carved figure represents partially some virtue
or truth, and several together represent virtue itself, or truth, in a
common extended form. These are what in Egypt were called
hieroglyphics." We proceeded through the valley, and as we entered the
plain, lo! we saw horses and chariots; horses variously harnessed and
caparisoned, and chariots of different forms; some carved in the shape
of eagles, some like whales, and some like stags with horns, and like
unicorns; and likewise beyond them some carts, and stables round about
at the sides; and as we approached, both horses and chariots
disappeared, and instead thereof we saw men (_homines_), in pairs,
walking, talking, and reasoning. And the angel said to me, "The
different species of horses, chariots, and stables, seen at a distance,
are appearances of the rational intelligence of the men of that period;
for a horse, by correspondence, signifies the understanding of truth, a
chariot, its doctrine, and stables, instructions: you know that in this
world all things appear according to correspondences." But we passed by
these things, and ascended by a long acclivity, and at length saw a
city, which we entered; and in walking through the streets and places of
public resort, we viewed the houses: they were so many palaces built of
marble, having steps of alabaster in front, and at the sides of the
steps pillars of jasper: we saw also temples of precious stone of a
sapphire and lazure color. And the angel said to me, "Their houses are
of stone, because stones signify natural truths, and precious stones
spiritual truths; and all those who lived in the silver age had
intelligence grounded in spiritual truths, and thence in natural truths:
silver also has a similar signification." In taking a view of the city,
we saw here and there consorts in pairs: and as they were husbands and
wives, we expected that some of them would invite us to their houses;
and while we were in this expectation, as we were passing by, we were
invited by two into their house, and we ascended the steps and entered;
and the angel, taking upon him the part of speaker, explained to them
the occasion of our coming to this heaven; informing them that it was
for the sake of instruction concerning marriages among the ancients, "of
whom," says he, "you in this heaven are a part." They said, "We were
from a people in Asia; and the chief pursuit of our age was the truths
whereby we had intelligence. This was the occupation of our souls and
minds; but our bodily senses were engaged in representations of truths
in form; and the science of correspondences conjoined the sensual things
of our bodies with the perceptions of our minds, and procured us
intelligence." On hearing this, the angel asked them to give some
account of their marriages: and the husband said, "There is a
correspondence between spiritual marriage, which is that of truth with
good, and natural marriage, which is that of a man with one wife; and as
we have studied correspondences, we have seen that the church, with its
truths and goods, cannot at all exist but with those who live in love
truly conjugial with one wife: for the marriage of good and truth
constitutes the church with man: therefore all we in this heaven say,
that the husband is truth, and the wife the good thereof; and that good
cannot love any truth but its own, neither can truth in return love any
good but its own: if any other were loved, internal marriage, which
constitutes the church, would perish, and there would remain only
external marriage, to which idolatry, and not the church, corresponds;
therefore marriage with one wife we call sacrimony; but if it should
have place with more than one among us, we should call it sacrilege." As
he said this, we were introduced into an ante-chamber, where there were
several devices on the walls, and little images as it were of molten
silver; and I inquired, "What are these?" They said, "They are pictures
and forms representative of several qualities, characters, and delights,
relating to conjugial love. These represent unity of souls, these
conjunction of minds, these harmony of bosoms, these the delights thence
arising." While we were viewing these things, we saw as it were a
rainbow on the wall, consisting of three colors, purple (or red), blue
and white; and we observed how the purple passed the blue, and tinged
the white with an azure color, and that the latter color flowed back
through the blue into the purple, and elevated the purple into a kind of
flaming lustre: and the husband said to me, "Do you understand all
this?" I replied, "Instruct me:" and he said, "The purple color, from
its correspondence, signifies the conjugial love of the wife, the white
the intelligence of the husband, the blue the beginning of conjugial
love in the husband's perception from the wife, and the azure, with
which the white was tinged, signifies conjugial love in this case in the
husband; and this latter color flowing back through the blue into the
purple, and elevating the purple into a kind of flaming lustre,
signifies the conjugial love of the husband flowing back to the wife.
Such things are represented on these walls, while from meditating on
conjugial love, its mutual, successive, and simultaneous union, we view
with eager attention the rainbows which are there painted." Hereupon I
observed, "These things are more than mystical at this day; for they are
appearances representative of the arcana of the conjugial love of one
man with one wife." He replied, "They are so; yet to us in our heaven
they are not arcana, and consequently neither are they mystical." As he
said this, there appeared at a distance a chariot drawn by small white
horses; on seeing which the angel said, "That chariot is a sign for us
to take our leave;" and then, as we were descending the steps, our host
gave us a bunch of white grapes hanging to the vine leaves: and lo! the
leaves became silver; and we brought them down with us for a sign that
we had conversed with the people of the silver age.

77. THE THIRD MEMORABLE RELATION. The next day, my conducting and
attendant angel came to me and said, "Make ready, and let us go to the
heavenly inhabitants in the west, who are from the men that lived in the
third period, or in the copper age. Their dwellings are from the south
by the west towards the north; but they do not reach into the north."
Having made myself ready, I attended him, and we entered their heaven on
the southern quarter. There was a magnificent grove of palm trees and
laurels. We passed through this, and immediately on the confines of the
west we saw giants, double the size of ordinary men. They asked us, "Who
let you in through the grove?" The angel said, "The God of heaven." They
replied, "We are guards to the ancient western heaven; but pass on." We
passed on, and from a rising ground we saw a mountain rising to the
clouds, and between us and the mountain a number of villages, with
gardens, groves, and plains intermixed. We passed through the villages
and came to the mountain, which we ascended; and lo! its summit was not
a point but a plain, on which was a spacious and extensive city. All the
houses of the city were built of the wood of the pine-tree, and their
roofs consisted of joists or rafters; and I asked, "Why are the houses
here built of wood?" The angel replied, "Because wood signifies natural
good; and the men of the third age of the earth were principled in this
good; and as copper also signifies natural good, therefore the age in
which they lived the ancients named from copper. Here are also sacred
buildings constructed of the wood of the olive, and in the middle of
them is the sanctuary, where is deposited in an ark the Word that was
given to the inhabitants of Asia before the Israelitish Word; the
historical books of which are called the WARS OF JEHOVAH, and the
prophetic books, ENUNCIATIONS; both mentioned by Moses, Numb. xxi.
verses 14, 15, and 27-30. This Word at this day is lost in the kingdoms
of Asia, and is only preserved in Great Tartary." Then the angel led me
to one of the sacred buildings, which we looked into, and saw in the
middle of it the sanctuary, the whole in the brightest light; and the
angel said, "This light is from that ancient Asiatic Word: for all
divine truth in the heavens gives forth light." As we were leaving the
sacred building, we were informed that it had been reported in the city
that two strangers had arrived there; and that they were to be examined
as to whence they came, and what was their business; and immediately one
of the public officers came running towards us, and took us for
examination before the judges: and on being asked whence we came, and
what was our business, we replied, "We have passed the grove of
palm-trees, and also the abodes of the giants, the guards of your
heaven, and afterwards the region of villages; from which circumstances
you may conclude, that we have not come here of ourselves, but by
direction of the God of heaven. The business on which we are come is, to
be instructed concerning your marriages, whether they are monogamical or
polygamical." and they said, "What are polygamical marriages? Are not
they adulterous?" And immediately the bench of judges deputed an
intelligent person to instruct us in his own house on this point: and
when we were come to his house, he set his wife by his side, and spoke
as follows: "We are in possession of precepts concerning marriages,
which have been handed down to us from the primeval or most ancient
people, who were principled in love truly conjugial, and thereby
excelled all others in the virtue and potency of that love while they
were in the world, and who are now in a most blessed state in their
heaven, which is in the east. We are their posterity, and they, as
fathers, have given us, their sons, rules of life, among which is the
following concerning marriages: 'Sons, if you are desirous to love God
and your neighbour, and to become wise and happy to eternity, we counsel
you to live married to one wife; if you depart from this precept, all
heavenly love will depart from you, and therewith internal wisdom; and
you will be banished.' This precept of our Fathers we have obeyed as
sons, and have perceived its truth, which is, that so far as any one
loves his conjugial partner alone, so far he becomes celestial and
internal, and that so far as any one does not love his married partner
alone, so far he becomes natural and external; and in this case he loves
only himself and the images of his own mind, and is doating and foolish.
From these considerations, all of us in this heaven live married to one
wife; and this being the case, all the borders of our heaven are guarded
against polygamists, adulterers, and whoremongers; if polygamists invade
us, they are cast out into the darkness of the north; if adulterers,
they are cast out into fires of the west; and if whoremongers, they are
cast out into the delusive lights of the south." On hearing this, I
asked, "What he meant by the darkness of the north, the fires of the
west, and the delusive lights of the south?" He answered, "The darkness
of the north is dulness of mind and ignorance of truths; the fires of
the west are the loves of evil; and the delusive lights of the south are
the falsifications of truth, which are spiritual whoredoms." After this,
he said, "Follow me to our repository of curiosities:" so we followed
him, and he shewed us the writings of the most ancient people, which
were on the tables of wood and stone, and afterwards on smooth blocks of
wood; the writings of the second age were on sheets of parchment; of
these he brought me a sheet, on which were copied the rules of the
people of the first age from their tables of stone, among which also was
the precept concerning marriages. Having seen these and other ancient
curiosities, the angel said, "It is now time for us to take our leave;"
and immediately our host went into the garden, and plucked some twigs
off a tree, and bound them into a little bunch, and gave them to us,
saying, "These twigs are from a tree, which is native of or peculiar to
our heaven, and whose juice has a balsamic fragrance." We brought the
bunch down with us, and descended by the eastern way, which was not
guarded; and lo! the twigs were changed into shining brass, and the
upper ends of them into gold, as a sign that we had been with the people
of the third age, which is named from copper or brass.

78. THE FOURTH MEMORABLE RELATIONS. After two days the angel again
addressed me, saying, "Let us complete the period of the ages; the last
still remains, which is named from IRON. The people of this age dwell in
the north on the side of the west, in the inner parts or breadth-ways:
they are all from the old inhabitants of Asia, who were in possession of
the ancient Word, and thence derived their worship; consequently they
were before the time of our Lord's coming into the world. This is
evident from the writings of the ancients, in which those times are so
named. These same periods are meant by the statue seen by
Nebuchadnezzar, whose head was of gold, the breast and arms of silver,
the belly and thighs of brass, the legs of iron, and the feet of iron
and of clay, Dan. ii. 32, 33." These particulars the angel related to me
in the way, which was contracted and anticipated by changes of state
induced in our minds according to the genius or disposition of the
inhabitants whom we passed; for spaces and consequent distances in the
spiritual world are appearances according to the state of their minds.
When we raised our eyes, lo! we were in a forest consisting of beeches,
chestnut-trees and oaks: and on looking around us, there appeared bears
to the left, and leopards to the right: and when I wondered at this, the
angel said, "They are neither bears nor leopards, but men, who guard
these inhabitants of the north; by their nostrils they have a scent of
the sphere of life of those who pass by, and they rush violently on all
who are spiritual, because the inhabitants are natural. Those who only
read the Word, and imbibe thence nothing of doctrine, appear at a
distance like bears; and those who confirm false principles thence
derived, appear like leopards." On seeing us, they turned away, and we
proceeded. Beyond the forest there appeared thickets, and afterwards
fields of grass divided into areas, bordered with box: this was
succeeded by a declivity which led to a valley, wherein were several
cities. We passed some of them, and entered into one of a considerable
size: its streets were irregular, and so were the houses, which were
built of brick, with beams between, and plastered. In the places of
public resort were consecrated buildings of hewn lime-stone; the
under-structure of which was below the ground, and the super-structure
above. We went down into one of them by three steps, and saw on the
walls idols of various forms, and a crowd on their knees paying
adoration to them: in the middle of the building was a company, above
whom might be seen the head of the tutelary god of that city. As we went
out, the angel said to me, "Those idols, with the ancients who lived in
the silver age, as above described, were images representative of
spiritual truths and moral virtues; and when the science of
correspondence was forgotten and extinct, they first became objects of
worship, and afterwards were adored as deities: hence came idolatry."
When we were come out of the consecrated building, we made our
observations on the men and their dress. Their faces were like steel, of
a grayish color, and they were dressed like comedians, with napkins
about their loins hanging from a tunic buttoned close at the breast; and
on their heads they wore curled caps like sailors. But the angel said,
"Enough of this; let us seek some instruction concerning the marriages
of the people of this age." We then entered into the house of one of the
grandees, who wore on his head a high cap. He received us kindly, and
said, "Come in and let us converse together." We entered into the
vestibule, and there seated ourselves; and I asked him about the
marriages of his city and country. He said, "We do not here live with
one wife, but some with two or three, and some with more, because we are
delighted with variety, obedience, and honor, as marks of dignity; and
these we receive from our wives according to their number. With one wife
there would be no delight arising from variety; but disgust from
sameness: neither would there be any flattering courteousness arising
from obedience, but a troublesome disquietude from equality; neither
would there be any satisfaction arising from dominion and the honor
thence derived, but vexation from wrangling about superiority. And what
is a woman? Is she not born subject to man's will; to serve, and not to
domineer? Wherefore in this place every husband in his own house enjoys
as it were royal dignity; and as this is suited to our love, it
constitutes also the blessedness of our life." But I asked, "In such
case, what becomes of conjugial love, which from two souls makes one,
and joins minds together, and renders a man (_homo_) blessed? This love
cannot be divided; for if it be it becomes a heat which effervesces and
passes away." To this he replied, "I do not understand what you say;
what else renders a man (_homo_) blessed, but the emulation of wives
contending for the honor of the first place in the husband's favor?" As
he said this, a man entered into the women's apartment and opened the
two doors; whence there issued a libidinous effluvium, which had a
stench like mire; this arose from polygamical love, which is connubial,
and at the same time adulterous; so I rose and shut the doors.
Afterwards I said, "How can you subsist upon this earth, when you are
void of any love truly conjugial, and also when you worship idols?" He
replied, "As to connubial love, we are so jealous of our wives, that we
do not suffer any one to enter further within our houses than the
vestibule; and where there is jealousy, there must also be love. In
respect to idols, we do not worship them; but we are not able to think
of the God of the universe, except by means of such forms presented to
our eyes; for we cannot elevate our thoughts above the sensual things of
the body, nor think of God above the objects of bodily vision." I then
asked him again, "Are not your idols of different forms? How then can
they excite the idea of one God?" He replied, "This is a mystery to us;
somewhat of the worship of God lies concealed in each form." I then
said, "You are merely sensual corporeal spirits; you have neither the
love of God nor the love of a married partner grounded in any spiritual
principle; and these loves together form a man (_homo_) and from sensual
make him celestial." As I said this, there appeared through the gate as
it were lightning: and on my asking what it meant, he said, "Such
lightning is a sign to us that there will come the ancient one from the
east, who teaches us concerning God, that He is one, the alone
omnipotent, who is the first and the last; he also admonishes us not to
worship idols, but only to look at them as images representative of the
virtues proceeding from the one God, which also together form his
worship. This ancient one is our angel, whom we revere and obey. He
comes to us, and raises us, when we are falling into obscure worship of
God from mere fancies respecting images." On hearing this, we left the
house and went out of the city; and in the way, from what we had seen in
the heavens, we drew some conclusions respecting the circuit and the
progression of conjugial love; of the circuit that it had passed from
the east to the south, from the south to the west, and from the west to
the north; and of the progression, that it had decreased according to
its circulation, namely, that in the east it was celestial, in the south
spiritual, in the west natural, and in the north sensual; and also that
it had decreased in a similar degree with the love and the worship of
God: from which considerations we further concluded, that this love in
the first age was like gold, in the second like silver, in the third
like brass, and in the fourth like iron, and that at length it ceased.
On this occasion the angel, my guide and companion, said, "Nevertheless
I entertain a hope that this love will be revived by the God of heaven,
who is the Lord, because it is capable of being so revived."

79. THE FIFTH MEMORABLE RELATION, The angel that had been my guide and
companion to the ancients who had lived in the four ages, the golden,
the silver, the copper, and the iron, again presented himself to me, and
said, "Are you desirous of seeing the age which succeeded those ancient
ones, and to know what its quality formerly was, and still is? Follow
me, and you shall see. They are those concerning whom Daniel thus
prophesied: '_A kingdom shall arise after those four in which iron shall
be mixed with miry clay: they shall mingle themselves together by the
seed of man: but they shall not cohere one with the other, as iron is
not mixed with clay_, Dan. ii. 41-43:'" and he said, "By the seed of
man, whereby iron shall be mixed with clay, and still they shall not
cohere, is meant the truth of the Word falsified." After he had said
this, I followed him, and in the way, he related to me these
particulars. "They dwell in the borders between the south and the west,
but at a great distance beyond those who lived in the four former ages,
and also at a greater depth." We then proceeded through the south to the
region bordering on the west, and passed though a formidable forest; for
in it there were lakes, out of which crocodiles raised their heads, and
opened at us their wide jaws beset with teeth; and between the lakes
were terrible dogs, some of which were three-headed like Cerberus, some
two-headed, all looking at us as we passed with a horrible hungry snarl
and fierce eyes. We entered the western tract of this region, and saw
dragons and leopards, such as are described in the Revelation, chap.
xii. 3; chap. xiii. 2. Then the angel said to me, "All these wild beasts
which you have seen, are not wild beasts but correspondences, and
thereby representative forms of the lusts of the inhabitants whom we
shall visit. The lusts themselves are represented by those horrible
dogs; their deceit and cunning by crocodiles; their falsities and
depraved inclinations to the things which relate to worship, by dragons
and leopards: nevertheless the inhabitants represented do not live close
behind the forest, but behind a great wilderness which lies
intermediate, that they may be fully withheld and separated from the
inhabitants of the foregoing ages, being of an entirely different genius
and quality from them: they have indeed heads above their breasts, and
breasts above their loins, and loins above their feet, like the primeval
men; but in their heads there is not any thing of gold, nor in their
breasts any thing of silver, nor in their loins any thing of brass, no,
nor in their feet any thing of pure iron; but in their heads is iron
mixed with clay, in their breasts is each mixed with brass, in their
loins is also each mixed with silver, and in their feet is each mixed
with gold: by this inversion they are changed from men (_homines_) into
graven images of men, in which inwardly nothing coheres; for what was
highest, is made lowest, thus what was the head is become the heel, and
_vice versa_. They appear to us from heaven like stage-players, who lie
upon their elbows with the body inverted, and put themselves in a
walking motion; or like beasts, which lie on their backs, and lift the
feet upwards, and from the head, which they plunge in the earth, look
towards heaven." We passed through the forest, and entered the
wilderness, which was not less terrible: it consisted of heaps of
stones, and ditches between them, out of which crept hydras and vipers,
and there flew forth venomous flying serpents. This whole wilderness was
on a continual declivity: we descended by a long steep descent, and at
length came into the valley inhabited by the people of that region and
age. There were here and there cottages, which appeared at length to
meet, and to be joined together in the form of a city: this we entered,
and lo! the houses were built of the scorched branches of trees,
cemented together with mud and covered with black slates. The streets
were irregular; all of them at the entrance narrow, but wider as they
extended, and at the end spacious, where there were places of public
resort: here there were as many places of public resort as there were
streets. As we entered the city, it became dark, because the sky did not
appear; we therefore looked up and light was given us, and we saw: and
then I asked those we met, "Are you able to see because the sky does not
appear above you?" They replied "What a question is this! we see
clearly; we walk in full light." On hearing this, the angel said to me,
"Darkness to them is light, and light darkness, as is the case with
birds of night; as they look downwards and not upwards." We entered into
some of the cottages, and saw in each a man with his woman, and we asked
them, "Do all live here in their respective houses with one wife only?"
And they replied with a hissing, "What do you mean by one wife only? Why
do not you ask, whether we live with one harlot? What is a wife but a
harlot? By our laws it is not allowable to commit fornication with more
than one woman; but still we do not hold it dishonorable or unbecoming
to do so with more; yet out of our own houses we glory in the one among
another: thus we rejoice in the license we take, and the pleasure
attending it, more than polygamists. Why is a plurality of wives denied
us, when yet it has been granted, and at this day is granted in the
whole world about us? What is life with one woman only, but captivity
and imprisonment? We however in this place have broken the bolt of this
prison, and have rescued ourselves from slavery, and made ourselves
free, and who is angry with a prisoner for asserting his freedom when it
is in his power?" to this we replied, "You speak, friend, as if without
any sense of religion. What rational person does not know that
adulteries are profane and infernal, and that marriages are holy and
heavenly. Do not adulteries take place with devils in hell, and
marriages with angels in heaven? Did you never read the sixth
commandment [Footnote: According to the division of the commandments
adopted by the Church of England, it is the _seventh_ that is here
referred to.] of the decalogue? and in Paul, that adulterers can by no
means enter heaven?" Hereupon our host laughed heartily, and regarded me
as a simpleton, and almost as out of my senses. But just then there came
running a messenger from the chief of the city, and said, "Bring the two
strangers into the town-hall; and if they refuse to come, drag them
there: we have seen them in a shade of light; they have entered
privately; they are spies." Hereupon the angel said to me, "The reason
why we were seen in a shade, is, because the light of heaven in which we
have been, is to them a shade, and the shade of hell is to them light;
and this is because they regard nothing as sin, not even adultery: hence
they see what is false altogether as what is true; and what is false is
lucid in hell before satans, and what is true darkens their eyes like
the shade of night." We said to the messenger, "We will not be pressed,
still less will we be dragged into the town-hall; but we will go with
you of our own accord." So we went: and lo! there was a great crowd
assembled, out of which came some lawyers, and whispered to us, saying,
"Take heed to yourselves how you speak any thing against religion, the
form of our government, and good manners:" and we replied, "We will not
speak against them, but for them and from them." Then we asked, "What
are your religious notions respecting marriages?" At this the crowd
murmured, and said, "What have you to do here with marriages? Marriages
are marriages." Again we asked, "What are your religious notions
respecting whoredoms?" At this also they murmured, saying, "What have
you to do here with whoredoms? Whoredoms are whoredoms: let him that is
guiltless cast the first stone." And we asked thirdly, "Does your
religion teach that marriages are holy and heavenly, and that adulteries
are profane and infernal?" Hereupon several in the crowd laughed aloud,
jested, and bantered, saying, "Inquire of our priests, and not of us, as
to what concerns religion. We acquiesce entirely in what they declare;
because no point of religion is an object of decision in the
understanding. Have you never heard that the understanding is without
any sense or discernment in mysteries, which constitute the whole of
religion? And what have actions to do with religion? Is not the soul
made blessed by the muttering of words from a devout heart concerning
expiation, satisfaction, and imputation, and not by works?" But at this
instant there came some of the wise ones of the city, so called, and
said, "Retire hence; the crowd grows angry; a storm is gathering: let us
talk in private on this subject; there is a retired walk behind the
town-hall; come with us there." We followed them; and they asked us
whence we came, and what was our business there? And we said, "to be
instructed concerning marriages, whether they are holy with you, as they
were with the ancients who lived in the golden, silver, and copper ages;
or whether they are not holy." And they replied, "What do you mean by
holiness? Are not marriages works of the flesh and of the night?" And we
answered, "Are they not also works of the spirit? and what the flesh
does from the spirit, is not that spiritual? and all that the spirit
does, it does from the marriage of good and truth. Is not this marriage
spiritual, which enters the natural marriage of husband and wife?" To
this the wise ones, so called, made answer, "There is too much subtlety
and sublimity in what you say on this subject; you ascend far above
rational principles to spiritual: and who, beginning at such an
elevation, can descend thence, and thus form any decision?" To this they
added with a smile of ridicule, "Perhaps you have the wings of an eagle,
and can fly in the highest region of heaven, and make these discoveries:
this we cannot do." We then asked them to tell us, from the altitude or
region in which the winged ideas of their minds fly, whether they knew,
or were able to know, that the love of one man with one wife is
conjugial love, into which are collected all the beatitudes,
satisfactions, delights, pleasantnesses, and pleasures of heaven; and
that this love is from the Lord according to the reception of good and
truth from him; thus according to the state of the church? On hearing
this, they turned away, and said, "These men are out of their senses;
they enter the ether with their judgement, and scatter about vain
conjectures like nuts and almonds." After this they turned to us,
saying, "We will give a direct answer to your windy conjectures and
dreams;" and they said, "What has conjugial love in common with religion
and inspiration from God? Is not this love with every one according to
the state of his potency? Is it not the same with those who are out of
the church as with those who are in it, with Gentiles as with
Christians, yea, with the impious as with the pious? Has not every one
the strength of this love either hereditarily, or from bodily health, or
from temperance of life, or from warmth of climate? By medicines also it
may be strengthened and stimulated. Is not the case similar with the
brute creation, especially with birds which unite in pairs? Moreover, is
not this love carnal? and what has a carnal principle in common with the
spiritual state of the church? Does this love, as to its ultimate effect
with a wife, differ at all from love as to its effect with a harlot? Is
not the lust similar, and the delight similar? Wherefore it is injurious
to deduce the origin of conjugial love from the holy things of the
church." On hearing this, we said to them, "You reason from the stimulus
of lasciviousness, and not from conjugial love; you are altogether
ignorant what conjugial love is, because it is cold with you; from what
you have said we are convinced that you are of the age which has its
name from and consists of iron and clay, which do not cohere, according
to the prophecy in Daniel, chap. ii. 43; for you make conjugial love and
adulterous love the same thing; and do these two cohere any more than
iron and clay? You are believed and called wise, and yet you have not
the smallest pretensions to that character." On hearing this, they were
inflamed with rage and made a loud cry, and called the crowd together to
cast us out; but at that instant, by virtue of power given us by the
Lord, we stretched out our hands, and lo! the flying serpents, vipers,
and hydras, and also the dragons from the wilderness, presented
themselves, and entered and filled the city; at which the inhabitants
being terrified fled away. The angel then said to me, "Into this region
new comers from the earth daily enter, and the former inhabitants are by
turns separated and cast down into the gulphs of the west, which appear
at a distance like lakes of fire and brimstone. All in those gulphs are
spiritual and natural adulterers."

80. THE SIXTH MEMORABLE RELATION. As the angel said this, I looked to
the western boundary, and lo! there appeared as it were lakes of fire
and brimstone; and I asked him, why the hells in that quarter had such
an appearance? He replied, "They appear as lakes in consequence of the
falsifications of truth; because water in the spiritual sense signifies
truth; and there is an appearance as it were of fire round about them,
and in them, in consequence of the love of evil, and as it were of
brimstone in consequence of the love of what is false. Those three
things, the lake, the fire, and the brimstone, are appearances, because
they are correspondences of the evil loves of the inhabitants. All in
that quarter are shut up in eternal work-houses, where they labor for
food, for clothing, and for a bed to lie on; and when they do evil, they
are grievously and miserably punished." I further asked the angel, why
he said that in that quarter are spiritual and natural adulterers, and
why he had not rather said, that they were evil doers and impious? He
replied, "Because all those who make light of adulteries, that is, who
commit them from a confirmed persuasion that they are not sins, and thus
are in the purpose of committing them from a belief of their being
harmless, are in their hearts evil doers and impious; for the conjugial
human principle ever goes hand in hand with religion; and every step and
movement made under the influence of religion, and leading to it, is
also a step and movement made under the influence of the conjugial
principle, and leading to it, which is peculiar and proper to the
Christian." On asking what that conjugial principle was, he said, "It is
the desire of living with one wife; and every Christian has this desire
according to his religion." I was afterwards grieved in spirit to think
that marriages, which in the most ancient times had been most holy, were
so wretchedly changed into adulteries. The angel said, "The case is the
same at this day with religion; for the Lord says '_In the consummation
of the age there will be the abomination of desolation foretold by
Daniel. And there will be great affliction, such as there has not been
from the beginning of the world_,' Matt. xxiv. 15, 21. The abomination
of desolation signifies the falsification and deprivation of all truth;
affliction signifies the state of the church infested by evils and
falses; and the consummation of the age, concerning which those things
are spoken, signifies the last time or end of the church. The end is
now, because there does not remain a truth which is not falsified; and
the falsification of truth is spiritual whoredom, which acts in unity
with natural whoredom, because they cohere."

81. As we were conversing and lamenting together on this occasion, there
suddenly appeared a beam of light, which, darting powerfully upon my
eyes, caused me to look up: and lo! the whole heaven above us appeared
luminous; and from the east to the west in an extended series we heard a
GLORIFICATION: and the angel said to me, "That is a glorification of the
Lord on account of his coming, and is made by the angels of the eastern
and western heavens." From the northern and southern heavens nothing was
heard but a soft and pleasing murmur. As the angel understood
everything, he told me first, that glorifications and celebrations of
the Lord are made from the Word, because then they are made from the
Lord; for the Lord is the Word, that is, the essential divine truth
therein; and he said, "Now in particular they glorify and celebrate the
Lord by these words, which were spoken by Daniel the prophet, '_Thou
sawest iron mixed with miry clay; they shall mingle themselves together
by the seed of man; but they shall not cohere. Nevertheless in those
days the God of the heavens shall cause a kingdom to arise, which shall
not perish for ages. It shall bruise and consume those kingdoms; but
itself shall stand for ages_.' Dan. ii. 43, 44." After this, I heard as
it were the voice of singing, and further in the east I saw a glittering
of light more resplendent than the former; and I asked the angel what
was the subject of their glorification? He said, "These words in Daniel;
'_I saw in the visions of the night, and lo! with the clouds of heaven
there came as it were the SON OF MAN: and to him was given dominion and
a kingdom; and all people and nations shall worship him. His dominion is
the dominion of an age, which shall not pass away; and his kingdom that
which shall not perish_,' Dan. vii. 13, 14. They are further celebrating
the Lord from these words in the Revelation: '_To JESUS CHRIST be glory
and strength: behold he cometh with clouds. He is alpha and omega, the
beginning and the end, the first and the last; who is, who was, and who
is to come, the almighty. I, John, heard this from the SON OF MAN, out
of the midst of the seven candlesticks_,' Rev. i. 5-7, 10-13; chap.
xxii. 13; Matt. xxiv. 30, 31." I looked again into the eastern heaven:
it was enlightened on the right side, and the light entered the southern
expanse. I heard a sweet sound; and I asked the angel, what was the
subject of their glorification in that quarter respecting the Lord? He
said, "These words in the Revelation: '_I saw a new heaven and a new
earth; and I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out
of heaven, prepared as a BRIDE for her HUSBAND: and the angel spake with
me, and said, Come, I will shew thee the BRIDE, THE LAMB'S WIFE: and he
carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed
me the holy city, Jerusalem_,' Rev. xxi. 1, 2, 9, 10: also these words,
'I JESUS _am the bright and morning star; and the spirit and the bride
say, COME; AND HE SAID, EVEN I COME QUICKLY; Amen: even COME, LORD
JESUS_,' Rev. xxii. 16, 17, 20." After these and several other subjects
of glorification, there was heard a common glorification from the east
to the west of heaven, and also from the south to the north; and I asked
the angel, "What now is the subject?" He said, "These words from the
prophets; '_Let all flesh know that I, JEHOVAH, AM THY SAVIOUR AND THY
REDEEMER_,' Isaiah xlix. 26. '_Thus saith JEHOVAH, the King of Israel,
and HIS REDEEMER, JEHOVAH ZEBAOTH, I am the first and the last, and
BESIDE ME THERE IS NO GOD_,' Isaiah xliv. 6. '_It shall be said in that
day, LO! THIS IS OUR GOD, whom we have expected to deliver us; THIS is
JEHOVAH WHOM WE HAVE EXPECTED_.' Isaiah xxv. 9. '_The voice of him that
crieth in the wilderness, Prepare a way for JEHOVAH. Behold the LORD
JEHOVAH cometh in strength. He shall feed his flock like a SHEPHERD_,'
Isaiah xl. 3, 10, 11. '_Unto us a child is born; unto us a son is given;
whose name is Wonderful Counsellor, GOD, Hero, FATHER OF ETERNITY,
Prince of Peace_,' Isaiah ix. 6. '_Behold the days will come, and I will
raise up to David a righteous branch, who shall reign a King: and this
is his name, JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS_,' Jeremiah xxiii. 5, 6; chap,
xxxiii. 15, 16. '_JEHOVAH ZEBAOTH is his name, and THY REDEEMER the holy
one of Israel: THE GOD OF THE WHOLE EARTH SHALL HE BE CALLED_,' Isaiah
liv. 5. 'IN THAT DAY THERE SHALL BE ONE JEHOVAH, AND HIS NAME ONE,'
Zech. xiv. 9." On hearing and understanding these words, my heart
exulted, and I went home with joy; and there I returned out of a state
of the spirit into a state of the body; in which latter state I
committed to writing what I had seen and heard: to which I now add the
following particular. That conjugial love, such as it was with the
ancients, will be revived again by the Lord after his coming; because
this love is from the Lord alone, and is the portion of those who from
him, by means of the Word, are made spiritual.

82. After this, a man from the northern quarter came running in great
haste, and looked at me with a threatening countenance, and addressing
me in a passionate tone of voice, said, "Are you the man that wishes to
seduce the world, under the notion of re-establishing a new church,
which you understand by the New Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from
God; and teaching, that the Lord will endow with love truly conjugial
those who embrace the doctrines of that church; the delights and
felicity of which love you exalt to the very heaven? Is not this a mere
fiction? and do you not hold it forth as a bait and enticement to accede
to your new opinions? But tell me briefly, what are the doctrinals of
the New Church, and I will see whether they agree or disagree." I
replied, "The doctrines of the church, which is meant by the New
Jerusalem, are as follow: I. That there is one God, in whom there is a
divine trinity; and that he is the LORD JESUS CHRIST. II. That a saving
faith is to believe on him. III. That evils are to be shunned, because
they are of the devil and from the devil. IV. That goods are to be done,
because they are of God and from God. V. That these are to be done by a
man as from himself; but that it ought to be believed, that they are
done from the Lord with him and by him." On hearing these doctrines, his
fury for some moments abated; but after some deliberation he again
looked at me sternly, and said, "Are these five precepts the doctrines
of faith and charity of the New Church?" I replied, "They are." He then
asked sharply, "How can you demonstrate the FIRST, 'that there is one
God in whom there is a divine trinity; and that he is the Lord Jesus
Christ?" I said, "I demonstrate it thus: Is not God one and individual?
Is not there a trinity? If God be one and individual, is not he one
person? If he be one person, is not the trinity in that person? That
this God is the LORD JESUS CHRIST, is evident from these considerations,
that he was conceived from God the Father, Luke i. 34, 35; and thus that
as to his soul he is God; and hence, as he himself saith, that the
Father and himself are one, John x. 30; that he is in the Father, and
the Father in him, John xix. 10, 11; that he that seeth him and knoweth
him, seeth and knoweth the Father, John xiv. 7, 9; that no one seeth and
knoweth the Father, except he that is in the bosom of the Father, John
i. 18; that all things of the Father are his, John iii. 35; chap. xvi.
15; that he is the Way, the Truth, and the Life; and that no one cometh
to the Father but by him, John xiv. 6; thus of or from him, because the
Father is in him; and, according to Paul, that all the fulness of the
Godhead dwelleth bodily in him, Coloss. ii. 9; and moreover, that he
hath power over all flesh, John xvii. 2; and that he hath all power in
heaven and in earth, Matt, xxviii. 18: from which declarations it
follows, that he is God of heaven and earth." He afterwards asked how I
proved the SECOND, "that a saving faith is to believe on him?" I said,
"By these words of the Lord, 'This is the will of the Father, that every
one that BELIEVETH ON THE SON should have eternal life, John vi. 40.'
'God so loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son, that every
one that BELIEVETH ON HIM should not perish, but should have eternal
life,' John iii. 15, 16. 'HE THAT BELIEVETH ON THE SON, hath eternal
life; but he that believeth not the Son will not see life; but the wrath
of God abideth on him,' John iii. 36." He afterwards said, "Demonstrate
also the THIRD, and the next two doctrines:" I replied, "What need is
there to demonstrate 'that evils ought to be shunned, because they are
of the devil and from the devil; and that goods ought to be done,
because they are of God and from God;' also 'that the latter are to be
done by a man as from himself; but that he ought to believe that they
are from the Lord with him and by him?' That these three doctrines are
true, is confirmed by the whole Sacred Scripture from beginning to end;
for what else is therein principally insisted on, but to shun evils and
do goods, and believe on the Lord God? Moreover, without these three
doctrines there can be no religion: for does not religion relate to
life? and what is life but to shun evils and do goods? and how can a man
do the latter and shun the former but as from himself? Therefore if you
remove these doctrines from the church, you remove from it the Sacred
Scripture, and also religion; and these being removed, the church is no
longer a church." The man on hearing this retired, and mused on what he
had heard; but still he departed in indignation.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE ORIGIN OF CONJUGIAL LOVE AS GROUNDED IN THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND
TRUTH.

83. There are both internal and external origins of conjugial love, and
several of each; nevertheless there is but one inmost or universal
origin of all. That this origin is the marriage of good and truth, shall
be demonstrated in what now follows. The reason why no one heretofore
has deduced the origin of that love from this ground, is, because it has
never yet been discovered that there is any union between good and
truth; and the reason why this discovery has not been made, is, because
good does not appear in the light of the understanding, as truth does,
and hence the knowledge of it conceals itself and evades every inquiry:
and as from this circumstance good is as it were unknown, it was
impossible for any one to conjecture that any marriage subsisted between
it and truth: yea, before the rational natural sight, good appears so
different from truth, that no conjunction between them can be supposed.
That this is the case, may be seen from common discourse whenever they
are mentioned; as when it is said, "This is good," truth is not at all
thought of; and when it is said, "This is true," neither is good at all
thought of; therefore at this day it is believed by many, that truth is
one thing and good another; and by many also, that a man is intelligent
and wise, and thereby a man (_homo_), according to the truths which he
thinks, speaks, writes, and believes, and not at the same time according
to goods. That nevertheless there is no good without truth, nor any
truth without good, consequently that there is an eternal marriage
between them; also that this marriage is the origin of conjugial love,
shall now be shewn and explained in the following order: I. _Good and
truth are the universals of creation, and thence are in all created
things; but they are in created subjects according to the form of each._
II. _There is neither solitary good nor solitary truth, but in all cases
they are conjoined._ III. _There is the truth of good, and from this the
good of truth; or truth grounded in good, and good grounded in that
truth: and in those two principles is implanted from creation an
inclination to join themselves together into a one._ IV. _In the
subjects of the animal kingdom, the truth of good, or truth grounded in
good, is male (or masculine); and the good of that truth, or good
grounded in that truth, is female (or feminine)._ V. _From the influx of
the marriage of good and truth from the Lord, the love of the sex and
conjugial love are derived._ VI. _The love of the sex belongs to the
external or natural man, and hence it is common to every animal._ VII.
_But conjugial love belongs to the internal or spiritual man; and hence
this love is peculiar to man._ VIII. _With man conjugial love is in the
love of the sex as a gem in its matrix._ IX. _The love of the sex with
man is not the origin of conjugial love, but its first rudiment; thus it
is like an external natural principle, in which an internal spiritual
principle is implanted._ X. _During the implantation of conjugial love,
the love of the sex inverts itself and becomes the chaste love of the
sex._ XI. _The male and the female were created to be the essential form
of the marriage of good and truth._ XII. _They are that form in their
inmost principles, and thence in what is derived from those principles,
in proportion as the interiors of their minds are opened._ We will now
proceed to the explanation.

84. I. GOOD AND TRUTH ARE THE UNIVERSALS OF CREATION, AND THENCE ARE IN
ALL CREATED THINGS; BUT THEY ARE IN CREATED SUBJECTS ACCORDING TO THE
FORM OF EACH. The reason why good and truth are the universals of
creation, is, because these two are in the Lord God the Creator; yea,
they are himself; for he is essential divine good and essential divine
truth. But this enters more clearly into the perception of the
understanding, and thereby into the ideas of thought, if instead of good
we say love, and instead of truth we say wisdom: consequently that in
the Lord God the Creator there are divine love and divine wisdom, and
that they are himself; that is, that he is essential love and essential
wisdom; for those two are the same as good and truth. The reason of this
is, because good has relation to love, and truth to wisdom; for love
consists of goods, and wisdom truths. As the two latter and the two
former are one and the same, in the following pages we shall sometimes
speak of the latter and sometimes of the former, while by both the same
is understood. This preliminary observation is here made, lest different
meanings should be attached to the expressions when they occur in the
following pages.

85. Since therefore the Lord God the Creator is essential love and
essential wisdom, and from him was created the universe, which thence is
as a work proceeding from him, it must needs be, that in all created
things there is somewhat of good and of truth from him; for whatever is
done and proceeds from any one, derives from him a certain similarity to
him. That this is the case, reason also may see from the order in which
all things in the universe were created; which order is, that one exists
for the sake of another, and that thence one depends upon another, like
the links of a chain: for all things are for the sake of the human race,
that from it the angelic heaven may exist, through which creation
returns to the Creator himself, in whom it originated: hence there is a
conjunction of the created universe with its Creator, and by conjunction
everlasting conservation. Hence it is that good and truth are called the
universals of creation. That this is the case, is manifested to every
one who takes a rational view of the subject: he sees in every created
thing something which relates to good, and something which relates to
truth.

86. The reason why good and truth in created subjects are according to
the form of each, is, because every subject receives influx according to
its form. The conservation of the whole consists in the perpetual influx
of divine good and divine truth into forms created from those
principles; for thereby subsistence or conservation is perpetual
existence or creation. That every subject receives influx according to
its form, may be illustrated variously; as by the influx of heat and
light from the sun into vegetables of every kind; each of which receives
influx according to its form; thus every tree and shrub according to its
form, every herb and every blade of grass according to its form: the
influx is alike into all; but the reception, which is according to the
form, causes every species to continue a peculiar species. The same
thing may also be illustrated by the influx into animals of every kind
according to the form of each. That the influx is according to the form
of every particular thing, may also be seen by the most unlettered
person, if he attends to the various instruments of sound, as pipes,
flutes, trumpets, horns, and organs which give forth a sound from being
blown alike, or from a like influx of air, according to their respective
forms.

87. II. THERE IS NEITHER SOLITARY GOOD NOR SOLITARY TRUTH. BUT IN ALL
CASES THEY ARE CONJOINED. Whoever is desirous from any of the senses to
acquire an idea respecting good, cannot possibly find it without the
addition of something which exhibits and manifests it: good without this
is a nameless entity; and this something, by which it is exhibited and
manifested, has relation to truth. Pronounce the term _good_ only, and
say nothing at the same time of this or that thing with which it is
conjoined; or define it abstractedly, or without the addition of
anything connected with it; and you will see that it is a mere nothing,
and that it becomes something with its addition; and if you examine the
subject with discernment, you will perceive that good, without some
addition, is a term of no predication, and thence of no relation, of no
affection, and of no state; in a word, of no quality. The case is
similar in regard to truth, if it be pronounced and heard without what
it is joined with: that what it is joined with relates to good, may be
seen by refined reason. But since goods are innumerable, and each
ascends to its greatest, and descends to its least, as by the steps of a
ladder, and also, according to its progression and quality, varies its
name, it is difficult for any but the wise to see the relation of good
and truth to their objects, and their conjunction in them. That
nevertheless there is not any good without truth, nor any truth without
good, is manifest from common perception, provided it be first
acknowledged that every thing in the universe has relation to good and
truth; as was shewn in the foregoing article, n. 84, 85. That there is
neither solitary good nor solitary truth, may be illustrated and at the
same time confirmed by various considerations; as by the following: that
there is no essence without a form, nor any form without an essence; for
good is an essence or _esse_; and truth is that by which the essence is
formed and the _esse_ exists. Again in a man (_homo_) there are the will
and the understanding. Good is of the will, and truth is of the
understanding; and the will alone does nothing but by the understanding;
nor does the understanding alone do anything but from the will. Again,
in a man there are two fountains of bodily life, the heart and the
lungs. The heart cannot produce any sensitive and moving life without
the respiring lungs; neither can the lungs without the heart. The heart
has relation to good, and the respiration of the lungs to truth: there
is also a correspondence between them. The case is similar in all the
things of the mind and of the body belonging to him; but we have not
leisure to produce further confirmations in this place; therefore the
reader is referred to the ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING THE DIVINE
PROVIDENCE, n. 3-16, where this subject is more fully confirmed and
explained in the following order: I. That the universe with all its
created subjects, is from the divine love by the divine wisdom; or, what
is the same thing, from the divine good by the divine truth. II. That
the divine good and the divine truth proceed as a one from the Lord.
III. That this one, in a certain image, is in every created thing. V.
That good is not good, only so far as it is united with truth; and that
truth is not truth, only so far as it is united with good. VII. That the
Lord doesn't suffer that any thing should be divided; wherefore a man
must either be in good and at the same time in truth, or in evil and at
the same time in falsehood: not to mention several other considerations.

88. III. THERE IS THE TRUTH OF GOOD, AND FROM THIS THE GOOD OF TRUTH; OR
TRUTH GROUNDED IN GOOD, AND GOOD GROUNDED IN THAT TRUTH; AND IN THOSE
TWO PRINCIPLES IS IMPLANTED FROM CREATION AN INCLINATION TO JOIN
THEMSELVES TOGETHER INTO A ONE. It is necessary that some distinct idea
be acquired concerning these principles; because on such idea depends
all knowledge respecting the essential origin of conjugial love: for, as
will be seen presently, the truth of good, or truth grounded on good, is
male (or masculine), and the good of truth, or good grounded in that
truth, is female (or feminine): but this may be comprehended more
distinctly, if instead of good we speak of love, and instead of truth we
speak of wisdom; which are one and the same, as may be seen above, n.
84. Wisdom cannot exist with a man but by means of the love of growing
wise; if this love be taken away, it is altogether impossible for him to
become wise. Wisdom derived from this love is meant by the truth of
good, or by truth grounded in good: but when a man has procured to
himself wisdom from that love, and loves it in himself, or himself for
its sake, he then forms a love which is the love of wisdom, and is meant
by the good of truth, or by good grounded in that truth. There are
therefore two loves belonging to a man, whereof one, which is prior, is
the love of growing wise; and the other, which is posterior, is the love
of wisdom: but this latter love if it remains with man, is an evil love,
and is called self-conceit, or the love of his own intelligence. That it
was provided from creation, that this love should be taken out of the
man, lest it should destroy him, and should be transferred to the woman,
for the effecting of conjugial love, which restores man to integrity,
will be confirmed in the following pages. Something respecting those two
loves, and the transfer of the latter to the woman, may be seen above,
n. 32, 33, and in the preliminary MEMORABLE RELATION, n. 20. If
therefore instead of love is understood good, and instead of wisdom
truth, it is evident, from what has been already said, that there exists
the truth of good, or truth grounded in good, and from this the good of
truth, or good grounded in that truth.

89. The reason why in these two principles there is implanted from
creation an inclination to join themselves together into a one, is
because the one was formed from the other; wisdom being formed from the
love of growing wise, or truth being formed from good; and the love of
wisdom being formed from that wisdom, or the good of truth from that
truth; from which formation it may be seen, that there is a mutual
inclination to re-unite themselves, and to join themselves together into
a one. This effect takes place with men who are in genuine wisdom, and
with women who are in the love of that wisdom in the husband; thus with
those who are in love truly conjugial. But concerning the wisdom which
ought to exist with the man, and which should be loved by the wife, more
will be said in what follows.

90. IV. IN THE SUBJECT OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM THE TRUTH OF GOOD, OR TRUTH
GROUNDED IN GOOD, IS MALE (OR MASCULINE); AND THE GOOD OF THAT TRUTH, OR
GOOD GROUNDED IN THAT TRUTH, IS FEMALE (OR FEMININE). That from the
Lord, the Creator and Supporter of the universe, there flows a perpetual
union of love and wisdom, or a marriage of good and truth, and that
created subjects receive the influx, each according to its form, was
shewn above, n. 84-86: but that the male from this marriage, or from
that union, receives the truth of wisdom, and that the good of love from
the Lord is conjoined thereto according to reception, and that this
reception takes place in the intellect, and that hence the male is born
to become intellectual, reason, by its own light, may discover from
various particulars respecting him, especially from his affection,
application, manners, and form. It is discoverable from his AFFECTION,
which is the affection of knowing, of understanding, and of growing
wise; the affection of knowing takes place in childhood, the affection
of understanding in youth and in the entrance upon manhood, and the
affection of growing wise takes place from the entrance upon manhood
even to old age; from which it is evident, that his nature or peculiar
temper is inclinable to form the intellect; consequently that he is born
to become intellectual: but as this cannot be effected except by means
of love, therefore the Lord adjoins love to him according to his
reception; that is, according to his intention in desiring to grow wise.
The same is discoverable from his APPLICATION, which is to such things
as respect the intellect, or in which the intellect is predominant;
several of which relate to public offices and regard the public good.
The same is discoverable too from his MANNERS, which are all grounded in
the intellect as a ruling principle; in consequence whereof the actions
of his life, which are meant by manners, are rational; and if not, still
he is desirous they should appear so; masculine rationality is also
discernible in every one of his virtues. Lastly, the same is
discoverable from his FORM, which is different and totally distinct from
the female form; on which subject see also what was said above, n. 33.
Add to this, that the principle of prolification is in him, which is
derived from the intellect alone; for it is from truth grounded in good
in the intellect: that the principle of prolification is from this
source may be seen in the following pages.

91. But that the female is born to be a subject of the will (_ut sit
voluntaria_), yet a subject of the will as grounded in the intellectual
principle of the man, or what is the same, to be the love of the man's
wisdom, because she was formed through his wisdom, (on which subject see
above, n. 88, 89,) may also appear from the female's affection,
application, manners, and form. From her AFFECTION, which is the
affection of loving knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom; nevertheless
not in herself but in the man; and thus of loving the man: for the man
(_vir_) cannot be loved merely on account of his form, in that he
appears as a man (_homo_), but on account of the talent with which he is
gifted, which causes him to be a man. From her APPLICATION; in that it
is to such manual works as knitting, needlework, and the like, serving
for ornament, both to decorate herself and to exalt her beauty: and
moreover from her application to various domestic duties, which connect
themselves with the duties of men, which, as was said, relate to public
offices. They are led to these duties from an inclination to marriage,
that they may become wives, and thereby one with their husbands. That
the same is also discoverable from their MANNERS and FORM, needs no
explanation.

92. V. FROM THE INFLUX OF THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH FROM THE LORD,
THE LOVE OF THE SEX AND CONJUGIAL LOVE ARE DERIVED. That good and truth
are the universals of creation, and thence are in all created subjects;
and that they are in created subjects according to the form of each; and
that good and truth proceed from the Lord not as two but as one, was
shewn above, n. 84-87: from these considerations it follows, that the
UNIVERSAL CONJUGIAL SPHERE proceeds from the Lord, and pervades the
universe from its primaries to its ultimates; thus from angels even to
worms. The reason why such a sphere of the marriage of good and truth
proceeds from the Lord, is, because it is also the sphere of
propagation, that is, of prolification and fructification; and this
sphere is the same with the divine providence relating to the
preservation of the universe by successive generations. Now since this
universal sphere, which is that of the marriage of good and truth, flows
into its subjects according to the form of each, see n. 86, it follows
that the male receives it according to his form, thus in the intellect,
because he is in an intellectual form; and that the female receives it
according to her form, thus in the will, because she is a form of the
will grounded in the intellect of the man; and since that sphere is also
the sphere of prolification, it follows that hence is the love of the
sex.

93. The reason why conjugial love also is from this same source, is,
because that sphere flows into the form of wisdom with men, and also
with angels; for a man may increase in wisdom to the end of his life in
the world, and afterwards to eternity in heaven; and in proportion as he
increases in wisdom, his form is perfected; and this form receives not
the love of the sex, but the love of one of the sex; for with one of the
sex it may be united to the inmost principles in which heaven with its
felicities consists, and this union is conjugial love.

94. VI. THE LOVE OF THE SEX BELONGS TO THE EXTERNAL OR NATURAL MAN, AND
HENCE IT IS COMMON TO EVERY ANIMAL. Every man is born corporeal, and
becomes more and more interiorly natural, and in proportion as he loves
intelligence he becomes rational, and afterwards, if he loves wisdom, he
becomes spiritual. What the wisdom is by which a man becomes spiritual,
will be shewn in the following pages, n. 130. Now as a man advances from
knowledge into intelligence, and from intelligence into wisdom, so also
his mind changes its form; for it is opened more and more, and conjoins
itself more nearly with heaven, and by heaven with the Lord; hence it
becomes more enamored of truth, and more desirous of the good of life.
If therefore he halts at the threshold in the progression to wisdom, the
form of his natural mind remains; and this receives the influx of the
universal sphere, which is that of the marriage of good and truth, in
the same manner as it is received by the inferior subjects of the animal
kingdom--beasts and birds; and as these are merely natural, the man in
such case becomes like them, and thereby loves the sex just as they do.
This is what is meant by the assertion,--the love of the sex belongs to
the external or natural man, and hence it is common to every animal.

95. VII. BUT CONJUGIAL LOVE BELONGS TO THE INTERNAL OR SPIRITUAL MAN;
AND HENCE THIS LOVE IS PECULIAR TO MAN. The reason why conjugial love
belongs to the internal or spiritual man is, because in proportion as a
man becomes more intelligent and wise, in the same proportion he becomes
more internal and spiritual, and in the same proportion the form of his
mind is more perfected; and this form receives conjugial love: for
therein it perceives and is sensible of a spiritual delight, which is
inwardly blessed, and a natural delight thence arising, which derives
its soul, life, and essence from the spiritual delight.

96. The reason why conjugial love is peculiar to man, is because he only
can become spiritual, he being capable of elevating his intellect above
his natural loves, and from that state of elevation of seeing them
beneath him, and of judging of their quality, and also of amending,
correcting, and removing them. No other animal can do this; for the
loves of other animals are altogether united with their inborn
knowledge; on which account this knowledge cannot be elevated into
intelligence, and still less into wisdom; in consequence of which every
other animal is led by the love implanted in his knowledge, as a blind
person is led through the streets by a dog. This is the reason which
conjugial love is peculiar to man; it may also be called native and near
akin to him; because man has the faculty of growing wise, with which
faculty this love is united.

97. VIII. WITH MAN CONJUGIAL LOVE IS IN THE LOVE OF THE SEX AS A GEM IN
ITS MATRIX. As this however is merely a comparison, we will explain it
in the article which immediately follows: this comparison also
illustrates what was shown just above, n. 94, 95,--that the love of the
sex belongs to the external or natural man, and conjugial love to the
internal or spiritual man.

98. IX. THE LOVE OF THE SEX WITH MAN IS NOT THE ORIGIN OF CONJUGIAL
LOVE, BUT ITS FIRST RUDIMENT; THUS IT IS LIKE AN EXTERNAL NATURAL
PRINCIPLE, IN WHICH AN INTERNAL SPIRITUAL PRINCIPLE IS IMPLANTED. The
subject here treated of is love truly conjugial, and not ordinary love,
which also is called conjugial, and which with some is merely the
limited love of the sex. Love truly conjugial exists only with those who
desire wisdom, and who consequently advance more and more into wisdom.
These the Lord foresees, and provides for them conjugial love; which
love indeed commences with them from the love of the sex, or rather by
it; but still it does not originate in it; for it originates in
proportion to the advancement in wisdom and the dawning of the light
thereof in man; for wisdom and that love are inseparable companions. The
reason why conjugial love commences by the love of the sex is, because
before a suitable consort is found, the sex in general is loved and
regarded with a fond eye, and is treated with civility from a moral
ground: for a young man has to make his choice; and while this is
determining, from an innate inclination to marriage with one, which lies
concealed in the interiors of his mind, his external receives a gentle
warmth. A further reason is, because determinations to marriage are
delayed from various causes even to riper years, and in the mean time
the beginning of that love is as lust; which with some actually goes
astray into the love of the sex; yet with them it is indulged no further
than may be conducive to health. This, however, is to be understood as
spoken of the male sex, because it has enticements which actually
inflame it; but not of the female sex. From these considerations it is
evident that the love of the sex is not the origin of love truly
conjugial; but that it is its first rudiment in respect to time, yet not
in respect to end; for what is first in respect to end, is first in the
mind and its intention, because it is regarded as primary; but to this
first there is no approaching unless successively through mediums, and
these are not first in themselves, but only conducive to what is first
in itself.

99. X. DURING THE IMPLANTATION OF CONJUGIAL LOVE, THE LOVE OF THE SEX
INVERTS ITSELF AND BECOMES THE CHASTE LOVE OF THE SEX. It is said that
in this case the love of the sex inverts itself; because while conjugial
love is coming to its origin, which is in the interiors of the mind, it
sees the love of the sex not before itself but behind, or not above
itself but beneath, and thus as somewhat which it passes by and leaves.
The case herein is similar to that of a person climbing from one office
to another through a great variety, till he reaches one which exceeds
the rest in dignity; when he looks back upon the offices through which
he had passed, as behind or beneath him; or as when a person intends a
journey to the palace of some king, after his arrival at his journey's
end, he inverts his view in regard to the objects which he had seen in
the way. That in this case the love of the sex remains and becomes
chaste, and yet, to those who are principled in love truly conjugial, is
sweeter than it was before, may be seen from the description given of it
by those in the spiritual world, in the two MEMORABLE RELATIONS, n. 44,
and 55.

100. XI. THE MALE AND THE FEMALE WERE CREATED TO BE THE ESSENTIAL FORM
OF THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH. The reason for this is, because the
male was created to be the understanding of truth, thus truth in form;
and the female was created to be the will of good, thus good in form;
and there is implanted in each, from their inmost principles, an
inclination to conjunction into a one, as may be seen above, n. 88; thus
the two make one form, which emulates the conjugial form of good and
truth. It is said to emulate it, because it is not the same, but is like
it; for the good which joins itself with the truth belonging to the man,
is from the Lord immediately; whereas the good of the wife, which joins
itself with the truth belonging to the man, is from the Lord mediately
through the wife; therefore there are two goods, the one internal, the
other external, which join themselves with the truth belonging to the
husband, and cause him to be constantly in the understanding of truth,
and thence in wisdom, by love truly conjugial: but on this subject more
will be said in the following pages.

101. XII. MARRIED PARTNERS ARE THAT FORM IN THEIR INMOST PRINCIPLES, AND
THENCE IN WHAT IS DERIVED FROM THOSE PRINCIPLES, IN PROPORTION AS THE
INTERIORS OF THEIR MINDS ARE OPENED. There are three things of which
every man consists, and which follow in an orderly connection,--the
soul, the mind, and the body: his inmost is the soul, his middle is the
mind, and his ultimate is the body. Every thing which flows from the
Lord into a man, flows into his inmost principle, which is the soul, and
descends thence into his middle principle, which is the mind, and
through this into his ultimate principle, which is the body. Such is the
nature of the influx of the marriage of good and truth from the Lord
with man: it flows immediately into his soul, and thence proceeds to the
principles next succeeding, and through these to the extreme or
outermost: and thus conjointly all the principles constitute conjugial
love. From an idea of this influx it is manifest, that two married
partners are the form of conjugial love in their inmost principles, and
thence in those derived from the inmost.

102. But the reason why married partners become that form in proportion
as the interiors of their minds are opened, is, because the mind is
successively opened from infancy even to extreme old age: for a man is
born corporeal: and in proportion as the mind is opened proximately
above the body, he becomes rational; and in proportion as his rational
principle is purified, and as it were drained of the fallacies which
flow in from the bodily senses, and of the concupiscences which flow in
from the allurements of the flesh, in the same proportion it is opened;
and this is affected solely by wisdom: and when the interiors of the
rational mind are open, the man becomes a form of wisdom; and this form
is the receptacle of love truly conjugial. "The wisdom which constitutes
this form, and receives this love, is rational, and at the same time
moral, wisdom: rational wisdom regards the truths and goods which appear
inwardly in man, not as its own, but as flowing in from the Lord; and
moral wisdom shuns evils and falses as leprosies, especially the evils
of lasciviousness, which contaminate its conjugial love."

       *       *       *       *       *

103. To the above I shall add two MEMORABLE RELATIONS: the FIRST is
this. One morning before sun-rise I was looking towards the east in the
spiritual world, and I saw four horsemen as it were issuing from a cloud
refulgent with the flame of the dawning day. On their heads they had
crested helmets, on their arms as it were wings, and around their bodies
light orange-colored tunics; thus clad as for expedition, they rose in
their seats, and gave their horses the reins, which thus ran as if they
had had wings to their feet. I kept my eye fixed on their course or
flight, desiring to know where they were going; and lo! three of the
horsemen took their direction towards three different quarters, the
south, the west, and the north; and the fourth in a short space of time
halted in the east. Wondering at all this, I looked up into heaven, and
inquired where those horsemen were going? I received for answer, "To the
wise men in the kingdoms of Europe, who with clear reasoning and acute
discernment discuss the subjects of their investigation, and are
distinguished above the rest for their genius, that they may assemble
together and explain the secret RESPECTING THE ORIGIN OF CONJUGIAL LOVE,
AND RESPECTING ITS VIRTUE OR POTENCY."

It was then said from heaven, "Wait awhile, and you will see
twenty-seven chariots; three, in which are Spaniards; three, in which
are Frenchmen; three, in which are Italians; three, in which are
Germans; three, in which are Dutchmen or Hollanders; three, in which are
Englishmen; three, in which are Swedes; three, in which are Danes; and
three, in which are Poles." In about two hours I saw the chariots, drawn
by horses of a pale-red color, with remarkable trappings: they passed
rapidly along towards a spacious house in the confines of the east and
south, around which all alighted from their several chariots, and
entered in with much confidence. Then it was said to me, "Go, and do you
also enter, and you will hear." I went and entered: and on examining the
house within, I saw that it was square, the sides looking to the four
quarters: in each side there were three high windows of crystalline
glass, the frames of which were of olive-wood; on each side of the
frames were projections from the walls, like chambers vaulted above, in
which there were tables. The walls of these chambers were of cedar, the
roof of the noble almug wood, and the floor of poplar boards. Near the
eastern wall, where no windows were seen, there was set a table overlaid
with gold, on which was placed a TURBAN set with precious stones, which
was to be given as a prize or reward to him who should by investigation
discover the secret about to be proposed. While my attention was
directed to the chamber projections like closets near the windows, I saw
five men in each from every kingdom of Europe, who were prepared and
waiting to know the object for the exercise of their judgements. An
angel then presented himself in the middle of the palace, and said, "The
object for the exercise of your judgements shall be RESPECTING THE
ORIGIN OF CONJUGIAL LOVE, AND RESPECTING ITS VIRTUE OR POTENCY.
Investigate this and decide upon it; and write your decision on a piece
of paper, and put it into the silver urn which you see placed near the
golden table, and subscribe the initial letter of the kingdom from which
you come; as F for French, B for Batavians or Hollanders, I for
Italians, E for English, P for Poles, G for German, H for Spaniards
(_Hispani_), D for Danes, S for Swedes." As he said this, the angel
departed, saying, "I will return." Then the five men, natives of the
same country, in each closet near the windows, took into consideration
the proposed subject, examined it attentively, and came to a decision
according to their respective talents and powers of judgement, which
they wrote on a piece of paper, and placed it in the silver urn, having
first subscribed the initial letter of their kingdom. This business
being accomplished in about three hours, the angel returned and drew the
papers in order from the urn, and read them before the assembly.

104. From the FIRST PAPER which he happened to lay hold of, he read as
follows; "We five, natives of the same country, in one closet have
decreed that the origin of conjugial love is from the most ancient
people in the golden age, and that it was derived to them from the
creation of Adam and his wife; hence is the origin of marriages, and
with marriages the origin of conjugial love. The virtue or potency of
conjugial love we derive from no other source than climate or situation
in regard to the sun, and the consequent heat of the country; and we are
confirmed in this sentiment, not by vain conjectures of reason, but by
evident proofs of experience, as by the case of the people who live
under the line, or the equinoctial, where the heat of the day is
intense, and by the case of those who live nearer to the line, or more
distant from it; and also from the co-operation of the sun's heat with
the vital heat in the living creatures of the earth and the fowls of
heaven, in the time of spring during prolification. Moreover, what is
conjugial love but heat, which becomes virtue or potency, if the heat
supplied from the sun be added to it?" To this decision was subscribed
the letter H, the initial of the kingdom from which they were.

105. After this he put his hand into the urn a SECOND TIME, and took out
a paper from which he read as follows: "We, natives of the same country,
in our lodge have agreed that the origin of conjugial love is the same
with the origin of marriages, which were sanctioned by laws in order to
restrain man's innate concupiscences prompting him to adultery, which
ruins the soul, defiles the reason, pollutes the morals, and infects the
body with disease: for adultery is not human but bestial, not rational
but brutish, and thus not in any respect Christian but barbarous: with a
view to the condemnation of such adultery, marriages originated, and at
the same time conjugial love. The case is the same with the virtue or
potency of this love; for it depends on chastity, which consists in
abstaining from the rovings of whoredom: the reason is, because virtue
or potency, with him who loves his married partner alone, is confined to
one, and is thus collected and as it were concentrated; and then it
becomes refined like a quintessence from which all defilement is
separated, which would otherwise be dispersed and cast away in every
direction. One of us five, who is a priest, has also added
predestination as a cause of that virtue or potency, saying, 'Are not
marriages predestinated? and this being the case, are not the progeny
thence issuing and the means conducive thereto, predestinated also?' He
insisted on adding this cause because he had sworn to it." To this
decision was subscribed the letter B. On hearing it, a certain spirit
observed with a smile, "How fair an apology is predestination for
weakness or impotence!"

106. Presently he drew from the urn a THIRD PAPER, from which he read as
follows: "We, natives of the same country, in our department have
deliberated concerning the causes of the origin of conjugial love, and
have seen this to be the principal, that it is the same with the origin
of marriage, because conjugial love had no existence before marriage;
and the ground of its existence is, that when any one is desperately in
love with a virgin, he desires in heart and soul to possess her as being
lovely above all things; and as soon as she betroths herself to him he
regards her as another self. That this is the origin of conjugial love,
is clearly manifest from the fury of every man against his rivals, and
from the jealousy which takes place in case of violation. We afterwards
considered the origin of the virtue or potency of this love; and the
sentiments of three prevailed against the other two, viz., that virtue
or potency with a married partner arises from some degree of
licentiousness with the sex. They affirmed that they knew from
experience that the potency of the love of the sex is greater than the
potency of conjugial love." To this decision was subscribed the letter
I. On hearing it, there was a cry from the table, "Remove this paper and
take another out of the urn."

107. And instantly he drew out a FOURTH, from which he read as follows:
"We, natives of the same country, under our window have come to this
conclusion, that the origin of conjugial love and of the love of the sex
is the same, the former being derived from the latter; only that the
love of the sex is unlimited, indeterminate, loose, promiscuous, and
roving; whereas conjugial love is limited, determinate, fixed, regular,
and constant; and that this love therefore has been sanctioned and
established by the prudence of human wisdom as necessary to the
existence of every empire, kingdom, commonwealth, and even society; for
without it men would wander like droves of cattle in fields and forests,
with harlots and ravished females, and would fly from one habitation to
another to avoid the bloody murders, violations, and depredations,
whereby the whole human race would be in danger of being extirpated.
This is our opinion concerning the origin of conjugial love. But the
virtue or potency of conjugial love we deduce from an uninterrupted
state of bodily health continuing from infancy to old age; for the man
who always retains a sound constitution and enjoys a continual freedom
from sickness, feels his vigor unabated, while his fibres, nerves,
muscles, and sinews, are neither torpid, relaxed, nor feeble, but retain
the full strength of their powers: farewell." To this decision was
subscribed the letter E.

108. FIFTHLY, he drew a paper out of the urn, from which he read as
follows: "We, natives of the same country, at our table, from the
rationality of our minds, have examined into the origin of conjugial
love and of its virtue or potency; and from all the considerations which
have presented themselves, we have seen and concluded upon no other
origin of conjugial love than this: that every man, from incentives and
consequent incitements which are concealed in the interiors of his mind
and body, after indulging in various desires of his eyes, at length
fixes his mind and inclination on one of the female sex, until his
passion is determined entirely to her: from this moment his warmth is
enkindled more and more, until at length it becomes a flame; in this
state the inordinate love of the sex is banished, and conjugial love
takes its place. A youthful bridegroom under the influence of this
flame, knows no other than that the virtue or potency of this love will
never cease; for he wants experience and therefore knowledge respecting
a state of the failure of his powers, and of the coldness of love which
then succeeds to delights: conjugial love therefore has its origin in
this first ardor before the nuptial ceremony, and from the same source
it derives its virtue or potency; but this virtue or potency changes its
aspect after the nuptial ceremony, and decreases and increases; yet
still it continues with regular changes, or with decrease and increase,
even to old age, by means of prudent moderation, and by restraining the
libidinous desires which burst forth from the lurking places of the mind
not yet thoroughly purified: for libidinous desire precedes wisdom. This
is our judgement concerning the origin and continuance of conjugial
virtue or potency." To this decision was subscribed the letter P.

109. SIXTHLY, he drew out a paper, from which he read as follows: "We,
natives of the same country, from the fellowship subsisting among us,
have attentively considered the causes of the origin of conjugial love,
and have agreed in assigning two; one of which is the right education of
children, and the other the distinct possession of inheritances. We have
assigned these two, because they aim at and regard the same end, which
is the public good: and this end is obtained, because infants conceived
and born from conjugial love become proper and true children; and these
in consequence of the natural love of the parents, exalted by the
consideration of their offspring being legitimate, are educated to be
heirs of all their parents' possessions both spiritual and natural. That
the public good is founded on a right education of children and on a
distinct possession of inheritances, is obvious to reason. Of the love
of the sex and conjugial love, the latter appears as if it were one with
the former, but it is distinctly different; neither is the one love near
to the other, but within it; and what is within is more excellent than
what is without: and we have seen that conjugial love from creation is
within, and lies hid in the love of the sex, just as an almond does in
its shell; therefore when conjugial love comes out of its shell, which
is the love of the sex, it glitters before the angels like a gem, a
beryl, and astroites. The reason of this is, because on conjugial love
is inscribed the safety of the whole human race, which we conceive to be
understood by the public good. This is our judgement respecting the
origin of this love. With respect to the origin of its virtue or
potency, from a consideration of its causes, we have concluded it to be
the development and separation of conjugial love from the love of the
sex, which is effected by wisdom on the man's part, and by the love of
the man's wisdom on the part of the wife: for the love of the sex is
common to man and beast; whereas conjugial love is peculiar to men:
therefore so far as conjugial love is developed and separated from the
love of the sex, so far a man is a man and not a beast; and a man
acquires virtue or potency from his love, as a beast does from his." To
this decision was subscribed the letter G.

110. SEVENTHLY, he drew out a paper from which he read as follows: "We,
natives of the same country, in the chamber under the light of our
window, have found our thoughts and thence our judgements exhilarated by
meditating on conjugial love; for who is not exhilarated by this love,
which, while it prevails in the mind, prevails also through the whole
body? We judge of the origin of this love from its delights; for who in
any case knows or has known the trace of any love except from its
delight and pleasurableness? The delights of conjugial love in their
origins are felt as beatitudes, satisfactions, and happinesses, in their
derivations as pleasantnesses and pleasures, and in their ultimates as
superlative delights. The love of the sex therefore originates when the
interiors of the mind, and thence the interiors of the body, are opened
for the influx of those delights; but conjugial love originated at the
time when, from entering into marriage engagements, the primitive sphere
of that love ideally promoted those delights. The virtue or potency of
this love arises from its passing, with its inmost principles, from the
mind into the body; for the mind, by derivation from the head, is in the
body, while it feels and acts, especially when it is delighted from this
love: hence we judge of the degrees of its potency and the regularity of
its alterations. Moreover we also deduce the virtue of potency from the
stock whence a man is descended: if this be noble on the father's side,
it becomes also by transmission noble with his offspring. That such
nobility is generated, inherited and descends by transmission, is
agreeable to the dictates of reason supported by experience." To this
decision was subscribed the letter F.

111. From the paper which came forth the EIGHTH in order, he read as
follows: "We, natives of the same country, in our place of assembly have
not discovered the real origin of conjugial love, because it lies deeply
concealed in the sacred repositories of the mind. The most consummate
vision cannot, by any intellectual effort, reach that love in its
origin. We have made many conjectures; but after the vain exertion of
subtle inquiry, we have been in doubt whether our conjectures might not
be called rather trifling than judicious; therefore whoever is desirous
to extract the origin of that love from the sacred repositories of his
mind, and to exhibit it clearly before his eyes, let him go to
_Delphos_. We have contemplated that love beneath its origin, and have
seen that in the mind it is spiritual, and as a fountain from which a
sweet stream flows, whence it descends into the breast, where it becomes
delightful, and is called bosom love, which in itself is full of
friendship and confidence, from a full inclination to reciprocality; and
that when it has passed the breast, it becomes genial love. These and
similar considerations, which a young man revolves in his mind while he
is determining his choice to one of the sex, kindle in his heart the
fire of conjugial love; which fire, as it is the primitive of that love
is its origin. In respect to the origin of its virtue or potency, we
acknowledge no other than that love itself, they being inseparable
companions, yet still they are such that sometimes the one precedes and
sometimes the other. When the love precedes and the virtue or potency
follows it, each is noble because in this case potency is the virtue of
conjugial love; but if the potency precedes and the love follows, each
is then ignoble; because in this case the love is subordinate to carnal
potency; we therefore judge of the quality of each from the order in
which the love descends or ascends, and thus proceeds from its origin to
its proposed end." To this decision was subscribed the letter D.

112. Lastly, or NINTHLY, he took up a paper, from which he read as
follows: "We, natives of the same country, in our council-chamber have
exercised our judgement on the two points proposed, viz., the origin of
conjugial love, and the origin of its virtue or potency. In the
subtleties of inquiry respecting the origin of conjugial love, in order
to avoid obscurity in our reasonings, we have distinguished between the
love of the sex as being spiritual, natural, and carnal; and by the
spiritual love of the sex we have understood love truly conjugial,
because this is spiritual; and by the natural love of the sex we have
understood polygamical love, because this is natural; and by the merely
carnal love of the sex we have understood adulterous love because this
is merely carnal. In exercising our judgements to examine into love
truly conjugial, we have clearly seen that this love exists only between
one male and one female, and that from creation it is celestial and
inmost, the soul and father of all good loves, being inspired into the
first parents, and capable of being inspired into Christians; it is also
of such a conjunctive nature that by it two minds may become one mind,
and two men (_homines_) as it were one man (_homo_); which is meant by
becoming one flesh. That this love was inspired at creation, is plain
from these words in the book of creation, '_And a man shall leave father
and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and they shall be one flesh_,'
Gen. ii. 24. That it can be inspired into Christians, is evident from
these words, '_Jesus said, Have ye not read, that he who made them from
the beginning, made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall
a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and they
two shall be one flesh? Wherefore they are no longer two but one
flesh_,' Matt. xix. 4-6. So far in regard to the origin of conjugial
love: but as to the origin of the virtue or potency of love truly
conjugial, we conceive it to proceed from a similitude of minds and
unanimity; for when two minds are conjugially united, their thoughts
spiritually kiss each other, and these inspire into the body their
virtue or potency." To this decision was subscribed the letter S.

113. There were standing behind an oblong stage in the palace, erected
before the doors, some strangers from Africa, who cried out to the
natives of Europe, "Permit one of us to deliver his sentiments
respecting the origin of conjugial love, and respecting its virtue or
potency." And immediately all the tables gave signs of assent with their
hands. Then one of them entered and stood at the table on which the
turban was placed, and said, "You Christians deduce the origin of
conjugial love from love itself; but we Africans deduce it from the God
of heaven and earth. Is not conjugial love a chaste, pure, and holy
love? Are not the angels of heaven principled therein? Is not the whole
human race, and thence the whole angelic heaven, the seed of that love?
And can such super-eminent principle derive its existence from any other
source than from God himself, the Creator and Preserver of the universe?
You Christians deduce conjugial virtue or potency from various causes
rational and natural; but we Africans deduce it from the state of man's
conjunction with the God of the universe. This state we call a state of
religion; but you call it a state of the church: for when the love is
derived from that state, and is fixed and permanent, it must needs
produce its own virtue, which resembles it, and thus also is fixed and
permanent. Love truly conjugial is known only to those few who live near
to God; consequently the potency of that love is known to none else.
This potency is described by the angels in the heavens as the delight of
a perpetual spring."

114. As he said these word, the whole assembly arose, and lo! behind the
golden table on which lay the turban, there appeared a window that had
not before been seen; and through it was heard a voice, saying, "THE
AFRICAN IS TO HAVE THE TURBAN." The angel then gave it into his hand,
but did not place it upon his head; and he went home with it. The
inhabitants of the kingdoms of Europe then left the assembly and entered
their chariots, in which they returned to their respective societies.

115. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. Awaking from sleep at midnight, I
saw at some elevation towards the east an angel holding in his right
hand a paper, which appeared extremely bright, being illuminated by the
light flowing from the sun. In the middle of the paper there was written
in golden letters, THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH. From the writing
there darted forth a splendor which formed a wide circle about the
paper. This circle or encompassing splendor appeared like the early dawn
in spring. After this I saw the angel descending with the paper in his
hand; and as he descended the paper became less and less lucid, and the
writing, which was THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH, changed from a golden
into a silver color, afterwards into a copper color, next into an iron
color, and at length into the color of iron and copper rust: finally, I
saw the angel enter an obscure mist, and through the mist descend upon
the ground; and here I did not see the paper, although he still held it
in his hand. This happened in the world of spirits, in which all men
first assemble after their decease. The angel then said to me, "Ask
those who come hither whether they see me, or anything in my hand."
There came a great number; one company from the east, another from the
south, another from the west, and another from the north; and I asked
those who came from the east and from the south, who in the world had
applied themselves to literary pursuits, "Do you see any one here with
me, and anything in his hand?" They all said, "No." I then put the same
question to those who came from the west and from the north, who in the
world had believed in the words of the learned; and these gave the same
answer: nevertheless the last of them, who in the world had been
principled in simple faith grounded in charity, or in some degree of
truth grounded in good, when the rest were gone away, said, that they
saw a man with a paper, the man in a graceful dress, and the paper with
letters written upon it: and when they applied their eyes nearer to it,
they said that they could read these words, _The marriage of good and
truth_; and they addressed the angel, intreating him to explain to them
the meaning of the writing. He said, "All things in the whole heaven and
in the whole world, are a marriage of good and truth; for all things
whatever, both those which live and communicate life and those which do
not live and do not communicate life, were created from and into the
marriage of good and truth. There does not exist anything which was
created into truth alone, or any thing which was created into good
alone: solitary good or solitary truth is not any thing; but by marriage
they exist and become something which derives its nature and quality
from that of the marriage. In the Lord the Creator are divine good and
divine truth in their very substance: the _esse_ of his substance is
divine good, and its _existere_ is divine truth: in him also they are in
their very essential union; for in him they infinitely make a one: and
since these two in the Creator himself are a one, therefore also they
are a one in all things created from him; hereby also the Creator is
conjoined in an eternal covenant as of marriage with all things created
from himself." The angel further said, that the Sacred Scripture, which
proceeded immediately from the Lord, is in general and in particular a
marriage of good and truth; and since the church, which is formed by the
truth of doctrine, and religion, which is formed by the good of life
agreeable to the truth of doctrine, are with Christians derived solely
from the Sacred Scripture, therefore it may manifestly appear, that the
church in general and in particular is a marriage of good and truth;
(that this is the case, may be seen in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 373,
483.) What has just been said concerning the marriage of good and truth,
is applicable also to the MARRIAGE OF CHARITY AND FAITH; for good
relates to charity, and truth to faith. Some of the spirits
above-mentioned who did not see the angel and the writing, being still
near, and hearing these things, said in an under tone, "_Yes, we also
comprehend what has been spoken_;" but the angel then said to them,
"Turn aside a little from me and speak in like manner." They turned
aside, and then said aloud, "_It is not so_." After this the angel spoke
concerning the MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH with married pairs, saying,
that if their minds were in that marriage, the husband being truth, and
the wife the good thereof, they would both be in the delights of the
blessedness and innocence, and thence in the happiness which the angels
of heaven enjoy; and in this state the prolific principle of the husband
would be in a continual spring, and thereby in the endeavour and vigor
of propagating its truth, and the wife would be in a continual reception
thereof from a principle of love. The wisdom which husbands derive from
the Lord, is sensible of no greater delight than to propagate its
truths; and the love of wisdom which wives have from the Lord is
sensible of no higher gratification than to receive those truths as it
were in the womb, and thus to conceive them, to carry them in the womb,
and to bring them forth. Spiritual prolifications with the angels of
heaven are of this sort; and if you are disposed to believe it, natural
prolifications are also from the same origin. The angel, after a
salutation of peace, raised himself from the ground, and passing through
the mist ascended into heaven; and then the paper shone as before
according to the degrees of ascent; and behold! the circle, which before
appeared as the dawn of day, descended and dispelled the mist which
caused darkness on the ground, and a bright sunshine succeeded.

ON THE MARRIAGE OF THE LORD AND THE CHURCH, AND ITS CORRESPONDENCE.

116. The reason why the marriage of the Lord and the church, together
with its correspondence, is here also treated of, is, because without
knowledge and intelligence on this subject, scarcely any one can know,
that conjugial love in its origin is holy, spiritual, and celestial, and
that it is from the Lord. It is said indeed by some in the church, that
marriages have relation to the marriage of the Lord with the church; but
the nature and quality of this relationship is unknown, in order
therefore that this relationship may be exhibited to the understanding
so as to be seen in some degree of light, it is necessary to treat
particularly of that holy marriage which has place with and in those who
are the Lord's church. These also, and no others, are principled in love
truly conjugial. But for the better elucidation of this arcanum, it may
be expedient to consider the subject distinctly, as arranged under the
following articles: I. _The Lord in the Word is called the Bridegroom
and Husband, and the church the bride and wife; and the conjunction of
the Lord with the church, and the reciprocal conjunction of the church
with the Lord, is called a marriage._ II. _The Lord is also called a
Father, and the church, a mother._ III. _The offspring derived from the
Lord as a husband and father, and from the church as a wife and mother,
are all spiritual; and in the spiritual sense of the Word are understood
by sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, sons-in-law and
daughters-in-law, and by other names of relations._ IV. _The spiritual
offspring, which are born from the Lord's marriage with the church are
truths and goods; truths, from which are derived understanding,
perception, and all thought; and goods, from which are derived love,
charity, and all affection._ V. _From the marriage of good and truth,
which proceeds from the Lord in the way of influx, man (homo) receives
truth, and the Lord conjoins good thereto; and thus the church is formed
by the Lord with man._ VI. _The husband does not represent the Lord and
the wife the church; because both together, the husband and the wife,
constitute the church._ VII. _Therefore there is not a correspondence of
the husband with the Lord and of the wife with the church, in the
marriages of the angels in the heavens and of men on earth._ VIII. _But
there is a correspondence with conjugial love, semination,
prolification, the love of infants, and similar things which exist in
marriages, and are derived from them._ IX. _The Word is the medium of
conjunction, because it is from the Lord, and therefore is the Lord._ X.
_The church is from the Lord, and exists with those who come to him, and
live according to his precepts._ XI. _Conjugial love is according to the
state of the church, because it is according to the state of wisdom with
man (homo)._ XII. _And as the church is from the Lord, conjugial love is
also from him._ We proceed to the explanation of each article.

117. I. THE LORD IN THE WORD IS CALLED THE BRIDEGROOM AND HUSBAND, AND
THE CHURCH THE BRIDE AND WIFE; AND THE CONJUNCTION OF THE LORD WITH THE
CHURCH, AND THE RECIPROCAL CONJUNCTION OF THE CHURCH WITH THE LORD, IS
CALLED A MARRIAGE. That the Lord in the Word is called the Bridegroom
and Husband, and the church the bride and wife, may appear from the
following passages: "_He that hath the BRIDE is the BRIDEGROOM; but the
friend of the BRIDEGROOM, who standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth with
joy because of the BRIDEGROOM'S voice_," John iii. 29: this was spoken
by John the Baptist concerning the Lord. "_Jesus said, so long as the
BRIDEGROOM is with them, the SONS OF THE NUPTIALS cannot fast: the days
will come when the BRIDEGROOM will be taken away from them, and then
will they fast_," Matt ix. 15; Mark ii. 19, 20; Luke v. 34, 35. "_I saw
the holy city, New Jerusalem, prepared as a BRIDE adorned for HER
HUSBAND_," Rev. xxi. 2. The New Jerusalem signifies the New Church of
the Lord, as may be seen in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 880, 881. "_The
angel said to John, Come, and I will shew thee the BRIDE, THE LAMB'S
WIFE: and he shewed him the holy city, New Jerusalem_," Rev. xxi. 9, 10.
"_The time of the MARRIAGE OF THE LAMB is come, and HIS WIFE hath made
herself ready. Blessed are those who are called to the supper of the
MARRIAGE OF THE LAMB_," Rev. xix. 7, 9. The BRIDEGROOM, whom the five
prepared virgins went forth to meet, and with WHOM they entered in to
the MARRIAGE, Matt. xxv. 1-10, denotes the Lord; as is evident from
verse 13, where it is said, "Watch, therefore; because ye know neither
the day nor the hour in which the SON OF MAN will come:" not to mention
many passages in the prophets.

118. II. THE LORD IS ALSO CALLED A FATHER, AND THE CHURCH, A MOTHER. The
Lord is called a Father, as appears from the following passages: "_Unto
us a child is born; unto us a son is given; and his name shall be
called, Wonderful, Counsellor, GOD, THE FATHER OF ETERNITY, the Prince
of Peace_," Isaiah ix. 6. "_Thou, JEHOVAH, art OUR FATHER, our REDEEMER;
thy name is from an age_," Isaiah lxiii. 16. Again, "_Jesus said, He
that seeth ME, seeth the FATHER that sent ME_," John xii. 45. "_If ye
have known ME, ye have known my FATHER also; and henceforth ye have
known him, and have seen him_," John xiv. 7. "_Philip said, Shew us the
FATHER: Jesus said unto him, He that seeth me, seeth the FATHER; how
sayest them then, Shew us the FATHER_?" John xiv. 8, 9. "_Jesus said,
The FATHER and I are one_," John x. 30. "_All things that the FATHER
hath are MINE_," John xvi. 15; chap. xvii. 10. "_The FATHER is in ME,
and I IN THE FATHER_," John x. 38; chap, xiv 10, 11, 20. That the Lord
and his Father are one, as the soul and the body are one, and that God
the Father descended from heaven, and assumed the human (nature or
principle), to redeem and save men, and that his human nature is what is
called the Son, and is said to be sent into the world, has been fully
shewn in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED.

119. The church is called a mother, as appears from the following
passages: "_Jehovah said, Contend with YOUR MOTHER: she is not MY WIFE,
and I am not her HUSBAND_." Hosea ii. 2, 5. "_Thou art thy MOTHER'S
daughter, that loatheth her HUSBAND_," Ezek. xvi. 45. "_Where is the
hill of thy MOTHER'S divorcement, whom I have put away_?" Isaiah l. 1.
"_Thy MOTHER was like a vine planted by the waters, bearing fruit_,"
Ezek. xix. 10; speaking of the Jewish church. "_Jesus stretching out his
hand to the disciples, said, MY MOTHER and my brethren are those who
hear the Word of God, and do it_," Luke viii. 21; Matt. xii. 49, 50;
Mark iii. 33-35: the Lord's disciples means the church. "_There was
standing at the cross of Jesus his mother: and Jesus seeing his mother
and the disciple whom he loved, standing by, he saith unto his mother,
Woman, behold thy son; and he saith to the disciple, Behold thy mother:
wherefore from that hour the disciple took her unto his own_," John xix.
25-27. This implies, that the Lord did not acknowledge Mary as a mother,
but the church; therefore he calls her Woman, and the disciple's mother.
The reason why the Lord called her the mother of this disciple, or of
John, was, because John represented the church as to the goods of
charity, which are the church in real effect; therefore it is said, He
took her unto his own. Peter represented truth and faith, James charity,
and John the works of charity, as may be seen in the APOCALYPSE
REVEALED, n. 5, 6, 790, 798, 879; and the twelve disciples together
represented the church as to all its constituent principles, as may be
seen, Ibid, n. 233, 790, 903, 915.

120. III. THE OFFSPRING DERIVED FROM THE LORD AS A HUSBAND AND FATHER,
AND FROM THE CHURCH AS A WIFE AND MOTHER, ARE ALL SPIRITUAL; AND IN THE
SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD ARE UNDERSTOOD BY SONS AND DAUGHTERS,
BROTHERS AND SISTERS, SONS-IN-LAW, AND DAUGHTERS-IN-LAW, AND BY OTHER
NAMES OF RELATIONS. That no other than spiritual offspring are born of
the Lord by the church, is a proposition which wants no demonstration,
because reason sees it to be self-evident; for it is the Lord from whom
every good and truth proceeds, and it is the church which receives them
and brings them into effect; and all the spiritual things of heaven and
the church relate to good and truth. Hence it is that sons and daughters
in the Word, in its spiritual sense, signify truths and goods: sons,
truths conceived in the spiritual man, and born in, the natural; and
daughters, goods in like manner: therefore those who are regenerated by
the Lord, are called in the Word sons of God, sons of the kingdom, born
of him; and the Lord called the disciples sons: the male child, that the
woman brought forth, and that was caught up to God, Rev. xii. 5, has a
similar signification; see APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 543. Since daughters
signify goods of the church, therefore in the Word mention is so
frequently made of the daughter of Zion, the daughter of Jerusalem, the
daughter of Israel, and the daughter of Judah; by whom is signified not
any daughter, but the affection of good, which is an affection of the
church; see also APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 612. The Lord also calls those
who are of his church, brethren and sisters; see Matt. xii. 49, 50;
chap. xxv. 40; chap, xxviii. 10; Mark iii. 35; Luke viii. 21.

121. IV. THE SPIRITUAL OFFSPRING, WHICH ARE BORN FROM THE LORD'S
MARRIAGE WITH THE CHURCH, ARE TRUTHS AND GOODS; TRUTHS, FROM WHICH ARE
DERIVED UNDERSTANDING, PERCEPTION, AND ALL THOUGHT; AND GOODS, FROM
WHICH ARE DERIVED LOVE, CHARITY, AND ALL AFFECTION. The reason why
truths and goods are the spiritual offspring, which are born of the Lord
by the church, is, because the Lord is essential good and essential
truth, and these in him are not two but one; also, because nothing can
proceed from the Lord but what is in him, and what he is. That the
marriage of truth and good proceeds from the Lord, and flows in with
men, and is received according to the state of the mind and life of
those who are of the church, was shewn in the foregoing section on the
MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH. The reason why by means of truths a man has
understanding, perception, and all thought, and by means of goods has
love, charity, and all affection, is, because all things of man relate
to truth and good; and there are two constituents of man--the will and
the understanding; the will being the receptacle of good, and the
understanding of truth. That love, charity and affection, belong to the
will, and that perception and thought belong to the understanding, may
appear without the aid of light arising from demonstration; for there is
a light derived from the understanding itself by which these
propositions are seen to be self-evident.

122. V. FROM THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH, WHICH PROCEEDS FROM THE
LORD IN THE WAY OF INFLUX, MAN (_homo_) RECEIVES TRUTH, AND THE LORD
CONJOINS GOOD THERETO; AND THUS THE CHURCH IS FORMED BY THE LORD WITH
MAN. The reason why a man receives truth by virtue of the good and truth
which proceed as a one from the Lord, is, because he receives this as
his own, and appropriates it to himself as his own; for he thinks what
is true as from himself, and in like manner speaks from what is true;
and this takes place because truth is in the light of the understanding,
and hence he sees it: and whatever he sees in himself, or in his mind,
he knows not whence it is; for he does not see the influx, as he sees
those objects which strike upon the bodily vision; hence he supposes
that it is himself. That it should appear thus, is granted by the Lord
to him, in order that he may be a man (_homo_), and that he may have a
reciprocal principle of conjunction: add to this, that every man is born
a faculty of knowing, understanding, and growing wise; and this faculty
receives truths, whereby it has knowledges, intelligence, and wisdom.
And since the female was created through the truth of the male, and is
formed into the love thereof more and more after marriage, it follows,
that she also receives the husband's truth in herself, and conjoins it
with her own good.

123. The Lord adjoins and conjoins good to the truths which a man
receives, because he cannot take good as of himself, it being no object
of his sight, as it does not relate to light, but to heat, which is felt
and not seen; therefore when a man sees truth in his thought, he seldom
reflects upon the good which flows into it from the love of the will,
and which gives it life: neither does a wife reflect upon the good
belonging to her, but upon the husband's inclination towards her, which
is according to the assent of his understanding to wisdom: the good
which belongs to her from the Lord, she applies, without the husband's
knowing any thing respecting such application. From these considerations
then it plainly appears, that a man receives truth from the Lord, and
that the Lord adjoins good to that truth, according to the application
of truth to use; consequently as the man is desirous to think, and
thence to live, wisely.

124. The church is thus formed with a man by the Lord, because in such
case he is in conjunction with the Lord, in good from Him, and in truth
as from himself; thus he is in the Lord, and the Lord in him, according
to the Lord's words in John xv. 4:, 5. The case is the same, if instead
of good we say charity, and instead of truth faith; because good is of
charity, and truth is of faith.

125. VI. THE HUSBAND DOES NOT REPRESENT THE LORD, AND THE WIFE THE
CHURCH; BECAUSE BOTH TOGETHER, THE HUSBAND AND THE WIFE, CONSTITUTE THE
CHURCH. It is a Common saying in the church, that as the Lord is the
Head of the church, so the husband is the head of the wife; whence it
should follow, that the husband represents the Lord, and the wife the
church: but the Lord is the Head of the church; and man (_homo_), the
man (_vir_) and the woman, are the church; and still more the husband
and wife together. With these the church is first implanted in the man,
and through him in the wife; because the man with his understanding
receives the truth of the church, and the wife from the man; but if it
be _vice versa_, it is not according to order: sometimes, however, this
is the case; but then it is with men, who either are not lovers of
wisdom, and consequently are not of the church, or who are in a servile
dependence on the will of their wives. Something on this subject may be
seen in the preliminary RELATIONS, n. 21.

126. VII. THEREFORE THERE IS NOT A CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HUSBAND WITH
THE LORD AND OF THE WIFE WITH THE CHURCH, IN THE MARRIAGES OF THE ANGELS
IN THE HEAVENS AND OF MEN ON EARTH. This follows as a consequence from
what has just been said; to which, nevertheless, it may be expedient to
add, that it appears as if truth was the primary constituent of the
church, because it is first in respect to time: from this appearance,
the prelates of the church have exalted faith, which is of truth, above
charity, which is of good; in like manner the learned have exalted
thought, which is of the understanding, above affection, which is of the
will; therefore the knowledge of what the good of charity and the
affection of the will are, lies deeply buried as in a tomb, while some
even cast earth upon them, as upon the dead, to prevent their rising
again. That the good of charity, notwithstanding, is the primary
constituent of the church, may be plainly seen by those who have not
closed the way from heaven to their understandings, by confirmations in
favor of faith, as the sole constituent of the church, and in favor of
thought, as the sole constituent of man. Now as the good of charity is
from the Lord, and the truth of faith is with a man as from himself, and
these two principles cause conjunction of the Lord with man, and of man
with the Lord, such as is understood by the Lord's words, that He is in
them, and they in Him, John xv. 4, 5, it is evident that this
conjunction constitutes the church.

127. VIII. BUT THERE IS A CORRESPONDENCE WITH CONJUGIAL LOVE,
SEMINATION, PROLIFICATION, THE LOVE OF INFANTS, AND SIMILAR THINGS WHICH
EXIST IN MARRIAGES AND ARE DERIVED FROM THEM. These, however, are arcana
of too deep a nature to enter the understanding with any degree of
light, unless preceded by knowledge concerning correspondence; nor is it
possible, if this knowledge be wanting, so to explain them as to make
them comprehensible. But what correspondence is, and that it exists
between natural things and spiritual, is abundantly shown in the
APOCALYPSE REVEALED, also in the ARCANA COELESTIA, and specifically in
the DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE, and
particularly in a MEMORABLE RELATION respecting it in the following
pages. Before some knowledge on this subject is acquired, we will only
present to the intellectual view, as in a shade, these few particulars:
conjugial love corresponds to the affection of genuine truth, its
chastity, purity, and sanctity; semination corresponds to the potency of
truth; prolification corresponds to the propagation of truth; and the
love of infants corresponds to the defence of truth and good. Now as
truth with a man (_homo_) appears as his own, and good is adjoined
thereto from the Lord, it is evident that these correspondences are
those of the natural or external man with the spiritual or internal man:
but some degree of light will be reflected on this subject from the
MEMORABLE RELATIONS which follow.

128. IX. THE WORD IS THE MEDIUM OF CONJUNCTION, BECAUSE IT IS FROM THE
LORD, AND THEREFORE IS THE LORD. The Word is the medium of conjunction
of the Lord with man (_homo_), and of man with the Lord, because in its
essence it is divine truth united to divine good, and divine good united
to divine truth: that this union exists in every part of the Word in its
celestial and spiritual sense, may be seen in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED,
n. 373, 483, 689, 881; whence it follows, that the Word is the perfect
marriage of good and truth; and as it is from the Lord, and what is from
him is also himself, it follows, that while a man reads the Word, and
collects truths out of it, the Lord adjoins good. For a man does not see
the goods which affect him in reading; because he reads the Word from
the understanding, and the understanding acquires thence only such
things as are of its own nature, that is, truths. That good is adjoined
thereto from the Lord, is made sensible to the understanding from the
delight which flows in during a state of illustration; but this takes
place interiorly with those only who read the Word to the end that they
may become wise; and such persons are desirous of learning the genuine
truths contained in the Word, and thereby of forming the church in
themselves; whereas those who read the Word only with a view to gain the
reputation of learning, and those also who read it from an opinion that
the mere reading or hearing it inspires faith and conduces to salvation,
do not receive any good from the Lord; for the end proposed by the
latter is to save themselves by the mere expressions contained in the
Word, in which there is nothing of truth; and the end proposed by the
former is to be distinguished for their learning; which end has no
conjunction with any spiritual good, but only with the natural delight
arising from worldly glory. As the Word is the medium of conjunction, it
is therefore called the old and the new Covenant: a covenant signifies
conjunction.

129. X. THE CHURCH IS FROM THE LORD, AND EXISTS WITH THOSE WHO COME TO
HIM AND LIVE ACCORDING TO HIS PRECEPTS. It is not denied at this day
that the church is the Lord's, and consequently that it is from the
Lord. The reason why it exists with those who come to him, is, because
his church in that part of the globe which is called Christian, is
derived from the Word; and the Word is from him, and in such a manner
from him, that it is himself, the divine truth being therein united to
the divine good, and this also is the Lord. This is meant by the Word,
"_which was with God, and which was God, from which men have life and
light, and which was made flesh_," John i. 1-14. Moreover, the reason
why the church exists with those who come to him, is, because it exists
with those who believe in him; and to believe that he is God the Saviour
and Redeemer, that he is Jehovah our justice, that he is the door by
which we are to enter into the sheepfold, that is, into the church, that
he is the way, the truth, and the life, and that no one comes to the
Father but by him, that the Father and he are one, besides many other
particulars which he himself teaches; to believe these things, I say, is
impossible for any one, except by influence from him; and the reason why
this is impossible unless he be approached, is, because he is the God of
heaven and earth, as he also teaches. Who else is to be approached, and
who else can be? The reason why the church exists with those who live
according to his precepts, is, because there is conjunction with none
else; for he says, "_He that hath my precepts, and doeth them, he it is
that loveth me; and I will love him, and will make my abode with him:
but he that doth not love me, doth not keep my precepts_," John XIV.
21-24. Love is conjunction; and conjunction with the Lord is the church.

130. XI. CONJUGIAL LOVE IS ACCORDING TO THE STATE OF THE CHURCH, BECAUSE
IT IS ACCORDING TO THE STATE OF WISDOM WITH MAN (_homo_). That conjugial
love is according to the state of wisdom with man, has been often said
above, and will be often repeated in the following pages: at present
therefore we will show what wisdom is, and that it makes one with the
church. "There are belonging to man knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom.
Knowledge relates to information; intelligence, to reason; and wisdom to
life. Wisdom considered in its fulness relates at the same time to
information, to reason, and to life: information precedes, reason is
formed by it, and wisdom by both; as is the case when a man lives
rationally according to the truths which he knows. Wisdom therefore
relates to both reason and life at once; and it becomes (or is making)
wisdom while it is a principle of reason and thence of life; but it is
wisdom when it is made a principle of life and thence of reason. The
most ancient people in this world acknowledged no other wisdom than the
wisdom of life; which was the wisdom of those who were formerly called
SOPHI: but the ancient people, who succeeded the most ancient,
acknowledged the wisdom of reason as wisdom; and these were called
PHILOSOPHERS. At this day, however, many call even knowledge, wisdom;
for the learned, the erudite, and the mere sciolists, are called wise;
thus wisdom has declined from its mountain-top to its valley. But it may
be expedient briefly to shew what wisdom is in its rise, in its
progress, and thence in its full state. The things relating to the
church, which are called spiritual, reside in the inmost principles with
man; those relating to the public weal, which are called things of a
civil nature, hold a place below these; and those relating to science,
to experience, and to art, which are called natural things, constitute
their seat or basis. The reason why the things relating to the church,
which are called spiritual, reside in the inmost principles with man,
is, because they conjoin themselves with heaven, and by heaven with the
Lord; for no other things enter from the Lord through heaven with man.
The reason why the things relating to the public weal, which are called
things of a civil nature, hold a place beneath spiritual things, is,
because they have relation to the world, and conjoin themselves with it;
for statutes, laws, and rules, are what bind men, so that a civil
society and state may be composed of them in a well-connected order. The
reason why the things relating to science, to experience, and to art,
which are called natural, constitute their seat or basis, is, because
they conjoin themselves closely with the five bodily senses; and these
senses are the ultimates on which the interior principles of the mind
and the inmost principles of the soul, as it were sit or rest. Now as
the things relating to the church, which are called spiritual, reside in
the inmost principles, and as the things residing in the inmost
principles constitute the head, and the succeeding things beneath them,
which are called things of a civil nature, constitute the body, and the
ultimate things, which are called natural, constitute the feet; it is
evident, that while these three kinds of things follow in their order, a
man is a perfect man; for in such case there is an influx like that of
the things of the head into those of the body, and through the body into
the feet; thus spiritual things flow into things of a civil nature, and
through them into natural things. Now as spiritual things are in the
light of heaven, it is evident that by their light they illustrate the
things which succeed in order, and by their heat, which is love, animate
them; and when this is the case the man has wisdom. As wisdom is a
principle of life, and thence of reason, as was said above, it may be
asked, What is wisdom as a principle of life? In a summary view, it is
to shun evils, because they are hurtful to the soul, to the public weal,
and to the body; and it is to do goods, because they are profitable to
the soul, to the public weal, and to the body. This is the wisdom which
is meant by the wisdom to which conjugial love binds itself; for it
binds itself thereto by shunning the evil of adultery as the pest of the
soul, of the public weal, and of the body: and as this wisdom originates
in spiritual things relating to the church, it follows, that conjugial
love is according to the state of the church; because it is according to
the state of wisdom with men. Hereby also is understood what has been
frequently said above, that so far as a man becomes spiritual, so far he
is principled in love truly conjugial; for a man becomes spiritual by
means of the spiritual things of the church." More observations
respecting the wisdom with which conjugial love conjoins itself, may be
seen below, n. 163-165.

131. XII. AND AS THE CHURCH IS FROM THE LORD, CONJUGIAL LOVE IS ALSO
FROM HIM. As this follows as a consequence from what has been said
above, it is needless to dwell upon the confirmation of it. Moreover,
that love truly conjugial is from the Lord, all the angels of heaven
testify; and also that this love is according to their state of wisdom,
and that their state of wisdom is according to the state of the church
with them. That the angels of heaven thus testify, is evident from the
MEMORABLE RELATIONS annexed to the chapters, containing an account of
what was seen and heard in the spiritual world.

       *       *       *       *       *

132. To the above I shall add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. I was
conversing on a time with two angels, one from the eastern heaven and
the other from the southern; who perceiving me engaged in meditation on
the arcana of wisdom relating to conjugial love, said, "Are you at all
acquainted with the SCHOOLS OF WISDOM in our world?" I replied, "Not as
yet." And they said, "There are several; and those who love truths from
spiritual affection, or because they are truths, and because they are
the means of attaining wisdom, meet together on a given signal, and
investigate and decide upon such questions as require deeper
consideration than common." They then took me by the hand, saying,
"Follow us; and you shall see and hear: to-day the signal for meeting is
given." I was led across a plain to a hill; and lo! at the foot of the
hill was an avenue of palms continued even to its summit, which we
entered and ascended: on the summit or top of the hill was a grove, the
trees of which, on an elevated plot of ground, formed as it were a
theatre, within which was a court paved with various colored stones:
around it in a square form were placed seats, on which the lovers of
wisdom were seated; and in the middle of the theatre was a table, on
which was laid a sealed paper. Those who sat on the seats invited us to
sit down where there was room: and I replied, "I was led here by two
angels to see and hear, and not to sit down." Then those two angels went
into the middle of the court to the table, and broke the seal of the
paper, and read in the presence of those who were seated the arcana of
wisdom written on the paper, which were now to be investigated and
explained. They were written by angels of the third heaven, and let down
upon the table. There were three arcana, FIRST, What is the image of
God, and what the likeness of God, into which man (_homo_) was created?
SECOND, Why is not a man born into the knowledge of any love, when yet
beasts and birds, from the highest to the lowest, are born into the
knowledge of all their loves? THIRD, What is signified by the tree of
life, and what by the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and what
by eating thereof? Underneath was written, Collect your opinions on
these three questions into one decision, and write it on a new piece of
paper, and lay it on this table, and we shall see it: if the decision,
on examination, appear just and reasonable, each of you shall receive a
prize of wisdom. Having read the contents of the paper, the two angels
withdrew, and were carried up into their respective heavens.

Then those who sat on the seats began to investigate and explain the
arcana proposed to them, and delivered their sentiments in order; first
those who sat on the north, next those on the west, afterwards those on
the south, and lastly those on the east. They began with the first
subject of inquiry, WHAT IS THE IMAGE OF GOD, AND WHAT THE LIKENESS OF
GOD, INTO WHICH MAN WAS CREATED? But before they proceeded, these words
were read in the presence of them all out of the book of creation, "_God
said, Let us make man into OUR IMAGE, according to OUR LIKENESS: and God
created man into HIS IMAGE; into the IMAGE OF GOD created he him_," Gen.
i. 26, 27. "_In the day that God created man, into the LIKENESS OF GOD
made he him_," Gen. v. 1. Those who sat on the north spoke first,
saying, "The image of God and the likeness of God are the two lives
breathed into man by God, which are the life of the understanding; for
it is written, '_Jehovah God breathed into Adam's nostril the soul of
LIVES; and man became a living soul_,' Gen. ii. 7; into the nostrils
denotes into the perception, that the will of good and the understanding
of truth, and thereby the soul of lives, was in him; and since life from
God was breathed into him, the image and likeness of God signify
integrity derived from wisdom and love, and from justice and judgment in
him." These sentiments were favored by those who sat to the west; only
they added, that the state of integrity then breathed in from God is
continually breathed into every man since; but that it is a man as in a
receptacle; and a man, as he is a receptacle, is an image and likeness
of God. After this, the third in order, who were those who were seated
on the south, delivered their sentiments as follows: "An image of God
and a likeness of God are two distinct things; but in man they are
united from creation; and we see, as from an interior light, that the
image of God maybe destroyed by man, but not the likeness of God. This
appears as clear as the day from this consideration, that Adam retained
the likeness of God after that he had lost the image of God; for it is
written after the curse, '_Behold the man is as one of us, knowing good
and evil_,' Gen. iii. 22; and afterwards he is called a likeness of God,
and not an image of God, Gen. v. 1. But we will leave to our associates
who sit on the east, and are thence in superior light, to say what is
properly meant by an image of God, and what by a likeness of God." And
then, after silence was obtained, those who sat on the east arose from
their seats, and looked up to the Lord, and afterwards sat down again,
and thus began: "An image of God is a receptacle of God; and since God
is love itself and wisdom itself, an image of God is a receptacle of
love and wisdom from God in it; but a likeness of God is a perfect
likeness and full appearance, as if love and wisdom are in a man, and
thence altogether as his; for a man has no other sensation than that he
loves and is wise from himself, or that he wills good and understands
truth from himself; when nevertheless nothing of all this is from
himself, but from God. God alone loves from himself and is wise from
himself; because God is love itself and wisdom itself. The likeness or
appearance that love and wisdom, or good and truth, are in a man as his,
causes a man to be a man, and makes him capable of being conjoined to
God, and thereby of living to eternity: from which consideration it
follows, that a man is a man from this circumstance, that he can will
good and understand truth altogether as from himself, and yet know and
believe that it is from God; for as he knows and believes this, God
places his image in him, which could not be if he believed it was from
himself and not from God." As they said this, being overpowered with
zeal derived from the love of truth, they thus continued: "How can a man
receive any thing of love and wisdom, and retain it, and reproduce it,
unless he feel it as his own? And how can there be conjunction with God
by love and wisdom, unless a man have some reciprocity of conjunction?
For without such a reciprocity conjunction is impossible; and the
reciprocity of conjunction is, that a man should love God, and enjoy the
things which are of God, as from himself, and yet believe that it is
from God. Also, how can a man live eternally, unless he be conjoined to
an eternal God? Consequently how can a man be a man without such a
likeness of God in him?" These words met with the approbation of the
whole assembly; and they said, Let this conclusive decision be made from
them, "A man is a recipient of God, and a recipient of God is an image
of God; and since God is love itself and wisdom itself, a man is a
recipient of those principles; and a recipient becomes an image of God
in proportion to reception; and a man is a likeness of God from this
circumstance, that he feels in himself that the things which are of God
are in him as his own; but still from that likeness he is only so far an
image of God, as he acknowledges that love and wisdom, or good and
truth, are not his own in him, and consequently are not from him, but
are only in God, and consequently from God."

133. After this, they entered upon the next subject of discussion, WHY
IS NOT A MAN BORN INTO THE KNOWLEDGE OF ANY LOVE, WHEN YET BEASTS AND
BIRDS, FROM THE HIGHEST TO THE LOWEST, ARE BORN INTO THE KNOWLEDGE OF
ALL THEIR LOVES? They first confirmed the truth of the proposition by
various considerations; as in regard to a man, that he is born into no
knowledge, not even into the knowledge of conjugial love; and they
inquired, and were informed by attentive examiners, that an infant from
connate knowledge cannot even move itself to the mother's breast, but
must be moved thereto by the mother or nurse; and that it knows only how
to suck, and this in consequence of habit acquired by continual suction
in the womb; and that afterwards it does not know how to walk, or to
articulate any human expression; no, nor even to express by its tone of
voice the affection of its love, as the beasts do: and further, that it
does not know what is salutary for it in the way of food, as all the
beasts do, but catches at whatever falls in its way, whether it be clean
or unclean, and puts it into its mouth. The examiners further declared,
that a man without instruction is an utter stranger to every thing
relating to the sexes and their connection; and that neither virgins nor
young men have any knowledge thereof without instruction from others,
notwithstanding their being educated in various sciences: in a word, a
man is born corporeal as a worm; and he remains such, unless he learns
to know, to understand, and to be wise, from others. After this, they
gave abundant proofs that beasts, from the highest to the lowest, as the
animals of the earth, the fowls of the air, reptiles, fishes, the small
creatures called insects, are born into all the knowledges of the loves
of their life, as into the knowledge of all things relating to
nourishment, to habitation, to the love of the sex and prolification,
and to the rearing of their young. This they continued by many wonderful
things which they recollected to have seen, heard, and read, in the
natural world, (so they called our world, in which they had formerly
lived), in which not representative but real beasts exist. When the
truth of the proposition was thus fully proved they applied all the
powers of their minds to search out and discover the ends and causes
which might serve to unfold and explain this arcanum; and they all said,
that the divine wisdom must needs have ordained these things, to the end
that a man, may be a man, and a beast a beast; and thus, that the
imperfection of a man at his birth becomes his perfection, and the
perfection of a beast at his birth is his imperfection.

134. Those on the NORTH then began to declare their sentiments, and
said, "A man is born without knowledges, to the end that he may receive
them all; whereas supposing him to be born into knowledges, he could not
receive any but those into which he was born, and in this case neither
could he appropriate any to himself; which they illustrated by this
comparison: a man at his first birth is like ground in which no seeds
are implanted, but which nevertheless is capable of receiving all seeds,
and of bringing them forth and fructifying them; whereas a beast is like
ground already sown, and tilled with grasses and herbs, which receives
no other seeds than what are sown in it, or if it received any it would
choke them. Hence it is, that a man requires many years to bring him to
maturity of growth; during which time he is capable of being cultivated
like ground, and of bringing forth as it were grain, flowers, and trees
of every kind; whereas a beast arrives at maturity in a few years,
during which no cultivation can produce any thing in him but what is
born with him." Afterwards, those on the WEST delivered their
sentiments, and said, "A man is not born knowledge, as a beast is; but
he is born faculty and inclination; faculty to know, and inclination to
love; and he is born faculty not only to know but also to understand and
be wise; he is likewise born the most perfect inclination to love not
only the things relating to self and the world, but also those relating
to God and heaven; consequently a man, by birth from his parents, is an
organ which lives merely by the external senses, and at first by no
internal senses, to the end that he may successively become a man, first
natural, afterwards rational, and lastly spiritual; which could not be
the case if he was born into knowledges and loves, as the beasts are:
for connate knowledges and affections set bounds to that progression;
whereas connate faculty and inclination set no such bounds; therefore a
man is capable of being perfected, in knowledge, intelligence, and
wisdom to eternity." Those on the SOUTH next took up the debate, and
expressed their sentiments as follows: "It is impossible for a man to
take any knowledge from himself, since he has no connate knowledge; but
he may take it from others; and as he cannot take any knowledge from
himself, so neither can he take any love; for where there is no
knowledge there is no love; knowledge and love being undivided
companions, and no more capable of separation than will and
understanding, or affection and thought; yea, no more than essence and
form: therefore in proportion as a man takes knowledge from others, so
love joins itself thereto as its companion. The universal love which
joins itself is the love of knowing, of understanding, and of growing
wise; this love is peculiar to man alone, and not to any beast, and
flows in from God. We agree with our companions from the west, that a
man is not born into any love, and consequently not into any knowledge;
but that he is only born into an inclination to love, and thence into a
faculty to receive knowledges, not from himself but from others, that
is, by others: we say, by others, because neither have these received
any thing of knowledge from themselves, but from God. We agree also with
our companions to the north, that a man is first born as ground, in
which no seeds are sown, but which is capable of receiving all seeds,
both useful and hurtful. To these considerations we add, that beasts are
born into natural loves, and thereby into knowledges corresponding to
them; and that still they do not know, think, understand, and enjoy any
knowledges, but are led through them by their loves, almost as blind
persons are led through the streets by dogs, for as to understanding
they are blind; or rather like people walking in their sleep, who act
from the impulse of blind knowledge, the understanding being asleep."
Lastly, those on the EAST declared their sentiments, and said, "We agree
with our brethren in the opinions they have delivered, that a man knows
nothing from himself, but from and by others, to the end that he may
know and acknowledge that all knowledge, understanding, and wisdom, is
from God; and that a man cannot otherwise be conceived, born, and
generated of the Lord, and become an image and likeness of him; for he
becomes an image of the Lord by acknowledging and believing, that he has
received and does receive from the Lord all the good of love and
charity, and all the truth of wisdom and faith, and not the least
portion thereof from himself; and he becomes a likeness of the Lord by
his being sensible of those principles in himself, as if they were from
himself. This he is sensible of, because he is not born into knowledges,
but receives them; and what he receives, appears to him as if it was
from himself. This sensation is given him by the Lord, to the end that
he may be a man and not a beast; since by willing, thinking, loving,
knowing, understanding, and growing wise, as from himself, he receives
knowledges, and exalts them into intelligence, and by the use thereof
into wisdom; thus the Lord conjoins man to himself, and man conjoins
himself to the Lord. This could not have been the case, unless it had
been provided by the Lord, that man should be born in total ignorance."
When they had finished speaking, it was the desire of all present, that
a conclusion should be formed from the sentiments which had been
expressed; and they agreed upon the following: "That a man is born into
no knowledge, to the end that he may come into all knowledge, and may
advance into intelligence, and thereby into wisdom, and that he is born
into no love, to the intent that he may come into all love, by
application of the knowledges from intelligence, and into love to the
Lord by love towards his neighbour, and may thereby be conjoined to the
Lord, and by such conjunction be made a man, and live for ever."

135. After this they took the paper, and read the third subject of
investigation, which was, WHAT IS DIGNIFIED BY THE TREE OF LIFE, WHAT BY
THE TREE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL, AND WHAT BY EATING THEREOF?
and all the others intreated as a favor, that those who were from the
east would unfold this arcanum, because it required a more than ordinary
depth of understanding, and because those who were from the east are in
flaming light, that is, in the wisdom of love, this wisdom being
understood by the garden of Eden, in which those two trees were placed.
They said, "We will declare our sentiments; but as man does not take any
thing from himself, but from the Lord, therefore we will speak from him;
but yet from ourselves as of ourselves:" and then they continued, "A
tree signifies a man, and the fruit thereof the good of life; hence the
tree of life signifies a man living from God, or God living in man; and
since love and wisdom, and charity and faith, or good and truth,
constitute the life of God in man, therefore these are signified by the
tree of life, and hence man has eternal life: the like is signified by
the tree of life, of which it will be given to eat, Rev. ii. 7; chap
xxii. 2, 14. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil signifies a man
believing that he lives from himself and not from God; thus that in man
love and wisdom, charity and faith, that is, good and truth, are his and
not God's; believing this, because he thinks and wills, and speaks and
acts to all appearance, as from himself: and as a man from this faith
persuades himself, that God has implanted himself, or infused his divine
into him, therefore the serpent said, '_God doth know, in the day that
ye eat of the fruit of that tree, your eyes will be opened, and ye will
be as God, knowing good and evil_,' Gen. iii. 5. Eating of those trees
signifies reception and appropriation; eating of the tree of life, the
reception of life eternal, and eating of the tree of the knowledge of
good and evil, the reception of damnation; therefore also both Adam and
his wife, together with the serpent, were cursed: the serpent means the
devil as to self-love and the conceit of his own intelligence. This love
is the possessor of that tree; and the men who are in conceit, grounded
in that love, are those trees. Those persons, therefore, are grievously
mistaken who believe that Adam was wise and did good from himself, and
that this was his state of integrity; when yet Adam himself was cursed
by reason of that belief; for this is signified by eating of the tree of
the knowledge of good and evil; therefore he then fell from the state of
integrity in which he had been, in consequence of believing that he was
wise and did good from God and not at all from himself; for this is
meant by eating of the tree of life. The Lord alone, when he was in the
world, was wise and did good from himself; because the essential divine
from birth was in him and was his; therefore also from his own ability
he was made the Redeemer and Saviour." From all these considerations
they came to this conclusion, "That by the tree of life, and the tree of
the knowledge of good and evil, and eating thereof, is signified that
life for man is God in him, and that in this case he has heaven and
eternal life; but that death for man is the persuasion and belief, that
life for him is not God but self; whence he has hell and eternal death,
which is condemnation."

136. After this they looked into the paper left by the angels upon the
table, and saw written underneath, COLLECT YOUR OPINIONS ON THESE THREE
QUESTIONS INTO ONE DECISION. Then they collected them, and saw that they
cohered in one series, and that the series or decision was this, "That
man is created to receive love and wisdom from God, and yet to all
appearance as from himself; and this for the sake of reception and
conjunction: and that therefore a man is not born into any love, or into
any knowledge, and also not into any ability of loving and growing wise
from himself; therefore if he ascribes all the good of love and truth of
wisdom to God, he becomes a living man; but if he ascribes them to
himself, he becomes a dead man." These words they wrote on a new piece
of paper, and placed it on the table: and lo! on a sudden the angels
appeared in bright light, and carried the paper away into heaven; and
after it was read there, those who sat on the seats heard these words
from thence, "Well, well;" and instantly there appeared a single angel
as it were flying from heaven, with two wings about his feet, and two
about his temples, having in his hand prizes, consisting of robes, caps,
and wreaths of laurel; and he alighted on the ground, and gave those who
sat on the north robes of an opaline color; those who sat on the west
robes of scarlet color; those who sat on the south caps whose borders
were ornamented with bindings of gold and pearls, and which on the left
side upwards were set with diamonds cut in the form of flowers; but to
those who sat to the east he gave wreaths of laurel, intermixed with
rubies and sapphires. Then all of them, adorned with their respective
prizes, went home from the school of wisdom; and when they shewed
themselves to their wives, their wives came to meet them, being
distinguished also with ornaments presented to them from heaven; at
which the husbands wondered.

137. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time when I was meditating on
conjugial love, lo! there appeared at a distance two naked infants with
baskets in their hands, and turtledoves flying around them; and on a
nearer view, they seemed as if they were naked, handsomely ornamented
with garlands; chaplets of flowers decorated their heads, and wreaths of
lilies and roses of a hyacinthine blue, hanging obliquely from the
shoulders to the loins, adorned their bosoms; and round about both of
them there was as it were a common band woven of small leaves
interspersed with olives. But when they came nearer, they did not appear
as infants, or naked, but as two persons in the prime of their age,
wearing cloaks and tunics of shining silk, embroidered with the most
beautiful flowers: and when they were near me, there breathed forth from
heaven through them a vernal warmth, attended with an odoriferous
fragrance, like what arises from gardens and fields in the time of
spring. They were two married partners from heaven, and they accosted
me; and because I was musing on what I had just seen, they inquired,
"What did you see?" And when I told them that at first they appeared to
me as naked infants, afterwards as infants decorated with garlands, and
lastly as grown up persons in embroidered garments, and that instantly I
experienced a vernal warmth with its delights, they smiled pleasantly,
and said, "In the way we did not seem to ourselves as infants, or naked,
or adorned with garlands, but constantly in the same appearance which we
now have: thus at a distance was represented our conjugial love; its
state of innocence by our seeming like naked infants, its delights by
garlands, and the same delights now by our cloaks and tunics being
embroidered with flowers; and as you said that, as we approached, a
vernal warmth breathed on you, attended with its pleasant fragrance as
from a garden, we will explain to you the reason of all this." They
said, "We have now been married partners for ages, and constantly in the
prime of our age in which you now see us: our first state was like the
first state of a virgin and a youth, when they enter into consociation
by marriage; and we then believed, that this state was the very
essential blessedness of our life; but we were informed by others in our
heaven, and have since perceived ourselves, that this was a state of
heat not tempered by light; and that it is successively tempered, in
proportion as the husband is perfected in wisdom, and the wife loves
that wisdom in the husband; and that this is effected by and according
to the uses which each, by mutual aid, affords to society; also that
delights succeed according to the temperature of heat and light; or of
wisdom and its love. The reason why on our approach there breathed on
you as it were a vernal warmth, is, because conjugial love and that
warmth in our heaven act in unity; for warmth with us is love; and the
light, wherewith warmth is united, is wisdom; and use is as it were the
atmosphere which contains each in its bosom. What are heat and light
without that which contains them? In like manner, what are love and
wisdom without their use? In such case there is nothing conjugial in
them, because the subject is wanting in which they should exist to
produce it. In heaven where there is vernal warmth, there is love truly
conjugial; because the vernal principle exists only where warmth is
equally united to light, or where warmth and light are in equal
proportions; and it is our opinion, that as warmth is delighted with
light, and _vice versa_, so love is delighted with wisdom, and wisdom in
its turn with love." He further added, "With us in heaven there is
perpetual light, and on no occasion do the shades of evening prevail,
still less is there darkness; because our sun does not set and rise like
yours, but remains constantly in a middle altitude between the zenith
and the horizon, which, as you express it, is at an elevation of 45
degrees. Hence, the heat and light proceeding from our sun cause
perpetual spring, and a perpetual vernal warmth inspires those with whom
love is united with wisdom in just proportion; and our Lord, by the
eternal union of heat and light, breathes nothing but uses: hence also
come the germinations of your earth, and the connubial associations of
your birds and animals in the spring; for the vernal warmth opens their
interiors even to the inmost, which are called their souls, and affects
them, and communicates to them its conjugial principle, and causes their
principle of prolification to come into its delights, in consequence of
a continual tendency to produce fruits of use, which use is the
propagation of their kind. But with men (_homines_) there is a perpetual
influx of vernal warmth from the Lord; wherefore they are capable of
enjoying marriage delights at all times, even in the midst of winter;
for the males of the human race were created to be recipients of light,
that is, of wisdom from the Lord, and the females to be recipients of
heat, that is, of the love of the wisdom of the male from the Lord.
Hence then it is, that, as we approached, there breathed on you a vernal
warmth attended with an odoriferous fragrance, like what arises from
gardens and fields in the spring." As he said this, he gave me his right
hand, and conducted me to houses inhabited by married partners in a like
prime of their age with himself and his partner; and said, "These wives,
who now seem like young virgins, were in the world infirm old women; and
their husbands, who now seem in the spring of youth, were in the world
decrepit old men; and all of them were restored by the Lord to this
prime of their age, because they mutually loved each other, and from
religious motives shunned adulteries as enormous sins:" and he added,
"No one knows the blessed delights of conjugial love, unless he rejects
the horrid delights of adultery; and no one can reject these delights,
unless he is under the influence of wisdom from the Lord; and no one is
under the influence of wisdom from the Lord, unless he performs uses
from the love of uses." I also saw on this occasion their house
utensils, which were all in celestial forms, and glittered with gold,
which had a flaming appearance from the rubies with which it was
studded.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE CHASTE PRINCIPLE AND THE NON-CHASTE.

138. As we are yet only at the entrance of our subject respecting
conjugial love specifically considered, and as conjugial love cannot be
known specifically, except in a very indistinct and obscure manner,
unless its opposite, which is the unchaste principle, also in some
measure appear; and as this unchaste principle appears in some measure,
or in a shade, when the chaste principle is described together with the
non-chaste, non-chastity being only a removal of what is unchaste from
what is chaste; therefore we will now proceed to treat of the chaste
principle and the non-chaste. But the unchaste principle, which is
altogether opposite to the chaste, is treated of in the latter part of
this work, entitled ADULTEROUS LOVE AND ITS SINFUL PLEASURES, where it
is fully described with all its varieties. But what the unchaste
principle is, and what the non-chaste, and with what persons each of
them prevails, shall be illustrated in the following order: I. _The
chaste principle and the non-chaste are predicated only of marriages and
of such things as relate to marriages._ II. _The chaste principle is
predicated only of monogamical marriages, or of the marriage of one man
with one wife._ III. _The Christian conjugial principle alone is
chaste._ IV. _Love truly conjugial is essential chastity._ V. _All the
delights of love truly conjugial, even the ultimate, are chaste._ VI.
_With those who are made spiritual by the Lord, conjugial love is more
and more purified and rendered chaste._ VII. _The chastity of marriage
exists by a total renunciation of whoredoms from a principle of
religion._ VIII. _Chastity cannot he predicated of infants, or of boys
and girls, or of young men and virgins before they feel in themselves
the love of the sex._ IX. _Chastity cannot be predicated of eunuchs so
born, or of eunuchs so made._ X. _Chastity cannot be predicated of those
who do not believe adulteries to be evils in regard to religion; and
still less of those who do not believe them to be hurtful to society._
XI. _Chastity cannot be predicated of those who abstain from adulteries
only for various external reasons._ XII. _Chastity cannot be predicated
of those who believe marriages to be unchaste._ XIII. _Chastity cannot
be predicated of those who have renounced marriage by vows of perpetual
celibacy, unless there be and remain in them the love of a life truly
conjugial._ XIV. _A state of marriage is to be preferred to a state of
celibacy._ We will now proceed to an explanation of each article.

139. I. THE CHASTE PRINCIPLE AND THE NON-CHASTE ARE PREDICATED ONLY OF
MARRIAGES AND OF SUCH THINGS AS RELATE TO MARRIAGES. The reason of this
is, because, as will be shewn presently, love truly conjugial is
essential chastity; and the love opposite to it, which is called
adulterous, is essential unchastity; so far therefore as any one is
purified from the latter love, so far he is chaste; for so far the
opposite, which is destructive of chastity, is taken away; whence it is
evident that the purity of conjugial love is what is called chastity.
Nevertheless there is a conjugial love which is not chaste, and yet it
is not unchastity; as is the case with married partners, who, for
various external reasons, abstain from the effects of lasciviousness so
as not to think about them; howbeit, if that love is not purified in
their spirits, it is still not chaste; its form is chaste, but it has
not in it a chaste essence.

140. The reason why the chaste principle and the non-chaste are
predicated of such things as relate to marriages, is, because the
conjugial principle is inscribed on both sexes from inmost principles to
ultimates; and a man's quality as to his thoughts and affections, and
consequently as to his bodily actions and behaviour, is according
thereto. That this is the case, appears more evidently from such as are
unchaste. The unchaste principle abiding in their minds is heard from
the tone of their voice in conversation, and from their applying
whatever is said, even though it be chaste, to wanton and loose ends;
(the tone of the voice in conversation is grounded in the
will-affection, and the conversation itself is grounded in the thought
of the understanding;) which is a proof that the will and the
understanding, with everything belonging to them, consequently the whole
mind, and thence everything belonging to the body, from inmost
principles to ultimates, abound with what is unchaste. I have been
informed by the angels, that, with the greatest hypocrites, the unchaste
principle is perceivable from hearing their conversation, however
chastely they may talk, and also is made sensible from the sphere that
issues from them; which is a further proof that unchastity resides in
the inmost principles of their minds, and thence in the inmost
principles of their bodies, and that the latter principles are
exteriorly covered like a shell painted with figures of various colors.
That a sphere of lasciviousness issues forth from the unchaste, is
manifest from the statutes prescribed to the sons of Israel, ordaining
that everything should be unclean that was touched even by the hand of
those who were defiled by such unchaste persons. From these
considerations it may be concluded that the case is similar in regard to
the chaste, viz., that with them everything is chaste from inmost
principles to ultimates, and that this is an effect of the chastity of
conjugial love. Hence it is, that in the world it is said, "To the pure
all things are pure, and to the defiled all things are defiled."

141. II. THE CHASTE PRINCIPLE IS PREDICATED ONLY OF MONOGAMICAL
MARRIAGES, OR OF THE MARRIAGE OF ONE MAN WITH ONE WIFE. The reason of
this is, because with them conjugial love does not reside in the natural
man, but enters into the spiritual man, and successively opens to itself
a way to the essential spiritual marriage, or the marriage of good and
truth, which is its origin, and conjoins itself therewith; for that love
enters according to the increase of wisdom, which is according to the
implantation of the church from the Lord, as has been abundantly shewn
above. This cannot be effected with polygamists; for they divide
conjugial love; and this love when divided, is not unlike the love of
the sex, which in itself is natural; but on this subject something
worthy of attention may be seen in the section on POLYGAMY.

142. III. THE CHRISTIAN CONJUGIAL PRINCIPLE ALONE IS CHASTE. This is,
because love truly conjugial keeps pace with the state of the church in
man (_homo_), and because the state of the church is from the Lord, as
has been shewn in the foregoing section, n. 130, 131, and elsewhere;
also because the church in its genuine truths is in the Word, and the
Lord is there present in those truths. From these considerations it
follows, that the chaste conjugial principle exists nowhere but in the
Christian world, and still that there is a possibility of its existing
elsewhere. By the Christian conjugial principle we mean the marriage of
one man with one wife. That this conjugial principle is capable of being
ingrafted into Christians, and of being transplanted hereditarily into
the offspring from parents who are principled in love truly conjugial,
and that hence both the faculty and the inclination to grow wise in the
things of the church and of heaven may become connate, will be seen in
its proper place. Christians, if they marry more wives than one, commit
not only natural but also spiritual adultery: this will be shewn in the
section on POLYGAMY.

143. IV. LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL IS ESSENTIAL CHASTITY. The reasons for
this are, 1. Because it is from the Lord, and corresponds to the
marriage of the Lord and the church. 2. Because it descends from the
marriage of good and truth. 3. Because it is spiritual, in proportion as
the church exists with man (_homo_). 4. Because it is the foundation and
head of all celestial and spiritual loves. 5. Because it is the orderly
seminary of the human race, and thereby of the angelic heaven. 6.
Because on this account it also exists with the angels of heaven, and
gives birth with them to spiritual offspring, which are love and wisdom.
7. And because its uses are thus more excellent than the other uses of
creation. From these considerations it follows, that love truly
conjugial, viewed from its origin and in its essence, is pure and holy,
so that it may be called purity and holiness, consequently essential
chastity: but that nevertheless it is not altogether pure, either with
men or angels, may be seen below in article VI, n. 146.

144. V. ALL THE DELIGHTS OF LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, EVEN THE ULTIMATE, ARE
CHASTE. This follows from what has been above explained, that love truly
conjugial is essential chastity, and from the considerations that
delights constitute its life. That the delights of this love ascend and
enter heaven, and in the way pass through the delights of the heavenly
loves, in which the angels of heaven are principled; also, that they
conjoin themselves with the delights of the conjugial love of the
angels, has been mentioned above. Moreover, I have heard it declared by
the angels, that they perceive those delights with themselves to be
exalted and filled, while they ascend from chaste marriages on the
earths: and when some by-standers, who were unchaste, inquired
concerning the ultimate delights whether they were chaste, they assented
and said, "How should it be otherwise? Are not these the delights of
true conjugial love in their fulness?" The origin, nature, and quality
of the delights of this love, may be seen above, n. 69: and also in the
MEMORABLE RELATIONS, especially those which follow.

145. VI. WITH THOSE WHO ARE MADE SPIRITUAL BY THE LORD, CONJUGIAL LOVE
IS MORE AND MORE PURIFIED AND RENDERED CHASTE. The reasons for this are,
1. Because the first love, by which is meant the love previous to the
nuptials and immediately after them, partakes somewhat of the love of
the sex, and thus of the ardor belonging to the body not as yet
moderated by the love of the spirit. 2. Because a man (_homo_) from
natural is successively made spiritual; for he becomes spiritual in
proportion as his rational principle, which is the medium between heaven
and the world, begins to drive a soul from influx out of heaven, which
is the case so far as it is affected and delighted with wisdom;
concerning which wisdom see above, n. 130; and in proportion as this is
effected, in the same proportion his mind is elevated into a superior
_aura_, which is the continent of celestial light and heat, or, what is
the same, of the wisdom and love in which the angels are principled; for
heavenly light acts in unity with wisdom, and heavenly heat with love;
and in proportion as wisdom and the love thereof increase, with married
pairs, in the same proportion conjugial love is purified with them; and
as this is effected successively, it follows that conjugial love is
rendered more and more chaste. This spiritual purification may be
compared with the purification of natural spirits, which is effected by
the chemists, and is called defecation, rectification, castigation,
acution, decantation, and sublimation; and wisdom purified may be
compared with alcohol, which is a highly rectified spirit. 3. Now as
spiritual wisdom in itself is of such a nature that it becomes more and
more warmed with the love of growing wise, and by virtue of this love
increases to eternity; and as this is effected in proportion as it is
perfected by a kind of defecation, castigation, rectification, acution,
decantation, and sublimation, and this by elevating and abstracting the
intellect from the fallacies of the senses, and the will from the
allurements of the body; it is evident that conjugial love, whose parent
is wisdom, is in like manner rendered successively more and more pure,
and thereby chaste. That the first state of love between married
partners is a state of heat not yet tempered by light; but that it is
successively tempered in proportion as the husband is perfected in
wisdom, and the wife loves it in her husband, may be seen in the
MEMORABLE RELATION, n. 137.

146. It is however to be observed, that there is no conjugial love
altogether chaste or pure either with men (_homines_) or with angels;
there is still somewhat not chaste or not pure which adjoins or subjoins
itself thereto; but this has a different origin from that which gives
birth to what is unchaste: for with the angels the chaste principle is
above and the non-chaste beneath, and there is as it were a door with a
hinge interposed by the Lord, which is opened by determination, and is
carefully prevented from standing open, lest the one principle should
pass into the other, and they should mix together: for the natural
principle of man from his birth is defiled and fraught with evils;
whereas his spiritual principle is not so, because its birth is from the
Lord, for it is regeneration; and regeneration is a successive
separation from the evils to which a man is naturally inclined. That no
love with either men or angels is altogether pure, or can be pure; but
that the end, purpose, or intention of the will, is principally regarded
by the Lord: and that therefore so far as a man is principled in a good
end, purpose, or intention, and perseveres therein, so far he is
initiated into purity, and so far he advances and approaches towards
purity, may be seen above, n. 71.

147. VII. THE CHASTITY OF MARRIAGE EXISTS BY A TOTAL RENUNCIATION OF
WHOREDOMS FROM A PRINCIPLE OF RELIGION. The reason of this is, because
chastity is the removal of unchastity; it being a universal law, that so
far as any one removes evil, so far a capacity is given for good to
succeed in its place; and further, so far as evil is hated, so far good
is loved; and also _vice versa_; consequently, so far as whoredom is
renounced, so far the chastity of marriage enters. That conjugial love
is purified and rectified according to the renunciation of whoredoms,
every one sees from common perception as soon as it is mentioned and
heard; thus before confirmation; but as all have not common perception,
it is of importance that the subject should also be illustrated in the
way of proof by such considerations as may tend to confirm it. These
considerations are, that conjugial love grows cold as soon as it is
divided, and this coldness causes it to perish; for the heat of unchaste
love extinguishes it, as two opposite heats cannot exist together, but
one must needs reject the other and deprive it of its potency. Whenever
therefore the heat of conjugial love begins to acquire a pleasant
warmth, and from a sensation of its delights to bud and flourish, like
an orchard and garden in spring; the latter from the vernal temperament
of light and heat from the sun of the natural world, but the former from
the vernal temperament of light and heat from the sun of the spiritual
world.

148. There is implanted in every man (_homo_) from creation, and
consequently from his birth, an internal and an external conjugial
principle; the internal is spiritual, and the external natural: a man
comes first into the latter, and as he becomes spiritual, he comes into
the former. If therefore he remains in the external or natural conjugial
principle, the internal or spiritual conjugial principle is veiled or
covered, until he knows nothing respecting it; yea, until he calls it an
ideal shadow without a substance: but if a man becomes spiritual, he
then begins to know something respecting it, and afterwards to perceive
something of its quality, and successively to be made sensible of its
pleasantness, agreeableness, and delights; and in proportion as this is
the case, the veil or covering between the external and internal, spoken
of above, begins to be attenuated, and afterwards as it were to melt,
and lastly to be dissolved and dissipated. When this effect takes place,
the external conjugial principle remains indeed; but it is continually
purged and purified from its dregs by the internal; and this, until the
external becomes as it were the face of the internal, and derives its
delight from the blessedness which is in the internal, and at the same
time its life, and the delights of its potency. Such is the renunciation
of whoredoms, by which the chastity of marriage exists. It may be
imagined, that the external conjugial principle, which remains after the
internal has separated itself from it, or it from itself, resembles the
external principle not separated: but I have heard from the angels that
they are altogether unlike; for that the external principle in
conjunction with the internal, which they called the external of the
internal, was void of all lasciviousness, because the internal cannot be
lascivious, but only be delighted chastely; and that it imparts the same
disposition to its external, wherein it is made sensible of its own
delights: the case is altogether otherwise with the external separated
from the internal; this they said, was lascivious in the whole and in
every part. They compared the external conjugial principle derived from
the internal to excellent fruit, whose pleasant taste and flavor
insinuate themselves into its outward rind, and form this into
correspondence with themselves; they compared it also to a granary,
whose store is never diminished, but is continually recruited according
to its consumption; whereas they compared the external principle,
separate from the internal, to wheat in a winnowing machine, when it is
put in motion about its axis; in which case the chaff only remains,
which is dispersed by the wind; so it is with the conjugial principle,
unless the adulterous principle be renounced.

149. The reason why the chastity of marriage does not exist by the
renunciation of whoredoms, unless it be made from a principle of
religion, is, because a man (_homo_) without religion is not spiritual,
but remains natural; and if the natural man renounces whoredoms, still
his spirit does not renounce them; and thus, although it seems to
himself that he is chaste by such renunciation, yet nevertheless
unchastity lies inwardly concealed like corrupt matter in a wound only
outwardly healed. That conjugial love is according to the state of the
church with man, may be seen above n. 130. More on this subject may be
seen in the exposition of article XI.

150. VIII. CHASTITY CANNOT BE PREDICATED OF INFANTS, OR OF BOYS AND
GIRLS, OR OF YOUNG MEN AND VIRGINS BEFORE THEY FEEL IN THEMSELVES THE
LOVE OF THE SEX. This is because the chaste principle and the unchaste
are predicated only of marriages, and of such things as relate to
marriages, as may be seen above, n. 139; and of those who know nothing
of the things relating to marriage, chastity is not predicable; for it
is as it were nothing relating to them; and nothing cannot be an object
either of affection or thought: but after this nothing there arises
something, when the first motion towards marriage is felt, which is the
love of the sex. That virgins and young men, before they feel in
themselves the love of the sex, are commonly called chaste, is owing to
ignorance of what chastity is.

151. XI. CHASTITY CANNOT BE PREDICATED OF EUNUCHS SO BORN, OR OF EUNUCHS
SO MADE. Eunuchs so born are those more especially with whom the
ultimate of love is wanting from birth: and as in such case the first
and middle principles are without a foundation on which to stand, they
have therefore no existence; and if they exist, the persons in whom they
exist have no concern to distinguish between the chaste principle and
the unchaste, each being indifferent to them; but of these persons there
are several distinctions. The case is nearly the same with eunuchs so
made as with some eunuchs so born; but eunuchs so made, as they are both
men and women, cannot possibly regard conjugial love any otherwise than
as a phantasy, and the delights thereof as idle stories. If they have
any inclination, it is rendered mute, which is neither chaste nor
unchaste: and what is neither chaste nor unchaste, derives no quality
from either the one or the other.

152. X. CHASTITY CANNOT BE PREDICATED OF THOSE WHO DO NOT BELIEVE
ADULTERIES TO BE EVILS IN REGARD TO RELIGION; AND STILL LESS OF THOSE
WHO DO NOT BELIEVE THEM TO BE HURTFUL TO SOCIETY. The reason why
chastity cannot be predicated of such is, because they neither know what
chastity is nor even that it exists; for chastity relates to marriage,
as was shewn in the first article of this section. Those who do not
believe adulteries be evil in regard to religion, regard even marriages
as unchaste; whereas religion with married pairs constitutes their
chastity; thus such persons have nothing chaste in them, and therefore
it is in vain to talk to them of chastity; these are confirmed
adulterers: but those who do not believe adulteries to be hurtful to
society, know still less than the others, either what chastity is or
even that it exists; for they are adulterers from a determined purpose:
if they say that marriages are less unchaste than adulteries, they say
so merely with the mouth, but not with the heart, because marriages with
them are cold, and those who speak from such cold concerning chaste
heat, cannot have an idea of chaste heat in regard to conjugial love.
The nature and quality of such persons, and of the ideas of their
thought, and hence of the interior principles of their conversation,
will be seen in the second part of this work,--ADULTEROUS LOVE AND ITS
SINFUL PLEASURES.

153. XI. CHASTITY CANNOT BE PREDICATED OF THOSE WHO ABSTAIN FROM
ADULTERIES ONLY FOR VARIOUS EXTERNAL REASONS. Many believe that the mere
abstaining from adulteries in the body is chastity; yet this is not
chastity, unless at the same time there is an abstaining in spirit. The
spirit of man (_homo_), by which is here meant his mind as to affections
and thoughts, constitutes the chaste principle and the unchaste, for
hence it flows into the body, the body being in all cases such as the
mind or spirit is. Hence it follows, that those who abstain from
adulteries in the body, without being influenced from the spirit are not
chaste; neither are those chaste who abstain from them in spirit as
influenced from the body. There are many assignable causes which make a
man desist from adulteries in the body, and also in the spirit as
influenced from the body; but still, he that does not desist from them
in the body as influenced from the spirit, is unchaste; for the Lord
says, "_That whosoever looketh upon another's woman, so as to lust after
her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart_," Matt. v.
28. It is impossible to enumerate all the causes of abstinence from
adulteries in the body only, they being various according to states of
marriage, and also according to states of the body; for there are some
persons who abstain from them from fear of the civil law and its
penalties; some from fear of the loss of reputation and thereby of
honor; some from fear of diseases which may be thereby contracted; some
from fear of domestic quarrels on the part of the wife, whereby the
quiet of their lives may be disturbed; some from fear of revenge on the
part of the husband or relations; some from fear of chastisement from
the servants of the family; some also abstain from motives of poverty,
avarice, or imbecility, arising either from disease, from abuse, from
age, or from impotence. Of these there are some also, who, because they
cannot or dare not commit adultery in the body, condemn adulteries in
the spirit; and thus they speak morally against adulteries, and in favor
of marriages; but such person, unless in spirit they call adulteries
accursed, and this from a religious principle in the spirit, are still
adulterers; for although they do not commit them in the body, yet they
do in the spirit; wherefore after death, when they become spirits, they
speak openly in favor of them. From these considerations it is manifest,
that even a wicked person may shun adulteries as hurtful; but that none
but a Christian can shun them as sins. Hence then the truth of the
proposition is evident, that chastity cannot be predicated of those who
abstain from adulteries merely for various external reasons.

154. XII. CHASTITY CANNOT BE PREDICATED OF THOSE WHO BELIEVE MARRIAGES
TO BE UNCHASTE. These, like the persons spoken of just above, n. 152, do
not know either what chastity is, or even that it exists; and in this
respect they are like those who make chastity to consist merely in
celibacy, of whom we shall speak presently.

155. XIII. CHASTITY CANNOT BE PREDICATED OF THOSE WHO HAVE RENOUNCED
MARRIAGE BY VOWS OF PERPETUAL CELIBACY, UNLESS THERE BE AND REMAIN IN
THEM THE LOVE OF A LIFE TRULY CONJUGIAL. The reason why chastity cannot
be predicated of these, is, because after a vow of perpetual celibacy,
conjugial love is renounced; and yet it is of this love alone that
chastity can be predicated: nevertheless there still remains an
inclination to the sex implanted from creation, and consequently innate
by birth; and when this inclination is restrained and subdued, it must
needs pass away into heat, and in some cases into a violent burning,
which, in rising from the body into the spirit, infests it, and with
some persons defiles it; and there may be instances where the spirit
thus defiled may defile also the principles of religion, casting them
down from their internal abode, where they are in holiness, into things
external, where they become mere matters of talk and gesture; therefore
it was provided by the Lord, that celibacy should have place only with
those who are in external worship, as is the case with all who do not
address themselves to the Lord, or read the Word. With such, eternal
life is not so much endangered by vows of celibacy attended with
engagements to chastity, as it is with those who are principled in
internal worship: moreover, in many instances that state of life is not
entered upon from any freedom of the will, many being engaged therein
before they attain to freedom grounded in reason, and some in
consequence of alluring worldly motives. Of those who adopt that state
with a view to have their minds disengaged from the world, that they may
be more at leisure to apply themselves to divine things, those only are
chaste with whom the love of a life truly conjugial either preceded that
state or followed it, and with whom it remains; for the love of a life
truly conjugial is that alone of which chastity is predicated. Wherefore
also, after death, all who have lived in monasteries are at length freed
from their vows and set at liberty, that, according to the interior vows
and desires of their love, they may be led to choose a life either
conjugial or extra-conjugial: if in such case they enter into conjugial
life, those who have loved also the spiritual things of divine worship
are given in marriage in heaven; but those who enter into
extra-conjugial life are sent to their like, who dwell on the confines
of heaven. I have inquired of the angels, whether those who have devoted
themselves to works of piety, and given themselves up entirely to divine
worship, and who thus have withdrawn themselves from the snares of the
world and the concupiscences of the flesh, and with this view have vowed
perpetual virginity, are received into heaven, and there admitted among
the blessed to enjoy an especial portion of happiness according to their
faith. To this the angels replied, that such are indeed received into
heaven; but when they are made sensible of the sphere of conjugial love
there, they become sad and fretful, and then, some of their own accord,
some by asking leave, and some from being commanded, depart and are
dismissed, and when they are out of that heaven, a way is opened for
them to their consociates, who had been in a similar state of life in
the world; and then from being fretful they become cheerful, and rejoice
together.

156. XIV. A STATE OF MARRIAGE IS TO BE PREFERRED TO A STATE OF CELIBACY.
This is evident from what has been said above respecting marriage and
celibacy. A state of marriage is to be preferred because it is a state
ordained from creation; because it originates in the marriage of good
and truth; because it corresponds with the marriage of the Lord and the
church; because the church and conjugial love are constant companions;
because its use is more excellent than all the other uses of the things
of creation, for thence according to order is derived the increase of
the human race, and also of the angelic heaven, which is formed from the
human race: moreover, marriage constitutes the completeness of a man
(_homo_); for by it he becomes a complete man, as will be shewn in the
following chapter. All these things are wanting in celibacy. But if the
proposition be taken for granted, that a state of celibacy is preferable
to a state of marriage, and if this proposition be left to the mind's
examination, to be assented to and established by confirming proofs,
then the conclusion must be, that marriages are not holy, neither can
they be chaste; yea, that chastity in the female sex belongs only to
those, who abstain from marriage and vow perpetual virginity: and
moreover, that those who have vowed perpetual celibacy are understood by
the eunuchs _who make themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's
sake_, Matt. xix. 12; not to mention other conclusions of a like nature;
which, being grounded in a proposition that is not true, are also not
true. The eunuchs who make themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of
heaven's sake, are spiritual eunuchs, who are such as in marriages
abstain from the evils of whoredoms: that Italian eunuchs are not meant,
is evident.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Transcriber's Note: The out-of-order section numbers which follow are
in the original text, as are the asterisks which do not seem to indicate
footnotes.]

151.* To the above I shall add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. As I was
going home from the school of wisdom (concerning which, see above, n.
132), I saw in the way an angel dressed in blue. He joined me and walked
by my side, and said, "I see that you are come from the school of
wisdom, and are made glad by what you heard there; and as I perceive
that you are not a full inhabitant of this world, because you are at the
same time in the natural world, and therefore know nothing of our
Olympic gymnasia, where the ancient _sophi_ meet together, and by the
information they collect from every new comer, learn what changes and
successions wisdom has undergone and is still undergoing in your world;
if you are willing I will conduct you to the place where several of
those ancient _sophi_ and their sons, that is, their disciples, dwell."
So he led me to the confines between the north and east; and while I was
looking that way from a rising ground, lo! I saw a city, and on one side
of it two small hills; that which was nearer to the city being lower
than the other. "That city," said he, "is called Athens, the lower hill
Parnassus, and the higher Helicon. They are so called, because in the
city and around it dwell the wise men who formerly lived in Greece, as
Pythagoras, Socrates, Aristippus, Xenophon, with their disciples and
scholars." On my asking him concerning Plato and Aristotle, he said,
"They and their followers dwell in another region, because they taught
principles of rationality which relate to the understanding; whereas the
former taught morality which relates to the life." He further informed
me, that it was customary at times to depute from the city of Athens
some of the students to learn from the literati of the Christians, what
sentiments they entertain at this day respecting God, the creation of
the universe, the immortality of the soul, the relative state of men and
beasts, and other subjects of interior wisdom: and he added, that a
herald had that day announced an assembly, which was a token that the
emissaries had met with some strangers newly arrived from the earth, who
had communicated some curious information. We then saw several persons
going from the city and its suburbs, some having their heads decked with
wreaths of laurel, some holding palms in their hands, some with books
under their arms, and some with pens under the hair of the left temple.
We mixed with the company, and ascended the hill with them; and lo! on
the top was an octagonal palace, which they called the Palladium, into
which we entered; within there were eight hexangular recesses, in each
of which was a book-case and a table: at these recesses were seated the
laureled _sophi_, and in the Palladium itself there were seats cut out
of the rock, on which the rest were seated. A door on the left was then
opened, through which the two strangers newly arrived from the earth
were introduced; and after the compliments of salutation were paid, one
of the laureled _sophi_ asked them, "WHAT NEWS FROM THE EARTH?" They
replied, "This is news, that in forests there have been found men like
beasts, or beasts like men: from their face and body they were known to
have been born men, and to have been lost or left in the forests when
they were two or three years old; they were not able to give utterance
to any thought, nor could they learn to articulate the voice into any
distinct expression; neither did they know the food suitable for them as
the beasts do, but put greedily into their mouths whatever they found in
the forest, whether it was clean or unclean; besides many other
particulars of a like nature: from which some of the learned among us
have formed several conjectures and conclusions concerning the relative
state of men and beasts." On hearing this account, some of the ancient
_sophi_ asked, "What were the conjectures and conclusions formed from
the circumstances you have related?" The two strangers replied, "There
were several: but they may all be comprised under the following: 1. That
a man by nature, and also by birth, is more stupid and consequently
viler than any beast; and that he remains so, unless he is instructed.
2. That he is capable of being instructed, because he has learnt to
frame articulate sounds, and thence to speak, and thereby has begun to
express his thoughts, and this successively more and more perfectly
until he has been able to express the laws of civil society; several of
which are nevertheless impressed on beasts from their birth. 3. That
beasts have rationality like men. 4. Therefore, that if beasts could
speak, they would reason on any subject as acutely as men; a proof of
which is, that they think from reason and prudence just as men do. 5.
That the understanding is only a modification of light from the sun; the
heat co-operating by means of ether, so that it is only an activity of
interior nature; and that this activity may be so exalted as to appear
like wisdom. 6. That therefore it is ridiculous to believe that a man
lives after death any more than a beast; unless perchance, for some days
after his decease, in consequence of an exhalation of the life of the
body, he may appear as a mist under the form of a spectre, before he is
dissipated into nature; just as a shrub raised up from its ashes,
appears in the likeness of its own form. 7. Consequently that religion,
which teaches a life after death, is a mere device, in order to keep the
simple inwardly in bonds by its laws, as they are kept outwardly in
bonds by the laws of the state." To this they added, that "people of
mere ingenuity reason in this manner, but not so the intelligent:" and
they were asked, "How do the intelligent reason?" They said they had not
been informed; but they supposed that they must reason differently.

152.* On hearing this relation, all those who were sitting at the tables
exclaimed, "Alas! what times are come on the earth! What changes has
wisdom undergone? How is she transformed into a false and infatuated
ingenuity! The sun is set, and in his station beneath the earth is in
direct opposition to his meridian altitude. From the case here adduced
respecting such as have been left and found in forests, who cannot see
that an uninstructed man is such as here represented? For is not the
nature of his life determined by the nature of the instruction he
receives? Is he not born in a state of greater ignorance than the
beasts? Must he not learn to walk and to speak? Supposing he never
learnt to walk, would he ever stand upright? And if he never learnt to
speak, would he ever be able to express his thoughts? Is not every man
such as instruction makes him,--insane from false principles, or wise
from truths? and is not he that is insane from false principles,
entirely possessed with an imagination that he is wiser than he that is
wise from truths? Are there not instances of men who are so wild and
foolish, that they are no more like men than those who have been found
in forests? Is not this the case with such as have been deprived of
memory? From all these considerations we conclude, that a man without
instruction is neither a man nor a beast; but that he is a form, which
is capable of receiving in itself that which constitutes a man; and thus
that he is not born a man, but that he is made a man; and that a man is
born such a form as to be an organ receptive of life from God, to the
end that he may be a subject into which God may introduce all good, and,
by union with himself, may make him eternally blessed. We have perceived
from your conversation, that wisdom at this day is so far extinguished
or infatuated, that nothing at all is known concerning the relative
state of the life of men and of beasts; and hence it is that the state
of the life of man after death is not known: but those who are capable
of knowing this, and yet are not willing, and in consequence deny it, as
many Christians do, may fitly be compared to such as are found in
forests: not that they are rendered so stupid from a want of
instruction, but that they have rendered themselves so by the fallacies
of the senses, which are the darkness of truths."

153.* At that instant a certain person standing in the middle of the
Palladium, and holding in his hand a palm, said, "Explain, I pray, this
arcanum, How a man, created a form of God, could be changed into a form
of the devil. I know that the angels of heaven are forms of God and that
the angels of hell are forms of the devil, and that the two forms are
opposite to each other, the latter being insanities, the former wisdoms.
Tell me, therefore, how a man, created a form of God, could pass from
day into such night, as to be capable of denying God and life eternal."
To this the several teachers replied in order; first the Pythagoreans,
next the Socratics, and afterwards the rest: but among them there was a
certain Platonist, who spoke last; and his opinion prevailed, which was
to this effect; That the men of the saturnine or golden age knew and
acknowledged that they were forms receptive of life from God; and that
on this account wisdom was inscribed on their souls and hearts, and
hence they saw truth from the light of truth, and by truths perceived
good from the delight of the love thereof: but as mankind in the
following ages receded from the acknowledgement that all the truth of
wisdom and the consequent good of love belonging to them, continually
flowed in from God, they ceased to be habitations of God; and then also
discourse with God, and consociation with angels ceased: for the
interiors of their minds were bent from their direction, which had been
elevated upwards to God from God, into a direction more and more
oblique, outwardly into the world, and thereby to God from God through
the world, and at length inverted into an opposite direction, which is
downwards to self; and as God cannot be looked at by a man interiorly
inverted, and thereby averted, men separated themselves from God, and
were made forms of hell or devils. From these considerations it follows,
that in the first ages they acknowledged in heart and soul, that all the
good of love and the consequent true wisdom, were derived to them from
God, and also that they were God's in them: and thus that they were mere
recipients of life from God, and hence were called images of God, sons
of God, and born of God: but that in succeeding ages they did not
acknowledge this in heart and soul, but by a certain persuasive faith,
next by an historical faith, and lastly only with the mouth; and this
last kind of acknowledgement is no acknowledgement at all; yea, it is in
fact a denial at heart. From these considerations it may be seen what is
the quality of the wisdom which prevails at this day on the earth among
Christians, while they do not know the distinction between a man and a
beast, notwithstanding their being in possession of a written
revelation, whereby they may be inspired by God: and hence many believe,
that in case a man lives after death, a beast must live also; or because
a beast is not to live after death, neither will a man. Is not our
spiritual light, which enlightens the sight of the mind, become thick
darkness with them? and is not their natural light, which only
enlightens the bodily sight, become brightness to them?

154.* After this they all turned towards the two strangers, and thanked
them for their visit, and for the relation they had given, and entreated
them to go and communicate to their brethren what they had heard. The
strangers replied that they would endeavor to confirm their brethren in
this truth, that so far as they ascribe all the good of charity and the
truth of faith to the Lord, and not to themselves, so far they are men,
and so far they become angels of heaven.

155.* THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. One morning I was awoke by some
delightful singing which I heard at a height above me, and in
consequence, during the first watch, which is internal, pacific, and
sweet, more than the succeeding part of the day, I was in a capacity of
being kept for some time in the spirit as it were out of the body, and
of attending carefully to the affection which was sung. The singing of
heaven is an affection of the mind, sent forth through the mouth as a
tune: for the tone of the voice in speaking, separate from the discourse
of the speaking, and grounded in the affection of love, is what gives
life to the speech. In that state I perceived that it was the affection
of the delights of conjugial love, which was made musical by wives in
heaven: that this was the case, I observed from the sound of the song,
in which those delights were varied in a wonderful manner. After this I
arose, and looked into the spiritual world; and lo! in the east, beneath
the sun, there appeared as it were a GOLDEN SHOWER. It was the morning
dew descending in great abundance, which, catching the sun's rays,
exhibited to my eyes the appearance of a golden shower. In consequence
of this I became fully awake, and went forth in the spirit, and asked an
angel who then happened to meet me, whether he saw a golden shower
descending from the sun? He replied, that he saw one whenever he was
meditating on conjugial love; and at the same time turning his eyes
towards the sun, he added, "That shower falls over a hall, in which are
three husbands with their wives, who dwell in the midst of an eastern
paradise. Such a shower is seen falling from the sun over that hall,
because with those husbands and wives there resides wisdom respecting
conjugial love and its delights; with the husbands respecting conjugial
love, and with the wives respecting its delights. But I perceive that
you are engaged in meditating on the delights of conjugial love: I will
therefore conduct you there, and introduce you to them." He led me
through paradisiacal scenery to houses built of olive wood, having two
cedar columns before the gate, and introduced me to the husbands, and
asked their permission for me to converse with them in the presence of
the wives. They consented, and called their wives. These looked into my
eyes most shrewdly; upon which I asked them, "Why do you do so?" They
said, "We can thereby discover exquisitely what is your inclination and
consequent affection, and your thought grounded in affection, respecting
the love of the sex; and we see that you are meditating intensely, but
still chastely, concerning it." And they added, "What do you wish us to
tell you on the subject?" I replied, "Tell me, I pray, something
respecting the delights of conjugial love." The husbands assented,
saying, "If you are so disposed, give them some information in regard to
those delights: their ears are chaste." They asked me, "Who taught you
to question us respecting the delights of that love? Why did you not
question our husbands?" I replied, "This angel, who accompanies me,
informed me, that wives are the recipients and sensories of those
delights, because they are born loves; and all delights are of love." To
this they replied with a smile, "Be prudent, and declare nothing of this
sort except ambiguously; because it is a wisdom deeply seated in the
hearts of our sex, and is not discovered to any husband, unless he be
principled in love truly conjugial. There are several reasons for this,
which we keep entirely to ourselves." Then the husbands said, "Our wives
know all the states of our minds, none of which are hid from them: they
see, perceive, and are sensible of whatever proceeds from our will. We,
on the other hand, know nothing of what passes with our wives. This
faculty is given to wives, because they are most tender loves, and as it
were burning zeals for the preservation of friendship and conjugial
confidence, and thereby of all the happiness of life, which they
carefully attend to, both in regard to their husbands and themselves, by
virtue of a wisdom implanted in their love, which is so full of
prudence, that they are unwilling to say, and consequently cannot say,
that they love, but that they are loved." I asked the wives, "Why are
you unwilling, and consequently cannot say so?" They replied, "If the
least hint of the kind were to escape from the mouth of a wife, the
husband would be seized with coolness, which would entirely separate him
from all communication with his wife, so that he could not even bear to
look upon her; but this is the case only with those husbands who do not
hold marriages to be holy, and therefore do not love their wives from
spiritual love: it is otherwise with those who do. In the minds of the
latter this love is spiritual, and by derivation thence in the body is
natural. We in this hall are principled in the latter love by derivation
from the former; therefore we trust our husbands with our secrets
respecting our delights of conjugial love." Then I courteously asked
them to disclose to me some of those secrets: they then looked towards a
window on the southern quarter, and lo! there appeared a white dove,
whose wings shone as if they were of silver, and its head was crested
with a crown as of gold: it stood upon a bough, from which there went
forth an olive; and while it was in the attempt to spread out its wings,
the wives said, "We will communicate something: the appearing of that
dove is a token that we may. Every man (_vir_)" they continued, "has
five senses, seeing, hearing, smelling, taste, and touch; but we have
likewise a sixth, which is the sense of all the delights of the
conjugial love of the husband; and this sense we have in the palms of
our hands, while we touch the breasts, arms, hands, or cheeks, of our
husbands, especially their breasts; and also while we are touched by
them. All the gladness and pleasantness of the thoughts of their minds
(_mentium_), all the joys and delights of their minds (_animarum_) and
all the festive and cheerful principles of their bosoms, pass from them
to us, and become perceptible, sensible, and tangible: we discern them
as exquisitely and distinctly as the ear does the tune of a song, and
the tongue the taste of dainties; in a word, the spiritual delights of
our husbands put on with us a kind of natural embodiment; therefore they
call us the sensory organs of chaste conjugial love, and thence its
delights. But this sixth sense of ours exists, subsists, persists, and
is exalted in the degree in which our husbands love us from wisdom and
judgement, and in which we in our turn love them from the same
principles in them. This sense in our sex is called in the heavens the
sport of wisdom with its love, and of love with its wisdom." From this
information I became desirous of asking further questions concerning the
variety of their delights. They said, "It is infinite; but we are
unwilling and therefore unable to say more; for the dove at our window,
with the olive branch under his feet, is flown away." I waited for its
return, but in vain. In the meantime I asked the husbands, "Have you a
like sense of conjugial love?" They replied, "We have a like sense in
general, but not in particular. We enjoy a general blessedness, delight,
and pleasantness, arising from the particulars of our wives; and this
general principle, which we derive from them, is serenely peaceful." As
they said this, lo! through the window there appeared a swan standing on
a branch of a fig-tree, which spread out his wings and flew away. On
seeing this, the husbands said, "This is a sign for us to be silent
respecting conjugial love: come again some other time, and perhaps you
may hear more." They then withdrew, and we took our leave.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE CONJUNCTION OF SOULS AND MINDS BY MARRIAGE, WHICH IS MEANT BY THE
LORD'S WORDS,--THEY ARE NO LONGER TWO, BUT ONE FLESH.

156.* That at creation there was implanted in the man and the woman an
inclination and also a faculty of conjunction as into a one, and that
this inclination and this faculty are still in man and woman, is evident
from the book of creation, and at the same time from the Lord's words.
In the book of creation, called GENESIS, it is written, "_Jehovah God
builded the rib, which he had taken from the man, into a woman, and
brought her to the man. And the man said, This now is bone of my bones,
and flesh of my flesh. She shall be called Woman, because she was taken
out of man; for this cause shall a man leave his father and his mother,
and shall cleave to his wife: and they shall be one flesh_," chap. ii.
22-24. The Lord also says in Matthew, "_Have ye not read, that he that
made them from the beginning, made them a male and a female, and said,
For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to
his wife; and they TWO SHALL BECOME ONE FLESH? WHEREFORE THEY ARE NO
LONGER TWO, BUT ONE FLESH_," chap. xix. 4-6. From this it is evident,
that the woman was created out of the man (_vir_), and that each has an
inclination and faculty to reunite themselves into a one. That such
reunion means into one man (_homo_), is also evident from the book of
creation, where both together are called man (_homo_); for it is
written, "_In the day that God created man (homo), he created them a
male and a female, and called their name Man (homo)_," chap. v. 2. It is
there written, he called their name Adam; but Adam and man are one
expression in the Hebrew tongue: moreover, both together are called man
in the same book, chap. i. 27; chap. iii. 22-24. One flesh also
signifies one man; as is evident from the passages in the Word where
mention is made of all flesh, which signifies every man, as Gen. chap.
vi. 12, 13, 17, 19; Isaiah xl. 5, 6; chap. xlix. 26; chap. lxvi. 16, 23,
24; Jer. xxv. 31; chap, xxxii. 27; chap. xlv. 5; Ezek. xx. 48; chap.
xxi. 4, 5; and other passages. But what is meant by the man's rib, which
was builded into a woman; what by the flesh, which was closed up in the
place thereof, and thus what by bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh;
and what by a father and a mother, whom a man (_vir_) shall leave after
marriage; and what by cleaving to a wife, has been shewn in the ARCANA
COELESTIA; in which work the two books, Genesis and Exodus, are
explained as to the spiritual sense. It is there proved that a rib does
not mean a rib,--nor flesh, flesh,--nor a bone, a bone,--nor cleaving
to, cleaving to; but that they signify spiritual things, which
correspond thereto, and consequently are signified thereby. That
spiritual things are understood, which from two make one man (_homo_),
is evident from this consideration, that conjugial love conjoins them,
and this love is spiritual. That the love of the man's wisdom is
transferred into the wife, has been occasionally observed above, and
will be more fully proved in the following sections: at this time it is
not allowable to digress from the subject proposed, which is concerning
the conjunction of two married partners into one flesh by a union of
souls and minds. This union we will elucidate by treating of it in the
following order. I. _From creation there is implanted in each sex a
faculty and inclination, whereby they are able and willing to be
conjoined together as it were into a one._ II. _Conjugial love conjoins
two souls, and thence two minds into a one._ III. _The will of the wife
conjoins itself with the understanding of the man, and thence the
understanding of the man conjoins itself with the will of the wife._ IV.
_The inclination to unite the man to herself is constant and perpetual
with the wife; but is inconstant and alternate with the man._ V.
_Conjunction is inspired into the man from the wife according to her
love, and is received by the man according to his wisdom._ VI. _This
conjunction is effected successively from the first days of marriage;
and with those who are principled in love truly conjugial, is effected
more and more thoroughly to eternity._ VII. _The conjunction of the wife
with the rational wisdom of the husband is effected from within, but
with this moral wisdom from without._ VIII. _For the sake of this
conjunction as an end, the wife has a perception of the affections of
the husband, and also the utmost prudence in moderating them._ IX.
_Wives conceal this perception with themselves, and hide it from their
husbands, for reasons of necessity, in order that conjugial love,
friendship, and confidence, and thereby the blessedness of dwelling
together, and the happiness of life may he secured._ X. _This perception
is the wisdom of the wife, and is not communicable to the man; neither
is the rational wisdom of the man communicable to the wife._ XI. _The
wife, from a principle of love, is continually thinking about the man's
inclination to her, with the purpose of joining him to herself: it is
otherwise with the man._ XII. _The wife conjoins herself to the man, by
applications to the desires of his will._ XIII. _The wife is conjoined
to her husband by the sphere of her life flowing from the love of him._
XIV. _The wife is conjoined to the husband by the appropriation of the
powers of his virtue; which however is effected according to their
mutual spiritual love._ XV. _Thus the wife receives in herself the image
of her husband, and thence perceives, sees, and is sensible of, his
affections._ XVI. _There are duties proper to the husband, and others
proper to the wife; and the wife cannot enter into the duties proper to
the husband, nor the husband into the duties proper to the wife, so as
to perform them aright._ XVII. _These duties, also, according to mutual
aid, conjoin the two into a one, and at the same time constitute one
house._ XVIII. _Married partners, according to these conjunctions,
become one man (homo) more and more._ XIX. _Those who are principled in
love truly conjugial, are sensible of their being a united man, and as
it were one flesh._ XX. _Love truly conjugial, considered in itself, is
a union of souls, a conjunction of minds, and an endeavor towards
conjunction in the bosoms and thence in the body._ XXI. _The states of
this love are innocence, peace, tranquillity, inmost friendship, full
confidence, and a mutual desire of mind and heart to do very good to
each other; and the states derived from these are blessedness,
satisfaction, delight, and pleasure; and from the eternal enjoyment of
these is derived heavenly felicity._ XXII. _These things can only exist
in the marriage of one man with one wife._ We proceed now to the
explanation of these articles.

157. I. FROM CREATION THERE IS IMPLANTED IN EACH SEX A FACULTY AND
INCLINATION, WHEREBY THEY ARE ABLE AND WILLING TO BE JOINED TOGETHER, AS
IT WERE INTO A ONE. That the woman was taken out of the man, was shewn
just above from the book of creation; hence it follows, that there is in
each sex a faculty and inclination to join themselves together into a
one; for that which is taken out of anything, derives and retains its
constituent principle, from the principle proper to the thing whence it
was taken; and as this derived principle is of a similar nature with
that from which it was derived, it seeks after a reunion; and when it is
reunited, it is as in itself when it is in that from whence it came, and
_vice versa_. That there is a faculty of conjunction of the one sex with
the other, or that they are capable of being united, is universally
allowed; and also that there is an inclination to join themselves the
one with the other; for experience supplies sufficient confirmation in
both cases.

158. II. CONJUGIAL LOVE CONJOINS TWO SOULS, AND THENCE TWO MINDS, INTO A
ONE. Every man consists of a soul, a mind, and a body. The soul is his
inmost, the mind his middle, and the body his ultimate constituent. As
the soul is a man's inmost principle, it is, from its origin, celestial;
as the mind is his middle principle, it is, from its origin, spiritual;
and as the body is his ultimate principle, it is, from its origin,
natural. Those things, which, from their origin, are celestial and
spiritual, are not in space, but in the appearance of space. This also
is well known in the word; therefore it is said, that neither extension
nor place can be predicated of spiritual things. Since therefore spaces
are appearances, distances also and presences are appearances. That the
appearances of distances and presences in the spiritual world are
according to proximities, relationships, and affinities of love, has
been frequently pointed out and confirmed in small treatises respecting
that world. These observations are made, in order that it may be known
that the souls and minds of men are not in space like their bodies;
because the former, as was said above, from their origin, are celestial
and spiritual; and as they are not in space, they may be joined together
as into a one, although their bodies at the same time are not so joined.
This is the case especially with married partners, who love each other
intimately: but as the woman is from the man, and this conjunction is a
species of reunion, it may be seen from reason, that it is not a
conjunction into a one, but an adjunction, close and near according to
the love, and approaching to contact with those who are principled in
love truly conjugial. This adjunction may be called spiritual dwelling
together; which takes place with married partners who love each other
tenderly, however distant their bodies may be from each other. Many
experimental proofs exist, even in the natural world, in confirmation of
these observations. Hence it is evident, that conjugial love conjoins
two souls and minds into a one.

159. III. THE WILL OF THE WIFE CONJOINS ITSELF WITH THE UNDERSTANDING OF
THE MAN, AND THENCE THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE MAN WITH THE WILL OF THE
WIFE. The reason of this is, because the male is born to become
understanding, and the female to become will, loving the understanding
of the male; from which consideration it follows, that conjugial
conjunction is that of the will of the wife with the understanding of
the man, and the reciprocal conjunction of the understanding of the man
with the will of the wife. Every one sees that the conjunction of the
understanding and the will is of the most intimate kind; and that it is
such, that the one faculty can enter into the other, and be delighted
from and in the conjunction.

160. IV. THE INCLINATION TO UNITE THE MAN TO HERSELF IS CONSTANT AND
PERPETUAL WITH THE WIFE, BUT INCONSTANT AND ALTERNATE WITH THE MAN. The
reason of this is, because love cannot do otherwise than love and unite
itself, in order that it may be loved in return, this being its very
essence and life; and women are born loves; whereas men, with whom they
unite themselves in order that they may be loved in return, are
receptions. Moreover love is continually efficient; being like heat,
flame, and fire, which perish if their efficiency is checked. Hence the
inclination to unite the man to herself is constant and perpetual with
the wife: but a similar inclination does not operate with the man
towards the wife, because the man is not love, but only a recipient of
love; and as a state of reception is absent or present according to
intruding cares, and to the varying presence or absence of heat in the
mind, as derived from various causes, and also according to the increase
and decrease of the bodily powers, which do not return regularly and at
stated periods, it follows, that the inclination to conjunction is
inconstant and alternate with men.

161. V. CONJUNCTION IS INSPIRED INTO THE MAN FROM THE WIFE ACCORDING TO
HER LOVE, AND IS RECEIVED BY THE MAN ACCORDING TO HIS WISDOM. That love
and consequent conjunction is inspired into the man by the wife, is at
this day concealed from the men; yea, it is universally denied by them;
because wives insinuate that the men alone love, and that they
themselves receive; or that the men are loves, and themselves
obediences: they rejoice also in heart when the men believe it to be so.
There are several reasons why they endeavour to persuade the men of
this, which are all grounded in their prudence and circumspection;
respecting which, something shall be said in a future part of this work,
particularly in the chapter ON THE CAUSES OF COLDNESS, SEPARATIONS, AND
DIVORCES BETWEEN MARRIED PARTNERS. The reason why men receive from their
wives the inspiration or insinuation of love, is, because nothing of
conjugial love, or even of the love of the sex, is with the men, but
only with wives and females. That this is the case, has been clearly
shewn me in the spiritual world. I was once engaged in conversation
there on this subject; and the men, in consequence of a persuasion
infused from their wives, insisted that they loved and not the wives;
but that the wives received love from them. In order to settle the
dispute respecting this arcanum, all the females, married and unmarried,
were withdrawn from the men, and at the same time the sphere of the love
of the sex was removed with them. On the removal of this sphere, the men
were reduced to a very unusual state, such as they had never before
perceived, at which they greatly complained. Then, while they were in
this state, the females were brought to them, and the wives to the
husbands; and both the wives and the other females addressed them in the
tenderest and most engaging manner; but they were cold to their
tenderness, and turned away, and said one to another, "What is all this?
what is a female?" And when some of the women said that they were their
wives, they replied, "What is a wife? we do not know you." But when the
wives began to be grieved at this absolutely cold indifference of the
men, and some of them to shed tears, the sphere of the love of the
female sex, and the conjugial sphere, which had for a time been
withdrawn from the men, was restored; and then the men instantly
returned into their former state, the lovers of marriage into their
state, and the lovers of the sex into theirs. Thus the men were
convinced, that nothing of conjugial love, or even of the love of the
sex, resides with them, but only with the wives and females.
Nevertheless, the wives afterwards from their prudence induced the men
to believe, that love resides with the men, and that some small spark of
it may pass from them into the wives. This experimental evidence is here
adduced, in order that it may be known, that wives are loves and men
recipients. That men are recipients according to their wisdom,
especially according to this wisdom grounded in religion, that the wife
only is to be loved, is evident from this consideration, that so long as
the wife only is loved, the love is concentrated; and because it is also
ennobled, it remains in its strength, and is fixed and permanent; and
that in any other case it would be as when wheat from the granary is
cast to the dogs, whereby there is scarcity at home.

162. VI. THIS CONJUNCTION IS EFFECTED SUCCESSIVELY FROM THE FIRST DAYS
OF MARRIAGE; AND WITH THOSE WHO ARE PRINCIPLED IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL,
IT IS EFFECTED MORE AND MORE THOROUGHLY TO ETERNITY. The first heat of
marriage does not conjoin; for it partakes of the love of the sex, which
is the love of the body and thence of the spirit; and what is in the
spirit, as derived from the body, does not long continue; but the love
which is in the body, and is derived from the spirit, does continue. The
love of the spirit, and of the body from the spirit, is insinuated into
the souls and minds of married partners, together with friendship and
confidence. When these two (friendship and confidence) conjoin
themselves with the first love of marriage, there is effected conjugial
love, which opens the bosoms, and inspires the sweets of that love; and
this more and more thoroughly, in proportion as those two principles
adjoin themselves to the primitive love, and that love enters into them,
and _vice versa_.

163. VII. THE CONJUNCTION OF THE WIFE WITH THE RATIONAL WISDOM OF THE
HUSBAND IS EFFECTED FROM WITHIN, BUT WITH HIS MORAL WISDOM FROM WITHOUT.
That wisdom with men is two-fold, rational and moral, and that their
rational wisdom is of the understanding alone, and their moral wisdom is
of the understanding and the life together, may be concluded and seen
from mere intuition and examination. But in order that it may be known
what we mean by the rational wisdom of men, and what by their moral
wisdom, we will enumerate some of the specific distinctions. The
principles constituent of their rational wisdom are called by various
names; in general they are called knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom;
but in particular they are called rationality, judgement, capacity,
erudition, and sagacity; but as every one has knowledge peculiar to his
office, therefore they are multifarious; for the clergy, magistrates,
public officers, judges, physicians and chemists, soldiers and sailors,
artificers and laborers, husbandmen, &c., have each their peculiar
knowledge. To rational wisdom also appertain all the knowledge into
which young men are initiated in the schools, and by which they are
afterwards initiated into intelligence, which also are called by various
names, as philosophy, physics, geometry, mechanics, chemistry,
astronomy, jurisprudence, politics, ethics, history, and several others,
by which, as by doors, an entrance is made into things rational, which
are the ground of rational wisdom.

164. But the constituents of moral wisdom with men are all the moral
virtues, which have respect to life, and enter into it, and also all the
spiritual virtues, which flow from love to God and love towards our
neighbour, and centre in those loves. The virtues which appertain to the
moral wisdom of men are also of various kinds, and are called
temperance, sobriety, probity, benevolence, friendship, modesty,
sincerity, courtesy, civility, also carefulness, industry, quickness of
wit, alacrity, munificence, liberality, generosity, activity,
intrepidity, prudence and many others. Spiritual virtues with men are
the love of religion, charity, truth, conscience, innocence, and many
more. The latter virtues and also the former, may in general be referred
to love and zeal for religion, for the public good, for a man's country,
for his fellow-citizens, for his parents, for his married partner, and
for his children. In all these, justice and judgement have dominion;
justice having relation to moral, and judgement to rational wisdom.

165. The reason why the conjunction of the wife with the man's rational
wisdom is from within, is, because this wisdom belongs to the man's
understanding, and ascends into the light in which women are not and
this is the reason why women do not speak from that wisdom; but, when
the conversation of the men turns on subjects proper thereto, they
remain silent and listen. That nevertheless such subjects have place
with the wives from within, is evident from their listening thereto, and
from their inwardly recollecting what had been said, and favoring those
things which they had heard from their husbands. But the reason why the
conjunction of the wife with the moral wisdom of the man is from
without, is, because the virtues of that wisdom for the most part are
akin to similar virtues with the women, and partake of the man's
intellectual will, with which the will of the wife unites and
constitutes a marriage; and since the wife knows those virtues
appertaining to the man more than the man himself does, it is said that
the conjunction of the wife with those virtues is from without.

166. VIII. FOR THE SAKE OF THIS CONJUNCTION AS AN END, THE WIFE HAS A
PERCEPTION OF THE AFFECTIONS OF THE HUSBAND, AND ALSO THE UTMOST
PRUDENCE IN MODERATING THEM. That wives know the affections of their
husbands, and prudently moderate them, is among the arcana of conjugial
love which lie concealed with wives. They know those affections by three
senses, the sight, the hearing, and the touch, and moderate them while
their husbands are not at all aware of it. Now as the reasons of this
are among the arcana of wives, it does not become me to disclose them
circumstantially; but as it is becoming for the wives themselves to do
so, therefore four MEMORABLE RELATIONS are added to this chapter, in
which those reasons are disclosed by the wives: two of the RELATIONS are
taken from the three wives that dwelt in the hall, over which was seen
falling as it were a golden shower; and two from the seven wives that
were sitting in the garden of roses. A perusal of these RELATIONS will
unfold this arcanum.

167. IX. WIVES CONCEAL THIS PERCEPTION WITH THEMSELVES AND HIDE IT FROM
THEIR HUSBANDS, FOR REASONS OF NECESSITY, IN ORDER THAT CONJUGIAL LOVE,
FRIENDSHIP, AND CONFIDENCE, AND THEREBY THE BLESSEDNESS OF DWELLING
TOGETHER AND THE HAPPINESS OF LIFE MAY BE SECURED. The concealing and
hiding of the perception of the affections of the husband by the wives,
are said to be of necessity; because if they should reveal them, they
would cause a complete alienation of their husbands, both in mind and
body. The reason of this is, because there resides deep in the minds of
many men a conjugial coldness, originating in several causes, which will
be enumerated in the chapter ON THE CAUSES OF COLDNESSES, SEPARATION,
AND DIVORCES BETWEEN MARRIED PARTNERS. This Coldness, in case the wives
should discover the affections and inclinations of their husbands, would
burst forth from its hiding places, and communicate its cold, first to
the interiors of the mind, afterwards to the breast, and thence to the
ultimates of love which are appropriated to generation; and these being
affected with cold, conjugial love would be banished to such a degree,
that there would not remain any hope of friendship, of confidence, of
the blessedness of dwelling together, and thence of the happiness of
life; when nevertheless wives are continually feeding on this hope. To
make this open declaration, that they know their husbands' affections
and inclinations of love, carries with it a declaration and publication
of their own love: and it is well known, that so far as wives make such
a declaration, so far the men grow cold and desire a separation. From
these considerations the truth of this proposition is manifest, that the
reasons why wives conceal their perception with themselves, and hide it
from their husbands, are reasons of necessity.

168. X. THIS PERCEPTION IS THE WISDOM OF THE WIFE, AND IS NOT
COMMUNICABLE TO THE MAN; NEITHER IS THE RATIONAL WISDOM OF THE MAN
COMMUNICABLE TO THE WIFE. This follows from the distinction subsisting
between the male principle and the female. The male principle consists
in perceiving from the understanding, and the female in perceiving from
love: and the understanding perceives also those things which are above
the body and are out of the world; for the rational and spiritual sight
reaches to such objects; whereas love reaches no further than to what it
feels; when it reaches further, it is in consequence of conjunction with
the understanding of the man established from creation: for the
understanding has relation to light, and love to heat; and those things
which have relation to light, are seen, and those which have relation to
heat, are felt. From these considerations it is evident, that from the
universal distinction subsisting between the male principle and the
female, the wisdom of the wife is not communicable to the man, neither
is the wisdom of the man communicable to the wife: nor, further, is the
moral wisdom of the man communicable to women, so far as it partakes of
his rational wisdom.

169. XI. THE WIFE FROM A PRINCIPLE OF LOVE IN CONTINUALLY THINKING ABOUT
THE MAN'S INCLINATION TO HER, WITH THE PURPOSE OF JOINING HIM TO
HERSELF: IT IS OTHERWISE WITH THE MAN. This agrees with what was
explained above; namely, that the inclination to unite the man to
herself is constant and perpetual with the wife, but inconstant and
alternate with the man; see n. 160: hence it follows, that the wife's
thoughts are continually employed about her husband's inclination to
her, with the purpose of joining him to herself. Her thoughts concerning
her husband are interrupted indeed by domestic concerns; but still they
remain in the affection of her love; and this affection does not
separate itself from the thoughts with women, as it does with men: these
things, however, I relate from hearsay; see the two MEMORABLE RELATIONS
from the seven wives sitting in the rose-garden, which are annexed to
some of the following chapters.

170. XII. THE WIFE CONJOINS HERSELF TO THE MAN BY APPLICATIONS TO THE
DESIRES OF HIS WILL. This being generally known and admitted, it is
needless to explain it.

171. XIII. THE WIFE IS CONJOINED TO HER HUSBAND BY THE SPHERE OF HER
LIFE FLOWING FROM THE LOVE OF HIM. There flows, yea there overflows,
from every man (_homo_) a spiritual sphere, derived from the affections
of his love, which encompasses him, and infuses itself into the natural
sphere derived from the body, so that the two spheres are conjoined.
That a natural sphere is continually flowing, not only from men, but
also from beasts, yea from trees, fruits, flowers, and also from metals,
is generally known. The case is the same in the spiritual world; but the
spheres flowing from subjects in that world are spiritual, and those
which emanate from spirits and angels are altogether spiritual; because
there appertain thereto affections of love, and thence interior
perceptions and thoughts. This is the origin of all sympathy and
antipathy, and likewise of all conjunction and disjunction, and,
according thereto, of presence and absence in the spiritual world: for
what is of a similar nature or concordant causes conjunction and
presence, and what is of a dissimilar nature and discordant causes
disjunction and absence; therefore those spheres cause distances in that
world. What effects those spiritual spheres produce in the natural
world, is also known to some. The inclinations of married partners
towards each other are from no other origin. They are united by
unanimous and concordant spheres, and disunited by adverse and
discordant spheres; for concordant spheres are delightful and grateful,
whereas discordant spheres are undelightful and ungrateful. I have been
informed by the angels, who are in a clear perception of those spheres,
that every part of a man, both interior and exterior, renews itself;
which is effected by solutions and reparations; and that hence arises
the sphere which continually issues forth. I have also been informed
that this sphere encompasses a man on the back and on the breast,
lightly on the back, but more densely on the breast, and that the sphere
issuing from the breast conjoins itself with the respiration; and that
this is the reason why two married partners, who are of different minds
and discordant affections, lie in bed back to back, and, on the other
hand, why those who agree in minds and affections, mutually turn towards
each other. I have been further informed by the angels, that these
spheres, because they flow from every part of a man (_homo_), and are
abundantly continued around him, conjoin and disjoin two married
partners not only externally, but also internally; and that hence come
all the differences and varieties of conjugial love. Lastly, I have been
informed, that the sphere of love, flowing from a wife who is tenderly
loved, is perceived in heaven as sweetly fragrant, by far more pleasant
than it is perceived in the world by a newly married man during the
first days after marriage. From these considerations is manifested the
truth of the assertion, that a wife is conjoined to a man by the sphere
of her life flowing from the love of him.

172. XIV. THE WIFE IS CONJOINED TO THE HUSBAND BY THE APPROPRIATION OF
THE POWERS OF HIS VIRTUE; WHICH HOWEVER IS EFFECTED ACCORDING TO THEIR
MUTUAL SPIRITUAL LOVE. That this is the case, I have also gathered from
the mouth of angels. They have declared that the prolific principles
imparted from the husbands are received universally by the wives and add
themselves to their life; and that thus the wives lead a life unanimous,
and successively more unanimous with their husbands; and that hence is
effectively produced a union of souls and a conjunction of minds. They
declared the reason of this was, because in the prolific principle of
the husband is his soul, and also his mind as to its interiors, which
are conjoined to the soul. They added, that this was provided from
creation, in order that the wisdom of the man, which constitutes his
soul, may be appropriated to the wife, and that thus they may become,
according to the Lord's words, one flesh: and further, that this was
provided, lest the husband (_homovir_) from some caprice should leave
the wife after conception. But they added further, that applications and
appropriations of the life of the husband with the wife are effected
according to conjugial love, because love which is spiritual union,
conjoins; and that this also is provided for several reasons.

173. XV. THUS THE WIFE RECEIVES IN HERSELF THE IMAGE OF HER HUSBAND, AND
THENCE PERCEIVES, SEES, AND IS SENSIBLE OF, HIS AFFECTIONS. From the
reasons above adduced it follows as an established fact, that wives
receive in themselves those things which appertain to the wisdom of
their husbands, thus which are proper to the souls and minds of their
husbands, and thereby from virgins make themselves wives. The reasons
from which this follows, are, 1. That the woman was created out of the
man. 2. That hence she has an inclination to unite, and as it were to
reunite herself with the man. 3. That by virtue of this union with her
partner, and for the sake of it, the woman is born the love of the man,
and becomes more and more the love of him by marriage; because in this
case the love is continually employing its thoughts to conjoin the man
to itself. 4. That the woman is conjoined to her only one (_unico suo_)
by application to the desires of his life. 5. That they are conjoined by
the spheres which encompass them, and which unite themselves universally
and particularly according to the quality of the conjugial love with the
wives, and at the same time according to the quality of the wisdom
recipient thereof with the husbands. 6. That they are also conjoined by
appropriations of the powers of the husbands by the wives. 7. From which
reasons it is evident, that there is continually somewhat of the husband
being transferred to the wife, and inscribed on her as her own. From all
these considerations it follows, that the image of the husband is formed
in the wife; by virtue of which image the wife perceives, sees, and is
sensible of, the things which are in her husband, in herself, and thence
as it were herself in him. She perceives from communication, she sees
from aspect, and she is made sensible from the touch. That she is made
sensible of the reception of her love by the husband from the touch in
the palms of the hands, on the cheeks, the shoulders, the hands, and the
breasts, I learnt from the three wives in the hall, and the seven wives
in the rose garden, spoken of in the MEMORABLE RELATIONS which follow.

174. XVI. THERE ARE DUTIES PROPER TO THE HUSBAND AND OTHERS PROPER TO
THE WIFE; AND THE WIFE CANNOT ENTER INTO THE DUTIES PROPER TO THE
HUSBAND, NOR THE HUSBAND INTO THE DUTIES PROPER TO THE WIFE, SO AS TO
PERFORM THEM ARIGHT. That there are duties proper to the husband, and
others proper to the wife, needs not to be illustrated by an enumeration
of them; for they are many and various: and every one that chooses to do
so can arrange them numerically according to their genera and species.
The duties by which wives principally conjoin themselves with their
husbands, are those which relate to the education of the children of
each sex, and of the girls till they are marriageable.

175. The wife cannot enter into the duties proper to the husband, nor on
the other hand the husband into the duties proper to the wife, because
they differ like wisdom and the love thereof, or like thought and the
affection thereof, or like understanding and the will thereof. In the
duties proper to husbands, the primary agent is understanding, thought,
and wisdom; whereas in the duties proper to wives, the primary agent is
will, affection, and love; and the wife from the latter performs her
duties, and the husband from the former performs his; wherefore their
duties are naturally different, but still conjunctive in a successive
series. Many believe that women can perform the duties of men, if they
are initiated therein at an early age, as boys are. They may indeed be
initiated into the practice of such duties, but not into the judgement
on which the propriety of duties interiorly depends; wherefore such
women as have been initiated into the duties of men, are bound in
matters of judgement to consult men, and then, if they are left to their
own disposal, they select from the counsels of men that which suits
their own inclination. Some also suppose that women are equally capable
with men of elevating their intellectual vision, and into the same
sphere of light, and of viewing things with the same depth; and they
have been led into this opinion by the writings of certain learned
authoresses: but these writings, when examined in the spiritual world in
the presence of the authoresses, were found to be the productions, not
of judgement and wisdom, but of ingenuity and wit; and what proceeds
from these on account of the elegance and neatness of the style in which
it is written, has the appearance of sublimity and erudition; yet only
in the eyes of those who dignify all ingenuity by the name of wisdom. In
like manner men cannot enter into the duties proper to women, and
perform them aright, because they are not in the affections of women,
which are altogether distinct from the affections of men. As the
affections and perceptions of the male (and of the female) sex are thus
distinct by creation and consequently by nature, therefore among the
statutes given to the sons of Israel this also was ordained, "_A woman
shall not put on the garment of a man, neither shall a man put on the
garment of a woman; because this is an abomination_." Deut. xxii. 5.
This was, because, all in the spiritual world are clothed according to
their affections; and the two affections, of the woman and of the man,
cannot be united except (as subsisting) between two, and in no case (as
subsisting) in one.

176. XVII. THESE DUTIES ALSO, ACCORDING TO MUTUAL AID, CONJOIN THE TWO
INTO A ONE, AND AT THE SAME TIME CONSTITUTE ONE HOUSE. It is well known
in the world that the duties of the husband in some way conjoin
themselves with the duties of the wife, and that the duties of the wife
adjoin themselves to the duties of the husband, and that these
conjunctions and adjunctions are a mutual aid, and according thereto:
but the primary duties, which confederate, consociate, and gather into
one the souls and lives of two married partners, relate to the common
care of educating their children; in relation to which care, the duties
of the husband and of the wife are distinct, and yet join themselves
together. They are distinct; for the care of suckling and nursing the
infants of each sex, and also the care of instructing the girls till
they become marriageable, is properly the duty of the wife; whereas the
care of instructing the boys, from childhood to youth, and from youth
till they become capable of governing themselves, is properly the duty
of the husband: nevertheless the duties, of both the husband and the
wife, are blended by means of counsel and support, and several other
mutual aids. That these duties, both conjoined and distinct, or both
common and peculiar, combine the minds of conjugial partners into one;
and that this is effected by the love called _storge_, is well known. It
is also well known, that these duties, regarded in their distinction and
conjunction, constitute one house.

177. XVIII. MARRIED PARTNERS, ACCORDING TO THESE CONJUNCTIONS, BECOME
ONE MAN (homo) MORE AND MORE. This coincides with what is contained in
article VI.; where it was observed, that conjunction is effected
successively from the first days of marriage and that with those who are
principled in love truly conjugial, it is effected more and more
thoroughly to eternity; see above. They become one man in proportion as
conjugial love increases; and as this love in the heavens is genuine by
virtue of the celestial and spiritual life of the angels, therefore two
married partners are there called two, when they are regarded as husband
and wife, but one, when they are regarded as angels.

178. XIX. THOSE WHO ARE PRINCIPLED IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, ARE SENSIBLE
OF THEIR BEING A UNITED MAN, AND AS IT WERE ONE FLESH. That this is the
case, must be confirmed not from the testimony of any inhabitant of the
earth, but from the testimony of the inhabitants of heaven; for there is
no love truly conjugial at this day with men on earth; and moreover, men
on earth are encompassed with a gross body, which deadens and absorbs
the sensation that two married partners are a united man, and as it were
one flesh; and besides, those in the world who love their married
partners only exteriorly, and not interiorly, do not wish to hear of
such a thing: they think also on the subject lasciviously under the
influence of the flesh. It is otherwise with the angels of heaven, who
are principled in spiritual and celestial conjugial love, and are not
encompassed with so gross a body as men on earth. From those among them
who have lived for ages with their conjugial partners in heaven, I have
heard it testified, that they are sensible of their being so united, the
husband with the wife, and the wife with the husband, and each in the
other mutually and interchangeably, as also in the flesh, although they
are separate. The reason why this phenomenon is so rare on earth, they
have declared to be this; because the union of the souls and minds of
married partners on earth is made sensible in their flesh; for the soul
constitutes the inmost principles not only of the head, but also of the
body: in like manner the mind, which is intermediate between the soul
and the body, and which, although it appears to be in the head, is yet
also actually in the whole body: and they have declared, that this is
the reason why the acts, which the soul and mind intend, flow forth
instantly from the body; and that hence also it is, that they
themselves, after the rejection of the body in the former world, are
perfect men. Now, since the soul and the mind join themselves closely to
the flesh of the body, in order that they may operate and produce their
effects, it follows that the union of soul and mind with a married
partner is made sensible also in the body as one flesh. As the angels
made these declarations, I heard it asserted by the spirits who were
present, that such subjects belong to angelic wisdom, being above
ordinary apprehension; but these spirits were rational-natural, and not
rational-spiritual.

179. XX. LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF, IS A UNION OF
SOULS, A CONJUNCTION OF MINDS, AND AN ENDEAVOUR TOWARDS CONJUNCTION IN
THE BOSOMS AND THENCE IN THE BODY. That it is a union of souls and a
conjunction of minds, may be seen above, n. 158. The reason why it is an
endeavour towards conjunction in the bosoms is, because the bosom (or
breast) is as it were a place of public assembly, and a royal
council-chamber, while the body is as a populous city around it. The
reason why the bosom is as it were a place of public assembly, is,
because all things, which by derivation from the soul and mind have
their determination in the body, first flow into the bosom; and the
reason why it is as it were a royal council chamber, is, because in the
bosom there is dominion over all things of the body; for in the bosom
are contained the heart and lungs; and the heart rules by the blood, and
the lungs by the respiration, in every part. That the body is as a
populous city around it, is evident. When therefore the souls and minds
of married partners are united, and love truly conjugial unites them, it
follows that this lovely union flows into their bosoms, and through
their bosoms into their bodies, and causes an endeavour towards
conjunction; and so much the more, because conjugial love determines the
endeavour to its ultimates, in order to complete its satisfactions; and
as the bosom is intermediate between the body and the mind, it is
evident on what account conjugial love has fixed therein the seat of its
delicate sensation.

180. XXI. THE STATES OF THIS LOVE ARE INNOCENCE, PEACE, TRANQUILLITY,
INMOST FRIENDSHIP, FULL CONFIDENCE, AND A MUTUAL DESIRE OF MIND AND
HEART TO DO EVERY GOOD TO EACH OTHER; AND THE STATES DERIVED FROM THESE
ARE BLESSEDNESS, SATISFACTION, DELIGHT AND PLEASURE; AND FROM THE
ETERNAL ENJOYMENT OF THESE IS DERIVED HEAVENLY FELICITY. All these
things are in conjugial love, and thence are derived from it, because
its origin is from the marriage of good and truth, and this marriage is
from the Lord; and because love is of such a nature, that it desires to
communicate with another, whom it loves from the heart, yea, confer joys
upon him, and thence to derive its own joys. This therefore is the case
in an infinitely high degree with the divine love, which is in the Lord,
in regard to man, whom he created a receptacle of both love and wisdom
proceeding from himself; and as he created man (_homo_) for the
reception of those principles, the man (_vir_) for the reception of
wisdom, and the woman for the reception of the love of the man's wisdom,
therefore from inmost principles he infused into men (_homines_)
conjugial love into which love he might insinuate all things blessed,
satisfactory, delightful, and pleasant, which proceed solely from his
divine love through his divine wisdom, together with life, and flow into
their recipients; consequently, which flow into those who are principled
in love truly conjugial; for these alone are recipients. Mention is made
of innocence, peace, tranquillity, inmost friendship, full confidence,
and the mutual desire of doing every good to each other; for innocence
and peace relate to the soul, tranquillity to the mind, inmost
friendship to the breast, full confidence to the heart, and the mutual
desire of doing every good to each other, to the body as derived from
the former principles.

181. XXII. THESE THINGS CAN ONLY EXIST IN THE MARRIAGE OF ONE MAN WITH
ONE WIFE. This is a conclusion from all that has been said above, and
also from all that remains to be said; therefore there is no need of any
particular comment for its confirmation.

       *       *       *       *       *

182. To the above I will add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. After some
weeks, I heard a voice from heaven, saying, "Lo! there is again an
assembly on Parnassus: come hither, and we will shew you the way." I
accordingly came; and as I drew near, I saw a certain person on Helicon
with a trumpet, with which he announced and proclaimed the assembly. And
I saw the inhabitants of Athens and its suburbs ascending as before; and
in the midst of them three novitiates from the world. They were of a
Christian community; one a priest, another a politician, and the third a
philosopher. These they entertained on the way with conversation on
various subjects, especially concerning the wise ancients, whom they
named. They inquired whether they should see them, and were answered in
the affirmative, and were told, that if they were desirous, they might
pay their respects to them, as they were courteous and affable. The
novitiates then inquired after Demosthenes, Diogenes, and Epicurus; and
were answered, "Demosthenes is not here, but with Plato; Diogenes, with
his scholars, resides under Helicon, because of his little attention to
worldly things, and his being engaged in heavenly contemplations;
Epicurus dwells in a border to the west, and has no intercourse with us;
because we distinguish between good and evil affections, and say, that
good affections are one with wisdom, and evil affections are contrary to
it." When they had ascended the hill Parnassus, some guards there
brought water in crystal cups from a fountain in the mount, and said,
"This is water from the fountain which, according to ancient fable, was
broken open by the hoof of the horse Pegasus, and was afterwards
consecrated to nine virgins: but by the winged horse Pegasus they meant
the understanding of truth, by which comes wisdom; by the hoofs of his
feet they understood experiences whereby comes natural intelligence; and
by the nine virgins they understood knowledges and sciences of every
kind. These things are now called fables; but they were correspondences,
agreeable to the primeval method of speaking." Then those who attended
the three strangers said, "Be not surprised; the guards are told thus to
speak; but we know that to drink water from the fountain, means to be
instructed concerning truths, and by truths concerning goods, and
thereby to grow wise." After this, they entered the Palladium, and with
them the three novitiates, the priest, the politician, and the
philosopher; and immediately the laureled sophi who were seated at the
tables, asked, "WHAT NEWS FROM THE EARTH?" They replied, "This is news;
that a certain person declares that he converses with angels, and has
his sight opened into the spiritual world, equally as into the natural
world; and he brings thence much new information, and, among other
particulars, asserts, that a man lives a man after death, as he lived
before in the world; that he sees, hears, speaks, as before in the
world; that he is clothed and decked with ornaments, as before in the
world; that he hungers and thirsts, eats and drinks, as before in the
world; that he enjoys conjugial delights, as before in the world; that
he sleeps and wakes, as before in the world; that in the spiritual world
there are land and water, mountains and hills, plains and valleys,
fountains and rivers, paradises and groves; also that there are palaces
and houses, cities and villages, as in the natural world; and further,
that there are writings and books, employments and trades; also precious
stones, gold and silver; in a word, that there are all such things there
as there are on earth, and that those things in the heavens are
infinitely more perfect; with this difference only, that all things in
the spiritual world are from a spiritual origin, and therefore are
spiritual, because they are from the sun of that world, which is pure
love; whereas all things in the natural world are from a natural origin,
and therefore are natural and material, because they are from the sun of
that world, which is pure fire; in short, that a man after death is
perfectly a man, yea more perfectly than before in the world; for before
in the world he was in a material body, but in the spiritual world he is
in a spiritual body." Hereupon the ancient sages asked, "What do the
people on the earth think of such information?" The three strangers
replied, "We know that it is true, because we are here, and have viewed
and examined everything; wherefore we will tell you what has been said
and reasoned about it on earth." Then the PRIEST said, "Those of our
order, when they first heard such relations, called them visions, then
fictions; afterwards they insisted that the man had seen spectres, and
lastly they hesitated, and said, 'Believe them who will; we have
hitherto taught that a man will not be in a body after death until the
day of the last judgement.'" Then the sages asked, "Are there no
intelligent persons among those of your order, who can prove and evince
the truth, that a man lives a man after death?" The priest said, "There
are indeed some who prove it, but not to the conviction of others. Those
who prove it say, that it is contrary to sound reason to believe, that a
man does not live a man till the day of the last judgement, and that in
the mean while he is a soul without a body. What is the soul, or where
is it in the interim? Is it a vapor, or some wind floating in the
atmosphere, or some thing hidden in the bowels of the earth? Have the
souls of Adam and Eve, and of all their posterity, now for six thousand
years, or sixty ages, been flying about in the universe, or been shut up
in the bowels of the earth, waiting for the last judgement? What can be
more anxious and miserable than such an expectation? May not their lot
in such a case be compared with that of prisoners bound hand and foot,
and lying in a dungeon? If such be a man's lot after death, would it not
be better to be born an ass than a man? Is it not also contrary to
reason to believe, that the soul can be re-clothed with its body? Is not
the body eaten up by worms, mice, and fish? And can a bony skeleton that
has been parched in the sun, or mouldered into dust, be introduced into
a new body? And how could the cadaverous and putrid materials be
collected, and reunited to the souls? When such questions as these are
urged, those of our order do not offer any answers grounded in reason,
but adhere to their creed, saying, 'We keep reason under obedience to
faith.' With respect to collecting all the parts of the human body from
the grave at the last day, they say, 'This is a work of omnipotence;'
and when they name omnipotence and faith, reason is banished; and I am
free to assert, that in such case sound reason is not appreciated, and
by some is regarded as a spectre; yea, they can say to sound reason,
'Thou art unsound.'" On hearing these things, the Grecian sages said,
"Surely such paradoxes vanish and disperse of themselves, as being full
of contradiction; and yet in the world at this day they cannot be
dispersed by sound reason. What can be believed more paradoxical than
what is told respecting the last judgement; that the universe will then
be destroyed, and that the stars of heaven will then fall down upon the
earth, which is less than the stars; and that then the bodies of men,
whether they be mouldering carcases, or mummies eaten by men, or reduced
to mere dust, will meet and be united again with their souls? We, during
our abode in the world, from the inductions of reason, believed the
immortality of the souls of men; and we also assigned regions for the
blessed, which we call the elysian fields; and we believed that the soul
was a human image or appearance, but of a fine and delicate nature,
because spiritual." After this, the assembly turned to the other
stranger, who in the world had been a POLITICIAN. He confessed that he
did not believe in a life after death, and that respecting the new
information which he had heard about it, he thought it all fable and
fiction. "In my meditations on the subject," said he, "I used to say to
myself, 'How can souls be bodies?--does not the whole man lie dead in
the grave?--is not the eye there; how can he see?--is not the ear there,
how can he hear?--whence must he have a mouth wherewith to speak?
Supposing anything of a man to live after death, must it not resemble a
spectre? and how can a spectre eat and drink, or how can it enjoy
conjugial delights? whence can it have clothes, houses, meats, &c.?
Besides, spectres, which are mere aerial images, appear as if they
really existed; and yet they do not. These and similar sentiments I used
to entertain in the world concerning the life of men after death; but
now, since I have seen all things, and touched them with my hands, I am
convinced by my very senses that I am a man as I was in the world; so
that I know no other than that I live now as I lived formerly; with only
this difference, that my reason now is sounder. At times I have been
ashamed of my former thoughts." The PHILOSOPHER gave much the same
account of himself as the politician had done; only differing in this
respect, that he considered the new relations which he had heard
concerning a life after death, as having reference to opinions and
hypotheses which he had collected from the ancients and moderns. When
the three strangers had done speaking, the sophi were all in amazement;
and those who were of the Socratic school, said, that from the news they
had heard from the earth, it was quite evident, that the interiors of
human minds had been successively closed; and that in the world at this
time a belief in what is false shines as truth, and an infatuated
ingenuity as wisdom; and that the light of wisdom, since their times,
has descended from the interiors of the brain into the mouth beneath the
nose, where it appears to the eyes as a shining of the lip, while the
speech of the mouth thence proceeding appears as wisdom. Hereupon one of
the young scholars said, "How stupid are the minds of the inhabitants of
the earth at this day! I wish we had here the disciples of Heraclitus,
who weep at every thing, and of Democritus, who laugh at every thing;
for then we should hear much lamentation and much laughter." When the
assembly broke up, they gave the three novitiates the insignia of their
authority, which were copper plates, on which were engraved some
hieroglyphic characters; with which they took their leave and departed.

183. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. I saw in the eastern quarter a grove
of palm-trees and laurels, set in winding rows, which I approached and
entered; and walking in the winding paths I saw at the end a garden,
which formed the centre of the grove. There was a little bridge dividing
the grove from the garden, and at the bridge two gates, one on the side
next the grove, and the other on the side next the garden. And as I drew
near, the keeper opened the gates, and I asked him the name of the
garden. He said, "ADRAMANDONI; which is the delight of conjugial love."
I entered, and lo! there were olive-trees; and among them ran pendulous
vines, and underneath and among them were shrubs in flower. In the midst
of the garden was a grassy circus, on which were seated husbands and
wives, and youths and maidens, in pairs; and in the midst of the circus,
on an elevated piece of ground, there was a little fountain, which, from
the strength of its spring, threw its water to a considerable height. On
approaching the circus I saw two angels clad in purple and scarlet, in
conversation with those who were seated on the grass. They were
conversing respecting the origin of conjugial love, and respecting its
delights; and this being the object of their discourse, the attention
was eager, and the reception full; and hence there was an exaltation in
the speech of the angels as from the fire of love. I collected the
following summary of what was said. They began with the difficulty of
investigating and perceiving the origin of conjugial love; because its
origin is divinely celestial, it being divine love, divine wisdom, and
divine use, which three proceed as a one from the Lord, and hence flow
as a one into the souls of men, and through their souls into their
minds, and there into the interior affections and thoughts, and through
these into the desires next to the body, and from these through the
breast into the genital region, where all principles derived from their
first origin exist together, and, in union with successive principles,
constitute conjugial love. After this the angels said, "Let us
communicate together by questions and answers; since the perception of a
thing, imbibed by hearing only, flows in indeed, but does not remain
unless the bearer also thinks of it from himself, and asks questions
concerning it." Then some of that conjugial assembly said to the angels,
"We have heard that the origin of conjugial love is divinely celestial;
because it is by virtue of influx from the Lord into the souls of men;
and, as it is from the Lord, that it is love, wisdom, and use, which are
three essentials, together constituting one divine essence, and that
nothing but what is of the divine essence can proceed from him, and flow
into the inmost principle of man (_homo_), which is called his soul; and
that these three essentials are changed into analogous and corresponding
principles in their descent into the body. We ask therefore now in the
first place, What is meant by the third proceeding divine essential,
which is called use?" The angels replied, "Love and wisdom, without use,
are only abstract ideas of thought; which also after some continuance in
the mind pass away like the winds; but in use they are collected
together, and therein become one principle, which is called real. Love
cannot rest unless it is as work; for love is the essential active
principle of life; neither can wisdom exist and subsist unless when it
is at work from and with love; and to work is use; therefore we define
use to be the doing good from love by wisdom; use being essential good.
As these three essentials, love, wisdom, and use, flow into the souls of
men, it may appear from what ground it is said, that all good is from
God; for every thing done from love by wisdom, is called good; and use
also is something done. What is love without wisdom but a mere
infatuation? and what is love with wisdom without use, but a puff of the
mind? Whereas love and wisdom with use not only constitute man (_homo_),
but also are man; yea, what possibly you will be surprised at, they
propagate man; for in the seed of a man (_vir_) is his soul in a perfect
human form, covered with substances from the purest principles of
nature; whereof a body is formed in the womb of the mother. This is the
supreme and ultimate use of the divine love by the divine wisdom."
Finally the angels said, "We will hence come to this conclusion, that
all fructification, propagation, and prolification, is originally
derived from the influx of love, wisdom, and use from the Lord, from an
immediate influx into the souls of men, from a mediate influx into the
souls of animals, and from an influx still more mediate into the inmost
principles of vegetables; and all these effects are wrought in ultimates
from first principles. That fructifications, propagations, and
prolifications, are continuations of creation, is evident; for creation
cannot be from any other source, than from divine love by divine wisdom
in divine use; wherefore all things in the universe are procreated and
formed from use, in use, and for use." Afterwards those who were seated
on the grassy couches, asked the angels "Whence are the innumerable and
ineffable delights of conjugial love?" The angels replied, "They are
from the uses of love and wisdom, as may be plain from this
consideration, that so far as any one loves to grow wise, for the sake
of genuine use, so far he is in the vein and potency of conjugial love;
and so far as he is in these two, so far he is in the delights thereof.
Use effects this; because love and wisdom are delighted with each other,
and as it were sport together like little children; and as they grow up,
they enter into genial conjunction, which is effected by a kind of
betrothing, nuptial solemnity, marriage, and propagation, and this with
continual variety to eternity. These operations take place between love
and wisdom inwardly in use. Those delights in their first principles are
imperceptible; but they become more and more perceptible as they descend
thence by degrees and enter the body. They enter by degrees from the
soul into the interiors of a man's mind, from these into its exteriors,
from these into the bosom, and from the bosom into the genital region.
Those celestial nuptial sports in the soul are not at all perceived by
man; but they thence insinuate themselves into the interiors of the mind
under a species of peace and innocence, and into the exteriors of the
mind under a species of blessedness, satisfaction, and delight; in the
bosom under a species of the delights of inmost friendship; and in the
genital region, from continual influx even from the soul with the
essential sense of conjugial love, as the delight of delights. These
nuptial sports of love and wisdom in use in the soul, in proceeding
towards the bosom, become permanent, and present themselves sensible
therein under an infinite variety of delights; and from the wonderful
communication of the bosom with the genital region, the delights therein
become the delights of conjugial love, which are superior to all other
delights in heaven and in the world; because the use of conjugial love
is the most excellent of all uses, the procreation of the human race
being thence derived, and from the human race the angelic heaven." To
this the angels added, that those who are not principled in the love of
wisdom for the sake of use from the Lord, do not know anything
concerning the variety of the innumerable delights of love truly
conjugial; for with those who do not love to grow wise from genuine
truths, but love to be insane from false principles, and by this
insanity perform evil uses from some particular love, the way to the
soul is closed: hence the heavenly nuptial sports of love and wisdom in
the soul, being more and more intercepted, cease, and together with them
conjugial love ceases with its vein, its potency, and its delights. On
hearing these statements the audience said, "We now perceive that
conjugial love is according to the love of growing wise for the sake of
uses from the Lord." The angels replied that it was so. And instantly
upon the heads of some of the audience there appeared wreaths of
flowers; and on their asking, "Why is this?" the angels said, "Because
they have understood more profoundly:" and immediately they departed
from the garden, and the latter in the midst of them.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE CHANGE OF THE STATE OF LIFE WHICH TAKES PLACE WITH MEN AND WOMEN
BY MARRIAGE.

184. What is meant by states of life, and their changes, is very well
known to the learned and the wise, but unknown to the unlearned and the
simple; wherefore it may be expedient to premise somewhat on the
subject. The state of a man's life is its quality; and as there are in
every man two faculties which constitute his life, and which are called
the understanding and the will, the state of a man's life is its quality
as to the understanding and the will. Hence it is evident, that changes
of the state of life mean changes of quality as to the things
appertaining to the understanding and the will. That every man is
continually changing as to those two principles, but with a distinction
of variations before marriage and after it, is the point proposed to be
proved in this section; which shall be done in the following
propositions:--I. _The state of a man's (homo) life from infancy even to
the end of his life, and afterwards to eternity, is continually
changing._ II. _In like manner a man's internal form which is that of
his spirit, is continually changing._ III. _These changes differ in the
case of men and of women; since men from creation are forms of
knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom, and women are forms of the love of
those principles as existing with men._ IV. _With men there is an
elevation of the mind into superior light, and with women an elevation
of the mind into superior heat: and that the woman is made sensible of
the delights of her heat in the man's light._ V. _With both men and
women, the states of life before marriage are different from what they
are afterwards._ VI. _With married partners the states of life after
marriage are changed and succeed each other according to the
conjunctions of their minds by conjugial love._ VII. _Marriage also
induces other forms in the souls and minds of married partners._ VIII.
_The woman is actually formed into a wife according to the description
in the book of creation._ IX. _This formation is effected on the part of
the wife by secret means; and this is meant by the woman's being created
while the man slept._ X. _This formation on the part of the wife is
affected by the conjunction of her own will with the internal will of
the man._ XI. _The end herein is, that the will of both became one, and
that thus both may become one man (homo)._ XII. _This formation on the
part of the wife is affected by an appropriation of the affections of
the husband._ XIII. _This formation on the part of the wife is effected
by a reception of the propagations of the soul of the husband, with the
delight arising from her desire to be the love of her husband's wisdom._
XIV. _Thus a maiden is formed into a wife, and a youth into a husband._
XV. _In the marriage of one man with one wife, between whom there exists
love truly conjugial, the wife becomes more and more a wife and the
husband more and more a husband._ XVI. _Thus also their forms are
successively perfected and ennobled from within._ XVII. _Children born
of parents who are principled in love truly conjugial, derive from them
the conjugial principle of good and truth; whence they have an
inclination and faculty, if sons, to perceive the things relating to
wisdom, and if daughters, to love those things which wisdom teaches._
XVIII. _The reason of this is because the soul of the offspring is from
the father and its clothing from the mother._ We proceed to the
explanation of each article.

185. I. THE STATE OF A MAN'S (_homo_) LIFE, FROM INFANCY EVEN TO THE END
OF HIS LIFE, AND AFTERWARDS TO ETERNITY, IS CONTINUALLY CHANGING. The
common states of a man's life are called infancy, childhood, youth,
manhood, and old age. That every man, whose life is continued in the
world, successively passes from one state into another, thus from the
first to the last, is well known. The transitions into those ages only
become evident by the intervening spaces of time: that nevertheless they
are progressive from one moment to another, thus continual, is obvious
to reason; for the case is similar with a man as with a tree, which
grows and increases every instant of time, even the most minute, from
the casting of the seed into the earth. These momentaneous progressions
are also changes of state; for the subsequent adds something to the
antecedent, which perfects the state. The changes which take place in a
man's internals, are more perfectly continuous than those which take
place in his externals; because a man's internals, by which we mean the
things appertaining to his mind or spirit, are elevated into a superior
degree above his externals; and in those principles which are in a
superior degree, a thousand effects take place in the same instant in
which one effect is wrought in externals. The changes which take place
in internals, are changes of the state of the will as to affections, and
of the state of the understanding as to thoughts. The successive changes
of state of the latter and of the former are specifically meant in the
proposition. The changes of these two lives or faculties are perpetual
with every man from infancy even to the end of his life, and afterwards
to eternity; because there is no end to knowledge, still less to
intelligence, and least of all to wisdom; for there is infinity and
eternity in the extent of these principles, by virtue of the Infinite
and Eternal One, from whom they are derived. Hence comes the
philosophical tenet of the ancients, that everything is divisible _in
infinitum_; to which may be added, that it is multiplicable in like
manner. The angels assert, that by wisdom from the Lord they are being
perfected to eternity; which also means to infinity; because eternity is
the infinity of time.

186. II. IN LIKE MANNER A MAN'S (_homo_) INTERNAL FORM WHICH IS THAT OF
HIS SPIRIT, IS CONTINUALLY CHANGING. The reason why this form is
continually changing as the state of the man's life is changed, is,
because there is nothing that exists but in a form, and state induces
that form; wherefore it is the same whether we say that the state of a
man's life is changed, or that its form is changed. All a man's
affections and thoughts are in forms, and thence from forms; for forms
are their subjects. If affections and thoughts were not in subjects,
which are formed, they might exist also in skulls without a brain; which
would be the same thing as to suppose sight without an eye, hearing
without an ear, and taste without a tongue. It is well known that there
are subjects of these senses, and that these subjects are forms. The
state of life, and thence the form, with a man, is continually changing;
because it is a truth which the wise have taught and still teach, that
there does not exist a sameness, or absolute identity of two things,
still less of several; as there are not two human faces the same, and
still less several: the case is similar in things successive, in that no
subsequent state of life is the same as a preceding one; whence it
follows, that there is a perpetual change of the state of life with
every man, consequently also a perpetual change of form, especially of
his internals. But as these considerations do not teach anything
respecting marriages, but only prepare the way for knowledges concerning
them, and since also they are mere philosophical inquiries of the
understanding, which, with some persons, are difficult of apprehension,
we will pass them without further discussion.

187. III. THESE CHANGES DIFFER IN THE CASE OF MEN AND OF WOMEN; SINCE
MEN FROM CREATION ARE FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE, INTELLIGENCE, AND WISDOM; AND
WOMEN ARE FORMS OF THE LOVE OF THOSE PRINCIPLES AS EXISTING WITH MEN.
That men were created forms of the understanding, and that women were
created forms of the love of the understanding of men, may be explained
above, n. 90. That the changes of state, which succeed both with men and
women from infancy to mature age, are for the perfecting of forms, the
intellectual form with men, and the voluntary with women, follows as a
consequence: hence it is clear, that the changes with men differ from
those with women; nevertheless with both, the external form which is of
the body is perfected according to the perfecting of the internal form
which is of the mind; for the mind acts upon the body, and not _vice
versa_. This is the reason why infants in heaven become men of stature
and comeliness according as they increase in intelligence; it is
otherwise with infants on earth, because they are encompassed with a
material body like the animals; nevertheless they agree in this, that
they first grow in inclination to such things as allure their bodily
senses, and afterwards by little and little to such things as affect the
internal thinking sense, and by degrees to such things as tincture the
will with affection; and when they arrive at an age which is midway
between mature and immature, the conjugial inclination begins, which is
that of a maiden to a youth, and of a youth to a maiden; and as maidens
in the heavens, like those on earth from an innate prudence conceal
their inclination to marriage, the youths there know no other than that
they affect the maidens with love; and this also appears to them in
consequence of their masculine eagerness; which they also derive from an
influx of love from the fair sex; concerning which influx we shall speak
particularly elsewhere. From these considerations the truth of the
proposition is evident, that the changes of state with men differ from
those with women; since men from creation are forms of knowledge,
intelligence and wisdom, and women are forms of the love of those
principles as existing with men.

188. IV. WITH MEN THERE IS AN ELEVATION OF THE MIND INTO SUPERIOR LIGHT,
AND WITH WOMEN AN ELEVATION OF THE MIND INTO SUPERIOR HEAT; AND THE
WOMAN IS MADE SENSIBLE OF THE DELIGHTS OF HER HEAT IN THE MAN'S LIGHT.
By the light into which men are elevated, we mean intelligence and
wisdom; because spiritual light, which proceeds from the sun of the
spiritual world, which sun in its essence is love, acts in equality or
unity with those two principles; and by the heat into which women are
elevated, we mean conjugial love because spiritual heat, which proceeds
from the sun of that world, in its essence is love, and with women it is
love conjoining itself with intelligence and wisdom in men; which love
in its complex is called conjugial love, and by determination becomes
that love. It is called elevation into superior light and heat, because
it is elevation into the light and heat which the angels of the superior
heavens enjoy: it is also an actual elevation, as from a thick mist into
pure air, and from an inferior region of the air into a superior, and
from thence into ether; therefore elevation into superior light with men
is elevation into superior intelligence, and thence into wisdom; in
which also there are ascending degrees of elevation; but elevation into
superior heat with women is an elevation into chaster and purer
conjugial love, and continually towards the conjugial principle, which
from creation lies concealed in their inmost principles. These
elevations, considered in themselves, are openings of the mind; for the
human mind is distinguished into regions, as the world is distinguished
into regions as to the atmosphere; the lowest of which is the watery,
the next above is the aerial, and still higher is the ethereal, above
which there is also the highest: into similar regions the mind of man is
elevated as it is opened, with men by wisdom, and with women by love
truly conjugial.

189. We have said, that the woman is made sensible of the delights of
her heat in the man's light; by which we mean that the woman is made
sensible of the delights of her love in the man's wisdom, because wisdom
is the receptacle; and wherever love finds such a receptacle
corresponding to itself, it is in the enjoyment of its delights: but we
do not mean, that heat with its light is delighted out of forms, but
within them; and spiritual heat is delighted with spiritual light in
their forms to a greater degree, because those forms by virtue of wisdom
and love are vital, and thereby susceptible. This may be illustrated by
what are called the sports of heat with light in the vegetable kingdom:
out of the vegetable there is only a simple conjunction of heat and
light, but within it there is a kind of sport of the one with the other;
because there they are in forms or receptacles; for they pass through
astonishing meandering ducts, and in the inmost principles therein they
tend to use in bearing fruit, and also breathe forth their satisfactions
far and wide into the atmosphere, which they fill with fragrance. The
delight of spiritual heat with spiritual light is more vividly
perceivable in human forms, in which spiritual heat is conjugial love,
and spiritual light is wisdom.

190. V. WITH BOTH MEN AND WOMEN, THE STATES OF LIFE BEFORE MARRIAGE ARE
DIFFERENT FROM WHAT THEY ARE AFTERWARDS. Before marriage, each sex
passes through two states, one previous and the other subsequent to the
inclination for marriage. The changes of both these states, and the
consequent formations of minds, proceed in successive order according to
their continual increase; but we have not leisure now to describe these
changes, which are various and different in their several subjects. The
inclination to marriage, previous to marriage, are only imaginary in the
mind, and become more and more sensible in the body; but the states
thereof after marriage are states of conjunction and also of
prolification, which, it is evident, differ from the forgoing states as
effects differ from intentions.

191. VI. WITH MARRIED PARTNERS THE STATES OF LIFE AFTER MARRIAGE ARE
CHANGED AND SUCCEED EACH OTHER ACCORDING TO THE CONJUNCTIONS OF THEIR
MINDS BY CONJUGIAL LOVE. The reason why changes of the state and the
successions thereof after marriage, with both the man and the wife, are
according to conjugial love with each, and thus are either conjunctive
or disjunctive of their minds, is, because conjugial love is not only
various but also different with conjugial pairs: various, with those who
love each other interiorly; for with such it has its intermissions,
notwithstanding its being inwardly in its heat regular and permanent;
but it is different with those who love each other only exteriorly; for
with such its intermissions do not proceed from similar causes, but from
alternate cold and heat. The true ground of these differences is, that
with the latter the body is the principal agent, the ardour of which
spreads itself around, and forcibly draws into communion with it the
inferior principles of the mind; whereas, with the former, who love each
other interiorly, the mind is the principal agent, and brings the body
into communion with it. It appears as if love ascended from the body
into the soul; because as soon as the body catches the allurement, it
enters through the eyes, as through doors, into the mind, and thus
through the sight, as through an outer court, into the thoughts, and
instantly into the love: nevertheless it descends from the mind, and
acts upon the inferior principles according to their orderly
arrangement; therefore the lascivious mind acts lasciviously, and the
chaste mind chastely; and the latter arranges the body, whereas the
former is arranged by the body.

192. VII. MARRIAGE ALSO INDUCES OTHER FORMS IN THE SOULS AND MINDS OF
MARRIED PARTNERS. That marriage has this effect cannot be observed in
the natural world; because in this world souls and minds are encompassed
with a material body, through which the mind rarely shines: the men
(_homines_) also of modern times, more than the ancients, are taught
from their infancy to assume feigned countenances, whereby they deeply
conceal the affections of their minds; and this is the reason why the
forms of minds are not known and distinguished according to their
different quality, as existing before marriage and after it:
nevertheless that the forms of souls and minds differ after marriage
from what they were before, is very manifest from their appearance in
the spiritual world; for they are then spirits and angels, who are minds
and souls in a human form, stripped of their outward coverings, which
had been composed of watery and earthy elements, and of aerial vapors
thence arising; and when these are cast off, the forms of the minds are
plainly seen, such as they had been inwardly in their bodies; and then
it is clearly perceived, that there is a difference in regard to those
forms with those who live in marriage, and with those who do not. In
general, married partners have an interior beauty of countenance, the
man deriving from the wife the ruddy bloom of her love, and the wife
from the man the fair splendor of his wisdom; for two married partners
in the spiritual world are united as to their souls; and moreover there
appears in each a human fulness. This is the case in heaven, because
there are no marriages (_conjugia_) in any other place; beneath heaven
there are only nuptial connections (_connubia_), which are alternately
tied and loosed.

193. VIII. THE WOMAN IS ACTUALLY FORMED INTO A WIFE, ACCORDING TO THE
DESCRIPTION IN THE BOOK OF CREATION. In this book it is said, that the
woman was created out of the man's rib, and that the man said, when she
was brought to him, "This is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh;
and she shall be called Eve (_Ischah_), because she was taken out of man
(_Isch_):" Gen. chap. ii. 21-23. A rib of the breast, in the Word,
signifies, in the spiritual sense, natural truth. This is signified by
the ribs which the bear carried between his teeth, Dan. vii. 5; for
bears signify those who read the Word in the natural sense, and see
truths therein without understanding: the man's breast signifies that
essential and peculiar principle, which is distinguished from the breast
of the woman: that this is wisdom, may be seen above, n. 187; for truth
supports wisdom as the ribs do the breast. These things are signified,
because the breast is that part of a man in which all his principles are
as in their centre. From these considerations, it is evident, that the
woman was created out of the man by a transfer of his peculiar wisdom,
which is the same thing as to be created out of natural truth; and that
the love thereof was transferred from the man into the woman, to the end
that conjugial love might exist; and that this was done in order that
the love of the wife and not self-love might be in the man: for the
wife, in consequence of her innate disposition, cannot do otherwise than
convert self-love, as existing with the man, into his love to herself;
and I have been informed, that this is effected by virtue of the wife's
love itself, neither the man nor the wife being conscious of it: hence,
no man can possibly love his wife with true conjugial love, who from a
principle of self-love is vain and conceited of his own intelligence.
When this arcanum relating to the creation of the woman from the man, is
understood, it may then be seen, that the woman in like manner is as it
were created or formed from the man in marriage; and that this is
effected by the wife, or rather through her by the Lord, who imparts
inclinations to women whereby they produce such an effect: for the wife
receives into herself the image of a man, and thereby appropriates to
herself his affections, as may be seen above, n. 183; and conjoins the
man's internal will with her own, of which we shall treat presently; and
also claims to herself the propagated forms (_propagines_) of his soul,
of which also we shall speak elsewhere. From these considerations it is
evident, that, according to the description in the book of Genesis,
interiorly understood, a woman is formed into a wife by such things as
she takes out of the husband and his breast, and implants in herself.

194. IX. THIS FORMATION IS EFFECTED ON THE PART OF THE WIFE BY SECRET
MEANS; AND THIS IS MEANT BY THE WOMAN'S BEING CREATED WHILE THE MAN
SLEPT. It is written in the book of Genesis, that Jehovah God caused a
deep sleep to fall upon Adam, so that he slept; and that then he took
one of his ribs, and builded it into a woman: chap. ii. 21, 22. That by
the man's sleep and sleeping is signified his entire ignorance that the
wife is formed and as it were created from him, appears from what was
shewn in the preceding chapter, and also from the innate prudence and
circumspection of wives, not to divulge anything concerning their love,
or their assumption of the affections of the man's life, and thereby of
the transfer of his wisdom into themselves. That this is effected on the
part of the wife without the husband's knowledge, and while he is as it
were sleeping, thus by secret means, is evident from what was explained
above, n. 166-168; where also it is clearly shewn, that the prudence
with which women are influenced herein, was implanted in them from
creation, and consequently from their birth, for reasons of necessity,
so that conjugial love, friendship, and confidence, and thereby the
blessedness of dwelling together and a happy life, may be secured:
wherefore for the right accomplishing of this, the man is enjoined to
_leave his father and mother and to cleave to his wife_, Gen. ii. 24;
Matt. xix. 4, 5. The father and mother, whom the man is to leave, in a
spiritual sense signify his _proprium_ of will and _proprium_ of
understanding; and the _proprium_ of a man's (_homo_) will is to love
himself, and the _proprium_ of his understanding is to love his own
wisdom; and to cleave to his wife signifies to devote himself to the
love of his wife. Those two _propriums_ are deadly evils to man, if they
remain with him, and the love of those two _propriums_ is changed into
conjugial love, so far as a man cleaves to his wife, that is, so far as
he receives her love; see above, n. 193, and elsewhere. To sleep
signifies to be in ignorance and unconcern; a father and a mother
signify the two _propriums_ of a man (_homo_), the one of the will and
the other of the understanding; and to cleave to, signifies to devote
one's self to the love of any one, as might be abundantly confirmed from
passages in other parts of the Word; but this would be foreign to our
present subject.

195. X. THIS FORMATION ON THE PART OF THE WIFE IS EFFECTED BY THE
CONJUNCTION OF HER OWN WILL WITH THE INTERNAL WILL OF THE MAN. That the
man possesses rational and moral wisdom, and that the wife conjoins
herself with those things which relate to his moral wisdom, may be seen
above, n. 163-165. The things which relate to rational wisdom constitute
the man's understanding, and those which relate to moral wisdom
constitute his will. The wife conjoins herself with those things which
constitute the man's will. It is the same, whether we say that the wife
conjoins herself, or that she conjoins her will to the man's will;
because she is born under the influence of the will, and consequently in
all her actions acts from the will. The reason why it is said _with the
man's internal will_, is, because the man's will resides in his
understanding, and the man's intellectual principle is the inmost
principle of the woman, according to what was observed above concerning
the formation of the woman from the man, n. 32, and in other places. The
man has also an external will; but this frequently takes its tincture
from simulation and dissimulation. This will the wife notices; but she
does not conjoin herself with it, except pretendedly or in the way of
sport.

196. XI. THE END HEREIN IS, THAT THE WILL OF BOTH MAY BECOME ONE, AND
THAT THUS BOTH MAY BECOME ONE MAN (_homo_): for whoever conjoins to
himself the will of another, also conjoins to himself his understanding;
for the understanding regarded in itself is merely the minister and
servant of the will. That this is the case, appears evidently from the
affection of love, which moves the understanding to think as it directs.
Every affection of love belongs to the will; for what a man loves that
he also wills. From these considerations it follows, that whoever
conjoins to himself the will of a man conjoins to himself the whole man:
hence it is implanted as a principle in the wife's love to unite the
will of her husband to her own will; for hereby the wife becomes the
husband's, and the husband the wife's; thus both become one man
(_homo_).

197. XII. THIS FORMATION (ON THE PART OF THE WIFE) IS EFFECTED BY AN
APPROPRIATION OF THE AFFECTIONS OF THE HUSBAND. This article agrees with
the two preceding, because affections are of the will; for affections
which are merely derivations of the love, form the will, and make and
compose it; but these affections with men are in the understanding,
whereas with women they are in the will.

198. XIII. THIS FORMATION (ON THE PART OF THE WIFE) IS EFFECTED BY A
RECEPTION OF THE PROPAGATIONS OF THE SOUL OF THE HUSBAND, WITH THE
DELIGHT ARISING FROM HER DESIRE TO BE THE LOVE OF HER HUSBAND'S WISDOM.
This coincides with what was explained above, n. 172, 173, therefore any
further explanation is needless. Conjugial delights with wives arise
solely from their desire to be one with their husbands, as good is one
with truth in the spiritual marriage. That conjugial love descends from
this spiritual marriage, has been proved above in the chapter which
treats particularly on that subject; hence it may be seen, as in an
image, that the wife conjoins the man to herself, as good conjoins truth
to itself; and that the man reciprocally conjoins himself to the wife,
according to the reception of her love in himself, as truth reciprocally
conjoins itself to good, according to the reception of good in itself;
and that thus the love of the wife forms itself by the wisdom of the
husband, as good forms itself by truth; for truth is the form of good.
From these considerations it is also evident, that conjugial delights
with the wife originate principally in her desiring to be one with the
husband, consequently to be the love of her husband's wisdom; for in
such case she is made sensible of the delights of her own heat in the
man's light, according to what was explained in Article IV., n. 188.

199. XIV. THUS A MAIDEN IS FORMED INTO A WIFE, AND A YOUTH INTO A
HUSBAND. This flows as a consequence, from what has been said above in
this and the foregoing chapter respecting the conjunction of married
partners into one flesh. A maiden becomes or is made a wife, because in
a wife there are principles taken out of the husband, and therefore
supplemental, which were not previously in her as a maiden: a youth also
becomes or is made a husband, because in a husband there are principles
taken out of the wife, which exalt his receptibility of love and wisdom,
and which were not previously in him as a youth: this is the case with
those who are principled in love truly conjugial. That it is these who
feel themselves a united man (_homo_), and as it were one flesh, may be
seen in the preceding chapter, n. 178. From these considerations it is
evident, that with females the maiden principle is changed into that of
a wife, and with men the youthful principle is changed into that of a
husband. That this is the case, was experimentally confirmed to me in
the spiritual world, as follows: Some men asserted, that conjunction
with a female before marriage is like conjunction with a wife after
marriage.--On hearing this, the wives were very indignant, and said:
"There is no likeness at all in the two cases. The difference between
them is like that between what is fancied and what is real." Hereupon
the men rejoined, "Are you not females as before?" To this the wives
replied more sharply, "We are not females, but wives; you are in fancied
and not in real love; you therefore talk fancifully." Then the men said,
"If you are not females (_feminae_) still you are women (_mulieres_):"
and they replied, "In the first states of marriage we were women
(_mulieres_); but now we are wives."

200. XV. IN THE MARRIAGE OF ONE MAN WITH ONE WIFE, BETWEEN WHOM THERE
EXISTS LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, THE WIFE BECOMES MORE AND MORE A WIFE, AND
THE HUSBAND MORE AND MORE A HUSBAND. That love truly conjugial more and
more conjoins two into one man (_homo_), may be seen above n. 178, 179;
and as a wife becomes a wife from and according to conjunction with the
husband, and in like manner the husband with the wife; and as love truly
conjugial endures to eternity, it follows, that the wife becomes more
and more a wife, and the husband more and more a husband. The true
reason of this is, because in the marriage of love truly conjugial, each
married partner becomes continually a more interior man; for that love
opens the interiors of their minds; and as these are opened, a man
becomes more and more a man (_homo_): and to become more a man (_homo_)
in the case of the wife is to become more a wife, and in the case of the
husband to become more a husband. I have heard from the angels, that the
wife becomes more and more a wife as the husband becomes more and more a
husband, but not _vice versa_; because it rarely, if ever, happens, that
a chaste wife is wanting in love to her husband, but that the husband is
wanting in a return of love to his wife; and that this return of love is
wanting because he has no elevation of wisdom, which alone receives the
love of the wife: respecting this wisdom see above n. 130, 163-165.
These things however they said in regard to marriages on earth.

201. XVI. THUS ALSO THEIR FORMS ARE SUCCESSIVELY PERFECTED AND ENNOBLED
FROM WITHIN. The most perfect and noble human form results from the
conjunction of two forms by marriage so as to become one form; thus from
two fleshes becoming one flesh, according to creation. That in such case
the man's mind is elevated into superior light, and the wife's into
superior heat, and that then they germinate, and bear flowers and
fruits, like trees in the spring, may be seen above, n. 188, 189. That
from the nobleness of this form are produced noble fruits, which in the
heavens are spiritual, and on earth natural, will be seen in the
following article.

202. XVII. CHILDREN BORN OF PARENTS WHO ARE PRINCIPLED IN LOVE TRULY
CONJUGIAL, DERIVE FROM THEM THE CONJUGIAL PRINCIPLE OF GOOD AND TRUTH,
WHENCE THEY HAVE AN INCLINATION AND FACULTY, IF SONS, TO PERCEIVE THE
THINGS RELATING TO WISDOM, AND IF DAUGHTERS, TO LOVE THOSE THINGS WHICH
WISDOM TEACHES. That children derive from their parents inclination to
such things as had been objects of the love and life of the parents, is
a truth most perfectly agreeable to the testimony of history in general,
and of experience in particular; but that they do not derive or inherit
from their parents the affections themselves, and thence the lives of
those affections, but only inclinations and faculties thereto, has been
shewn me by the wise in the spiritual world; concerning whom, see the
two MEMORABLE RELATIONS above adduced. That children to the latest
posterity, from innate inclinations, if they are not modified, are led
into affections, thoughts, speech, and life, similar to those of their
parents, is clearly manifest from the Jews, who at this day are like
their fathers in Egypt, in the wilderness, in the land of Canaan, and in
the Lord's time; and this likeness is not confined to their minds only,
but extends to their countenances; for who does not know a Jew by his
look? The case is the same with the descendants of others: from which
considerations it may infallibly be concluded, that children are born
with inclinations to such things as their parents were inclined to. But
it is of the divine providence, lest thought and act should follow
inclination, that perverse inclinations may be corrected; and also that
a faculty has been implanted for this purpose, by virtue whereof parents
and masters have the power of amending the morals of children, and
children may afterwards, when they come to years of discretion, amend
their own morals.

203. We have said that children derive from their parents the conjugial
principle of good and truth, because this is implanted from creation in
the soul of every one; for it is that which flows into every man from
the Lord, and constitutes his human life. But this conjugial principle
passes into derivatives from the soul even to the ultimates of the body.
In its passage through these ultimates and those derivatives, it is
changed by the man himself in various ways, and sometimes into the
opposite, which is called the conjugial or connubial principle of what
is evil and false. When this is the case, the mind is closed from
beneath, and is sometimes twisted as a spire into the contrary; but with
some that principle is not closed, but remains half-open above, and with
some open. The latter and the former conjugial principle is the source
of those inclinations which children inherit from their parents, a son
after one manner, and a daughter after another. The reason why such
inclinations are derived from the conjugial principle, is, because, as
was proved above, n. 65, conjugial love is the foundation of all loves.

204. The reason why children born of parents who are principled in love
truly conjugial, derive inclinations and faculties, if a son, to
perceive the things relating to wisdom, and if a daughter, to love the
things which wisdom teaches, is, because the conjugial principle of good
and truth is implanted from creation in every soul, and also in the
principles derived from the soul; for it was shewn above, that this
conjugial principle fills the universe from first principles to last,
and from a man even to a worm; and also that the faculty to open the
inferior principles of the mind even to conjunction with its superior
principles, which are in the light and heat of heaven, is also implanted
in every man from creation: hence it is evident, that a superior
suitableness and facility to conjoin good to truth, and truth to good,
and thus to grow wise, is inherited by those who are born from such a
marriage; consequently they have a superior suitableness and facility
also to embrace the things relating to the church and heaven; for that
conjugial love is conjoined with these things, has been frequently shewn
above. From these considerations, reason may clearly discover the end
for which the Lord the Creator has provided, and still provides,
marriages of love truly conjugial.

205. I have been informed by the angels, that those who lived in the
most ancient times, live at this day in the heavens, in separate houses,
families, and nations, as they had lived on earth, and that scarce any
one of a house is wanting; and this because they were principled in love
truly conjugial; and that hence their children inherited inclinations to
the conjugial principle of good and truth, and were easily initiated
into it more and more interiorly by education received from their
parents, and afterwards as from themselves, when they become capable of
judging for themselves, were introduced into it by the Lord.

206. XVIII. THE REASON OF THIS IS BECAUSE THE SOUL OF THE OFFSPRING IS
FROM THE FATHER AND ITS CLOTHING FROM THE MOTHER. No wise man entertains
a doubt that the soul is from the father; it is also manifestly
conspicuous from minds, and likewise from faces which are the types of
minds, in descendants from fathers of families in a regular series; for
the father returns as in an image, if not in his sons, yet in his
grandsons and great grandsons; and this because the soul constitutes a
man's (_homo_) inmost principle, which may be covered and concealed by
the offspring nearest in descent, but nevertheless it comes forth and
manifests itself in the more remote issue. That the soul is from the
father, and its clothing from the mother, may be illustrated by
analogies in the vegetable kingdom. In this kingdom the earth or ground
is the common mother, which in itself, as in a womb, receives and
clothes seeds; yea, as it were conceives, bears, brings forth, and
educates them, as a mother her offspring from the father.

207. To the above I will add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. After some
time I was looking towards the city Athens, of which mention was made in
a former memorable relation, and I heard thence an unusual clamor. There
was in it something of laughter, and in the laughter something of
indignation, and in the indignation something of sadness: still however
the clamor was not thereby dissonant, but consonant: because one tone
was not together with the other, but one was within another. In the
spiritual world a variety and commixture of affections is distinctly
perceived in sound. I inquired from afar what was the matter. They said,
"A messenger is arrived from the place where the new comers from the
Christian world first appear, bringing information of what he has heard
there from three persons, that in the world whence they came they had
believed with the generality, that the blessed and happy after death
enjoy absolute rest from labor; and since administrations, offices, and
employments, are labor, they enjoy rest from these: and as those three
persons are now conducted hither by our emissary, and are at the gate
waiting for admission, a clamor was made, and it was deliberately
resolved they should not be introduced into the Palladium on Parnassus,
as the former were, but into the great auditory, to communicate the news
they brought from the Christian world: accordingly some deputies have
been sent to introduce them in form." Being at that time myself in the
spirit, and distances with spirits being according to the states of
their affections, and having at that time a desire to see and hear them,
I seemed to myself to be present there, and saw them introduced, and
heard what they said. The seniors or wiser part of the audience sat at
the sides of the auditory, and the rest in the midst; and before these
was an elevated piece of ground. Hither the three strangers, with the
messenger, were formally conducted by attendants, through the middle of
the auditory. When silence was obtained, they were addressed by a kind
of president of the assembly, and asked, "WHAT NEWS FROM THE EARTH?"
They replied, "There is a variety of news: but pray tell us what
information you want." The president answered, "WHAT NEWS IS THERE FROM
THE EARTH CONCERNING OUR WORLD AND HEAVEN?" They replied, "When we first
came into this world, we were informed, that here and in heaven there
are administrations, offices, employments, trades, studies, relating to
all sciences and professions, together with wonderful mechanical arts;
and yet we believed that after our removal or translation from the
natural world into the spiritual, we should enter upon an eternal rest
from labor; and what are employments but labor?" To this the president
replied, "By eternal rest from labor did you understand eternal
inactivity, in which you should be continually sitting and laying down,
with your bosoms and mouths open, attracting and inhaling delights and
joys?" "We conceived something of this sort," said the three strangers
smiling courteously. Then they were asked, "What connection have joys
and delights and the happiness thence resulting, with a state of
inactivity? By inactivity the mind is enfeebled and contracted, instead
of being strengthened and expanded; or in other words, the man is
reduced to a state of death, instead of being quickened into life.
Suppose a person to sit still in the most complete inactivity, with his
hands hanging down, his eyes fixed on the ground, and withdrawn from all
other objects, and suppose him at the same time to be encompassed by an
atmosphere of gladness, would not a lethargy seize both his head and
body, and the vital expansion of his countenance would be contracted,
and at length with relaxed fibres he would nod and totter, till he fell
to the earth? What is it that keeps the whole bodily system in its due
expansion and tension, but the tension of the mind? and whence comes the
tension of the mind but from administrations and employments, while the
discharge of them is attended with delight? I will therefore tell you
some news from heaven: in that world there are administrations, offices,
judicial proceedings both in greater and lesser cases, also mechanical
arts and employments." The strangers on hearing of judicial proceedings
in heaven, said, "To what purpose are such proceedings? are not all in
heaven inspired and led by God, and in consequence thereof taught what
is just and right? what need then is there of judges?" The president
replied, "In this world we are instructed and learn what is good and
true, also what is just and equitable, as in the natural world; and
these things we learn, not immediately from God, but mediately through
others; and every angel, like every man, thinks what is true, and does
what is good, as from himself; and this, according to the state of the
angel, is mixed and not pure: and moreover, there are among the angels
some of a simple and some of a wise character; and it is the part of the
wise to judge, when the simple, from their simplicity and ignorance, are
doubtful about what is just, or through mistake wander from it. But as
you are as yet strangers in this world, if it be agreeable to you to
accompany me into our city, we will shew you all that is contained
therein." Then they quitted the auditory, and some of the elders also
accompanied them. They were introduced into a large library, which was
divided into classes arranged according to the sciences. The three
strangers, on seeing so many books, were astonished, and said, "There
are books also in this world! whence do you procure parchment and paper,
pens and ink?" The elders replied, "We perceive that in the former world
you believed that this world is empty and void, because it is spiritual;
and you believed so because you had conceived an idea of what is
spiritual abstracted from what is material; and that which is so
abstracted appeared to you as nothingness, thus as empty and void; when
nevertheless in this world there is a fulness of all things. Here all
things are SUBSTANTIAL and not material: and material things derive
their origin from things substantial. We who live here are spiritual
men, because we are substantial and not material; hence in this world we
have all things that are in the natural world, in their perfection, even
books and writings, and many other things which are not in the natural
world." The three strangers, when they heard talk of things SUBSTANTIAL,
conceived that it must be so, as well because they saw written books, as
because they heard it asserted that material things originate in
substantial. For their further confirmation in these particulars, they
were conducted to the houses of the scribes, who were copying the
writings of the wise ones of the city; and they inspected the writings,
and wondered to see them so beautiful and elegant. After this they were
conducted to the museums, schools, and colleges, and to the places where
they had their literary sports. Some of these were called the sports of
the Heliconides, some of the Parnassides, some of the Athaeides, and some
the sports of the maidens of the fountain. They were told that the
latter were so called, because maidens signify affections of the
sciences, and every one has intelligence according to his affection for
the sciences: the sports so called were spiritual exercises and trials
of skill. Afterwards they were led about the city to see the rulers,
administrators, and their officers, by whom they were conducted to see
several wonderful works executed in a spiritual manner by the
artificers. When they had taken a view of all these things, the
president again conversed with them about the eternal rest from labor,
into which the blessed and happy enter after death, and said, "Eternal
rest is not inactivity; for inactivity occasions a thorough languor,
dulness, stupor, and drowsiness of the mind and thence of the body; and
these things are death and not life, still less eternal life which the
angels of heaven enjoy; therefore eternal rest is that which dispels
such mischiefs, and causes a man to live; and it is this which elevates
the mind; consequently it is by some employment and work that the mind
is excited, vivified, and delighted; which is affected according to the
use, from which, in which, and to which the mind is actuated. Hence the
universal heaven is regarded by the Lord as containing uses; and every
angel is an angel according to use; the delight of use carries him
along, as a prosperous gale a ship, and causes him to be in eternal
peace, and the rest of peace. This is the meaning of eternal rest from
labor. That an angel is alive according as his mind is directed to use,
is evident from the consideration, that every one has conjugial love
with its energy, ability and delights, according as he devotes himself
to the genuine use in which he is." When the three strangers were
convinced that eternal rest is not inactivity, but the delight of some
useful employment, there came some maidens with pieces of embroidery and
net-work, wrought with their own hands, which they presented to them.
When the novitiate spirits were gone, the maidens sang an ode, wherein
they expressed with angelic melody the affection of useful works with
the pleasures attending it.

208. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. While I was meditating on the arcana
of conjugial love stored up with wives, there again appeared the GOLDEN
SHOWER described above; and I recollected that it fell over a hall in
the east where there lived three conjugial loves, that is, three married
pairs, who loved each other tenderly. On seeing it, and as if invited by
the sweetness of meditating on that love, I hastened towards it, and as
I approached, the shower from golden became purple, afterwards scarlet,
and when I came near, it was sparkling like dew. I knocked at the door,
and when it was opened, I said to the attendant, "Tell the husbands that
the person who before came with an angel, is come again, and begs the
favor of being admitted into their company." Presently the attendant
returned with a message of assent from the husbands, and I entered. The
three husbands with their wives were together in an open gallery, and as
I paid my respects to them, they returned the compliment. I then asked
the wives, Whether the white dove in the window afterwards appeared?
They said, "Yes; and to-day also; and it likewise expanded its wings;
from which we concluded that you were near at hand, and were desirous of
information respecting one other arcanum concerning conjugial love." I
inquired, "Why do you say _one_ arcanum; when I came here to learn
several?" They replied, "They are arcana, and some of them transcend
your wisdom to such a degree, that the understanding of your thought
cannot comprehend them. You glory over us on account of your wisdom; but
we do not glory over you on account of ours; and yet ours is eminently
distinguished above yours, because it enters your inclinations and
affections, and sees, perceives, and is sensible of them. You know
nothing at all of the inclinations and affections of your own love; and
yet these are the principles from and according to which your
understanding thinks, consequently from and according to which you are
wise; and yet wives are so well acquainted with those principles in
their husbands, that they see them in their faces, and hear them from
the tone of their voices in conversation, yea, they feel them on their
breasts, arms, and cheeks: but we, from the zeal of our love for your
happiness, and at the same time for our own, pretend not to know them;
and yet we govern them so prudently, that wherever the fancy, good
pleasure, and will of our husbands lead, we follow by permitting and
suffering it; only bending its direction when it is possible, but in no
case forcing it." I asked, "Whence have you this wisdom?" They replied,
"It is implanted in us from creation and consequently from birth. Our
husbands compare it to instinct; but we say that it is of the divine
providence, in order that the men may be rendered happy by their wives.
We have heard from our husbands, that the Lord wills that the husband
(_homo masculus_) should act freely according to reason; and that on
this account the Lord himself from within governs his freedom, so far as
respects the inclinations and affections, and governs it from without by
means of his wife; and that thus he forms a man with his wife into an
angel of heaven; and moreover love changes its essence, and does not
become conjugial love, if it be compelled. But we will be more explicit
on this subject: we are moved thereto, that is, to prudence in governing
the inclinations and affections of our husbands, so that they may seem
to themselves to act freely according to their reason, from this motive,
because we are delighted with their love; and we love nothing more than
that they should be delighted with our delights, which, in case of their
being lightly esteemed by our husbands, become insipid also to us."
Having said this, one of the wives entered her chamber, and on her
return said, "My dove still flutters its wings, which is a sign that we
may make further disclosures." They then said, "We have observed various
changes of the inclinations and affections of the men; as that they grow
cold towards their wives, while the husbands entertain vain thoughts
against the Lord and the church; that they grow cold while they are
conceited of their own intelligence; that they grow cold while they
regard with desire the wives of others; that they grow cold while their
love is adverted to by their wives; not to mention other occasions; and
that there are various degrees of their coldness: this we discover from
a withdrawal of the sense from their eyes, ears, and bodies, on the
presence of our senses. From these few observations you may see, that we
know better than the men whether it be well or ill with them; if they
are cold towards their wives, it is ill with them, but if they are warm
towards them, it is well; therefore wives are continually devising means
whereby the men may become warm and not cold towards them; and these
means they devise with a sagacity inscrutable to the men." As they said
this, the dove was heard to make a sort of moaning; and immediately the
wives said, "This is a token to us that we have a wish to communicate
greater arcana, but that it is not allowable: probably you will reveal
to the men what you have heard." I replied, "I intend to do so: what
harm can come from it?" Hereupon the wives talked together on the
subject, and then said, "Reveal it, if you like. We are well aware of
the power of persuasion which wives possess. They will say to their
husbands, 'The man is not in earnest; he tells idle tales: he is but
joking from appearances, and from strange fancies usual with men. Do not
believe him, but believe us: we know that you are loves, and we
obediences.' Therefore you may reveal it if you like; but still the
husbands will place no dependence on what comes from your lips, but on
that which comes from the lips of their wives which they kiss."

       *       *       *       *       *

UNIVERSALS RESPECTING MARRIAGES.

209. There are so many things relating to marriages that, if
particularly treated of, they would swell this little work into a large
volume: for we might treat particularly of the similitude and
dissimilitude subsisting among married partners; of the elevation of
natural conjugial love into spiritual, and of their conjunction; of the
increase of the one and the decrease of the other; of the varieties and
diversities of each; of the intelligence of wives; of the universal
conjugial sphere proceeding from heaven, and of its opposite from hell,
and of their influx and reception; with many other particulars, which,
if individually enlarged upon, would render this work so bulky as to
tire the reader. For this reason, and to avoid useless prolixity, we
will condense these particulars into UNIVERSAL RESPECTING MARRIAGES. But
these, like the foregoing subjects, must be considered distinctly as
arranged under the following articles: I. _The sense proper to conjugial
love is the sense of touch._ II. _With those who are in love truly
conjugial, the faculty of growing wise gradually increases; but with
those who are not it decreases._ III. _With those who are in love truly
conjugial the happiness of dwelling together increases; but with those
who are not it decreases._ IV. _With those who are in love truly
conjugial, conjunction of minds increases, and therewith friendship; but
with those who are not they both decrease._ V. _Those who are in love
truly conjugial continually desire to be one man (homo); but those who
are not desire to be two._ VI. _Those who are in love truly conjugial,
in marriage have respect to what is eternal; but with those who are not
the case is reversed._ VII. _Conjugial love resides with chaste wives;
but still their love depends on the husbands._ VIII. _Wives love the
bonds of marriage if the men do._ IX. _The intelligence of women is in
itself modest, elegant, pacific, yielding, soft, tender; but the
intelligence of men is in itself grave, harsh, hard, daring, fond of
licentiousness_. X. _Wives are in no excitation as men are; but they
have a state of preparation for reception._ XI. _Men have abundant store
according to the love of propagating the truths of their wisdom, and to
the love of doing uses._ XII. _Determination is in the good pleasure of
the husband._ XIII. _The conjugial sphere flows from the Lord through
heaven into everything in the universe, even to its ultimates._ XIV.
_This sphere is received by the female sex, and through that is
transferred into the male sex; and not_ vice versa. XV. _Where there is
love truly conjugial, this sphere is received by the wife, and only
through her by the husband._ XVI. _Where there is love not conjugial,
this sphere is received indeed by the wife, but not by the husband
through her._ XVII. _Love truly conjugial may exist with one of the
married partners and not at the same time with the other._ XVIII. _There
are various similitudes and dissimilitudes, both internal and external,
with married partners._ XIX. _Various similitudes can be conjoined, but
not with dissimilitudes._ XX. _The Lord provides similitudes for those
who desire love truly conjugial; and if not on earth, he yet provides
them in heaven._ XXI. _A man (homo) according to the deficiency and loss
of conjugial love, approaches to the nature of a beast._ We proceed to
the explanation of each article.

210. I. THE SENSE PROPER TO CONJUGIAL LOVE IS THE SENSE OF TOUCH. Every
love has its own proper sense. The love of seeing, grounded in the love
of understanding, has the sense of seeing; and the gratifications proper
to it are the various kinds of symmetry and beauty. The love of hearing
grounded in the love of hearkening to and obeying, has the sense of
hearing; and the gratifications proper to it are the various kinds of
harmony. The love of knowing these things which float about in the air,
grounded in the love of perceiving, is the sense of smelling; and the
gratifications proper to it are the various kinds of fragrance. The love
of self-nourishment, grounded in the love of imbibing goods, is the
sense of tasting; and the delights proper to it are the various kinds of
delicate foods. The love of knowing objects, grounded in the love of
circumspection and self-preservation, is the sense of touching, and the
gratifications proper to it are the various kinds of titillation. The
reason why the love of conjunction with a partner, grounded in the love
of uniting good and truth, has the sense of touch proper to it, is,
because this sense is common to all the senses, and hence borrows from
them somewhat of support and nourishment. That this love brings all the
above-mentioned senses into communion with it, and appropriates their
gratification, is well known. That the sense of touch is devoted to
conjugial love, and is proper to it, is evident from all its sports, and
from the exaltation of its subtleties to the highest degree of what is
exquisite. But the further consideration of this subject we leave to
lovers.

211. II. WITH THOSE WHO ARE IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, THE FACULTY OF
GROWING WISE INCREASES; BUT WITH THOSE WHO ARE NOT IT DECREASES. The
faculty of growing wise increases with those who are in love truly
conjugial, because this love appertains to married partners on account
of wisdom, and according to it, as has been fully proved in the
preceding sections; also, because the sense of that love is the touch,
which is common to all the senses, and also is full of delights; in
consequence of which it opens the interiors of the mind, as it opens the
interiors of the senses, and therewith the organical principles of the
whole body. Hence it follows, that those who are principled in that
love, prefer nothing to growing wise; for a man grows wise in proportion
as the interiors of his mind are opened; because by such opening, the
thoughts of the understanding are elevated into superior light, and the
affections of the will into superior heat; and superior light is wisdom,
and superior heat is the love thereof. Spiritual delights conjoined to
natural delights, which are the portion of those who are in love truly
conjugial, constitute loveliness, and thence the faculty of growing
wise. Hence it is that the angels have conjugial love according to
wisdom; and the increase of that love and at the same time of its
delights is according to the increase of wisdom; and spiritual
offspring, which are produced from their marriages, are such things as
are of wisdom from the father, and of love from the mother, which they
love from a spiritual _storge_; which love unites with their conjugial
love, and continually elevates it, and joins them together.

212. The contrary happens with those who are not in any conjugial love,
from not having any love of wisdom. These enter the marriage state with
no other end in view than lasciviousness, in which is also the love of
growing insane; for every end considered in itself is a love, and
lasciviousness in its spiritual origin is insanity. By insanity we mean
a delirium in the mind occasioned by false principles; and an eminent
degree of delirium is occasioned by truths which are falsified until
they are believed to be wisdom. That such persons are opposed to
conjugial love, is confirmed or evinced by manifest proof in the
spiritual world; where, on perceiving the first scent of conjugial love,
they fly into caverns, and shut the doors; and if these are opened, they
rave like madmen in the world.

213. III. WITH THOSE WHO ARE IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, THE HAPPINESS OF
DWELLING TOGETHER INCREASES; BUT WITH THOSE WHO ARE NOT IT DECREASES.
The happiness of dwelling together increases with those who are in love
truly conjugial, because they mutually love each other with every sense.
The wife sees nothing more lovely than the husband, and the husband
nothing more lovely than the wife; neither do they hear, smell, or touch
any thing more lovely; hence the happiness they enjoy of living together
in the same house, chamber, and bed. That this is the case, you that are
husbands can assure yourselves from the first delights of marriage,
which are in their fulness; because at that time the wife is the only
one of the sex that is loved. That the reverse is the case with those
who are not in conjugial love, is well known.

214. IV. WITH THOSE WHO ARE IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL CONJUNCTION OF MINDS
INCREASES, AND THEREWITH FRIENDSHIP; BUT WITH THOSE WHO ARE NOT, THEY
BOTH DECREASE. That conjunction of minds increases with those who are in
love truly conjugial, was proved in the chapter ON THE CONJUNCTION OF
SOULS AND MINDS BY MARRIAGE, WHICH IS MEANT BY THE LORD'S WORDS, THAT
THEY ARE NO LONGER TWO BUT ONE FLESH, see n. 156*-191. But that
conjunction increases as friendship unites with love; because friendship
is as it were the face and also the raiment of that love; for it not
only joins itself to love as raiment, but also conjoins itself thereto
as a face. Love preceding friendship is like the love of the sex, which,
after the marriage vow, takes its leave and departs; whereas love
conjoined to friendship after the marriage vow, remains and is
strengthened; it likewise outers more interiorly into the breast,
friendship introducing it, and making it truly conjugial. In this case
the love makes its friendship also conjugial, which differs greatly from
the friendship of every other love; for it is full. That the case is
reversed with those who are not principled in conjugial love, is well
known. With these, the first friendship, which was insinuated during the
time of courtship, and afterwards during the period immediately
succeeding marriage, recedes more and more from the interiors of the
mind, and thence successively at length retires to the cuticles; and
with those who think of separation it entirely departs; but with those
who do not think of separation, love remains in the externals, yet it is
cold in the internals.

215. V. THOSE WHO ARE IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, CONTINUALLY DESIRE TO BE
ONE MAN, BUT THOSE WHO ARE NOT IN CONJUGIAL LOVE, DESIRE TO BE TWO.
Conjugial love essentially consists in the desire of two to become one;
that is, in their desire that two lives may become one life. This desire
is the perpetual _conatus_ of that love, from which flow all its
effects. That _conatus_ is the very essence of motion, and that desire
is the living _conatus_ appertaining to man, is confirmed by the
researches of philosophers, and is also evident to such as take a view
of the subject from refined reason. Hence it follows, that those who are
in love truly conjugial, continually endeavour, that is, desire to be
one man. That the contrary is the case with those who are not in
conjugial love, they themselves very well know; for as they continually
think themselves two from the disunion of their souls and minds, so they
do not comprehend what is meant by the Lord's words, "_They are no
longer two, but one flesh_;" Matt. xix. 6.

216. VI. THOSE WHO ARE IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, IN MARRIAGE HAVE RESPECT
TO WHAT IS ETERNAL; BUT WITH THOSE WHO ARE NOT THE CASE IS REVERSED.
Those who are in love truly conjugial have respect to what is eternal,
because in that love there is eternity; and its eternity is grounded in
this, that love with the wife, and wisdom with the husband, increases to
eternity; and in the increase or progression the married partners enter
more and more interiorly into the blessedness of heaven, which their
wisdom and its love have stored up together in themselves: if therefore
the idea of what is eternal were to be plucked away, or by any casualty
to escape from their minds, it would be as if they were cast down from
heaven. What is the state of conjugial partners in heaven, when the idea
of what is eternal falls out of their minds, and the idea of what is
temporal takes its place, was made evident to me from the following
case. On a certain time, permission having been granted for the purpose,
two married partners were present with me from heaven: and at that
instant the idea of what is eternal respecting marriage was taken away
from them by an idle disorderly spirit who was talking with craft and
subtlety. Hereupon they began to bewail themselves, saying, that they
could not live any longer, and that they felt such misery as they had
never felt before. When this was perceived by their co-angels in heaven,
the disorderly spirit was removed and cast down; whereupon the idea of
what is eternal instantly returned to them, and they were gladdened in
heart, and most tenderly embraced each other. Besides this, I have heard
two married partners, who at one instant entertained an idea of what is
eternal respecting their marriage, and the next an idea of what is
temporal. This arose from their being internally dissimilar. When they
were in the idea of what is eternal, they were mutually glad; but when
in the idea of what is temporal, they said, "There is no longer any
marriage between us;" and the wife, "I am no longer a wife, but a
concubine;" and the husband, "I am no longer a husband, but an
adulterer;" wherefore while their internal dissimilitude was open to
them, the man left the woman, and the woman the man: afterwards,
however, as each had an idea of what is eternal respecting marriage,
they were consociated with suitable partners. From these instances it
may be clearly seen, that those who are in love truly conjugial have
respect to what is eternal; and if this idea escapes from their inmost
thoughts, they are disunited as to conjugial love, though not at the
same time as to friendship; for friendship dwells in externals, but
conjugial love in internals. The case is similar with marriages on
earth, where married partners who tenderly love each other, think of
what is eternal respecting the marriage-covenant, and not at all of its
termination by death; and if this should enter their thoughts, they are
grieved; nevertheless they are cherished again by hope from the thought
of its continuance after their decease.

[Transcriber's Note: The out-of-order section number which follows is in
the original text, as is the asterisk which does not seem to indicate a
footnote.]

216.* VII. CONJUGIAL LOVE RESIDES WITH CHASTE WIVES; BUT STILL THEIR
LOVE DEPENDS ON THE HUSBANDS. The reason of this is, because wives are
born loves; and hence it is innate to them to desire to be one with
their husbands and from this thought of their will they continually feed
their love; wherefore to recede from the _conatus_ of uniting themselves
to their husbands, would be to recede from themselves: it is otherwise
with the husbands, who are not born loves, but recipients of that love
from their wives; and on this account, so far as they receive it, so far
the wives enter with their love; but so far as they do not receive it,
so far the wives stand aloof with their love, and wait in expectation.
This is the case with chaste wives; but it is otherwise with the
unchaste. From these considerations it is evident, that conjugial love
resides with the wives, but that their love depends on the husbands.

217. VIII. WIVES LOVE THE BONDS OF MARRIAGE IF THE MEN DO. This follows
from what was said in the foregoing article: moreover, wives naturally
desire to be, and to be called wives; this being to them a name of
respect and honor; they therefore love the bonds of marriage. And as
chaste wives desire, not in name only, but in reality, to be wives, and
this is effected by a closer and closer binding with their husbands,
therefore they love the bonds of marriage as establishing the
marriage-covenant, and this so much the more as they are loved again by
their husbands, or what is tantamount, as the men love those bonds.

218. IX. THE INTELLIGENCE OF WOMEN IS IN ITSELF MODEST, ELEGANT,
PACIFIC, YIELDING, SOFT, TENDER; BUT THE INTELLIGENCE OF MEN IN ITSELF
IS GRAVE, HARSH, HARD, DARING, FOND OF LICENTIOUSNESS. That such is the
characteristic distinction of the woman and the man, is very evident
from the body, the face, the tone of voice, the conversation, the
gesture, and the manners of each: from the BODY, in that there is more
hardness in the skin and flesh of men, and more softness in that of
women; from the FACE, in that it is harder, more fixed, harsher, of
darker complexion, also bearded, thus less beautiful in men; whereas in
women it is softer, more yielding, more tender, of fairer complexion,
and thence more beautiful; from the TONE OF VOICE, in that it is deeper
with men, and sweeter with women; from the CONVERSATION in that with men
it is given to licentiousness and daring, but with women it is modest
and pacific; from the GESTURE, in that with men it is stronger and
firmer, whereas with women it is more weak and feeble; from the MANNERS,
in that with men they are more unrestrained, but with women more
elegant. How far from the very cradle the genius of men differs from
that of women, was discovered to me clearly from seeing a number of boys
and girls met together. I saw them at times through a window in the
street of a great city, where more than twenty assembled every day. The
boys, agreeably to the disposition born with them, in their pastimes
were tumultuous, vociferous, apt to fight, to strike, and to throw
stones at each other; whereas the girls sat peaceably at the doors of
the houses, some playing with little children, some dressing dolls or
working on bits of linen, some kissing each other; and to my surprise,
they still looked with satisfaction at the boys whose pastimes were so
different from their own. Hence I could see plainly, that a man by birth
is understanding, and a woman, love; and also the quality of
understanding and of love in their principles; and thereby what would be
the quality of a man's understanding without conjunction with female
love, and afterwards with conjugial love.

219. X. WIVES ARE IN NO EXCITATION AS MEN ARE; BUT THEY HAVE A STATE OF
PREPARATION FOR RECEPTION. That men have semination and consequent
excitation, and that women have not the latter because they have not the
former, is evident, but that women have a state of preparation for
reception, and thus for conception, I relate from what has been told me;
but what the nature and quality of this state with the women is, I am
not allowed to describe; besides, it is known to them alone: but whether
their love, while they are in that state, is in the enjoyment of its
delight, or in what is undelightful, as some say, they have not made
known. This only is generally known, that it is not allowed the husband
to say to the wife, that he is able and not willing: for thereby the
state of reception is greatly hurt, which is prepared according to the
state of the husband's ability.

220. XI. MEN HAVE ABUNDANT STORE ACCORDING TO THE LOVE OF PROPAGATING
THE TRUTHS OF WISDOM, AND TO THE LOVE OF DOING USES. This position is
one of the arcana which were known to the ancients, and which are now
lost. The ancients knew that everything which was done in the body is
from a spiritual origin: as that from the will, which in itself is
spiritual, actions flow; that from the thought, which also is spiritual,
speech flows; also that natural sight is grounded in spiritual sight,
which is that of the understanding; natural hearing in spiritual
hearing, which is attention of the understanding and at the same time
accommodation of the will; and natural smelling in spiritual smelling,
which is perception; and so forth: in like manner they saw that
semination with men is from a spiritual origin. That it is from the
truths of which the understanding consists, they concluded from several
deductions both of reason and of experience; and they asserted, that
nothing is received by males from the spiritual marriage, which is that
of good and truth, and which flows into everything in the universe, but
truth, and whatever has relation to truth; and that this in its progress
into the body is formed into seed; and that hence it is, that seeds
spiritually understood are truths. As to formation, they asserted, that
the masculine soul, as being intellectual, is thus truth; for the
intellectual principle is nothing else; wherefore while the soul
descends, truth also descends: that this is effected by this
circumstance, that the soul, which is the inmost principle of every man
(_homo_) and every animal, and which in its essence is spiritual, from
an implanted tendency to self-propagation, follows in the descent, and
is desirous to procreate itself; and that when this is the case, the
entire soul forms itself, and clothes itself, and becomes seed: and that
this may be done thousands of times, because the soul is a spiritual
substance, which is not a subject of extension but of impletion, and
from which no part can be taken away, but the whole may be produced,
without any loss thereof: hence it is, that it is as fully present in
the smallest receptacles, which are seeds, as in its greatest
receptacle, the body. Since therefore the principle of truth in the soul
is the origin of seed, it follows, that men have abundant store
according to their love of propagating the truths of their wisdom: it is
also according to their love of doing uses; because uses are the goods
which truths produce. In the world also it is well known to some, that
the industrious have abundant store, but not the idle. I inquired, "How
is a feminine principle produced from a male soul?" and I received for
answer, that it was from intellectual good; because this in its essence
is truth: for the intellect can think that this is good, thus that it is
true that it is good. It is otherwise with the will: this does not think
what is good and true, but loves and does it. Therefore in the Word sons
signify truths, and daughters goods, as may be seen above, n. 120; and
seed signifies truth, as may be seen in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 565.

221. XII. DETERMINATION IS IN THE GOOD PLEASURE OF THE HUSBAND. This is,
because with men there is the abundant store above mentioned; and this
varies with them according to the states of their minds and bodies: for
the understanding is not so constant in its thoughts as the will is in
its affections; since it is sometimes carried upwards, sometimes
downwards; at one time it is in a serene and clear state in another in a
turbulent and obscure one; sometimes it is employed on agreeable
objects, sometimes on disagreeable; and as the mind, while it acts, is
also in the body, it follows, that the body has similar states: hence
the husband at times recedes from conjugial love, and at times accedes
to it, and the abundant store is removed in the one state, and restored
in the other. These are the reasons why determination at all times is to
be left to the good pleasure of the husband: hence also it is that
wives, from a wisdom implanted in them, never offer any admonition on
such subjects.

222. XIII. THE CONJUGIAL SPHERE FLOWS FROM THE LORD THROUGH HEAVEN INTO
EVERYTHING IN THE UNIVERSE, EVEN TO ITS ULTIMATES. That love and wisdom,
or, what is the same, good and truth, proceed from the Lord, was shewn
above in a chapter on the subject. Those two principles in a marriage
proceed continually from the Lord, because they are himself, and from
him are all things; and the things which proceed from him fill the
universe, for unless this were the case, nothing which exists would
subsist. There are several spheres which proceed from him; the sphere of
the conservation of the created universe; the sphere of the defence of
good and truth against evil and false, the sphere of reformation and
regeneration, the sphere of innocence and peace, the sphere of mercy and
grace, with several others; but the universal of all is the conjugial
sphere, because this also is the sphere of propagation, and thus the
supereminent sphere of the conservation of the created universe by
successive generations. That this conjugial sphere fills the universe,
and pervades all things from first to last, is evident from what has
been shewn above, that there are marriages in the heavens, and the most
perfect in the third or supreme heaven: and that besides taking place
with men it takes place also with all the subjects of the animal kingdom
in the earth, even down to worms; and moreover with all the subjects of
the vegetable kingdom, from olives and palms even to the smallest
grasses. That this sphere is more universal than the sphere of heat and
light, which proceeds from the sun of our world, may appear reasonable
from this consideration, that it operates also in the absence of the
sun's heat, as in winter, and in the absence of its light, as in the
night, especially with men (_homines_). The reason why it so operates
is, because it was from the sun of the angelic heaven, and thence there
is a constant equation of heat and light, that is, a conjunction of good
and truth; for it is in a continual spring. The changes of good and
truth, or of its heat and light, are not variations thereof, like the
variations on earth arising from changes of the heat and light
proceeding from the natural sun; but they arise from the recipient
subjects.

223. XIV. THIS SPHERE IS RECEIVED BY THE FEMALE SEX, AND THROUGH THAT IS
TRANSFERRED TO THE MALE SEX. There is not any conjugial love
appertaining to the male sex, but it appertains solely to the female
sex, and from this sex is transferred to the male: this I have seen
evidenced by experience; concerning which see above, n. 161. A further
proof of it is supplied from this consideration, that the male form is
the intellectual form, and the female the voluntary; and the
intellectual form cannot grow warm with conjugial heat from itself, but
from the conjunctive heat of some one, in whom it was implanted from
creation; consequently it cannot receive that love except by the
voluntary form of the woman adjoined to itself; because this also is a
form of love. This same position might be further confirmed by the
marriage of good and truth; and, to the natural man, by the marriage of
the heart and lungs; for the heart corresponds to love, and the lungs to
understanding; but as the generality of mankind are deficient in the
knowledge of these subjects, confirmation thereby would tend rather to
obscure than to illustrate. It is in consequence of the transference of
this sphere from the female sex into the male, that the mind is also
inflamed solely from thinking about the sex; that hence also comes
propagative formation and thereby excitation, follows of course; for
unless heat is united to light on earth, nothing flourishes and is
excited to cause fructification there.

224. XV. WHERE THERE IS LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, THIS SPHERE IS RECEIVED BY
THE WIFE, AND ONLY THROUGH HER BY THE HUSBAND. That this sphere, with
those who are in love truly conjugial, is received by the husband only
through the wife, is at this day an arcanum; and yet in itself it is not
an arcanum, because the bridegroom and new-married husband may know
this; is he not affected conjugially by whatever proceeds from the bride
and new-married wife, but not at that time by what proceeds from others
of the sex? The case is the same with those who live together in love
truly conjugial. And since everyone, both man and woman, is encompassed
by his own sphere of life, densely on the breast, and less densely on
the back, it is manifest whence it is that husbands who are very fond of
their wives, turn themselves to them, and in the day-time regard them
with complacency; and on the other hand, why those who do not love their
wives, turn themselves away from them, and in the day-time regard them
with aversion. By the reception of the conjugial sphere by the husband
only through the wife, love truly conjugial is known and distinguished
from that which is spurious, false, and cold.

225. XVI. WHERE THERE IS LOVE NOT CONJUGIAL, THIS SPHERE IS RECEIVED
INDEED BY THE WIFE, BUT NOT BY THE HUSBAND THROUGH HER. This conjugial
sphere flowing into the universe is in its origin divine; in its
progress in heaven with the angels it is celestial and spiritual; with
men it is natural, with beasts and birds animal, with worms merely
corporeal, with vegetables it is void of life; and moreover in all its
subjects it is varied according to their forms. Now as this sphere is
received immediately by the female sex, and mediately by the male, and
as it is received according to forms, it follows, that this sphere,
which in its origin is holy, may in the subjects be turned into what is
not holy, yea may be even inverted into what is opposite. The sphere
opposite to it is called meretricious with such women, and adulterous
with such men; and as such men and women are in hell, this sphere is
from thence: but of this sphere there is also much variety, and hence
there are several species of it; and such a species is attracted and
appropriated by a man (_vir_) as is agreeable to him, and as is
conformable and correspondent with his peculiar temper and disposition.
From these considerations it may appear, that the man who does not love
his wife, receives that sphere from some other source than from his
wife; nevertheless it is a fact, that it is also inspired by the wife,
but without the husband's knowing it, and while he grows warm.

226. XVII. LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL MAY EXIST WITH ONE OF THE MARRIED
PARTNERS, AND NOT AT THE SAME TIME WITH THE OTHER. For one may from the
heart devote himself to chaste marriage, while the other knows not what
chaste marriage is; one may love the things which are of the church, but
the other those which are of the world alone: as to their minds, one may
be in heaven, the other in hell; hence there may be conjugial love with
the one, and not with the other. The minds of such, since they are
turned in a contrary direction, are inwardly in collision with each
other; and if not outwardly, still, he that is not in conjugial love,
regards his lawful consort as a tiresome old woman; and so in other
cases.

227. XVIII. THERE ARE VARIOUS SIMILITUDES AND DISSIMILITUDES, BOTH
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL, WITH MARRIED PARTNERS. It is well known, that
between married partners there are similitudes and dissimilitudes, and
that the external appear, but not the internal, except after some time
of living together, to the married partners themselves, and by
indications to others; but it would be useless to mention each so that
they might be known, since several pages might be filled with an account
and description of their varieties. Similitudes may in part be deduced
and concluded from the dissimilitudes on account of which conjugial love
is changed into cold; of which we shall speak in the following chapter.
Similitudes and dissimilitudes in general originate from connate
inclinations, varied by education, connections, and persuasions that
have been imbibed.

228. XIX. VARIOUS SIMILITUDES CAN BE CONJOINED, BUT NOT WITH
DISSIMILITUDES. The varieties of similitudes are very numerous, and
differ more or less from each other; but still those which differ may in
time be conjoined by various things, especially by accommodations to
desires, by mutual offices and civilities, by abstaining from what is
unchaste, by the common love of infants and the care of children, but
particularly by conformity in things relating to the church; for things
relating to the church effect a conjunction of similitudes differing
interiorly, other things only exteriorly. But with dissimilitudes no
conjunction can be effected, because they are antipathetical.

229. XX. THE LORD PROVIDES SIMILITUDES FOR THOSE WHO DESIRE LOVE TRULY
CONJUGIAL, AND IF NOT ON EARTH, HE YET PROVIDES THEM IN HEAVEN. The
reason of this is, because all marriages of love truly conjugial are
provided by the Lord. That they are from him, may be seen above, n. 130,
131; but in what manner they are provided in heaven, I have heard thus
described by the angels: The divine providence of the Lord extends to
everything, even to the minutest particulars, concerning marriages and
in marriages, because all the delights of heaven spring from the
delights of conjugial love, as sweet waters from the fountain-head; and
on this account it is provided that conjugial pairs be born; and that
they be continually educated to their several marriages under the Lord's
auspices, neither the boy nor the girl knowing anything of the matter;
and after a stated time, when they both become marriageable, they meet
in some place as by chance, and see each other, and in this case they
instantly know, as by a kind of instinct, that they are a pair, and by a
kind of inward dictate think within themselves, the youth, that she is
mine, and the maiden, that he is mine; and when this thought has existed
some time in the mind of each, they accost each other from a deliberate
purpose, and betroth themselves. It is said, as by chance, by instinct,
and by dictate; and the meaning is, by divine providence; since, while
the divine providence is unknown, it has such an appearance; for the
Lord opens internal similitudes, so that they may see themselves.

230. XXI. A MAN (_homo_) ACCORDING TO THE DEFICIENCY AND LOSS OF
CONJUGIAL LOVE, APPROACHES TO THE NATURE OF A BEAST. The reason of this
is, because so far as a man (_homo_) is in conjugial love, so far he is
spiritual, and so far as he is spiritual, so far he is a man (_homo_);
for a man is born to a life after death, and attains the possession
thereof in consequence of having in him a spiritual soul, and is capable
of being elevated thereto by the faculty of his understanding; if in
this case his will, from the faculty also granted to it, is elevated at
the same time, he lives after death the life of heaven. The contrary
comes to pass, if he is in a love opposite to conjugial love; for so far
as he is in this opposite love, so far he is natural; and a merely
natural man is like a beast as to lusts and appetites, and to their
delights; with this difference only, that he has the faculty of
elevating his understanding into the light of wisdom, and also of
elevating his will into the heat of celestial love. These faculties are
never taken away from airy man (_homo_); therefore the merely natural
man, although as to concupiscences and appetites and their delights, he
is like a beast, still lives after death, but in a state corresponding
to his past life. From these considerations it may appear that a man,
according to the deficiency of conjugial love, approaches to the nature
of a beast. This position may seem to be contradicted by the
consideration, that there are a deficiency and loss of conjugial love
with some who yet are men (_homines_); but the position is meant to be
confined to those who make light of conjugial love from a principle of
adulterous love, and who therefore are in such deficiency and loss.

       *       *       *       *       *

231. To the above I shall add THREE MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. I once
heard loud exclamations, which issued from the hells, with a noise as if
they bubbled up through water: one to the left hand, in these words, "O
HOW JUST!" another to the right, "O HOW LEARNED!" and a third from
behind, "O HOW WISE!" and as I was in doubt whether there are also in
hell persons of justice, learning, and wisdom, I was impressed with a
strong desire of seeing what was the real case; and a voice from heaven
said to me, "You shall see and hear." I therefore in spirit went out of
the house, and saw before me an opening, which I approached; and looked
down; and lo! there was a ladder, by which I descended: and when I was
down, I observed a level country set thick with shrubs, intermixed with
thorns and nettles; and on my asking, whether this was hell, I was told
it was the lower earth next above hell. I then continued my course in a
direction according to the exclamations in order; first to those who
exclaimed, "O HOW JUST!" where I saw a company consisting of such as in
the world had been judges influenced by friendship and gifts; then to
the second exclamation, "O HOW LEARNED!" where I saw a company of such
as in the world had been reasoners; and lastly to the third exclamation,
"O HOW WISE!" where I saw a company such as in the world had been
confirmators. From these I returned to the first, where there were
judges influenced by friendship and gifts, and who were proclaimed
"Just." On one side I saw as it were an amphitheatre built of brick, and
covered with black slates; and I was told that they called it a
tribunal. There were three entrances to it on the north, and three on
the west, but none on the south and east; a proof that their decisions
were not those of justice, but were arbitrary determinations. In the
middle of the amphitheatre there was a fire, into which the servants who
attended threw torches of sulphur and pitch; the light whereof, by its
vibrations on the plastered walls, presented pictured images of birds of
the evening and night; but both the fire and the vibrations of light
thence issuing, together with the forms of the images thereby produced,
were representations that in their decisions they could adorn the matter
of any debate with colored dyes, and give it a form according to their
own interest. In about half an hour I saw some old men and youths in
robes and cloaks, enter the amphitheatre, who, laying aside their caps,
took their seats at the tables, in order to sit in judgement. I heard
and perceived with what cunning and ingenuity, under the impulse of
prejudice in favor of their friends, they warped and inverted judgement
so as to give it an appearance of justice, and this to such a degree,
that they themselves saw what was unjust as just, and on the other hand
what was just as unjust. Such persuasions respecting the points to be
decided upon, appeared from their countenances, and were heard from
their manner of speaking. I then received illustration from heaven, from
which I perceived how far each point was grounded in right or not; and I
saw how industriously they concealed what was unjust, and gave it a
semblance of what was just; and how they selected some particular
statute which favored their own side of the question, and by cunning
reasonings warped the rest to the same side. After judgement was given,
the decrees were conveyed to their clients, friends and favorers, who,
to recompense them for their services, continued to shout, "O HOW JUST,
O HOW JUST!" After this I conversed respecting them with the angels of
heaven, and related to them some of the things I had seen and heard. The
angels said to me, "Such judges appear to others to be endowed with a
most extraordinary acuteness of intellect; when yet they do not at all
see what is just and equitable. If you remove the prejudices of
friendship in favor of particular persons, they sit mute in judgement
like so many statues, and only say, 'I acquiesce, and am entirely of
your opinion on this point.' This happens because all their judgements
are prejudices; and prejudice with partiality influences the case in
question from beginning to end. Hence they see nothing but what is
connected with their friend's interest; and whatever is contrary
thereto, they set aside; or if they pay any attention to it, they
involve it in intricate reasonings, as a spider wraps up its prey in a
web, and make an end of it; hence, unless they follow the web of their
prejudice, they see nothing of what is right. They were examined whether
they were able to see it, and it was discovered that they were not. That
this is the case, will seem wonderful to the inhabitants of your world;
but tell them it is a truth that has been investigated by the angels of
heaven. As they see nothing of what is just, we in heaven regard them
not as men but as monsters, whose heads are constituted of things
relating to friendship, their breasts of those relating to injustice,
their feet of those which relate to confirmation, and the soles of the
feet of those things which relate to justice, which they supplant and
trample under foot, in case they are unfavorable to the interests of
their friend. But of what quality they appear to us from heaven, you
shall presently see; for their end is at hand." And lo! at that instant
the ground was cleft asunder, and the tables fell one upon another, and
they were swallowed up, together with the whole amphitheatre, and were
cast into caverns, and imprisoned. It was then said to me, "Do you wish
to see them where they now are?" And lo! their faces appeared as of
polished steel, their bodies from the neck to the loins as graven images
of stone clothed with leopards' skins, and their feet like snakes: the
law books too, which they had arranged in order on the tables, were
changed into packs of cards: and now, instead of sitting in judgement,
the office appointed to them is to prepare vermilion and mix it up into
a paint, to bedaub the faces of harlots and thereby turn them into
beauties.

After seeing these things, I was desirous to visit the two other
assemblies, one of which consisted of mere reasoners, and the other of
mere confirmators; and it was said to me, "Stop awhile, and you shall
have attendant angels from the society next above them; by these you
will receive light from the Lord and will see what will surprise you."

232. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. After some time I heard again from
the lower earth voices exclaiming as before, "O HOW LEARNED! O HOW
WISE!" I looked round to see what angels were present; and lo! they were
from the heaven immediately above those who cried out, "O HOW LEARNED!"
and I conversed with them respecting the cry, and they said, "Those
learned ones are such as only reason _whether a thing be so or not_, and
seldom think _that it is so_; therefore, they are like winds which blow
and pass away, like the bark about trees which are without sap, or like
shells about almonds without a kernel, or like the outward rind about
fruit without pulp; for their minds are void of interior judgement, and
are united only with the bodily senses; therefore unless the senses
themselves decide, they can conclude nothing; in a word, they are merely
sensual, and we call them REASONERS. We give them this name, because
they never conclude anything, and make whatever they hear a matter of
argument, and dispute whether it be so, with perpetual contradiction.
They love nothing better than to attack essential truths, and so to pull
them in pieces as to make them a subject of dispute. These are those who
believe themselves learned above the rest of the world." On hearing this
account, I entreated the angels to conduct me to them: so they led me to
a cave, from which there was a flight of steps leading to the earth
below. We descended and followed the shout, "O HOW LEARNED!" and lo!
there were some hundreds standing in one place, beating the ground with
their feet. Being at first surprised at this sight, I inquired the
reason of their standing in that manner and beating the ground with the
soles of their feet, and said, "They may thus by their feet make holes
in the floor." At this the angel smiled and said, "They appear to stand
in this manner, because they never think on any subject that it is so,
but only whether it is so, and dispute about it; and when the thinking
principle proceeds no further than this, they appear only to tread and
trample on a single clod, and not to advance." Upon this I approached
the assembly, and lo! they appeared to me to be good-looking men and
well dressed; but the angels said, "This is their appearance when viewed
in their own light; but if light from heaven flows in, their faces are
changed, and so is their dress;" and so it came to pass: they then
appeared with dark faces, and dressed in black sackcloth; but when this
light was withdrawn, they appeared as before. I presently entered into
conversation with some of them, and said, "I heard the shout of a crowd
about you, '_O how learned!_' may I be allowed therefore to have a
little conversation with you on subjects of the highest learning?" they
replied, "Mention any subject, and we will give you satisfaction." I
then asked, "What must be the nature of that religion by which a man is
saved?" They said, "We will divide this subject into several parts; and
we cannot answer it until we have concluded on its subdivisions. The
first inquiry shall be, Whether religion be anything? the second,
Whether there be such a thing as salvation or not? the third, Whether
one religion be more efficacious than another? the fourth, Whether there
be a heaven and a hell? the fifth, Whether there be eternal life after
death?" besides many more inquiries. Then I desired to know their
opinion concerning the first article of inquiry, Whether religion be
anything? They began to discuss the subject with abundance of arguments,
whether there be any such thing as religion, and whether what is called
religion be anything? I requested them to refer it to the assembly, and
they did so; and the general answer was, that the proposition required
so much investigation that it could not be finished within the evening.
I then asked. "Can you finish it within the year?" and one of them said,
"Not within a hundred years:" so I observed, "In the mean while you are
without religion;" and he replied, "Shall it not be first demonstrated
whether there be such a thing as religion, and whether what is called
religion be anything? if there be such a thing, it must be also for the
wise; if there be no such thing, it must he only for the vulgar. It is
well known that religion is called a bond; but it is asked, for whom? if
it be only for the vulgar, it is not anything in itself; if it be
likewise for the wise, it is something." On hearing these arguments, I
said to them, "There is no character you deserve less than that of being
learned; because all your thoughts are confined to the single inquiry,
whether a thing be, and to canvass each side of the question. Who can
become learned, unless he know something for certain, and progressively
advance into it, as a man in walking progressively advances from step to
step, and thereby successively arrives at wisdom! If you follow any
other rule, you make no approach to truths, but remove them more and
more out of sight. To reason only whether a thing be, is it not like
reasoning about a cap or a shoe, whether they fit or not, before they
are put on? and what must be the consequence of such reasoning, but that
you will not know whether anything exist, yea, whether there be any such
thing as salvation, or eternal life after death; whether one religion be
more efficacious than another, and whether there be a heaven and a hell?
On these subjects you cannot possibly think at all, so long as you halt
at the first step, and beat the sand at setting out, instead of setting
one foot before another and going forward. Take heed to yourselves, lest
your minds, standing thus without in a state of indetermination, should
inwardly harden and become statues of salt, and yourselves friends of
Lot's wife." With these words I took my leave, and they being indignant
threw stones after me; and then they appeared to me like graven images
of stone, without any human reason in them. On my asking the angels
concerning their lot, they said, "Their lot is, that they are cast down
into the deep, into a wilderness, where they are forced to carry
burdens; and in this case, as they are no longer capable of rational
conversation, they give themselves up to idle prattle and talk, and
appear at a distance like asses that are heavily laden."

233. THE THIRD MEMORABLE RELATION. After this one of the angels said,
"Follow me to the place where they exclaim, 'O HOW WISE!' and you shall
see prodigies of men; you shall see faces and bodies, which are the
faces and bodies of a man, and yet they are not men." I said, "Are they
beasts then?" he replied, "They are not beasts, but beast-men; for they
are such as cannot at all see whether truth be truth or not, and yet
they can make whatever they will to be truth. Such persons with us are
called CONFIRMATORS." We followed the vociferation, and came to the
place; and lo! there was a company of men, and around them a crowd, and
in the crowd some of noble blood, who, on hearing that they confirmed
whatever they said, and favored themselves with such manifest consent,
turned, and said, "O HOW WISE!" But the angel said to me, "Let us not go
to them, but call one out of the company." We called him and went aside
with him, and conversed on various subjects; and he confirmed every one
of them, so that they appeared altogether as true; and we asked him,
whether he could also confirm the contrary? he said, "As well as the
former." Then he spoke openly and from the heart, and said, "What is
truth? Is there anything true in the nature of things, but what a man
makes true? Advance any proposition you please, and I will make it to be
true." Hereupon I said, "Make this true; That faith is the all of the
church." This he did so dexterously and cunningly, that the learned who
were standing by admired and applauded him. I afterwards requested him
to make it true, That charity is the all of the church; and he did so:
and afterwards, That charity is nothing of the church: and he dressed up
each side of the question, and adorned it so with appearances, that the
bystanders looked at each other, and said, "Is not this a wise man?" But
I said, "Do not you know that to live well is charity, and that to
believe well is faith? does not he that lives well also believe well?
and consequently, is not faith of charity, and charity of faith? do you
not see that this is true?" He replied, "I will make it true, and will
then see." He did so, and said, "Now I see it;" but presently he made
the contrary to be true, and then said, "I also see that this is true."
At this we smiled and said, "Are they not contraries? how can two
contraries appear true?" To this he replied with indignation, "You are
mistaken; each is true; since truth is nothing but what a man makes
true." There was a certain person standing near, who in the world had
been a legate of the first rank. He was surprised at this assertion, and
said, "I acknowledge that in the world something like this method of
reasoning prevails; but still you are out of your senses. Try if you can
make it to be true, that light is darkness, and darkness light." He
replied, "I will easily do this. What are light and darkness but a state
of the eye? Is not light changed into shade when the eye comes out of
sunshine, and also when it is kept intensely fixed on the sun? Who does
not know, that the state of the eye in such a case is changed, and that
in consequence light appears as shade; and on the other hand, when the
state of the eye is restored, that shade appears as light? Does not
an owl see the darkness of night as the light of day, and the light of
day as the darkness of night, and also the sun itself as an opaque and
dusky globe? If any man had the eyes of an owl, which would he call
light and which darkness? What then is light but the state of the eye?
and if it be a state of the eye, is not light darkness, and darkness
light? therefore each of the propositions is true." Afterwards the
legate asked him to make this true, That a raven is white and not black;
and he replied, "I will do this also with ease;" and he said, "Take a
needle or razor, and lay open the feathers or quills of a raven; are
they not white within? Also remove the feathers and quills, and look at
its skin; is it not white? What is the blackness then which envelops it
but a shade, which ought not to determine the raven's color? That
blackness is merely a shade. I appeal to the skilful in the science of
optics, who will tell you, that if you pound a black stone or glass into
fine powder, you will see that the powder is white." But the legate
replied, "Does not the raven appear black to the sight?" The confirmator
answered, "Will you, who are a man, think in any case from appearance?
you may indeed say from appearance, that a crow is black, but you cannot
think so; as for example, you may speak from the appearance and say that
the sun rises, advances to its meridian altitude, and sets; but, as you
are a man, you cannot think so; because the sun stands unmoved and the
earth only changes its position. The case is the same with the raven;
appearance is appearance; and say what you will, a raven is altogether
and entirely white; it grows white also as it grows old; and this I have
seen." We next requested him to tell us from his heart, whether he was
in joke, or whether he really believed that nothing is true but what a
man makes true? and he replied, "I swear that I believe it." Afterwards
the legate asked him, whether he could make it true that he was out of
his senses; and he said, "I can; but I do not choose: who is not out of
his senses?" When the conversation was thus ended, this universal
confirmator was sent to the angels, to be examined as to his true
quality; and the report they afterwards made was, that he did not
possess even a single grain of understanding; because all that is above
the rational principle was closed in him, and that alone which is below
was open. Above the rational principle is heavenly light, and below it
is natural light; and this light is such that it can confirm whatever it
pleases; but if heavenly light does not flow into natural light, a man
does not see whether any thing true is true, and consequently neither
does he see that any thing false is false. To see in either case is by
virtue of heavenly light in natural light; and heavenly light is from
the God of heaven, who is the Lord; therefore this universal confirmator
is not a man or a beast, but a beast-man. I questioned the angel
concerning the lot of such persons, and whether they can be together
with those who are alive, since every one has life from heavenly light,
and from this light has understanding. He said, that such persons when
they are alone, can neither think nor express their thoughts, but stand
mute like machines, and as in a deep sleep; but that they awake as soon
as any sound strikes their ears: and he added, that those become such,
who are inmostly wicked; into these no heavenly light can flow from
above, but only somewhat spiritual through the world, whence they derive
the faculty of confirming. As he said this, I heard a voice from the
angels who had examined the confirmation, saying to me, "From what you
have now heard form a general conclusion." I accordingly formed the
following: "That intelligence does not consist in being able to confirm
whatever a man pleases, but in being able to see that what is true is
true, and what is false is false." After this I looked towards the
company where the confirmators stood, and where the crowd about them
shouted, "_O how wise!_" and lo! a dusky cloud covered them, and in the
cloud were owls and bats on the wing; and it was said to me, "The owls
and bats flying in the dusky cloud, are correspondences and consequent
appearances of their thoughts; because confirmations of falsities so as
to make them appear like truths, are represented in this world under the
forms of birds of night, whose eyes are inwardly illuminated by a false
light, from which they see objects in the dark as if in the light. By
such a false spiritual light are those influenced who confirm falses
until they seem as truths, and afterwards are said and believed to be
truths: all such see backwards, and not forwards."

       *     *     *     *     *     *

ON THE CAUSES OF COLDNESS, SEPARATION, AND DIVORCE IN MARRIAGES.

234. In treating here on the causes of coldness in marriages, we shall
treat also at the same time on the causes of separation, and likewise of
divorce, because they are connected; for separations come from no other
source than from coldnesses, which are successively inborn after
marriage, or from causes discovered after marriage, from which also
coldness springs; but divorces come from adulteries; for these are
altogether opposite to marriages; and opposites induce coldness, if not
in both parties, at least in one. This is the reason why the causes of
coldness, separations, and divorces, are brought together into one
chapter. But the coherence of the causes will be more clearly discerned
from viewing them in the following series:--I. _There are spiritual heat
and spiritual cold; and spiritual heat is love, and spiritual cold the
privation thereof._ II. _Spiritual cold in marriages is a disunion of
souls and a disjunction of minds, whence come indifference, discord,
contempt, disdain, and aversion; from which, in several cases, at length
comes separation as to bed, chamber, and house._ III. _There are several
successive causes of cold, some internal, some external, and some
accidental._ IV. _Internal causes of cold are from religion._ V. _The
first of these causes is the rejection of religion by each of the
parties._ VI. _The second is, that one has religion and not the other._
VII. _The third is, that one is of one religion and the other of
another._ VIII. _The fourth is the falsity of the religion imbibed._ IX.
_With many, these are causes of internal cold, but not at the same time
of external._ X. _There are also several external causes of cold; the
first of which is dissimilitude of minds and manners._ XI. _The second
is, that conjugial love is believed to be the same as adulterous love,
only that the latter is not allowed by law, but the former is._ XII.
_The third is, a striving for pre-eminence between married partners._
XIII. _The fourth is, a want of determination to any employment or
business, whence comes wandering passion._ XIV. _The fifth is,
inequality of external rank and condition._ XV. _There are also causes
of separation._ XVI. _The first of them is a vitiated state of mind._
XVII. _The second is a vitiated state of body._ XVIII. _The third is
impotence before marriage._ XIX. _Adultery is the cause of divorce._ XX.
_There are also several accidental causes of cold; the first of which
is, that enjoyment is common (or cheap), because continually allowed._
XXI. _The second is that living with a married partner, from a covenant
and compact, seems to be forced and not free._ XXII. _The third is,
affirmation on the part of the wife, and her talking incessantly about
love._ XXIII. _The fourth is, the man's continually thinking that his
wife is willing; and on the other hand, the wife's thinking that the man
is not willing._ XXIV. _As cold is in the mind it is also in the body;
and according to the increase of that cold, the externals also of the
body are closed._ We proceed to an explanation of each article.

235. I. THERE ARE SPIRITUAL HEAT AND SPIRITUAL COLD; AND SPIRITUAL HEAT
IS LOVE, AND SPIRITUAL COLD IS THE PRIVATION THEREOF. Spiritual heat is
from no other source than the sun of the spiritual world; for there is
in that world a sun proceeding from the Lord, who is in the midst of it;
and as it is from the Lord, it is in its essence pure love. This sun
appears fiery before the angels, just as the sun of our world appears
before men. The reason of its appearing fiery is, because love is
spiritual fire. From that sun proceed both heat and light; but as that
sun is pure love, the heat thence derived in its essence is love, and
the light thence derived in its essence is wisdom; hence it is manifest
what is the source of spiritual heat, and that spiritual heat is love.
But we will also briefly explain the source of spiritual cold. It is
from the sun of the natural world, and its heat and light. The sun of
the natural world was created that its heat and light might receive in
them spiritual heat and light, and by means of the atmospheres might
convey spiritual heat and light even to ultimates in the earth, in order
to produce effects of ends, which are of the Lord in his sun, and also
to clothe spiritual principles with suitable garments, that is, with
materials, to operate ultimate ends in nature. These effects are
produced when spiritual heat is joined to natural heat; but the contrary
comes to pass when natural heat is separated from spiritual heat, as is
the case with those who love natural things, and reject spiritual: with
such, spiritual heat becomes cold. The reason why these two loves, which
from creation are in agreement, become thus opposite, is, because in
such case the dominant heat becomes the servant, and _vice versa_; and
to prevent this effect, spiritual heat, which from its lineage is lord,
then recedes; and in those subjects, spiritual heat grows cold, because
it becomes opposite. From these considerations it is manifest that
spiritual cold is the privation of spiritual heat. In what is here said,
by heat is meant love; because that heat living in subjects is felt as
love. I have heard in the spiritual world, that spirits merely natural
grow intensely cold while they apply themselves to the side of some
angel who is in a state of love; and that the case is similar in regard
to the infernal spirits, while heat flows into them out of heaven; and
that nevertheless among themselves, when the heat of heaven is removed
from them, they are inflamed with great heat.

236. II. Spiritual cold in marriages is a disunion of souls and a
disjunction of minds, whence come indifference, discord, contempt,
disdain, and aversion; from which, in several cases, at length comes
separation as to bed, chamber, and house. That these effects take place
with married partners, while their primitive love is on the decline, and
becomes cold, is too well known to need any comment. The reason is,
because conjugial cold above all others resides in human minds; for the
essential conjugial principle is inscribed on the soul, to the end that
a soul may be propagated from a soul, and the soul of the father into
the offspring. Hence it is that this cold originates there, and
successively goes downward into the principles thence derived, and
infects them; and thus changes the joys and delights of the primitive
love into what is sad and undelightful.

237. III. THERE ARE SEVERAL SUCCESSIVE CAUSES OF COLD, SOME INTERNAL,
SOME EXTERNAL, AND SOME ACCIDENTAL. That there are several causes of
cold in marriages, is known in the world; also that they arise from many
external causes; but it is not known that the origins of the causes lie
concealed in the inmost principles, and that from these they descend
into the principles thence derived, until they appear in externals; in
order therefore that it may be known that external causes are not causes
in themselves, but derived from causes in themselves, which, as was
said, are in inmost principles, we will first distribute the causes
generally into internal and external, and afterwards will particularly
examine them.

238. IV. INTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD ARE FROM RELIGION. That the very origin
of conjugial love resides in the inmost principles of man, that is, in
his soul, is demonstrable to every one from the following considerations
alone; that the soul of the offspring is from the father, which is known
from the similitude of inclinations and affections, and also from the
general character of the countenance derived from the father and
remaining with very remote posterity; also from the propagative faculty
implanted in souls from creation; and moreover by what is analogous
thereto in the subjects of the vegetable kingdom, in that there lies hid
in the inmost principles of germination the propagation of the seed
itself, and thence of the whole, whether it be a tree, a shrub, or a
plant. This propagative or plastic force in seeds in the latter kingdom,
and in souls in the other, is from no other source than the conjugial
sphere, which is that of good and truth, and which perpetually emanates
and flows in from the Lord the Creator and Supporter of the universe;
concerning which sphere, see above, n. 222-225; and from the endeavour
of those two principles, good and truth, therein, to unite into a one.
This conjugial endeavour remains implanted in souls, and conjugial love
exists by derivation from it as its origin. That this same marriage,
from which the above universal sphere is derived, constitutes the church
with man, has been abundantly shewn above in the chapter ON THE MARRIAGE
OF GOOD AND TRUTH, and frequently elsewhere. Hence there is all the
evidence of rational demonstration, that the origin of the church and of
conjugial love are in one place of abode, and in a continual embrace;
but on this subject see further particulars above, n. 130, where it was
proved, that conjugial love is according to the state of the church with
man; thus that it is grounded in religion, because religion constitutes
this state. Man also was created with a capacity of becoming more and
more interior, and thereby of being introduced or elevated nearer and
nearer to that marriage, and thus into love truly conjugial, and this
even so far as to perceive a state of its blessedness. That religion is
the only means of introduction and elevation, appears clearly from what
was said above, namely, that the origin of the church and of conjugial
love are in the same place of abode, and in mutual embrace there, and
that hence they must needs be conjoined.

239. From what has been said above it follows, that where there is no
religion, there is no conjugial love; and that where there is no
conjugial love, there is cold. That conjugial cold is the privation of
that love, maybe seen above, n. 235; consequently that conjugial cold is
also a privation of a state of the church, or of religion. Sufficient
evidence of the truth of this may be deduced from the general ignorance
that now prevails concerning love truly conjugial. In these times, who
knows, and who is willing to acknowledge, and who will not be surprised
to hear, that the origin of conjugial love is deduced hence? But the
only cause and source of this ignorance is, that, notwithstanding there
is religion, still there are not the truths of religion; and what is
religion without truths? That there is a want of the truths of religion,
is fully shown in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED; see also the MEMORABLE
RELATION, n. 566 of that work.

240. V. OF INTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD THE FIRST IS THE REJECTION OF
RELIGION BY EACH OF THE PARTIES. Those who reject the holy things of the
church from the face to the hinder part of the head, or from the breast
to the back, have not any good love; if any proceeds apparently from the
body, still there is not any in the spirit. With such persons goods
place themselves on the outside of evils, and cover them, as raiment
glittering with gold covers a putrid body. The evils which reside
within, and are covered, are in general hatreds, and thence intestine
combats against everything spiritual; for all things of the church which
they reject, are in themselves spiritual; and as love truly conjugial is
the fundamental love of all spiritual loves, as was shewn above, it is
evident that interior hatred is contrary to it, and that the interior or
real love with such is in favor or the opposite, which is the love of
adultery; therefore such persons, more than others, will be disposed to
ridicule this truth, that every one has conjugial love according to the
state of the church; yea, they will possibly laugh at the very mention
of love truly conjugial; but be it so; nevertheless they are to be
pardoned, because it is as impossible for them to distinguish in thought
between the marriage embrace and the adulterous, as it is for a camel to
go through the eye of a needle. Such persons, as to conjugial love, are
starved with cold more than others. If they keep to their married
partners, it is only on account of some of the external causes mentioned
above, n. 153, which withhold and bind them. Their interiors of the soul
and thence of the mind are more and more closed, and in the body are
stopped up; and in this case even the love of the sex is thought little
of, or becomes insanely lascivious in the interiors of the body, and
thence in the lowest principles of their thought. It is these who are
meant in the MEMORABLE RELATION, n. 79, which they may read if they
please.

241. VI. OF INTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD THE SECOND IS, THAT ONE OF THE
PARTIES HAS RELIGION AND NOT THE OTHER. The reason of this is, because
the souls must of course disagree; for the soul of one is open to the
reception of conjugial love, while the soul of the other is closed to
it. It is closed with the party that has not religion, and it is open
with the one that has; hence such persons cannot live together
harmoniously; and when once conjugial love is banished, there ensues
cold; but this is with the party that has no religion. This cold cannot
be dissipated except by the reception of a religion agreeing with that
of the other party, if it be true; otherwise, with the party that has no
religion, there ensues cold, which descends from the soul into the body,
even to the cuticles; in consequence of which he can no longer look his
married partner directly in the face, or accost her in a communion of
respirations, or speak to her except in a subdued tone of voice, or
touch her with the hand, and scarcely with the back; not to mention the
insanities which, proceeding from that cold, make their way into the
thoughts, which they do not make known; and this is the reason why such
marriages dissolve of themselves. Moreover, it is well known, that an
impious man thinks meanly of a married partner; and all who are without
religion are impious.

242. VII. OF INTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD THE THIRD IS, THAT ONE OF THE
PARTIES IS OF ONE RELIGION AND THE OTHER OF ANOTHER. The reason of this
is, because with such persons good cannot be conjoined with its
corresponding truth; for as was shewn above, the wife is the good of the
husband's truth, and he is the truth of the wife's good. Hence of two
souls there cannot be made one soul; and hence the stream of that love
is closed: and consequently a conjugial principle is entered upon, which
has a lower place of abode, and which is that of good with another
truth, or of truth with another good than its own, between which there
cannot be any harmonious love: hence with the married partner that is in
a false religion, there commences a cold, which grows more intense in
proportion as he differs from the other party. On a certain time, as I
was wandering through the streets of a great city inquiring for a
lodging, I entered a house inhabited by married partners of a different
religion; being ignorant of this circumstance, the angels instantly
accosted me, and said, "We cannot remain with you in that house; for the
married partners who dwell there differ in religion." This they
perceived from the internal disunion of their souls.

243. VIII. OF INTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD THE FOURTH IS, THE FALSITY OF THE
RELIGION. This is, because falsity in spiritual things either takes away
religion or defiles it. It takes it from those with whom genuine truths
are falsified; it defiles it, where there are indeed falsities, but not
genuine truths, which therefore could not be falsified. In the latter
case there may be imputed goods with which those falses may be conjoined
by applications from the Lord; for these falses are like various
discordant tones, which by artful arrangements and combinations are
brought into harmony, and communicate to harmony its agreeableness: in
this case some conjugial love is communicable; but with those who have
falsified with themselves the genuine truths of the church, it is not
communicable. The prevailing ignorance concerning love truly conjugial,
or a negative doubting respecting the possibility of the existence of
such love, is from persons of the latter description; and from the same
source also comes the wild imagination, in the minds of the generality,
that adulteries are not evils in a religious point of view.

244. IX. WITH MANY, THE ABOVE-MENTIONED ARE CAUSES OF INTERNAL COLD, BUT
NOT AT THE SAME TIME OF EXTERNAL. If the causes above pointed out and
confirmed, which are the causes of internal cold, produced similar
external cold, as many separations would ensue as there are cases of
internal cold, which are as many as there are marriages of those who are
in a false or a different religion, or in no religion; respecting whom
we have already treated; and yet it is well-known, that many such live
together as if they mutually loved and were friendly to each other: but
whence this originates, with those who are in internal cold, will be
shewn in the following chapter CONCERNING THE CAUSES OF APPARENT LOVE,
FRIENDSHIP, AND FAVOR IN MARRIAGES. There are several causes which
conjoin minds (_animos_) but still do not conjoin souls; among these are
some of those mentioned above, n. 183; but still cold lies interiorly
concealed, and makes itself continually observed and felt. With such
married partners the affections depart from each other; but the
thoughts, while they come forth into speech and behaviour, for the sake
of apparent friendship and favor, are present; therefore such persons
know nothing of the pleasantness and delight, and still less of the
satisfaction and blessedness of love truly conjugial, accounting them to
be little else than fables. These are of the number of those who deduce
the origin of conjugial love from the same causes with the nine
companies of wise ones assembled from the several kingdoms of Europe;
concerning whom see the MEMORABLE RELATION above, n. 103-114.

245. It may be urged as an objection to what has been proved above, that
still the soul is propagated from the father although it is not
conjoined to the soul of the mother, yea, although cold residing therein
causes separation; but the reason why souls or offspring are
nevertheless propagated is, because the understanding of the man is not
closed, but is capable of being elevated into the light into which the
soul is; but the love of his will is not elevated into the heat
corresponding to the light there, except by the life, which makes him
from natural become spiritual; hence it is, that the soul is still
procreated, but, in the descent, while it becomes seed, it is veiled
over by such things as belong to his natural love; from this springs
hereditary evil. To these considerations I will add an arcanum from
heaven, namely, that between the disjoined souls of two persons,
especially of married partners, there is effected conjunction in a
middle love; otherwise there would be no conception with men
(_homines_). Besides what is here said of conjugial cold, and its place
of abode in the supreme region of the mind, see the LAST MEMORABLE
RELATION of this chapter, n. 270.

246. X. THERE ARE ALSO SEVERAL EXTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD, THE FIRST OF
WHICH IS DISSIMILITUDE OF MINDS AND MANNERS. There are both internal and
external similitudes and dissimilitudes. The internal arise from no
other source than religion; for religion is implanted in souls, and by
them is transmitted from parents to their offspring as the supreme
inclination; for the soul of every man derives life from the marriage of
good and truth, and from this marriage is the church; and as the church
is various and different in the several parts of the world, therefore
also the souls of all men are various and different; wherefore internal
similitudes and dissimilitudes are from this source, and according to
them the conjugial conjunctions of which we have been treating; but
external similitudes and dissimilitudes are not of the souls but of
minds; by minds (_animos_) we mean the affections and thence the
external inclinations, which are principally insinuated after birth by
education, social intercourse, and consequent habits of life; for it is
usual to say, I have a mind to do this or that; which indicates an
affection and inclination to it. Persuasions conceived respecting this
or that kind of life also form those minds; hence come inclinations to
enter into marriage even with such as are unsuitable, and likewise to
refuse consent to marriage with such as are suitable; but still these
marriages, after a certain time of living together, vary according to
the similitudes and dissimilitudes contracted hereditarily and also by
education; and dissimilitudes induce cold. So likewise dissimilitudes of
manners; as for example, an ill-mannered man or woman, joined with a
well-bred one; a neat man or woman, joined with a slovenly one; a
litigious man or woman, joined with one that is peaceably disposed; in a
word, an immoral man or woman, joined with a moral one. Marriages of
such dissimilitudes are not unlike the conjunctions of different species
of animals with each other, as of sheep and goats, of stags and mules,
of turkeys and geese, of sparrows and the nobler kind of birds, yea, as
of dogs and cats, which from their dissimilitudes do not consociate with
each other, but in the human kind these dissimilitudes are indicated not
by faces, but by habits of life; wherefore external colds are from this
source.

247. XI. OF EXTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD THE SECOND IS, THAT CONJUGIAL LOVE
IS BELIEVED TO BE THE SAME AS ADULTEROUS LOVE, ONLY THAT THE LATTER IS
NOT ALLOWED BY LAW, BUT THE FORMER IS. That this is a source of cold, is
obvious to reason, while it is considered that adulterous love is
diametrically opposite to conjugial love; wherefore when it is believed
that conjugial love is the same as adulterous, they both become alike in
idea; and in such case a wife is regarded as a harlot, and marriage as
uncleanness; the man himself also is an adulterer, if not in body, still
in spirit. That hence ensue contempt, disdain, and aversion, between the
man and his woman, and thereby intense cold, is an unavoidable
consequence; for nothing stores up in itself conjugial cold more than
adulterous love; and as adulterous love also passes into such cold, it
may not undeservedly be called essential conjugial cold.

248. XII. OF EXTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD THE THIRD IS, A STRIVING FOR
PRE-EMINENCE BETWEEN MARRIED PARTNERS. This is, because conjugial love
principally respects the union of wills, and the freedom of decision
thence arising; both which are ejected from the married state by a
striving for pre-eminence or superiority; for this divides and tears
wills into pieces, and changes the freedom of decision into servitude.
During the influence of such striving, the spirit of one of the parties
meditates violence against the other; if in such case their minds were
laid open and viewed by spiritual sight, they would appear like two
boxers engaged in combat, and regarding each other with hatred and favor
alternately; with hatred while in the vehemence of striving, and with
favor while in the hope of dominion, and while under the influence of
lust. After one has obtained the victory over the other, this contention
is withdrawn from the externals, and betakes itself into the internals
of the mind, and there abides with its restlessness stored up and
concealed. Hence cold ensues both to the subdued party or servant, and
to the victor or dominant party. The reason why the latter also suffers
cold is, because conjugial love no longer exists with them, and the
privation of this love is cold; see n. 235. In the place of conjugial
love succeeds heat derived from pre-eminence; but this heat is utterly
discordant with conjugial heat, yet it can exteriorly resemble it by
means of lust. After a tacit agreement between the parties, it appears
as if conjugial love was made friendship; but the difference between
conjugial and servile friendship in marriages, is like that between
light and shade, between a living fire and an _ignis fatuus_, yea, like
that between a well-conditioned man and one consisting only of bone and
skin.

249. XIII. OF EXTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD THE FOURTH IS, A WANT OF
DETERMINATION TO ANY EMPLOYMENT OR BUSINESS, WHENCE COMES WANDERING
PASSION. Man (_homo_) was created for use, because use is the continent
of good and truth, from the marriage of which proceeds creation, and
also conjugial love, as was shewn above. By employment and business we
mean every application to uses; while therefore a man is in any
employment and business, or in any use, in such case his mind is limited
and circumscribed as in a circle, within which it is successively
arranged into a form truly human, from which as from a house he sees
various concupiscences out of himself, and by sound reason within
exterminates them; consequently also he exterminates the wild insanities
of adulterous lust; hence it is that conjugial heat remains better and
longer with such than with others. The reverse happens with those who
give themselves up to sloth and ease; in such case the mind is unlimited
and undetermined, and hence the man (_homo_) admits into the whole of it
everything vain and ludicrous which flows in from the world and the
body, and leads to the love thereof; that in this case conjugial love
also is driven into banishment, is evident; for in consequence of sloth
and ease the mind grows stupid and the body torpid, and the whole man
becomes insensible to every vital love, especially to conjugial love,
from which as from a fountain issue the activities and alacrities of
life. Conjugial cold with such is different from what it is with others;
it is indeed the privation of conjugial love, but arising from defect.

250. XIV. OF EXTERNAL CAUSES OF COLD THE FIFTH IS, INEQUALITY OF
EXTERNAL RANK AND CONDITION. There are several inequalities of rank and
condition, which while parties are living together put an end to the
conjugial love which commenced before marriage; but they may all be
referred to inequalities as to age, station, and wealth. That unequal
ages induce cold in marriage, as in the case of a lad with an old woman,
and of a young girl with a decrepit old man, needs no proof. That
inequality of station has a similar effect, as in the marriage of a
prince with a servant maid, or of an illustrious matron with a servant
man, is also acknowledged without further proof. That the case is the
same in regard to wealth, unless a similitude of minds and manners, and
an application of one party to the inclinations and native desires of
the other, consociate them, is evident. But in all such cases, the
compliance of one party on account of the pre-eminence of station and
condition of the other, effects only a servile and frigid conjunction;
for the conjugial principle is not of the spirit and heart, but only
nominal and of the countenance; in consequence of which the inferior
party is given to boasting, and the superior blushes with shame. But in
the heavens there is no inequality of age, station, or wealth; in regard
to age, all there are in the flower of their youth, and continue so into
eternity; in regard to station, they all respect others according to the
uses which they perform. The more eminent in condition respect inferiors
as brethren, neither do they prefer station to the excellence of use,
but the excellence of use to station; also when maidens are given in
marriage, they do not know from what ancestors they are descended; for
no one in heaven knows his earthly father, but the Lord is the Father of
all. The case is the same in regard to wealth, which in heaven is the
faculty of growing wise, according to which a sufficiency of wealth is
given. How marriages are there entered into, may be seen above, n. 229.

251. XV. THERE ARE ALSO CAUSES OF SEPARATION. There are separations from
the bed and also from the house. There are several causes of such
separations; but we are here treating of legitimate causes. As the
causes of separation coincide with the causes of concubinage, which are
treated of in the latter part of this work in their own chapter, the
reader is referred thereto that he may see the causes in their order.
The legitimate causes of separation are the following.

252. XVI. THE FIRST CAUSE OF LEGITIMATE SEPARATION IS A VITIATED STATE
OF MIND. The reason of this is, because conjugial love is a conjunction
of minds; if therefore the mind of one of the parties takes a direction
different from that of the other, such conjunction is dissolved, and
with the conjunction the love vanishes. The states of vitiation of the
mind which cause separation, may appear from an enumeration of them;
they are for the most part, the following: madness, frenzy, furious
wildness, actual foolishness and idiocy, loss of memory, violent
hysterics, extreme silliness so as to admit of no perception of good and
truth, excessive stubbornness in refusing to obey what is just and
equitable; excessive pleasure in talkativeness and conversing only on
insignificant and trifling subjects; an unbridled desire to publish
family secrets, also to quarrel, to strike, to take revenge, to do evil,
to steal, to tell lies, to deceive, to blaspheme; carelessness about the
children, intemperance, luxury, excessive prodigality, drunkenness,
uncleanness, immodesty, application to magic and witchcraft, impiety,
with several other causes. By legitimate causes we do not here mean
judicial causes, but such as are legitimate in regard to the other
married partner; separation from the house also is seldom ordained in a
court of justice.

253. XVII. THE SECOND CAUSE OF LEGITIMATE SEPARATION IS A VITIATED STATE
OF BODY. By vitiated states of body we do not mean accidental diseases,
which happen to either of the married partners during their marriage,
and from which they recover; but we mean inherent diseases, which are
permanent. The science of pathology teaches what these are. They are
manifold, such as diseases whereby the whole body is so far infected
that the contagion may prove fatal; of this nature are malignant and
pestilential fevers, leprosies, the venereal disease, gangrenes,
cancers, and the like; also diseases whereby the whole body is so far
weighed down, as to admit of no consociability, and from which exhale
dangerous effluvia and noxious vapors, whether from the surface of the
body, or from its inward parts, in particular from the stomach and
lungs; from the surface of the body proceed malignant pocks, warts,
pustules, scorbutic phthisic, virulent scab, especially if the face be
defiled thereby: from the stomach proceed foul, stinking, rank and crude
eructations: from the lungs, filthy and putrid exhalations, arising from
imposthumes, ulcers, abcesses, or from vitiated blood or lymph therein.
Besides these there are also various other diseases, as lipothamia,
which is a total faintness of body and defect of strength; paralysis,
which is a loosing and relaxation of the membranes and ligaments which
serve for motion; certain chronic diseases, arising from a loss of the
sensibility and elasticity of the nerves, or from too great a thickness;
tenacity, and acrimony of the humors; epilepsy; fixed weakness arising
from apoplexy; certain phthisical complaints, whereby the body is
wasted; the cholic, caeliac affection, rupture, and other like diseases.

254. XVIII. THE THIRD CAUSE OF LEGITIMATE SEPARATION IS IMPOTENCE BEFORE
MARRIAGE. The reason why this is a cause of separation is, because the
end of marriage is the procreation of children, which cannot take place
where this cause of separation operates; and as this is foreknown by the
parties, they are deliberately deprived of the hope of it, which hope
nevertheless nourishes and strengthens their conjugial love.

255. XIX. ADULTERY IS THE CAUSE OF DIVORCE. There are several reasons
for this, which are discernible in rational light, and yet at this day
they are concealed. From rational light it may be seen that marriages
are holy and adulteries profane; and thus that marriages and adulteries
are diametrically opposite to each other; and that when opposites act
upon each other, one destroys the other even to the last spark of its
life. This is the case with conjugial love, when a married person
commits adultery from a confirmed principle, and thus from a deliberate
purpose. With those who know anything of heaven and hell, these things
are more clearly discernible by the light of reason: for they know that
marriages are in and from heaven, and that adulteries are in and from
hell, and that these two cannot be conjoined, as heaven cannot be
conjoined with hell, and that instantly, if they are conjoined with man
(_homo_), heaven recedes, and hell enters. Hence then it is, that
adultery is the cause of divorce; wherefore the Lord saith, that
"_whosoever shall put away his wife, except for whoredom, and shall
marry another, committeth adultery_," Matt. xix. 9. He saith, if, except
for whoredom, he shall put away his wife, and marry another, he
committeth adultery; because putting away for this cause is a plenary
separation of minds, which is called divorce; whereas other kinds of
putting away, grounded in their particular causes are separations, of
which we have just treated; after these, if another wife is married,
adultery is committed; but not so after a divorce.

256. XX. THERE ARE ALSO SEVERAL ACCIDENTAL CAUSES OF COLD; THE FIRST OF
WHICH IS, THAT ENJOYMENT IS COMMON (OR CHEAP), BECAUSE CONTINUALLY
ALLOWED. The reason why this consideration is an accidental cause of
cold is, because it exists with those who think lasciviously respecting
marriage and a wife, but not with those who think holily respecting
marriage, and securely respecting a wife. That from being common (or
cheap) in consequence of being continually allowed, even joys become
indifferent, and also tiresome, is evident from the case of pastimes and
public shows, musical entertainments, dancing, feasting, and the like,
which in themselves are agreeable, because vivifying. The case is the
same with the intimacy and connection between married partners,
especially between those who have not removed the unchaste love of the
sex from the love which they bear to each other; and when they think of
enjoyment's being common (or cheap) in consequence of being continually
allowed, they think vainly in the absence of the faculty of enjoyment.
That this consideration is to such persons a cause of cold is
self-evident. It is called accidental, because it joins inward cold as a
cause, and ranks on its side as a reason. To remove the cold arising
from this circumstance, it is usual with wives, from the prudence
implanted in them, to offer resistance to what is allowable. But the
case is altogether otherwise with those who think chastely respecting
wives; wherefore with the angels the consideration of enjoyment's being
common in consequence of being continually allowed, is the very delight
of their souls, and contains their conjugial love; for they are
continually in the delight of that love, and in its ultimates according
to the presence of their minds uninterrupted by cares, thus from the
decisions of the judgement of the husbands.

257. XXI. OF ACCIDENTAL CAUSES OF COLD THE SECOND IS, THAT LIVING WITH A
MARRIED PARTNER, FROM A COVENANT AND CONTRACT, SEEMS FORCED AND NOT
FREE. This cause operates only with those with whom conjugial love in
the inmost principles is cold; and since it unites with internal cold,
it becomes an additional or accidental cause. With such persons,
extra-conjugial love, arising from consent and the favor thereof, is
interiorly in heat; for the cold of the one is the heat of the other;
which, if it is not sensibly felt, is still within, yea, in the midst of
cold; and unless it was thus also within, there would be no reparation.
This heat is what constitutes the force or compulsion, which is
increased in proportion as, by one of the parties, the covenant grounded
in agreement and the contract grounded in what is just, are regarded as
bonds not to be violated; it is otherwise if those bonds are loosed by
each of the parties. The case is reversed with those who have rejected
extra-conjugial love as detestable, and think of conjugial love as of
what is heavenly and heaven; and the more so if they perceive it to be
so: with such that covenant with its articles of agreement, and that
contract with its sanctions, are inscribed on their hearts, and are
continually being inscribed thereon more and more. In this case the bond
of that love is neither secured by a covenant agreed upon, nor by a law
enacted; but both covenant and law are from creation implanted in the
love itself, which influences the parties; from the latter (namely, the
covenant and the law implanted from creation in the love itself) are
derived the former (namely, the covenant and law) in the world, but not
_vice versa_. Hence, whatever relates to that love is felt as free;
neither is there any freedom but what is of love: and I have heard from
the angels, that love truly conjugial is most free, because it is the
love of loves.

258. XXII. OF ACCIDENTAL CAUSES OF COLD THE THIRD IS, AFFIRMATION ON THE
PART OF THE WIFE, AND HER TALKING INCESSANTLY ABOUT LOVE. With the
angels in heaven there is no refusal and repugnance on the part of the
wives, as there is with some wives on earth: with the angels in heaven
also the wives converse about love, and are not silent as some wives on
earth; but the causes of these differences I am not allowed to declare,
because it would be unbecoming; nevertheless they are declared in four
MEMORABLE RELATIONS at the close of the chapters, by the angels' wives,
who freely speak of them to their husbands, by the three in the hall
over which there was a golden shower, and by the seven who were sitting
in a rosary. These memorable relations are adduced, to the end that
every thing may be explained that relates to conjugial love, which is
the subject here treated of both in general and in particular.

259. XXIII. OF ACCIDENTAL CAUSES OF COLD THE FOURTH IS, THE MAN'S
CONTINUALLY THINKING THAT HIS WIFE IS WILLING; AND ON THE OTHER HAND THE
WIFE'S THINKING THAT THE MAN IS NOT WILLING. That the latter
circumstance is a cause of love's ceasing with wives, and the former a
cause of cold with men, is too obvious to need any comment. For that the
man who thinks that his wife, when in his sight by day, and when lying
at his side by night, is desirous or willing, should grow cold to the
extremities, and on the other hand that the wife, who thinks that the
man is able and not willing, should lose her love, are circumstances
among many others well known to husbands who have considered the arcana
relating to conjugial love. These circumstances are adduced also, to the
end that this work may be perfected, and THE CONJUGIAL LOVE AND ITS
CHASTE DELIGHTS may be completed.

260. XXIV. AS COLD IS IN THE MIND IT IS ALSO IN THE BODY; AND ACCORDING
TO THE INCREASE OF THAT COLD, THE EXTERNALS ALSO OF THE BODY ARE CLOSED.
It is believed at the present day that the mind of man (_homo_) is in
the head, and nothing of it in the body, when yet the soul and the mind
are both in the head and in the body; for the soul and the mind are the
man (_homo_), since both constitute the spirit which lives after death;
and that this spirit is in a perfect human form, has been fully shewn in
the treatises we have published. Hence, as soon as a man thinks
anything, he can in an instant utter it by means of his bodily mouth,
and at the same time represent it by gesture; and as soon as he wills
anything, he can in an instant bring it into act and effect by his
bodily members: which could not be the case unless the soul and the mind
were together in the body, and constituted his spiritual man. From these
considerations it may be seen, that while conjugial love is in the mind,
it is similar to itself in the body; and since love is heat, that it
opens the externals of the body from the interiors; but on the other
hand, that the privation thereof, which is cold, closes the externals of
the body from the interiors: hence it is manifest what is the cause of
the faculty (of conjugial love) with the angels enduring for ever, and
what is the cause of its failing with men who are cold.

       *       *       *       *       *

261. To the above I shall add THREE MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. In the
superior northern quarter near the east in the spiritual world, there
are places of instruction for boys, for youths, for men, and also for
old men: into these places all who die infants are sent and are educated
in heaven; so also all who arrive fresh from the world, and desire
information about heaven and hell, are sent to the same places. This
tract is near the east, that all may be instructed by influx from the
Lord; for the Lord is the east, because he is in the sun there, which
from him is pure love; hence the heat from that sun in its essence is
love, and the light from it in its essence is wisdom. These are inspired
into them from the Lord out of that sun; and they are inspired according
to reception, and reception is according to the love of growing wise.
After periods of instruction, those who are made intelligent are sent
forth thence, and are called disciples of the Lord. They are sent forth
first into the west, and those who do not remain there, into the south,
and some through the south into the east, and are introduced into the
societies where they are to reside. On a time, while I was meditating
respecting heaven and hell, I began to desire a universal knowledge of
the state of each, being aware, that whoever knows universals, may
afterwards comprehend particulars, because the latter are contained in
the former, as parts in a whole. In this desire I looked to the above
tract in the northern quarter near the east, where were the places of
instruction, and went there by a way then open to me. I entered one of
the colleges, where there were some young men, and addressed the chief
teachers there who gave instruction, and asked them whether they were
acquainted with the universals respecting heaven and hell. They replied,
that they knew some little; "but if we look," said they, "towards the
east to the Lord, we shall receive illustration and knowledge." They did
so, and said, "There are three universals of hell, which are
diametrically opposite to the universals of heaven. The universals of
hell are these three loves; the love of dominion grounded in self-love,
the love of possessing the goods of others grounded in the love of the
world, and adulterous love. The universals of heaven opposite to these
are the three following loves; the love of dominion grounded in the love
of use, the love of possessing worldly goods grounded in the love of
performing uses therewith, and love truly conjugial." Hereupon, after
expressing my good wishes towards them, I took my leave, and returned
home. When I was come home, it was said to me from heaven, "Examine
those three universals above and beneath, and afterwards we shall see
them in your hand." It was said _in the hand_, because whatever a man
examines intellectually, appears to the angels as if inscribed on his
hands.

262. After this I examined the first universal love of hell, which is
the love of dominion grounded in self-love, and afterwards the universal
love of heaven corresponding to it, which is the love of dominion
grounded in the love of uses; for I was not allowed to examine one love
without the other, because, being opposites, the understanding does not
perceive the one without the other; wherefore that each may be
perceived, they must be set in opposition to each other; for a beautiful
and handsome face is rendered conspicuous by contrasting it with an ugly
and deformed one. While I was considering the love of dominion grounded
in self-love, I perceived that this love was in the highest degree
infernal, and consequently prevailed with those who are in the deepest
hell; and that the love of dominion grounded in the love of uses was in
the highest degree heavenly, and consequently prevailed with those who
are in the highest heaven. The love of dominion grounded in self-love is
in the highest degree infernal, because to exercise dominion from
self-love, is to exercise it from _proprium_, and a man's _proprium_
from his birth is essential evil, which is diametrically opposite to the
Lord; wherefore the more persons who are under the influence of such
evil, advance therein, the more they deny God and the holy things of the
church, and worship themselves and nature. Let such persons, I entreat
them, examine that evil in themselves, and they will see this to be the
case. This love also is of such a nature, that in proportion as it is
left unrestrained, which is the case so long as it is not checked by
impossibilities, in the same proportion it rushes impetuously from step
to step, even to the highest, and there also finds no bounds, but is sad
and sorrowful because there is no higher step for it to ascend. This
love with statesmen is so intense that they wish to be kings and
emperors, and if it were possible, to have dominion over all things of
the world, and to be called kings of kings and emperors of emperors;
while the same love with the clergy is so intense that they wish to be
gods and, as far as is possible, to have dominion over all things of
heaven, and to be called gods of gods. That neither of these acknowledge
any God, will be seen in what follows. On the other hand, those who
desire to exercise dominion from the love of uses, do not desire it from
themselves, but from the Lord; since the love of uses is from the Lord,
and is the Lord himself: these regard dignities only as means to the
performance of uses, setting uses far above dignities; whereas the
former set dignities far above uses.

263. While I was meditating on these things, an angel from the Lord said
to me, "You shall presently see, and be convinced by ocular
demonstration, what is the nature and quality of that infernal love."
Then suddenly the earth opened on the left, and I saw a devil ascending
from hell, with a square cap on his head let down over his forehead even
to his eyes: his face was full of pimples as of a burning fever, his
eyes fierce and firy, his breast swelling immensely; from his mouth he
belched smoke like a furnace, his loins seemed all in a blaze, instead
of feet he had bony ankles without flesh, and from his body exhaled a
stinking and filthy heat. On seeing him I was alarmed, and cried out,
"Approach no nearer; tell me, whence are you?" He replied in a hoarse
tone of voice, "I am from below, where I am with two hundred in the most
supereminent of all societies. We are all emperors of emperors, king of
kings, dukes of dukes, and princes of princes; no one in our society is
barely an emperor, a king, a duke, or a prince. We sit there on thrones
of thrones, and despatch thence mandates through the whole world and
beyond it." I then said to him, "Do you not see that you are insane from
the phantasy of super-eminence?" and he replied, "How can you say so,
when we absolutely seem to ourselves, and are also acknowledged by each
other, to have such distinction?" On hearing this, I was unwilling to
repeat my charge of insanity, as he was insane from phantasy; and I was
informed that this devil, during his abode in the world, had been only a
house-steward, and at that time he was so lifted up in spirit, that he
despised all mankind in comparison with himself, and indulged in the
phantasy that he was more worthy than a king, and even than an emperor;
in consequence of which proud conceit, he had denied God, and had
regarded all the holy things of the church as of no concern to himself,
but of some to the stupid multitude. At length I asked him, "How long do
you two hundred thus glory among yourselves?" He replied "to eternity;
but such of us as torture others for denying our super-eminence, sink
under ground; for we are allowed to glory, but not to do mischief to any
one." I asked him again, "Do you know what befalls those who sink under
ground?" He said, "They sink down into a certain prison, where they are
called viler than the vile, or the vilest, and are set to work." I then
said to him. "Take heed therefore, lest you also should sink down."

264. After this the earth again opened, but now on the right; and I saw
another devil rising thence, who had on his head a kind of turban,
wrapped about with spires as of a snake, the head of which stood out
from the crown; his face was leprous from the forehead to the chin, and
so were his hands; his loins were naked and as black as soot, through
which was discernible in dusky transparence the fire as of a furnace;
and the ankles of his feet were like two vipers. The former devil, on
seeing him, fell on his knees, and adored him. On my asking why he did
so, he said, "He is the God of heaven and earth, and is omnipotent." I
then asked the other, "What do you say to this?" he replied, "What shall
I say? I have all power over heaven and hell; the lot of all souls is in
my hand." Again I enquired, "How can he, who is emperor of emperors, so
submit himself, and how can you receive adoration?" he answered, "He is
still my servant; what is an emperor before God? the thunder of
excommunication is in my right hand." I then said to him, "How can you
be so insane? In the world you were only a canon; and because you were
infected with the phantasy that you also had the keys of heaven, and
thence the power of binding and loosing, you have inflamed your spirit
to such a degree of madness, that you now believe yourself to be very
God." Upon this he swore with indignation that it was so, and said, "The
Lord has not any power in heaven, because he has transferred it all to
us. We have only to give the word of command, and heaven and hell
reverently obey us. If we send any one to hell, the devils immediately
receive him; and so do the angels receive those whom we send to heaven."
I asked further, "How many are there in your society?" he said, "Three
hundred; and we are all gods there; but I am god of gods." After this
the earth opened beneath the feet of each, and they sank down into their
respective hells; and I saw that beneath their hells were workhouses,
into which those who injure others would fall; for every one in hell is
left to his phantasy, and is also permitted to glory in it; but he is
not allowed to injure another. The reason why such are there, is,
because a man is then in his spirit; and the spirit, after it is
separated from the body, comes into the full liberty of acting according
to its affections and consequent thoughts. I was afterwards permitted to
look into their hells: that which contained the emperors of emperors and
kings of kings, was full of all uncleanness; and the inhabitants
appeared like various kinds of wild beasts, with fierce eyes; and so it
was in the other, which contained the gods and the god of gods: in it
there appeared the direful birds of night, which are called _ochim_ and
_ijim_, flying about them. The images of their phantasies were presented
to me under this appearance. From these circumstances it was manifest,
what is the nature and quality of political and ecclesiastical
self-love; that the latter would make its votaries desirous of being
gods, while the former would make them desirous of being emperors; and
that under the influence of such loves men wish and strive to attain the
objects of their desires, so far as they are left without restraint.

265. Afterwards a hell was opened, where I saw two men, one sitting on a
bench, holding his feet in a basket full of serpents which seemed to be
creeping upwards by his breast even to his neck; and the other sitting
on a blazing ass, at whose sides red serpents were creeping, raising
their heads and necks, and pursuing the rider. I was told that they had
been popes who had compelled emperors to resign their dominions, and had
ill-treated them both in word and deed at Rome, whither they went to
supplicate and adore them; and that the basket in which were the
serpents, and the blazing ass with snakes at his sides, were
representations of their love of dominion grounded on self-love, and
that such appearances are seen only by those who look at them from a
distance. There were some canons present, whom I asked whether those had
really been popes? They said, that they were acquainted with them, and
knew that they had been such.

266. After beholding these sad and hideous spectacles, I looked around,
and saw two angels in conversation standing near me. One wore a woollen
robe that shone bright with flaming purple, and under it a vest of fine
bright linen; the other had on similar garments of scarlet, together
with a turban studded on the right side with carbuncles. I approached
them, and, greeting them with a salutation of peace, respectfully asked
them, "For what purpose are you here below?" They replied, "We have let
ourselves down from heaven by the Lord's command, to speak with you
respecting the blessed lot of those who are desirous to have dominion
from the love of uses. We are worshipers of the Lord. I am prince of a
society; my companion is chief priest of the same." The prince moreover
said, "I am the servant of my society, because I serve it by doing
uses:" the other said, "I am minister of the church there, because in
serving them I minister holy things to the uses of their souls. We both
are in perpetual joys grounded in the eternal happiness which is in them
from the Lord. All things in our society are splendid and magnificent;
they are splendid from gold and precious stones, and magnificent from
palaces and paradises. The reason of this is, because our love of
dominion is not grounded in self-love, but in the love of uses: and as
the love of uses is from the Lord, therefore all good uses in the
heavens are splendid and refulgent; and as all in our society are in
this love, therefore the atmosphere appears golden from the light which
partakes of the sun's flame-principle, and the sun's flame-principle
corresponds to that love." As they said this, they appeared to me to be
encompassed with such a sphere, from which an aromatic odor issued that
was perceivable by the senses. I mentioned this circumstance to them,
and intreated them to continue their discourse respecting the love of
uses; and they proceeded thus: "The dignities which we enjoy, we indeed
sought after and solicited for no other end than that we might be
enabled more fully to perform uses, and to extend them more widely. We
are also encompassed with honor, and we accept it, not for ourselves,
but for the good of the society; for the brethren and consociates, who
form the commonalty of the society, scarcely know but that the honors of
our dignities are in ourselves, and consequently that the uses which we
perform are from ourselves; but we feel otherwise, being sensible that
the honors of the dignities are out of ourselves, and that they are as
the garments with which we are clothed; but that the uses which we
perform, from the love of them, are within us from the Lord: and this
love receives its blessedness from communication by uses with others;
and we know from experience, that so far as we do uses from the love
thereof, so far that love increases, and with it wisdom, whereby
communication is effected; but so far as we retain uses in ourselves,
and do not communicate them, so far blessedness perishes: and in such
case use becomes like food stored up in the stomach, which, not being
dispersed, affords no nourishment to the body and its parts, but remains
undigested, and thereby causes loathing: in a word, the whole heaven is
nothing but a continent of use, from first principles to last. What is
use but the actual love of our neighbor? and what holds the heavens
together with this love?" On hearing this I asked, "How can any one know
whether he performs uses from self-love, or from the love of uses? every
man, both good and bad, performs uses, and that from some love. Suppose
that in the world there be a society composed of mere devils, and
another composed of mere angels; I am of opinion that the devils in
their society, from the fire of self-love, and the splendor of their own
glory, would do as many uses as the angels in their society; who then
can know from what love, and from what origin uses flow?" To this the
two angels replied, "Devils do uses for the sake of themselves and of
reputation, that they may be raised to honors or may gain wealth; but
angels do not do uses from such motives, but for the sake of uses from
the love thereof. A man cannot discern the true quality of those uses;
but the Lord discerns it. Every one who believes in the Lord, and shuns
evils as sins, performs uses from the Lord; but every one who neither
believes in the Lord, nor shuns evils as sins, does uses from self and
for the sake of self. This is the difference between the uses done by
devils and those done by angels." Having said this, the two angels
departed; and I saw them from afar carried in a firy chariot like Elias,
and conveyed into their respective heavens.

267. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. Not long after this interview with
the angels, I entered a certain grove, and while I was walking there, I
meditated on those who are in the concupiscence and consequent phantasy
of possessing the things of the world; and then at some distance from me
I saw two angels in conversation, and by turns looking at me; I
therefore went nearer to them, and as I approached they thus accosted
me: "We have perceived in ourselves that you are meditating on what we
are conversing about, or that we are conversing on what you are
meditating about, which is a consequence of the reciprocal communication
of affections." I asked therefore what they were conversing about? they
replied, "About phantasy, concupiscence, and intelligence; and just now
about those who delight themselves in the vision and imagination of
possessing whatever the world contains." I then entreated them to favor
me with their sentiments on those three subjects,--concupiscence,
phantasy, and intelligence. They began by saying, "Every one is by birth
interiorly in concupiscence, but by education exteriorly in
intelligence; and no one is in intelligence, still less in wisdom,
interiorly, thus as to his spirit, but from the Lord: for every one is
withheld from the concupiscence of evil, and held in intelligence,
according as he looks to the Lord, and is at the same time in
conjunction with him; without this, a man is mere concupiscence; yet
still in externals, or as to the body, he is in intelligence arising
from education; for a man lusts after honors and wealth, or eminence and
opulence, and in order to attain them, it is necessary that he appear
moral and spiritual, thus intelligent and wise; and he learns so to
appear from infancy. This the reason why, as soon as he comes among men,
or into company, he inverts his spirit, and removes it from
concupiscence, and speaks and acts from the fair and honorable maxims
which he has learnt from infancy, and retains in the bodily memory: and
he is particularly cautious, lest anything of the wild concupiscence
prevalent in his spirit should discover itself. Hence every man who is
not interiorly led by the Lord, is a pretender, a sycophant, a
hypocrite, and thereby an apparent man, and yet not a man; of whom it
may be said, that his shell or body is wise, and his kernel or spirit
insane; also that his external is human, and his internal bestial. Such
persons, with the hinder part of the head look upwards, and with the
fore part downwards; thus they walk as if oppressed with heaviness, with
the head hanging down and the countenance prone to the earth; and when
they put off the body, and become spirits, and are thereby set at
liberty from external restraints, they become the madnesses of their
respective concupiscences. Those who are in self-love desire to domineer
over the universe, yea, to extend its limits in order to enlarge their
dominion, of which they see no end: those who are in the love of the
world desire to possess whatever the world contains, and are full of
grief and envy in case any of its treasures are hid and concealed from
them by others: therefore to prevent such persons from becoming mere
concupiscences, and thereby no longer men, they are permitted in the
spiritual world to think from a fear of the loss of reputation, and
thereby of honor and gain, and also from a fear of the law and its
penalties, and also to give their mind to some study or work whereby
they are kept in externals and thus in a state of intelligence, however
wild and insane they may be interiorly." After this I asked them,
whether all who are in any concupiscence, are also in the phantasy
thereof; they replied, that those are in the phantasy of their
respective concupiscences, who think interiorly in themselves, and too
much indulge their imagination by talking with themselves; for these
almost separate their spirit from connection with the body, and by
vision overflow the understanding, and take a foolish delight as if they
were possessed of the universe and all that it contains: into this
delirium every man comes after death, who has abstracted his spirit from
the body, and has not wished to recede from the delight of the delirium
by thinking at all religiously respecting evils and falses, and least of
all respecting the inordinate love of self as being destructive of love
to the Lord, and respecting the inordinate love of the world, as being
destructive of neighborly love.

268. After this the two angels and also myself were seized with a desire
of seeing those who from worldly love are in the visionary concupiscence
or phantasy of possessing all wealth; and we perceived that we were
inspired with this desire to the end that such visionaries might be
known. Their dwellings were under the earth of our feet, but above hell:
we therefore looked at each other and said, "Let us go." There was an
opening, and in it a ladder by which we descended; and we were told that
we must approach them from the east, lest we should enter into the mist
of their phantasy, whereby our understanding and at the same time our
sight would be obscured; and lo! there appeared a house built of reeds,
and consequently full of chinks, standing in a mist, which continually
issued like smoke through the chinks of three of the walls. We entered,
and saw perhaps fifty here and fifty there sitting on benches, with
their faces turned from the east and south, and looking towards the west
and north. Before each person there was a table, on which were large
purses, and by the purses a great quantity of gold coin: so we asked
them, "Is that the wealth of all the persons in the world?" they
replied, "Not of all in the world, but of all in the kingdom." The sound
of their voice was hissing; and they had round faces, which glistened
like the shell of a snail, and the pupils of their eyes in a green plane
as it were shot forth lightning, which was an effect of the light of
phantasy. We stood in the midst of them, and said, "You believe that you
possess all the wealth of the kingdom;" they replied, "We do possess
it." We then asked, "Which of you?" they said, "Every one;" and we
asked, "How every one? there are many of you:" they said, "Every one of
us knows that all which another has is his own. No one is allowed to
think, and still less to say, 'Mine are not thine;' but every one may
think and say, 'Thine are mine.'" The coin on the tables appeared, even
to us, to be pure gold; but when we let in light from the east, we saw
that they were little grains of gold, which they had magnified to such a
degree by a union of their common phantasy. They said, that every one
that enters ought to bring with him some gold, which they cut into small
pieces, and these again into little grains, and by the unanimous force
of their phantasy they increase them into larger coin. We then said,
"Were you not born men of reason; whence then have you this visionary
infatuation?" they said, "We know that it is an imaginary vanity; but as
it delights the interiors of our minds, we enter here and are delighted
as with the possession of all things: we continue in this place,
however, only a few hours, at the end of which we depart; and as often
as we do so we again become of sound mind; yet still our visionary
delight alternately succeeds and occasions our alternate entrance into
and departure from these habitations: thus we are alternately wise and
foolish; we also know that a hard lot awaits those who by cunning rob
others of their goods." We inquired, "What lot?" they said, "They are
swallowed up and are thrust naked into some infernal prison, where they
are kept to hard labor for clothes and food, and afterwards for some
pieces of coin of trifling value, which they collect, and in which they
place the joy of their hearts; but if they do any harm to their
companions, they are fined a part of their coin."

269. Afterwards we ascended from these hells to the south, where we had
been before, and the angels related there several interesting
particulars respecting concupiscence not visionary or phantastic, in
which all men are born; namely, that while they are in it, they are like
persons infatuated, and yet seem to themselves to be most eminently
wise; and that from this infatuation they are alternately let into the
rational principle which is in their externals; in which state they see,
acknowledge, and confess their insanity; but still they are very
desirous to quit their rational and enter their insane state; and also
do let themselves into it, as into a free and delightful state
succeeding a forced and undelightful one; thus it is concupiscence and
not intelligence that interiorly pleases them. There are three universal
loves which form the constituent principles of every man by creation:
neighbourly love, which also is the love of doing uses; the love of the
world, which also is the love of possessing wealth; and the love of
self, which also is the love of bearing rule over others. Neighbourly
love, or the love of doing uses, is a spiritual love; but the love of
the world, or the love of possessing wealth, is a material love; whereas
the love of self, or the love of bearing rule over others, is a
corporeal love. A man is a man while neighbourly love, or the love of
doing uses, constitutes the head, the love of the world the body, and
the love of self the feet; whereas if the love of the world constitutes
the head, the man is as it were hunched-backed; but when the love of
self constitutes the head, he is like a man standing not on his feet,
but on the palms of his hands with his head downwards and his haunches
upwards. When neighbourly love constitutes the head, and the two other
loves in order constitute the body and feet, the man appears from heaven
of an angelic countenance, with a beautiful rainbow about his head;
whereas if the love of the world constitutes the head, he appears from
heaven of a pale countenance like a corpse, with a yellow circle about
his head; but if the love of self constitutes the head, he appears from
heaven of a dusky countenance, with a white circle about his head.
Hereupon I asked, "What do the circles about the head represent?" they
replied, "They represent intelligence; the white circle about the head
of the dusky countenance represents, that his intelligence is in
externals, or about him, but insanity is in his internals, or in him. A
man also who is of such a quality and character, is wise while in the
body, but insane while in the spirit; and no man is wise in spirit but
from the Lord, as is the case when he is regenerated and created again
or anew by him." As they said this, the earth opened to the left, and
through the opening I saw a devil rising with a white lucid circle
around his head, and I asked him, Who he was? He said, "I am Lucifer,
the son of the morning: and because I made myself like the Most High, I
was cast down." Nevertheless he was not Lucifer, but believed himself to
be so. I then said, "Since you were cast down, how can you rise again
out of hell?" he replied, "There I am a devil, but here I am an angel of
light: do you not see that my head is surrounded by a lucid sphere? you
shall also see, if you wish, that I am super-moral among the moral,
super-rational among the rational, yea, super-spiritual among the
spiritual: I can also preach; yea, I have preached." I asked him, "What
have you preached?" he said, "Against fraudulent dealers and adulterers,
and against all infernal loves; on this occasion too I, Lucifer, called
myself a devil, and denounced vengeance against myself as a devil; and
therefore I was extolled to the skies with praises. Hence it is that I
am called the son of the morning; and, what I myself was surprised at,
while I was in the pulpit, I thought no other than that I was speaking
rightly and properly; but I discovered that this arose from my being in
externals, which at that time were separated from my internals: but
although I discovered this, still I could not change myself, because
through my haughtiness I did not look to God." I next asked him, "How
could you so speak, when you are yourself a fraudulent dealer, an
adulterer, and a devil?" He answered, "I am one character when I am in
externals or in the body, and another when in internals or in the
spirit; in the body I am an angel, but in the spirit a devil; for in the
body I am in the understanding, but in the spirit I am in the will; and
the understanding carries me upwards, whereas the will carries me
downwards. When I am in the understanding my head is surrounded by a
white belt, but when the understanding submits itself entirely to the
will, and becomes subservient to it, which is our last lot, the belt
grows black and disappears; and when this is the case, we cannot again
ascend into this light." Afterwards he spoke of his twofold state, the
external and the internal, more rationally than any other person; but on
a sudden when he saw the angels attendant on me, his face and voice were
inflamed, and he became black, even as to the belt round his head, and
he sunk down into hell through the opening from which he arose. The
bystanders, from what they had seen, came to this conclusion, that a man
is such as his love, and not such as his understanding is; since the
love easily draws over the understanding to its side, and enslaves it. I
then asked the angels, "Whence have devils such rationality?" They said,
"It is from the glory of self-love; for self-love is surrounded by
glory, and glory elevates the understanding even into the light of
heaven; for with every man the understanding is capable of being
elevated according to knowledges, but the will only by a life according
to the truths of the church and of reason: hence even atheists, who are
in the glory of reputation arising from self-love, and thence in a high
conceit of their own intelligence, enjoy a more sublime rationality than
many others; this, however, is only when they are in the thought of the
understanding, and not when they are in the affection of the will. The
affection of the will possesses a man's internal, whereas the thought of
the understanding possesses his external." The angel further declared
the reason why every man is constituted of the three loves above
mentioned; namely, the love of use, the love of the world, and the love
of self; which is, that he may think from God, although as from himself.
He also said, that the supreme principles in a man are turned upwards to
God, the middle outwards to the world, and the lowest downwards to self;
and since the latter are turned downwards, a man thinks as from himself,
when yet it is from God.

270. THE THIRD MEMORABLE RELATION. One morning on awaking from sleep my
thoughts were deeply engaged on some arcana of conjugial love, and at
length on this, "_In what region of the human mind does love truly
conjugial reside, and thence in what region does conjugial cold
reside_?" I knew that there are three regions of the human mind, one
above the other, and that in the lowest region dwells natural love; in
the superior, spiritual love; and in the supreme, celestial love; and
that in each region there is a marriage of good and truth; and good is
of love, and truth is of wisdom; that in each region there is a marriage
of love and wisdom; and that this marriage is the same as the marriage
of the will and the understanding, since the will is the receptacle of
love, and the understanding the receptacle of wisdom. While I was thus
deeply engaged in thought, lo! I saw two swans flying towards the north,
and presently two birds of paradise flying towards the south, and also
two turtle doves flying in the east: as I was watching their flight, I
saw that the two swans bent their course from the north to the east, and
the two birds of paradise from the south, also that they united with the
two doves in the east, and flew together to a certain lofty palace
there, about which there were olives, palms, and beeches. The palace had
three rows of windows, one above the other; and while I was making my
observations, I saw the swans fly into the palace through open windows
in the lowest row, the birds of paradise through others in the middle
row, and the doves through others in the highest. When I had observed
this, an angel presented himself, and said, "Do you understand what you
have seen?" I replied, "In a small degree." He said, "That palace
represents the habitations of conjugial love, such as are in human
minds. Its highest part, into which the doves flew, represents the
highest region of the mind, where conjugial love dwells in the love of
good with its wisdom; the middle part, into which the birds of paradise
flew, represents the middle region, where conjugial love dwells in the
love of truth with its intelligence: and the lowest part, into which the
swans flew, represents the lowest region of the mind, where conjugial
love dwells in the love of what is just and right with its knowledge.
The three pairs of birds also signify these things; the pair of turtle
doves signifies conjugial love of the highest region, the pair of birds
of paradise conjugial love of the middle region, and the pair of swans
conjugial love of the lowest region. Similar things are signified by the
three kinds of trees about the palace, the olives, palms, and beeches.
We in heaven call the highest region of the mind celestial, the middle
spiritual, and the lowest natural; and we perceive them as stories in a
house, one above another, and an ascent from one to the other by steps
as by stairs; and in each part as it were two apartments, one for love,
the other for wisdom, and in front as it were a chamber, where love with
its wisdom, or good with its truth, or, what is the same, the will with
its understanding, consociate in bed. In that palace are presented as in
an image all the arcana of conjugial love." On hearing this, being
inflamed with a desire of seeing it, I asked whether anyone was
permitted to enter and see it, as it was a representative palace? He
replied, "None but those who are in the third heaven, because to them
every representative of love and wisdom becomes real: from them I have
heard what I have related to you, and also this particular, that love
truly conjugial dwells in the highest region in the midst of mutual
love, in the marriage-chamber or apartment of the will, and also in the
midst of the perceptions of wisdom in the marriage-chamber or apartment
of the understanding, and that they consociate in bed in the chamber
which is in front, in the east." I also asked, "Why are there two
marriage-chambers?" He said, "The husband is in the marriage-chamber of
the understanding, and the wife in that of the will." I then asked,
"Since conjugial love dwells there, where then does conjugial cold
dwell?" He replied, "It dwells also in the supreme region, but only in
the marriage-chamber of the understanding, that of the will being closed
there: for the understanding with its truths, as often as it pleases,
can ascend by a winding staircase into the highest region into its
marriage-chamber; but if the will with the good of its love does not
ascend at the same time into the consociate marriage-chamber, the latter
is closed, and cold ensues in the other: this is _conjugial cold_. The
understanding, while such cold prevails towards the wife, looks
downwards to the lowest region, and also, if not prevented by fear,
descends to warm itself there at an illicit fire." Having thus spoken,
he was about to recount further particulars respecting conjugial love
from its images in that palace; but he said, "Enough at this time;
inquire first whether what has been already said is above the level of
ordinary understandings; if it is, what need of saying more? but if not,
more will be discovered."

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE CAUSES OF APPARENT LOVE, FRIENDSHIP, AND FAVOR IN MARRIAGES.

271. Having treated of the causes of cold and separation, it follows
from order that the causes of apparent love, friendship, and favor in
marriages, should also be treated of; for it is well known, that
although cold separates the minds (_animos_) of married partners at the
present day, still they live together, and have children; which would
not be the case, unless there were also apparent loves, alternately
similar to or emulous of the warmth of genuine love. That these
appearances are necessary and useful, and that without them there would
be no houses, and consequently no societies, will be seen in what
follows. Moreover, some conscientious persons may be distressed with the
idea, that the disagreement of mind subsisting between them and their
married partners, and the internal alienation thence arising, may be
their own fault, and may be imputed to them as such, and on this account
they are grieved at the heart; but as it is out of their power to
prevent internal disagreements, it is enough for them, by apparent love
and favor, from conscientious motives to subdue the inconveniences which
might arise: hence also friendship may possibly return, in which
conjugial love lies concealed on the part of such, although not on the
part of the other. But this subject, like the foregoing, from the great
variety of its matter, shall be treated of in the following distinct
articles: I. _In the natural world almost all are capable of being
joined together as to external, but not as to internal affections, if
these disagree and are apparent._ II. _In the spiritual world all are
joined together according to internal, but not according to external
affections, unless these act in unity with the internal._ III. _It is
the external affections, according to which matrimony is generally
contracted in the world._ IV. _But in case they are not influenced by
internal affections, which conjoin minds, the bonds of matrimony are
loosed in the house._ V. _Nevertheless those bonds must continue in the
world till the decease of one of the parties._ VI. _In cases of
matrimony, in which the internal affections do not conjoin, there are
external affections, which assume a semblance of the internal and tend
to consociate._ VII. _Hence come apparent love, friendship, and favor
between married partners._ VIII. _These appearances are assumed
conjugial semblances, and they are commendable, because useful and
necessary._ IX. _These assumed conjugial semblances, in the case of a
spiritual man (homo) conjoined to a natural, are founded in justice and
judgement._ X. _For various reasons these assumed conjugial semblances
with natural men are founded in prudence._ XI. _They are for the sake of
amendment and accommodation._ XII. _They are for the sake of preserving
order in domestic affairs, and for the sake of mutual aid._ XIII. _They
are for the sake of unanimity in the care of infants and the education
of children._ XIV. _They are for the sake of peace in the house._ XV.
_They are for the sake of reputation out of the house._ XVI. _They are
for the sake of various favors expected from the married partner, or
from his or her relations; and thus from the fear of losing such
favors._ XVII. _They are for the sake of having blemishes excused, and
thereby of avoiding disgrace._ XVIII. _They are for the sake of
reconciliation._ XIX. _In case favor does not cease with the wife, when
faculty ceases with the man, there may exist a friendship resembling
conjugial friendship, when the parties grow old._ XX. _There are various
kinds of apparent love and friendship between married partners, one of
whom is brought under the yoke, and therefore is subject to the other._
XXI. _In the world there are infernal marriages between persons who
interiorly are the most inveterate enemies, and exteriorly are as the
closest friends._ We proceed to an explanation of each article.

272. I. IN THE NATURAL WORLD ALMOST ALL ARE CAPABLE OF BEING JOINED
TOGETHER AS TO EXTERNAL, BUT NOT AS TO INTERNAL AFFECTIONS, IF THESE
DISAGREE AND ARE APPARENT. The reason of this is, because in the world
every one is clothed with a material body, and this is overcharged with
lusts, which are in it as dregs that fall to the bottom, when the must
of the wine is clarified. Such are the constituent substances of which
the bodies of men in the world are composed. Hence it is that the
internal affections, which are of the mind, do not appear; and in many
cases, scarce a grain of them transpires; for the body either absorbs
them, and involves them in its dregs, or by simulation which has been
learned from infancy conceals them deeply from the sight of others; and
by these means the man puts himself into the state of every affection
which he observes in another, and allures his affection to himself, and
thus they unite. The reason why they unite is, because every affection
has its delight, and delights tie minds together. But it would be
otherwise if the internal affections, like the external, appeared
visibly in the face and gesture, and were made manifest to the hearing
by the tone of the speech; or if their delights were sensible to the
nostrils or smell, as they are in the spiritual world: in such case, if
they disagreed so as to be discordant, they would separate minds from
each other, and according to the perception of antipathy, the minds
would remove to a distance. From these considerations it is evident,
that in the natural world almost all are capable of being joined
together as to external, but not as to internal affections, if these
disagree and are apparent.

273. II. IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD ALL ARE CONJOINED ACCORDING TO INTERNAL,
BUT NOT ACCORDING TO EXTERNAL AFFECTIONS, UNLESS THESE ACT IN UNITY WITH
THE INTERNAL. This is, because in the spiritual world the material body
is rejected, which could receive and bring forth the forms of all
affections, as we have said just above; and a man (_homo_) when stripped
of that body is in his internal affections, which his body had before
concealed: hence it is, that in the spiritual world similarities and
dissimilarities, or sympathies and antipathies, are not only felt, but
also appear in the face, the speech, and the gesture; wherefore in that
world similitudes are conjoined, and dissimilitudes separated. This is
the reason why the universal heaven is arranged by the Lord according to
all the varieties of the affections of the love of good and truth, and,
on the contrary, hell according to all the varieties of the love of what
is evil and false. As angels and spirits, like men in the world, have
internal and external affections, and as, in the spiritual world, the
internal affections cannot be concealed by the external, they therefore
transpire and manifest themselves: hence with angels and spirits both
the internal and external affections are reduced to similitude and
correspondence; after which their internal affections are, by the
external, imaged in their faces, and perceived in the tone of their
speech; they also appear in their behaviour and manners. Angels and
spirits have internal and external affections, because they have minds
and bodies; and affections with the thoughts thence derived belong to
the mind, and sensations with the pleasures thence derived to the body.
It frequently happens in the world of spirits, that friends meet after
death, and recollect their friendships in the former world, and on such
occasions believe that they shall live on terms of friendship as
formerly; but when their consociation, which is only of the external
affections, is perceived in heaven, a separation ensues according to
their internal; and in this case some are removed from the place of
their meeting into the north, some into the west, and each to such a
distance from the other, that they can no longer see or know each other;
for in the places appointed for them to remain at, their faces are
changed so as to become the image of their internal affections. From
these considerations it is manifest, that in the spiritual world all are
conjoined according to internal affections, and not according to
external, unless these act in unity with the internal.

274. III. IT IS THE EXTERNAL AFFECTIONS ACCORDING TO WHICH MATRIMONY IS
GENERALLY CONTRACTED IN THE WORLD. The reason of this is, because the
internal affections are seldom consulted; and even if they are, still
their similitude is not seen in the woman; for she, by a peculiar
property with which she is gifted from her birth, withdraws the internal
affections into the inner recesses of her mind. There are various
external affections which induce men to engage in matrimony. The first
affection of this age is an increase of property by wealth, as well with
a view to becoming rich as for a plentiful supply of the comforts of
life; the second is a thirst after honors, with a view either of being
held in high estimation or of an increase of fortune: besides these,
there are various allurements and concupiscences which do not afford an
opportunity of ascertaining the agreement of the internal affections.
From these few considerations it is manifest, that matrimony is
generally contracted in the world according to external affections.

275. IV. BUT IN CASE THEY ARE NOT INFLUENCED BY INTERNAL AFFECTIONS,
WHICH CONJOIN MINDS, THE BONDS OF MATRIMONY ARE LOOSED IN THE HOUSE. It
is said _in the house_, because it is done privately between the
parties; as is the case when the first warmth, excited during courtship
and breaking out into a flame as the nuptials approach, successively
abates from the discordance of the internal affections, and at length
passes off into cold. It is well known that in this case the external
affections, which had induced and allured the parties to matrimony,
disappear, so that they no longer effect conjunction. That cold arises
from various causes, internal, external, and accidental, all which
originate in a dissimilitude of internal inclinations, was proved in the
foregoing chapter. From these considerations the truth of what was
asserted is manifest, that unless the external affections are influenced
by internal, which conjoin minds, the bonds of matrimony are loosed in
the house.

276. V. NEVERTHELESS THOSE BONDS MUST CONTINUE IN THE WORLD TILL THE
DECEASE OF ONE OF THE PARTIES. This proposition is adduced to the intent
that to the eye of reason it may more evidently appear how necessary,
useful, and true it is, that where there is not genuine conjugial love,
it ought still to be assumed, that it may appear as if there were. The
case would be otherwise if the marriage contract was not to continue to
the end of life, but might be dissolved at pleasure as was the case with
the Israelitish nation, who claimed to themselves the liberty of putting
away their wives for every cause. This is evident from the following
passage in Matthew: "_The pharisees came, and said unto Jesus, Is it
lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? And when Jesus
answered, that it is not lawful to put away a wife and to marry another,
except on account of whoredom, they replied that nevertheless Moses
commanded to give a bill of divorce and to put her away; and the
disciples said, If the case of a man with his wife be so it is not
expedient to marry_," xix. 3-10. Since therefore the covenant of
marriage is for life, it follows that the appearances of love and
friendship between married partners are necessary. That matrimony, when
contracted, must continue till the decease of one of the parties, is
grounded in the divine law, consequently also in rational law, and
thence in civil law: in the divine law, because, as said above, it is
not lawful to put away a wife and marry another, except for whoredom; in
rational law, because it is founded upon spiritual, for divine law and
rational are one law; from both these together, or by the latter from
the former, it may be abundantly seen what enormities and destructions
of societies would result from the dissolving of marriage, or the
putting away of wives, at the good pleasure of the husbands, before
death. Those enormities and destructions of societies may in some
measure be seen in the MEMORABLE RELATION respecting the origin of
conjugial love, discussed by the spirits assembled from the nine
kingdoms, n. 103-115; to which there is no need of adding further
reasons. But these causes do not operate to prevent the permission of
separations grounded in their proper causes, respecting which see above,
n. 252-254; and also of concubinage, respecting which see the second
part of this work.

277. VI. IN CASE OF MATRIMONY IN WHICH THE INTERNAL AFFECTIONS DO NOT
CONJOIN, THERE ARE EXTERNAL AFFECTIONS WHICH ASSUME A SEMBLANCE OF THE
INTERNAL AND TEND TO CONSOLIDATE. By internal affections we mean the
mutual inclinations which influence the mind of each of the parties from
heaven; whereas by external affections we mean the inclinations which
influence the mind of each of the parties from the world. The latter
affections or inclinations indeed equally belong to the mind, but they
occupy its inferior regions, whereas the former occupy the superior: but
since both have their allotted seat in the mind, it may possibly be
believed that they are alike and agree; yet although they are not alike,
still they can appear so: in some cases they exist as agreements, and in
some as insinuating semblances. There is a certain communion implanted
in each of the parties from the earliest time of the marriage-covenant,
which, notwithstanding their disagreement in minds (_animis_) still
remains implanted; as a communion of possessions, and in many cases a
communion of uses, and of the various necessities of the house, and
thence also a communion of thoughts and of certain secrets; there is
also a communion of bed, and of the love of children: not to mention
several others, which, as they are inscribed on the conjugial covenant,
are also inscribed on their minds. Hence originate especially those
external affections which resemble the internal; whereas those which
only counterfeit them are partly from the same origin and partly from
another; but on the subject of each more will be said in what follows.

278. VII. HENCE COME APPARENT LOVE, FRIENDSHIP, AND FAVOR BETWEEN
MARRIED PARTNERS. Apparent loves, friendships, and favors between
married partners, are a consequence of the conjugial covenant being
ratified for the term of life, and of the conjugial communion thence
inscribed on those who ratify it; whence spring external affections
resembling the internal, as was just now indicated: they are moreover a
consequence of their causes, which are usefulness and necessity: from
which in part exist conjunctive external affections, or their
counterfeit, whereby external love and friendship appear as internal.

279. VIII. THESE APPEARANCES ARE ASSUMED CONJUGIAL SEMBLANCES; AND THEY
ARE COMMENDABLE, BECAUSE USEFUL AND NECESSARY. They are called assumed
semblances, because they exist with those who disagree in mind, and who
from such disagreement are interiorly in cold: in this case, when they
still appear to live united, as duty and decency require, their kind
offices to each other may be called assumed conjugial semblances; which,
as being commendable for the sake of uses, are altogether to be
distinguished from hypocritical semblances; for hereby all those good
things are provided for, which are commemorated in order below, from
article XI-XX. They are commendable for the sake of necessity, because
otherwise those good things would be unattained; and yet the parties are
enjoined by a covenant and compact to live together, and hence it
behoves each of them to consider it a duty to do so.

280. IX. THESE ASSUMED CONJUGIAL SEMBLANCES, IN THE CASE OF A SPIRITUAL
MAN (_homo_) CONJOINED TO A NATURAL, ARE FOUNDED IN JUSTICE AND
JUDGEMENT. The reason of this is, because the spiritual man, in all he
does, acts from justice and judgement; wherefore he does not regard
these assumed semblances as alienated from their internal affections,
but as connected with them; for he is in earnest, and respects amendment
as an end; and if he does not obtain this, he respects accommodation for
the sake of domestic order, mutual aid, the care of children, and peace
and tranquillity. To these things he is led from a principle of justice;
and from a principle of judgement he gives them effect. The reason why a
spiritual man so lives with a natural one is, because a spiritual man
acts spiritually, even with a natural man.

281. X. FOR VARIOUS REASONS, THESE ASSUMED CONJUGIAL SEMBLANCES WITH
NATURAL MEN ARE FOUNDED IN PRUDENCE. In the case of two married partners
of whom one is spiritual and the other natural, (by the spiritual we
mean the one that loves spiritual things, and thereby is wise from the
Lord, and by the natural, the one that loves only natural things, and
thereby is wise from himself,) when they are united in marriage,
conjugial love with the spiritual partner is heat, and with the natural
is cold. It is evident that heat and cold cannot remain together, also
that heat cannot inflame him that is in cold, unless the cold be first
dispersed, and that cold cannot flow into him that is in heat, unless
the heat be first removed: hence it is that inward love cannot exist
between married partners, one of whom is spiritual and the other
natural; but that a love resembling inward love may exist on the part of
the spiritual partner, as was said in the foregoing article; whereas
between two natural married partners no inward love can exist, since
each is cold; and if they have any heat, it is from something unchaste;
nevertheless such persons may live together in the same house, with
separate minds (_animis_), and also assume looks of love and friendship
towards each other, notwithstanding the disagreement of their minds
(_mentes_): in such case, the external affections, which for the most
part relate to wealth and possessions, or to honor and dignities, may as
it were be kindled into a flame; and as such enkindling induces fear for
their loss, therefore assumed conjugial semblances are in such cases
necessities, which are principally those adduced below in articles
XV.-XVII. The rest of the causes adduced with these may have somewhat in
common with those relating to the spiritual man; concerning which see
above, n. 280; but only in case the prudence with the natural man is
founded in intelligence.

282. XI. THEY ARE FOR THE SAKE OF AMENDMENT AND ACCOMMODATION. The
reason why assumed conjugial semblances, which are appearances of love
and friendship subsisting between married partners who disagree in mind,
are for the sake of amendment, is because a spiritual man (_homo_)
connected with a natural one by the matrimonial covenant, intends
nothing else but amendment of life; which he effects by judicious and
elegant conversation, and by favors which soothe and flatter the temper
of the other; but in case these things prove ineffectual, he intends
accommodation, for the preservation of order in domestic affairs, for
mutual aid, and for the sake of the infants and children, and other
similar things; for, as was shown above, n. 280, whatever is said and
done by a spiritual man (_homo_) is founded in justice and judgement.
But with married partners, neither of whom is spiritual, but both
natural, similar conduct may exist, but for other ends; if for the sake
of amendment and accommodation, the end is, either that the other party
may be reduced to a similitude of manners, and be made subordinate to
his desires, or that some service may be made subservient to his own, or
for the sake of peace within the house, of reputation out of it, or of
favors hoped for by the married partner or his relations; not to mention
other ends: but with some these ends are grounded in the prudence of
their reason, with some in natural civility, with some in the delights
of certain cupidities which have been familiar from the cradle, the loss
of which is dreaded; besides several ends, which render the assumed
kindnesses as of conjugial love more or less counterfeit. There may also
be kindnesses as of conjugial love out of the house, and none within;
those however respect as an end the reputation of both parties; and if
they do not respect this, they are merely deceptive.

283. XII. THEY ARE FOR THE SAKE OF PRESERVING ORDER IN DOMESTIC AFFAIRS,
AND FOR THE SAKE OF MUTUAL AID. Every house in which there are children,
their instructors, and other domestics, is a small society resembling a
large one. The latter also consists of the former, as a whole consists
of its parts, and thereby it exists; and further, as the security of a
large society depends on order, so does the security of this small
society; wherefore as it behoves public magistrates to see and provide
that order may exist and be preserved in a compound society, so it
concerns married partners in their single society. But there cannot be
this order if the husband and wife disagree in their minds (_animis_);
for thereby mutual counsels and aids are drawn different ways, and are
divided like their minds, and thus the form of the small society is rent
asunder; wherefore to preserve order, and thereby to take care of
themselves and at the same time of the house, or of the house and at the
same time of themselves, lest they should come to hurt and fall to ruin,
necessity requires that the master and mistress agree, and act in unity;
and if, from the difference of their minds (_mentium_) this cannot be
done so well as it might, both duty and propriety require that it be
done by representative conjugial friendship. That hereby concord is
established in houses for the sake of necessity and consequent utility,
is well known.

284. XIII. THEY ARE FOR THE SAKE OF UNANIMITY IN THE CARE OF INFANTS AND
THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN. It is very well known that assumed conjugial
semblances, which are appearances of love and friendship resembling such
as are truly conjugial, exist with married partners for the sake of
infants and children. The common love of the latter causes each married
partner to regard the other with kindness and favor. The love of infants
and children with the mother and the father unite as the heart and lungs
in the breast. The love of them with the mother is as the heart, and the
love towards them with the father is as the lungs. The reason of this
comparison is, because the heart corresponds to love, and the lungs to
the understanding; and love grounded in the will belongs to the mother,
and love grounded in the understanding to the father. With spiritual men
(_homines_) there is conjugial conjunction by means of that love
grounded in justice and judgement; in justice, because the mother had
carried them in her womb, had brought them forth with pain, and
afterwards with unwearied care suckles, nourishes, washes, dresses, and
educates them, (and in judgement, because the father provides for their
instruction in knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom).

285. XIV. THEY ARE FOR THE SAKE OF PEACE IN THE HOUSE. Assumed conjugial
semblances, or external friendships for the sake of domestic peace and
tranquillity, relate principally to the men, who, from their natural
characteristic, act from the understanding in whatever they do; and the
understanding, being exercised in thought, is engaged in a variety of
objects which disquiet, disturb, and distract the mind; wherefore if
there were not tranquillity at home, it would come to pass that the
vital spirits of the parties would grow faint, and their interior life
would as it were expire, and thereby the health of both mind and body
would be destroyed. The dreadful apprehension of these and several other
dangers would possess the minds of the men, unless they had an asylum
with their wives at home for appeasing the disturbances arising in their
understandings. Moreover peace and tranquillity give serenity to their
minds, and dispose them to receive agreeably the kind attentions of
their wives, who spare no pains to disperse the mental clouds which they
are very quick-sighted to observe in their husbands: moreover, the same
peace and tranquillity make the presence of their wives agreeable. Hence
it is evident, that an assumed semblance of love, as if it was truly
conjugial, for the sake of peace and tranquillity at home, is both
necessary and useful. It is further to be observed, that with the wives
such semblances are not assumed as with the men; but if they appear to
resemble them, they are the effect of real love, because wives are born
loves of the understanding of the men; wherefore they accept kindly the
favors of their husbands, and if they do not confess it with their lips,
still they acknowledge it in heart.

286. XV. THEY ARE FOR THE SAKE OF REPUTATION OUT OF THE HOUSE. The
fortunes of men in general depend on their reputation for justice,
sincerity, and uprightness; and this reputation also depends on the
wife, who is acquainted with the most familiar circumstances of her
husband's life; therefore if the disagreements of their minds should
break out into open enmity, quarrels, and threats of hatred, and these
should be noised abroad by the wife and her friends, and by the
domestics, they would easily be turned into tales of scandal, which
would bring disgrace and infamy upon the husband's name. To avoid such
mischiefs, he has no other alternative than either to counterfeit
affection for his wife, or that they be separated as to house.

287. XVI. THEY ARE FOR THE SAKE OF VARIOUS FAVORS EXPECTED FROM THE
MARRIED PARTNER, OR FROM HIS OR HER RELATIONS, AND THUS FROM THE FEAR OF
LOSING SUCH FAVORS. This is the case more especially in marriages where
the rank and condition of the parties are dissimilar, concerning which,
see above, n. 250; as when a man marries a wealthy wife who stores up
her money in purses, or her treasures in coffers; and the more so if she
boldly insists that the husband is bound to support the house out of his
own estate and income: that hence come forced likenesses of conjugial
love, is generally known. The case is similar where a man marries a
wife, whose parents, relations, and friends, are in offices of dignity,
in lucrative business, and in employments with large salaries, who have
it in their power to better her condition: that this also is a ground of
counterfeit love, as if it were conjugial, is generally known. It is
evident that in both cases it is the fear of the loss of the above
favors that is operative.

288. XVII. THEY ARE FOR THE SAKE OF HAVING BLEMISHES EXCUSED, AND
THEREBY OF AVOIDING DISGRACE. There are several blemishes for which
conjugial partners fear disgrace, some criminal, some not. There are
blemishes of the mind and of the body slighter than those mentioned in
the foregoing chapter n. 252 and 253, which are causes of separation;
wherefore those blemishes are here meant, which, to avoid disgrace, are
buried in silence by the other married partner. Besides these, in some
cases there are contingent crimes, which, if made public, are subject to
heavy penalties; not to mention a deficiency of that ability which the
men usually boast of. That excuses of such blemishes, in order to avoid
disgrace, are the causes of counterfeit love and friendship with a
married partner, is too evident to need farther confirmation.

289. XVIII. THEY ARE FOR THE SAKE OF RECONCILIATION. That between
married partners who have mental disagreements from various causes,
there subsist alternate distrust and confidence, alienation and
conjunction, yea, dispute and compromise, thus reconciliation; and also
that apparent friendships promote reconciliation, is well known in the
world. There are also reconciliations which take place after partings,
which are not so alternate and transitory.

290. XIX. IN CASE FAVOR DOES NOT CEASE WITH THE WIFE, WHEN FACULTY
CEASES WITH THE MAN, THERE MAY EXIST A FRIENDSHIP RESEMBLING CONJUGIAL
FRIENDSHIP WHEN THE PARTIES GROW OLD. The primary cause of the
separation of minds (_animorum_) between married partners is a falling
off of favor on the wife's part in consequence of the cessation of
ability on the husband's part, and thence a falling off of love; for
just as heats communicate with each other, so also do colds. That from a
falling off of love on the part of each, there ensues a cessation of
friendship, and also of favor, if not prevented by the fear of domestic
ruin, is evident both from reason and experience. In case therefore the
man tacitly imputes the causes to himself, and still the wife perseveres
in chaste favor towards him, there may thence result a friendship,
which, since it subsists between married partners, appears to resemble
conjugial love. That a friendship resembling the friendship of that
love, may subsist between married partners, when old, experience
testifies from the tranquillity, security, loveliness, and abundant
courtesy with which they live, communicate, and associate together.

291. XX. THERE ARE VARIOUS KINDS OF APPARENT LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN
MARRIED PARTNERS, ONE OF WHOM IS BROUGHT UNDER THE YOKE, AND THEREFORE
IS SUBJECT TO THE OTHER. It is no secret in the world at this day, that
as the first fervor of marriage begins to abate, there arises a
rivalship between the parties respecting right and power; respecting
right, in that according to the statutes of the covenant entered into,
there is an equality, and each has dignity in the offices of his or her
function; and respecting power, in that it is insisted on by the men,
that in all things relating to the house, superiority belongs to them,
because they are men, and inferiority to the women because they are
women. Such rivalships, at this day familiar, arise from no other source
than a want of conscience respecting love truly conjugial, and of
sensible perception respecting the blessedness of that love; in
consequence of which want, lust takes the place of that love, and
counterfeits it; and, on the removal of genuine love, there flows from
this lust a grasping for power, in which some are influenced by the
delight of the love of domineering, which in some is implanted by artful
women before marriage, and which to some is unknown. Where such grasping
prevails with the men, and the various turns of rivalship terminate in
the establishment of their sway, they reduce their wives either to
become their rightful property, or to comply with their arbitrary will,
or into a state of slavery, every one according to the degree and
qualified state of that grasping implanted and concealed in himself; but
where such grasping prevails with the wives, and the various turns of
rivalship terminate in establishing their sway, they reduce their
husbands either into a state of equality of right with themselves, or of
compliance with their arbitrary will, or into a state of slavery: but as
when the wives have obtained the sceptre of sway, there remains with
them a desire which is a counterfeit of conjugial love, and is
restrained both by law and by the fear of legitimate separation, in case
they extend their power beyond the rule of right into what is contrary
thereto, therefore they lead a life in consociation with their husbands.
But what is the nature and quality of the love and friendship between a
ruling wife and a serving husband, and also between a ruling husband and
a serving wife, cannot be briefly described; indeed, if their
differences were to be specifically pointed out and enumerated, it would
occupy several pages; for they are various and diverse--various
according to the nature of the grasping for power prevalent with the
men, and in like manner with the wives; and diverse in regard to the
differences subsisting in the men and the women; for such men have no
friendship of love but what is infatuated, and such wives are in the
friendship of spurious love grounded in lust. But by what arts wives
procure to themselves power over the men, will be shewn in the following
article.

292. XXI. IN THE WORLD THERE ARE INFERNAL MARRIAGES BETWEEN PERSONS WHO
INTERIORLY ARE THE MOST INVETERATE ENEMIES, AND EXTERIORLY ARE AS THE
CLOSEST FRIENDS. I am indeed forbidden by the wives of this sort, in the
spiritual world, to present such marriages to public view; for they are
afraid lest their art of obtaining power over the men should at the same
time be divulged, which yet they are exceedingly desirous to have
concealed: but as I am urged by the men in that world to expose the
causes of the intestine hatred and as it were fury excited in their
hearts against their wives, in consequence of their clandestine arts, I
shall be content with adducing the following particulars. The men said,
that unwittingly they contracted a terrible dread of their wives, in
consequence of which they were constrained to obey their decisions in
the most abject manner, and be at their beck more than the vilest
servants, so that they lost all life and spirit; and that this was the
case not only with those who were in inferior stations of life, but also
with those who were advanced in high dignities, yea with brave and
famous generals: they also said, that after they had contracted this
dread, they could not help on every occasion expressing themselves to
their wives in a friendly manner, and doing what was agreeable to their
humors, although they cherished in their hearts a deadly hatred against
them; and further, that their wives still behaved courteously to them
both in word and deed, and complaisantly attended to some of their
requests. Now as the men themselves greatly wondered, whence such an
antipathy could arise in their internals, and such an apparent sympathy
in their externals, they examined into the causes thereof from some
women who were acquainted with the above secret art. From this source of
information they learned, that women (_mulieres_) are skilled in a
knowledge which they conceal deeply in their own minds, whereby, if they
be so disposed, they can subject the men to the yoke of their authority;
and that this is effected in the case of ignorant wives, sometimes by
alternate quarrel and kindness, sometimes by harsh and unpleasant looks,
and sometimes by other means; but in the case of polite wives, by urgent
and persevering petitions, and by obstinate resistance to their husbands
in case they suffer hardships from them, insisting on their right of
equality by law, in consequence of which they are firm and resolute in
their purpose; yea, insisting that if they should be turned out of the
house, they would return at their pleasure, and would be urgent as
before; for they know that the men by their nature cannot resist the
positive tempers of their wives but that after compliance they submit
themselves to their disposal; and that in this case the wives make a
show of all kinds of civility and tenderness to their husbands subjected
to their sway. The genuine cause of the dominion which the wives obtain
by this cunning is, that the man acts from the understanding and the
woman from the will, and that the will can persist, but not so the
understanding. I have been told, that the worst of this sort of women,
who are altogether a prey to the desire of dominion, can remain firm in
their positive humors even to the last struggle for life. I have also
heard the excuses pleaded by such women (_mulieres_) for entering upon
the exercise of this art; in which they urged that they would not have
done so unless they had foreseen supreme contempt and future rejection,
and consequent ruin on their part, if they should be subdued by their
husbands: and that thus they had taken up these their arms from
necessity. To this excuse they add this admonition for the men; to leave
their wives their own rights, and while they are in alternations of
cold, not to consider them as beneath their maid-servants: they said
also that several of their sex, from their natural timidity, are not in
a state of exercising the above art; but I added, from their natural
modesty. From the above considerations it may now be known what is meant
by infernal marriages in the world between persons who interiorly are
the most inveterate enemies, and exteriorly are like the most attached
friends.

       *       *       *       *       *

293. To the above I will add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. Some time
ago as I was looking through a window to the east, I saw seven women
sitting in a garden of roses at a certain fountain, and drinking the
water. I strained my eye-sight greatly to see what they were doing, and
this effort of mine affected them; wherefore one of them beckoned me,
and I immediately quitted the house and came to them. When I joined
them, I courteously inquired whence they were. They said, "We are wives,
and are here conversing respecting the delights of conjugial love, and
from much consideration we conclude, that they are also the delights of
wisdom." This answer so delighted my mind (_animum_), that I seemed to
be in the spirit, and thence in perception more interior and more
enlightened than on any former occasion; wherefore I said to them, "Give
me leave to propose a few questions respecting those satisfactions." On
their consenting, I asked, "How do you wives know that the delights of
conjugial love are the same as the delights of wisdom?" They replied,
"We know it from the correspondence of our husbands' wisdom with our own
delights of conjugial love; for the delights of this love with ourselves
are exalted and diminished and altogether qualified, according to the
wisdom of our husbands." On hearing this, I said, "I know that you are
affected by the agreeable conversation of your husbands and their
cheerfulness of mind, and that you derive thence a bosom delight; but I
am surprised to hear you say, that their wisdom produces this effect;
but tell me what is wisdom, and what wisdom (produces this effect)?" To
this the wives indignantly replied, "Do you suppose that we do not know
what wisdom is, and what wisdom (produces that effect), when yet we are
continually reflecting upon it as in our husbands, and learn it daily
from their mouths? For we wives think of the state of our husbands from
morning to evening; there is scarcely an hour in the day, in which our
intuitive thought is altogether withdrawn from them, or is absent; on
the other hand, our husbands think very little in the day respecting our
state; hence we know what wisdom of theirs it is that gives us delight.
Our husbands call that wisdom spiritual rational, and spiritual moral.
Spiritual rational wisdom, they say, is of the understanding and
knowledges, and spiritual moral wisdom of the will and life; but these
they join together and make a one, and insist that the satisfactions of
this wisdom are transferred from their minds into the delights in our
bosoms, and from our bosoms into theirs, and thus return to wisdom their
origin." I then asked, "Do you know anything more respecting the wisdom
of your husbands which gives you delight?" They said, "We do. There is
spiritual wisdom, and thence rational and moral wisdom. Spiritual wisdom
is to acknowledge the Lord the Saviour as the God of heaven and earth,
and from Him to procure the truths of the church, which is effected by
means of the Word and of preachings derived therefrom, whence comes
spiritual rationality; and from Him to live according to those truths,
whence comes spiritual morality. These two our husbands call the wisdom
which in general operates to produce love truly conjugial. We have heard
from them also that the reason of this is, because, by means of that
wisdom, the interiors of their minds and thence of their bodies are
opened, whence there exists a free passage from first principles even to
last for the stream of love; on the flow, sufficiency, and virtue of
which conjugial love depends and lives. The spiritual rational and moral
wisdom of our husbands, specifically in regard to marriage, has for its
end and object to love the wife alone, and to put away all concupiscence
for other women; and so far as this is effected, so far that love is
exalted as to degree, and perfected as to quality; and also so far we
feel more distinctly and exquisitely the delights in ourselves
corresponding to the delights of the affections and the satisfactions of
the thoughts of our husbands." I inquired afterwards, whether they knew
how communication is effected. They said, "In all conjunction by love
there must be action, reception, and reaction. The delicious state of
our love is acting or action, the state of the wisdom of our husbands is
recipient or reception, and also is reacting or reaction according to
perception; and this reaction we perceive with delights in the breast
according to the state continually expanded and prepared to receive
those things which in any manner agree with the virtue belonging to our
husbands, thus also with the extreme state of love belonging to
ourselves, and which thence proceed." They said further, "Take heed lest
by the delights which we have mentioned, you understand the ultimated
delights of that love: of these we never speak, but of our bosom
delights, which always correspond with the state of the wisdom of our
husbands." After this there appeared at a distance as it were a dove
flying with the leaf of a tree in its mouth: but as it approached,
instead of a dove I saw it was a little boy with a paper in his hand: on
coming to us he held it out to me, and said, "Read it before these
Maidens of the fountain." I then read as follows, "Tell the inhabitants
of your earth, that there is a love truly conjugial having myriads of
delights, scarce any of which are as yet known to the world; but they
will be known, when the church betroths herself to her Lord, and is
married." I then asked, "Why did the little boy call you Maidens of the
fountain?" They replied, "We are called maidens when we sit at this
fountain; because we are affections of the truths of the wisdom of our
husbands, and the affection of truth is called a maiden; a fountain also
signifies the true of wisdom, and the bed of roses, on which we sir, the
delights thereof." Then one of the seven wove a garland of roses, and
sprinkled it with water of the fountain, and placed it on the boy's cap
round his little head, and said, "Receive the delights of intelligence;
know that a cap signifies intelligence; and a garland from this rose-bed
delights." The boy thus decorated then departed, and again appeared a
distance like a flying dove, but now with a coronet on his head.

294. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. After some days I again saw the
seven wives in a garden of roses, but not in the same as before. Its
magnificence was such as I had never before seen: it was round, and the
roses in it formed as it were a rainbow. The roses or flowers of a
purple color formed its outermost circle, others of a yellow golden
color formed the next interior circle, within this were others of a
bright blue, and the inmost of a shining green; and within this rainbow
rose-bed was a small lake of limpid water. These seven wives, who were
called the Maidens of the fountain, as they were sitting there seeing me
again at the window, called me to them; and when I was come they said,
"Did you ever see anything more beautiful upon the earth?" I replied,
"Never." They then said, "Such scenery is created instantaneously by the
Lord, and represents something new on the earth; for every thing created
by the Lord is representative: but what is this? tell, if you can: we
say it is the delights of conjugial love." On hearing this, I said,
"What! the delights of conjugial love, respecting which you before
conversed with so much wisdom and eloquence! After I had left you, I
related your conversation to some wives in our country, and said, 'I now
know from instruction that you have bosom delights arising from your
conjugial love, which you can communicate to your husbands according to
their wisdom, and that on this account you look at your husbands with
the eyes of your spirit from morning to evening, and study to bend and
draw their minds (_animos_) to become wise, to the end that you may
secure those delights.' I mentioned also that by wisdom you understand
spiritual rational and moral wisdom, and in regard to marriage, the
wisdom to love the wife alone, and to put away all concupiscence for
other women: but to these things the wives of our country answered with
laughter, saying, 'What is all this but mere idle talk? We do not know
what conjugial love is. If our husbands possess any portion of it, still
we do not; whence then come its delights to us? yea, in regard to what
you call ultimate delights, we at times refuse them with violence, for
they are unpleasant to us, almost like violations: and you will see, if
you attend to it, no sign of such love in our faces: wherefore you are
trifling or jesting, if you also assert, with those seven wives, that we
think of our husbands from morning to evening, and continually attend to
their will and pleasure in order to catch from them such delights.' I
have retained thus much of what they said, that I might relate it to
you; since it is repugnant, and also in manifest contradiction, to what
I heard from you near the fountain, and which I so greedily imbibed and
believed." To this the wives sitting in the rose garden replied,
"Friend, you know not the wisdom and prudence of wives; for they totally
hide it from the men, and for no other end than that they may be loved:
for every man who is not spiritually but only naturally rational and
moral, is cold towards his wife; and the cold lies concealed in his
inmost principles. This is exquisitely and acutely observed by a wise
and prudent wife; who so far conceals her conjugial love, and withdraws
it into her bosom, and there hides it so deeply that it does not at all
appear in her face, in the tone of her voice, or in her behaviour. The
reason of this is, because so far as it appears, so far the conjugial
cold of the man diffuses itself from the inmost principles of his mind,
where it resides, into its ultimates, and occasions in the body a total
coldness, and a consequent endeavour to separate from bed and chamber."
I then asked, "Whence arises that which you call conjugial cold?" They
replied, "From the insanity of the men in regard to spiritual things;
and every one who is insane in regard to spiritual things; in his inmost
principles is cold towards his wife, and warm towards harlots; and since
conjugial love and adulterous love are opposite to each other, it
follows that conjugial love becomes cold when illicit love is warm; and
when cold prevails with the man, he cannot endure any sense of love, and
thus not any allusion thereto, from his wife; therefore the wife so
wisely and prudently conceals that love; and so far as she conceals it
by denying and refusing it, so far the man is cherished and recruited by
the influent meretricious sphere. Hence it is, that the wife of such a
man has no bosom delights such as we have, but only pleasures, which, on
the part of the man, ought to be called the pleasures of insanity,
because they are the pleasures of illicit love. Every chaste wife loves
her husband, even if he be unchaste; but since wisdom is alone recipient
of that love, therefore she exerts all her endeavours to turn his
insanity into wisdom, that is, to prevent his lusting after other women
besides herself. This she does by a thousand methods, being particularly
cautious lest any of them should be discovered by the man; for she is
well aware that love cannot be forced, but that it is insinuated in
freedom; wherefore it is given to women to know from the sight, the
hearing, and the touch, every state of the mind of their husbands; but
on the other hand it is not given to the men to know any state of the
mind of their wives. A chaste wife can look at her husband with an
austere countenance, accost him with a harsh voice, and also be angry
and quarrel, and yet in her heart cherish a soft and tender love towards
him; but such anger and dissimulation have for their end wisdom, and
thereby the reception of love with the husband: as is manifest from the
consideration, that she can be reconciled in an instant. Besides, wives
use such means of concealing the love implanted in their inmost heart,
with a view to prevent conjugial cold bursting forth with the man, and
extinguishing the fire of his adulterous heat, and thus converting him
from green wood into a dry stick." When the seven wives had expressed
these and many more similar sentiments, their husbands came with
clusters of grapes in their hands, some of which were of a delicate, and
some of a disagreeable flavor; upon which the wives said, "Why have you
also brought bad or wild grapes?" The husbands replied, "Because we
perceived in our souls, with which yours are united, that you were
conversing with that man respecting love truly conjugial, that its
delights are the delights of wisdom, and also respecting adulterous
love, that its delights are the pleasures of insanity. The latter are
the disagreeable or wild grapes; the former are those of delicate
flavor." They confirmed what their wives had said, and added that, "in
externals, the pleasures of insanity appear like the delights of wisdom,
but not so in internals; just like the good and bad grapes which we have
brought; for both the chaste and the unchaste have similar wisdom in
externals, but altogether dissimilar in internals." After this the
little boy came again with a piece of paper in his hand, and held it out
to me, saying, "Read this;" and I read as follows: "Know that the
delights of conjugial love ascend to the highest heaven, and both in the
way thither and also there, unite with the delights of all heavenly
loves, and thereby enter into their happiness, which endures for ever;
because the delights of that love are also the delights of wisdom: and
know also, that the pleasures of illicit love descend even to the lowest
hell, and, both in the way thither and also there, unite with the
pleasures of all infernal loves, and thereby enter into their
unhappiness, which consists in the wretchedness of all heart-delights;
because the pleasures of that love are the pleasures of insanity." After
this the husbands departed with their wives, and accompanied the little
boy as far as to the way of his ascent into heaven; and they knew that
the society from which he was sent was a society of the new heaven, with
which the new church in the world will be conjoined.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON BETROTHINGS AND NUPTIALS.

295. The subject of betrothings and nuptials, and also of the rites and
ceremonies attending them, is here treated of principally from the
reason of the understanding; for the object of this book is that the
reader may see truths rationally, and thereby give his consent, for thus
his spirit is convinced; and those things in which the spirit is
convinced, obtain a place above those which, without consulting reason,
enter from authority and the faith of authority; for the latter enter
the head no further than into the memory, and there mix themselves with
fallacies and falses; thus they are beneath the rational things of the
understanding. From these any one may seem to converse rationally, but
he will converse preposterously; for in such case he thinks as a crab
walks, the sight following the tail: it is otherwise if he thinks from
the understanding; for then the rational sight selects from the memory
whatever is suitable, whereby it confirms truth viewed in itself. This
is the reason why in this chapter several particulars are adduced which
are established customs, as that the right of choice belongs to the men,
that parents ought to be consulted, that pledges are to be given, that
the conjugial covenant is to be settled previous to the nuptials, that
it ought to be performed by a priest, also that the nuptials ought to be
celebrated; besides several other particulars, which are here mentioned
in order that every one may rationally see that such things are assigned
to conjugial love, as requisite to promote and complete it. The articles
into which this section is divided are the following; I. _The right of
choice belongs to the man, and not to the woman._ II. _The man ought to
court and intreat the woman respecting marriage with him, and not the
woman the man._ III. _The woman ought to consult her parents, or those
who are in the place of parents, and then deliberate with herself,
before she consents._ IV. _After a declaration of consent, pledges are
to be given._ V. _Consent is to be secure and established by solemn
betrothing._ VI. _By betrothing, each party is prepared for conjugial
love._ VII. _By betrothing, the mind of the one is united to the mind of
the other, so as to effect a marriage of the spirit previous to a
marriage of the body._ VIII. _This is the case with those who think
chastely of marriages: but it is otherwise with those who think
unchastely of them._ IX. _Within the time of betrothing, it is not
allowable to be connected corporeally._ X. _When the time of betrothing
is completed, the nuptials ought to take place._ XI. _Previous to the
celebration of the nuptials, the conjugial covenant is to be ratified in
the presence of witnesses._ XII. _The marriage is to be consecrated by a
priest._ XIII. _The nuptials are to be celebrated with festivity._ XIV.
_After the nuptials, the marriage of the spirit is made also the
marriage of the body, and thereby a full marriage._ XV. _Such is the
order of conjugial love with its modes from its first heat to its first
torch._ XVI. _Conjugial love precipitated without order and the modes
thereof, burns up the marrows and is consumed._ XVII. _The states of the
minds of each of the parties proceeding in successive order, flow into
the state of marriage; nevertheless in one manner with the spiritual and
in another with the natural._ XVIII. _There are successive and
simultaneous orders, and the latter is from the former and according to
it._ We proceed to an explanation of each article.

296. I. THE RIGHT OF CHOICE BELONGS TO THE MAN, AND NOT TO THE WOMAN.
This is because the man is born to be understanding, but the woman to be
love; also because with the men there generally prevails a love of the
sex, but with the women a love of one of the sex; and likewise because
it is not unbecoming for men to speak openly about love, as it is for
women; nevertheless women have the right of selecting one of their
suitors. In regard to the first reason, that the right of choice belongs
to the men, because they are born to understanding, it is grounded in
the consideration that the understanding can examine agreements and
disagreements, and distinguish them, and from judgement choose that
which is suitable: it is otherwise with the women, because they are born
to love, and therefore have no such discrimination; and consequently
their determinations to marriage would proceed only from the
inclinations of their love; if they have the skill of distinguishing
between men and men, still their love is influenced by appearances. In
regard to the other reason, that the right of choice belongs to the men,
and not to the women, because with men there generally prevails a love
of the sex, and with women a love of one of the sex, it is grounded in
the consideration, that those in whom a love of the sex prevails, can
freely look around and also determine: it is otherwise with women, in
whom is implanted a love for one of the sex. If you wish for a proof of
this, ask, if you please, the men you meet, what their sentiments are
respecting monogamical and polygamical unions; and you will seldom meet
one who will not reply in favor of the polygamical; and this also is a
love of the sex: but ask the women their sentiments on the subject, and
almost all, except the vilest of the sex, will reject polygamical
unions; from which consideration it follows, that with the women there
prevails a love of one of the sex, thus conjugial love. In regard to the
third reason, that it is not unbecoming for men to speak openly about
love, whereas it is for women, it is self-evident; hence also it
follows, that declaration belongs to the men, and therefore so does
choice. That women have the right of selecting in regard to their
suitors, is well known; but this species of selection is confined and
limited, whereas that of the men is extended and unlimited.

297. II. THE MAN OUGHT TO COURT AND INTREAT THE WOMAN RESPECTING
MARRIAGE WITH HIM, AND NOT THE WOMAN THE MAN. This naturally follows the
right of choice; and besides, to court and intreat women respecting
marriage is in itself honorable and becoming for men, but not for women.
If women were to court and entreat the men, they would not only be
blamed, but, after intreaty, they would be reputed as vile, or after
marriage as libidinous, with whom there would be no association but what
was cold and fastidious; wherefore marriages would thereby be converted
into tragic scenes. Wives also take it as a compliment to have it said
of them, that being conquered as it were, they yielded to the pressing
intreaties of the men. Who does not foresee, that if the women courted
the men, they would seldom be accepted? They would either be indignantly
rejected, or be enticed to lasciviousness, and also would dishonor their
modesty. Moreover, as was shewn above, the men have not any innate love
of the sex; and without love there is no interior pleasantness of life:
wherefore to exalt their life by that love, it is incumbent on the men
to compliment the women; courting and intreating them with civility,
courtesy, and humility, respecting this sweet addition to their life.
The superior comeliness of the female countenance, person, and manners,
above that of the men, adds itself as a proper object of desire.

298. III. THE WOMAN OUGHT TO CONSULT HER PARENTS, OR THOSE WHO ARE IN
THE PLACE OF PARENTS, AND THEN DELIBERATE WITH HERSELF, BEFORE SHE
CONSENTS. The reason why parents are to be consulted is, because they
deliberate from judgement, knowledge, and love; from _judgement_,
because they are in an advanced age, which excels in judgement, and
discerns what is suitable and unsuitable: from _knowledge_, in respect
to both the suitor and their daughter; in respect to the suitor they
procure information, and in respect to their daughter they already know;
wherefore they conclude respecting both with united discernment: from
_love_, because to consult the good of their daughter, and to provide
for her establishment, is also to consult and provide for their own and
for themselves.

299. The case would be altogether different, if the daughter consents of
herself to her urgent suitor, without consulting her parents, or those
who are in their place; for she cannot from judgement, knowledge, and
love, make a right estimate of the matter which so deeply concerns her
future welfare: she cannot from _judgement_, because she is as yet in
ignorance as to conjugial life, and not in a state of comparing reasons,
and discovering the morals of men from their particular tempers; nor
from _knowledge_, because she knows few things beyond the domestic
concerns of her parents and of some of her companions; and is
unqualified to examine into such things as relate to the family and
property of her suitor: nor from _love_, because with daughters in their
first marriageable age, and also afterwards, this is led by the
concupiscences originating in the senses, and not as yet by the desires
originating in a refined mind. The daughter ought nevertheless to
deliberate on the matter with herself, before she consents, lest she
should be led against her will to form a connection with a man whom she
does not love; for by so doing, consent on her part would be wanting;
and yet it is consent that constitutes marriage, and initiates the
spirit into conjugial love; and consent against the will, or extorted,
does not initiate the spirit, although it may the body; and thus it
converts chastity, which resides in the spirit, into lust; whereby
conjugial love in its first warmth is vitiated.

300. IV. AFTER A DECLARATION OF CONSENT, PLEDGES ARE TO BE GIVEN. By
pledges we mean presents, which, after consent, are confirmations,
testifications, first favors, and gladnesses. Those presents are
_confirmations_, because they are certificates of consent on each side;
wherefore, when two parties consent to anything, it is customary to say,
"Give me a token;" and of two, who have entered into a marriage
engagement, and have secured it by presents, that they are
pledged, thus confirmed. They are _testifications_, because those
pledges are continual visible witnesses of mutual love; hence also they
are memorials thereof; especially if they be rings, perfume-bottles or
boxes, and ribbons, which are worn in sight. In such things there is a
sort of representative image of the minds (_animorum_) of the bridegroom
and the bride. Those pledges are _first favors_, because conjugial love
engages for itself everlasting favor; whereof those gifts are the first
fruits. That they are the _gladnesses_ of love, is well known, for the
mind is exhilarated at the sight of them; and because love is in them,
those favors are dearer and more precious than any other gifts, it being
as if their hearts were in them. As those pledges are securities of
conjugial love, therefore presents after consent were in use with the
ancients; and after accepting such presents the parties were declared to
be bridegroom and bride. But it is to be observed that it is at the
pleasure of the parties to bestow those presents either before or after
the act of betrothing; if before, they are confirmations and
testifications of consent to betrothing; if after it, they are also
confirmations and testifications of consent to the nuptial tie.

301. V. CONSENT IS TO BE SECURED AND ESTABLISHED BY SOLEMN BETROTHING.
The reasons for betrothings are these: 1. That after betrothing the
souls of the two parties may mutually incline towards each other. 2.
That the universal love for the sex may be determined to one of the sex.
3. That the interior affections may be mutually known, and by
applications in the internal cheerfulness of love, may be conjoined. 4.
That the spirits of both parties may enter into marriage, and be more
and more consociated. 5. That thereby conjugial love may advance
regularly from its first warmth even to the nuptial flame. Consequently:
6. That conjugial love may advance and grow up in just order from its
spiritual origin. The state of betrothing may be compared to the state
of spring before summer; and the internal pleasantness of that state to
the flowering of trees before fructification. As the beginning and
progressions of conjugial love proceed in order for the sake of their
influx into the effective love, which commences at the nuptials,
therefore, there are also betrothings in the heavens.

302. VI. BY BETROTHING EACH PARTY IS PREPARED FOR CONJUGIAL LOVE. That
the mind or spirit of one of the parties is by betrothing prepared for
union with the mind or spirit of the other, or what is the same, that
the love of the one is prepared for union with the love of the other,
appears from the arguments just adduced. Besides which it is to be
noted, that on love truly conjugial is inscribed this order, that it
ascends and descends; it ascends from its first heat progressively
upwards towards the souls of the parties, with an endeavour to effect
their conjunction, and this by continual interior openings of their
minds; and there is no love which strives more intensely to effect such
openings, or which is more powerful and expert in opening the interiors
of minds, than conjugial love; for the soul of each of the parties
intends this: but at the same moments in which that love ascends towards
the soul, it descends also towards the body, and thereby clothes itself.
It is however to be observed, that conjugial love is such in its descent
as it is in the height to which it ascends: if it ascends high, it
descends chaste; but if not, it descends unchaste: the reason of this
is, because the lower principles of the mind are unchaste, but its
higher are chaste; for the lower principles of the mind adhere to the
body, but the higher separate themselves from them: but on this subject
see further particulars below, n. 305. From these few considerations it
may appear, that, by betrothing, the mind of each of the parties is
prepared for conjugial love, although in a different manner according to
the affections.

303. VII. BY BETROTHING THE MIND OF ONE IS UNITED TO THE MIND OF THE
OTHER, SO AS TO EFFECT A MARRIAGE OF THE SPIRIT, PREVIOUS TO A MARRIAGE
OF THE BODY. As this follows of consequence from what was said above, n.
301, 302, we shall pass it by, without adducing any further
confirmations from reason.

304. VIII. THIS IS THE CASE WITH THOSE WHO THINK CHASTELY OF MARRIAGES;
BUT IT IS OTHERWISE WITH THOSE WHO THINK UNCHASTELY OF THEM. With the
chaste, that is, with those who think religiously of marriages, the
marriage of the spirit precedes, and that of the body is subsequent; and
these are those with whom love ascends towards the soul, and from its
height thence descends; concerning whom see above, n. 302. The souls of
such separate themselves from the unlimited love for the sex, and devote
themselves to one, with whom they look for an everlasting and eternal
union and its increasing blessednesses, as the cherishers of the hope
which continually recreates their mind; but it is quite otherwise with
the unchaste, that is, with those who do not think religiously of
marriages and their holiness. With these there is a marriage of the
body, but not of the spirit: if, during the state of betrothment, there
be any appearance of a marriage of the spirit, still, if it ascends by
an elevation of the thoughts concerning it, it nevertheless falls back
again to the concupiscences which arise from the flesh in the will; and
thus from the unchaste principles therein it precipitates itself into
the body, and defiles the ultimates of its love with an alluring ardor;
and as, in consequence of this ardor, it was in the beginning all on
fire, so its fire suddenly goes out, and passes off into the cold of
winter; whence the failing (of power) is accelerated. The state of
betrothing with such scarcely answers any other purpose, than that they
may fill their concupiscences with lasciviousness, and thereby
contaminate the conjugial principle of love.

305. IX. WITHIN THE TIME OF BETROTHING IT IS NOT ALLOWABLE TO BE
CONNECTED CORPOREALLY. For thus the order which is inscribed on
conjugial love, perishes. For in human minds there are three regions, of
which the highest is called the celestial, the middle the spiritual, and
the lowest the natural. In this lowest man is born; but he ascends into
the next above it, the spiritual, by a life according to the truths of
religion, and into the highest by the marriage of love and wisdom. In
the lowest or natural region, reside all the concupiscences of evil and
lasciviousness; but in the superior or spiritual region, there are no
concupiscences of evil and lasciviousness; for man is introduced into
this region by the Lord, when he is re-born; but in the supreme or
celestial region, there is conjugial chastity in its love: into this
region a man is elevated by the love of uses; and as the most excellent
uses are from marriages, he is elevated into it by love truly conjugial.
From these few considerations, it may be seen that conjugial love, from
the first beginnings of its warmth, is to be elevated out of the lowest
region into a superior region, that it may become chaste, and that
thereby from a chaste principle it may be let down through the middle
and lowest regions into the body; and when this is the case, this lowest
region is purified from all that is unchaste by this descending chaste
principle: hence the ultimate of that love becomes also chaste. Now if
the successive order of this love is precipitated by connections of the
body before their time, it follows, that the man acts from the lowest
region, which is by birth unchaste; and it is well known, that hence
commences and arises cold in regard to marriage, and disdainful neglect
in regard to a married partner. Nevertheless events of various kinds
take place in consequence of hasty connections; also in consequence of
too long a delay, and too quick a hastening, of the time of betrothing;
but these, from their number and variety, can hardly be adduced.

306. X. WHEN THE TIME OF BETROTHING IS COMPLETED, THE NUPTIALS OUGHT TO
TAKE PLACE. There are some customary rites which are merely formal, and
others which at the same time are also essential: among the latter are
nuptials; and that they are to be reckoned among essentials, which are
to be manifested in the customary way, and to be formally celebrated, is
confirmed by the following reasons: 1. That nuptials constitute the end
of the foregoing state, into which the parties were introduced by
betrothing, which principally was a state of the spirit, and the
beginning of the following state, into which they are to be introduced
by marriage, which is a state of the spirit and body together; for the
spirit then enters into the body, and there becomes active: wherefore on
that day the parties put off the state and also the name of bridegroom
and bride, and put on the state and name of married partners and
consorts. 2. That nuptials are an introduction and entrance into a new
state, which is that a maiden becomes a wife, and a young man a husband,
and both one flesh; and this is effected while love by ultimates unites
them. That marriage actually changes a maiden into a wife, and a young
man into a husband, was proved in the former part of this work; also
that marriage unites two into one human form, so that they are no longer
two but one flesh. 3. That nuptials are the commencement of an entire
separation of the love of the sex from conjugial love, which is effected
while, by a full liberty of connection, the knot is tied by which the
love of the one is devoted to the love of the other. 4. It appears as if
nuptials were merely an interval between those two states, and thus that
they are mere formalities which may be omitted: but still there is also
in them this essential, that the new state above-mentioned is then to be
entered upon from covenant, and that the consent of the parties is to be
declared in the presence of witnesses, and also to be consecrated by a
priest; besides other particulars which establish it. As nuptials
contain in them essentials, and as marriage is not legitimate till after
their celebration, therefore also nuptials are celebrated in the
heavens; see above, n. 21, and also, n. 27-41.

307. XI. PREVIOUS TO THE CELEBRATION OF THE NUPTIALS, THE CONJUGIAL
COVENANT IS TO BE RATIFIED IN THE PRESENCE OF WITNESSES. It is expedient
that the conjugial covenant be ratified before the nuptials are
celebrated, in order that the statutes and laws of love truly conjugial
may be known, and that they may be remembered after the nuptials; also
that the minds of the parties may be bound to just marriage: for after
some introductory circumstances of marriage, the state which preceded
betrothing returns at times, in which state remembrance fails and
forgetfulness of the ratified covenant ensues; yea, it may be altogether
effaced by the allurements of the unchaste to criminality; and if it is
then recalled into the memory, it is reviled: but to prevent these
transgressions, society has taken upon itself the protection of that
covenant, and has denounced penalties on the breakers of it. In a word,
the ante-nuptial covenant manifests and establishes the sacred decrees
of love truly conjugial, and binds libertines to the observance of them.
Moreover, by this covenant, the right of propagating children, and also
the right of the children to inherit the goods of their parents, become
legitimate.

308. XII. MARRIAGE IS TO BE CONSECRATED BY A PRIEST. The reason of this
is, because marriages, considered in themselves, are spiritual, and
thence holy; for they descend from the heavenly marriage of good and
truth, and things conjugial correspond to the divine marriage of the
Lord and the church; and hence they are from the Lord himself, and
according to the state of the church with the contracting parties. Now,
as the ecclesiastical order on the earth administer the things which
relate to the Lord's priestly character, that is, to his love, and thus
also those which relate to blessing, it is expedient that marriages be
consecrated by his ministers; and as they are then the chief witnesses,
it is expedient that the consent of the parties to the covenant be also
heard, accepted, confirmed, and thereby established by them.

309. XIII. THE NUPTIALS ARE TO BE CELBRATED WITH FESTIVITY. The reasons
are, because ante-nuptial love, which was that of the bridegroom and the
bride, on this occasion descends into their hearts, and spreading itself
thence in every direction into all parts of the body, the delights of
marriage are made sensible, whereby the minds of the parties are led to
festive thoughts and also let loose to festivities so far as is
allowable and becoming; to favor which, it is expedient that the
festivities of their minds be indulged in company, and they themselves
be thereby introduced into the joys of conjugial love.

310. XIV. AFTER THE NUPTIALS, THE MARRIAGE OF THE SPIRIT IS MADE ALSO
THE MARRIAGE OF THE BODY, AND THEREBY A FULL MARRIAGE. All things which
a man does in the body, flow in from his spirit; for it is well known
that the mouth does not speak of itself, but that it is the thinking
principle of the mind which speaks by it; also that the hands do not act
and the feet walk of themselves, but that it is the will of the mind
which performs those operations by them; consequently, that the mind
speaks and acts by its organs in the body: hence it is evident, that
such as the mind is, such are the speech of the mouth and the actions of
the body. From these premises it follows as a conclusion that the mind,
by a continual influx, arranges the body so that it may act similarly
and simultaneously with itself; wherefore the bodies of men viewed
interiorly are merely forms of their minds exteriorly organized to
effect the purposes of the soul. These things are premised, in order
that it may be perceived why the minds or spirits are first to be united
as by marriage, before they are also further united in the body; namely,
that while the marriages become of the body, they may also be marriages
of the spirit; consequently, that married partners may mutually love
each other from the spirit, and thence from the body. From this ground
let us now take a view of marriage. When conjugial love unites the minds
of two persons, and forms them into a marriage, in such case it also
unites and forms their bodies into a marriage; for, as we have said, the
form of the mind is also interiorly the form of the body; only with this
difference, that the latter form is outwardly organized to effect that
to which the interior form of the body is determined by the mind. But
the mind formed from conjugial love is not only interiorly in the whole
body, round about in every part, but moreover is interiorly in the
organs appropriated to generation, which in their region are situated
beneath the other regions of the body, and in which are terminated the
forms of the mind with those who are united in conjugial love:
consequently the affections and thoughts of their minds are determined
thither; and the activities of such minds differ in this respect from
the activities of minds arising from other loves, that the latter loves
do not reach thither. The conclusion resulting from these considerations
is, that such as conjugial love is in the minds or spirits of two
persons, such is it interiorly in those its organs. But it is
self-evident that a marriage of the spirit after the nuptials becomes
also a marriage of the body, thus a full marriage, consequently, if a
marriage in the spirit is chaste, and partakes of the sanctity of
marriage, it is chaste also, and partakes of its sanctity, when it is in
its fulness in the body; and the case is reversed if a marriage in the
spirit is unchaste.

311. XV. SUCH IS THE ORDER OF CONJUGIAL LOVE WITH ITS MODES FROM ITS
FIRST HEAT TO ITS FIRST TORCH. It is said from its first heat to its
first torch, because vital heat is love, and conjugial heat or love
successively increases, and at length as it were into a flame or torch.
We have said "to its first torch," because we mean the first state after
the nuptials, when that love burns; but what its quality becomes after
this torch, in the marriage itself, has been described in the preceding
chapters; but in this part we are explaining its order from the
beginning of its career to this its first goal. That all order proceeds
from first principles to last, and that the last become the first of
some following order, also that all things of the middle order are the
last of a prior and the first of a following order, and that thus ends
proceed continually through causes into effects, may be sufficiently
confirmed and illustrated to the eye of reason from what is known and
visible in the world; but as at present we are treating only of the
order in which love proceeds from its first starting-place to its goal,
we shall pass by such confirmation and illustration, and only observe on
this subject, that such as the order of this love is from its first heat
to its first torch, such it is in general, and such is its influence in
its progression afterwards; for in this progression it unfolds itself,
according to the quality of its first heat: if this heat was chaste, its
chasteness is strengthened as it proceeds; but if it was unchaste, its
unchasteness increases as it advances, until it is deprived of all that
chasteness which, from the time of betrothing, belonged to it from
without, but not from within.

312. XVI. CONJUGIAL LOVE PRECIPITATED WITHOUT ORDER AND THE MODES
THEREOF, BURNS UP THE MARROWS AND IS CONSUMED. So it is said by some in
the heavens; and by the marrows they mean the interiors of the mind and
body. The reason why these are burnt up, that is, consumed, by
precipitated conjugial love is, because that love in such case begins
from a flame which eats up and corrupts those interiors, in which as in
its principles conjugial love should reside, and from which it should
commence. This comes to pass if the man and woman without regard to
order precipitate marriage, and do not look to the Lord, and consult
their reason, but reject betrothing and comply merely with the flesh:
from the ardor of which, if that love commences, it becomes external and
not internal, thus not conjugial; and such love may be said to partake
of the shell, not of the kernel; or may be called fleshly, lean, and
dry, because emptied of its genuine essence. See more on this subject
above n. 305.

313. XVII. THE STATES OF THE MINDS OF EACH OF THE PARTIES PROCEEDING IN
SUCCESSIVE ORDER, FLOW INTO THE STATE OF MARRIAGE; NEVERTHELESS IN ONE
MANNER WITH THE SPIRITUAL AND IN ANOTHER WITH THE NATURAL. That the last
state is such as that of the successive order from which it is formed
and exists, is a rule, which from its truth must be acknowledged by the
learned; for thereby we discover what influx is, and what it effects. By
influx we mean all that which precedes, and constitutes what follows,
and by things following in order constitutes what is last; as all that
which precedes with a man, and constitutes his wisdom; or all that which
precedes with a statesman, and constitutes his political skill; or all
that which precedes with a theologian, and constitutes his erudition; in
like manner all that which proceeds from infancy, and constitutes a man;
also what proceeds in order from a seed and a twig, and makes a tree,
and afterwards what proceeds from a blossom, and makes its fruit; in
like manner all that which precedes and proceeds with a bridegroom and
bride, and constitutes their marriage: this is the meaning of influx.
That all those things which precede in minds form series, which collect
together, one next to another, and one after another, and that these
together compose a last or ultimate, is as yet unknown in the world; but
as it is a truth from heaven, it is here adduced for it explains what
influx effects, and what is the quality of the last or ultimate, in
which the above-mentioned series successively formed co-exist. From
these considerations it may be seen that the states of the minds of each
of the parties proceeding in successive order flow into the state of
marriage. But married partners after marriage are altogether ignorant of
the successive things which are insinuated into, and exist in their
minds (_animis_) from things antecedent; nevertheless it is those things
which give form to conjugial love, and constitute the state of their
minds; from which state they act the one with the other. The reason why
one state is formed from one order with such as are spiritual, and from
another with such as are natural, is, because the spiritual proceed in a
just order, and the natural in an unjust order; for the spiritual look
to the Lord, and the Lord provides and leads the order; whereas the
natural look to themselves, and thence proceed in an inverted order;
wherefore with the latter the state of marriage is inwardly full of
unchasteness; and as that unchasteness abounds, so does cold; and as
cold abounds so do the obstructions of the inmost life, whereby its vein
is closed and its fountain dried.

314. XVIII. THERE ARE SUCCESSIVE AND SIMULTANEOUS ORDER, AND THE LATTER
IS FROM THE FORMER AND ACCORDING TO IT. This is adduced as a reason
tending to confirm what goes before. It is well known that there exist
what is successive and what is simultaneous; but it is unknown that
simultaneous order is grounded in successive, and is according to it;
yet how things successive enter into things simultaneous, and what order
they form therein, it is very difficult to present to the perception,
since the learned are not in possession of any ideas that can elucidate
the subject; and as the first idea respecting this arcanum cannot be
suggested in few words, and to treat this subject at large would
withdraw the mind from a more comprehensive view of the subject of
conjugial love, it may suffice for illustration to quote what we have
adduced in a compendium respecting those two orders, the successive and
the simultaneous, and respecting the influx of the former into the
latter, in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM RESPECTING THE SACRED
SCRIPTURE, where are these words: "There are in heaven and in the world
successive order and simultaneous order. In successive order one thing
follows after another from the highest to the lowest; but in
simultaneous order one thing is next to another from the inmost to the
outermost. Successive order is like a column with steps from the highest
to the lowest; but simultaneous order is like a work cohering from the
centre to the surface. Successive order becomes in the ultimate
simultaneous in this manner; the highest things of successive order
become the inmost of simultaneous, and the lowest things of successive
order become the outermost of simultaneous; comparatively as when a
column of steps subsides, it becomes a body cohering in a plane. Thus
what is simultaneous is formed from what is successive; and this in all
things both of the spiritual and of the natural world." See n. 38, 65,
of that work; and several further observations on this subject in the
ANGELIC WISDOM RESPECTING THE DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM, n. 205-229.
The case is similar with successive order leading to marriage, and with
simultaneous order in marriage; namely, that the latter is from the
former, and according to it. He that is acquainted with the influx of
successive order into simultaneous, may comprehend the reason why the
angels can see in a man's hand all the thoughts and intentions of his
mind, and also why wives, from their husbands' hands on their bosoms,
are made sensible of their affections; which circumstance has been
occasionally mentioned in the MEMORABLE RELATIONS. The reason of this
is, because the hands are the ultimates of man, wherein the
deliberations and conclusions of his mind terminate, and there
constitute what is simultaneous: therefore also in the Word, mention is
made of a thing's being inscribed on the hands.

       *       *       *       *       *

315. To the above I shall add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. On a
certain time I saw not far from me a meteor--a cloud divided into
smaller clouds, some of which were of an azure color, some opaque, and
as it were in collision together. They were streaked with translucent
irradiations of light, which at one time appeared sharp like the points
of swords, at another, blunt like broken swords. The streaks sometimes
darted out forwards, at others they drew themselves in again, exactly
like combatants; thus those different colored lesser clouds appeared to
be at war together; but it was only their manner of sporting with each
other. And as this meteor appeared at no great distance from me, I
raised my eyes, and looking attentively, I saw boys, youths, and old
men, entering a house which was built of marble, on a foundation of
porphyry; and it was over this house that the phenomenon appeared. Then
addressing myself to one that was entering, I asked, "What house is
this?" He answered, "It is a gymnasium, where young persons are
initiated into various things relating to wisdom." On hearing this, I
went in with them, being then in the spirit, that is, in a similar state
with men of the spiritual world, who are called spirits and angels; and
lo! in the gymnasium there were in front a desk, in the middle, benches,
at the sides round about, chairs, and over the entrance, an orchestra.
The desk was for the young men that were to give answers to the problem
at that time to be proposed, the benches were for the audience, the
chairs at the sides were for those who on former occasions had given
wise answers, and the orchestra was for the seniors, who were
arbitrators and judges: in the middle of the orchestra was a pulpit,
where there sat a wise man, whom they called the head master, who
proposed the problems to which the young men gave their answers from the
desk. When all were assembled, this man arose from the pulpit and said,
"Give an answer now to this problem, and solve it if you can, WHAT IS
THE SOUL, AND WHAT IS ITS QUALITY?" On hearing this problem all were
amazed, and made a muttering noise; and some of the company on the
benches exclaimed, "What mortal man, from the age of Saturn to the
present time, has been able by any rational thought to see and ascertain
what the soul is, still less what is its quality? Is not this subject
above the sphere of all human understanding?" But it was replied from
the orchestra, "It is not above the understanding, but within it and in
its view; only let the problem be answered." Then the young men, who
were chosen on that day to ascend the desk, and give an answer to the
problem, arose. They were five in number, who had been examined by the
seniors, and found to excel in sagacity, and were then sitting on
couches at the sides of the desk. They afterwards ascended in the order
in which they were seated; and every one, when he ascended, put on a
silken tunic of an opaline color, and over it a robe of soft wool
interwoven with flowers, and on his head a cap, on the crown of which
was a bunch of roses encircled with small sapphires. The first youth
thus clad ascended the desk, and thus began: "What the soul is, and what
is its quality, has never been revealed to any one since the day of
creation, being an arcanum in the treasuries of God alone; but this has
been discovered, that the soul resides in a man as a queen; yet where
her palace is, has been a matter of conjecture among the learned. Some
have supposed it to be in a small tubercle between the cerebrum and the
cerebellum, which is called the pineal gland: in this they have fixed
the soul's habitation, because the whole man is ruled from those two
brains, and they are regulated by that tubercle; therefore whatever
regulates the brains, regulates also the whole man from the head to the
heel." He also added, "Hence this conjecture appeared as true or
probable to many in the world; but in the succeeding age it was rejected
as groundless." When he had thus spoken, he put off the robe, the tunic,
and the cap, which the second of the selected speakers put on, and
ascended the desk. His sentiments concerning the soul are as follows:
"In the whole heaven and the whole world it is unknown what the soul is,
and what is its quality; it is however known that there is a soul, and
that it is in man; but in what part of him is a matter of conjecture.
This is certain, that it is in the head, since the head is the seat
where the understanding thinks, and the will intends; and in front in
the face of the head are man's five sensories, receiving life from the
soul alone which resides in the head; but in what particular part of the
head the soul has its more immediate residence, I dare not take upon me
to say; yet I agree with those who fix its abode in the three ventricles
of the brain, sometimes inclining to the opinion of those who fix it in
the _corpora striata_ therein, sometimes to theirs who fix it in the
medullary substance of each brain, sometimes to theirs who fix it in the
cortical substance, and sometimes to theirs who fix it in the _dura
mater_; for arguments, and those too of weight, have not been wanting in
the support of each of these opinions. The arguments in favor of the
three ventricles of the brain have been, that those ventricles are the
recipients of the animal spirits and of all the lymphs of the brain: the
arguments in favor of the _corpora striata_ have been, that these bodies
constitute the marrow, through which the nerves are emitted, and by
which each brain is continued into the spine; and from the spine and the
marrow there is an emanation of fibres serving for the contexture of the
whole body: the arguments in favor of the medullary substance of each
brain have been, that this substance is a collection and congeries of
all the fibres, which are the rudiments or beginnings of the whole man:
the arguments in favor of the cortical substance have been, that in that
substance are contained the prime and ultimate ends, and consequently
the principles of all the fibres, and thereby of all the senses and
motions: the arguments in favor of the _dura mater_ have been, that it
is the common covering of each brain, and hence by some kind of
continuous principle extends itself over the heart and the viscera of
the body. As to myself, I am undetermined which of these opinions is the
most probable, and therefore I leave the matter to your determination
and decision." Having thus concluded he descended from the desk, and
delivered the tunic, the robe, and the cap, to the third, who mounting
into the desk began as follows: "How little qualified is a youth like
myself for the investigation of so sublime a theorem! I appeal to the
learned who are here seated at the sides of the gymnasium; I appeal to
you wise ones in the orchestra; yea, I appeal to the angels of the
highest heaven, whether any person, from his own rational light, is able
to form any idea concerning the soul; nevertheless I, like others, can
guess about the place of its abode in man; and my conjecture is, that it
is in the heart and thence in the blood; and I ground my conjecture on
this circumstance, that the heart by its blood rules both the body and
the head; for it sends forth a large vessel called the _aorta_ into the
whole body, and vessels called the carotids into the whole head; hence
it is universally agreed, that the soul from the heart by means of the
blood supports, nourishes, and vivifies the universal organical system
both of the body and the head. As a further proof of this position it
may be urged, that in the Sacred Scripture frequent mention is made of
the soul and the heart; as where it is said, Thou shalt love God from
the whole soul and the whole heart; and that God creates in man a new
soul and a new heart, Deut. vi. 5; chap. x. 12; chap. xi. 13; chap.
xxvi. 16; Jerem. xxxii. 41; Matt, xxii. 37; Mark xii. 30, 33; Luke x.
27; and in other places: it is also expressly said, that the blood is
the soul of the flesh, Levit. xvii. 11, 14." At these words, the cry of
"Learned! learned!" was heard in the assembly, and was found to proceed
from some of the canons. After this a fourth, clad in the garments of
the former speaker, ascended the desk, and thus began: "I also am
inclined to suspect that not a single person can be found of so subtle
and refined a genius as to be able to discover what the soul is, and
what is its quality; therefore I am of opinion, that in attempting to
make the discovery, subtlety will be spent in fruitless labor;
nevertheless from my childhood I have continued firm in the opinion of
the ancients, that the soul of man is in the whole of him, and in every
part of the whole, and thus that it is in the head and in all its parts,
as well as in the body and in all its parts; and that it is an idle
conceit of the moderns to fix its habitation in any particular part, and
not in the body throughout; besides, the soul is a spiritual substance,
of which there cannot be predicated either extension or place, but
habitation and impletion; moreover, when mention is made of the soul,
who does not conceive life to be meant? and is not life in the whole and
in every part?" These sentiments were favorably received by a great part
of the audience. After him the fifth rose, and, being adorned with the
same insignia, thus delivered himself from the desk: "I will not waste
your time and my own in determining the place of the soul's residence,
whether it be in some particular part of the body, or in the whole; but
from my mind's storehouse I will communicate to you my sentiments on the
subject, What is the soul, and what is its quality? No one conceives of
the soul but as of a pure somewhat, which may be likened to ether, or
air, or wind, containing a vital principle, from the rationality which
man enjoys above the beasts. This opinion I conceive to be founded on
the circumstance, that when a man expires, he is said to breathe forth
or emit his soul or spirit; hence also the soul which lives after death
is believed to be such a breath or vapor animated by some principle of
thinking life, which is called the soul; and what else can the soul be?
But as I heard it declared from the orchestra, that this problem
concerning the soul, its nature and quality, is not above the
understanding, but is within it and in its view, I intreat and beseech
you, who have made this declaration, to unfold this eternal arcanum
yourselves." Then the elders in the orchestra turned their eyes towards
the head master, who had proposed the problem, and who understood by
their signs that they wished him to descend and teach the audience: so
he instantly quitted the pulpit, passed through the auditory, and
entered the desk, and there, stretching out his hand, he thus began:
"Let me bespeak your attention: who does not believe the soul to be the
inmost and most subtle essence of man? and what is an essence without a
form, but an imaginary entity? wherefore the soul is a form, and a form
whose qualities and properties I will now describe. It is a form of all
things relating to love, and of all things relating to wisdom. All
things relating to love are called affections, and those relating to
wisdom are called perceptions. The latter derived from the former and
thereby united with them constitute one form, in which are contained
innumerable things in such an order, series, and coherence, that they
may be called a one; and they may be called a one also for this reason,
because nothing can be taken away from it, or added to it, but the
quality of the form is changed. What is the human soul but such a form?
are not all things relating to love and all things relating to wisdom
essentials of that form? and are not these things appertaining to a man
in his soul, and by derivation from the soul in his head and body? You
are called spirits and angels; and in the world you believed that
spirits and angels are like mere wind or ether, and thus mere mind and
animation; and now you see clearly that you are truly, really, and
actually men, who, during your abode in the world, lived and thought in
a material body, and knew that a material body does not live and think,
but a spiritual substance in that body; and this substance you called
the soul, whose form you then were ignorant of, but now have seen and
continue to see. You all are souls, of whose immortality you have heard,
thought, said, and written so much; and because you are forms of love
and wisdom from God, you can never die. The soul therefore is a human
form, from which the smallest thing cannot be taken away, and to which
the smallest thing cannot be added; and it is the inmost of all the
forms of the whole body: and since the forms which are without receive
from the inmost both essence and form, therefore you are souls, as you
appear to yourselves and to us: in a word, the soul is the very man
himself, because it is the inmost man; therefore its form is fully and
perfectly the human form: nevertheless it is not life, but the proximate
receptacle of life from God, and thereby the habitation of God." When he
had thus spoken, many expressed their approbation; but some said, "We
will weigh the matter." I immediately went home, and lo! over the
gymnasium, instead of the foregoing meteor, there appeared a bright
cloud, without streaks or rays that seemed to combat with each other,
and which, penetrating through the roof, entered, and illuminated the
walls; and I was informed, that they saw some pieces of writing, and
among others this, "_Jehovah God breathed into the man's nostrils the
SOUL OF LIVES, and the man became a LIVING SOUL_," Gen. ii. 7.

316. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. Some time ago, as I was walking with
my mind (_animus_) at rest, and in a state of delightful mental peace, I
saw at a distance a grove, in the midst of which was an avenue leading
to a small palace, into which maidens and youths, husbands and wives
were entering. I also went thither in spirit, and asked the keeper who
was standing at the entrance, whether I also might enter? He looked at
me; upon which I said, "Why do you look at me?" He replied, "I look at
you that I may see whether the delight of peace, which appears in your
face, partakes at all of the delight of conjugial love. Beyond this
avenue there is a little garden, and in the midst of it a house, where
there are two novitiate conjugial partners, who to-day are visited by
their friends of both sexes, coming to pay their congratulations. I do
not know those whom I admit; but I was told that I should know them by
their faces: those in whom I saw the delights of conjugial love, I was
to admit, and none else." All the angels can see from the faces of
others the delights of their hearts; and he saw the delight of that love
in my face, because I was then meditating on conjugial love. This
meditation beamed forth from my eyes, and thence entered into the
interiors of my face: he therefore told me that I might enter. The
avenue through which I entered was formed of fruit trees connected
together by their branches, which made on each side a continued
espalier. Through the avenue I entered the little garden, which breathed
a pleasant fragrance from its shrubs and flowers. The shrubs and flowers
were in pairs; and I was informed that such little gardens appear about
the houses where there are and have been nuptials, and hence they are
called nuptial gardens. I afterwards entered the house, where I saw the
two conjugial partners holding each other by the hands, and conversing
together from love truly conjugial; and as I looked, it was given me to
see from their faces the image of conjugial love, and from their
conversation the vital principle thereof. After I, with the rest of the
company, had paid them my respects, and wished them all happiness, I
went into the nuptial garden, and saw on the right side of it a company
of youths, to whom all who came out of the house resorted. The reason of
their resorting to them was, because they were conversing respecting
conjugial love, and conversation on this subject attracts to it the
minds (_animos_) of all by a certain occult power. I then listened to a
wise one who was speaking on the subject; and the sum of what I heard is
as follows: That the divine providence of the Lord is most particular
and thence most universal in respect to marriages in the heavens:
because all the felicities of heaven issue from the delights of
conjugial love, like sweet waters from the sweet source of a fountain;
and that on this account it is provided by the Lord that conjugial pairs
be born, and that these pairs be continually educated for marriage,
neither the maiden nor the youth knowing anything of the matter; and
after a stated time, when they both become marriageable, they meet as by
chance, and see each other; and that in this case they instantly know,
as by a kind of instinct, that they are pairs, and by a kind of inward
dictate think within themselves, the youth, that she is mine, and the
maiden, that he is mine; and when this thought has existed for some time
in the mind of each, they deliberately accost each other, and betroth
themselves. It is said, "as by chance," and "as by instinct," and the
meaning is, by the divine providence; since, while the divine providence
is unknown, it has such an appearance. That conjugial pairs are born and
educated to marriage, while each party is ignorant of it, he proved by
the conjugial likeness visible in the faces of each; also by the
intimate and eternal union of minds (_animorum_) and minds (_mentium_),
which could not possibly exist, as it does in heaven, without being
foreseen and provided by the Lord. When the wise one had proceeded thus
far with his discourse, and had received the applauses of the company,
he further added, that in the minutest things with man, both male and
female, there is a conjugial principle; but still the conjugial
principle with the male is different from what it is with the female;
also that in the male conjugial principle there is what is conjunctive
with the female conjugial principle, and _vice versa_, even in the
minutest things. This he confirmed by the marriage of the will and the
understanding in every individual, which two principles act together
upon the minutest things of the mind and of the body; from which
considerations it may be seen, that in every substance, even the
smallest, there is a conjugial principle; and that this is evident from
the compound substances which are made up of simple substances; as that
there are two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, two cheeks, two lips, two
arms with hands, two loins, two feet, and within in man two hemispheres
of the brain, two ventricles of the heart, two lobes of the lungs, two
kidneys, two testicles; and where there are not two, still they are
divided into two. The reason why there are two is, because the one is of
the will and the other of the understanding, which act wonderfully in
each other to present a one; wherefore the two eyes make one sight, the
two ears one hearing, the two nostrils one smell, the two lips one
speech, the two hands one labor, the two feet one pace, the two
hemispheres of the brain one habitation of the mind, the two chambers of
the heart one life of the body by the blood, the two lobes of the lungs
one respiration, and so forth; but the male and female principles,
united by love truly conjugial, constitute one life fully human. While
he was saying these things, there appeared red lightning on the right,
and white lightning on the left; each was mild, and they entered through
the eyes into the mind, and also enlightened it. After the lightning it
also thundered; which was a gentle murmur from the angelic heaven
flowing down and increasing. On hearing and seeing these things, the
wise one said, "These are to remind me to add the following
observations: that of the above pairs, the right one signifies their
good, and the left their truth; and that this is from the marriage of
good and truth, which is inscribed on man in general and in every one of
his principles; and good has reference to the will, and truth to the
understanding, and both together to a one. Hence, in heaven the right
eye is the good of vision, and the left the truth thereof; also the
right ear is the good of hearing, and the left the truth thereof; and
likewise the right hand is the good of a man's ability, and the left the
truth thereof; and in like manner in the rest of the above pairs; and
since the right and left have such significations, therefore the Lord
said, 'If thy right eye scandalize thee, pluck it out; and if thy right
hand scandalize thee, cut it off;' whereby he meant, if good becomes
evil, the evil must be cast out. This is the reason also why he said to
his disciples that they should cast the net on the right side of the
ship; and that when they did so, they took a great multitude of fishes;
whereby he meant that they should teach the good of charity, and that
thus they would collect men." When he had said these things, the two
lightnings again appeared, but milder than before; and then it was seen,
that the lightning on the left derived its whiteness from the
red-shining fire of the lightning on the right; on seeing which he said,
"This is a sign from heaven tending to confirm what I have said; because
what is firy in heaven is good, and what is white in heaven is truth;
and its being seen that the lightning on the left derived its whiteness
from the red-shining fire of the lightning on the right, is a
demonstrative sign that the whiteness of light, or light, is merely the
splendor of fire." On hearing this all went home, inflamed with the good
and truth of gladness, in consequence of the above lightnings, and of
the conversation respecting them.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON REPEATED MARRIAGES.

317. It may come to be a matter of question, whether conjugial love,
which is that of one man with one wife, after the death of one of the
parties, can be separated, or transferred, or superinduced; also whether
repeated marriages have any thing in common with polygamy, and thereby
whether they may be called successive polygamies; with several other
inquiries which often add scruples to scruples with men of a reasoning
spirit. In order therefore that those who are curious in such
researches, and who only grope in the shade respecting these marriages,
may see some light, I have conceived it would be worth while to present
for their consideration the following articles on the subject: I. _After
the death of a married partner, again to contract wedlock, depends on
the preceding conjugial love._ II. _It depends also on the state of
marriage, in which the parties had lived._ III. _With those who have not
been in love truly conjugial there is no obstacle or hindrance to their
again contracting wedlock._ IV. _Those who had lived together in love
truly conjugial are unwilling to marry again, except for reasons
separate from conjugial love._ V. _The state of the marriage of a youth
with a maiden differs from that of a youth with a widow._ VI. _The state
of the marriage of a widower with a maiden differs also from that of a
widower with a widow._ VII. _The varieties and diversities of these
marriages as to love and its attributes are innumerable._ VIII. _The
state of a widow is more grievous than that of a widower._ We proceed to
the explanation of each article.

318. I. AFTER THE DEATH OF A MARRIED PARTNER, AGAIN TO CONTRACT WEDLOCK,
DEPENDS ON THE PRECEDING CONJUGIAL LOVE. Love truly conjugial is like a
balance, in which the inclinations for repeated marriages are weighed:
so far as the preceding conjugial love had been genuine, so far the
inclination for another marriage is weak; but so far as the preceding
love had not been genuine, so far the inclination to another marriage is
usually strong. The reason of this is obvious; because conjugial love is
in a similar degree a conjunction of minds, which remains in the life of
the body of the one party after the decease of the other; and this holds
the inclination as a scale in a balance, and causes a preponderance
according to the appropriation of true love. But since the approach to
this love is seldom made at this day except for a few paces, therefore
the scale of the preponderance of the inclination generally rises to a
state of equilibrium, and from thence inclines and tends to the other
side, that is, to marriage. The contrary is the case with those, whose
preceding-love in the former marriage has not been truly conjugial,
because in proportion as that love is not genuine, there is in a like
degree a disjunction of minds, which also remains in the life of the
body of the one party after the decease of the other; and this enters
the will disjoined from that of the other, and causes an inclination for
a new connection; in favor of which the thought arising from the
inclination of the will induces the hope of a more united, and thereby a
more delightful connection. That inclinations to repeated marriages
arise from the state of the preceding love, is well known, and is also
obvious to reason: for love truly conjugial is influenced by a fear of
loss, and loss is followed by grief; and this grief and fear reside in
the very inmost principles of the mind. Hence, so far as that love
prevails, so far the soul inclines both in will and in thought, that is,
in intention, to be in the subject with and in which it was: from these
considerations it follows, that the mind is kept balancing towards
another marriage according to the degree of love in which it was in the
former marriage. Hence it is that after death the same parties are
re-united, and mutually love each other as they did in the world: but as
we said above, such love at this day is rare, and there are few who make
the slightest approach to it; and those who do not approach it, and
still more those who keep at a distance from it, as they were desirous
of separation in the matrimonial life heretofore passed, so after death
they are desirous of being united to another. But respecting both these
sorts of persons more will be said in what follows.

319. II. AFTER THE DEATH OF A MARRIED PARTNER, AGAIN TO CONTRACT
WEDLOOK, DEPENDS ALSO ON THE STATE OF MARRIAGE IN WHICH THE PARTIES HAD
LIVED. By the State of marriage here we do not mean the state of love
treated of in the foregoing article, because the latter causes an
internal inclination to marriage or from it; but we mean the state of
marriage which causes an external inclination to it or from it; and this
state with its inclinations is manifold: as, 1. If there are children in
the house, and a new mother is to be provided for them. 2. If there is a
wish for a further increase of children. 3. If the house is large and
full of servants of both sexes. 4. If the calls of business abroad
divert the mind from domestic concerns, and without a new mistress there
is reason to fear misery and misfortune. 5. If mutual aids and offices
require that married partners be engaged in various occupations and
employments. 6. Moreover it depends on the temper and disposition of the
separated partner, whether after the first marriage the other partner
can or cannot live alone, or without a consort. 7. The preceding
marriage also disposes the mind either to be afraid of married life, or
in favor of it. 8. I have been informed that polygamical love and the
love of the sex, also the lust of deflowering and the lust of variety,
have induced the minds (_animos_) of some to desire repeated marriages;
and that the minds of some have also been induced thereto by a fear of
the law and of the loss of reputation, in case they commit whoredom:
besides several other circumstances which promote external inclinations
to matrimony.

320. III. WITH THOSE WHO HAVE NOT BEEN IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, THERE IS
NO OBSTACLE OR HINDRANCE TO THEIR AGAIN CONTRACTING WEDLOCK. With those
who have not been principled in conjugial love, there is no spiritual or
internal, but only a natural or external bond; and if an internal bond
does not keep the external in its order and tenor, the latter is but
like a bundle when the bandage is removed, which flows every way
according as it is tossed or driven by the wind. The reason of this is,
because what is natural derives its origin from what is spiritual, and
in its existence is merely a mass collected from spiritual principles;
wherefore if the natural be separated from the spiritual, which produced
and as it were begot it, it is no longer kept together interiorly, but
only exteriorly by the spiritual, which encompasses and binds it in
general, and does not tie it and keep it tied together in particular.
Hence it is, that the natural principle separated from the spiritual, in
the case of two married partners, does not cause any conjunction of
minds, and consequently of wills, but only a conjunction of some
external affections, which are connected with the bodily senses. The
reason why nothing opposes and hinders such persons from again
contracting wedlock, is, because they have not been the essentials of
marriage; and hence those essentials do not at all influence them after
separation by death: therefore they are then absolutely at their own
disposal, whether they be widowers or widows, to bind their sensual
affections with whomsoever they please, provided there be no legal
impediment. Neither do they themselves think of marriages in any other
than a natural view, and from a regard to convenience in supplying
various necessities and external advantages, which after the death of
one of the parties may again be supplied by another; and possibly, if
their interior thoughts were viewed, as in the spiritual world, there
would not be found in them any distinction between conjugial unions and
extra-conjugial connections. The reason why it is allowable for these to
contract repeated marriages, is, as above-mentioned, because merely
natural connections are after death of themselves dissolved and fall
asunder; for by death the external affections follow the body, and are
entombed with it; those only remaining which are connected with internal
principles. But it is to be observed, that marriages interiorly
conjunctive can scarcely be entered into in the world, because elections
of internal likenesses cannot there be provided by the Lord as in the
heavens; for they are limited in many ways, as to equals in rank and
condition, within the country, city, and village where they live; and in
the world for the most part married partners are held together merely by
externals, and thus not by internals, which internals do not shew
themselves till some time after marriage, and are only known when they
influence the externals.

321. IV. THOSE WHO HAD LIVED TOGETHER IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL ARE
UNWILLING TO MARRY AGAIN, EXCEPT FOR REASONS SEPARATE FROM CONJUGIAL
LOVE. The reasons why those who had lived in love truly conjugial, after
the death of their married partners are unwilling to marry again, are as
follow. 1. Because they were united as to their souls, and thence as to
their minds; and this union, being spiritual, is an actual junction of
the soul and mind of one of the parties to those of the other, which
cannot possibly be dissolved; that such is the nature of spiritual
conjunction, has been constantly shewn above. 2. Because they were also
united as to their bodies by the receptions of the propagation of the
soul of the husband by the wife, and thus by the insertion of his life
into hers, whereby a maiden becomes a wife; and on the other hand by the
reception of the conjugial love of the wife by the husband, which
disposes the interiors of his mind, and at the same time the interiors
and exteriors of his body, into a state receptible of love and
perceptible of wisdom, which makes him from a youth become a husband;
see above, n. 198. 3. Because a sphere of love from the wife, and a
sphere of understanding from the man, is continually flowing forth, and
because it perfects conjunctions, and encompasses them with its pleasant
influence, and unites them; see also above, n. 223. 4. Because married
partners thus united think of, and desire what is eternal, and because
on this idea their eternal happiness is founded; see n. 216. 5. From
these several considerations it is, that they are no longer two, but one
man, that is, one flesh. 6. That such a union cannot be destroyed by the
death of one of the parties, is manifest to the sight of a spirit. 7. To
the above considerations shall be added this new information, that two
such conjugial partners, after the death of one, are still not
separated; since the spirit of the deceased dwells continually with that
of the survivor, and this even to the death of the latter, when they
again meet and are reunited, and love each other more tenderly than
before, because they are then in the spiritual world. Hence flows this
undeniable consequence, that those who had lived in love truly
conjugial, are unwilling to marry again. But if they afterwards contract
something like marriage, it is for reasons separate from conjugial love,
which are all external; as in case there are young children in the
house, and the care of them requires attention; if the house is large
and full of servants of both sexes; if the calls of business abroad
divert the mind from domestic concerns; if mutual aids and offices are
necessary; with other cases of a like nature.

322. V. THE STATE OF THE MARRIAGE OF A YOUTH WITH A MAIDEN DIFFERS FROM
THAT OF A YOUTH WITH A WIDOW. By states of marriage we mean the states
of the life of each party, the husband and the wife, after the nuptials,
thus in the marriage, as to the quality of the intercourse at that time,
whether it be internal, that is of souls and minds, which is intercourse
in the principle idea, or whether it be only external, that is of minds
(_animorum_), of the senses, and of the body. The state of marriage of a
youth with a maiden is essentially itself initiatory to genuine
marriage; for between these conjugial love can proceed in its just
order, which is from its first heat to its first torch, and afterwards
from its first seed with the youth-husband, and from its first flower
with the maiden-wife, and thus generate, grow, and fructify, and
introduce itself into those successive states with both parties
mutually; but if otherwise, the youth or the maiden was not really such,
but only in external form. But between a youth and a widow there is not
such an initiation to marriage from first principles, nor a like
progression in marriage, since a widow is more at her own disposal, and
under her own jurisdiction, than a maiden; wherefore a youth addresses
himself differently to his wife if she were a widow, from what he does
if she were a maiden. But herein there is much variety and diversity;
therefore the subject is here mentioned only in a general way.

323. VI. THE STATE OF THE MARRIAGE OF A WIDOWER WITH A MAIDEN DIFFERS
ALSO FROM THAT OF A WIDOWER WITH A WIDOW. For a widower has already been
initiated into married life which a maiden has to be; and yet conjugial
love perceives and is sensible of its pleasantness and delight in mutual
initiation; a youth-husband and a maiden-wife perceive and are sensible
of things ever new in whatever occurs, whereby they are in a kind of
continual initiation and consequent amiable progression. The case is
otherwise in the state of the marriage of a widower with a maiden: the
maiden-wife has an internal inclination, whereas with the man that
inclination has passed away; but herein there is much variety and
diversity: the case is similar in a marriage between a widower and a
widow; however, except this general notion, it is not allowable to add
anything specifically.

324. VII. THE VARIETIES AND DIVERSITIES OF THESE MARRIAGES AS TO LOVE
AND ITS ATTRIBUTES ARE INNUMERABLE. There is an infinite variety of all
things, and also an infinite diversity. By varieties we here mean the
varieties between those things which are of one genus or species, also
between the genera and species; but by diversities we here mean the
diversities between those things which are opposite. Our idea of the
distinction of varieties and diversities may be illustrated as follows:
The angelic heaven, which is connected as a one, in an infinite variety,
no one there being absolutely like another, either as to souls and
minds, or as to affections, perceptions, and consequent thoughts, or as
to inclinations and consequent intentions, or as to tone of voice, face,
body, gesture, and gait, and several other particulars, and yet,
notwithstanding there are myriads of myriads, they have been and are
arranged by the Lord into one form, in which there is full unanimity and
concord; and this could not possibly be, unless they were all, with
their innumerable varieties, universally and individually under the
guidance of one: these are what we here mean by varieties. But by
diversities we mean the opposites of those varieties, which exist in
hell; for the inhabitants there are diametrically opposite to those in
heaven; and hell, which consists of such, is kept together as a one by
varieties in themselves altogether contrary to the varieties in heaven,
thus by perpetual diversities. From these considerations it is evident
what is perceived by infinite variety and infinite diversity. The case
is the same in marriages, namely, that there are infinite varieties with
those who are in conjugial love, and infinite varieties with those who
are in adulterous love; and hence, that there are infinite diversities
between the latter and the former. From these premises it follows, that
the varieties and diversities in marriages of every genus and species,
whether of a youth with a maiden, or of a youth with a widow, or of a
widower with a maiden, or of a widower with a widow exceed all number:
who can divide infinity into numbers?

325. VIII. THE STATE OF A WIDOW IS MORE GRIEVOUS THAN THAT OF A WIDOWER.
The reasons for this are both external and internal; the external are
such as all can comprehend; as: 1. That a widow cannot provide for
herself and her family the necessaries of life, nor dispose of them when
acquired, as a man can and as she previously did by and with her
husband. 2. That neither can she defend herself and her family as is
expedient; for, while she was a wife, her husband was her defence, and
as it were her arm; and while she herself was her own (defence and arm),
she still trusted to her husband. 3. That of herself she is deficient of
counsel in such things as relate to interior wisdom and the prudence
thence derived. 4. That a widow is without the reception of love, in
which as a woman she is principled; thus she is in a state contrary to
that which was innate and induced by marriage. These external reasons,
which are natural, have their origin from internal reasons also, which
are spiritual, like all other things in the world and in the body;
respecting which see above, n. 220. Those external natural reasons are
perceived from the internal spiritual reasons which proceed from the
marriage of good and truth, and principally from the following: that
good cannot provide or arrange anything but by truth; that neither can
good defend itself but by truth; consequently that truth is the defence
and as it were the arm of good; that good without truth is deficient of
counsel, because it has counsel, wisdom, and prudence by means of truth.
Now since by creation the husband is truth, and the wife the good
thereof; or, what is the same thing, since by creation the husband is
understanding, and the wife the love thereof, it is evident that the
external or natural reasons, which aggravate the widowhood of a woman,
have their origin from internal or spiritual reasons. These spiritual
reasons, together with natural, are meant by what is said of widows in
several passages in the Word; as may be seen in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED,
n. 764.

       *       *       *       *       *

326. To the above I shall add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. After the
problem concerning the soul had been discussed and solved in the
gymnasium, I saw them coming out in order: first came the chief teacher,
then the elders, in the midst of whom were the five youths who had given
the answers, and after these the rest. When they were come out they went
apart to the environs of the house, where there were piazzas surrounded
by shrubs; and being assembled, they divided themselves into small
companies, which were so many groups of youths conversing together on
subjects of wisdom, in each of which was one of the wise persons from
the orchestra. As I saw these from my apartment, I became in the spirit,
and in that state I went out to them, and approached the chief teacher,
who had lately proposed the problem concerning the soul. On seeing me,
he said. "Who are you? I was surprised as I saw you approaching in the
way, that at one instant you came into my sight, and the next instant
went out of it; or that at one time I saw you, and suddenly I did not
see you: assuredly you are not in the same state of life that we are."
To this I replied, smiling, "I am neither a player nor a _vertumnus_;
but I am alternate, at one time in your light, and at another in your
shade; thus both a foreigner and a native." Hereupon the chief teacher
looked at me, and said, "You speak things strange and wonderful: tell me
who you are." I said, "I am in the world in which you have been, and
from which you have departed, and which is called the natural world; and
I am also in the world into which you have come, and in which you are,
which is called the spiritual world. Hence I am in a natural state, and
at the same time in a spiritual state; in a natural state with men of
the earth and in a spiritual state with you; and when I am in the
natural state, you do not see me, but when I am in the spiritual state,
you do; that such should be my condition, has been granted me by the
Lord. It is known to you, illustrious sir, that a man of the natural
world does not see a man of the spiritual world, nor _vice versa_;
therefore when I let my spirit into the body, you did not see me; but
when I let it out of the body, you did see me. You have been teaching in
the gymnasium, that you are souls, and that souls see souls, because
they are human forms; and you know, that when you were in the natural
world, you did not see yourself or your souls in your bodies; and this
is a consequence of the difference between what is spiritual and what is
natural." When he heard of the difference between what is spiritual and
what is natural, he said, "What do you mean by that difference? is it
not like the difference between what is more or less pure? for what is
spiritual but that which is natural in a higher state of purity?" I
replied, "The difference is of another kind; it is like that between
prior and posterior, which bear no determinate proportion to each other:
for the prior is in the posterior as the cause is in the effect; and the
posterior is derived from the prior as the effect from its cause: hence,
the one does not appear to the other." To this the chief teacher
replied, "I have meditated and ruminated upon this difference, but
heretofore in vain; I wish I could perceive it." I said, "You shall not
only perceive the difference between what is spiritual and what is
natural, but shall also see it." I then proceeded as follows: "You
yourself are in a spiritual state with your associate spirits, but in a
natural state with me; for you converse with your associates in the
spiritual language, which is common to every spirit and angel, but with
me in my mother tongue; for every spirit and angel, when conversing with
a man, speaks his peculiar language; thus French with a Frenchman,
English with an Englishman, Greek with a Greek, Arabic with an Arabian,
and so forth. That you may know therefore the difference between what is
spiritual and what is natural in respect to languages, make this
experiment; withdraw to your associates, and say something there: then
retain the expressions, and return with them in your memory, and utter
them before me." He did so, and returned to me with those expressions in
his mouth, and uttered them; and they were altogether strange and
foreign, such as do not occur in any language of the natural world. By
this experiment several times repeated, it was made very evident that
all the spiritual world have the spiritual language, which has in it
nothing that is common to any natural language, and that every man comes
of himself into the use of that language after his decease. At the same
time also he experienced, that the sound of the spiritual language
differs so far from the sound of natural language, that a spiritual
sound, though loud, could not at all be heard by a natural man, nor a
natural sound by a spirit. Afterwards I requested the chief teacher and
the bystanders to withdraw to their associates, and write some sentence
or other on a piece of paper, and then return with it to me, and read
it. They did so, and returned with the paper in their hand; but when
they read it, they could not understand any part of it, as the writing
consisted only of some letters of the alphabet, with turns over them,
each of which was significative of some particular sense and meaning:
because each letter of the alphabet is thus significative, it is evident
why the Lord is called Alpha and Omega. On their repeatedly withdrawing,
and writing in the same manner, and returning to me, they found that
their writing involved and comprehended innumerable things which no
natural writing could possibly express; and they were given to
understand, that this was in consequence of the spiritual man's thoughts
being incomprehensible and ineffable to the natural man, and such as
cannot flow and be brought into any other writing or language. Then as
some present were unwilling to comprehend that spiritual thought so far
exceeds natural thought, as to be respectively ineffable, I said to
them, "Make the experiment; withdraw into your spiritual society, and
think on some subject, and retain your thoughts, and return, and express
them before me." They did so; but when they wanted to express the
subject thought of, they were unable; for they did not find any idea of
natural thought adequate to any idea of spiritual thought, consequently
no words expressive of it; for ideas of thought are constituent of the
words of language. This experiment they repeated again and again;
whereby they were convinced that spiritual ideas are supernatural,
inexpressible, ineffable, and incomprehensible to the natural man; and
on account of this their super-eminence, they said, that spiritual
ideas, or thoughts, as compared with natural, were ideas of ideas, and
thoughts of thoughts; and that therefore they were expressive of
qualities of qualities, and affections of affections; consequently that
spiritual thoughts were the beginnings and origins of natural thoughts:
hence also it was made evident that spiritual wisdom was the wisdom of
wisdom, consequently that it was imperceptible to any wise man in the
natural world. It was then told them from the third heaven, that there
is a wisdom still interior and superior, which is called celestial,
bearing a proportion to spiritual wisdom like that which spiritual
wisdom bears to natural, and that these descend by an orderly influx
according to the heavens from the divine wisdom of the Lord, which is
infinite.

327. After this I said to the by-standers, "You have seen from these
three experimental proofs what is the difference between spiritual and
natural, and also the reason why the natural man does not appear to the
spiritual, nor the spiritual to the natural, although they are
consociated as to affections and thoughts, and thence as to presence.
Hence it is that, as I approached, at one time you, Sir, (addressing the
chief teacher), saw me, and at another you did not." After this, a voice
was heard from the superior heaven to the chief teacher, saying, "Come
up hither;" and he went up: and on his return, he said, that the angels,
as well as himself, did not before know the differences between
spiritual and natural, because there had never before been an
opportunity of comparing them together, by any person's existing at the
same time in both worlds; and without such comparison and reference
those differences were not ascertainable.

328. After this we retired, and conversing again on this subject, I
said, "Those differences originate solely in this circumstance of your
existence in the spiritual world, that you are in substantials and not
in materials: and substantials are the beginning of materials. You are
in principles and thereby in singulars; but we are in principiates and
composites; you are in particulars, but we are in generals; and as
generals cannot enter into particulars, so neither can natural things,
which are material, enter into spiritual things which are substantial,
any more than a ship's cable can enter into, or be drawn though, the eye
of a fine needle; or than a nerve can enter or be let into one of the
fibres of which it is composed, or a fibre into one of the fibrils of
which it is composed: this also is known in the world: therefore herein
the learned are agreed, that there is no such thing as an influx of what
is natural into what is spiritual, but of what is spiritual into what is
natural. This now is the reason why the natural man cannot conceive that
which the spiritual man conceives, nor consequently express such
conceptions; wherefore Paul calls what he heard from the third heaven
ineffable. Moreover, to think spiritually is to think abstractedly from
space and time, and to think naturally is to think in conjunction with
space and time; for in every idea of natural thought there is something
derived from space and time, which is not the case with any spiritual
idea; because the spiritual world is not in space and time, like the
natural world, but in the appearances of space and time. In this respect
also spiritual thoughts and perceptions differ from natural; therefore
you can think of the essence and omnipresence of God from eternity, that
is, of God before the creation of the world, since you think of the
essence of God from eternity abstracted from time, and of his
omnipresence abstracted from space, and thus comprehend such things as
transcend the ideas of the natural man." I then related to them, how I
once thought of the essence and omnipresence of God from eternity, that
is of God before the creation of the world; and that because I could not
yet remove spaces and times from the ideas of my thought, I was brought
into anxiety; for the idea of nature entered instead of God: but it was
said to me, "Remove the ideas of space and time, and you will see." I
did so and then I saw; and from that time I was enabled to think of God
from eternity, and not of nature from eternity; because God is in all
time without time, and in all space without space, whereas nature in all
time is in time, and in all space in space; and nature with her time and
space, must of necessity have a beginning and a birth, but not God who
is without time, and space; therefore nature is from God, not from
eternity, but in time, that is, together with her time and space.

329. After the chief teacher and the rest of the assembly had left me,
some boys who were also engaged in the gymnasian exercise, followed me
home, and stood near me for a little while as I was writing: and lo! at
that instant they saw a moth running upon my paper, and asked in
surprise what was the name of that nimble little creature? I said, "It
is called a moth; and I will tell you some wonderful things respecting
it. This little animal contains in itself as many members and viscera as
there are in a camel, such as brains, hearts, pulmonary pipes, organs of
sense, motion, and generation, a stomach, intestines, and several
others; and each of these organs consists of fibres, nerves,
blood-vessels, muscles, tendons, membranes; and each of these of still
purer parts, which escape the observation of the keenest eye." They then
said that this little animal appeared to them just like a simple
substance; upon which I said, "There are nevertheless innumerable things
within it. I mention these things that you may know, that the case is
similar in regard to every object which appears before you as one,
simple and least, as well in your actions as in your affections and
thoughts. I can assure you that every grain of thought, that every drop
of your affection, is divisible _ad infinitum_: and that in proportion
as your ideas are divisible, so you are wise. Know then, that every
thing divided is more and more multiple, and not more and more simple;
because what is continually divided approaches nearer and nearer to the
infinite, in which all things are infinitely. What I am now observing to
you is new and heretofore unheard of." When I concluded, the boys took
their leave of me, and went to the chief teacher, and intreated him to
take an opportunity to propose in the gymnasium somewhat new and unheard
of as a problem. He inquired, "What?" they said, "That every thing
divided is more and more multiple, and not more and more simple; because
it approaches nearer and nearer to the infinite, in which all things are
infinitely:" and he pledged himself to propose it, and said, "I see
this, because I have perceived that one natural idea contains
innumerable spiritual ideas; yea, that one spiritual idea contains
innumerable celestial ideas. Herein is grounded the difference between
the celestial wisdom of the angels of the third heaven, and the
spiritual wisdom of the angels of the second heaven, and also the
natural wisdom of the angels of the last heaven and likewise of men."

330. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. I once heard a pleasant discussion
between some men respecting the female sex, whether it be possible for a
woman to love her husband, who constantly loves her own beauty, that is,
who loves herself from her form. They agreed among themselves first,
that women have two-fold beauty; one natural, which is that of the face
and body, and the other spiritual which is that of the love and manners;
they agreed also, that these two kinds of beauty are often divided in
the natural world, and are always united in the spiritual world; for in
the latter world beauty is the form of the love and manners; therefore
after death it frequently happens that deformed women become beauties,
and beautiful women become deformities. While the men were discussing
this point, there came some wives, and said, "Admit of our presence;
because what you are discussing, you have learned by science, but we are
taught it by experience; and you likewise know so little of the love of
wives, that it scarcely amounts to any knowledge. Do you know that the
prudence of the wives' wisdom consists in hiding their love from their
husbands in the inmost recess of their bosoms, or in the midst of their
hearts?" The discussion then proceeded; and the FIRST CONCLUSION made by
the men was, That every woman is willing to appear beautiful as to face
and manners, because she is born an affection of love, and the form of
this affection is beauty; therefore a woman that is not desirous to be
beautiful, is not desirous to love and to be loved, and consequently is
not truly a woman. Hereupon the wives observed, "The beauty of a woman
resides in soft tenderness, and consequently in exquisite sensibility;
hence comes the woman's love for the man, and the man's for the woman.
This possibly you do not understand." The SECOND CONCLUSION of the men
was, That a woman before marriage is desirous to be beautiful for the
men, but after marriage, if she be chaste, for one man only, and not for
the men. Hereupon the wives observed. "When the husband has sipped the
natural beauty of the wife, he sees it no longer, but sees her spiritual
beauty; and from this he re-loves, and recalls the natural beauty, but
under another aspect." The THIRD CONCLUSION of their discussion was,
That if a woman after marriage is desirous to appear beautiful in like
manner as before marriage, she loves the men, and not a man: because a
woman loving herself from her beauty is continually desirous that her
beauty should be sipped; and as this no longer appears to her husband,
as you observed, she is desirous that it may be sipped by the men to
whom it appears. It is evident that such a one has a love of the sex,
and not a love of one of the sex. Hereupon the wives were silent; yet
they murmured, "What woman is so void of vanity, as not to desire to
seem beautiful to the men also, at the same time that she seems
beautiful to one man only?" These things were heard by some wives from
heaven, who were beautiful, because they were heavenly affections. They
confirmed the conclusions of the men; but they added, "Let them only
love their beauty and its ornaments for the sake of their husbands, and
from them."

331. Those three wives being indignant that the three conclusions of the
men were confirmed by the wives from heaven, said to the men, "You have
inquired whether a woman that loves herself from her beauty, loves her
husband; we in our turn will therefore inquire whether a man who loves
himself from his intelligence, can love his wife. Be present and hear."
This was their FIRST CONCLUSION; No wife loves her husband on account of
his face, but on account of his intelligence in his business and
manners: know therefore, that a wife unites herself with a man's
intelligence and thereby with the man: therefore if a man loves himself
on account of his intelligence, he withdraws it from the wife into
himself, whence comes disunion and not union: moreover to love his own
intelligence is to be wise from himself, and this is to be insane;
therefore it is to love his own insanity. Hereupon the men observed,
"Possibly the wife unites herself with the man's strength or ability."
At this the wives smiled, saying, "There is no deficiency of ability
while the man loves the wife from intelligence; but there is if he loves
her from insanity. Intelligence consists in loving the wife only: and in
this love there is no deficiency of ability; but insanity consists in
not loving the wife but the sex, and in this love there is a deficiency
of ability. You comprehend this." The SECOND CONCLUSION was; We women
are born into the love of the men's intelligence; therefore if the men
love their own intelligence, it cannot be united with its genuine love,
which belongs to the wife; and if the man's intelligence is not united
with its genuine love, which belongs to the wife, it becomes insanity
grounded in haughtiness, and conjugial love becomes cold. What woman in
such case can unite her love to what is cold; and what man can unite the
insanity of his haughtiness to the love of intelligence? But the men
said, "Whence has a man honor from his wife but by her magnifying his
intelligence?" The wives replied, "From love, because love honors; and
honor cannot be separated from love, but love maybe from honor."
Afterwards they came to this THIRD CONCLUSION; You seemed as if you
loved your wives; and you do not see that you are loved by them, and
thus that you re-love; and that your intelligence is a receptacle: if
therefore you love your intelligence in yourselves, it becomes the
receptacle of your love; and the love of _proprium_ (or self-hood),
since it cannot endure an equal, never becomes conjugial love; but so
long as it prevails, so long it remains adulterous. Hereupon the men
were silent; nevertheless they murmured, "What is conjugial love?" Some
husbands in heaven heard what passed, and confirmed thence the three
conclusions of the wives.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON POLYGAMY.

332. The reason why polygamical marriages are absolutely condemned by
the Christian world cannot be clearly seen by any one, whatever powers
of acute and ingenious investigation he may possess, unless he be
previously instructed, THAT THERE EXISTS A LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL; THAT
THIS LOVE CAN ONLY EXIST BETWEEN TWO; NOR BETWEEN TWO, EXCEPT FROM THE
LORD ALONE; AND THAT INTO THIS LOVE IS INSERTED HEAVEN WITH ALL ITS
FELICITIES. Unless these knowledges precede, and as it were lay the
first stone, it is in vain for the mind to desire to draw from the
understanding any reasons for the condemnation of polygamy by the
Christian world, which should be satisfactory, and on which it may
firmly stand, as a house upon its stone or foundation. It is well known,
that the institution of monogamical marriage is founded on the Word of
the Lord, "_That whosoever putteth away his wife, except on account of
whoredom, and marrieth another, committeth adultery; and that from the
beginning, or from the first establishment of marriages, it was
(ordained), that two should become one flesh; and that man should not
separate what God hath joined together_," Matt. xix. 3-12. But although
the Lord spake these words from the divine law inscribed on marriages,
still if the understanding cannot support that law by some reason of its
own, it may so warp it by the turnings and windings to which it is
accustomed, and by sinister interpretations, as to render its principle
obscure and ambiguous, and at length affirmative negative;--affirmative,
because it is also grounded in the civil law; and negative, because it
is not grounded in a rational view of those words. Into this principle
the human mind will fall, unless it be previously instructed respecting
the above-mentioned knowledges, which may be serviceable to the
understanding as introductory to its reasons: these knowledges are, that
there exists a love truly conjugial; that this love can only possibly
exist between two; nor between two, except from the Lord alone; and that
into this love is inserted heaven with all its felicities. But these,
and several other particulars respecting the condemnation of polygamy by
the Christian world, we will demonstrate in the following order: I.
_Love truly conjugial can only exist with one wife, consequently neither
can friendship, confidence, ability truly conjugial, and such
conjunction of minds that two may be one flesh._ II. _Thus celestial
blessednesses, spiritual satisfactions, and natural delights, which from
the beginning were provided for those who are in love truly conjugial,
can only exist with one wife._ III. _All those things can only exist
from the Lord alone; and they do not exist with any but those who come
to him alone, and at the same time live according to his commandments._
IV. _Consequently, love truly conjugial, with its felicities, can only
exist with those who are of the Christian church._ V. _Therefore a
Christian is not allowed to marry more than one wife._ VI. _If a
Christian marries several wives, he commits not only natural but also
spiritual adultery._ VII. _The Israelitish nation was permitted to marry
several wives, because they had not the Christian church, and
consequently love truly conjugial could not exist with them._ VIII. _At
this day the Mahometans are permitted to marry several wives, because
they do not acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ to be one with Jehovah the
Father, and thereby to be the God of heaven and earth; and hence they
cannot receive love truly conjugial._ IX. _The Mahometan heaven is out
of the Christian heaven and is divided into two heavens, the inferior
and the superior; and only those are elevated into their superior heaven
who renounce concubines and live with one wife, and acknowledge our Lord
as equal to God the Father, to whom is given dominion over heaven and
earth._ X. _Polygamy is lasciviousness._ XI. _Conjugial chastity,
purity, and sanctity, cannot exist with polygamists._ XII. _Polygamists,
so long as they remain such, cannot become spiritual._ XIII. _Polygamy
is not sin with those who live in it from a religious notion._ XIV.
_That polygamy is not sin with those who are in ignorance respecting the
Lord._ XV. _That of these, although polygamists, such are saved as
acknowledge God, and from a religious notion live according to the civil
laws of justice._ XVI. _But none either of the latter or of the former
can be associated with the angels in the Christian heavens._ We proceed
to an explanation of each article.

333. I. LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL CAN ONLY EXIST WITH ONE WIFE, CONSISTENTLY
NEITHER CAN FRIENDSHIP, CONFIDENCE, ABILITY TRULY CONJUGIAL, AND SUCH A
CONJUNCTION OF MINDS THAT TWO MAY BE ONE FLESH. That love truly
conjugial is at this day so rare as to be generally unknown, is a
subject which has been occasionally inquired into above; that
nevertheless such love actually exists, was demonstrated in its proper
chapter, and occasionally in following chapters. But apart from such
demonstration, who does not know that there is such a love, which, for
excellency and satisfaction, is paramount to all other loves, so that
all other loves in respect to it are of little account? That it exceeds
self-love, the love of the world, and even the love of life, experience
testifies in a variety of cases. Have there not been, and are there not
still, instances of men, who for a woman, the dear and desired object of
their wishes, prostrate themselves on their knees, adore her as a
goddess, and submit themselves as the vilest slaves to her will and
pleasure? a plain proof that this love exceeds the love of self. Have
there not been, and are there not still instances of men, who for such a
woman, make light of wealth, yea of treasures presented in prospect, and
are also prodigal of those which they possess? a plain proof that this
love exceeds the love of the world. Have there not been, and are there
not still, instances of men who for such a woman, account life itself as
worthless, and desire to die rather than be disappointed in their
wishes, as is evidenced by the many fatal combats between rival lovers
on such occasions? a plain proof that this love exceeds the love of
life. Lastly, have there not been, and are there not still, instances of
men, who for such a woman, have gone raving mad in consequence of being
denied a place in her favor? From such a commencement of this love in
several cases, who cannot rationally conclude, that, from its essence,
it holds supreme dominion over every other love; and that the man's soul
in such case is in it, and promises itself eternal blessedness with the
dear and desired object of its wishes? And who can discover, let him
make what inquiry he pleases, any other cause of this than that he has
devoted his soul and heart to one woman? for if the lover, while he is
in that state, had the offer made him of choosing out of the whole sex
the worthiest, the richest, and the most beautiful, would he not despise
the offer, and adhere to her whom he had already chosen, his heart being
riveted to her alone? These observations are made in order that you may
acknowledge, that conjugial love of such super-eminence exists, while
one of the sex alone is loved. What understanding which with quick
discernment attends to a chain of connected reasonings, cannot hence
conclude, that if a lover from his inmost soul constantly persisted in
love to that one, he would attain those eternal blessednesses which he
promised himself before consent, and promises in consent? That he also
does attain them if he comes to the Lord, and from him lives a life of
true religion, was shewn above. Who but the Lord enters the life of man
from a superior principle, and implants therein internal celestial joys,
and transfers them to the derivative principles which follow in order;
and the more so, while at the same time he also bestows an enduring
strength or ability? It is no proof that such love does not exist, or
cannot exist, to urge that it is not experienced in one's self, and in
this or that person.

334. Since love truly conjugial unites the souls and hearts of two
persons, therefore also it is united with friendship, and by friendship
with confidence, and makes each conjugial, and so exalts them above
other friendships and confidences, that as that love is the chief love,
so also that friendship and that confidence are the chief: that this is
the case also with ability, is plain from several reasons, some of which
are discovered in the SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION that follows this
chapter; and from this ability follows the endurance of that love. That
by love truly conjugial two consorts become one flesh, was shewn in a
separate chapter, from n. 156-183.

335. II. THUS CELESTIAL BLESSEDNESS, SPIRITUAL SATISFACTIONS, AND
NATURAL DELIGHTS, WHICH FROM THE BEGINNING WERE PROVIDED FOR THOSE WHO
ARE IN LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL, CAN ONLY EXIST WITH ONE WIFE. They are
called celestial blessednesses, spiritual satisfactions, and natural
delights, because the human mind is distinguished into three regions, of
which the highest is called celestial, the second spiritual, and the
third natural; and those three regions, with such as are principled in
love truly conjugial, are open, and influx follows in order according to
the openings. And as the pleasantnesses of that love are most eminent in
the highest regions, they are perceived as blessednesses, and as in the
middle region they are less eminent, they are perceived as
satisfactions, and lastly, in the lowest region, as delights: that there
are such blessednesses, satisfactions, and delights, and that they are
perceived and felt, appears from the MEMORABLE RELATIONS in which they
are described. The reason why all those happinesses were from the
beginning provided for those who are principled in love truly conjugial,
is, because there is an infinity of all blessednesses in the Lord, and
he is divine love; and it is the essence of love to desire to
communicate all its goods to another whom it loves; therefore together
with man he created that love, and inserted in it the faculty of
receiving and perceiving those blessednesses. Who is of so dull and
doting an apprehension as not to be able to see, that there is some
particular love into which the Lord has collected all possible
blessings, satisfactions, and delights?

336. III. ALL THOSE THINGS CAN ONLY EXIST FROM THE LORD ALONE; AND THEY
DO NOT EXIST WITH ANY BUT THOSE WHO COME TO HIM ALONE, AND LIVE
ACCORDING TO HIS COMMANDMENTS. This has been proved above in many
places; to which proofs it may be expedient to add, that all those
blessings, satisfactions, and delights can only be given by the Lord,
and therefore no other is to be approached. What other can be
approached, when by him all things were made which are made, John i. 3;
when he is the God of heaven and earth, Matt, xxviii. 18: when no
appearance of God the father was ever seen, or his voice heard, except
through him, John i. 18; chap. v. 37; chap. xiv. 6-11? From these and
very many other passages in the Word, it is evident that the marriage of
love and wisdom, or of good and truth, from which alone all marriages
derive their origin, proceeds from him alone. Hence it follows, that the
above love with its felicities exists with none but those who come to
him; and the reason why it exists with those who live according to his
commandments, is, because he is conjoined with them by love, John xiv.
21-24.

337. IV. CONSEQUENTLY, LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL WITH ITS FELICITIES CAN ONLY
EXIST WITH THOSE WHO ARE OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. The reason why
conjugial love, such as was described in its proper chapter, n. 57-73,
and in the following chapters, thus such as it is in its essence, exists
only with those who are of the Christian church, is, because that love
is from the Lord alone, and the Lord is not so known elsewhere as that
he can be approached as God; also because that love is according to the
state of the church with every one, n. 130, and the genuine state of the
church is from no other source than from the Lord, and thus is with none
but those who receive it from him. That these two principles are the
beginnings, introductions, and establishments of that love, has been
already confirmed by such abundance of evident and conclusive reasons,
that it is altogether needless to say any thing more on the subject. The
reason why conjugial love is nevertheless rare in the Christian world,
n. 58-59, is, because few in that world approach the Lord, and among
those there are some who indeed believe the church, but do not live
accordingly; besides other circumstances which are unfolded in the
APOCALYPSE REVEALED, where the present state of the Christian church is
fully described. But nevertheless it is an established truth, that love
truly conjugial can only exist with those who are of the Christian
church; therefore also from this ground polygamy is in that church
altogether rejected and condemned: that this also is of the divine
providence of the Lord, appears very manifest to those who think justly
concerning providence.

338. V. THEREFORE A CHRISTIAN IS NOT ALLOWED TO MARRY MORE THAN ONE
WIFE. This follows as a conclusion from the confirmation of the
preceding articles; to which this is to be added, that the genuine
conjugial principle is more deeply inserted into the minds of
Christians, than of the Gentiles who have embraced polygamy; and that
hence the minds of Christians are more susceptible of that love than the
minds of polygamists; for that conjugial principle is inserted in the
interiors of the minds of Christians, because they acknowledge the Lord
and his divine principle, and in the exteriors of their minds by civil
laws.

339. VI. IF A CHRISTIAN MARRIES SEVERAL WIVES, HE COMMITS NOT ONLY
NATURAL BUT ALSO SPIRITUAL ADULTERY. That a Christian who marries
several wives, commits natural adultery, is agreeable to the Lord's
words, "_That it is not lawful to put away a wife, because from the
beginning they were created to be one flesh; and that he who putteth
away a wife without just cause, and marrieth another, committeth
adultery_." Matt. xix. 3-12; thus still more does he commit adultery who
does not put away his wife, but, while retaining her, connects himself
with another. This law enacted by the Lord respecting marriages, has its
internal ground in spiritual marriage; for whatever the Lord spoke was
in itself spiritual; which is meant by this declaration, "_The words
that I speak unto you are spirit and are life_," John vi. 63. The
spiritual (sense) contained therein is this, that by polygamical
marriage in the Christian world, the marriage of the Lord and the Church
is profaned; in like manner the marriage of good and truth; and still
more the Word, and with the Word the church; and the profanation of
those things is spiritual adultery. That the profanation of the good and
truth of the church derived from the Word corresponds to adultery, and
hence is spiritual adultery; and that the falsification of good and
truth has alike correspondence, but in a less degree, may be seen
confirmed in the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 134. The reason why by
polygamical marriages among Christians the marriage of the Lord and the
church is profaned, is, because there is a correspondence between that
divine marriage and the marriages of Christians; concerning which, see
above, n. 83-102; which correspondence entirely perishes, if one wife is
joined to another; and when it perishes, the married man is no longer a
Christian. The reason why by polygamical marriages among Christians the
marriage of good and truth is profaned, is because from this spiritual
marriage are derived marriages in the world; and the marriages of
Christians differ from those of other nations in this respect, that as
good loves truth, and truth good, and are a one, so it is with a wife
and a husband; therefore if a Christian should join one wife to another,
he would rend asunder in himself that spiritual marriage; consequently
he would profane the origin of his marriage, and would thereby commit
spiritual adultery. That marriages in the world are derived from the
marriage of good and truth, may be seen above, n. 116-131. The reason
why a Christian by polygamical marriage would profane the Word and the
church, is, because the Word considered in itself is the marriage of
good and truth, and the church in like manner, so far as this is derived
from the Word; see above, n. 128-131. Now since a Christian is
acquainted with the Lord, possesses the Word, and has also the church
from the Lord by the Word, it is evident that he, much more than one who
is not a Christian, has the faculty of being capable of being
regenerated, and thereby of becoming spiritual, and also of attaining to
love truly conjugial; for these things are connected together. Since
those Christians who marry several wives, commit not only natural but
also at the same time spiritual adultery, it follows that the
condemnation of Christian polygamists after death is more grievous than
that of those who commit only natural adultery. Upon inquiring into
their state after death, I received for answer, that heaven is
altogether closed in respect to them; that they appear in hell as lying
in warm water in the recess of a bath, and that they thus appear at a
distance, although they are standing on their feet, and walking, which
is in consequence of their intestine frenzy; and that some of them are
thrown into whirlpools in the borders of the worlds.

340. VII. THE ISRAELITISH NATION WAS PERMITTED TO MARRY SEVERAL WIVES,
BECAUSE THEY HAD NOT THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, AND CONSEQUENTLY LOVE TRULY
CONJUGIAL COULD NOT EXIST WITH THEM. There are some at this day who are
in doubt respecting the institution relative to monogamical marriages,
or those of one man with one wife, and who are distracted by opposite
reasonings on the subject; being led to suppose that because polygamical
marriages were openly permitted in the case of the Israelitish nation
and its kings, and in the case of David and Solomon, they are also in
themselves permissible to Christians; but such persons have no distinct
knowledge respecting the Israelitish nation and the Christian, or
respecting the externals and internals of the church, or respecting the
change of the church from external to internal by the Lord; consequently
they know nothing from interior judgment respecting marriages. In
general it is to be observed, that a man is born natural in order that
he may be made spiritual; and that so long as he remains natural, he is
in the night, and as it were asleep as to spiritual things; and that in
this case he does not even know the difference between the external
natural man and the internal spiritual. That the Christian church was
not with the Israelitish nation, is known from the Word; for they
expected the Messiah, as they still expect him, who was to exalt them
above all other nations and people in the world: if therefore they had
been told, and were still to be told, that the Messiah's kingdom is over
the heavens, and thence over all nations, they would have accounted it
an idle tale; hence they not only did not acknowledge Christ or the
Messiah, our Lord, when he came into the world, but also barbarously
took him away out of the world. From these considerations it is evident,
that the Christian church was not, with that nation, as neither is it at
this day; and those with whom the Christian church is not, are natural
men both externally and internally: to such persons polygamy is not
hurtful, since it is inherent in the natural man; for, in regard to love
in marriages, the natural man perceives nothing but what has relation to
lust. This is meant by these words of the Lord, "_That Moses, because of
the HARDNESS OF THEIR HEARTS, suffered them to put away their wives: but
that from the beginning it was not so_," Matt. xix. 8. He says that
Moses permitted it, in order that it may be known that it was not the
Lord (who permitted it). But that the Lord taught the internal spiritual
man, is known from his precepts, and from the abrogation of the rituals
which served only for the use of the natural man; from his precepts
respecting washing, as denoting the purification of the internal man,
Matt. xv. 1, 17-20; chap. xxiii. 25, 26; Mark vii. 14-23; respecting
adultery, as denoting cupidity of the will, Matt. v. 28; respecting the
putting away of wives, as being unlawful, and respecting polygamy, as
not being agreeable to the divine law, Matt. xix. 3-9. These and several
other things relating to the internal principle and the spiritual man,
the Lord taught, because he alone opens the internals of human minds,
and makes them spiritual, and implants these spiritual principles in the
natural, that these also may partake of a spiritual essence: and this
effect takes place if he is approached, and the life is formed according
to his command merits, which in a summary are, to believe on him, and to
shun evils because they are of and from the devil; also to do good
works, because they are of the Lord and from the Lord; and in each case
for the man to act as from himself, and at the same time to believe that
all is done by the Lord through him. The essential reason why the Lord
opens the internal spiritual man, and implants this in the external
natural man, is, because every man thinks and acts naturally, and
therefore could not perceive any thing spiritual, and receives it in his
natural principle, unless the Lord had assumed the human natural, and
had made this also divine. From these considerations now it appears a
truth that the Israelitish nation was permitted to marry several wives,
because the Christian church was not with them.

341. VIII. AT THIS DAY THE MAHOMETANS ARE PERMITTED TO MARRY SEVERAL
WIVES, BECAUSE THEY DO NOT ACKNOWLEDGE THE LORD JESUS CHRIST TO BE ONE
WITH JEHOVAH THE FATHER, AND THEREBY TO BE THE GOD OF HEAVEN AND EARTH,
AND HENCE CANNOT RECEIVE LOVE TRULY CONJUGIAL. The Mahometans, in
conformity to the religion which Mahomet gave them, acknowledge Jesus
Christ to be the Son of God and a grand prophet, and that he was sent
into the world by God the Father to teach mankind; but not that God the
Father and he are one, and that his divine and human (principle) are one
person, united as soul and body, agreeably to the faith of all
Christians as grounded in the Athanasian Creed; therefore the followers
of Mahomet could not acknowledge our Lord to be any God from eternity,
but only to be a perfect natural man; and this being the opinion
entertained by Mahomet, and thence by his disciples, and they knowing
that God is one, and that that God is he who created the universe,
therefore they could do no other than pass by our Lord in their worship;
and the more so, because they declare Mahomet also to be a grand
prophet; neither do they know what the Lord taught. It is owing to this
cause, that the interiors of their minds, which in themselves are
spiritual, could not be opened: that the interiors of the mind are
opened by the Lord alone, may be seen just above, n. 340. The genuine
cause why they are opened by the Lord, when he is acknowledged to be the
God of heaven and earth, and is approached, and with those who live
according to his commandments, is, because otherwise there is no
conjunction, and without conjunction there is no reception. Man is
receptible of the Lord's presence and of conjunction with him. To come
to him causes presence, and to live according to his commandments causes
conjunction; his presence alone is without reception, but presence and
conjunction together are with reception. On this subject I will impart
the following new information from the spiritual world. Every one in
that world, when he is thought of, is brought into view as present; but
no one is conjoined to another except from the affection of love; and
this is insinuated by doing what he requires, and what is pleasing to
him. This circumstance, which is common in the spiritual world, derives
its origin from the Lord, who, in this same manner, is present and is
conjoined. The above observations are made in order to shew, that the
Mahometans are permitted to marry several wives, because love truly
conjugial, which subsists only between one man and one wife, was not
communicable to them; since from their religious tenets they did not
acknowledge the Lord to be equal to God the Father, and so to be the God
of heaven and earth. That conjugial love with every one is according to
the state of the church, may be seen above, at n. 130, and in several
other places.

342. IX. THE MAHOMETAN HEAVEN IS OUT OF THE CHRISTIAN HEAVEN AND IS
DIVIDED INTO TWO HEAVENS, THE INFERIOR AND THE SUPERIOR; AND ONLY THOSE
ARE ELEVATED INTO THEIR SUPERIOR HEAVEN WHO RENOUNCE CONCUBINES AND LIVE
WITH ONE WIFE, AND ACKNOWLEDGE OUR LORD AS EQUAL TO GOD THE FATHER, TO
WHOM IS GIVEN DOMINION OVER HEAVEN AND EARTH. Before we speak
particularly to each of these points, it may be expedient to premise
somewhat concerning the divine providence of the Lord in regard to the
rise of Mahometanism. That this religion is received by more kingdoms
than the Christian religion, may possibly be a stumbling-block to those
who, while thinking of the divine providence, at the same time believe
that no one can be saved that is not born a Christian; whereas the
Mahometan religion is no stumbling-block to those who believe that all
things are of the divine providence. These inquire in what respect the
divine providence is manifested in the Mahometan religion; and they so
discover in it this, that the Mahometan religion acknowledges our Lord
to be the Son of God, the wisest of men, and a grand prophet, who came
into the world to instruct mankind; but since the Mahometans have made
the Koran the book of their religion, and consequently think much of
Mahomet who wrote it, and pay him a degree of worship, therefore they
think little respecting our Lord. In order to shew more fully that the
Mahometan religion was raised up by the Lord's divine providence to
destroy the idolatries of several nations, we will give a detail of the
subject, beginning with the origin of idolatries. Previous to the
Mahometan religion idolatrous worship prevailed throughout the whole
world; because the churches before the Lord's coming were all
representative; such also was the Israelitish church, in which the
tabernacle, the garments of Aaron, the sacrifices, all things belonging
to the temple at Jerusalem, and also the statutes, were representative.
The ancients likewise had the science of correspondences, which is also
the science of representations, the very essential science of the wise,
which was principally cultivated by the Egyptians, whence their
hieroglyphics were derived. From that science they knew what was
signified by animals and trees of every kind, likewise by mountains,
hills, rivers, fountains, and also by the sun, the moon, and the stars:
by means of this science also they had a knowledge of spiritual things;
since things represented, which were such as relate to the spiritual
wisdom of the angels, were the origins (of those which represent). Now
since all their worship was representative, consisting of mere
correspondences, therefore they celebrated it on mountains and hills,
and also in groves and gardens; and on this account they sanctified
fountains, and in their adorations turned their faces to the rising sun:
moreover they made graven horses, oxen, calves, and lambs; yea, birds,
fishes, and serpents; and these they set in their houses and other
places, in order, according to the spiritual things of the church to
which they corresponded, or which they represented. They also set
similar images in their temples, as a means of recalling to their
remembrance the holy things of worship which they signified. In process
of time, when the science of correspondences was forgotten, their
posterity began to worship the very graven images as holy in themselves,
not knowing that the ancients, their fathers, did not see anything holy
in them, but only that according to correspondences they represented and
thence signified holy things. Hence arose the idolatries which
overspread the whole globe, as well Asia with its islands, as Africa and
Europe. To the intent that all those idolatries might be eradicated, it
came to pass of the Lord's divine providence, that a new religion,
accommodated to the genius of the orientals, took its rise; in which
something from each testament of the Word was retained, and which taught
that the Lord had come into the world, and that he was a grand prophet,
the wisest of all, and the Son of God. This was effected by means of
Mahomet, from whom that religion took its name. From these
considerations it is manifest, that this religion was raised up of the
Lord's divine providence, and accommodated, as we have observed, to the
genius of the orientals, to the end that it might destroy the idolatries
of so many nations, and might give its professors some knowledge of the
Lord, before they came into the spiritual world, as is the case with
every one after death. This religion would not have been received by so
many nations, neither could it have eradicated their idolatries, unless
it had been made agreeable to their ideas; especially unless polygamy
had been permitted; since without such permission, the orientals would
have burned with the fire of filthy adultery more than the Europeans,
and would have perished.

343. The Mahometans also have their heaven; for all in the universe, who
acknowledge a God, and from a religious notion shuns evils as sins
against him, are saved. That the Mahometan heaven is distinguished into
two, the inferior and the superior, I have heard from themselves: and
that in the inferior heaven they live with several wives and concubines
as in the world; but that those who renounce concubines and live with
one wife, are elevated into the superior heaven. I have heard also that
it is impossible for them to think of our Lord as one with the Father;
but that it is possible for them to think of him as his equal, and that
he has dominion over heaven and earth, because he is his Son; therefore
such of them as are elevated by the Lord into their superior heaven,
hold this belief.

344. On a certain time I was led to perceive the quality of the heat of
conjugial love with polygamists. I was conversing with one who
personated Mahomet. Mahomet himself is never present, but some one is
substituted in his place, to the end that those who are lately deceased
may as it were see him. This substitute, after I had been talking with
him at a distance, sent me an ebony spoon and other things, which were
proofs that they came from him; at the same time a communication was
opened for the heat of their conjugial love in that place, which seemed
to me like the warm stench of a bath; whereupon I turned myself away,
and the communication was closed.

345. X. POLYGAMY IS LASCIVIOUSNESS. The reason of this is, because its
love is divided among several, and is the love of the sex, and the love
of the external or natural man, and thus is not conjugial love, which
alone is chaste. It is well known that polygamical love is divided among
several, and divided love is not conjugial love, which cannot be divided
from one of the sex; hence the former love is lascivious, and polygamy
is lasciviousness. Polygamical love is the love of the sex, differing
from it only in this respect, that it is limited to a number, which the
polygamist may determine, and that it is bound to the observance of
certain laws enacted for the public good; also that it is allowed to
take concubines at the same time as wives; and thus, as it is the love
of the sex, it is the love of lasciviousness. The reason why polygamical
love is the love of the external or natural man is, because it is
inherent in that man; and whatever the natural man does from himself is
evil, from which he cannot be released except by elevation into the
internal spiritual man, which is effected solely by the Lord; and evil
respecting the sex, by which the natural man is influenced, is whoredom;
but since whoredom is destructive of society, instead thereof was
induced its likeness, which is called polygamy. Every evil into which a
man is born from his parents, is implanted in his natural man, but not
any in his spiritual man; because into this he is born from the Lord.
From what has now been adduced, and also from several other reasons, it
may evidently be seen, that polygamy is lasciviousness.

346. XI. CONJUGIAL CHASTITY, PURITY, AND SANCTITY CANNOT EXIST WITH
POLYGAMISTS. This follows from what has been just now proved, and
evidently from what was demonstrated in the chapter ON THE CHASTE
PRINCIPLE AND THE NON-CHASTE; especially from these articles of that
chapter, namely, that a chaste, pure, and holy principle is predicated
only of monogamical marriages, or of the marriage of one man with one
wife, n. 141; also, that love truly conjugial is essential chastity, and
that hence all the delights of that love, even the ultimate, are chaste,
n. 143, 144; and moreover from what was adduced in the chapter ON LOVE
TRULY CONJUGIAL, namely, that love truly conjugial, which is that of one
man with one wife, from its origin and correspondence, is celestial,
spiritual, holy, and clean above every other love, n. 64. Now since
chastity, purity, and sanctity exist only in love truly conjugial, it
follows, that it neither does nor can exist in polygamical love.

347. XII. A POLYGAMIST, SO LONG AS HE REMAINS SUCH, CANNOT BECOME
SPIRITUAL. To become spiritual is to be elevated out of the natural,
that is, out of the light and heat of the world, into the light and heat
of heaven. Respecting this elevation no one knows anything but he that
is elevated; nevertheless the natural man, although not elevated,
perceives no other than that he is; because he can elevate his
understanding into the light of heaven, and think and talk spiritually,
like the spiritual man; but if the will does not at the same time follow
the understanding to its altitude, he is still not elevated; for he does
not remain in that elevation, but in a short time lets himself down to
his will, and there fixes his station. It is said the will, but it is
the love that is meant at the same time; because the will is the
receptacle of the love; for what a man loves, that he wills. From these
few considerations it may appear, that a polygamist, so long as he
remains such, or what is the same, a natural man, so long as he remains
such, cannot be made spiritual.

348. XIII. POLYGAMY IS NOT SIN WITH THOSE WHO LIVE IN IT FROM A
RELIGIOUS NOTION. All that which is contrary to religion is believed to
be sin, because it is contrary to God; and on the other hand, all that
which agrees with religion, is believed not to be sin, because it agrees
with God; and as polygamy existed with the sons of Israel from a
principle of religion, and exists at this day with the Mahometans, it
could not, and cannot, be imputed to them as sin. Moreover, to prevent
its being sin to them, they remain natural, and do not become spiritual;
and the natural man cannot see that there is any sin in such things as
belong to the received religion: this is seen only by the spiritual man.
It is on this account, that although the Mahometans are taught by the
Koran to acknowledge our Lord as the Son of God, still they do not come
to him, but to Mahomet; and so long they remain natural, and
consequently do not know that there is in polygamy any evil, or indeed
any lasciviousness. The Lord also saith, "_If ye were blind ye would not
have sin; but now ye say, We see, therefore your sin remaineth_," John
ix. 41. Since polygamy cannot convict them of sin, therefore after death
they have their heavens, n. 342, 343; and their joys there according to
life.

349. XIV. POLYGAMY IS NOT SIN WITH THOSE WHO ARE IN IGNORANCE RESPECTING
THE LORD. This is, because love truly conjugial is from the Lord alone,
and cannot be imparted by the Lord to any but those who know him,
acknowledge him, believe on him, and live the life which is from him;
and those to whom that love cannot be imparted know no other than that
the love of the sex and conjugial love are the same thing; consequently
also polygamy. Moreover, polygamists, who know nothing of the Lord,
remain natural: for a man (_homo_) is made spiritual only from the Lord;
and that is not imputed to the natural man as sin, which is according to
the laws of religion and at the same time of society: he also acts
according to his reason; and the reason of the natural man is in mere
darkness respecting love truly conjugial; and this love in excellence is
spiritual. Nevertheless the reason of polygamists is taught from
experience, that both public and private peace require that promiscuous
lust in general should be restrained, and be left to every one within
his own house: hence comes polygamy.

350. It is well known, that a man (_homo_) by birth is viler than the
beasts. All the beasts are born into the knowledges corresponding to the
love of their life; for as soon as they are born, or are hatched from
the egg, they see, hear, walk, know their food, their dam, their friends
and foes; and soon after this they show attention to the sex, and to the
affairs of love, and also to the rearing of their offspring. Man alone,
at his birth, knows nothing of this sort; for no knowledge is connate to
him; he has only the faculty and inclination of receiving those things
which relate to knowledge and love; and if he does not receive these
from others, he remains viler than a beast. That man is born in this
condition, to the end that he may attribute nothing to himself, but to
others, and at length every thing of wisdom and of the love thereof to
God alone, and may hence become an image of God, see the MEMORABLE
RELATION, n. 132-136. From these considerations it follows, that a man
who does not learn from others that the Lord has come into the world,
and that he is God, and has only acquired some knowledge respecting
religion and the laws of his country, is not in fault if he thinks no
more of conjugial love than of the love of the sex, and if he believes
polygamical love to be the only conjugial love. The Lord leads such
persons in their ignorance; and by his divine auspices providently
withdraws from the imputation of guilt those who, from a religious
notion, shun evils as sins, to the end that they may be saved; for every
man is born for heaven, and no one for hell; and every one comes into
heaven (by influence) from the Lord, and into hell (by influence) from
himself.

351. XV. OF THESE, ALTHOUGH POLYGAMISTS, SUCH ARE SAVED AS ACKNOWLEDGE A
GOD, AND FROM A RELIGIOUS NOTION LIVE ACCORDING TO THE CIVIL LAWS OF
JUSTICE. All throughout the world who acknowledge a God and live
according to the civil laws of justice from a religious notion, are
saved. By the civil laws of justice we mean such precepts as are
contained in the Decalogue, which forbid murder, theft, adultery, and
false witness. These precepts are the civil laws of justice in all the
kingdoms of the earth; for without them no kingdom could subsist. But
some are influenced in the practice of them by fear of the penalties of
the law, some by civil obedience, and some also by religion; these last
are saved, because in such case God is in them; and every one, in whom
God is, is saved. Who does not see, that among the laws given to the
sons of Israel, after they had left Egypt, were those which forbid
murder, adultery, theft, and false witness, since without those laws
their communion or society could not subsist? and yet these laws were
promulgated by Jehovah God upon Mount Sinai with a stupendous miracle:
but the cause of their being so promulgated was, that they might be also
laws of religion, and thus that the people might practise them not only
for the sake of the good of society, but also for the sake of God, and
that when they practised them from a religious notion for the sake of
God, they might be saved. From these considerations it may appear, that
the pagans, who acknowledge a God, and live according to the civil laws
of justice, are saved; since it is not their fault that they know
nothing of the Lord, consequently nothing of the chastity of the
marriage with one wife. For it is contrary to the divine justice to
condemn those who acknowledge a God, and from their religion practise
the laws of justice, which consist in shunning evils because they are
contrary to God, and in doing what is good because it is agreeable to
God.

352. XVI. BUT NONE EITHER OF THE LATTER OR OF THE FORMER CAN BE
ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANGELS IN THE CHRISTIAN HEAVENS. The reason of this
is, because in the Christian heavens there are celestial light, which is
divine truth, and celestial heat, which is divine love; and these two
discover the quality of goods and truths, and also of evils and falses;
hence, there is no communication between the Christian and the Mahometan
heavens, and in like manner between the heavens of the Gentiles. If
there were a communication, none could have been saved but those who
were in celestial light and at the same time in celestial heat from the
Lord; yea neither would these be saved if there was a conjunction of the
heavens: for in consequence of conjunction all the heavens would so far
fall to decay that the angels would not be able to subsist; for an
unchaste and lascivious principle would flow from the Mahometans into
the Christian heaven, which in that heaven could not be endured; and a
chaste and pure principle would flow from the Christians into the
Mahometan heaven, which again could not be there endured. In such case,
in consequence of communication and thence of conjunction, the Christian
angels would become natural and thereby adulterers; or if they remained
spiritual, they would be continually sensible of a lascivious principle
about them, which would intercept all the blessedness of their life. The
case would be somewhat similar with the Mahometan heaven: for the
spiritual principles of the Christian heaven would continually encompass
and torment them, and would take away all the delight of their life, and
would moreover insinuate that polygamy is sin, whereby they would be
continually eluded. This is the reason why all the heavens are
altogether distinct from each other, so that there is no connection
between them, except by an influx of light and heat from the Lord out of
the sun, in the midst of which he is: and this influx enlightens and
vivifies everyone according to his reception; and reception is according
to religion. This communication is granted, but not a communication of
the heavens with each other.

       *       *       *       *       *

353. To the above I shall add TWO MEMORABLE RELATIONS. FIRST. I was once
in the midst of the angels and heard their conversation. It was
respecting intelligence and wisdom; that a man perceives no other than
that each is in himself, and thus that whatever he thinks from his
understanding and intends from his will, is from himself; when
nevertheless not the least portion thereof is from the man, but only the
faculty of receiving the things of the understanding and the will from
God: and as every man (_homo_) is by birth inclined to love himself, it
was provided from creation, to prevent man's perishing by self-love and
the conceit of his own intelligence, that that love of the man (_vir_)
should be transferred into the wife, and that in her should be implanted
from her birth a love for the intelligence and wisdom of her husband,
and thereby a love for him; therefore the wife continually attracts to
herself her husband's conceit of his own intelligence, and extinguishes
it in him, and vivifies it in herself, and thus changes it into
conjugial love, and fills it with unbounded pleasantnesses. This is
provided by the Lord, lest the conceit of his own intelligence should so
far infatuate the man, as to lead him to believe that he has
understanding and wisdom from himself and not from the Lord, and thereby
make him willing to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil,
and thence to believe himself like unto God, and also a god, as the
serpent, which was the love of his own intelligence, said and persuaded
him: wherefore the man (_homo_) after eating was cast out of paradise,
and the way to the tree of life was guarded by a cherub. Paradise,
spiritually understood, denotes intelligence; to eat of the tree of
life, in a spiritual sense, is to be intelligent and wise from the Lord;
and to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, in a spiritual
sense, is to be intelligent and wise from self.

354. The angels having finished this conversation departed; and there
came two priests, together with a man who in the world had been an
ambassador of a kingdom, and to them I related what I had heard from the
angels. On hearing this they began to dispute with each other about
intelligence and wisdom, and the prudence thence derived, whether they
are from God or from man. The dispute grew warm. All three in heart
believed that they are from man because they are in man, and that the
perception and sensation of its being so confirm it; but the priests,
who on this occasion were influenced by theological zeal, said that
there is nothing of intelligence and wisdom, and thus nothing of
prudence from man; and when the ambassador retorted, that in such case
there is nothing of thought from man, they assented to it. But as it was
perceived in heaven, that all the three were in a similar belief, it was
said to the ambassador, "Put on the garments of a priest, and believe
that you are one, and then speak." He did so; and instantly he declared
aloud that nothing of intelligence and wisdom, and consequently nothing
of prudence, can possibly exist but from God; and he proved it with his
usual eloquence full of rational arguments. It is a peculiar
circumstance in the spiritual world, that a spirit thinks himself to be
such as is denoted by the garment he wears; because in that world the
understanding clothes every one. Afterwards, a voice from heaven said to
the two priests, "Put off your own garments, and put on those of
political ministers, and believe yourselves to be such." They did so;
and in this case they at the same time thought from their interior self,
and spoke from arguments which they had inwardly cherished in favor of
man's own intelligence. At that instant there appeared a tree near the
path; and it was said to them, "It is the tree of the knowledge of good
and evil; take heed to yourselves lest ye eat of it." Nevertheless all
the three, infatuated by their own intelligence, burned with a desire to
eat of it, and said to each other, "Why should not we? Is not the fruit
good?" And they went to it and eat of it. Immediately all the three, as
they were in a like faith, became bosom friends; and they entered
together into the way of self-intelligence, which led into hell:
nevertheless I saw them return thence, because they were not yet
prepared.

355. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time as I was looking into the
spiritual world, I saw in a certain green field some men, whose garments
were like those worn by men of this world; from which circumstance I
knew that they were lately deceased. I approached them and stood near
them, that I might hear what they were conversing about. Their
conversation was about heaven; and one of them who knew something
respecting it, said, "In heaven there are wonderful things, such as no
one can believe unless he has seen them: there are paradisiacal gardens,
magnificent palaces constructed according to the rules of architecture,
because the work of the art itself, resplendent with gold; in the front
of which are columns of silver; and on the columns heavenly forms made
of precious stones; also houses of jasper and sapphire, in the front of
which are stately porticos, through which the angels enter; and within
the houses handsome furniture, which no art or words can describe. The
angels themselves are of both sexes: there are youths and husbands, also
maidens and wives: maids so beautiful, that nothing in the world bears
any resemblance to their beauty; and wives still more beautiful, who are
genuine images of celestial love, and their husbands images of celestial
wisdom; and all these are ever approaching the full bloom of youth; and
what is more, they know no other love of the sex than conjugial love;
and, what you will be surprised to hear, the husbands there have a
perpetual faculty of enjoyment." When the novitiate spirits heard that
no other love of the sex prevailed in heaven than conjugial love, and
that they had a perpetual faculty of enjoyment, they smiled at each
other, and said, "What you tell us is incredible; there cannot be such a
faculty: possibly you are amusing us with idle tales." But at that
instant a certain angel from heaven unexpectedly stood in the midst of
them, and said, "Hear me, I beseech you; I am an angel of heaven, and
have lived now a thousand years with my wife, and during that time have
been in the same flower of my age in which you here see me. This is in
consequence of the conjugial love in which I have lived with my wife;
and I can affirm, that the above faculty has been and is perpetual with
me; and because I perceive that you believe this to be impossible, I
will talk with you on the subject from a ground of rational argument
according to the light of your understanding. You do not know anything
of the primeval state of man, which you call a state of integrity. In
that state all the interiors of the mind were open even to the Lord; and
hence they were in the marriage of love and wisdom, or of good and
truth; and as the good of love and the truth of wisdom perpetually love
each other, they also perpetually desire to be united; and when the
interiors of the mind are open, the conjugial spiritual love flows down
freely with its perpetual endeavour, and presents the above faculty. The
very soul of a man (_homo_), being in the marriage of good and truth, is
not only in the perpetual endeavour of that union, but also in the
perpetual endeavour of the fructification and production of its own
likeness; and since the interiors of a man even from the soul are open
by virtue of that marriage, and the interiors continually regard as an
end the effect in ultimates that they may exist, therefore that
perpetual endeavor for fructifying and producing its like, which is the
property of the soul, becomes also of the body: and since the ultimate
of the operation of the soul in the body with two conjugial partners is
into the ultimates of love therein, and these depend on the state of the
soul, it is evident whence they derive this perpetuality. Fructification
also is perpetual, because the universal sphere of generating and
propagating the celestial things which are of love, and the spiritual
things which are of wisdom, and thence the natural things which are of
offspring, proceeds from the Lord, and fills all heaven and all the
world; and that celestial sphere fills the souls of all men, and
descends through their minds into the body even to its ultimates, and
gives the power of generating. But this cannot be the case with any but
those with whom a passage is open from the soul through the superior and
inferior principles of the mind into the body to its ultimates, as is
the case with those who suffer themselves to be led back by the Lord
into the primeval state of creation. I can confirm that now for a
thousand years I have never wanted faculty, strength, or vigor, and that
I am altogether a stranger to any diminution of powers, which are
continually renewed by the influx of the above-mentioned sphere, and in
such case also cheer the mind (_animum_), and do not make it sad, as is
the case with those who suffer the loss of those powers. Moreover love
truly conjugial is just like the vernal heat, from the influx of which
all things tend to germination and fructification; nor is there any
other heat in our heaven: wherefore with conjugial partners in that
heaven there is spring in its perpetual _conatus_, and it is this
perpetual _conatus_ from which the above virtue is derived. But
fructifications with us in heaven are different from those with men on
earth. With us fructifications are spiritual, which are the
fructifications of love and wisdom, or of good and truth: the wife from
the husband's wisdom receives into herself the love thereof; and the
husband from the love thereof in the wife receives into himself wisdom;
yea the wife is actually formed into the love of the husband's wisdom,
which is effected by her receiving the propagations of his soul with the
delight arising therefrom, in that she desires to be the love of her
husband's wisdom: thus from a maiden she becomes a wife and a likeness.
Hence also love with its inmost friendship with the wife, and wisdom
with its happiness with the husband, are continually increasing, and
this to eternity. This is the state of the angels of heaven." When the
angel had thus spoken, he looked at those who had lately come from the
world, and said to them, "You know that, while you were in the vigor of
love, you loved your married partners; but when your appetite was
gratified, you regarded them with aversion; but you do not know that we
in heaven do not love our married partners in consequence of that vigor,
but that we have vigor in consequence of love and derived from it; and
that as we perpetually love our married partners, we have perpetual
vigor: if therefore you can invert the state, you may be able to
comprehend this. Does not he who perpetually loves a married partner,
love her with the whole mind and with the whole body? for love turns
every thing of the mind and of the body to that which it loves; and as
this is done reciprocally, it conjoins the objects so that they become a
one." He further said, "I will not speak to you of the conjugial love
implanted from the creation in males and females, and of their
inclination to legitimate conjunction, or of the faculty of
prolification in the males, which makes one with the faculty of
multiplying wisdom from the love of truth; and that so far as a man
loves wisdom from the love thereof, or truth from good, so far he is in
love truly conjugial and in its attendant vigor."

356. When he had spoken these words, the angel was silent; and from the
spirit of his discourse the novitiates comprehended that a perpetual
faculty of enjoyment is communicable; and as this consideration rejoiced
their minds, they exclaimed, "O how happy is the state of angels! We
perceive that you in the heavens remain for ever in a state of youth,
and thence in the vigor of that age; but tell us how we also may enjoy
that vigor." The angel replied, "Shun adulteries as internal, and
approach the Lord, and you will possess it." They said, "We will do so."
But the angel replied, "You cannot shun adulteries as infernal evils,
unless you in like manner shun all other evils, because adulteries are
the complex of all; and unless you shun them, you cannot approach the
Lord; for the Lord receives no others." After this the angel took his
leave, and the novitiate spirits departed sorrowful.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON JEALOUSY.

357. The subject of jealousy is here treated of, because it also has
relation to conjugial love. There is a just jealousy and an unjust;--a
just jealousy with married partners who mutually love each other, with
whom it is a just and prudent zeal lest their conjugial love should be
violated, and thence a just grief if it is violated; and an unjust
jealousy with those who are naturally suspicious, and whose minds are
sickly in consequence of viscous and bilious blood. Moreover, all
jealousy is by some accounted a vice; which is particularly the case
with whoremongers, who censure even a just jealousy. The term JEALOUSY
(_zelotypia_) is derived from ZELI TYPUS (the type of zeal), and there
is a type or image of just and also of unjust zeal; but we will explain
these distinctions in the following series of articles: I. _Zeal,
considered in itself, is like the ardent fire, of love._ II. _The
burning or flame of that love, which is zeal, is a spiritual burning or
flame, arising from an infestation and assault of the love._ III. _The
quality of a man's (homo) zeal is according to the quality of his love;
thus it differs according as the love is good or evil._ IV. _The zeal of
a good love and the zeal of an evil love are alike in externals, but
altogether unlike in internals._ V. _The zeal of a good love in its
internals contains a hidden store of love and friendship; but the zeal
of an evil love in its internals contains a hidden store of hatred and
revenge._ VI. _The zeal of conjugial love is called jealousy._ VII.
_Jealousy is like an ardent fire against those who infest love exercised
towards a married partner, and like a terrible fear for the loss of that
love._ VIII. _There is spiritual jealousy with monogamists, and natural
with polygamists._ IX. _Jealousy with those married partners who
tenderly love each other, is a just grief grounded in sound reason lest
conjugial love should be divided, and should thereby perish._ X.
_Jealousy with married partners who do not love each other, is grounded
in several causes: arising in some instances from various mental
weaknesses._ XI. _In some instances there is not any jealousy; and this
also from various causes._ XII. _There is a jealousy also in regard to
concubines, but not such as in regard to wives._ XIII. _Jealousy
likewise exists among beasts and birds._ XIV. _The jealousy of men and
husbands is different from that of women and wives._ We proceed to an
explanation of the above articles.

358. I. ZEAL, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF, IS LIKE THE ARDENT FIRE OF LOVE,
What jealousy is cannot be known, unless it be known what zeal is; for
jealousy is the zeal of conjugial love. The reason why zeal is like the
ardent fire of love is, because zeal is of love, which is spiritual
heat, and this in its origin is like fire. In regard to the first
position, it is well known that zeal is of love: nothing else is meant
by being zealous, and acting from zeal, than acting from the force of
love: but since when it exists, it appears not as love, but as
unfriendly and hostile, offended at and fighting against him who hurts
the love, therefore it may also be called the defender and protector of
love; for all love is of such a nature that it bursts into indignation
and anger, yea into fury, whenever it is disturbed in its delights:
therefore if a love, especially the ruling love, be touched, there
ensues an emotion of the mind; and if it be hurt, there ensues wrath.
From these considerations it may be seen, that zeal is not the highest
degree of the love, but that it is ardent love. The love of one, and the
correspondent love of another, are like two confederates; but when the
love of one rises up against the love of another, they become like
enemies; because love is the _esse_ of a man's life; therefore he that
assaults the love, assaults the life itself; and in such case there
ensues a state of wrath against the assailant, like the state of every
man whose life is attempted by another. Such wrath is attendant on every
love, even that which is most pacific, as is very manifest in the case
of hens, geese, and birds of every kind; which, without any fear, rise
against and fly at those who injure their young, or rob them of their
meat. That some beasts are seized with anger, and wild beasts with fury,
if their young are attacked, or their prey taken from them, is well
known. The reason why love is said to burn like fire is, because love is
spiritual heat, originating in the fire of the angelic sun, which is
pure love. That love is heat as it were from fire, evidently appears
from the heat of living bodies, which is from no other source than from
their love; also from the circumstance that men grow warm and are
inflamed according to the exaltation of their love. From these
considerations it is manifest, that zeal is like the ardent fire of
love.

359. II. THE BURNING OR FLAME OF THAT LOVE, WHICH IS ZEAL, IS A
SPIRITUAL BURNING OR FLAME, ARISING FROM AN INFESTATION AND ASSAULT OF
THE LOVE. That zeal is a spiritual burning or flame, is evident from
what has been said above. As love in the spiritual world is heat arising
from the sun of that world, therefore also love at a distance appears
there as flame: it is thus that celestial love appears with the angels
of heaven; and thus also infernal love appears with the spirits of hell:
but it is to be observed, that that flame does not burn like the flame
of the natural world. The reason why zeal arises from an assault of the
love is, because love is the heat of every one's life; wherefore when
the life's love is assaulted, the life's heat kindles itself, resists,
and bursts forth against the assailant, and acts as an enemy by virtue
of its own strength and ability, which is like flame bursting from a
fire upon him who stirs it: that it is like fire, appears from the
sparkling of the eyes from the face being inflamed, also from the tone
of the voice and the gestures. This is the effect of love, as being the
heat of life, to prevent its extinction, and with it the extinction of
all cheerfulness, vivacity, and perceptibility of delight, grounded in
its own love.

360. It may be expedient here to show how the love by being assaulted is
inflamed and kindled into zeal, like fire into flame. Love resides in a
man's will; nevertheless it is not inflamed in the will itself, but in
the understanding; for in the will it is like fire, and in the
understanding like flame. Love in the will knows nothing about itself,
because there it is not sensible of anything relating to itself, neither
does it there act from itself; but this is done in the understanding and
its thought: when therefore the will is assaulted, it provokes itself to
anger in the understanding, which is effected by various reasonings.
These reasonings are like pieces of wood, which the fire inflames, and
which thence burn: they are therefore like so much fuel, or so many
combustible matters which give occasion to that spiritual flame, which
is very variable.

361. We will here unfold the true reason why a man becomes inflamed in
consequence of an assault of his love. The human form in its inmost
principles is from creation a form of love and wisdom. In man there are
all the affections of love, and thence all the perceptions of wisdom,
compounded in the most perfect order, so as to make together what is
unanimous, and thereby a one. Those affections and perceptions are
rendered substantial; for substances are their subjects. Since therefore
the human form is compounded of these, it is evident that, if the love
is assaulted, this universal form also, with everything therein, is
assaulted at the same instant, or together with it. And as the desire to
continue in its form is implanted from creation in all living things,
therefore this principle operates in every general compound by
derivation from the singulars of which it is compounded, and in the
singulars by derivation from the general compound: hence when the love
is assaulted, it defends itself by its understanding, and the
understanding (defends itself) by rational and imaginative principles,
whereby it represents to itself the event; especially by such as act in
unity with the love which is assaulted: and unless this was the case the
above form would wholly fall to pieces, in consequence of the privation
of that love. Hence then it is that love, in order to resist assaults,
hardens the substance of its form, and sets them erect, as it were in
crests, like so many sharp prickles, that is, crisps itself; such is the
provoking of love which is called zeal: wherefore if there is no
opportunity of resistance, there arise anxiety and grief, because it
foresees the extinction of interior life with its delights. But on the
other hand, if the love is favored and cherished, the above form
unbends, softens, and dilates itself; and the substances of the form
become gentle, mild, meek, and alluring.

362. III. THE QUALITY OF A MAN'S ZEAL IS ACCORDING TO THE QUALITY OF HIS
LOVE; THUS IT DIFFERS ACCORDING AS THE LOVE IS GOOD OR EVIL. Since zeal
is of love, it follows that its quality is such as the quality of the
love is; and as there are in general two loves, the love of what is good
and thence of what is true, and the love of what is evil and thence of
what is false, hence in general there is a zeal in favor of what is good
and thence of what is true, and in favor of what is evil and thence of
what is false. But it is to be noted, that of each love there is an
infinite variety. This is very manifest from the angels of heaven and
the spirits of hell; both of whom in the spiritual world are the forms
of their respective love; and yet there is not one angel of heaven
absolutely like another as to face, speech, gait, gesture, and manner;
nor any spirit of hell; yea neither can there be to eternity, howsoever
they be multiplied into myriads of myriads. Hence it is evident, that
there is an infinite variety of loves, because there is of their forms.
The case is the same with zeal, as being of the love; the zeal of one
cannot be absolutely like or the same with the zeal of another. In
general there are the zeal of a good and the zeal of an evil love.

363. IV. THE ZEAL OF A GOOD LOVE AND THE ZEAL OF AN EVIL LOVE ARE ALIKE
IN EXTERNALS, BUT ALTOGETHER DIFFERENT IN INTERNALS. Zeal in externals,
with every one, appears like anger and wrath; for it is love enkindled
and inflamed to defend itself against a violator, and to remove him. The
reason why the zeal of a good love and the zeal of an evil love appear
alike in externals is, because in both cases love while it is in zeal,
burns; but with a good man only in externals, whereas with an evil man
it burns in both externals and internals; and when internals are not
regarded, the zeals appear alike in externals; but that they are
altogether different in internals will be seen in the next article. That
zeal appears in externals like anger and wrath, may be seen and heard
from all those who speak and act from zeal; as for example, from a
priest while he is preaching from zeal, the tone of whose voice is high,
vehement, sharp, and harsh; his face is heated and perspires; he exerts
himself, beats the pulpit, and calls forth fire from hell against those
who do evil: and so in many other cases.

364. In order that a distinct idea may be formed of zeal as influencing
the good, and of zeal as influencing the wicked, and of their
dissimilitude, it is necessary that some idea be previously formed of
men's internals and externals. For this purpose, let us take a common
idea on the subject, as being adapted to general apprehension, and let
it be exhibited by the case of a nut or an almond, and their kernels.
With the good, the internals are like the kernels within as to their
soundness and goodness, encompassed with their usual and natural husk;
with the wicked, the case is altogether different, their internals are
like kernels which are either not eatable from their bitterness, or
rotten, or worm-eaten; whereas their externals are like the shells or
husks of those kernels, either like the natural shells or husks, or
shining bright like shell-fish, or speckled like the stones called
irises, Such is the appearance of their externals, within which the
above-mentioned internals lie concealed. The case is the same with their
zeal.

365. V. THE ZEAL OF A GOOD LOVE IN ITS INTERNALS CONTAINS A HIDDEN STORE
OF LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP; BUT THIS ZEAL OF AN EVIL LOVE IN ITS INTERNALS
CONTAINS A HIDDEN STORE OF HATRED AND REVENGE. It was said just above,
that zeal in externals appears like anger and wrath, as well with those
who are in a good love, as with those who are in an evil love: but
whereas the internals are different, the anger and wrath in each case
differs from that of the other, and the difference is as follows: 1. The
zeal of a good love is like a heavenly flame, which in one case bursts
out upon another, but only defends itself, and that against a wicked
person, as when he rushes into the fire and is burnt: but the zeal of an
evil love is like an infernal flame, which of itself bursts forth and
rushes on, and is desirous to consume another. 2. The zeal of a good
love instantly burns away and is allayed when the assailant ceases to
assault; but the zeal of an evil love continues and is not extinguished.
3. This is because the internal of him who is in the love of good is in
itself mild, soft, friendly, and benevolent; wherefore when his
external, with a view of defending itself, is fierce, harsh, and
haughty, and thereby acts with rigor, still it is tempered by the good
in which he is internally: it is otherwise with the wicked; with such
the internal is unfriendly, without pity, harsh, breathing hatred and
revenge, and feeding itself with their delights; and although it is
reconciled, still those evils lie concealed as fires in wood underneath
the embers; and these fires burst forth after death, if not in this
world.

366. Since zeal in externals appears alike both in the good and the
wicked, and since the ultimate sense of the Word consists of
correspondence and appearances, therefore in the Word, it is very often
said of Jehovah that he is angry and wrathful, that he revenges,
punishes, casts into hell, with many other things which are appearances
of zeal in externals; hence also it is that he is called zealous:
whereas there is not the least of anger, wrath, and revenge in him; for
he is essential mercy, grace and clemency, thus essential good, in whom
it is impossible such evil passions can exist. But on this subject see
more particulars in the treatise on HEAVEN AND HELL, n. 545-550; and in
the APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 494, 498, 525, 714, 806.

367. VI. THE ZEAL OF CONJUGIAL LOVE IS CALLED JEALOUSY. Zeal in favor of
truly conjugial love is the chief of zeals; because that love is the
chief of loves, and its delights, in favor of which also zeal operates,
are the chief delights; for, as was shewn above, that love is the head
of all loves. The reason of this is, because that love induces in a wife
the form of love, and in a husband the form of wisdom; and from these
forms united into one, nothing can proceed but what savors of wisdom and
at the same time of love. As the zeal of conjugial love is the chief of
zeals, therefore it is called by a new name, JEALOUSY, which is the very
type of zeal.

368. VII. JEALOUSY IS LIKE AN ARDENT FIRE AGAINST THOSE WHO INFEST LOVE
EXERCISED TOWARDS A MARRIED PARTNER, AND LIKE A TERRIBLE FEAR FOR THE
LOSS OF THAT LOVE. The subject here treated of is jealousy of those who
are in spiritual love with a married partner; in the following article
we shall treat of the jealousy of those who are in natural love; and
afterwards of the jealousy of those who are in love truly conjugial.
With those who are in spiritual love the jealousy is various, because
their love is various; for one love, whether spiritual or natural, is
never altogether alike with two persons, still less with several. The
reason why spiritual jealousy, or jealousy with the spiritual, is like
an ardent fire raging against those who infest their conjugial love, is,
because with them the first principle of love is in the internals of
each party, and their love from its first principle follows its
principiates, even to its ultimates, by virtue of which ultimates and at
the same time of first principles, the intermediates which are of the
mind and body, are kept in lovely connection. These, being spiritual, in
their marriage regard union as an end, and in union spiritual rest and
the pleasantness thereof: now, as they have rejected disunion from their
minds, therefore their jealousy is like a fire stirred up and darting
forth against those who infest them. The reason why it is also like a
terrible fear is, because their spiritual love intends that they be one;
if therefore there exists a chance, or happens an appearance of
separation, a fear ensues as terrible as when two united parts are torn
asunder. This description of jealousy was given me from heaven by those
who are in spiritual conjugial love; for there are a natural, a
spiritual, and a celestial conjugial love; concerning the natural and
the celestial conjugial love, and their jealousy, we shall take occasion
to speak in the two following articles.

369. VIII. THERE IS SPIRITUAL JEALOUSY WITH MONOGAMISTS, AND NATURAL
WITH POLYGAMISTS. The reason why spiritual jealousy exists with
monogamists is, because they alone can receive spiritual conjugial love,
as has been abundantly shewn above. It is said that it exists; but the
meaning is that it is capable of existing. That it exists only with a
very few in the Christian world, where there are monogamical marriages,
but that still it is capable of existing there, has also been confirmed
above. That with polygamists conjugial love is natural, may be seen in
the chapter on Polygamy, n. 345, 347; in like manner jealousy is natural
in the same case, because this follows love. What the quality of
jealousy is among polygamists, we are taught from the relations of those
who have been eyewitnesses of its effects among the orientals: these
effects are, that wives and concubines are guarded as prisoners in
work-houses, and are withheld from and prohibited all communication with
men; that into the women's apartments, or the closets of their
confinement, no man is allowed to enter unless attended by a eunuch; and
that the strictest watch it set to observe whether any of the women look
with a lascivious eye or countenance at a man as he passes; and that if
this be observed, the woman is sentenced to the whip; and in case she
indulges her lasciviousness with any man, whether introduced secretly
into her apartment, or from home, she is punished with death.

370. From these considerations it is plainly seen what is the quality of
the fire of jealousy into which polygamical conjugial love enkindles
itself,--that it is into anger and revenge; into anger with the meek,
and into revenge with the fierce. The reason of this effect is, because
their love is natural, and does not partake of anything spiritual. This
is a consequence of what is demonstrated in the chapter on
Polygamy,--that polygamy is lasciviousness, n. 345; and that a
polygamist, so long as he remains such, is natural, and cannot become
spiritual, n. 347. But the fire of jealousy is different with natural
monogamists, whose love is inflamed not so much against the women as
against those who do violence, becoming anger against the latter, and
cold against the former: it is otherwise with polygamists, whose fire of
jealousy burns also with the rage of revenge: this likewise is one of
the reasons why, after the death of polygamists, their concubines and
wives are for the most part set free, and are sent to seraglios not
guarded, to employ themselves in the various elegant arts proper to
women.

371. IX. JEALOUSY WITH THOSE MARRIED PARTNERS WHO TENDERLY LOVE EACH
OTHER, IS A JUST GRIEF GROUNDED IN SOUND REASON LEST CONJUGIAL LOVE
SHOULD BE DIVIDED, AND SHOULD THEREBY PERISH. All love is attended with
fear and grief; fear lest it should perish, and grief in case it
perishes: it is the same with conjugial love; but the fear and grief
attending this love is called zeal or jealousy. The reason why this
zeal, with married partners who tenderly love each other, is just and
grounded in sound reason, is, because it is at the same time a fear for
the loss of eternal happiness, not only of its own but also of its
married partner's, and because also it is a defence against adultery. In
respect to the first consideration,--that it is a just fear for the loss
of its own eternal happiness and of that of its married partner, it
follows from every thing which has been heretofore adduced concerning
love truly conjugial; and also from this consideration, that married
partners derive from that love the blessedness of their souls, the
satisfaction of their minds, the delight of their bosoms, and the
pleasure of their bodies; and since these remain with them to eternity,
each party has a fear for eternal happiness. That the above zeal is a
just defence against adulteries, is evident: hence it is like a fire
raging against violation, and defending itself against it. From these
considerations it is evident, that whoever loves a married partner
tenderly, is also jealous, but is just and discreet according to the
man's wisdom.

372. It was said, that in conjugial love there is implanted a fear lest
it should be divided, and a grief lest it should perish, and that its
zeal is like a fire raging against violation. Some time ago, when
meditating on this subject, I asked the zealous angels concerning the
seat of jealousy? They said, that it is in the understanding of the man
who receives the love of a married partner and returns it; and that its
quality there is according to his wisdom: they said further, that
jealousy has in it somewhat in common with honor, which also resides in
conjugial love; for he that loves his wife, also honors her. In regard
to zeal's residing with a man in his understanding, they assigned this
reason; because conjugial love defends itself by the understanding, as
good does by truth; so the wife defends those things which are common
with the man, by her husband; and that on this account zeal is implanted
in the men, and by them, and for their sake, in the women. To the
question as to the region of the mind in which jealousy resides with the
men, they replied, in their souls, because it is also a defence against
adulteries; and because adulteries principally destroy conjugial love,
that when there is danger of the violation of that love, the man's
understanding grows hard, and becomes like a horn, with which he strikes
the adulterer.

373. X. JEALOUSY WITH MARRIED PARTNERS WHO DO NOT LOVE EACH OTHER, IS
GROUNDED IN SEVERAL CAUSES; ARISING IN SOME INSTANCES FROM VARIOUS
MENTAL WEAKNESSES. The causes why married partners who do not mutually
love each other, are yet jealous, are principally the honor resulting
from power, the fear of defamation with respect both to the man himself
and also to his wife, and the dread lest domestic affairs should fall
into confusion. It is well known that the men have honor resulting from
power, that is, that they are desirous of being respected in consequence
thereof; for so long as they have this honor, they are as it were of an
elevated mind, and not dejected when in the company of men and women: to
this honor also is attached the name of bravery; wherefore military
officers have it more than others. That the fear of defamation, with
respect both to the man himself and also to his wife, is a cause of
jealousy that agrees with the foregoing: to which may be added, that
living with a harlot, and debauched practices in a house, are accounted
infamous. The reason why some are jealous through a dread lest their
domestic affairs should fall into confusion, is because, so far as this
is the case, the husband is made light of, and mutual services and aids
are withdrawn; but with some in process of time this jealousy ceases and
is annihilated, and with some it is changed into the mere semblance of
love.

374. That jealousy in certain cases arises from various mental
weaknesses, is not unknown in the world; for there are jealous persons,
who are continually thinking that their wives are unfaithful, and
believe them to be harlots, merely because they hear or see them talk in
a friendly manner with or about men. There are several vitiated
affections of the mind which induce this weakness; the principal of
which is a suspicious fancy, which if it be long cherished, introduces
the mind into societies of similar spirits, from whence it cannot
without difficulty be rescued; it also confirms itself in the body, by
rendering the serum, and consequently the blood, viscous, tenacious,
thick, slow, and acrid, a defect of strength also increases it; for the
consequence of such defect is, that the mind cannot be elevated from its
suspicious fancies; for the presence of strength elevates, and its
absence depresses, the latter causing the mind to sink, give way, and
become feeble; in which case it immerses itself more and more in the
above fancy, till it grows delirious, and thence takes delight in
quarrelling, and, so far as is allowable, in abuse.

375. There are also several countries, which more than others labor
under this weakness of jealousy: in these the wives are imprisoned, are
tyrannically shut out from conversation with men, are prevented from
even looking at them through the windows, by blinds drawn down, and are
terrified by threats of death if the cherished suspicion shall appear
well grounded; not to mention other hardships which the wives in those
countries suffer from their jealous husbands. There are two causes of
this jealousy; one is, an imprisonment and suffocation of the thoughts
in the spiritual things of the church; the other is, an inward desire of
revenge. As to the first cause,--the imprisonment and suffocation of the
thoughts in the spiritual things of the church, its operation and effect
may be concluded from what has been proved above,--that everyone has
conjugial love according to the state of the church with him, and as the
church is from the Lord, that that love is solely from the Lord, n. 130,
131; when therefore, instead of the Lord, living and deceased men are
approached and invoked, it follows, that the state of the church is such
that conjugial love cannot act in unity with it; and the less so while
the mind is terrified into that worship by the threats of a dreadful
prison: hence it comes to pass, that the thoughts, together with the
expressions of them in conversation, are violently seized and
suffocated; and when they are suffocated, there is an influx of such
things as are either contrary to the church, or imaginary in favor of
it; the consequence of which is, heat in favor of harlots and cold
towards a married partner; from which two principles prevailing together
in one subject, such an unconquerable fire of jealousy flows forth. As
to the second cause,--the inward desire of revenge, this altogether
checks the influx of conjugial love, and swallows it up, and changes the
delight thereof, which is celestial, into the delight of revenge, which
is infernal; and the proximate determination of this latter is to the
wife. There is also an appearance, that the unhealthiness of the
atmosphere, which in those regions is impregnated with the poisonous
exhalations of the surrounding country, is an additional cause.

376. XI. IN SOME INSTANCES THERE IS NOT ANY JEALOUSY; AND THIS ALSO FROM
VARIOUS CAUSES. There are several causes of there being no jealousy, and
of its ceasing. The absence of jealousy is principally with those who
make no more account of conjugial than of adulterous love, and at the
same time are so void of honorable feeling as to slight the reputation
of a name: they are not unlike married pimps. There is no jealousy
likewise with those who have rejected it from a confirmed persuasion
that it infests the mind, and that it is useless to watch a wife, and
that to do so serves only to incite her, and that therefore it is better
to shut the eyes, and not even to look through the key-hole, lest any
thing should be discovered. Some have rejected jealousy on account of
the reproach attached to the name, and under the idea that any one who
is a real man, is afraid of nothing: some have been driven to reject it
lest their domestic affairs should suffer, and also lest they should
incur public censure in case the wife was convicted of the disorderly
passion of which she is accused. Moreover jealousy passes off into no
jealousy with those who grant license to their wives, either from a want
of ability, or with a view to the procreation of children for the sake
of inheritance, also in some cases with a view to gain, and so forth.
There are also disorderly marriages, in which, by mutual consent, the
licence of unlimited amour is allowed to each party, and yet they are
civil and complaisant to each other when they meet.

377. XII. THERE IS A JEALOUSY ALSO IN REGARD TO CONCUBINES, BUT NOT SUCH
AS IN REGARD TO WIVES. Jealousy in regard to wives originates in a man's
inmost principles; but jealousy in regard to concubines originates in
external principles; they therefore differ in kind. The reason why
jealousy in regard to wives originates in inmost principles is, because
conjugial love resides in them: the reason why it resides there is,
because marriage from the eternity of its compact established by
covenant, and also from an equality of right, the right of each party
being transferred to the other, unites souls, and lays a superior
obligation on minds: this obligation and that union, once impressed,
remain inseparable, whatever be the quality of the love afterwards,
whether it be warm or cold. Hence it is that an invitation to love
coming from a wife chills the whole man from the inmost principles to
the outermost; whereas an invitation to love coining from a concubine
has not the same effect upon the object of her love. To jealousy in
regard to a wife is added the earnest desire of reputation with a view
to honor; and there is no such addition to jealousy in regard to a
concubine. Nevertheless both kinds of jealousy vary according to the
seat of the love received by the wife and by the concubine; and at the
same time according to the state of the judgment of the man receiving
it.

378. XIII. JEALOUSY LIKEWISE EXISTS AMONG BEASTS AND BIRDS. That it
exists among wild beasts, as lions, tigers, bears, and several others,
while they have whelps, is well known; and also among bulls, although
they have not calves: it is most conspicuous among dung-hill cocks, who
in favor of their hens fight with their rivals even to death: the reason
why the latter have such jealousy is, because they are vain-glorious
lovers, and the glory of that love cannot endure an equal; that they are
vain-glorious lovers, above every genus and species of birds, is
manifest from their gestures, nods, gait, and tone of voice. That the
glory of honor with men, whether lovers or not, excites, increases, and
sharpens jealousy, has been confirmed above.

379. XIV. THE JEALOUSY OF MEN AND HUSBANDS IS DIFFERENT FROM THAT OF
WOMEN AND WIVES. The differences cannot however be distinctly pointed
out, since the jealousy of married partners who love each other
spiritually, differs from that of married partners who love each other
merely naturally, and differs again with those who disagree in minds,
and also with those who have subjected their consorts to the yoke of
obedience. The jealousies of men and of women considered in themselves
are different, because from different origins: the origin of the
jealousies of men is in the understanding, whereas of women it is in the
will applied to the understanding of the husband: the jealousy of a man
therefore, is like a flame of wrath and anger; whereas that of a woman
is like a fire variously restrained, by fear, by regard to the husband,
by respect to her own love, and by her prudence in not revealing this
love to her husband by jealousy: they differ also because wives are
loves, and men recipients thereof; and wives are unwilling to squander
their love upon the men, but the case is not so with the recipients
towards the wives. With the spiritual, however, it is otherwise; with
these the jealousy of the man is transferred into the wife, as the love
of the wife is transferred into the husband; therefore with each party
it appears like itself against the attempts of a violator; but the
jealousy of the wife is inspired into the husband against the attempts
of the violating harlot, which is like grief weeping, and moving the
conscience.

       *       *       *       *       *

380. To the above I shall add two MEMORABLE RELATIONS. I was once in
much amazement at the great multitude of men who ascribe creation, and
consequently whatever is under the sun and above it, to nature;
expressing the real sentiments of their hearts as to the visible things
of the world, by this question, "What are these but the works of
nature?" And when they are asked why they ascribe them to nature and not
to God, when nevertheless they occasionally join in the general
confession, that God has created nature, and therefore they might as
well ascribe creation to God as to nature, they return for answer, with
an internal tone of voice, which is scarcely audible, "What is God but
nature?" From this persuasion concerning nature as the creator of the
universe, and from this folly which has to them the semblance of wisdom,
all such persons appear so full of their own importance, that they
regard all those who acknowledge the creation of the universe to be from
God, as so many ants which creep along the ground and tread in a beaten
path, and in some cases as butterflies which fly in the air; ridiculing
their opinions as dreams because they see what they do not see, and
deciding all by the question, "Who has seen God, and who has not seen
nature?" While I was thus amazed at the great multitude of such persons,
there stood near me an angel, who asked me, "What is the subject of your
meditation?" I replied, "It is concerning the great multitude of such as
believe that nature created the universe." The angel then said to me,
"All hell consists of such persons, who are there called satans and
devils; satans, if they have confirmed themselves in favor of nature to
the denial of God, and devils, if they have lived wickedly, and thereby
rejected all acknowledgement of God from their hearts; but I will lead
you to the _gymnasia_, which are in the south-west, where such persons
dwell, having not yet departed to their infernal abodes." He took me by
the hand and led me there. I saw some small houses, in which were
apartments for the studious, and in the midst of them one which served
as a principal hall to the rest. It was constructed of a pitchy kind of
stone, covered with a sort of glazed plates, that seemed to sparkle with
gold and silver, like the stones called _Glades Mariae_; and here and
there were interspersed shells which glittered in like manner. We
approached and knocked at the door, which was presently opened by one
who bade us welcome. He then went to the table, and fetched four books,
and said, "These books are the wisdom which is at this day the
admiration of many kingdoms: this book or wisdom is the admiration of
many in France, this of many in Germany, this of some in Holland, and
this of some in England:" He further said, "If you wish to see it, I
will cause these four books to shine brightly before your eyes:" he then
poured forth and spread around them the glory of his own reputation, and
the books presently shone as with light; but this light instantly
vanished from our sight. We then asked him what he was now writing? He
replied, that he was now about to bring forth from his treasures, and
publish to the world, things of inmost wisdom, which would be comprised
under these general heads: I. Whether nature be derived from life, or
life from nature. II. Whether the centre be derived from the expanse, or
the expanse from the centre. III. On the centre and the expanse of
nature and of life. Having said this, he reclined on a couch at the
table; but we walked about in his spacious study. He had a candle on the
table, because the light of the sun never shone in that room, but only
the nocturnal light of the moon; and what surprised me, the candle
seemed to be carried all round the room, and to illuminate it; but, for
want of being snuffed, it gave but little light. While he was writing,
we saw images in various forms flying from the table towards the walls,
which in that nocturnal moon-light appeared like beautiful Indian birds;
but on opening the door, lo! in the light of the sun they appeared like
birds of the evening, with wings like network; for they were semblances
of truth made fallacies by being confirmed, which he had ingeniously
connected together into series. After attending some time to this sight,
we approached the table, and asked him what he was then writing? He
replied, "On the first general head, WHETHER NATURE BE DERIVED FROM
LIFE, OR LIFE FROM NATURE;" and on this question he said, that he could
confirm either side, and cause it to be true; but as something lay
concealed within which excited his fears, therefore he durst only
confirm this side, that nature is of life, that is, from life, but not
that life is of nature, that is, from it. We then civilly requested him
to tell us, what lay concealed within, which excited his fears? He
replied, he was afraid lest he should be called a naturalist, and so an
atheist, by the clergy, and a man of unsound reason by the laity; as
they both either believe from a blind credulity, or see from the sight
of those who confirm that credulity. But just then, being impelled by a
kind of indignant zeal for the truth, we addressed him in saying,
"Friend, you are much deceived; your wisdom, which is only an ingenious
talent for writing, has seduced you, and the glory of reputation has led
you to confirm what you do not believe. Do you know that the human mind
is capable of being elevated above sensual things, which are derived
into the thoughts from the bodily senses, and that when it is so
elevated, it sees the things that are of life above, and those that are
of nature beneath? What is life but love and wisdom? and what is nature
but their recipient, whereby they may produce their effects or uses? Can
these possibly be one in any other sense than as principal and
instrumental are one? Can light be one with the eye, or sound with the
ear? Whence are the senses of these organs but from life, and their
forms but from nature? What is the human body but an organ of life? Are
not all things therein organically formed to produce the things which
the love wills and the understanding thinks? Are not the organs of the
body from nature, and love and thought from life? And are not those
things entirely distinct from each other? Raise the penetration of your
ingenuity a little, and you will see that it is the property of life to
be affected and to think, and that to be affected is from love, and to
think is from wisdom, and each is from life; for, as we have said, love
and wisdom are life: if you elevate your faculty of understanding a
little higher, you will see that no love and wisdom exists, unless its
origin be somewhere or other, and that its origin is wisdom itself, and
thence life itself, and these are God from whom is nature." Afterwards
we conversed with him about his second question, WHETHER THE CENTRE BE
OF THE EXPANSE, OR THE EXPANSE OF THE CENTRE; and asked him why he
discussed this question? He replied, "With a view to conclude concerning
the centre and the expanse of nature and of life, thus concerning the
origin of each." And when we asked him what were his sentiments on the
subject, he answered, as in the former case, that he could confirm
either side, but for fear of suffering in his reputation, he would
confirm that the expanse is of the centre, that is, from the centre;
although I know, said he, that something existed before the sun, and
this in the universe throughout, and that these things flowed together
of themselves into order, thus into centres. But here again we addressed
him from the overflowing of an indignant zeal, and said, "Friend, you
are insane." On hearing these words, he drew his couch aside from the
table, and looked timidly at us, and then listened to our conversation,
but with a smile upon his countenance, while we thus proceeded: "What is
a surer proof of insanity, than to say that the centre is from the
expanse? By your centre we understand the sun, and by your expanse the
universe; and thus, according to you, the universe existed without the
sun: but does not the sun make nature, and all its properties, which
depend solely on the heat and light proceeding from the sun by the
atmospheres? Where were those things previous to the sun's existence?
But whence they originated we will shew presently. Are not the
atmospheres and all things which exist on the earth, as surfaces, and
the sun their centre? What are they all without the sun; or how could
they subsist a single moment in the sun's absence? Consequently what
were they all before the sun, or how could they subsist? Is not
subsistence perpetual existence? Since therefore all the parts of nature
derive their subsistence from the sun, they must of consequence derive
also their existence from the same origin: every one sees and is
convinced of this truth by the testimony of his own eyes. Does not that
which is posterior subsist from what is prior, as it exists from what is
prior? Supposing the surface to be the prior and the centre the
posterior, would not the prior in such case subsist from the posterior,
which yet is contrary to the laws of order? How can posterior things
produce prior, or exterior things produce interior, or grosser things
produce purer? consequently, how can surfaces, which constitute the
expanse, produce centres? Who does not see that this is contrary to the
laws of nature? We have adduced these arguments from a rational
analysis, to prove that the expanse exists from the centre, and not the
centre from the expanse; nevertheless every one who sees aright, sees it
to be so without the help of such arguments. You have asserted, that the
expanse flowed together of itself into a centre; did it thus flow by
chance into so wonderful and stupendous an order, where one thing exists
for the sake of another, and everything for the sake of man, and with a
view to his eternal life? Is it possible that nature from any principle
of love, by any principle of wisdom, should provide such things? And can
nature make angels of men, and heaven of angels? Ponder and consider
these things: and your idea of nature existing from nature will fall to
the ground." Afterwards we questioned him as to his former and present
sentiments concerning his third inquiry, relating to the CENTRE AND
EXPANSE OF NATURE AND OF LIKE; whether he was of opinion that the centre
and expanse of life are the same with the centre and expanse of nature?
He replied, that he was in doubt about it, and that he formerly thought
that the interior activity of nature is life; and that love and wisdom,
which essentially constitute the life of man, are thence derived; and
that the sun's fire, by the instrumentality of heat and light, through
the mediums of the atmospheres, produce those principles; but that now,
from what he had heard concerning the eternal life of men, he began to
waver in his sentiments, and that in consequence of such wavering, his
mind was sometimes carried upwards, sometimes downwards; and that when
it was carried upwards, he acknowledged a centre of which he had before
no idea; but when downwards, he saw a centre which he believed to be the
only one that existed; and that life is from the centre which before was
unknown to him; and nature is from the centre which he before believed
to be the only one existing; and that each centre has an expanse around
it. To this we said, Well, if he would only respect the centre and
expanse of nature from the centre and expanse of life, and not
contrariwise; and we informed him, that above the angelic heaven there
is a sun which is pure love, in appearance very like the sun of the
world; and that from the heat which proceeds from that sun, angels and
men derive will and love, and from its light they derive understanding
and wisdom; and that the things which are of life, are called spiritual
and that those which proceed from the sun of the world, are what contain
life, and are called natural; also that the expanse of the centre of
life is called the SPIRITUAL WORLD, which subsists from its sun, and
that the expanse of nature is called the NATURAL WORLD, which subsists
from its sun. Now, since of love and wisdom there cannot be predicated
spaces and times, but instead thereof states, it follows, that the
expanse around the sun of the angelic heaven is not extended, but still
is in the extense of the natural sun, and present with all living
subjects therein according to their receptions, which are according to
forms. But he then asked, "Whence comes the fire of the sun of the
world, or of nature?" We replied, that it is derived from the sun of the
angelic heaven, which is not fire, but divine love proximately
proceeding from God, who is love itself. As he was surprised at this, we
thus proved it: "Love in its essence is spiritual fire; hence fire in
the Word, in its spiritual sense, signifies love: it is on this account
that priests, when officiating in the temple, pray that heavenly fire
may fill their hearts, by which they mean heavenly love: the fire of the
altar and of the candlestick in the tabernacle amongst the Israelites,
represented divine love: the heat of the blood, or the vital heat of men
and animals in general is from no other source than love, which
constitutes their life: hence it is that a man is enkindled, grows warm,
and becomes on fire, while his love is exalted into zeal, anger, and
wrath; wherefore from the circumstance, that spiritual heat, which is
love, produces natural heat with men, even to the kindling and inflaming
of their faces and limbs, it may appear, that the fire of the natural
sun has existed from no other source than the fire of the spiritual sun,
which is divine love. Now, since the expanse originates from the centre,
and not the centre from the expanse, as we said above, and the centre of
life, which is the sun of the angelic heaven, is divine love proximately
proceeding from God, who is in the midst of that sun; and since the
expanse of that centre, which is called the spiritual world, is hence
derived; and since from that sun existed the sun of the world, and from
the latter its expanse, which is called the natural world; it is
evident, that the universe was created by one God." With these words we
took our leave, and he attended us out of the court of his study, and
conversed with us respecting heaven and hell, and the divine government,
from a new acuteness of genius.

381. THE SECOND MEMORABLE RELATION. On a time as I was looking around
into the world of spirits, I saw at a distance a palace surrounded and
as it were besieged by a crowd; I also saw many running towards it.
Wondering what this could mean, I speedily left the house, and asked one
of those who were running, what was the matter at the palace? He
replied, that three new comers from the world had been taken up into
heaven, and had there seen magnificent things, also maidens and wives of
astonishing beauty; and that being let down from heaven they had entered
into that palace, and were relating what they had seen; especially that
they had beheld such beauties as their eyes had never before seen, or
can see, unless illustrated by the light of heavenly _aura_. Respecting
themselves they said, that in the world they had been orators, from the
kingdom of France, and had applied themselves to the study of eloquence,
and that now they were seized with a desire of making an oration on the
origin of beauty. When this was made known in the neighbourhood, the
multitude flocked together to hear them. Upon receiving this
information, I hastened also myself, and entered the palace, and saw the
three men standing in the midst, dressed in long robes of a sapphire
color, which, having threads of gold in their texture at every change of
posture shone as if they had been golden. They stood ready to speak
behind a kind of stage; and presently one of them rose on a step behind
the stage, and delivered his sentiments concerning the origin of the
beauty of the female sex, in the following words.

382. "What is the origin of beauty but love, which, when it flows into
the eyes of youths, and sets them on becomes beauty? therefore love and
beauty are the same thing; for love, from an inmost principle, tinges
the face of a marriageable maiden with a kind of flame, from the
transparence of which is derived the dawn and bloom of her life. Who
does not know that the flame emits rays into her eyes, and spreads from
these as centres into the countenance, and also descends into the
breast, and sets the heart on fire, and thereby affects (a youth), just
as a fire with its heat and light affects a person standing near it?
That heat is love, and that light is the beauty of love. The whole world
is agreed, and firm in the opinion, that every one is lovely and
beautiful according to his love: nevertheless the love of the male sex
differs from that of the female. Male love is the love of growing wise,
and female love is that of loving the love of growing wise in the male;
so far therefore as a youth is the love of growing wise, so far he is
lovely and beautiful to a maiden; and so far as a maiden is the love of
a youth's wisdom, so far she is lovely and beautiful to a youth;
wherefore as love meets and kisses the love of another, so also do
beauties. I conclude therefore, that love forms beauty into a
resemblance of itself."

383. After him arose a second, with a view of discovering, in a neat and
elegant speech, the origin of beauty. He expressed himself thus: "I have
heard that love is the origin of beauty; but I cannot agree with this
opinion. What human being knows what love is? Who has ever contemplated
it with any idea of thought? Who has ever seen it with the eye? Let such
a one tell me where it is to be found. But I assert that wisdom is the
origin of beauty; in women a wisdom which lies concealed and stored up
in the inmost principles of the mind, in men a wisdom which manifests
itself, and is apparent. Whence is a man (_homo_) a man but from wisdom?
Were it not so, a man would be a statue or a picture. What does a maiden
attend to in a youth, but the quality of his wisdom; and what does a
youth attend to in a maiden, but the quality of her affection of his
wisdom? By wisdom I mean genuine morality; because this is the wisdom of
life. Hence it is, that when wisdom which lies concealed, approaches and
embraces wisdom which is manifest, as is the case interiorly in the
spirit of each, they mutually kiss and unite, and this is called love;
and in such case each of the parties appears beautiful to the other. In
a word, wisdom is like the light or brightness of fire, which impresses
itself on the eyes, and thereby forms beauty."

384. After him the third arose, and spoke to this effect: "It is neither
love alone nor wisdom alone, which is the origin of beauty; but it is
the union of love and wisdom; the union of love with wisdom in a youth,
and the union of wisdom with its love in a maiden: for a maiden does not
love wisdom in herself but in a youth, and hence sees him as beauty, and
when a youth sees this in a maiden, he then sees her as beauty;
therefore love by wisdom forms beauty, and wisdom grounded in love
receives it. That this is the case, appears manifestly in Heaven. I have
there seen maidens and wives, and have attentively considered their
beauties, and have observed, that beauty in maidens differs from beauty
in wives; in maidens being only the brightness, but in wives the
splendor of beauty. The difference appeared like that of a diamond
sparkling from light, and of a ruby shining from fire together with
light. What is beauty but the delight of the sight? and in what does
this delight originate but in the sport of love and wisdom? This sport
gives brilliancy to the sight, and this brilliancy vibrates from eye to
eye, and presents an exhibition of beauty. What constitutes beauty of
countenance, but red and white, and the lovely mixture thereof with each
other? and is not the red derived from love, and the white from wisdom?
love being red from its fire, and wisdom, white from its light. Both
these I have clearly seen in the faces of two married partners in
heaven; the redness of white in the wife, and the whiteness of red in
the husband; and I observed that they shone in consequence of mutually
looking at each other." When the third had thus concluded, the assembly
applauded and cried out, "He has gained the victory." Then on a sudden,
a flaming light, which is the light of conjugial love, filled the house
with its splendor, and the hearts of the company with satisfaction.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE CONJUNCTION OF CONJUGIAL LOVE WITH THE LOVE OF INFANTS.

385. There are evident signs that conjugial love and the love of
infants, which is called _storge_, are connected; and there are also
signs which may induce a belief that they are not connected; for there
is the love of infants with married partners who tenderly love each
other, and also with married partners who disagree entirely, and
likewise with those who are separated from each other, and in some cases
it is more tender and stronger with the latter than the former; but that
still the love of infants is always connected with conjugial love, may
appear from the origin from which it flows in; for although this origin
varies with the recipients, still those loves remain inseparable, just
as the first end in the last, which is the effect. The first end of
conjugial love is the procreation of offspring, and the last, or the
effect, is the offspring procreated. That the first end enters into the
effect, and is therein as in its origin, and does not withdraw from it,
may be seen from a rational view of the orderly progression of ends and
causes to effects. But as the reasonings of the generality commence
merely from effects, and from them proceed to some consequences thence
resulting, and do not commence from causes, and from them proceed
analytically to effects, and so forth; therefore the rational principles
of light must needs become the obscure principles of cloud; whence come
derivations from truth, arising from appearances and fallacies. But that
it may be seen that conjugial love and the love of infants are
interiorly connected, although exteriorly disjointed, we will proceed to
demonstrate it in the following order. I. _Two universal spheres proceed
from the Lord to preserve the universe in its created State; of which
the one is the sphere of procreating, and the other the sphere of
protecting the things procreated._ II. _These two universal spheres make
a one with the sphere of conjugial love and the sphere of the love of
infants._ III. _These two spheres universally and singularly flow into
all things of heaven, and all things of the world from first to last._
IV. _The sphere of the love of infants is a sphere of protection and
support of those who cannot protect and support themselves._ V. _This
sphere affects both the evil and the good, and disposes every one to
love, protect, and support his offspring from his own love._ VI. _This
sphere principally affects the female sex, thus mothers, and the male
sex, or fathers, by derivation from them._ VII. _This sphere is also a
sphere of innocence and peace from the Lord._ VIII. _The sphere of
innocence flows into infants, and through them into the parents, and
affects them._ IX, _It also flows into the souls of the parents, and
unites with the same sphere (as operative) with the infants; and it is
principally insinuated by means of the touch._ X. _In the degree in
which innocence retires from infants, affection and conjunction also
abate, and this successively even to separation._ XI. _A state of
rational innocence and peace with parents towards infants is grounded on
the circumstance, that they know nothing and can do nothing from
themselves, but from others, especially from the father and mother; and
that this state also successively retires, in proportion as they know
and have ability from themselves, and not from others._ XII. _The above
sphere advances in order from the end through causes into effects and
makes periods; whereby creation is preserved in the state foreseen and
provided for._ XIII. _The love of infants descends and does not ascend._
XIV. _Wives have one state of love before conception and another after,
even to the birth._ XV. _With parents conjugial love is conjoined with
the love of infants by spiritual causes, and thence by natural._ XVI.
_The love of infants and children is different with spiritual married
partners from what it is with natural._ XVII. _With spiritual married
partners that love is from what is interior or prior, but with natural
from what is exterior or posterior._ XVIII. _In consequence hereof that
love prevails with married partners who mutually love each other, and
also with those who do not at all love each other._ XIX. _The love of
infants remains after death, especially with women._ XX. _Infants are
educated under the Lord's auspices by such women, and grow in stature
and intelligence as in the world._ XXI. _It is there provided by the
Lord, that with those infants the innocence of infancy becomes the
innocence of wisdom, and thus the infants become angels._ We now proceed
to an explanation of each article.

386. I. TWO UNIVERSAL SPHERES PROCEED FROM THE LORD TO PRESERVE THE
UNIVERSE IN ITS CREATED STATE; OF WHICH THE ONE IS THE SPHERE OF
PROCREATING AND THE OTHER THE SPHERE OF PROTECTING THE THINGS
PROCREATED. The divine which proceeds from the Lord is called a sphere,
because it goes forth from him, surrounds him, fills both the spiritual
and the natural world, and produces the effects of the ends which the
Lord predestinated in creation, and provides since creation. All that
which flows from a subject, and surrounds and environs it, is named a
sphere; as in the case of the sphere of light from the sun around it, of
the sphere of life from man around him, of the sphere of odor from a
plant around it, of the sphere of attraction from the magnet around it,
and so forth: but the universal spheres of which we are here treating,
are from the Lord around him; and they proceed from the sun of the
spiritual world, in the midst of which he is. From the Lord by means of
that sun, proceeds a sphere of heat and light, or what is the same, a
sphere of love and wisdom, to produce ends, which are uses; but that
sphere according to uses, is distinguished by various names: the divine
sphere which looks to the preservation of the universe in its created
state by successive generations, is called the sphere of procreating;
and the divine sphere which looks to the preservation of generations in
their beginnings, and afterwards in their progressions, is called the
sphere of protecting the things procreated: besides these two, there are
several other divine spheres which are named according to their uses,
consequently variously, as may be seen above, n. 222. The operations of
uses by these spheres are the divine providence.

387. II. THESE TWO UNIVERSAL SPHERES MAKE A ONE WITH THE SPHERE OF
CONJUGIAL LOVE AND THE SPHERE OF THE LOVE OF INFANTS. That the sphere of
conjugial love makes a one with the sphere of procreating, is evident;
for procreation is the end, and conjugial love the mediate cause by
which (the end is promoted), and the end and the cause in what is to be
effected and in effects, act in unity, because they act together. That
the sphere of the love of infants makes a one with the sphere of
protecting the things procreated, is also evident, because it is the end
proceeding from the foregoing end, which was procreation, and the love
of infants is its mediate cause by which it is promoted: for ends
advance in a series, one after another, and in their progress the last
end becomes the first, and thereby advances further, even to the
boundary, in which they subsist or cease. But on this subject more will
be seen in the explanation of article XII.

388. III. THESE TWO SPHERES UNIVERSALLY AND SINGULARLY FLOW INTO ALL
THINGS OF HEAVEN AND ALL THINGS OF THE WORLD, FROM FIRST TO LAST. It is
said universally and singularly, because when mention is made of a
universal, the singulars of which it is composed are meant at the same
time; for a universal exists from and consists of singulars; thus it
takes its name from them, as a whole exists from, consists of, and takes
its name from its parts; therefore, if you take away singulars, a
universal is only a name, and is like a mere surface which contains
nothing: consequently to attribute to God universal government, and to
take away singulars, is vain talk and empty preaching: nor is it to the
purpose, in this case, to urge a comparison with the universal
government of the kings of the earth. From this ground then it is said,
that those two spheres flow in universally and singularly.

389. The reason why the spheres of procreating and of protecting the
things procreated, or the spheres of conjugial love and the love of
infants, flow into all thing of heaven and all things of the world, from
first (principles) to last, is because all things which proceed from the
Lord, or from the sun which is from him and in which he is, pervade the
created universe even to the last of all its principles: the reason of
this is, because divine things, which in progression are called
celestial and spiritual, have no relation to space and time. That
extension cannot be predicated of things spiritual, in consequence of
their not having any relation to space and time, is well known: hence
whatever proceeds from the Lord, is in an instant from first
(principles) in last. That the sphere of conjugial love is thus
universal may be seen above, n. 222-225. That in like manner the sphere
of the love of infants is universal, is evident from that love's
prevailing in heaven, where there are infants from the earths; and from
that love's prevailing in the world with men, beasts and birds, serpents
and insects. Something resembling this love prevails also in the
vegetable and mineral kingdoms; in the vegetable, in that seeds are
guarded by shells or husks as by swaddling clothes, and moreover are in
the fruit as in a house, and are nourished with juice as with milk; that
there is something similar in minerals, is plain from the matrixes and
external covering, in which noble gems and metals are concealed and
guarded.

390. The reason why the sphere of procreating, and the sphere of
protecting the things procreated, make a one in a continual series, is,
because the love of procreating is continued into the love of what is
procreated. The quality of the love of procreating is known from its
delight, which is supereminent and transcendent. This love influences
the state of procreating with men, and in a remarkable manner the state
of reception with women; and this very exalted delight with its love
continues even to the birth, and there attains its fulness.

391. IV. THE SPHERE OF THE LOVE OF INFANTS IS A SPHERE OF PROTECTION AND
SUPPORT OF THOSE WHO CANNOT PROTECT AND SUPPORT THEMSELVES. That the
operations of uses from the Lord by spheres proceeding from him, are the
divine providence, was said above, n. 386; this divine providence
therefore is meant by the sphere of protection and support of those who
cannot protect and support themselves: for it is a law of creation that
the things created are to be preserved, guarded, protected, and
supported; otherwise the universe would fall to decay: but as this
cannot be done immediately from the Lord with living creatures, who are
left to their own choice, it is done mediately by his love implanted in
fathers, mothers, and nurses. That their love is from the Lord
influencing them, is not known to themselves, because they do not
perceive the influx, and still less the Lord's omnipresence: but who
does not see, that this principle is not of nature, but of the divine
providence operating in and by nature; and that such a universal
principle cannot exist except from God, by a certain spiritual sun,
which is in the centre of the universe, and whose operation, being
without space and time, is instant and present from first principles in
last? But in what manner that divine operation, which is the Lord's
divine providence, is received by animate subjects, will be shewn in
what follows. That mothers and fathers protect and support infants,
because they cannot protect and support themselves, is not the cause of
that love, but is a rational cause derived from that love's falling into
the understanding; for a man, from this cause alone, without love
inspired and inspiring it, or without law and punishment compelling him,
would no more than a statue provide for infants.

392. V. THIS SPHERE AFFECTS BOTH THE EVIL AND THE GOOD, AND DISPOSES
EVERY ONE TO LOVE, PROTECT, AND SUPPORT HIS OFFSPRING FROM HIS OWN LOVE.
Experience testifies that the love of infants prevails equally with the
evil and the good, and in like manner with tame and wild beasts; yea,
that in some cases it is stronger and more ardent in its influence on
evil men, and also on wild beasts. The reason of this is, because all
love proceeding from the Lord and flowing into subjects, is changed in
the subject into the love of its life; for every animate subject has no
other sensation than that its love originates in itself, as it does not
perceive the influx; and while also it actually loves itself, it makes
the love of infants proper to itself; for it sees as it were itself in
them, and them in itself, and itself thus united with them. Hence also
this love is fiercer with wild beasts, as with lions and lionesses, he
and she bears, leopards and leopardesses, he and she wolves, and others
of a like nature, than with horses, deer, goats, and sheep; because
those wild beasts have dominion over the tame, and hence self-love is
predominant, and this loves itself in its offspring; therefore as we
said, the influent love is turned into self-love. Such an inversion of
the influent love into self-love, and the consequent protection and
support of the young offspring by evil parents, is of the Lord's divine
providence; for otherwise there would remain but few of the human race,
and none of the savage beasts, which, nevertheless, are of use. From
these considerations it is evident, that every one is disposed to love,
protect, and support his offspring, from his own love.

393. VI. THIS SPHERE PRINCIPALLY AFFECTS THE FEMALE SEX, THUS MOTHERS
AND THE MALE SEX, OR FATHERS, BY DERIVATION FROM THEM. This follows from
what was said above, in regard to the origin of conjugial love,--that
the sphere of conjugial love is received by the women, and through them
is transferred to the men: because women are born loves of the
understanding of the men, and the understanding is a recipient. The case
is the same with the love of infants, because this originates in
conjugial love. It is well known that mothers are influenced by a most
tender love of infants, and fathers by a love less tender. That the love
of infants is inherent in conjugial love, into which women are born, is
evident from the amiable and endearing love of girls towards infants,
and towards their dolls, which they carry, dress, kiss, and press to
their bosoms: boys are not influenced by any such affection. It appears
as if mothers derived the love of infants from nourishing them in the
womb out of their own blood, and from the consequent appropriation of
their life, and thus from sympathetic union: but still this is not the
origin of that love; for if another infant, without the mother's
knowledge, were to be put after the birth in the place of the genuine
infant, the mother would love it with equal tenderness as if it were her
own: moreover infants are sometimes loved by their nurses more than by
their mothers. From these considerations it follows, that this love is
from no other source than from the conjugial love implanted in every
woman, to which is joined the love of conceiving; from the delight of
which the wife is prepared for reception. This is the first of the above
love, which with its delight after the birth passes fully to the
offspring.

394. VII. THIS SPHERE IS ALSO A SPHERE OF INNOCENCE AND PEACE (FROM THE
LORD). Innocence and peace are the two inmost principles of heaven; they
are called inmost principles, because they proceed immediately from the
Lord: for the Lord is innocence itself and peace itself. From innocence
the Lord is called a Lamb, and from peace he saith, "_Peace I leave you;
my peace I give you_," John xiv. 27; and he is also meant by the peace
with which the disciples were to salute a city or house which they
entered; and of which it is said, that if it was worthy, peace would
come upon it, and if not worthy, peace would return, Matt. x. 11-15.
Hence also the Lord is called the Prince of peace, Isaiah ix. 5, 6. A
further reason why innocence and peace are the inmost principles of
heaven, is, because innocence is the _esse_ of every good, and peace is
the blessed principle of every delight which is of good. See the work on
HEAVEN AND HELL, as to the state of innocence of the angels of heaven,
n. 276-283; and as to peace in heaven, n. 284-290.

395. VIII. THE SPHERE OF INNOCENCE FLOWS INTO INFANTS, AND THROUGH THEM
INTO THE PARENTS, AND AFFECTS THEM. It is well known that infants are
innocences; but it is not known that their innocence flows in from the
Lord. It flows in from the Lord, because, as was said just above, he is
innocence itself; neither can any thing flow in, since it cannot exist
except from its first principle, which is IT itself. But we will briefly
describe the nature and quality of the innocence of infants, which
affects parents: it shines forth from their face, from some of their
gestures, and from their first speech, and affects them. They have
innocence, because they do not think from any interior principle; for
they do not as yet know what is good and evil, and what is true and
false, as the ground of their thoughts; in consequence of which they
have not a prudence originating in selfhood, nor any deliberate purpose;
of course they do not regard any evil as an end. They are free from
selfhood acquired from self-love and the love of the world; they do not
attribute any thing to themselves; they refer to their parents whatever
they receive; content with the trifles which are given them as presents,
they have no care about food and raiment, or about the future; they do
not look to the world, and immerse themselves thereby in the desire of
many things; they love their parents, their nurses, and their infant
companions, with whom they play in innocence; they suffer themselves to
be guided, they harken and obey. This is the innocence of infancy, which
is the cause of the love called _storge_.

396. IX. IT ALSO FLOWS IN TO THE SOULS OF THE PARENTS, AND UNITES WITH
THE SAME SPHERE (AS OPERATIVE) WITH THE INFANTS, AND IT IS PRINCIPALLY
INSINUATED BY MEANS OF THE TOUCH. The Lord's innocence flows into the
angels of the third heaven, where all are in the innocence of wisdom,
and passes through the inferior heavens, but only through the innocences
of the angels therein, and thus immediately and mediately flows into
infants. These differ but little from graven forms; but still they are
receptible of life from the Lord through the heavens. Yet, unless the
parents also received that influx in their souls, and in the inmost
principles of their minds, they would in vain be affected by the
innocence of the infants. There must be something adequate and similar
in another, whereby communication may be effected, and which may cause
reception, affection, and thence conjunction; otherwise it would be like
soft seed falling upon a stone, or a lamb exposed to a wolf. From this
ground then it is, that innocence flowing into the souls of the parents,
unites with the innocence of the infants. Experience may shew that, with
the parents, this conjunction is effected by the mediation of the bodily
senses, but especially by the touch: as that the sight is intimately
delighted by seeing them, the hearing by their speech, the smelling by
their odor. That the communication and therefore the conjunction of
innocence is principally effected by the touch, is evident from the
satisfaction of carrying them in the arms, from fondling and kissing
them, especially in the case of mothers, who are delighted in laying
their mouth and face upon their bosoms, and at the same time in touching
the same with the palms of their hands, in general, in giving them milk
by suckling them at the breasts, moreover, in stroking their naked body,
and the unwearied pains they take in washing and dressing them on their
laps. That the communications of love and its delights between married
partners are effected by the sense of the touch has been occasionally
proved above. The reason why communications of the mind are also
effected by the same sense is, because the hands are a man's ultimates,
and his first principles are together in the ultimates, whereby also all
things of the body and of the mind are kept together in an inseparable
connection. Hence it is, that Jesus touched infants, Matt, xviii. 2-6;
Mark x. 13-16; and that he healed the sick by the touch: and that those
who touched him were healed: hence also it is, that inaugurations into
the priesthood are at this day effected by the laying on of hands. From
these considerations it is evident, that the innocence of parents and
the innocence of infants meet each other by the touch, especially of the
hands, and thereby join themselves together as by kisses.

397. That innocence produces similar effects with beasts and birds as
with men, and that by contact, is well known: the reason of this is,
because all that proceeds from the Lord, in an instant pervades the
universe, as may be seen above, n. 388-390; and as it proceeds by
degrees, and by continual mediations, therefore it passes not only to
animals, but also to vegetables and minerals; see n. 389; it also passes
into the earth itself, which is the mother of all vegetables and
minerals; for the earth, in the spring, is in a prepared state for the
reception of seeds, as it were in the womb; and when it receives them,
it, as it were, conceives, cherishes them, bears, excludes, suckles,
nourishes, clothes, educates, guards, and, as it were, loves the
offspring derived from them, and so forth. Since the sphere of
procreation proceeds thus far, how much more must it proceed to animals
of every kind, even to worms! That as the earth is the common mother of
vegetables, so there is also a common mother of bees in every hive, is a
well known tact, confirmed by observation.

398. X. IN THE DEGREE IN WHICH INNOCENCE RETIRES FROM INFANTS, AFFECTION
AND CONJUNCTION ALSO ABATE, AND THIS SUCCESSIVELY EVEN TO SEPARATION. It
is well known that the love of infants, or _storge_, retires from
parents according as innocence retires from them; and that, in the case
of men, it retires even to the separation of children from home, and in
the case of beasts and birds, to a rejection from their presence, and a
total forgetfulness of relationship. From this circumstance, as an
established fact, it may further appear, that innocence flowing in on
each side produces the love called _storge_.

399. XI. A STATE OF RATIONAL INNOCENCE AND PEACE WITH PARENTS TOWARDS
INFANTS, IS GROUNDED IN THE CIRCUMSTANCE, THAT THEY KNOW NOTHING AND CAN
DO NOTHING FROM THEMSELVES, BUT FROM OTHERS, ESPECIALLY FROM THE FATHER
AND MOTHER; AND THIS STATE SUCCESSIVELY RETIRES, IN PROPORTION AS THEY
KNOW AND HAVE ABILITY FROM THEMSELVES, AND NOT FROM OTHERS. That the
sphere of the love of infants is a sphere of protection and support of
those who cannot protect and support themselves, was shewn above in its
proper article, n. 391: that this is only a rational cause with men, but
not the very essential cause of that love prevailing with them, was also
mentioned in the same article. The real original cause of that love is
innocence from the Lord, which flows in while the man is ignorant of it,
and produces the above rational cause; therefore as the first cause
produces a retiring from that love, so also does the second cause at the
same time; or what is the same, as the communication of innocence
retires, so also the persuading reason accompanies it; but this is the
case only with man to the intent that he may do what he does from
freedom according to reason, and from this, as from a rational and at
the same time a moral law, may support his adult offspring according to
the requirements of necessity and usefulness. This second cause does not
influence animals who are without reason, they being affected only by
the prior cause, which to them is instinct.

400. XII. THE SPHERE OF THE LOVE OF PROCREATING ADVANCES IN ORDER FROM
THE END THROUGH CAUSES INTO EFFECTS, AND MAKES PERIODS; WHEREBY CREATION
IS PRESERVED IN THE STATE FORESEEN AND PROVIDED FOR. All operations in
the universe have a progression from ends through causes into effects.
These three are in themselves indivisible, although in idea they appear
divided; but still the end, unless the intended effect is seen together
with it, is not any thing; nor does either become any thing, unless the
cause supports, contrives, and conjoins it. Such a progression is
inherent in every man in general, and in every particular, altogether as
will, understanding, and action: every end in regard to man relates to
the will, every cause to the understanding, and every effect to the
action; in like manner, every end relates to love, every efficient cause
to wisdom, and every effect thence derived to use. The reason of this
is, because the receptacle of love is the will, the receptacle of wisdom
is the understanding, and the receptacle of use is action: since
therefore operations in general and in particular with man advance from
the will through the understanding into act, so also do they advance
from love through wisdom into use. By wisdom here we mean all that which
belongs to judgement and thought. That these three are a one in the
effect, is evident. That they also make a one in ideas before the
effect, is perceived from the consideration, that determination only
intervenes; for in the mind an end goes forth from the will and produces
for itself a cause in the understanding, and presents to itself an
intention; and intention is as an act before determination; hence it is,
that by a wise man, and also by the Lord, intention is accepted as an
act. What rational person cannot see, or, when he hears, acknowledge,
that those three principles flow from some first cause, and that that
cause is, that from the Lord, the Creator and Conservator of the
universe, there continually proceed love, wisdom, and use, and these
three are one? Tell, if you can, in what other source they originate.

401. A similar progression from end through cause into effect belongs
also to the sphere of procreating and of protecting the things
procreated. The end in this case is the will or love of procreating; the
middle cause, by which the end is effected and into which it infuses
itself, is conjugial love; the progressive series of efficient causes is
the loving, conception, gestation of the embryo or offspring to be
procreated; and the effect is the offspring itself procreated. But
although end, cause, and effect successively advance as three things,
still in the love of procreating, and inwardly in all the causes, and in
the effect itself, they make a one. They are the efficient causes only,
which advance through times, because in nature; while the end or will,
or love, remains continually the same: for ends advance in nature
through times without time; but they cannot come forth and manifest
themselves, until the effect or use exists and becomes a subject; before
this, the love could love only the advance, but could not secure and fix
itself. That there are periods of such progressions, and that creation
is thereby preserved in the state foreseen and provided for, is well
known. But the series of the love of infants from its greatest to its
least, thus to the boundary in which it subsists or ceases, is
retrograde; since it is according to the decrease of innocence in the
subject, and also on account of the periods.

402. XIII. THE LOVE OF INFANTS DESCENDS, AND DOES NOT ASCEND. That it
descends from generation to generation, or from sons and daughters to
grandsons and granddaughters, and does not ascend from these to fathers
and mothers of families, is well known. The cause of its increase in
descent is the love of fructifying, or of producing uses, and in respect
to the human race, it is the love of multiplying it; but this derives
its origin solely from the Lord, who, in the multiplication of the human
race, regards the conservation of creation, and as the ultimate end
thereof, the angelic heaven, which is solely from the human race; and
since the angelic heaven is the end of ends, and thence the love of
loves with the Lord, therefore there is implanted in the souls of men,
not only the love of procreating, but also of loving the things
procreated in successions: hence also this love exists only with man and
not with any beast or bird. That this love with man descends increasing,
is in consequence of the glory of honor, which in like manner increases
with him according to amplifications. That the love of honor and glory
receives into itself the love of infants flowing from the Lord, and
makes it as it were its own, will be seen in article XVI.

403. XIV. WIVES HAVE ONE STATE OF LOVE BEFORE CONCEPTION AND ANOTHER
AFTER, EVEN TO THE BIRTH. This is adduced to the end that it may be
known, that the love of procreating, and the consequent love of what is
procreated, is implanted in conjugial love with women, and that with
them those two loves are divided, while the end, which is the love of
procreating, begins its progression. That the love called _storge_ is
then transferred from the wife to the husband; and also that the love of
procreating, which, as we said, with a woman makes one with her
conjugial love, is then not alike, is evident from several indications.

404. XV. WITH PARENTS CONJUGIAL LOVE IS CONJOINED WITH THE LOVE OF
INFANTS BY SPIRITUAL CAUSES, AND THENCE BY NATURAL. The spiritual causes
are, that the human race may be multiplied, and from this the angelic
heaven enlarged, and that thereby such may be born as will become
angels, serving the Lord to promote uses in heaven, and by consociation
with men also in the earths: for every man has angels associated with
him from the Lord; and such is his conjunction with them, that if they
were taken away, he would instantly die. The natural causes of the
conjunction of those two loves are, to effect the birth of those who may
promote uses in human societies, and may be incorporated therein as
members. That the latter are the natural and the former the spiritual
causes of the love of infants and of conjugial love, even married
partners themselves think and sometimes declare, saying they have
enriched heaven with as many angels as they have had descendants, and
have furnished society with as many servants as they have had children.

405. XVI. THE LOVE OF CHILDREN AND INFANTS IS DIFFERENT WITH SPIRITUAL
MARRIED PARTNERS FROM WHAT IT IS WITH NATURAL. With spiritual married
partners the love of infants as to appearance, is like the love of
infants with natural married partners; but it is more inward, and thence
more tender, because that love exists from innocence, and from a nearer
reception of innocence, and thereby a more present preception of it in
man's self: for the spiritual are such so far as they partake of
innocence. But spiritual fathers and mothers, after they have sipped the
sweet of innocence with their infants, love their children very
differently from what natural fathers and mothers do. The spiritual love
their children from their spiritual intelligence and moral life; thus
they love them from the fear of God and actual piety, or the piety of
life, and at the same time from affection and application to uses
serviceable to society, consequently from the virtues and good morals
which they possessed. From the love of these things they are principally
led to provide for, and minister to, the necessities of their children;
therefore if they do not observe such things in them, they alienate
their minds from them and do nothing for them but so far as they think
themselves bound in duty. With natural fathers and mothers the love of
infants is indeed grounded also in innocence; but when the innocence is
received by them, it is entwined around their own love, and consequently
the love of their infants from the latter, and at the same time from the
former, kissing, embracing, and dangling them, hugging them to their
bosoms, and fawning upon and flattering them beyond all bounds,
regarding them as one heart and soul with themselves; and afterwards,
when they have passed the state of infancy even to boyhood and beyond
it, in which state innocence is no longer operative, they love them not
from any fear of God and actual piety, or the piety of life, nor from
any rational and moral intelligence they may have; neither do they
regard, or only very slightly, if at all, their internal affections, and
thence their virtues and good morals, but only their externals, which
they favor and indulge. To these externals their love is directed and
determined: hence also they close their eyes to their vices, excusing,
and favoring them. The reason of this is, because with such parents the
love of their offspring is also the love of themselves; and this love
adheres to the subject outwardly, without entering into it, as self does
not enter into itself.

406. The quality of the love of infants and of the love of children with
the spiritual and with the natural, is evidently discerned from them
after death; for most fathers, when they come into another life,
recollect their children who have died before them; they are also
presented to and mutually acknowledge each other. Spiritual fathers only
look at them, and inquire as to their present state, and rejoice if it
is well with them, and grieve if it is ill; and after some conversation,
instruction, and admonition respecting moral celestial life, they
separate from them, telling them, that they are no longer to be
remembered as fathers because the Lord is the only Father to all in
heaven, according to his words, Matt. xxiii. 9: and that they do not at
all remember them as children. But natural fathers, when they first
become conscious that they are living after death, and recall to mind
their children who have died before them, and also when, agreeably to
their wishes, they are presented to each other, they instantly embrace,
and become united like bundles of rods; and in this case the father is
continually delighted with beholding and conversing with them. If the
father is told that some of his children are satans, and that they have
done injuries to the good, he nevertheless keeps them in a group around
him, if he himself sees that they are the occasion of hurt and do
mischief, he still pays no attention to it, nor does he separate any of
them from association with himself; in order, therefore, to prevent the
continuance of such a mischievous company, they are of necessity
committed forthwith to hell; and there the father, before the children,
is shut up in confinement, and the children are separated, and each is
removed to the place of his life.

407. To the above I will add this wonderful relation:--in the spiritual
world I have seen fathers who, from hatred, and as it were rage, had
looked at infants presented before their eyes, with a mind so savage,
that, if they could, they would have murdered them; but on its being
hinted to them, though without truth, that they were their own infants,
their rage and savageness instantly subsided, and they loved them to
excess. This love and hatred prevail together with those who in the
world had been inwardly deceitful, and had set their minds in enmity
against the Lord.

408. XVII. WITH THE SPIRITUAL THAT LOVE IS FROM WHAT IS INTERIOR OR
PRIOR, BUT WITH THE NATURAL FROM WHAT IS EXTERIOR OR POSTERIOR. To think
and conclude from what is interior or prior, is to think and conclude
from ends and causes to effects; but to think and conclude from what is
exterior or posterior, is to think and conclude from effects to causes
and ends. The latter progression is contrary to order, but the former
according to it; for to think and conclude from ends and causes, is to
think and conclude from goods and truths, viewed in a superior region of
the mind, to effects in an inferior region. Real human rationality from
creation is of this quality. But to think and conclude from effects, is
to think and conclude from an inferior region of the mind, where the
sensual things of the body reside with their appearances and fallacies,
to guess at causes and effects, which in itself is merely to confirm
falsities and concupiscences, and afterwards to see and believe them to
be truths of wisdom and goodnesses of the love of wisdom. The case is
similar in regard to the love of infants and children with the spiritual
and the natural; the spiritual love them from what is prior, thus
according to order: but the natural love them from what is posterior,
thus contrary to order. These observations are adduced only for the
confirmation of the preceding article.

409. XVIII. IN CONSEQUENCE HEREOF THAT LOVE PREVAILS WITH MARRIED
PARTNERS WHO MUTUALLY LOVE EACH OTHER, AND ALSO WITH THOSE WHO DO NOT AT
ALL LOVE EACH OTHER; consequently it prevails with the natural as well
as with the spiritual; but the latter are influenced by conjugial love,
whereas the former are influenced by no such love but what is apparent
and pretended. The reason why the love of infants and conjugial love
still act in unity, is, because, as we have said, conjugial love is
implanted in every woman from creation, and together with it the love of
procreating, which is determined to and flows into the procreated
offspring, and from the women is communicated to the men. Hence in
houses, in which there is no conjugial love between the man and his
wife, it nevertheless is with the wife, and thereby some external
conjunction is effected with the man. From this same ground it is, that
even harlots love their offspring; for that which from creation is
implanted in souls, and respects propagation, is indelible, and cannot
be extirpated.

410. XIX. THE LOVE OF INFANTS REMAINS AFTER DEATH, ESPECIALLY WITH
WOMEN. Infants, as soon as they are raised up, which happens immediately
after their decease, are elevated into heaven, and delivered to angels
of the female sex, who in the life of the body in the world loved
infants, and at the same time feared God. These, having loved all
infants with maternal tenderness, receive them as their own; and the
infants in this case, as from an innate feeling, love them as their
mothers: as many infants are consigned to them, as they desire from a
spiritual _storge_. The heaven in which infants are appears in front in
the region of the forehead, in the line in which the angels look
directly at the Lord. That heaven is so situated, because all infants
are educated under the immediate auspices of the Lord. There is an
influx also into this heaven from the heaven of innocence, which is the
third heaven. When they have passed through this first period, they are
transferred to another heaven, where they are instructed.

411. XX. INFANTS ARE EDUCATED UNDER THE LORD'S AUSPICES BY SUCH WOMEN,
AND GROW IN STATURE AND INTELLIGENCE AS IN THE WORLD. Infants in heaven
are educated in the following manner; they learn to speak from the
female angel who has the charge of their education; their first speech
is merely the sound of affection, in which however there is some
beginning of thought, whereby what is human in the sound is
distinguished from the sound of an animal; this speech gradually becomes
more distinct, as ideas derived from affection enter the thought: all
their affections, which also increase, proceed from innocence. At first,
such things are insinuated into them as appear before their eyes, and
are delightful; and as these are from a spiritual origin, heavenly
things flow into them at the same time, whereby the interiors of their
minds are opened. Afterwards, as the infants are perfected in
intelligence, so they grow in stature, and viewed in this respect, they
appear also more adult, because intelligence and wisdom are essential
spiritual nourishment; therefore those things which nourish their minds,
also nourish their bodies. Infants in heaven, however, do not grow up
beyond their first age, where they stop, and remain in it to eternity.
And when they are in that age, they are given in marriage, which is
provided by the Lord, and is celebrated in the heaven of the youth, who
presently follows the wife into her heaven, or into her house, if they
are of the same society. That I might know of a certainty, that infants
grow in stature, and arrive at maturity as they grow in intelligence, I
was permitted to speak with some while they were infants, and afterwards
when they were grown up; and they appeared as full-grown youths, in a
stature, like that of young men full grown in the world.

412. Infants are instructed especially by representatives adequate and
suitable to their genius; the great beauty and interior wisdom of which
can scarcely be credited in the world. I am permitted to adduce here two
representations, from which a judgement may be formed in regard to the
rest. On a certain time they represented the Lord ascending from the
sepulchre, and at the same time the unition of his human with the
divine. At first they presented the idea of a sepulchre, but not at the
same time the idea of the Lord, except so remotely, that it was
scarcely, and as it were at a distance, perceived that it was the Lord;
because in the idea of a sepulchre there is somewhat funereal, which
they hereby removed. Afterwards they cautiously admitted into the
sepulchre a sort of atmosphere, appearing nevertheless as a thin vapor,
by which they signified, and this with a suitable degree of remoteness,
spiritual life in baptism. They afterwards represented the Lord's
descent to those who were bound, and his ascent with them into heaven;
and in order to accommodate the representation to their infant minds,
they let down small cords that were scarcely discernible, exceedingly
soft and yielding, to aid the Lord in the ascent, being always
influenced by a holy fear lest any thing in the representation should
affect something that was not under heavenly influence: not to mention
other representations, whereby infants are introduced into the
knowledges of truth and the affections of good, as by games adapted to
their capacities. To these and similar things infants are led by the
Lord by means of innocence passing through the third heaven; and thus
spiritual things are insinuated into their affections, and thence into
their tender thoughts, so that they know no other than that they do and
think such things from themselves, by which their understanding
commences.

413. XXI. IT IS THERE PROVIDED BY THE LORD, THAT WITH THOSE INFANTS THE
INNOCENCE OF INFANCY BECOMES THE INNOCENCE OF WISDOM (AND THUS THEY
BECOME ANGELS). Many may conjecture that infants remain infants, and
become angels immediately after death: but it is intelligence and wisdom
that make an angel: therefore so long as infants are without
intelligence and wisdom, they are indeed associated with angels, yet are
not angels: but they then first become so when they are made intelligent
and wise. Infants therefore are led from the innocence of infancy to the
innocence of wisdom, that is, from external innocence to internal: the
latter innocence is the end of all their instruction and progression:
therefore when they attain to the innocence of wisdom, the innocence of
infancy is adjoined to them, which in the mean time had served them as a
plane. I saw a representation of the quality of the innocence of
infancy; it was of wood almost without life, and was vivified in
proportion as the knowledges of truth and the affections of good were
imbibed: and afterwards there was represented the quality of the
innocence of wisdom, by a living infant. The angels of the third heaven,
who are in a state of innocence from the Lord above other angels, appear
like naked infants before the eyes of spirits who are beneath the
heavens; and as they are wiser than all others, so are they also more
truly alive: the reason of this is, because innocence corresponds to
infancy, and also to nakedness, therefore it is said of Adam and his
wife, when they were in a state of innocence, that they were naked and
were not ashamed, but that when they had lost their state of innocence,
they were ashamed of their nakedness, and hid themselves, Gen. ii. 25;
chap. iii. 7, 10, 11. In a word, the wiser the angels are the more
innocent they are. The quality of the innocence of wisdom may in some
measure be seen from the innocence of infancy above described, n. 395,
if only instead of parents, the Lord be assumed as the Father by whom
they are led, and to whom they ascribe what they have received.

414. On the subject of innocence I have often conversed with the angels
who have told me that innocence is the _esse_ of every good, and that
good is only so far good as it has innocence in it: and, since wisdom is
of life and thence of good, that wisdom is only so far wisdom as it
partakes of innocence: the like is true of love, charity, and faith; and
hence it is that no one can enter heaven unless he has innocence; which
is meant by these words of the Lord, "_Suffer infants to come to me, and
forbid them not; for of such is the kingdom of the heavens; verily I say
unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of the heavens as an
infant, he will not enter therein_," Mark x. 14, 15; Luke xviii. 16, 17.
In this passage, as well as in other parts of the Word, infants denote
those who are in innocence. The reason why good is good, so far as it
has innocence in it, is, because all good is from the Lord, and
innocence consists in being led by the Lord.

       *       *       *       *       *

415. To the above I shall add this MEMORABLE RELATION. One morning, as I
awoke out of sleep, the light beginning to dawn and it being very
serene, while I was meditating and not yet quite awake, I saw through
the window as it were a flash of lightning, and presently I heard as it
were a clap of thunder; and while I was wondering whence this could be,
I heard from heaven words to this effect, "There are some not far from
you, who are reasoning sharply about God and nature. The vibration of
light like lightning, and the clapping of the air like thunder, are
correspondences and consequent appearances of the conflict and collision
of arguments, on one side in favor of God, and on the other in favor of
nature." The cause of this spiritual combat was as follows: there were
some satans in hell who expressed a wish to be allowed to converse with
the angels of heaven; "for," said they, "we will clearly and fully
demonstrate, that what they call God, the Creator of all things, is
nothing but nature; and thus that God is a mere unmeaning expression,
unless nature be meant by it." And as those satans believed this with
all their heart and soul, and also were desirous to converse with the
angels of heaven, they were permitted to ascend out of the mire and
darkness of hell, and to converse with two angels at that time
descending from heaven. They were in the world of spirits, which is
intermediate between heaven and hell. The satans on seeing the angels
there, hastily ran to them, and cried out with a furious voice, "Are you
the angels of heaven with whom we are allowed to engage in debate,
respecting God and nature? You are called wise because you acknowledge a
God; but, alas! how simple you are! Who sees God? who understands what
God is? who conceives that God governs, and can govern the universe,
with everything belonging thereto? and who but the vulgar and common
herd of mankind acknowledges what he does not see and understand? What
is more obvious than that nature is all in all? Is it not nature alone
that we see with our eyes, hear with our ears, smell with our nostrils,
taste with our tongues, and touch and feel with our hands and bodies?
And are not our bodily senses the only evidences of truth? Who would not
swear from them that it is so? Are not your heads in nature, and is
there any influx into the thoughts of your heads but from nature? Take
away nature, and can you think at all? Not to mention several other
considerations of a like kind." On hearing these words the angels
replied, "You speak in this manner because you are merely sensual. All
in the hells have the ideas of their thoughts immersed in the bodily
senses, neither are they able to elevate their minds above them;
therefore we excuse you. The life of evil and the consequent belief of
what is false have closed the interiors of your minds, so that you are
incapable of any elevation above the things of sense, except in a state
removed from evils of life, and from false principles of faith: for a
satan, as well as an angel, can understand truth when he hears it; but
he does not retain it, because evil obliterates truth and induces what
is false: but we perceive that you are now in a state of removal from
evil, and thus that you can understand the truth which we speak; attend
therefore to what we shall say:" and they proceeded thus: "You have been
in the natural world, and have departed thence, and are now in the
spiritual world. Have you known anything till now concerning a life
after death? Have you not till now denied such a life, and degraded
yourselves to the beasts? Have you known any thing heretofore about
heaven and hell, or the light and heat of this world? or of this
circumstance, that you are no longer within the sphere of nature, but
above it; since this world and all things belonging to it are spiritual,
and spiritual things are above natural, so that not the least of nature
can flow into this world? But, in consequence of believing nature to be
a God or a goddess, you believe also the light and heat of this world to
be the light and heat of the natural world, when yet it is not at all
so; for natural light here is darkness, and natural heat is cold. Have
you known anything about the sun of this world from which our light and
heat proceed? Have you known that this sun is pure love, and the sun of
the natural world pure fire; and the sun of the world, which is pure
fire, is that from which nature exists and subsists; and that the sun of
heaven, which is pure love, is that from which life itself, which is
love with wisdom exists and subsists; and thus that nature, which you
make a god or a goddess, is absolutely dead? You can, under the care of
a proper guard, ascend with us into heaven; and we also, under similar
protection, can descend with you into hell; and in heaven you will see
magnificent and splendid objects, but in hell such as are filthy and
unclean. The ground of the difference is, because all in the heavens
worship God, and all in the hells worship nature; and the magnificent
and splendid objects in the heavens are correspondences of the
affections of good and truth, and the filthy and unclean objects in the
hells are correspondences of the lusts of what is evil and false. Judge
now, from these circumstances, whether God or nature be all in all." To
this the satans replied, "In the state wherein we now are, we can
conclude, from what we have heard, that there is a God; but when the
delight of evil seizes our minds, we see nothing but nature." These two
angels and two satans were standing to the right, at no great distance
from me; therefore I saw and heard them; and lo! I saw near them many
spirits who had been celebrated in the natural world for their
erudition; and I was surprised to observe that those great scholars at
one time stood near the angels and at another near the satans, and that
they favored the sentiments of those near whom they stood; and I was led
to understand that the changes of their situation were changes of the
state of their minds, which sometimes favored one side and sometimes the
other; for they were _vertumni_. Moreover, the angels said, "We will
tell you a mystery; on our looking down upon the earth, and examining
those who were celebrated for erudition, and who have thought about God
and nature from their own judgement, we have found six hundred out of a
thousand favorers of nature, and the rest favorers of God; and that
these were in favor of God, in consequence of having frequently
maintained in their conversation, not from any convictions of their
understandings, but only from hear-say, that nature is from God; for
frequent conversation from the memory and recollection, and not at the
same time from thought and intelligence, induces a species of faith."
After this, the satans were entrusted to a guard and ascended with the
two angels into heaven, and saw the magnificent and splendid objects
contained therein; and being then an illustration from the light of
heaven, they acknowledged the being of a God, and that nature was
created to be subservient to the life which is in God and from God; and
that nature in itself is dead, and consequently does nothing of itself,
but is acted upon by life. Having seen and perceived these things, they
descended: and as they descended the love of evil returned and closed
their understanding above and opened it beneath; and then there appeared
above it as it were a veil sending forth lightning from infernal fire;
and as soon as they touched the earth with their feet, the ground
cleaved asunder beneath them, and they returned to their associates.

416. After these things those two angels seeing me near, said to the
by-standers respecting me, "We know that this man has written about God
and nature; let us hear what he has written." They therefore came to me,
and intreated that what I had written about God and nature might be read
to them: I therefore read as follows. "Those who believe in a Divine
operation in everything of nature, may confirm themselves in favor of
the Divine, from many things which they see in nature, equally, yea more
than those who confirm themselves in favor of nature: for those who
confirm themselves in favor of the Divine, attend to the wonderful
things, which are conspicuous in the productions of both vegetables and
animals:--in the PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES, that from a small seed sown
in the earth there is sent forth a root, by means of the root a stem,
and successively buds, leaves, flowers, fruits, even to new seeds;
altogether as if the seed was acquainted with the order of succession,
or the process by which it was to renew itself. What rational person can
conceive, that the sun which is pure fire, is acquainted with this, or
that it can endue its heat and light with a power to effect such things;
and further, that it can form wonderful things therein, and intend use?
When a man of elevated reason sees and considers such things, he cannot
think otherwise than that they are from him who has infinite wisdom,
consequently from God. Those who acknowledge the Divine, also see and
think so; but those who do not acknowledge it, do not see and think so,
because they are unwilling; and thereby they let down their rational
principle into the sensual, which derives all its ideas from the
luminous principle in which the bodily senses are, and confirms their
fallacies urging, 'Do not you see the sun effecting these things by its
heat and light? What is that which you do not see?' Is it anything?
Those who confirm themselves in favor of the Divine, attend to the
wonderful things which are conspicuous in the PRODUCTIONS OF ANIMALS; to
mention only what is conspicuous in eggs, that there lies concealed in
them a chick in its seed, or first principles of existence, with
everything requisite even to the hatching, and likewise to every part of
its progress after hatching, until it becomes a bird, or winged animal,
in the form of its parent stock. A farther attention to the nature and
quality of the form cannot fail to cause astonishment in the
contemplative mind; to observe in the least as well as in the largest
kinds, yea, in the invisible as in the visible, that is, in small
insects, as in fowls or great beasts, how they are all endowed with
organs of sense, such as seeing, smelling, tasting, touching; and also
with organs of motion, such as muscles, for they fly and walk; and
likewise with viscera, around the heart and lungs, which are actuated by
the brains: that the commonest insects enjoy all these parts of
organization is known from their anatomy, as described by some writers,
especially SWAMMERDAM in his Books of Nature. Those who ascribe all
things to nature do indeed see such things; but they think only that
they are so, and say that nature produces them: and this they say in
consequence of having averted their minds from thinking about the
Divine; and those who have so averted their minds, when they see the
wonderful things in nature, cannot think rationally, and still less
spiritually; but they think sensually and materially, and in this case
they think in and from nature, and not above it, in like manner as those
do who are in hell; differing from beasts only in this respect, that
they have rational powers, that is, they are capable of understanding,
and thereby of thinking otherwise, if only they are willing. Those who
have averted themselves from thinking about the Divine, when they see
the wonderful things in nature, and thereby become sensual, do not
consider that the sight of the eye is so gross that it sees several
small insects as one confused mass; when yet each of them is organized
to feel and to move itself, consequently is endowed with fibres and
vessels, also with a little heart, pulmonary pipes, small viscera, and
brains; and that the contexture of these parts consists of the purest
principles in nature, and corresponds to some life, by virtue of which
their minutest parts are distinctly acted upon. Since the sight of the
eye is so gross that several of such insects, with the innumerable
things in each, appear to it as a small confused mass, and yet those who
are sensual, think and judge from that sight, it is evident how gross
their minds are, and consequently in what thick darkness they are
respecting spiritual things.

417. "Every one that is willing to do so, may confirm himself in favor
of the Divine from the visible things in nature; and he also who thinks
of God from the principle of life, does so confirm himself; while, for
instance, he observes the fowls of heaven, how each species of them
knows its proper food and where it is to be found; how they can
distinguish those of their own kind by the sounds they utter and by
their external appearance; how also, among other kinds, they can tell
which are their friends and which their foes; how they pair together,
build their nests with great art, lay therein their eggs, hatch them,
know the time of hatching, and at its accomplishment help their young
out of the shell, love them most tenderly, cherish them under their
wings, feed and nourish them, until they are able to provide for
themselves and do the like, and to procreate a family in order to
perpetuate their kind. Every one that is willing to think of a divine
influx through the spiritual world into the natural, may discern it in
these instances, and may also, if he will, say in his heart, 'Such
knowledges cannot flow into those animals from the sun by the rays of
its light:' for the sun, from which nature derives its birth and its
essence, its pure fire, and consequently the rays of its light are
altogether dead; and thus they may conclude, that such effects are
derived from an influx of divine wisdom into the ultimates of nature.

418. "Every one may confirm himself in favor of the Divine from what is
visible in nature, while he observes worms, which from the delight of a
certain desire, wish and long after a change of their earthly state into
a state analogous to a heavenly one; for this purpose they creep into
holes, and cast themselves as it were into a womb that they may be born
again, and there become chrysalises, aurelias, nymphs, and at length
butterflies; and when they have undergone this change, and according to
their species are decked with beautiful wings, they fly into the air as
into their heaven, and there indulge in all festive sports, pair
together, lay their eggs, and provide for themselves a posterity; and
then they are nourished with a sweet and pleasant food, which they
extract from flowers. Who that confirms himself in favor of the Divine
from what is visible in nature, does not see some image of the earthly
state of man in these animals while they are worms, and of his heavenly
state in the same when they become butterflies? whereas those who
confirm themselves in favor of nature, see indeed such things; but as
they have rejected from their minds all thought of man's heavenly state,
they call them mere instincts of nature.

419. "Again, everyone may confirm himself in favor of the Divine from
what is visible in nature, while he attends to the discoveries made
respecting bees,--how they have the art to gather wax and suck honey
from herbs and flowers, and build cells like small houses, and arrange
them into the form of a city with streets, through which they come in
and go out; and how they can smell flowers and herbs at a distance, from
which they may collect wax for their home and honey for their food; and
how, when laden with these treasures, they can trace their way back in a
right direction to their hive; thus they provide for themselves food and
habitation against the approaching winter, as if they were acquainted
with and foresaw its coming. They also set over themselves a mistress as
a queen, to be the parent of a future race, and for her they build as it
were a palace in an elevated situation, and appoint guards about her;
and when the time comes for her to become a mother, she goes from cell
to cell and lays her eggs, which her attendants cover with a sort of
ointment to prevent their receiving injury from the air; hence arises a
new generation, which, when old enough to provide in like manner for
itself, is driven out from home; and when driven out, it flies forth to
seek a new habitation, not however till it has first collected itself
into a swarm to prevent dissociation. About autumn also the useless
drones are brought forth and deprived of their wings, lest they should
return and consume the provision which they had taken no pains to
collect; not to mention many other circumstances; from which it may
appear evident, that on account of the use which they afford to mankind,
they have by influx from the spiritual world a form of government, such
as prevails among men in the world, yea, among angels in the heavens.
What man of uncorrupted reason does not see that such instincts are not
communicated to bees from the natural world? What has the sun, in which
nature originates, in common with a form of government which vies with
and is similar to a heavenly one? From these and similar circumstances
respecting brute animals, the confessor and worshiper of nature confirms
himself in favor of nature, while the confessor and worshiper of God,
from the same circumstances, confirms himself in favor of the Divine:
for the spiritual man sees spiritual things therein, and the natural man
natural; thus every one according to his quality. In regard to myself,
such circumstances have been to me testimonies of an influx of what is
spiritual into what is natural, or of an influx of the spiritual world
into the natural world; thus of an influx from the divine wisdom of the
Lord. Consider also, whether you can think analytically of any form of
government, any civil law, any moral virtue, or any spiritual truth,
unless the Divine flows in from his wisdom through the spiritual world:
for my own part, I never did, and still feel it to be impossible; for I
have perceptibly and sensibly observed such influx now (1768) for
twenty-five years continually: I therefore speak this from experience.

420. "Can nature, let me ask, regard use as an end, and dispose uses
into orders and forms? This is in the power of none but a wise being;
and none but God, who is infinitely wise, can so order and form the
universe. Who else can foresee and provide for mankind all the things
necessary for their food and clothing, producing them from the fruits of
the earth and from animals? It is surely a wonderful consideration among
many others, that those common insects, called silk-worms, should supply
with splendid clothing all ranks of persons, from kings and queens even
to the lowest servants; and that those common insects the bees, should
supply wax to enlighten both our temples and palaces. These, with
several other similar considerations, are standing proofs, that the Lord
by an operation from himself through the spiritual world, effects
whatever is done in nature.

421. "It may be expedient here to add, that I have seen in the spiritual
world those who had confirmed themselves in favor of nature by what is
visible in this world, so as to become atheists, and that their
understanding in spiritual light appeared open beneath but closed above,
because with their thinking faculty they had looked downwards to the
earth and not upwards to heaven. The super-sensual principle, which is
the lowest principle of the understanding, appeared as a veil, in some
cases sparkling from infernal fire, in some black as soot, and in some
pale and livid as a corpse. Let every one therefore beware of
confirmation in favor of nature, and let him confirm himself in favor of
the Divine; for which confirmation there is no want of materials.

422. "Some indeed are to be excused for ascribing certain visible
effects to nature, because they have had no knowledge respecting the sun
of the spiritual world, where the Lord is, and of influx thence; neither
have they known any thing about that world and its state, nor yet of its
presence with man; and consequently they could think no other than that
the spiritual principle was a purer natural principle; and thus that
angels were either in the ether or in the stars; also that the devil was
either man's evil, or, if he actually existed, that he was either in the
air or in the deep; also that the souls of men after death were either
in the inmost part of the earth, or in some place of confinement till
the day of judgement; not to mention other like conceits, which sprung
from ignorance of the spiritual world and its sun. This is the reason
why those are to be excused, who have believed that the visible
productions of nature are the effect of some principle implanted in her
from creation: nevertheless those who have made themselves atheists by
confirmations in favor of nature, are not to be excused, because they
might have confirmed themselves in favor of the Divine. Ignorance indeed
excuses, but does not take away the false principle which is confirmed;
for this false principle agrees with evil, and evil with hell."




ADULTEROUS LOVE AND ITS SINFUL PLEASURES.


ON THE OPPOSITION OF ADULTEROUS LOVE AND CONJUGIAL LOVE.

423. At the entrance upon our subject, it may be expedient to declare
what we mean in this chapter by adulterous love. By adulterous love we
do not mean fornicatory love, which precedes marriage, or which follows
it after the death of a married partner; neither do we mean concubinage,
which is engaged in from causes legitimate, just, and excusatory; nor do
we mean either the mild or the grievous kinds of adultery, whereof a man
actually repents; for the latter become not opposite, and the former are
not opposite, to conjugial love, as will be seen in the following pages,
where each is treated of. But by adulterous love, opposite to conjugial
love, we here mean the love of adultery, so long as it is such as not to
be regarded as sin, or as evil, and dishonorable, and contrary to
reason, but as allowable with reason. This adulterous love not only
makes conjugial love the same with itself, but also overthrows,
destroys, and at length nauseates it. The opposition of this love to
conjugial love is the subject treated of in this chapter. That no other
love is treated of (as being in such opposition), may be evident from
what follows concerning fornication, concubinage, and the various kinds
of adultery. But in order that this opposition may be made manifest to
the rational sight, it may be expedient to demonstrate it in the
following series: I. _It is not known what adulterous love is, unless it
be known what conjugial love is._ II. _Adulterous love is opposed to
conjugial love._ III. _Adulterous love is opposed to conjugial love, as
the natural man viewed in himself is opposed to the spiritual man._ IV.
_Adulterous love is opposed to conjugial love, as the connubial
connection of what is evil and false is opposed to the marriage of good
and truth._ V. _Hence adulterous love in opposed to conjugial love, as
hell is opposed to heaven._ VI. _The impurity of hell is from adulterous
love, and the purity of heaven from conjugial love._ VII. _The impurity
and the purity in the church are similarly circumstanced._ VIII.
_Adulterous love more and more makes a man not a man (homo), and not a
man (vir), and conjugial love makes a man more and more a man (homo),
and a man (vir)._ IX. _There are a sphere of adulterous love and a
sphere of conjugial love._ X. _The sphere of adulterous love ascends
from hell, and the sphere of conjugial love descends from heaven._ XI.
_Those two spheres mutually meet each other in each world; but they do
not unite._ XII. _Between those two spheres there is an equilibrium, and
man is in it._ XIII. _A man is able to turn himself to whichever he
pleases; but so far as he turns himself to the one, so far he turns
himself from the other._ XIV. _Each sphere brings with it delights._ XV.
_The delights of adulterous love commence from the flesh and are of the
flesh even in the spirit; but the delights of conjugial love commence in
the spirit, and are of the spirit even in the flesh._ XVI. _The delights
of adulterous love are the pleasures of insanity; but the delights of
conjugial love are the delights of wisdom._ We proceed to an explanation
of each article.

424. I. IT IS NOT KNOWN WHAT ADULTEROUS LOVE IS, UNLESS IT BE KNOWN WHAT
CONJUGIAL LOVE IS. By adulterous love we mean the love of adultery,
which destroys conjugial love, as above, n. 423. That it is not known
what adulterous love is, unless it be known what conjugial love is,
needs no demonstration, but only illustration by similitudes: as for
example, who can know what is evil and false, unless he know what is
good and true? and who knows what is unchaste, dishonorable, unbecoming,
and ugly, unless he knows what is chaste, honorable, becoming, and
beautiful? and who can discern the various kinds of insanity, but he
that is wise, or that knows what wisdom is? also, who can rightly
perceive discordant and grating sounds, but he that is well versed in
the doctrine and study of harmonious numbers? in like manner, who can
clearly discern what is the quality of adultery, unless he has first
clearly discerned what is the quality of marriage? and who can make a
just estimate of the filthiness of the pleasures of adulterous love, but
he that has first made a just estimate of the purity of conjugial love?
As I have now completed the treatise ON CONJUGIAL LOVE AND ITS CHASTE
DELIGHTS, I am enabled, from the intelligence I thence acquired, to
describe the pleasures respecting adulterous love.

425. II. ADULTEROUS LOVE IS OPPOSED TO CONJUGIAL LOVE. Every thing in
the universe has its opposite; and opposites, in regard to each other,
are not relatives, but contraries. Relatives are what exist between the
greatest and the least of the same thing; whereas contraries arise from
an opposite in contrariety thereto; and the latter are relatives in
regard to each other, as the former are in their regard one to another;
wherefore also the relations themselves are opposites. That all things
have their opposites, is evident from light, heat, the times of the
world, affections, perceptions, sensations, and several other things.
The opposite of light is darkness; the opposite of heat is cold; of the
times of the world the opposites are day and night, summer and winter;
of affections the opposites are joys and mourning, also gladnesses and
sadnesses; of perceptions the opposites are goods and evils, also truths
and falses; and of sensations the opposites are things delightful and
things undelightful. Hence it may be evidently concluded, that conjugial
love has its opposite; this opposite is adultery, as every one may see,
if he be so disposed, from all the dictates of sound reason. Tell, if
you can, what else is its opposite. It is an additional evidence in
favor of this position, that as sound reason was enabled to see the
truth of it by her own light, therefore she has enacted laws, which are
called laws of civil justice, in favor of marriages and against
adulteries. That the truth of this position may appear yet more
manifest, I may relate what I have very often seen in the spiritual
world. When those who in the natural world have been confirmed
adulterers, perceive a sphere of conjugial love flowing down from
heaven, they instantly either flee away into caverns and hide
themselves, or, if they persist obstinately in contrariety to it, they
grow fierce with rage, and become like furies. The reason why they are
so affected is, because all things of the affections, whether delightful
or undelightful, are perceived in that world, and on some occasions as
clearly as an odor is perceived by the sense of smelling; for the
inhabitants of that world have not a material body, which absorbs such
things. The reason why the opposition of adulterous love and conjugial
love is unknown to many in the world, is owing to the delights of the
flesh, which, in the extremes, seem to imitate the delights of conjugial
love; and those who are in delights only, do not know anything
respecting that opposition; and I can venture to say, that should you
assert, that everything has its opposite, and should conclude that
conjugial love also has its opposite, adulterers will reply, that that
love has not an opposite, because adulterous love cannot be
distinguished from it; from which circumstance it is further manifest,
that he that does not know what conjugial love is, does not know what
adulterous love is; and moreover, that from adulterous love it is not
known what conjugial love is, but from conjugial love it is known what
adulterous love is. No one knows good from evil, but evil from good; for
evil is in darkness, whereas good is in light.

426. III. ADULTEROUS LOVE IS OPPOSED TO CONJUGIAL LOVE, AS THE NATURAL
MAN VIEWED IN HIMSELF IS OPPOSED TO THE SPIRITUAL MAN. That the natural
man and the spiritual are opposed to each other, so that the one does
not will what the other wills, yea, that they are at strife together, is
well known in the church; but still it has not heretofore been
explained. We will therefore shew what is the ground of discrimination
between the spiritual man and the natural, and what excites the latter
against the former. The natural man is that into which every one is
first introduced as he grows up, which is effected by sciences and
knowledges, and by rational principles of the understanding; but the
spiritual man is that into which he is introduced by the love of doing
uses, which love is also called charity: wherefore so far as any one is
in charity, so far he is spiritual; but so far as he is not in charity,
so far he is natural, even supposing him to be ever so quick-sighted in
genius, and wise in judgement. That the latter, the natural man,
separate from the spiritual, notwithstanding all his elevation into the
light of reason, still gives himself without restraint to the government
of his lusts, and is devoted to them, is manifest from his genius alone,
in that he is void of charity; and whoever is void of charity, gives
loose to all the lasciviousness of adulterous love: wherefore, when he
is told, that this wanton love is opposed to chaste conjugial love, and
is asked to consult his rational _lumen_, he still does not consult it,
except in conjunction with the delight of evil implanted from birth in
the natural man; in consequence whereof he concludes, that his reason
does not see anything contrary to the pleasing sensual allurements of
the body; and when he has confirmed himself in those allurements, his
reason is in amazement at all those pleasures which are proclaimed
respecting conjugial love; yea, as was said above, he fights against
them, and conquers, and, like a conqueror after the enemy's overthrow,
he utterly destroys the camp of conjugial love in himself. These things
are done by the natural man from the impulse of his adulterous love. We
mention these circumstances, in order that it may be known, what is the
true ground of the opposition of those two loves; for, as has been
abundantly shewn above, conjugial love viewed in itself is spiritual
love, and adulterous love viewed in itself is natural love.

427. IV. ADULTEROUS LOVE IS OPPOSED TO CONJUGIAL LOVE, AS THE CONNUBIAL
CONNECTION OF WHAT IS EVIL AND FALSE IS OPPOSED TO THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD
AND TRUTH. That the origin of conjugial love is from the marriage of
good and truth, was demonstrated above in its proper chapter, from n.
83-102; hence it follows, that the origin of adulterous love is from the
connubial connection of what is evil and false, and that hence they are
opposite loves, as evil is opposed to good, and the false of evil to the
truth of good. It is the delights of each love which are thus opposed;
for love without its delight is not anything. That these delights are
thus opposed to each other, does not at all appear: the reason why it
does not appear is, because the delight of the love of evil in externals
assumes a semblance of the delight of the love of good; but in internals
the delight of the love of evil consists of mere concupiscences of evil,
evil itself being the conglobated mass (or glome) of those
concupiscences: whereas the delight of the love of good consists of
innumerable affections of good, good itself being the co-united bundle
of those affections. This bundle and that glome are felt by man only as
one delight; and as the delight of evil in externals assumes a semblance
of the delight of good, as we have said, therefore also the delight of
adultery assumes a semblance of the delight of marriage; but after
death, when everyone lays aside externals, and the internals are laid
bare, then it manifestly appears, that the evil of adultery is a glome
of the concupiscences of evil, and the good of marriage is a bundle of
the affections of good: thus that they are entirely opposed to each
other.

428. In reference to the connubial connection of what is evil and false,
it is to be observed, that evil loves the false, and desires that it may
be a one with itself, and they also unite; in like manner as good loves
truth, and desires that it may be a one with itself, and they also
unite: from which consideration it is evident, that as the spiritual
origin of marriage is the marriage of good and truth, so the spiritual
origin of adultery is the connubial connection of what is evil and
false. Hence, this connubial connection is meant by adulteries,
whoredoms, and fornications, in the spiritual sense of the Word; see the
APOCALYPSE REVEALED, n. 134. It is from this principle, that he that is
in evil, and connects himself connubially with what is false, and he
that is in what is false, and draws evil into a partnership of his
chamber, from the joint covenant confirms adultery, and commits it so
far as he dares and has the opportunity; he confirms it from evil by
what is false, and he commits it from what is false by evil: and also on
the other hand, that he that is in good, and marries truth, or he that
is in truth, and brings good into partnership of the chamber with
himself, confirms himself against adultery, and in favor of marriage,
and attains to a happy conjugial life.

429. V. HENCE ADULTEROUS LOVE IS OPPOSED TO CONJUGIAL LOVE AS HELL IS
OPPOSED TO HEAVEN. All who are in hell are in the connubial connection
of what is evil and false, and all who are in heaven are in the marriage
of good and truth; and as the connubial connection of what is evil and
false is also adultery, as was shewn just above, n. 427, 428, hell is
also that connubial connection. Hence all who are in hell are in the
lust, lasciviousness, and immodesty of adulterous love, and shun and
dread the chastity and modesty of conjugial love; see above, n. 428.
From these considerations it may be seen, that those two loves,
adulterous and conjugial, are opposed to each other, as hell is to
heaven, and heaven to hell.

430. VI. THE IMPURITY OF HELL IS FROM ADULTEROUS LOVE, AND THE PURITY OF
HEAVEN FROM CONJUGIAL LOVE. All hell abounds with impurities, all of
which originate in immodest and obscene adulterous love, the delights of
that love being changed into such impurities. Who can believe, that in
the spiritual world, every delight of love is presented to the sight
under various appearances, to the sense under various odors, and to the
view under various forms of beasts and birds? The appearances under
which in hell the lascivious delights of adulterous love are presented
to the sight, are dunghills and mire; the odors by which they are
presented to the sense, are stinks and stenches; and the forms of beasts
and birds under which they are presented to the view, are hogs,
serpents, and the birds called ochim and tziim. The case is reversed in
regard to the chaste delights of conjugial love in heaven. The
appearances under which those delights are presented to the sight, are
gardens and flowery fields; the odors whereby they are presented to the
sense, are the perfumes arising from fruits and the fragrancies from
flowers; and the forms of animals under which they are presented to the
view are lambs, kids, turtle-doves, and birds of paradise. The reason
why the delights of love are changed into such and similar things is,
because all things which exist in the spiritual world are
correspondences: into these correspondences the internals of the minds
of the inhabitants are changed, while they pass away and become external
before the senses. But it is to be observed, that there are innumerable
varieties of impurities, into which the lasciviousnesses of whoredoms
are changed, while they pass off into their correspondences: these
varieties are according to the genera and species of those
lasciviousnesses, as may be seen in the following pages, where
adulteries and their degrees are treated of: such impurities however do
not proceed from the delights of the love of those who have repented;
because they have been washed from them during their abode in the world.

431. VII. THE IMPURITY AND THE PURITY IN THE CHURCH ARE SIMILARLY
CIRCUMSTANCED. The reason of this is, because the church is the Lord's
kingdom in the world, corresponding to his kingdom in the heavens; and
also the Lord conjoins them together, that they may make a one; for he
distinguishes those who are in the world, as he distinguishes heaven and
hell, according to their loves. Those who are in the immodest and
obscene delights of adulterous love, associate to themselves similar
spirits from hell: whereas those who are in the modest and chaste
delights of conjugial love, are associated by the Lord to similar angels
from heaven. While these their angels, in their attendance on man, are
stationed near to confirmed and determined adulterers, they are made
sensible of the direful stenches mentioned above, n. 430, and recede a
little. On account of the correspondence of filthy loves with dunghills
and bogs, it was commanded the sons of Israel, "That they should carry
with them a paddle with which to cover their excrement, lest Jehovah God
walking in the midst of their camp should see the nakedness of the
thing, and should return," Deut, xxiii. 13, 14. This was commanded,
because the camp of the sons of Israel represented the church, and those
unclean things corresponded to the lascivious principles of whoredoms,
and by Jehovah God's walking in the midst of their camp was signified
his presence with the angels. The reason why they were to cover it was,
because all those places in hell, where troops of such spirits have
their abode, were covered and closed up, on which account also it is
said, "lest he see the nakedness of the thing." It has been granted me
to see that all those places in hell are closed up, and also that when
they were opened, as was the case when a new demon entered, such a
horrid stench issued from them, that it infested my belly with its
noisomeness; and what is wonderful, those stenches are to the
inhabitants as delightful as dunghills are to swine. From these
considerations it is evident, how it is to be understood, that the
impurity in the church is from adulterous love, and its purity from
conjugial love.

432. VIII. ADULTEROUS LOVE MORE AND MORE MAKES A MAN (homo) NOT A MAN
(homo), AND A MAN (vir) NOT A MAN (vir), AND CONJUGIAL LOVE MAKES A MAN
(homo) MORE AND MORE A MAN (homo), AND A MAN (vir). That conjugial love
makes a man (_homo_) is illustrated and confirmed by all the
considerations which were clearly and rationally demonstrated in the
first part of this work, concerning love and the delights of its wisdom;
as 1. That he that is principled in love truly conjugial, becomes more
and more spiritual; and in proportion as any one is more spiritual, in
the same proportion he is more a man (_homo_). 2. That he becomes more
and more wise; and the wiser any one is, so much the more is he a man
(_homo_). 3. That with such a one the interiors of the mind are more and
more opened, insomuch that he sees or intuitively acknowledges the Lord;
and the more any one is in the sight or acknowledgement, the more he is
a man. 4. That he becomes more and more moral and civil, inasmuch as a
spiritual soul is in his morality and civility; and the more any one is
morally civil, the more he is a man. 5. That also after death he becomes
an angel of heaven; and an angel is in essence and form a man; and also
the genuine human principle in his face shines forth from his
conversation and manners: from these considerations it is manifest, that
conjugial love makes a man (_homo_) more and more a man (_homo_). That
the contrary is the case with adulterers, follows as a consequence from
the opposition of adultery and marriage, which is the subject treated of
in this chapter; as, 1. That they are not spiritual but in the highest
degree natural; and the natural man separate from the spiritual man, is
a man only as to the understanding, but not as to the will: this he
immerses in the body and the concupiscences of the flesh, and at those
times the understanding also accompanies it. That such a one is but half
a man (_homo_), he himself may see from the reason of his understanding,
in ease he elevates it. 2. That adulterers are not wise, except in their
conversation and behaviour, when they are in the company of such as are
in high station, or as are distinguished for their learning or their
morals; but that when alone with themselves they are insane, setting at
nought the divine and holy things of the church, and defiling the morals
of life with immodest and unchaste principles, will be shewn in the
chapter concerning adulteries. Who does not see that such gesticulators
are men only as to external figure, and not as to internal form? 3. That
adulterers become more and more not men, has been abundantly confirmed
to me by what I have myself been eye-witness to respecting them in hell:
for there they are demons, and when seen in the light of heaven, appear
to have their faces full of pimples, their bodies bunched out, their
voice rough, and their gestures antic. But it is to be observed, that
such are determined and confirmed adulterers, but not non-deliberate
adulterers: for in the chapter concerning adulteries and their degrees,
four kinds are treated of. Determined adulterers are those who are so
from the lust of the will; confirmed adulterers are those who are so
from the persuasion of the understanding; deliberate adulterers are
those who are so from the allurements of the senses; and non deliberate
adulterers are those who have not the faculty or the liberty of
consulting the understanding. The two former kinds of adulterers are
those who become more and more not men; whereas the two latter kinds
become men as they recede from those errors, and afterwards become wise.

433. That conjugial love makes a man (_homo_) more a man (_vir_), is
also illustrated by what was adduced in the preceding part concerning
conjugial love and its delights; as, 1. That the virile faculty and
power accompanies wisdom, as this is animated from the spiritual things
of the church, and that hence it resides in conjugial love; and that the
wisdom of this love opens a vein from its fountain in the soul, and
thereby invigorates, and also blesses with permanence, to the
intellectual life, which is the very essential masculine life. 2. That
hence it is, that the angels of heaven are in this permanence to
eternity, according to their own declarations in the MEMORABLE RELATION,
n. 355, 356. That the most ancient men in the golden and silver ages,
were in permanent efficacy, because they loved the caresses of their
wives, and abhorred the caresses of harlots, I have heard from their own
mouths; see the MEMORABLE RELATIONS, n. 75, 76. That that spiritual
sufficiency is also in the natural principle, and will not be wanting to
those at this day, who come to the Lord, and abominate adulteries as
infernal, has been told me from heaven. But the contrary befalls
determined and confirmed adulterers who are treated of above, n. 432.
That the virile faculty and power with such is weakened even till it
ceases; and that after this there commences cold towards the sex; and
that cold is succeeded by a kind of fastidiousness approaching to
loathing, is well known, although but little talked of. That this is the
case with such adulterers in hell, I have heard at a distance, from the
sirens, who are obsolete venereal lusts, and also from the harlots
there. From these considerations it follows, that adulterous love makes
a man (_homo_) more and more not a man (_homo_) and not a man (_vir_)
and that conjugial love makes a man more and more a man (_homo_) and a
man (_vir_).

434. IX. THERE ARE A SPHERE OF ADULTEROUS LOVE AND A SPHERE OF CONJUGIAL
LOVE. What is meant by spheres, and that they are various, and that
those which are of love and wisdom proceed from the Lord, and through
the angelic heavens descend into the world, and pervade it even to its
ultimates, was shewn above, n. 222-225; and n. 386-397. That every thing
in the universe has its opposites, may be seen above, n. 425: hence it
follows, that whereas there is a sphere of conjugial love, there is also
a sphere opposite to it, which is called a sphere of adulterous love;
for those spheres are opposed to each other, as the love of adultery is
opposed the love of marriage. This opposition has been treated of in the
preceding parts of this chapter.

435. X. THE SPHERE OF ADULTEROUS LOVE ASCENDS FROM HELL, AND THE SPHERE
OF CONJUGIAL LOVE DESCENDS FROM HEAVEN. That the sphere of conjugial
love descends from heaven, was shewn in the places cited just above, n.
434; but the reason why the sphere of adulterous love ascends from hell,
is, because this love is from thence, see n. 429. That sphere ascends
thence from the impurities into which the delights of adultery are
changed with those who are of each sex there; concerning which delight
see above, n. 430, 431.

436. XI. THOSE TWO SPHERES MEET EACH OTHER IN EACH WORLD; BUT THEY DO
NOT UNITE. By each world is meant the spiritual world and the natural
world. In the spiritual world those spheres meet each other in the world
of spirits, because this is the medium between heaven and hell; but in
the natural world they meet each other in the rational plane
appertaining to man, which also is the medium between heaven and hell:
for the marriage of good and truth flows into it from above, and the
marriage of evil and the false flows into it from beneath. The latter
marriage flows in through the world, but the former through heaven.
Hence it is, that the human rational principle can turn itself to either
side as it pleases, and receive influx. If it turns to good, it receives
it from above; and in this case the man's rational principle is formed
more and more to the reception of heaven; but if it turns itself to
evil, it receives that influx from beneath; and in this case the man's
rational principle is formed more and more to the reception of hell. The
reason why those two spheres do not unite, is, because they are
opposites; and an opposite acts upon an opposite like enemies, one of
whom, burning with deadly hatred, furiously assaults the other, while
the other is in no hatred, but only endeavours to defend himself. From
these considerations it is evident, that those two spheres only meet
each other, but do not unite. The middle interstice, which they make, is
on the one part from the evil not of the false, and from the false not
of the evil, and on the other part from good not of truth, and from
truth not of good: which two may indeed touch each other, but still they
do not unite.

437. XII. BETWEEN THOSE TWO SPHERES THERE IS AN EQUILIBRIUM, AND MAN IS
IN IT. The equilibrium between them is a spiritual equilibrium, because
it is between good and evil; from this equilibrium a man has free will,
in and by which he thinks and wills, and hence speaks and acts as from
himself. His rational principle consists in his having the option to
receive either good or evil; consequently, whether he will freely and
rationally dispose himself to conjugial love, or to adulterous love; if
to the latter, he turns the hinder part of the head, and the back to the
Lord; if to the former, he turns the fore part of the head and the
breast to the Lord; if to the Lord, his rationality and liberty are led
by himself; but if backwards from the Lord, his rationality and liberty
are led by hell.

438. XIII. A MAN CAN TURN HIMSELF TO WHICHEVER SPHERE HE PLEASES; BUT SO
FAR AS HE TURNS HIMSELF TO THE ONE, SO FAR HE TURNS HIMSELF FROM THE
OTHER. Man was created so that he may do whatever he does freely,
according to reason, and altogether as from himself: without these two
faculties he would not be a man but a beast; for he would not receive
any thing flowing from heaven, and appropriate it to himself as his own,
and consequently it would not be possible for anything of eternal life
to be inscribed on him; for this must be inscribed on him as his, in
order that it may be his own; and whereas there is no freedom on the one
part, unless there be also a like freedom on the other, as it would be
impossible to weigh a thing, unless the scales from an equilibrium could
incline to either side: so, unless a man had liberty from reason to draw
near also to evil, thus to turn from the right to the left, and from the
left to the right, in like manner to the infernal sphere, which is that
of adultery, as to the celestial sphere, which is that of marriage, (it
would be impossible for him to receive any thing flowing from heaven,
and to appropriate it to himself.)

439. XIV. EACH SPHERE BRINGS WITH IT DELIGHTS; that is, both the sphere
of adulterous love which ascends from hell, and the sphere of conjugial
love which descends from heaven, affects the recipient man (_homo_) with
delights; because the ultimate plane in which the delights of each love
terminate, and where they fill and complete themselves, and which
exhibits them in their own proper sensory, is the same. Hence, in the
extremes, adulterous caresses and conjugial caresses are perceived as
similar, although in internals they are altogether dissimilar; that
hence they are also dissimilar in the extremes, is a point not decided
from any sense of discrimination; for dissimilitudes are not made
sensible from their discriminations in the extremes, to any others than
those who are principled in love truly conjugial; for evil is known from
good, but not good from evil; so neither is a sweet scent perceived by
the nose when a disagreeable one is present in it. I have heard from the
angels, that they distinguish in the extremes what is lascivious from
what is not, as any one distinguishes the fire of a dunghill or of burnt
horn by its bad smell, from the fire of spices or of burnt cinnamon by
its sweet smell; and that this arises from their distinction of the
internal delights which enter into the external and compose them.

440. XV. THE DELIGHTS OF ADULTEROUS LOVE COMMENCE FROM THE FLESH AND ARE
OF THE FLESH EVEN IN THE SPIRIT; BUT THE DELIGHTS OF CONJUGIAL LOVE
COMMENCE IN THE SPIRIT AND ARE OF THE SPIRIT EVEN IN THE FLESH. The
reason why the delights of adulterous love commence from the flesh is,
because the stimulant heats of the flesh are their beginnings. The
reason why they infect the spirit and are of the flesh even in the
spirit, is, because the spirit, and not the flesh, is sensible of those
things which happen in the flesh. The case is the same with this sense
as with the rest: as that the eye does not see and discern various
particulars in objects, but they are seen and discerned by the spirit;
neither does the ear hear and discern the harmonies of tunes in singing,
and the concordances of the articulation of sounds in speech, but they
are heard and discerned by the spirit; moreover, the spirit is sensible
of every thing according to its elevation in wisdom. The spirit that is
not elevated above the sensual things of the body, and thereby adheres
to them, is not sensible of any other delights than those which flow in
from the flesh and the world through the senses of the body: these
delights it seizes upon, is delighted with, and makes its own. Now,
since the beginnings of adulterous love are only the stimulant fires and
itchings of the flesh, it is evident, that these things in the spirit
are filthy allurements, which, as they ascend and descend, and
reciprocate, so they excite and inflame. In general the cupidities of
the flesh are nothing but the accumulated concupiscences of what is evil
and false: hence comes this truth in the church, that the flesh lusts
against the spirit, that is, against the spiritual man; wherefore it
follows, that the delights of the flesh, as to the delights of
adulterous love, are nothing but the effervescences of lusts, which in
the spirit become the ebullitions of immodesty.

441. But the delights of conjugial love have nothing in common with the
filthy delights of adulterous love: the latter indeed are in the spirit
of every man; but they are separated and removed, as the man's spirit is
elevated above the sensual things of the body, and from its elevation
sees their appearances and fallacies beneath: in this case it perceives
fleshly delights, first as apparent and fallacious, afterwards as
libidinous and lascivious, which ought to be shunned, and successively
as damnable and hurtful to the soul, and at length it has a sense of
them as being undelightful, disagreeable, and nauseous; and in the
degree that it thus perceives and is sensible of these delights, in the
same degree also it perceives the delights of conjugial love as innocent
and chaste, and at length as delicious and blessed. The reason why the
delights of conjugial love become also delights of the spirit in the
flesh, is, because after the delights of adulterous love are removed, as
was just said above, the spirit being loosed from them enters chaste
into the body, and fills the breasts with the delights of its
blessedness, and from the breasts fills also the ultimates of that love
in the body; in consequence whereof, the spirit with these ultimates,
and these ultimates with the spirits, afterwards act in full communion.

442. XVI. THE DELIGHTS OF ADULTEROUS LOVE ARE THE PLEASURES OF INSANITY;
BUT THE DELIGHTS OF CONJUGIAL LOVE ARE THE DELIGHTS OF WISDOM. The
reason why the delights of adulterous love are the pleasures of insanity
is, because none but natural men are in that love, and the natural man
is insane in spiritual things, for he is contrary to them, and therefore
he embraces only natural, sensual, and corporeal delights. It is said
that he embraces natural, sensual, and corporeal delights, because the
natural principle is distinguished into three degrees: in the supreme
degree are those natural men who from rational sight see insanities, and
are still carried away by the delights thereof, as boats by the stream
of a river; in a lower degree are the natural men who only see and judge
from the senses of the body, despising and rejecting, as of no account,
the rational principles which are contrary to appearances and fallacies;
in the lowest degree are the natural men who without judgement are
carried away by the alluring stimulant heats of the body. These last are
called natural-corporeal, the former are called natural-sensual, but the
first natural. With these men, adulterous love and its insanities and
pleasures are of similar degrees.

443. The reason why the delights of conjugial love are the delights of
wisdom is, because none but spiritual men are in that love, and the
spiritual man is in wisdom; and hence he embraces no delights but such
as agree with spiritual wisdom. The respective qualities of the delights
of adulterous and of conjugial love, may be elucidated by a comparison
with houses: the delights of adulterous love by comparison with a house
whose walls glitter outwardly like sea shells, or like transparent
stones, called selenites, of a gold color; whereas in the apartments
within the walls, are all kinds of filth and nastiness: but the delights
of conjugial love may be compared to a house, the walls of which are
refulgent as with sterling gold, and the apartments within are
resplendent as with cabinets full of various precious stones.

       *       *       *       *       *

444. To the above I shall add the following MEMORABLE RELATION. After I
had concluded the meditations on conjugial love, and had begun those on
adulterous love, on a sudden two angels presented themselves, and said,
"We have perceived and understood what you have heretofore meditated
upon; but the things upon which you are now meditating pass away, and we
do not perceive them. Say nothing about them, for they are of no value."
But I replied, "This love, on which I am now meditating, is not of no
value; because it exists." But they said, "How can there be any love,
which is not from creation? Is not conjugial love from creation; and
does not this love exist between two who are capable of becoming one?
How can there be a love which divides and separates? What youth can love
any other maiden than the one who loves him in return? Must not the love
of the one know and acknowledge the love of the other, so that when they
meet they may unite of themselves? Who can love what is not love? Is not
conjugial love alone mutual and reciprocal? If it be not reciprocal,
does it not rebound and become nothing?" On hearing this, I asked the
two angels from what society of heaven they were? They said, "We are
from the heaven of innocence; we came infants into this heavenly world,
and were educated under the Lord's auspices; and when I became a young
man, and my wife, who is here with me, marriageable, we were betrothed
and entered into a contract, and were joined under the first favorable
impressions; and as we were unacquainted with any other love than what
is truly nuptial and conjugial, therefore, when we were made acquainted
with the ideas of your thought concerning a strange love directly
opposed to our love, we could not at all comprehend it; and we have
descended in order to ask you, why you meditate on things that cannot be
understood? Tell us, therefore, how a love, which not only is not from
creation, but is also contrary to creation, could possibly exist? We
regard things opposite to creation as objects of no value." As they said
this, I rejoiced in heart that I was permitted to converse with angels
of such innocence, as to be entirely ignorant of the nature and meaning
of adultery: wherefore I was free to converse with them, and I
instructed them as follows: "Do you not know, that there exist both good
and evil, and that good is from creation, but not evil; and still that
evil viewed in itself is not nothing, although it is nothing of good?
From creation there exists good, and also good in the greatest degree
and in the least; and when this least becomes nothing, there rises up on
the other side evil: wherefore there is no relation or progression of
good to evil, but a relation and progression of good to a greater and
less good, and of evil to a greater and less evil; for in all things
there are opposites. And since good and evil are opposites, there is an
intermediate, and in it an equilibrium, in which evil acts against good;
but as it does not prevail, it stops in a _conatus_. Every man is
educated in this equilibrium, which, because it is between good and
evil, or, what is the same, between heaven and hell, is a spiritual
equilibrium, which, with those who are in it, produces a state of
freedom. From this equilibrium, the Lord draws all to himself; and if a
man freely follows, he leads him out of evil into good, and thereby into
heaven. The case is the same with love, especially with conjugial love
and adultery: the latter love is evil, but the former good. Every man
that hears the voice of the Lord, and freely follows, is introduced by
the Lord into conjugial love and all its delights and satisfactions; but
he that does not hear and follow, introduces himself into adulterous
love, first into its delights, afterwards into what is undelightful, and
lastly into what is unsatisfactory." When I had thus spoken, the two
angels asked me, "How could evil exist, when nothing but good had
existed from creation? The existence of anything implies that it must
have an origin. Good could not be the origin of evil, because evil is
nothing of good, being privative and destructive of good; nevertheless,
since it exists and is sensibly felt, it is not nothing, but something;
tell us therefore whence this something existed after nothing." To this
I replied, "This arcanum cannot be explained, unless it be known that no
one is good but God alone, and that there is not anything good, which in
itself is good, but from God; wherefore he that looks to God, and wishes
to be led by God, is in good; but he that turns himself from God, and
wishes to be led by himself, is not in good; for the good which he does,
is for the sake either of himself or of the world; thus it is either
meritorious, or pretended, or hypocritical: from which considerations it
is evident, that man himself is the origin of evil; not that that origin
was implanted in him by creation; but that he, by turning from God to
himself, implanted it in himself. That origin of evil was not in Adam
and his wife; but when the serpent said, 'In the day that ye shall eat
of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, ye shall be as God' (Gen.
iii. 5), they then made in themselves the origin of evil, because they
turned themselves from God, and turned to themselves, as to God. _To eat
of that tree, signifies to believe that they knew good and evil, and
were wise, from themselves, and not from God._" But the two angels then
asked, "How could man turn himself from God, and turn to himself, when
yet he cannot will, think, and thence do anything but from God? Why did
God permit this?" I replied, "Man was so created, that whatever he
wills, thinks, and does, appears to him as in himself, and thereby from
himself: without this appearance a man would not be a man; for he would
be incapable of receiving, retaining, and as it were appropriating to
himself anything of good and truth, or of love and wisdom: whence it
follows, that without such appearance, as a living appearance, a man
would not have conjunction with God, and consequently neither would he
have eternal life. But if from this appearance he induces in himself a
belief that he wills, thinks, and thence does good from himself, and not
from the Lord, although in all appearance as from himself, he turns good
into evil with himself, and thereby makes in himself the origin of evil.
This was the sin of Adam. But I will explain this matter somewhat more
clearly. The Lord looks at every man in the forepart of his head, and
this inspection passes into the hinder part of his head. Beneath the
forepart is the _cerebrum_, and beneath the hinder part is the
_cerebellum_; the latter was designed for love and the goods thereof,
and the former for wisdom and the truths thereof; wherefore he that
looks with the face to the Lord receives from him wisdom, and by wisdom
love; but he that looks backward from the Lord receives love and not
wisdom; and love without wisdom, is love from man and not from the Lord;
and this love, since it conjoins itself with falses, does not
acknowledge God, but acknowledges itself for God, and confirms this
tacitly by the faculty of understanding and growing wise implanted in it
from creation as from itself; wherefore this love is the origin of evil.
That this is the case, will admit of ocular demonstration. I will call
hither some wicked spirit who turns himself from God, and will speak to
him from behind, or into the hinder part of the head, and you will see
that the things which are said are turned into their contraries." I
called such a spirit and he presented himself, and I spoke to him from
behind and said, "Do you know anything about hell, damnation, and
torment in hell?" And presently, when he was turned to me, I asked him
what he heard? He said, "I heard, 'Do you know anything concerning
heaven, salvation, and happiness in heaven?'" and afterwards when the
latter words were said to him from behind, he said that he heard the
former. It was next said to him from behind, "Do you know that those who
are in hell are insane from falses?" and when I asked him concerning
these words what he heard, he said, "I heard, 'Do you know that those
who are in heaven are wise from truths?'" and when the latter words were
spoken to him from behind, he said that he heard, "Do you know that
those who are in hell, are insane from falses?" and so in other
instances: from which it evidently appears, that when the mind turns
itself from the Lord, it turns to itself, and then it perceives things
contrary. "This, as you know, is the reason why, in this spiritual
world, no one is allowed to stand behind another, and to speak to him;
for thereby there is inspired into him a love, which his own
intelligence favors and obeys for the sake of its delight; but since it
is from man, and not from God, it is a love of evil, or a love of the
false. In addition to the above, I will relate to you another similar
circumstance. On certain occasions I have heard goods and truths let
down from heaven into hell; and in hell they were progressively turned
into their opposites, good into evil, and truth into the false; the
cause of this, the same as above, because all in hell turn themselves
from the Lord." On hearing these two things the two angels thanked me,
and said, "As you are now meditating and writing concerning a love
opposite to our conjugial love, and the opposite to that love makes our
minds sad, we will depart;" and when they said, "Peace be unto you," I
besought them not to mention that love to their brethren and sisters in
heaven, because it would hurt their innocence. I can positively assert
that those who die infants, grow up in heaven, and when they attain the
stature which is common to young men of eighteen years old in the world,
and to maidens of fifteen years, they remain of that stature; and
further, that both before marriage and after it, they are entirely
ignorant what adultery is, and that such a thing can exist.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON FORNICATION.

[Transcriber's Note: The out-of-order section number which follows is in
the original text, as is the asterisk which does not seem to indicate a
footnote.]

444.* FORNICATION means the lust of a grown up man or youth with a
woman, a harlot, before marriage; but lust with a woman, not a harlot,
that is, with a maiden or with another's wife, is not fornication; with
a maiden it is the act of deflowering, and with another's wife it is
adultery. In what manner these two differ from fornication, cannot be
seen by any rational being unless he takes a clear view of the love of
the sex in its degrees and diversities, and of its chaste principles on
the one part, and of its unchaste principles on the other, arranging
each part into genera and species, and thereby distinguishing them.
Without such a view and arrangement, it is impossible there should exist
in any one's idea a discrimination between the chaste principle as to
more and less, and between the unchaste principle as to more and less;
and without these distinctions all relation perishes, and therewith all
perspicacity in matters of judgement, and the understanding is involved
in such a shade, that it does not know how to distinguish fornication
from adultery, and still less the milder kinds of fornication from the
more grievous, and in like manner of adultery; thus it mixes evils, and
of different evils makes one pottage, and of different goods one paste.
In order therefore that the love of the sex may be distinctly known as
to that part by which it inclines and makes advances to adulterous love
altogether opposite to conjugial love, it is expedient to examine its
beginning, which is fornication; and this we will do in the following
series: I. _Fornication is of the love of the sex._ II. _This love
commences when a youth begins to think and act from his own
understanding and his voice to be masculine._ III. _Fornication is of
the natural man._ IV. _Fornication is lust, but not the lust of
adultery._ V. _With some men the love of the sex cannot without hurt be
totally checked from going forth into fornication._ VI. _Therefore in
populous cities public stews are tolerated._ VII. _The lust of
fornication is light, so far as it looks to conjugial love, and gives
this love the preference._ VIII. _The lust of fornication is grievous,
so far as it looks to adultery._ IX. _The lust of fornication is more
grievous, as it verges to the desire of varieties and of defloration._
X. _The sphere of the lust of fornication, such as it is in the
beginning, is a middle sphere between the sphere of adulterous love and
the sphere of conjugial love, and makes an equilibrium._ XI. _Care is to
be taken, lest, by inordinate and immoderate fornications, conjugial
love be destroyed._ XII. _Inasmuch as the conjugial principle of one man
with one wife is the jewel of human life and the reservoir of the
Christian religion._ XIII. _With those who, from various reasons, cannot
as yet enter into marriage, and from their passion for the sex, cannot
restrain their lusts, this conjugial principle may be preserved, if the
vague love of the sex be confined to one mistress._ XIV. _Keeping a
mistress is preferable to vague amours, if only one is kept, and she be
neither a maiden nor a married woman, and the love of the mistress be
kept separate from conjugial love._ We proceed to an explanation of each
article.

445. I. FORNICATION IS OF THE LOVE OF THE SEX. We say that fornication
is of the love of the sex, because it is not the love of the sex but is
derived from it. The love of the sex is like a fountain, from which both
conjugial and adulterous love may be derived; they may also be derived
by means of fornication, and also without it: for the love of the sex is
in every man (_homo_), and either does or does not put itself forth: if
it puts itself forth before marriage with a harlot, it is called
fornication; if not until with a wife, it is called marriage; if after
marriage with another woman, it is called adultery: wherefore, as we
have said, the love of the sex is like a fountain, from which may flow
both chaste and unchaste love: but with what caution and prudence chaste
conjugial love can proceed by fornication, yet from what imprudence
unchaste or adulterous love can proceed thereby, we will explain in what
follows. Who can draw the conclusion, that he that has committed
fornication cannot be more chaste in marriage?

446. II. THE LOVE OF THE SEX, FROM WHICH FORNICATION IS DERIVED,
COMMENCES WHEN A YOUTH BEGINS TO THINK AND ACT FROM HIS OWN
UNDERSTANDING, AND HIS VOICE TO BE MASCULINE. This article is adduced to
the intent, that the birth of the love of the sex, and thence of
fornication, may be known, as taking place when the understanding begins
of itself to become rational, or from its own reason to discern and
provide such things as are of emolument and use, whereto in such case
what has been implanted in the memory from parents and masters, serves
as a plane. At that time a change takes place in the mind; it before
thought only from things introduced into the memory, by meditating upon
and obeying them; it afterwards thinks from reason exercised upon them,
and then, under the guidance of the love, it arranges into a new order
the things seated in the memory, and in agreement with that order it
disposes its own life, and successively thinks more and more according
to its own reason, and wills from its own freedom. It is well known that
the love of the sex follows the commencement of a man's own
understanding, and advances according to its vigor; and this is a proof
that that love ascends and descends as the understanding ascends and
descends: by ascending we mean into wisdom, and by descending, into
insanity; and wisdom consists in restraining the love of the sex, and
insanity in allowing it a wide range: if it be allowed to run into
fornication, which is the beginning of its activity, it ought to be
moderated from principles of honor and morality implanted in the memory
and thence in the reason, and afterwards to be implanted in the reason
and in the memory. The reason why the voice also begins to be masculine,
together with the commencement of a man's own understanding, is, because
the understanding thinks, and by thought speaks; which is a proof that
the understanding constitutes the man (_vir_), and also his male
principle; consequently, that as his understanding is elevated, so he
becomes a man-man (_homo vir_), and also a male man (_masculus vir_);
see above, n. 432, 433.

447. III. FORNICATION IS OF THE NATURAL MAN, in like manner as the love
of the sex, which, if it becomes active before marriage, is called
fornication. Every man (_homo_) is born corporeal, becomes sensual,
afterwards natural, and successively rational; and, if in this case he
does not stop in his progress, he becomes spiritual. The reason why he
thus advances step by step, is, in order that planes may be formed, on
which superior principles may rest and find support, as a palace on its
foundations: the ultimate plane, with those that are formed upon it, may
also be compared to ground, in which, when prepared, noble seeds are
sown. As to what specifically regards the love of the sex, it also is
first corporeal, for it commences from the flesh: next it becomes
sensual, for the five senses receive delight from its common principle;
afterwards it becomes natural like the same love with other animals,
because it is a vague love of the sex; but as a man was born to become
spiritual, it becomes afterwards natural-rational, and from
natural-rational spiritual, and lastly spiritual-natural; and in this
case, that love made spiritual flows into and acts upon rational love,
and through this flows into and acts upon sensual love, and lastly
through this flows into and acts upon that love in the body and the
flesh; and as this is its ultimate plane, it acts upon it spiritually,
and at the same time rationally and sensually; and it flows in and acts
thus successively while the man is meditating upon it, but
simultaneously while he is in its ultimate. The reason why fornication
is of the natural man, is, because it proceeds proximately from the
natural love of the sex; and it may become natural-rational, but not
spiritual, because the love of the sex cannot become spiritual, until it
becomes conjugial; and the love of the sex from natural becomes
spiritual, when a man recedes from vague lust, and devotes himself to
one of the sex, to whose soul he unites his own.

448. IV. FORNICATION IS LUST, BUT NOT THE LUST OF ADULTERY. The reasons
why fornication is lust are, 1. Because it proceeds from the natural
man, and in everything which proceeds from the natural man, there is
concupiscence and lust; for the natural man is nothing but an abode and
receptacle of concupiscences and lust, since all the criminal
propensities inherited from the parents reside therein. 2. Because the
fornicator has a vague and promiscuous regard to the sex, and does not
as yet confine his attention to one of the sex; and so long as he is in
this state, he is prompted by lust to do what he does; but in proportion
as he confines his attention to one of the sex, and loves to conjoin his
life with hers, concupiscence becomes a chaste affection, and lust
becomes human love.

449. That the lust of fornication is not the lust of adultery, every one
sees clearly from common perception. What law and what judge imputes a
like criminality to the fornicator as to the adulterer? The reason why
this is seen from common perception is, because fornication is not
opposed to conjugial love as adultery is. In fornication conjugial love
may lie stored up within, as what is spiritual may lie stored up in what
is natural; yea, what is spiritual is also actually disengaged from what
is natural; and when the spiritual is disengaged, then the natural
encompasses it, as bark does its wood, and a scabbard its sword, and
also serves the spiritual as a defence against violence. From these
considerations it is evident, that natural love, which is love to the
sex, precedes spiritual love which is love to one of the sex; but if
fornication comes into effect from the natural love of the sex, it may
also be wiped away, provided conjugial love be regarded, desired, and
sought, as the chief good. It is altogether otherwise with the
libidinous and obscene love of adultery, which we have shewn to be
opposite to conjugial love, and destructive thereof, in the foregoing
chapter concerning the opposition of adulterous and conjugial love:
wherefore if a confirmed and determined adulterer for various reasons
enters into a conjugial engagement, the above case is inverted, since a
natural principle lies concealed within its lascivious and obscene
things, and a spiritual appearance covers it externally. From these
considerations reason may see, that the lust of limited fornication is,
in respect to the lust of adultery, as the first warmth is to the cold
of mid-winter in northern countries.

450. V. WITH SOME MEN THE LOVE OF THE SEX CANNOT WITHOUT HURT BE TOTALLY
CHECKED FROM GOING FORTH INTO FORNICATION. It is needless to recount the
mischiefs which may be caused and produced by too great a check of the
love of the sex, with such persons as labor under a superabundant
venereal heat; from this source are to be traced the origins of certain
diseases of the body and distempers of the mind, not to mention unknown
evils, which are not to be named; it is otherwise with those whose love
of the sex is so scanty that they can resist the sallies of its lust;
also with those who are at liberty to introduce themselves into a
legitimate partnership of the bed while they are young, without doing
injury to their worldly fortunes, thus under the first favorable
impressions. As this is the case in heaven with infants, when they have
grown up to conjugial age, therefore it is unknown there what
fornication is: but the case is different in the world where matrimonial
engagements cannot be contracted till the season of youth is past, and
where, during that season, the generality live within forms of
government, where a length of time is required to perform duties, and to
acquire the property necessary to support a house and family, and then
first a suitable wife is to be courted.

[Footnote: This, like some other of the author's remarks, is not so
applicable to English laws and customs as to those of several of the
continental states, especially Germany, where men are not allowed to
marry till they have attained a certain age, or can show that they
possess the means of supporting a wife and family.]

451. VI. THEREFORE IN POPULOUS CITIES PUBLIC STEWS ARE TOLERATED. This
is adduced as a confirmation of the preceding article. It is well known
that they are tolerated by kings, magistrates, and thence by judges,
inquisitors, and the people, at London, Amsterdam, Paris, Vienna,
Venice, Naples, and even at Rome, besides many other places: among the
reasons of this toleration are those also above mentioned.

452. VII. FORNICATION IS (COMPARATIVELY) LIGHT SO FAR AS IT LOOKS TO
CONJUGIAL LOVE AND GIVES THIS LOVE THE PREFERENCE. There are degrees of
the qualities of evil, as there are degrees of the qualities of good;
wherefore every evil is lighter and more grievous, as every good is
better and more excellent. The case is the same with fornication; which,
as being a lust, and a lust of the natural man not yet purified, is an
evil; but as every man (_homo_) is capable of being purified, therefore
so far as it approaches a purified state, so far that evil becomes
lighter, for so far it is wiped away; thus so far as fornication
approaches conjugial love, which is a purified state of the love of the
sex, (so far it becomes a lighter evil): that the evil of fornication is
more grievous, so far as it approaches the love of adultery, will be
seen in the following article. The reason why fornication is light so
far as it looks to conjugial love, is, because it then looks from the
unchaste state wherein it is, to a chaste state; and so far as it gives
a preference to the latter, so far also it is in it as to the
understanding; and so far as it not only prefers it, but also pre-loves
it, so far also it is in it as to the will, thus as to the internal man;
and in this case fornication, if the man nevertheless persists in it, is
to him a necessity, the causes whereof he well examines in himself.
There are two reasons which render fornication light with those who
prefer and pre-love the conjugial state; the first is, that conjugial
life is their purpose, intention, or end, the other is, that they
separate good from evil with themselves. In regard to the FIRST,--that
conjugial life is their purpose, intention, or end, it has the above
effect, inasmuch as every man is such as he is in his purpose,
intention, or end, and is also such before the Lord and the angels; yea,
he is likewise regarded as such by the wise in the world; for intention
is the soul of all actions, and causes innocence and guilt in the world,
and after death imputation. In regard to the OTHER reason,--that those
who prefer conjugial love to the lust of fornication, separate evil from
good, thus what is unchaste from what is chaste, it has the above
effect, inasmuch as those who separate those two principles by
perception and intention, before they are in good or the chaste
principle, are also separated and purified from the evil of that lust,
when they come into the conjugial state. That this is not the case with
those who in fornication look to adultery, will be seen in the next
article.

453. VIII. THE LUST OF FORNICATION IS GRIEVOUS, SO FAR AS IT LOOKS TO
ADULTERY. In the lust of fornication all those look to adultery who do
not believe adulteries to be sins, and who think similarly of marriage
and of adulteries, only with the distinction of what is allowed and what
is not; these also make one evil out of all evils, and mix them
together, like dirt with eatable food in one dish, and like things vile
and refuse with wine in one cup, and thus eat and drink: in this manner
they act with the love of the sex, fornication and keeping a mistress,
with adultery of a milder sort, of a grievous sort, and of a more
grievous sort, yea with ravishing or defloration: moreover, they not
only mingle all those things, but also mix them in marriages, and defile
the latter with a like notion; but where it is the case, that the latter
are not distinguished from the former, such persons, after their vague
commerce with the sex, are overtaken by colds, loathings, and
nauseousness, at first in regard to a married partner, next in regard to
women in other characters, and lastly in regard to the sex. It is
self-evident that with such persons there is no purpose, intention, or
end, of what is good or chaste, that they may be exculpated, and no
separation of evil from good, or of what is unchaste from what is
chaste, that they may be purified, as in the case of those who from
fornication look to conjugial love, and give the latter the preference,
(c